Sample records for rock mass mechanical

  1. Influence Mechanism of Grouting on Mechanical Characteristics of Rock Mass

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    Zhang Jixun


    Full Text Available Grouting technology has been widely used in all fields of geotechnical and civil engineering. Prospective engineering objectives including reinforcement of rock mass and groundwater leakage treatment can be achieved by grouting which will change the mechanical parameters of rock mass such as strength, elastic modulus, and coefficient of permeability. In this paper, rock mass is assumed as a composite material consisting of rock particles and random microcracks initially. Since part or all of the cracks will be filled with cement slurry after grouting, rock mass consists of rock particles, grout condensate, and some or no random microcracks after grouting. The damage constitutional law of the mesoscopic element is established based on the theory of mesoscopic damage mechanics. With the heterogeneity of the components of rock mass considered, the variation of mechanical characteristics of rock mass is studied before and after grouting. And the influence mechanism of grouting on rock mass is investigated at mesoscale level.

  2. Thermo-mechanical ratcheting in jointed rock masses

    KAUST Repository

    Pasten, C.


    Thermo-mechanical coupling takes place in jointed rock masses subjected to large thermal oscillations. Examples range from exposed surfaces under daily and seasonal thermal fluctuations to subsurface rock masses affected by engineered systems such as geothermal operations. Experimental, numerical and analytical results show that thermo-mechanical coupling can lead to wedging and ratcheting mechanisms that result in deformation accumulation when the rock mass is subjected to a biased static-force condition. Analytical and numerical models help in identifying the parameter domain where thermo-mechanical ratcheting can take place.

  3. Lithophysal Rock Mass Mechanical Properties of the Repository Host Horizon

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    D. Rigby


    The purpose of this calculation is to develop estimates of key mechanical properties for the lithophysal rock masses of the Topopah Spring Tuff (Tpt) within the repository host horizon, including their uncertainties and spatial variability. The mechanical properties to be characterized include an elastic parameter, Young's modulus, and a strength parameter, uniaxial compressive strength. Since lithophysal porosity is used as a surrogate property to develop the distributions of the mechanical properties, an estimate of the distribution of lithophysal porosity is also developed. The resulting characterizations of rock parameters are important for supporting the subsurface design, developing the preclosure safety analysis, and assessing the postclosure performance of the repository (e.g., drift degradation and modeling of rockfall impacts on engineered barrier system components).

  4. Experimental study on the mechanical properties of simulated columnar jointed rock masses (United States)

    Xiao, Wei-min; Deng, Rong-gui; Zhong, Zhi-bin; Fu, Xiao-min; Wang, Cong-yan


    Columnar jointed rock mass is a kind of structural rock mass commonly encountered in igneous rocks. Due to the effects of columnar joint networks, anisotropy is the typical mechanical property of columnar jointed rock mass, i.e. deformation and strength varying with loading direction. Correct understanding of the mechanical anisotropy of columnar jointed rock mass is a key problem that should be solved for demonstration and design of large scale rock mass projects such as dams and underground cavern excavations constructed in it. Plaster simulated columnar jointed rock mass specimens at dip angles varying from 0° to 90° with respect to the axial stress were tested under uniaxial compression conditions to investigate the mechanical anisotropy and failure modes. Based on analyses of experimental results, it was found that the strength and deformation of columnar jointed rock masses had pronounced ‘U-shaped’ anisotropy. In the anisotropic curves, the maximum and minimum values occurred at β = 90° and β = 45°, respectively. It was also shown that the lateral strain ratio was relatively high, especially when the dip angle was close to (45° - φj/2), where φj was the joint friction angle. An empirical expression was adopted to predict the ‘U-shaped’ anisotropy of deformation and strength and the predicted anisotropic curves agreed reasonably well with experimental data. Furthermore, four types of failure modes were summarized based on experimental results and corresponding mechanisms were also discussed.

  5. Geo-Mechanical Characterization of Carbonate Rock Masses by Means of Laser Scanner Technique (United States)

    Palma, Biagio; Parise, Mario; Ruocco, Anna


    Knowledge of the geometrical and structural setting of rock masses is crucial to evaluate the stability and to design the most suitable stabilization works. In this work we use the Terrestrial Laser Scanning (TLS) at the site of the Grave of the Castellana Caves, a famous show cave in southern Italy. The Grave is the natural access to the cave system, produced by collapse of the vault, due to upward progression of instabilities in the carbonate rock masses. It is about 55-m high, bell-shaped, with maximum width of 120 m. Aim of the work is the characterization of carbonate rock masses from the structural and geo-mechanical standpoints through the use of innovative survey techniques. TLS survey provides a product consisting of millions of geo-referenced points, to be managed in space, to become a suitable database for the morphological and geological-structural analysis. Studying by means of TLS a rock face, partly inaccessible or located in very complex environments, allows to investigate slopes in their overall areal extent, thus offering advantages both as regards safety of the workers and time needed for the survey. In addition to TLS, the traditional approach was also followed by performing scanlines surveys along the rims of the Grave, following the ISRM recommendations for characterization of discontinuity in rock masses. A quantitative comparison among the data obtained by TLS technique and those deriving from the classical geo-mechanical survey is eventually presented, to discuss potentiality of drawbacks of the different techniques used for surveying the rock masses.

  6. Determination of the mechanical parameters of rock mass based on a GSI system and displacement back analysis (United States)

    Kang, Kwang-Song; Hu, Nai-Lian; Sin, Chung-Sik; Rim, Song-Ho; Han, Eun-Cheol; Kim, Chol-Nam


    It is very important to obtain the mechanical paramerters of rock mass for excavation design, support design, slope design and stability analysis of the underground structure. In order to estimate the mechanical parameters of rock mass exactly, a new method of combining a geological strength index (GSI) system with intelligent displacment back analysis is proposed in this paper. Firstly, average spacing of joints (d) and rock mass block rating (RBR, a new quantitative factor), surface condition rating (SCR) and joint condition factor (J c) are obtained on in situ rock masses using the scanline method, and the GSI values of rock masses are obtained from a new quantitative GSI chart. A correction method of GSI value is newly introduced by considering the influence of joint orientation and groundwater on rock mass mechanical properties, and then value ranges of rock mass mechanical parameters are chosen by the Hoek-Brown failure criterion. Secondly, on the basis of the measurement result of vault settlements and horizontal convergence displacements of an in situ tunnel, optimal parameters are estimated by combination of genetic algorithm (GA) and numerical simulation analysis using FLAC3D. This method has been applied in a lead-zinc mine. By utilizing the improved GSI quantization, correction method and displacement back analysis, the mechanical parameters of the ore body, hanging wall and footwall rock mass were determined, so that reliable foundations were provided for mining design and stability analysis.


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    Muhammad Qarinur


    Full Text Available Landslide often occurs in tropical hills area, such as Indonesia. Research on landslide hazard evaluation is necessary to decrease the impact in affected and surrounding areas. Empirical-statistical methods can be used to predict landslide run out distance in an effort to avoid the danger of landslide occurrences. This study aims to determine the correlation between landslide run out distance against high, slope, and volume based on mechanisms and causes of soil or rock mass movement. Data mainly from 106 landslides in Indonesia has been analyzed to search for possible correlations and empirical correlations, there are 34 rotational slides, 54 translational slides, 8 debris flows, and 10 rock falls. Analysis begins by studying the characteristics of the data (explanatory data analysis and then analyzed by using empirical methods such as geomorphological assessment and geometrical approaches. Then the data is processed by simple linear regression and multiple linear regression method using the R software. The results obtained from the analysis of the general empirical equation form of the correlation between height (H and run out distance (L is 1.066H1.093, respectively. This results indicate the higher altitude slopes, the greater distance will happen. The results of the analysis correlation between height and run out distance for the type of mass movements for rotational is L=1.346+1.788 H, translational is L=-3.88+1.578H, debris flow is L=0.682H1.29, and rock fall is L=2.223H0.897. This result shows debris flows landslide run out distance is greater than rotational, translational and rock fall. The results of the analysis correlation between height and run out distance of the trigger due to the rain is L=1.267H1.027, and by an earthquake is L=0.574H1.38. This results show run out distance caused by an earthquake is larger than caused by rain. The correlation between the run out distance and volume (V yields empirical equation which is V=0.772L

  8. Rock mechanics modelling of rock mass properties - summary of primary data. Preliminary site description Laxemar subarea - version 1.2

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    Lanaro, Flavio [Berg Bygg Konsult AB, Solna (Sweden); Oehman, Johan; Fredriksson, Anders [Golder Associates AB, Uppsala (Sweden)


    The results presented in this report are the summary of the primary data for the Laxemar Site Descriptive Modelling version 1.2. At this stage, laboratory tests on intact rock and fracture samples from borehole KSH01A, KSH02A, KAV01 (already considered in Simpevarp SDM version 1.2) and borehole KLX02 and KLX04 were available. Concerning the mechanical properties of the intact rock, the rock type 'granite to quartz monzodiorite' or 'Aevroe granite' (code 501044) was tested for the first time within the frame of the site descriptive modelling. The average uniaxial compressive strength and Young's modulus of the granite to quartz to monzodiorite are 192 MPa and 72 GPa, respectively. The crack initiation stress is observed to be 0.5 times the uniaxial compressive strength for the same rock type. Non negligible differences are observed between the statistics of the mechanical properties of the granite to quartz monzodiorite in borehole KLX02 and KLX04. The available data on rock fractures were analysed to determine the mechanical properties of the different fracture sets at the site (based on tilt test results) and to determine systematic differences between the results obtained with different sample preparation techniques (based on direct shear tests). The tilt tests show that there are not significant differences of the mechanical properties due to the fracture orientation. Thus, all fracture sets seem to have the same strength and deformability. The average peak friction angle for the Coulomb's Criterion of the fracture sets varies between 33.6 deg and 34.1 deg, while the average cohesion ranges between 0.46 and 0.52 MPa, respectively. The average of the Coulomb's residual cohesion and friction angle vary in the ranges 28.0 deg - 29.2 deg and 0.40-0.45 MPa, respectively. The only significant difference could be observed on the average cohesion between fracture set S{sub A} and S{sub d}. The direct shear tests show that the

  9. Effect of seismic waves on the hydro-mechanical properties of fractured rock masses (United States)

    Lak, Meysam; Baghbanan, Alireza; Hashemolhoseini, Hamid


    The transmission of seismic waves in a particular region may influence the hydraulic properties of a rock mass, including permeability, which is one of the most important. To determine the effect of a seismic wave on the hydraulic behavior of a fractured rock mass, systematic numerical modeling was conducted. A number of discrete fracture network (DFN) models with a size of 20 m × 20 m were used as geometrical bases, and a discrete element method (DEM) was employed as a numerical simulation tool. Three different boundary conditions without (Type I) and with static (Type II) and dynamic (Type III) loading were performed on the models, and then their permeability was calculated. The results showed that permeability in Type III models was respectively 62.7% and 44.2% higher than in Type I and Type II models. This study indicates that seismic waves can affect deep earth, and, according to the results, seismic waves increase the permeability and change the flow rate patterns in a fractured rock mass.

  10. In Situ Observation of Failure Mechanisms Controlled by Rock Masses with Weak Interlayer Zones in Large Underground Cavern Excavations Under High Geostress (United States)

    Duan, Shu-Qian; Feng, Xia-Ting; Jiang, Quan; Liu, Guo-Feng; Pei, Shu-Feng; Fan, Yi-Lin


    A weak interlayer zone (WIZ) is a poor rock mass system with loose structure, weak mechanical properties, variable thickness, random distribution, strong extension, and high risk due to the shear motion of rock masses under the action of tectonism, bringing many stability problems and geological hazards, especially representing a potential threat to the overall stability of rock masses with WIZs in large underground cavern excavations. Focusing on the deformation and failure problems encountered in the process of excavation unloading, this research proposes comprehensive in situ observation schemes for rock masses with WIZs in large underground cavern on the basis of the collection of geological, construction, monitoring, and testing data. The schemes have been fully applied in two valuable project cases of an underground cavern group under construction in the southwest of China, including the plastic squeezing-out tensile failure and the structural stress-induced collapse of rock masses with WIZs. In this way, the development of rock mass failure, affected by the step-by-step excavations along the cavern's axis and the subsequent excavation downward, could be observed thoroughly. Furthermore, this paper reveals the preliminary analyses of failure mechanism of rock masses with WIZs from several aspects, including rock mass structure, strength, high stress, ground water effects, and microfracture mechanisms. Finally, the failure particularities of rock masses with WIZs and rethink on prevention and control of failures are discussed. The research results could provide important guiding reference value for stability analysis, as well as for rethinking the excavation and support optimization of rock masses with WIZs in similar large underground cavern under high geostress.

  11. Experimental Investigation of the Anisotropic Mechanical Properties of a Columnar Jointed Rock Mass: Observations from Laboratory-Based Physical Modelling (United States)

    Ji, H.; Zhang, J. C.; Xu, W. Y.; Wang, R. B.; Wang, H. L.; Yan, L.; Lin, Z. N.


    Because of the complex geological structure, determination of the field mechanical parameters of the columnar jointed rock mass (CJRM) was a challenging task in the design and construction of the Baihetan hydropower plant. To model the mechanical behaviour of the CJRM, uniaxial compression tests were conducted on artificial CJRM specimens with geological structure similar to that found in the actual CJRM. Based on the test results, the anisotropic deformation and strength were mainly analysed. The empirical correlations of evaluating the field mechanical parameters were derived based on the joint factor approach and the modulus reduction factor method. The findings of the physical model tests were then used to estimate the field moduli and unconfined compressive strengths of the Baihetan CJRM. The results predicted by physical model tests were compared with those obtained from the field tests and the RMR classification system. It is concluded that physical model tests were capable of providing valuable estimations on the field mechanical parameters of the CJRM.

  12. A numerical model of hydro-thermo-mechanical coupling in a fractured rock mass

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    Bower, Kathleen Marie [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States)


    Coupled hydro-thermo-mechanical codes with the ability to model fractured materials are used for predicting groundwater flow behavior in fractured aquifers containing thermal sources. The potential applications of such a code include the analysis of groundwater behavior within a geothermal reservoir. The capability of modeling hydro-thermo systems with a dual porosity, fracture flow model has been previously developed in the finite element code, FEHM. FEHM has been modified to include stress coupling with the dual porosity feature. FEHM has been further developed to implicitly couple the dependence of fracture hydraulic conductivity on effective stress within two dimensional, saturated aquifers containing fracture systems. The cubic law for flow between parallel plates was used to model fracture permeability. The Bartin-Bandis relationship was used to determine the fracture aperture within the cubic law. The code used a Newton Raphson iteration to implicitly solve for six unknowns at each node. Results from a model of heat flow from a reservoir to the moving fluid in a single fracture compared well with analytic results. Results of a model showing the increase in fracture flow due to a single fracture opening under fluid pressure compared well with analytic results. A hot dry rock, geothermal reservoir was modeled with realistic time steps indicating that the modified FEHM code does successfully model coupled flow problems with no convergence problems.

  13. Developing a MatLab code for determine geometry of rock mass blocks and its applications in mining and rock mechanic engineering

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    Yarahmadi R.


    Full Text Available Various geological processes such as tectonic activities develop fractures and discontinuities in the rock mass body; these, in turn, form blocks with different shapes and sizes in the rock mass body. Accurate understanding of these blocks' geometry is essential in different domains of rock and mine engineering such as determination of yield in quarries, optimization of fragmentation energy, the design of blasting pattern, block stability in slopes and underground spaces and the prediction of dilution potential in caving methods exploitation. Because of costly operation and uncertainties in the measurement of fractures and discontinuities properties in 3D, 2D simple models are recommended. So far, all investigations have been focused on the problem of finding primary blocks analytically and mathematically, but these problem applications have been neglected slightly. This paper introduces a MATLAB code for geometry determination of rock mass blocks in two dimensional spaces and investigates the applications of it.

  14. The impact of mechanical properties of rock to the collision of rock piece

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    Borut Macuh


    Full Text Available The paper presents the analytical solution of the rock piece motion considering influences of geometrical and mechanical characteristics of rock mass on the arbitrary slope. The main objective of the paper is to determine the motion of the rock piece considering possibility of rock piece failure due to collision. Brief description of the analytical solution of the rock piece motion on a steep slope is given. The laboratory tests were performed to determine uniaxial compressive strength and elastic properties of the considered rock mass. Further, velocities that cause rock piece failure were determined. These maximum velocities indirectly belong to certain mass of rock piece and can be lower than velocities calculated in rock-fall analysis for certain slope geometry. Consequently, the energy magnitude is limited, because at certain velocity and mass of rock piece bigger pieces crash at collision.

  15. Forecast Jointed Rock Mass Compressive Strength Using a Numerical Model

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    Protosenya Anatoliy


    Full Text Available The method of forecasting the strength of the jointed rock mass by numerical modeling of finite element method in ABAQUS was described. The paper presents advantages of this method to solve the problem of determining the mechanical characteristics of jointed rock mass and the basic steps of creating a numerical geomechanical model of jointed rock mass and numerical experiment. Numerical simulation was carried out with jointed rock mass in order to obtain the ratio of strain and stress while loading the numerical model, determining parameters of quantitative assessment of the impact of the discontinuities orientation on the value of the compressive strength, compressive strength anisotropy. The results of the numerical experiment are compared with the data of experimental studies investigations. Innovative materials and structures are analyzed in this paper. The results that were obtained by calculation show qualitative agreement with the results of laboratory experiments of jointed rock mass.

  16. ONKALO rock mechanics model (RMM) - Version 2.0

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    Moenkkoenen, H. [WSP Finland Oy, Helsinki (Finland); Hakala, M. [KMS Hakala Oy, Nokia (Finland); Paananen, M.; Laine, E. [Geological Survey of Finland, Espoo (Finland)


    The Rock Mechanics Model of the ONKALO rock volume is a description of the significant features and parameters related to rock mechanics. The main objective is to develop a tool to predict the rock properties, quality and hence the potential for stress failure which can then be used for continuing design of the ONKALO and the repository. This is the second implementation of the Rock Mechanics Model and it includes sub-models of the intact rock strength, in situ stress, thermal properties, rock mass quality and properties of the brittle deformation zones. Because of the varying quantities of available data for the different parameters, the types of presentations also vary: some data sets can be presented in the style of a 3D block model but, in other cases, a single distribution represents the whole rock volume hosting the ONKALO. (orig.)

  17. Numerical Homogenization of Jointed Rock Masses Using Wave Propagation Simulation (United States)

    Gasmi, Hatem; Hamdi, Essaïeb; Bouden Romdhane, Nejla


    Homogenization in fractured rock analyses is essentially based on the calculation of equivalent elastic parameters. In this paper, a new numerical homogenization method that was programmed by means of a MATLAB code, called HLA-Dissim, is presented. The developed approach simulates a discontinuity network of real rock masses based on the International Society of Rock Mechanics (ISRM) scanline field mapping methodology. Then, it evaluates a series of classic joint parameters to characterize density (RQD, specific length of discontinuities). A pulse wave, characterized by its amplitude, central frequency, and duration, is propagated from a source point to a receiver point of the simulated jointed rock mass using a complex recursive method for evaluating the transmission and reflection coefficient for each simulated discontinuity. The seismic parameters, such as delay, velocity, and attenuation, are then calculated. Finally, the equivalent medium model parameters of the rock mass are computed numerically while taking into account the natural discontinuity distribution. This methodology was applied to 17 bench fronts from six aggregate quarries located in Tunisia, Spain, Austria, and Sweden. It allowed characterizing the rock mass discontinuity network, the resulting seismic performance, and the equivalent medium stiffness. The relationship between the equivalent Young's modulus and rock discontinuity parameters was also analyzed. For these different bench fronts, the proposed numerical approach was also compared to several empirical formulas, based on RQD and fracture density values, published in previous research studies, showing its usefulness and efficiency in estimating rapidly the Young's modulus of equivalent medium for wave propagation analysis.

  18. Microseismic activity analysis for the study of the rupture mechanisms in unstable rock masses (Matterhorn, North-western Alps) (United States)

    Amitrano, D.; Arattano, M.; Chiarle, M.; Mortara, G.; Occhiena, C.; Pirulli, M.; Scavia, C.


    Rockfalls are very frequent events in alpine areas and can endanger human lifes and activities. Since high mountains have been affected by an increasing number of these phenomena in the last years, a possible correlation with the effects of climate changes can be hypothesized. The permafrost degradation, causing the thaw of the ice that fills the rock discontinuities, is then investigated among possible causes of rockfalls. Therefore the monitoring of potential rock instabilities in high mountain in relation with permafrost degradation has been carried out in the frame of the Interreg IIIA ALCOTRA "PERMAdataROC" project. Within the project, a monitoring network has been installed in 2007 on the Italian side of the Matterhorn peak, close to the J. A. Carrel refuge (3829 m a.s.l.). This site is an important destination for climbers going to the Matterhorn peak and is frequently affected by rockfall events. The monitoring network consists of a set of 5 triaxial geophones, to record the existing microseismic activity, and one thermometer, to analyze the temperature trend. A preliminary data processing has concerned the classification of the recorded signals, the identification of the most important microseismic events and the analysis of their distribution in time. As far as this last aspect is concerned, first interpretations have evidenced a possible correlation between the temperature trend and the event concentrations, during particular thermal sequences. The research is still in progress and it is expected that a longer recording period of seismic events and temperatures will help to understand if the microseismic activity is mainly concentrated in some periods of the year, in some parts of the slope and if it is produced by superficial or deep events. A concentration of superficial events in some parts of the slope, together with a structural analysis of those portions, could help to focus on the areas that can be more unstable. While, their correlation with

  19. Gravitational stresses in anisotropic rock masses (United States)

    Amadei, B.; Savage, W.Z.; Swolfs, H.S.


    This paper presents closed-form solutions for the stress field induced by gravity in anisotropic rock masses. These rocks are assumed to be laterally restrained and are modelled as a homogeneous, orthotropic or transversely isotropic, linearly elastic material. The analysis, constrained by the thermodynamic requirement that strain energy be positive definite, gives the following important result: inclusion of anisotropy broadens the range of permissible values of gravity-induced horizontal stresses. In fact, for some ranges of anisotropic rock properties, it is thermodynamically admissible for gravity-induced horizontal stresses to exceed the vertical stress component; this is not possible for the classical isotropic solution. Specific examples are presented to explore the nature of the gravity-induced stress field in anisotropic rocks and its dependence on the type, degree and orientation of anisotropy with respect to the horizontal ground surface. ?? 1987.

  20. Thermal, Mechanical and Thermo-Mechanical Assessment of the Rock Mass Surrounding SKB's Prototype Repository at Äspö HRL (United States)

    Lönnqvist, Margareta; Hökmark, Harald


    The Prototype Repository (PR) was a field test of six, electrically heated, full-scale waste containers resembling the key component of a KBS-3 nuclear waste repository. The design and heat load was similar to the proposed repository at Forsmark, Sweden. In this paper, the thermal, mechanical and thermo-mechanical response of the PR host rock to excavation and to the subsequent heating is assessed. The assessment is carried out using three-dimensional models (numerical and analytical) in combination with monitoring data and visual observations from the excavations. Certain measurements and observations agree well with results from the models. These include temperature measurements during the heating phase. Additional measurements include patterns of low-magnitude acoustic emission events around the deposition holes tracked during the excavation. The spatial distribution of these events coincide with regions of modelled high compressive stresses. Models with a simple fracture network, consisting of planar disks with laboratory-scale properties, appear to give upper bound estimates of the stress disturbances caused by a real fracture network. The magnitude of the modelled stresses around the deposition hole is typically below the spalling strength. The lack of any significant or systematic occurrence of spalling in the deposition hole walls supports the modelling results. Several instruments installed at different positions to monitor stress change, strain and deformation malfunctioned during the nearly 8-year-long monitoring period. Despite this, there is ample evidence to support the overall conclusion that the modelling results and observations are in sufficient agreement to strengthen the confidence in the modelling approach.

  1. Examining the relation between rock mass cuttability index and rock drilling properties (United States)

    Yetkin, Mustafa E.; Özfırat, M. Kemal; Yenice, Hayati; Şimşir, Ferhan; Kahraman, Bayram


    Drilling rate is a substantial index value in drilling and excavation operations at mining. It is not only a help in determining physical and mechanical features of rocks, but also delivers strong estimations about instantaneous cutting rates. By this way, work durations to be finished on time, proper machine/equipment selection and efficient excavation works can be achieved. In this study, physical and mechanical properties of surrounding rocks and ore zones are determined by investigations carried out on specimens taken from an underground ore mine. Later, relationships among rock mass classifications, drillability rates, cuttability, and abrasivity have been investigated using multi regression analysis. As a result, equations having high regression rates have been found out among instantaneous cutting rates and geomechanical properties of rocks. Moreover, excavation machine selection for the study area has been made at the best possible interval.


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    Hrvoje Antičević


    Full Text Available Design of underground spaces, including tunnels, and repositories for radioactive waste include the application of the same or similar technologies. Tunnel excavation by blasting inevitably results in the damage in the rock mass around the excavation profile. The damage in the rock mass immediately next to the tunnel profile emerges as the expanding of the existing cracks and the appearance of new cracks, i.e. as the change of the physical and-mechanical properties of the rock mass. Concerning the design of deep geological repositories, requirements in terms of damaged rock are the same or more rigorous than for the design of tunnel. The aforementioned research is directed towards determining the depth of damage zone caused by blasting. The depth of the damage zone is determined by measuring the changes of physical and-mechanical properties of the rock mass around the tunnel excavation profile. By this research the drilling and blasting parameters were correlated with the depth and size of the damage zone (the paper is published in Croatian.

  3. Rock mass classification system : transition from RMR to GSI. (United States)


    The AASHTO LRFD Bridge Design Specifications is expected to replace the rock mass rating : (RMR) system with the Geological Strength Index (GSI) system for classifying and estimating : engineering properties of rock masses. This transition is motivat...

  4. Rock breakage mechanisms with a PDC cutter

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    Some aspects of chip generation by a polycrystalline diamond compact (PDC) cutter moving through a rock can be understood by examining the shapes of the chips and the fracture patterns in the remaining rock. Data from laboratory experiments have led to general conclusions about the uniformity of chip generation mechanisms in different kinds of rock and about crack nucleation position relative to the cutter tip. 20 refs., 12 figs., 2 tabs.

  5. Application of rock mass classification systems to rock slope stability assessment: A case study

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    Hassan Basahel


    Full Text Available The stability of rock slopes is considered crucial to public safety in highways passing through rock cuts, as well as to personnel and equipment safety in open pit mines. Slope instability and failures occur due to many factors such as adverse slope geometries, geological discontinuities, weak or weathered slope materials as well as severe weather conditions. External loads like heavy precipitation and seismicity could play a significant role in slope failure. In this paper, several rock mass classification systems developed for rock slope stability assessment are evaluated against known rock slope conditions in a region of Saudi Arabia, where slopes located in rugged terrains with complex geometry serve as highway road cuts. Selected empirical methods have been applied to 22 rock cuts that are selected based on their failure mechanisms and slope materials. The stability conditions are identified, and the results of each rock slope classification system are compared. The paper also highlights the limitations of the empirical classification methods used in the study and proposes future research directions.

  6. Assessment of rock mass decay in artificial slopes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huisman, M.


    This research investigates the decay of rock masses underlying slopes, and seeks to quantify the relations of such decay with time and geotechnical parameters of the slope and rock mass. Decay can greatly affect the geotechnical properties of rocks within engineering timescales, and may induce a

  7. Site investigations: Strategy for rock mechanics site descriptive model

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    Andersson, Johan [JA Streamflow AB, Aelvsjoe (Sweden); Christiansson, Rolf [Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co., Stockholm (Sweden); Hudson, John [Rock Engineering Consultants, Welwyn Garden City (United Kingdom)


    As a part of the planning work for the Site Investigations, SKB has developed a Rock Mechanics Site Descriptive Modelling Strategy. Similar strategies are being developed for other disciplines. The objective of the strategy is that it should guide the practical implementation of evaluating site specific data during the Site Investigations. It is also understood that further development may be needed. This methodology enables the crystalline rock mass to be characterised in terms of the quality at different sites, for considering rock engineering constructability, and for providing the input to numerical models and performance assessment calculations. The model describes the initial stresses and the distribution of deformation and strength properties of the intact rock, of fractures and fracture zones, and of the rock mass. The rock mass mechanical properties are estimated by empirical relations and by numerical simulations. The methodology is based on estimation of mechanical properties using both empirical and heroretical/numerical approaches; and estimation of in situ rock stress using judgement and numerical modelling, including the influence of fracture zones. These approaches are initially used separately, and then combined to produce the required characterisation estimates. The methodology was evaluated with a Test Case at the Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory in Sweden. The quality control aspects are an important feature of the methodology: these include Protocols to ensure the structure and coherence of the procedures used, regular meetings to enhance communication, feedback from internal and external reviewing, plus the recording of an audit trail of the development steps and decisions made. The strategy will be reviewed and, if required, updated as appropriate.


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    Branko Božić


    Full Text Available Rock fractures in the form of fissures are one of more important geological features of a tectonic system. They have an effect on mechanical behaviour of rook masses exposed to the actions of surface forces. For exploitation in dolomite quarries carried out by blasting of deep shot holes it is important to know the system of fissures within a rock mass for the rock brakes along already weakened planes (the paper is published in Croatian.

  9. Soil and Rock Mechanics Lab (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The 10,000-sq ft soil mechanics research facility is the largest in the Department of Defense and has a loading capability of 250,000 lb on triaxial specimens up to...

  10. Fractures and Rock Mechanics, Phase 1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Havmøller, Ole; Krogsbøll, Anette


    The main objectives of the project are to combine geological description of fractures, chalk types and rock mechanical properties, and to investigate whether the chosen outcrops can be used as analogues to reservoir chalks. Five chalk types, representing two outcrop localities: Stevns and Hillers......The main objectives of the project are to combine geological description of fractures, chalk types and rock mechanical properties, and to investigate whether the chosen outcrops can be used as analogues to reservoir chalks. Five chalk types, representing two outcrop localities: Stevns...

  11. Fractures and Rock Mechanics, Phase 1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogsbøll, Anette; Jakobsen, Finn; Madsen, Lena


    The main objective of the project is to combine geological descriptions of fractures, chalk types and rock mechanical properties in order to investigate whether the chosen outcrops can be used as analogues to reservoir chalks. This report deals with 1) geological descriptions of outcrop locality...

  12. Estimation of hydrologic properties of an unsaturated, fractured rock mass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klavetter, E.A.; Peters, R.R.


    In this document, two distinctly different approaches are used to develop continuum models to evaluate water movement in a fractured rock mass. Both models provide methods for estimating rock-mass hydrologic properties. Comparisons made over a range of different tuff properties show good qualitative and quantitative agreement between estimates of rock-mass hydrologic properties made by the two models. This document presents a general discussion of: (1) the hydrology of Yucca Mountain, and the conceptual hydrological model currently being used for the Yucca Mountain site, (2) the development of two models that may be used to estimate the hydrologic properties of a fractured, porous rock mass, and (3) a comparison of the hydrologic properties estimated by these two models. Although the models were developed in response to hydrologic characterization requirements at Yucca Mountain, they can be applied to water movement in any fractured rock mass that satisfies the given assumptions.

  13. Gravity-induced rock mass damage related to large en masse rockslides: Evidence from Vajont (United States)

    Paronuzzi, Paolo; Bolla, Alberto


    to failure, unstable rock slopes can be affected by diffuse newly formed gravity-driven joints that are absent in the surrounding area and within the underlying bedrock, as the Vajont case history demonstrates (joint sets J9 and J10). These fractures, caused by critical tensile and shear stresses, represent an important mechanical clue to recognizing, on a geological basis, the instability condition of a rock slope under investigation. Owing to its complex geological evolution, the Vajont landslide is an outstanding example to help learn about cumulative GRMD effects that can accumulate over time when an ancient rockslide is further remobilized by a sudden en masse sliding motion.

  14. Correlation between Rock mass rating, Q-system and Rock mass index based on field data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soufi Amine


    The proposed regression models reveal strong correlations between RMR, Q and RMi indexes with high values of accuracy coefficients so that they can be used to estimate the “CPB3” underground rock mass quality for the range of RMR between 30% and 80%. The developed mathematical formulations of the geomechanicalindexes will certainly offer an effective tool to geologist and geotechnical professionals in the decision-making process, preliminary design phase, stability problems and suggestions of the required supporting system and techniques without the expense of more resources or time.

  15. Mechanical Properties and Acoustic Emission Properties of Rocks with Different Transverse Scales


    Yan, Xi; Jun, Li; Gonghui, Liu; Xueli, Guo


    Since the stability of engineering rock masses has important practical significance to projects like mining, tunneling, and petroleum engineering, it is necessary to study mechanical properties and stability prediction methods for rocks, cementing materials that are composed of minerals in all shapes and sizes. Rocks will generate acoustic emission during damage failure processes, which is deemed as an effective means of monitoring the stability of coal rocks. In the meantime, actual mining a...

  16. Mechanical and hydraulic properties of rocks related to induced seismicity (United States)

    Witherspoon, P.A.; Gale, J.E.


    Witherspoon, P.A. and Gale, J.E., 1977. Mechanical and hydraulic properties of rocks related to induced seismicity. Eng. Geol., 11(1): 23-55. The mechanical and hydraulic properties of fractured rocks are considered with regard to the role they play in induced seismicity. In many cases, the mechanical properties of fractures determine the stability of a rock mass. The problems of sampling and testing these rock discontinuities and interpreting their non-linear behavior are reviewed. Stick slip has been proposed as the failure mechanism in earthquake events. Because of the complex interactions that are inherent in the mechanical behavior of fractured rocks, there seems to be no simple way to combine the deformation characteristics of several sets of fractures when there are significant perturbations of existing conditions. Thus, the more important fractures must be treated as individual components in the rock mass. In considering the hydraulic properties, it has been customary to treat a fracture as a parallel-plate conduit and a number of mathematical models of fracture systems have adopted this approach. Non-steady flow in fractured systems has usually been based on a two-porosity model, which assumes the primary (intergranular) porosity contributes only to storage and the secondary (fracture) porosity contributes only to the overall conductivity. Using such a model, it has been found that the time required to achieve quasi-steady state flow in a fractured reservoir is one or two orders of magnitude greater than it is in a homogeneous system. In essentially all of this work, the assumption has generally been made that the fractures are rigid. However, it is clear from a review of the mechanical and hydraulic properties that not only are fractures easily deformed but they constitute the main flow paths in many rock masses. This means that one must consider the interaction of mechanical and hydraulic effects. A considerable amount of laboratory and field data is now

  17. Rock Joint Asperities and Mechanical Strength of Concrete (United States)

    Ficker, Tomáš; Komárková, Tereza


    Mechanical interactions between concrete foundations of large civil engineering structures (tunnels, bridges or dams) and the asperity surfaces of rock masses represent a useful topic for investigation. It is obvious that such large objects exert huge pressures on bedrocks and this might result in surprising variations of mechanical properties of the materials used in foundations. The present contribution evaluates possible changes of the compressive strength of concrete caused by the invasive acting of asperity-like needles penetrating into the volume of this material. The experimental arrangement simulates mechanical interactions between sharp asperities of bedrocks and the cement-based materials placed in the foundations of large civil engineering structures.

  18. Conducting Rock Mass Rating for tunnel construction on Mars (United States)

    Beemer, Heidi D.; Worrells, D. Scott


    Mars analogue missions provide researchers, scientists, and engineers the opportunity to establish protocols prior to sending human explorers to another planet. This paper investigated the complexity of a team of simulation astronauts conducting a Rock Mass Rating task during Analogue Mars missions. This study was conducted at the Mars Desert Research Station in Hanksville, UT, during field season 2015/2016 and with crews 167,168, and 169. During the experiment, three-person teams completed a Rock Mass Rating task during a three hour Extra Vehicular Activity on day six of their two-week simulation mission. This geological test is used during design and construction of excavations in rock on Earth. On Mars, this test could be conducted by astronauts to determine suitable rock layers for tunnel construction which would provide explorers a permanent habitat and radiation shielding while living for long periods of time on the surface. The Rock Mass Rating system derives quantitative data for engineering designs that can easily be communicated between engineers and geologists. Conclusions from this research demonstrated that it is feasible for astronauts to conduct the Rock Mass Rating task in a Mars simulated environment. However, it was also concluded that Rock Mass Rating task orientation and training will be required to ensure that accurate results are obtained.

  19. Mechanism of Rock Burst Occurrence in Specially Thick Coal Seam with Rock Parting (United States)

    Wang, Jian-chao; Jiang, Fu-xing; Meng, Xiang-jun; Wang, Xu-you; Zhu, Si-tao; Feng, Yu


    Specially thick coal seam with complex construction, such as rock parting and alternative soft and hard coal, is called specially thick coal seam with rock parting (STCSRP), which easily leads to rock burst during mining. Based on the stress distribution of rock parting zone, this study investigated the mechanism, engineering discriminant conditions, prevention methods, and risk evaluation method of rock burst occurrence in STCSRP through setting up a mechanical model. The main conclusions of this study are as follows. (1) When the mining face moves closer to the rock parting zone, the original non-uniform stress of the rock parting zone and the advancing stress of the mining face are combined to intensify gradually the shearing action of coal near the mining face. When the shearing action reaches a certain degree, rock burst easily occurs near the mining face. (2) Rock burst occurrence in STCSRP is positively associated with mining depth, advancing stress concentration factor of the mining face, thickness of rock parting, bursting liability of coal, thickness ratio of rock parting to coal seam, and difference of elastic modulus between rock parting and coal, whereas negatively associated with shear strength. (3) Technologies of large-diameter drilling, coal seam water injection, and deep hole blasting can reduce advancing stress concentration factor, thickness of rock parting, and difference of elastic modulus between rock parting and coal to lower the risk of rock burst in STCSRP. (4) The research result was applied to evaluate and control the risk of rock burst occurrence in STCSRP.

  20. The influence of normal fault on initial state of stress in rock mass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tajduś Antoni


    Full Text Available Determination of original state of stress in rock mass is a very difficult task for rock mechanics. Yet, original state of stress in rock mass has fundamental influence on secondary state of stress, which occurs in the vicinity of mining headings. This, in turn, is the cause of the occurrence of a number of mining hazards, i.e., seismic events, rock bursts, gas and rock outbursts, falls of roof. From experience, it is known that original state of stress depends a lot on tectonic disturbances, i.e., faults and folds. In the area of faults, a great number of seismic events occur, often of high energies. These seismic events, in many cases, are the cause of rock bursts and damage to the constructions located inside the rock mass and on the surface of the ground. To estimate the influence of fault existence on the disturbance of original state of stress in rock mass, numerical calculations were done by means of Finite Element Method. In the calculations, it was tried to determine the influence of different factors on state of stress, which occurs in the vicinity of a normal fault, i.e., the influence of normal fault inclination, deformability of rock mass, values of friction coefficient on the fault contact. Critical value of friction coefficient was also determined, when mutual dislocation of rock mass part separated by a fault is impossible. The obtained results enabled formulation of a number of conclusions, which are important in the context of seismic events and rock bursts in the area of faults.

  1. The influence of normal fault on initial state of stress in rock mass (United States)

    Tajduś, Antoni; Cała, Marek; Tajduś, Krzysztof


    Determination of original state of stress in rock mass is a very difficult task for rock mechanics. Yet, original state of stress in rock mass has fundamental influence on secondary state of stress, which occurs in the vicinity of mining headings. This, in turn, is the cause of the occurrence of a number of mining hazards, i.e., seismic events, rock bursts, gas and rock outbursts, falls of roof. From experience, it is known that original state of stress depends a lot on tectonic disturbances, i.e., faults and folds. In the area of faults, a great number of seismic events occur, often of high energies. These seismic events, in many cases, are the cause of rock bursts and damage to the constructions located inside the rock mass and on the surface of the ground. To estimate the influence of fault existence on the disturbance of original state of stress in rock mass, numerical calculations were done by means of Finite Element Method. In the calculations, it was tried to determine the influence of different factors on state of stress, which occurs in the vicinity of a normal fault, i.e., the influence of normal fault inclination, deformability of rock mass, values of friction coefficient on the fault contact. Critical value of friction coefficient was also determined, when mutual dislocation of rock mass part separated by a fault is impossible. The obtained results enabled formulation of a number of conclusions, which are important in the context of seismic events and rock bursts in the area of faults.

  2. A New Assessment Method for Structural-Control Failure Mechanisms in Rock Slopes — Case Examples


    Christian Arnhardt; Smith, John V.


    Mass movement processes of bedrock slopes are highly dependent on the orientations of structural discontinuities within the rock mass. The associated hazards are typically defined by the orientation of structures and associated mechanisms of slope failure such as planar sliding, wedge sliding and toppling. A typical rock mass with multiple weak surfaces, or discontinuities, may form a consistent pattern over a range of spatial scale. The type of hazard resulting from the pattern of discontinu...

  3. Latest progress of soft rock mechanics and engineering in China


    He, Manchao


    The progress of soft rock mechanics and associated technology in China is basically accompanied by the development of mining engineering and the increasing disasters of large rock deformation during construction of underground engineering. In this regard, Chinese scholars proposed various concepts and classification methods for soft rocks in terms of engineering practices. The large deformation mechanism of engineering soft rocks is to be understood through numerous experiments; and thus a co...

  4. Tensile rock mass strength estimated using InSAR

    KAUST Repository

    Jonsson, Sigurjon


    The large-scale strength of rock is known to be lower than the strength determined from small-scale samples in the laboratory. However, it is not well known how strength scales with sample size. I estimate kilometer-scale tensional rock mass strength by measuring offsets across new tensional fractures (joints), formed above a shallow magmatic dike intrusion in western Arabia in 2009. I use satellite radar observations to derive 3D ground displacements and by quantifying the extension accommodated by the joints and the maximum extension that did not result in a fracture, I put bounds on the joint initiation threshold of the surface rocks. The results indicate that the kilometer-scale tensile strength of the granitic rock mass is 1–3 MPa, almost an order of magnitude lower than typical laboratory values.

  5. The Influence of Rock Properties and Size into Strength Criteria: A Proposed Criterion for Soft Rock Masses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agustawijaya D.S.


    Full Text Available A new modified strength criterion for soft rock masses is proposed in this paper in order to provide a suitable estimation for soft rock mass strength. The new criterion is based upon the current compression test data of soft materials of over 150 samples, and available published data of soft rock strength. It is shown that the proposed criterion estimates reasonable values of soft rock mass strength. Rock properties and size contribute significantly into the strength, represented by friction angle and unconfined compressive strength. Examples exercised reveal that the structure of soft rock masses takes a dominant part in controlling the strength, which then determines the modelled strength of soft rock masses. The results also show that the strength of the proposed equation could relatively be higher three times than the strength of the Hoek-Brown criterion for a massive soft rock mass.

  6. Engineering rock mass classification of the Olkiluoto investigation site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aeikaes, K. [ed.; Hagros, A.; Johansson, E. [Saanio and Riekkola Consulting Engineers, Helsinki (Finland)] [and others


    Olkiluoto in Eurajoki is being investigated as a possible site for the final disposal of spent nuclear fuel from the Finnish nuclear power plants. The selection of the depth, placement and layout of the repository is affected by the constructability of the bedrock. The constructability, in turn, is influenced by several properties of the host rock, such as its Ethology, the extent of fracturing, its hydrogeological properties and rock engineering characteristics and also by the magnitude and orientation of the in situ stresses and the chemistry of the groundwater. The constructability can be evaluated by the application of a rock classification system in which the properties of the host rock are assessed against common rock engineering judgements associated with underground construction. These judgements are based partly on measurements of in situ stresses and the properties of the bedrock determined from rock samples, but an important aspect is also the practical experience which has been gained during underground excavation in similar conditions and rock types. The aim of the engineering rock mass classification was to determine suitable bedrock volumes for the construction of the repository and has used data from the site characterisation programme carried out at Olkiluoto, which consisted of both surface studies and borehole investigations. The classification specifies three categories of constructability - normal, demanding and very demanding. In addition, rock mass quality has also been classified according to the empirical Q-system to enable a comparison to be made. The rock mass parameters that determine the constructability of the bedrock at Olkiluoto depend primarily on the depth and the Ethology, as well as on whether construction takes place in intact or in fractured rock. The differences in the characteristics of intact rock within a single rock type have been shown to be small. The major lithological unit at Olkiluoto, the mica gneiss, lies in the

  7. Integrated analysis of rock mass deformation within shaft protective pillar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Warchala


    Full Text Available The paper presents an analysis of the rock mass deformation resulting from mining in the vicinity of the shaft protection pillar. A methodology of deformation prediction is based on a deterministic method using Finite Element Method (FEM. The FEM solution is based on the knowledge of the geomechanical properties of the various geological formations, tectonic faults, types of mining systems, and the complexity of the behaviour of the rock mass. The analysis gave the stress and displacement fields in the rock mass. Results of the analysis will allow for design of an optimal mining system. The analysis is illustrated by an example of the shaft R-VIII Rudna Mine KGHM Polish Copper SA.

  8. Relationship between parallel faults and stress field in rock mass based on numerical simulation (United States)

    Imai, Y.; Mikada, H.; Goto, T.; Takekawa, J.


    Parallel cracks and faults, caused by earthquakes and crustal deformations, are often observed in various scales from regional to laboratory scales. However, the mechanism of formation of these parallel faults has not been quantitatively clarified, yet. Since the stress field plays a key role to the nucleation of parallel faults, it is fundamentally to investigate the failure and the extension of cracks in a large-scale rock mass (not with a laboratory-scale specimen) due to mechanically loaded stress field. In this study, we developed a numerical simulations code for rock mass failures under different loading conditions, and conducted rock failure experiments using this code. We assumed a numerical rock mass consisting of basalt with a rectangular shape for the model. We also assumed the failure of rock mass in accordance with the Mohr-Coulomb criterion, and the distribution of the initial tensile and compressive strength of rock elements to be the Weibull model. In this study, we use the Hamiltonian Particle Method (HPM), one of the particle methods, to represent large deformation and the destruction of materials. Out simulation results suggest that the confining pressure would have dominant influence for the initiation of parallel faults and their conjugates in compressive conditions. We conclude that the shearing force would provoke the propagation of parallel fractures along the shearing direction, but prevent that of fractures to the conjugate direction.

  9. Mechanical Properties and Acoustic Emission Properties of Rocks with Different Transverse Scales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xi Yan


    Full Text Available Since the stability of engineering rock masses has important practical significance to projects like mining, tunneling, and petroleum engineering, it is necessary to study mechanical properties and stability prediction methods for rocks, cementing materials that are composed of minerals in all shapes and sizes. Rocks will generate acoustic emission during damage failure processes, which is deemed as an effective means of monitoring the stability of coal rocks. In the meantime, actual mining and roadway surrounding rocks tend to have transverse effects; namely, the transverse scale is larger than the length scale. Therefore, it is important to explore mechanical properties and acoustic emission properties of rocks under transverse size effects. Considering the transverse scale effects of rocks, this paper employs the microparticle flow software PFC2D to explore the influence of different aspect ratios on damage mechanics and acoustic emission properties of rocks. The results show that (1 the transverse scale affects uniaxial compression strength of rocks. As the aspect ratio increases, uniaxial compression strength of rocks decreases initially and later increases, showing a V-shape structure and (2 although it affects the maximum hit rate and the strain range of acoustic emission, it has little influence on the period of occurrence. As the transverse scale increases, both damage degree and damage rate of rocks decrease initially and later increase.

  10. Rock mass characterization for Copenhagen Metro using face logs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Sanne Louise; Galsgaard, Jens; Foged, Niels Nielsen


    ’s representatives, which illustrate and approve the applied methods. The new ‘Cityringen’ Metro will consist of two 16 km single track tunnels, with 17 stations and 3 construction and ventilation shafts. The geological ground conditions are dominated by glacial and postglacial deposits overlying Paleocene Greensand...... of relevant rock mass properties for tunnelling in Danian limestone has previously been difficult, as core logging shows a high degree of induced fracturing and core loss due to drilling disturbance, with an underestimation of the RQD values, and other rock mass properties, compared to face logging. However...

  11. A Model of Anisotropic Property of Seepage and Stress for Jointed Rock Mass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pei-tao Wang


    Full Text Available Joints often have important effects on seepage and elastic properties of jointed rock mass and therefore on the rock slope stability. In the present paper, a model for discrete jointed network is established using contact-free measurement technique and geometrical statistic method. A coupled mathematical model for characterizing anisotropic permeability tensor and stress tensor was presented and finally introduced to a finite element model. A case study of roadway stability at the Heishan Metal Mine in Hebei Province, China, was performed to investigate the influence of joints orientation on the anisotropic properties of seepage and elasticity of the surrounding rock mass around roadways in underground mining. In this work, the influence of the principal direction of the mechanical properties of the rock mass on associated stress field, seepage field, and damage zone of the surrounding rock mass was numerically studied. The numerical simulations indicate that flow velocity, water pressure, and stress field are greatly dependent on the principal direction of joint planes. It is found that the principal direction of joints is the most important factor controlling the failure mode of the surrounding rock mass around roadways.

  12. Impact of weathering on slope stability in soft rock mass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Predrag Miščević


    Full Text Available Weathering of soft rocks is usually considered as an important factor in various fields such as geology, engineering geology, mineralogy, soil and rock mechanics, and geomorphology. The problem of stability over time should be considered for slopes excavated in soft rocks, in case they are not protected against weathering processes. In addition to disintegration of material on slope surface, the weathering also results in shear strength reduction in the interior of the slope. Principal processes in association with weathering are discussed with the examples of marl hosted on flysch formations near Split, Croatia.

  13. Study on Excitation-triggered Damage Mechanism in Perilous Rock (United States)

    Chen, Hongkai; Wang, Shengjuan


    Chain collapse is easy to happen for perilous rock aggregate locating on steep high slope, and one of the key scientific problems is the damage mechanism of perilous rock under excitation action at perilous rock rupture. This paper studies excitation-triggered damage mechanism in perilous rock by wave mechanics, which gives three conclusions. Firstly, when only the normal incidence attenuation spread of excitation wave is considered, while the energy loss is ignored for excitation wave to spread in perilous rock aggregate, the paper establishes one method to calculate peak velocity when excitation wave passes through boundary between any two perilous rock blocks in perilous rock aggregate. Secondly, following by Sweden and Canmet criteria, the paper provides one wave velocity criterion for excitation-triggered damage in the aggregate. Thirdly, assuming double parameters of volume strain of cracks or fissures in rock meet the Weibull distribution, one method to estimate micro-fissure in excitation-triggered damage zone in perilous rock aggregate is established. The studies solve the mechanical description problem for excitation-triggered damage in perilous rock, which is valuable in studies on profoundly rupture mechanism.

  14. The Evaluation Of Deformability Modulus By Rock Mass ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The systems of classification of rock mass give, apart from useful qualitative and quantitative indications about the problems connected to the excavation of tunnels and the stability of slopes, also qualitative indications about the strength envelope and about deformability. This paper means to dwell upon the evaluation of ...

  15. Strategy for a Rock Mechanics Site Descriptive Model. Development and testing of the theoretical approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Staub, Isabelle; Fredriksson, Anders; Outters, Nils [Golder Associates AB, Uppsala (Sweden)


    In the purpose of studying the possibilities of a Deep Repository for spent fuel, the Swedish Nuclear and Fuel Management Company (SKB) is currently planning for Site Investigations. Data collected from these Site Investigations are interpreted and analysed to achieve the full Site Description, which is built up of models from all the disciplines that are considered of importance for the Site Description. One of these models is the Rock Mechanical Descriptive Model,which would be developed for any site in hard crystalline rock, and is a combination and evaluation of the characterisation of rock mass by means of empirical relationships and a theoretical approach based on numerical modelling. The present report describes the theoretical approach. The characterisation of the mechanical properties of the rock mass, viewed as a unit consisting of intact rock and fractures, is achieved by numerical simulations with following input parameters: initial stresses, fracture geometry, distribution of rock mechanical properties, such as deformation and strength parameters, for the intact rock and for the fractures. The numerical modelling was performed with the two-dimensional code UDEC, and the rock block models were generated from 2D trace sections extracted from the 3D Discrete Fracture Network (DFN) model. Assumptions and uncertainties related to the set-up of the model are considered. The numerical model was set-up to simulate a plain strain-loading test. Different boundary conditions were applied on the model for simulating stress conditions (I) in the undisturbed rock mass, and (II) at the proximity of a tunnel. In order to assess the reliability of the model sensitivity analyses have been conducted on some rock block models for defining the dependency of mechanical properties to in situ stresses, the influence of boundary conditions, rock material and joint constitutive models used to simulate the behaviour of intact rock and fractures, domain size and anisotropy. To

  16. Rock mechanics site descriptive model-theoretical approach. Preliminary site description Forsmark area - version 1.2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fredriksson, Anders; Olofsson, Isabelle [Golder Associates AB, Uppsala (Sweden)


    The present report summarises the theoretical approach to estimate the mechanical properties of the rock mass in relation to the Preliminary Site Descriptive Modelling, version 1.2 Forsmark. The theoretical approach is based on a discrete fracture network (DFN) description of the fracture system in the rock mass and on the results of mechanical testing of intact rock and on rock fractures. To estimate the mechanical properties of the rock mass a load test on a rock block with fractures is simulated with the numerical code 3DEC. The location and size of the fractures are given by DFN-realisations. The rock block was loaded in plain strain condition. From the calculated relationship between stresses and deformations the mechanical properties of the rock mass were determined. The influence of the geometrical properties of the fracture system on the mechanical properties of the rock mass was analysed by loading 20 blocks based on different DFN-realisations. The material properties of the intact rock and the fractures were kept constant. The properties are set equal to the mean value of each measured material property. The influence of the variation of the properties of the intact rock and variation of the mechanical properties of the fractures are estimated by analysing numerical load tests on one specific block (one DFN-realisation) with combinations of properties for intact rock and fractures. Each parameter varies from its lowest values to its highest values while the rest of the parameters are held constant, equal to the mean value. The resulting distribution was expressed as a variation around the value determined with mean values on all parameters. To estimate the resulting distribution of the mechanical properties of the rock mass a Monte-Carlo simulation was performed by generating values from the two distributions independent of each other. The two values were added and the statistical properties of the resulting distribution were determined.

  17. DECOVALEX III III/BENCHPAR PROJECTS. Approaches to Upscaling Thermal-Hydro-Mechanical Processes in a Fractured Rock. Mass and its Significance for Large-Scale Repository Performance Assessment. Summary of Findings. Report of BMT2/WP3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, Johan (comp.) [JA Streamflow AB, Aelvsjoe (Sweden); Staub, Isabelle (comp.) [Golder Associates AB, Stockholm (Sweden); Knight, Les (comp.) [Nirex UK Ltd, Oxon (United Kingdom)


    The Benchmark Test 2 of DECOVALEX III and Work Package 3 of BENCHPAR concerns the upscaling Thermal (T), Hydrological (H) and Mechanical (M) processes in a fractured rock mass and its significance for large-scale repository performance assessment. The work is primarily concerned with the extent to which various thermo-hydro-mechanical couplings in a fractured rock mass adjacent to a repository are significant in terms of solute transport typically calculated in large-scale repository performance assessments. Since the presence of even quite small fractures may control the hydraulic, mechanical and coupled hydromechanical behaviour of the rock mass, a key of the work has been to explore the extent to which these can be upscaled and represented by 'equivalent' continuum properties appropriate PA calculations. From these general aims the BMT was set-up as a numerical study of a large scale reference problem. Analysing this reference problem should: help explore how different means of simplifying the geometrical detail of a site, with its implications on model parameters, ('upscaling') impacts model predictions of relevance to repository performance, explore to what extent the THM-coupling needs to be considered in relation to PA-measures, compare the uncertainties in upscaling (both to uncertainty on how to upscale or uncertainty that arises due to the upscaling processes) and consideration of THM couplings with the inherent uncertainty and spatial variability of the site specific data. Furthermore, it has been an essential component of the work that individual teams not only produce numerical results but are forced to make their own judgements and to provide the proper justification for their conclusions based on their analysis. It should also be understood that conclusions drawn will partly be specific to the problem analysed, in particular as it mainly concerns a 2D application. This means that specific conclusions may have limited applicability

  18. The variation of the mechanical properties of rock on spatial scales from the laboratory to outcrop (United States)

    Gage, J.; Wang, H. F.; Fratta, D.; Maclaughlin, M.; Turner, A. L.; GEOX^TM


    We have installed a dense array of Fiber Bragg Grating (FBG) strain and temperature sensors on the 4100'-level (1250 m) at the site of the former Homestake gold mine in Lead, SD. The sensor installation site is composed of the Precambrian Poorman formation that contains deformed and metamorphosed Precambrian sediments that is anisotropic including a well-developed foliation, quartz veins, and several joint sets. We have installed nine Micron Optics Inc. OS3600 tube gages. Four of these gages are mounted on the surface of the rock mass and attached to rock bolts that extend 2 m into the rock mass. The other five OS3600 sensors are embedded in drill holes into the rock mass. Additionally, we have developed a new method for measuring in situ strain and temperature in intact rock masses. Fiber optically instrumented rock strain and temperature strips (FROSTS) are 2 m-long strips of 304 stainless steel specially designed to measure temperature and both shortening and elongation in an intact rock mass. FROSTS have FBG strain and temperature sensors mounted on them at 30 cm interval and are grouted into a drill hole in a rock mass. In May 2011, we performed an active loading experiment that consisted of using two hydraulic rams to apply over 200 kN of force to the rock mass. Elastic strain was measured with the fiber optic sensor array. A one-dimensional Boussinesq solution calculates a Young's Modulus of 6.25 GPa for the rock mass. The laboratory-determined values for Young's Modulus in the Poorman formation vary between 49.6 and 94.5 GPa. The difference between the laboratory and field values can be attributed to the closing of fractures and microcracks in the rock mass making the rock mass more compliant than the smaller specimens used for the laboratory experiments. The results of the active loading experiment have implications for the up-scaling of rock mechanical properties between the laboratory and field scales.

  19. Latest progress of soft rock mechanics and engineering in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manchao He


    Full Text Available The progress of soft rock mechanics and associated technology in China is basically accompanied by the development of mining engineering and the increasing disasters of large rock deformation during construction of underground engineering. In this regard, Chinese scholars proposed various concepts and classification methods for soft rocks in terms of engineering practices. The large deformation mechanism of engineering soft rocks is to be understood through numerous experiments; and thus a coupled support theory for soft rock roadways is established, followed by the development of a new support material, i.e. the constant resistance and large deformation bolt/anchor with negative Poisson's ratio effect, and associated control technology. Field results show that large deformation problems related to numbers of engineering cases can be well addressed with this new technology, an effective way for similar soft rock deformation control.

  20. Development of a Highly Portable Plate Loading Device and In Situ Modulus Measurements in Weak Rock Masses (United States)

    Kallu, Raj R.; Keffeler, Evan R.; Watters, Robert J.; Warren, Sean N.


    In recent years, underground mines in Nevada are increasingly exploiting in weak mineralized zones at greater depths that are intensely fractured and highly altered. The mechanical behavior of these rock masses ranges between weak rock and very stiff soil. A common limitation for design of underground mining excavations in these types of rock masses is absence of in situ geotechnical data. This limitation is generally overcome by estimating in situ mechanical behavior from empirical relationships so that the continuum-based numerical methods can be used to evaluate ground support designs. Because of the cost, time, and specialized equipment involved, historically in situ tests have not been performed in these underground mines. Predictive rock mass modulus relationships that are currently available in the literature are derived from field testing of predominantly good-quality rock masses. Consequently, there is limited confidence in using these models for rock masses with Rock Mass Ratings less than 45. In order to overcome some of these limitations, a portable plate loading device (PPLD) was designed and fabricated. The PPLD allows one to perform low cost and relatively quick in situ deformability tests to be performed on weak rock masses in underground mines. Test procedures and data reduction methods were developed to limit potential sources of error associated with the PPLD test. A total of fourteen plate loading tests were performed in weak rock masses at two different active underground mines in Nevada, USA. The resulting the test data were compared to eight published empirical rock mass modulus relationships to determine which, if any, of these relationships are sufficiently accurate for estimating modulus in similar geotechnical conditions. Only two of these relationships were found to be sufficient for first-order estimations of in situ modulus.

  1. Optimized Mamdani fuzzy models for predicting the strength of intact rocks and anisotropic rock masses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojtaba Asadi


    Full Text Available Development of accurate and reliable models for predicting the strength of rocks and rock masses is one of the most common interests of geologists, civil and mining engineers and many others. Due to uncertainties in evaluation of effective parameters and also complicated nature of geological materials, it is difficult to estimate the strength precisely using theoretical approaches. On the other hand, intelligent approaches have attracted much attention as novel and effective tools of solving complicated problems in engineering practice over the past decades. In this paper, a new method is proposed for mining descriptive Mamdani fuzzy inference systems to predict the strength of intact rocks and anisotropic rock masses containing well-defined through-going joint. The proposed method initially employs a genetic algorithm (GA to pick important rules from a preliminary rule base produced by grid partitioning and, subsequently, selected rules are given weights using the GA. Moreover, an information criterion is used during the first phase to optimize the models in terms of accuracy and complexity. The proposed hybrid method can be considered as a robust optimization task which produces promising results compared with previous approaches.

  2. Rock Mechanical Properties from Logs Petrophysics : Concepts and Results (United States)

    Gaillot, Philippe; Crawford, Brian; Alramahi, Bashar; Karner, Steve


    The objective of the "geomechanics from logs" (GML) research project is to develop model-driven predictive software for determining rock mechanical properties (specifically rock strength, compressibility and fracability) from other, more easily measured, rock properties (e.g. lithology, porosity, clay volume, velocity) routinely derived from nuclear, resistivity and acoustic logging tools. To this end, geomechanics from logs seeks to increase fundamental understanding of the primary geologic controls on rock mechanical properties and to translate this new insight into novel predictive tools. In detail, GML predictors rely on (i) the generation of relational rock mechanical properties databases incorporating QC'd core-based laboratory measurements (both in-house and high-precision published data); (ii) the use of established rock physics models (e.g. friable sand, contact cement models) to investigate theoretical relationships between geologic processes, reservoir environment, rock microstructure and elastic, bulk and transport petrophysical attributes/properties; (iii) the subdivision of database rocks into generic lithotypes (e.g. sand, shaly sand, sandy shale, shale) with common petrophysical attributes/properties; (iv) the use of multivariate statistics to generate lithotype-dependent empirical predictive relationships between mechanical properties and log-derived petrophysical attributes/properties; (v) the estimation of uncertainties associated with predictive function parameters; (vi) the application and validation of mechanical properties predictive tools to well-documented case studies (e.g. sand strength for perforation stability, rock compressibility for reservoir simulation) to test overall performance and quantify uncertainty in predictions. This paper presents the results of various rock strength, rock compressibility and rock fracability case studies conducted in wells of different stratigraphic age and depositional environment. Overall, GML (i

  3. Correlating P-wave Velocity with the Physico-Mechanical Properties of Different Rocks (United States)

    Khandelwal, Manoj


    In mining and civil engineering projects, physico-mechanical properties of the rock affect both the project design and the construction operation. Determination of various physico-mechanical properties of rocks is expensive and time consuming, and sometimes it is very difficult to get cores to perform direct tests to evaluate the rock mass. The purpose of this work is to investigate the relationships between the different physico-mechanical properties of the various rock types with the P-wave velocity. Measurement of P-wave velocity is relatively cheap, non-destructive and easy to carry out. In this study, representative rock mass samples of igneous, sedimentary, and metamorphic rocks were collected from the different locations of India to obtain an empirical relation between P-wave velocity and uniaxial compressive strength, tensile strength, punch shear, density, slake durability index, Young's modulus, Poisson's ratio, impact strength index and Schmidt hammer rebound number. A very strong correlation was found between the P-wave velocity and different physico-mechanical properties of various rock types with very high coefficients of determination. To check the sensitivity of the empirical equations, Students t test was also performed, which confirmed the validity of the proposed correlations.

  4. Effects of pre-existing discontinuities on the residual strength of rock mass - Insight from a discrete element method simulation (United States)

    Gao, F. Q.; Kang, H. P.


    When rock failure is unavoidable, the designer of engineering structures must know and account for the residual strength of the rock mass. This is particularly relevant in underground coal mine openings. Pre-existing discontinuities play an important role in the mechanical behavior of rock masses and thus it is important to understand the effects of such pre-existing discontinuities on the residual strength. For this purpose, the present study demonstrates a numerical analysis using a discrete element method simulation. The numerical results indicate that fracture intensity has no significant influence on the residual strength of jointed rock masses, independent of confining conditions. As confining pressures increase, both peak and residual strengths increase, with residual strength increasing at a faster rate. The finding was further demonstrated by analyzing documented laboratory compressive test data from a variety of rocks along with field data from coal pillars. A comprehensive interpretation of the finding was conducted using a cohesion-weakening-friction-strengthening (CWFS) model. The effect of rock bolts on rock mass strength was also evaluated by using a discrete element method model which suggested that rock bolts can significantly increases residual strength but have limited effect on increasing the peak strength of rock masses.

  5. Rock mass characterization for tunnels in the Copenhagen limestone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foged, Niels Nielsen; Jakobsen, Lisa; Jackson, Peter


    Tunnels in Copenhagen are drilled through highly anisotropic limestone comprising alternating strongly lithified and less lithified parts. The mass quality of the limestone is usually defined from fracture spacing registered in core samples. The deposit is, however, affected destructively...... by drilling activity yielding a low Rock Quality Designation RQD. In-situ observations of the limestone in excavations or televiewer logs reveal only few natural discontinuities compared to core logging, indicating a very good suitability for tunneling....


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. A. Magomedov


    Full Text Available Abstract. A new method of determining the stress-strain state of the rocks without dropping its individual parts on the basis of combination of observations of the dynamics of piezometric level in special hydrogeological wells of pre-planned network and by the change in the diameter of wells measured by photo elastic sensors is proposed.With the beginning of the formation of the stress-strain state of the geological environment, the chaotic structure of hydro-geodynamic field(HGD-field goes into the abnormal condition of a certain form, in accordance with the geometric shape and sizes of the geological structure. Closed lines of equal abnormal values of piezometric levels form geometric circular structures in the Central parts of which are observed their most anomalous values corresponding to the greatest extent of stressstrain state of rock massif. Within abnormal (disturbed HGD-field is carried out the measurement of the diameters of the wells, fixed by photoelastic sensors which clarify the concrete stress-strain plot (voltages source of the rock massif. Well drilled for measuring by photoelastic sensors of changes in their diameters, are arranged in the rock massif in a staggered manner, and the special hydrogeological well, drilled up to an isolated water system for the registration of anomalous (perturbed HGD-field are locatedin two mutually perpendicular profiles, taking into account the geometric shape of the monitored rock mass. The combination of observations according to a pre-planned network of piezometers and wells with photoelastic sensors will allow to get a more accurate picture of the stress-strain state of the investigated deposits of rock without pass of its separate parts. 

  7. Layout Optimization for the Repository within a discontinuous and saturated granitic rock mass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jhin Wung; Choi, Jong Won; Bae, Dae Seok


    The objective of the present study is a layout optimization of a single and double layer repositories within a repository site with special joint set arrangements. Single and double layer repository models, subjected to the variation of repository depth, cavern spacing, pitch, and layer spacing, are analyzed for the thermal, hydraulic, and mechanical interaction behavior during the period of 2000 years from waste emplacement. Material properties used for the granitic rock mass, rock joints, PWR spent fuel, disposal canister, compacted bentonite, backfill material, and groundwater are the data collected domestically, and foreign data are used for some of the data not available domestically. The repository model includes a saturated granitic rock mass with joints, PWR spent fuel in a disposal canister surrounded by compacted bentonite inside a deposition hole, and backfill material in the rest of the space within a repository cavern.

  8. Forensic Excavation of Rock Masses: A Technique to Investigate Discontinuity Persistence (United States)

    Shang, J.; Hencher, S. R.; West, L. J.; Handley, K.


    True persistence of rock discontinuities (areas with insignificant tensile strength) is an important factor controlling the engineering behaviour of fractured rock masses, but is extremely difficult to quantify using current geological survey methodologies, even where there is good rock exposure. Trace length as measured in the field or using remote measurement devices is actually only broadly indicative of persistence for rock engineering practice and numerical modelling. Visible traces of discontinuities are treated as if they were open fractures within rock mass classifications, despite many such traces being non-persistent and actually retaining considerable strength. The common assumption of 100% persistence, based on trace length, is generally extremely conservative in terms of strength and stiffness, but not always so and may lead to a wrong prediction of failure mechanism or of excavatability. Assuming full persistence would give hopelessly incorrect predictions of hydraulic conductivity. A new technique termed forensic excavation of rock masses is introduced, as a procedure for directly investigating discontinuity persistence. This technique involves non-explosive excavation of rock masses by injecting an expansive chemical splitter along incipient discontinuities. On expansion, the splitter causes the incipient traces to open as true joints. Experiments are described in which near-planar rock discontinuities, through siltstone and sandstone, were opened up by injecting the splitter into holes drilled along the lines of visible traces of the discontinuities in the laboratory and in the field. Once exposed the surfaces were examined to investigate the pre-existing persistence characteristics of the incipient discontinuities. One conclusion from this study is that visible trace length of a discontinuity can be a poor indicator of true persistence (defined for a fracture area with negligible tensile strength). An observation from this series of experiments

  9. A Copula-Based Method for Estimating Shear Strength Parameters of Rock Mass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Da Huang


    Full Text Available The shear strength parameters (i.e., the internal friction coefficient f and cohesion c are very important in rock engineering, especially for the stability analysis and reinforcement design of slopes and underground caverns. In this paper, a probabilistic method, Copula-based method, is proposed for estimating the shear strength parameters of rock mass. The optimal Copula functions between rock mass quality Q and f, Q and c for the marbles are established based on the correlation analyses of the results of 12 sets of in situ tests in the exploration adits of Jinping I-Stage Hydropower Station. Although the Copula functions are derived from the in situ tests for the marbles, they can be extended to be applied to other types of rock mass with similar geological and mechanical properties. For another 9 sets of in situ tests as an extensional application, by comparison with the results from Hoek-Brown criterion, the estimated values of f and c from the Copula-based method achieve better accuracy. Therefore, the proposed Copula-based method is an effective tool in estimating rock strength parameters.

  10. Towards semi-automatic rock mass discontinuity orientation and set analysis from 3D point clouds (United States)

    Guo, Jiateng; Liu, Shanjun; Zhang, Peina; Wu, Lixin; Zhou, Wenhui; Yu, Yinan


    Obtaining accurate information on rock mass discontinuities for deformation analysis and the evaluation of rock mass stability is important. Obtaining measurements for high and steep zones with the traditional compass method is difficult. Photogrammetry, three-dimensional (3D) laser scanning and other remote sensing methods have gradually become mainstream methods. In this study, a method that is based on a 3D point cloud is proposed to semi-automatically extract rock mass structural plane information. The original data are pre-treated prior to segmentation by removing outlier points. The next step is to segment the point cloud into different point subsets. Various parameters, such as the normal, dip/direction and dip, can be calculated for each point subset after obtaining the equation of the best fit plane for the relevant point subset. A cluster analysis (a point subset that satisfies some conditions and thus forms a cluster) is performed based on the normal vectors by introducing the firefly algorithm (FA) and the fuzzy c-means (FCM) algorithm. Finally, clusters that belong to the same discontinuity sets are merged and coloured for visualization purposes. A prototype system is developed based on this method to extract the points of the rock discontinuity from a 3D point cloud. A comparison with existing software shows that this method is feasible. This method can provide a reference for rock mechanics, 3D geological modelling and other related fields.

  11. A coupled DEM-DFN approach to rock mass strength characterization (United States)

    Harthong, Barthelemy; Scholtes, Luc; Donze, Frederic


    An enhanced version of the discrete element method (DEM) has been specifically developed for the analysis of fractured rock masses [Scholtes L, Donze F, 2012]. In addition to the discrete representation of the intact medium which enables the description of the localized stress-induced damage caused by heterogeneities inherent to rocks, structural defects can be explicitly taken into account in the modeling to represent pre-existing fractures or discontinuities of size typically larger than the discrete element size. From laboratory scale simulations to slope stability case studies, the capability of this approach to simulate the progressive failure mechanisms occurring in jointed rock are presented is assessed on the basis of referenced experiments and in situ observations. For instance, the challenging wing crack extension, typical of brittle material fracturing, can be successfully reproduced under both compressive and shear loading path, as a result of the progressive coalescence of micro-cracks induced by stress concentration at the tips of pre-existing fractures. In this study, the dedicated DEM is coupled to a discrete fracture network (DFN) model to assess the influence of DFN properties on the mechanical behavior of fractured rock masses where progressive failure can occur. The DFN model assumes the distribution of fractures barycentres to be fractal and the distribution of fracture sizes to follow a power-law distribution [Davy P, Le Goc P, Darcel C, Bour O, de Dreuzy JR, Munier R, 2010]. The proposed DEM/DFN model is used to characterize the influence of clustering and size distribution of pre-existing fractures on the strength of fractured rock masses. The results show that the mechanical behaviour of fractured rock masses is mainly dependent on the fracture intensity. However, for a given fracture intensity, the strength can exhibit a 50 per cent variability depending on the size distribution of the pre-existing fractures. This difference can be

  12. Creep in jointed rock masses. State of knowledge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glamheden, Rune (Golder Associates AB (Sweden)); Hoekmark, Harald (Clay Technology AB, Lund (Sweden))


    To describe creep behaviour in hard rock masses in a physically realistic way, elaborate models including various combinations of dash pots, spring elements and sliders would be needed. According to our knowledge, there are at present no numerical tools available that can handle such a creep model. In addition, there are no records over sufficient long time periods of tunnel convergence in crystalline rock that could be used to determine or calibrate values for the model parameters. A possible method to perform bounding estimates of creep movements around openings in a repository may be to use distinct element codes with standard built-in elasto-plastic models. By locally reducing the fracture shear strength near the underground openings a relaxation of fracture shear loads is reached. The accumulated displacements may then represent the maximum possible effects of creep that can take place in a jointed rock mass without reference to the actual time it takes to reach the displacements. Estimates based on results from analyses where all shear stresses are allowed to disappear completely will, however, be over-conservative. To be able to set up and analyse reasonably realistic numerical models with the proposed method, further assumptions regarding the creep movements and the creep region around the opening have to be made. The purpose of this report is to present support for such assumptions as found in the literature.

  13. A New Assessment Method for Structural-Control Failure Mechanisms in Rock Slopes — Case Examples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Arnhardt


    Full Text Available Mass movement processes of bedrock slopes are highly dependent on the orientations of structural discontinuities within the rock mass. The associated hazards are typically defined by the orientation of structures and associated mechanisms of slope failure such as planar sliding, wedge sliding and toppling. A typical rock mass with multiple weak surfaces, or discontinuities, may form a consistent pattern over a range of spatial scale. The type of hazard resulting from the pattern of discontinuities will vary according to the angle and direction of the slope face. Assessing the risk of rock slope instability involves understanding of the complex three-dimensional structural features of the rock mass. Recent developments in stereographic methods show advantages are gained by representing wedges by linking great circles rather than showing the intersection line on the stereograph. We applied these methods to three rock slopes where active mass movement has occurred. The case studies include a large rock slide-debris avalanche in the Philippines, coastal cliffs in Australia and mining excavation slopes in Ghana, West Africa.

  14. Rock Mechanics Forsmark. Site descriptive modelling Forsmark stage 2.2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glamheden, Rune; Fredriksson, Anders (Golder Associates AB (SE)); Roeshoff, Kennert; Karlsson, Johan (Berg Bygg Konsult AB (SE)); Hakami, Hossein (Itasca Geomekanik AB (SE)); Christiansson, Rolf (Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co., Stockholm (SE))


    The Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company (SKB) is undertaking site characterisation at two different locations, Forsmark and Laxemar/Simpevarp, with the objective of siting a geological repository for spent nuclear fuel. The characterisation of a site is an integrated work carried out by several disciplines including geology, rock mechanics, thermal properties, hydrogeology, hydrogeochemistry and surface systems. This report presents the rock mechanics model of the Forsmark site up to stage 2.2. The scope of work has included compilation and analysis of primary data of intact rock and fractures, estimation of the rock mass mechanical properties and estimation of the in situ state of stress at the Forsmark site. The laboratory results on intact rock and fractures in the target volume demonstrate a good quality rock mass that is strong, stiff and relatively homogeneous. The homogeneity is also supported by the lithological and the hydrogeological models. The properties of the rock mass have been initially estimated by two separate modelling approaches, one empirical and one theoretical. An overall final estimate of the rock mass properties were achieved by integrating the results from the two models via a process termed 'Harmonization'. Both the tensile tests, carried out perpendicular and parallel to the foliation, and the theoretical analyses of the rock mass properties in directions parallel and perpendicular to the major principal stress, result in parameter values almost independent of direction. This indicates that the rock mass in the target volume is isotropic. The rock mass quality in the target volume appears to be of high and uniform quality. Those portions with reduced rock mass quality that do exist are mainly related to sections with increased fracture frequency. Such sections are associated with deformation zones according to the geological description. The results of adjacent rock domains and fracture domains of the target

  15. Correlation of the Rock Mass Rating (RMR) System with the Unified Soil Classification System (USCS): Introduction of the Weak Rock Mass Rating System (W-RMR) (United States)

    Warren, Sean N.; Kallu, Raj R.; Barnard, Chase K.


    Underground gold mines in Nevada are exploiting increasingly deeper ore bodies comprised of weak to very weak rock masses. The Rock Mass Rating (RMR) classification system is widely used at underground gold mines in Nevada and is applicable in fair to good-quality rock masses, but is difficult to apply and loses reliability in very weak rock mass to soil-like material. Because very weak rock masses are transition materials that border engineering rock mass and soil classification systems, soil classification may sometimes be easier and more appropriate to provide insight into material behavior and properties. The Unified Soil Classification System (USCS) is the most likely choice for the classification of very weak rock mass to soil-like material because of its accepted use in tunnel engineering projects and its ability to predict soil-like material behavior underground. A correlation between the RMR and USCS systems was developed by comparing underground geotechnical RMR mapping to laboratory testing of bulk samples from the same locations, thereby assigning a numeric RMR value to the USCS classification that can be used in spreadsheet calculations and geostatistical analyses. The geotechnical classification system presented in this paper including a USCS-RMR correlation, RMR rating equations, and the Geo-Pick Strike Index is collectively introduced as the Weak Rock Mass Rating System (W-RMR). It is the authors' hope that this system will aid in the classification of weak rock masses and more usable design tools based on the RMR system. More broadly, the RMR-USCS correlation and the W-RMR system help define the transition between engineering soil and rock mass classification systems and may provide insight for geotechnical design in very weak rock masses.

  16. Failure mechanism and coupled static-dynamic loading theory in deep hard rock mining: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xibing Li


    Full Text Available Rock failure phenomena, such as rockburst, slabbing (or spalling and zonal disintegration, related to deep underground excavation of hard rocks are frequently reported and pose a great threat to deep mining. Currently, the explanation for these failure phenomena using existing dynamic or static rock mechanics theory is not straightforward. In this study, new theory and testing method for deep underground rock mass under coupled static-dynamic loading are introduced. Two types of coupled loading modes, i.e. “critical static stress + slight disturbance” and “elastic static stress + impact disturbance”, are proposed, and associated test devices are developed. Rockburst phenomena of hard rocks under coupled static-dynamic loading are successfully reproduced in the laboratory, and the rockburst mechanism and related criteria are demonstrated. The results of true triaxial unloading compression tests on granite and red sandstone indicate that the unloading can induce slabbing when the confining pressure exceeds a certain threshold, and the slabbing failure strength is lower than the shear failure strength according to the conventional Mohr-Column criterion. Numerical results indicate that the rock unloading failure response under different in situ stresses and unloading rates can be characterized by an equivalent strain energy density. In addition, we present a new microseismic source location method without premeasuring the sound wave velocity in rock mass, which can efficiently and accurately locate the rock failure in hard rock mines. Also, a new idea for deep hard rock mining using a non-explosive continuous mining method is briefly introduced.

  17. Thermo-hydro-mechanics of fractured rock mass in nuclear waste studies. The measurement of electrical conductivity during the thermo-hydro-mechanical experiment; Rakoilleen kallion termo-hydromekaniikkaa ydinjaetetutkimuksia varten. Termo-hydro-mekaaniseen kokeeseen liittyvae saehkoenjohtavuusmittaus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mursu, J.; Peltoniemi, M. [Helsinki Univ. of Technology, Espoo (Finland). Lab. of Engineering Geology and Geophysics


    The report reviews and summarizes the present state-of-the-art knowledge about electrical conductivity measurements of rock samples in high-temperature, high-pressure conditions. The special requirements for these measurements have been studied in terms of sample preparation, instrumentation, and experimental procedures. Possibilities to utilize a MTS System 815 testing unit, currently available at the Helsinki University of Technology, for these measurements have been studied. (17 refs.).

  18. Towards a thermo-mechanical model of permafrost-related rock wall instabilities at high risk sites in Norway. (United States)

    Jacobs, Benjamin; Krautblatter, Michael; Myhra, Kristin S.; Etzelmüller, Bernd


    We present first result of a thermo-mechanical model for two designated high risk sites in Norway: Mannen (Møre og Romsdal) and Gamanjunni (Troms). The classification of high risk sites in Norway is based on the combination of a high hazard score and serious anticipated consequences. We hypothesize that historic, recent and potential massive rock slope failures in deeply incised fjords and valleys are linked not only to glacial debuttressing but also to high altitude permafrost degradation. An increase in rockwall temperature is proven to have a significant effect on rock mass parameters, such as uniaxial compressive strength, tensile strenght, angle of repose and cohesion, which directly control rock wall stability. In this study, critical rock mass parameters will be derived from temperature-controlled rock mechanical testing and are subsequently fed into a mechanical model (RS2/UDEC). Since the test sites are fully instrumented and monitored, current movement rates can be used to calibrate the mechanical model. To account for stability changes related to degrading permafrost a recent model of the thermal rock wall regime throughout the late Pleistocene and Holocene is utilized to derive the extend of high altitude permafrost at the test sites. The aim is to combine regional time slices of the thermal model with a multi stage rock-ice mechanical model to (i) simulate the current state of rock wall stability and (ii) gain mechanical insight into spatio-temporal dynamics of rock slope failures after deglaciation in Scandinavia.

  19. Rock mechanics related to Jurassic underburden at Valdemar oil field

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foged, Niels


    .It has been initiated as a feasibility study of the North Jens-1 core 12 taken in the top Jurassic clay shale as a test specimens for integrated petrological, mineralogical and rock mechanical studies. Following topics are studied:(1) Pore pressure generation due to conversion of organic matter...... and deformation properties of the clay shale using the actual core material or outcrop equivalents.(3) Flushing mechanisms for oil and gas from source rocks due to possibly very high pore water pressure creating unstable conditions in deeply burried sedimentsThere seems to be a need for integrating the knowledge...... in a number of geosciences to the benefit of common understanding of important reservoir mechanisms. Rock mechanics and geotechnical modelling might be key points for this understanding of reservoir geology and these may constitute a platform for future research in the maturing and migration from the Jurassic...

  20. Mechanisms for fast flow in unsaturated fractured rock

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tokunaga, Tetsu K.; Wan, Jiamin


    Although fractures in rock are well-recognized as pathways for fast percolation of water, the possibility that fast flow could occur along unsaturated fracture pathways is commonly not considered in vadose zone hydrology. In this study, two mechanisms for fast flow along unsaturated fractures were investigated, film flow and surface zone flow. The importance of fracture surface roughness was demonstrated through experiments conducted on ceramic blocks having simple surface topographies. Those experiments showed that film flow on fracture surfaces is largely due to flow along continuous surface channels which become water-filled at near-zero matric (capillary) potentials. The second mechanism, surface zone flow, is important when the permeability of the rock along fractures (fracture skin) is significantly greater than that of the bulk rock matrix. Surface zone fast flow was demonstrated through water imbibition (sorptivity) experiments. These mechanisms help explain observations of rapid solute transport in unsaturated subsurface environments.

  1. Application of rock mechanics to cut-and-fill mining. Volume 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    The conference on application of rock mechanics to cut-and-fill mining was held June 1-3, 1980, at the University of Luleaa, Sweden. The papers in this volume deal almost entirely with the Naesliden project in Sweden. Stress measurements were made on the rock mass before and during mining and complex computer codes using the finite element method developed to calculate the strains and their changes as mining developed. Major problems involved the effects of joints and the mechanical properties of the hydraulic backfill and in corporating these items in the calculations. Most papers were entered individually into EDB. (LTN)

  2. A Genetic Algorithm for Locating the Multiscale Critical Slip Surface in Jointed Rock Mass Slopes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiang Xu


    Full Text Available The joints have great influence on the strength of jointed rock mass and lead to the multiscale, nonhomogeneous, and anisotropic characteristics. In order to consider these effects, a new model based on a genetic algorithm is proposed for locating the critical slip surface (CSS in jointed rock mass slope (JRMS from its stress field. A finite element method (FEM was employed to analyze the stress field. A method of calculating the mechanical persistence ratio (MPR was used. The calculated multiscale and anisotropic characteristics of the MPR were used in the fitness function of genetic algorithm (GA to calculate the factor of safety. The GA was used to solve optimization problems of JRMS stability. Some numerical examples were given. The results show that the multiscale and anisotropic characteristics of the MPR played an important role in locating the CSS in JRMS. The proposed model calculated the CSS and the factor of safety of the slope with satisfactory precision.

  3. Beyond debuttressing: Mechanics of paraglacial rock slope damage during repeat glacial cycles (United States)

    Grämiger, Lorenz M.; Moore, Jeffrey R.; Gischig, Valentin S.; Ivy-Ochs, Susan; Loew, Simon


    Cycles of glaciation impose mechanical stresses on underlying bedrock as glaciers advance, erode, and retreat. Fracture initiation and propagation constitute rock mass damage and act as preparatory factors for slope failures; however, the mechanics of paraglacial rock slope damage remain poorly characterized. Using conceptual numerical models closely based on the Aletsch Glacier region of Switzerland, we explore how in situ stress changes associated with fluctuating ice thickness can drive progressive rock mass failure preparing future slope instabilities. Our simulations reveal that glacial cycles as purely mechanical loading and unloading phenomena produce relatively limited new damage. However, ice fluctuations can increase the criticality of fractures in adjacent slopes, which may in turn increase the efficacy of fatigue processes. Bedrock erosion during glaciation promotes significant new damage during first deglaciation. An already weakened rock slope is more susceptible to damage from glacier loading and unloading and may fail completely. We find that damage kinematics are controlled by discontinuity geometry and the relative position of the glacier; ice advance and retreat both generate damage. We correlate model results with mapped landslides around the Great Aletsch Glacier. Our result that most damage occurs during first deglaciation agrees with the relative age of the majority of identified landslides. The kinematics and dimensions of a slope failure produced in our models are also in good agreement with characteristics of instabilities observed in the field. Our results extend simplified assumptions of glacial debuttressing, demonstrating in detail how cycles of ice loading, erosion, and unloading drive paraglacial rock slope damage.

  4. Integrating rock mechanics issues with repository design through design process principles and methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bieniawski, Z.T. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States)


    A good designer needs not only knowledge for designing (technical know-how that is used to generate alternative design solutions) but also must have knowledge about designing (appropriate principles and systematic methodology to follow). Concepts such as {open_quotes}design for manufacture{close_quotes} or {open_quotes}concurrent engineering{close_quotes} are widely used in the industry. In the field of rock engineering, only limited attention has been paid to the design process because design of structures in rock masses presents unique challenges to the designers as a result of the uncertainties inherent in characterization of geologic media. However, a stage has now been reached where we are be able to sufficiently characterize rock masses for engineering purposes and identify the rock mechanics issues involved but are still lacking engineering design principles and methodology to maximize our design performance. This paper discusses the principles and methodology of the engineering design process directed to integrating site characterization activities with design, construction and performance of an underground repository. Using the latest information from the Yucca Mountain Project on geology, rock mechanics and starter tunnel design, the current lack of integration is pointed out and it is shown how rock mechanics issues can be effectively interwoven with repository design through a systematic design process methodology leading to improved repository performance. In essence, the design process is seen as the use of design principles within an integrating design methodology, leading to innovative problem solving. In particular, a new concept of {open_quotes}Design for Constructibility and Performance{close_quotes} is introduced. This is discussed with respect to ten rock mechanics issues identified for repository design and performance.

  5. Failure Mechanism of Rock Bridge Based on Acoustic Emission Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guoqing Chen


    Full Text Available Acoustic emission (AE technique is widely used in various fields as a reliable nondestructive examination technology. Two experimental tests were carried out in a rock mechanics laboratory, which include (1 small scale direct shear tests of rock bridge with different lengths and (2 large scale landslide model with locked section. The relationship of AE event count and record time was analyzed during the tests. The AE source location technology and comparative analysis with its actual failure model were done. It can be found that whether it is small scale test or large scale landslide model test, AE technique accurately located the AE source point, which reflected the failure generation and expansion of internal cracks in rock samples. Large scale landslide model with locked section test showed that rock bridge in rocky slope has typical brittle failure behavior. The two tests based on AE technique well revealed the rock failure mechanism in rocky slope and clarified the cause of high speed and long distance sliding of rocky slope.

  6. Flexible parallel implicit modelling of coupled thermal-hydraulic-mechanical processes in fractured rocks (United States)

    Cacace, Mauro; Jacquey, Antoine B.


    Theory and numerical implementation describing groundwater flow and the transport of heat and solute mass in fully saturated fractured rocks with elasto-plastic mechanical feedbacks are developed. In our formulation, fractures are considered as being of lower dimension than the hosting deformable porous rock and we consider their hydraulic and mechanical apertures as scaling parameters to ensure continuous exchange of fluid mass and energy within the fracture-solid matrix system. The coupled system of equations is implemented in a new simulator code that makes use of a Galerkin finite-element technique. The code builds on a flexible, object-oriented numerical framework (MOOSE, Multiphysics Object Oriented Simulation Environment) which provides an extensive scalable parallel and implicit coupling to solve for the multiphysics problem. The governing equations of groundwater flow, heat and mass transport, and rock deformation are solved in a weak sense (either by classical Newton-Raphson or by free Jacobian inexact Newton-Krylow schemes) on an underlying unstructured mesh. Nonlinear feedbacks among the active processes are enforced by considering evolving fluid and rock properties depending on the thermo-hydro-mechanical state of the system and the local structure, i.e. degree of connectivity, of the fracture system. A suite of applications is presented to illustrate the flexibility and capability of the new simulator to address problems of increasing complexity and occurring at different spatial (from centimetres to tens of kilometres) and temporal scales (from minutes to hundreds of years).

  7. A new method to test rock abrasiveness based on physico-mechanical and structural properties of rocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.N. Oparin


    Full Text Available A new method to test rock abrasiveness is proposed based upon the dependence of rock abrasiveness on their structural and physico-mechanical properties. The article describes the procedure of presentation of properties that govern rock abrasiveness on a canonical scale by dimensionless components, and the integrated estimation of the properties by a generalized index. The obtained results are compared with the known classifications of rock abrasiveness.

  8. Stand up time in tunnel base on rock mass rating Bieniawski 1989 (United States)

    Nata, Refky Adi; M. S., Murad


    RMR (Rock Mass Rating), or also known as the geo mechanics classification has been modified and made as the International Standard in determination of rock mass weighting. Rock Mass Rating Classification has been developed by Bieniawski (since 1973, 1976, and 1989). The goals of this research are investigate the class of rocks base on classification rock mass rating Bieniawski 1989, to investigate the long mass of the establishment rocks, and also to investigate the distance of the opening tunnel without a support especially in underground mine. On the research measuring: strength intact rock material, RQD (Rock Quality Designation), spacing of discontinuities, condition of discontinuities, groundwater, and also adjustment for discontinuity orientations. On testing samples in the laboratory for coal obtained strong press UCS of 30.583 MPa. Based on the classification according to Bieniawski has a weight of 4. As for silt stone obtained strong press of 35.749 MPa, gained weight also by 4. From the results of the measurements obtained for coal RQD value average 97.38 %, so it has a weight of 20. While in siltstone RQD value average 90.10 % so it has weight 20 also. On the coal the average distance measured in field is 22.6 cm so as to obtain a weight of 10, while for siltstone has an average is 148 cm, so it has weight = 15. Presistence in the field vary, on coal = 57.28 cm, so it has weight is 6 and persistence on siltstone 47 cm then does it weight to 6. Base on table Rock Mass Rating according to Bieniawski 1989, aperture on coal = 0.41 mm. That is located in the range 0.1-1 mm, so it has weight is 4. Besides that, for the siltstone aperture = 21.43 mm. That is located in the range > 5 mm, so the weight = 0. Roughness condition in coal and siltstone classified into rough so it has weight 5. Infilling condition in coal and siltstone classified into none so it has weight 6. Weathering condition in coal and siltstone classified into highly weathered so it has weight

  9. An Index for Estimating the Stability of Brittle Surrounding Rock Mass: FAI and its Engineering Application (United States)

    Zhang, C. Q.; Zhou, H.; Feng, X. T.


    Based on the geometric analysis of the relationship between the stress state at a point and the yield surface defined in the principal stress space, a coefficient ω is set up as an estimation index to describe the stress-induced yield risk. After yield, the equivalent plastic shear strains is usually used to characterize the failure degree (FD) of the material and adopted here as an index of the damage degree for the surrounding rock masses. Then, a unified variable combining ω and FD, named failure approaching index (FAI), is constructed to estimate the stability of rock mass which may be at different deformation stages. The formulas of FAI are derived for some popular yield criteria in geomechanics. Details for such development are addressed in the paper. Its rationality is verified by numerical simulation and comparative analysis of the conventional triaxial compression tests and typical tunnel projects. In addition, the method for applying FAI to the stability estimation of surrounding rock mass is proposed. As examples, the stability of the underground powerhouse, access tunnels and headrace tunnels at the Jinping II hydropower station are estimated by making use of the method we presented. The results indicate that not only is the index rational in mechanics, but the theory also has good expansibility, and the estimation methods are simple and practical as well. It is easier for field engineers to analyze and understand the numerical results.

  10. A Coupled Thermo-Hydro-Mechanical Model of Jointed Hard Rock for Compressed Air Energy Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoying Zhuang


    Full Text Available Renewable energy resources such as wind and solar are intermittent, which causes instability when being connected to utility grid of electricity. Compressed air energy storage (CAES provides an economic and technical viable solution to this problem by utilizing subsurface rock cavern to store the electricity generated by renewable energy in the form of compressed air. Though CAES has been used for over three decades, it is only restricted to salt rock or aquifers for air tightness reason. In this paper, the technical feasibility of utilizing hard rock for CAES is investigated by using a coupled thermo-hydro-mechanical (THM modelling of nonisothermal gas flow. Governing equations are derived from the rules of energy balance, mass balance, and static equilibrium. Cyclic volumetric mass source and heat source models are applied to simulate the gas injection and production. Evaluation is carried out for intact rock and rock with discrete crack, respectively. In both cases, the heat and pressure losses using air mass control and supplementary air injection are compared.

  11. Shear Creep Simulation of Structural Plane of Rock Mass Based on Discontinuous Deformation Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guoxin Zhang


    Full Text Available Numerical simulations of the creep characteristics of the structural plane of rock mass are very useful. However, most existing simulation methods are based on continuum mechanics and hence are unsuitable in the case of large displacements and deformations. The discontinuous deformation analysis method proposed by Genhua is a discrete one and has a significant advantage when simulating the contacting problem of blocks. In this study, we combined the viscoelastic rheological model of Burgers with the discontinuous deformation analysis (DDA method. We also derived the recurrence formula for the creep deformation increment with the time step during numerical simulations. Based on the minimum potential energy principle, the general equilibrium equation was derived, and the shear creep deformation in the structural plane was considered. A numerical program was also developed and its effectiveness was confirmed based on the curves obtained by the creep test of the structural plane of a rock mass under different stress levels. Finally, the program was used to analyze the mechanism responsible for the creep features of the structural plane in the case of the toppling deformation of the rock slope. The results showed that the extended DDA method is an effective one.

  12. A probabilistic approach to rock mechanical property characterization for nuclear waste repository design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Kunsoo; Gao, Hang [Columbia Univ., New York, NY (United States)


    A probabilistic approach is proposed for the characterization of host rock mechanical properties at the Yucca Mountain site. This approach helps define the probability distribution of rock properties by utilizing extreme value statistics and Monte Carlo simulation. We analyze mechanical property data of tuff obtained by the NNWSI Project to assess the utility of the methodology. The analysis indicates that laboratory measured strength and deformation data of Calico Hills and Bullfrog tuffs follow an extremal. probability distribution (the third type asymptotic distribution of the smallest values). Monte Carlo simulation is carried out to estimate rock mass deformation moduli using a one-dimensional tuff model proposed by Zimmermann and Finley. We suggest that the results of these analyses be incorporated into the repository design.

  13. Application of rock mechanics to cut-and-fill mining. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    The conference on application of rock mechanics to cut-and-fill mining was held June 1-3, 1980, at the University of Luleaa, Sweden. The conference began with reviews of the application of rock mechanics to mining and back filling in Australia, Canada and the USA. More particular papers involved mines in Sweden, Italy, Australia (pre reinforcement of walls with steel cables cemented in) and at the Con Mine in Canada. Two papers involved backfill material and specifications. Eight papers involved the use of the mathematical models for calculating the stresses developed in the rock mass by computer calculations and therefore, the probable stability. Such calculations are particularly necessary in deep mines. Papers of general interest were entered individually into EDB. (LTN)

  14. Modulus Ratio and Joint Factor Concepts to Predict Rock Mass Response (United States)

    Ramamurthy, T.; Latha, G. Madhavi; Sitharam, T. G.


    The commonly adopted rock mass classifications, namely RMR, Q and GSI, are used to estimate compressive strength and modulus of rock masses. These values have been examined as per modulus ratio concept, M rj , for their reliability. The design parameters adopted in some of the recent case studies based on these classifications indicate that the M rj values for rock masses are higher than those of the corresponding intact rocks. The joint factor, J f, which is defined as a weakness coefficient in rock mass suggests that modulus ratio of rock mass ( M rj ) has to be less than the modulus ratio of the corresponding intact rock ( M ri ), on the basis of extensive experimental evidence. With joint factor, compressive strength, elastic modulus, cohesion and friction angle were estimated and applied in the analyses of a few cases. The predictions of deformations with this approach agreed well with the field measurements by adapting equivalent continuum approach. The modulus ratio concept is considered to present a unified classification for intact rocks and rock masses. Soil-rock boundary, standup time in under ground excavations and also penetration rate of TBM estimates have been linked to M rj .

  15. Evaluation of the Integrity of Deep Rock Masses Using Results of Digital Borehole Televiewers (United States)

    Guo, Hao-Sen; Feng, Xia-Ting; Li, Shao-Jun; Yang, Cheng-Xiang; Yao, Zhi-Bin


    Rock mass integrity is regarded as an important index to evaluate rock mass quality. Core drilling technology is one of the effective methods used for this. To overcome the problem of core discing and core breakage from the drilling process, a new evaluation method was proposed: a rock mass integrity index (RMIBT) based on high-definition digital borehole televiewer data. The RMIBT values were obtained by measuring the mass proportions of the length of the rock mass without macroscopic fractures on the borehole wall. Their scoring criteria were determined based on rock quality designation. It was applied in multiple deep rock excavations and therefore proved to be useful, especially where core discing occurs, in specific spatial distributions of structural planes, as well as logging errors from core breakages induced by drilling. In addition, the RMIBT can be used to assess dynamically the integrity of macroscopic rock masses and the evolution of fractures in the excavation damaged zone, thus providing a basis for the evaluation of rock masses in deep rock excavations.

  16. Mechanical changes in thawing permafrost rocks and their influence on rock stability at the Zugspitze summit, Germany - a research concept (United States)

    Mamot, Philipp; Scandroglio, Riccardo; Krautblatter, Michael


    During the last century, alpine permafrost warmed up by 0.5 to 0.8 °C in the upper decameters. Its degradation can influence the stability of rock slopes in alpine environments. An increasing number of rockfalls and rockslides of all magnitudes are reported to originate from permafrost-affected rock faces which reveal massive ice at their detachment scarps after failure. Discontinuity patterns and their mechanical properties present a key control of rock slope stability. These fractures are considered to experience considerable mechanical changes during transition from frozen to unfrozen state: the shear resistance of rocks is reduced in terms of decreased critical fracture toughness of intact rock bridges and shear strength; compressive strength and tensile strength of the intact rock are reduced in the same way. The impact of rising rock temperature on rock-mechanical properties which control early stages of destabilization remains poorly understood. In this study we combine rock-mechanical testing in the laboratory with geotechnical, kinematic and geophysical monitoring at the Zugspitze summit, Germany, to investigate the influence of thawing rock on its rock-mechanical properties focusing on mechanisms of destabilization along discontinuities. Our investigations will contribute to a better rock-ice-mechanical process understanding of degrading permafrost rocks. To assess stability conditions at the Zugspitze summit we conduct field work at an unstable area of about 104 m3 of rock at the crest at 2885 m a.s.l. that is affected by degrading permafrost. This is indicated by a persistent ice filled cave with direct contact to the area of instability. Our preliminary work consists of i) continuous and discontinuous fracture displacement measurements since 2009 which reveal deformation rates of 0.06 to 1.7 cm/year, ii) electrical resistivity (ERT) and seismic refraction tomography (SRT) in the August of 2014 and iii) uniaxial compressive strength and tensile

  17. Evaluation of rock mass classification schemes: a case study from the Bowen Basin, Australia (United States)

    Brook, Martin; Hebblewhite, Bruce; Mitra, Rudrajit


    The development of an accurate engineering geological model and adequate knowledge of spatial variation in rock mass conditions are important prerequisites for slope stability analyses, tunnel design, mine planning and risk management. Rock mass classification schemes such as Rock Mass Rating (RMR), Coal Mine Roof Rating (CMRR), Q-system and Roof Strength Index (RSI) have been used for a range of engineering geological applications, including transport tunnels, "hard rock" mining and underground and open-cut coal mines. Often, rock mass classification schemes have been evaluated on subaerial exposures, where weathering has affected joint characteristics and intact strength. In contrast, the focus of this evaluation of the above classification schemes is an underground coal mine in the Bowen Basin, central Queensland, Australia, 15 km east of the town of Moranbah. Rock mass classification was undertaken at 68 sites across the mine. Both the target coal seam and overlying rock show marked spatial variability in terms of RMR, CMRR and Q, but RSI showed limited sensitivity to changes in rock mass condition. Relationships were developed between different parameters with varying degrees of success. A mine-wide analysis of faulting was undertaken, and compared with in situ stress field and local-scale measurements of joint and cleat. While there are no unequivocal relationships between rock mass classification parameters and faulting, a central graben zone shows heterogeneous rock mass properties. The corollary is that if geological features can be accurately defined by remote sensing technologies, then this can assist in predicting rock mass conditions and risk management ahead of development and construction.

  18. Model Test of Anchoring Effect on Zonal Disintegration in Deep Surrounding Rock Masses (United States)

    Chen, Xu-Guang; Zhang, Qiang-Yong; Wang, Yuan; Liu, De-Jun; Zhang, Ning


    The deep rock masses show a different mechanical behavior compared with the shallow rock masses. They are classified into alternating fractured and intact zones during the excavation, which is known as zonal disintegration. Such phenomenon is a great disaster and will induce the different excavation and anchoring methodology. In this study, a 3D geomechanics model test was conducted to research the anchoring effect of zonal disintegration. The model was constructed with anchoring in a half and nonanchoring in the other half, to compare with each other. The optical extensometer and optical sensor were adopted to measure the displacement and strain changing law in the model test. The displacement laws of the deep surrounding rocks were obtained and found to be nonmonotonic versus the distance to the periphery. Zonal disintegration occurs in the area without anchoring and did not occur in the model under anchoring condition. By contrasting the phenomenon, the anchor effect of restraining zonal disintegration was revealed. And the formation condition of zonal disintegration was decided. In the procedure of tunnel excavation, the anchor strain was found to be alternation in tension and compression. It indicates that anchor will show the nonmonotonic law during suppressing the zonal disintegration. PMID:23997683

  19. Support Loss and Q Factor Enhancement for a Rocking Mass Microgyroscope

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhihua Chen


    Full Text Available A rocking mass gyroscope (RMG is a kind of vibrating mass gyroscope with high sensitivity, whose driving mode and sensing mode are completely uniform. MEMS RMG devices are a research hotspot now because they have the potential to be used in space applications. Support loss is the dominant energy loss mechanism influencing their high sensitivity. An accurate analytical model of support loss for RMGs is presented to enhance their Q factors. The anchor type and support loss mechanism of an RMG are analyzed. Firstly, the support loads, powers flowing into support structure, and vibration energy of an RMG are all developed. Then the analytical model of support loss for the RMG is developed, and its sensitivities to the main structural parameters are also analyzed. High-Q design guidelines for rocking mass microgyroscopes are deduced. Finally, the analytical model is validated by the experimental data and the data from the existing literature. The thicknesses of the prototypes are reduced from 240 µm to 60 µm, while Q factors increase from less than 150 to more than 800. The derived model is general and applicable to various beam resonators, providing significant insight to the design of high-Q MEMS devices.

  20. Analysis of mechanical behavior of soft rocks and stability control in deep tunnels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Zhou


    Full Text Available Due to the weakness in mechanical properties of chlorite schist and the high in situ stress in Jinping II hydropower station, the rock mass surrounding the diversion tunnels located in chlorite schist was observed with extremely large deformations. This may significantly increase the risk of tunnel instability during excavation. In order to assess the stability of the diversion tunnels laboratory tests were carried out in association with the petrophysical properties, mechanical behaviors and water-weakening properties of chlorite schist. The continuous deformation of surrounding rock mass, the destruction of the support structure and a large-scale collapse induced by the weak chlorite schist and high in situ stress were analyzed. The distributions of compressive deformation in the excavation zone with large deformations were also studied. In this regard, two reinforcement schemes for the excavation of diversion tunnel bottom section were proposed accordingly. This study could offer theoretical basis for deep tunnel construction in similar geological conditions.

  1. Panel discussion on rock mechanics issues in repository design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bieniawski, Z.T.; Kim, K.S.; Nataraja, M. [and others


    The panel discussion was introduced by Mr. Z.T.(Richard) Bieniawski and then continued with five additional speakers. The topics covered in the discussion included rock mechanics pertaining to the design of underground facilities for the disposal of radioactive wastes and the safety of such facilities. The speakers included: Mr. Kun-Soo Kim who is a specialist in the area of rock mechanics testing during the Basalt Waste Isolation Project; Dr. Mysore Nataraja who is the senior project manager with the NRC; Dr. Michael Voegele who is the project manager for Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC) on the Yucca Mountain Project; Dr. Edward Cording who is a member of the Nuclear Waste Technical Review Board; and Dr. Hemendra Kalia who is employed by Los Alamos National Laboratory and coordinates various activities of testing programs at the Yucca Mountain Site.

  2. Mechanics of debris flows and rock avalanches: Chapter 43 (United States)

    Iverson, Richard M.; Fernando, Harindra Joseph


    Debris flows are geophysical phenomena intermediate in character between rock avalanches and flash floods. They commonly originate as water-laden landslides on steep slopes and transform into liquefied masses of fragmented rock, muddy water, and entrained organic matter that disgorge from canyons onto valley floors. Typically including 50%–70% solid grains by volume, attaining speeds >10 m/s, and ranging in size up to ∼109 m3, debris flows can denude mountainsides, inundate floodplains, and devastate people and property (Figure 43.1). Notable recent debris-flow disasters resulted in more than 20,000 fatalities in Armero, Colombia, in 1985 and in Vargas state, Venezuela, in 1999.

  3. Determination and Assessment of Parameters Influencing Rock Mass Cavability in Block Caving Mines Using the Probabilistic Rock Engineering System (United States)

    Rafiee, Ramin; Ataei, Mohammad; Khalokakaie, Reza; Jalali, Seyed Mohammad Esmaeil; Sereshki, Farhang


    Mining methods such as block caving or sublevel caving rely on the characteristics of the rock mass to cave efficiently to fulfill an economical production. The identification of influencing parameters and cavability assessment are, thus, a prime geotechnical focus for all potential caving projects. In the caving operation, many factors, such as natural and induced factors, affect the caving performance. In this study, after discussing the caving process and identifying all effective parameters, the interaction matrix based on the rock engineering system (RES) is introduced to study the influencing parameters in rock mass cavability. The interaction matrix analyzes the interrelationship between the parameters affecting rock engineering activities. As the interaction matrix codes are not unique, probabilistic coding can be performed non-deterministically, allowing consideration of uncertainties in the RES analysis. As a result, the parameters with the highest probability of being dominant or subordinate, and also the parameters with the highest probability of being interactive, are introduced. The proposed approach could be a simple but efficient tool in the evaluation of the parameters affecting the cavability of rock mass in block caving mines and, hence, useful in decision-making under uncertainties.

  4. Acoustic emission measurements in petroleum-related rock mechanics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unander, Tor Erling


    Acoustic emission activity in rock has usually been studied in crystalline rock, which reflects that rock mechanics has also mostly been occupied with such rocks in relations to seismology, mining and tunneling. On the other hand, petroleum-related rock mechanics focuses on the behaviour of sedimentary rock. Thus, this thesis presents a general study of acoustic emission activity in sedimentary rock, primarily in sandstone. Chalk, limestone and shale have also been tested, but to much less degree because the AE activity in these materials is low. To simplify the study, pore fluids have not been used. The advent of the personal computer and computerized measuring equipment have made possible new methods both for measuring and analysing acoustic emissions. Consequently, a majority of this work is devoted to the development and implementation of new analysis techniques. A broad range of topics are treated: (1) Quantification of the AE activity level, assuming that the event rate best represents the activity. An algorithm for estimating the event rate and a methodology for objectively describing special changes in the activity e.g., onset determination, are presented. (2) Analysis of AE waveform data. A new method for determining the source energy of an AE event is presented, and it is shown how seismic source theory can be used to analyze even intermediate quality data. Based on these techniques, it is shown that a major part of the measured AE activity originates from a region close to the sensor, not necessarily representing the entire sample. (3) An improved procedure for estimating source locations is presented. The main benefit is a procedure that better handles arrival time data with large errors. Statistical simulations are used to quantify the uncertainties in the locations. The analysis techniques are developed with the application to sedimentary rock in mind, and in two articles, the techniques are used in the study of such materials. The work in the first

  5. First results of infrared thermography applied to the evaluation of hydraulic conductivity in rock masses (United States)

    Pappalardo, Giovanna


    An innovative methodological approach using infrared thermography (IRT) provides a potential contribution to the indirect assessment of hydraulic conductivity of jointed rock masses. This technique proved a suitable tool to evaluate the degree of fracturing of rock masses along with their discontinuity systems, which expedite water flow within the rock mass itself. First, based on the latest scientific outcomes on the application of IRT to the geomechanics of rock systems, rock mass surveys were carried out at different outcrops (dolostone, limestone and porphyroid) and hydraulic conductivity was empirically assessed through approaches well known in the international literature. Then, IRT campaigns were performed at each surveyed rock mass, with the purpose of evaluating the corresponding Cooling Rate Index, strictly linked to the cooling attitude of the rock. Such index was correlated with the assessed hydraulic conductivity and satisfactory regression equations were achieved. The interesting results show that hydraulic conductivity values are likely to be linked with the cooling behavior of rock masses, which, in turn, is affected by spacing, aperture and persistence of discontinuities.

  6. Comparison of Laboratory, in Situ, and Rock Mass Measurements of the Hydraulic Conductivity of Metamorphic Rock at the Savannah River Plant Near Aiken, South Carolina (United States)

    Marine, I. Wendell


    In situ testing of exploratory wells in metamorphic rock indicates that two types of fracturing occur in the rock mass. Rock containing small openings that permit only extremely slow movement of water is termed virtually impermeable rock. Rock containing openings of sufficient size to permit transmission of water at a significantly faster rate is termed hydraulically transmissive rock. Laboratory methods are unsuitable for measuring hydraulic conductivity in hydraulically transmissive rock; however, for the virtually impermeable rock, values comparable to those of the in situ tests are obtained. The hydraulic conductivity of the rock mass over a large region is calculated by using the hydraulic gradient, porosity, and regional velocity. This velocity is determined by dividing the inferred travel distance by the age of water, which is determined by the helium content of the water. This rock mass hydraulic conductivity value is between the values measured for the two types of fractures but is closer to the measured value for the virtually impermeable rock. This relationship is attributed to the control of the regional flow rate by the virtually impermeable rock where the discrete fractures do not form a continuous open connection through the entire rock mass. Thus laboratory methods of measuring permeability in metamorphic rock are of value if they are properly applied.

  7. Mass balance of a highly active rock glacier during the period 1954 and 2016 (United States)

    Kellerer-Pirklbauer, Andreas; Kaufmann, Viktor; Rieckh, Matthias


    Active rock glaciers are creep phenomena of permafrost in high-relief terrain moving slowly downwards and are often characterised by distinct flow structures with ridges and furrows. Active rock glaciers consist of ice and rock material. The ice component might be either congelation (refreezing of liquid water) or sedimentary ('glacier') ice whereas the rock material might be either of periglacial or glacial origin. The formation period of rock glaciers lasts for centuries to millennia as judged from relative or absolute dating approaches. The input of ice and debris onto the rock glacier mass transport system over such long periods might change substantially over time. Long-term monitoring of mass transport, mass changes and nourishment processes of rock glaciers are rare. In this study we analysed on a decadal-scale mass transport (based on photogrammetric and geodetic data; series 1969-2016), mass changes (geodetically-based mass balance quantification; series 1954-2012), and mass input (based on optical data from an automatic digital camera; series 2006-2016) onto the Hinteres Langtal Rock Glacier. This rock glacier is 900 m long, up to 300 m wide, covers an area of 0.17 km2 and is one of the most active ones in the Eastern European Alps. Mass transport rates at the surface indicate relatively low mean annual surface velocities until the beginning of this millennium. A first peak in the horizontal surface velocity was reached in 2003/04 followed by a period of deceleration until 2007/08. Afterwards the rates increased again substantially from year to year with maximum values in 2014/15 (exceeding 6 m/a). This increase in surface velocities during the last decades was accompanied by crevasse formation and landslide activities at its front. Mass changes show for all six analysed periods between 1954 and 2012 a clear negative surface elevation change with mean annual values ranging from -0.016 to -0.058 m/a. This implies a total volume decrease of -435,895 m3

  8. Modelling Geomechanical Heterogeneity of Rock Masses Using Direct and Indirect Geostatistical Conditional Simulation Methods (United States)

    Eivazy, Hesameddin; Esmaieli, Kamran; Jean, Raynald


    An accurate characterization and modelling of rock mass geomechanical heterogeneity can lead to more efficient mine planning and design. Using deterministic approaches and random field methods for modelling rock mass heterogeneity is known to be limited in simulating the spatial variation and spatial pattern of the geomechanical properties. Although the applications of geostatistical techniques have demonstrated improvements in modelling the heterogeneity of geomechanical properties, geostatistical estimation methods such as Kriging result in estimates of geomechanical variables that are not fully representative of field observations. This paper reports on the development of 3D models for spatial variability of rock mass geomechanical properties using geostatistical conditional simulation method based on sequential Gaussian simulation. A methodology to simulate the heterogeneity of rock mass quality based on the rock mass rating is proposed and applied to a large open-pit mine in Canada. Using geomechanical core logging data collected from the mine site, a direct and an indirect approach were used to model the spatial variability of rock mass quality. The results of the two modelling approaches were validated against collected field data. The study aims to quantify the risks of pit slope failure and provides a measure of uncertainties in spatial variability of rock mass properties in different areas of the pit.

  9. Site exploration for rock-mechanics field tests in the Grouse Canyon Member, Belted Range Tuff, U12g Tunnel Complex, Nevada Test Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Langkopf, B.S.; Eshom, E.


    This report describes site exploration work completed in support of planned rock-mechanics field tests in the Grouse Canyon Member of the Belted Range Ruff at Nevada Test Site`s, G-Tunnel. As part of this work, the Rock Mechanics Drift (RMD) and the Rock Mass Property Alcove (RMPA) were mined and three coreholes drilled. The results of mapping and corehole logging are displayed, described, and analyzed.

  10. Geo-Engineering Evaluation of Rock Masses for Crushed Rock and Cut Stones in Khartoum State, Sudan (United States)

    Kheirelseed, E. E.; Ming, T. H.; Abdalla, S. B.

    The purpose of this study is to find artificial coarse aggregates and cut stones around Khartoum. To meat the objectives of the study, data from both field and laboratory are collected. The field data includes geological investigations based on different methods and samples collection, whereas the laboratory tests consists of specific gravity, water absorption, impact value, crushing value, Los Angeles abrasion, soundness tests. The field and laboratory results were weighed and compiled together to reveal the engineering performance of the different rock masses in term of cut stone and crushed aggregates. The results show that most of the examined rock masses are suitable for crushing, building and dressed stones. For decorative slabs only foliated granite and syenite masses can be used.

  11. Study of the Failure Mechanism and Progressive Failure Process of Intact Rock Patches of Rock Slope with Weak Surfaces (United States)

    Pan, Xiao-Hua; Sun, Hong-Yue; Wu, Zhi-Jun; Lü, Qing


    Rock slope with weak surfaces is an important type of rock slope, whose stability is always governed by the intact rock patches. To better understand the failure mechanism and progressive failure process of the intact rock patches under real complex normal stress, a series of physical model tests as well as corresponding numerical modeling by numerical manifold methods have been conducted. Special attention has been given to the effects of the number, length and interval distance of the intact rock patches on the macro-observed failure process. Based on the test and numerical modeling results, the following conclusions are drawn: For the cases of the lower intact rock patches, which are located at the toe near the free surface, they are always the first to rupture, and their failure modes are mixed modes not pure shear modes. However, the failure modes of the upper intact rock patches are location dependent. The factors of the intact rock patches, such as the number, length and interval distance, affect the final failure surfaces of the lower intact rock patches, especially the groove locations that are induced by tensile rupture. In addition, the number factor mainly affects the value of the applied load that is needed to induce the failure of the slope. The length factor affects not only the applied load which is required to induce failure but also the time interval (load step gap) of the failure between the upper intact rock patches and the lower intact rock patches. The interval distance factor mainly affects the failure mechanism and failure mode of the upper intact rock patches induced by the applied load.

  12. Preliminary validation of rock mass models by comparison to laboratory frictional sliding experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sobolik, S.R.; Miller, J.D.


    The U.S. Department of Energy`s (DOE) Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project (YMP) is studying Yucca Mountain in southwestern Nevada as a potential site for a high-level nuclear waste repository. Site characterization will be facilitated by the construction of an Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF). The ESF and potential repository will be excavated from both nonwelded and welded ashflow tuff with varying rock quality (degree of welding, rock mass strength, etc.) and fault and fracture characteristics. Design concerns for the construction of these facilities include the integrity of the structure during underground testing operations and, if it occurs, the emplacement and storage of high-level nuclear waste which could increase the local temperatures in the underground rock mass to as high as 300{degrees}C. Because of the associated issues regarding personnel and long-term environmental safety, sophisticated jointed rock mass models will be required to provide a high degree of confidence for decisions regarding the design, site characterization, and licensing of such facilities. The objective of the work documented in this report is to perform code validation calculations for three rock-mass computer models. The three rock-mass computer models used for this report are the discrete element code UDEC, Version 1.82; and the finite element continuum joint models JAC2D Version 5.10 and JAS3D Version 1.1. The rock mass behavior predicted by the models are compared to the results of laboratory experiments on layered polycarbonate (Lexan) and granite plate experiments. These experiments examine the rock mass behavior of well-defined jointed rock structures or models of jointed structures under uniaxial and biaxial loading. The laboratory environment allows control over the boundary conditions, material properties, and quality and quantity of the data obtained.

  13. Mechanism of Surrounding Rock Failure and Crack Evolution Rules in Branched Pillar Recovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaojian Hu


    Full Text Available To study the mechanism of surface collapse and crack evolution in a roadway chain failure process in the pillar recovery of Hongling lead zinc ore in Inner Mongolia Province, China, microseismic monitoring technology, moment tensor theory, and numerical simulation are used for the inversion of rock mass fracturing, the destruction type classification of crack, and the mechanism of surrounding rock. Research shows the following: (1 the rock mass fracturing is first produced within the +955 m level, before extending through the hanging wall to the ground surface. Then, many shear failures occur in the ground surface of the footwall, extending downwards in an arc-shaped path to the +905 m level. Finally, the surface gradually collapses with large-scale shear failures. (2 The mechanism of surface collapse is as follows: after the recovery of pillars in the +905 m level, tensile cracks generated in the top of orebody #2 extend upwards and obliquely. Analogously, shear cracks are generated in the top of orebody #1, extending upwards. After the recovery of pillars in the +855 m level, the marble interlayer is destroyed and sinks, and many tensile cracks and shear cracks exist and incise in the ground surface, which cause the ground surface to collapse. (3 The mechanism of crack evolution is as follows: after the recovery of 5107 pillars, the footwall haul road in the +905 m level was damaged and collapsed by the cut-through cracks. Those cracks then continue to extend upwards and converge with the slanting shear cracks in the +905 m level, which form a triangular failure in the footwall rock. Finally, the failure causes the tensile and shearing cracks in the haulage way of the +955 m level to extend and connect, which forms the haulage way chain failure.

  14. Integrated geophysical and geological investigations applied to sedimentary rock mass characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Negri


    Full Text Available The Salento Peninsula (south-eastern Italy is characterized by sedimentary rocks. The carbonatic nature of the rocks means they are affected by karst phenomena, forming such features as sinkholes, collapsed dolines and caverns, as a result of chemical leaching of carbonates by percolating water. The instability of these phenomena often produces land subsidence problems. The importance of these events is increasing due to growing urbanization, numerous quarries affecting both the subsoil and the surface, and an important coastline characterized by cliffs. This paper focuses on geological and geophysical methods for the characterization of soft sedimentary rock, and presents the results of a study carried out in an urban area of Salento. Taking the Q system derived by Barton (2002 as the starting point for the rock mass classification, a new approach and a modification of the Barton method are proposed. The new equation proposed for the classification of sedimentary rock mass (Qsrm takes account of the permeability of the rock masses, the geometry of the exposed rock face and their types (for example, quarry face, coastal cliff or cavity, the nature of the lithotypes that constitute the exposed sequence, and their structure and texture. This study revises the correlation between Vp and Q derived by Barton (2002, deriving a new empirical equation correlating P-wave velocities and Qsrm values in soft sedimentary rock. We also present a case history in which stratigraphical surveys, Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT, and seismic surveys were applied to in situ investigations of subsidence phenomena in an urban area to estimate rock mass quality. Our work shows that in the analysis of ground safety it is important to establish the rock mass quality of the subsurface structures; geophysical exploration can thus play a key role in the assessment of subsidence risk.

  15. Mass transfer and transport of radionuclides in fractured porous rock

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahn, Joonhong


    Analytical studies are made to predict space-time dependent concentrations of radionuclides transported through water-saturated fractured porous rock. A basic model, which is expected to generate conservative results when used in long-term safety assessment of geologic repositories for radioactive waste, is established. Applicability and limitations of the model are investigated. 67 refs., 54 figs., 3 tabs.

  16. Fractal characteristics of seismic process in rock mass surrounding the excavation at mining. Mathematical modelling and analysis (United States)

    Eremin, M. O.; Makarov, P. V.


    It is shown in the paper that the system of equations of solid mechanics, which has a mixed type, demonstrate the most common features of evolution of nonlinear dynamic systems. Previous investigations of seismic process were carried out on the base of simplified (sand-pile, land-slide) models which gave a graph of recurrence of seismic events and information about the state of self-organized criticality (SOC). However, these simplified models do not contain the information about the stress-strain state of the loaded geomedia and its proximity to the critical state. In the proposed paper the model of rock mass with excavation is constructed and general step of roof caving is modelled. On the base of these modelling the formation of critical state in loaded geomedia is studied. The fluctuations of stress-strain state at different points of geomedia are studied as the reflection of fracture process occurring in the main elements of rock mass: roof and floor, when the coal face is advanced. It is shown that the PDF dependencies, amplitude-frequency characteristics reflect the state of the rock mass and might be considered as the fractal characteristics of fracture process within. The evolution of these dependencies shows the dramatic change when the critical state is formed in the rock mass surrounding the underground opening.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biljana Kovačević-Zelić


    Full Text Available Constitutive relationships of rock materials are an important component of the numerical modelling, it is not possible to find a generally acceptable constitutive law for rock materials, because of their complex nature. In this paper, the applicability of some models within the framework of theory of elasticity are examined. The analyses are carried out using next models: isotropic and transversely isotropic model, and 'equivalent' material approach The parametric study is also made to examine the influence of discontinuities on the parameters of the equivalent materials the comparison of above mentioned models is made through numerical modelling of the direct shear test. The analysis were performed with finite difference code FLAC (the paper is published in Croatian.

  18. 3D Multiscale Integrated Modeling Approach of Complex Rock Mass Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingchao Li


    Full Text Available Based on abundant geological data of different regions and different scales in hydraulic engineering, a new approach of 3D engineering-scale and statistical-scale integrated modeling was put forward, considering the complex relationships among geological structures and discontinuities and hydraulic structures. For engineering-scale geological structures, the 3D rock mass model of the study region was built by the exact match modeling method and the reliability analysis technique. For statistical-scale jointed rock mass, the random network simulation modeling method was realized, including Baecher structure plane model, Monte Carlo simulation, and dynamic check of random discontinuities, and the corresponding software program was developed. Finally, the refined model was reconstructed integrating with the engineering-scale model of rock structures, the statistical-scale model of discontinuities network, and the hydraulic structures model. It has been applied to the practical hydraulic project and offers the model basis for the analysis of hydraulic rock mass structures.

  19. Control of Rock Mechanics in Underground Ore Mining (United States)

    Golik, V. I.; Efremenkov, A. B.


    Performance indicators in underground mining of thick iron fields can be insufficient since geo-mechanic specifics of ore-hosting fields might be considered inadequately, as a consequence, critical deformations and even earth’s surface destruction are possible, lowering the indicators of full subsurface use, this way. The reason for it is the available approach to estimating the performance of mining according to ore excavation costs, without assessing losses of valuable components and damage to the environment. The experimental approach to the problem is based on a combination of methods to justify technical capability and performance of mining technology improvement with regard to geomechanical factors. The main idea of decisions to be taken is turning geo-materials into the condition of triaxial compression via developing the support constructions of blocked up structural rock block. The study was carried out according to an integrated approach based on the analysis of concepts, field observations, and simulation with the photo-elastic materials in conditions of North Caucasus deposits. A database containing information on the deposit can be developed with the help of industrial experiments and performance indicators of the field can be also improved using the ability of ore-hosting fields to develop support constructions, keeping the geo-mechanical stability of the system at lower cost, avoiding ore contamination at the processing stage. The proposed model is a specific one because an adjustment coefficient of natural and anthropogenic stresses is used and can be adopted for local conditions. The relation of natural to anthropogenic factors can make more precise the standards of developed, prepared and ready to excavation ore reserves relying on computational methods. It is possible to minimize critical stresses and corresponding deformations due to dividing the ore field into sectors safe from the standpoint of geo-mechanics, and using less cost

  20. Results of Monitoring at Olkiluoto in 2010. Rock Mechanics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lahti, M. (ed.); Siren, T.


    The rock mechanical monitoring at Olkiluoto concentrates on the assessment of potential tectonic movements and stability of the bedrock. The construction of ONKALO is not expected to induce large-scale movements of the rock blocks or affect the rate of isostatic uplift but the evaluation of any tectonic events is important for the safety assessment. The monitoring consists of seismic measurements, GPS measurements and precise levelling campaigns at Olkiluoto and vicinity and extensometer and convergence measurements carried out in ONKALO. Posiva established a local seismic network of six stations on the island of Olkiluoto in 2002. After that the number of seismic stations has increased gradually. In 2010 the permanent seismic network consists of 15 seismic stations and 20 triaxial sensors. The purpose of the microearthquake measurements at Olkiluoto is to improve understanding of the structure, behaviour and long term stability of the bedrock. The investigation area includes two target areas. The larger target area, called seismic semiregional area, covers the Olkiluoto Island and its surroundings. The purpose is to monitor explosions and tectonic earthquakes in regional scale inside that area. The smaller target area is called the seismic ONKALO block, which is a 2 km *2 km *2 km cube surrounding the ONKALO. It is assumed that all the expected excavation induced events occur within this volume. At the moment the seismic ONKALO block includes ten seismic stations. An additional task of monitoring is related to safeguarding of the ONKALO. This report gives the results of microseismic monitoring during 2010.

  1. The validity of generic trends on multiple scales in rock-physical and rock-mechanical properties of the Whitby Mudstone, United Kingdom

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Douma, L.A.N.R.; Primarini, M.I.W.; Houben, M.E.; Barnhoorn, A.

    Finding generic trends in mechanical and physical rock properties will help to make predictions of the rock-mechanical behaviour of shales. Understanding the rock-mechanical behaviour of shales is important for the successful development of unconventional hydrocarbon reservoirs. This paper presents

  2. Determining the REV for Fracture Rock Mass Based on Seepage Theory

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    Lili Zhang


    Full Text Available Seepage problems of the fractured rock mass have always been a heated topic within hydrogeology and engineering geology. The equivalent porous medium model method is the main method in the study of the seepage of the fractured rock mass and its engineering application. The key to the method is to determine a representative elementary volume (REV. The FractureToKarst software, that is, discrete element software, is a main analysis tool in this paper and developed by a number of authors. According to the standard of rock classification established by ISRM, this paper aims to discuss the existence and the size of REV of fractured rock masses with medium tractility and provide a general method to determine the existence of REV. It can be gleaned from the study that the existence condition of fractured rock mass with medium tractility features average fracture spacing smaller than 0.6 m. If average fracture spacing is larger than 0.6 m, there is no existence of REV. The rationality of the model is verified by a case study. The present research provides a method for the simulation of seepage field in fissured rocks.

  3. Discrete Fracture Networks Groundwater Modelling at Bedding Control Fractured Sedimentary Rock mass (United States)

    Pin, Yeh; Yuan-Chieh, Wu


    Groundwater flow modelling in fractured rock mass is an important challenging work in predicting the transport of contamination. So far as we know about the numerical analysis method was consider for crystalline rock, which means discontinuous are treated as stochastic distribution in homogeneous rock mass. Based on the understanding of geology in Taiwan in past few decades, we know that the hydraulic conductivities of Quaternary and Tertiary system rock mass are strongly controlled by development of sedimentary structures (bedding plane). The main purpose of this study is to understand how Discrete Fracture Networks (DFN) affects numerical results in terms of hydraulic behavior using different DFN generation methods. Base on surface geology investigation and core drilling work (3 boreholes with a total length of 120m), small scale fracture properties with in Cho-lan formation (muddy sandstone) are defined, including gently dip of bedding and 2 sub-vertical joint sets. Two FracMan/MAFIC numerical modellings are conducted, using ECPM approach (Equivalent Continuum Porous Media); case A considered all fracture were Power law distribution with Poisson fracture center; case B considered all bedding plans penetrate into modelling region, and remove the bedding count to recalculate joint fracture parameters. Modelling results show that Case B gives stronger groundwater pathways than Case A and have impact on flow field. This preliminary modelling result implicates the groundwater flow modelling work in some fractured sedimentary rock mass, might be considerate to rock sedimentary structure development itself, discontinuous maybe not follow the same stochastic DFN parameter.

  4. Seismic bearing capacity of strip footings on rock masses using the Hoek–Brown failure criterion

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    Amin Keshavarz


    Full Text Available In this paper, the bearing capacity of strip footings on rock masses has been studied in the seismic case. The stress characteristics or slip line method was used for analysis. The problem was analyzed in the plane strain condition using the Hoek–Brown failure criterion. First, the equilibrium equations along the stress characteristics were obtained and the rock failure criterion was applied. Then, the equations were solved using the finite difference method. A computer code has been provided for analysis. Given the footing and rock parameters, the code can calculate the stress characteristics network and obtain the stress distribution under the footing. The seismic effects have been applied as the horizontal and vertical pseudo-static coefficients. The results of this paper are very close to those of the other studies. The seismic bearing capacity of weightless rock masses can be obtained using the proposed equations and graphs without calculating the whole stress characteristics network.

  5. Analysis of borehole expansion and gallery tests in anisotropic rock masses (United States)

    Amadei, B.; Savage, W.Z.


    Closed-form solutions are used to show how rock anisotropy affects the variation of the modulus of deformation around the walls of a hole in which expansion tests are conducted. These tests include dilatometer and NX-jack tests in boreholes and gallery tests in tunnels. The effects of rock anisotropy on the modulus of deformation are shown for transversely isotropic and regularly jointed rock masses with planes of transverse isotropy or joint planes parallel or normal to the hole longitudinal axis for plane strain or plane stress condition. The closed-form solutions can also be used when determining the elastic properties of anisotropic rock masses (intact or regularly jointed) in situ. ?? 1991.

  6. Simulation of Rock Mass Horizontal Displacements with Usage of Cellular Automata Theory. (United States)

    Sikora, Paweł


    In the article there was presented two dimensional rock mass model as a deterministic finite cellular automata. Used to describe the distribution of subsidence of rock mass inside and on its surface the theory of automata makes it relatively simple way to get a subsidence trough profile consistent with the profile observed by geodetic measurements on the land surface. As a development of an existing concept of the rock mass model, as a finite cellular automaton, there was described distribution function that allows, simultaneously with the simulation of subsidence, to simulate horizontal displacements inside the rock mass model and on its surface in accordance with real observations. On the basis of the results of numerous computer simulations there was presented fundamental mathematical relationship that determines the ratio of maximum horizontal displacement and maximum subsidence, in case of full subsidence trough, in relation to the basic parameters of the rock mass model. The possibilities of presented model were shown on the example of simulation results of deformation distribution caused by extraction of abstract coal panel. Obtained results were consistent with results obtained by geometric-integral theory.

  7. Aespoe Pillar Stability Experiment. Geology and mechanical properties of the rock in TASQ

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Staub, Isabelle [Golder Associates AB, Uppsala (Sweden); Andersson, J. Christer; Magnor, Bjoern


    An extensive characterization programme has been performed in the drift, TASQ, excavated for the Aespoe Pillar Stability Experiment, APSE, including the rock volume that will host the experiment pillar between the two deposition holes. The two major objectives with the characterization has been to 1) derive material properties for the final numerical modelling of the experiment and 2) to ensure that the pillar location is suitable from a structural and rock mechanical point of view. In summary the following activities have been performed: Geological mapping of the drift, the pilot holes cores and deposition hole DQ0066G01. 3D-visualisation of the geological mapping in the experiment (pillar) volume of TASQ. Convergence measurements during the excavation and back calculation of the results for determination of the stress tensor and the rock mass Young's modulus. Laboratory tests on core samples from the 15{phi}76 mm core boreholes drilled around the pillar volume for determination of: compressive strength, thermal properties and fracture properties. P-wave velocity measurements on core samples and between boreholes for estimation of the excavation damaged zone and rock mass properties. The geological mapping and the 3D-visualisation gives a good description of the TASQ drift in general and the experiment volume in the drift in particular. The fracturing of the drift follows the pattern of the rest of Aespoe. Three fracture sets have been mapped in TASQ. The major fracture set is sub-vertical and trending NW, in principle parallel to {sigma}{sub 1}. This set is the most conductive at Aespoe and is the only water bearing set in TASQ. A second less pronounced set is trending NE, parallel to TASQ, and is also sub-vertical. The third set is sub-horizontal. It is interesting to note that the third set is the only one that almost completely consists of sealed fractures. The first two sets have mostly open fractures. One unique feature in the drift is a heavily

  8. Simulation of Asymmetric Destabilization of Mine-void Rock Masses Using a Large 3D Physical Model (United States)

    Lai, X. P.; Shan, P. F.; Cao, J. T.; Cui, F.; Sun, H.


    When mechanized sub-horizontal section top coal caving (SSTCC) is used as an underground mining method for exploiting extremely steep and thick coal seams (ESTCS), a large-scale surrounding rock caving may be violently created and have the potential to induce asymmetric destabilization from mine voids. In this study, a methodology for assessing the destabilization was developed to simulate the Weihuliang coal mine in the Urumchi coal field, China. Coal-rock mass and geological structure characterization were integrated with rock mechanics testing for assessment of the methodology and factors influencing asymmetric destabilization. The porous rock-like composite material ensured accuracy for building a 3D geological physical model of mechanized SSTCC by combining multi-mean timely track monitoring including acoustic emission, crack optical acquirement, roof separation observation, and close-field photogrammetry. An asymmetric 3D modeling analysis for destabilization characteristics was completed. Data from the simulated hydraulic support and buried pressure sensor provided effective information that was linked with stress-strain relationship of the working face in ESTCS. The results of the 3D physical model experiments combined with hybrid statistical methods were effective for predicting dynamic hazards in ESTCS.

  9. Is rock slope instability in high-mountain systems driven by topo-climatic, paraglacial or rock mechanical factors? - A question of scale! (United States)

    Messenzehl, Karoline; Dikau, Richard


    Due to the emergent and (often non-linear) complex nature of mountain systems the key small-scale system properties responsible for rock slope instability contrast to those being dominant at larger spatial scales. This geomorphic system behaviour has major epistemological consequences for the study of rockfalls and associated form-process-relationships. As each scale requires its own scientific explanation, we cannot simply upscale bedrock-scale findings and, in turn, we cannot downscale the valley-scale knowledge to smaller phenomena. Here, we present a multi-scale study from the Turtmann Valley (Swiss Alps), that addresses rock slope properties at three different geomorphic levels: (i) regional valley scale, (ii) the hillslope scale and (iii) the bedrock scale. Using this hierarchical approach, we aim to understand the key properties of high-mountain systems responsible for rockfall initiation with respect to the resulting form-process-relationship at each scale. (i) At the valley scale (110 km2) rock slope instability was evaluated using a GIS-based modelling approach. Topo-climatic parameters, i.e. the permafrost distribution and the time since deglaciation after LGM were found to be the key variables causative for the regional-scale bedrock erosion and the storage of 62.3 - 65.3 x 106 m3 rockfall sediments in the hanging valleys (Messenzehl et al. 2015). (ii) At the hillslope scale (0.03 km2) geotechnical scanline surveys of 16 rock slopes and one-year rock temperature data of 25 ibuttons reveal that the local rockfall activity and the resulting deposition of individual talus slope landforms is mainly controlled by the specific rock mass strength with respect to the slope aspect, than being a paraglacial reaction. Permafrost might be only of secondary importance for the present-day rock mechanical state as geophysical surveys disprove the existence of frozen bedrock below 2600 m asl. (Messenzehl & Draebing 2015). (iii) At the bedrock scale (0.01 mm - 10 m) the

  10. Zones of rock mass stability loss and support of main haulage roads

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shmigol' , A.V.; Losev, G.F.; Martyushev, V.S. (Obedinenie Pavlogradugol' (USSR))


    Discusses the effect of rock mass stability loss on mining conditions in the im. Leninskogo Komsomola mine, where two 0.6-0.65 m and 0.9-1 m thick seams, lying near each other, were worked. In the unstable zones all types of support suffered destruction during 2-4 months. Convergence between roof and floor reached 400 mm/month in comparison with 50 mm/month outside these zones. A zone of lost rock mass stability that formed at the eastern wing of the mine as a result of the fact that the rock mass had been cut to a high degree by development workings is described and shown in a drawing. The occurrence intensity of elevated rock pressure and the duration time of its active stage depend on dimensions of support pillars and on the number and relative position of workings. The duration time varies between 8 and 24 months. Measures taken to stabilize the rock mass and the support types used for this purpose are described. The effect of these measures and of development workings on roof, floor and sidewall convergence is discussed.

  11. Determination of Critical Rock Mass in a Bucket of a Dinting Loader (United States)

    Remiorz, Eryk


    The extraction of hard coal deposits lying in increasing depth causes significant problems with maintenance of roadways (maingates, tailgates, etc.). The reduction of the cross section of such excavations, caused by the floor upheaval, leads to the occurrence of many problems with transport and ventilation. Dinting loaders are employed to restore the original size of roadways tightened due to the activity of adverse stresses occurring in the rock mass. These are tracked machines, usually with small width of about 1 m. They often work in roadways with high longitudinal and lateral inclination, as a result of which they are especially susceptible to overturning. The article presents a mathematical model allowing to determine the critical mass of broken rock in a bucket. The model also allows to determine spatial coordinates of a dinting loader's centre of gravity depending on temporary position of movable elements of the loader such as a turntable, boom, coupler and bucket, and depending on the level of loading the bucket with broken rock. It also enables to determine critical angles of the roadways' longitudinal and lateral inclination. The outcomes of computer studies of variations in the position of the loader's centre of gravity depending on deflection angles of moving elements of the loader and the mass of broken rock in the bucket are also presented. Variability ranges of spatial coordinates of the centre of gravity of the loader are also established and examples are given for values of the critical mass of broken rock in the bucket.

  12. Modeling Anisotropic Elastic Wave Propagation in Jointed Rock Masses (United States)

    Hurley, R.; Vorobiev, O.; Ezzedine, S. M.; Antoun, T.


    We present a numerical approach for determining the anisotropic stiffness of materials with nonlinearly-compliant joints capable of sliding. The proposed method extends existing ones for upscaling the behavior of a medium with open cracks and inclusions to cases relevant to natural fractured and jointed rocks, where nonlinearly-compliant joints can undergo plastic slip. The method deviates from existing techniques by incorporating the friction and closure states of the joints, and recovers an anisotropic elastic form in the small-strain limit when joints are not sliding. We present the mathematical formulation of our method and use Representative Volume Element (RVE) simulations to evaluate its accuracy for joint sets with varying complexity. We then apply the formulation to determine anisotropic elastic constants of jointed granite found at the Nevada Nuclear Security Site (NNSS) where the Source Physics Experiments (SPE), a campaign of underground chemical explosions, are performed. Finally, we discuss the implementation of our numerical approach in a massively parallel Lagrangian code Geodyn-L and its use for studying wave propagation from underground explosions. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  13. Dynamics of mechanical systems with variable mass

    CERN Document Server

    Belyaev, Alexander


    The book presents up-to-date and unifying formulations for treating dynamics of different types of mechanical systems with variable mass. The starting point is overview of the continuum mechanics relations of balance and jump for open systems from which extended Lagrange and Hamiltonian formulations are derived. Corresponding approaches are stated at the level of analytical mechanics with emphasis on systems with a position-dependent mass and at the level of structural mechanics. Special emphasis is laid upon axially moving structures like belts and chains, and on pipes with an axial flow of fluid. Constitutive relations in the dynamics of systems with variable mass are studied with particular reference to modeling of multi-component mixtures. The dynamics of machines with a variable mass are treated in detail and conservation laws and the stability of motion will be analyzed. Novel finite element formulations for open systems in coupled fluid and structural dynamics are presented.

  14. Mathematical interpretation of monitoring results of the rock mass and TBM interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Víťazoslav Krúpa


    Full Text Available The monitoring of input and uotput parameters of excavation process using the full-face tunnelling machine provides the determination of properties of excavated rock mass. A mathematical apparatus was designed to solve the task by the description of the interaction between disc cutters and rock mass at the contact surface. The mathematical models were verified by a comparison with the results of the detailed engineering-geological investigation realized in an exploratory gallery of the Branisko highway tunnel in sections excavated by the full-face tunnelling machine Wirth TB-II-330H.

  15. Back-analysing rock mass modulus from monitoring data of two tunnels in Sydney, Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Bertuzzi


    Full Text Available This paper presents two case studies where the rock mass modulus and in situ stress are estimated from the monitoring data obtained during the construction of underground excavations in Sydney, Australia. The case studies comprise the widening of existing twin road tunnels within Hawkesbury sandstone and the excavation of a large cavern within Ashfield shale. While back-analysis from detailed systematic monitoring has been previously published, this paper presents a relatively simple methodology to derive rock mass modulus and in situ stress from the relatively simple displacement data routinely recorded during tunnelling.

  16. The comparative study on analytical solutions and numerical solutions of displacement in transversely isotropic rock mass (United States)

    Zhang, Zhizeng; Zhao, Zhao; Li, Yongtao


    This paper attempts to verify the correctness of the analytical displacement solution in transversely isotropic rock mass, and to determine the scope of its application. The analytical displacement solution of a circular tunnel in transversely isotropic rock mass was derived firstly. The analytical solution was compared with the numerical solution, which was carried out by FLAC3D software. The results show that the expression of the analytical displacement solution is correct, and the allowable engineering range is that the dip angle is less than 15 degrees.

  17. The Interplay of In Situ Stress Ratio and Transverse Isotropy in the Rock Mass on Prestressed Concrete-Lined Pressure Tunnels (United States)

    Simanjuntak, T. D. Y. F.; Marence, M.; Schleiss, A. J.; Mynett, A. E.


    This paper presents the mechanical and hydraulic behaviour of passively prestressed concrete-lined pressure tunnels embedded in elastic transversely isotropic rocks subjected to non-uniform in situ stresses. Two cases are distinguished based on whether the in situ vertical stress in the rock mass is higher, or lower than the in situ horizontal stress. A two-dimensional finite element model was used to study the influence of dip angle, α, and horizontal-to-vertical stress ratio, k, on the bearing capacity of prestressed concrete-lined pressure tunnels. The study reveals that the in situ stress ratio and the orientation of stratifications in the rock mass significantly affect the load sharing between the rock mass and the lining. The distribution of stresses and deformations as a result of tunnel construction processes exhibits a symmetrical pattern for tunnels embedded in a rock mass with either horizontal or vertical stratification planes, whereas it demonstrates an unsymmetrical pattern for tunnels embedded in a rock mass with inclined stratification planes. The results obtained for a specific value α with coefficient k are identical to that for α + 90° with coefficient 1/ k by rotating the tunnel axis by 90°. The maximum internal water pressure was determined by offsetting the prestress-induced hoop strains at the final lining intrados against the seepage-induced hoop strains. As well as assessing the internal water pressure, this approach is capable of identifying potential locations where longitudinal cracks may occur in the final lining.

  18. Active and passive seismic methods for characterization and monitoring of unstable rock masses: field surveys, laboratory tests and modeling. (United States)

    Colombero, Chiara; Baillet, Laurent; Comina, Cesare; Jongmans, Denis; Vinciguerra, Sergio


    Appropriate characterization and monitoring of potentially unstable rock masses may provide a better knowledge of the active processes and help to forecast the evolution to failure. Among the available geophysical methods, active seismic surveys are often suitable to infer the internal structure and the fracturing conditions of the unstable body. For monitoring purposes, although remote-sensing techniques and in-situ geotechnical measurements are successfully tested on landslides, they may not be suitable to early forecast sudden rapid rockslides. Passive seismic monitoring can help for this purpose. Detection, classification and localization of microseismic events within the prone-to-fall rock mass can provide information about the incipient failure of internal rock bridges. Acceleration to failure can be detected from an increasing microseismic event rate. The latter can be compared with meteorological data to understand the external factors controlling stability. On the other hand, seismic noise recorded on prone-to-fall rock slopes shows that the temporal variations in spectral content and correlation of ambient vibrations can be related to both reversible and irreversible changes within the rock mass. We present the results of the active and passive seismic data acquired at the potentially unstable granitic cliff of Madonna del Sasso (NW Italy). Down-hole tests, surface refraction and cross-hole tomography were carried out for the characterization of the fracturing state of the site. Field surveys were implemented with laboratory determination of physico-mechanical properties on rock samples and measurements of the ultrasonic pulse velocity. This multi-scale approach led to a lithological interpretation of the seismic velocity field obtained at the site and to a systematic correlation of the measured velocities with physical properties (density and porosity) and macroscopic features of the granitic cliff (fracturing, weathering and anisotropy). Continuous

  19. Event triggered data acquisition in the Rock Mechanics Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hardy, R.D.


    Increasing complexity of experiments coupled with limitations of the previously used computers required improvements in both hardware and software in the Rock Mechanics Laboratories. Increasing numbers of input channels and the need for better graphics could no longer be supplied by DATAVG, an existing software package for data acquisition and display written by D. J. Holcomb in 1983. After researching the market and trying several alternatives, no commercial program was found which met our needs. The previous version of DATAVG had the basic features needed but was tied to obsolete hardware. Memory limitations on the previously used PDP-11 made it impractical to upgrade the software further. With the advances in IBM compatible computers it is now desirable to use them as data recording platforms. With this information in mind, it was decided to write a new version of DATAVG which would take advantage of newer hardware. The new version had to support multiple graphic display windows and increased channel counts. It also had to be easier to use.

  20. Relationship between the rock mass deformation and places of occurrence of seismological events

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janusz Makowka; Jozef Kabiesz; Lin-ming Ddou [Central Mining Institute, Katowice (Poland)


    Static effort of rock mass very rarely causes of rock burst in Polish coal mines. Rock bursts with source in the seismic tremor within the roof rock layers are prevailing. A seismic tremor is an effect of rupture or sliding in roof layers above the exploited panel in coal seam, sometime in a distance from actual exploitation. Sliding, as a rule occurs in fault zone and tremors in it are expected, but monolithic layer rupture is very hard to predict. In a past few years a practice of analyzing state of deformation in high energy seismic tremors zones has been employed. It let gathering experience thanks to witch determination of dangerous shape of reformatted roof is possible. In the paper some typical forms of roof rocks deformations leading to seismic tremor occurrence will be presented. In general these are various types of multidirectional rock layers bending. Real examples of seismic events and rock bursts in the Czech Republic will be shown. 5 refs., 6 figs.

  1. Tunnel behaviour and support associated with the weak rock masses of flysch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Marinos


    Full Text Available Flysch formations are generally characterised by evident heterogeneity in the presence of low strength and tectonically disturbed structures. The complexity of these geological materials demands a more specialized geoengineering characterisation. In this regard, the paper tries to discuss the standardization of the engineering geological characteristics, the assessment of the behaviour in underground excavations, and the instructions–guidelines for the primary support measures for flysch layer qualitatively. In order to investigate the properties of flysch rock mass, 12 tunnels of Egnatia Highway, constructed in Northern Greece, were examined considering the data obtained from the design and construction records. Flysch formations are classified thereafter in 11 rock mass types (I–XI, according to the siltstone–sandstone proportion and their tectonic disturbance. A special geological strength index (GSI chart for heterogeneous rock masses is used and a range of geotechnical parameters for every flysch type is presented. Standardization tunnel behaviour for every rock mass type of flysch is also presented, based on its site-specific geotechnical characteristics such as structure, intact rock strength, persistence and complexity of discontinuities. Flysch, depending on its types, can be stable even under noticeable overburden depth, and exhibit wedge sliding and wider chimney type failures or cause serious deformation even under thin cover. Squeezing can be observed under high overburden depth. The magnitude of squeezing and tunnel support requirements are also discussed for various flysch rock mass types under different overburdens. Detailed principles and guidelines for selecting immediate support measures are proposed based on the principal tunnel behaviour mode and the experiences obtained from these 12 tunnels. Finally, the cost for tunnel support from these experiences is also presented.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biljana kovačević-Zelić


    Full Text Available The paper deals with the problem of discontinuous ruck material modelling within the framework of theory of plasticity. The applicability of two models, i.e. Mohr-Coulomb's ideal plasticity and plastic anisotropy (ubiquitous joint model, is examined. Numerical analyses were performed with FLAC - finite difference code. The comparision of above mentioned constitutive models is made through the demonstrated mechanical behaviour in the direct shear test (the paper is published in Croatian.

  3. Rock mass condition, behaviour and seismicity in mines of the Bushveld igneous complex.

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Haile, AT


    Full Text Available This project report gives an overall view of the rock mass environment of the Bushveld complex and influence on the mine design practices. The main focus of the project was to survey the currently available data and conduct further analysis in order...

  4. Numerical fracture simulation using Hamiltonian Particle Method -Relationship of parallel faulting to stress filed and elastic parameters of rock mass- (United States)

    Imai, Y.; Mikada, H.; Goto, T.; Takekawa, J.


    Echelon faults are a group of parallel shear failures of rock that have a certain angle to stress axis. These parallel cracks can be observed as various sizes from plate-scale to laboratory-scale. In the area surrounding Japan, one of the typical example is found in the Izu Peninsula and the offshore area. In these areas, the conjugate parallel faults can be also observed. The mechanism and the formation of these parallel and conjugate faults are not well investigated, and there still remains an important geophysical subject. In the Izu Peninsula, the crust mainly suffers the compressional stress force by the subduction of the Philippine Sea Plate and strike slip forces of two large shear faults. In this study, we conduct numerical simulations of rock mass failure under various conditions to discuss the forming mechanism of these parallel and conjugate fractures. If we find the relationship between the formation of echelon faults and stress field applied to rock mass, we could infer stress field loaded to the crust from the pattern of faults. For numerical simulation, the Finite Difference Method (FDM) and the Finite Element Method (FEM) are widely used to solve solid deformation problems. In these methods, the failure at faults or cracks, however, would not be well simulated when the displacement becomes large or the grid-based structure is broken. On the other hand, particle methods are free from these difficulties. Therefore, we use the Hamiltonian Particle Method (HPM), i.e., one of the particle methods to simulate the formation of echelon faults to investigate the nucleation conditions. We assume a rectangular plate and change the type of forces acting on the plate for simplifying Izu area. The model represents a two-dimensional plane strain. In Izu area, the oceanic crust is composed mainly of basalt. Thus, we assume that the parameters of the rock mass are basaltic. The density and Young's modulus of the model are determined to match those of basalt. In

  5. Swelling of coal measure rocks. Effect of watre on mechanical properties of coal measure rocks (4th Report)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ichinose, Masatomo; Uchino, Ken' ichi (Kyushu Univ., Faculty of Engineering, Fukuoka, Japan)


    Magnitude of free expansion and expansion pressure of rocks were measured for studying the effect of water absorption on their mechanical properties. Measurement of free expansion was conducted in three directions. Measurement of expansion pressure was conducted under complete suppression of expansion and under various load for extrapolation to obtain the pressure of complete suppression of expansion both values of which were compared. Apparatuses for both measurings were shown by figures. As the result of experiment, those were obtained that most of the samples showed sharp initial expansion and became slower with time, that two ways of measurement of expansion pressure gave almost similar results, that rocks with the larger expansion gave the larger decrease of mono-axial compression strength, that some rocks showed appreciable anisotropy of expansion which ment necessity of at least two directional measurement, and that correlation between magnitude of expansion and expansion pressure was not clearily recognized. 15 refs., 17 figs., 1 tab.

  6. In Situ Geochemical Analysis and Age Dating of Rocks Using Laser Ablation-Miniature Mass Spectrometer (United States)

    Sinha, Mahadeva P.; Hecht, Michael H.; Hurowitz, Joel A.


    A miniaturized instrument for performing chemical and isotopic analysis of rocks has been developed. The rock sample is ablated by a laser and the neutral species produced are analyzed using the JPL-invented miniature mass spectrometer. The direct sampling of neutral ablated material and the simultaneous measurement of all the elemental and isotopic species are the novelties of this method. In this laser ablation-miniature mass spectrometer (LA-MMS) method, the ablated neutral atoms are led into the electron impact ionization source of the MMS, where they are ionized by a 70-eV electron beam. This results in a secondary ion pulse typically 10-100 microsecond wide, compared to the original 5-10-nanosecond laser pulse duration. Ions of different masses are then spatially dispersed along the focal plane of the magnetic sector of the miniature mass spectrometer and measured in parallel by a modified CCD (charge-coupled device) array detector capable of detecting ions directly. Compared to conventional scanning techniques, simultaneous measurement of the ion pulse along the focal plane effectively offers a 100% duty cycle over a wide mass range. LAMMS offers a more quantitative assessment of elemental composition than techniques that detect laser-ionized species produced directly in the ablation process because the latter can be strongly influenced by matrix effects that vary with the structure and geometry of the surface, the laser beam, and the ionization energies of the elements. The measurement of high-precision isotopic ratios and elemental composition of different rock minerals by LAMMS method has been demonstrated. The LA-MMS can be applied for the absolute age determination of rocks. There is no such instrument available presently in a miniaturized version that can be used for NASA space missions. Work is in progress in the laboratory for geochronology of rocks using LA-MMS that is based on K-Ar radiogenic dating technique.

  7. Effects of Freezing and Thawing Cycle on Mechanical Properties and Stability of Soft Rock Slope


    Yanlong Chen; Peng Wu; Qing Yu; Guang Xu


    To explore the variation laws of mechanical parameters of soft rock and the formed slope stability, an experiment was carried out with collected soft rock material specimens and freezing and thawing cycle was designed. Meanwhile, a computational simulation analysis of the freezing-thawing slope stability was implemented. Key factors that influence the strength of frozen rock specimens were analyzed. Results showed that moisture content and the number of freezing-thawing cycles influenced mech...

  8. ISRM Suggested Method for In Situ Microseismic Monitoring of the Fracturing Process in Rock Masses (United States)

    Xiao, Ya-Xun; Feng, Xia-Ting; Hudson, John A.; Chen, Bing-Rui; Feng, Guang-Liang; Liu, Jian-Po


    The purpose of this ISRM Suggested Method is to describe a methodology for in situ microseismic monitoring of the rock mass fracturing processes occurring as a result of excavations for rock slopes, tunnels, or large caverns in the fields of civil, hydraulic, or mining engineering. In this Suggested Method, the equipment that is required for a microseismic monitoring system is described; the procedures are outlined and illustrated, together with the methods for data acquisition and processing for improving the monitoring results. There is an explanation of the methods for presenting and interpreting the results, and recommendations are supported by several examples.

  9. Implementation of Linear Pipe Channel Network to Estimate Hydraulic Parameters of Fractured Rock Masses (United States)

    Han, J.; Um, J. G.; Wang, S.


    Modeling of fluid flow is important in geological, petroleum, environmental, civil and mining engineering. Fluid flow through fractured hard rock is very much dependent on the fracture network pattern in the rock mass and on the flow behavior through these fractures. This research deals with fluid flow behavior through fractures at an abandoned copper mine in southeast Korea. An injection well and three observation wells were installed at the mine site to monitor the hydraulic heads induced by injection of fresh water. A series of packer tests were performed to estimate the rock mass permeability and corresponding effective hydraulic aperture of the fractures. The three dimensional stochastic fracture network model was built and validated for the mine site. The two dimensional linear pipe network systems were constructed in directions of the observation wells using the fracture network model. A procedure of the fluid flow analysis on two dimensional discrete domain was applied to estimate the conductance, flow quantity and nodal head in the 2-D linear pipe channel network. The present results indicate that fracture geometry parameters (orientation, density and size) play an important role in the hydraulic characteristics of fractured rock masses.

  10. Model Test Research on the End Bearing Behavior of the Large-Diameter Cast-in-Place Concrete Pile for Jointed Rock Mass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingwei Cai


    Full Text Available For large-diameter, cast-in-place concrete piles, the end bearing capacity of a single pile is affected by discontinuous surfaces that exist in natural rock masses when the bearing layer of the pile end is located in the rock layer. In order to study the influence of the jointed dip angle on the bearing characteristics of the pile end, the discrete element models are adopted to simulate the mechanical characteristics of the jointed rock masses, and the model tests of the failure mode of the jointed rock masses were also designed. The results of the numerical calculations and modeling tests show that the joints, which have a filtering effect on the internal stress of the bedrock located at the pile end, change the load transferring paths. And the failure mode of the jointed rock foundation also changes as jointed dip angle changes. The rock located at the pile end generally presents a wedge failure mode. In addition, the Q-S curves obtained by model tests show that the ultimate end bearing capacity of a single pile is influenced by the jointed dip angle. The above results provide an important theoretical basis for how to correctly calculate end resistance for a cast-in-place concrete pile.

  11. Engineering classification of rock masses in the site of Gharehpiri dam NW of Shiraz, Iran (United States)

    Farhoudi, G.; Rahimi, A.; Karimi, A.; Samani, B.


    The Ghareh Piri dam located 3 km northwest of Shiraz city and of longitude 52 29 38 and latitude 29 43 50.1, has been planned. It is the site on one of the six tributaries of Khoshk River running through Shiraz. The valley, on which the dam should be constructed, is controlled by a minor dextral fault and is located on the north flank of the Moradi anticline, which belongs to the Simply Folded Zone of the Zagros Mountain Ranges of southern Iran. The dam abutments consist of solid limestone of the Tertiary Asmari- Jahrom Formation. Geological field works including lineaments (joints and faults) evaluation of dam's site has been performed. These investigations together with the study of geotechnical characteristics of rocks after Barton ET Al (NGI) and geotechnical classification of rocks and rock masses (RMR) promise a suitable site for the dam.

  12. Long-term monitoring of rock mass properties in the underground excavation (United States)

    Vilhelm, Jan; Jirků, Jaroslav; Slavík, Lubomír; Bárta, Jaroslav


    It is generally agreed today that hazardous waste should be placed in repositories hundreds of meters below the Earth's surface. In our research we deal with the long-term monitoring of the underground excavation by seismic and electrical resistivity measurements. Permanent measuring system was developed and installed at the Bedřichov gallery test site (northern Bohemia). The gallery was excavated using TBM (Tunnel Boring Machine) in granitic rocks. Realized repeated measurements include ultrasonic time of flight measurement and electrical resistivity tomography (ERT). The seismic measurements are performed by pulse-transmission technique directly on the rock wall using one seismic source and three receivers in the distances of 1, 2 and 3 m. The main emphasis is devoted to P-waves; however, recording of full waveform enables analyzing of S- waves and other types of waves as well. The comparison of repeated measurements is used for an assessment of changes in seismic velocities with very high-accuracy. The repetition rate of measurements can be selected from seconds; however such fast changes in the rock mass are unexpected. The ERT measurement is performed on the same rock wall using 48 electrodes. The spacing between electrodes is 20 centimeters. The conductivity of undisturbed granitic rocks is extremely low. Therefore the observed local increase of conductivity can be associated with joints and fractures saturated with water, resulting in their ionic conductivity. Repeated ERT measurement can reveal some changes in the rock mass. Due to time requirements of ERT measurement the repetition rate can be about three hours. The data collected by measuring system is transferred by means of computer network and can be accessed via internet. This contribution deals with preliminary results gained so far during the testing of developed monitoring system. Acknowledgments: This work was partially supported by the Technology Agency of the Czech Republic, project No. TA

  13. Mechanisms for mass loss from cool stars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morris, M.


    The mechanisms believed responsible for the loss of mass from cool, red giant stars are reviewed. While observations indicate that both radiation pressure on dust grains and pulsations are important, theoretical considerations indicate that neither is sufficient by itself to account for the high rates of mass loss that have been observed. The current picture involves a two-step process wherein pulsations act to levitate matter well above the photosphere to the point at which the gas is sufficiently cool for dust grains to form. Radiation pressure on the dust then drives the matter to infinity. Whereas this model is applicable to spherically symmetric mass loss, the outflowing matter in many mass-losing systems displays a pronounced bipolarity, implying axial symmetry on the large scale. A secondary star appears to be responsible for the geometry of such systems. A new scenario involving two winds is presented to describe how the bipolar geometry might be produced. 91 references.

  14. A comparative study on dynamic mechanical performance of concrete and rock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xia Zhengbing


    Full Text Available of underground cavities and field-leveling excavation. Dynamic mechanical performance of rocks has been gradually attached importance both in China and abroad. Concrete and rock are two kinds of the most frequently used engineering materials and also frequently used as experimental objects currently. To compare dynamic mechanical performance of these two materials, this study performed dynamic compression test with five different strain rates on concrete and rock using Split Hopkinson Pressure Bar (SHPB to obtain basic dynamic mechanical parameters of them and then summarized the relationship of dynamic compressive strength, peak strain and strain rate of two materials. Moreover, specific energy absorption is introduced to confirm dynamic damage mechanisms of concrete and rock materials. This work can not only help to improve working efficiency to the largest extent but also ensure the smooth development of engineering, providing rich theoretical guidance for development of related engineering in the future

  15. THM-issues in repository rock. Thermal, mechanical, thermo-mechanical and hydro-mechanical evolution of the rock at the Forsmark and Laxemar sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoekmark, Harald; Loennqvist, Margareta; Faelth, Billy (Clay Technology AB, Lund (Sweden))


    The present report addresses aspects of the Thermo-Hydro-Mechanical (THM) evolution of the repository host rock that are of potential importance to the SR-Site safety assessment of a KBS-3 type spent nuclear fuel repository. The report covers the evolution of rock temperatures, rock stresses, pore pressures and fracture transmissivities during the excavation and operational phase, the temperate phase and a glacial cycle on different scales. The glacial cycle is assumed to include a period of pre-glacial permafrost with lowered temperatures and with increased pore pressures in the rock beneath the impermeable permafrost layer. The report also addresses the question of the peak temperature reached during the early temperate phase in the bentonite buffer surrounding the spent fuel canisters. The main text is devoted exclusively to the projected THM evolution of the rock at the Forsmark site in central Sweden. The focus is on the potential for stress-induced failures, i.e. spalling, in the walls of the deposition holes and on changes in the transmissivity of fractures and deformation zones. All analyses are conducted by a combination of numerical tools (3DEC) and analytical solutions. All phases are treated separately and independently of each other, although in reality construction will overlap with heat generation because of the step-by-step excavation/deposition approach with some 50 years between deposition of the first and last canisters. It is demonstrated here that the thermal and thermo-mechanical evolution of the near-field will be independent of heat generated by canisters that were deposited in the past, provided that deposition is made in an orderly fashion, deposition area by deposition area. Peak temperatures and near-field stresses can, consequently, be calculated as if all canisters were deposited simultaneously. The canister and tunnel spacing is specified such that the peak buffer temperature will not exceed 100 deg C in any deposition hole, i.e. not

  16. Determination of Rock Mass Modulus Using the Plate Loading Method at Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finley, R.E.; George, J.T.; Riggins, M.


    A suite of plate loading tests has recently been conducted by Sandia National Laboratories at the Exploratory Studies Facility at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. Fielding of these in situ tests as well as other approaches undertaken for the determination of rock mass modulus are described. The various methodologies are evaluated and their data compared. Calculation by existing empirical methods and numerical modeling are compared to each other as well as to field data.

  17. Nondestructive testing using borehole and surface seismic techniques to evaluate rock mass damage zones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, P.P.; Stokoe, K.H. II [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States)


    A suite of seismic tests was performed at the U12g tunnel at the Nevada Test Site. The methods include borehole (crosshole and downhole) and surface (Rayleigh wave and refraction) tests. Results indicate that the different methods should be considered complimentary, and that seismic methods can sensitively evaluate magnitudes and variations of in situ rock mass stiffness. In particular, near-surface low velocity (damage) zones are delineated quite well with Rayleigh wave and downhole methods.

  18. Instrumentation program for rock mechanics and spent fuel tests at the Nevada Test Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pratt, H.R.; Hustrulid, W.H.; Simonson, R.


    This report contains a discussion of an instrumentation and rock mechanics program recommended for consideration as part of the overall Lawrence Livermore nuclear waste storage program at NTS. It includes a discussion of (1) rationale for the heater tests, spent fuel facility evaluation, heated room tests, (2) recommended instrumentation types together with estimated delivery schedules, (3) recommended instrumentation layouts, (4) other proposed rock mechanics tests both laboratory and in situ, and (5) data acquisition and reduction requirements.

  19. Workflow for the fast evaluation of rock mass properties and stability of rock slopes along trafficways in Lower Austria (United States)

    Straka, Wolfgang; Zangerl, Christian


    In Lower Austria there is a total of 17.000 km of provincial and 24.000 km of communal roads, to be maintained by the province and the municipalities. In addition, there are approx. 1.500 km of railroads, and the Danube as a major waterway. A large part of this infrastructure is, or is potentially, affected by various types of instability of adjacent slopes. Due to insufficient knowledge, as well as slope design and management practice in the past, every year, especially in connection to weather extremes, slopes known to be critical become active landslides again, and unexpected new ones arise, causing damage as well as financial stress. Engineering intervention, if possible, should be quick and effective. Geologists and engineers in public service, not having the means for detailed investigation in most cases, are using guidelines to assess the requirements to be met by slope design on traffic ways. But these guidelines don't reflect many of the newer scientific advances. Therefore, scientists at BOKU and backers in the administration want to gain more insight into causative factors, which, if successful, may render maintenance of traffic lines under critical conditions more effective and predictable. The specific project goal is to produce new guidelines to allow quick assessment of the most likely behaviour of rock masses common in the area, especially when cut into shape along infrastructure lines, using readily available information. The scientific investigations include simple and ready tests (like Schmidt hammer), as well as photogrammetry, laserscanning, and other complex geophysical and numerical techniques, but the final product (guidelines) is expected to work without such difficult methods. It is important to note, on the other hand, that the rock mass stability classification inherent in the new guidelines must allow distinction between conclusions which are safe, and conjectures which are in need of validation by contracted experts. It is planned to

  20. Rheological Characteristics of Weak Rock Mass and Effects on the Long-Term Stability of Slopes (United States)

    Yang, Tianhong; Xu, Tao; Liu, Hongyuan; Zhang, Chunming; Wang, Shanyong; Rui, Yongqin; Shen, Li


    The creep deformation behavior of the northern slope of an open-pit mine is introduced. Direct shear creep tests are then conducted for the samples taken from the northern slope to study the rheological characteristics of the rock mass. The experimental results are analyzed afterwards using an empirical method to develop a rheological model for the rock mass. The proposed rheological model is finally applied to understand the creep behavior of the northern slope, predict the long-term stability, and guide appropriate measures to be taken at suitable times to increase the factor of safety to ensure stability. Through this study, a failure criterion is proposed to predict the long-term stability of the slope based on the rheological characteristics of the rock mass and a critical deformation rate is adopted to determine when appropriate measures should be taken to ensure slope stability. The method has been successfully applied for stability analysis and engineering management of the toppling and slippage of the northern slope of the open-pit mine. This success in application indicates that it is theoretically accurate, practically feasible, and highly cost-effective.

  1. Geostatistical methods for rock mass quality prediction using borehole and geophysical survey data (United States)

    Chen, J.; Rubin, Y.; Sege, J. E.; Li, X.; Hehua, Z.


    For long, deep tunnels, the number of geotechnical borehole investigations during the preconstruction stage is generally limited. Yet tunnels are often constructed in geological structures with complex geometries, and in which the rock mass is fragmented from past structural deformations. Tunnel Geology Prediction (TGP) is a geophysical technique widely used during tunnel construction in China to ensure safety during construction and to prevent geological disasters. In this paper, geostatistical techniques were applied in order to integrate seismic velocity from TGP and borehole information into spatial predictions of RMR (Rock Mass Rating) in unexcavated areas. This approach is intended to apply conditional probability methods to transform seismic velocities to directly observed RMR values. The initial spatial distribution of RMR, inferred from the boreholes, was updated by including geophysical survey data in a co-kriging approach. The method applied to a real tunnel project shows significant improvements in rock mass quality predictions after including geophysical survey data, leading to better decision-making for construction safety design.

  2. SITE-94. Natural elemental mass movement in the vicinity of the Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, W.M.; Smith, G.M.; Towler, P.A.; Savage, D. [QuantiSci, Melton Mowbray (United Kingdom)


    The primary objective of this study is to quantify natural elemental fluxes at a location exhibiting typical characteristics of a site for a spent fuel repository in Sweden. The relevant pathways are considered to be: Groundwater transport; Glacial erosion; Non-glacial weathering; River transport. Calculations are made of elemental mass fluxes from a volume of rock equivalent to that which would hold a KBS-3 style repository. In addition, the radioactive flux associated with the natural series radionuclide mass fluxes from the repository are also calculated. These can be compared directly to performance assessment predictions of the releases from a repository. 88 refs, 13 figs, 24 tabs.

  3. Mechanism of the Two-Phase Flow Model for Water and Gas Based on Adsorption and Desorption in Fractured Coal and Rock (United States)

    Chen, Shikuo; Yang, Tianhong; Ranjith, P. G.; Wei, Chenhui


    Coalbed methane (CBM) is an important high-efficiency, clean-energy raw material with immense potential for application; however, its occurrence in low-permeability reservoirs limits its application. Hydraulic fracturing has been used in low-permeability CBM exploration and as a new technique for preventing gas hazards in coal mines. Fractures are the main pathways of fluid accumulation and migration, and they exert some control over the stability of rock mass. However, the differences in progression between the original fractures of the coal mass and the new discrete fractures caused by hydraulic fracturing remain unclear, and the unsaturated seepage flows require further study. Therefore, a cross-scale hydraulic fractured rock mass numerical model was developed by using the 3D fractured extrusion coupling variables reconstruction technique. This paper uses fracture surface parameters combined with the fractal dimension and multi-medium theory to provide a high-precision characterization and interpretation of the fracture mechanics. The mechanism of the permeability evolution of fractured coal and rock under stress-releasing mining combined with water injection was studied by considering gas adsorption and desorption as well as the coupling characteristic of seepage-stress in fractured rock masses. Aperture, contact area ratio, and stress in permeability and fracture development have a strong influence on the permeability and seepage path, which in turn control the effective radius by absolute water injection. All of these factors should be considered when studying the structural characteristics of rock masses.

  4. Mechanisms of continental subduction and exhumation of HP and UHP rocks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burov, Evgene; Francois, Thomas; Yamato, Philippe; Wolf, Sylvie

    We discuss possible scenarios of continental collision, and their relation to mechanisms of exhumation of HP and UHP rocks, inferred from thermo-mechanical numerical models accounting for thermo-rheological complexity of the continental lithosphere. Due to this complexity, mechanisms of continental


    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Malwina Kolano; Danuta Flisiak


    .... The present article introduces strength-strain properties of white rock salt, building the nucleus of northeastern edge anticline, and pink rock salt that belongs to the series of youngest rock salt...

  6. Mechanisms of recharge in a fractured porous rock aquifer in a semi-arid region (United States)

    Manna, Ferdinando; Walton, Kenneth M.; Cherry, John A.; Parker, Beth L.


    Eleven porewater profiles in rock core from an upland exposed sandstone vadose zone in southern California, with thickness varying between 10 and 62 m, were analyzed for chloride (Cl) concentration to examine recharge mechanisms, estimate travel times in the vadose zone, assess spatial and temporal variability of recharge, and determine effects of land use changes on recharge. As a function of their location and the local terrain, the profiles were classified into four groups reflecting the range of site characteristics. Century- to millennium-average recharge varied from 4 to 23 mm y-1, corresponding to tested by simulating transient Cl transport along a physically based narrow column using a discrete fracture-matrix numerical model. Using a new approach based on partitioning both water and Cl between matrix and fracture flow, porewater was dated and vertical displacement rates estimated to range in the sandstone matrix from 3 to 19 cm y-1. Moreover, the temporal variability of recharge was estimated and, along each profile, past recharge rates calculated based on the sequence of Cl concentrations in the vadose zone. Recharge rates increased at specific times coincident with historical changes in land use. The consistency between the timing of land use modifications and changes in Cl concentration and the match between observed and simulated Cl concentration values in the vadose zone provide confidence in porewater age estimates, travel times, recharge estimates, and reconstruction of recharge histories. This study represents an advancement of the application of the chloride mass balance method to simultaneously determine recharge mechanisms and reconstruct location-specific recharge histories in fractured porous rock aquifers. The proposed approach can be applied worldwide at sites with similar climatic and geologic characteristics.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siniša Dunda


    Full Text Available The appearance of increased stresses and deformability of rock mass in the quarry of Zečevo (exploitation field of Selca – island of Brač has caused a considerable decrease of usability of mineral raw materials, which put into question the survival of the pit. Therefore the research and measurements of the state of stresses and deformability of rock mass within the pit were carried out. Besides detailed laboratory testings (testings on small samples performed were trial in-situ testings on large samples including the corresponding numerical analyses. The exploitation of dimension stone by sowing regularly shaped rectangular blocks has been proved to be appropriate for in-situ testing of bending strength. The paper presents the results of carried out laboratory testings, in-situ testings of bending strength including measuring of deformations after sowing cuts and numerical analyses by which the possible range of horizontal stresses was determined. Since for the case of massive rocks, for which the continuum concept is applied, there are no specifically defined methods of corrections, presented is a possible relation for correction of input size values based on the carried out laboratory and in-situ testings.

  8. Mathematical modeling of seismic explosion waves impact on rock mass with a working

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    А. П. Господариков


    Full Text Available In the article, within the framework of the dynamic theory of elasticity, a mathematical model of the impact of seismic blast waves on rock mass is presented, including a working. The increase in the volume of mining operations in complex mining and geological conditions, taking into account the influence of the explosion energy, is closely connected with the analysis of the main parameters of the stress-strain state of the rock massif including a working. The latter leads to the need to determine the safe parameters of drilling and blasting operations that ensure the operational state of mining. The main danger in detonation of an explosive charge near an active working is a seismic explosive wave which characteristics are determined by the properties of soil and parameters of drilling and blasting operations. The determination of stress fields and displacement velocities in rock mass requires the use of a modern mathematical apparatus for its solution. For numerical solution of the given boundary value problem by the method of finite differences, an original calculation-difference scheme is constructed. The application of the splitting method for solving a two-dimensional boundary value problem is reduced to the solution of spatially one-dimensional differential equations. For the obtained numerical algorithm, an effective computational software has been developed. Numerical solutions of the model problem are given for the case when the shape of the working has a form of an ellipse.

  9. Review of important rock mechanics studies required for underground high level nuclear waste repository program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, S.; Cho, W. J


    Disposal concept adapting room and pillar method, which is a confirmed technique in mining and tunnel construction for long time, has advantages at cost, safety, technical feasibility, flexibility, and international cooperation point of views. Then the important rock mechanics principals and in situ and laboratory tests for understanding the behavior of rock, buffer, and backfill as well as their interactions will be reviewed. The accurate understanding of them is important for developing a safe disposal concept and successful operation of underground repository for permanent disposal of radioactive wastes. First of all, In this study, current status of rock mechanics studies for HLW disposal in foreign countries such as Sweden, USA, Canada, Finland, Japan, and France were reviewed. After then the in situ and laboratory tests for site characterization were summarized. Furthermore, rock mechanics studies required during the whole procedure for the disposal project from repository design to the final closure will be reviewed systematically. This study will help for developing a disposal system including site selection, repository design, operation, maintenance, and closure of a repository in deep underground rock. By introducing the required rock mechanics tests at different stages, it would be helpful from the planning stage to the operation stage of a radioactive waste disposal project.

  10. Development of a quantitative model for the mechanism of raveling failure in highway rock slopes using LIDAR. (United States)


    Rock falls on highways while dangerous are unpredictable. Most rock falls are of the raveling type and not conducive to stability : calculations, and even the failure mechanisms are not well understood. LIDAR (LIght Detection And Ranging) has been sh...

  11. Assessment of rock wool as support material for on-site sanitation: hydrodynamic and mechanical characterization. (United States)

    Wanko, Adrien; Laurent, Julien; Bois, Paul; Mosé, Robert; Wagner-Kocher, Christiane; Bahlouli, Nadia; Tiffay, Serge; Braun, Bouke; Provo kluit, Pieter-Willem


    This study proposes mechanical and hydrodynamic characterization of rock wool used as support material in compact filter. A double-pronged approach, based on experimental simulation of various physical states of this material was done. First of all a scanning electron microscopy observation allows to highlight the fibrous network structure, the fibres sizing distribution and the atomic absorption spectrum. The material was essentially lacunar with 97 ± 2% of void space. Static compression tests on variably saturated rock wool samples provide the fact that the strain/stress behaviours depend on both the sample conditioning and the saturation level. Results showed that water exerts plastifying effect on mechanical behaviour of rock wool. The load-displacement curves and drainage evolution under different water saturation levels allowed exhibiting hydraulic retention capacities under stress. Finally, several tracer experiments on rock wool column considering continuous and batch feeding flow regime allowed: (i) to determine the flow model for each test case and the implications for water dynamic in rock wool medium, (ii) to assess the rock wool double porosity and discuss its advantages for wastewater treatment, (iii) to analyse the benefits effect for water treatment when the high level of rock wool hydric retention was associated with the plug-flow effect, and (iv) to discuss the practical contributions for compact filter conception and management.

  12. Deformation mechanisms in a coal mine roadway in extremely swelling soft rock. (United States)

    Li, Qinghai; Shi, Weiping; Yang, Renshu


    The problem of roadway support in swelling soft rock was one of the challenging problems during mining. For most geological conditions, combinations of two or more supporting approaches could meet the requirements of most roadways; however, in extremely swelling soft rock, combined approaches even could not control large deformations. The purpose of this work was to probe the roadway deformation mechanisms in extremely swelling soft rock. Based on the main return air-way in a coal mine, deformation monitoring and geomechanical analysis were conducted, as well as plastic zone mechanical model was analysed. Results indicated that this soft rock was potentially very swelling. When the ground stress acted alone, the support strength needed in situ was not too large and combined supporting approaches could meet this requirement; however, when this potential released, the roadway would undergo permanent deformation. When the loose zone reached 3 m within surrounding rock, remote stress p ∞ and supporting stress P presented a linear relationship. Namely, the greater the swelling stress, the more difficult it would be in roadway supporting. So in this extremely swelling soft rock, a better way to control roadway deformation was to control the releasing of surrounding rock's swelling potential.

  13. Effects of Freezing and Thawing Cycle on Mechanical Properties and Stability of Soft Rock Slope

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanlong Chen


    Full Text Available To explore the variation laws of mechanical parameters of soft rock and the formed slope stability, an experiment was carried out with collected soft rock material specimens and freezing and thawing cycle was designed. Meanwhile, a computational simulation analysis of the freezing-thawing slope stability was implemented. Key factors that influence the strength of frozen rock specimens were analyzed. Results showed that moisture content and the number of freezing-thawing cycles influenced mechanical parameters of soft rock significantly. With the increase of moisture content, cohesion of frozen soft rock specimens presents a quadratic function decrease and the internal friction angle shows a negative exponential decrease. The stability coefficient of soft rock material slope in seasonal freeze soil area declines continuously. With the increase of freezing and thawing cycle, both cohesion and internal friction angle of soft rock decrease exponentially. The higher the moisture content, the quicker the reduction. Such stability coefficient presents a negative exponential reduction. After three freezing and thawing cycles, the slope stability coefficient only changes slightly. Findings were finally verified by the filed database.

  14. The impact of the structural features of the rock mass on seismicity in Polish coal mines (United States)

    Patyńska, Renata


    The article presents seismic activity induced in the coal mines of the Upper Silesian Coal Basin (GZW) in relation to the locations of the occurrence of rockbursts. The comparison of these measurements with the structural features of the rock mass of coal mines indicates the possibility of estimating the so-called Unitary Energy Expenditure (UEE) in a specific time. The obtained values of UEE were compared with the distribution of seismic activity in GZW mines. The level of seismic activity in the analysed period changed and depended on the intensity of mining works and diverse mining and geological conditions. Five regions, where tremors occurred (Bytom Trough, Main Saddle, Main Trough, Kazimierz Trough, and Jejkowice and Chwałowice Trough) which belong to various structural units of the Upper Silesia were analyzed. It was found out that rock bursts were recorded only in three regions: Main Saddle, Bytom Trough, and Jejkowice and Chwałowice Trough.

  15. Numerical simulations of failure behavior around a circular opening in a non-persistently jointed rock mass under biaxial compression

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Yang Xuxu Jing Hongwen Chen Kunfu


    .... In present study, the failure behavior in both Inner and Outer zones around a circular opening in a non-persistently jointed rock mass under biaxial compression was investigated through numerical simulations...

  16. New Approaches for Teaching Soil and Rock Mechanics Using Information and Communication Technologies


    Tomás, Roberto; Cano, Miguel; Santamarta, Juan C.; Hernández-Gutiérrez, Luis E.


    Soil and rock mechanics are disciplines with a strong conceptual and methodological basis. Initially, when engineering students study these subjects, they have to understand new theoretical phenomena, which are explained through mathematical and/or physical laws (e.g. consolidation process, water flow through a porous media). In addition to the study of these phenomena, students have to learn how to carry out estimations of soil and rock parameters in laboratories according to standard tests....

  17. Features of the Energy Balance and Fragmentation Mechanisms at Spontaneous Failure of Class I and Class II Rocks (United States)

    Tarasov, Boris G.; Stacey, Thomas R.


    Practically, all types of rockbursts are accompanied by release of seismic energy, rock bulking (due to fracturing and fragmentation), and ejection of fragmented rocks in the opening. Principles of the energy redistribution during rockbursts in some regards are comparable with principles taking place at spontaneous failure of rock specimens under compression in loading systems. In both cases, the total potential elastic energy accumulated in the failing material and in the loading system (or surrounding rock mass) is converted into such components of dynamic energy as rupture energy, seismic energy (or energy of oscillation of the loading system due to dynamic energy release), and kinetic energy of flying fragments of the failed material. It is known that spontaneous failure takes place at the post-peak failure stage and is determined by the ratio between stiffness of the loading system and stiffness (or brittleness) of the failing material. However, principles of the energy redistribution between different components of the energy balance are still unclear. The paper discusses results of laboratory experiments conducted on rock specimens of different brittleness (including Class I and Class II) that were loaded in testing machines of different loading stiffness. The most brittle of the tested specimens are represented by quartzite and glass, and the less brittle by salt. The loading stiffness of testing machines used in experiments was variable within three decimal orders of magnitude. The specific variations of the dynamic energy balance depending on rock brittleness and loading stiffness were established. The role of each portion of elastic energy stemming from the specimen and from the loading system in determining the dynamic energy balance and fragmentation mechanisms operating at spontaneous failure is analysed. The results obtained contribute to the understanding of dynamic processes taking place during rockbursts.

  18. Correlating mode-I fracture toughness and mechanical properties of heat-treated crystalline rocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayukh Talukdar


    Full Text Available For the effect of thermal treatment on the mode-I fracture toughness (FT, three crystalline rocks (two basalts and one tonalite were experimentally investigated. Semi-circular bend specimens of the rocks were prepared following the method suggested by the International Society for Rock Mechanics (ISRM and were treated at various temperatures ranging from room temperature (25 °C to 600 °C. Mode-I FT was correlated with tensile strength (TS, ultrasonic velocities, and Young's modulus (YM. Additionally, petrographic and X-ray diffraction analyses were carried out to find the chemical changes resulting from the heat treatment. Further, scanning electron microscopy (SEM was conducted to observe the micro structural changes when subjected to high temperatures. These experiments demonstrate that heat treatment has a strong negative impact on the FT and mechanical properties of the rocks. From room temperature to 600 °C, mode-I FT values of massive basalt, giant plagioclase basalt, and tonalite were reduced by nearly 52%, 68%, and 64%, respectively. Also, at all temperature levels, FT and mechanical properties are found to be exponentially correlated. However, the exact nature of the relationship mainly depends on rock type. Besides, TS was found to be a better indicator of degradation degree than the mode-I FT. SEM images show that micro crack density and structural disintegration of the mineral grains increase with temperature. These physical changes confirm the observed reduction in the stiffness of heat-treated crystalline rocks.

  19. Hydrogeology characterization of roto-translational slides in flysch rock masses (United States)

    Ronchetti, F.; Borgatti, L.; Cervi, F.; Corsini, A.; Piccinini, L.; Vincenzi, V.; Truffelli, G.


    The hydrogeological characteristics of roto-traslational slides in flysch are complex, due to the inherent anisotropy and heterogeneity of such rock masses. The paper deals with the hydrogeological characterization of a reactivated roto-translational slide affecting Cretaceous flysch, located in the Northern Apennines of Italy. In situ permeability and pumping test, continuous monitoring of groundwater levels, hydrochemical and isotope analyses, and finally uranine tracers were the adopted prospecting methods. The landslide sector classified as rock slide extends for about 0.5 km2 and is characterized by a marked active sliding surface at 40 m depth. Borehole cores showed an upper 10-20 m landslide layer made of clayey debris, and a lower 20 m landslide layer made of highly fractured sandstone-rich flysch. Below sliding surface the flysch is much less fractured and it is overlying a clayey mélange. The hydraulic conductivity of both layers of the rock slide body was estimated with more than ten borehole permeability tests and by 5 slug-tests in open-pipe piezometers. Results highlighted a variability of permeability at different depths and locations, between 10-6 to 10-8 m/s, linked to fracturing of rock masses and to clay fraction. Groundwater levels were monitored for more than 3 years by means of transducers in 5 standpipe piezometers, fissured above or below the sliding surface. Results showed that two overlaying aquifers exist at the slope scale: an unconfined one, in the fractured flysch of the rock slide; a confined one, in the undisturbed flysch below sliding surface. Pore pressure in the unconfined aquifer is controlled by rainfall, with fluctuation of several meters occurring hours or days from onset of precipitation. On the contrary, pore pressure in the confined aquifer shows little response to precipitation events, has fluctuations of few meters related to seasonal trends, and maintains pressure head higher than that in the unconfined one. This makes

  20. Geo-engineering evaluation of Termaber basalt rock mass for crushed stone aggregate and building stone from Central Ethiopia (United States)

    Engidasew, Tesfaye Asresahagne; Barbieri, Giulio


    The geology of the central part of Ethiopia exhibits a variety of rock types that can potentially be developed for construction stone production, of which the most wide spread and important one is the Termaber basalt. Even though some preliminary work is done on these rocks towards construction material application, it remains largely that this resource is untouched and needs further scientific characterization for the use in large scale industrial application. Basaltic rocks have been widely used in many parts of the world as concrete aggregate and dimension stone for various civil structures. The present research study was carried out for Geo-engineering evaluation of Termaber basalt rock mass for crushed stone aggregate and building stone from Central Ethiopia (around Debre Birhan). The main objective of the present research study was to assess the general suitability of the Termaber basalt to be used as coarse aggregate for concrete mix and/or to utilize it as cut stone at industrial level. Only choice made with full knowledge of the basic characteristics of the material, of its performance and durability against the foreseen solicitations will ensure the necessary quality of the stone work and thereby a possibility to reach its intended service life. In order to meet out the objective of the present study, data from both field and laboratory were collected and analyzed. The field data included geological investigations based on different methods and sample collection while the laboratory work included, uniaxial compressive strength, ultrasonic pulse velocity, dynamic elasticity modulus, bulk density, water absorption, specific gravity, open porosity, aggregate impact value, petrographic examination and XRF, aggregate crushing value, Los Angeles abrasion value, sodium sulfate soundness, X-ray diffraction and alkali silica reactivity tests. The field and laboratory data were compiled and compared together to reveal the engineering performance of the rock mass in

  1. Assessment of Rock Mass Stability in the Historic Area of Levels IV-V of the "Wieliczka" Salt Mine (United States)

    d'Obyrn, Kajetan; Hydzik-Wiśniewska, Joanna


    from the surface to level V. Numerical calculations were performed using FLAC programme based on the finite difference method, allowing to observe the mechanisms and processes of destruction and deformation. The calculations were performed for the elastic-plastic medium with the Mohr-Coulomb failure criterium. The choice of this computational model was dictated by a very diverse geological structure of the Wieliczka rock mass and a complex system of excavations.

  2. Bolt-Grout Interactions in Elastoplastic Rock Mass Using Coupled FEM-FDM Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debasis Deb


    Full Text Available Numerical procedure based on finite element method (FEM and finite difference method (FDM for the analysis of bolt-grout interactions are introduced in this paper. The finite element procedure incorporates elasto-plastic concepts with Hoek and Brown yield criterion and has been applied for rock mass. Bolt-grout interactions are evaluated based on finite difference method and are embedded in the elasto-plastic procedures of FEM. The experimental validation of the proposed FEM-FDM procedures and numerical examples of a bolted tunnel are provided to demonstrate the efficacy of the proposed method for practical applications.

  3. Rock mass diagnostics based on microseismic monitoring data at Sheregesh deposit (United States)

    Lobanova, TV; Lindin, GL; Trofimova, OL; Shultaev, SK; Prib, VV


    Distribution of seismic events in rocks mass around a mineral deposit is studied, it is found that the distribution features conform with the local blasting operations and geology. Epicenters of concentration zones of seismic events are detected in the area of stoping and faulting between two ore locuses. Weakening planes generated under four chronologically ordered shocks are indentified. Occurrence of these planes is characterized, and the stress redistribution after blasting is analyzed. The authors apply an integrated approach to rockburst hazard prediction, including calculus of apparent velocity of migration of seismic events during the first ten minutes after a blast and the rockburst probability assessment.

  4. FE Analysis of Rock with Hydraulic-Mechanical Coupling Based on Continuum Damage Evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongliang Wang


    Full Text Available A numerical finite element (FE analysis technology is presented for efficient and reliable solutions of rock with hydraulic-mechanical (HM coupling, researching the seepage characteristics and simulating the damage evolution of rock. To be in accord with the actual situation, the rock is naturally viewed as heterogeneous material, in which Young’s modulus, permeability, and strength property obey the typical Weibull distribution function. The classic Biot constitutive relation for rock as porous medium is introduced to establish a set of equations coupling with elastic solid deformation and seepage flow. The rock is subsequently developed into a novel conceptual and practical model considering the damage evolution of Young’s modulus and permeability, in which comprehensive utilization of several other auxiliary technologies, for example, the Drucker-Prager strength criterion, the statistical strength theory, and the continuum damage evolution, yields the damage variable calculating technology. To this end, an effective and reliable numerical FE analysis strategy is established. Numerical examples are given to show that the proposed method can establish heterogeneous rock model and be suitable for different load conditions and furthermore to demonstrate the effectiveness and reliability in the seepage and damage characteristics analysis for rock.

  5. Interactive evolution concept for analyzing a rock salt cavern under cyclic thermo-mechanical loading (United States)

    König, Diethard; Mahmoudi, Elham; Khaledi, Kavan; von Blumenthal, Achim; Schanz, Tom


    The excess electricity produced by renewable energy sources available during off-peak periods of consumption can be used e.g. to produce and compress hydrogen or to compress air. Afterwards the pressurized gas is stored in the rock salt cavities. During this process, thermo-mechanical cyclic loading is applied to the rock salt surrounding the cavern. Compared to the operation of conventional storage caverns in rock salt the frequencies of filling and discharging cycles and therefore the thermo-mechanical loading cycles are much higher, e.g. daily or weekly compared to seasonally or yearly. The stress strain behavior of rock salt as well as the deformation behavior and the stability of caverns in rock salt under such loading conditions are unknown. To overcome this, existing experimental studies have to be supplemented by exploring the behavior of rock salt under combined thermo-mechanical cyclic loading. Existing constitutive relations have to be extended to cover degradation of rock salt under thermo-mechanical cyclic loading. At least the complex system of a cavern in rock salt under these loading conditions has to be analyzed by numerical modeling taking into account the uncertainties due to limited access in large depth to investigate material composition and properties. An interactive evolution concept is presented to link the different components of such a study - experimental modeling, constitutive modeling and numerical modeling. A triaxial experimental setup is designed to characterize the cyclic thermo-mechanical behavior of rock salt. The imposed boundary conditions in the experimental setup are assumed to be similar to the stress state obtained from a full-scale numerical simulation. The computational model relies primarily on the governing constitutive model for predicting the behavior of rock salt cavity. Hence, a sophisticated elasto-viscoplastic creep constitutive model is developed to take into account the dilatancy and damage progress, as well as

  6. Some Open Issues on Rockfall Hazard Analysis in Fractured Rock Mass: Problems and Prospects (United States)

    Ferrero, Anna Maria; Migliazza, Maria Rita; Pirulli, Marina; Umili, Gessica


    Risk is part of every sector of engineering design. It is a consequence of the uncertainties connected with the cognitive boundaries and with the natural variability of the relevant variables. In soil and rock engineering, in particular, uncertainties are linked to geometrical and mechanical aspects and the model used for the problem schematization. While the uncertainties due to the cognitive gaps could be filled by improving the quality of numerical codes and measuring instruments, nothing can be done to remove the randomness of natural variables, except defining their variability with stochastic approaches. Probabilistic analyses represent a useful tool to run parametric analyses and to identify the more significant aspects of a given phenomenon: They can be used for a rational quantification and mitigation of risk. The connection between the cognitive level and the probability of failure is at the base of the determination of hazard, which is often quantified through the assignment of safety factors. But these factors suffer from conceptual limits, which can be only overcome by adopting mathematical techniques with sound bases, not so used up to now (Einstein et al. in rock mechanics in civil and environmental engineering, CRC Press, London, 3-13, 2010; Brown in J Rock Mech Geotech Eng 4(3):193-204, 2012). The present paper describes the problems and the more reliable techniques used to quantify the uncertainties that characterize the large number of parameters that are involved in rock slope hazard assessment through a real case specifically related to rockfall. Limits of the existing approaches and future developments of the research are also provided.

  7. Mechanical properties and energy conversion of 3D close-packed lattice model for brittle rocks (United States)

    Liu, Chun; Xu, Qiang; Shi, Bin; Deng, Shang; Zhu, Honghu


    Numerical simulations using the 3D discrete element method can yield mechanical and dynamic behaviors similar to rocks and grains. In the model, rock is represented by bonded elements, which are arranged on a tetrahedral lattice. The conversion formulas between inter-element parameters and rock mechanical properties were derived. By using the formulas, inter-element parameters can be determined according to mechanical properties of model, including Young's modulus, Poisson's ratio, tensile strength (Tu), compressive strength (Cu) and coefficient of internal friction. The energy conversion rules of the model are proposed. Based on the methods, a Matlab code "MatDEM" was developed. Numerical models of quartzite were used to validate the formulas. The tested mechanical properties of a single unit correspond reasonably well with the values of quartzite. Tested Tu and Cu with multiple elements are lower than the values predicted by the formulas. In the simulation of rock failure processes, mechanical energy conversed between different forms and heat is generated, but the mechanical energy plus heat always remains constant. Variations of breaking heat and frictional heat provide clues of the fracturing and slipping behaviors of the Tu and Cu tests. The model may be applied to a wide range of geological structures that involve breakage at multiple scales, heat generation and dynamic processes.

  8. Application of rock mechanics to cut-and-fill mining. Volume 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    The conference on application of rock mechanics to cut-and-fill mining was held June 1-3, 1980, at the University of Luleaa, Luleaa, Sweden. Basic rock mechanics investigations of interest involving improving the support characteristics of backfilling by adding cement, compacting, and water removal have been entered individually into EDB. The papers also cover measurements of the support capability of such fills and the application of deformation measurements and calculations using finite element computer codes to the mining of particular ore bodies, including changes in the calculations as the mining progressed. (LTN)

  9. Stress-dependent permeability of fractured rock masses: A numerical study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Min, Ki-Bok; Rutqvist, J.; Tsang, Chin-Fu; Jing, Lanru


    We investigate the stress-dependent permeability issue in fractured rock masses considering the effects of nonlinear normal deformation and shear dilation of fractures using a two-dimensional distinct element method program, UDEC, based on a realistic discrete fracture network realization. A series of ''numerical'' experiments were conducted to calculate changes in the permeability of simulated fractured rock masses under various loading conditions. Numerical experiments were conducted in two ways: (1) increasing the overall stresses with a fixed ratio of horizontal to vertical stresses components; and (2) increasing the differential stresses (i.e., the difference between the horizontal and vertical stresses) while keeping the magnitude of vertical stress constant. These numerical experiments show that the permeability of fractured rocks decreases with increased stress magnitudes when the stress ratio is not large enough to cause shear dilation of fractures, whereas permeability increases with increased stress when the stress ratio is large enough. Permeability changes at low stress levels are more sensitive than at high stress levels due to the nonlinear fracture normal stress-displacement relation. Significant stress-induced channeling is observed as the shear dilation causes the concentration of fluid flow along connected shear fractures. Anisotropy of permeability emerges with the increase of differential stresses, and this anisotropy can become more prominent with the influence of shear dilation and localized flow paths. A set of empirical equations in closed-form, accounting for both normal closure and shear dilation of the fractures, is proposed to model the stress-dependent permeability. These equations prove to be in good agreement with the results obtained from our numerical experiments.

  10. Impact of rock mass temperature on potential power and electricity generation in the ORC installation (United States)

    Kaczmarczyk, Michał


    The basic source of information for determining the temperature distribution in the rock mass and thus the potential for thermal energy contained in geothermal water conversion to electricity, are: temperature measurements in stable geothermic conditions, temperature measurements in unstable conditions, measurements of maximum temperatures at the bottom of the well. Incorrect temperature estimation can lead to errors during thermodynamic parameters calculation and consequently economic viability of the project. The analysis was performed for the geothermal water temperature range of 86-100°C, for dry working fluid R245fa. As a result of the calculations, the data indicate an increase in geothermal power as the geothermal water temperature increases. At 86°C, the potential power is 817.48 kW, increases to 912.20 kW at 88°C and consequently to 1 493.34 kW at 100°C. These results are not surprising, but show a scale of error in assessing the potential that can result improper interpretation of the rock mass and geothermal waters temperature.

  11. A Model of Equilibrium Conditions of Roof Rock Mass Giving Consideration to the Yielding Capacity of Powered Supports (United States)

    Jaszczuk, Marek; Pawlikowski, Arkadiusz


    The work presents the model of interactions between the powered roof support units and the rock mass, while giving consideration to the yielding capacity of the supports - a value used for the analysis of equilibrium conditions of roof rock mass strata in geological and mining conditions of a given longwall. In the model, the roof rock mass is kept in equilibrium by: support units, the seam, goafs, and caving rocks (Fig. 1). In the assumed model of external load on the powered roof support units it is a new development - in relation to the model applied in selection of supports based on the allowable deflection of roof theory - that the load bearing capacity is dependent on the increment of the inclination of the roof rock mass and on the properties of the working medium, while giving consideration to the air pockets in the hydraulic systems, the load of the caving rocks on the caving shield, introducing the RA support value of the roof rock mass by the coal seam as a closed-form expression and while giving consideration to the additional support provided by the rocks of the goaf as a horizontal component R01H of the goaf reaction. To determine the roof maintenance conditions it is necessary to know the characteristics linking the yielding capacity of the support units with the heading convergence, which may be measured as the inclination angle of the roof rock mass. In worldwide mining, Ground Reaction Curves are used, which allow to determine the required yielding capacity of support units based on the relation between the load exerted on the unit and the convergence of the heading ensuring the equilibrium of the roof rock mass. (Figs. 4 and 8). The equilibrium of the roof rock mass in given conditions is determined at the displacement of the rock mass by the α angle, which impacts the following values: yielding capacity of units FN, vertical component of goaf reaction R01V and the horizontal component of goaf reaction R01H. In the model of load on the support

  12. Processes and mechanisms governing hard rock cliff erosion in western Brittany, France (United States)

    Laute, Katja; Letortu, Pauline; Le Dantec, Nicolas


    The evolution of rocky coasts is controlled by the interplay between subaerial, marine as well as biological processes, and the geological context. In times of ongoing climate change it is difficult to predict how these erosional landscapes will respond for example to anticipated sea-level rise or to an increase in storminess. However, it can be expected that changes in the morphodynamics of rocky coasts will have a noticeable effect on society and infrastructure. Recent studies have proven that monitoring cliff micro-seismic ground motion has been very effective in exploring both marine and atmospheric actions on coastal cliffs. But only few studies have focused so far on the effects of wave loading and water circulation (runoff, infiltration, water table variations) on cliff stability and subsequent erosion, considering the interaction between subaerial and marine processes. This project focuses on the identification and quantification of environmental controls on hard rock cliff erosion with an emphasis on discriminating the relative contributions of subaerial and marine processes. We aim at relating different sources of mechanical stress (e.g. wave loading, direct wave impact, hydrostatic pressure, thermal expansion) to cliff-scale strain (cliff-top swaying and shaking) and micro-fracturing (generation, expansion and contraction of micro-cracks) with the objective to unravel and discriminate triggering mechanisms of cliff failure. A four-month monitoring field experiment during the winter period (February-May) of 2017 is carried out at a cliff face located in Porsmilin beach (western Brittany, France). The selected cliff section is exposed to Atlantic swell from the south/southwest with a significant wave height of ca. 1.5 m on average and, reaching up to 4 m during storm events. The cliff rises ca. 20 m above the beach and is mainly formed of orthogneiss with intrusions of granodiorite. The entire cliff is highly fractured and altered, which can promote slope

  13. Landslides and other mass movements near TA-33, northern White Rock Canyon, New Mexico. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dethier, D.P.


    Massive slump complexes and at least two rock avalanches flank the eastern rim of the Pajarito Plateau along northern White Rock Canyon, north of TA-33. Landslides failed along mechanically weak rocks in the Santa Fe Group, within the Puye Formation, or in Pliocene alluvial and lacustrine units. The landslides are mainly of early or middle Pleistocene age. The toe area of at least,one slump complex has been active in the late Pleistocene, damming White Rock Canyon near the mouth of Water Canyon. Lacustrine sediment that filled this lake, or series of lakes, to an elevation of at least 1710 m is preserved at a number of upstream sites, including a deposit near the Buckman townsite that exposes 30 m of lacustrine sediment. Charcoal collected at several sites has been submitted for {sup 14}C dating. Landslides, however, probably do not represent a significant short-term threat to the material disposal areas at TA-33. Bedrock that lies beneath the TA-33 mesa is relatively stable, the mesa shows no signs of incipient failure, and past periods of slide activity were responses to rapid downcutting of the Rio Grande and climate change, probably over periods of several decades, at least. Rockfall and headward erosion of gullies do not represent significant decadal hazards on canyon rims near TA-33. Gully migration near MDA-K is a potential threat, but the gullies were not examined in detail. A system of north-trending faults, at least one of which displays Pleistocene activity, bisects the TA-33 mesa. If these faults are capable of producing significant seismic shaking, generalizations about landslide and rockfall hazards must be reevaluated.

  14. Effect of particle shape on mechanical behaviors of rocks: a numerical study using clumped particle model. (United States)

    Rong, Guan; Liu, Guang; Hou, Di; Zhou, Chuang-Bing


    Since rocks are aggregates of mineral particles, the effect of mineral microstructure on macroscopic mechanical behaviors of rocks is inneglectable. Rock samples of four different particle shapes are established in this study based on clumped particle model, and a sphericity index is used to quantify particle shape. Model parameters for simulation in PFC are obtained by triaxial compression test of quartz sandstone, and simulation of triaxial compression test is then conducted on four rock samples with different particle shapes. It is seen from the results that stress thresholds of rock samples such as crack initiation stress, crack damage stress, and peak stress decrease with the increasing of the sphericity index. The increase of sphericity leads to a drop of elastic modulus and a rise in Poisson ratio, while the decreasing sphericity usually results in the increase of cohesion and internal friction angle. Based on volume change of rock samples during simulation of triaxial compression test, variation of dilation angle with plastic strain is also studied.

  15. Rock fragmentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, W.S.; Green, S.J.; Hakala, W.W.; Hustrulid, W.A.; Maurer, W.C. (eds.)


    Experts in rock mechanics, mining, excavation, drilling, tunneling and use of underground space met to discuss the relative merits of a wide variety of rock fragmentation schemes. Information is presented on novel rock fracturing techniques; tunneling using electron beams, thermocorer, electric spark drills, water jets, and diamond drills; and rock fracturing research needs for mining and underground construction. (LCL)

  16. Mechanical defradation of Emplacement Drifts at Yucca Mountain- A Modeling Case Study. Part I: Nonlithophysal Rock

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M. Lin; D. Kicker; B. Damjanac; M. Board; M. Karakouzian


    This paper outlines rock mechanics investigations associated with mechanical degradation of planned emplacement drifts at Yucca Mountain, which is the designated site for the proposed U.S. high-level nuclear waste repository. The factors leading to drift degradation include stresses from the overburden, stresses induced by the heat released from the emplaced waste, stresses due to seismically related ground motions, and time-dependent strength degradation. The welded tuff emplacement horizon consists of two groups of rock with distinct engineering properties: nonlithophysal units and lithophysal units, based on the relative proportion of lithophysal cavities. The term 'lithophysal' refers to hollow, bubble like cavities in volcanic rock that are surrounded by a porous rim formed by fine-grained alkali feldspar, quartz, and other minerals. Lithophysae are typically a few centimeters to a few decimeters in diameter. Part I of the paper concentrates on the generally hard, strong, and fractured nonlithophysal rock. The degradation behavior of the tunnels in the nonlithophysal rock is controlled by the occurrence of keyblocks. A statistically equivalent fracture model was generated based on extensive underground fracture mapping data from the Exploratory Studies Facility at Yucca Mountain. Three-dimensional distinct block analyses, generated with the fracture patterns randomly selected from the fracture model, were developed with the consideration of in situ, thermal, and seismic loads. In this study, field data, laboratory data, and numerical analyses are well integrated to provide a solution for the unique problem of modeling drift degradation.

  17. Deterioration Mechanisms and Durability of Sprayed Concrete for Rock Support in Tunnels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hagelia, P.


    Steel fibre reinforced sprayed concretes used for rock support in tunnels are subjected to variable and complex exposure conditions. Structurally weakened concretes (5 to 35 years old) were investigated with respect to deterioration mechanisms, sources of aggressive agents and related engineering

  18. Experimental Investigation of the Influence of Joint Geometric Configurations on the Mechanical Properties of Intermittent Jointed Rock Models Under Cyclic Uniaxial Compression (United States)

    Liu, Yi; Dai, Feng; Fan, Pengxian; Xu, Nuwen; Dong, Lu


    Intermittent joints in rock mass are quite sensitive to cyclic loading conditions. Understanding the fatigue mechanical properties of jointed rocks is beneficial for rational design and stability analysis of rock engineering projects. This study experimentally investigated the influences of joint geometry (i.e., dip angle, persistency, density and spacing) on the fatigue mechanism of synthetic jointed rock models. Our results revealed that the stress-strain curve of jointed rock under cyclic loadings is dominated by its curve under monotonic uniaxial loadings; the terminal strain in fatigue curve is equal to the post-peak strain corresponding to the maximum cyclic stress in the monotonic stress-strain curve. The four joint geometrical parameters studied significantly affect the fatigue properties of jointed rocks, including the irreversible strains, the fatigue deformation modulus, the energy evolution, the damage variable and the crack coalescence patterns. The higher the values of the geometrical parameters, the lower the elastic energy stores in this jointed rock, the higher the fatigue damage accumulates in the first few cycles, and the lower the fatigue life. The elastic energy has certain storage limitation, at which the fatigue failure occurs. Two basic micro-cracks, i.e., tensile wing crack and shear crack, are observed in cyclic loading and unloading tests, which are controlled principally by joint dip angle and persistency. In general, shear cracks only occur in the jointed rock with higher dip angle or higher persistency, and the jointed rock is characterized by lower fatigue strength, larger damage variable and lower fatigue life.

  19. Albite [yields] jadeite + quartz transformation in rock: Mechanism and kinetics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bohlen, S.R.; Kirby, S.H. (Geological Survey, Menlo Park, CA (United States)); Hacker, B.R.


    Recent work on the calcite [yields] aragonite transformation using fully dense marble revealed significant differences from earlier experiments on powders and single-crystals. The reaction rate is retarded by a factor of > 1,000 and reaction mechanisms and resultant textures are considerably more complex. Stimulated by this, the authors conducted a study of the albite [yields] jadeite + quartz/coesite transformation in a fully dense albitite. Again the results are in marked contrast with previous powder-based studies of this archetypal metamorphic reaction. Solid cores of albitite were held at temperatures of 500-1,200 C and at pressure oversteps of 500 MPa into the jadeite + quartz stability field for 1--8 days in piston-cylinder apparatus. Samples that were dried in vacuum transformed appreciably only at temperatures in excess of 1,000 C. At all grain boundaries there is subequal transformation to micron-scale intergrowths of jadeite + quartz. Samples that were vacuum-impregnated with 1 wt% water contain jadeite + quartz to temperatures as low as 600 C. In contrast to the dried samples, transformation is much less homogeneous. The jadeite + quartz intergrowths do not form rows of subparallel crystals on grain boundaries, but rather are flower-shaped clusters that radiate outward from single nucleation sites at 3-grain edges and 4-grain corners. Compared to powders, pressure oversteps a factor of 10 greater are necessary to induce equivalent reaction in albitite. The sluggishness of this reaction has important implications for the evolution of the lower continental crust and subducting oceanic crust in terms of their (1) seismic velocity profiles, (2) petrological evolution, and (3) buoyancy forces, stresses and vertical crustal movements connected with densification and dilatational reactions.

  20. Mass transfer mechanism in hydrophilic interaction chromatography. (United States)

    Gritti, Fabrice; Guiochon, Georges


    The mass transfer mechanism in HILIC was investigated in depth. The reduced heights equivalent to a theoretical plate (HETP) of five low molecular weigh compounds with retention factors of -0.05 (slight exclusion from the surface due to the presence of a water-rich layer in which naphthalene is insoluble) to 3.64 were measured at room temperature for a 4.6mm×100mm column packed with 3.5μm 140Å XBridge HILIC particles in a wide range of flow velocities. The mobile phase was a buffered acetonitrile-water mixture (92.5/7.5, v/v). Using a physically reliable model of effective diffusion in binary composite media (Torquato's model), the longitudinal diffusion and solid-liquid mass transfer resistance reduced HETP terms were measured. The reduced short-range eddy dispersion HETP was taken from the literature data. The long-range reduced HETP was directly measured from the subtraction of these HETP terms to the overall HETP measured from moment analysis. In contrast to RPLC, the plots of the reduced HETP versus the reduced velocity depend weakly on the retention factor, due to the constant, low intra-particle diffusivity observed in HILIC. So, the reduced longitudinal diffusion HETP is smaller and the reduced solid-liquid mass transfer resistance HETP is larger in HILIC than in RPLC. Whereas border effects can be concealed in RPLC for retained analytes due to fast radial equilibration across the column diameter, a residual long-range eddy dispersion term persists in 4.6mm I.D. HILIC columns, even at very slow flow rates. Experiments show that the minor differences in the long-range eddy dispersion term between analytes having different retention factors is directly correlated to the reciprocal of their bulk diffusion coefficient. The performance of HILIC columns packed with fine particles is then more sensitive to the inlet sample distribution and to the outlet sample collection than RPLC columns due to the relatively poor radial mixing controlled by lateral diffusion

  1. Quantifying the impact of lithology upon the mechanical properties of rock (United States)

    Weatherley, Dion


    The physical characteristics of rock, its lithology, undoubtedly influences its deformation under natural or engineering loads. Mineral texture, micro-damage, joints, bedding planes, inclusions, unconformities and faults are all postulated to alter the mechanical response of rock on different scales and under different stressing conditions. Whilst laboratory studies have elucidated some aspects of the relationship between lithology and mechanical properties, these small-scale results are difficult to extrapolate to lithospheric scales. To augment laboratory-derived knowledge, physics-based numerical modelling is a promising avenue [3]. Bonded particle models implemented using the Discrete Element Method (DEM [1]) are a practical numerical laboratory to investigate the interplay between lithology and the mechanical response of rock specimens [4]. Numerical rock specimens are represented as an assembly of indivisible spherical particles connected to nearest neighbours via brittle-elastic beams which impart forces and moments upon one-another as particles move relative to each other. By applying boundary forces and solving Newton's Laws for each particle, elastic deformation and brittle failure may be simulated [2]. Each beam interaction is defined by four model parameters: Young's modulus, Poisson's ratio, cohesive strength and internal friction angle. Beam interactions in different subvolumes of the specimen are assigned different parameters to model different rock types or mineral assemblages. Micro-cracks, joints, unconformities and faults are geometrically incorporated by fitting particles to either side of triangulated surfaces [5]. The utility of this modelling approach is verified by reproducing analytical results from fracture mechanics (Griffith crack propagation and wing-crack formation) and results of controlled laboratory investigations. To quantify the impact of particular lithologic structures on mechanical response, a range of control experiments are

  2. In-situ investigation of the influence of the long-term shear strength of faults on the regional stress field in a granite rock mass (United States)

    Figueiredo, Bruno; Cornet, Francois; Lamas, Luís; Muralha, José


    A case study is presented to show how stress field measurements may be used to assess the long-term rheological behaviour of an equivalent geo-material. The example concerns a granitic rock mass at the km3 scale, where an underground hydropower scheme including a new 10 km long power conduit and a powerhouse complex will be constructed. For design of the underground cavern and hydraulic pressure tunnel, several in situ stress measurements were carried out, using hydraulic borehole testing, overcoring and flat jack techniques. A first continuum mechanics model, with a homogenous material, was developed to integrate the several in situ test results and to assess the regional stress field. This model is based on elasticity and relaxation of the elastic properties measured through laboratory tests conducted on cores. Results of integration show that the long-term behavior of this granite rock mass differs markedly from the short-term behaviour as defined by laboratory tests. This suggests that the in-situ stress field depends mostly on the softer material that fills up the faults and hence results from the shear stress relaxation over a large number of pre-existing fractures and faults. A second continuum mechanics model, with consideration of two fault planes located nearby the hydraulic tests, was studied. This model is based on elasticity for the overall rock mass, with the elastic properties extracted from laboratory measurements, and visco-elasticity with small long-term shear strength for the two fault planes. Results show that the overall granite rock mass may be viewed as a combination of stiff elastic blocks separated by soft low strength material, leading to a fairly large scale homogeneous axisymmetrical stress field with vertical axis. Advantages and limitations of the two modelling approaches are discussed.

  3. Analysis of displacement and strain data for the determination of the in-situ deformability of rock masses (United States)

    Delacruz, R. V.; Karfakis, M.; Kim, K.


    The in situ deformability of a highly jointed basalt rock mass was determined by the NX borehole jack method where the displacements of opposing curved platens were related to the applied hydraulic pressures, as well as by the modified Goodman jack method where the tangential strains on the borehole walls were related to the indiced tangential stresses. The modulus obtained by the modified Goodman jack method were much higher than those obtained by the NX borehole jack method. To explain the discrepancy, the influence of fractures and test variables such as depth, orientation, hole number and applied pressure on the calculated modulus of the rock mass were analyzed by factorial analysis and it was found that the orientations and depths of measurement has statistically significant effects. The in situ deformability values obtained by nonlinear regression analysis were also found comparable with other measurements and empirically predicted values for the basalt rock mass.

  4. Collaborative Research: failure of RockMasses from Nucleation and Growth of Microscopic Defects and Disorder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klein, William [Boston Univ., MA (United States)


    Over the 21 years of funding we have pursued several projects related to earthquakes, damage and nucleation. We developed simple models of earthquake faults which we studied to understand Gutenburg-Richter scaling, foreshocks and aftershocks, the effect of spatial structure of the faults and its interaction with underlying self organization and phase transitions. In addition we studied the formation of amorphous solids via the glass transition. We have also studied nucleation with a particular concentration on transitions in systems with a spatial symmetry change. In addition we investigated the nucleation process in models that mimic rock masses. We obtained the structure of the droplet in both homogeneous and heterogeneous nucleation. We also investigated the effect of defects or asperities on the nucleation of failure in simple models of earthquake faults.

  5. Relaxation phenomena of electrical signal emissions from rock following application of abrupt mechanical stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Hloupis


    Full Text Available

    The emission of electrical signals during application of mechanical stress to brittle geo-materials (the so-called pressure-stimulated current; PSC can provide significant information regarding the mechanical status of a studied rock sample. PSCs originate as a result of the opening of cracks and microfractures in rock. In this study, such electrical signal emissions are detected and studied when rock samples are subjected to step-wise mechanical stress, increased from low stress levels vL up to higher stress levels vH. This increase is performed at high stress rates and consequently the stress is maintained practically constant for a long period. During this time, the applied stress reaches its maximum value, and the emitted PSC decays gradually and relaxes back to a minimum value. The conducted experiments suggest that the characteristics of the relaxation processes of the PSC depend directly on the high level of the applied stress that is maintained constant after the application of each stress step. Analysis of the macroscopic parameters that characterize the relaxation phenomenon of the PSC provides clear information regarding the proximity of the applied stress to the fracture limit of the rock sample.

  6. A Review of Dynamic Experimental Techniques and Mechanical Behaviour of Rock Materials (United States)

    Zhang, Q. B.; Zhao, J.


    The purpose of this review is to discuss the development and the state of the art in dynamic testing techniques and dynamic mechanical behaviour of rock materials. The review begins by briefly introducing the history of rock dynamics and explaining the significance of studying these issues. Loading techniques commonly used for both intermediate and high strain rate tests and measurement techniques for dynamic stress and deformation are critically assessed in Sects. 2 and 3. In Sect. 4, methods of dynamic testing and estimation to obtain stress-strain curves at high strain rate are summarized, followed by an in-depth description of various dynamic mechanical properties (e.g. uniaxial and triaxial compressive strength, tensile strength, shear strength and fracture toughness) and corresponding fracture behaviour. Some influencing rock structural features (i.e. microstructure, size and shape) and testing conditions (i.e. confining pressure, temperature and water saturation) are considered, ending with some popular semi-empirical rate-dependent equations for the enhancement of dynamic mechanical properties. Section 5 discusses physical mechanisms of strain rate effects. Section 6 describes phenomenological and mechanically based rate-dependent constitutive models established from the knowledge of the stress-strain behaviour and physical mechanisms. Section 7 presents dynamic fracture criteria for quasi-brittle materials. Finally, a brief summary and some aspects of prospective research are presented.

  7. Coseismic and aseismic response of the rock mass surrounding deep level mining operations (United States)

    Milev, Alexander; Durrheim, Raymond; Naoi, Makoto; Yabe, Yasuo; Ogasawara, Hiroshi; Nakatani, Masao


    This study is an attempt to characterize the rock mass behaviour around deep level mining excavations using high-resolution quasi-static and dynamic data. That includes: strong ground motion recorded in tunnels and stopes, tilt and strain recorded underground as well as acoustic emission events recorded close to an active fault. The ground motion was compared to the coseismic and aseismic deformations. During the blasting time and the subsequent seismic events the strain and tilt show a rapid increase. Similar increase was observed during a strong seismic event. These were described as 'fast' seismic events or coseismic deformations. However, much of deformations occurred independently of the seismic events and was described as 'slow' or aseismic events. The ground motion, generated by mining induced seismic events, recorded at the hangingwall of an active stopes has a maximum value of 3 m/s and was found to be 9 ± 3 times larger than the ground motion recorded in a solid rocks. A number of simulated rockbursts were conducted underground and well recorded by dense array of shock type accelerometers placed along the blasting wall. The ground motion was found to attenuate exponentially with the distance (R) following R-1.1 & R-1.7 for compact rocks and R-3.1 & R-3.4 for fractured rocks. During the monitoring period a seismic event of MW=2.1 occurred in the vicinity of the instrumented site. Using the distribution of the AE events the position of the fault in the source area was successfully delineated. The tilt changes associated with this event showed a well pronounced after-tilt. The distribution of the AE events following the main shock was related to after tilt in order to quantify post slip behaviour of the source. There was no evidence found for coseismic expansion of the source after the main slip. Therefore, the hypothesis of the post-seismic creep type behaviour of the source was proposed to explain the after-tilt following the main shock.

  8. Example Building Damage Caused by Mining Exploitation in Disturbed Rock Mass (United States)

    Florkowska, Lucyna


    Issues concerning protection of buildings against the impact of underground coal mining pose significant scientific and engineering challenges. In Poland, where mining is a potent and prominent industry assuring domestic energy security, regions within reach of mining influences are plenty. Moreover, due to their industrial character they are also densely built-up areas. Because minerals have been extracted on an industrial scale in majority of those areas for many years, the rock mass structure has been significantly disturbed. Hence, exploitation of successive layers of multi-seam deposits might cause considerable damage - both in terms of surface and existing infrastructure networks. In the light of those facts, the means of mining and building prevention have to be improved on a regular basis. Moreover, they have to be underpinned by reliable analyses holistically capturing the comprehensive picture of the mining, geotechnical and constructional situation of structures. Scientific research conducted based on observations and measurements of mining-induced strain in buildings is deployed to do just that. Presented in this paper examples of damage sustained by buildings armed with protection against mining influences give an account of impact the mining exploitation in disturbed rock mass can have. This paper is based on analyses of mining damage to church and Nursing Home owned by Evangelical Augsburg Parish in Bytom-Miechowice. Neighbouring buildings differ in the date they were built, construction, building technology, geometry of the building body and fitted protection against mining damage. Both the buildings, however, have sustained lately significant deformation and damage caused by repeated mining exploitation. Selected damage has been discussed hereunder. The structures have been characterised, their current situation and mining history have been outlined, which have taken their toll on character and magnitude of damage. Description has been supplemented

  9. Nondestructive Methods to Characterize Rock Mechanical Properties at Low-Temperature: Applications for Asteroid Capture Technologies (United States)

    Savage, Kara A.

    Recent government initiatives and commercial activities have targeted asteroids for in situ material characterization, manipulation, and possible resource extraction. Most of these activities and missions have proposed significant robotic components, given the risks and costs associated with manned missions. To successfully execute these robotic activities, detailed mechanical characteristics of the target space bodies must be known prior to contact, in order to appropriately plan and direct the autonomous robotic protocols. Unfortunately, current estimates of asteroid mechanical properties are based on limited direct information, and significant uncertainty remains specifically concerning internal structures, strengths, and elastic properties of asteroids. One proposed method to elucidate this information is through in situ, nondestructive testing of asteroid material immediately after contact, but prior to any manipulation or resource extraction activities. While numerous nondestructive rock characterization techniques have been widely deployed for terrestrial applications, these methods must be adapted to account for unique properties of asteroid material and environmental conditions of space. For example, asteroid surface temperatures may range from -100°C to 30°C due to diurnal cycling, and these low temperatures are especially noteworthy due to their deleterious influence on non-destructive testing. As a result, this thesis investigates the effect of low temperature on the mechanical characteristics and nondestructive technique responses of rock material. Initially, a novel method to produce low temperature rock samples was developed. Dry ice and methanol cooling baths of specific formulations were used to decrease rock to temperatures ranging from -60°C to 0°C. At these temperatures, shale, chalk, and limestone rock samples were exposed to several nondestructive and conventional mechanical tests, including Schmidt hammer, ultrasonic pulse velocity, point

  10. In-situ GPR test for three-dimensional mapping of the dielectric constant in a rock mass (United States)

    Elkarmoty, Mohamed; Colla, Camilla; Gabrielli, Elena; Papeschi, Paolo; Bonduà, Stefano; Bruno, Roberto


    The Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) is used to detect subsurface anomalies in several applications. The more the velocity of propagation or the dielectric constant is estimated accurately, the more the detection of anomalies at true subsurface depth can be accurately obtained. Since many GPR applications are performed in rock mass with non-homogeneous discontinuous nature, errors in estimating a bulk velocity of propagation or dielectric constant are possible. This paper presents a new in-situ GPR test for mapping the dielectric constant variability in a rock mass. The main aim is to investigate to what extent the dielectric constant is variable in the micro and macro scale of a typical rock mass and to give attention to GPR users in rock mass mediums. The methodology of this research is based on the insertion of steel rods in a rock mass, thus acting as reflectors. The velocity of propagation can be then modeled, from hyperbolic reflections, in the form of velocity pathways from antenna positions to a buried rod. Each pathway is characterized by discrete points which are assumed in three dimensions as centers of micro cubic rock mass. This allows converting the velocity of propagation into a dielectric constant for mapping and modeling the dielectric constant in a volumetric rock mass using a volumetric data visualization software program (Voxler). In a case study, 6 steel drilling rods were diagonally inserted in a vertical face of a bench in a sandstone quarry. Five equally spaced parallel lines, almost perpendicular to the orientations of the rods, were surveyed by a dual frequency GPR antenna of 200 and 600 MHz. The results show that the dielectric constant is randomly varied within the micro and macro scale either in single radargrams or in the volumetric rock mass. The proposed method can be useful if considered in signal processing software programs, particularly in presence of subsurface utilities with known geometry and dimension, allowing converting

  11. Modeling and numerical analysis of granite rock specimen under mechanical loading and fire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luc Leroy Ngueyep. Mambou


    Full Text Available The effect of ISO 834 fire on the mechanical properties of granite rock specimen submitted to uniaxial loading is numerically investigated. Based on Newton's second law, the rate-equation model of granite rock specimen under mechanical load and fire is established. The effect of heat treatment on the mechanical performance of granite is analyzed at the center and the ends of specimen. At the free end of granite rock specimen, it is shown that from 20 °C to 500 °C, the internal stress and internal strain are weak; whereas above 500 °C, they start to increase rapidly, announcing the imminent collapse. At the center of specimen, the analysis of the internal stress and internal strain reveals that the fire reduces the mechanical performance of granite significantly. Moreover, it is found that after 3 min of exposure to fire, the mechanical energy necessary to fragment the granite can be reduced up to 80%.

  12. Effect of Water Saturation on the Fracture and Mechanical Properties of Sedimentary Rocks (United States)

    Guha Roy, Debanjan; Singh, T. N.; Kodikara, J.; Das, Ratan


    Fracture and mechanical properties of the water saturated sedimentary rocks have been experimentally investigated in the present paper. Three types of sandstones and one type of shale were saturated in water for different periods of time. They were then tested for their index geomechanical properties such as Brazilian tensile strength (BTS), Young's modulus (YM), P-wave velocity and all pure and mixed-mode fracture toughness (FT). FT was measured using semicircular bend specimens in a three-point bend set-up. All the geomechanical and fracture properties of the saturated rocks were compared together to investigate their interrelations. Further, statistical methods were employed to measure the statistical significance of such relationships. Next, three types of fracture criteria were compared with the present experimental results. Results show that degree of saturation has significant effect on both the strength and fracture properties of sedimentary rock. A general decrease in the mechanical and fracture toughness was noticed with increasing saturation levels. But, t-test confirmed that FT, BTS, P-wave velocity and YM are strongly dependent on each other and linear relationships exist across all the saturation values. Calculation of the `degradation degree' (DD) appeared to be a difficult task for all types of sedimentary rocks. While in sandstone, both the BTS and mode-I FT overestimated the DD calculated by YM method, in shale BTS was found to give a closure value.

  13. A study on excavation of rock mass by lasers. Researching the possibility of utilizing low-power lasers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ito, Fumio [Taisei Corporation, Technology Research Center, Yokohama, Kanagawa (Japan)


    The object of this research is to develop the techniques of rock-mass excavation by laser irradiation. This rock-mass excavation technique by lasers has a characteristic of extremely little effect to the surroundings of an excavation site no matter how the target rock mass is with regard to geological aspects and given physical property. Moreover, it could be utilized in excavation of waste dump facilities, which need to be re-buried, and applied to excavation of long piles and tunnels, which are drilled through different kinds of strata, and to improvement of rock mass and ground. Lasers have a characteristic of concentrating the energy into a limited point and not only discontinue or cut a large area with a small output like sharp scissors but also block up the cracks deep inside the rock mass by fusing vitrification for its improvement. It leads to restrain the loss of energy, minimization of the effected environment, effective utilization of resources and energy, environmental restoration, and improvement of the working environment. In the field of nuclear fuel, which includes excavating dump pits, dismantling a furnace, and taking appropriate steps of mine remains, excavating, cutting, and fusing could be required to do within a limited space of rock mass or concrete. Up to the present, those things have been done mainly by large machines, but it is too scarce in possibility for them to improve their large size, heavy weight, difficulty in unmanned operation, limited shapes of cutting, and stabilization of waste. In this research the concrete system images have been examined, doing the fundamental researches about higher-power lasers, smaller sizing, transmitting by fibers to find our the breakthrough to realization of laser excavation, This year, as the summary of examining the laser excavation techniques, utilizing a low-power laser, which is thought to be highly effective in rock-mass improvement, will be examined, considering application of the technique

  14. Sensitivity Analysis of Mechanical Parameters of Different Rock Layers to the Stability of Coal Roadway in Soft Rock Strata (United States)

    Zhao, Zeng-hui; Wang, Wei-ming; Gao, Xin; Yan, Ji-xing


    According to the geological characteristics of Xinjiang Ili mine in western area of China, a physical model of interstratified strata composed of soft rock and hard coal seam was established. Selecting the tunnel position, deformation modulus, and strength parameters of each layer as influencing factors, the sensitivity coefficient of roadway deformation to each parameter was firstly analyzed based on a Mohr-Columb strain softening model and nonlinear elastic-plastic finite element analysis. Then the effect laws of influencing factors which showed high sensitivity were further discussed. Finally, a regression model for the relationship between roadway displacements and multifactors was obtained by equivalent linear regression under multiple factors. The results show that the roadway deformation is highly sensitive to the depth of coal seam under the floor which should be considered in the layout of coal roadway; deformation modulus and strength of coal seam and floor have a great influence on the global stability of tunnel; on the contrary, roadway deformation is not sensitive to the mechanical parameters of soft roof; roadway deformation under random combinations of multi-factors can be deduced by the regression model. These conclusions provide theoretical significance to the arrangement and stability maintenance of coal roadway. PMID:24459447

  15. Lessons Learned from Near Field Modeling and Data Collected at the SPE Chemical Explosions in Jointed Rock Masses (United States)

    Vorobiev, O.; Ezzedine, S. M.; Hurley, R.; Antoun, T.; Glenn, L.


    This work describes the near-field modeling of wave propagation from underground chemicalexplosions conducted at the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) in fractured granitic rock. Lab testsperformed on granite samples excavated from various locations at the SPE site have shown littlevariability in mechanical properties. Granite at this scale can be considered as an isotropic medium. Wehave shown, however, that on the scale of the pressure waves generated during chemical explosions(tens of meters), the effective mechanical properties may vary significantly and exhibit both elastic andplastic anisotropies due to local variations in joint properties such as spacing orientation, joint aperture,cohesion and saturation. Since including every joint in a discrete fashion in computational model is notfeasible, especially for large-scale calculations ( 1.5 km domain), we have developed a computationaltechnique to upscale mechanical properties for various scales (frequencies) using geophysicalcharacterization conducted during recent SPE tests at the NNSS. Stochastic representation of thesefeatures based on the field characterizations has been implemented into LLNL's Geodyn-L hydrocode.Scale dependency in mechanical properties is important in order to understand how the ground motionscales with yield. We hope that such an approach will not only provide a better prediction of theground motion observed in the SPE (where the yield varies from 100 kg to few tons of TNT equivalent)but also will allow us to extrapolate results of the SPE to sources with bigger yields. We have validatedour computational results by comparing the measured and computed ground motion at various rangesfor experiments of various yields (SPE1-SPE5). Using the new model we performed severalcomputational studies to identify the most important mechanical properties of the rock mass specific tothe SPE site and to understand their roles in the observed ground motion in the near-field. We willpresent a series

  16. Observational studies of the rock mass response to mining in highly-stressed gold mines in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ogasawara, H


    Full Text Available of more than 2.8 km) were drilled in earthquake-prone areas to locate faults and install instruments. Microfracturing activity associated with an ML2.1 event at 3.3 km depth in Mponeng mine and a highly-stressed rock mass at 1.0 km depth in Ezulwini mine...

  17. An experimental scale-model study of seismic response of an underground opening in jointed rock mass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kana, D.D.; Fox, D.J.; Hsiung, S.; Chowdhury, A.H.


    This report describes an experimental investigation conducted by the Center for Nuclear Waste Regulatory Analyses (CNWRA) to (i) obtain a better understanding of the seismic response of an underground opening in a highly-fractured and jointed rock mass and (ii) generate a data set that can be used to evaluate the capabilities (analytical methods) to calculate such response. This report describes the design and implementation of simulated seismic experiments and results for a 1/15 scale model of a jointed rock mass with a circular tunnel in the middle. The discussion on the design of the scale model includes a description of the associated similitude theory, physical design rationale, model material development, preliminary analytical evaluation, instrumentation design and calibration, and model assembly and pretest procedures. The thrust of this discussion is intended to provide the information necessary to understand the experimental setup and to provide the background necessary to understand the experimental results. The discussion on the experimental procedures and results includes the seismic input test procedures, test runs, and measured excitation and response time histories. The closure of the tunnel due to various levels of seismic activity is presented. A threshold level of seismic input amplitude was required before significant rock mass motion occurred. The experiment, though designed as a two-dimensional representation of a rock mass, behaved in a somewhat three-dimensional manner, which will have an effect on subsequent analytical model comparison.

  18. Overview of the numerical methods for the modelling of rock mechanics problems


    Nikolić, Mijo; Roje-Bonacci, Tanja; Ibrahimbegović, Adnan


    The numerical methods have their origin in the early 1960s and even at that time it was noted that numerical methods can be successfully applied in various engineering and scientific fields, including the rock mechanics. Moreover, the rapid development of computers was a necessary background for solving computationally more demanding problems and the development process of the methods in general. Thus, we have many different methods presently, which can be separated into two main branches: co...


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thurman E. Scott, Jr., Ph.D.; Younane Abousleiman, Ph.D.; Musharraf Zaman, Ph.D., P.E.


    Mechanically weak formations, such as chalks, high porosity sandstones, and marine sediments, pose significant problems for oil and gas operators. Problems such as compaction, subsidence, and loss of permeability can affect reservoir production operations. For example, the unexpected subsidence of the Ekofisk chalk in the North Sea required over one billion dollars to re-engineer production facilities to account for losses created during that compaction (Sulak 1991). Another problem in weak formations is that of shallow water flows (SWF). Deep water drilling operations sometimes encounter cases where the marine sediments, at shallow depths just below the seafloor, begin to uncontrollably flow up and around the drill pipe. SWF problems created a loss of $150 million for the Ursa development project in the U.S. Gulf Coast SWF (Furlow 1998a,b; 1999a,b). The goal of this project is to provide a database on both the rock mechanical properties and the geophysical properties of weak rocks and sediments. These could be used by oil and gas companies to detect, evaluate, and alleviate potential production and drilling problems. The results will be useful in, for example, pre-drill detection of events such as SWF's by allowing a correlation of seismic data (such as hazard surveys) to rock mechanical properties. The data sets could also be useful for 4-D monitoring of the compaction and subsidence of an existing reservoir and imaging the zones of damage. During the second quarter of the project the research team has: (1) completed acoustic sensor construction, (2) conducted reconnaissance tests to map the deformational behaviors of the various rocks, (3) developed a sample assembly for the measurement of dynamic elastic and poroelastic parameters during triaxial testing, and (4) conducted a detailed review of the scientific literature and compiled a bibliography of that review. During the first quarter of the project the research team acquired several rock types for

  20. Workshop on rock mechanics issues in repository design and performance assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The Center for Nuclear Waste Regulatory Analyses organized and hosted a workshop on ``Rock Mechanics Issues in Repository Design and Performance Assessment`` on behalf its sponsor the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). This workshop was held on September 19- 20, 1994 at the Holiday Inn Crowne Plaza, Rockville, Maryland. The objectives of the workshop were to stimulate exchange of technical information among parties actively investigating rock mechanics issues relevant to the proposed high-level waste repository at Yucca Mountain and identify/confirm rock mechanics issues important to repository design and performance assessment The workshop contained three technical sessions and two panel discussions. The participants included technical and research staffs representing the NRC and the Department of Energy and their contractors, as well as researchers from the academic, commercial, and international technical communities. These proceedings include most of the technical papers presented in the technical sessions and the transcripts for the two panel discussions. Selected papers have been indexed separately for inclusion the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  1. Characterization of Rock Mechanical Properties Using Lab Tests and Numerical Interpretation Model of Well Logs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Xu


    Full Text Available The tight gas reservoir in the fifth member of the Xujiahe formation contains heterogeneous interlayers of sandstone and shale that are low in both porosity and permeability. Elastic characteristics of sandstone and shale are analyzed in this study based on petrophysics tests. The tests indicate that sandstone and mudstone samples have different stress-strain relationships. The rock tends to exhibit elastic-plastic deformation. The compressive strength correlates with confinement pressure and elastic modulus. The results based on thin-bed log interpretation match dynamic Young’s modulus and Poisson’s ratio predicted by theory. The compressive strength is calculated from density, elastic impedance, and clay contents. The tensile strength is calibrated using compressive strength. Shear strength is calculated with an empirical formula. Finally, log interpretation of rock mechanical properties is performed on the fifth member of the Xujiahe formation. Natural fractures in downhole cores and rock microscopic failure in the samples in the cross section demonstrate that tensile fractures were primarily observed in sandstone, and shear fractures can be observed in both mudstone and sandstone. Based on different elasticity and plasticity of different rocks, as well as the characteristics of natural fractures, a fracture propagation model was built.

  2. Analytical Study of the Mechanical Behavior of Fully Grouted Bolts in Bedding Rock Slopes (United States)

    Liu, C. H.; Li, Y. Z.


    Bolting is widely used as a reinforcement means for rock slopes. The support force of a fully grouted bolt is often provided by the combination of the axial and shear forces acting at the cross section of the bolt, especially for bedding rock slopes. In this paper, load distribution and deformation behavior of the deflecting section of a fully grouted bolt were analyzed, and a structural mechanical model was established. Based on force method equations and deformation compatibility relationships, an analytical approach, describing the contribution of the axial and shear forces acting at the intersection between the bolt and the joint plane to the stability of a rock slope, was developed. Influence of the inclination of the bolt to the joint plane was discussed. Laboratory tests were conducted with different inclinations of the bolt to the joint plane. Comparisons between the proposed approach, the experimental data and a code method were made. The calculation results are in good agreement with the test data. It is shown that transverse shear resistance plays a significant role to the bolting contribution and that the bigger the dip of the bolt to the joint plane, the more significant the dowel effect. It is also shown that the design method suggested in the code overestimates the resistance of the bolt. The proposed model considering dowel effect provides a more precise description on bolting properties of bedding rock slopes than the code method and will be helpful to improve bolting design methods.

  3. The Alteration History of Clovis Class Rocks in Gusev Crater as Determined by Ti-Normalzed Mass Balance Analysis (United States)

    Sutter, Brat; Ming, Douglas W.; Niles, P. B.; Golden, D. C.


    The West Spur Clovis class rocks in Gusev Crater are some of the most altered rocks in Gusev Crater and likely contain a mixed sulfate and phyllosilicate mineralogy [1,2]. The high S and Cl content of the Clovis rocks suggests that acidic vapors or fluids of H2SO4 and HCl reacted with the Clovis parent rock to form Ca, Mg,- sulfates, iron-oxyhydroxides and secondary aluminosilicates (approx.60 wt.%) of a poorly crystalline nature (e.g., allophane) [1]. Up to 14-17 wt.% phyllosilicates (e.g., kaolinite, chlorite, serpentine) are hypothesized to exist in the Clovis materials suggesting that Clovis parent materials while possibly exposed to acidic pHs were likely neutralized by basalt dissolution which resulted in mildly acidic pHs (4-6) [1, 2]. This work proposes that subsequent to the alteration of the Clovis rocks, alteration fluids became concentrated in ions resulting in the addition of silicate and salts. The objective of this work is to utilize Ti-normalized mass balance analysis to evaluate (1) mineral gains and losses and (2) elemental gains and losses in the Clovis rocks. Results of this work will be used evaluate the nature of geochemical conditions that affect phyllosilicate and sulfate formation at Gusev crater.

  4. Nonperturbative mechanism for elementary particle mass generation (United States)

    Frezzotti, R.; Rossi, G. C.


    Taking inspiration from lattice QCD data, we argue that a finite nonperturbative contribution to the quark mass is generated as a consequence of the dynamical phenomenon of spontaneous chiral symmetry breaking, in turn triggered by the explicit breaking of chiral symmetry induced by the critical Wilson term in the action. In pure lattice QCD this mass term cannot be separated from the unavoidably associated linearly divergent contribution. However, if QCD is enlarged to a theory where also a scalar field is present, coupled to an SU(2) doublet of fermions via a Yukawa and a Wilson-like term, then in the phase where the scalar field takes a nonvanishing expectation value, a dynamically generated and "naturally" light fermion mass (numerically unrelated to the expectation value of the scalar field) is conjectured to emerge at a critical value of the Yukawa coupling where the symmetry of the model is maximally enhanced. Masses dynamically generated in this way display a natural hierarchy according to which the stronger is the strongest of the interactions the fermion is subjected to, the larger will be its mass.

  5. Low Mass Aeroshell Deployment Mechanism Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Cornerstone Research Group Inc. (CRG) will develop new shape memory polymer (SMP) deployment mechanisms for actuating thermal protective systems (TPS) panels to...

  6. Low Mass Aeroshell Deployment Mechanism Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Cornerstone Research Group Inc. (CRG) will develop new shape memory polymer (SMP) deployment mechanisms for actuating thermal protection system (TPS) panels to...

  7. Laser ablation-miniature mass spectrometer for elemental and isotopic analysis of rocks. (United States)

    Sinha, M P; Neidholdt, E L; Hurowitz, J; Sturhahn, W; Beard, B; Hecht, M H


    A laser ablation-miniature mass spectrometer (LA-MMS) for the chemical and isotopic measurement of rocks and minerals is described. In the LA-MMS method, neutral atoms ablated by a pulsed laser are led into an electron impact ionization source, where they are ionized by a 70 eV electron beam. This results in a secondary ion pulse typically 10-100 μs wide, compared to the original 5-10 ns laser pulse duration. Ions of different masses are then spatially dispersed along the focal plane of the magnetic sector of the miniature mass spectrometer (MMS) and measured in parallel by a modified CCD array detector capable of detecting ions directly. Compared to conventional scanning techniques, simultaneous measurement of the ion pulse along the focal plane effectively offers a 100% duty cycle over a wide mass range. LA-MMS offers a more quantitative assessment of elemental composition than techniques that detect ions directly generated by the ablation process because the latter can be strongly influenced by matrix effects that vary with the structure and geometry of the surface, the wavelength of the laser beam, and the not well characterized ionization efficiencies of the elements in the process. The above problems attendant to the direct ion analysis has been minimized in the LA-MMS by analyzing the ablated neutral species after their post-ionization by electron impaction. These neutral species are much more abundant than the directly ablated ions in the ablated vapor plume and are, therefore, expected to be characteristic of the chemical composition of the solid. Also, the electron impact ionization of elements is well studied and their ionization cross sections are known and easy to find in databases. Currently, the LA-MMS limit of detection is 0.4 wt.%. Here we describe LA-MMS elemental composition measurements of various minerals including microcline, lepidolite, anorthoclase, and USGS BCR-2G samples. The measurements of high precision isotopic ratios including (41)K

  8. Demarcation of homogeneous structural domains within a rock mass based on joint orientation and trace length (United States)

    Song, Shengyuan; Wang, Qing; Chen, Jianping; Cao, Chen; Li, Yanyan; Zhou, Xin


    This paper presents a new method for determining the structural domain boundaries within the rock mass. This new method is based on a statistical comparison of data from pairs of sample regions. The stereonet is divided into 100 windows with approximately equal areas. The poles of joints occurring in each corresponding window on the two projection plots of the regions being compared are then merged and arranged in ascending order with respect to their trace lengths. Finally, the Wald-Wolfowitz runs test is used to identify the homogeneity of structural populations by analyzing the joint sequence. Based on a significance level of 0.01, the homogeneity of structural populations collected from four adjacent adits at the Songta dam site is determined using the proposed method. The results show that the boundaries of structural domain change with the sizes of the sampling domains being compared. The initial sampling domains should be selected according to the engineering geological conditions of the studied area. In addition, the clear advantage of the proposed method is that both joint orientation and trace length are considered.

  9. Experimental Study of Ultrasonic Waves Propagating Through a Rock Mass with a Single Joint and Multiple Parallel Joints (United States)

    Huang, Xiaolin; Qi, Shengwen; Guo, Songfeng; Dong, Wanli


    Experiments were conducted to study the relationship between the transmission ratio (TR) and normal stress, joint roughness, joint number and frequency of incident waves, respectively, when ultrasonic waves pass across a rock mass with one joint and multiple parallel joints oriented normally. The ultrasonic waves were generated and received by pairs of piezoelectric transducers and recorded by an ultrasonic detector. The specimens were subjected to normal stress by a hydraulic jack and loading frame. The jointed rock mass was produced by superposing rock blocks in the study. Rough joints were produced by grooving notches on the planar joints formed by sawing directly. In the case of multiple parallel joints, the overall thickness of specimens was maintained while the joint number changed. Three pairs of P-wave transducers and one pair of S-wave transducers with different frequencies were, respectively, applied and all transducers emitted signals perpendicular to the joints in the experiment. The results indicate that TR increases with increasing normal stress while the increment rate decreases gradually. This is particularly so when the normal stress is high enough that TR will approximate 1 even if the rock mass has many joints. In addition, the experiments indicate that the higher the wave's frequency, the lower its TR, and this phenomenon is gradually reduced as the normal stress increases. In response to S-waves, TR increases with increase in joint roughness; however, in response to P-waves, TR decreases gradually with increase in joint roughness. For multiple parallel joints in a fixed thickness rock mass with normally incident P-waves, TR does not always decrease with increase in the number of joints, and there is a threshold joint spacing for a certain incident wave: when the joint spacing is smaller than the threshold value, TR will increase with a decrease in joint spacing. The experimental results support similar conclusions based on analytical results

  10. Characterization of the 3-D fracture setting of an unstable rock mass: From surface and seismic investigations to numerical modeling (United States)

    Colombero, C.; Baillet, L.; Comina, C.; Jongmans, D.; Vinciguerra, S.


    The characterization of the fracturing state of a potentially unstable rock cliff is a crucial requirement for stability assessments and mitigation purposes. Classical measurements of fracture location and orientation can however be limited by inaccessible rock exposures. The steep topography and high-rise morphology of these cliffs, together with the widespread presence of fractures, can additionally condition the success of geophysical prospecting on these sites. In order to mitigate these limitations, an innovative approach combining noncontact geomechanical measurements, active and passive seismic surveys, and 3-D numerical modeling is proposed in this work to characterize the 3-D fracture setting of an unstable rock mass, located in NW Italian Alps (Madonna del Sasso, VB). The 3-D fracture geometry was achieved through a combination of field observations and noncontact geomechanical measurements on oriented pictures of the cliff, resulting from a previous laser-scanning and photogrammetric survey. The estimation of fracture persistence within the rock mass was obtained from surface active seismic surveys. Ambient seismic noise and earthquakes recordings were used to assess the fracture control on the site response. Processing of both data sets highlighted the resonance properties of the unstable rock volume decoupling from the stable massif. A finite element 3-D model of the site, including all the retrieved fracture information, enabled both validation and interpretation of the field measurements. The integration of these different methodologies, applied for the first time to a complex 3-D prone-to-fall mass, provided consistent information on the internal fracturing conditions, supplying key parameters for future monitoring purposes and mitigation strategies.

  11. An improved method for estimating in situ stress in an elastic rock mass and its engineering application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pei Qitao


    Full Text Available The main contribution of this paper is to develop a method to determine the in situ stress on an engineering scale by modifying the elasto-static thermal stress model (Sheorey’s model. The suggested method, firstly, introduces correction factors for the local tectonism to reflect the stress distribution difference caused by local tectonic movements. The correction factors can be determined by the least-squares approach based on laboratory tests and local in situ stress measurements. Then, the rock elastic modulus is replaced by rock mass elastic modulus so as to show the effect of rock discontinuities on the in situ stress. Combining with elasticity theory, equations for estimating the major and minor horizontal stresses are obtained. It is possible to reach satisfactory accuracy for stress estimation. To show the feasibility of this method, it is applied to two deep tunnels in China to determine the in situ stress. Field tests, including in situ stress measurements by conventional hydraulic fracturing (HF and rock mass modulus measurements using a rigid borehole jack (RBJ, are carried out. It is shown that the stress field in the two deep tunnels is dominated by horizontal tectonic movements. The major and minor horizontal stresses are estimated, respectively. Finally, the results are compared with those derived from the HF method. The calculated results in the two tunnels roughly coincide with the measured results with an average of 15% allowable discrepancy.

  12. An improved method for estimating in situ stress in an elastic rock mass and its engineering application (United States)

    Pei, Qitao; Ding, Xiuli; Lu, Bo; Zhang, Yuting; Huang, Shuling; Dong, Zhihong


    The main contribution of this paper is to develop a method to determine the in situ stress on an engineering scale by modifying the elasto-static thermal stress model (Sheorey's model). The suggested method, firstly, introduces correction factors for the local tectonism to reflect the stress distribution difference caused by local tectonic movements. The correction factors can be determined by the least-squares approach based on laboratory tests and local in situ stress measurements. Then, the rock elastic modulus is replaced by rock mass elastic modulus so as to show the effect of rock discontinuities on the in situ stress. Combining with elasticity theory, equations for estimating the major and minor horizontal stresses are obtained. It is possible to reach satisfactory accuracy for stress estimation. To show the feasibility of this method, it is applied to two deep tunnels in China to determine the in situ stress. Field tests, including in situ stress measurements by conventional hydraulic fracturing (HF) and rock mass modulus measurements using a rigid borehole jack (RBJ), are carried out. It is shown that the stress field in the two deep tunnels is dominated by horizontal tectonic movements. The major and minor horizontal stresses are estimated, respectively. Finally, the results are compared with those derived from the HF method. The calculated results in the two tunnels roughly coincide with the measured results with an average of 15% allowable discrepancy.

  13. Climatic controls on mechanical rock strength and channel incision due to bedrock weathering, Kohala Peninsula, Hawaii (United States)

    Murphy, B. P.; Johnson, J. P.; Gasparini, N. M.; Sklar, L. S.


    Orographic precipitation gradients are prevalent in mountainous terrains, and climate-dependent bedrock weathering may play an important role in the incision of bedrock channels and the evolution of landscapes. Kohala Peninsula on the big island of Hawaii presents a unique natural setting for exploring climate sensitivity of landscape erosion, with over an order of magnitude variation in mean annual precipitation, a landscape composed entirely of weatherable basalt, and systematic variations in fluvial incision and resulting topography across the climate gradient. We hypothesize that increases in local mean annual precipitation will promote long-term channel incision rates due to increases in bedrock weathering, but measurements of rock strength within bedrock channels will be greatly influenced by the efficient removal of weathered rock by fluvial erosion. Mechanical properties of bedrock were measured at a total of 13 sites across two watersheds that vary in local mean annual precipitation from 0.27 - 2.25 m/yr. In situ strength measurements were collected using a Schmidt hammer with a pseudo-random sampling method along transects parallel to stream direction and just above the channel thalweg. Tensile strength and elastic moduli were also measured in the laboratory on cores collected from a subset of the same transects. Long-term channel incision rates were independently constrained from the local valley relief and the ages of mapped basalt units that form the relatively unmodified volcanic shield of Kohala. When strength data comes from sites of low long-term incision, we find strong power-law relationships between both rock strength measurements and local mean annual precipitation. However, for sites with high precipitation rate and variable erosion rates, we find significant variability in the rock strength. We interpret this to reflect the removal of weathered rock by erosion. In order to interpret the influence of climate in our dataset, we made a

  14. Computing in-situ strength of rock masses based upon RQD and modified joint factor: Using pressure and damage sensitive constitutive relationship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashutosh Trivedi


    Full Text Available In this study, a new model was presented for computing strength of rock masses based upon in-situ observations of RQD popularly known as rock quality designation. This model links up the rock mass parameters from in-situ investigations with the strength parameters of jointed rocks obtained from laboratory scale experimental observations. Using the constitutive relation, the author derived a pressure and damage sensitive plastic parameter to determine strength of rock masses for varied extents of discontinuity and pressure induced damage. The test results show that plasticity characterized by hardening and softening inclusive of damage invariably depends upon mean pressure and extent of deformations already experienced by rock masses. The present work explores the test data that reveal the dependence of in-situ strength on incremental joint parameters obtained from the joint number, joint orientation, joint roughness, gouge parameters and water pressure. Substituting the relationship between the RQD and modified joint factor with that between modulus ratio and strength ratio, the model shows successfully that using damage inclusive plastic parameter and RQD provides a relationship for estimating the strength of rock masses. One of the main objectives of this work is to illustrate that the present model is sensitive to plasticity and damage together in estimating in-situ strength of rock masses in foundations, underground excavation and tunnels.

  15. Coupled hydro-thermo-mechanical modeling of hydraulic fracturing in quasi-brittle rocks using BPM-DEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingrid Tomac


    Full Text Available This paper presents an improved understanding of coupled hydro-thermo-mechanical (HTM hydraulic fracturing of quasi-brittle rock using the bonded particle model (BPM within the discrete element method (DEM. BPM has been recently extended by the authors to account for coupled convective–conductive heat flow and transport, and to enable full hydro-thermal fluid–solid coupled modeling. The application of the work is on enhanced geothermal systems (EGSs, and hydraulic fracturing of hot dry rock (HDR is studied in terms of the impact of temperature difference between rock and a flowing fracturing fluid. Micro-mechanical investigation of temperature and fracturing fluid effects on hydraulic fracturing damage in rocks is presented. It was found that fracture is shorter with pronounced secondary microcracking along the main fracture for the case when the convective–conductive thermal heat exchange is considered. First, the convection heat exchange during low-viscosity fluid infiltration in permeable rock around the wellbore causes significant rock cooling, where a finger-like fluid infiltration was observed. Second, fluid infiltration inhibits pressure rise during pumping and delays fracture initiation and propagation. Additionally, thermal damage occurs in the whole area around the wellbore due to rock cooling and cold fluid infiltration. The size of a damaged area around the wellbore increases with decreasing fluid dynamic viscosity. Fluid and rock compressibility ratio was found to have significant effect on the fracture propagation velocity.

  16. Mechanical and hydraulic behavior of a rock fracture under shear deformation (United States)

    Nishiyama, Satoshi; Ohnishi, Yuzo; Ito, Hisao; Yano, Takao


    With regard to crystalline rock that constitutes deep geology, attempts have been made to explore its hydraulic characteristics by focusing on the network of numerous fractures within. As the hydraulic characteristics of a rock are the accumulation of hydraulic characteristics of each fracture, it is necessary to develop the hydraulic model of a single fracture to predict the large-scale hydraulic behavior. To this end, a simultaneous permeability and shear test device is developed, and shear-flow coupling tests are conducted on specimens having fractures with varied levels of surface roughness in the constant normal stiffness conditions. The results show that the permeability characteristics in the relation between shear displacement and transmissivity change greatly at the point where the stress path reaches the Mohr-Coulomb failure curve. It is also found that there exists a range in which transmissivity is not proportional to the cube of mechanical aperture width, which seems to be because of the occurrence of channeling phenomenon at small mechanical aperture widths. This channeling flow disappears with increasing shear and is transformed into a uniform flow. We develop a simulation technique to evaluate the macroscopic permeability characteristics by the lattice gas cellular automaton method, considering the microstructure of fracture, namely the fracture surface roughness. With this technique, it is shown that the formation of the Hagen-Poiseuille flow is affected by the fracture microstructure under shear, which as a result determines the relationship between the mechanical aperture width and transmissivity.

  17. Allosteric mechanism of pyruvate kinase from Leishmania mexicana uses a rock and lock model. (United States)

    Morgan, Hugh P; McNae, Iain W; Nowicki, Matthew W; Hannaert, Véronique; Michels, Paul A M; Fothergill-Gilmore, Linda A; Walkinshaw, Malcolm D


    Allosteric regulation provides a rate management system for enzymes involved in many cellular processes. Ligand-controlled regulation is easily recognizable, but the underlying molecular mechanisms have remained elusive. We have obtained the first complete series of allosteric structures, in all possible ligated states, for the tetrameric enzyme, pyruvate kinase, from Leishmania mexicana. The transition between inactive T-state and active R-state is accompanied by a simple symmetrical 6 degrees rigid body rocking motion of the A- and C-domain cores in each of the four subunits. However, formation of the R-state in this way is only part of the mechanism; eight essential salt bridge locks that form across the C-C interface provide tetramer rigidity with a coupled 7-fold increase in rate. The results presented here illustrate how conformational changes coupled with effector binding correlate with loss of flexibility and increase in thermal stability providing a general mechanism for allosteric control.

  18. Estimation method of rock masses of tunnel construction by joint inversion method using seismic velocity and resistivity


    高橋, 康隆; 楠見, 晴重; 中村, 真


    Geophysical exploration for tunnel construction is usually seismic method and electric method.But seismicvelocity and resistivity directly don't be connected with a design for tunnel construction.Grasping the nature of rock masses,for example effective porosity and saturation,is very important for the design of tunnelling.In thispaper,new estimation method of tunnel construction by joint inversion using seismic velocity and resistivity is proposed.This inversion system are making clear effect...

  19. Combined observations of rock mass movements using satellite SAR interferometry, differential GPS, airborne digital photogrammetry, and airborne photography interpretation


    Strozzi, Tazio; Delaloye, Reynald; Kääb, Andreas; Ambrosi, Christian; Perruchoud, Eric; Wegmüller, Urs


    Recent global warming, through the related retreat of mountain glaciers, causes a growing number of different slope instabilities requiring accurate and cost-effective monitoring. We investigate the potential of combined remote sensing observations from satellite and airborne microwave and optical sensors for an efficient survey of mountainous ground displacements. The evolution of a paraglacial deep-seated rock mass movement due to glacier retreat in the Swiss Alps has been observed between ...

  20. Thermal-chemical-mechanical feedback during fluid-rock interactions: Implications for chemical transport and scales of equilibria in the crust

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dutrow, Barbara


    Our research evaluates the hypothesis that feedback amongst thermal-chemical-mechanical processes operative in fluid-rock systems alters the fluid flow dynamics of the system which, in turn, affects chemical transport and temporal and spatial scales of equilibria, thus impacting the resultant mineral textural development of rocks. Our methods include computational experimentation and detailed analyses of fluid-infiltrated rocks from well-characterized terranes. This work focuses on metamorphic rocks and hydrothermal systems where minerals and their textures are utilized to evaluate pressure (P), temperature (T), and time (t) paths in the evolution of mountain belts and ore deposits, and to interpret tectonic events and the timing of these events. Our work on coupled processes also extends to other areas where subsurface flow and transport in porous media have consequences such as oil and gas movement, geothermal system development, transport of contaminants, nuclear waste disposal, and other systems rich in fluid-rock reactions. Fluid-rock systems are widespread in the geologic record. Correctly deciphering the products resulting from such systems is important to interpreting a number of geologic phenomena. These systems are characterized by complex interactions involving time-dependent, non-linear processes in heterogeneous materials. While many of these interactions have been studied in isolation, they are more appropriately analyzed in the context of a system with feedback. When one process impacts another process, time and space scales as well as the overall outcome of the interaction can be dramatically altered. Our goals to test this hypothesis are: to develop and incorporate algorithms into our 3D heat and mass transport code to allow the effects of feedback to be investigated numerically, to analyze fluid infiltrated rocks from a variety of terranes at differing P-T conditions, to identify subtle features of the infiltration of fluids and/or feedback, and

  1. Partial melting of ultrahigh-pressure metamorphic rocks during continental collision: Evidence, time, mechanism, and effect (United States)

    Chen, Yi-Xiang; Zhou, Kun; Gao, Xiao-Ying


    Partial melting of ultrahigh-pressure (UHP) metamorphic rocks during continental collision has been increasingly found in nature. More and more studies have devoted to the evidence, time, mechanism and effect of crustal anataxis at mantle to lower crust depths. This is particularly so for UHP rocks from the Dabie-Sulu orogenic belt, whereas similar studies on these issues are relatively minor for other UHP terranes. The petrological evidence, especially microstructural observations and multiphase solid inclusion analyses, have been accumulated for the partial melting of UHP metamorphic rocks in collisional orogens. The results indicate that this is a kind of low-degree crustal anataxis at convergent plate margins due to decompressional dehydration of the UHP rocks themselves. Thus it has great bearing on intracrustal differentiation and crust-mantle interaction in continental subduction channels. Zircon may grow through peritectic reactions due to the breakdown of hydrous minerals. By dating of the peritectic zircons that contain coesite or diamond inclusions, the time of crustal anatexis under UHP conditions can be directly determined. In general, the partial melting of UHP rocks mainly took place at the stage of their early exhumation, partly still in the UHP regime and partly in the subsequent high-pressure (HP) regime. The crustal anatexis still at mantle depths is common in many UHP terranes, possibly facilitating exhumation of deeply subducted continental slices toward shallower levels. Petrological and geochemical studies indicate that phengite dehydration-driven melting during exhumation is the common mechanism for the anatexis of UHP rocks, though the other hydrous minerals were also involved in this process. The resulted HP to UHP melts may occur at different spatial scales and show significant fractionation in melt-mobile incompatible trace elements such as LILE and LREE. These melts are enriched in LILE to large extent and LREE and Th to small extent

  2. Experimental evidence for chemo-mechanical coupling during carbon mineralization in ultramafic rocks (United States)

    Lisabeth, H. P.; Zhu, W.; Kelemen, P. B.; Ilgen, A.


    Storing carbon dioxide in the subsurface as carbonate minerals has the benefit of long-term stability and immobility. Ultramafic rock formations have been suggested as a potential reservoir for this type of storage due to the availability of cations to react with dissolved carbon dioxide and the fast reaction rates associated with minerals common in ultramafic formations; however, the rapid reactions have the potential to couple with the mechanical and hydraulic behavior of the rocks and little is known about the extent and mechanisms of this coupling. In this study, we argue that the dissolution of primary minerals and the precipitation of secondary minerals along pre-existing fractures in samples lead to reductions in both the apparent Young's modulus and shear strength of aggregates, accompanied by reduction in permeability. Hydrostatic and triaxial deformation experiments were run on dunite samples saturated with de-ionized water and carbon dioxide-rich solutions while stress, strain, permeability and pore fluid chemistry were monitored. Sample microstructures were examined after reaction and deformation using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results show that channelized dissolution and carbonate mineral precipitation in the samples saturated with carbon dioxide-rich solutions modify the structure of grain boundaries, leading to the observed reductions in stiffness, strength and permeability. A geochemical model was run to help interpret fluid chemical data, and we find that the apparent reaction rates in our experiments are faster than rates calculated from powder reactors, suggesting mechanically enhanced reaction rates. In conclusion, we find that chemo-mechanical coupling during carbon mineralization in dunites leads to substantial modification of mechanical and hydraulic behavior that needs to be accounted for in future modeling efforts of in situ carbon mineralization projects.

  3. Fundamental Research on Percussion Drilling: Improved rock mechanics analysis, advanced simulation technology, and full-scale laboratory investigations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michael S. Bruno


    This report summarizes the research efforts on the DOE supported research project Percussion Drilling (DE-FC26-03NT41999), which is to significantly advance the fundamental understandings of the physical mechanisms involved in combined percussion and rotary drilling, and thereby facilitate more efficient and lower cost drilling and exploration of hard-rock reservoirs. The project has been divided into multiple tasks: literature reviews, analytical and numerical modeling, full scale laboratory testing and model validation, and final report delivery. Literature reviews document the history, pros and cons, and rock failure physics of percussion drilling in oil and gas industries. Based on the current understandings, a conceptual drilling model is proposed for modeling efforts. Both analytical and numerical approaches are deployed to investigate drilling processes such as drillbit penetration with compression, rotation and percussion, rock response with stress propagation, damage accumulation and failure, and debris transportation inside the annulus after disintegrated from rock. For rock mechanics modeling, a dynamic numerical tool has been developed to describe rock damage and failure, including rock crushing by compressive bit load, rock fracturing by both shearing and tensile forces, and rock weakening by repetitive compression-tension loading. Besides multiple failure criteria, the tool also includes a damping algorithm to dissipate oscillation energy and a fatigue/damage algorithm to update rock properties during each impact. From the model, Rate of Penetration (ROP) and rock failure history can be estimated. For cuttings transport in annulus, a 3D numerical particle flowing model has been developed with aid of analytical approaches. The tool can simulate cuttings movement at particle scale under laminar or turbulent fluid flow conditions and evaluate the efficiency of cutting removal. To calibrate the modeling efforts, a series of full-scale fluid hammer

  4. Study on Mechanical Characteristics of Fully Grouted Rock Bolts for Underground Caverns under Seismic Loads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guoqing Liu


    Full Text Available This study establishes an analytical model for the interaction between the bolt and surrounding rock based on the bearing mechanism of fully grouted rock bolts. The corresponding controlled differential equation for load transfer is deduced. The stress distributions of the anchorage body are obtained by solving the equations. A dynamic algorithm for the bolt considering shear damage on the anchoring interface is proposed based on the dynamic finite element method. The rationality of the algorithm is verified by a pull-out test and excavation simulation of a rounded tunnel. Then, a case study on the mechanical characteristics of the bolts in underground caverns under seismic loads is conducted. The results indicate that the seismic load may lead to stress originating from the bolts and damage on the anchoring interface. The key positions of the antiseismic support can be determined using the numerical simulation. The calculated results can serve as a reference for the antiseismic optimal design of bolts in underground caverns.

  5. Discrete Element Modeling of Micro-scratch Tests: Investigation of Mechanisms of CO2 Alteration in Reservoir Rocks (United States)

    Sun, Zhuang; Espinoza, D. Nicolas; Balhoff, Matthew T.; Dewers, Thomas A.


    The injection of CO2 into geological formations leads to geochemical re-equilibrium between the pore fluid and rock minerals. Mineral-brine-CO2 reactions can induce alteration of mechanical properties and affect the structural integrity of the storage formation. The location of alterable mineral phases within the rock skeleton is important to assess the potential effects of mineral dissolution on bulk geomechanical properties. Hence, although often disregarded, the understanding of particle-scale mechanisms responsible for alterations is necessary to predict the extent of geomechanical alteration as a function of dissolved mineral amounts. This study investigates the CO2-related rock chemo-mechanical alteration through numerical modeling and matching of naturally altered rocks probed with micro-scratch tests. We use a model that couples the discrete element method (DEM) and the bonded particle model (BPM) to perform simulations of micro-scratch tests on synthetic rocks that mimic Entrada sandstone. Experimental results serve to calibrate numerical scratch tests with DEM-BPM parameters. Sensitivity analyses indicate that the cement size and bond shear strength are the most sensitive microscopic parameters that govern the CO2-induced alteration in Entrada sandstone. Reductions in cement size lead to decrease in scratch toughness and an increase in ductility in the rock samples. This work demonstrates how small variations of microscopic bond properties in cemented sandstone can lead to significant changes in macroscopic large-strain mechanical properties.

  6. The effect of long-term fluid-rock interactions on the mechanical properties of reservoir rock - a case study of the Werkendam natural CO2 analogue field (United States)

    Hangx, Suzanne; Bertier, Pieter; Bakker, Elisenda; Nover, Georg; Busch, Andreas


    Geological storage of CO2 is one of the most promising technologies to rapidly reduce anthropogenic emissions of carbon dioxide. During long-term geological storage of CO2, fluid-rock interactions, induced by the formation of carbonic acid, may affect the mineralogical composition of the reservoir rock. Commonly expected reactions include the dissolution of carbonate and/or sulphate cements, as well as the reaction of primary minerals (feldspars, clays, micas) to form new, secondary phases. In order to ensure storage integrity, it is important to understand the effect of such fluid-rock interactions on the mechanical behaviour of a CO2 storage complex. However, most of these reactions are very slow, which limits the ability to study coupled chemical-mechanical processes in the lab. A possible way to circumvent long reaction times is to investigate natural CO2 analogue fields, which experienced CO2-exposure for thousands of years. In this study, we looked at the Dutch Werkendam natural CO2 field and its unreacted counterpart (Röt Fringe Sandstone, Werkendam, the Netherlands). We focussed on CO2-induced mineralogical and porosity-permeability changes, and their effect on mechanical behaviour of intact rock. Overall, CO2-exposure did not lead to drastic mineralogical changes, though markedly different porosity-permeability relationships were found for the unreacted and exposed material. The limited extent of reaction was in part the result of bitumen coatings protecting specific mineral phases from reaction. In local, mm-sized zones displaying significant anhydrite dissolution, enhanced porosity was observed. For most of the reservoir the long-term mechanical behaviour after CO2-exposure could be described by the behaviour of the unreacted sandstone, while these more 'porous' zones were significantly weaker. Simple stress path calculations predict that reservoir failure due to depletion and injection is unlikely.

  7. Determination of the Geotechnical Characteristics of Hornfelsic Rocks with a Particular Emphasis on the Correlation Between Physical and Mechanical Properties (United States)

    Fereidooni, Davood


    Geotechnical characteristics and relationships between various physical and mechanical properties were assessed for eight types of hornfelsic rock collected from southern and southwestern parts of the city of Hamedan in western Iran. Rock samples were subjected to mineralogical, physical, index, and mechanical laboratory tests and found to contain quartz, feldspar, biotite, muscovite, garnet, sillimanite, kyanite, staurolite, graphite, and other fine-grained cryptocrystalline matrix materials. Samples had a porphyroblastic texture, and the mineral contents and physical properties influenced various rock characteristics. Some rock characteristics were affected by mineral content, while others were affected by porosity. Dry unit weight, primary and secondary wave velocities, and slake-durability index were noteworthy characteristics affected by mineral content, while porosity had the greatest influence on water absorption, Schmidt hardness, point load index, Brazilian tensile strength, and uniaxial compressive strength. Empirical equations describing the relationships between different rock parameters are proposed for determining the essential characteristics of rock, such as secondary wave velocity, slake-durability index, point load index, Brazilian tensile strength, and uniaxial compressive strength. On the basis of these properties, the studied rocks were classified as being strong or very strong.

  8. Nonlinear mechanical resonators for ultra-sensitive mass detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Datskos, Panos G [ORNL; Lavrik, Nickolay V [ORNL


    The fundamental sensitivity limit of an appropriately scaled down mechanical resonator can approach one atomic mass unit when only thermal noise is present in the system. However, operation of such nanoscale mechanical resonators is very challenging due to minuteness of their oscillation amplitudes and presence of multiple noise sources in real experimental environments. In order to surmount these challenges, we use microscale cantilever resonators driven to large amplitudes, far beyond their nonlinear instability onset. Our experiments show that such a nonlinear cantilever resonator, described analytically as a Duffing oscillator, has mass sensing performance comparable to that of much smaller resonators operating in a linear regime. We demonstrate femtogram level mass sensing that relies on a bifurcation point tracking that does not require any complex readout means. Our approaches enable straightforward detection of mass changes that are near the fundamental limit imposed by thermo-mechanical fluctuations.

  9. Mechanical Behavior of Low Porosity Carbonate Rock: From Brittle Creep to Ductile Creep. (United States)

    Nicolas, A.; Fortin, J.; Gueguen, Y.


    Mechanical compaction and associated porosity reduction play an important role in the diagenesis of porous rocks. They may also affect reservoir rocks during hydrocarbon production, as the pore pressure field is modified. This inelastic compaction can lead to subsidence, cause casing failure, trigger earthquake, or change the fluid transport properties. In addition, inelastic deformation can be time - dependent. In particular, brittle creep phenomena have been deeply investigated since the 90s, especially in sandstones. However knowledge of carbonates behavior is still insufficient. In this study, we focus on the mechanical behavior of a 14.7% porosity white Tavel (France) carbonate rock (>98% calcite). The samples were deformed in a triaxial cell at effective confining pressures ranging from 0 MPa to 85 MPa at room temperature and 70°C. Experiments were carried under dry and water saturated conditions in order to explore the role played by the pore fluids. Two types of experiments have been carried out: (1) a first series in order to investigate the rupture envelopes, and (2) a second series with creep experiments. During the experiments, elastic wave velocities (P and S) were measured to infer crack density evolution. Permeability was also measured during creep experiments. Our results show two different mechanical behaviors: (1) brittle behavior is observed at low confining pressures, whereas (2) ductile behavior is observed at higher confining pressures. During creep experiments, these two behaviors have a different signature in term of elastic wave velocities and permeability changes, due to two different mechanisms: development of micro-cracks at low confining pressures and competition between cracks and microplasticity at high confining pressure. The attached figure is a summary of 20 triaxial experiments performed on Tavel limestone under different conditions. Stress states C',C* and C*' and brittle strength are shown in the P-Q space: (a) 20°C and dry

  10. Experimental Investigation on the Fatigue Mechanical Properties of Intermittently Jointed Rock Models Under Cyclic Uniaxial Compression with Different Loading Parameters (United States)

    Liu, Yi; Dai, Feng; Dong, Lu; Xu, Nuwen; Feng, Peng


    Intermittently jointed rocks, widely existing in many mining and civil engineering structures, are quite susceptible to cyclic loading. Understanding the fatigue mechanism of jointed rocks is vital to the rational design and the long-term stability analysis of rock structures. In this study, the fatigue mechanical properties of synthetic jointed rock models under different cyclic conditions are systematically investigated in the laboratory, including four loading frequencies, four maximum stresses, and four amplitudes. Our experimental results reveal the influence of the three cyclic loading parameters on the mechanical properties of jointed rock models, regarding the fatigue deformation characteristics, the fatigue energy and damage evolution, and the fatigue failure and progressive failure behavior. Under lower loading frequency or higher maximum stress and amplitude, the jointed specimen is characterized by higher fatigue deformation moduli and higher dissipated hysteresis energy, resulting in higher cumulative damage and lower fatigue life. However, the fatigue failure modes of jointed specimens are independent of cyclic loading parameters; all tested jointed specimens exhibit a prominent tensile splitting failure mode. Three different crack coalescence patterns are classified between two adjacent joints. Furthermore, different from the progressive failure under static monotonic loading, the jointed rock specimens under cyclic compression fail more abruptly without evident preceding signs. The tensile cracks on the front surface of jointed specimens always initiate from the joint tips and then propagate at a certain angle with the joints toward the direction of maximum compression.

  11. Experimental Investigation of Mechanical Properties of Black Shales after CO2-Water-Rock Interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiao Lyu


    Full Text Available The effects of CO2-water-rock interactions on the mechanical properties of shale are essential for estimating the possibility of sequestrating CO2 in shale reservoirs. In this study, uniaxial compressive strength (UCS tests together with an acoustic emission (AE system and SEM and EDS analysis were performed to investigate the mechanical properties and microstructural changes of black shales with different saturation times (10 days, 20 days and 30 days in water dissoluted with gaseous/super-critical CO2. According to the experimental results, the values of UCS, Young’s modulus and brittleness index decrease gradually with increasing saturation time in water with gaseous/super-critical CO2. Compared to samples without saturation, 30-day saturation causes reductions of 56.43% in UCS and 54.21% in Young’s modulus for gaseous saturated samples, and 66.05% in UCS and 56.32% in Young’s modulus for super-critical saturated samples, respectively. The brittleness index also decreases drastically from 84.3% for samples without saturation to 50.9% for samples saturated in water with gaseous CO2, to 47.9% for samples saturated in water with super-critical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2. SC-CO2 causes a greater reduction of shale’s mechanical properties. The crack propagation results obtained from the AE system show that longer saturation time produces higher peak cumulative AE energy. SEM images show that many pores occur when shale samples are saturated in water with gaseous/super-critical CO2. The EDS results show that CO2-water-rock interactions increase the percentages of C and Fe and decrease the percentages of Al and K on the surface of saturated samples when compared to samples without saturation.

  12. Review of Consolidation Grouting of Rock Masses and Methods for Evaluation (United States)


    undesirable as the clay fillings may be less pc ~vious than the cement grout. However, they were grouting for seepage control and were not attempting...34 Memoria No. 364, Laboratorio Nacional De Engenharia Civil, Lisbon. Barton, C. M. 1978 (May). "Analysis of Joint Traces," Proceedings, 19th US Rock

  13. A 3D Analysis of Rock Block Deformation and Failure Mechanics Using Terrestrial Laser Scanning (United States)

    Rowe, Emily; Hutchinson, D. Jean; Kromer, Ryan A.; Edwards, Tom


    planes on the slope that were confining the block. It is concluded that rock blocks in White Canyon may be classified as one of five main failure mechanisms based on their pre-failure deformation and structure: planar slide, topple, rotation, wedge, and overhang, with overhang failures representing a large portion of rockfalls in this area. Overhang rockfalls in the White Canyon are characterized by blocks that (a) are not supported by an underlying discontinuity plane, and (b) generally do not exhibit pre-failure deformation. Though overhanging rock blocks are a structural subset of toppling failure, their behavior suggests a different mechanism of detachment. Future work will further populate the present database of rockfalls in White Canyon and will expand the study to include other sites along this corridor. The ultimate goal of this research is to establish warning thresholds based on deformation magnitudes for rockfalls in White Canyon to assist Canadian railways in better understanding and managing these slopes.

  14. Study on simple evaluation of mechanical properties of rock materials for Equotip hardness tester (United States)

    Muramiya, Masaya; Yoshida, Hidenori; Tatsumi, Takakuni

    The mechanical properties of a rock or a soil are different in a narrow area. However, it is difficult to get their sample and to perform a various types of tests from the view points of time and economy. Thus, in this study, Equotip hardness test is focused. Because the test is easy to measure, it is possible to carry on the test at several points in a short time. Additionally, the cost performance of the test is excellent. In this article, the compression test for several artificial specimens is conducted, Equotip hardness test is also conducted before and after the compression test. Through the comparison between the measured data by the Equotip hardness test and the various properties, it turned out that the various properties can be presumed by Equotip hardness test.

  15. Fundamental Study on Applicability of Powder-Based 3D Printer for Physical Modeling in Rock Mechanics (United States)

    Fereshtenejad, Sayedalireza; Song, Jae-Joon


    Applications of 3D printing technology become more widespread in many research fields because of its rapid development and valuable capabilities. In rock mechanics and mining engineering, this technology has the potential to become a useful tool that might help implement a number of research studies previously considered impractical. Most commercial 3D printers cannot print prototypes with mechanical properties that match precisely those of natural rock samples. Therefore, some additional enhancements are required for 3D printers to be effectively utilized for rock mechanics applications. In this study, we printed and studied specimens using a powder-based commercial ZPrinter® 450 with ZP® 150 powder and Zb® 63 binder used as raw materials. The specimens printed by this 3D printer exhibited relatively low strength and ductile behavior, implying that it needs further improvements. Hence, we focused on several ways to determine the best combination of printing options and post-processing including the effects of the printing direction, printing layer thickness, binder saturation level, and heating process on the uniaxial compressive strength (UCS) and stress-strain behavior of the printed samples. The suggested procedures have demonstrated their effectiveness by obtaining the printed samples that behave similarly to the natural rocks with low UCS. Although our optimization methods were particularly successful, further improvements are required to expand 3D printer application in the area of rock mechanics.

  16. Investigation on the oxygen transport mechanisms in the Sarcheshmeh waste rock dumps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Yousefi


    Full Text Available Introduction Pyrite oxidation and acid mine drainage (AMD are the serious environmental problems associated with the mining activities in sulphide ores. The rate of pyrite oxidation is governed by the availability of oxygen (Borden, 2003. Therefore, the identifying oxygen supplying mechanism is one of the most important issues related to the environmental assessment of waste rock dumps (Cathles and Apps, 1975; Jaynes et al., 1984; Davis and Ritchie, 1986. Although comprehensive researches were performed on the mathematical description of oxygen transport processes using the numerical modeling (Morin et al., 1988; Blowes et al., 1991; Wunderly et al., 1986; Elberling et al., 1994; Jannesar Malakooti et al., 2014, so far, the interactions between these processes and geochemical and mineralogical characteristics has not been studied especially in waste rock dumps. Therefore the main objective of this study is to identify the evidences for knowing the oxygen transport mechanisms in the waste dumps and also, its role in intensity of pyrite oxidation. It is expected that such these structural studies could be useful for better understanding of dominant processes in numerical modeling and also providing environmental management strategies in the study area and other sites by similar characteristics. Materials and Methods In this study, thirty solid samples were collected from six excavated trenches in the waste rock dumps No. 19 and 31 of the Sarcheshmeh porphyry copper mine. Collected samples were studied using several methods such as XRD, ASTM-D2492, paste pH and grain size distribution. The results obtained from these methods were used with the field observations in order to characterize some detail information about oxygen supplying mechanisms for oxidation reactions in the waste rock dumps. Result The main minerals found by the XRD analysis were quartz and muscovite which were present in all samples. Pyrite, orthose, albite, and chlorite were also

  17. Theoretical and numerical studies of crack initiation and propagation in rock masses under freezing pressure and far-field stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongshui Kang


    Full Text Available Water-bearing rocks exposed to freezing temperature can be subjected to freeze–thaw cycles leading to crack initiation and propagation, which are the main causes of frost damage to rocks. Based on the Griffith theory of brittle fracture mechanics, the crack initiation criterion, propagation direction, and crack length under freezing pressure and far-field stress are analyzed. Furthermore, a calculation method is proposed for the stress intensity factor (SIF of the crack tip under non-uniformly distributed freezing pressure. The formulae for the crack/fracture propagation direction and length of the wing crack under freezing pressure are obtained, and the mechanism for coalescence of adjacent cracks is investigated. In addition, the necessary conditions for different coalescence modes of cracks are studied. Using the topology theory, a new algorithm for frost crack propagation is proposed, which has the capability to define the crack growth path and identify and update the cracked elements. A model that incorporates multiple cracks is built by ANSYS and then imported into FLAC3D. The SIFs are then calculated using a FISH procedure, and the growth path of the freezing cracks after several calculation steps is demonstrated using the new algorithm. The proposed method can be applied to rocks containing fillings such as detritus and slurry.

  18. Enhanced Geothermal Systems: Modelling Heat and Mass Transfer in Fractured Crystalline Rock


    Piipponen, Katerina


    Geothermal energy is a growing industry and with Enhanced Geothermal System (EGS) technology it is possible to utilize geothermal energy in low heat flow areas. The ongoing EGS project in Southern Finland provides a great opportunity to learn and explore EGS technologies in a complex environment: hard crystalline rock, high pressure and low hydraulic permeability. This work describes physics behind an EGS plant, as well as basic concept of EGS, give examples of some existing plants and make c...

  19. Multi-scale investigation into the mechanisms of fault mirror formation in seismically active carbonate rocks (United States)

    Ohl, Markus; Chatzaras, Vasileios; Niemeijer, Andre; King, Helen; Drury, Martyn; Plümper, Oliver


    Mirror surfaces along principal slip zones in carbonate rocks have recently received considerable attention as they are thought to form during fault slip at seismic velocities and thus may be a marker for paleo-seismicity (Siman-Tov et al., 2013). Therefore, these structures represent an opportunity to improve our understanding of earthquake mechanics in carbonate faults. Recent investigations reported the formation of fault mirrors in natural rocks as well as in laboratory experiments and connected their occurrence to the development of nano-sized granular material (Spagnuolo et al., 2015). However, the underlying formation and deformation mechanisms of these fault mirrors are still poorly constrained and warrant further research. In order to understand the influence and significance of these fault products on the overall fault behavior, we analysed the micro-, and nanostructural inventory of natural fault samples containing mirror slip surfaces. Here we present first results on the possible formation mechanisms of fault mirrors and associated deformation mechanisms operating in the carbonate fault gouge from two seismically active fault zones in central Greece. Our study specifically focuses on mirror slip surfaces obtained from the Arkitsa fault in the Gulf of Evia and the Schinos fault in the Gulf of Corinth. The Schinos fault was reactivated by a magnitude 6.7 earthquake in 1981 while the Arkitsa fault is thought to have been reactivated by a magnitude 6.9 earthquake in 1894. Our investigations encompass a combination of state-of-the-art analytical techniques including X-ray computed tomography, focused ion beam scanning electron microscopy (FIB-SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and Raman spectroscopy. Using this multiscale analytical approach, we report decarbonation-reaction structures, considerable calcite twinning and grain welding immediately below the mirror slip surface. Grains or areas indicating decarbonation reactions show a foam


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert Podgorney; Chuan Lu; Hai Huang


    Development of enhanced geothermal systems (EGS) will require creation of a reservoir of sufficient volume to enable commercial-scale heat transfer from the reservoir rocks to the working fluid. A key assumption associated with reservoir creation/stimulation is that sufficient rock volumes can be hydraulically fractured via both tensile and shear failure, and more importantly by reactivation of naturally existing fractures (by shearing), to create the reservoir. The advancement of EGS greatly depends on our understanding of the dynamics of the intimately coupled rock-fracture-fluid-heat system and our ability to reliably predict how reservoirs behave under stimulation and production. Reliable performance predictions of EGS reservoirs require accurate and robust modeling for strongly coupled thermal-hydrological-mechanical (THM) processes. Conventionally, these types of problems have been solved using operator-splitting methods, usually by coupling a subsurface flow and heat transport simulators with a solid mechanics simulator via input files. An alternative approach is to solve the system of nonlinear partial differential equations that govern multiphase fluid flow, heat transport, and rock mechanics simultaneously, using a fully coupled, fully implicit solution procedure, in which all solution variables (pressure, enthalpy, and rock displacement fields) are solved simultaneously. This paper describes numerical simulations used to investigate the poro- and thermal- elastic effects of working fluid injection and thermal energy extraction on the properties of the fractures and rock matrix of a hypothetical EGS reservoir, using a novel simulation software FALCON (Podgorney et al., 2011), a finite element based simulator solving fully coupled multiphase fluid flow, heat transport, rock deformation, and fracturing using a global implicit approach. Investigations are also conducted on how these poro- and thermal-elastic effects are related to fracture permeability

  1. Plant- and microbial-based mechanisms to improve the agronomic effectiveness of phosphate rock: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa M. Arcand


    Full Text Available Deficiency in plant-available phosphorus is considered to be a major limiting factor to food production in many agricultural soils. Mineral resources are necessary to restore soil phosphorus content. In regions where conventional fertilizers are not used due to cost limitations or to mitigate adverse environmental effects, local sources of phosphate rock are being increasingly recognized for potential use as alternative phosphorus fertilizers. The main obstacle associated with using directly applied ground phosphate rock is that the phosphate released is often unable to supply sufficient plant-available phosphorus for crop uptake. Plantand microbial-based mechanisms are low-cost, appropriate technologies to enhance the solubilization and increase the agronomic effectiveness of phosphate rock. Common mechanisms of phosphate rock dissolution including proton and organic acid production will be reviewed for both plants and microorganisms. This review will also address possibilities for future research directions and applications to agriculture, as well as highlight ongoing research at the University of Guelph, Guelph, Canada.A deficiência de fósforo disponível nas plantas é considerada o maior fator de limitação na produção de alimentos em diversos solos agrícolas. São necessários recursos minerais para restaurar o conteúdo de fósforo no solo. Em regiões onde fertilizantes convencionais nãosão utilizados devido às limitações de custo ou de seus efeitos ambientais adversos, fontes locais de rocha fosfática estão sendo crescentemente reconhecidas por seu uso potencial como alternativa aos fertilizantes solúveis de fósforo. O principal obstáculo associado ao uso daaplicação direta da rocha fosfática no solo é que o fósforo liberado é, muitas vezes, incapaz de suprir as necessidades das plantas de forma a aumentar a produção. Mecanismos baseados no uso de plantas e micro-organismos são consideradas tecnologias

  2. Thermo-mechanical Properties of Upper Jurassic (Malm) Carbonate Rock Under Drained Conditions (United States)

    Pei, Liang; Blöcher, Guido; Milsch, Harald; Zimmermann, Günter; Sass, Ingo; Huenges, Ernst


    The present study aims to quantify the thermo-mechanical properties of Neuburger Bankkalk limestone, an outcrop analog of the Upper Jurassic carbonate formation (Germany), and to provide a reference for reservoir rock deformation within future enhanced geothermal systems located in the Southern German Molasse Basin. Experiments deriving the drained bulk compressibility C were performed by cycling confining pressure p c between 2 and 50 MPa at a constant pore pressure p p of 0.5 MPa after heating the samples to defined temperatures between 30 and 90 °C. Creep strain was then measured after each loading and unloading stage, and permeability k was obtained after each creep strain measurement. The drained bulk compressibility increased with increasing temperature and decreased with increasing differential pressure p d = p c - p p showing hysteresis between the loading and unloading stages above 30 °C. The apparent values of the indirectly calculated Biot coefficient α ind containing contributions from inelastic deformation displayed the same temperature and pressure dependencies. The permeability k increased immediately after heating and the creep rates were also temperature dependent. It is inferred that the alteration of the void space caused by temperature changes leads to the variation of rock properties measured under isothermal conditions while the load cycles applied under isothermal conditions yield additional changes in pore space microstructure. The experimental results were applied to a geothermal fluid production scenario to constrain drawdown and time-dependent effects on the reservoir, overall, to provide a reference for the hydromechanical behavior of geothermal systems in carbonate, and more specifically, in Upper Jurassic lithologies.

  3. Mechanical interactions between proppants and rock and their effect on hydraulic fracture performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Legarth, B.A.; Raab, S.; Huenges, E. [GeoForschungsZentrum Potsdam (Germany)


    Proppants interact mechanically with the rock matrix. This causes damage to the fracture face and influences propped fracture performance. Therefore, proppant embedment and proppant crushing phenomena were analysed in laboratory under simulated in situ conditions. The embedment tests were performed in a conductivity cell using reassembled core halves. Embedment features in the rock matrix were optically analyzed. In a separate unit single grain strength tests were performed on a wide range of ceramic proppant types (AI203-based, coated/uncoated) and sizes (diameter 0,2-1,6 mm). The experiment showed that areas in the fracture with low proppant concentration revealed severe proppant crushing and embedment that occurred already at low effective stress. Punctual loading was identified as reason for premature proppant failure. Grain strength testing showed that compressive fracture force increases with grain diameter, is influenced by the presence of a coating and might be additionally controlled by grain surface structure. Compressive fracture strength is largely independent from size for same proppant types. A contact model introduced by Hertz was applied to retrieve the stress magnitudes at grain failure. Proppant crushing leads to generation of fines in the matrix and the proppant pack. These fines can be transported and plug pore-throats and flow channels. Dependent on completion type and expected fracture widths proppant grain size should be maximized for higher fracture conductivity. Proppant crushing and embedment processes are enforced by decreasing proppant concentration. Considering natural conditions in a fracture - rough surfaces, tortuous-twisted paths that hinder even proppant distribution - low proppant concentrations appear to be very real, maybe even the normal case in nature. Thus, high proppant concentration is the key issue to mitigate fracture impairment. (orig.)

  4. Microfabrics and deformation mechanisms of rheologically stratified salt rocks: Constraints from EBSD-analyses of anhydrite and halite of Upper Permian salt rocks (United States)

    Mertineit, Michael; Schramm, Michael; Hammer, Jörg; Zulauf, Gernold; Thiemeyer, Nicolas


    Salt rocks of the Leine Unit (z3), Upper Permian German Zechstein, are characterized by locally changing amounts of anhydrite. The interbeds of the more competent anhydrite layers may be affected by folding or boudinage. The present study is focusing on the texture of deformed halite and anhydrite. The samples for EBSD studies were collected from Anhydritmittelsalz (z3AM) of the Morsleben salt mine, which is affected by folding and boudinage of anhydrite in rock-salt matrix due to diapiric emplacement and subsequent horizontal shortening (Behlau & Mingerzahn 2001). Anhydrite is characterized by small grain size (≤ 50 µm) and high amounts of opaque and less soluble components (magnesite, quartz, phyllosilicates). Small fractures are filled with halite. For EBSD, line scans were performed with a step size of 50 µm. The results do not show any crystallographic preferred orientation of anhydrite. The grain size of halite ranges from 1-3 mm, grain boundaries are lobate and decorated with both fluid inclusions and small anhydrite crystals. Halite subgrains have a size of 70-90 µm. For EBSD analyses, map scans were performed with different size and step size, dependent on the magnification. The misorientation angles between single subgrains are very low (1°-2°), only subordinate misorientation angles of 5°-7° occur. Bending of some halite crystals is documented by misorientation angles of max. 3° within a single grain. The misorientation index M (Skemer et al. 2005) for whole rock analyses yielded values rocks. The small grain size of anhydrite, the lack of a preferred orientation and the development of opaque seams suggest solution-precipitation creep is the most important deformation mechanism in fine grained anhydrite rocks. Brittle deformation is documented by subsequent developed fractures, which are filled with halite. For halite, subgrain formation and solution-precipitation creep are the dominant deformation mechanisms. No lattice preferred orientation

  5. The mechanisms and characteristics of a complex rock-debris avalanche at the Nigeria-Cameroon border, West Africa (United States)

    Igwe, Ogbonnaya; Mode, Ayonma Wilfred; Nnebedum, Okechukwu; Okonkwo, Ikenna; Oha, Ifeanyi


    We describe a rock-debris avalanche which occurred on steep, symmetrical ridges resulting from fracture-controlled erosion in the valley. The fractures were partially filled with clayey materials, probably derived from the weathering of feldspar. Major fault lines trending N-S were located less than 7 km from the landslide location. Exposed sections revealed that the basal rock units were migmatites and gneisses, while the upper section consisted of porphyritic granites. A failure of the residual clay-rich soil, composed of visible crystals of feldspar and mica, is thought to have triggered a long chain of events that led to the development of a rock-debris avalanche, which diverted the course of the rivers in the valley. The area was characterised by a shallow water table in the dry season (2 to 3 m) and this might have facilitated the formation of a slip surface at the regolith-rock interface. Field observations and laboratory analysis showed that the regolith probably failed first because of high pore pressure build-up and rapid reduction in shear resistance; this then triggered the failure of the fractured rock units. The slope movement was perpendicular to the foliation of the gneissic rocks, which probably contributed to landslide mobility. Of interest was that changing saturation level at constant relative density of about 32% resulted in either complete or limited liquefaction, indicating that the mechanism of failure depended on the moisture content of the regolith.

  6. Mass transport mechanism in porous fuel cell electrodes (United States)

    Jonsson, I.; Lindholm, I.


    Results of experiments on hydrogen-oxygen fuel cells show that higher current densities are obtained with cell anodes having a 100 micron thin active layer of porous nickel containing silver electrocatalyst. Increase in current density is attributed to a convective mass transport mechanism.

  7. Rock Mass Grouting in the Løren Tunnel: Case Study with the Main Focus on the Groutability and Feasibility of Drill Parameter Interpretation (United States)

    Høien, Are Håvard; Nilsen, Bjørn


    The Løren road tunnel is a part of a major project at Ring road 3 in Oslo, Norway. The rock part of the tunnel is 915 m long and has two tubes with three lanes and breakdown lanes. Strict water ingress restriction was specified and continuous rock mass grouting was, therefore, carried out for the entire tunnel, which was excavated in folded Cambro-Silurian shales intruded by numerous dykes. This paper describes the rock mass grouting that was carried out for the Løren tunnel. Particular emphasis is placed on discussing grout consumption and the challenges that were encountered when passing under a distinct rock depression. Measurement while drilling (MWD) technology was used for this project, and, in this paper, the relationships between the drill parameter interpretation (DPI) factors water and fracturing are examined in relation to grout volumes. A lowering of the groundwater table was experienced during excavation under the rock depression, but the groundwater was nearly re-established after completion of the main construction work. A planned 80-m watertight concrete lining was not required to be built due to the excellent results from grouting in the rock depression area. A relationship was found between leakages mapped in the tunnel and the DPI water factor, indicating that water is actually present where the DPI water factor shows water in the rock. It is concluded that, for the Løren tunnel, careful planning and high-quality execution of the rock mass grouting made the measured water ingress meet the restrictions. For future projects, the DPI water factor may be used to give a better understanding of the material in which the rock mass grouting is performed and may also be used to reduce the time spent and volumes used when grouting.

  8. Investigating the permeability of fractured rock masses and the origin of water in a mine tunnel in Shandong Province, China. (United States)

    Guo, Jie; Zhao, Haijun; Ma, Fengshan; Li, Kepeng; Zhao, Chunhu


    The coastal Sanshandao mine is threatened by the overlying Quaternary water and seawater. Following an introduction to the geology and hydrogeological conditions in the mine area, a detailed hydrogeological survey and sampling were conducted and hydrochemical and stable isotopic (δ2H and δ18O) tests on various waters were carried out to characterize the origin of water in the mine tunnels. Investigation and statistical analysis indicated that the northwest-trending fractures with large dip angles and long trace lengths are well developed in the northeast compared with those in the southwest of the mine. The permeability coefficients of the rock masses are in the range 4.19×10(-8)-2.25×10(-5) m/s, indicating that the fractured rock masses have generally low permeability. The seepage water had higher values of EC, total dissolved solids, and concentrations of most elements than the seawater and saline groundwater. Besides, the isotope composition of the waters indicated that the seepage water was more isotopically enriched than seawater but less than brine. The proportions of the three different sources were calculated based on hydrochemical and isotopic analyses. Overall, the mine water was composed of 72% seawater, 14.8% brine, and 13.2% atmospheric precipitation, respectively. Therefore, some preventive measures are essential to avoid the probability of seawater inrush.

  9. Higgs mechanism and the added-mass effect. (United States)

    Krishnaswami, Govind S; Phatak, Sachin S


    In the Higgs mechanism, mediators of the weak force acquire masses by interacting with the Higgs condensate, leading to a vector boson mass matrix. On the other hand, a rigid body accelerated through an inviscid, incompressible and irrotational fluid feels an opposing force linearly related to its acceleration, via an added-mass tensor. We uncover a striking physical analogy between the two effects and propose a dictionary relating them. The correspondence turns the gauge Lie algebra into the space of directions in which the body can move, encodes the pattern of gauge symmetry breaking in the shape of an associated body and relates symmetries of the body to those of the scalar vacuum manifold. The new viewpoint is illustrated with numerous examples, and raises interesting questions, notably on the fluid analogues of the broken symmetry and Higgs particle, and the field-theoretic analogue of the added mass of a composite body.

  10. Stress-dependent voltage offsets from polymer insulators used in rock mechanics and material testing (United States)

    Carlson, G. G.; Dahlgren, R.; Vanderbilt, V. C.; Johnston, M. J.; Dunson, C.; Gray, A.; Freund, F.


    Dielectric insulators are used in a variety of laboratory settings when performing experiments in rock mechanics, petrology, and electromagnetic studies of rocks in the fields of geophysics, material science, and civil engineering. These components may be used to electrically isolate geological samples from the experimental equipment, to perform a mechanical compliance function between brittle samples and the loading equipment, to match ultrasonic transducers, or perform other functions. In many experimental configurations the insulators bear the full brunt of force applied to the sample but do not need to withstand high voltages, therefore the insulators are often thin sheets of mechanically tough polymers. From an instrument perspective, transduction from various types of mechanical perturbation has been qualitatively compared for a number of polymers [1, 2] and these error sources are readily apparent during high-impedance measurements if not mitigated. However even when following best practices, a force-dependent voltage signal still remains and its behavior is explored in this presentation. In this experiment two thin sheets (0.25 mm) of high-density polyethylene (HDPE) were set up in a stack, held alternately between three aluminum bars; this stack was placed on the platen of a 60T capacity hydraulic testing machine. The surface area, A, over which the force is applied to the PE sheets in this sandwich is roughly 40 square cm, each sheet forming a parallel-plate capacitor having roughly 320 pF [3], assuming the relative dielectric permittivity of PE is ~2.3. The outer two aluminum bars were connected to the LO input of the electrometer and the central aluminum bar was connected to the HI input of a Keithley model 617 electrometer. Once the stack is mechanically well-seated with no air gaps, the voltage offset is observed to be a linear function of the baseline voltage for a given change in applied force. For a periodically applied force of 66.7 kN the voltage

  11. Stress-Dependent Voltage Offsets From Polymer Insulators Used in Rock Mechanics and Material Testing (United States)

    Carlson, G. G.; Dahlgren, Robert; Gray, Amber; Vanderbilt, V. C.; Freund, F.; Johnston, M. J.; Dunson, C.


    Dielectric insulators are used in a variety of laboratory settings when performing experiments in rock mechanics, petrology, and electromagnetic studies of rocks in the fields of geophysics,material science, and civil engineering. These components may be used to electrically isolate geological samples from the experimental equipment, to perform a mechanical compliance function between brittle samples and the loading equipment, to match ultrasonic transducers, or perform other functions. In manyexperimental configurations the insulators bear the full brunt of force applied to the sample but do not need to withstand high voltages, therefore the insulators are often thin sheets of mechanically tough polymers. From an instrument perspective, transduction from various types of mechanical perturbation has beenqualitatively compared for a number of polymers [1, 2] and these error sources are readily apparent duringhigh-impedance measurements if not mitigated. However even when following best practices, a force dependent voltage signal still remains and its behavior is explored in this presentation. In this experimenttwo thin sheets (0.25 mm) of high-density polyethylene (HDPE) were set up in a stack, held alternatelybetween three aluminum bars; this stack was placed on the platen of a 60T capacity hydraulic testingmachine. The surface area, A, over which the force is applied to the PE sheets in this sandwich is roughly 40 square cm, each sheet forming a parallel-plate capacitor having roughly 320 pF [3], assuming therelative dielectric permittivity of PE is approximately 2.3. The outer two aluminum bars were connected to the LO input ofthe electrometer and the central aluminum bar was connected to the HI input of a Keithley model 617 electrometer. Once the stack is mechanically well-seated with no air gaps, the voltage offset is observed tobe a linear function of the baseline voltage for a given change in applied force. For a periodically appliedforce of 66.7 kN the

  12. REDBACK: an Open-Source Highly Scalable Simulation Tool for Rock Mechanics with Dissipative Feedbacks (United States)

    Poulet, T.; Veveakis, M.; Paesold, M.; Regenauer-Lieb, K.


    Multiphysics modelling has become an indispensable tool for geoscientists to simulate the complex behaviours observed in their various fields of study where multiple processes are involved, including thermal, hydraulic, mechanical and chemical (THMC) laws. This modelling activity involves simulations that are computationally expensive and its soaring uptake is tightly linked to the increasing availability of supercomputing power and easy access to powerful nonlinear solvers such as PETSc ( The Multiphysics Object-Oriented Simulation Environment (MOOSE) is a finite-element, multiphysics framework ( that can harness such computational power and allow scientists to develop easily some tightly-coupled fully implicit multiphysics simulations that run automatically in parallel on large clusters. This open-source framework provides a powerful tool to collaborate on numerical modelling activities and we are contributing to its development with REDBACK (, a module for Rock mEchanics with Dissipative feedBACKs. REDBACK builds on the tensor mechanics finite strain implementation available in MOOSE to provide a THMC simulator where the energetic formulation highlights the importance of all dissipative terms in the coupled system of equations. We show first applications of fully coupled dehydration reactions triggering episodic fluid transfer through shear zones (Alevizos et al, 2014). The dimensionless approach used allows focusing on the critical underlying variables which are driving the resulting behaviours observed and this tool is specifically designed to study material instabilities underpinning geological features like faulting, folding, boudinage, shearing, fracturing, etc. REDBACK provides a collaborative and educational tool which captures the physical and mathematical understanding of such material instabilities and provides an easy way to apply this knowledge to realistic

  13. U.S. National Committee for Rock Mechanics; and Conceptual model of fluid infiltration in fractured media. Project summary, July 28, 1997--July 27, 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The title describes the two tasks summarized in this report. The remainder of the report contains information on meetings held or to be held on the subjects. The US National Committee for Rock Mechanics (USNC/RM) provides for US participation in international activities in rock mechanics, principally through adherence to the International Society for Rock Mechanics (ISRM). It also keeps the US rock mechanics community informed about new programs directed toward major areas of national concern in which rock mechanics problems represent critical or limiting factors, such as energy resources, excavation, underground storage and waste disposal, and reactor siting. The committee also guides or produces advisory studies and reports on problem areas in rock mechanics. A new panel under the auspices of the US National Committee for Rock Mechanics has been appointed to conduct a study on Conceptual Models of Fluid Infiltration in Fractured Media. The study has health and environmental applications related to the underground flow of pollutants through fractured rock in and around mines and waste repositories. Support of the study has been received from the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission and the Department of Energy`s Yucca Mountain Project Office. The new study builds on the success of a recent USNC/RM report entitled Rock Fractures and Fluid Flow: Contemporary Understanding and Applications (National Academy Press, 1996, 551 pp.). A summary of the new study is provided.

  14. Leptoquark mechanism of neutrino masses within the grand unification framework

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dorsner, Ilja [University of Split, Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Mechanical Engineering and Naval Architecture in Split (FESB), Split (Croatia); Fajfer, Svjetlana; Kosnik, Nejc [University of Ljubljana, Department of Physics, Ljubljana (Slovenia); Jozef Stefan Institute, Jamova 39, P. O. Box 3000, Ljubljana (Slovenia)


    We demonstrate the viability of the one-loop neutrino mass mechanism within the framework of grand unification when the loop particles comprise scalar leptoquarks (LQs) and quarks of the matching electric charge. This mechanism can be implemented in both supersymmetric and non-supersymmetric models and requires the presence of at least one LQ pair. The appropriate pairs for the neutrino mass generation via the up-type and down-type quark loops are S{sub 3}-R{sub 2} and S{sub 1,3}-R{sub 2}, respectively. We consider two distinct regimes for the LQ masses in our analysis. The first regime calls for very heavy LQs in the loop. It can be naturally realized with the S{sub 1,3}-R{sub 2} scenarios when the LQ masses are roughly between 10{sup 12} and 5 x 10{sup 13} GeV. These lower and upper bounds originate from experimental limits on partial proton decay lifetimes and perturbativity constraints, respectively. Second regime corresponds to the collider accessible LQs in the neutrino mass loop. That option is viable for the S{sub 3}-R{sub 2} scenario in the models of unification that we discuss. If one furthermore assumes the presence of the type II see-saw mechanism there is an additional contribution from the S{sub 3}-R{sub 2} scenario that needs to be taken into account beside the type II see-saw contribution itself. We provide a complete list of renormalizable operators that yield necessary mixing of all aforementioned LQ pairs using the language of SU(5). We furthermore discuss several possible embeddings of this mechanism in SU(5) and SO(10) gauge groups. (orig.)

  15. Leptoquark mechanism of neutrino masses within the grand unification framework (United States)

    Doršner, Ilja; Fajfer, Svjetlana; Košnik, Nejc


    We demonstrate the viability of the one-loop neutrino mass mechanism within the framework of grand unification when the loop particles comprise scalar leptoquarks (LQs) and quarks of the matching electric charge. This mechanism can be implemented in both supersymmetric and non-supersymmetric models and requires the presence of at least one LQ pair. The appropriate pairs for the neutrino mass generation via the up-type and down-type quark loops are S_3-R_2 and S_{1, 3}-\\tilde{R}_2, respectively. We consider two distinct regimes for the LQ masses in our analysis. The first regime calls for very heavy LQs in the loop. It can be naturally realized with the S_{1, 3}-\\tilde{R}_2 scenarios when the LQ masses are roughly between 10^{12} and 5 × 10^{13} GeV. These lower and upper bounds originate from experimental limits on partial proton decay lifetimes and perturbativity constraints, respectively. Second regime corresponds to the collider accessible LQs in the neutrino mass loop. That option is viable for the S_3-\\tilde{R}_2 scenario in the models of unification that we discuss. If one furthermore assumes the presence of the type II see-saw mechanism there is an additional contribution from the S_3-R_2 scenario that needs to be taken into account beside the type II see-saw contribution itself. We provide a complete list of renormalizable operators that yield necessary mixing of all aforementioned LQ pairs using the language of SU(5). We furthermore discuss several possible embeddings of this mechanism in SU(5) and SO(10) gauge groups.

  16. Prediction of rock brittleness using nondestructive methods for hard rock tunneling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rennie B. Kaunda


    Full Text Available The material and elastic properties of rocks are utilized for predicting and evaluating hard rock brittleness using artificial neural networks (ANN. Herein hard rock brittleness is defined using Yagiz' method. A predictive model is developed using a comprehensive database compiled from 30 years' worth of rock tests at the Earth Mechanics Institute (EMI, Colorado School of Mines. The model is sensitive to density, elastic properties, and P- and S-wave velocities. The results show that the model is a better predictor of rock brittleness than conventional destructive strength-test based models and multiple regression techniques. While the findings have direct implications on intact rock, the methodology can be extrapolated to rock mass problems in both tunneling and underground mining where rock brittleness is an important control.

  17. Jointed Surrounding Rock Mass Stability Analysis on an Underground Cavern in a Hydropower Station Based on the Extended Key Block Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Jia


    Full Text Available The jointed surrounding rock mass stability is of utmost importance to integral stability during the construction and long-term safety operation of the underground caverns in hydropower stations. The key blocks play a significant role in the integral stability of the jointed surrounding rock mass, therefore it is critical to determine the location, size, and failure mode of random key blocks. This paper proposes an improved method combining the traditional key block theory (KBT and the force transfer algorithm to accurately calculate the safety factors of probabilistic key blocks in the surrounding rock mass. The force transfer algorithm can consider the interactions between the internal blocks. After the probabilistic characteristics of the joint fissures are obtained, the stereographic projection method is employed to determine the locations of dangerous joints. Then the vector analysis method is used to search the random blocks, determine the sliding directions of random blocks, and calculate the block sizes and safety factors near the free surface of the underground cavern, which can be used to comprehensively evaluate the surrounding rock mass stability. The above numerical results have provided powerful guidance for developing a reinforcement system for the surrounding rock mass.

  18. Fracturing Fluid Leak-off for Deep Volcanic Rock in Zhungeer Basin: Mechanism and Control Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang Bo


    Full Text Available The deep volcanic reservoir in Zhungeer Basin is buried in over 4000m depth, which is characterized by complex lithology (breccia, andesite, basalt, etc., high elastic modulus and massive natural fractures. During hydraulic fracturing, hydraulic fracture will propagate and natural fractures will be triggered by the increasing net pressure. However, the extension of fractures, especially natural fractures, would aggravate the leak-off effect of fracturing fluid, and consequently decrease the fracturing success rate. 4 out of 12 fracturing wells in the field have failed to add enough proppants due to fluid loss. In order to increase the success rate and efficiency of hydraulic fracturing for deep volcanic reservoir, based on theoretical and experimental method, the mechanism of fracturing fluid leak-off is deeply studied. We propose a dualistic proppant scheme and employ the fluid loss reducer to control the fluid leak-off in macro-fractures and micro-fractures respectively. The proposed technique remarkably improved the success rate in deep volcanic rock fracturing. It bears important theoretical value and practical significance to improve the hydraulic fracturing design for deep volcanic reservoir.

  19. Numerical simulation for the coupled thermo-mechanical performance of a lined rock cavern for underground compressed air energy storage (United States)

    Zhou, Shu-Wei; Xia, Cai-Chu; Zhao, Hai-Bin; Mei, Song-Hua; Zhou, Yu


    Compressed air energy storage (CAES) is a technology that uses compressed air to store surplus electricity generated from low power consumption time for use at peak times. This paper presents a thermo-mechanical modeling for the thermodynamic and mechanical responses of a lined rock cavern used for CAES. The simulation was accomplished in COMSOL Multiphysics and comparisons of the numerical simulation and some analytical solutions validated the thermo-mechanical modeling. Air pressure and temperatures in the sealing layer and concrete lining exhibited a similar trend of ‘up–down–down–up’ in one cycle. Significant temperature fluctuation occurred only in the concrete lining and sealing layer, and no strong fluctuation was observed in the host rock. In the case of steel sealing, principal stresses in the sealing layer were larger than those in the concrete and host rock. The maximum compressive stresses of the three layers and the displacement on the cavern surface increased with the increase of cycle number. However, the maximum tensile stresses exhibited the opposite trend. Polymer sealing achieved a relatively larger air temperature and pressure compared with steel and air-tight concrete sealing. For concrete layer thicknesses of 0 and 0.1 m and an initial air pressure of 4.5 MPa, the maximum rock temperature could reach 135 °C and 123 °C respectively in a 30 day simulation.

  20. The effect of carbon-rich fluid alteration on the mechanical and physical properties of ultramafic rocks from Linnejavrre, Norway (United States)

    Lisabeth, H. P.; Zhu, W.


    Carbon dioxide interacts with mafic and ultramafic rocks on the ocean floor at fracture zones and detachment faults, and within ophiolite complexes. Steatized olivine-pyroxene or serpentinite rocks become talc-carbonate rocks, i.e., soapstones. If the fluids are extremely carbon-rich, the process can continue to completion, binding all the magnesium from olivine and pyroxene in magnesium carbonate, resulting in magnesite-quartz rocks known as listvenites. The structural, mechanical and mineralogical characteristics of these rocks can be long-lived and affect later tectonic deformation over the course of the supercontinent cycle, influencing the obduction of ophiolites and possibly the initiation of subduction. To ascertain the changes in physical and geomechanical characteristics of these rocks as they undergo carbonic alteration, we measure ultrasonic velocity, electrical resistivity and shear strength in a series of laboratory tests on samples collected from northern Norway, where the Linnajavrre Ophiolite contains representative samples of serpentinite, soapstone and listvenite. We discover that the rocks tend to become denser, more porous, weaker, and more electrically and acoustically impeditive as carbonation proceeds. Samples fail by highly localized brittle faulting with little dilatancy. Shear strength appears to correlate with talc abundance, with a steep drop-off from 5 to 20% talc. Deformed samples are examined under petrographic microscope to explore deformation micromechanisms. Our data suggest that the weakening observed in soapstones and listvenites compared to serpentinites is attributed to interconnected talc grains. Such carbonic alteration of oceanic serpentinites may help facilitate oceanic spreading, particularly along slow and ultraslow segments of mid-ocean ridges.

  1. A mechanical erosion model for two-phase mass flows

    CERN Document Server

    Pudasaini, Shiva P


    Erosion, entrainment and deposition are complex and dominant, but yet poorly understood, mechanical processes in geophysical mass flows. Here, we propose a novel, process-based, two-phase, erosion-deposition model capable of adequately describing these complex phenomena commonly observed in landslides, avalanches, debris flows and bedload transport. The model is based on the jump in the momentum flux including changes of material and flow properties along the flow-bed interface and enhances an existing general two-phase mass flow model (Pudasaini, 2012). A two-phase variably saturated erodible basal morphology is introduced and allows for the evolution of erosion-deposition-depths, incorporating the inherent physical process including momentum and rheological changes of the flowing mixture. By rigorous derivation, we show that appropriate incorporation of the mass and momentum productions or losses in conservative model formulation is essential for the physically correct and mathematically consistent descript...

  2. Strategy for a Rock Mechanics Site Descriptive Model. Development and testing of an approach to modelling the state of stress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hakami, Eva; Hakami, Hossein [Itasca Geomekanik AB, Solna (Sweden); Cosgrove, John [Imperial College of Science and Technology, London (United Kingdom)


    The overall objective of this project has been to develop, test and establish a method for creating a Rock Mechanics Site Descriptive Model for a site considered in the site investigation programme. The work was divided into three parts, the empirical and theoretical 'property models' and the 'stress model'. The work on the stress model is presented in this report. The work consisted of i) a literature review about geological factors controlling in situ stress and a review about the use of numerical models for this subject, ii) the development of recommendations on the methodology to be applied during a site investigation and iii) the Test Case exercise, where the suggested methods were tested. The main mechanism controlling the in situ stress magnitudes in Sweden is plate tectonics causing the stress field to show similarities in most parts of north-western Europe, having a NW-SE trend of the maximum principal stress. The orientation of the stress field is largely determined by the relative movements by the plates. However, the stress orientation may also be influenced by the presence of large regional weak zones, such as the Tornquist deformation zone that lies between Sweden and Denmark. The strike of the Tornquist deformation zone is parallel to the maximum principal stress as observed in central and southern Sweden. The magnitude of the stress is more difficult to estimate, but the general pattern is an increase in magnitude with depth, at least for the upper kilometres. To determine the stress magnitude at a certain site and depth, with reasonable certainty, stress measurement should be used. A methodology for building a stress model has been proposed. It involves different steps starting with a preliminary stress estimation, followed by steps for interpreting site-specific information. If the stress pattern and structural geology of the site are complex, including major fracture zones intersecting the area, numerical analyses of the

  3. How stress and temperature conditions affect rock-fluid chemistry and mechanical deformation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anders eNermoen


    Full Text Available We report the results from a series of chalk flow-through-compaction experiments performed at three effective stresses (0.5 MPa, 3.5 MPa and 12.3 MPa and two temperatures (92℃ and and 130℃. The results show that both stress and temperature are important to both chemical alteration and mechanical deformation. The experiments were conducted on cores drilled from the same block of outcrop chalks from the Obourg quarry within the Saint Vast formation (Mons, Belgium. The pore pressure was kept at 0.7 MPa for all experiments with a continuous flow of 0.219 M MgCl2 brine at a constant flow rate; 1 original pore volume (PV per day. The experiments have been performed in tri-axial cells with independent control of the external stress (hydraulic pressure in the confining oil, pore pressure, temperature, and the injected flow rate. Each experiment consists of two phases; a loading phase where stress-strain dependencies are investigated (approx. 2 days, and a creep phase that lasts for more than 150-160 days. During creep, the axial deformation was logged, and the effluent samples were collected for ion chromatography analyses. Any difference between the injected and produced water chemistry gives insight into the rock-fluid interactions that occur during flow through of the core. The observed effluent concentration shows a reduction in Mg2+, while the Ca2+ concentration is increased. This, together with SEM-EDS analysis, indicates that magnesium-bearing mineral phases are precipitated leading to dissolution of calcite, an observation . This is in-line with other flow-through experiments reported earlier. The observed dissolution and precipitation are sensitive to the effective stress and test temperature. Typically. H, higher stress and temperature lead to increased concentration differences of Mg2+ and Ca2+ concentration changes.. The observed strain can be partitioned additively into a mechanical and chemical driven component.

  4. The Usability of Rock-Like Materials for Numerical Studies on Rocks (United States)

    Zengin, Enes; Abiddin Erguler, Zeynal


    The approaches of synthetic rock material and mass are widely used by many researchers for understanding the failure behavior of different rocks. In order to model the failure behavior of rock material, researchers take advantageous of different techniques and software. But, the majority of all these instruments are based on distinct element method (DEM). For modeling the failure behavior of rocks, and so to create a fundamental synthetic rock material model, it is required to perform related laboratory experiments for providing strength parameters. In modelling studies, model calibration processes are performed by using parameters of intact rocks such as porosity, grain size, modulus of elasticity and Poisson ratio. In some cases, it can be difficult or even impossible to acquire representative rock samples for laboratory experiments from heavily jointed rock masses and vuggy rocks. Considering this limitation, in this study, it was aimed to investigate the applicability of rock-like material (e.g. concrete) to understand and model the failure behavior of rock materials having complex inherent structures. For this purpose, concrete samples having a mixture of %65 cement dust and %35 water were utilized. Accordingly, intact concrete samples representing rocks were prepared in laboratory conditions and their physical properties such as porosity, pore size and density etc. were determined. In addition, to acquire the mechanical parameters of concrete samples, uniaxial compressive strength (UCS) tests were also performed by simultaneously measuring strain during testing. The measured physical and mechanical properties of these extracted concrete samples were used to create synthetic material and then uniaxial compressive tests were modeled and performed by using two dimensional discontinuum program known as Particle Flow Code (PFC2D). After modeling studies in PFC2D, approximately similar failure mechanism and testing results were achieved from both experimental and

  5. On the new notion of mass in classical mechanics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horzela, A.; Kapuscik, E.; Kempczynski, J. (H. Niewodniczanski Inst. of Nuclear Physics, Krakow (Poland))


    Many textbooks in physics introduce the notion of momentum {rvec p} of a body through the relation {rvec p} = m{rvec v} (1) where m is the inertial mass of a body and {rvec p} its velocity. Such treatment of momentum contradicts the general spirit of Newton mechanics. Recently F. Herrmann and M. Schubert have proposed a new technique of measuring momentum without using the relation (1). Their experiment provides a clear operational definition of momentum independent from other mechanical quantities. The only assumption which they adopted without any comment is the requirement that momentum vanishes for bodies at rest. The aim of the present paper is to show that this assumption does not follow from any general law of physics and, independently from its wide use, it may not be valid under some condition. Here, a new concept of mass connected with the Galilean transformation rules of momenta and energy is introduced. It is shown that the Galilean mass does not have to equal to the inertial mass of a particle.

  6. Studies on deformation/pore pressure coupling processes at Japanese URLs and the development of ultra-high resolution FBG strain sensors for rock mechanics (Invited) (United States)

    Tokunaga, T.; Matsui, H.; Zuyuan, H.; Kashiwai, Y.


    Generic, purpose-build underground research laboratories have been under construction in Japan. The objective for the construction is to conduct integrated studies on geology, geophysics, hydrogeology, rock mechanics, hydro-geochemistry, etc., to better understand the behavior and long-term stability of subsurface environments and subsurface openings. The Japan Atomic Energy Agency is responsible for the construction and selected two sites, i.e., Mizunami in central Japan and Horonobe in northern tip of Hokkaido, each representing granitic/crystalline rock environment and sedimentary formations, respectively. The construction of the Mizunami URL site began in July 2003, and the shafts reached to 400 m below ground level as of August 2009. The URL is situated in granitic rock masses including highly altered, fractured and faulted zones which are typical in Japan. The Main Shaft is situated at the fault which strikes to NNW while the Ventilation Shaft at the intact granitic rock. Sub-stages, which connect two shafts were constructed every 100 m depth interval, and several boreholes were drilled and are planned to be drilled from the shafts and the galleries for sampling rocks, groundwater, and for continuous monitoring of pore pressures. During the construction, we observed transient pore pressure responses caused by the excavation and dewatering/flooding of the shafts and boreholes. Here, we present one example of the spatio-temporal pore pressure responses caused by the rapid discharge of groundwater of which amount was 0.5 tons per minute from one pilot borehole. Pore pressure responses showed two distinct patterns, one continuous decline and the other transient increase and subsequent decline. The former pattern was observed at the locations where pore pressure transducers were set in the granitic rocks and were situated in the same block with discharge points with respect to the fault with NNW strike, while the latter in sedimentary formations and in the granite

  7. Boron isotope study of high-pressure metamorphic rocks from Syros (Greece) by secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) (United States)

    Marschall, H.; Altherr, R.; Ludwig, T.; Kalt, A.


    The Heidelberg Cameca ims-3f ion probe has been modified in order to measure δ11B values with a precision of ±1 ppm (2σ) in tourmaline, ±2 ppm in phengite (≈100 μg/g B), and ±4 ppm in other minerals (2--10 μg/g B). Three tourmaline standards (98144 elbaite, 112566 schorl and 108796 dravite; [1]) of different chemical compositions were used to correct for instrumental mass fractionation. This newly established equipment has been used to determine the isotopic ratios of boron (11B/10B) in minerals of Eocene high-pressure rocks from the island of Syros, Greece, for which metamorphic peak conditions of ˜470^oC and 1.5 GPa have been estimated [e.g. 2]. The rocks examined represent different parts of former oceanic crust and occur as eclogites, mafic blueschists, metagabbros, talc-chlorite-actinolite schists or serpentinites. Two types of tourmaline were recognized within the rocks [3]. Type I are small grains (100 μm) with dravite cores and schorl rims, forming inclusions in garnet, glaucophane or phengite. Type II are large grains (10 mm) with very weak zonations occurring within reaction zones between eclogites and serpentinites. Type I shows strong isotopic zonations with light cores of δ11B = -4 ppm and heavy rims of δ11B = +8 ppm. Despite their large grain size, Type II tourmalines show very homogenous isotopic compositions, varying randomly by ±1 ppm over whole grains. Isotopic composition of type II tourmalines were found to be extremely heavy and range from +19 ppm to +22 ppm among different samples. Preliminary results on coexisting phengite, chlorite and glaucophane show significant fractionation between tourmaline and other silicates, with the latter being more than 10 ppm lighter. The heavy isotopic composition of type II tourmaline, formed at depth of approx. 50 km, reflects boron-rich fluids that migrated through the rocks during subduction and early exhumation. They are direct evidence for very high d11B values (>+20 ppm) of subduction

  8. Mechanical performance experiments on rock and cement, casing residual stress evaluation in the thermal recovery well based on thermal-structure coupling

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chen, Yong; Peng, Xu; Yu, Hao


    .... In this paper, mechanical performance experiments on rock and cement are carried out first, and then a finite element mechanical model of thermal recovery wellbore based on thermal-structure coupling is established...

  9. Slope Stability Problems and Back Analysis in Heavily Jointed Rock Mass: A Case Study from Manisa, Turkey (United States)

    Akin, Mutluhan


    This paper presents a case study regarding slope stability problems and the remedial slope stabilization work executed during the construction of two reinforced concrete water storage tanks on a steep hill in Manisa, Turkey. Water storage tanks of different capacities were planned to be constructed, one under the other, on closely jointed and deformed shale and sandstone units. The tank on the upper elevation was constructed first and an approximately 20-m cut slope with two benches was excavated in front of this upper tank before the construction of the lower tank. The cut slope failed after a week and the failure threatened the stability of the upper water tank. In addition to re-sloping, a 15.6-m deep contiguous retaining pile wall without anchoring was built to support both the cut slope and the upper tank. Despite the construction of a retaining pile wall, a maximum of 10 mm of displacement was observed by inclinometer measurements due to the re-failure of the slope on the existing slip surface. Permanent stability was achieved after the placement of a granular fill buttress on the slope. Back analysis based on the non-linear (Hoek-Brown) failure criterion indicated that the geological strength index (GSI) value of the slope-forming material is around 21 and is compatible with the in situ-determined GSI value (24). The calculated normal-shear stress plots are also consistent with the Hoek-Brown failure envelope of the rock mass, indicating that the location of the sliding surface, GSI value estimated by back analysis, and the rock mass parameters are well defined. The long-term stability analysis illustrates a safe slope design after the placement of a permanent toe buttress.

  10. Study on the support-anchor combined technique to control perilous rock at the source of avalanche by fracture mechanics (United States)

    Chen, H. K.; Tang, H. M.


    As a kind of existing and potential geological disaster at the source of avalanche on cliffs or steep slopes, perilous rock has developed in the western area of China widely, and it has posed a serious threat to highways, railways, pipelines, cities, and mining for a long time. More than ten years of engineering experience have shown the necessity and importance to pay our attention to the avalanche sources in active collapse mitigation. The support-anchor combined technique is devoted to the active hazard mitigation measures of perilous rock. This paper introduces fracture mechanics to investigate the design procedure of the support-anchor combined technique. To obtain reasonable design parameters of the technique, both stability assessment criterion and three safety classes of protection engineering for perilous rock is proposed, further, stable analysis methods for various types of perilous rock are established by using fracture mechanics. Abiding by the idea that to improve stability coefficient to a higher level, the support force of structure and the anchorage force of anchorbolt from the support-anchor combined technique are introduced into stability analysis methods established above, which can estimate the section dimension of support subunit and the amount of anchorbolt of the technique. Engineering applications of the technique in thousands of protection engineering have identified the remarkable effectiveness

  11. Proceedings of the workshop on numerical modeling of thermohydrological flow in fractured rock masses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    Nineteen papers were presented at the workshop on modeling thermohydrologic flow in fractured masses. This workshop was a result of the interest currently being given to the isolation of nuclear wastes in geologic formations. Included in these proceedings are eighteen of the presentations, one abstract and summaries of the panel discussions. The papers are listed under the following categories: introduction; overviews; fracture modelings; repository studies; geothermal models; and recent developments. Eighteen of the papers have been abstracted and indexed.

  12. Relation between mass balance aperture and hydraulic properties from field experiments in fractured rock in Sweden (United States)

    Hjerne, Calle; Nordqvist, Rune


    Results from tracer tests are often used to infer connectivity and transport properties in bedrock. However, the amount of site-specific data from tracer tests is often very limited, while data from hydraulic tests are more abundant. It is therefore of great interest for predictive transport modeling to use hydraulic data to infer transport properties. In this study, data from cross-hole tracer tests carried out in crystalline bedrock in Sweden were compiled and analysed. The tests were performed within investigations made by the Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company (SKB) between 1978 and 2009 at five different locations. An empirical relationship between mass balance aperture and transmissivity was found and quantified by using 74 observations. The empirical relationship deviates considerably from the cubic law aperture, as mass balance aperture is found to be at least one order of magnitude larger than cubic law aperture. Hence, usage of cubic law aperture, derived from hydraulic testing, for transport predictions is unsuitable, as the advective transport time will be considerably underestimated. Another result, from the data set studied, is that mass balance aperture appears to correlate better to apparent storativity than to transmissivity.

  13. Rock Physics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fabricius, Ida Lykke


    Rock physics is the discipline linking petrophysical properties as derived from borehole data to surface based geophysical exploration data. It can involve interpretation of both elastic wave propagation and electrical conductivity, but in this chapter focus is on elasticity. Rock physics is based...... on continuum mechanics, and the theory of elasticity developed for statics becomes the key to petrophysical interpretation of velocity of elastic waves. In practice, rock physics involves interpretation of well logs including vertical seismic profiling (VSP) and analysis of core samples. The results...

  14. Early Holocene (8.6 ka) rock avalanche deposits, Obernberg valley (Eastern Alps): Landform interpretation and kinematics of rapid mass movement. (United States)

    Ostermann, Marc; Sanders, Diethard; Ivy-Ochs, Susan; Alfimov, Vasily; Rockenschaub, Manfred; Römer, Alexander


    In the Obernberg valley, the Eastern Alps, landforms recently interpreted as moraines are re-interpreted as rock avalanche deposits. The catastrophic slope failure involved an initial rock volume of about 45 million m³, with a runout of 7.2 km over a total vertical distance of 1330 m (fahrböschung 10°). 36Cl surface-exposure dating of boulders of the avalanche mass indicates an event age of 8.6 ± 0.6 ka. A 14C age of 7785 ± 190 cal yr BP of a palaeosoil within an alluvial fan downlapping the rock avalanche is consistent with the event age. The distal 2 km of the rock-avalanche deposit is characterized by a highly regular array of transverse ridges that were previously interpreted as terminal moraines of Late-Glacial. 'Jigsaw-puzzle structure' of gravel to boulder-size clasts in the ridges and a matrix of cataclastic gouge indicate a rock avalanche origin. For a wide altitude range the avalanche deposit is preserved, and the event age of mass-wasting precludes both runout over glacial ice and subsequent glacial overprint. The regularly arrayed transverse ridges thus were formed during freezing of the rock avalanche deposits.

  15. Optimising the design of polyurethane and steel combination rock bolts



    M.Tech. The field of study is of a multidisciplinary nature and involves aspects of Mechanical Engineering Design, Materials Technology and Rock Mechanics. When rock bursts occur the rock mass moves at high velocities and the resulting impulsive load often leads to brittle fracture of fully grouted steel bars. It was therefore decided to develop a new product that would combine the strength of steel and the yielding ability of polyurethane. Such a product is envisaged to play an important ...

  16. Rock Mechanics Model - Summary of the primary data. Preliminary site description Forsmark area - version 1.2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The present report summarises the laboratory results performed on samples of intact rock and natural fractures collected at Forsmark in relation to the Preliminary Site Descriptive Modelling, version 1.2. Uniaxial, triaxial and indirect tensile tests on intact rock and; tilt, normal and shear tests on natural fractures were performed on samples from boreholes KFM01A, KFM02A, KFM03A and KFM04A. The samples were mainly taken from the rock types: granite to granodiorite and tonalite to granodiorite. The uniaxial compressive strength of the granite and granodiorite is higher (225 MPa) than that of the tonalite (156 MPa) (SP results). The uniaxial compressive strength obtained at HUT gives on average 5% higher strength than that obtained at the SP Laboratory. The cohesion and friction angle of 28 MPa and 60 deg for the granite to granodiorite, respectively, and 30 MPa and 47 deg for the tonalite to granodiorite, respectively. The crack initiation stress of the intact rock was also determined. The values of the Young's modulus obtained range between 70 and 76 GPa on average for all rock types. The Poisson's ratio in uniaxial conditions, on the other hand, is on average 0.24 for the granite to granodiorite and 0.27 for the tonalite to granodiorite. The mechanical properties of the rock samples taken from some of the boreholes might indicate a decrease of strength for depth larger than about 600 m due to microcracking induced by the release of high stresses during drilling. Further studies on the depth dependency of the mechanical properties of the intact rock should be carried out. Natural fractures were also tested with the same technique by two laboratories, SP and NGI. Tilt tests show that the average JRC0 of the fractures is on average around 6 while the basic friction angle is around 30 deg. The average peak cohesion and friction angle of all the samples tested in direct shear by the SP Laboratory was 34 deg and 0.6 MPa, respectively. The SP results were

  17. Feldspathic Rock Spectral Detections on Mars: Geologic Context, Possible Formation Mechanisms, and the TES/Themis Perspective (United States)

    Rogers, D.; Nekvasil, H.


    Spectral detections from VNIR imaging spectrometers OMEGA and CRISM suggest feldspar-bearing rocks with competent, non-porous rock. They commonly overlie olivine basaltic bedrock and are ~20-25 m thick. THEMIS spectra from these units are inconsistent with quartz abundances > 5%, ruling out felsic compositions. THEMIS spectra are consistent with both anorthositic and basaltic lithologies; laboratory spectra of these lithologies are indistinguishable at THEMIS resolution. TES spectra do not match library anorthosites, with ~20-30% modeled pyroxene and ~5-10% olivine. Strong contribution from basaltic sediment to the TES spectra is unlikely given the deeper spectral contrast associated with the feldspathic units than underlying olivine basaltic bedrock. Future work will include spectral comparison with other low silica, feldspathic rocks to determine if there is an analog material that is consistent with both the VNIR and TIR observations. The geologic context of the Noachis units suggests volcanic, rather than plutonic origins, although shallow sills or subglacial eruptive units are possible. Previous experimental and modeling work by Nekvasil showed that feldspar-rich (up to 75 wt%), low-silica lavas may be produced from known Martian basalt by shallow crystallization of liquids residual to partial fractionation at the base of a thick Martian crust. The plagioclase fraction increases with both the extent and depth of fractionation. Given that Noachis Terra is associated with thick highlands crust, this mechanism would be a plausible explanation for feldspathic rock detections in this region.

  18. Imaging the state of the rock mass in the Kiirunavaara iron ore mine, Sweden, using local event tomography (United States)

    Lund, Björn; Berglund, Karin; Tryggvason, Ari; Dineva, Savka; Jonsson, Linda


    Induced seismic events in a mining environment are a potential hazard, but they can be used to gain information about the rock mass in the mine which otherwise would be very difficult to obtain. In this study we use approximately 1.2 million mining induced seismic events in the Kiirunavaara iron ore mine in northernmost Sweden to image the rock mass using local event travel-time tomography. In addition, relocation of the events significantly improves the possibility to infer structural information and rock damage. The Kiirunavaara mine is one of the largest underground iron ore mines in the world. The ore body is a magnetite sheet of 4 km length, with an average thickness of 80 m, which dips approximately 55° to the east. Mining production is now at a depth of 785 - 855 m. During 2015 the seismic system in the mine recorded on average approximately 1,000 local seismic events per day. The events are of various origins such as shear slip on fractures, non-shear events and blasts, with magnitudes of up to 2.5. We use manually picked P- and S-waves in the tomography and we require that both phases are present as we found that events from the routine processing need screening for anomalous P- versus S-travel times, indicating occasional erroneous phase associations. For the tomography we use the 3D local earthquake tomography code PStomo_eq (Tryggvason et al., 2002), which we adjusted to the mining scale. The study volume is 1.2 x 1.8 x 1.8 km and the velocity model grid size is 10x10x10 meter. The tomographic images show clearly defined regions of high and low velocities. Low velocity zones are associated with mapped clay zones and areas of mined out ore, and also with the near-ore tunnel infrastructure in the foot-wall. We also see how the low S-velocity anomaly continues to depth below the current mining levels, following the inferred direction of the ore. The tomography shows higher P- and S-velocities in the foot-wall away from the areas of mine infrastructure. We

  19. Slope Stability Analysis Based on Type, Physical And Mechanical Properties Rock in Teluk Pandan District, East Kutai Regency, East Kalimantan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sujiman Kusnadi


    Full Text Available Research was located In Teluk Pandan District, East Kutai Regency, East Kalimantan Province.  It’s aimed to determine the lithology in the  research area and to find out how the amount of slope that will be a landslide at that location. The research conducted with the analysis of coring drilling results and then analyzed in the laboratory of rock mechanics to get the characteristic of physical and mechanical properties of the rocks. The data analysis using Hoek and Bray Method. The results showed that in the area study has a sedimentary rock lithology fine to medium detritus, such as claystone, siltstone and sandstone, as well as inserts are coal and shale. Based on the results of laboratory analysis of rock mechanics obtained density between 2,648 to 2,770. While the test results obtained value triaxial cohesion between (6.66 - 9:05 Kg / cm2, friction angle in between (37.19 - 44.08o, cohesion residual (2.72 - 3.10 Kg / cm2, residual friction angle (27.22 - 32.44o. While the direct shear test the cohesion of the summit between (6.66 - 9:05 Kg / cm2, friction angle in the cohesion peak (36.15 - 43.00o, cohesion residual (2:22 to 3:10 Kg / cm2, friction angle in the cohesion residual (37.22 - 33.85o. The simulation results stability of the slope stability Hoek and Bray using rockslide software, the result is that if the slope with a single slope stability, the stability of the slope is 60o, and if the slope with the stability of the slope overall stability of the slope is 48o.

  20. Electromagnetic emission from a rock mass under explosive-loading conditions (United States)

    Gokhberg, M. B.; Gufel'D, I. L.; Kozyreva, O. V.; Nikiforova, N. N.; Rozhnoi, A. A.

    Earthquake generation was simulated in the Kyzylkum desert in Central Asia using an industrial explosion with a force of 380 tons and a series of experimental explosions with a force of up to 80 kg. The possibility of detecting radio emission from surface sources under various dynamic conditions was assessed on the basis of data reflecting the sensitivity of the medium to the source excitation. Crucial to the experiment was a preliminary analysis of the sensitivity of local regions of the environment to mechanical-electromagnetic energy conversion. It is concluded that combined seismoacoustic, deformation, and electromagnetic measurements should be conducted to identify electromagnetic emissions of seismic origin.

  1. Strain localisation in mechanically layered rocks beneath detachment zones: insights from numerical modelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Le Pourhiet


    Full Text Available We have designed a series of fully dynamic numerical simulations aimed at assessing how the orientation of mechanical layering in rocks controls the orientation of shear bands and the depth of penetration of strain in the footwall of detachment zones. Two parametric studies are presented. In the first one, the influence of stratification orientation on the occurrence and mode of strain localisation is tested by varying initial dip of inherited layering in the footwall with regard to the orientation of simple shear applied at the rigid boundary simulating a rigid hanging wall, all scaling and rheological parameter kept constant. It appears that when Mohr–Coulomb plasticity is being used, shear bands are found to localise only when the layering is being stretched. This corresponds to early deformational stages for inital layering dipping in the same direction as the shear is applied, and to later stages for intial layering dipping towards the opposite direction of shear. In all the cases, localisation of the strain after only γ=1 requires plastic yielding to be activated in the strong layer. The second parametric study shows that results are length-scale independent and that orientation of shear bands is not sensitive to the viscosity contrast or the strain rate. However, decreasing or increasing strain rate is shown to reduce the capacity of the shear zone to localise strain. In the later case, the strain pattern resembles a mylonitic band but the rheology is shown to be effectively linear. Based on the results, a conceptual model for strain localisation under detachment faults is presented. In the early stages, strain localisation occurs at slow rates by viscous shear instabilities but as the layered media is exhumed, the temperature drops and the strong layers start yielding plastically, forming shear bands and localising strain at the top of the shear zone. Once strain localisation has occured, the deformation in the shear band becomes


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thurman E. Scott, Jr., Ph.D.; Younane Abousleiman, Ph.D.; Musharraf Zaman, Ph.D., P.E.


    's effective stress parameters, {alpha}{sub v} and {alpha}{sub h}, using the equations of Abousleiman et al. (1996). A series of experiments have been conducted, on an initially inherently isotropic Berea sandstone rock sample, to dynamically determine these anisotropic Biot's parameters during deformational pathway experiments. Data acquired during hydrostatic, triaxial, and uniaxial strain pathway experiments indicates that Biot's effective stress parameter changes significantly if the applied stresses are not hydrostatic. Variations, as large as 20% between the axial (vertical) and lateral (horizontal) Biot's effective stress parameters, were observed in some experiments. A series of triaxial compression experiments have been conducted on unconsolidated sand (Oil Creek sand) to determine the pressure/stress conditions which would be favorable for liquefaction. Liquefaction of geopressured sands is thought to be one of the major causative mechanisms of damaging shallow water flows. The experiments were developed to determine if: (1) liquefaction could be made to occur in this particular sand at high confining pressures, and (2) the state of liquefication had the same nature at high pressure conditions typical of shallow water flows as it does in low confining pressure soil mechanics tests. A series of undrained triaxial experiments were successfully used to document that the Oil Creek sand could undergo liquefaction. The nature (i.e., the shape of the deformational pathway in mean pressure/shear stress space) was very similar to those observed in soil mechanics experiments. The undrained triaxial experiments also indicated that this sand would strain soften at relatively high confining pressures--a necessary precursor to liquefaction. These experiments serve as a starting point for a series of acoustic experiments to determine the signature of compressional and shear wave properties as the sand packs approach the state of liquefaction (and shallow water flows).

  3. Driving mechanism of low salinity flooding in carbonate rocks (SPE-174300-MS)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mahani, Hassan; Berg, Steffen; Keya, Arsene; Bartels, W.; Nasralla, Ramez; Rossen, William


    Several studies conducted mainly on the laboratory scale indicate that in carbonate rocks oil displacement can be influenced by the ionic composition of the brine, providing an opportunity to improve recovery by optimizing the brine mixture used in secondary or tertiary recovery. In industry this

  4. Study on Mechanical Features of Brazilian Splitting Fatigue Tests of Salt Rock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weichao Wang


    Full Text Available The microtest, SEM, was carried out to study the fracture surface of salt rock after the Brazilian splitting test and splitting fatigue test were carried out with a servo-controlled test machine RMT-150B. The results indicate that the deviation of using the tablet splitting method is larger than that of using steel wire splitting method, in Brazilian splitting test of salt rock, when the conventional data processing method is adopted. There are similar deformation features in both the conventional splitting tests and uniaxial compression tests. The stress-strain curves include compaction, elasticity, yielding, and failure stage. Both the vertical deformation and horizontal deformation of splitting fatigue tests under constant average loading can be divided into three stages of “loosening-tightness-loosening.” The failure modes of splitting fatigue tests under the variational average loading are not controlled by the fracturing process curve of the conventional splitting tests. The deformation extent of fatigue tests under variational average loading is even greater than that of conventional splitting test. The tensile strength of salt rock has a relationship with crystallization conditions. Tensile strength of thick crystal salt rock is lower than the bonded strength of fine-grain crystals.

  5. The mechanical and photoelastic properties of 3D printable stress-visualized materials

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Li Wang; Yang Ju; Heping Xie; Guowei Ma; Lingtao Mao; Kexin He


    ...- or construction-related disturbances of deeply buried rock masses. However, concerns have been raised about the similitude between the mechanical behaviours of the printed model and its prototype rock mass...

  6. Mechanisms of Nutrient Acquisition by Rock Eating Microbes Revealed by Proteomics (United States)

    Bryce, C. C.; Martin, S.; LeBihan, T.; Cockell, C.


    In nutrient poor terrestrial environments such as fresh lava flows, bioessential elements contained within surrounding rocks can be an important source of nutrients for the microbial community. The role of microbes in the alteration of rock surfaces, driven by this nutrient requirement, is widely accepted and is known to play an important role in CO2 drawdown as well as influencing nutrient flux to the biosphere. There is, however, limited knowledge of the biological processes which facilitate the uptake of bioessential elements from rocks. Using a technique known as 'shotgun' proteomics we have investigated the cellular processes involved in the uptake of iron, calcium and magnesium from fresh basalt in the heavy metal resistant bacterium Cupriavidus metallidurans CH34. Quantitative proteomics allows us to obtain a detailed snapshot of the protein complement of cells. By comparing cultures grown under normal growth conditions to cultures grown with basalt as an alternative iron, calcium or magnesium source, we can highlight proteins which are differentially expressed and therefore important for life in a rocky environment. We observe that the use of rock-bound nutrients induces a complex metabolic response in C.metallidurans which is distinct from the effects observed in the presence of rocks in normal growth medium. This is evidenced, for example, by the upregulation of a number of proteins involved in alternative energy-producing processes such as chemolithotrophy, sulphur oxidation and hydrogen oxidation compared to control cultures. This work has implications for the understanding of how microbes forge a life for themselves from the Earth's crust and highlights the importance of the field of proteomics for the study of life in terrestrial environments.

  7. Mechanical Aqueous Alteration Dominates Textures of Gale Crater Rocks: Mars Hand Lens Imager (MAHLI) Results (United States)

    Aileen Yingst, R.; Minitti, Michelle; Edgett, Kenneth; McBride, Marie; Stack, Kathryn


    The Mars Hand Lens Imager (MAHLI) acquired sub-mm/pixel scale color images of over 70 individual rocks and outcrops during Curiosity's first year on Mars, permitting the study of textures down to the distinction between silt and very fine sand. We group imaged rock textures into classes based on their grain size, sorting, matrix characteristics, and abundance of pores. Because the recent campaign at Pahrump Hills acquired many more MAHLI images than elsewhere along the rover traverse [6], textural analysis there is more detailed and thus types observed there are sub-divided. Mudstones: These rocks contain framework grains smaller than the highest resolution MAHLI images (16 μm/pixel), and thus are interpreted to consist of grains that are silt-sized or smaller. Some rocks contain nodules, sulfate veins, and Mg-enriched erosionally-resistant ridges. The Pahrump Hills region contains mudstones of at least four different sub-textures: recessive massive, recessive parallel-laminated, resistant laminated-to-massive, and resistant cross-stratified. Recessive mudstones are slope-forming; parallel-laminated recessive mudstones display mm-scale parallel (and in some cases rhythmic) lamination that extends laterally for many meters, and are interbedded with recessive massive mudstones. Coarse cm- to mm-scale laminae appear within resistant mudstones though some portions are more massive; laminae tend to be traceable for cm to meters. Well-sorted sandstones: Rocks in this class are made of gray, fine-to-medium sand and exhibit little to no porosity. Two examples of this class show fine lineations with sub-mm spacing. Aillik, a target in the Shaler outcrop, shows abundant cross-lamination. The Pahrump Hills region contains a sub-texture of well-sorted, very fine to fine-grained cross-stratified sandstone at the dune and ripple-scale. Poorly-sorted sandstones. This class is subdivided into two sub-classes: rounded, coarse-to-very coarse sand grains of variable colors and

  8. A more general model for the analysis of the rock slope stability

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    of rock slope stability has many applications in the design of rock slopes, roofs and walls of tunnels. Because of the ... analysed the wedge failure mechanism by using the block theory approach. All the above .... outcrop of rock mass can be simulated by the intersection of a random normal plane with a specified ellipse.

  9. Determining the Particle Size of Debris from a Tunnel Boring Machine Through Photographic Analysis and Comparison Between Excavation Performance and Rock Mass Properties (United States)

    Rispoli, A.; Ferrero, A. M.; Cardu, M.; Farinetti, A.


    This paper presents the results of a study carried out on a 6.3-m-diameter exploratory tunnel excavated in hard rock by an open tunnel boring machine (TBM). The study provides a methodology, based on photographic analysis, for the evaluation of the particle size distribution of debris produced by the TBM. A number of tests were carried out on the debris collected during the TBM advancement. In order to produce a parameter indicative of the particle size of the debris, the coarseness index (CI) was defined and compared with some parameters representative of the TBM performance [i.e. the excavation specific energy (SE) and field penetration index (FPI)] and rock mass features, such as RMR, GSI, uniaxial compression strength and joint spacing. The results obtained showed a clear trend between the CI and some TBM performance parameters, such as SE and FPI. On the contrary, due to the rock mass fracturing, a clear relationship between the CI and rock mass characteristics was not found.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Performance prediction of tunnel boring machines (TBM is the most important factor for successful tunnel excavation projects. The specific energy (SE of TBM, defined as the amount of energy required to excavate a unit volume of rock, is one of the critical parameters used for performance prediction of these machines. Estimation of SE is very useful to design the drilling project because it is a function of many parameters such as rock mass behaviour, machine properties and project parameters. Several methods are used to estimate this parameter, such as experimental, empirical and numerical. The aim of this study is to estimate the SE considering the postfailure behaviour of rock mass. For this reason, based on the actual data from Karaj-Tehran water conveyance tunnel, a new empirical method is proposed to estimate the SE using the drop-to-deformation modulus ratio (λ. Based on the statistical analysis, the relation between the SE and λ is estimated. It is clear that the amplitude of λ, is high and to increase the correlation between mentioned parameters, the classification of data is performed. All data is classified in three classes as very weak (GSI75. Also a statistical analysis is performed to estimate the SE using the mentioned parameter (λ in any class. The result shows that there is a direct relation between both parameters and the best correlation is achieved. So, the best equations are proposed to estimate SE using λ, considering the post failure behaviour of rock mass.

  11. Estimation Of The Mining Damage Risk In The Hypothetical Impact Area Of The Concurrent Processes Of Rock Mass Disorders (United States)

    Piwowarski, Wiesław; Isakow, Zbigniew; Juzwa, Jacek


    The aim of this work is the estimation of the risk of mining damage occurrence, based on uncertain information regarding the impact of the concurrent processes of deformation and vibration. This problem concerns the experimental and theoretical description of the so-called critical phenomena occurring during the reaction mining area ↔ building object. Post-mining deformations of the rock mass medium and paraseismic vibrations can appear at a considerable distance from the sub-area of the mining operation - hence, the determination of the measures of their impacts is usually somewhat subjective, while the estimation of the mining damage based on deterministic methods is often insufficient. It is difficult to show the correlation between the local maximum of the impact of the velocity vector amplitude and the damage to the building - especially if the measures of interaction are not additive. The parameters of these impacts, as registered by measurements, form finite sets with a highly random character. Formally, it is adequate to the mapping from the probability space to the power set. For the purposes of the present study, the Dempster - Shafer model was used, where space is characterised by subadditive and superadditive measures. Regarding the application layer, the conclusions from the expert evaluations are assumed to be the values of random variables. The model was defined, and the risk of damage occurrence was estimated.

  12. Biologically-initiated rock crust on sandstone: Mechanical and hydraulic properties and resistance to erosion

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Slavík, M.; Bruthans, J.; Filippi, Michal; Schweigstillová, Jana; Falteisek, L.; Řihošek, J.


    Roč. 278, FEB 1 (2017), s. 298-313 ISSN 0169-555X R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-28040S; GA ČR(CZ) GA16-19459S Institutional support: RVO:67985831 ; RVO:67985891 Keywords : biofilm * biocrust * biologically-initiated rock crust * sandstone protection * case hardening Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy Impact factor: 2.958, year: 2016

  13. Predicting Folding Sequences Based on the Maximum Rock Strength and Mechanical Equilibrium (United States)

    Cubas, N.; Souloumiac, P.; Maillot, B.; Leroy, Y. M.


    The objective is to propose and validate simple procedures, compared to the finite-element method, to select and optimize the dominant mode of folding in fold-and-thrust belts and accretionary wedges, and to determine its stress distribution. Mechanical equilibrium as well as the constraints due to the limited rock strength of the bulk material and of major discontinuities, such as décollements, are accounted for. The first part of the proposed procedure, which is at the core of the external approach of classical limit analysis, consists in estimating the least upper bound on the tectonic force by minimisation of the internal dissipation and part of the external work. The new twist to the method is that the optimization is also done with respect to the geometry of the evolving fold. If several folding events are possible, the dominant mode is the one leading to the least upper bound. The second part of the procedure is based on the Equilibrium Element Method, which is an application of the internal approach of limit analysis. The optimum stress field, obtained by spatial discretisation of the fold, provides the best lower bound on the tectonic force. The difference between the two bounds defines an error estimate of the exact unknown tectonic force. To show the merits of the proposed procedure, its first part is applied to predict the life span of a thrust within an accretionary prism, from its onset, its development with a relief build up and its arrest because of the onset of a more favorable new thrust (Cubas et al., 2007). This life span is sensitive to the friction angles over the ramp and the décollement. It is shown how the normal sequence of thrusting in a supercritical wedge is ended with the first out-of sequence event. The second part of the procedure provides the stress state over each thrust showing that the active back thrust is a narrow fan which dip is sensitive to the friction angle over the ramp and the amount of relief build up (Souloumiac et

  14. Control Mechanism of Rock Burst in the Floor of Roadway Driven along Next Goaf in Thick Coal Seam with Large Obliquity Angle in Deep Well

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunhai Cheng


    Full Text Available This paper deals with the theoretical aspects combined with stress analysis over the floor strata of coal seam and the calculation model for the stress on the coal floor. Basically, this research presents the relevant results obtained for the rock burst prevention in the floor of roadway driven along next goaf in the exploitation of thick coal seam with large obliquity in deep well and rock burst tendency. The control mechanism of rock burst in the roadway driven along next goaf is revealed in the present work. That is, the danger of rock burst can be removed by changing the stress environment for the energy accumulation of the floor and by reducing the impact on the roadway floor from the strong dynamic pressure. This result can be profitable being used at the design stage of appropriate position of roadway undergoing rock burst tendency in similar conditions. Based on the analysis regarding the control mechanism, this paper presents a novel approach to the prevention of rock burst in roadway floor under the above conditions. That is, the return airway is placed within the goaf of the upper working face that can prevent the rock burst effectively. And in this way, mining without coal pillar in the thick coal seam with large obliquity and large burial depth (over a thousand meters is realized. Practice also proves that the rock burst in the floor of roadway driven along next goaf is controlled and solved.

  15. Hydro-mechanical modelling of a shaft seal in crystalline and sedimentary host rock media using COMSOL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Priyanto, D.G. [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Pinawa, MB (Canada)


    Shaft seals are components of the engineered barriers system considered for closure of a Deep Geological Repository (DGR). These seals would be installed in strategic locations of the shafts, where significant fracture zones (FZ) are located and would serve to limit upward flow of groundwater from the repository level towards the surface. This paper presents the results of hydro-mechanical (HM) numerical modelling exercises to evaluate the performance of a shaft seal using a finite element computer code, COMSOL. This study considered a variety of host geological media as part of generic assessments of system evolution in a variety of environments including five hypothetical sedimentary and crystalline host rock conditions. Four simulations of a shaft seal in different sedimentary rocks were completed, including: shale with isotropic permeability; shale with anisotropic permeability; limestone with isotropic permeability; and limestone with anisotropic permeability. The other simulation was a shaft seal in crystalline rock with isotropic permeability. Two different stages were considered in these HM simulations. Stages 1 and 2 simulated the groundwater flow into an open shaft and after installation of shaft sealing components, respectively. As expected, the models were able to simulate that installation of the shaft seal limits groundwater flow through the shaft. Based on the conditions and assumptions defined for the host media and fracture features examined in this study, the following conclusions can be drawn from the results of the numerical modelling exercises. A shaft that remained open for a longer time was beneficial with respect to delaying of seal saturation because it could reduce the groundwater flow rate around the fracture zone. Delaying saturation time indicates slower movement of the groundwater or other substances that may be transported with the groundwater. The core of the shaft seal (i.e., the bentonite-sand mixture (BSM)) became fully saturated

  16. Reactivation of pre-existing mechanical anisotropies during polyphase tectonic evolution: slip tendency analysis as a tool to constrain mechanical properties of rocks (United States)

    Traforti, Anna; Bistacchi, Andrea; Massironi, Matteo; Zampieri, Dario; Di Toro, Giulio


    Intracontinental deformation within the upper crust is accommodated by nucleation of new faults (generally satisfying the Anderson's theory of faulting) or brittle reactivation of pre-existing anisotropies when certain conditions are met. How prone to reactivation an existing mechanical anisotropy or discontinuity is, depends on its mechanical strength compared to that of the intact rock and on its orientation with respect to the regional stress field. In this study, we consider how different rock types (i.e. anisotropic vs. isotropic) are deformed during a well-constrained brittle polyphase tectonic evolution to derive the mechanical strength of pre-existing anisotropies and discontinuities (i.e. metamorphic foliations and inherited faults/fractures). The analysis has been carried out in the Eastern Sierras Pampeanas of Central Argentina. These are a series of basement ranges of the Andean foreland, which show compelling evidence of a long-lasting brittle deformation history from the Early Carboniferous to Present time, with three main deformational events (Early Triassic to Early Jurassic NE-SW extension, Early Cretaceous NW-SE extension and Miocene to Present ENE-WNW compression). The study area includes both isotropic granitic bodies and anisotropic phyllosilicate-bearing rocks (gneisses and phyllites). In this environment, each deformation phase causes significant reactivation of the inherited structures and rheological anisotropies, or alternatively formation of neo-formed Andersonian faults, thus providing a multidirectional probing of mechanical properties of these rocks. A meso- and micro-structural analysis of brittle reactivation of metamorphic foliation or inherited faults/fractures revealed that different rock types present remarkable differences in the style of deformation (i.e., phyllite foliation is reactivated during the last compressional phase and cut by newly-formed Andersonian faults/fractures during the first two extensional regimes; instead

  17. Quantitative analysis of major and trace elements in NH4HF2-modified silicate rock powders by laser ablation - inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. (United States)

    Zhang, Wen; Hu, Zhaochu; Liu, Yongsheng; Yang, Wenwu; Chen, Haihong; Hu, Shenghong; Xiao, Hongyan


    In this paper, we described a NH 4 HF 2 digestion method as sample preparation for the rapid determination of major and trace elements in silicate rocks using laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS). Sample powders digested by NH 4 HF 2 at 230 °C for 3 h form ultrafine powders with a typical grain size d 80  rocks have a consistent grain morphology and size, allowing us to produce pressed powder pellets that have excellent cohesion and homogeneity suitable for laser ablation micro-analysis without the addition of binder. The influences of the digestion parameters were investigated and optimized, including the evaporation stage of removing residual NH 4 HF 2 , sample homogenization, selection of the digestion vessel and calibration strategy of quantitative analysis. The optimized NH 4 HF 2 digestion method was applied to dissolve six silicate rock reference materials (BCR-2, BHVO-2, AGV-2, RGM-2, GSP-2, GSR-1) covering a wide range of rock types. Ten major elements and thirty-five trace elements were simultaneously analyzed by LA-ICP-MS. The analytical results of the six reference materials generally agreed with the recommended values, with discrepancies of less than 10% for most elements. The analytical precision is within 5% for most major elements and within 10% for most trace elements. Compared with previous methods of LA-ICP-MS bulk analysis, our method enables the complete dissolution of refractory minerals, such as zircon, in intermediate-acidic intrusive rocks and limits contamination as well as the loss of volatile elements. Moreover, there are many advantages for the new technique, including reducing matrix effects between reference materials and samples, spiking the internal standard simply and feasibly and sample batch processing. The applicability filed of the new technique in this study was focused on the whole-rock analysis of igneous rock samples, which are from basic rocks to acid rocks (45% rock analysis

  18. Experiments on thermo-hydro-mechanical behaviour of Opalinus Clay at Mont Terri rock laboratory, Switzerland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Bossart


    Full Text Available Repositories for deep geological disposal of radioactive waste rely on multi-barrier systems to isolate waste from the biosphere. A multi-barrier system typically comprises the natural geological barrier provided by the repository host rock – in our case the Opalinus Clay – and an engineered barrier system (EBS. The Swiss repository concept for spent fuel and vitrified high-level waste (HLW consists of waste canisters, which are emplaced horizontally in the middle of an emplacement gallery and are separated from the gallery wall by granular backfill material (GBM. We describe here a selection of five in-situ experiments where characteristic hydro-mechanical (HM and thermo-hydro-mechanical (THM processes have been observed. The first example is a coupled HM and mine-by test where the evolution of the excavation damaged zone (EDZ was monitored around a gallery in the Opalinus Clay (ED-B experiment. Measurements of pore-water pressures and convergences due to stress redistribution during excavation highlighted the HM behaviour. The same measurements were subsequently carried out in a heater test (HE-D where we were able to characterise the Opalinus Clay in terms of its THM behaviour. These yielded detailed data to better understand the THM behaviours of the granular backfill and the natural host rock. For a presentation of the Swiss concept for HLW storage, we designed three demonstration experiments that were subsequently implemented in the Mont Terri rock laboratory: (1 the engineered barrier (EB experiment, (2 the in-situ heater test on key-THM processes and parameters (HE-E experiment, and (3 the full-scale emplacement (FE experiment. The first demonstration experiment has been dismantled, but the last two ones are on-going.

  19. Petrophysical and rock-mechanics effects of CO2 injection for enhanced oil recovery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alam, Mohammad Monzurul; Hjuler, Morten Leth; Christensen, Helle Foged


    reservoirs. North Sea chalk is characterized by high porosity but also high specific surface causing low permeability. A high porosity provides room for CO2 storage, while a high specific surface causes a high risk for chemical reaction and consequently for mechanical weakening. In order to address...... this issue we studied two types of chalk from South Arne field, North Sea: (1) Ekofisk Formation having >12% non-carbonate and (2) Tor Formation, which has less than 5% non-carbonate. We performed a series of laboratory experiments to reveal the changes in petrophysical and rock-mechanics properties due......Enhanced oil recovery by CO2 injection (CO2-EOR) is a tertiary oil recovery process which has a prospective for being used, at the same time, as an effective technique for carbon dioxide storage. There is a huge potential for additional oil production and CO2 storage in the North Sea depleted chalk...

  20. Quasistatic Shock Waves: A Mechanism for Nonuniform Compaction in Porous Rock

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    Recent studies have observed compaction zones pass through porous rock under axisymmetric compression. An initially thin, compacted layer appears at the yield point of the stress-strain curve and then grows by thickening in the direction of maximum compression at constant stress. Strain localization theory has been applied to compaction to explain the formation of these features. This paper describes the growth of the compaction zones, that is, the propagation of their boundaries, in terms of shock wave analysis. The ratio of the applied shortening rate to the velocity of the boundary is related to the porosity change across the boundary. Certain features of the stress-strain curve are explained by the model.

  1. On the question of determining the amount of experiments, reliability and accuracy of the results in the study of physical-mechanical properties of rocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuznetcov n.n.


    Full Text Available A comparative analysis of the methods for determining the required amount of experiments, the accuracy and reliability of the results of physical-mechanical rock properties study has been conducted. The advantages and disadvantages of the existing specialized method for determining the compressive strength of the samples have been discussed. On the basis of the investigation the optimal approach has been proposed to solve a wide range of the problems associated with the rock properties' parameters using

  2. A frequency domain analysis to characterize heterogeneity and recharge mechanisms in a fractured crystalline-rock aquifer (United States)

    Jimenez-Martinez, J.; Longuevergne, L.; Le Borgne, T.; Davy, P.; Bour, O.; Goderniaux, P.; Russian, A.; Thomas, Z.


    We investigate aquifer behavior and recharge mechanisms in fracture media using a frequency domain approach. Main interest was the quantification of aquifer characteristic time response, storativity and estimation of heterogeneity and connectivity impact on well behavior on a wide range of temporal scales from 1 day to 8 years. Transfer Functions were calculated for a fractured crystalline-rock aquifer system located in Ploemeur (S of Brittany, France). Recharge, first calculated as effective rainfall, and groundwater level fluctuations (tide effects removed) were used as input and output functions, respectively. The Transfer Function quantifies the ratio of amplitudes of the input and output in the frequency domain. The obtained transfer functions are typically constant at low frequency and decay with frequency for mid and high frequencies. Classical behavior models for interpreting transfer functions are the linear and Dupuit models, plus combination with fast flow component. For linear and Dupuit models, the transfer function |H(ω)|2 scales respectively as |H(ω)|2 ~ ω-2, and |H(ω)|2 ~ ω-1 for high frequencies. The transfer functions obtained for the fractured rock aquifer of Ploemeur do not follow these scaling. Instead, they scale as |H(ω)|2 ~ ω-β, with β=0.7. This suggests that the heterogeneity at different scales in this fractured system involves a variety of transfer processes that cannot be represented by classical models. We discuss the relevance of alternative dual-permeability and multi-permeability models for modeling the rainfall-hydraulic head response in this fractured media. We analyze the variability of the response (characteristic time, amplitude and asymptotic log-log slope) for wells intersecting the main fracture zone, intersecting secondary fracture zones or located in weathered rock.

  3. Failure Mechanism Analysis and Support Design for Deep Composite Soft Rock Roadway: A Case Study of the Yangcheng Coal Mine in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bangyou Jiang


    Full Text Available This paper presented a case study of the failure mechanisms and support design for deep composite soft rock roadway in the Yangcheng Coal Mine of China. Many experiments and field tests were performed to reveal the failure mechanisms of the roadway. It was found that the surrounding rock of the roadway was HJS complex soft rock that was characterized by poor rock quality, widespread development of joint fissures, and an unstable creep property. The major horizontal stress, which was almost perpendicular to the roadway, was 1.59 times larger than the vertical stress. The weak surrounding rock and high tectonic stress were the main internal causes of roadway instabilities, and the inadequate support was the external cause. Based on the failure mechanism, a new support design was proposed that consisted of bolting, cable, metal mesh, shotcrete, and grouting. A field experiment using the new design was performed in a roadway section approximately 100 m long. Detailed deformation monitoring was conducted in the experimental roadway sections and sections of the previous roadway. The monitoring results showed that deformations of the roadway with the new support design were reduced by 85–90% compared with those of the old design. This successful case provides an important reference for similar soft rock roadway projects.

  4. Partial reactivation of a huge deep-seated ancient rock slide: recognition, formation mechanism, and stability (United States)

    Tang, Minggao; Xu, Qiang; Li, Yusheng; Huang, Runqiu; Rengers, Niek; Zhu, Xing


    About 18 years ago, a large-scale discontinuous layer in properties and colour was found in the new Fengjie town at the shore of the Three Gorges Reservoir area in China. There are many resettled residents and buildings on the sloping area, the safety of which is potentially affected by this layer, so it has become the focus of attention. Before this study started there were two viewpoints regarding the origin of this layer. One was that is was from a huge ancient slide and the other was that is was from a fault graben. In order to find out how it was formed and to be able to carry out a stability analysis of the slope the authors have carried out a research program, including geological field investigations and mapping, a deep drilling hole, a geotechnical centrifuge model test, and a simulation analysis. The results of the research led to the conclusion that the layer is the sliding plane of a huge deep-seated ancient rock slide, which we called the Sanmashan landslide. An important argument for the conclusion is the recognition of a regional compressive tectonic stress field in this area, which cannot lead to the formation of a fault graben because it needs a tensional tectonic stress field. Moreover, numerous unique geological features, sliding marks, and other relics of the ancient slide have been discovered in the field. The formation process of the ancient slide could be repeated in a large geotechnical centrifuge model test. The test shows that a deformation and failure process of "creep-crack-cut" has occurred. The type of the ancient slide can be classified as a "successive rotational rock slide". Finally, the role of seepage in the stability of the Sanmashan landslide has been analysed. Our final conclusions are that, during rainfall and filling-drawdown cycles in the Three Gorges Reservoir, the Sanmashan landslide as a whole is dormant and stable and the secondary landslides in the toe area of the slope are presently stable but can be reactivated. This

  5. DECOVALEX III/BENCHPAR PROJECTS. Evaluation of the Impact of Thermal-Hydro-Mechanical Couplings in Bentonite and Near-Field Rock Barriers on a Nuclear Waste Repository in a Sparsely Fractured Hard Rock. Report of BMT1C/WP2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jing, L. [Royal Inst. of Technology, Stockholm (Sweden). Engineering Geology; Nguyen, T.S. [Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission, Ottawa, ON (Canada)] (eds.)


    This report presents the works performed for the third, also the last, phase (BMT1C) of BMT1 of the DECOVALEX III project for the period of 1999-2002. The works of BMT1 is divided into three phases: BMT1A, BMT1B and BMT1C. The BMT1A concerns with calibration of the computer codes with a reference Thermal (T), Hydrological (H) and Mechanical (M) experiment at Kamaishi Mine, Japan. The objective is to validate the numerical approaches, computer codes and material models, so that the teams simulating tools are at a comparable level of maturity and sophistication. The BMT1B uses the calibrated codes to perform scoping calculations, considering varying degrees of THM coupling and varying permeability values of the surrounding rock for a reference generic repository design without fractures. The aim is to identify the coupling mechanisms of importance for construction, performance and safety of the repository. BMT1C concerns with scoping calculations with different coupling combinations for the case where a horizontal fracture intersects the deposition hole and a vertical fracture zone divides two adjacent deposition tunnel/hole system. A hydrostatic condition is applied along the vertical fracture as a hydraulic boundary condition. In addition, the SKI/KTH team performed an additional calculation case of a highly fractured rock mass with two orthogonal sets of fractures with a spacing of 0.5 m. The chosen measures for evaluating the long term safety and performance of the repository are the maximal temperature created by the thermal loading from the emplaced wastes, the time for resaturation of the buffer, the maximal swelling stress developed in the buffer, the structural integrity of the rock mass and the permeability evolution in the rock mass. The analyses fro BMT1C were conducted by four research teams: SKI/KTH (Sweden), CNSC (Canada), IRSN/CEA(France) and JNC (Japan), using FEM approach with different computer codes. From the results, it is clear that the

  6. Basal accretion, a major mechanism for mountain building in Taiwan revealed in rock thermal history (United States)

    Chen, Chih-Tung; Chan, Yu-Chang; Lo, Ching-Hua; Malavieille, Jacques; Lu, Chia-Yu; Tang, Jui-Ting; Lee, Yuan-Hsi


    Deep tectonic processes are key integral components in the evolution of mountain belts, while observations of their temporal development are generally obscured by thermal resetting, retrograde alteration and structural overprinting. Here we recorded an integrated rock time-temperature history for the first time in the pro-wedge part of the active Taiwan arc-continent collision starting from sedimentation through cleavage-forming state to its final exhumation. The integrated thermal and age results from the Raman Spectroscopy of Carbonaceous Material (RSCM) method, zircon U-Pb laser ablation dating, and in-situ40Ar/39Ar laser microprobe dating suggest that the basal accretion process was crucial to the development of the Taiwanese orogenic wedge. The basal accretion process commenced early in the mountain building history (∼6 Ma) and gradually migrated to greater depths, as constrained by persistent plate convergence and cleavage formation under nearly isothermal state at similar depths until ∼ 2.5 Ma recorded in the early-accreted units. Such development essentially contributed to mountain root growth by the increased depth of the wedge detachment and the downward wedge thickening during the incipient to full collision stages in the Taiwan mountain belt.

  7. Allosteric mechanism of pyruvate kinase from Leishmania mexicana uses a rock and lock model

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Morgan, Hugh P; McNae, Iain W; Nowicki, Matthew W; Hannaert, Véronique; Michels, Paul A M; Fothergill-Gilmore, Linda A; Walkinshaw, Malcolm D


    .... However, formation of the R-state in this way is only part of the mechanism; eight essential salt bridge locks that form across the C-C interface provide tetramer rigidity with a coupled 7-fold increase in rate...

  8. Strength and deformation properties of volcanic rocks in Iceland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foged, Niels Nielsen; Andreassen, Katrine Alling


    Tunnelling work and preinvestigations for road traces require knowledge of the strength and de-formation properties of the rock material involved. This paper presents results related to tunnel-ling for Icelandic water power plants and road tunnels from a number of regions in Iceland. The volcanic...... rock from Iceland has been the topic for rock mechanical studies carried out by Ice-landic guest students at the Department of Civil Engineering at the Technical University of Den-mark over a number of years in cooperation with University of Iceland, Vegagerðin (The Icelandic Road Directorate......) and Landsvirkjun (The National Power Company of Iceland). These projects involve engineering geological properties of volcanic rock in Iceland, rock mechanical testing and parameter evaluation. Upscaling to rock mass properties and modelling using Q- or GSI-methods have been studied by the students...

  9. Modified Johnston Failure Criterion from Rock Mechanics to Predict the Ultimate Strength of Fiber Reinforced Polymer (FRP Confined Columns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zehra Canan Girgin


    Full Text Available The failure criteria from rock mechanics, Hoek-Brown and Johnston failure criteria, may be extended and modified to assess the ultimate compressive strength of axially loaded circular fiber reinforced polymer (FRP-confined concrete columns. In addition to the previously modified Hoek-Brown criterion, in this study, the Johnston failure criterion is extended to scope of FRP-confined concrete, verified with the experimental data and compared with the significant relationships from the current literature. Wide-range compressive strengths from 7 to 108 MPa and high confinement ratios up to 2.0 are used to verify the ultimate strengths in short columns. The results are in good agreement with experimental data for all confinement levels and concrete strengths.

  10. Early Holocene (8.6 ka) rock avalanche deposits, Obernberg valley (Eastern Alps): Landform interpretation and kinematics of rapid mass movement


    Ostermann, Marc; Sanders, Diethard; Ivy-Ochs, Susan; Alfimov, Vasily; Rockenschaub, Manfred; Römer, Alexander


    In the Obernberg valley, the Eastern Alps, landforms recently interpreted as moraines are re-interpreted as rock avalanche deposits. The catastrophic slope failure involved an initial rock volume of about 45 million m³, with a runout of 7.2 km over a total vertical distance of 1330 m (fahrböschung 10°). 36Cl surface-exposure dating of boulders of the avalanche mass indicates an event age of 8.6 ± 0.6 ka. A 14C age of 7785 ± 190 cal yr BP of a palaeosoil within an alluvial fan downlapping the ...

  11. Ultra-fine grinding and mechanical activation of mine waste rock using a high-speed stirred mill for mineral carbonation (United States)

    Li, Jia-jie; Hitch, Michael


    CO2 sequestration by mineral carbonation can permanently store CO2 and mitigate climate change. However, the cost and reaction rate of mineral carbonation must be balanced to be viable for industrial applications. In this study, it was attempted to reduce the carbonation costs by using mine waste rock as a feed stock and to enhance the reaction rate using wet mechanical activation as a pre-treatment method. Slurry rheological properties, particle size distribution, specific surface area, crystallinity, and CO2 sequestration reaction efficiency of the initial and mechanically activated mine waste rock and olivine were characterized. The results show that serpentine acts as a catalyst, increasing the slurry yield stress, assisting new surface formation, and hindering the size reduction and structure amorphization. Mechanically activated mine waste rock exhibits a higher carbonation conversion than olivine with equal specific milling energy input. The use of a high-speed stirred mill may render the mineral carbonation suitable for mining industrial practice.

  12. Influence of tectonic disturbances on the parameters of excavation support with rock anchor (United States)

    Dyomin, V. F.; Yavorsky, V. V.; Demina, T. V.; Baidikova, N. V.; Protsenko, A. V.


    The mechanism of deformation, movement and rockfalls in structurally disturbed nonuniform rock mass using analytical modeling operation for assessment of the strain-stress state (SSS) of the rock mass around mining has been investigated. The SSS research of the rock masses by means of the ANSYS program of the excavation in the “Saransk” mine of coal mining JSC “ArselorMittal Temirtau” in the Karaganda coal basin has been conducted. The parameters of the exploitation of the anchor support on the mines for fixing the rock bolts in the workings to ensure the safety of mining operations in the areas of geological disturbances have been determined.

  13. 3-D models and structural analysis of analogue rock avalanche deposits: a kinematic analysis of the propagation mechanism (United States)

    Longchamp, C.; Abellan, A.; Jaboyedoff, M.; Manzella, I.


    Rock avalanches are extremely destructive and uncontrollable events that involve a great volume of material (> 106 m3), several complex processes and they are difficult to witness. For this reason the study of these phenomena using analogue modelling and the accurate analysis of deposit structures and features of laboratory data and historic events become of great importance in the understanding of their behavior. The main objective of this research is to analyze rock avalanche dynamics by means of a detailed structural analysis of the deposits coming from data of 3-D measurements of mass movements of different magnitudes, from decimeter level scale laboratory experiments to well-studied rock avalanches of several square kilometers magnitude. Laboratory experiments were performed on a tilting plane on which a certain amount of a well-defined granular material is released, propagates and finally stops on a horizontal surface. The 3-D geometrical model of the deposit is then obtained using either a scan made with a 3-D digitizer (Konica Minolta vivid 9i) either using a photogrammetric method called Structure-from-Motion (SfM) which requires taking several pictures from different point of view of the object to be modeled. In order to emphasize and better detect the fault structures present in the deposits, we applied a median filter with different moving windows sizes (from 3 × 3 to 9 × 9 nearest neighbors) to the 3-D datasets and a gradient operator along the direction of propagation. The application of these filters on the datasets results in: (1) a precise mapping of the longitudinal and transversal displacement features observed at the surface of the deposits; and (2) a more accurate interpretation of the relative movements along the deposit (i.e. normal, strike-slip, inverse faults) by using cross-sections. Results shows how the use of filtering techniques reveal disguised features in the original point cloud and that similar displacement patterns are

  14. Integrated Experimental and Modeling Studies of Mineral Carbonation as a Mechanism for Permanent Carbon Sequestration in Mafic/Ultramafic Rocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Zhengrong [Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (United States); Qiu, Lin [Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (United States); Zhang, Shuang [Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (United States); Bolton, Edward [Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (United States); Bercovici, David [Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (United States); Ague, Jay [Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (United States); Karato, Shun-Ichiro [Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (United States); Oristaglio, Michael [Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (United States); Zhu, Wen-Iu [Univ. of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States); Lisabeth, Harry [Univ. of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States); Johnson, Kevin [Univ. of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI (United States)


    A program of laboratory experiments, modeling and fieldwork was carried out at Yale University, University of Maryland, and University of Hawai‘i, under a DOE Award (DE-FE0004375) to study mineral carbonation as a practical method of geologic carbon sequestration. Mineral carbonation, also called carbon mineralization, is the conversion of (fluid) carbon dioxide into (solid) carbonate minerals in rocks, by way of naturally occurring chemical reactions. Mafic and ultramafic rocks, such as volcanic basalt, are natural candidates for carbonation, because the magnesium and iron silicate minerals in these rocks react with brines of dissolved carbon dioxide to form carbonate minerals. By trapping carbon dioxide (CO2) underground as a constituent of solid rock, carbonation of natural basalt formations would be a secure method of sequestering CO2 captured at power plants in efforts to mitigate climate change. Geochemical laboratory experiments at Yale, carried out in a batch reactor at 200°C and 150 bar (15 MPa), studied carbonation of the olivine mineral forsterite (Mg2SiO4) reacting with CO2 brines in the form of sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) solutions. The main carbonation product in these reactions is the carbonate mineral magnesite (MgCO3). A series of 32 runs varied the reaction time, the reactive surface area of olivine grains and powders, the concentration of the reacting fluid, and the starting ratio of fluid to olivine mass. These experiments were the first to study the rate of olivine carbonation under passive conditions approaching equilibrium. The results show that, in a simple batch reaction, olivine carbonation is fastest during the first 24 hours and then slows significantly and even reverses. A natural measure of the extent of carbonation is a quantity called the carbonation fraction, which compares the amount of carbon removed from solution, during a run, to the maximum amount

  15. Constraints on behaviour of a mining‐induced earthquake inferred from laboratory rock mechanics experiments (United States)

    McGarr, Arthur F.; Johnston, Malcolm J.; Boettcher, M.; Heesakkers, V.; Reches, Z.


    On December 12, 2004, an earthquake of magnitude 2.2, located in the TauTona Gold Mine at a depth of about 3.65 km in the ancient Pretorius fault zone, was recorded by the in-mine borehole seismic network, yielding an excellent set of ground motion data recorded at hypocentral distances of several km. From these data, the seismic moment tensor, indicating mostly normal faulting with a small implosive component, and the radiated energy were measured; the deviatoric component of the moment tensor was estimated to be M0 = 2.3×1012 N·m and the radiated energy ER = 5.4×108 J. This event caused extensive damage along tunnels within the Pretorius fault zone. What rendered this earthquake of particular interest was the underground investigation of the complex pattern of exposed rupture surfaces combined with laboratory testing of rock samples retrieved from the ancient fault zone (Heesakkers et al.2011a, 2011b). Event 12/12 2004 was the result of fault slip across at least four nonparallel fault surfaces; 25 mm of slip was measured at one location on the rupture segment that is most parallel with a fault plane inferred from the seismic moment tensor, suggesting that this segment accounted for much of the total seismic deformation. By applying a recently developed technique based on biaxial stick-slip friction experiments (McGarr2012, 2013) to the seismic results, together with the 25 mm slip observed underground, we estimated a maximum slip rate of at least 6.6 m/s, which is consistent with the observed damage to tunnels in the rupture zone. Similarly, the stress drop and apparent stress were found to be correspondingly high at 21.9 MPa and 6.6 MPa, respectively. The ambient state of stress, measured at the approximate depth of the earthquake but away from the influence of mining, in conjunction with laboratory measurements of the strength of the fault zone cataclasites, indicates that during rupture of the M 2.2 event, the normal stress acting on the large-slip fault

  16. The ISRM suggested methods for rock characterization, testing and monitoring 2007-2014

    CERN Document Server


    This book is a collection of ISRM suggested methods for testing or measuring properties of rocks and rock masses both in the laboratory and in situ, as well as for monitoring the performance of rock engineering structures. The first collection (Yellow Book) has been published in 1981. In order to provide access to all the Suggested Methods in one volume, the ISRM Blue Book was published in 2007 (by the ISRM via the Turkish National Group) and contains the complete set of Suggested Methods from 1974 to 2006 inclusive. The papers in this most recent volume have been published during the last seven years in international journals, mainly in Rock Mechanics and Rock Engineering. They offer guidance for rock characterization procedures and laboratory and field testing and monitoring in rock engineering. These methods provide a definitive procedure for the identification, measurement and evaluation of one or more qualities, characteristics, or properties of rocks or rock systems that produces a test result.

  17. Allosteric Mechanism of Pyruvate Kinase from Leishmania mexicana Uses a Rock and Lock Model


    Morgan, Hugh P.; McNae, Iain W.; Nowicki, Matthew W.; Hannaert, Véronique; Michels, Paul A. M.; Fothergill-Gilmore, Linda A.; Walkinshaw, Malcolm D.


    Allosteric regulation provides a rate management system for enzymes involved in many cellular processes. Ligand-controlled regulation is easily recognizable, but the underlying molecular mechanisms have remained elusive. We have obtained the first complete series of allosteric structures, in all possible ligated states, for the tetrameric enzyme, pyruvate kinase, from Leishmania mexicana. The transition between inactive T-state and active R-state is accompanied by a simple symmetrical 6° rigi...

  18. Mass Incarceration in California Counties: A Mechanism for Educational Inequality (United States)

    Aylward, Alexandra


    Although there is substantial evidence of the negative effects of being incarcerated or having a father imprisoned, there is little research on the spillover effects created by the concentration of incarceration within disadvantaged communities. This article addresses this limitation by investigating the association between mass incarceration and…

  19. A non-perturbative mechanism for elementary particle mass generation

    CERN Document Server

    Frezzotti, R


    Taking inspiration from lattice QCD data, we argue that a finite non-perturbative mass contribution for quarks is generated as a consequence of the dynamical phenomenon of spontaneous chiral symmetry breaking, in turn triggered by the explicitly breaking of chiral symmetry induced by the critical Wilson term in the action. In pure lattice QCD this mass term cannot be separated from the unavoidably associated linearly divergent contribution. However, if QCD is enlarged to a theory where also a scalar field is present, coupled to a doublet of SU(2) fermions via a Yukawa and a Wilson-like term, then in the phase where the scalar field takes a non-vanishing expectation value, a dynamically generated and "naturally" light fermion mass (numerically unrelated to the expectation value of the scalar field) is conjectured to emerge at a critical value of the Yukawa coupling where the symmetry of the model is maximally enhanced. Masses dynamically generated in this way display a natural hierarchy according to which the ...

  20. A method of estimating the contents of components, structural and physical-mechanical properties of rocks (United States)

    Kurmankozhayeva, A. A.; Azhibekova, A. S.


    The method for estimation of the mean value and the mode of the property becomes important with increasing the depth growth of mining operations and the complexity degree of excavation sites, the growth of number of cases, when geological information volume representing the level of values of structural and physical-mechanical properties is insufficient. The reliability of estimates is achieved through the involvement of different characteristics of the studied property. The developed method is based on calculation of prediction estimates of the mean value and the mode, which allow providing the accuracy of the estimates with incomplete information, and when the type of the studied property distribution is unknown.

  1. The effect of scale on the morphology, mechanics and transmissivity of single rock fractures


    Fardin, Nader


    This thesis investigates the effect of scale on themorphology, mechanics and transmissivity of single rockfractures using both laboratory and in-situ experiments, aswell as numerical simulations. Using a laboratory 3D laserscanner, the surface topography of a large silicon-rubberfracture replica of size 1m x 1m, as well as the topography ofboth surfaces of several high-strength concrete fracturereplicas varying in size from 50mmx50mm to 200mm x 200mm, werescanned. A geodetic Total Station and...

  2. Experimental Determination of Unknown Masses and Their Positions in a Mechanical Black Box (United States)

    Chakrabarti, Bhupati; Pathare, Shirish; Huli, Saurabhee; Nachane, Madhura


    An experiment with a mechanical black box containing unknown masses is presented. The experiment involves the determination of these masses and their locations by performing some nondestructive tests. The set-ups are inexpensive and easy to fabricate. They are very useful to gain an understanding of some well-known principles of mechanics.

  3. Comparison of the effects in the rock mass of large-scale chemical and nuclear explosions. Final technical report, June 9, 1994--October 9, 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spivak, A.A.


    It was found that in the first approximation the mechanical effect of underground nuclear explosion is analogous to the effect of chemical explosion. Really qualitative analysis shows that accompanying mechanical effects of nuclear and chemical explosions are the same: in the both cases explosion consequences are characterized by formation of the camouplet cavity (crater after explosion near free surface), destruction of the rock massif near explosion centre, creation of the stress wave, which forms seismoexplosive effect a long distance from explosion epicentre. Qualitative likeness of underground nuclear explosions and chemical explosions is the base of modelling the mechanical effects of the underground nuclear explosion. In this paper we`ll compare two explosions: nuclear (15-04-84) and chemical (27.06.95) with large power. These explosions were realized at the same geological conditions at Degelen test area, which is a part of the Semipalatinsk Test Site. In the case of the nuclear explosion, the charge was disposed in the face of the deep horizontal gallery. The charge of the chemical explosion was a semisphere from explosives at the rock massif surface. In the both case rock massif behavior after explosions was investigated at underground conditions (in the case of chemical explosion -- in the long underground excavation from explosion epicentre). Mechanical effects from the nuclear and chemical explosions were investigated with the same methods. The changes in geological medium after a large-scale explosive actions will be analyzed in detail too. Investigations of the influence of tectonic energy on the mechanical effects after underground nuclear, explosions represents the main interest. In this paper we`ll discuss this question on the data from underground nuclear explosion, realized 08.09.89 in the deep well at the Balapan test area, at the Semipalatinsk Test Site.

  4. Processes, mechanisms, parameters, and modeling approaches for partially saturated flow in soil and rock media; Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, J.S.Y.; Narasimhan, T.N. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)


    This report discusses conceptual models and mathematical equations, analyzes distributions and correlations among hydrological parameters of soils and tuff, introduces new path integration approaches, and outlines scaling procedures to model potential-driven fluid flow in heterogeneous media. To properly model the transition from fracture-dominated flow under saturated conditions to matrix-dominated flow under partially saturated conditions, characteristic curves and permeability functions for fractures and matrix need to be improved and validated. Couplings from two-phase flow, heat transfer, solute transport, and rock deformation to liquid flow are also important. For stochastic modeling of alternating units of welded and nonwelded tuff or formations bounded by fault zones, correlations and constraints on average values of saturated permeability and air entry scaling factor between different units need to be imposed to avoid unlikely combinations of parameters and predictions. Large-scale simulations require efficient and verifiable numerical algorithms. New path integration approaches based on postulates of minimum work and mass conservation to solve flow geometry and potential distribution simultaneously are introduced. This verifiable integral approach, together with fractal scaling procedures to generate statistical realizations with parameter distribution, correlation, and scaling taken into account, can be used to quantify uncertainties and generate the cumulative distribution function for groundwater travel times.

  5. Probabilistic Rock Slope Engineering. (United States)


    distances or may reflect errors or uncertainties in sample collection and evaluation. 58. Typical variograms for fracture set properties are illustrated... uncertainties in their measurement and estimation imply the probabilistic nature of parameters re- quired for rock slope engineering. Therefore, statistical...strengths of geologic discontinuities and also by the local stress field. Natural variabilities in these rock mass properties and uncertainties in their

  6. The Rho GTPase Effector ROCK Regulates Cyclin A, Cyclin D1, and p27Kip1 Levels by Distinct Mechanisms


    Croft, Daniel R.; Olson, Michael F.


    The members of the Rho GTPase family are well known for their regulation of actin cytoskeletal structures. In addition, they influence progression through the cell cycle. The RhoA and RhoC proteins regulate numerous effector proteins, with a central and vital signaling role mediated by the ROCK I and ROCK II serine/threonine kinases. The requirement for ROCK function in the proliferation of numerous cell types has been revealed by studies utilizing ROCK-selective inhibitors such as Y-27632. H...

  7. Relating rock avalanche morphology to emplacement processes (United States)

    Dufresne, Anja; Prager, Christoph; Bösmeier, Annette


    The morphology, structure and sedimentological characteristics of rock avalanche deposits reflect both internal emplacement processes and external influences, such as runout path characteristics. The latter is mainly predisposed by topography, substrate types, and hydrogeological conditions. Additionally, the geological setting at the source slope controls, e.g. the spatial distribution of accumulated lithologies and hence material property-related changes in morphology, or the maximum clast size and amount of fines of different lithological units. The Holocene Tschirgant rock avalanche (Tyrol, Austria) resulted from failure of an intensely deformed carbonate rock mass on the southeast face of a 2,370-m-high mountain ridge. The initially sliding rock mass rapidly fragmented as it moved towards the floor of the Inn River valley. Part of the 200-250 x 106 m3 (Patzelt 2012) rock avalanche debris collided with and moved around an opposing bedrock ridge and flowed into the Ötz valley, reaching up to 6.3 km from source. Where the Tschirgant rock avalanche spread freely it formed longitudinal ridges aligned along motion direction as well as smaller hummocks. Encountering high topography, it left runup ridges, fallback patterns (i.e. secondary collapse), and compressional morphology (successively elevated, transverse ridges). Further evidence for the mechanical landslide behaviour is given by large volumes of mobilized valley-fill sediments (polymict gravels and sands). These sediments indicate both shearing and compressional faulting within the rock avalanche mass (forming their own morphological units through, e.g. in situ bulldozing or as distinctly different hummocky terrain), but also indicate extension of the spreading landslide mass (i.e. intercalated/injected gravels encountered mainly in morphological depressions between hummocks). Further influences on its morphology are given by the different lithological units. E.g. the transition from massive dolomite

  8. Rheological and geodynamic controls on the mechanisms of subduction and HP/UHP exhumation of crustal rocks during continental collision : Insights from numerical models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burov, Evgene; Francois, Thomas; Agard, Philippe; Le Pourhiet, Laetitia; Meyer, Bertrand; Tirel, C.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304838209; Lebedev, Sergei; Yamato, Philippe; Brun, Jean Pierre


    While subduction of crustal rocks is increasingly accepted as a common scenario inherent to convergent processes involving continental plates and micro-continents, its occurrence in each particular context, as well as its specific mechanisms and conditions is still debated. The presence of

  9. Training and Research on Probabilistic Hydro-Thermo-Mechanical Modeling of Carbon Dioxide Geological Sequestration in Fractured Porous Rocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gutierrez, Marte


    Colorado School of Mines conducted research and training in the development and validation of an advanced CO{sub 2} GS (Geological Sequestration) probabilistic simulation and risk assessment model. CO{sub 2} GS simulation and risk assessment is used to develop advanced numerical simulation models of the subsurface to forecast CO2 behavior and transport; optimize site operational practices; ensure site safety; and refine site monitoring, verification, and accounting efforts. As simulation models are refined with new data, the uncertainty surrounding the identified risks decrease, thereby providing more accurate risk assessment. The models considered the full coupling of multiple physical processes (geomechanical and fluid flow) and describe the effects of stochastic hydro-mechanical (H-M) parameters on the modeling of CO{sub 2} flow and transport in fractured porous rocks. Graduate students were involved in the development and validation of the model that can be used to predict the fate, movement, and storage of CO{sub 2} in subsurface formations, and to evaluate the risk of potential leakage to the atmosphere and underground aquifers. The main major contributions from the project include the development of: 1) an improved procedure to rigorously couple the simulations of hydro-thermomechanical (H-M) processes involved in CO{sub 2} GS; 2) models for the hydro-mechanical behavior of fractured porous rocks with random fracture patterns; and 3) probabilistic methods to account for the effects of stochastic fluid flow and geomechanical properties on flow, transport, storage and leakage associated with CO{sub 2} GS. The research project provided the means to educate and train graduate students in the science and technology of CO{sub 2} GS, with a focus on geologic storage. Specifically, the training included the investigation of an advanced CO{sub 2} GS simulation and risk assessment model that can be used to predict the fate, movement, and storage of CO{sub 2} in

  10. Rock engineering design of post-tensioned anchors for dams – A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.T. Brown


    Full Text Available High-capacity, post-tensioned anchors have found wide-spread use, originally in initial dam design and construction, and more recently in the strengthening and rehabilitation of concrete dams to meet modern design and safety standards. Despite the advances that have been made in rock mechanics and rock engineering during the last 80 years in which post-tensioned anchors have been used in dam engineering, some aspects of the rock engineering design of high-capacity rock anchors for dams have changed relatively little over the last 30 or 40 years. This applies, in particular, to the calculations usually carried out to establish the grouted embedment lengths required for deep, post-tensioned anchors. These calculations usually make simplified assumptions about the distribution and values of rock–grout interface shear strengths, the shape of the volume of rock likely to be involved in uplift failure under the influence of a system of post-tensioned anchors, and the mechanism of that failure. The resulting designs are generally conservative. It is concluded that these aspects of the rock engineering design of large, post-tensioned rock anchors for dams can be significantly improved by making greater use of modern, comprehensive, numerical analyses in conjunction with three-dimensional (3D models of the rock mass structure, realistic rock and rock mass properties, and the results of prototype anchor tests in the rock mass concerned.

  11. Comparison of an empirical S-wave velocity model and a calculated stress-strain model for a rock mass disturbed by mining (United States)

    Krawiec, Krzysztof; Czarny, Rafał


    In the article a comparison analysis is presented between a numerical model of the stress and deformation state in a rock mass and an S-wave velocity model obtained as a result of in situ measurement. The research was conducted using data from the Jastrzębie and Moszczenica coal mines. The part of the rock mass examined was strongly disturbed by multi-seam exploitation of coal. To obtain the S-wave velocity model 6 hours of ambient seismic noise data were recorded using 11 seismometers. The propagation of the Rayleigh surface wave between the seismometers was reconstructed utilising the seismic interferometry and the cross correlation technique. Estimation of a two dimensional model of the Swave velocity field was performed on the basis of dispersion curves of the Rayleigh wave phase velocity. The stress and deformation field were calculated assuming a plane state of stress with the use of the elastic-plastic Coulomb-Mohr strength criterion. Images of the vertical stress, horizontal stress, vertical strain and horizontal strain as well as the subsidence profile on the model surface were obtained as a result of the calculation. Analysis of the results shows correlation between the field of S-wave velocity and the modelled field of stress and strain.

  12. Comparison of an empirical S-wave velocity model and a calculated stress-strain model for a rock mass disturbed by mining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krawiec Krzysztof


    Full Text Available In the article a comparison analysis is presented between a numerical model of the stress and deformation state in a rock mass and an S-wave velocity model obtained as a result of in situ measurement. The research was conducted using data from the Jastrzębie and Moszczenica coal mines. The part of the rock mass examined was strongly disturbed by multi-seam exploitation of coal. To obtain the S-wave velocity model 6 hours of ambient seismic noise data were recorded using 11 seismometers. The propagation of the Rayleigh surface wave between the seismometers was reconstructed utilising the seismic interferometry and the cross correlation technique. Estimation of a two dimensional model of the Swave velocity field was performed on the basis of dispersion curves of the Rayleigh wave phase velocity. The stress and deformation field were calculated assuming a plane state of stress with the use of the elastic-plastic Coulomb-Mohr strength criterion. Images of the vertical stress, horizontal stress, vertical strain and horizontal strain as well as the subsidence profile on the model surface were obtained as a result of the calculation. Analysis of the results shows correlation between the field of S-wave velocity and the modelled field of stress and strain.

  13. Deformation mechanisms and melt nano-structures in experimentally deformed olivine-orthopyroxene rocks with low melt fractions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kloe, P.A. de


    The major part of the Earth’s upper mantle is thought to be solid, with some regions in the mantle where the rocks contain a small melt fraction These partially molten rocks are associated with important geological processes such as magma production beneath mid-oceanic ridges and may also play an

  14. A mechanical erosion model for two-phase mass flows: Tackling a long standing dilemma of mass mobility (United States)

    Fischer, Jan-Thomas; Pudasaini, Shiva P.; Mergili, Martin


    Landslides and debris flows can dramatically increase their volume and destructive potential, and become exceptionally mobile by entraining bed sediment and fluid. Additionally changes in flow bed by erosion-deposition mechanisms, and thus changes in the driving force components, play a critical role in debris flow dynamics. Usually erosion related geophysical mass flows are more mobile than without erosion. However, this fact has never been explained mechanically explicitly and unambiguously. In literature, it is mentioned that erosion results in shorter travel distance due to the energy lost in erosion, but it has also been argued that, e.g., due to the added mass, the debris travels longer distance. The dilemma of erosion and flow mobility however is, that no clear explanation and derivation exists to mechanically explicitly describe the state of mobility. To cope with these challenges a two-phase variably saturated erodible basal morphology is introduced and allows for the evolution of erosion-deposition-depths, incorporating the inherent physical process including momentum and rheological changes of the flowing mixture. By rigorous derivation, we show that appropriate incorporation of the mass and momentum productions or losses in conservative model formulation is essential for the physically correct and mathematically consistent description of erosion-entrainment-deposition processes. We show that mechanically deposition is the reversed process of erosion. We derive mechanically consistent closures for coefficients emerging in the erosion rate models. We prove that effectively reduced friction in erosion is equivalent to the momentum production. With this, we solve the long standing dilemma of mass mobility, and show that erosion enhances the mass flow mobility. The model appropriately captures the emergence and propagation of complex frontal surge dynamics associated with the frontal ambient-drag with erosion. Thus, the novel enhanced real two-phase model

  15. Mechanisms of flow and water mass variability in Denmark Strait (United States)

    Moritz, Martin; Jochumsen, Kerstin; Quadfasel, Detlef; Mashayekh Poul, Hossein; Käse, Rolf H.


    The dense water export through Denmark Strait contributes significantly to the lower limb of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation. Overflow water is transported southwestward not only in the deep channel of the Strait, but also within a thin bottom layer on the Greenland shelf. The flow on the shelf is mainly weak and barotropic, exhibiting many recirculations, but may eventually contribute to the overflow layer in the Irminger Basin by spilling events in the northern Irminger Basin. Especially the circulation around Dohrn Bank and the Kangerdlussuaq Trough contribute to the shelf-basin exchange. Moored observations show the overflow in Denmark Strait to be stable during the last 20 years (1996-2016). Nevertheless, flow variability was noticed on time scales of eddies and beyond, i.e. on weekly and interannual scales. Here, we use a combination of mooring data and shipboard hydrographic and current data to address the dominant modes of variability in the overflow, which are (i) eddies, (ii) barotropic pulsations of the plume, (iii) lateral shifts of the plume core position, and (iv) variations in vertical extension, i.e. varying overflow thickness. A principle component analysis is carried out and related to variations in sea surface height and wind stress, derived from satellite measurements. Furthermore, a test for topographic waves is performed. Shelf contributions to the overflow core in the Irminger Basin are identified from measurements of temperature and salinity, as well as velocity, which were obtained during recent cruises in the region. The flow and water mass pattern obtained from the observational data is compared to simulations in a high resolution regional model (ROMS), where tracer release experiments and float deployments were carried out. The modelling results allow a separation between different atmospheric forcing modes (NAO+ vs NAO- situations), which impact the water mass distribution and alter the dense water pathways on the

  16. Displaced rocks, strong motion, and the mechanics of shallow faulting associated with the 1999 Hector Mine, California, earthquake (United States)

    Michael, Andrew J.; Ross, Stephanie L.; Stenner, Heidi D.


    The paucity of strong-motion stations near the 1999 Hector Mine earthquake makes it impossible to make instrumental studies of key questions about near-fault strong-motion patterns associated with this event. However, observations of displaced rocks allow a qualitative investigation of these problems. By observing the slope of the desert surface and the frictional coefficient between these rocks and the desert surface, we estimate the minimum horizontal acceleration needed to displace the rocks. Combining this information with observations of how many rocks were displaced in different areas near the fault, we infer the level of shaking. Given current empirical shaking attenuation relationships, the number of rocks that moved is slightly lower than expected; this implies that slightly lower than expected shaking occurred during the Hector Mine earthquake. Perhaps more importantly, stretches of the fault with 4 m of total displacement at the surface displaced few nearby rocks on 15?? slopes, suggesting that the horizontal accelerations were below 0.2g within meters of the fault scarp. This low level of shaking suggests that the shallow parts of this rupture did not produce strong accelerations. Finally, we did not observe an increased incidence of displaced rocks along the fault zone itself. This suggests that, despite observations of fault-zone-trapped waves generated by aftershocks of the Hector Mine earthquake, such waves were not an important factor in controlling peak ground acceleration during the mainshock.

  17. Mass loss as a driving mechanism of tectonics of Enceladus (United States)

    Czechowski, Leszek


    Summary We suggest that the mass loss from South Polar Terrain (SPT) is the main driving force of the following tectonic processes on Enceladus: subsidence of SPT, flow in the mantle and motion of plates. 1. Introduction Enceladus, a satellite of Saturn, is the smallest celestial body in the Solar System where volcanic activity is observed. Every second, the mass of ~200 kg is ejected into space from the South Polar Terrain (SPT) - [1, 2, 3]. The loss of matter from the body's interior should lead to global compression of the crust. Typical effects of compression are: thrust faults, folding and subduction. However, such forms are not dominant on Enceladus. We propose here special tectonic model that could explain this paradox. 2. Subsidence of SPT and tectonics The volatiles escape from the hot region through the fractures forming plumes in the space. The loss of the volatiles results in a void, an instability, and motion of solid matter into the hot region to fill the void. The motion includes : Subsidence of the 'lithosphere' of SPT. Flow of the matter in the mantle. Motion of plates adjacent to SPT towards the active region. If emerging void is being filled by the subsidence of SPT only, then the velocity of subsidence is ~0.05 mm-yr-1. However, all three types of motion are probably important, so the subsidence is slower but mantle flow and plates' motion also play a role in filling the void. Note that in our model the reduction of the crust area is not a result of compression but it is a result of the plate sinking. Therefore the compressional surface features do not have to be dominant. 3. Models of subsidence The numerical model of suggested process of subsidence is developed. It is based on the typical set of equation: Navier-Stokes equation for incompressible viscous liquid, equation of continuity and equation of heat conduction. The Newtonian and non-Newtonian rheologies are used. The preliminary results of the model indicate that the subsidence rate of

  18. Personality traits and body mass index: Modifiers and mechanisms. (United States)

    Sutin, Angelina R; Terracciano, Antonio


    To identify how demographic factors (sex, age, ethnicity) modify the association between personality traits and body mass index (BMI) and to test the extent that diet and physical activity account for the personality-BMI relations. Cross-sectional study with a diverse sample (N = 5150, 50% female, 19% African American, 15% Hispanic). Participants completed a measure of the five major dimensions of personality and reported on their physical activity, diet and food intake behaviour, and height and weight. BMI and obesity (BMI ≥ 30). High Neuroticism was associated with higher BMI and risk for obesity, whereas Conscientiousness and, to a lesser extent, Extraversion and Openness were protective. These associations were generally stronger among women and older participants; there was less evidence for ethnicity as a moderator. Personality had similar relations with the behavioural factors, and physical activity, diet and regular meal rhythms accounted for approximately 50% of the association between Neuroticism and Conscientiousness and BMI. This study supports the links between personality traits and BMI and suggests that physical activity, more than diet, is a key factor in these associations.

  19. Mechanical study of the Chartreuse Fold-and-Thrust Belt: relationships between fluids overpressure and decollement within the Toarcian source-rock (United States)

    Berthelon, Josselin; Sassi, William; Burov, Evgueni


    Many source-rocks are shale and constitute potential detachment levels in Fold-and-Thrust Belts (FTB): the toarcian Schistes-Cartons in the French Chartreuse FTB for example. Their mechanical properties can change during their burial and thermal maturation, as for example when large amount of hydrocarbon fluids are generated. A structural reconstruction of the Chartreuse FTB geo-history places the Toarcian Formation as the major decollement horizon. In this work, a mechanical analysis integrating the fluids overpressuring development is proposed to discuss on the validity of the structural interpretation. At first, an analogue of the Chartreuse Toarcian Fm, the albanian Posidonia Schist, is documented as it can provide insights on its initial properties and composition of its kerogen content. Laboratory characterisation documents the vertical evolution of the mineralogical, geochemical and mechanical parameters of this potential decollement layer. These physical parameters (i.e. Total Organic Carbon (TOC), porosity/permeability relationship, friction coefficient) are used to address overpressure buildup in the frontal part of the Chartreuse FTB with TEMISFlow Arctem Basin modelling approach (Faille et al, 2014) and the structural emplacement of the Chartreuse thrust units using the FLAMAR thermo-mechanical model (Burov et al, 2014). The hydro-mechanical modeling results highlight the calendar, distribution and magnitude of the overpressure that developed within the source-rock in the footwall of a simple fault-bend fold structure localized in the frontal part of the Chartreuse FTB. Several key geological conditions are required to create an overpressure able to fracture the shale-rocks and induce a significant change in the rheological behaviour: high TOC, low permeability, favourable structural evolution. These models highlight the importance of modeling the impact of a diffuse natural hydraulic fracturing to explain fluids propagation toward the foreland within

  20. The Mechanism of the Interfacial Charge and Mass Transfer during Intercalation of Alkali Metal Cations. (United States)

    Ventosa, Edgar; Paulitsch, Bianca; Marzak, Philipp; Yun, Jeongsik; Schiegg, Florian; Quast, Thomas; Bandarenka, Aliaksandr S


    Intercalation of alkali metal cations, like Li+ or Na+, follows the same three-stage mechanism of the interfacial charge and mass transfer irrespective of the nature of the electrolyte, electrolyte composition or electrode material.

  1. Rock Strength Anisotropy in High Stress Conditions: A Case Study for Application to Shaft Stability Assessments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Watson Julian Matthew


    Full Text Available Although rock strength anisotropy is a well-known phenomenon in rock mechanics, its impact on geotechnical design is often ignored or underestimated. This paper explores the concept of anisotropy in a high stress environment using an improved unified constitutive model (IUCM, which can account for more complex failure mechanisms. The IUCM is used to better understand the typical responses of anisotropic rocks to underground mining. This study applies the IUCM to a proposed rock shaft located in high stress/anisotropic conditions. Results suggest that the effect of rock strength anisotropy must be taken into consideration when assessing the rock mass response to mining in high stress and anisotropic rock conditions.

  2. Investigation on the anisotropic mechanical behaviour of the Callovo-Oxfordian clay rock within the framework of ANDRA/GRS cooperation programme. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Chun-Liang [Gesellschaft fuer Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit mbH (GRS), Koeln (Germany); Armand, Gilles; Conil, Nathalie [French Agence Nationale Pour la Gestion de Dechets Radioactifs (ANDRA), Chatenay-Malabry (France)


    An underground repository for disposal of radioactive waste is planned to be constructed in the sedimentary Callovo-Oxfordian argillaceous formation (COX) in France /AND 05/. The clay rock exhibits inherent anisotropy with bedding structure, which leads to directional dependences of the rock properties (e.g. mineralogical, physical, mechanical, hydraulic, thermal, etc.) with respect to the bedding planes. For the design of the repository and the assessment of its safety during the operation and post-closure phases it is necessary to characterise and predict the anisotropic properties and processes in the host rock, particularly in the excavation damaged zone (EDZ) near the openings. Within the framework of the bilateral cooperation agreement between the French National Radioactive Waste Management Agency (ANDRA) and the German Federal Ministry of Economics and Technology (BMWi), concerning the research activities in the Meuse/Haute-Marne Underground Research Laboratory (MHM-URL), a joint research programme was initiated by ANDRA and GRS in 2013 to investigate mechanical anisotropy of the COX clay rock for the purpose of precise characterization, better understanding and reliable prediction of the development of EDZ around the repository. This programme was funded by ANDRA under contract number 059844 and performed by GRS during the time period of November 2013 to December 2014. GRS gratefully acknowledges the financial support from and the fruitful cooperation with ANDRA.

  3. Effects of mass transfer on damping mechanisms of vapor bubbles oscillating in liquids. (United States)

    Zhang, Yuning; Gao, Yuhang; Guo, Zhongyu; Du, Xiaoze


    The damping mechanisms play an important role in the behavior of vapor bubbles. In the present paper, effects of mass transfer on the damping mechanisms of oscillating vapor bubbles in liquids are investigated within a wide range of parameter zone (e.g. in terms of frequency and bubble Péclet number). Results of the vapor bubbles are also compared with those of the gas bubbles. Our findings reveal that the damping mechanisms of vapor bubbles are significantly affected by the mass transfer especially in the regions with small and medium bubble Péclet number. Comparing with the gas bubbles, the contributions of the mass-transfer damping mechanism for the vapor bubble case are quite significant, being the dominant damping mechanism in a wide region. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Stable Chlorine Isotopes and Elemental Chlorine by Thermal Ionization Mass Spectrometry and Ion Chromatography; Martian Meteorites, Carbonaceous Chondrites and Standard Rocks (United States)

    Nakamura, N.; Nyquist, L. E.; Reese, Y.; Shih, C.-Y.; Fujitani, T.; Okano, O.


    Recently significantly large mass fractionation of stable chlorine isotopes has been reported for terrestrial and lunar samples [1,2]. In addition, in view of possible early solar system processes [3] and also potential perchlorate-related fluid/microbial activities on the Martian surface [4,5], a large chlorine isotopic fractionation might be expected for some types of planetary materials. Due to analytical difficulties of isotopic and elemental analyses, however, current chlorine analyses for planetary materials are controversial among different laboratories, particularly between IRMS (gas source mass spectrometry) and TIMS (Thermal Ionization Mass Spectrometry) groups [i.e. 1,6,7] for isotopic analyses, as well as between those doing pyrohydrolysis and other groups [i.e. 6,8]. Additional careful investigations of Cl isotope and elemental abundances are required to confirm real chlorine isotope and elemental variations for planetary materials. We have developed a TIMS technique combined with HF-leaching/ion chromatography at NASA JSC that is applicable to analysis of small amounts of meteoritic and planetary materials. We present here results for several standard rocks and meteorites, including Martian meteorites.

  5. Stress wave propagation in rock

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grady, D.E


    Earth penetration, design and hardening of structures to explosive or earthquake-induced ground shock effects, rapid excavation, and in situ preparation of coal, shale, or geothermal deposits are representative problems in which accurate constitutive descriptions of the geological medium are required to provide meaningful predictions. The rock or rock masses involved undergo complex, finite amplitude deformation during the process of transient dynamic loading, and quasi-static experimental compression techniques are normally used to provide much of the necessary data base. Strain rates typically range between 10/sup 1//s and 10/sup 5//s in the problems of interest, however, and further studies are required to determine the importance of rate dependence in the mechanical constitutive behavior of rock. Material response at the higher strain rates can be investigated with impact generated stress waves where controlled strain rates between about 10/sup 4//s to 10/sup 7//s can be achieved. Experimental methods have been developed to conduct and analyze impact-induced shock wave, ramp wave, and tensile fracture studies. Experimental results on some select crustal silicate and carbonate rocks show that strain rate dependence and the processes of phase transformation, compressive yielding, and fracture are important features in the dynamic constitutive response.

  6. Numerical modeling of clogging/unclogging mechanism for delayed injection-induced seismicity in fractured crystalline rock (United States)

    Liu, X.; Huang, H.; Peng, Z.; Liu, Q.


    Induced seismicity is a particular concern for hydraulic fracturing and produced water injection in low-permeability fractured crystalline rock. Fluid injection elevates fluid pressure in a preexisting fault, thus triggering fault instability and causing dynamic rupture. It is well known that large-volume and high-rate injection can induce moderate-size earthquakes and hence increase seismic hazard in relatively stable regions such as Oklahoma and Kansas. Sometimes moderate-size earthquakes occur in the post-shut-in phase or after the end of injection, at relatively far distances away from the wells where the static stress changes caused by fluid pressure are too small to cause fault slip or rupture. The mechanism responsible for inducing such post-injection earthquakes remains poorly understood. In this study, we used a three-dimensional fracture network simulator to examine the critical role of transient fluid pressure on the deposition and mobilization processes of particles and colloids in crack and pore throat. Using fully coupled hydro-mechanical modeling, we simulated the magnitude of diffusion and fluctuation of elevated fluid pressure immediately surrounding and away from the injection point. A series of numerical experiments were conducted to calculate the changes of Coulomb failure stress along a preexisting fault plane subjected to incipient failure. We considered pressure evolution in three scenarios: (1) gradual clogging due to fine deposits and forming of sealed dead-end crack during fluid injection, (2) build-up of excess pore pressure in sealed cracks due to mobilization of deposited fine particles, and (3) unclogging after injection shut-in, with fluid fast flushing from sealed cracks to main fracture and causing dynamic rupture. Our models may offer some new insights on why the induced seismic response might not occur immediately, and certain time is needed before the occurrence of a damaging event. We also found that over-pressure in unsaturated

  7. Thermo-mechanical analysis of FG nanobeam with attached tip mass: an exact solution (United States)

    Ghadiri, Majid; Jafari, Ali


    Present disquisition proposes an analytical solution method for exploring the vibration characteristics of a cantilever functionally graded nanobeam with a concentrated mass exposed to thermal loading for the first time. Thermo-mechanical properties of FGM nanobeam are supposed to change through the thickness direction of beam based on the rule of power-law (P-FGM). The small-scale effect is taken into consideration based on nonlocal elasticity theory of Eringen. Linear temperature rise (LTR) through thickness direction is studied. Existence of centralized mass in the free end of nanobeam influences the mechanical and physical properties. Timoshenko beam theory is employed to derive the nonlocal governing equations and boundary conditions of FGM beam attached with a tip mass under temperature field via Hamilton's principle. An exact solution procedure is exploited to achieve the non-dimensional frequency of FG nanobeam exposed to temperature field with a tip mass. A parametric study is led to assess the efficacy of temperature changes, tip mass, small scale, beam thickness, power-law exponent, slenderness and thermal loading on the natural frequencies of FG cantilever nanobeam with a point mass at the free end. It is concluded that these parameters play remarkable roles on the dynamic behavior of FG nanobeam subjected to LTR with a tip mass. The results for simpler states are confirmed with known data in the literature. Presented numerical results can serve as benchmarks for future thermo-mechanical analyses of FG nanobeam with tip mass.

  8. Systematic characterization of porosity and mass transport and mechanical properties of porous polyurethane scaffolds. (United States)

    Wang, Yu-Fu; Barrera, Carlos M; Dauer, Edward A; Gu, Weiyong; Andreopoulos, Fotios; Huang, C-Y Charles


    One of the key challenges in porous scaffold design is to create a porous structure with desired mechanical function and mass transport properties which support delivery of biofactors and development of function tissue substitute. In recent years, polyurethane (PU) has become one of the most popular biomaterials in various tissue engineering fields. However, there are no studies fully investigating the relations between porosity and both mass transport and mechanical properties of PU porous scaffolds. In this paper, we fabricated PU scaffolds by combining phase inversion and salt (sodium chloride) leaching methods. The tensile and compressive moduli were examined on PU scaffolds fabricated with different PU concentrations (25%, 20% and 15% w/v) and salt/PU weight ratios (9/1, 6/1, 3/1 and 0/1). The mass transport properties of PU scaffolds including hydraulic permeability and glucose diffusivity were also measured. Furthermore, the relationships between the porosity and mass transport and mechanical properties of porous PU scaffold were systemically investigated. The results demonstrated that porosity is a key parameter which governs both mass transport and mechanical properties of porous PU scaffolds. With similar pore sizes, the mass transport and mechanical properties of porous PU scaffold can be described as single functions of porosity regardless of initial PU concentration. The relationships between scaffold porosity and properties can be utilized to facilitate porous PU scaffold fabrication with specific mass transport and mechanical properties. The systematic approach established in this study can be applied to characterization of other biomaterials for scaffold design and fabrication. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. High-velocity frictional properties of Alpine Fault rocks: Mechanical data, microstructural analysis, and implications for rupture propagation (United States)

    Boulton, Carolyn; Yao, Lu; Faulkner, Daniel R.; Townend, John; Toy, Virginia G.; Sutherland, Rupert; Ma, Shengli; Shimamoto, Toshihiko


    The Alpine Fault in New Zealand is a major plate-bounding structure that typically slips in ∼M8 earthquakes every c. 330 years. To investigate the near-surface, high-velocity frictional behavior of surface- and borehole-derived Alpine Fault gouges and cataclasites, twenty-one rotary shear experiments were conducted at 1 MPa normal stress and 1 m/s equivalent slip velocity under both room-dry and water-saturated (wet) conditions. In the room-dry experiments, the peak friction coefficient (μp = τp/σn) of Alpine Fault cataclasites and fault gouges was consistently high (mean μp = 0.67 ± 0.07). In the wet experiments, the fault gouge peak friction coefficients were lower (mean μp = 0.20 ± 0.12) than the cataclasite peak friction coefficients (mean μp = 0.64 ± 0.04). All fault rocks exhibited very low steady-state friction coefficients (μss) (room-dry experiments mean μss = 0.16 ± 0.05; wet experiments mean μss = 0.09 ± 0.04). Of all the experiments performed, six experiments conducted on wet smectite-bearing principal slip zone (PSZ) fault gouges yielded the lowest peak friction coefficients (μp = 0.10-0.20), the lowest steady-state friction coefficients (μss = 0.03-0.09), and, commonly, the lowest specific fracture energy values (EG = 0.01-0.69 MJ/m2). Microstructures produced during room-dry and wet experiments on a smectite-bearing PSZ fault gouge were compared with microstructures in the same material recovered from the Deep Fault Drilling Project (DFDP-1) drill cores. The near-absence of localized shear bands with a strong crystallographic preferred orientation in the natural samples most resembles microstructures formed during wet experiments. Mechanical data and microstructural observations suggest that Alpine Fault ruptures propagate preferentially through water-saturated smectite-bearing fault gouges that exhibit low peak and steady-state friction coefficients.

  10. Modelling Progressive Failure in Rock-slopes (United States)

    Pons, M. Güell I.; Jaboyedoff, M.


    Rock failures are common in Alpine mountain chains and pose a threat to life and infrastructures. In general, rock slope stability is an interplay between existing discontinuities and development of new ones in intact material. In this work, we study progressive failure by means of numerical methods at multiple scales and using distinct element methods (DEM). Distinct element methods are of advantage because they account for discontinuities and are able to simulate the development of failure in time. The use of micro-parameters instead of constitutive laws allows studying the influence of heterogeneities present in the rock mass. In the first case, the code PFC-2D is used at the slope scale to test the influence of the slope geometry, the joint sets distribution and the joint set persistence in the case of toppling failures under various triggering mechanisms. Heterogeneity properties (cohesion and friction angle) are distributed randomly to simulate natural rock variability. In the second case, a cellular automata model, which is based on concepts of progressive failure in disordered systems, is used to explain the role of heterogeneities in the fracture process at a small scale. The results provide a link to time-to-failure predictions observed in some field cases. This study aims to be a base for the development of a model which permits to understand why some rock masses accelerate until global failure while other are capable to stabilize under the same conditions.

  11. Evolution Procedure of Multiple Rock Cracks under Seepage Pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taoying Liu


    Full Text Available In practical geotechnical engineering, most of rock masses with multiple cracks exist in water environment. Under such circumstance, these adjacent cracks could interact with each other. Moreover, the seepage pressure, produced by the high water pressure, can change cracks’ status and have an impact on the stress state of fragile rocks. According to the theory of fracture mechanics, this paper discusses the law of crack initiation and the evolution law of stress intensity factor at the tip of a wing crack caused by compression-shear stress and seepage pressure. Subsequently, considering the interaction of the wing cracks and the additional stress caused by rock bridge damage, this paper proposes the intensity factor evolution equation under the combined action of compression-shear stress and seepage pressure. In addition, this paper analyzes the propagation of cracks under different seepage pressure which reveals that the existence of seepage pressure facilitates the wing crack’s growth. The result indicates that the high seepage pressure converts wing crack growth from stable form to unstable form. Meanwhile, based on the criterion and mechanism for crack initiation and propagation, this paper puts forward the mechanical model for different fracture transfixion failure modes of the crag bridge under the combined action of seepage pressure and compression-shear stress. At the last part, this paper, through investigating the flexibility tensor of the rock mass’s initial damage and its damage evolution in terms of jointed rock mass's damage mechanics, deduces the damage evolution equation for the rock mass with multiple cracks under the combined action of compression-shear stress and seepage pressure. The achievement of this investigation provides a reliable theoretical principle for quantitative research of the fractured rock mass failure under seepage pressure.

  12. Enhanced mechanical energy extraction from transverse galloping using a dual mass system (United States)

    Vicente-Ludlam, D.; Barrero-Gil, A.; Velazquez, A.


    This paper offers a theoretical study of energy extraction through transverse galloping using a dual-mass system. To this end, a two-degree-of-freedom model is developed where fluid forces on the galloping body are described resorting to quasi-steady hypothesis; the model is solved approximately by using the Harmonic Balance Method. Three possible configurations of the dual-mass system have been analyzed. Two of them show an improvement in the efficiency of energy extraction with respect to that of the single mass configuration when the mechanical properties of the dual-mass system are appropriately chosen. In addition, the dual-mass system promotes a broadening of the values of the incident flow velocities at which the efficiency is kept high.

  13. CubeSat mechanical design: creating low mass and durable structures (United States)

    Fiedler, Gilbert; Straub, Jeremy


    This paper considers the mechanical design of a low-mass, low-cost spacecraft for use in a multi-satellite sensing constellation. For a multi-spacecraft mission, aggregated small mass and cost reductions can have significant impact. One approach to mass reduction is to make cuts into the structure, removing material. Stress analysis is used to determine the level of material reduction possible. Focus areas for this paper include determining areas to make cuts to ensure that a strong shape remains, while considering the comparative cost and skill level of each type of cut. Real-world results for a CubeSat and universally applicable analysis are presented.

  14. Radiative seesaw-type mechanism of fermion masses and non-trivial quark mixing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arbelaez, Carolina; Hernandez, A.E.C.; Kovalenko, Sergey; Schmidt, Ivan [Universidad Tecnica Federico Santa Maria, Centro Cientifico-Tecnologico de Valparaiso-CCTVal, Valparaiso (Chile)


    We propose a predictive inert two-Higgs doublet model, where the standard model (SM) symmetry is extended by S{sub 3} x Z{sub 2} x Z{sub 12} and the field content is enlarged by extra scalar fields, charged exotic fermions and two heavy right-handed Majorana neutrinos. The charged exotic fermions generate a non-trivial quark mixing and provide one-loop-level masses for the first- and second-generation charged fermions. The masses of the light active neutrinos are generated from a one-loop-level radiative seesaw mechanism. Our model successfully explains the observed SM fermion mass and mixing pattern. (orig.)

  15. Radiative seesaw-type mechanism of fermion masses and non-trivial quark mixing (United States)

    Arbeláez, Carolina; Hernández, A. E. Cárcamo; Kovalenko, Sergey; Schmidt, Ivan


    We propose a predictive inert two-Higgs doublet model, where the standard model (SM) symmetry is extended by S3⊗ Z2⊗ Z_{12} and the field content is enlarged by extra scalar fields, charged exotic fermions and two heavy right-handed Majorana neutrinos. The charged exotic fermions generate a non-trivial quark mixing and provide one-loop-level masses for the first- and second-generation charged fermions. The masses of the light active neutrinos are generated from a one-loop-level radiative seesaw mechanism. Our model successfully explains the observed SM fermion mass and mixing pattern.

  16. Kinetics of diffusive decomposition in the case of several mass transfer mechanisms (United States)

    Alexandrov, D. V.


    An analytical description of the final stage of diffusive decomposition leaning upon the Slezov theory is developed for several mass transfer mechanisms. The process of formation and relaxation of the crystal size distribution function from the initial ripening stage to its final state corresponding to the universal distribution is studied. The boundary points of a transition region responsible for the tails of the distribution functions on the right of the relevant stopping points are found analytically. The explicit time-dependent analytical expressions for the distribution function and particle growth rates are derived with allowance for the plausible mechanisms of mass transfer.

  17. An Investigation on Load Bearing Capacities of Cement and Resin Grouted Rock Bolts Installed in Weak Rocks (United States)

    Kalyoncu Erguler, Guzide; Abiddin Erguler, Zeynal


    Rock bolts have been considered one of indispensable support method to improve load bearing capacity of many underground engineering projects, and thus, various types of them have been developed until now for different purposes. Although mechanically anchored rock bolts can be successfully installed to prevent structurally controlled instabilities in hard rocks, in comparison with cement and resin grouted rock bolts, these types of anchors are not so effective in weak rocks characterized by relatively low mechanical properties. In order to investigate the applicability and to measure relative performance of cement and resin grouted rock bolts into weak and heavily jointed rock mass, a research program mainly consisting of pull-out tests was performed in a metal mine in Turkey. The rock materials excavated in this underground mining were described as basalt, tuff, ore dominated volcanic rocks and dacite. To achieve more representative results for rock materials found in this mining and openings excavated in varied dimensions, the pull-out tests were conducted on rock bolts used in many different locations where more convergences were measured and deformation dependent instability was expected to cause greater engineering problems. It is well known that the capacity of rock bolts depends on the length, diameter and density of the bolt pattern, and so considering the thickness of plastic zone in the studied openings, the length and diameter of rock bolts were taken as 2.4 m. and 25 mm., respectively. The spacing between rows changed between 70 and 180 cm. In this study, totally twenty five pull-out tests were performed to have a general understanding about axial load bearing capacity and support reaction curves of cement and resin grouted rock bolts. When pull load-displacement curves belongs to cement and resin grouted rock bolts were compared with each other, it was determined that cement grouted rock bolts carry more load ranging between 115.6 kN and 127.5 kN with

  18. Monitoring and modelling of thermo-hydro-mechanical processes - main results of a heater experiment at the Mont Terri underground rock laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ingeborg, G.; Alheid, H.J. [BGR - Federal Institute for Geosciences and Natural Resources, Hannover (Germany); Jockwerz, N. [Gesellschaft fur Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit (GRS) - Final Repository Research Division, Braunschweig (Germany); Mayor, J.C. [ENRESA - Empresa Nacional des Residuos Radioactivos, Madrid (Spain); Garcia-Siner, J.L. [AITEMIN -Asociacion para la Investigacion y Desarrollo Industrial de los Recursos Naturales, Madrid, (Spain); Alonso, E. [CIMNE - Centre Internacional de Metodos Numerics en Ingenyeria, UPC, Barcelona (Spain); Weber, H.P. [NAGRA - National Cooperative for the Disposal of Radioactive Waste, Wettingen (Switzerland); Plotze, M. [ETHZ - Swiss Federal Institute of Technology Zurich, IGT, Zurich, (Switzerland); Klubertanz, G. [COLENCO Power Engineering Ltd., Baden (Switzerland)


    The long-term safety of permanent underground repositories relies on a combination of engineered and geological barriers, so that the interactions between the barriers in response to conditions expected in a high-level waste repository need to be identified and fully understood. Co-financed by the European Community, a heater experiment was realized on a pilot plant scale at the underground laboratory in Mont Terri, Switzerland. The experiment was accompanied by an extensive programme of continuous monitoring, experimental investigations on-site as well as in laboratories, and numerical modelling of the coupled thermo-hydro-mechanical processes. Heat-producing waste was simulated by a heater element of 10 cm diameter, held at a constant surface temperature of 100 C. The heater element (length 2 m) operated in a vertical borehole of 7 m depth at 4 to 6 m depth. It was embedded in a geotechnical barrier of pre-compacted bentonite blocks (outer diameter 30 cm) that were irrigated for 35 months before the heating phase (duration 18 months) began. The host rock is a highly consolidated stiff Jurassic clay stone (Opalinus Clay). After the heating phase, the vicinity of the heater element was explored by seismic, hydraulic, and geotechnical tests to investigate if the heating had induced changes in the Opalinus Clay. Additionally, rock mechanic specimens were tested in the laboratory. Finally, the experiment was dismantled to provide laboratory specimens of post - heating buffer and host rock material. The bentonite blocks were thoroughly wetted at the time of the dismantling. The volume increase amounted to 5 to 9% and was thus below the bentonite potential. Geo-electrical measurements showed no decrease of the water content in the vicinity of the heater during the heating phase. Decreasing energy input to the heater element over time suggests hence, that the bentonite dried leading to a decrease of its thermal conductivity. Gas release during the heating period occurred

  19. The elastic properties of fractured rocks (United States)

    Darcel, C.; Le Goc, R.; Davy, P.


    The consequences of fracturing on rock mass strength still remain an issue for rock engineering practices, including excavation or repository design, support design, slope stability and caving in mines. The difficulty is twice and concerns both the description of the fracturing pattern, and the relationship between fracture characteristics and rock mass mechanical properties. This is generally assessed by empirical knowledge but no complete quantitative and theoretical relations are yet established. To our knowledge, the only theoretical work was to found a relationship between the elastic strength and the percolation parameter (i.e. a normalized sum of the cube of fracture radius) for 3D frictionless fracture networks. The relationship has been demonstrated for Poissonian (randomly distributed) low-density (i.e. where fractures are not almost intersecting) networks, with a narrow range of fracture radius. By means of finite-element models and Green's function methods, we extend the analysis to fracture networks with geologically realistic geometry: i.e. non-Poissonian, relatively high densities, and power-law length distributions. The elastic strength of the fractured rock mass is still found to decrease exponentially with the percolation parameter on average. But large deviations from the mean exist for heavy tailed fracture length distribution, i.e. when the probability of having fractures of the order of the system size is no more negligible. We discuss the way to ameliorate the prediction by taking into account configuration details that are not described by statistical parameters.

  20. Investigations of Near-Field Thermal-Hydrologic-Mechanical-Chemical Models for Radioactive Waste Disposal in Clay/Shale Rock

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, H.H.; Li, L.; Zheng, L.; Houseworth, J.E.; Rutqvist, J.


    Clay/shale has been considered as potential host rock for geological disposal of high-level radioactive waste throughout the world, because of its low permeability, low diffusion coefficient, high retention capacity for radionuclides, and capability to self-seal fractures. For example, Callovo-Oxfordian argillites at the Bure site, France (Fouche et al., 2004), Toarcian argillites at the Tournemire site, France (Patriarche et al., 2004), Opalinus Clay at the Mont Terri site, Switzerland (Meier et al., 2000), and Boom clay at the Mol site, Belgium (Barnichon and Volckaert, 2003) have all been under intensive scientific investigation (at both field and laboratory scales) for understanding a variety of rock properties and their relationships to flow and transport processes associated with geological disposal of radioactive waste. Figure 1-1 presents the distribution of clay/shale formations within the USA.

  1. Midlatitude forcing mechanisms for glacier mass balance investigated using general circulation models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reichert, B.K.; Bengtsson, L. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Meteorologie, Hamburg (Germany); Oerlemans, J. [Rijksuniversiteit Utrecht (Netherlands). Inst. for Marine and Atmospheric Research


    A process-oriented modeling approach is applied in order to simulate glacier mass balance for individual glaciers using statistically downscaled general circulation models (GCMs). Glacier specific Seasonal Sensitivity Characteristics based on a mass balance model of intermediate complexity are used to simulate mass balances of Nigardsbreen (Norway) and Rhonegletscher (Switzerland). Simulations using reanalyses (ECMWF) for the period 1979-1993 are in good agreement with in situ mass balance measurements for Nigardsbreen. The method is applied to multi-century integrations of coupled (ECHAM4/OPYC) and mixed-layer (ECHAM4/MLO) GCMs excluding external forcing. A high correlation between decadal variations in the north atlantic oscillation (NAO) and mass balance of the glaciers is found. The dominant factor for this relationship is the strong impact of winter precipitation associated with the NAO. A high NAO phase means enhanced (reduced) winter precipitation for Nigardsbreen (Rhonegletscher), typically leading to a higher (lower) than normal annual mass balance. This mechanism, entirely due to internal variations in the climate system, can explain observed strong positive mass balances for Nigardsbreen and possibly other maritime Norwegian glaciers within the period 1980-1995. It can also partly be responsible for recent strong negative mass balances of Alpine glaciers. (orig.)

  2. Final Report “Electrical and mechanical characterization of rocks at the sub-millimeter scale” DE-SC0000757

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scales, John [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO (United States)


    The broad purpose of CSM's 6-year (3 years plus renewal) DOE project was to develop and apply new experimental physics technology to the material characterization of rocks at the grain scale or smaller. This is motivated by a knowledge that the bulk chemistry and physics of rocks are strongly influenced by processes occurring at the grain scale: the flow of fluids, cation exchange, the state of cementation of grains, and many more. It may also be possible in some cases to ``upscale'' or homogenize the mesoscopic properties of rocks in order to directly infer the large-scale properties of formations, but that is not our central goal. Understanding the physics and chemistry at the small scale is. During the first 3 years, most effort was devoted to developing and validating the near-field scanning technology. During the 3 year renewal phase, most effort was focused on applying the technology in the labs Professors Batzle (now deceased) in Geophysics and Prasad in Petroleum engineering.

  3. Rock burst governance of working face under igneous rock (United States)

    Chang, Zhenxing; Yu, Yue


    As a typical failure phenomenon, rock burst occurs in many mines. It can not only cause the working face to cease production, but also cause serious damage to production equipment, and even result in casualties. To explore how to govern rock burst of working face under igneous rock, the 10416 working face in some mine is taken as engineering background. The supports damaged extensively and rock burst took place when the working face advanced. This paper establishes the mechanical model and conducts theoretical analysis and calculation to predict the fracture and migration mechanism and energy release of the thick hard igneous rock above the working face, and to obtain the advancing distance of the working face when the igneous rock fractures and critical value of the energy when rock burst occurs. Based on the specific conditions of the mine, this paper put forward three kinds of governance measures, which are borehole pressure relief, coal seam water injection and blasting pressure relief.

  4. Strength Reduction Method for Stability Analysis of Local Discontinuous Rock Mass with Iterative Method of Partitioned Finite Element and Interface Boundary Element

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tongchun Li


    element is proposed to solve the safety factor of local discontinuous rock mass. Slope system is divided into several continuous bodies and local discontinuous interface boundaries. Each block is treated as a partition of the system and contacted by discontinuous joints. The displacements of blocks are chosen as basic variables and the rigid displacements in the centroid of blocks are chosen as motion variables. The contact forces on interface boundaries and the rigid displacements to the centroid of each body are chosen as mixed variables and solved iteratively using the interface boundary equations. Flexibility matrix is formed through PFE according to the contact states of nodal pairs and spring flexibility is used to reflect the influence of weak structural plane so that nonlinear iteration is only limited to the possible contact region. With cohesion and friction coefficient reduced gradually, the states of all nodal pairs at the open or slip state for the first time are regarded as failure criterion, which can decrease the effect of subjectivity in determining safety factor. Examples are used to verify the validity of the proposed method.

  5. Influence of Reduced Mass Flow Rate and Chamber Backpressure on Swirl Injector Fluid Mechanics (United States)

    Kenny, R Jeremy; Hulka, James R.


    Industry interest in variable-thrust liquid rocket engines places a demand on engine injector technology to operate over a wide range of liquid mass flow rates and chamber backpressures. One injection technology of current interest for variable thrust applications is an injector design with swirled fluids. Current swirl injector design methodologies do not take into account how swirl injector design parameters respond to elevated chamber backpressures at less than design mass flow rates. The current work was created to improve state-of-the-art swirl injector design methods in this area. The specific objective was to study the effects of elevated chamber backpressure and off-design mass flow rates on swirl injector fluid mechanics. Using a backpressure chamber with optical access, water was flowed through a swirl injector at various combinations of chamber backpressure and mass flow rates. The film thickness profile down the swirl injector nozzle section was measured through a transparent nozzle section of the injector. High speed video showed measurable increases in the film thickness profile with application of chamber backpressure and mass flow rates less than design. At prescribed combinations of chamber backpressure and injected mass flow rate, a discrete change in the film thickness profile was observed. Measured injector discharge coefficient values showed different trends with increasing chamber backpressure at low mass flow rates as opposed to near-design mass flow rates. Downstream spray angles showed classic changes in morphology as the mass flow rate was decreased below the design value. Increasing chamber backpressure decreased the spray angle at any injection mass flow rate. Experimental measurements and discussion of these results are reported in this paper.

  6. Rock and Soil Rheology (United States)

    Cristescu, Nicolae; Ene, Horia I.

    The first part of the volume contains theoretical considerations of the physical properties of soils and rocks. Articles on the mechanical and kinematical behavior of rocks as well as mathematical models are the base for the understanding of the physical properties of natural systems. In the second part articles deal with experiments and applications regarding creep deformation of clay, underground cavities, tunnels and deformation of sand and lamistrine sediments.

  7. Impact of supercritical CO2 injection on petrophysical and rock mechanics properties of chalk: an experimental study on chalk from South Arne field, North Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alam, Mohammad Monzurul; Hjuler, Morten Leth; Christensen, Helle Foged


    as indicated by NMR T2 relaxation time was observed. Rock mechanics testing indicates that in 30% porosity chalk from the South Arne field, injection of supercritical CO2 has no significant effect on shear strength and compaction properties, while there is probably a slight decrease in stiffness properties...... Formation, most probably due to the very little contact cement in Ekofisk Formation chalk. Time-lapse monitoring strategies may be required during a CO2-EOR process for the measurement of changes in reservoir properties that may cause deformation of and leakage from a reservoir. Results of this study...... will provide data for designing future monitoring strategies based on 4D seismic....

  8. Decision dynamics in complex networks subject to mass media and social contact transmission mechanisms

    CERN Document Server

    Lucatero, Carlos Rodríguez; Jaquez, Roberto Bernal; Schaum, Alexander


    The dynamics of decisions in complex networks is studied within a Markov process framework using numerical simulations combined with mathematical insight into the process mechanisms. A mathematical discrete-time model is derived based on a set of basic assumptions on the convincing mechanisms associated to two opinions. The model is analyzed with respect to multiplicity of critical points, illustrating in this way the main behavior to be expected in the network. Particular interest is focussed on the effect of social network and exogenous mass media-based influences on the decision behavior. A set of numerical simulation results is provided illustrating how these mechanisms impact the final decision results. The analysis reveals (i) the presence of fixed-point multiplicity (with a maximum of four different fixed points), multistability, and sensitivity with respect to process parameters, and (ii) that mass media have a strong impact on the decision behavior.

  9. Bulk δ15N measurements of organic-rich rock samples by elemental analyzer/isotope ratio mass spectrometry with enhanced oxidation ability. (United States)

    Han, Wennian; Feng, Lianjun; Li, Hongwei; Liu, Wei


    Elemental analyzer/isotope ratio mass spectrometry (EA/IRMS) has been widely used for nitrogen isotope ratio determination in various organic and inorganic samples. However, the extent of the redox reaction in the EA reaction tube can greatly affect the accuracy and precision of measurements, especially in the case of complex geological samples. It is therefore necessary to determine the appropriate reaction conditions to reach a high recovery of nitrogen by complete combustion or thermal decomposition and quantitative reduction. The conventional Dumas dual-inlet method was used to determine the bulk nitrogen isotope composition of SGR-1 (an organic-rich standard sample), which then was analyzed by EA/IRMS under different EA reaction conditions to study the influence of the redox environment on the δ 15 N measurements. The measured data together with the results reported by previous researchers were used to evaluate the effectiveness of the nitrogen extraction for organic-rich rock samples. Our results demonstrated that with the Dumas dual-inlet method more oxidizing agent (CuO) addition to SGR-1 would yield a higher nitrogen content of 0.91% than the recommended content (0.81%) although a δ 15 N value of 17.39 ± 0.09‰ was consistent with the recommended value by USGS. Using EA/IRMS, when more O 2 was injected in the reaction tube, a high nitrogen content (0.92 ± 0.01%) and a δ 15 N value (17.43 ± 0.17‰) close to that of the Dumas dual-inlet method were obtained. The addition of V 2 O 5 or CuO in a continuous-flow system of EA/IRMS could not effectively enable the complete combustion of SGR-1. When measuring the nitrogen isotope composition of organic-rich rock sample dominated by reduced substances with EA/IRMS, greater O 2 injection will enable more complete combustion to obtain reliable nitrogen yields compared with the addition of V 2 O 5 or CuO. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Recreating Rocks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Posth, Nicole R


    Nicole Posth and colleagues spent a month touring South African rock formations in their quest to understand the origin of ancient iron and silicate layers.......Nicole Posth and colleagues spent a month touring South African rock formations in their quest to understand the origin of ancient iron and silicate layers....

  11. Art Rocks with Rock Art! (United States)

    Bickett, Marianne


    This article discusses rock art which was the very first "art." Rock art, such as the images created on the stone surfaces of the caves of Lascaux and Altimira, is the true origin of the canvas, paintbrush, and painting media. For there, within caverns deep in the earth, the first artists mixed animal fat, urine, and saliva with powdered minerals…

  12. Statistical analysis of determining the filtration heterogeneity of foundation rock mass of hydraulic structures on the example of the boguchanskaya hpp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chernyshev Sergey Nikolaevich


    intervals with identical key values in the second position of the code. The boundaries between the drilled wells are held on a Pro forma basis for geological reasons. For example, if the set of values with the largest number lgq, which corresponds to the species with a visually perceptible change when exposed to weathering, has a number 4, the boundaries between the drilled wells will naturally stretch along the roof of the bedrock. If according to the proposed methodology, within the limited element number 4, the interval is flagged with number 3, it can be interpreted as the appearance of the outcrop of other rocks. In this case we need to show the boundary of engineering-geological element with a smaller value of lgq around the 3, than it is inside the engineering-geological element number 4. For each of the obtained groups of values, calculated using known statistical formulas, we calculated the mean value and other statistical estimates that are useful in practice. For example, the geometric mean is an effective in a hydraulic sense evaluation of the specific absorption coefficient of the filter. So the authors proposed a formalized approach to defining the structural elements of the filtration field inhomogeneity of a rock mass of hydraulic structures foundation on the basis of statistical analysis. The article shows how to highlight the engineering-geological elements with the filtration inhomogeneity of rocky soils on the example of the Boguchanskaya HPP on the Angara River.

  13. Trampoline Resonator Fabrication for Tests of Quantum Mechanics at High Mass (United States)

    Weaver, Matthew; Pepper, Brian; Sonin, Petro; Eerkens, Hedwig; Buters, Frank; de Man, Sven; Bouwmeester, Dirk


    There has been much interest recently in optomechanical devices that can reach the ground state. Two requirements for achieving ground state cooling are high optical finesse in the cavity and high mechanical quality factor. We present a set of trampoline resonator devices using high stress silicon nitride and superpolishing of mirrors with sufficient finesse (as high as 60,000) and quality factor (as high as 480,000) for ground state cooling in a dilution refrigerator. These devices have a higher mass, between 80 and 100 ng, and lower frequency, between 200 and 500 kHz, than other devices that have been cooled to the ground state, enabling tests of quantum mechanics at a larger mass scale.

  14. Reducing Residential Peak Electricity Demand with Mechanical Pre-Cooling of Building Thermal Mass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turner, Will [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Walker, Iain [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Roux, Jordan [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)


    This study uses an advanced airflow, energy and humidity modelling tool to evaluate the potential for residential mechanical pre-cooling of building thermal mass to shift electricity loads away from the peak electricity demand period. The focus of this study is residential buildings with low thermal mass, such as timber-frame houses typical to the US. Simulations were performed for homes in 12 US DOE climate zones. The results show that the effectiveness of mechanical pre-cooling is highly dependent on climate zone and the selected pre-cooling strategy. The expected energy trade-off between cooling peak energy savings and increased off-peak energy use is also shown.

  15. Chemical vapor deposition of carbon nanotubes: a review on growth mechanism and mass production. (United States)

    Kumar, Mukul; Ando, Yoshinori


    This review article deals with the growth mechanism and mass production of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) by chemical vapor deposition (CVD). Different aspects of CNT synthesis and growth mechanism are reviewed in the light of latest progresses and understandings in the field. Materials aspects such as the roles of hydrocarbon, catalyst and catalyst support are discussed. Many new catalysts and new carbon sources are described. Growth-control aspects such as the effects of temperature, vapor pressure and catalyst concentration on CNT diameter distribution and single- or multi-wall formation are explained. Latest reports of metal-catalyst-free CNT growth are considered. The mass-production aspect is discussed from the perspective of a sustainable CNT technology. Existing problems and challenges of the process are addressed with future directions.

  16. Energetics and mechanics of running men: the influence of body mass. (United States)

    Taboga, Paolo; Lazzer, Stefano; Fessehatsion, Rezene; Agosti, Fiorenza; Sartorio, Alessandro; di Prampero, Pietro E


    We investigated the relationship between mechanical and energy cost of transport and body mass in running humans. Ten severely obese (body mass ranging from 108.5 to 172.0 kg) and 15 normal-weighted (52.0-89.0 kg) boys and men, aged 16.0-45.8 years, participated in this study. The rate of O(2) consumption was measured and the subjects were filmed with four cameras for kinematic analysis, while running on a treadmill at 8 km h(-1). Mass specific energy cost (C (r)) and external mechanical work (W (ext)) per unit distance were calculated and expressed in joules per kilogram per meter, efficiency (η) was then calculated as W (ext) × C (r) (-1)  × 100. Both mass-specific C (r) and W (ext) were found to be independent of body mass (M) (C (r) = 0.002 M + 3.729, n = 25, R (2) = 0.05; W (ext) = -0.001 M + 1.963, n = 25, R (2) = 0.01). It necessarily follows that the efficiency is also independent of M (η = -0.062 M + 53.3298, n = 25, R (2) = 0.05). The results strongly suggest that the elastic tissues of obese subjects can adapt (e.g., thickening) to the increased mass of the body thus maintaining their ability to store elastic energy, at least at 8 km h(-1) speed, at the same level as the normal-weighted subjects.

  17. Mechanical Q-factor measurements on a test mass with a structured surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nawrodt, R [Institut fuer Festkoerperphysik, Friedrich-Schiller-Universitaet Jena, Helmholtzweg 5, D-07743 Jena (Germany); Zimmer, A [Institut fuer Festkoerperphysik, Friedrich-Schiller-Universitaet Jena, Helmholtzweg 5, D-07743 Jena (Germany); Koettig, T [Institut fuer Festkoerperphysik, Friedrich-Schiller-Universitaet Jena, Helmholtzweg 5, D-07743 Jena (Germany); Clausnitzer, T [Institut fuer Angewandte Physik, Friedrich-Schiller-Universitaet Jena, Max-Wien-Platz 1, D-07743 Jena (Germany); Bunkowski, A [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Gravitationsphysik (Albert-Einstein-Institut) and Institut fuer Gravitationsphysik, Leibniz Universitaet Hannover, Callinstr. 38, D-30167 Hannover (Germany); Kley, E B [Institut fuer Angewandte Physik, Friedrich-Schiller-Universitaet Jena, Max-Wien-Platz 1, D-07743 Jena (Germany); Schnabel, R [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Gravitationsphysik (Albert-Einstein-Institut) and Institut fuer Gravitationsphysik, Leibniz Universitaet Hannover, Callinstr. 38, D-30167 Hannover (Germany); Danzmann, K [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Gravitationsphysik (Albert-Einstein-Institut) and Institut fuer Gravitationsphysik, Leibniz Universitaet Hannover, Callinstr. 38, D-30167 Hannover (Germany); Nietzsche, S [Institut fuer Festkoerperphysik, Friedrich-Schiller-Universitaet Jena, Helmholtzweg 5, D-07743 Jena (Germany); Vodel, W [Institut fuer Festkoerperphysik, Friedrich-Schiller-Universitaet Jena, Helmholtzweg 5, D-07743 Jena (Germany); Tuennermann, A [Institut fuer Angewandte Physik, Friedrich-Schiller-Universitaet Jena, Max-Wien-Platz 1, D-07743 Jena (Germany); Seidel, P [Institut fuer Festkoerperphysik, Friedrich-Schiller-Universitaet Jena, Helmholtzweg 5, D-07743 Jena (Germany)


    We present mechanical Q-factors (quality factors) of a crystalline quartz test mass with a nano-structured surface, measured in the temperature regime from 5 to 300 K. The nano-structure was a grating with a period of 2 {mu}m and a depth of about 0.1 {mu}m. Comparative measurements were performed on the plain substrate and on the structured test mass with different numbers of SiO{sub 2}/Ta{sub 2}O{sub 5} coating layers. The measurements at different stages of the test mass fabrication process show that the surface distortion induced by the nanostructure does not severely lower the mechanical Q-factor of the substrate. Damping due to a multi-layer coating stack was found to be orders of magnitude higher. The results provide vital information concerning the potential usage of low-thermal noise nano-structured test masses in future generations of high-precision laser interferometers and in current attempts to measure quantum effects of macroscopic mirror oscillators.

  18. Hydrolysis mechanism of methyl parathion evidenced by Q-Exactive mass spectrometry. (United States)

    Liu, Yuan; Zhang, Caixiang; Liao, Xiaoping; Luo, Yinwen; Wu, Sisi; Wang, Jianwei


    Organophosphorus pesticides (OPPs), a kind of widely used pesticides, are currently attracting great attention due to their adverse effects on human central nervous systems, particularly in children. Although the hydrolysis behavior of OPPs has been studied well, its hydrolysis mechanism remained controversial, especially at various pH conditions, partly due to their relatively complex structures and abundant moieties that were prone to be attacked by nucleophiles. The Q-Exactive mass spectrometer, part of those hybrid high-resolution mass spectrometers (HRMS), was used to determine hydrolysis products of methyl parathion (MP), a kind of OPPs in situ buffer aqueous solution with pH ranging from 1 to 13 in this study. Most of the complex hydrolysis products of MP were identified due to the high sensitivity and accuracy of HRMS. The results demonstrated that the hydrolysis rate and pathway of MP were strong pH dependent. With the increase of pH, the hydrolysis rate of MP increased, and two different reaction mechanisms were identified: SN (2)@P pathway dominated the hydrolysis process at high pH (e.g., pH ≥ 11) while SN (2)@C was the main behavior at low pH (e.g., pH ≤ 9). This study helps understand the hydrolysis mechanism of OPPs at various pH and extends the use of Q-Exactive mass spectrometry in identifying organic pollutants and their degradation products in environmental matrices.

  19. Chronic central administration of Ghrelin increases bone mass through a mechanism independent of appetite regulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyung Jin Choi

    Full Text Available Leptin plays a critical role in the central regulation of bone mass. Ghrelin counteracts leptin. In this study, we investigated the effect of chronic intracerebroventricular administration of ghrelin on bone mass in Sprague-Dawley rats (1.5 μg/day for 21 days. Rats were divided into control, ghrelin ad libitum-fed (ghrelin ad lib-fed, and ghrelin pair-fed groups. Ghrelin intracerebroventricular infusion significantly increased body weight in ghrelin ad lib-fed rats but not in ghrelin pair-fed rats, as compared with control rats. Chronic intracerebroventricular ghrelin infusion significantly increased bone mass in the ghrelin pair-fed group compared with control as indicated by increased bone volume percentage, trabecular thickness, trabecular number and volumetric bone mineral density in tibia trabecular bone. There was no significant difference in trabecular bone mass between the control group and the ghrelin ad-lib fed group. Chronic intracerebroventricular ghrelin infusion significantly increased the mineral apposition rate in the ghrelin pair-fed group as compared with control. In conclusion, chronic central administration of ghrelin increases bone mass through a mechanism that is independent of body weight, suggesting that ghrelin may have a bone anabolic effect through the central nervous system.

  20. Mechanisms regulating muscle mass during disuse atrophy and rehabilitation in humans. (United States)

    Marimuthu, Kanagaraj; Murton, Andrew J; Greenhaff, Paul L


    Muscle mass loss accompanies periods of bedrest and limb immobilization in humans and requires rehabilitation exercise to effectively restore mass and function. Although recent evidence points to an early and transient rise in muscle protein breakdown contributing to this decline in muscle mass, the driving factor seems to be a reduction in muscle protein synthesis, not least in part due to the development of anabolic resistance to amino acid provision. Although the AKT signaling pathway has been identified in small animals as central to the regulation of muscle protein synthesis, several studies in humans have now demonstrated a disassociation between AKT signaling and muscle protein synthesis during feeding, exercise, and immobilization, suggesting that the mechanisms regulating protein synthesis in human skeletal muscle are more complex than initially thought (at least in non-inflammatory states). During rehabilitation, exercise-induced myogenesis may in part be responsible for the recovery of muscle mass. Rapid and sustained exercise-induced suppression of myostatin mRNA expression, that precedes any gain in muscle mass, points to this, along with other myogenic proteins, as being potential regulators of muscle regeneration during exercise rehabilitation in humans.

  1. Hydro-mechanical evolution of the EDZ as transport path for radionuclides and gas: insights from the Mont Terri rock laboratory (Switzerland)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paul Marschall, P.; Giger, S. [National Cooperative for the Disposal of Radioactive Waste (NAGRA), Wettingen (Switzerland); La Vassière De, R. [Agence Nationale pour la Gestion des Déchets Radioactifs ANDRA, Meuse Haute-Marne, Center RD 960, Bure (France); and others


    The excavation damaged zone (EDZ) around the backfilled underground structures of a geological repository represents a release path for radionuclides, which needs to be addressed in the assessment of long-term safety. Additionally, the EDZ may form a highly efficient escape route for corrosion and degradation gases, thus limiting the gas overpressures in the backfilled repository structures. The efficiency of this release path depends not only on the shape and extent of the EDZ, but also on the self-sealing capacity of the host rock formation and the prevailing state conditions, such as in situ stresses and pore pressure. The hydro-mechanical and chemico-osmotic phenomena associated with the formation and temporal evolution of the EDZ are complex, thus precluding a detailed representation of the EDZ in conventional modelling tools for safety assessment. Therefore, simplified EDZ models, able to mimic the safety-relevant functional features of the EDZ in a traceable manner are required. In the framework of the Mont Terri Project, a versatile modelling approach has been developed for the simulation of flow and transport processes along the EDZ with the goal of capturing the evolution of hydraulic significance of the EDZ after closure of the backfilled underground structures. The approach draws on both empirical evidence and experimental data, collected in the niches and tunnels of the Mont Terri rock laboratory. The model was benchmarked with a data set from an in situ self-sealing experiment at the Mont Terri rock laboratory. This paper summarises the outcomes of the benchmark exercise that comprises relevant empirical evidence, experimental data bases and the conceptual framework for modelling the evolution of the hydraulic significance of the EDZ around a backfilled tunnel section during the entire re-saturation phase. (authors)

  2. Anti-inflammatory mechanism of ulinastatin: Inhibiting the hyperpermeability of vascular endothelial cells induced by TNF-α via the RhoA/ROCK signal pathway. (United States)

    Wei, Fu; Liu, Siyi; Luo, Li; Gu, Nina; Zeng, Yan; Chen, Xiaoying; Xu, Shan; Zhang, Dan


    Ulinastatin reduces the high permeability of vascular endothelial cells induced by tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α). This study investigated the molecular mechanism behind this effect, with the aim of understanding the action of ulinastatin in sepsis therapy and exploring novel therapeutic strategies for sepsis patients. A TNF-α treated human umbilical vein endothelial cell line (EA.hy926) was employed as an inflammation model. Horseradish peroxidase permeability assays and an epithelial voltmeter method were used to measure the permeability of EA.hy926 cells. Immunocytochemistry was used to assay the expression of p-MYPT1 and the distribution and morphology of F-actin; the expression of the key molecules related to vascular endothelial permeability (RhoA, ROCK2, MYPT1, p-MYPT1 and VE-cadherin) was detected by immunocytochemistry assays, western blotting and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. After incubation with TNF-α or septic serum, the transendothelial electrical resistance of EA.hy926 cells decreased and the permeability of the cells increased significantly (all PTNF-α (PTNF-α and ulinastatin, compared with normal EA.hy926 cells, overexpression of RhoA upregulated expression of RhoA, ROCK2 and p-MYPT1, downregulated expression of VE-cadherin, and restored the hyperpermeability of vascular endothelial cells due to TNF-α treatment (PTNF-α. This inhibitory effect of ulinastatin may be related to the RhoA/ROCK signaling pathway. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Rock pushing and sampling under rocks on Mars (United States)

    Moore, H.J.; Liebes, S.; Crouch, D.S.; Clark, L.V.


    Viking Lander 2 acquired samples on Mars from beneath two rocks, where living organisms and organic molecules would be protected from ultraviolet radiation. Selection of rocks to be moved was based on scientific and engineering considerations, including rock size, rock shape, burial depth, and location in a sample field. Rock locations and topography were established using the computerized interactive video-stereophotogrammetric system and plotted on vertical profiles and in plan view. Sampler commands were developed and tested on Earth using a full-size lander and surface mock-up. The use of power by the sampler motor correlates with rock movements, which were by plowing, skidding, and rolling. Provenance of the samples was determined by measurements and interpretation of pictures and positions of the sampler arm. Analytical results demonstrate that the samples were, in fact, from beneath the rocks. Results from the Gas Chromatograph-Mass Spectrometer of the Molecular Analysis experiment and the Gas Exchange instrument of the Biology experiment indicate that more adsorbed(?) water occurs in samples under rocks than in samples exposed to the sun. This is consistent with terrestrial arid environments, where more moisture occurs in near-surface soil un- der rocks than in surrounding soil because the net heat flow is toward the soil beneath the rock and the rock cap inhibits evaporation. Inorganic analyses show that samples of soil from under the rocks have significantly less iron than soil exposed to the sun. The scientific significance of analyses of samples under the rocks is only partly evaluated, but some facts are clear. Detectable quantities of martian organic molecules were not found in the sample from under a rock by the Molecular Analysis experiment. The Biology experiments did not find definitive evidence for Earth-like living organisms in their sample. Significant amounts of adsorbed water may be present in the martian regolith. The response of the soil

  4. Characterization of Unstable Rock Slopes Through Passive Seismic Measurements (United States)

    Kleinbrod, U.; Burjanek, J.; Fäh, D.


    Catastrophic rock slope failures have high social impact, causing significant damage to infrastructure and many casualties throughout the world each year. Both detection and characterization of rock instabilities are therefore of key importance. An analysis of ambient vibrations of unstable rock slopes might be a new alternative to the already existing methods, e.g. geotechnical displacement measurements. Systematic measurements have been performed recently in Switzerland to study the seismic response of potential rockslides concerning a broad class of slope failure mechanisms and material conditions. Small aperture seismic arrays were deployed at sites of interest for a short period of time (several hours) in order to record ambient vibrations. Each measurement setup included a reference station, which was installed on a stable part close to the instability. Recorded ground motion is highly directional in the unstable parts of the rock slope, and significantly amplified with respect to stable areas. These effects are strongest at certain frequencies, which were identified as eigenfrequencies of the unstable rock mass. In most cases the directions of maximum amplification are perpendicular to open cracks and in good agreement with the deformation directions obtained by geodetic measurements. Such unique signatures might improve our understanding of slope structure and stability. Thus we link observed vibration characteristics with available results of detailed geological characterization. This is supported by numerical modeling of seismic wave propagation in fractured media with complex topography.For example, a potential relation between eigenfrequencies and unstable rock mass volume is investigated.

  5. Rock Deformation Behavior Near Excavations Under the Influence of High Tectonic Stress in Coal Seam V-12, "Severnaya" Mine, JSC "Urgalugol" (United States)

    Grechishkin, Pavel; Razumov, Evgeny; Petrova, Olga; Kozlov, Alexey; Aushev, Evgeny


    The article is devoted to determination of roof bolt parameters in coal mine excavations when there is rather high tectonic stress. The work was complicated by the presence of considerable number of fractures in the adjacent rock of seam V-12 in "Severnaya" mine (JSC "Urgalugol") as well as variable stress field, low roof rock strength and heterogeneity, considerable rock shift during excavations development and maintenance. The article presents the results of horizontal and vertical stress measurements in the rock mass, physical and mechanical properties, roof rock structure and fracturing. According to the results of boreholes study by means of borehole endoscope the authors fully confirmed the forecasted parameters of areas with roof rock discontinuity, the boundaries of unstable rock. The article presents the measurement results of roof rock shift during development face advance. Based on the research, recommendations on excavations development and proper support using were given under conditions of seam V-12 in "Severnaya" mine (JSC "Urgalugol").

  6. Micromachined low frequency rocking accelerometer with capacitive pickoff (United States)

    Lee, Abraham P.; Simon, Jonathon N.; McConaghy, Charles F.


    A micro electro mechanical sensor that uses capacitive readout electronics. The sensor involves a micromachined low frequency rocking accelerometer with capacitive pickoff fabricated by deep reactive ion etching. The accelerometer includes a central silicon proof mass, is suspended by a thin polysilicon tether, and has a moving electrode (capacitor plate or interdigitated fingers) located at each end the proof mass. During movement (acceleration), the tethered mass moves relative to the surrounding packaging, for example, and this defection is measured capacitively by a plate capacitor or interdigitated finger capacitor, having the cooperating fixed electrode (capacitor plate or interdigitated fingers) positioned on the packaging, for example. The micromachined rocking accelerometer has a low frequency (accelerometer) may be, for example, packaged along with the interface electronics and a communication system in a 2".times.2".times.2" cube. The proof mass may be asymmetric or symmetric. Additional actuating capacitive plates may be used for feedback control which gives a greater dynamic range.

  7. Coseismic and aseismic deformations of the rock mass around deep level mining in South Africa - Joint South African and Japanese study (United States)

    Milev, A. M.; Yabe, Y.; Naoi, M. M.; Nakatani, M.; Durrheim, R. J.; Ogasawara, H.; Scholz, C. H.


    Two underground sites in a deep level gold mine in South Africa were instrumented by the Council for Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR) with tilt meters and seismic monitors. One of the sites was also instrumented by JApanese-German Underground Acoustic emission Research in South Africa (JAGUARS) with a small network, approx. 40 m span, of eight Acoustic Emission (AE) sensors. The rate of tilt, defined as quasi-static deformations, and the seismic ground motion, defined as dynamic deformations, were analysed in order to understand the rock mass behavior around deep level mining. In addition the high frequency AE events recorded at hypocentral distances of about 50m were analysed. This was the first implementation of high frequency AE events at such a great depth (3300m below the surface). A good correspondence between the dynamic and quasi-static deformations was found. The rate of coseismic and aseismic tilt, as well as seismicity recorded by the mine seismic network, are approximately constant until the daily blasting time, which takes place from about 19:30 until shortly before 21:00. During the blasting time and the subsequent seismic events the coseismic and aseismic tilt shows a rapid increase indicated by a rapid change of the tilt during the seismic event. Much of the quasi-static deformation, however, occurs independently of the seismic events and was described as ‘slow’ or aseismic events. During the monitoring period a seismic event with MW 1.9 (2.1) occurred in the vicinity of the instrumented site. This event was recorded by both the CSIR integrated monitoring system and JAGUARS acoustic emotion network. The tilt changes associated with this event showed a well pronounced after-tilt. More than 21,000 AE aftershocks were located in the first 150 hours after the main event. Using the distribution of the AE events the position of the fault in the source area was successfully delineated. The distribution of the AE events following the main shock

  8. Solutions to position-dependent mass quantum mechanics for a new class of hyperbolic potentials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christiansen, H. R. [Physics Department, State University Vale do Acaraú, Av. da Universidade 850, 62040-370 Sobral-CE (Brazil); Grupo de Física Teórica, State University of Ceara (UECE), Av. Paranjana 1700, 60740-903 Fortaleza-CE (Brazil); Cunha, M. S. [Grupo de Física Teórica, State University of Ceara (UECE), Av. Paranjana 1700, 60740-903 Fortaleza-CE (Brazil)


    We analytically solve the position-dependent mass (PDM) 1D Schrödinger equation for a new class of hyperbolic potentials V{sub q}{sup p}(x)=−V{sub 0}(sinh{sup p}x/cosh{sup q}x), p=−2,0,⋯q [see C. A. Downing, J. Math. Phys. 54, 072101 (2013)] among several hyperbolic single- and double-wells. For a solitonic mass distribution, m(x)=m{sub 0} sech{sup 2}(x), we obtain exact analytic solutions to the resulting differential equations. For several members of the class, the quantum mechanical problems map into confluent Heun differential equations. The PDM Poschl-Teller potential is considered and exactly solved as a particular case.

  9. Deformation mechanisms and evolution of the microstructure of gouge in the Main Fault in Opalinus Clay in the Mont Terri rock laboratory (CH) (United States)

    Laurich, Ben; Urai, Janos L.; Vollmer, Christian; Nussbaum, Christophe


    We studied gouge from an upper-crustal, low-offset reverse fault in slightly overconsolidated claystone in the Mont Terri rock laboratory (Switzerland). The laboratory is designed to evaluate the suitability of the Opalinus Clay formation (OPA) to host a repository for radioactive waste. The gouge occurs in thin bands and lenses in the fault zone; it is darker in color and less fissile than the surrounding rock. It shows a matrix-based, P-foliated microfabric bordered and truncated by micrometer-thin shear zones consisting of aligned clay grains, as shown with broad-ion-beam scanning electron microscopy (BIB-SEM) and optical microscopy. Selected area electron diffraction based on transmission electron microscopy (TEM) shows evidence for randomly oriented nanometer-sized clay particles in the gouge matrix, surrounding larger elongated phyllosilicates with a strict P foliation. For the first time for the OPA, we report the occurrence of amorphous SiO2 grains within the gouge. Gouge has lower SEM-visible porosity and almost no calcite grains compared to the undeformed OPA. We present two hypotheses to explain the origin of gouge in the Main Fault: (i) authigenic generation consisting of fluid-mediated removal of calcite from the deforming OPA during shearing and (ii) clay smear consisting of mechanical smearing of calcite-poor (yet to be identified) source layers into the fault zone. Based on our data we prefer the first or a combination of both, but more work is needed to resolve this. Microstructures indicate a range of deformation mechanisms including solution-precipitation processes and a gouge that is weaker than the OPA because of the lower fraction of hard grains. For gouge, we infer a more rate-dependent frictional rheology than suggested from laboratory experiments on the undeformed OPA.

  10. Modeling of Coupled Thermo-Hydro-Mechanical-Chemical Processes for Bentonite in a Clay-rock Repository for Heat-generating Nuclear Waste (United States)

    Xu, H.; Rutqvist, J.; Zheng, L.; Birkholzer, J. T.


    Engineered Barrier Systems (EBS) that include a bentonite-based buffer are designed to isolate the high-level radioactive waste emplaced in tunnels in deep geological formations. The heat emanated from the waste can drive the moisture flow transport and induce strongly coupled Thermal (T), Hydrological (H), Mechanical (M) and Chemical (C) processes within the bentonite buffer and may also impact the evolution of the excavation disturbed zone and the sealing between the buffer and walls of an emplacement tunnel The flow and contaminant transport potential along the disturbed zone can be minimized by backfilling the tunnels with bentonite, if it provides enough swelling stress when hydrated by the host rock. The swelling capability of clay minerals within the bentonite is important for sealing gaps between bentonite block, and between the EBS and the surrounding host rock. However, a high temperature could result in chemical alteration of bentonite-based buffer and backfill materials through illitization, which may compromise the function of these EBS components by reducing their plasticity and capability to swell under wetting. Therefore, an adequate THMC coupling scheme is required to understand and to predict the changes of bentonite for identifying whether EBS bentonite can sustain higher temperatures. More comprehensive links between chemistry and mechanics, taking advantage of the framework provided by a dual-structure model, named Barcelona Expansive Model (BExM), was implemented in TOUGHREACT-FLAC3D and is used to simulate the response of EBS bentonite in in clay formation for a generic case. The current work is to evaluate the chemical changes in EBS bentonite and the effects on the bentonite swelling stress under high temperature. This work sheds light on the interaction between THMC processes, evaluates the potential deterioration of EBS bentonite and supports the decision making in the design of a nuclear waste repository in light of the maximum allowance

  11. Mechanical Coupling Error Suppression Technology for an Improved Decoupled Dual-Mass Micro-Gyroscope. (United States)

    Yang, Bo; Wang, Xingjun; Deng, Yunpeng; Hu, Di


    This paper presents technology for the suppression of the mechanical coupling errors for an improved decoupled dual-mass micro-gyroscope (DDMG). The improved micro-gyroscope structure decreases the moment arm of the drive decoupled torque, which benefits the suppression of the non-ideal decoupled error. Quadrature correction electrodes are added to eliminate the residual quadrature error. The structure principle and the quadrature error suppression means of the DDMG are described in detail. ANSYS software is used to simulate the micro-gyroscope structure to verify the mechanical coupling error suppression effect. Compared with the former structure, simulation results demonstrate that the rotational displacements of the sense frame in the improved structure are substantially suppressed in the drive mode. The improved DDMG structure chip is fabricated by the deep dry silicon on glass (DDSOG) process. The feedback control circuits with quadrature control loops are designed to suppress the residual mechanical coupling error. Finally, the system performance of the DDMG prototype is tested. Compared with the former DDMG, the quadrature error in the improved dual-mass micro-gyroscope is decreased 9.66-fold, and the offset error is decreased 6.36-fold. Compared with the open loop sense, the feedback control circuits with quadrature control loop decrease the bias drift by 20.59-fold and the scale factor non-linearity by 2.81-fold in the ±400°/s range.

  12. Mechanical Coupling Error Suppression Technology for an Improved Decoupled Dual-Mass Micro-Gyroscope

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Yang


    Full Text Available This paper presents technology for the suppression of the mechanical coupling errors for an improved decoupled dual-mass micro-gyroscope (DDMG. The improved micro-gyroscope structure decreases the moment arm of the drive decoupled torque, which benefits the suppression of the non-ideal decoupled error. Quadrature correction electrodes are added to eliminate the residual quadrature error. The structure principle and the quadrature error suppression means of the DDMG are described in detail. ANSYS software is used to simulate the micro-gyroscope structure to verify the mechanical coupling error suppression effect. Compared with the former structure, simulation results demonstrate that the rotational displacements of the sense frame in the improved structure are substantially suppressed in the drive mode. The improved DDMG structure chip is fabricated by the deep dry silicon on glass (DDSOG process. The feedback control circuits with quadrature control loops are designed to suppress the residual mechanical coupling error. Finally, the system performance of the DDMG prototype is tested. Compared with the former DDMG, the quadrature error in the improved dual-mass micro-gyroscope is decreased 9.66-fold, and the offset error is decreased 6.36-fold. Compared with the open loop sense, the feedback control circuits with quadrature control loop decrease the bias drift by 20.59-fold and the scale factor non-linearity by 2.81-fold in the ±400°/s range.

  13. Impact-driven ocean acidification as a mechanism of the Cretaceous-Palaeogene mass extinction (United States)

    Ohno, S.; Kadono, T.; Kurosawa, K.; Hamura, T.; Sakaiya, T.; Shigemori, K.; Hironaka, Y.; Sano, T.; Watari, T.; Otani, K.; Matsui, T.; Sugita, S.


    The Cretaceous-Paleogene (K-Pg) mass extinction event at 66 Ma triggered by a meteorite impact is one of the most drastic events in the history of life on the Earth. Many hypotheses have been proposed as killing mechanisms induced by the impact, including global darkness due to high concentrations of atmospheric silicate dust particles, global wildfires, greenhouse warming due to CO2 release, and global acid rain. However, the actual mechanism of extinction remains highly controversial. One of the most important clues for understanding the extinction mechanism is the marine plankton record, which indicates that plankton foraminifera, living in the near-surface ocean, suffered very severe extinction in contrast to the high survival ratio of benthic foraminifera. No proposed extinction mechanism can account for this globally observed marine extinction pattern. Here, we show that SO3-rich impact vapor was released in the K-Pg impact and resulted in the occurrence of global acid rain and sudden severe ocean acidification at the end of the Cretaceous, based on the new results of impact experiments at velocities much higher than previous works (> 10 km/s) and theoretical calculations on aerosol coagulation processes. Sudden severe ocean acidification can account for many of the features of various geologic records at the K?Pg boundary, including severe extinction of plankton foraminifera. This extinction mechanism requires impact degassing of SO3-rich vapor, which is not necessarily found at impact sites other than Chicxulub, suggesting that the degree of mass extinction was controlled greatly by target lithology.

  14. Analysis of controlling parameters for shear behavior of rock joints with FLAC3D (United States)

    Tiwari, Prasoon

    The research investigation is conducted to perform an analysis of sensitivity of parameters affecting the strength of joints in rock mass. Friction angle, normal stiffness, shear stiffness and shear displacement are the parameters analyzed with respect to shear strength of rock joints. Discontinuities have an important influence on the deformational behavior of rock systems; hence, proper consideration of the physical and mechanical properties of discontinuities is necessary during experimental investigation, in order to correctly evaluate the shear behavior. These parameters are utilized to simulate the in situ stress condition in numerical modeling, which is important for safe and economical design of various engineering constructions. These concerns require accurate quantification of shear strength of unfilled and in-filled joints, proper understanding of the basic mechanics of discontinuity and the principals involved in their shear deformation. This can be achieved through laboratory testing on natural rock core samples. In the present work, the detailed account of test results of direct shear tests performed on rock joints is presented. Rock samples are obtained by core drilling in an underground mine, in Nevada. These rock samples, containing joint, are used to perform direct shear strength test. Calibration of numerical model is done on average values obtained from direct shear strength test. Analysis of sensitivity of parameters effecting shear strength of rock is done in FLAC3D shear test environment. A numerical parametric study is done, according to the Mohr-Coulomb constitutive model, and results obtained are plotted to estimate performance of rock joints.

  15. Dynamic design method for deep hard rock tunnels and its application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xia-Ting Feng


    Full Text Available Numerous deep underground projects have been designed and constructed in China, which are beyond the current specifications in terms of scale and construction difficulty. The severe failure problems induced by high in situ stress, such as rockburst, spalling, damage of deep surrounding rocks, and time-dependent damage, were observed during construction of these projects. To address these problems, the dynamic design method for deep hard rock tunnels is proposed based on the disintegration process of surrounding rocks using associated dynamic control theories and technologies. Seven steps are basically employed: (i determination of design objective, (ii characteristics of site, rock mass and project, and identification of constraint conditions, (iii selection or development of global design strategy, (iv determination of modeling method and software, (v preliminary design, (vi comprehensive integrated method and dynamic feedback analysis, and (vii final design. This dynamic method was applied to the construction of the headrace tunnels at Jinping II hydropower station. The key technical issues encountered during the construction of deep hard rock tunnels, such as in situ stress distribution along the tunnels, mechanical properties and constitutive model of deep hard rocks, determination of mechanical parameters of surrounding rocks, stability evaluation of surrounding rocks, and optimization design of rock support and lining, have been adequately addressed. The proposed method and its application can provide guidance for deep underground projects characterized with similar geological conditions.

  16. Effects of Stress on Permeation and Diffusive Properties of Rocks (United States)

    Zhang, M.


    Safety assessment of facilities associated with geological disposal of various kinds of hazardous wastes, including radioactive nuclear waste, is generally performed by means of mass transport simulations combined with uncertainty and sensitivity analyses. Transport of contaminants, such as radionuclides, through an engineered and natural barrier system is principally controlled by the processes of advection, dispersion, sorption, and chain decay. Among these mechanisms, chain decay can be determined from nuclear physics, sorption can be evaluated from chemical properties of both the nuclides and rock minerals, advection and dispersion are controlled by the permeation and diffusive properties of a rock. Compared to properties related to the former two mechanisms, properties related to the latter two mechanisms are very sensitive to stress conditions. Although the effects of stress conditions on permeation or hydraulic properties of rock specimens are relatively easier to be determined and/or assessed through laboratory permeability tests, diffusion tests on rock specimens under high confining and pore pressure conditions are technically impractical, and most of laboratory diffusion tests have been performed only under atmospheric conditions. In this study, an overview of the studies related to the effects of stress on permeation properties of different types of rock is performed. Some representative experimental results illustrating the effects of stress history on permeability of sedimentary and igneous rocks obtained by the author are also presented. An approach based on empirical equations between rock permeability and porosity, effective diffusion coefficient and porosity, porosity and ground pressure, and diffusive coefficient of an interested tracer in water is proposed to predict the effective diffusion coefficient at depths, i.e., the effects of stress on diffusive properties of rocks. The applicabilities of this newly proposed approach are discussed and

  17. 3-D models and structural analysis of rock avalanches: the study of the deformation process to better understand the propagation mechanism (United States)

    Longchamp, Céline; Abellan, Antonio; Jaboyedoff, Michel; Manzella, Irene


    Rock avalanches are extremely destructive and uncontrollable events that involve a great volume of material (> 106 m3) and several complex processes, and they are difficult to witness. For this reason the study of these phenomena using analog modeling and the accurate analysis of deposit structures and features of laboratory data and historic events become of great importance in the understanding of their behavior.The main objective of this research is to analyze rock avalanche dynamics and deformation process by means of a detailed structural analysis of the deposits coming from data of 3-D measurements of mass movements of different magnitudes, from decimeter level scale laboratory experiments to well-studied rock avalanches of several square kilometers' magnitude.Laboratory experiments were performed on a tilting plane on which a certain amount of a well-defined granular material is released, propagates and finally stops on a horizontal surface. The 3-D geometrical model of the deposit is then obtained using either a scan made with a 3-D digitizer (Konica Minolta VIVID 9i) or a photogrammetric method called structure from motion (SfM), which requires taking several pictures from different point of view of the object to be modeled.In order to emphasize and better detect the fault structures present in the deposits, we applied a median filter with different moving window sizes (from 3 × 3 to 9 × 9 nearest neighbors) to the 3-D datasets and a gradient operator along the direction of propagation.The application of these filters on the datasets results in (1) a precise mapping of the longitudinal and transversal displacement features observed at the surface of the deposits and (2) a more accurate interpretation of the relative movements along the deposit (i.e., normal, strike-slip, inverse faults) by using cross sections. Results show how the use of filtering techniques reveals disguised features in the original point cloud and that similar displacement patterns

  18. Source rock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abubakr F. Makky


    Full Text Available West Beni Suef Concession is located at the western part of Beni Suef Basin which is a relatively under-explored basin and lies about 150 km south of Cairo. The major goal of this study is to evaluate the source rock by using different techniques as Rock-Eval pyrolysis, Vitrinite reflectance (%Ro, and well log data of some Cretaceous sequences including Abu Roash (E, F and G members, Kharita and Betty formations. The BasinMod 1D program is used in this study to construct the burial history and calculate the levels of thermal maturity of the Fayoum-1X well based on calibration of measured %Ro and Tmax against calculated %Ro model. The calculated Total Organic Carbon (TOC content from well log data compared with the measured TOC from the Rock-Eval pyrolysis in Fayoum-1X well is shown to match against the shale source rock but gives high values against the limestone source rock. For that, a new model is derived from well log data to calculate accurately the TOC content against the limestone source rock in the study area. The organic matter existing in Abu Roash (F member is fair to excellent and capable of generating a significant amount of hydrocarbons (oil prone produced from (mixed type I/II kerogen. The generation potential of kerogen in Abu Roash (E and G members and Betty formations is ranging from poor to fair, and generating hydrocarbons of oil and gas prone (mixed type II/III kerogen. Eventually, kerogen (type III of Kharita Formation has poor to very good generation potential and mainly produces gas. Thermal maturation of the measured %Ro, calculated %Ro model, Tmax and Production index (PI indicates that Abu Roash (F member exciting in the onset of oil generation, whereas Abu Roash (E and G members, Kharita and Betty formations entered the peak of oil generation.

  19. Study of texture zeros of fermion mass matrices in minimal extended seesaw mechanism and symmetry realization (United States)

    Patgiri, Mahadev; Kumar, Priyanka; Sarma, Debojit


    In our work, we study the texture zeros of mν in the minimal extended type-I seesaw (MES) with incorporating one extra gauge singlet field “S”. The MES models deal with the Dirac neutrino mass matrix (MD), the right-handed Majorana mass matrix (MR) and the sterile neutrino mass matrix (MS). We carry out the mapping of all possible zero textures of MD, MR and MS for phenomenologically predictive cases having total eight zeros of MD and MR studied in the literature. With this motivation, we consider (a) (4 + 4) scheme, (b) (5 + 3) scheme and (c) (6 + 2) scheme, where the digits of a pair represent the number of zeros of MD and MR, respectively along with the one zero and two zero textures of (MS). There are a large number of possibilities of zeros of fermion mass matrices but the implementation of S3 transformations reduces it to a very minimum number of basic structures. Interestingly out of four allowed one zero textures of mν without sterile neutrino, only three cases (meτ = 0, mμμ = 0 and mττ = 0) are allowed in MES mechanism for the (4 + 4) and (5 + 3) schemes. We find some correlations for different combination of MD, MR and MS on enforcement of zeros. We examined all the correlations under the recent neutrino oscillation data and find that only mττ = 0 survives while both meτ = 0 and mμμ = 0 are ruled out. Interestingly the one zero textures inherently represent the inverted hierarchy of the mass ordering of light neutrinos. No two zero textures of mν survive in MES although there are a number of allowed structures phenomenologically. The allowed texture zeros are finally realized using a discrete Abelian flavor symmetry group Z7 with the extension of standard model to include some scalar fields.

  20. Mass sensors with mechanical traps for weighing single cells in different fluids. (United States)

    Weng, Yaochung; Delgado, Francisco Feijó; Son, Sungmin; Burg, Thomas P; Wasserman, Steven C; Manalis, Scott R


    We present two methods by which single cells can be mechanically trapped and continuously monitored within the suspended microchannel resonator (SMR) mass sensor. Since the fluid surrounding the trapped cell can be quickly and completely replaced on demand, our methods are well suited for measuring changes in cell size and growth in response to drugs or other chemical stimuli. We validate our methods by measuring the density of single polystyrene beads and Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast cells with a precision of approximately 10(-3) g cm(-3), and by monitoring the growth of single mouse lymphoblast cells before and after drug treatment.

  1. Scattering from Rock and Rock Outcrops (United States)


    Scattering from Rock and Rock Outcrops Derek R. Olson The Pennsylvania State University Applied Research Laboratory, P.O. Box 30 State...In terms of target detection and classification, scattering from exposed rock on the seafloor, (i.e., individual rocks and rock outcrops) presents...levels, and other statistical measures of acoustic scattering from rocks and rock outcrops is therefore critical. Unfortunately (and curiously

  2. Fluid-mediated mass transfer from a paleosubduction channel to its mantle wedge: Evidence from jadeitite and related rocks from the Guatemala Suture Zone (United States)

    Harlow, George E.; Flores, Kennet E.; Marschall, Horst R.


    Jadeitites in serpentinite mélanges are the product of crystallization from and/or metasomatism by aqueous fluids that transfer components from and within a subduction channel-the slab-mantle interaction volume-into discrete rock units, most commonly found within the serpentinized or serpentinizing portion of the channel or the overlying mantle rocks at high pressure (1 to > 2 GPa). Two serpentinite mélanges on either side of the Motagua fault system (MFS) of the Guatemala Suture Zone contain evidence of this process. Whole rock compositional analyses are reported here from 86 samples including jadeitites and the related rocks: omphacitites, albitites and mica rocks. The predominance of a single phase in most of these rocks is reflected in the major element compositions and aspects of the trace elements, such as REE abundances tracking Ca in clinopyroxene. Relative to N-MORB all samples show relative enrichments in the high field strength elements (HFSE) Hf, Zr, U, Th, and the LILE Ba and Cs, contrasted by depletions in K and in some cases Pb or Sr. Most jadeitites are also depleted in the highly compatible elements Cr, Sc and Ni despite their occurrence in serpentinite mélange; however, some omphacitite samples show the opposite. Trace elements in these jadeitite samples show a strong similarity with GLOSS (globally subducted oceanic sediment) and other terrigenous sediments in terms of their trace-element patterns, but are offset to lower abundances. Jadeitites thus incorporate a strong trace-element signature derived from sediments mixed with that from fluid derived from altered oceanic crust. Enrichment in the HFSE argues for mobility of these elements in aqueous fluids at high P/T conditions in the subduction channel and a remarkable lack of fractionation that might otherwise be expected from dissolution and fluid transport.

  3. Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory Annual Report 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory has been constructed as part of the preparations for the deep geological repository for spent nuclear fuel in Sweden. The Tracer Retention Understanding Experiments are made to gain a better understanding of radionuclide retention in the rock and create confidence in the radionuclide transport models that are intended to be used in the licensing of a deep repository for spent fuel. The TRUE -1 experiment including tests with sorbing radioactive tracers in a single fracture over a distance of about 5 m has been completed. Diffusion and sorption in the rock matrix is the dominant retention mechanism over the time scales of the experiments. The main objective of the TRUE Block Scale Experiment is to increase understanding and our ability to predict tracer transport in a fracture network over spatial scales of 10 to 50 m. In total six boreholes have been drilled into the experimental volume located at the 450 m level. The Long-Term Diffusion Experiment is intended as a complement to the dynamic in-situ experiments and the laboratory experiments performed in the TRUE Programme. Diffusion from a fracture into the rock matrix will be studied in situ. The REX project focuses on the reduction of oxygen in a repository after closure due to reactions with rock minerals and microbial activity. Results show that oxygen is consumed within a few days both for the field and laboratory experiments. A new site for the CHEMLAB experiments was selected and prepared during 1999. All future experiment will be conducted in the J niche at 450 m depth. The Prototype Repository Test is focused on testing and demonstrating repository system function. A full-scale prototype including six deposition holes with canisters with electric heaters surrounded by highly compacted bentonite will be built and instrumented. Characterisation of the rock mass in the area of the Prototype repository is completed and the six deposition holes have been drilled. The Backfill and

  4. Geotechnical characteristics and stability analysis of rock-soil aggregate slope at the Gushui Hydropower Station, southwest China. (United States)

    Zhou, Jia-wen; Shi, Chong; Xu, Fu-gang


    Two important features of the high slopes at Gushui Hydropower Station are layered accumulations (rock-soil aggregate) and multilevel toppling failures of plate rock masses; the Gendakan slope is selected for case study in this paper. Geological processes of the layered accumulation of rock and soil particles are carried out by the movement of water flow; the main reasons for the toppling failure of plate rock masses are the increasing weight of the upper rock-soil aggregate and mountain erosion by river water. Indoor triaxial compression test results show that, the cohesion and friction angle of the rock-soil aggregate decreased with the increasing water content; the cohesion and the friction angle for natural rock-soil aggregate are 57.7 kPa and 31.3° and 26.1 kPa and 29.1° for saturated rock-soil aggregate, respectively. The deformation and failure mechanism of the rock-soil aggregate slope is a progressive process, and local landslides will occur step by step. Three-dimensional limit equilibrium analysis results show that the minimum safety factor of Gendakan slope is 0.953 when the rock-soil aggregate is saturated, and small scale of landslide will happen at the lower slope.

  5. Geotechnical Characteristics and Stability Analysis of Rock-Soil Aggregate Slope at the Gushui Hydropower Station, Southwest China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia-wen Zhou


    Full Text Available Two important features of the high slopes at Gushui Hydropower Station are layered accumulations (rock-soil aggregate and multilevel toppling failures of plate rock masses; the Gendakan slope is selected for case study in this paper. Geological processes of the layered accumulation of rock and soil particles are carried out by the movement of water flow; the main reasons for the toppling failure of plate rock masses are the increasing weight of the upper rock-soil aggregate and mountain erosion by river water. Indoor triaxial compression test results show that, the cohesion and friction angle of the rock-soil aggregate decreased with the increasing water content; the cohesion and the friction angle for natural rock-soil aggregate are 57.7 kPa and 31.3° and 26.1 kPa and 29.1° for saturated rock-soil aggregate, respectively. The deformation and failure mechanism of the rock-soil aggregate slope is a progressive process, and local landslides will occur step by step. Three-dimensional limit equilibrium analysis results show that the minimum safety factor of Gendakan slope is 0.953 when the rock-soil aggregate is saturated, and small scale of landslide will happen at the lower slope.

  6. Risk Analysis and Prediction of Floor Failure Mechanisms at Longwall Face in Parvadeh-I Coal Mine using Rock Engineering System (RES) (United States)

    Aghababaei, Sajjad; Saeedi, Gholamreza; Jalalifar, Hossein


    The floor failure at longwall face decreases productivity and safety, increases operation costs, and causes other serious problems. In Parvadeh-I coal mine, the timber is used to prevent the puncture of powered support base into the floor. In this paper, a rock engineering system (RES)-based model is presented to evaluate the risk of floor failure mechanisms at the longwall face of E 2 and W 1 panels. The presented model is used to determine the most probable floor failure mechanism, effective factors, damaged regions and remedial actions. From the analyzed results, it is found that soft floor failure is dominant in the floor failure mechanism at Parvadeh-I coal mine. The average of vulnerability index (VI) for soft, buckling and compressive floor failure mechanisms was estimated equal to 52, 43 and 30 for both panels, respectively. By determining the critical VI for soft floor failure mechanism equal to 54, the percentage of regions with VIs beyond the critical VI in E 2 and W 1 panels is equal to 65.5 and 30, respectively. The percentage of damaged regions showed that the excess amount of used timber to prevent the puncture of weak floor below the powered support base is equal to 4,180,739 kg. RES outputs and analyzed results showed that setting and yielding load of powered supports, length of face, existent water at face, geometry of powered supports, changing the cutting pattern at longwall face and limiting the panels to damaged regions with supercritical VIs could be considered to control the soft floor failure in this mine. The results of this research could be used as a useful tool to identify the damaged regions prior to mining operation at longwall panel for the same conditions.

  7. Intellektuaalne rock

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae


    Briti laulja-helilooja ja näitleja Toyah Willcox ning Bill Rieflin ansamblist R.E.M. ja Pat Mastelotto King Krimsonist esinevad koos ansamblitega The Humans ja Tuner 25. okt. Tallinnas Rock Cafés ja 27. okt Tartu Jaani kirikus

  8. Evaluation of tunnel seismic prediction (TSP) result using the Japanese highway rock mass classification system for Pahang-Selangor Raw Water Transfer Tunnel (United States)

    Von, W. C.; Ismail, M. A. M.


    The knowing of geological profile ahead of tunnel face is significant to minimize the risk in tunnel excavation work and cost control in preventative measure. Due to mountainous area, site investigation with vertical boring is not recommended to obtain the geological profile for Pahang-Selangor Raw Water Transfer project. Hence, tunnel seismic prediction (TSP) method is adopted to predict the geological profile ahead of tunnel face. In order to evaluate the TSP results, IBM SPSS Statistic 22 is used to run artificial neural network (ANN) analysis to back calculate the predicted Rock Grade Points (JH) from actual Rock Grade Points (JH) using Vp, Vs and Vp/Vs from TSP. The results show good correlation between predicted Rock Grade points and actual Rock Grade Points (JH). In other words, TSP can provide geological profile prediction ahead of tunnel face significantly while allowing continuously TBM excavation works. Identifying weak zones or faults ahead of tunnel face is crucial for preventative measures to be carried out in advance for a safer tunnel excavation works.

  9. Igneous Rocks (United States)

    Doe, Bruce R.

    “Igneous Rocks was written for undergraduate geology majors who have had a year of college-level chemistry and a course in mineralogy … and for beginning graduate students. Geologists working in industry, government, or academia should find this text useful as a guide to the technical literature up to 1981 and as an overview of topics with which they have not worked but which may have unanticipated pertinence to their own projects.” So starts the preface to this textbook.As one who works part time in research on igneous rocks, especially as they relate to mineral deposits, I have been looking for such a book with this avowed purpose in a field that has a choking richness of evolving terminology and a bewildering volume of interdisciplinary literature. In addition to the standard topics of igneous petrology, the book contains a chapter on the role of igneous activity in the genesis of mineral deposits, its value to geothermal energy, and the potential of igneous rocks as an environment for nuclear waste disposal. These topics are presented rather apologetically in the preface, but the author is to be applauded for including this chapter. The apology shows just how new these interests are to petrology. Recognition is finally coming that, for example, mineral deposits are not “sports of nature,” a view held even by many economic geologists as recently as the early 1960's; instead they are perfectly ordinary geochemical features formed by perfectly ordinary geologic processes. In fact, the mineral deposits and their attendant alteration zones probably have as much to tell us about igneous rocks as the igneous rocks have to tell us about mineral deposits.

  10. Estimation of mechanical properties of rock using artificial intelligence Estimación de propiedades mecánicas de roca utilizando inteligencia artificial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César Augusto Ochoa


    Full Text Available This paper discusses how two artificial intelligence techniques were combined, neural networks and genetic algorithms for the development of a computational tool used for the estimation of mechanical properties such as tensile strength, uniaxial compressive strength and triaxial compressive strength in sandstones, from petrophysical properties using data from tests of Rock Mechanics Laboratory of the Colombian Petroleum Institute - Ecopetrol SA as training data, to improve the design of non-destructive testing with some degree of confidence and resulting in cost reduction.Este artículo presenta la forma como fueron combinadas dos técnicas de inteligencia artificial, redes neuronales y algoritmos genéticos, para el desarrollo de una herramienta computacional utilizada para la estimación de propiedades mecánicas tales como la resistencia a la tensión, la resistencia a la compresión uniaxial y la resistencia a la compresión triaxial en areniscas, a partir de propiedades petrofísicas utilizando datos de pruebas del Laboratorio de Mecánica de Rocas del Instituto Colombiano del Petróleo - Ecopetrol S.A. como datos de entrenamiento facilitando el diseño de ensayos no destructivos con cierto grado de confianza y dando lugar a una reducción de costos.

  11. Optical Mass Displacement Tracking: A simplified field calibration method for the electro-mechanical seismometer. (United States)

    Burk, D. R.; Mackey, K. G.; Hartse, H. E.


    We have developed a simplified field calibration method for use in seismic networks that still employ the classical electro-mechanical seismometer. Smaller networks may not always have the financial capability to purchase and operate modern, state of the art equipment. Therefore these networks generally operate a modern, low-cost digitizer that is paired to an existing electro-mechanical seismometer. These systems are typically poorly calibrated. Calibration of the station is difficult to estimate because coil loading, digitizer input impedance, and amplifier gain differences vary by station and digitizer model. Therefore, it is necessary to calibrate the station channel as a complete system to take into account all components from instrument, to amplifier, to even the digitizer. Routine calibrations at the smaller networks are not always consistent, because existing calibration techniques require either specialized equipment or significant technical expertise. To improve station data quality at the small network, we developed a calibration method that utilizes open source software and a commonly available laser position sensor. Using a signal generator and a small excitation coil, we force the mass of the instrument to oscillate at various frequencies across its operating range. We then compare the channel voltage output to the laser-measured mass displacement to determine the instrument voltage sensitivity at each frequency point. Using the standard equations of forced motion, a representation of the calibration curve as a function of voltage per unit of ground velocity is calculated. A computer algorithm optimizes the curve and then translates the instrument response into a Seismic Analysis Code (SAC) poles & zeros format. Results have been demonstrated to fall within a few percent of a standard laboratory calibration. This method is an effective and affordable option for networks that employ electro-mechanical seismometers, and it is currently being deployed in

  12. Field Observation of Joint Structures in Various Types of Igneous Rocks (United States)

    Kano, Shingo; Tsuchiya, Noriyoshi


    In this study, field observations of natural fracture network systems in some intrusive and extrusive rocks were undertaken, to clarify the fracturing mechanism in the rocks. Shallow intrusives, whose depth of emplacement was less than several hundred metres, include the Momo-iwa Dacite dome on Rebun Island (Hokkaido), and Jodogahama Rhyolite in Iwate prefecture. Extrusive complexes studied include the Tojinbo Andesite and Ojima Rhyodacite in Fukui prefecture. Rocks of `granitic' composition were collected from the Takidani (Japan Alps) and Hijiori (Yamagata prefecture) plutons. The joint structure in Hijiori Granite was evaluated by analysis of core samples extracted from the HDR-3 geothermal production well. Based on detailed field observation, joint structures related to thermal contraction of a rock mass could be classified according to their inferred depth of formation. Joints from a near surface setting, such as shallow intrusive rocks and extrusives, tend to form pentagonal — hexagonal columnar structures (for a variety of rock types), whilst granitic rocks (from a deeper setting) typically exhibit a parallelepiped structure. The apparent differences in joint form are inferred to be dependent on the confining pressure, which acts on joint generation and propagation. In cases of non-confining pressure, such as the near-surface (shallow intrusive/extrusive) setting, joint networks typically form a columnar structure. On the contrary, confining pressure is considerably greater for deeper rock masses, and these form a parallelepiped joint structure.

  13. Evaluation of Many Load Tests of Passive Rock Bolts in the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holý Ondřej


    Full Text Available Within the research project “FR-TI4/329 Research and development - creating an application system for the design and analysis of soil and rock anchors including the development of monitoring elements”, an extensive stage of field load tests of rock bolts was carried out. The tests were conducted at 14 locations with varied rock composition. Before the initial tests, a loading stand was designed and constructed. A total of 201 pieces of tensile tests of bolts having lengths from 0.5 up to 2.5 m, a diameter of 22-32 mm, were performed. These were fully threaded rods, self-drilling rods, and fiberglass rods. The bolts were clamped into the cement and resin. The loading tests were always performed until material failure of bolts or shear stress failure at the interface cement-rock. At each location, basic geotechnical survey was carried out in the form of core drilling in a length of 3.0 metres with the assessment of the rock mass in situ, and laboratory testing of rock mechanics. Upon the completion of testing protocols, rock mass properties analysis was performed focusing on the evaluation of shear friction at the grouting-rock interface.

  14. Principles of Mechanical Excavation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lislerud, A. [Tamrock Corp., Tampere (Finland)


    Mechanical excavation of rock today includes several methods such as tunnel boring, raiseboring, roadheading and various continuous mining systems. Of these raiseboring is one potential technique for excavating shafts in the repository for spent nuclear fuel and dry blind boring is promising technique for excavation of deposition holes, as demonstrated in the Research Tunnel at Olkiluoto. In addition, there is potential for use of other mechanical excavation techniques in different parts of the repository. One of the main objectives of this study was to analyze the factors which affect the feasibility of mechanical rock excavation in hard rock conditions and to enhance the understanding of factors which affect rock cutting so as to provide an improved basis for excavator performance prediction modeling. The study included the following four main topics: (a) phenomenological model based on similarity analysis for roller disk cutting, (b) rock mass properties which affect rock cuttability and tool life, (c) principles for linear and field cutting tests and performance prediction modeling and (d) cutter head lacing design procedures and principles. As a conclusion of this study, a test rig was constructed, field tests were planned and started up. The results of the study can be used to improve the performance prediction models used to assess the feasibility of different mechanical excavation techniques at various repository investigation sites. (orig.). 21 refs.

  15. Influence aqueous solutions on the mechanical behavior of argillaceous rocks; Influence des solutions aqueuses sur le comportement mecanique des roches argileuses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wakim, J


    The hydration of the shale with an aqueous solution induces a swelling deformation which plays an important role in the behaviour of the structures excavated in this type of grounds. This deformation is marked by a three-dimensional and anisotropic character and involves several mechanisms like adsorption, osmosis or capillarity. Several researches were dedicated to swelling and were often much debated due to the complexity of the implied phenomena. The goal of this thesis is therefore to contribute to a better understanding of shale swelling when the rock is confined and hydrated with an aqueous solution. The main part of the work accomplished was related to the Lorraine shale and to the Tournemire shale. To characterize swelling and to identify the main governing parameters, it was necessary to start the issue with an experimental approach. Many apparatus were then developed to carry out tests under various conditions of swelling. In order to facilitate the interpretation of the tests and thereafter the modelling of the behaviour, the experimental procedure adopted consisted of studying first the mechanical aspect and then the chemical aspect of swelling. In the mechanical part, swelling was studied by imposing on the sample a mechanical loading while maintaining during the tests the same aqueous solution. The principal parameters which were studied are the effect of the lateral conditions on axial swelling (impeded strain or constant stress) as well as the influence of the axial stress on radial swelling. The anisotropy of swelling was studied by carrying out, for different orientations of the sample, tests of free swelling, impeded swelling and uniaxial swelling. These various mechanical tests allowed to study the three-dimensional anisotropic swelling in all the conditions and to select the most appropriate test to be used in the second phase of the research. The precise analysis performed to explain the mechanisms behind the swelling of an argillaceous rock

  16. Mapping mass movement processes using terrestrial LIDAR: a swift mechanism for hazard and disaster risk assessment (United States)

    Garnica-Peña, Ricardo; Murillo-García, Franny; Alcántara-Ayala, Irasema


    The impact of disasters associated with mass movement processes has increased in the past decades. Either triggered by earthquakes, volcanic activity or rainfall, mass movement processes have affected people, infrastructure, economic activities and the environment in different parts of the world. Extensive damage is particularly linked to rainfall induced landslides due to the occurrence of tropical storms, hurricanes, and the combination of different meteorological phenomenon on exposed vulnerable communities. Therefore, landslide susceptibility analysis, hazard and risk assessments are considered as significant mechanisms to lessen the impact of disasters. Ideally, these procedures ought to be carried out before disasters take place. However, under intense or persistent periods of rainfall, the evaluation of potentially unstable slopes becomes a critical issue. Such evaluations are constrained by the availability of resources, capabilities and scientific and technological tools. Among them, remote sensing has proved to be a valuable tool to evaluate areas affected by mass movement processes during the post-disaster stage. Nonetheless, the high cost of imagery acquisition inhibits their wide use. High resolution topography field surveys consequently, turn out to be an essential approach to address landslide evaluation needs. In this work, we present the evaluation and mapping of a series of mass movement processes induced by hurricane Ingrid in September, 2013, in Teziutlán, Puebla, México, a municipality situated 265 km Northeast of Mexico City. Geologically, Teziutlán is characterised by the presence, in the North, of siltstones and conglomerates of the Middle Jurassic, whereas the central and Southern sectors consist of volcanic deposits of various types: andesitic tuffs of Tertiary age, and basalts, rhyolitic tuffs and ignimbrites from the Quaternary. Major relief structures are formed by the accumulation of volcanic material; lava domes, partially buried

  17. Method of Assessment of Hard Rock Workability using Bucket Wheel Excavators (United States)

    Machniak, Łukasz; Kozioł, Wiesław


    A new hypothesis concerning a process of the mining solid rocks using bucket wheel excavators (BWE). Destroying of the rock mass structure is a result of breaking and not, as so far accepted, of cutting. This approach excludes, for the description of solid rock workability using bucket wheel excavators, used classifications based on individual linear or surface resistances of cutting. The possibility of a replacement mechanism for determining of the workability by bucket wheel excavators using rippers was assumed. On this basis, an innovative method for assessing the workability of solid rocks was developed, which is a combination of an derived empirical energy relationship LSE of breaking by tractor rippers from a compressive strength, a seismic wave velocity, a density of solid rock, and the modified classification of workability by bucket wheel excavators according to Bulukbasi (1991). The proposed method allows for multi-parameter assessment of the workability class based on the parameters that are independent variables in the specified dependencies.

  18. White Rock (United States)


    (Released 19 April 2002) The Science 'White Rock' is the unofficial name for this unusual landform which was first observed during the Mariner 9 mission in the early 1970's. As later analysis of additional data sets would show, White Rock is neither white nor dense rock. Its apparent brightness arises from the fact that the material surrounding it is so dark. Images from the Mars Global Surveyor MOC camera revealed dark sand dunes surrounding White Rock and on the floor of the troughs within it. Some of these dunes are just apparent in the THEMIS image. Although there was speculation that the material composing White Rock could be salts from an ancient dry lakebed, spectral data from the MGS TES instrument did not support this claim. Instead, the White Rock deposit may be the erosional remnant of a previously more continuous occurrence of air fall sediments, either volcanic ash or windblown dust. The THEMIS image offers new evidence for the idea that the original deposit covered a larger area. Approximately 10 kilometers to the southeast of the main deposit are some tiny knobs of similarly bright material preserved on the floor of a small crater. Given that the eolian erosion of the main White Rock deposit has produced isolated knobs at its edges, it is reasonable to suspect that the more distant outliers are the remnants of a once continuous deposit that stretched at least to this location. The fact that so little remains of the larger deposit suggests that the material is very easily eroded and simply blows away. The Story Fingers of hard, white rock seem to jut out like icy daggers across a moody Martian surface, but appearances can be deceiving. These bright, jagged features are neither white, nor icy, nor even hard and rocky! So what are they, and why are they so different from the surrounding terrain? Scientists know that you can't always trust what your eyes see alone. You have to use other kinds of science instruments to measure things that our eyes can

  19. Development of Technology for Seismic Diagnostics of Rock Mass Conditions above the Production Working when Mining Coal Seams Prone to Geo-Dynamic Phenomena

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trifonov, O.S.


    Full Text Available Methodical guidelines to receive seismic evidence of console block cracking and hardware for continuous recording of seismic processes are developed. Energy and spectral characteristics of seismic emission for the development of tectonic destruction zones in various rock structures of the upper roof and the ability to display spatial migration of hypocenters of seismic events and their energy scale are determined. The algorithm for computation of diagnostically informative features of geodynamic hazard is worked out.

  20. Analytical solutions for transport processes fluid mechanics, heat and mass transfer

    CERN Document Server

    Brenn, Günter


    This book provides analytical solutions to a number of classical problems in transport processes, i.e. in fluid mechanics, heat and mass transfer. Expanding computing power and more efficient numerical methods have increased the importance of computational tools. However, the interpretation of these results is often difficult and the computational results need to be tested against the analytical results, making analytical solutions a valuable commodity. Furthermore, analytical solutions for transport processes provide a much deeper understanding of the physical phenomena involved in a given process than do corresponding numerical solutions. Though this book primarily addresses the needs of researchers and practitioners, it may also be beneficial for graduate students just entering the field. .

  1. On the theory of Ostwald ripening in the presence of different mass transfer mechanisms (United States)

    Alexandrov, D. V.


    A theoretical description of the concluding stage of Ostwald ripening based on the Slezov theory (Slezov, 1978) and recently developed approach (Alexandrov, 2015) is formulated. The present analysis focuses on the formation and relaxation of the particle size distribution function from the intermediate stage of ripening process to its final state, which is described by the universal distribution. The boundaries of the transition layer in the vicinity of a blocking point are found. The time-dependent corrections to the growth rates of crystals and the distribution functions are determined for different mass transfer mechanisms. The obtained analytical distributions are in good agreement with experimental data. All analytical results are presented in a form directly suitable for their use in applications.

  2. Comparison of Crack Initiation, Propagation and Coalescence Behavior of Concrete and Rock Materials (United States)

    Zengin, Enes; Abiddin Erguler, Zeynal


    There are many previously studies carried out to identify crack initiation, propagation and coalescence behavior of different type of rocks. Most of these studies aimed to understand and predict the probable instabilities on different engineering structures such as mining galleries or tunnels. For this purpose, in these studies relatively smaller natural rock and synthetic rock-like models were prepared and then the required laboratory tests were performed to obtain their strength parameters. By using results provided from these models, researchers predicted the rock mass behavior under different conditions. However, in the most of these studies, rock materials and models were considered as contains none or very few discontinuities and structural flaws. It is well known that rock masses naturally are extremely complex with respect to their discontinuities conditions and thus it is sometimes very difficult to understand and model their physical and mechanical behavior. In addition, some vuggy rock materials such as basalts and limestones also contain voids and gaps having various geometric properties. Providing that the failure behavior of these type of rocks controlled by the crack initiation, propagation and coalescence formed from their natural voids and gaps, the effect of these voids and gaps over failure behavior of rocks should be investigated. Intact rocks are generally preferred due to relatively easy side of their homogeneous characteristics in numerical modelling phases. However, it is very hard to extract intact samples from vuggy rocks because of their complex pore sizes and distributions. In this study, the feasibility of concrete samples to model and mimic the failure behavior vuggy rocks was investigated. For this purpose, concrete samples were prepared at a mixture of %65 cement dust and %35 water and their physical and mechanical properties were determined by laboratory experiments. The obtained physical and mechanical properties were used to

  3. Mechanical Modulation of Phonon-Assisted Field Emission in a Silicon Nanomembrane Detector for Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonghoo Park


    Full Text Available We demonstrate mechanical modulation of phonon-assisted field emission in a free-standing silicon nanomembrane detector for time-of-flight mass spectrometry of proteins. The impacts of ion bombardment on the silicon nanomembrane have been explored in both mechanical and electrical points of view. Locally elevated lattice temperature in the silicon nanomembrane, resulting from the transduction of ion kinetic energy into thermal energy through the ion bombardment, induces not only phonon-assisted field emission but also a mechanical vibration in the silicon nanomembrane. The coupling of these mechanical and electrical phenomenon leads to mechanical modulation of phonon-assisted field emission. The thermal energy relaxation through mechanical vibration in addition to the lateral heat conduction and field emission in the silicon nanomembrane offers effective cooling of the nanomembrane, thereby allowing high resolution mass analysis.

  4. Isotope-based investigation on the groundwater flow and recharge mechanism in a hard-rock aquifer system: the case of Ranchi urban area, India (United States)

    Saha, Dipankar; Dwivedi, S. N.; Roy, Goutam Kr; Reddy, D. V.


    Ranchi urban area (257 km2) depends on aquifers for 30 % of its total drinking-water supply of 17 million m3 year-1. Local hydrostratigraphy is represented by a heterogeneous, weathered and fractured aquifer system, typical of the Precambrian suite of rocks in the Indian subcontinent. Intensive development of the fractured aquifers, up to 200 m below ground, has lowered the hydraulic head and resulted in dwindling yields from fractures during the summer. To understand the groundwater flow regime and aquifer recharge mechanism, the present study examines δ18O and δD variation in aquifer-specific samples along with water levels, yield of the fractures, EC and Cl-. Three types of groundwater have been identified based on isotopic composition and d-excess values, each representing different recharge source-water and pathways. The major source of recharge for the aquifers is infiltration from rainfall. Two large reservoirs and an excavated lake within the study area contribute to the recharge process but insignificantly. Isotopic compositions and the relatively low EC and low Cl- concentrations of high-yielding bore wells in some places indicate the presence of fast-conducting fracture zones receiving copious recharge from rainfall. Such fractures can be developed further through bore wells for drinking supply with due provision for artificial recharge.

  5. Mechanical coupling between two innovative theories on erosion, transportation and phase-separation: Solving some long-standing problems in mass flows (United States)

    Pudasaini, Shiva P.; Fischer, Jan-Thomas; Mergili, Martin


    Debris flows are gravity driven mixture flows of soil, sand, rock and water. The solid particles and viscous fluid governs the rheological properties, and their coupling significantly influences the dynamics. For example, debris flows can dramatically increase their volume and destructive potential, and become exceptionally mobile by entraining bed material. The mixture composition can evolve to strikingly change the spatial distribution of particles and fluid, and thus frictional and viscous resistance. So, erosion-deposition and phase-separation between solid and fluid, which strongly depend on material composition, play a critical role in debris flow dynamics. Proper understanding of these complex physical processes is very important in accurate description of impact forces, inundation areas, landscape evolution and developing reliable mitigation plans. Predicting the underlying processes of erosion, phase-separation and deposition in debris flow are long-standing challenges. However, due to lack of data and suitable models, there exists no runout prediction method that includes observed processes of erosion of dry and saturated beds, entrainment and diffusion of eroded material, grain sorting, phase-separation, levee/lobe formation and evolution of deposition patterns. Based on innovative mechanical models for erosion-deposition (Pudasaini and Fischer, 2016a) and phase-separation (Pudasaini and Fischer, 2016b) that explicitly consider changes in local flow compositions, and their basic/potential validations, we present a novel, unified, efficient and fully coupled solution method to these true multi-phase, three-dimensional mass flow problems. As debris flows are better described by a three-phase mixture that include viscous fluid, and fine and coarse grains as compared to often used single-phase models, we propose model extensions that consists of three-phases including yield strength. Thus, we present an advanced mass flow simulation model aiming to

  6. Development of mechanical-hydraulic models for the prediction of the long-term sealing capacity of concrete based sealing materials in rock salt. Project Titel LASA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Czaikowski, Oliver; Dittrich, Juergen; Hertes, Uwe; Jantschik, Kyra; Wieczorek, Klaus; Zehle, Bernd


    The research work leading to these results has received funding from the German Federal Ministry of Economic Affairs and Energy (BMWi) under contract no. 02E11132. This report presents the current state of laboratory investigations and modelling activities related to the LASA project. The work is related to the research and development of plugging and sealing for repositories in salt rock and is of fundamental importance for the salt option which represents one of the three European repository options in addition to the clay rock and the crystalline rock options.

  7. Regulation of ROCK Activity in Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morgan-Fisher, Marie; Wewer, Ulla M; Yoneda, Atsuko


    regulators of the actin cytoskeleton acting downstream of the small GTPase Rho. ROCK is associated with cancer progression, and ROCK protein expression is elevated in several types of cancer. ROCKs exist in a closed, inactive conformation under quiescent conditions, which is changed to an open, active......, these findings demonstrate additional modes to regulate ROCK activity. This review describes the molecular mechanisms of ROCK activity regulation in cancer, with emphasis on ROCK isoform-specific regulation and interaction partners, and discusses the potential of ROCKs as therapeutic targets in cancer.......Cancer-associated changes in cellular behavior, such as modified cell-cell contact, increased migratory potential, and generation of cellular force, all require alteration of the cytoskeleton. Two homologous mammalian serine/threonine kinases, Rho-associated protein kinases (ROCK I and II), are key...

  8. Structural mass irregularities and fiber volume influence on morphology and mechanical properties of unsaturated polyester resin in matrix composi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalil Ahmed


    Full Text Available This paper presents the comparative results of a current study on unsaturated polyester resin (UPR matrix composites processed by filament winding method, with cotton spun yarn of different mass irregularities and two different volume fractions. Physical and mechanical properties were measured, namely ultimate stress, stiffness, elongation%. The mechanical properties of the composites increased significantly with the increase in the fiber volume fraction in agreement with the Counto model. Mass irregularities in the yarn structure were quantitatively measured and visualized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM. Mass irregularities cause marked decrease in relative strength about 25% and 33% which increases with fiber volume fraction. Ultimate stress and stiffness increases with fiber volume fraction and is always higher for yarn with less mass irregularities.

  9. Compositional, mechanical and transport properties of carbonate fault rocks and the seismic cycle in limestone terrains : A case study of surface exposures on the Longmenshan Fault, Sichuan, China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, Jianye


    Destructive earthquakes are common in tectonically active regions dominated by carbonate cover rocks. The catastrophic Wenchuan earthquake that struck Sichuan, China, also affected a section of carbonate cover terrain. Numerous studies have focused on characterizing the compositional, transport and

  10. 3-D models and structural analysis of rock avalanches: the study of the deformation process to better understand the propagation mechanism


    Longchamp, Céline; Abellan, Antonio; Jaboyedoff, Michel; Manzella, Irene


    Rock avalanches are extremely destructive and uncontrollable events that involve a great volume of material (> 106 m3) and several complex processes, and they are difficult to witness. For this reason the study of these phenomena using analog modeling and the accurate analysis of deposit structures and features of laboratory data and historic events become of great importance in the understanding of their behavior.The main objective of this research is to analyze rock avalan...

  11. Kinetics of dissolution of mechanically comminuted rock-forming oxides and silicates—II. Deformation and dissolution of oxides and silicates in the laboratory and at the Earth's surface (United States)

    Petrovich, Radomir


    Comparison of the patterns of fracture under tensile stress, indentation, and scratching of periclase. quartz, and corundum indicates that the properties relevant to dissolution of rock-forming oxides and of rock-forming non-layer silicates should be changed by mechanical comminution in essentially the same way as those of quartz. The changes are accomplished by brittle fracture under the tensile component of the stress field, which does not generate subsurface damage, and by microplastic behavior under local stresses with high net compressive and shear components, which does. Mechanical comminution should therefore affect the apparent rates of dissolution (rates calculated with respect to the initial interface area) of rock-forming oxides and of rock-forming non-layer silicates in essentially the same way in which it affects the apparent rate of dissolution of quartz. This is supported by the available evidence on the effect of dry grinding on the kinetics of dissolution of feldspars, pyroxenes, and olivines in aqueous solutions. Different effects of mechanical comminution on solubilities and dissolution rate constants can be related to certain measured or calculated properties of the considered minerals. Notably, the effect of grain size on the dissolution rate constant can be rigorously related to the Kelvin effect. The available evidence on the mechanical comminution at the bases of dry-based glaciers in highgradient segments of streams, in certain high-energy coastal and epeiric environments, and in sandy deserts indicates that such mechanical comminution should significantly affect the simultaneous or subsequent dissolution of the comminuted material.

  12. On the seismic response of instable rock slopes based on ambient vibration recordings (United States)

    Kleinbrod, Ulrike; Burjánek, Jan; Fäh, Donat


    Rock slope failures can lead to huge human and economic loss depending on their size and exact location. Reasonable hazard mitigation requires thorough understanding of the underlying slope driving mechanisms and its rock mass properties. Measurements of seismic ambient vibrations could improve the characterization and detection of rock instabilities since there is a link between seismic response and internal structure of the unstable rock mass. An unstable slope near the village Gondo has been investigated. The unstable part shows strongly amplified ground motion with respect to the stable part of the rock slope. The amplification values reach maximum factors of 70. The seismic response on the instable part is highly directional and polarized. Re-measurements have been taken 1 year later showing exactly the same results as the original measurements. Neither the amplified frequencies nor the amplification values have changed. Therefore, ambient vibration measurements are repeatable and stay the same, if the rock mass has not undergone any significant change in structure or volume, respectively. Additionally, four new points have been measured during the re-measuring campaign in order to better map the border of the instability.[Figure not available: see fulltext.

  13. Phengite-hosted LILE enrichment in eclogite and related rocks: Implications for fluid-mediated mass transfer in subduction zones and arc magma genesis (United States)

    Sorensen, Sorena S.; Grossman, J.N.; Perfit, M.R.


    Geochemical differences between island arc basalts (LAB) and ocean-floor basalts (mid-ocean ridge basalts; MORB) suggest that the large-ion lithophile elements (LILE) K, Ba, Rb and Cs are probably mobilized in subduction zone fluids and melts. This study documents LILE enrichment of eclogite, amphibolite, and epidote ?? garnet blueschist tectonic blocks and related rocks from melanges of two subduction complexes. The samples are from six localities of the Franciscan Complex, California, and related terranes of Oregon and Baja California, and from the Samana Metamorphic Complex, Samana Peninsula, Dominican Republic. Most Franciscan blocks are MORB-like in their contents of rare earth elements (REE) and high field strength elements (HFSE); in contrast, most Samana blocks show an LAB signature of these elements. The whole-rock K2O contents of both groups range from 1 to 3 wt %; K, Ba, Rb, and Cs are all strongly intercorrelated. Many blocks display K/Ba similar to melasomatized transition zones and rinds at their outer margins. Some transition zones and rinds are enriched in LILE compared with host blocks; others are relatively depleted in these elements. Some LILE-rich blocks contain 'early' coarse-grained muscovite that is aligned in the foliation defined by coarse-grained omphacite or amphibole grains. Others display 'late' muscovite in veins and as a partial replacement of garnet; many contain both textural types. The muscovite is phengite that contains ???3??25-3??55 Si per 11 oxygens, and ???0??25-0??50 Mgper 11 oxygens. Lower-Si phengite has a significant paragonite component: Na per 11 oxygens ranges to ???0??12. Ba contents of phengite range to over 1 wt % (0??027 per 11 oxygens). Ba in phengite does not covary strongly with either Na or K. Ba contents of phengite increase from some blocks to their transition zones or rinds, or from blocks to their veins. Averaged KlBa ratios for phengite and host samples define an array which describes other subsamples of

  14. Geoengineering Research for a Deep Underground Science and Engineering Laboratory in Sedimentary Rock (United States)

    Mauldon, M.


    A process to identify world-class research for a Deep Underground Science and Engineering Laboratory (DUSEL) in the USA has been initiated by NSF. While allowing physicists to study, inter alia, dark matter and dark energy, this laboratory will create unprecedented opportunities for biologists to study deep life, geoscientists to study crustal processes and geoengineers to study the behavior of rock, fluids and underground cavities at depth, on time scales of decades. A substantial portion of the nation's future infrastructure is likely to be sited underground because of energy costs, urban crowding and vulnerability of critical surface facilities. Economic and safe development of subsurface space will require an improved ability to engineer the geologic environment. Because of the prevalence of sedimentary rock in the upper continental crust, much of this subterranean infrastructure will be hosted in sedimentary rock. Sedimentary rocks are fundamentally anisotropic due to lithology and bedding, and to discontinuities ranging from microcracks to faults. Fractures, faults and bedding planes create structural defects and hydraulic pathways over a wide range of scales. Through experimentation, observation and monitoring in a sedimentary rock DUSEL, in conjunction with high performance computational models and visualization tools, we will explore the mechanical and hydraulic characteristics of layered rock. DUSEL will permit long-term experiments on 100 m blocks of rock in situ, accessed via peripheral tunnels. Rock volumes will be loaded to failure and monitored for post-peak behavior. The response of large rock bodies to stress relief-driven, time-dependent strain will be monitored over decades. Large block experiments will be aimed at measurement of fluid flow and particle/colloid transport, in situ mining (incl. mining with microbes), remediation technologies, fracture enhancement for resource extraction and large scale long-term rock mass response to induced

  15. Shear strain concentration mechanism in the lower crust below an intraplate strike-slip fault based on rheological laws of rocks (United States)

    Zhang, Xuelei; Sagiya, Takeshi


    We conduct a two-dimensional numerical experiment on the lower crust under an intraplate strike-slip fault based on laboratory-derived power-law rheologies considering the effects of grain size and water. To understand the effects of far-field loading and material properties on the deformation of the lower crust on a geological time scale, we assume steady fault sliding on the fault in the upper crust and ductile flow for the lower crust. To avoid the stress singularity, we introduce a yield threshold in the brittle-ductile transition near the down-dip edge of the fault. Regarding the physical mechanisms for shear strain concentration in the lower crust, we consider frictional and shear heating, grain size, and power-law creep. We evaluate the significance of these mechanisms in the formation of the shear zone under an intraplate strike-slip fault with slow deformation. The results show that in the lower crust, plastic deformation is possible only when the stress or temperature is sufficiently high. At a similar stress level, ˜100 MPa, dry anorthite begins to undergo plastic deformation at a depth around 28-29 km, which is about 8 km deeper than wet anorthite. As a result of dynamic recrystallization and grain growth, the grain size in the lower crust may vary laterally and as a function of depth. A comparison of the results with constant and non-constant grain sizes reveals that the shear zone in the lower crust is created by power-law creep and is maintained by dynamically recrystallized material in the shear zone because grain growth occurs in a timescale much longer than the recurrence interval of intraplate earthquakes. Owing to the slow slip rate, shear and frictional heating have negligible effects on the deformation of the shear zone. The heat production rate depends weakly on the rock rheology; the maximum temperature increase over 3 Myr is only about several tens of degrees.[Figure not available: see ful