WorldWideScience

Sample records for rock island arsenal

  1. 78 FR 79312 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Upper Mississippi River, Rock Island, IL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-30

    ... deviation from the operating schedule that governs the Rock Island Railroad and Highway Drawbridge across the Upper Mississippi River, mile 482.9, at Rock Island, Illinois. The deviation is necessary to allow.... Army Rock Island Arsenal requested a temporary deviation for the Rock Island Railroad and Highway...

  2. 76 FR 9224 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Upper Mississippi River, Rock Island, IL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-17

    ... issued a temporary deviation from the regulation governing the operation of the Rock Island Railroad and Highway Drawbridge across the Upper Mississippi River, mile 482.9, at Rock Island, Illinois. The deviation.... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The U.S. Army Rock Island Arsenal requested a temporary deviation for the Rock Island...

  3. 77 FR 20716 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Upper Mississippi River, Rock Island, IL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-06

    ... issued a temporary deviation from the regulation governing the operation of the Rock Island Railroad and Highway Drawbridge across the Upper Mississippi River, mile 482.9, at Rock Island, Illinois. The deviation...) 366-9826. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The U.S. Army Rock Island Arsenal requested a temporary deviation...

  4. 77 FR 3607 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Upper Mississippi River, Rock Island, IL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-25

    ... issued a temporary deviation from the regulation governing the operation of the Rock Island Railroad and Highway Drawbridge across the Upper Mississippi River, mile 482.9, at Rock Island, Illinois. The deviation...) 366-9826. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The U.S. Army Rock Island Arsenal requested a temporary deviation...

  5. 78 FR 18933 - Drawbridge Operation Regulations; Upper Mississippi River, Rock Island, IL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-28

    ... operating schedule that governs the Rock Island Railroad and Highway Drawbridge across the Upper Mississippi River, mile 482.9, at Rock Island, Illinois. The deviation is necessary to allow the Quad City Marathon..., Docket Operations, telephone (202) 366-9826. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The U.S. Army Rock Island Arsenal...

  6. 76 FR 9223 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Upper Mississippi River, Rock Island, IL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-17

    ... issued a temporary deviation from the regulation governing the operation of the Rock Island Railroad and Highway Drawbridge across the Upper Mississippi River, mile 482.9, at Rock Island, Illinois. The deviation...) 366-9826. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The U.S. Army Rock Island Arsenal requested a temporary deviation...

  7. 77 FR 5398 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Upper Mississippi River, Rock Island, IL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-03

    ... issued a temporary deviation from the regulation governing the operation of the Rock Island Railroad and Highway Drawbridge across the Upper Mississippi River, mile 482.9, at Rock Island, Illinois. The deviation...) 366-9826. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The U.S. Army Rock Island Arsenal requested a temporary deviation...

  8. 75 FR 68974 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Upper Mississippi River, Rock Island, IL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-10

    ..., has issued a temporary deviation from the regulation governing the operation of the Rock Island Railroad and Highway Drawbridge across the Upper Mississippi River, mile 482.9, at Rock Island, Illinois... Operations, telephone 202-366-9826. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The U.S. Army Rock Island Arsenal requested a...

  9. 78 FR 15292 - Drawbridge Operation Regulations; Upper Mississippi River, Rock Island, IL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-11

    ... schedule that governs the Rock Island Railroad and Highway Drawbridge, across the Upper Mississippi River, mile 482.9, at Rock Island, Illinois. The deviation is necessary to allow the River Bandits 5K Run/Walk...) 366-9826. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The U.S. Army Rock Island Arsenal requested a temporary deviation...

  10. Islands and Islandness in Rock Music Lyrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Mezzana

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a first exploration, qualitative in character, based on a review of 412 songs produced in the period 1960-2009, about islands in rock music as both social products and social tools potentially contributing to shaping ideas, emotions, will, and desires. An initial taxonomy of 24 themes clustered under five meta-themes of space, lifestyle, emotions, symbolism, and social-political relations is provided, together with some proposals for further research.

  11. Analysis of volcano rock from Canary islands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sitek, J.; Sedlackova, K.; Dekan, J.

    2013-01-01

    In this work we have analyzed the basalt rock from Lanzarote, which is the easternmost island of the Canary Islands lying in the Atlantic Ocean and has a volcanic origin. It was born through fiery eruptions and has solidified lava streams as well as extravagant rock formations. We compared our results with composition of basalt rocks from some other places on the Earth. Different iron oxides created on the volcanic rocks during their weathering on the Earth surface has been also analyzed. (authors)

  12. Rock glaciers on South Shetland Islands, Antarctic Peninsula, Version 1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In the South Shetland Islands the investigators found eight active rock glaciers, no relict or fossil examples, and seven protalus ramparts. The rock glaciers are...

  13. Moessbauer Study of Sedimentary Rocks from King George Island, Antarctica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuzmann, E.; Souza, P. A. de; Schuch, L. A.; Oliveira, A. C. de; Garg, R.; Garg, V. K.

    2002-01-01

    The separation of continents at the periphery of Antarctica occurred about 180 ma ago due to volcanic activity. Geological faults can be very important in the study of geological occurrences. Such geological faults occur across the Admiralty Bay, King George Island, and have been studied in detail previously. Controversial statements were given in earlier works, based on conventional geological investigations, as to whether altered 'Jurassic' and unaltered Tertiary rocks were separated by a major fault which goes across the Admiralty Bay, or whether there is no difference in the alteration of the rocks located at either side of the fault. The aim of our work is to investigate rock samples from the Admiralty Bay of King George Island, Antarctica, from different locations on both sides of the geological fault. For these investigations 57 Fe Moessbauer spectroscopy and X-ray diffractometry were used. We have found that the phase composition, and the iron distribution among the crystallographic sites of iron-bearing minerals, are characteristic of the location of the rock samples from the Admiralty Bay of King George Island. There is a much higher amount of iron oxides in the rocks from the south part of the geological fault than in the north part. The differences in the mineral composition and iron distribution showed that the rocks in the southern part of the geological fault of King George Island are significantly altered compared to the rocks in the northern part. Our present results support and complement well the results obtained earlier on soils from King George Island.

  14. 78 FR 16411 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Upper Mississippi River, Rock Island, IL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-15

    ... operating schedule that governs the Rock Island Railroad and Highway Drawbridge across the Upper Mississippi River, mile 482.9, at Rock Island, Illinois. The deviation is necessary to allow the Quad City Heart...-366-9826. [[Page 16412

  15. 78 FR 21537 - Drawbridge Operation Regulations; Upper Mississippi River, Rock Island, IL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-11

    ... Operation Regulations; Upper Mississippi River, Rock Island, IL AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of... operating schedule that governs the Rock Island Railroad and Highway Drawbridge across the Upper Mississippi River, mile 482.9, at Rock Island, Illinois. The deviation is necessary to allow the Front Street 5K Run...

  16. 78 FR 69995 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Upper Mississippi River, Rock Island, IL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-22

    ... Operation Regulation; Upper Mississippi River, Rock Island, IL AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of... operating schedule that governs the Rock Island Railroad and Highway Drawbridge across the Upper Mississippi River, mile 482.9, at Rock Island, Illinois. The deviation is necessary to allow the bridge owner time...

  17. 75 FR 81125 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Upper Mississippi River, Rock Island, IL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-27

    ... Operation Regulation; Upper Mississippi River, Rock Island, IL AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of... the Upper Mississippi River, mile 481.4, at Rock Island, Illinois. The deviation is necessary to allow... Rock Island, Illinois to open on signal if at least 24 hours advance notice is given for 44 days from...

  18. 75 FR 17561 - Drawbridge Operation Regulations; Upper Mississippi River, Rock Island, IL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-07

    ... issued a temporary deviation from the regulation governing the operations of the Rock Island Railroad and Highway Drawbridge across the Upper Mississippi River, Mile 482.9, Rock Island, Illinois. The deviation is... Manager, Docket Operations, telephone (202) 366-9826. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The U.S. Army Rock Island...

  19. 75 FR 22228 - Drawbridge Operation Regulations; Upper Mississippi River, Rock Island, IL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-28

    ... issued a temporary deviation from the regulation governing the operation of the Rock Island Railroad and Highway Drawbridge across the Upper Mississippi River, Mile 482.9, Rock Island, Illinois. The deviation is... Manager, Docket Operations, telephone (202) 366-9826. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The U.S. Army Rock Island...

  20. Geochemistry and petrology of basaltic rocks from the Marshall Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Alice S.; Schwab, William C.; Haggerty, Janet A.

    1986-01-01

    A variety of volcanic rock was recovered from the flanks of seamounts, guyots, atolls, and islands in the Ratak chain of the Marshall Islands on the U.S. Geological Survey cruise L9-84-CP. The main objective of this cruise was to study the distribution and composition of ferromanganese oxide crusts. Preliminary results of managanese crust composition are reported by Schwab et al. (1985) and detailed studies are in preparation (Schwab et al., 1986). A total of seven seafloor edifices were studied using 12 khz, 3.5 khz and air gun seismic reflection, chain dredge and box corer. Bathymetry and ship track lines are presented by Schwab and Bailey (1985). Of the seven edifices surveyed two support atolls (Majuro and Taongi) and one is a tiny island (Jemo). Dredge locations and water depths are given in Table 1 and dredge locations are shown in Figure 1. Due to equipment failures depths of dredge hauls were limited to shallow depth for all except the first two sites occupied. Recovery consisted mostly of young, poorly-consolidated limestone of fore-reef slope deposit and minor volcanogenic breccia and loose talus. The breccia and pieces of talus are thickly encrusted with ferromanganese oxide, whereas the young limestone is only coated by a thin layer. Four of the seven sites surveyed yielded volcanic rock. The volcanic rock, volumetrically a minor part of each dredge haul, consists mostly of lapilli and cobble-size clasts in a calcareous matrix or as loose talus. Most clasts show evidence of reworking, being sub- to well rounded, sometimes with a thin ferromanganese crust of their own. This paper reports preliminary findings on the petrology and geochemistry of volcanic rock recovered.

  1. Application of Corrosion- and Fire-Resistant Coating Systems on Buildings 227 and 299 at Rock Island Arsenal

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-08-01

    event of a fire. The mesh prevents cracking to the steel substrate, which would reduce the insulating properties of the char. The procedure is as...Top Coats: MPI #9, Exterior Alkyd Enamel , Gloss, MPI Gloss Level 6 (i.e., a semi-gloss) • System 2: o Primer: MPI #23, Surface Tolerant Metal...Metal Primer X X MPI Paint #9 Exterior Alkyd Enamel , Gloss X MPI Paint #94 Exterior Alkyd

  2. 33 CFR 80.805 - Rock Island, FL to Cape San Blas, FL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Rock Island, FL to Cape San Blas, FL. 80.805 Section 80.805 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Eighth District § 80.805 Rock Island, FL...

  3. Correlations between silicic volcanic rocks of the St Mary's Islands (southwestern India) and eastern Madagascar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Melluso, Leone; Sheth, Hetu C.; Mahoney, John J.

    2009-01-01

    The St Mary's, Islands (southwestern India) expose silicic volcanic and sub-volcanic rocks (rhyolites and granophyric dacites) emplaced contemporaneously with the Cretaceous igneous province of Madagascar, roughly 88-90 Ma ago. I he St Mary's Islands rocks have phenocrysts of plagioclase...... and isotopic Compositions very close to those of rhyolites exposed between Vatomandry Ilaka and Mananjary in eastern Madagascar, and are distinctly different from rhyolites front other sectors of the Madagascan province. We therefore postulate that the St Mary's and the Vatomandry-Ilaka Mananjary silicic rock...

  4. Stability and predictability in younger crystalline rock system: Japanese Islands case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, S.

    2009-01-01

    The Japanese Islands consist of igneous, sedimentary, and metamorphic rocks ranging in age from Paleozoic to Cenozoic. Among these, Carboniferous to Paleogene rocks occupy about 60% of the total area of the Japanese Islands. It should be noted that Quaternary volcanic rocks occupy only about 9% of the total area, although Quaternary volcanoes occur throughout the Japanese Islands. Long-term stability and predictability in the rock system are discussed in terms of volcanic activity, active faulting, and plate motion. Volcanic activity in the Japanese Islands is intimately related to subduction of the Pacific Plate and the Philippine Sea Plate. The volcanic front related to the Pacific and the Philippine Sea plates has been essentially fixed since about 6 Ma. The main active faults, which are distributed sporadically throughout the Japanese Islands, number about 150 and have been extensively investigated. The modes of the Pacific Plate and the Philippine Sea Plate have been essentially invariable since 10 Ma and 6 Ma, respectively. These lines of evidence imply that volcanism and tectonism in the Japanese Islands will scarcely change for hundreds of thousands of years into the future. It is clear that many places suitable for geological disposal will be present in this rock system. (author)

  5. K-U-Th systematics of terrestrial igneous rocks for planetological comparisons: volcanic rocks of the Earth oceanic island arc and Venus surface material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikolaeva, O.V.

    1997-01-01

    Principles of the formation o data base for 339 samples of oceanic island arc (OIA) igneous rocks of the Earth available in literature are described as well as of the formation of fresh rock sample, characteristics of this sample, and K-U-Th-systematics of the fresh igneous rocks of Earth OIA. Results of comparison of the Venus measured rocks and Earth OIA rocks by K, U, Th

  6. O ARSENAL DO ALFEITE

    OpenAIRE

    Ribeiro, José

    2007-01-01

    O Arsenal do Alfeite, estabelecimento fabril da Marinha, constitui o principal órgão de suporte, no âmbito da logística do material naval, que nos últimos setenta anos tem vindo a assegurar a execução da manutenção da Esquadra, bem como a construção e a modernização de várias unidades navais. As preocupações relativamente à eficiência com que utiliza os recursos que lhe são postos ao dispor pela Marinha, e a eficácia que decorre da utilização desses mesmos recursos, em prol da disponibilid...

  7. Geochemical of trace elements in volcanics rocks Peninsula Fildes, Fildes Bay Rey Jorge island, south Shetland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masquelin, H.; Vaz Chavez, N.

    1987-01-01

    The authors present some geochemical data derived from the multielement analysis of three different types of volcanic rocks collected around Fildes Bay on King George Island, South Shetland. Volcanic rocks from Fildes Peninsula Group may be distinguished from those Marian Cove by their hydrothermal alteration. Apparently the correlation between NI ands Cr allows for the observation of the stratigraphic separation of samples of the same kind. Consequently, the correlation between Cu and As show a distinction between Marian Cove propylitised tuffites and both Brecciated Andesites and pyroclastic rock from Fildes Peninsula Group.

  8. Rock uplift above the subduction megathrust at Montague and Hinchinbrook Islands, Prince William Sound, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Kelly M.

    Deformation related to the transition from strike-slip to convergent slip during flat-slab subduction of the Yakutat microplate has resulted in regions of focused rock uplift and exhumation. In the St. Elias and Chugach Mountains, faulting related to transpressional processes and bending of fault systems coupled with enhanced glacial erosion causes rapid exhumation. Underplating below the syntaxial bend farther west in the Chugach Mountains and central Prince William Sound causes focused, but less rapid, exhumation. Farther south in the Prince William Sound, plate boundary deformation transitions from strike-slip to nearly full convergence in the Montague Island and Hinchinbrook Island region, which is ˜20 km above the megathrust between the Yakutat microplate and overriding North American Plate. Montague and Hinchinbrook Islands are narrow, elongate, and steep, with a structural grain formed by several megathrust fault splays, some of which slipped during the 1964 M9.2 earthquake. Presented here are 32 new apatite (U-Th)/He (AHe) and 28 new apatite fission-track (AFT) ages from the Montague and Hinchinbrook Island regions. Most AHe ages are Hanning Bay and Patton Bay faults during the 1964 earthquake. AFT ages range from ˜5 Ma to ˜20 Ma and are also younger at the SW end of Montague Island. These ages and corresponding exhumation rates indicate that the Montague and Hinchinbrook Island region is a narrow zone of intense deformation probably related to duplex thrusting along one or more megathrust fault splays. I interpret the rates of rock uplift and exhumation to have increased in the last ˜5 My, especially at the southwest end of the island system and farthest from the region dominated by strike-slip and transpressional deformation to the northeast. The narrow band of deformation along these islands likely represents the northwestern edge of a broader swath of plate boundary deformation between the Montague-Hinchinbrook Island region and the Kayak Island

  9. Rock Uplift above the Yakutat Megathrust on Montague Island, Prince William Sound, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, K.; Armstrong, P. A.; Haeussler, P. J.; Arkle, J. C.

    2011-12-01

    The Yakutat microplate is subducting shallowly (~6°) beneath the North American Plate at a rate of approximately 53 mm/yr to the northwest. Deformation from this flat- slab subduction extends >600 km inland and has resulted in regions of focused rock uplift and exhumation in the Alaska Range, central Chugach Mountains, and St. Elias Mountains. Many questions still remain about how strain is partitioned between these regions of focused uplift, particularly in the Prince William Sound (southern Chugach Mountains) on Montague Island. Montague Island (and adjacent Hinchinbrook Island) are ~20 km above the megathrust where there is a large degree of coupling between the subducting Yakutat microplate and overriding North American Plate. Montague Island is of particular interest because it lies between two areas of rapid rock uplift focused in the St. Elias/eastern Chugach Mountains and the western Chugach Mountains. In the St. Elias/eastern Chugach Mountains, faulting related to collisional processes and bending of fault systems causes rapid rock uplift. About 200 km farther northwest in the western Chugach Mountains, recent rock uplift is caused by underplating along the megathrust that is focused within a syntaxial bend of major fault systems and mountain ranges. Montague Island bounds the southern margin of Prince William Sound, and is steep, narrow, and elongate (81 km long and ~15 km wide). The maximum relief is 914 m, making for very steep, mountainous topography considering the narrow width of the island. During the Mw 9.2 earthquake in 1964, the Patton Bay and Hanning Bay reverse faults were reactivated, with 7 and 5 m of vertical offset, respectively. Both faults dip ~60° NW and strike NE-SW parallel to the long-axis of the island and parallel to geomorphic features including lineaments, elongate valleys, and escarpments. Prominent ~450 m high escarpments are present along the SE-facing side of the island, which suggests rapid and sustained uplift. New apatite

  10. Natural {gamma}-radiation of rocks and soils from Vulcano (Aeolian Islands, Mediteranean Sea)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brai, M. [Palermo Univ. (Italy). Ist. della Biocomunicazione; Hauser, S.; Bellia, S. [Palermo Univ. (Italy). Ist. di Mineralogia, Petrografia e Geochimica; Puccio, P.; Rizzo, S. [Palermo Univ. (Italy). Dipt. di Ingegneria Nucleare

    1995-04-01

    Gamma-ray spectra of the main lithotypes and soils from Vulcano island (Mediterranean Sea) have been carried out in order to quantify the natural radioactivity. The {sup 238}U, {sup 232}Th, and {sup 40}K contents obtained are in agreement with the genesis of the rock formation. In fact, basaltic rocks showed the lowest content of radionuclides whereas the rhyolitic rocks showed the highest concentrations. The results are comparable with other volcanic areas of southern Italy. Measurements of absorbed dose in air by TL dosimeters were also performed. The values ranged between 0.5 and 2.0 mGy y{sup -1}. Comparison between these values and those computed from {gamma}-ray spectra showed a good correlation. (author).

  11. Natural γ-radiation of rocks and soils from Vulcano (Aeolian Islands, Mediteranean Sea)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brai, M.; Hauser, S.; Bellia, S.; Puccio, P.; Rizzo, S.

    1995-01-01

    Gamma-ray spectra of the main lithotypes and soils from Vulcano island (Mediterranean Sea) have been carried out in order to quantify the natural radioactivity. The 238 U, 232 Th, and 40 K contents obtained are in agreement with the genesis of the rock formation. In fact, basaltic rocks showed the lowest content of radionuclides whereas the rhyolitic rocks showed the highest concentrations. The results are comparable with other volcanic areas of southern Italy. Measurements of absorbed dose in air by TL dosimeters were also performed. The values ranged between 0.5 and 2.0 mGy y -1 . Comparison between these values and those computed from γ-ray spectra showed a good correlation. (author)

  12. Lead isotopic compositions of South Sandwich Island volcanic rocks and their bearing on magmagenesis in intra-oceanic island arcs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barreiro, B.

    1983-01-01

    Pb isotope ratios have been measured in 12 volcanic rocks from the South Sandwich Islands. The results are reported. In 207 Pb/ 204 Pb- 206 Pb/ 204 Pb and 208 Pb/ 204 Pb- 206 Pb/ 204 Pb correlation diagrams, the South Sandwich data plot distinctly above the fields for ocean ridge basalts, and yield trends showing apparent mixing with a sedimentary end member similar to South Atlantic pelagic sediments as reported by Chow and Patterson (1962) and this study. Armstrong and Cooper (1971) have likewise shown that volcanics from the Lesser Antilles show mixing trends with North Atlantic sediments in Pb isotope correlation diagrams. The North Atlantic sediments have distinctly higher 206 Pb/ 204 Pb and 208 Pb/ 204 Pb ratios compared to the South Atlantic sediments. The parallel relationships between sediments and volcanic island arc rocks of the North and South Atlantic provide strong evidence for a component of Pb from subducted sediments in the lavas of the west Atlantic basin. In contrast to these data, lavas from the Mariana Arc in the western Pacific show little or no component of Pb from pelagic sediments. The reason for the different behaviors in the two settings is speculative. (author)

  13. Temporal variations of Sr isotopic compositions for the rocks from Dogo, Oki islands Shimane Prefecture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujimaki, Hirokazu; Xu Hong; Aoki, Ken-ichiro

    1991-01-01

    Fifty-three volcanic rocks from Dogo island, Oki, Shimane Prefecture, southwestern Japan were analyzed for Sr isotopic compositions with two basement rocks. The rock samples consist of calc-alkali rock suite, Nagaoda shoshonite-banakite suite, Oki trachyte-rhyolite suite, Dogo mugearite suite, Hei trachyte and Tsuzurao rhyolite series, and Daimanjiyama, Ohmine, Kuroshima, Shiroshimazaki, Saigo, and Misaki alkali basalt groups in the order of probable eruption sequence. The volcanic rocks of calc-alkali suite and shoshonite-banakite suite were produced before Japan Sea opening (ca. 15 Ma), and both have 87 Sr/ 86 Sr ratios higher than 0.7068. Long after Japan Sea opening Oki-trachyte-rhyolite suite was erupted (ca. 6.6 Ma); they have rather low 87 Sr/ 86 Sr ratios (0.7066-0.7081). Mugearites followed and have similar Sr isotopic composition, whereas 4.6 Ma old Daimanjiyama basalts have clearly low 87 Sr/ 86 Sr ratios (0.7050-0.7051). The rocks erupted 3-4 Ma seem to have the lowest 87 Sr/ 86 Sr ratios; they are Ohmine, Kuroshima, Shiroshimazaki alkali basalt suites (0.7044-0.7048). The 87 Sr/ 86 Sr ratios of the Saigo basalts erupted 0.84 Ma are higher than those erupted 3-4 Ma. The latest volcanic products in Dogo island, Misaki basalt suite has even higher 87 Sr/ 86 Sr ratios (0.7054-0.7057) than the Saigo basalt suite. Thus, temporal and systematic variation of Sr isotopic compositions of the volcanic rocks from Dogo can be recognized. The 87 Sr/ 86 Sr ratios of the rocks were once as high as 0.7066 or even higher than 0.708, but they started decreasing down to ca. 0.7044-0.7048 4-3 Ma ago. Since then the ratios rebounded to 0.7049-0.7055. The Hei trachyte and Tsuzurao rhyolite series are not included in this temporal and systematic change. The mantle diapir associated with Japan Sea spreading might have caused the decrease in the ratios, and either Pacific Ocean plate or Philippine Sea plate subduction may be responsible for this rebound. (author)

  14. Genetic analysis of rock hole and domestic Aedes aegypti on the Caribbean island of Anguilla.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallis, G P; Tabachnick, W J

    1990-12-01

    Genetic variation was characterized at 11 enzyme coding loci in Aedes aegypti collected from 3 rock hole and 4 domestic sites on the island of Anguilla, West Indies. The pattern of gene frequency variation suggests that these mosquito samples do not constitute a single panmictic population, but there are no large consistent differences between rock hole and domestic forms to parallel the East African sylvan-domestic dichotomy. With the exception of one of the domestic populations, two loci did however show some gene frequency differences consistent with genetic differentiation between the 2 habitat types. We conclude that whereas there may be some degree of differentiation between the 2 habitat types, local eradication attempts and sporadic gene flow cause temporal and spatial volatility that is sufficient to swamp these differences.

  15. Mineral compositions of plutonic rocks from the Lewis Hills massif, Bay of Islands ophiolite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Susan E.; Elthon, Don

    1988-01-01

    Mineral compositions of residual and cumulate rocks from the Lewis Hills massif of the Bay of Islands ophiolite complex are reported and interpreted in the context of magnetic processes involved in the geochemical evolution of spatially associated diabase dikes. The mineral compositions reflect greater degrees of partial melting than most abyssal peridotites do and appear to represent the most depleted end of abyssal peridotite compositions. Subsolidus equilibration between Cr-Al spinal and olivine generally has occurred at temperatures of 700 to 900 C. The spinel variations agree with the overall fractionation of basaltic magmas producing spinels with progressively lower Cr numbers. The compositions of clinopyroxenes suggest that the fractionation of two different magma series produced the various cumulate rocks.

  16. Pyroclastic rocks: another manifestation of ultramafic volcanism on Gorgona Island, Colombia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Echeverría, Lina M.; Aitken, Bruce G.

    1986-04-01

    Tertiary ultramafic volcanism on Gorgona Island, Colombia, is manifested not only by komatiite flows, but also by a more voluminous sequence of tuff breccias, which is cut by comagmatic picrite dikes. The ultramafic pyroclastic rocks are chaotic to stratified mixtures of angular to subrounded glassy picritic blocks and a fine grained volcaniclastic matrix that consists primarily of plastically-deformed, glassy globules. The entire deposit is interpreted to have formed by an explosive submarine eruption of phenocryst-laden picritic magma. MgO contents of tuff breccias and picrite dikes range from 21 to 27 wt%. Relative to nearby komatiite flows, these rocks are MgO-rich, and FeO-, TiO2- and Ni-poor. HREE concentrations are very low (rock geochemistry preclude such a connection, either due to olivine fractionation/accumulation or to different degrees of partial melting. These ultramafic rock types crystallized from magmas which most likely were extracted from distinct mantle source regions.

  17. Geology of the plutonic basement rocks of Stewart Island, New Zealand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allibone, A.H.; Tulloch, A.J.

    2004-01-01

    Exposures of basement rocks on Stewart Island provide a c. 70 km long by 50 km wide map of part of the Median Batholith that spans the margin of the Western Province. Because of their distance from the present plate boundary, these rocks are relatively unaffected by Cenozoic tectonism, allowing examination of unmodified Carboniferous-Cretaceous relationships within the Median Batholith. Thirty individual plutons (>c.20 km 2 ) have been mapped along with numerous relatively small intrusions ( 2 ). The large plutons form 85-90% of the Median Batholith on Stewart Island while the many smaller intrusions comprise 10-15%, mostly in the north. Lithologies include: biotite ± minor hornblende granodiorite, granite and leucogranite with accessory titanite - magmatic epidote and allanite (c. 50%); biotite ± muscovite ± garnet granite with S-type affinities (c. 10%); alkaline quartz monzonite, granite, and alkali feldspar granite with rare aegirine and blue-green amphibole (c. 3%); quartz monzodiorite and diorite with hornblende > biotite (c. 23%); gabbro and anorthosite (c. 12%) and ultramafic rocks (c. 2%). U-Pb zircon and monazite dating indicates that c. 12% of these plutonic rocks were emplaced during the Carboniferous between 345 and 290 Ma, c. 20% in the Early-Middle Jurassic at c. 170-165 Ma, c. 30% in the latest Jurassic to earliest Cretaceous between 152 and 128 Ma, and c. 38% in the Early Cretaceous between 128 and 100 Ma. The distribution of Pegasus Group schists and peraluminous granitoid rocks indicates that the northern limit of extensive early Paleozoic Western Province basement is located either within the Gutter Shear Zone or at the Escarpment Fault, 10-15 km south of the Freshwater Fault System previously thought to mark this boundary. Carboniferous and Middle Jurassic magmatism extended plutonic basement northwards as far as the Freshwater Fault System, while further magmatism during the latest Jurassic and earliest Cretaceous produced the basement

  18. EMI – young HIMU rock association at the Cape Verde Islands revisited: on the role of oceanic carbonatites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Paul Martin; Kokfelt, Thomas Find; Dyhr, Charlotte Thorup

    Isotopic compositions of the Cape Verde (Central) hotspot magmas indicate a predominant influence from young HIMU and EM-1 type sources. Detailed modelling based on high precision Sr, Nd and Pb (DS) isotope data suggests that seven local mantle end-members explain the isotopic variation within five...... HIMU. Carbonatites are widespread throughout Cape Verde Islands but volumetrically minor and are low in Ti, K, and Rb. In several silicate rocks from all three islands low Ti/Eu is evidence for a carbonatite component and is accompanied by LREE enrichment, and relatively low K and Rb. Other rocks have...

  19. Notes on the impact of the black rat (Rattus rattus L.) on the flora and fauna of Fungus Rock (Gozo, Maltese Islands)

    OpenAIRE

    Sciberras, Arnold; Lalov, Sdravko Vesselinov

    2007-01-01

    Recently the presence of the black rat Rattus rattus was reported from the island of Fungus Rock which houses a remarkable flora and fauna and has been a protected site for over 250 years. A preliminary account of the rat's impact on some Fungus Rock species is given and threats to the island's ecosystem are discussed.

  20. Metasedimentary, granitoid, and gabbroic rocks from central Stewart Island, New Zealand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allibone, A.H.; Tulloch, A.J.

    1997-01-01

    A NNE-NE trending strip, 3-8 km wide, extending from the Freshwater valley across Mt Rakeahua Table Hill, and Mt Allen to the northern end or the Tin Range was mapped at a scale of 1:12,500 to locate and investigate the boundary between the Median Tectonic Zone (MTZ) and Western Province on Stewart Island. A NNE-trending fault, herein termed the Escarpment Fault, separates predominantly ductily deformed rocks on its south side from essentially undeformed rocks to the north. North of the Escarpment Fault, a small (2-3 km 2 ) pluton of alkali-feldspar granite (Freds Camp) intruded gabbroic rocks tentatively considered to be associated with gabbro/anorthosite/diorite of the Rakeahua pluton, centred on Mt Rakeahua. Both units were subsequently intruded by I-type biotite granite of the South West Arm pluton. South of the Escarpment Fault the oldest intrusions are biotite tonalite-granite orthogneisses (Ridge and Table Hill plutons) intercalated with the sillimanite-cordierite-bearing Pegasus Group metasedimentary rocks, considered to represent the Western Province. They contain titanite, allanite, and magmatic epidote-bearing assemblages, implying affinities with I-type granitoids. These older granitoids have been affected by at least three phases of ductile deformation. Immediately south of the Escarpment Fault, the Escarpment pluton (hornblende, biotite, quartz, monzonite-quartz monzodiorite) only exhibit effects of the third phase of deformation. Minor gabbroic intrusives concordant with the S 3 fabric intrude the Pegasus Group and intercalated orthogneisses. Plutons of two-mica, garnet ±cordierite granite (Blaikies and Knob) and younger biotite-titanite-magmatic epidote granite (Campsite) cut fabrics associated with the third phase of ductile deformation. Preliminary U-Pb dating indicate Devonian-Carboniferous, Jurassic, and Early Cretaceous emplacement ages for Ridge Orthogneiss, Freds Camp pluton, South West Arm pluton, and Blaikies pluton, respectively. South

  1. Paleomagnetism of Early Paleozoic Rocks from the de Long Archipelago and Tectonics of the New Siberian Islands Terrane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metelkin, D. V.; Chernova, A. I.; Matushkin, N. Y.; Vernikovskiy, V. A.

    2017-12-01

    The De Long archipelago is located to the north of the Anjou archipelago as a part of a large group between the Laptev Sea and the East Siberian Sea - the New Siberian Islands and consists of Jeannette Island, Bennett Island and Henrietta Island. These islands have been shown to be part of a single continental terrane, whose tectonic history was independent of other continental masses at least since the Ordovician. Paleomagnetic and precise geological data for the De Long archipelago were absent until recently. Only in 2013 special international field trips to the De Long Islands could be organized and geological, isotope-geochronological and paleomagnetic studies were carried out.On Jeannette Island a volcanic-sedimentary sequence intruded by mafic dikes was described. The age of these dikes is more likely Early Ordovician, close to 480 Ma, as evidenced by the results of our 40Ar/39Ar and paleomagnetic investigations of the dolerites as well as the result from detrital zircons in the host rocks published before. On Bennett Island, there are widespread Cambrian-Ordovician mainly terrigenous rocks. Paleomagnetic results from these rocks characterize the paleogeographic position of the De Long archipelago at 465 Ma and perhaps at 530 Ma, although there is no evidence for the primary origin of magnetization for the latter. On Henrietta Island the Early Cambrian volcanic-sedimentary section was investigated. A paleomagnetic pole for 520 Ma was obtained and confirmed by new 40Ar/39Ar results. Adding to our previous paleomagnetic data for the Anjou archipelago the extended variant of the apparent polar wander path for the New Siberian Island terrane was created. The established paleolatitudes define its location in the equatorial and subtropical zone no higher than 40 degrees during the Early Paleozoic. Because there are no good confirmations for true polarity and related geographic hemisphere we present two possibilities for tectonic reconstruction. But both these

  2. Evolved Rocks in Ocean Islands Formed by Melting of Metasomatized Mantle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashwal, L. D.; Torsvik, T. H.; Horvath, P.; Harris, C.; Webb, S. J.; Werner, S. C.; Corfu, F.

    2015-12-01

    Evolved rocks like trachyte occur as minor components of many plume-related basaltic ocean islands (e.g. Hawaii, Gran Canaria, Azores, Réunion), and are typically interpreted as products of extreme fractional crystallization from broadly basaltic magmas. Trachytes from Mauritius (Indian Ocean) suggest otherwise. Here, 6.8 Ma nepheline-bearing trachytes (SiO2 ~63%, Na2O + K2O ~12%) are enriched in all incompatible elements except Ba, Sr and Eu, which show prominent negative anomalies. Initial eNd values cluster at 4.03 ± 0.15 (n = 13), near the lower end of the range for Mauritian basalts (eNd = 3.70 - 5.75), but initial Sr is highly variable (ISr = 0.70408 - 0.71034) suggesting secondary deuteric alteration. Fractional crystallization models starting with a basaltic parent fail, because when plagioclase joins olivine in the crystallizing assemblage, residual liquids become depleted in Al2O3, produce no nepheline, and do not approach trachytic compositions. Mauritian basalts and trachytes do not fall near the ends of known miscibility gaps, eliminating liquid immiscibility processes. Partial melting of extant gabbroic bodies, either from the oceanic crust or from Réunion plume-related magmas should yield quartz-saturated melts different from the critically undersaturated Mauritian trachytes. A remaining possibility is that the trachytes represent direct, small-degree partial melts of fertile, perhaps metasomatized mantle. This is supported by the presence of trachytic glasses in many mantle xenoliths, and experimental results show that low-degree trachytic melts can be produced from mantle peridotites even under anhydrous conditions. If some feldspar is left behind as a residual phase, this would account for the negative Ba, Sr and Eu anomalies observed in Mauritian trachytes. Two trachyte samples that are less depleted in these elements contain xenocrysts of anorthoclase, Al-rich cpx and Cl-rich kaersutite that are out of equilibrium with host trachyte magmas

  3. K-Ar geochronology and palaeomagnetism of volcanic rocks in the lesser Antilles island arc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Briden, J.C.; Rex, D.C.; Faller, A.M.; Tomblin, J.F.

    1979-01-01

    K-Ar age determinations on rocks and minerals from 95 locations in the Lesser Antilles. An age range of 38 - 10 million years was found for the outer arc (Limestone Caribbees) but less than 7.7 million years in the inner arc (Volcanic Caribbees). From Martinique southwards the two arcs are superimposed. These age ranges fit between discontinuities in sea floor spreading in the North Atlantic at about 38 and 9 million years and a causal connection between spreading change and relocation of arc volcanicity is suggested. Paleomagnetic directions at 108 localities in 10 islands fall into normal and reversed groups with 6 sites intermediate and 5 indeterminate. The mean dipole axis is within 2% of the present rotation axis. The data generally agrees with the established geomagnetic polarity time scale but there is some suggestion of a normal polarity event at about 1.18 million years. The paleomagnetic data suggest that in the past 10 million years the Lesser Antilles have not changed their latitude or geographical orientation and the geomagnetic field has averaged that of a central axial dipole. (author)

  4. Combined rock slope stability and shallow landslide susceptibility assessment of the Jasmund cliff area (Rügen Island, Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Günther

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available In this contribution we evaluated both the structurally-controlled failure susceptibility of the fractured Cretaceous chalk rocks and the topographically-controlled shallow landslide susceptibility of the overlying glacial sediments for the Jasmund cliff area on Rügen Island, Germany. We employed a combined methodology involving spatially distributed kinematical rock slope failure testing with tectonic fabric data, and both physically- and inventory-based shallow landslide susceptibility analysis. The rock slope failure susceptibility model identifies areas of recent cliff collapses, confirming its value in predicting the locations of future failures. The model reveals that toppling is the most important failure type in the Cretaceous chalk rocks of the area. The shallow landslide susceptibility analysis involves a physically-based slope stability evaluation which utilizes material strength and hydraulic conductivity data, and a bivariate landslide susceptibility analysis exploiting landslide inventory data and thematic information on ground conditioning factors. Both models show reasonable success rates when evaluated with the available inventory data, and an attempt was made to combine the individual models to prepare a map displaying both terrain instability and landslide susceptibility. This combination highlights unstable cliff portions lacking discrete landslide areas as well as cliff sections highly affected by past landslide events. Through a spatial integration of the rock slope failure susceptibility model with the combined shallow landslide assessment we produced a comprehensive landslide susceptibility map for the Jasmund cliff area.

  5. Effects of island seabird subsidies and invasive species dynamics on the body size and foraging ecology of the Allen Cays Rock Iguana (Cyclura cychlura inornata)

    OpenAIRE

    Richardson, Kristen Mundie

    2015-01-01

    Island systems have long been valuable to ecological research as they provide natural experiments for the study of ecosystem processes. We examined Allen, Leaf, U and Flat Rock Reef Cays in the Bahamas to study the effects of seabird driven marine subsidies and invasive mice on island food webs on the body size and foraging ecology of the Allen Cays Rock Iguana (Cyclura cychlura inornata). Iguanas on an island with nesting seabirds (Allen Cay) had 6 times the body mass and 1.7 times the snout...

  6. Stable isotope compositions and water contents of boninite series volcanic rocks from Chichi-jima, Bonin Islands, Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobson, P.F.; O'Neil, J.R.

    1987-01-01

    Measurements of stable isotope compositions and water contents of boninite series volcanic rocks from the island of Chichi-jima, Bonin Islands, Japan, confirm that a large amount (1.6-2.4 wt.%) of primary water was present in these unusual magmas. An enrichment of 0.6??? in 18O during differentiation is explained by crystallization of 18O-depleted mafic phases. Silicic glasses have elevated ??18O values and relatively low ??D values indicating that they were modified by low-temperature alteration and hydration processes. Mafic glasses, on the other hand, have for the most part retained their primary isotopic signatures since Eocene time. Primary ??D values of -53 for boninite glasses are higher than those of MORB and suggest that the water was derived from subducted oceanic lithosphere. ?? 1987.

  7. Epilithic Cyanobacterial Communities of a Marine Tropical Beach Rock (Heron Island, Great Barrier Reef): Diversity and Diazotrophy▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díez, Beatriz; Bauer, Karolina; Bergman, Birgitta

    2007-01-01

    The diversity and nitrogenase activity of epilithic marine microbes in a Holocene beach rock (Heron Island, Great Barrier Reef, Australia) with a proposed biological calcification “microbialite” origin were examined. Partial 16S rRNA gene sequences from the dominant mat (a coherent and layered pink-pigmented community spread over the beach rock) and biofilms (nonstratified, differently pigmented microbial communities of small shallow depressions) were retrieved using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE), and a clone library was retrieved from the dominant mat. The 16S rRNA gene sequences and morphological analyses revealed heterogeneity in the cyanobacterial distribution patterns. The nonheterocystous filamentous genus Blennothrix sp., phylogenetically related to Lyngbya, dominated the mat together with unidentified nonheterocystous filaments of members of the Pseudanabaenaceae and the unicellular genus Chroococcidiopsis. The dominance and three-dimensional intertwined distribution of these organisms were confirmed by nonintrusive scanning microscopy. In contrast, the less pronounced biofilms were dominated by the heterocystous cyanobacterial genus Calothrix, two unicellular Entophysalis morphotypes, Lyngbya spp., and members of the Pseudanabaenaceae family. Cytophaga-Flavobacterium-Bacteroides and Alphaproteobacteria phylotypes were also retrieved from the beach rock. The microbial diversity of the dominant mat was accompanied by high nocturnal nitrogenase activities (as determined by in situ acetylene reduction assays). A new DGGE nifH gene optimization approach for cyanobacterial nitrogen fixers showed that the sequences retrieved from the dominant mat were related to nonheterocystous uncultured cyanobacterial phylotypes, only distantly related to sequences of nitrogen-fixing cultured cyanobacteria. These data stress the occurrence and importance of nonheterocystous epilithic cyanobacteria, and it is hypothesized that such epilithic cyanobacteria

  8. Carbonate Melt Rocks from the Haughton Impact Structure, Devon Island, Nunavut, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osinski, G. R.; Spray, J. G.; Lee, P.

    2002-01-01

    The target rocks at the Haughton impact structure, Canada, are predominantly carbonates. The well preserved allochthonous crater-fill deposits are reinterpreted here as being carbonatitic impact melt rocks. The implications of our findings will be discussed. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  9. The ongoing search for the oldest rock on the Danish island of Bornholm: new U-Pb zircon ages for a quartz-rich xenolith and country rock from the Svaneke Granite

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Waight, Tod Earle; Serre, Simon H.; Næsby, Sebastian H.

    2017-01-01

    Previous geochronological studies on the Danish island of Bornholm have not identified any rocks older than c. 1.46 Ga. New LA-ICP-MS U-Pb zircon ages are presented for a xenolith within, and the country rock gneiss adjacent to, the Svaneke Granite on Bornholm. The xenolith is fine......-grained and quartz-rich and was likely derived from either a quartz-rich sedimentary protolith or a hydrothermally altered felsic volcanic rock. The relatively fine-grained felsic nature of the country rock gneiss and the presence of large zoned feldspars that may represent phenocrysts suggest its protolith may have...... been a felsic volcanic or shallow intrusive rock. A skarn-like inclusion from a nearby locality likely represents an originally carbonate sediment and is consistent with supracrustal rocks being present at least locally. Zircon data from the xenolith define an upper intercept age of 1483 ± 12 Ma (2σ...

  10. CRED Towed-Diver Fish Biomass Surveys at Kaula Rock, Main Hawaiian Islands in 2006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Towed-diver surveys (aka. Towboard surveys) are conducted by the Coral Reef Ecosystem Division (CRED) of the NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC) as...

  11. CRED Towed-Diver Fish Biomass Surveys at Lehua Rock, Main Hawaiian Islands in 2005

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Towed-diver surveys (aka. Towboard surveys) are conducted by the Coral Reef Ecosystem Division (CRED) of the NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC) as...

  12. Focused rock uplift above the subduction décollement at Montague and Hinchinbrook Islands, Prince William Sound, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Kelly M; Armstrong, Phillip A; Arkle Jeanette C,; Haeussler, Peter J.

    2014-01-01

    Megathrust splay fault systems in accretionary prisms have been identified as conduits for long-term plate motion and significant coseismic slip during subduction earthquakes. These fault systems are important because of their role in generating tsunamis, but rarely are emergent above sea level where their long-term (million year) history can be studied. We present 32 apatite (U-Th)/He (AHe) and 27 apatite fission-track (AFT) ages from rocks along an emergent megathrust splay fault system in the Prince William Sound region of Alaska above the shallowly subducting Yakutat microplate. The data show focused exhumation along the Patton Bay megathrust splay fault system since 3–2 Ma. Most AHe ages are younger than 5 Ma; some are as young as 1.1 Ma. AHe ages are youngest at the southwest end of Montague Island, where maximum fault displacement occurred on the Hanning Bay and Patton Bay faults and the highest shoreline uplift occurred during the 1964 earthquake. AFT ages range from ca. 20 to 5 Ma. Age changes across the Montague Strait fault, north of Montague Island, suggest that this fault may be a major structural boundary that acts as backstop to deformation and may be the westward mechanical continuation of the Bagley fault system backstop in the Saint Elias orogen. The regional pattern of ages and corresponding cooling and exhumation rates indicate that the Montague and Hinchinbrook Island splay faults, though separated by only a few kilometers, accommodate kilometer-scale exhumation above a shallowly subducting plate at million year time scales. This long-term pattern of exhumation also reflects short-term seismogenic uplift patterns formed during the 1964 earthquake. The increase in rock uplift and exhumation rate ca. 3–2 Ma is coincident with increased glacial erosion that, in combination with the fault-bounded, narrow width of the islands, has limited topographic development. Increased exhumation starting ca. 3–2 Ma is interpreted to be due to rock uplift

  13. K, Rb and Sr abundances and Sr isotopic composition of the Tanzawa granitic and associated gabbroic rocks, Japan: low-potash island arc plutonic complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishizaka, K.; Yanagi, T.

    1977-01-01

    The granitic and associated gabbroic rocks of the Tanzawa plutonic complex of Miocene age occurring in the northern part of the Izu-Bonin arc are characterized by low abundances of K (229-6790 ppm) and Rb (0.414-12.1 ppm), low K 2 O/Na 2 O ratios (0.037-0.21), moderately high K/Rb ratios (541-630), low Rb/Sr ratios (0.00137-0.0579) and low initial 87 Sr/ 86 Sr ratios (0.70332-0.70372). This indicates that acid to intermediate plutonic rocks with these geochemical characteristics also occur in island arc environments besides mid-oceanic ridge environments. They represent, together with associated gabbroic rocks, a low-potash island arc plutonic complex and are expected to occur beneath young island arcs, although now unexposed. The Tanzawa plutonic complex may have been formed by differentiation of low-K calc-alkaline magma. (Auth.)

  14. CRED REA Fish Team Stationary Point Count Surveys at Kaula Rock, Main Hawaiian Islands, 2006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Stationary Point Counts at 4 stations at each survey site were surveyed as part of Rapid Ecological Assessments (REA) conducted at 2 sites around Kaula Rock in the...

  15. CRED REA Algal Assessments at Lehua Rock, Main Hawaiian Islands in 2006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Twelve quadrats were sampled along 2 consecutively-placed, 25m transect lines, as part of Rapid Ecological Assessments, conducted at 3 sites at Lehua Rock in the...

  16. CRED REA Algal Assessments at Kaula Rock, Main Hawaiian Islands in 2006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Twelve quadrats were sampled along 2 consecutively-placed, 25m transect lines, as part of Rapid Ecological Assessments, conducted at 2 sites at Kaula Rock in the...

  17. Phytobenthic communities of intertidal rock pools in the eastern islands of Azores and their relation to position on shore and pool morphology

    OpenAIRE

    Wallenstein, Francisco; Peres, Sara D.; Xavier, Emanuel D.; Neto, Ana I.

    2010-01-01

    This study aimed to characterize algal composition inside rock-pools from two islands of the Azores archipelago (São Miguel and Santa Maria) and relate it to shore height and pool morphology. Pools were categorized as upper, medium and lower intertidal according to the surrounding communities. Maximum depth and surface area were used to reflect morphology and qualitative sampling to evaluate algal species richness. PRIMER software assessed the similarity across islands, sites, shore height...

  18. France's Nuclear Arsenal: What Sort of Renewal?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brustlein, Corentin

    2017-01-01

    Over the course of the next few years, France will have to renew its nuclear arsenal to ensure that it remains a credible deterrent in the eyes of its potential enemies. This update must occur within an unfavourable context: the strategic environment, marked by the multiplication of Jihadi fronts, has deteriorated, and budgetary discipline is the order of the day. Sacrificing nuclear deterrence at the altar of the fight against terrorism would, however, be a fatal error

  19. Recent and prospective developments in nuclear arsenals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, M.

    1993-01-01

    Arms controllers have long complained that the only weapons states give up in arms control negotiations are strategically insignificant weapons. This is why the United States and Soviet Union shied away from giving up much in SALT I and SALT II: each side felt that it could not significantly reduce its nuclear forces, or take any step that might give the other side an advantage. Do not be fooled: policy makers in Washington and Moscow still believe that it is important to hang on to strategically significant weapons. But, because the world has changed in fundamental ways, fewer weapons are strategically significant today. Now that extended deterrence requirements have virtually disappeared, the main reason for having nuclear weapons is to deter other nuclear powers from attacking with their nuclear weapons. There is, therefore, no compelling reason for having large nuclear forces. Given concerns about unauthorized attacks, accidental launches, and high levels of defense spending, there are good reasons for deploying smaller forces. This is why Washington and Moscow have been cutting their nuclear arsenals to levels that were unimaginable even in 1990. How far this process will go is impossible to say at this juncture. What is clear is that Washington and Moscow can - and should - make even deeper cuts in their nuclear forces. If the United States and Russia retain arsenals with thousands of nuclear weapons, Britain, France, and China - whose arsenals contain hundreds of nuclear weapons - will not join the arms reduction process. Countries that have promised to give up the nuclear weapons currently stationed on their territory - Kazakhstan, the Ukraine, and Belorussia - will be more inclined to retain them, on the grounds that nuclear weapons are seen to have strategic and political value. For the same reasons, countries on the nuclear threshold, such as India, will be more inclined to acquire nuclear weapons. If the United States and Russia retain massive nuclear

  20. Inferred vs Realized Patterns of Gene Flow: An Analysis of Population Structure in the Andros Island Rock Iguana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colosimo, Giuliano; Knapp, Charles R.; Wallace, Lisa E.; Welch, Mark E.

    2014-01-01

    Ecological data, the primary source of information on patterns and rates of migration, can be integrated with genetic data to more accurately describe the realized connectivity between geographically isolated demes. In this paper we implement this approach and discuss its implications for managing populations of the endangered Andros Island Rock Iguana, Cyclura cychlura cychlura. This iguana is endemic to Andros, a highly fragmented landmass of large islands and smaller cays. Field observations suggest that geographically isolated demes were panmictic due to high, inferred rates of gene flow. We expand on these observations using 16 polymorphic microsatellites to investigate the genetic structure and rates of gene flow from 188 Andros Iguanas collected across 23 island sites. Bayesian clustering of specimens assigned individuals to three distinct genotypic clusters. An analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) indicates that allele frequency differences are responsible for a significant portion of the genetic variance across the three defined clusters (Fst =  0.117, p0.01). These clusters are associated with larger islands and satellite cays isolated by broad water channels with strong currents. These findings imply that broad water channels present greater obstacles to gene flow than was inferred from field observation alone. Additionally, rates of gene flow were indirectly estimated using BAYESASS 3.0. The proportion of individuals originating from within each identified cluster varied from 94.5 to 98.7%, providing further support for local isolation. Our assessment reveals a major disparity between inferred and realized gene flow. We discuss our results in a conservation perspective for species inhabiting highly fragmented landscapes. PMID:25229344

  1. Inferred vs realized patterns of gene flow: an analysis of population structure in the Andros Island Rock Iguana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colosimo, Giuliano; Knapp, Charles R; Wallace, Lisa E; Welch, Mark E

    2014-01-01

    Ecological data, the primary source of information on patterns and rates of migration, can be integrated with genetic data to more accurately describe the realized connectivity between geographically isolated demes. In this paper we implement this approach and discuss its implications for managing populations of the endangered Andros Island Rock Iguana, Cyclura cychlura cychlura. This iguana is endemic to Andros, a highly fragmented landmass of large islands and smaller cays. Field observations suggest that geographically isolated demes were panmictic due to high, inferred rates of gene flow. We expand on these observations using 16 polymorphic microsatellites to investigate the genetic structure and rates of gene flow from 188 Andros Iguanas collected across 23 island sites. Bayesian clustering of specimens assigned individuals to three distinct genotypic clusters. An analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) indicates that allele frequency differences are responsible for a significant portion of the genetic variance across the three defined clusters (Fst =  0.117, p<0.01). These clusters are associated with larger islands and satellite cays isolated by broad water channels with strong currents. These findings imply that broad water channels present greater obstacles to gene flow than was inferred from field observation alone. Additionally, rates of gene flow were indirectly estimated using BAYESASS 3.0. The proportion of individuals originating from within each identified cluster varied from 94.5 to 98.7%, providing further support for local isolation. Our assessment reveals a major disparity between inferred and realized gene flow. We discuss our results in a conservation perspective for species inhabiting highly fragmented landscapes.

  2. Inferred vs realized patterns of gene flow: an analysis of population structure in the Andros Island Rock Iguana.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuliano Colosimo

    Full Text Available Ecological data, the primary source of information on patterns and rates of migration, can be integrated with genetic data to more accurately describe the realized connectivity between geographically isolated demes. In this paper we implement this approach and discuss its implications for managing populations of the endangered Andros Island Rock Iguana, Cyclura cychlura cychlura. This iguana is endemic to Andros, a highly fragmented landmass of large islands and smaller cays. Field observations suggest that geographically isolated demes were panmictic due to high, inferred rates of gene flow. We expand on these observations using 16 polymorphic microsatellites to investigate the genetic structure and rates of gene flow from 188 Andros Iguanas collected across 23 island sites. Bayesian clustering of specimens assigned individuals to three distinct genotypic clusters. An analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA indicates that allele frequency differences are responsible for a significant portion of the genetic variance across the three defined clusters (Fst =  0.117, p<<0.01. These clusters are associated with larger islands and satellite cays isolated by broad water channels with strong currents. These findings imply that broad water channels present greater obstacles to gene flow than was inferred from field observation alone. Additionally, rates of gene flow were indirectly estimated using BAYESASS 3.0. The proportion of individuals originating from within each identified cluster varied from 94.5 to 98.7%, providing further support for local isolation. Our assessment reveals a major disparity between inferred and realized gene flow. We discuss our results in a conservation perspective for species inhabiting highly fragmented landscapes.

  3. Rock, Reservation and Prison: The Native American Occupation of Alcatraz Island.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sklansky, Jeff

    1989-01-01

    Analyzes the 1969-71 occupation of Alcatraz Island by young radical American Indians as a set of metaphors for Indian America. Examines the central images of cultural revitalization through independence, protest against the position of Native Americans nationwide and rebellion against White oppression. Contains 47 references. (SV)

  4. Highly Shocked Low Density Sedimentary Rocks from the Haughton Impact Structure, Devon Island, Nunavut, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osinski, G. R.; Spray, J. G.

    2001-01-01

    We present the preliminary results of a detailed investigation of the shock effects in highly shocked, low density sedimentary rocks from the Haughton impact structure. We suggest that some textural features can be explained by carbonate-silicate immiscibility. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  5. Preliminary paleomagnetic and rock magnetic results from 17 to 22 ka sediment of Jeju Island, Korea: Geomagnetic excursional behavior or rock magnetic anomalies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Hyeon-Seon; Sohn, Young Kwan; Lee, Jin-Young; Kim, Jin Cheul

    2018-05-01

    Paleomagnetic and rock magnetic investigations were performed on a 64-cm-thick section of nonmarine unconsolidated muddy sediment from the Gosan Formation on Jeju Island, Korea. This sediment was recently dated to have been deposited between 22 and 17 kyr BP calibrated, with a sedimentation rate of 13-25 cm/kyr, based on many radiocarbon ages. Interestingly, stepwise alternating field (AF) demagnetization revealed characteristic natural remanent magnetizations with anomalous directions, manifested by marked deviations from the direction of today's axial dipole field, for some separate depth levels. On the other hand, stepwise thermal (TH) demagnetization showed more complex behavior, resulting in the identification of multiple remanence components. For all TH-treated specimens, consistently two different components are predominant: a low-temperature component unblocked below 240-320 °C entirely having normal-polarity apparently within the secular variation range of the Brunhes Chron, and a high-temperature component with unblocking temperatures (Tubs) between 240-320 and 520-580 °C that have anomalous directions, concentrated in the 13-34-cm-depth interval ( 17-19 ka in inferred age) and possibly below 53 cm depth (before 20 ka). Rock magnetic results also infer the dominance of low-coercivity magnetic particles having 300 and 580 °C Curie temperature as remanence carriers, suggestive of (titano)maghemite and/or Ti-rich titanomagnetite and magnetite (or Ti-poor titanomagnetite), respectively. A noteworthy finding is that AF demagnetizations in this study often lead to incomplete separation of the two remanence components possibly due to their strongly overlapping AF spectra. The unusual directions do not appear to result from self-reversal remanences. Then, one interpretation is that the low-temperature components are attributable to post-depositional chemical remanences, associated possibly with the later formation of the mineral phase having Tub 300

  6. A new species of Rock Gecko of the genus Cnemaspis Strauch, 1887 (Squamata: Gekkonidae) from Belitung Island, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riyanto, Awal; Hamidy, Amir; Sidik, Irvan; Gunalen, Danny

    2017-11-30

    A new species of rock gecko of the genus Cnemaspis Strauch is described from Belitung Island, Indonesia. The new species is differentiated from all other species in the Southern Sunda clade (sensu Grismer et al. 2014a) by having a unique combination of characters including: (1) a maximum SVL of 54.1 mm, (2) five or six postmental scales, (3) enlarged submetacarpal scales on the first finger, (4) enlarged submetatarsal scales on the first toe, (5) keeled ventral scales, (6) absence of precloacal pores, (7) absence of enlarged femoral scales, (8) absence of shield-like subtibial scales, (9) caudal tubercles encircling the tail, (10) an interrupted median row of enlarged keeled subcaudals, (11) presence of a distinct furrow on the lateral surface of the tail (12) 22-24 lamellae beneath fourth toe, and (13) two postcloacal tubercles on each side of the tail base.

  7. Age and isotopic fingerprints of some plutonic rocks in the Wiborg rapakivi granite batholith with special reference to the dark wiborgite of the Ristisaari Island

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rämö, O.T.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The mid-Proterozoic, locus classicus Wiborg rapakivi granite batholith of southeastern Finland and adjacent Russia comprises a varying, bimodal (silicic-basic sequence of plutonic, subvolcanic, and volcanic rocks. At the current level of erosion silicic rocks are dominant, the most prominent of which are wiborgites and dark wiborgites (that have been considered to mark the main build-up stage of the batholith and pyterlites. New observations and optical microscopy data from the dark wiborgite-dominated Ristisaari Island in the southern, off-shore part of the Wiborg batholith show that dark plagioclase megacrysts in dark wiborgite are calcic xenocrysts. They were probably incorporated into wiborgite magma from consanguineous massiftype anorthosite magmas in the course of the evolution of the bimodal magmatic system. Our new ID-TIMS U-Pb zircon age of the Ristisaari Island dark wiborgite, 1627±3 Ma, is the youngest isotopic age so far determined for the plutonic rocks of the Wiborg batholith. This, combined with preexisting U-Pb zircon data, implies a minimum duration of 12 m.y. (1642–1630 Ma for the emplacement of the plutonic rocks of the batholith. Combined with data on highlevel dike rocks, a window of at least 20 m.y. (1642–1622 Ma is implied. Furthermore, as the batholith grew, the overall locus of magmatism may have shifted southwards. New whole-rock Nd isotope data on the dark wiborgite of the Ristisaari Island and three further granites of the batholith, as well as Nd (whole-rock and Sr (whole-rock, plagioclase isotope data on a spectrolite massif-type anorthosite from the east-central part of the batholith, are also presented. These data suggest that the lithosphere across the Wiborg batholith area in the southeastern part of the Svecofennian orogen may vary slightly in overall mantle separation age.

  8. Cobalt- and platinum-rich ferromanganese crusts and associated substrate rocks from the Marshall Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hein, J.R.; Schwab, W.C.; Davis, A.

    1988-01-01

    Ferromanganese crusts cover most hard substrates on seafloor edifices in the central Pacific basin. Crust samples and their associated substrates from seven volcanic edifices of Cretaceous age along the Ratak chain of the Marshall Islands are discussed. The two most abundant substrate lithologies recovered were limestone, dominantly fore-reef slope deposits, and volcanic breccia composed primarily of differentiated alkalic basalt and hawaiite clasts in a phosphatized carbonate matrix. The degree of mass wasting on the slopes of these seamounts is inversely correlated with the thickness of crusts. Crusts are generally thin on limestone substrate. Away from areas of active mass-wasting processes, and large atolls, crusts may be as thick as 10 cm maximum. The dominant crystalline phase in the Marshall Islands crusts is ??-MnO2 (vernadite). High concentrations of cobalt, platinum and rhodium strongly suggest that the Marshall Islands crusts are a viable source for these important metals. Many metals and the rare earth elements vary significantly on a fine scale through most crusts, thus reflecting the abundances of different host mineral phases in the crusts and changes in seawater composition with time. High concentrations of cobalt, nickel, titanium, zinc, lead, cerium and platinum result from a combination of their substitution in the iron and manganese phases and their oxidation potential. ?? 1988.

  9. Automatic Requirements Specification Extraction from Natural Language (ARSENAL)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-01

    studies: the Time-Triggered Ethernet (TTEthernet) communication platform used in space, and FAA-Isolette infant incubators used in NICU . We...in space, and FAA-Isolette infant incubators used in Neonatal Intensive Care Units ( NICUs ). We systematically evalu- ated various aspects of ARSENAL...effect, we present the ARSENAL methodology. ARSENAL uses state-of-the-art advances in natural language processing (NLP) and formal methods (FM) to

  10. Water-rock interaction in the magmatic-hydrothermal system of Nisyros Island (Greece)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambrosio, Michele; Doveri, Marco; Fagioli, Maria Teresa; Marini, Luigi; Principe, Claudia; Raco, Brunella

    2010-04-01

    In this work, we investigated the water-rock interaction processes taking place in the hydrothermal reservoir of Nisyros through both: (1) a review of the hydrothermal mineralogy encountered in the deep geothermal borehole Nisyros-2; and (2) a comparison of the analytically-derived redox potentials and acidities of fumarolic-related liquids, with those controlled by redox buffers and pH buffers, involving hydrothermal mineral phases. The propylitic zone met in the deep geothermal borehole Nisyros-2, from 950 to 1547 m (total depth), is characterised by abundant, well crystallised epidote, adularia, albite, quartz, pyrite, chlorite, and sericite-muscovite, accompanied by less abundant anhydrite, stilpnomelane, wairakite, garnet, tremolite and pyroxene. These hydrothermal minerals were produced in a comparatively wide temperature range, from 230 to 300 °C, approximately. Hydrothermal assemblages are well developed from 950 to 1360 m, whereas they are less developed below this depth, probably due to low permeability. Based on the RH values calculated for fumarolic gases and for the deep geothermal fluids of Nisyros-1 and Nisyros-2 wells, redox equilibrium with the (FeO)/(FeO 1.5) rock buffer appears to be closely attained throughout the hydrothermal reservoir of Nisyros. This conclusion may be easily reconciled with the nearly ubiquitous occurrence of anhydrite and pyrite, since RH values controlled by coexistence of anhydrite and pyrite can be achieved by gas separation. The pH of the liquids feeding the fumarolic vents of Stephanos and Polybote Micros craters was computed, by means of the EQ3 code, based on the Cl- δD relationship which is constrained by the seawater-magmatic water mixing occurring at depth in the hydrothermal-magmatic system of Nisyros. The temperature dependence of analytically-derived pH values for the reservoir liquids feeding the fumarolic vents of Stephanos and Polybote Micros craters suggests that some unspecified pH buffer fixes the

  11. Sedimentology, geochemistry and rock magnetic properties of beach sands in Galapagos Islands - implications for nesting marine turtles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Cruz, L.; Urrutia-Fucugauchi, J.; Vazquez-Gutierrez, F.; Carranza-Edwards, A.

    2007-12-01

    Marine turtles are well known for their navigation ability in the open ocean and fidelity to nesting beaches. Green turtle adult females migrate from foraging areas to island nesting beaches, traveling hundreds or thousands of kilometers each way. The marine turtle breeding in the Galapagos Islands is the Green Sea Turtle (Chelonia mydas agassisi); fairly common throughout the islands but with nesting sites located at Las Bachas (Santa Cruz), Barahona and Quinta Playa (Isabela), Salinas (Baltra), Gardner Bay (Española) and Bartolomé Islet. In order to characterize and to identify the geochemical signature of nesting marine turtle beaches in Galapagos Islands, sedimentological, geochemical and rock magnetic parameters are used. A total of one hundred and twenty sand samples were collected in four beaches to relate compositional characteristics between equivalent areas, these are: Las Bachas, Salinas, Barahona and Quinta Playa. Grain size is evaluated using laser particle analysis (Model Coulter LS 230). Bulk ICP-MS geochemical analysis is performed, following trace elements are analyzed: Al, V, Cr, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd, Ba, Pb, Fe, Mn, K, Na, Mg, Sr, Ca and Hg; and low-field magnetic susceptibility is measured in all samples at low and high frequencies. Granulometric analysis showed that Barahona and Quinta Playa are characterized for fine grained sands. In contrast, Salinas and Las Bachas exhibit medium to coarse sands. Trace metals concentrations and magnetic susceptibility show different distribution patterns in the beach sands. Calcium is the most abundant element in the samples. In particular, Co, K, and Na show similar concentrations in the four beaches. Las Bachas beach shows highest concentrations of Pb and Hg (maximum values 101.1 and 118.5 mg/kg, respectively), we suggest that the enrichment corresponds to an anthropogenic signal. Salinas beach samples show high concentrations of Fe, V, Cr, Zn, Mn and the highest values of magnetic susceptibility (maximum

  12. Life-history strategies of the rock hind grouper Epinephelus adscensionis at Ascension Island.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolan, E T; Downes, K J; Richardson, A; Arkhipkin, A; Brickle, P; Brown, J; Mrowicki, R J; Shcherbich, Z; Weber, N; Weber, S B

    2017-12-01

    Epinephelus adscensionis sampled from Ascension Island, South Atlantic Ocean, exhibits distinct life-history traits, including larger maximum size and size at sexual maturity than previous studies have demonstrated for this species in other locations. Otolith analysis yielded a maximum estimated age of 25 years, with calculated von Bertalanffy growth parameters of: L ∞  = 55·14, K = 0·19, t 0  = -0·88. Monthly gonad staging and analysis of gonad-somatic index (I G ) provide evidence for spawning from July to November with an I G peak in August (austral winter), during which time somatic growth is also suppressed. Observed patterns of sexual development were supportive of protogyny, although further work is needed to confirm this. Mean size at sexual maturity for females was 28·9 cm total length (L T ; 95% C.I. 27·1-30·7 cm) and no females were found >12 years and 48·0 cm L T , whereas all confirmed males sampled were mature, >35·1 cm L T with an age range from 3 to 18 years. The modelled size at which 50% of individuals were male was 41·8 cm (95% C.I. 40·4-43·2 cm). As far as is known, this study represents the first comprehensive investigation into the growth and reproduction of E. adscensionis at its type locality of Ascension Island and suggests that the population may be affected less by fisheries than elsewhere in its range. Nevertheless, improved regulation of the recreational fishery and sustained monitoring of abundance, length frequencies and life-history parameters are needed to inform long-term management measures, which could include the creation of marine reserves, size or temporal catch limits and stricter export controls. © 2017 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  13. Un proyecto de arsenal para la Barceloneta (1743 / An Arsenal Project in La Barceloneta (1743

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo de la Fuente de Pablo

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available En 1743 el ingeniero militar Miguel Marín diseñó un arsenal naval en Barcelona. En este artículo se estudia el contexto inmediato de este proyecto. Primeramente, la voluntad de trasladar la principal base naval mediterránea de Cartagena a la capital catalana. En segundo lugar, la relación centro-periferia y el papel del lobby catalán dentro del proceso.In 1743 Miguel Marín, a military engineer, designed the marine arsenal in Barcelona. In this paper, we study the background of this project. Firstly, the willingness to move the Mediterranean base of the Spanish Navy from Cartagena to the capital of Catalonia. Secondly, the centre-periphery relationship and the role of Catalan lobby in this process.

  14. Study of C13/C12 and O18/O16 variations on environments of beach rocks formation in Itaparica island - Bahia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campos, H.S.

    1976-01-01

    Calcium carbonate-cemented beach sands or beach rocks have been observed to occur in the inter tidal zone of many tropical beaches. Near Salvador (Brazil) occurrences are found in several locations on the island of Itaparica. A study of the stable isotope composition (C 13 / C 12 and O 18 / O 16 ) of the cement and the local groundwater was carried out to determine the origin of the carbonate cement. (author)

  15. Ancient xenocrystic zircon in young volcanic rocks of the southern Lesser Antilles island arc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas-Agramonte, Yamirka; Williams, Ian S.; Arculus, Richard; Kröner, Alfred; García-Casco, Antonio; Lázaro, Concepción; Buhre, Stephan; Wong, Jean; Geng, Helen; Echeverría, Carlos Morales; Jeffries, Teresa; Xie, Hangqian; Mertz-Kraus, Regina

    2017-10-01

    The Lesser Antilles arc is one of the best global examples in which to examine the effects of the involvement of subducted sediment and crustal assimilation in the generation of arc crust. Most of the zircon recovered in our study of igneous and volcaniclastic rocks from Grenada and Carriacou (part of the Grenadines chain) is younger than 2 Ma. Within some late Paleogene to Neogene ( 34-0.2 Ma) lavas and volcaniclastic sediments however, there are Paleozoic to Paleoarchean ( 250-3469 Ma) xenocrysts, and Late Jurassic to Precambrian zircon ( 158-2667 Ma) are found in beach and river sands. The trace element characteristics of zircon clearly differentiate between different types of magmas generated in the southern Lesser Antilles through time. The zircon population from the younger arc (Miocene, 22-19 Ma, to Present) has minor negative Eu anomalies, well-defined positive Ce anomalies, and a marked enrichment in heavy rare earth elements (HREE), consistent with crystallization from very oxidized magmas in which Eu2 + was in low abundance. In contrast, zircon from the older arc (Eocene to mid-Oligocene, 30-28 Ma) has two different REE patterns: 1) slight enrichment in the light (L)REE, small to absent Ce anomalies, and negative Eu anomalies and 2) enriched High (H)REE, positive Ce anomalies and negative Eu anomalies (a similar pattern is observed in the xenocrystic zircon population). The combination of positive Ce and negative Eu anomalies in the zircon population of the older arc indicates crystallization from magmas that were variably, but considerably less oxidized than those of the younger arc. All the igneous zircon has positive εHf(t), reflecting derivation from a predominantly juvenile mantle source. However, the εHf(t) values vary significantly within samples, reflecting considerable Hf isotopic heterogeneity in the source. The presence of xenocrystic zircon in the southern Lesser Antilles is evidence for the assimilation of intra-arc crustal sediments and

  16. China's nuclear arsenal and missile defence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rappai, M.V.

    2002-01-01

    Over the last few years, major focus of the nuclear debate has been turned towards the United States' proposal to erect a National Missile Defence (NMD) shield for itself. Of the existing nuclear weapon powers, China has been the most vociferous critic of this proposal. As and when this shield does become a reality, China will be the first to lose credibility as a deterrent against USA's existing nuclear arsenal. Therefore taking countermeasures against such a proposal is quite natural. China's approach towards non-proliferation mechanisms is steeped in realpolitik and its ability to manoeuvre them in its favour as a P5 and N5 power. Further, the Chinese leadership have been clear about the capabilities and limitations of nuclear weapons and treated them as diplomatic and political tools. The underlying aim is to preserve China's status as a dominant player in the international system while checkmating other possible challengers. Such a pragmatic approach is of far-reaching significance to all nations, especially those that possess nuclear weapons themselves. It will also be in India's long-term strategic interest to assess and take necessary corrective measures in its national security strategy, and make the composition of Indian nuclear strategy meet the desired goal. (author)

  17. Petrogenesis of basaltic volcanic rocks from the Pribilof Islands, Alaska, by melting of metasomatically enriched depleted lithosphere, crystallization differentiation, and magma mixing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, J.M.; Feeley, T.C.; Deraps, M.R.

    2009-01-01

    The Pribilof Islands, Alaska, are located in the Bering Sea in a continental intraplate setting. In this study we examine the petrology and geochemistry of volcanic rocks from St. Paul (0??54-0??003 Ma) and St. George (2??8-1??4 Ma) Islands, the two largest Pribilof Islands. Rocks from St. George can be divided into three groups: group 1 is a high-MgO, low-SiO. 2 suite composed primarily of basanites; group 2 is a high-MgO, high-SiO 2 suite consisting predominantly of alkali basalts; group 3 is an intermediate- to low-MgO suite that includes plagioclase-phyric subalkali basalts and hawaiites. Major and trace element geochemistry suggests that groups 1 and 2 formed by small-degree partial melting of amphibole-bearing to amphibole-free garnet peridotite. Group 1 rocks were the earliest melts produced from the most hydrous parts of the mantle, as they show the strongest geochemical signature of amphibole in their source. The suite of rocks from St. Paul ranges from 14??4 to 4??2 wt % MgO at relatively constant SiO 2 contents (43??1-47??3 wt %). The most primitive St. Paul rocks are modeled as mixtures between magmas with compositions similar to groups 1 and 2 from St. George Island, which subsequently fractionated olivine, clinopyroxene, and spinel to form more evolved rocks. Plagioclase-phyric group 3 rocks from St. George are modeled as mixtures between an evolved melt similar to the evolved magmas on St. Paul and a fractionated group 2 end-member from St. George. Mantle potential temperatures estimated for primitive basanites and alkali basalts are ???1400??C and are similar to those of mid-ocean ridge basalts (MORB). Similarly, 87Sr/. 86Sr and 143Nd/. 144Nd values for all rocks are MORB-like, in the range of 0??702704-0??703035 and 0??513026-0??513109, respectively. 208Pb/. 204Pb vs 206Pb/. 204Pb values lie near the MORB end-member but show a linear trend towards HIMU (high time-integrated 238U/. 204Pb). Despite isotopic similarities to MORB, many of the major and

  18. Some Key Features and Possible Origin of the Metamorphic Rock-Hosted Gold Mineralization in Buru Island, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arifudin Idrus

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available DOI: 10.17014/ijog.v1i1.172This paper discusses characteristics of some key features of the primary Buru gold deposit as a tool for a better understanding of the deposit genesis. Currently, about 105,000 artisanal and small-scale gold miners (ASGM are operating in two main localities, i.e. Gogorea and Gunung Botak by digging pits/shafts following gold-bearing quartz vein orientation. The gold extraction uses mercury (amalgamation and cyanide processing. The field study identifies two types/generations of quartz veins namely (1 Early quartz veins which are segmented, sigmoidal, dis­continous, and parallel to the foliation of host rock. The quartz vein is lack of sulfides, weak mineralized, crystalline, relatively clear, and maybe poor in gold, and (2 Quartz veins occurred within a ‘mineralized zone’ of about 100 m in width and ~1,000 m in length. The gold mineralization is strongly overprinted by an argillic alteration zone. The mineralization-alteration zone is probably parallel to the mica schist foliation and strongly controlled by N-S or NE-SW-trending structures. The gold-bearing quartz veins are characterized by banded texture particularly colloform following host rock foliation and sulphide banding, brecciated, and rare bladed-like texture. The alteration types consist of propylitic (chlorite, calcite, sericite, argillic, and carbonation represented by graphite banding and carbon flakes. The ore mineralization is characterized by pyrite, native gold, pyrrhotite, and arsenopyrite. Cinnabar, stibnite, chalcopyrite, galena, and sphalerite are rare or maybe absent. In general, sulphide minerals are rare (<3%. Fifteen rock samples were collected in Wamsaid area for geochemical assaying for Au, Ag, As, Sb, Hg, Cu, Pb, and Zn. Eleven of fifteen samples yielded more than 1.00 g/t Au, in which six of them are in excess of 3.00 g/t Au. It can be noted that all high-grade samples are originally or containing limonitic materials, that suggest

  19. Oxygen isotope thermometry of quartz-Al2SiO5veins in high-grade metamorphic rocks on Naxos island (Greece)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putlitz, Benita; Valley, John; Matthews, Alan; Katzir, Yaron

    2002-04-01

    Diffusion models predict that peak metamorphic temperatures are best recorded by the oxygen isotope fractionation between minerals in a bi-mineralic rock in which a refractory accessory mineral with slow oxygen diffusion rate is modally minor to a mineral with a faster diffusion rate. This premise is demonstrated for high-grade metamorphism on the island of Naxos, Greece, where quartz-kyanite oxygen isotope thermometry from veins in high-grade metamorphic pelites gives temperatures of 635-690 °C. These temperatures are in excellent agreement with independent thermometry for the regional M2 peak metamorphic conditions and show that the vein minerals isotopically equilibrated at the peak of metamorphism. Quartz-sillimanite fractionations in the same veins give similar temperatures (680+/-35 °C) and suggest that the veins grew near to the kyanite-sillimanite boundary, corresponding to pressures of 6.5 to 7.5 kbar for temperatures of 635-685 °C. By contrast, quartz-kyanite and quartz-biotite pairs in the host rocks yield lower temperature estimates than the veins (590-600 and 350-550 °C, respectively). These lower apparent temperatures are also predicted from calculations of diffusional resetting in the polyphase host-rock system. The data demonstrate that bimineralic vein assemblages can be used as accurate thermometers in high-temperature rocks whereas retrograde exchange remains a major problem in many polymineralic rocks.

  20. 143Nd/144Nd and 87Sr/86Sr isotope ratio variations in magmatic rocks of Aleutian island arc as regard to the problem of their petrogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhuravlev, D.Z.; Chernyshev, I.V.; Tsvetkov, A.A.; Borsuk, A.M.; Agapova, A.A.; Serdyuk, N.I.

    1983-01-01

    The results of precision measurement of isotope composition of neodymium in rocks of Pre-Quaternary magmatic formations of the Aleutian island arc (AIA) (Commander Islands). It has been found summing the Nd and Sr analysis results in AIA magmatic rocks that AIA magmatic melts are of mantle origin. The AIA magma source the full its length off and for all the history of geological development remained isotopically homogeneousm Crust contamination of magmatic melts played a significant role only in the initial and early stages of the AIA development, in the later and conclusive stages this process has been sharply reduced. Sedimentary material practically did not take part in the magmaproduction process at the initial stage of the AIA development, it is hardly probable that its role increased at the later stages. The cause of important 87 Sr/ 86 Sr ratio variations in the rocks of one AIA petrographic type is the propylitization process with participation of sea water. Variance of 87 Sr/ 86 Sr ratios without taking into account other isotope systems data is not an indisputable proof of magma source heterogeneity

  1. Life on an Island: Early Settlers off the Rock Bound Coast of Maine. Teaching with Historic Places.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobbs-Olson, Laurie

    This lesson, based on National Register of Historic Places files, describes early settlers' lives on some of the approximately 5,000 islands off the coast of Maine. During the mid-18th century many of these islands began to be inhabited by settlers eager to take advantage of this interface between land and sea. The lesson discusses the Blue Duck…

  2. Ages and petrogenesis of Jurassic and Cretaceous intrusive rocks in the Matsu Islands: Implications for lower crust modification beneath southeastern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jing-Yuan; Yang, Jin-Hui; Ji, Wei-Qiang

    2017-12-01

    Major and trace element, whole-rock Sr-, Nd- and Hf-isotope, zircon U-Pb age and Hf-O isotope data are reported for the intrusive rocks from the Matsu Islands in the coastal area of southeastern (SE) China, in order to study the ages, sources and petrogenesis of these rocks and evolution of the lower crust. The rocks include gneissic granite, massive granite, brecciated granite and diabase. Secondary ion mass spectrometer (SIMS) zircon U-Pb dating reveals that the rocks in the Matsu Islands were emplaced at ∼160 Ma, ∼130 Ma and ∼94 Ma. The Jurassic granites (∼160 Ma) have high SiO2 (74.1-74.5 wt%) and K2O + Na2O (8.32-8.33 wt%) contents and high Rb/Sr ratios of 0.6-1.2 and (La/Yb)CN ratios of 12.6-19.4. Their relatively high initial 87Sr/86Sr ratios (0.7074-0.7101), variable and negative εNd(t) values (-9.2 to -5.4), and variable zircon εHf(t) (-17.0 to +5.2) and δ18O (4.7-8.1‰) values indicate they were mainly derived from an ancient lower crustal source, but with involvement of high εHf(t) and low δ18O materials. The Early Cretaceous diabase (∼130 Ma) has SiO2 content of 56.5 wt%, relatively high MgO concentration, low initial 87Sr/86Sr ratio and negative εNd(t) value, similar to geochemical features of other Cretaceous mafic rocks in the coastal area of SE China. Zircons from the diabase have high εHf(t) values (-5.5 to +0.2) and relatively low δ18O values of 4.2-5.0‰. These characteristics indicate that the parental magma of the diabase was generated by partial melting of enriched lithospheric mantle, which have been metasomatised by altered oceanic crust-derived low-δ18O fluids. For the Cretaceous granitoids (∼130 Ma and 94 Ma), they have relatively low SiO2 (68.0-71.3 wt%) and K2O + Na2O (5.30-7.55 wt%) contents and low Rb/Sr ratios and (La/Yb)CN ratios of 5.8-7.1. They have low initial 87Sr/86Sr ratios (0.7071-0.7082), homogeneous εNd(t) (-4.3 to -4.5) and relatively high zircon εHf(t) values (-3.7 to +1.2) and low δ18O values (4

  3. 76 FR 27999 - Procurement List; Addition and Deletion

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-13

    ...: Base Supply Center, Rock Island Arsenal, 3154 Rodman Avenue, Rock Island, IL. NPA: Association for Retarded Citizens of Rock Island County, Rock Island, IL. Contracting Activity: Dept of the Army, SR W0K8 USA ROCK ISL Arsenal, Rock Island, IL. [[Page 28000

  4. 76 FR 13362 - Procurement List Proposed Additions and Deletion

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-11

    .../Location: Base Supply Center, Rock Island Arsenal, 3154 Rodman Avenue, Rock Island, IL. NPA: Association for Retarded Citizens of Rock Island County, Rock Island, IL. Contracting Activity: DEPT OF THE ARMY, SR W0K8 USA ROCK ISL ARSENAL, ROCK ISLAND, IL. Service Type/Location: Base Operations Support, Mark...

  5. Nuclear Arsenals at Low Numbers: When Less Is Different

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hustus, Hunter

    2015-01-01

    President Obama's 2009 speech in Prague is remembered as a call for the eventual elimination of nuclear weapons. It reinvigorated a long-overdue policy debate in the United States and Europe. Unfortunately, that debate is characterized by a focus on arsenal size that borders on numerology, a lack of imagination consistent with presentism, and…

  6. Scientific results from the deepened Lopra-1 borehole, Faroe Islands: Hydrocarbon gases in Palaeogene volcanic rocks from the Lopra-1/1A well, Faroe Islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laier, Troels

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Hydrocarbon gases were monitored in the drilling fluid during deepening of the Lopra-1 well from 2178–3565 m, in which thermogenic, methane-rich gases had been found previously. The mud gas concentration, up to 105 ppm of methane, was generally higher in the hyaloclastite sequence, 2470 m – terminal depth (TD, than in the overlying lavas of the lower basalt formation. The highest concentrations of mud gas in the lower basalt formation were associated with the more porous tuffaceous zones, whereas no simple relationship could be established between measured mud gas concentrations and porosity of the hyaloclastic rocks, which showed less marked porosity variations than the lavas.Chemical (C2+ 104 ppm. No particularly gas-rich zones were indicated, however, by the mud gas, nor was any significant change in lithology noted for this interval. It is possible that the technique of turbo-drilling, that had been attempted over a short interval, 2657–2675 m prior to collection of the high-level methane samples, may have caused enhanced degassingdue to the very fine cuttings produced. Chemical and isotopic composition of headspace gas and mud gas indicated the same type of gas throughout the well, although headspace methane tended to bemore enriched with respect to the 13C isotope.The origin of the Lopra-1 gas is discussed in the light of recent information obtained from source rock studies of central East Greenland and the Faroe–Shetland Basin.

  7. Cultural Landscape Inventory for Picatinny Arsenal, New Jersey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-01

    hollow clay tile. Each area is significant for the way that the structures within it are interrelated. ERDC/CERL TR-16-17 21 A steep ridge west of...side of Lake Denmark, located at the northeastern corner of the arsenal. The 900 Area includes several hollow clay tile magazines constructed in...Underground Electric Lines 82712 1983 Chilled Water Distribution System 83210 1942 AAL Sanitary Sewer 84210 1942 AAL Potable Water Distribution

  8. Litigation Technical Support and Services, Rocky Mountain Arsenal

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-05-01

    34 d V) W C > - d) 4- -~ 0 - - .4 ..- di L *..L 3~1 3-~ v mi a- a t - --- w- Vdi 4 - ý 0 -4 0 m~ -j m0 m’ .- us 0 Ill i to -v .4 I 4 1 t A ~ 3Ul t -4...2060. Marlow, D. J. 1979g, November 8. Pest control report, October 1979. Rocky Mountain Arsenal. Microfilm RMA182, Franes 2048 -2053 Marlow, D. J

  9. The Metamorphic Rocks-Hosted Gold Mineralization At Rumbia Mountains Prospect Area In The Southeastern Arm of Sulawesi Island, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasria Hasria

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Recently, in Indonesia gold exploration activities  are not only focused along volcanic-magmatic belts, but also starting to shift along metamorphic and sedimentary terrains. The study area is located in Rumbia mountains, Bombana Regency, Southeast Sulawesi Province. This paper is aimed to describe characteristics of alteration and ore mineralization associated  with metamorphic rock-related gold deposits.  The study area is found the placer and  primary gold hosted by metamorphic rocks. The gold is evidently derived from gold-bearing quartz veins hosted by Pompangeo Metamorphic Complex (PMC. These quartz veins are currently recognized in metamorphic rocks at Rumbia Mountains. The quartz veins are mostly sheared/deformed, brecciated, irregular vein, segmented and  relatively massive and crystalline texture with thickness from 1 cm to 15.7 cm. The wallrock are generally weakly altered. Hydrothermal alteration types include sericitization, argillic, inner propylitic, propylitic, carbonization and carbonatization. There some precious metal identified consist of native gold and ore mineralization including pyrite (FeS2, chalcopyrite (CuFeS2, hematite (Fe2O3, cinnabar (HgS, stibnite (Sb2S3 and goethite (FeHO2. The veins contain erratic gold in various grades from below detection limit <0.0002 ppm to 18.4 ppm. Based on those characteristics, it obviously indicates that the primary gold deposit present in the study area is of orogenic gold deposit type. The orogenic gold deposit is one of the new targets for exploration in Indonesia

  10. Metamorphic rock-hosted orogenic gold deposit style at Bombana (Southeast Sulawesi and Buru Island (Maluku: Their key features and significances for gold exploration in Eastern Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arifudin Idrus

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In Indonesia, gold is commonly mined from epithermal-, porphyry-, and skarn-type deposits that are commonly found in volcanic belts along island arcs or active continental margin settings. Numerous gold prospects, however, were recently discovered in association with metamorphic rocks. This paper focuses on metamorphic rock-hosted gold mineralization in Eastern Indonesia, in particular the Bombana (SE Sulawesi and Buru Island (Maluku prospects. At Bombana, gold-bearing quartz-veins are hosted by the Pompangeo metamorphic complex. Sheared, segmented veins vary in thickness from 2 cm to 2 m. Gold is mainly present in the form of ‘free gold’ among silicate minerals and closely related to cinnabar, stibnite, tripuhyite, and in places, minor arsenopyrite. The gold distribution is erratic, however, ranging from below detection limit up to 134 g/t. At least three generations of veins are identified. The first is parallel to the foliation, the second crosscuts the first generation of veins as well as the foliation, and the late-stage laminated deformed quartz-calcite vein represents the third mineralization stage. The early veins are mostly massive to crystalline, occasionally brecciated, and sigmoidal, whereas the second-stage veins are narrower than the first ones and less subjected to brecciation. Gold grades in the second- and third-stage veins are on average higher than that in the earlier veins. Microthermometric and Raman spectrometric studies of fluid inclusions indicate abundant H2O-NaCl and minor H2O-NaCl-CO2 fluids. Homogenization temperatures and salinities vary from 114 to 283 ºC and 0.35 to 9.08 wt.% NaCl eq., respectively. Crush-leach analysis of fluid inclusions suggests that the halogen fluid chemistry is not identical to sea water, magmatic or epithermal related fluids, but tends to be similar to fluids in mesothermal-type gold deposits. In Buru Island (Gunung Botak and Gogorea prospects, two distinct generations of quartz veins

  11. A reassessment of the early archaeological record at Leang Burung 2, a Late Pleistocene rock-shelter site on the Indonesian island of Sulawesi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakim, Budianto; Ramli, Muhammad; Aubert, Maxime; van den Bergh, Gerrit D.; Li, Bo; Burhan, Basran; Saiful, Andi Muhammad; Siagian, Linda; Sardi, Ratno; Jusdi, Andi; Abdullah; Mubarak, Andi Pampang; Moore, Mark W.; Roberts, Richard G.; Zhao, Jian-xin; McGahan, David; Jones, Brian G.; Perston, Yinika; Szabó, Katherine; Mahmud, M. Irfan; Westaway, Kira; Jatmiko; Saptomo, E. Wahyu; van der Kaars, Sander; Grün, Rainer; Wood, Rachel; Dodson, John

    2018-01-01

    This paper presents a reassessment of the archaeological record at Leang Burung 2, a key early human occupation site in the Late Pleistocene of Southeast Asia. Excavated originally by Ian Glover in 1975, this limestone rock-shelter in the Maros karsts of Sulawesi, Indonesia, has long held significance in our understanding of early human dispersals into ‘Wallacea’, the vast zone of oceanic islands between continental Asia and Australia. We present new stratigraphic information and dating evidence from Leang Burung 2 collected during the course of our excavations at this site in 2007 and 2011–13. Our findings suggest that the classic Late Pleistocene modern human occupation sequence identified previously at Leang Burung 2, and proposed to span around 31,000 to 19,000 conventional 14C years BP (~35–24 ka cal BP), may actually represent an amalgam of reworked archaeological materials. Sources for cultural materials of mixed ages comprise breccias from the rear wall of the rock-shelter–remnants of older, eroded deposits dated to 35–23 ka cal BP–and cultural remains of early Holocene antiquity. Below the upper levels affected by the mass loss of Late Pleistocene deposits, our deep-trench excavations uncovered evidence for an earlier hominin presence at the site. These findings include fossils of now-extinct proboscideans and other ‘megafauna’ in stratified context, as well as a cobble-based stone artifact technology comparable to that produced by late Middle Pleistocene hominins elsewhere on Sulawesi. PMID:29641524

  12. Arsenals : tummalt kõnekas / Lauri Kärk

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kärk, Lauri, 1954-

    2008-01-01

    Tänavusel Riia filmifestivalil Arsenals nähtust, eelkõige huvitavatest tummfilmiajastu filmidest, sealhulgas Läti esimesest mängufilmist "Kus on tõde? Või juudi naiskursuslase tragöödia" (produtsent S. Mintus, 1913). Lisatud info "Eesti film võitis Riias mitu auhinda", millest nähtub, et Balti võistlusprogrammis oli parim mängufilm "Sügisball", parim dokfilm "Vastutuulesaal" ja publikupreemia ning ühe oikumeenilise žürii preemia sai "Klass"

  13. The Security of Russia's Nuclear Arsenal: The Human Factor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ball, D.Y.

    1999-01-01

    Assertions by the Russian military that all of their nuclear weapons are secure against theft and that nuclear units within the military are somehow insulated from the problems plaguing the Russian military should not be accepted uncritically. Accordingly, we should not give unwarranted credence to the pronouncements of military figures like Cal.-Gen. Igor Valynkin, Chief of the Defense Ministry's 12th Main Directorate, which oversees the country's nuclear arsenal. He contends that ''Russian nuclear weapons are under reliable supervision'' and that ''talk about the unreliability of our control over nuclear weapons has only one pragmatic goal--to convince international society that the country is incapable of maintaining nuclear safety and to introduce international oversight over those weapons, as it is done, for example, in Iraq.'' While the comparison to Iraq is preposterous, many analysts might agree with Valynkin's sanguine appraisal of the security of Russia's nuclear weapons. In contrast, I argue that the numerous difficulties confronting the military as a whole should cause concern in the West over the security of the Russian nuclear arsenal

  14. Oceanographic data collected from Woody Island (USCG Pillar Rock back range board) by Center for Coastal Margin Observation and Prediction (CMOP) and assembled by Northwest Association of Networked Ocean Observation Systems (NANOOS) in the Columbia River Estuary and North East Pacific Ocean from 1997-02-07 to 2015-08-19 (NCEI Accession 0162191)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0162191 contains navigational and physical data collected at Woody Island (USCG Pillar Rock back range board), a fixed station in the Columbia River...

  15. Implantation of alpha spectrometry methodology for the determination of U and Th isotopes in igneous rocks: application to the study of radioactive desequilibrium in the Trindade Island, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, Rosana Nunes dos

    2001-01-01

    This work describes the implementation of experimental procedures for alpha spectrometry measurement of 238 U, 234 U and 230 Th activities in silicates. The best experimental conditions were defined using 233 U, 232 U and 229 Th radioactive tracers and simulating the usual conditions found in processing silicates. The chemical procedures consists of the following steps: radioactive tracer addition and sample dissolution by acid digestion, U and Th pre-concentration by co-precipitation, element separation and purification by ion exchange chromatography and electrodeposition in inox steel disks. In order to evaluate its effectiveness, the procedure was applied to the Brazilian geological standards BB-1 (basalt) and GB-1 (granite). The obtained chemical yields for uranium and thorium are of about 60% and 70%, respectively, for both matrices. The described methodology furnishes activity measurements with less than 4% relative precision and accuracies of about 1%, that are essential for petrogenetic applications. The 238 U and 232 Th series disequilibrium conditions were investigated by alpha spectrometry, together with neutron activation analysis and natural gamma-ray spectrometry. 234 U/ 238 U, 238 U/ 232 Th and 230 Th/ 232 Th activity ratios and the 234 Th, 214 Pb, 214 Bi, 235 U, 228 Ac, 212 Pb, 212 Bi and 208 Tl specific activities were obtained. These results were interpreted with the help of additional constraints given by the larger and smaller elements concentrations, measured by X-ray fluorescence. The 232 Th series is in secular radioactive equilibrium in all analysed samples. In the case of the 238 U series, the equilibrium condition was verified, as expected, in the oldest rocks from the Trindade Island (Trindade Complex and Desejado Sequence). On the other hand, the results show that, in the samples from the last three volcanic episodes in the island (Morro Vermelho Formation, Valado Formation and Vulcao do Paredao), the 230 Th and 238 U are not in

  16. 36 CFR 13.1178 - Closed waters, islands and other areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... southeast of Flapjack Island; or Eider Island; or Boulder Island; or Geikie Rock; or Lone Island; or the... islands) of the easternmost point of Russell Island; or Graves Rocks (on the outer coast); or Cormorant... and Preserve Vessel Operating Restrictions § 13.1178 Closed waters, islands and other areas. The...

  17. The origin of high silicon content in potentially medicinal groundwater of Gran Canaria (Canary Islands, Spain. Modelling of chemical water-rock interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dobrzyński, Dariusz

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Groundwater of Gran Canaria (Canary Island, Spain have been appreciated and used as an element of health tourism since the 19th Century. This activity was abandoned in the second half of 20th Century when springs disappeared due to groundwater drawdown. The chemistry of groundwater from 19 intakes in volcanic rocks of the north part of Gran Canaria was studied by applying geochemical modelling for quantifying processes responsible for high Si concentrations.Studied groundwater has temperature of 16.3°C–25.5°C, pH of 4.40–7.40, and usually HCO3-(Cl-Mg-Ca-Na hydrochemical types. At near-neutral pH, fresh groundwater usually has 0.1-0.3 mM of Si. In studied groundwater Si concentrations are 0.42 to 1.82 mM, and show positive correlation with ionic strength and temperature. Volcanic bedrocks consist of, generally, easily reactive silicate minerals. Weathering is not supported by low rainfall; however, it shall be intensified by high influx of salts from marine aerosols and lithogenic carbon dioxide into groundwater. Geochemical modelling has found water-mineral reactions which reflect properly diversity of bedrock mineralogy. Based on those chemical reactions, contributions of particular silicate minerals to the pool of silicon dissolved in groundwater were calculated. Understanding the processes responsible for water chemistry might help in proper management and protection of groundwater.The Si-rich waters might be found in numerous places of Gran Canaria in all volcanic rocks. Silicic acid is the only form of silicon which is biologically available, and is regarded as a component which provides balneotherapeutic benefits. Many studies have showed beneficial and essential aspects of silicon in humans. Studied groundwater from Gran Canaria has an unexploited balneotherapeutic potential, and due to very high Si contents they seem to be ideal for testing the health benefits of such waters to humans. Hydrogeochemical methods, including

  18. Re — Os isotopic constraints on the origin of volcanic rocks, Gorgona Island, Colombia: Os isotopic evidence for ancient heterogeneities in the mantle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, R. J.; Echeverria, L. M.; Shirey, S. B.; Horan, M. F.

    1991-04-01

    The Re — Os isotopic systematics of komatiites and spatially associated basalts from Gorgona Island, Colombia, indicate that they were produced at 155±43 Ma. Subsequent episodes of volcanism produced basalts at 88.1±3.8 Ma and picritic and basaltic lavas at ca. 58 Ma. The age for the ultramafic rocks is important because it coincides with the late-Jurassic, early-Cretaceous disassembly of Pangea, when the North- and South-American plates began to pull apart. Deep-seated mantle upwelling possibly precipitated the break-up of these continental plates and caused a tear in the subducting slab west of Gorgona, providing a rare, late-Phanerozoic conduit for the komatiitic melts. Mantle sources for the komatiites were heterogeneous with respect to Os and Pb isotopic compositions, but had homogeneous Nd isotopic compositions (ɛNd+9±1). Initial 187Os/186Os normalized to carbonaceous chondrites at 155 Ma (γOs) ranged from 0 to +22, and model-initial μ values ranged from 8.17 to 8.39. The excess radiogenic Os, compared with an assumed bulk-mantle evolution similar to carbonaceous chondrites, was likely produced in portions of the mantle with long-term elevated Re concentrations. The Os, Pb and Nd isotopic compositions, together with major-element constraints, suggest that the sources of the komatiites were enriched more than 1 Ga ago by low (<20%) and variable amounts of a basalt or komatiite component. This component was added as either subducted oceanic crust or melt derived from greater depths in the mantle. These results suggest that the Re — Os isotope system may be a highly sensitive indicator of the presence of ancient subducted oceanic crust in mantle-source regions.

  19. Re - Os isotopic constraints on the origin of volcanic rocks, Gorgona Island, Colombia: Os isotopic evidence for ancient heterogeneities in the mantle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, R.J.; Echeverria, L.M.; Shirey, S.B.; Horan, M.F.

    1991-01-01

    The Re - Os isotopic systematics of komatiites and spatially associated basalts from Gorgona Island, Colombia, indicate that they were produced at 155??43 Ma. Subsequent episodes of volcanism produced basalts at 88.1??3.8 Ma and picritic and basaltic lavas at ca. 58 Ma. The age for the ultramafic rocks is important because it coincides with the late-Jurassic, early-Cretaceous disassembly of Pangea, when the North- and South-American plates began to pull apart. Deep-seated mantle upwelling possibly precipitated the break-up of these continental plates and caused a tear in the subducting slab west of Gorgona, providing a rare, late-Phanerozoic conduit for the komatiitic melts. Mantle sources for the komatiites were heterogeneous with respect to Os and Pb isotopic compositions, but had homogeneous Nd isotopic compositions (??Nd+9??1). Initial 187Os/186Os normalized to carbonaceous chondrites at 155 Ma (??Os) ranged from 0 to +22, and model-initial ?? values ranged from 8.17 to 8.39. The excess radiogenic Os, compared with an assumed bulk-mantle evolution similar to carbonaceous chondrites, was likely produced in portions of the mantle with long-term elevated Re concentrations. The Os, Pb and Nd isotopic compositions, together with major-element constraints, suggest that the sources of the komatiites were enriched more than 1 Ga ago by low (<20%) and variable amounts of a basalt or komatiite component. This component was added as either subducted oceanic crust or melt derived from greater depths in the mantle. These results suggest that the Re - Os isotope system may be a highly sensitive indicator of the presence of ancient subducted oceanic crust in mantle-source regions. ?? 1991 Springer-Verlag.

  20. Analysis of volcano rocks by Moessbauer spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sitek, J.; Dekan, J.

    2012-01-01

    In this work we have analysed the basalt rock from Mount Ba tur volcano situated on the Island of Bali in Indonesia.We compared our results with composition of basalt rocks from some other places on the Earth. (authors)

  1. The Chinese nuclear arsenal and its second-strike capability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cabestan, Jean-Pierre

    2013-03-01

    be subject to any restrictions or international scrutiny. A study published in 2011 by Georgetown University (China's Underground Great Wall: Challenge for Nuclear Arms Control) and directed by Phillip Karber announced that the People's Liberation Army was now in possession of some 3000 nuclear weapons, many of them mobile and largely stored in a 3000-mile (4800 km) long network of tunnels. All manner of experts immediately denounced this claim, some of whom quoted the total number of Chinese weapons at 240, of which only 50 are ICBMs capable of reaching American soil. However, shortly afterwards, other experts provided counter proposals: a Russian estimated that the Chinese strategic arsenal comprised 1600 to 1800 warheads. The FAS, citing a figure of 1660, stated nothing else. Furthermore, the (voluntary?) dissemination by China in 2012 of reassuring secret documents, such as 'the Science of campaigns of the Second Artillery' (nuclear weapons) calls for prudence. Finally, according to WikiLeaks, the West believes that China intends to match the United States in terms of its nuclear arsenal and its capability, by henceforth mastering, amongst others, MIRV technology (DF-41). In any case, in January 2013, President Obama asked the Pentagon to prepare a report by 15 August on the tunnels and the United States' conventional and nuclear ability to neutralise them. This constitutes sufficient indirect pressure to compel China into taking part in future negotiations on the reduction of strategic arsenals, pressure that China will no longer be able to completely ignore. (author)

  2. NPDES Permit for Rocky Mountain Arsenal Recycled Water Pipeline in Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Under NPDES permit CO-0035009, the U.S. Department of Interior's Fish and Wildlife Service is authorized to discharge from the Rocky Mountain Arsenal recycled water pipeline to Lower Derby Lake in Adams County, Colo.

  3. Bat population monitoring and conservation at the Rocky Mountain Arsenal NWR

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of the Interior — A study of the bat populations at Rocky Mountain Arsenal National Wildlife Refuge (RMA) was conducted from 1997–1998, which provided basic population and contaminant...

  4. Historical Review of the Correlation of Ballistic and Metallurgical Characteristics of Domestic Armor at Watertown Arsenal

    Science.gov (United States)

    1945-12-07

    really under- stood. It was learned, then that pearlitic and bainitic microstructures imparted poor impact toughness to steels , pearlitic structures...having a more detrimental effect than bainitic structures, and that a steel could show little or no free ferrite and still pofssess poor shock resistance...arsenal for metallurgical study. The studies at the arsenal revealed that presence of bainitic structures in the core of low alloy NS type steels

  5. The tectonothermal evolution of the Venezuelan Caribbean Mountain System: 40Ar/39Ar age insights from a Rodinian-related rock, the Cordillera de la Costa and Margarita Island

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fournier, Herbert W.; Lee, James K. W.; Urbani, Franco; Grande, Sebastián

    2017-12-01

    The Caribbean Mountain System in Venezuela contains rocks formed at high-pressure/low-temperature (HP/LT) conditions by the Cretaceous-Paleocene oblique collision occurred between the Caribbean and South American plates and involving Rodinian-related blocks. 40Ar/39Ar dating of rocks from the Cordillera de la Costa and Margarita Island has constrained key pre- and syntectonothermal events associated with the emplacement of this system. In a Rodinian marble, two phlogopite crystals of different grain sizes yield plateau ages of 888 ± 4 Ma and 874 ± 4 Ma. These results are interpreted as cooling ages after a major anorthosite-mangerite-charnockite-granite-suite intrusion at 920 Ma related to the break-up of Rodinia along the Amazonian-Baltica collisional zone - the Putumayo Orogen. Current plate reconstructions during the Neoproterozoic and previous age results indicate a correlation between the anorthositic complexes located in northwestern Venezuela (Yumare Complex) and southern Norway (Rogaland Complex), suggesting a similar tectonic setting during orogenic relaxation along the Amazonian and Baltica suture. A temperature-time path based on calculated Ar-closure temperatures of phlogopite indicates rapid cooling of 14 ± 4 °C Ma-1 from 920 Ma to 888 Ma, and a very slow to almost isothermal cooling of 4 ± 2 °C Ma-1 from 888 Ma to 874 Ma. On Margarita Island, magnesiohornblende and (alumino) barroisite from HP/LT rocks and muscovite from a leucocratic rock that was intruded before the HP/LT event yield identical ages within error at c. 54-47 Ma, consistent with previous dating results across the island utilizing different isotopic systems. The close association of these rocks and the Manzanillo Shear Zone indicates a main pathway for Ca-rich, 40Ar-free and hot fluids that locally raised the ambient T of the already exhumed and juxtaposed rock units. These fluids crystallized new hornblende and muscovite and thermally reset barroisite. This fluid activity event

  6. Os and S isotope studies of ultramafic rocks in the Duke Island Complex, Alaska: variable degrees of crustal contamination of magmas in an arc setting and implications for Ni-Cu-PGE sulfide mineralization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stifter, Eric C.; Ripley, Edward M.; Li, Chusi

    2016-10-01

    The Duke Island Complex is one of the several "Ural-Alaskan" intrusions of Cretaceous age that occur along the coast of SE Alaska. Significant quantities of magmatic Ni-Cu-PGE sulfide mineralization are locally found in the complex, primarily within olivine clinopyroxenites. Sulfide mineralization is Ni-poor, consistent with petrologic evidence which indicates that sulfide saturation was reached after extensive olivine crystallization. Olivine clinopyroxenites were intruded by magmas that produced sulfide-poor, adcumulate dunites. As part of a study to investigate the potential for Ni-rich sulfide mineralization in association with the dunites, a Re-Os and S isotope study of the dunites, as well as sulfide mineralization in the olivine clinopyroxenites, was initiated. Importantly, recent drilling in the complex identified the presence of sulfidic and carbonaceous country rocks that may have been involved in the contamination of magmas and generation of sulfide mineralization. γOs (110 Ma) values of two sulfidic country rocks are 1022 and 2011. δ34S values of the country rocks range from -2.6 to -16.1 ‰. 187Os/188Os ratios of sulfide minerals in the mineralization hosted by olivine clinopyroxenites are variable and high, with γOs (110 Ma) values between 151 and 2059. Extensive interaction with Re-rich sedimentary country rocks is indicated. In contrast, γOs (110 Ma) values of the dunites are significantly lower, ranging between 2 and 16. 187Os/188Os ratios increase with decreasing Os concentration. This inverse relation is similar to that shown by ultramafic rocks from several arc settings, as well as altered abyssal dunites and peridotites. The relation may be indicative of magma derivation from a sub-arc mantle that had experienced metasomatism via slab-derived fluids. Alternatively, the relation may be indicative of minor contamination of magma by crustal rocks with low Os concentrations but high 187Os/188Os ratios. A third alternative is that the low Os

  7. Bulk rock composition and geochemistry of olivine-hosted melt inclusions in the Grey Porri Tuff and selected lavas of the Monte dei Porri volcano, Salina, Aeolian Islands, southern Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doherty, Angela L.; Bodnar, Robert J.; De Vivo, Benedetto; Bohrson, Wendy A.; Belkin, Harvey E.; Messina, Antonia; Tracy, Robert J.

    2012-01-01

    The Aeolian Islands are an arcuate chain of submarine seamounts and volcanic islands, lying just north of Sicily in southern Italy. The second largest of the islands, Salina, exhibits a wide range of compositional variation in its erupted products, from basaltic lavas to rhyolitic pumice. The Monte dei Porri eruptions occurred between 60 ka and 30 ka, following a period of approximately 60,000 years of repose. The bulk rock composition of the Monte dei Porri products range from basaltic-andesite scoria to andesitic pumice in the Grey Porri Tuff (GPT), with the Monte dei Porri lavas having basaltic-andesite compositions. The typical mineral assemblage of the GPT is calcic plagioclase, clinopyroxene (augite), olivine (Fo72−84) and orthopyroxene (enstatite) ± amphibole and Ti-Fe oxides. The lava units show a similar mineral assemblage, but contain lower Fo olivines (Fo57−78). The lava units also contain numerous glomerocrysts, including an unusual variety that contains quartz, K-feldspar and mica. Melt inclusions (MI) are ubiquitous in all mineral phases from all units of the Monte dei Porri eruptions; however, only data from olivine-hosted MI in the GPT are reported here. Compositions of MI in the GPT are typically basaltic (average SiO2 of 49.8 wt %) in the pumices and basaltic-andesite (average SiO2 of 55.6 wt %) in the scoriae and show a bimodal distribution in most compositional discrimination plots. The compositions of most of the MI in the scoriae overlap with bulk rock compositions of the lavas. Petrological and geochemical evidence suggest that mixing of one or more magmas and/or crustal assimilation played a role in the evolution of the Monte dei Porri magmatic system, especially the GPT. Analyses of the more evolved mineral phases are required to better constrain the evolution of the magma.

  8. A rock- and palaeomagnetic study of recent lavas and 1995 volcanic glass on Fogo (Cape Verde Islands)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, M.F.; Abrahamsen, N.; Riisager, P.

    2005-01-01

    Fogo is the only island in the Cape Verde archipelago with accounts of historical volcanic activity.Here we present palaeomagnetic data from seven geologically recent lava flows on Fogo, including one glassy, volcanic flow from the eruption in 1995. Almost all samples behaved well during alternat......Fogo is the only island in the Cape Verde archipelago with accounts of historical volcanic activity.Here we present palaeomagnetic data from seven geologically recent lava flows on Fogo, including one glassy, volcanic flow from the eruption in 1995. Almost all samples behaved well during...

  9. Checklist of marine fishes of the Zunan Islands, located between the Izu and Ogasawara (Bonin) islands, Japan, with zoogeographical comments

    OpenAIRE

    Kuriiwa, Kaoru; Arihara, Hisashi; Chiba, Satoru; Kato, Shoichi; Senou, Hiroshi; Matsuura, Keiichi

    2014-01-01

    The Zunan Islands are located 360–650 km south of Tokyo, and consist of four uninhabited volcanoes: the Bayonnaise Rocks, the Smith Rocks, Torishima Island and the Sofugan Rock. Although all of the elements of the Zunan Islands are tiny islets and rocks, they form a series of stepping stones for shallow water fishes between the Izu Islands in the north and the Ogasawara (Bonin) Islands in the south. We report here the first comprehensive survey of marine fishes in the Zunan Islands. A total o...

  10. The Minquiers and Écréhous in spatial context: contemporary issues and cross perspectives on border islands, reefs and rocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Fleury

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The Minquiers and Écréhous reefs are located in different parts of the Gulf of St Malo between the British island of Jersey and the French mainland. As a part of the Bailiwick of Jersey, they are geographically very close to the international sea border between Jersey and France, and have had a history of disputed sovereignty. Due to their respective geographical locations and histories, the Minquiers and Écréhous are important sites for the field of Island Studies because of their existence as “border islands”. This article offers a study of these reefs in their spatial context of land and sea, discussing contemporary issues, including fishing, environmentalism and tourism, and offering cross perspectives in terms of their political, economic and cultural connections with Jersey and France. They exist in a context of immense spatial change with substantial tidal ebbs and flows, and between mainlands and historically contested maritime terrains. Such a study helps show how the Minquiers and Écréhous occupy an inbetween space (land, sea and nations, which resulted in international agreements in 2000 that confirmed both the maritime boundary separating France and Jersey, and the areas agreed on as common waters for fishing purposes within Jersey’s jurisdiction. In this setting, this paper offers a critical discussion on the nature of “islands inbetween” (including all the Channel Islands, where land and sea are interconnected as a result of nature, politics, historical fishing rights and leisure activities.

  11. A reassessment of the early archaeological record at Leang Burung 2, a Late Pleistocene rock-shelter site on the Indonesian island of Sulawesi

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brumm, Adam; Hakim, Budianto; Ramli, Muhammad; Aubert, Maxime; van den Bergh, Gerrit D.; Li, Bo; Burhan, Basran; Saiful, Andi Muhammad; Siagian, Linda; Sardi, Ratno; Jusdi, Andi; Said, Abdullah; Mubarak, Andi Pampang; Moore, Mark W.; Roberts, Richard G.; Zhao, Jian-xin; McGahan, David; Jones, Brian G.; Perston, Yinika; Szabó, Katherine; Mahmud, M. Irfan; Westaway, Kira; [Unknown], Jatmiko; Saptomo, E. Wahyu; van der Kaars, Sander; Grün, Rainer; Wood, Rachel; Dodson, John; Morwood, Michael J.

    2018-01-01

    This paper presents a reassessment of the archaeological record at Leang Burung 2, a key early human occupation site in the Late Pleistocene of Southeast Asia. Excavated originally by Ian Glover in 1975, this limestone rock-shelter in the Maros karsts of Sulawesi, Indonesia, has long held

  12. The Fossil Fauna of the Islands Region of Western Lake Erie.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowe, Lulu M., Comp.

    The islands of western Lake Erie are rock-bound isles that abound in rocky outcrops and quarries. The rocks of these islands are of two distinct types, Silurian dolomites and Devonian limestones. The dolomites, exposed in the Bass Islands and Sister Islands are virtually devoid of fossils. Conversely, the limestones of Johnson Island, Marblehead,…

  13. Concrete and Rock Tests, Major Rehabilitation of Dresden Island Lock and Dam, Illinois Waterway, Chicago District. Phase II. Compliance, Scour Detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-03-01

    uwniin SHUAR STMSS AREA ________________________ URINO NO. GW-5 S AMPLE NO. DEPTH 33 OIRECT SHEAR TEST REPORT (ROCK) WES AR11490 EDITION oP JUNf4 SIs...28 " 24 -T2. 70 ILVAMO DRESDEN ISWIDM W)C AND DAM ANA *am* M E-1 ~N L15 .4-15.9/494.1-494.6 IDM2" FB7 NVJG WUCT SHUAR TT ROem -񓡌 (IM 10 1" IO-j Ml

  14. Rock fragmentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, W.S.; Green, S.J.; Hakala, W.W.; Hustrulid, W.A.; Maurer, W.C. (eds.)

    1976-01-01

    Experts in rock mechanics, mining, excavation, drilling, tunneling and use of underground space met to discuss the relative merits of a wide variety of rock fragmentation schemes. Information is presented on novel rock fracturing techniques; tunneling using electron beams, thermocorer, electric spark drills, water jets, and diamond drills; and rock fracturing research needs for mining and underground construction. (LCL)

  15. Block Slides on Extremely Weak Tectonic Clay Seams in Openly Folded Tertiary Mud-Rocks at Auckland and the Rangitikei Valley, North Island, New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prebble, Warwick M.; Williams, Ann L.

    2016-06-01

    Block slides have developed on extremely weak, thin clay seams of tectonic origin, parallel to bedding in gently dipping sandstones and mudstones of Tertiary age. Two areas of noted instability are investigated at Auckland and the Rangitikei valley. Dimensions range from 100 m across × 100 m long for short displacement block slides up to 4 km across × 3 km long for large landslide complexes in which block slides are a major component. Displacements of blocks range from incipient (cm) through short (30 m) to 2 or 3 km for large slides. Many of the Auckland slides are dormant but likely to move in a 2000 year return period earthquake or 100 year high intensity rain storm. At Rangitikei there are many active, younger slides. Sliding rates for active failures vary from a few cm/year to 50 m in 30 min. Host rocks are weak to very weak clayey sandstones and sandy mudstones. The seams are rich in smectite. They have polished and crushed walls, may have slickensides and some contain rounded rock fragments. Laboratory shear strength of the seams is 13 kPa cohesion and 13° friction, with a lower bound of 8° at zero cohesion. Strength is increased at the field scale by waviness, steps and splays. Continuity can be demonstrated over distances of hundreds of metres. Key investigation methods were mapping, shafts and trenches. Tectonic uplift, folding and faulting of the weak Tertiary strata and river down-cutting are perpetuating block slide development.

  16. Rock Art

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henn, Cynthia A.

    2004-01-01

    There are many interpretations for the symbols that are seen in rock art, but no decoding key has ever been discovered. This article describes one classroom's experiences with a lesson on rock art--making their rock art and developing their own personal symbols. This lesson allowed for creativity, while giving an opportunity for integration…

  17. Heat Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA's Heat Island Effect Site provides information on heat islands, their impacts, mitigation strategies, related research, a directory of heat island reduction initiatives in U.S. communities, and EPA's Heat Island Reduction Program.

  18. Island biogeography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Whittaker, Robert James; Fernández-Palacios, José María; Matthews, Thomas J.

    2017-01-01

    Islands provide classic model biological systems. We review how growing appreciation of geoenvironmental dynamics of marine islands has led to advances in island biogeographic theory accommodating both evolutionary and ecological phenomena. Recognition of distinct island geodynamics permits gener...

  19. Geochronology, stratigraphy and geochemistry of Cambro-Ordovician, Silurian and Devonian volcanic rocks of the Saxothuringian Zone in NE Bavaria (Germany)—new constraints for Gondwana break up and ocean-island magmatism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Höhn, Stefan; Koglin, Nikola; Klopf, Lisa; Schüssler, Ulrich; Tragelehn, Harald; Frimmel, Hartwig E.; Zeh, Armin; Brätz, Helene

    2018-01-01

    Stratigraphically well-defined volcanic rocks in Palaeozoic volcano-sedimentary units of the Frankenwald area (Saxothuringian Zone, Variscan Orogen) were sampled for geochemical characterisation and U-Pb zircon dating. The oldest rock suite comprises quartz keratophyre, brecciated keratophyre, quartz keratophyre tuff and basalt, formed in Upper Cambrian to Tremadocian time (c. 497-478 Ma). Basaltic volcanism continued until the Silurian. Quartz keratophyre shows post-collisional calc-alkaline signature, the Ordovician-Silurian basalt has alkaline signature typical of continental rift environments. The combined datasets provide evidence of Cambro-Ordovician bimodal volcanism and successive rifting until the Silurian. This evolution very likely resulted from break-up of the northern Gondwana margin, as recorded in many terranes throughout Europe. The position at the northern Gondwana margin is supported by detrital zircon grains in some tuffs, with typical Gondwana-derived age spectra mostly recording ages of 550-750 Ma and minor age populations of 950-1100 and 1700-2700 Ma. The absence of N-MORB basalt in the Frankenwald area points to a retarded break-off of the Saxothuringian terrane along a continental rift system from Uppermost Cambrian to Middle Silurian time. Geochemical data for a second suite of Upper Devonian basalt provide evidence of emplacement in a hot spot-related ocean-island setting south of the Rheic Ocean. Our results also require partial revision of the lithostratigraphy of the Frankenwald area. The basal volcanic unit of the Randschiefer Formation yielded a Tremadocian age and, therefore, should be attributed to the Vogtendorf Formation. Keratophyre of the Vogtendorf Formation, previously assigned to the Tremadoc, is most likely of Upper Devonian age.

  20. 'Escher' Rock

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Chemical Changes in 'Endurance' Rocks [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Figure 1 This false-color image taken by NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity shows a rock dubbed 'Escher' on the southwestern slopes of 'Endurance Crater.' Scientists believe the rock's fractures, which divide the surface into polygons, may have been formed by one of several processes. They may have been caused by the impact that created Endurance Crater, or they might have arisen when water leftover from the rock's formation dried up. A third possibility is that much later, after the rock was formed, and after the crater was created, the rock became wet once again, then dried up and developed cracks. Opportunity has spent the last 14 sols investigating Escher, specifically the target dubbed 'Kirchner,' and other similar rocks with its scientific instruments. This image was taken on sol 208 (Aug. 24, 2004) by the rover's panoramic camera, using the 750-, 530- and 430-nanometer filters. The graph above shows that rocks located deeper into 'Endurance Crater' are chemically altered to a greater degree than rocks located higher up. This chemical alteration is believed to result from exposure to water. Specifically, the graph compares ratios of chemicals between the deep rock dubbed 'Escher,' and the more shallow rock called 'Virginia,' before (red and blue lines) and after (green line) the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity drilled into the rocks. As the red and blue lines indicate, Escher's levels of chlorine relative to Virginia's went up, and sulfur down, before the rover dug a hole into the rocks. This implies that the surface of Escher has been chemically altered to a greater extent than the surface of Virginia. Scientists are still investigating the role water played in influencing this trend. These data were taken by the rover's alpha particle X-ray spectrometer.

  1. Assessment of Mechanisms Impacting N-Nitrosodimethylamine Fate Within the North Boundary Containment System, Rocky Mountain Arsenal

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gunnison, Douglas

    1997-01-01

    Rocky Mountain Arsenal (RMA) was for many years a site of military chemical weapons manufacturing activities, including manufacture and assembly of weapons containing intermediate and toxic chemical end-products, incendiary...

  2. American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) Federal Energy Management Program Technical Assistance Project 279 IMCOM-Southeast Region: Redstone Arsenal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hatley, Darrel D.; Goddard, James K.

    2010-09-30

    Report describing a building retuning workshop presented to staff at Redstone Arsenal. Document includes issues identified during building audits and recommendations for future activities to reduce energy use at the site.

  3. 77 FR 23665 - Procurement List Proposed Additions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-20

    ...: Services Service Type/Location: Mailroom Operations, Official Mail Distribution Center, 1 Rock Island Arsenal, Building 132, Rock Island, IL. NPA: The Arc of the Quad Cities Area, Rock Island, IL. Contracting Activity: Dept of the ARMY, W4MM USA Joint Munitions CMD, Rock Island, IL. Service Type/Location: Custodial...

  4. 77 FR 37658 - Procurement List; Additions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-22

    ..., Warren, MI. Service Type/Location: Mailroom Operations, Official Mail Distribution Center, 1 Rock Island Arsenal, Building 132, Rock Island, IL. NPA: The Arc of the Quad Cities Area, Rock Island, IL. Contracting Activity: Dept of the Army, W4MM USA Joint Munitions CMD, Rock Island, IL. Service Type/Location: Custodial...

  5. 75 FR 12729 - Foreign-Trade Zone 133-Quad-Cities, Iowa/Illinois; Application for Expansion

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-17

    ... authority to expand the zone within the Davenport-Rock Island-Moline Customs and Border Protection port of... River Cities Business Park (223 acres); Proposed Site 2 (33 acres)--within Rock Island Arsenal, located at 1775 East Street, Rock Island (Rock Island County), Illinois; Proposed Site 3 (55 acres...

  6. Recreating Rocks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Posth, Nicole R

    2008-01-01

    Nicole Posth and colleagues spent a month touring South African rock formations in their quest to understand the origin of ancient iron and silicate layers.......Nicole Posth and colleagues spent a month touring South African rock formations in their quest to understand the origin of ancient iron and silicate layers....

  7. Art Rocks with Rock Art!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bickett, Marianne

    2011-01-01

    This article discusses rock art which was the very first "art." Rock art, such as the images created on the stone surfaces of the caves of Lascaux and Altimira, is the true origin of the canvas, paintbrush, and painting media. For there, within caverns deep in the earth, the first artists mixed animal fat, urine, and saliva with powdered minerals…

  8. Rock Physics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fabricius, Ida Lykke

    2017-01-01

    Rock physics is the discipline linking petrophysical properties as derived from borehole data to surface based geophysical exploration data. It can involve interpretation of both elastic wave propagation and electrical conductivity, but in this chapter focus is on elasticity. Rock physics is based...... on continuum mechanics, and the theory of elasticity developed for statics becomes the key to petrophysical interpretation of velocity of elastic waves. In practice, rock physics involves interpretation of well logs including vertical seismic profiling (VSP) and analysis of core samples. The results...

  9. Online marketing for book publishers: a case study of Arsenal Pulp Press and Chronicle Books

    OpenAIRE

    Boyd, Carolyn

    2008-01-01

    The internet is changing how we go about our personal and professional lives—not only is web use increasing, the type of online tools that are becoming commonplace and the way they are being used is evolving. This paper examines the online marketing and publicity efforts of Arsenal Pulp Press and Chronicle Books, providing an overview of a number of online tools and considering the role of online marketing and publicity for book publishers in the age of web 2.0. Some of the online marketing t...

  10. Rocking pneumonia

    OpenAIRE

    Rijkers, Ger T.; Rodriguez Gomez, Maria

    2017-01-01

    Ever since Chuck Berry coined the term “rocking pneumonia” in his 1956 song “Roll over Beethoven”, pneumonia has been mentioned frequently in modern blues and rock songs. We analyzed the lyrics of these songs to examine how various elements of pneumonia have been represented in popular music, specifically the cause of pneumonia, the risk groups, comorbidity (such as the boogie woogie flu), the clinical symptoms, and treatment and outcome. Up to this day, songwriters suggest that pneumonia is ...

  11. Canary Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    This easterly looking view shows the seven major volcanic islands of the Canary Island chain (28.0N, 16.5W) and offers a unique view of the islands that have become a frequent vacation spot for Europeans. The northwest coastline of Africa, (Morocco and Western Sahara), is visible in the background. Frequently, these islands create an impact on local weather (cloud formations) and ocean currents (island wakes) as seen in this photo.

  12. Source rock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abubakr F. Makky

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available West Beni Suef Concession is located at the western part of Beni Suef Basin which is a relatively under-explored basin and lies about 150 km south of Cairo. The major goal of this study is to evaluate the source rock by using different techniques as Rock-Eval pyrolysis, Vitrinite reflectance (%Ro, and well log data of some Cretaceous sequences including Abu Roash (E, F and G members, Kharita and Betty formations. The BasinMod 1D program is used in this study to construct the burial history and calculate the levels of thermal maturity of the Fayoum-1X well based on calibration of measured %Ro and Tmax against calculated %Ro model. The calculated Total Organic Carbon (TOC content from well log data compared with the measured TOC from the Rock-Eval pyrolysis in Fayoum-1X well is shown to match against the shale source rock but gives high values against the limestone source rock. For that, a new model is derived from well log data to calculate accurately the TOC content against the limestone source rock in the study area. The organic matter existing in Abu Roash (F member is fair to excellent and capable of generating a significant amount of hydrocarbons (oil prone produced from (mixed type I/II kerogen. The generation potential of kerogen in Abu Roash (E and G members and Betty formations is ranging from poor to fair, and generating hydrocarbons of oil and gas prone (mixed type II/III kerogen. Eventually, kerogen (type III of Kharita Formation has poor to very good generation potential and mainly produces gas. Thermal maturation of the measured %Ro, calculated %Ro model, Tmax and Production index (PI indicates that Abu Roash (F member exciting in the onset of oil generation, whereas Abu Roash (E and G members, Kharita and Betty formations entered the peak of oil generation.

  13. Excess europium content in Precambrian sedimentary rocks and continental evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakes, P.; Taylor, S. R.

    1974-01-01

    It is proposed that the europium excess in Precambrian sedimentary rocks, relative to those of younger age, is derived from volcanic rocks of ancient island arcs, which were the source materials for the sediments. Precambrian sedimentary rocks and present-day volcanic rocks of island arcs have similar REE patterns, total REE abundances, and excess Eu, relative to the North American shale composite. The present upper crustal REE pattern, as exemplified by that of sediments, is depleted in Eu, relative to chondrites. This depletion is considered to be a consequence of development of a granodioritic upper crust by partial melting in the lower crust, which selectively retains europium.

  14. Tungsten abundances in some volcanic rocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helsen, J.N.; Shaw, D.M.; Crocket, J.H.

    1978-01-01

    A radiochemical N.A.A. method was used to obtain new values on W distribution in some 125 volcanic rocks, mainly basalts and andesites, from different petrotectonic environments. These W data are below previously reported abundances. New median values in various types of rocks are suggested (ppm W). Basalts: ocean floor, 0.15; ocean islands subalkaline, 0.28; ocean islands alkaline, 0.60; island arc, 0.19; continental margin, 0.40; continental subalkaline, 0.30; continental alkaline, 1.35. Andesites: island arc, 0.23; continental margin, 1.05. Median values for all 91 basalts and all 20 andesites are 0.36 and 0.29 ppm respectively. (author)

  15. Hydrogeology and simulation of ground-water flow, Picatinny Arsenal and vicinity, Morris County, New Jersey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voronin, L.M.; Rice, D.E.

    1996-01-01

    Ground-water flow in glacial sediments and bedrock at Picatinny Arsenal, N.J., was simulated by use of a three-dimensional finite-difference ground- water-flow model. The modeled area includes a 4.3-square-mile area that extends from Picatinny Lake to the Rockaway River. Most of the study area is bounded by the natural hydrologic boundaries of the ground-water system. eophysical logs, lithologic logs, particle-size data, and core data from selected wells and surface geophysical data were analyzed to define the hydrogeologic framework. Hydrogeologic sections and thickness maps define six permeable and three low-permeability layers that are represented in the model as aquifers and confining units, respectively. Hydrologic data incorporated in the model include a rate of recharge from precipitation of 22 inches per year, estimated from long-term precipitation records and estimates of evapotranspiration. Additional recharge from infiltration along valleys was estimated from measured discharge of springs along the adjacent valley walls and from estimates of runoff from upland drainage that flows to the valley floor. Horizontal and vertical hydraulic conductivities of permeable and low-permeability layers were estimated from examination of aquifer-test data, gamma-ray logs, borehole cuttings, and previously published data. Horizontal hydraulic conductivities in glacial sediments range from 10 to 380 feet per day. Vertical hydraulic conductivities of the low-permeability layers range from 0.01 to 0.7 feet per day. The model was calibrated by simulating steady-state conditions during 1989-93 and by closely matching simulated and measured ground-water levels, vertical ground-water-head differences, and streamflow gain and loss. Simulated steady-state potentiometric- surface maps produced for the six permeable layers indicate that ground water in the unconfined material within Picatinny Arsenal flows predominantly toward the center of the valley, where it discharges to Green

  16. 75 FR 51185 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Reallocation of Rock Sole in the Bering Sea...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-19

    ... 600 and 50 CFR part 679. The 2010 rock sole TAC specified for the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands ICA... Amendment 80 Allocations of The Aleutian Islands Pacific Ocean Perch, And BSAI Flathead Sole, Rock Sole, And.... 0910131363-0087-02] RIN 0648-XY29 Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Reallocation of Rock...

  17. 36 CFR 7.84 - Channel Islands National Park.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... commercial purposes is prohibited in the following areas: (i) Anacapa Island. Northside to exterior boundary of the monument between east end of Arch Rock 119°21′-34°01′ and west end of island, 119°27′-34°01... INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.84 Channel Islands National Park. (a...

  18. Intellektuaalne rock

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2007-01-01

    Briti laulja-helilooja ja näitleja Toyah Willcox ning Bill Rieflin ansamblist R.E.M. ja Pat Mastelotto King Krimsonist esinevad koos ansamblitega The Humans ja Tuner 25. okt. Tallinnas Rock Cafés ja 27. okt Tartu Jaani kirikus

  19. Igneous Rocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doe, Bruce R.

    “Igneous Rocks was written for undergraduate geology majors who have had a year of college-level chemistry and a course in mineralogy … and for beginning graduate students. Geologists working in industry, government, or academia should find this text useful as a guide to the technical literature up to 1981 and as an overview of topics with which they have not worked but which may have unanticipated pertinence to their own projects.” So starts the preface to this textbook.As one who works part time in research on igneous rocks, especially as they relate to mineral deposits, I have been looking for such a book with this avowed purpose in a field that has a choking richness of evolving terminology and a bewildering volume of interdisciplinary literature. In addition to the standard topics of igneous petrology, the book contains a chapter on the role of igneous activity in the genesis of mineral deposits, its value to geothermal energy, and the potential of igneous rocks as an environment for nuclear waste disposal. These topics are presented rather apologetically in the preface, but the author is to be applauded for including this chapter. The apology shows just how new these interests are to petrology. Recognition is finally coming that, for example, mineral deposits are not “sports of nature,” a view held even by many economic geologists as recently as the early 1960's; instead they are perfectly ordinary geochemical features formed by perfectly ordinary geologic processes. In fact, the mineral deposits and their attendant alteration zones probably have as much to tell us about igneous rocks as the igneous rocks have to tell us about mineral deposits.

  20. The Dalradian rocks of Scotland: an introduction

    OpenAIRE

    Stephenson, David; Mendum, John R.; Fettes, Douglas J.; Leslie, A. Graham

    2013-01-01

    The Dalradian Supergroup and its basement rocks, together with younger plutons, underpin most of the Grampian Highlands and the islands of the Inner Hebrides between the Highland Boundary and Great Glen faults. The Dalradian is a mid-Neoproterozoic to early-Ordovician sequence of largely clastic metasedimentary rocks, with some volcanic units, which were deformed and metamorphosed to varying degrees during the Early Palaeozoic Caledonian Orogeny. Sedimentation of the lower parts of the Da...

  1. Discovery of Ubiquitin Deamidases in the Pathogenic Arsenal of Legionella pneumophila

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dylan Valleau

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Legionella pneumophila translocates the largest known arsenal of over 330 pathogenic factors, called “effectors,” into host cells during infection, enabling L. pneumophila to establish a replicative niche inside diverse amebas and human macrophages. Here, we reveal that the L. pneumophila effectors MavC (Lpg2147 and MvcA (Lpg2148 are structural homologs of cycle inhibiting factor (Cif effectors and that the adjacent gene, lpg2149, produces a protein that directly inhibits their activity. In contrast to canonical Cifs, both MavC and MvcA contain an insertion domain and deamidate the residue Gln40 of ubiquitin but not Gln40 of NEDD8. MavC and MvcA are functionally diverse, with only MavC interacting with the human E2-conjugating enzyme UBE2N (Ubc13. MavC deamidates the UBE2N∼Ub conjugate, disrupting Lys63 ubiquitination and dampening NF-κB signaling. Combined, our data reveal a molecular mechanism of host manipulation by pathogenic bacteria and highlight the complex regulatory mechanisms integral to L. pneumophila’s pathogenic strategy. : Legionella pneumophila, possessing the largest known arsenal of effectors, continues to reveal unique approaches to host cell control. Valleau et al. decrypt the functions of a trio of effectors, discovering a pair of ubiquitin-specific deamidases, their regulation by a neighboring dual-specificity protein inhibitor, and a mechanism of NF-κB suppression. Keywords: pathogen-host interaction, ubiquitination, Legionella, UBE2N/Ubc13, NF-κB signaling, Type IV secretion system, effectors, metaeffector, cycle inhibiting factor

  2. White Rock

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    (Released 19 April 2002) The Science 'White Rock' is the unofficial name for this unusual landform which was first observed during the Mariner 9 mission in the early 1970's. As later analysis of additional data sets would show, White Rock is neither white nor dense rock. Its apparent brightness arises from the fact that the material surrounding it is so dark. Images from the Mars Global Surveyor MOC camera revealed dark sand dunes surrounding White Rock and on the floor of the troughs within it. Some of these dunes are just apparent in the THEMIS image. Although there was speculation that the material composing White Rock could be salts from an ancient dry lakebed, spectral data from the MGS TES instrument did not support this claim. Instead, the White Rock deposit may be the erosional remnant of a previously more continuous occurrence of air fall sediments, either volcanic ash or windblown dust. The THEMIS image offers new evidence for the idea that the original deposit covered a larger area. Approximately 10 kilometers to the southeast of the main deposit are some tiny knobs of similarly bright material preserved on the floor of a small crater. Given that the eolian erosion of the main White Rock deposit has produced isolated knobs at its edges, it is reasonable to suspect that the more distant outliers are the remnants of a once continuous deposit that stretched at least to this location. The fact that so little remains of the larger deposit suggests that the material is very easily eroded and simply blows away. The Story Fingers of hard, white rock seem to jut out like icy daggers across a moody Martian surface, but appearances can be deceiving. These bright, jagged features are neither white, nor icy, nor even hard and rocky! So what are they, and why are they so different from the surrounding terrain? Scientists know that you can't always trust what your eyes see alone. You have to use other kinds of science instruments to measure things that our eyes can

  3. Feeding habits of Aspitrigla cuculus (L., 1758 (red gurnard, Lepidotrigla cavillone (Lac., 1802 (large scale gurnard and Trigloporus lastoviza (Brunn., 1768 (rock gurnard around Cyclades and Dodecanese Islands (E. Mediterranean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. TERRATS

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available The feeding habits of the three most abundant gurnard species, red gurnard (Aspitrigla cuculus, large scale gurnard (Lepidotrigla cavillone and rock gurnard (Trigloporus lastoviza in the eastern Mediterranean (Dodecanese and Cyclades, Greece are examined. The stomach contents of the gurnard specimens collected in April and September 1996 by bottom trawling were analyzed. The % frequency of occurrence, % number and % weight of prey types in the stomach contents were evaluated. By weight, Mysidacea and Decapoda dominated in the diet of the three species in both seasons, however the Index of Relative Importance, as well as the percentage frequency of occurrence varied. Rock gurnard presented the most diverse diet whereas the diet of large scale and red gurnard were more specialized. High overlap in terms of number was found between rock and large scale gurnard in May. Rock gurnard had the most divers diet in both seasons.

  4. 78 FR 50082 - South Farallon Islands Invasive House Mouse Eradication Project; Farallon National Wildlife...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-16

    ... Farallon Islands and Noonday Rock. In 1969 the Refuge was expanded to include the South Farallon Islands... to eradicate non-native, invasive house mice from the South Farallon Islands, part of the Farallon... the problem of invasive house mice on the South Farallon Islands. DATES: We will accept comments...

  5. Summary of Synoptic Meteorological Observations (SSMO). South America and Selected Island Coastal Marine Areas, Atlantic Islands. Volume 3. Area 17 - Tierra del Fuego, Area 18 - Falkland Islands, Area 19 -South Georgia, Area 20 - Tristan da Cunha Group, Area 21 - Trindade, Area 22 - St. Helena, Area 23 - Ascension, Area 24 - St. Peter and Paul Rocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-06-01

    0 17.5 .0 .0 .0 .0 .0 .0 .0 FACE »21 »TW* ■■’■ "■ IIUI" »E«ICD! fOVE«-«LO 1963-1970 JANUARY TABLE 18 (CONTi IKEA 0021 TOINDADE...DIRECTION VIPSuS SE4 HEIGHTS IFTl IKEA 0024 ST, PETER AND PAUL ROCKS ,6N 29.3» s iu HGT 1-3 4-10 11-21 22-33 34-47 41« PCT 1...l". - L ■■■’■■’ • ’ " wwm PEIKOl iQVER-»LLI IS’OS-l1»?» I SFPTEMBfR TABLE 16 (CDNT1 IKEA 002« ST. PETER AND PAUL RCfKS

  6. Rock stresses (Grimsel rock laboratory)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pahl, A.; Heusermann, S.; Braeuer, V.; Gloeggler, W.

    1989-01-01

    On the research and development project 'Rock Stress Measurements' the BGR has developed and tested several test devices and methods at GTS for use in boreholes at a depth of 200 m and has carried out rock mechanical and engineering geological investigations for the evaluation and interpretation of the stress measurements. The first time a computer for data processing was installed in the borehole together with the BGR-probe. Laboratory tests on hollow cylinders were made to study the stress-deformation behavior. To validate and to interprete the measurement results some test methods were modelled using the finite-element method. The dilatometer-tests yielded high values of Young's modulus, whereas laboratory tests showed lower values with a distinct deformation anisotropy. Stress measurements with the BGR-probe yielded horizontal stresses being higher than the theoretical overburden pressure and vertical stresses which agree well with the theoretical overburden pressure. These results are comparable to the results of the hydraulic fracturing tests, whereas stresses obtained with CSIR-triaxial cells are generally lower. The detailed geological mapping of the borehole indicated relationships between stress and geology. With regard to borehole depth different zones of rock structure joint frequency, joint orientation, and orientation of microfissures as well as stress magnitude, stress direction, and degree of deformation anisotropy could be distinguished. (orig./HP) [de

  7. HYDROGEOLOGICAL RELATIONS ON KARSTIFIED ISLANDS - VIS ISLAND CASE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josip Terzić

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available An approach to the hydrogeological investigations on Adriatic islands is presented on the Island of Vis case study. Infiltration, accumulation and discharge of the groundwater occur in karstified rock mass. Hydrogeological relations are mostly a consequence of the geological setting, because of the complete hydrogeologic barrier in Komiža bay, and relative barrier in the area of karst poljes. Significant research was performed in the 1999 – 2000 period aimed of better understanding of hydrogeological relations. These investigations, as well as reinterpretation of some previously known data, included structural geology, hydrogeology, hydrology and hydrochemistry. Approximate rock mass hydraulic conductivity calculation is also shown, as well as level of its usability in such terrain. Based on all these methods, it is possible to conclude that on the Island of Vis there is no saline water present underneath the entire island. There is only a saline water wedge which is formed on the top of relatively impermeable base rock, some few tens of meters under recent sea level. With such a model, and taking in account the hydrological balance, it is possible to conclude that there is possibility of higher amount of groundwater exploitation then it is today (the paper is published in Croatian.

  8. Thermal Inertia of Rocks and Rock Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golombek, M. P.; Jakosky, B. M.; Mellon, M. T.

    2001-01-01

    The effective thermal inertia of rock populations on Mars and Earth is derived from a model of effective inertia versus rock diameter. Results allow a parameterization of the effective rock inertia versus rock abundance and bulk and fine component inertia. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  9. Draft comprehensive conservation plan and environmental impact statement-Rocky Mountain Arsenal National Wildlife Refuge

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2015-01-01

    The Rocky Mountain Arsenal National Wildlife Refuge Complex, consisting of some of the newer properties in the National Wildlife Refuge System, is a work in progress. Offering unique assets to surrounding communities, these lands promise to become some of the premier urban wildlife refuges in the country. At the heart of the refuge complex is the Rocky Mountain Arsenal National Wildlife Refuge: 16,000 acres of shortgrass and mixed-grass prairie that is home to bison, bald eagles, migratory songbirds, prairie dogs, and much more—all within the Denver Metropolitan area.This comprehensive conservation plan will be the first in the country designed to begin implementing the Refuge System’s new Urban Refuge Initiative. To accomplish this, we analyzed a wide range of options on how best to support up to one million visitors per year without compromising our principal purposes to protect and preserve fish and wildlife and their habitats. We are fortunate to have inherited a great deal of infrastructure from the U.S. Army, but we are also constrained by the current condition and layout of these facilities. Some of this infrastructure may be acting as barriers to the public—a condition inconsistent with the purposes of the refuge. Accordingly, we have developed a goal to increase and improve suitable access to the refuge, develop sustainable transportation options, and provide more connections among the units of the refuge complex. This increased access will enable people from all walks of life to visit the refuge. The vision we have developed for the refuge complex calls for the restoration of the refuge’s historical habitats, and the reconnection of people with the natural lands of the refuge and of the region at large using a network consisting of multimodal trails, a far-reaching light-rail system, and the Denver International Airport. This refuge is well positioned to leverage and catalyze early investments to create world-class wildlife habitat and a

  10. Supplying the nuclear arsenal: Production reactor technology, management, and policy, 1942--1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlisle, R.P.; Zenzen, J.M.

    1994-01-01

    This book focuses on the lineage of America`s production reactors, those three at Hanford and their descendants, the reactors behind America`s nuclear weapons. The work will take only occasional sideways glances at the collateral lines of descent, the reactor cousins designed for experimental purposes, ship propulsion, and electric power generation. Over the decades from 1942 through 1992, fourteen American production reactors made enough plutonium to fuel a formidable arsenal of more than twenty thousand weapons. In the last years of that period, planners, nuclear engineers, and managers struggled over designs for the next generation of production reactors. The story of fourteen individual machines and of the planning effort to replace them might appear relatively narrow. Yet these machines lay at the heart of the nation`s nuclear weapons complex. The story of these machines is the story of arming the winning weapon, supplying the nuclear arms race. This book is intended to capture the history of the first fourteen production reactors, and associated design work, in the face of the end of the Cold War.

  11. Inventing an arsenal: adaptive evolution and neofunctionalization of snake venom phospholipase A2 genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lynch Vincent J

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gene duplication followed by functional divergence has long been hypothesized to be the main source of molecular novelty. Convincing examples of neofunctionalization, however, remain rare. Snake venom phospholipase A2 genes are members of large multigene families with many diverse functions, thus they are excellent models to study the emergence of novel functions after gene duplications. Results Here, I show that positive Darwinian selection and neofunctionalization is common in snake venom phospholipase A2 genes. The pattern of gene duplication and positive selection indicates that adaptive molecular evolution occurs immediately after duplication events as novel functions emerge and continues as gene families diversify and are refined. Surprisingly, adaptive evolution of group-I phospholipases in elapids is also associated with speciation events, suggesting adaptation of the phospholipase arsenal to novel prey species after niche shifts. Mapping the location of sites under positive selection onto the crystal structure of phospholipase A2 identified regions evolving under diversifying selection are located on the molecular surface and are likely protein-protein interactions sites essential for toxin functions. Conclusion These data show that increases in genomic complexity (through gene duplications can lead to phenotypic complexity (venom composition and that positive Darwinian selection is a common evolutionary force in snake venoms. Finally, regions identified under selection on the surface of phospholipase A2 enzymes are potential candidate sites for structure based antivenin design.

  12. The arsenal of pathogens and antivirulence therapeutic strategies for disarming them

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brannon JR

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available John R Brannon,1 Maria Hadjifrangiskou1,21Division of Molecular Pathogenesis, Department of Pathology, Microbiology and Immunology, 2Department of Urologic Surgery, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, TN, USAAbstract: Pathogens deploy an arsenal of virulence factors (VFs to establish themselves within their infectious niche. The discovery of antimicrobial compounds and their development into therapeutics has made a monumental impact on human and microbial populations. Although humans have used antimicrobials for medicinal and agricultural purposes, microorganism populations have developed and shared resistance mechanisms to persevere in the face of classical antimicrobials. However, a positive substitute is antivirulence therapy; antivirulence therapeutics prevent or interrupt an infection by counteracting a pathogen’s VFs. Their application can reduce the use of broad-spectrum antimicrobials and dampen the frequency with which resistant strains emerge. Here, we summarize the contribution of VFs to various acute and chronic infections. In correspondence with this, we provide an overview of the research and development of antivirulence strategies.Keywords: virulence factors, antivirulence therapeutics, biofilms, regulation, Escherichia coli, quorum sensing, persister cells

  13. Disposal of chemical agents and munitions stored at Pine Bluff Arsenal, Pine Bluff, Arkansas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ensminger, J.T.; Hillsman, E.L.; Johnson, R.D.; Morrisey, J.A.; Staub, W.P.; Boston, C.R.; Hunsaker, D.B.; Leibsch, E.; Rickert, L.W.; Tolbert, V.R.; Zimmerman, G.P.

    1991-09-01

    The Pine Bluff Arsenal (PBA) near Pine Bluff, Arkansas, is one of eight continental United States (CONUS) Army installations where lethal unitary chemical agents and munitions are stored and where destruction of agents and munitions is proposed under the Chemical Stockpile Disposal Program (CSDP). The chemical agent inventory at PBA consists of approximately 12%, by weight, of the total US stockpile. The destruction of the stockpile is necessary to eliminate the risk to the public from continued storage and to dispose of obsolete and leaking munitions. In 1988 the US Army issued a Final Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (FPEIS) for the CSDP that identified on-site disposal of agents and munitions as the environmentally preferred alternative (i.e., the alternative with the least potential to cause significant adverse impacts). The purpose of this report is to examine the proposed implementation of on-site disposal at PBA in light of more recent and more detailed data than those on which the FPEIS is based. New population data were used to compute fatalities using the same computation methods and values for all other parameters as in the FPEIS. Results indicate that all alternatives are indistinguishable when the potential health impacts to the PBA community are considered. However, risks from on-site disposal are in all cases equal to or less than risks from other alternatives. Furthermore, no unique resources with the potential to prevent or delay implementation of on-site disposal at PBA have been identified.

  14. Health status of mule deer and white-tailed deer herds on the Rocky Mountain Arsenal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Creekmore, T.E.; Franson, J.C.; Sileo, L. [National Wildlife Health Research Center, Madison, WI (United States); Griess, J.M.; Roy, R.R. [Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Commerce City, CO (United States); Baker, D.L. [Colorado Division of Wildlife, Ft. Collins, CO (United States)

    1994-12-31

    The Rocky Mountain Arsenal is a fenced, 6,900-ha Superfund site under remediation by the US Army and the Shell Oil Company. A variety of environmental contaminants including organochlorine pesticides, metals, and nerve-gas-production by-products are in the soil or in the water on the site. The authors evaluated the health of 18 radio-collared deer (13 mule deer [Odocoileus hemionus] and 5 white-tailed deer [O. virginianus]) collected by gunshot. Prior to collection, more than 4,000 locations of the 18 deer were plotted during a period of more than 2 years. Blood samples from the euthanized animals were collected for serologic, hematologic, and contaminant evaluations. Necropsies were preformed and tissues collected for histopathologic examinations and environmental contaminants analyses. Results indicate that the physical conditions of the mule deer were fair/good and of the white-tailed deer were good. Antibody prevalence against epizootic hemorrhagic disease serotype 2 was 85% and bovine virus diarrhea 56%. Two mule deer had severe testicular atrophy, and one of these animals also had antler deformities. Three mule deer had alopecia with dermatitis and hyperkeratosis. Results of heavy metal, and organochlorine pesticide analyses from blood and tissue samples and other analyses will be presented.

  15. Water - rock interaction in different rock environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lamminen, S.

    1995-01-01

    The study assesses the groundwater geochemistry and geological environment of 44 study sites for radioactive waste disposal. Initially, the study sites were divided by rock type into 5 groups: (1) acid - intermediate rocks, (2) mafic - ultramafic rocks, (3) gabbros, amphibolites and gneisses that contain calc-silicate (skarn) rocks, (4) carbonates and (5) sandstones. Separate assessments are made of acid - intermediate plutonic rocks and of a subgroup that comprises migmatites, granite and mica gneiss. These all belong to the group of acid - intermediate rocks. Within the mafic -ultramafic rock group, a subgroup that comprises mafic - ultramafic plutonic rocks, serpentinites, mafic - ultramafic volcanic rocks and volcanic - sedimentary schists is also evaluated separately. Bedrock groundwaters are classified by their concentration of total dissolved solids as fresh, brackish, saline, strongly saline and brine-class groundwaters. (75 refs., 24 figs., 3 tabs.)

  16. Yersinia virulence factors - a sophisticated arsenal for combating host defences [version 1; referees: 2 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steve Atkinson

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The human pathogens Yersinia pseudotuberculosis and Yersinia enterocolitica cause enterocolitis, while Yersinia pestis is responsible for pneumonic, bubonic, and septicaemic plague. All three share an infection strategy that relies on a virulence factor arsenal to enable them to enter, adhere to, and colonise the host while evading host defences to avoid untimely clearance. Their arsenal includes a number of adhesins that allow the invading pathogens to establish a foothold in the host and to adhere to specific tissues later during infection. When the host innate immune system has been activated, all three pathogens produce a structure analogous to a hypodermic needle. In conjunction with the translocon, which forms a pore in the host membrane, the channel that is formed enables the transfer of six ‘effector’ proteins into the host cell cytoplasm. These proteins mimic host cell proteins but are more efficient than their native counterparts at modifying the host cell cytoskeleton, triggering the host cell suicide response. Such a sophisticated arsenal ensures that yersiniae maintain the upper hand despite the best efforts of the host to counteract the infecting pathogen.

  17. Marshall Islands

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2015-01-01

    This note aims to build understanding of the existing disaster risk financing and insurance (DRFI) tools in use in The Marshall Islands and to identify gaps where potential engagement could further develop financial resilience. The likelihood that a hazardous event will have a significant impact on the Marshall Islands has risen with the increasing levels of population and assets in the urban ...

  18. CERN Rocks

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    The 15th CERN Hardronic Festival took place on 17 July on the terrace of Rest 3 (Prévessin). Over 1000 people, from CERN and other International Organizations, came to enjoy the warm summer night, and to watch the best of the World's High Energy music. Jazz, rock, pop, country, metal, blues, funk and punk blasted out from 9 bands from the CERN Musiclub and Jazz club, alternating on two stages in a non-stop show.  The night reached its hottest point when The Canettes Blues Band got everybody dancing to sixties R&B tunes (pictured). Meanwhile, the bars and food vans were working at full capacity, under the expert management of the CERN Softball club, who were at the same time running a Softball tournament in the adjacent "Higgs Field". The Hardronic Festival is the main yearly CERN music event, and it is organized with the support of the Staff Association and the CERN Administration.

  19. The Caledonian tectonomagmatic evolution of the Orkney Islands, Scotland

    OpenAIRE

    Bjerga, Audun Dalene

    2017-01-01

    The geology of the Orkney Islands is dominated by well-studied Devonian sedimentary rocks deposited in the Orcadian basin. However, on the islands of Mainland Orkney and Graemsay there are small, relatively poorly studied outcrops of the underlying basement. Based on comparison with rocks in mainland Scotland this basement has been suggested to comprise pre-Caledonian para-gneisses and Caledonian granites. This has, however, never been documented. Here the contact relationships in the basemen...

  20. Feeding habits of Aspitrigla cuculus (L., 1758) (red gurnard), Lepidotrigla cavillone (Lac., 1802) (large scale gurnard) and Trigloporus lastoviza (Brunn., 1768) (rock gurnard) around Cyclades and Dodecanese Islands (E. Mediterranean)

    OpenAIRE

    TERRATS, A.; PETRAKIS, G.; PAPACONSTANTINOU, C.

    2000-01-01

    The feeding habits of the three most abundant gurnard species, red gurnard (Aspitrigla cuculus), large scale gurnard (Lepidotrigla cavillone) and rock gurnard (Trigloporus lastoviza) in the eastern Mediterranean (Dodecanese and Cyclades, Greece) are examined. The stomach contents of the gurnard specimens collected in April and September 1996 by bottom trawling were analyzed. The % frequency of occurrence, % number and % weight of prey types in the stomach contents were evaluated. By weight, M...

  1. Rollerjaw Rock Crusher

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Gregory; Brown, Kyle; Fuerstenau, Stephen

    2009-01-01

    The rollerjaw rock crusher melds the concepts of jaw crushing and roll crushing long employed in the mining and rock-crushing industries. Rollerjaw rock crushers have been proposed for inclusion in geological exploration missions on Mars, where they would be used to pulverize rock samples into powders in the tens of micrometer particle size range required for analysis by scientific instruments.

  2. Geomechanical characterization of volcanic rocks using empirical systems and data mining techniques

    OpenAIRE

    T. Miranda; L.R. Sousa; A.T. Gomes; J. Tinoco; C. Ferreira

    2018-01-01

    This paper tries to characterize volcanic rocks through the development and application of an empirical geomechanical system. Geotechnical information was collected from the samples from several Atlantic Ocean islands including Madeira, Azores and Canarias archipelagos. An empirical rock classification system termed as the volcanic rock system (VRS) is developed and presented in detail. Results using the VRS are compared with those obtained using the traditional rock mass rating (RMR) system....

  3. Opportunity Examining Composition of 'Cook Islands' Outcrop

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    This image taken by the front hazard-avoidance camera on NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity shows the rover's arm extended to examine the composition of a rock using the alpha particle X-ray spectrometer. Opportunity took this image during the 1,826th Martian day, or sol, of the rover's Mars-surface mission (March 13, 2009). The spectrometer is at a target called 'Penrhyn,' on a rock called 'Cook Islands.' As Opportunity makes its way on a long journey from Victoria Crater toward Endeavour Crater, the team is stopping the drive occasionally on the route to check whether the rover finds a trend in the composition of rock exposures.

  4. 76 FR 20706 - South Farallon Islands Nonnative Mouse Eradication Project; Farallon National Wildlife Refuge...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-13

    ... Noonday Rock. In 1969 the Refuge was expanded to include the South Farallon Islands and is still managed... eradicate nonnative mice from the South Farallon Islands, part of the Farallon National Wildlife Refuge off... eradicate nonnative house mice (Mus musculus) from the South Farallon Islands. The purpose of this project...

  5. Class renormalization: islands around islands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meiss, J.D.

    1986-01-01

    An orbit of 'class' is one that rotates about a periodic orbit of one lower class with definite frequency. This contrasts to the 'level' of a periodic orbit which is the number of elements in its continued fraction expansion. Level renormalization is conventionally used to study the structure of quasi-periodic orbits. The scaling structure of periodic orbits encircling other periodic orbits in area preserving maps is discussed here. Fixed points corresponding to the accumulation of p/q bifurcations are found and scaling exponents determined. Fixed points for q > 2 correspond to self-similar islands around islands. Frequencies of the island boundary circles at the fixed points are obtained. Importance of this scaling for the motion of particles in stochastic regions is emphasized. (author)

  6. Rocks Can Wow? Yes, Rocks Can Wow!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardman, Sally; Luke, Sue

    2016-01-01

    Rocks and fossils appear in the National Curriculum of England science programmes of study for children in year 3 (ages 7-8). A frequently asked question is "How do you make the classification of rocks engaging?" In response to this request from a school, a set of interactive activities was designed and organised by tutors and students…

  7. Rock slope design guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-01

    This Manual is intended to provide guidance for the design of rock cut slopes, rockfall catchment, and : rockfall controls. Recommendations presented in this manual are based on research presented in Shakoor : and Admassu (2010) entitled Rock Slop...

  8. Rock Slope Design Criteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    Based on the stratigraphy and the type of slope stability problems, the flat lying, Paleozoic age, sedimentary : rocks of Ohio were divided into three design units: 1) competent rock design unit consisting of sandstones, limestones, : and siltstones ...

  9. The Rock Cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Raman J.; Bushee, Jonathan

    1977-01-01

    Presents a rock cycle diagram suitable for use at the secondary or introductory college levels which separates rocks formed on and below the surface, includes organic materials, and separates products from processes. (SL)

  10. Rock History and Culture

    OpenAIRE

    Gonzalez, Éric

    2013-01-01

    Two ambitious works written by French-speaking scholars tackle rock music as a research object, from different but complementary perspectives. Both are a definite must-read for anyone interested in the contextualisation of rock music in western popular culture. In Une histoire musicale du rock (i.e. A Musical History of Rock), rock music is approached from the point of view of the people – musicians and industry – behind the music. Christophe Pirenne endeavours to examine that field from a m...

  11. Apollinaire et le détournement de l’arsenal militaire : la vitesse comme vecteur amoureux

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lionel Cuillé

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Le détournement de l’arsenal militaire se comprend à la lumière des spéculations de F.T Marinetti sur la vitesse, notion esthétique fédérant le futurisme italien. Le canon de 75, au service duquel Apollinaire est affecté, fut considéré comme une prouesse technologique dont la vélocité devait permettre une victoire fulgurante contre l’Allemagne. C’est ce vecteur de vitesse qui devient le support d’une nouvelle poétique. Certains Calligrammes se lisent dès lors comme un dispositif grâce auquel le poète-artilleur reconfigure, pour la contester, l’opposition entre l’idéal féminin et la luxure, deux postulations que Marinetti déclare exorciser par la magie de la vitesse.

  12. Determination of geohydrologic framework and extent of d- water contamination using surface geophysical techniques at Picatinny Arsenal, New Jersey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacombe, Pierre

    1986-01-01

    Seismic-refraction, electric-resistivity sounding, and electromagnetic conductivity techniques were used to determine the geohydrologic framework and extent of groundwater contamination at Picatinny Arsenal in northern New Jersey. The area studied encompasses about 4 sq mi at the southern end of the Arsenal. The bedrock surface beneath the glacial sediments was delineated by seismic-refraction techniques. Data for 12 seismic lines were collected using a 12-channel engineering seismograph. Competent bedrock crops out on both sides of the valley, but is about 290 ft below land surface in the deepest part of the topographic valley. Where the exposed bedrock surface forms steep slopes on the valley side, it remains steep below the valley fill. Likewise, gentle bedrock valley slopes have gentle subsurface slopes. The deepest part of the bedrock valley is along the southern extension of the Green Pond fault. The electric-resistivity sounding technique was used to determine the sediment types. Data were collected from four sites using the offset Wenner electrode configuration. Below the surface layer, the sediments have apparent and computed resistivity values of 120 to 170 ohm-meters. These values correspond to a saturated fine-grained sediment such as silt or interbedded sand and clay. Groundwater contamination was by electromagnetic conductivity techniques using transmitting and receiving coils separated by 32.8 ft and 12 ft. Thirteen sites have apparent conductivity values exceeding 15 millimhos/m. Of these, seven sites indicate groundwater contamination from a variety of sources including a sanitary landfill, pyrotechnic testing ground, burning area, former domestic sewage field, salt storage facility, hazardous waste disposal lagoon, sewage treatment plant, and fertilizer storage shed. Three areas underlain by clay or muck are interpreted to be free of contamination. (Author 's abstract)

  13. Muusikamaailm : Rostropovitshi suurprojekt. Festival "Arsenal Baroque" Metzis. "UltraSchall" Berliinis. Vermeuleni preemia 2000. Thielemann jääb Berliini. Henri Tomasi ئ 100 / Priit Kuusk

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kuusk, Priit, 1938-

    2001-01-01

    M. Rostropovitsh tõi publiku ette Shostakovitshi ooperi "Mtsenski maakonna leedi Macbeth". Festivalist Arsenal Baroque" Metzis. Rahvusvahelisest festivalist "UltraSchall" Berliinis. Matthijs Vermeuleni nim. preemia sai tänavu R. Rijnvos. C. Thielemann jääb Deutsche Operi muusikadirektoriks veel aastani 2007. Lühidalt H. Tomasist

  14. 77 FR 50916 - Safety Zone; Boston Harbor's Rock Removal Project, Boston Inner Harbor, Boston, MA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-23

    ... operation on the navigable waters of Boston Inner Harbor, in the main ship channel near Castle Island. This... operations in support of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers rock removal project. Entering into, transiting... before the start date of the project. The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers also discussed the rock removal...

  15. Small Population Size of the Pribilof Rock Sandpiper Confirmed through Distance-Sampling Surveys in Alaska

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruthrauff, D.R.; Tibbitts, T.L.; Gill, R.E.; Dementyev, M.N.

    2012-01-01

    The Rock Sandpiper (Calidris ptilocnemis) is endemic to the Bering Sea region and unique among shorebirds in the North Pacific for wintering at high latitudes. The nominate subspecies, the Pribilof Rock Sandpiper (C. p. ptilocnemis), breeds on four isolated islands in the Bering Sea and appears to

  16. The decapod and stomatopod Crustacea of St Paul's Rocks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holthuis, L.B.

    1980-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Saint Paul's Rocks (Penedos de São Pedro e São Paulo) are a small group of rocky islets on the mid-Atlantic ridge near the equator, occupying an area of roughly 250 by 425 m. There is no vegetation and, apart from birds and invertebrates, the islands are uninhabited. The Cambridge

  17. Geomechanical characterization of volcanic rocks using empirical systems and data mining techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Miranda

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper tries to characterize volcanic rocks through the development and application of an empirical geomechanical system. Geotechnical information was collected from the samples from several Atlantic Ocean islands including Madeira, Azores and Canarias archipelagos. An empirical rock classification system termed as the volcanic rock system (VRS is developed and presented in detail. Results using the VRS are compared with those obtained using the traditional rock mass rating (RMR system. Data mining (DM techniques are applied to a database of volcanic rock geomechanical information from the islands. Different algorithms were developed and consequently approaches were followed for predicting rock mass classes using the VRS and RMR classification systems. Finally, some conclusions are drawn with emphasis on the fact that a better performance was achieved using attributes from VRS.

  18. A Paleomagnetic Reconnaissance of the Bonin Islands

    OpenAIRE

    Kodama, Kazuto

    1981-01-01

    A paleomagnetic study has been carried out on the volcanic rocks of the Bonin Islands (27°N, 142°E). A total of 15 sites were visited for sampling; eight sites on Chichi-jima, four on Haha-jima, two on Muko-jima and one on Yome-jima. The directions of natural remanent magnetization of the samples after alternating field demagnetization not only deflect considerably from the present geomagnetic field but they clearly show that Chichi-jima differs from the other islands. That is, the mean direc...

  19. Tenarife Island, Canary Island Archipelago, Atlantic Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    Tenarife Island is one of the most volcanically active of the Canary Island archipelago, Atlantic Ocean, just off the NW coast of Africa, (28.5N, 16.5W). The old central caldera, nearly filled in by successive volcanic activity culminating in two stratocones. From those two peaks, a line of smaller cinder cones extend to the point of the island. Extensive gullies dissect the west side of the island and some forests still remain on the east side.

  20. PYROXENITE VEINS WITHIN SSZ PERIDOTITES – EVIDENCE OF MELT-ROCK INTERACTION (EGIINGOL MASSIF), MAJOR AND TRACE ELEMENT COMPOSITION OF MINERALS

    OpenAIRE

    A. A. Karimov; M A. Gornova; V. A. Belyaev

    2017-01-01

    Evidence of melt-rock reaction between suprasubduction zone (SSZ) peridotites and island arc boninititc and tholeiitic melts are identified. This process is the cause of replacive dunites and pyroxenite veins forming, which are represent the ways of island-arc melts migration. The peridotite-melt interaction is confirmed by compositional features of rocks and minerals. Influence of boninitic melt in peridotites of South Sandwich island arc leads to increasing of TiO2 and Cr-number (Cr#) in sp...

  1. Rock Cycle Roulette.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Stan M.; Palmer, Courtney

    2000-01-01

    Introduces an activity on the rock cycle. Sets 11 stages representing the transitions of an earth material in the rock cycle. Builds six-sided die for each station, and students move to the stations depending on the rolling side of the die. Evaluates students by discussing several questions in the classroom. Provides instructional information for…

  2. Rock engineering in Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1986-01-01

    Contains a large collection of short articles concerned with tunnels and underground caverns and their construction and use. The articles are grouped under the following headings: use of the subsurface space; water supply; waste water services; energy management (includes articles on power stations, district heating and oil storage and an article on coal storage); multipurpose tunnels; waste disposal; transport; shelters; sporting and recreational amenities located in rock caverns; storage facilities; industrial, laboratory, and service facilities; rock foundations; tourism and culture; utilization of rock masses; research on the disposal of nuclear waste; training and research in the field of rock engineering; site investigation techniques; design of structures in rock; construction; the environment and occupational safety; modern equipment technology; underground space in Helsinki.

  3. Reviving the art of sociability : Madame de Genlis’s Post-Revolutionary Salon at the Arsenal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melanie Conroy

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Madame de Genlis est connue comme une critique des philosophes grâce à son dialogue Les dîners du baron d’Holbach (1822. Son tableau d’une sociabilité positive, Les soupers chez la maréchale de Luxembourg (1828, est beaucoup moins connu. Les soupers posent l’idéal d’une socialibilité de cour comme étant supérieure à ce qu’elle voyait comme la sociabilité perverse des Lumières et l’incivilité de la période révolutionnaire. Mais ces dialogues sont loin d’être une simple représentation historique de la conversation dans la haute société. Ils sont plutôt des modèles pratiques pour l’art de la conversation, conçus pour fournir un remède moral à une société divisée. Issus de son expérience comme salonnière à la Bibliothèque de l’Arsenal, les dialogues fictionnalisés des années 1820 ré-inventent l’idée de la sociabilité au XVIIIe siècle pour convenir aux goûts des lideurs du XIXe siècle.

  4. Transcriptome analysis of the venom gland of the scorpion Scorpiops jendeki: implication for the evolution of the scorpion venom arsenal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Yingliang

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The family Euscorpiidae, which covers Europe, Asia, Africa, and America, is one of the most widely distributed scorpion groups. However, no studies have been conducted on the venom of a Euscorpiidae species yet. In this work, we performed a transcriptomic approach for characterizing the venom components from a Euscorpiidae scorpion, Scorpiops jendeki. Results There are ten known types of venom peptides and proteins obtained from Scorpiops jendeki. Great diversity is observed in primary sequences of most highly expressed types. The most highly expressed types are cytolytic peptides and serine proteases. Neurotoxins specific for sodium channels, which are major groups of venom components from Buthidae scorpions, are not detected in this study. In addition to those known types of venom peptides and proteins, we also obtain nine atypical types of venom molecules which haven't been observed in any other scorpion species studied to date. Conclusion This work provides the first set of cDNAs from Scorpiops jendeki, and one of the few transcriptomic analyses from a scorpion. This allows the characterization of a large number of venom molecules, belonging to either known or atypical types of scorpion venom peptides and proteins. Besides, our work could provide some clues to the evolution of the scorpion venom arsenal by comparison with venom data from other scorpion lineages.

  5. The Aristotelian Heritage in Early Naval Architecture. From the Venice Arsenal to the French Navy, 1500-1700

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larrie David Ferreiro

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false ES X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Tabla normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} This paper examines the Aristotelian roots of the mechanics of naval architecture, beginning with Mechanical Problems, through its various interpretations by Renaissance mathematicians including Vettor Fausto and Galileo at the Venice Arsenal, and culminating in the first synthetic works of naval architecture by the French navy professor Paul Hoste at the end of the seventeenth century.

  6. Disposal of chemical agents and munitions stored at Pine Bluff Arsenal, Pine Bluff, Arkansas. Final phase 1, Environmental report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ensminger, J.T.; Hillsman, E.L.; Johnson, R.D.; Morrisey, J.A.; Staub, W.P.; Boston, C.R.; Hunsaker, D.B.; Leibsch, E.; Rickert, L.W.; Tolbert, V.R.; Zimmerman, G.P.

    1991-09-01

    The Pine Bluff Arsenal (PBA) near Pine Bluff, Arkansas, is one of eight continental United States (CONUS) Army installations where lethal unitary chemical agents and munitions are stored and where destruction of agents and munitions is proposed under the Chemical Stockpile Disposal Program (CSDP). The chemical agent inventory at PBA consists of approximately 12%, by weight, of the total US stockpile. The destruction of the stockpile is necessary to eliminate the risk to the public from continued storage and to dispose of obsolete and leaking munitions. In 1988 the US Army issued a Final Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (FPEIS) for the CSDP that identified on-site disposal of agents and munitions as the environmentally preferred alternative (i.e., the alternative with the least potential to cause significant adverse impacts). The purpose of this report is to examine the proposed implementation of on-site disposal at PBA in light of more recent and more detailed data than those on which the FPEIS is based. New population data were used to compute fatalities using the same computation methods and values for all other parameters as in the FPEIS. Results indicate that all alternatives are indistinguishable when the potential health impacts to the PBA community are considered. However, risks from on-site disposal are in all cases equal to or less than risks from other alternatives. Furthermore, no unique resources with the potential to prevent or delay implementation of on-site disposal at PBA have been identified.

  7. Eos Chaos Rocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    11 January 2006 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows light-toned, layered rock outcrops in Eos Chaos, located near the east end of the Valles Marineris trough system. The outcrops occur in the form of a distinct, circular butte (upper half of image) and a high slope (lower half of image). The rocks might be sedimentary rocks, similar to those found elsewhere exposed in the Valles Marineris system and the chaotic terrain to the east of the region. Location near: 12.9oS, 49.5oW Image width: 3 km (1.9 mi) Illumination from: lower left Season: Southern Summer

  8. Boring sponges (Porifera, Clionidae) collected during the "Tydeman" Canary Islands expedition Cancap-II, 1977

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groot, de R.A.

    1980-01-01

    INTRODUCTION AND MATERIAL The boring sponges of the Canary Islands have never been studied in any detail, but the boring fauna of this archipelago cannot be expected to be very rich. All islands are volcanic and calcareous rocks are not common. Consequently, in most areas large shells and rhodophyte

  9. International Uranium Resources Evaluation Project (IUREP) national favourability studies: Cook Islands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-11-01

    The Cook Islands total only 320 square kilometers in area are located in the central South Pacific, and are made up of either volcanic material or coral. Since neither rock type is considered a good host or source of uranium, the uranium potential of the Cook Islands is considered nil. (author)

  10. Palaeomagnetic Results from the Lopra-1/1A re-entry well, Faroe Islands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abrahamsen, N.

    2006-01-01

      The palaeomagnetic dating and evolution of the Faroe Islands are discussed in the context of new density and rock magnetic results from the deepened Lopra-1/1A well. The reversal chronology of the c. 6½ km thick basalt succession is also described. The polarity record of the Faroe Islands may now...

  11. 46 CFR 7.170 - Alaska Peninsula, AK to Aleutian Islands, AK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... BOUNDARY LINES Alaska § 7.170 Alaska Peninsula, AK to Aleutian Islands, AK. (a) A line drawn from the southernmost extremity of Cape Kumlium to the westernmost extremity of Nakchamik Island; thence to the... Light at Iliuliuk Bay entrance. (c) A line drawn from Arch Rock to the northernmost extremity of...

  12. Rock properties data base

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jackson, R.; Gorski, B.; Gyenge, M.

    1991-03-01

    As mining companies proceed deeper and into areas whose stability is threatened by high and complex stress fields, the science of rock mechanics becomes invaluable in designing underground mine strata control programs. CANMET's Mining Research Laboratories division has compiled a summary of pre- and post-failure mechanical properties of rock types which were tested to provide design data. The 'Rock Properties Data Base' presents the results of these tests, and includes many rock types typical of Canadian mine environments. The data base also contains 'm' and 's' values determined using Hoek and Brown's failure criteria for both pre- and post-failure conditions. 7 refs., 3 tabs., 9 figs., 1 append.

  13. Eclogite facies rocks

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Carswell, D. A

    1990-01-01

    ... of eclogite evolution and genesis. The authors present a thorough treatment of the stability relations and geochemistry of these rocks, their intimate association with continental plate collision zones and suture zones...

  14. Rock kinoekraanil / Katrin Rajasaare

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Rajasaare, Katrin

    2008-01-01

    7.-11. juulini kinos Sõprus toimuval filminädalal "Rock On Screen" ekraanile jõudvatest rockmuusikuid portreteerivatest filmidest "Lou Reed's Berlin", "The Future Is Unwritten: Joe Strummer", "Control: Joy Division", "Hurriganes", "Shlaager"

  15. Eclogite facies rocks

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Carswell, D. A

    1990-01-01

    .... This is the first volume to provide a coherent and comprehensive review of the conditions necessary for the formation of eclogites and eclogite facies rocks and assemblages, and a detailed account...

  16. Solid as a rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pincus, H.J.

    1984-01-01

    Recent technologic developments have required a more comprehensive approach to the behavior of rock mass or rock substance plus discontinuities than was adequate previously. This work considers the inherent problems in such operations as the storage of hot or cold fluids in caverns and aquifers, underground storage of nuclear waste, underground recovery of heat from hydrocarbon fuels, tertiary recovery of oil by thermal methods, rapid excavation of large openings at shallow to great depths and in hostile environments, and retrofitting of large structures built on or in rock. The standardization of methods for determining rock properties is essential to all of the activities described, for use not only in design and construction but also in site selection and post-construction monitoring. Development of such standards is seen as a multidisciplinary effort

  17. Rock Equity Holdings, LLC

    Science.gov (United States)

    The EPA is providing notice of an Administrative Penalty Assessment in the form of an Expedited Storm Water Settlement Agreement against Rock Equity Holdings, LLC, for alleged violations at The Cove at Kettlestone/98th Street Reconstruction located at 3015

  18. Pop & rock / Berk Vaher

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Vaher, Berk, 1975-

    2001-01-01

    Uute heliplaatide Redman "Malpractice", Brian Eno & Peter Schwalm "Popstars", Clawfinger "A Whole Lot of Nothing", Dario G "In Full Color", MLTR e. Michael Learns To Rock "Blue Night" lühitutvustused

  19. Basic rocks in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piirainen, T.; Gehoer, S.; Iljina, M.; Kaerki, A.; Paakkola, J.; Vuollo, J.

    1992-10-01

    Basic igneous rocks, containing less than 52% SiO 2 , constitute an important part of the Finnish Archaean and Proterozoic crust. In the Archaean crust exist two units which contain the majority of the basic rocks. The Arcaean basic rocks are metavolcanics and situated in the Greenstone Belts of Eastern Finland. They are divided into two units. The greenstones of the lower one are tholeiites, komatiites and basaltic komatiites. The upper consists of bimodal series of volcanics and the basic rocks of which are Fe-tholeiites, basaltic komatiites and komatiites. Proterozoic basic rocks are divided into seven groups according to their ages. The Proterozoic igneous activity started by the volominous basic magmatism 2.44 Ga ago. During this stage formed the layered intrusions and related dykes in the Northern Finland. 2.2 Ga old basic rocks are situated at the margins of Karelian formations. 2.1 Ga aged Fe-tholeiitic magmatic activity is widespread in Eastern and Northern Finland. The basic rocks of 1.97 Ga age group are met within the Karelian Schist Belts as obducted ophiolite complexes but they occur also as tholeiitic diabase dykes cutting the Karelian schists and Archean basement. The intrusions and the volcanics of the 1.9 Ga old basic igneous activity are mostly encountered around the Granitoid Complex of Central Finland. Subjotnian, 1.6 Ga aged tholeiitic diabases are situated around the Rapakivi massifs of Southern Finland, and postjotnian, 1.2 Ga diabases in Western Finland where they form dykes cutting Svecofennian rocks

  20. Weathering of rock 'Ginger'

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    One of the more unusual rocks at the site is Ginger, located southeast of the lander. Parts of it have the reddest color of any material in view, whereas its rounded lobes are gray and relatively unweathered. These color differences are brought out in the inset, enhanced at the upper right. In the false color image at the lower right, the shape of the visible-wavelength spectrum (related to the abundance of weathered ferric iron minerals) is indicated by the hue of the rocks. Blue indicates relatively unweathered rocks. Typical soils and drift, which are heavily weathered, are shown in green and flesh tones. The very red color in the creases in the rock surface correspond to a crust of ferric minerals. The origin of the rock is uncertain; the ferric crust may have grown underneath the rock, or it may cement pebbles together into a conglomerate. Ginger will be a target of future super-resolution studies to better constrain its origin.Mars Pathfinder is the second in NASA's Discovery program of low-cost spacecraft with highly focused science goals. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, developed and manages the Mars Pathfinder mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) was developed by the University of Arizona Lunar and Planetary Laboratory under contract to JPL. Peter Smith is the Principal Investigator. JPL is an operating division of the California Institute of Technology (Caltech).

  1. Pb isotopes of Gorgona Island (Colombia): Isotopic variations correlated with magma type

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dupre, B.; Echeverria, L.M. (Max-Planck-Institut fuer Chemie (Otto-Hahn-Institut), Mainz (Germany, F.R.))

    1984-02-01

    Lead isotopic results obtained on komatiites and basalts from Gorgona Island provide evidence of large isotopic variations within a restricted area (8x2.5 km). The variations are correlated with differences in volcanic rock type. The highest isotopic ratios (/sup 206/Pb//sup 204/Pb proportional 19.75) correspond to tholeiites which make up most of the island. The lowest ratios (18.3) correspond to the komatiites of the west coast of the island.

  2. Results of monitoring at Olkiluoto in 2004. Rock mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riikonen, S.

    2005-09-01

    This report presents Posiva Oy's results of the rock mechanical monitoring programme from the year 2004. Monitoring programme was established for long time monitoring of modifications in the bedrock during the excavation of the ONKALO underground research facility stated in Olkiluoto island. This is the first annual report where rock mechanical research work has being reported also from the monitoring point of view. Rock mechanical research work consists of both GPS measurements and microseismic measurements carried out in Olkiluoto island. Both measurements have been performed during several years even before monitoring programme was established. GPS measurements have been carried out since 1995 and microseismic network has operated since 2002. There have been no significant changes in observations when studying rock mechanical results from the year 2004 and comparing them to results from the previous years. Therefore it can be said, that so far ONKALO has barely had any effect on rock mechanics in Olkiluoto. Report has been composed from the annual reports of GPS measurements.(orig.)

  3. Researching Pacific island livelihoods:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egelund Christensen, Andreas; Mertz, Ole

    2010-01-01

    on contemporary theories of nissology and conceptual analytical frameworks for island research. Through a review of selected case-study-based island literature on changing livelihoods coming out of the South Pacific, we wish to illustrate and discuss advantages of finding common grounds for small island studies....... The focus is on two dimensions of island livelihood, migration and natural resource management, both of which are significant contributors in making island livelihoods and shaping Pacific seascapes. We argue that there is still a substantial lack of studies targeting small island dynamics that are empirical...

  4. Geology and geochronology of the sub-Antarctic Snares Islands/Tini Heke, New Zealand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scott, J.M.; Turnbull, I.M.; Sagar, M.W.; Tulloch, A.J.; Waight, T.E.; Palin, J.M.

    2015-01-01

    The first comprehensive geological map, a summary of lithologies and new radiogenic isotope data (U-Pb, Rb-Sr) are presented for crystalline rocks of the Sub-Antarctic Snares Islands/Tini Heke, 150 km south of Stewart Island. The main lithology is Snares Granite (c. 109 Ma from U-Pb dating of zircon), which intrudes Broughton Granodiorite (c. 114 Ma from U-Pb zircon) on Broughton Island. Rafts of schist within Snares Granite are common on the outlying Western Chain islets, and rare on North East and Broughton islands. Zircon grains extracted from one schistose raft on Broughton Island are prismatic and yield an essentially unimodal age population of c. 116 Ma that is within error of the granodiorite. These properties suggest that the dated raft represents a meta-igneous rock despite its mica-rich nature. Some schistose rocks on the Western Chain contain coarse relict plagioclase phenocrysts and appear to have an igneous protolith. No conclusive metasedimentary rocks have been identified, although sillimanite-bearing mica-rich schist occurs on Rua. Deformation of the crystalline rocks occurred after Snares Granite intrusion and before cooling below muscovite K-Ar closure at 400 ± 50 degrees C at 95 Ma. This period overlaps the age of extensional ductile shear zones on Stewart Island. The discovery of several basaltic dykes, which cut across fabrics and are unmetamorphosed, indicates that volcanic rocks are associated with all Sub-Antarctic island groups. The larger of the islands are overlain by peat, which on North East Island also contains gravel deposits. (author).

  5. Multi-elemental characterization of volcanic and vulcano-sedimentary rocks from Pina petroleum ore, central Cuba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montero-Cabrera, M.E.; Herrera-Peraza, E.; Betancourt-Tanda, L.; Campa-Menendez, R.; Diaz-Rizo, O.; Rodriguez-Martinez, N.; Segura-Soto, R.; Hernandez-Lopez, B.; Valdes-Lopez, S.

    1994-01-01

    Concentrations of 32 elements in 22 clay, limestone, tuff and volcanic rock samples from the Pina ore have been obtained by neutron activation and X-ray fluorescence analyses. Several LILE (large ion lithofile elements) and REE (rare earth element) concentration diagrams showed the calc-alkaline character of the volcanic rocks corresponding to the Greater Antilles Island, Arc. The basaltic andesite behavior of the rocks studied was confirmed by comparing the average concentrations obtained from tuffs and volcanic rocks with proper mean values of rock elemental compositions of the earth's crust. (Author)

  6. Multi-elemental characterization of volcanic and vulcano-sedimentary rocks from Pina petroleum ore, central Cuba

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montero-Cabrera, M.E.; Herrera-Peraza, E.; Betancourt-Tanda, L.; Campa-Menendez, R.; Diaz-Rizo, O. (Instituto Superior de Ciencia y Tecnologia Nuclear (ISCTN), La Habana (Cuba)); Rodriguez-Martinez, N.; Segura-Soto, R.; Hernandez-Lopez, B.; Valdes-Lopez, S. (Centro de Investigaciones y Desarrollo del Petroleo, La Habana (Cuba))

    1994-08-01

    Concentrations of 32 elements in 22 clay, limestone, tuff and volcanic rock samples from the Pina ore have been obtained by neutron activation and X-ray fluorescence analyses. Several LILE (large ion lithofile elements) and REE (rare earth element) concentration diagrams showed the calc-alkaline character of the volcanic rocks corresponding to the Greater Antilles Island, Arc. The basaltic andesite behavior of the rocks studied was confirmed by comparing the average concentrations obtained from tuffs and volcanic rocks with proper mean values of rock elemental compositions of the earth's crust. (Author).

  7. "Sleuthing through the Rock Cycle": An Online Guided Inquiry Tool for Middle and High School Geoscience Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schifman, Laura; Cardace, Dawn; Kortz, Karen; Saul, Karen; Gilfert, Amber; Veeger, Anne I.; Murray, Daniel P.

    2013-01-01

    The rock cycle is a key component of geoscience education at all levels. In this paper, we report on a new guided inquiry curricular module, "Sleuthing through the Rock Cycle," which has a blended online/offline constructivist design with comprehensive teaching notes and has been successful in pilot use in Rhode Island middle and high…

  8. 75 FR 31321 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Rock Sole, Flathead Sole, and “Other...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-03

    .... 0910131363-0087-02] RIN 0648-XW74 Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Rock Sole, Flathead... participating in the Amendment 80 limited access fishery in the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands management area... the trawl rock sole, flathead sole, and ``other flatfish'' fishery category by vessels participating...

  9. Geology--hydrology of Avery Island Salt Dome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacoby, C.H.

    1977-07-01

    After a review of the geology of the Gulf Coast salt domes, the geology (geomorphology and tectonics) and hydrology of Avery Island Dome, 10 miles south-southwest of New Iberia, Louisiana, were studied in detail. Rock mechanics were studied using grouts and piezometers. 17 figs

  10. Magnetic anomalies over the Andaman Islands and their geological ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    plate boundary zone (e.g., Gahalaut et al. 2008; ... Himalayan arc/collision system in the north and the Indonesian arc system .... prominent linear ridges, (b) geological map of the Andaman Islands (after Pal et al. 2003a) ... ophiolite rocks occur in N–S to NE–SW trending bodies. ... described above gave rise to three areas of.

  11. No Reprieve for Tasmanian Rock Art

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter C. Sims

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The Australian State of Tasmania, at latitude 42 degrees south, became an island about 8,000 years ago when the sea rose to its present level, following the melting of polar and glacial ice that covered much of the land mass. After that time, the Tasmanian Aboriginal rock art developed independently of mainland Australia, with its form being basically linear with some naturalistic figures and a predominance of cupules. The petroglyphs with one lithophone site occur on various rock substrates varying in hardness from granite to sandstone. Many sites exist along the western coastline that borders the Southern Ocean where the landscape in some places has changed little since the arrival of Europeans in 1803. The significance of this Tasmanian Aboriginal cultural heritage along what is now known as the Tarkine Coast, named after an Aboriginal band that once inhabited this area, was recognised by the Australian Government in February 2013 when a 21,000 ha strip, 2 km wide, was inscribed on its National Heritage Register, being one of 98 special places listed in the country. However, politics and racism hamper its management. This paper is based on the results of 40 years of field recording of the Tasmanian Aboriginal rock art sites, many of which remain unpublished.

  12. Diomede Islands, Bering Straight

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    The Diomede Islands consisting of the western island Big Diomede (also known as Imaqliq, Nunarbuk or Ratmanov Island), and the eastern island Little Diomede (also known as Krusenstern Island or Inaliq), are two rocky islands located in the middle of the Bering Strait between Russia and Alaska. The islands are separated by an international border and the International Date Line which is approximately 1.5 km from each island; you can look from Alaska into tomorrow in Russia. At the closest land approach between the United States, which controls Little Diomede, and Russia, which controls Big Diomede, they are 3 km apart. Little Diomede Island constitutes the Alaskan City of Diomede, while Big Diomede Island is Russia's easternmost point. The first European to reach the islands was the Russian explorer Semyon Dezhnev in 1648. The text of the 1867 treaty finalizing the sale of Alaska uses the islands to designate the border between the two nations. The image was acquired July 8, 2000, covers an area of 13.5 x 10.8 km, and is located at 65.8 degrees north latitude, 169 degrees west longitude. The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

  13. Tales of island tails

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groot, de Alma V.; Oost, Albert P.; Veeneklaas, Roos M.; Lammerts, Evert Jan; Duin, van Willem E.; Wesenbeeck, van Bregje K.

    2016-01-01

    The Frisian islands (Southern North Sea) have extensive island tails, i.e. the entire downdrift side of an island consisting of salt marshes, dunes, beaches and beach plains, and green beaches. Currently, large parts of these tails are ageing and losing dynamics, partly due to human influence.

  14. Rhode Island unemployment

    OpenAIRE

    Leonard Lardaro

    2010-01-01

    How can a state like Rhode Island have such a high unemployment rate? This question has been asked often over the past year, especially since at one point, Rhode Island found itself with the dubious distinction of having the highest unemployment rate in the United States. Following that extreme, Rhode Island seemed to settle into a niche where its rank was third nationally.

  15. Recent hydrogeologic study of the Vis island

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janislav Kapelj

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available The Vis Island belongs to the group of the Middle Dalmatian islands. It comprises an area of about 90.2 km2. Morphologically, three belts of highlands and two depressions with karst poljes are significant. The highest point on the island is Hum with 587 m a.s.l. theisland’s water supply is organized from the water-supply station “Korita”, situated in the central part of island, in tectonically formed depression. There are two additional capturedobjects: the well K-1 above the Komiža town and the spring “Pizdica”. The most important hydrogeological role on the island have two hydrogeological barriers, one in the KomižaBay, completely made of impermeable igneous and clastic rocks, and another one, the recently recognized relative barrier in the area of Dra~evo, Plisko and Velo polje. Since the island karst aquifer is in permanent dynamic relation with seawater, classical geologic,structural and hydrogeologic investigations have been performed with application of hydrogeochemical methods taking into account the natural chemical tracer content of groundwater and its variations in different hydrologic and vegetation conditions. Precipitationregime is very unfavorable with regard to the recharging of island’s aquifer, because dry periods are usually very long. During the summer tourist season, when the number of inhabitants and fresh water consumption considerably increase, amounts of island’sgroundwater suitable for water supply and irrigation rapidly decrease. Sometimes, insufficient quantity of fresh water on the Vis Island causes restrictions. Concerning the development of tourist potential and the present agricultural activities, summer lack ofwater is a serious restrictive factor. Some results of the performed hydrogeological study, important as a basis for island’s fresh water potential assessment, will be presented.

  16. Transporting radioactive rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pearce, G.

    1990-01-01

    The case is made for exempting geological specimens from the IAEA Regulations for Safer Transport of Radioactive Materials. It is pointed out that many mineral collectors in Devon and Cornwall may be unwittingly infringing these regulations by taking naturally radioactive rocks and specimens containing uranium ores. Even if these collectors are aware that these rocks are radioactive, and many are not, few have the necessary equipment to monitor the activity levels. If the transport regulations were to be enforced alarm could be generated and the regulations devalued in case of an accident. The danger from a spill of rock specimens is negligible compared with an accident involving industrial or medical radioactive substances yet would require similar special treatment. (UK)

  17. Nannofossils in 2011 El Hierro eruptive products reinstate plume model for Canary Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaczek, Kirsten; Troll, Valentin R.; Cachao, Mario; Ferreira, Jorge; Deegan, Frances M.; Carracedo, Juan Carlos; Soler, Vicente; Meade, Fiona C.; Burchardt, Steffi

    2015-01-01

    The origin and life cycle of ocean islands have been debated since the early days of Geology. In the case of the Canary archipelago, its proximity to the Atlas orogen led to initial fracture-controlled models for island genesis, while later workers cited a Miocene-Quaternary east-west age-progression to support an underlying mantle-plume. The recent discovery of submarine Cretaceous volcanic rocks near the westernmost island of El Hierro now questions this systematic age-progression within the archipelago. If a mantle-plume is indeed responsible for the Canaries, the onshore volcanic age-progression should be complemented by progressively younger pre-island sedimentary strata towards the west, however, direct age constraints for the westernmost pre-island sediments are lacking. Here we report on new age data obtained from calcareous nannofossils in sedimentary xenoliths erupted during the 2011 El Hierro events, which date the sub-island sedimentary rocks to between late Cretaceous and Pliocene in age. This age-range includes substantially younger pre-volcanic sedimentary rocks than the Jurassic to Miocene strata known from the older eastern islands and now reinstate the mantle-plume hypothesis as the most plausible explanation for Canary volcanism. The recently discovered Cretaceous submarine volcanic rocks in the region are, in turn, part of an older, fracture-related tectonic episode.

  18. Geotechnical properties of rock

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jackson, R.; Gorski, B.; Gyenge, M.

    1995-12-31

    The manual is a compilation of the geotechnical properties of many types of rock that are typical of Canadian mining environments. Included are values for density, porosity, compressive and shear wave velocity, uniaxial compressive strength, Young`s modulus, and Poisson`s ratio. The data base contains material constants that were determined using the Hoek and Brown failure criteria for both before and after failure conditions. 76 data sheets of rock properties in Canadian mines are included. 7 refs., 85 figs., 3 tabs.

  19. Rock engineering applications, 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franklin, J.A.; Dusseault, M.B.

    1991-01-01

    This book demonstrates how to apply the theories and principles of rock engineering to actual engineering and construction tasks. It features insights on geology for mining and tunnelling applications. It is practical resource that focuses on the latest technological innovation and examines up-to-date procedures used by engineers for coping with complex rock conditions. The authors also discuss question related to underground space, from design approaches to underground housing and storage. And they cover the monitoring of storage caverns for liquid and gaseous products or toxic and radioactive wastes

  20. Smart Rocking Armour Units

    OpenAIRE

    Hofland, B.; Arefin, Syed Shamsil; van der Lem, Cock; van gent, Marcel

    2018-01-01

    This paper describes a method to measure the rocking motion of lab-scale armour units. Sensors as found in mobile phones are used. These sensors, data-storage and battery are all embedded in the model units, such that they can be applied without wires attached to them. The technique is applied to double-layer units in order to compare the results to the existing knowledge for this type of armour layers. In contrast to previous research, the gyroscope reading is used to determine the (rocking)...

  1. Rock Hellsinki, Marketing Research

    OpenAIRE

    Todd, Roosa; Jalkanen, Katariina

    2013-01-01

    This paper is a qualitative research about rock and heavy metal music tourism in the capital city of Finland, Helsinki. As Helsinki can be considered the city of contrasts, the silent nature city mixed with urban activities, it is important to also use the potential of the loud rock and heavy metal music contrasting the silence. Finland is known abroad for bands such as HIM, Nightwish, Korpiklaani and Children of Bodom so it would make sense to utilize these in the tourism sector as well. The...

  2. Final Alternatives Assessment of Interim Response Actions for Other Contamination Sources M-1 Settling Basins, Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Version 3.1

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-11-01

    u = W. QU- -; t2 E~ zi=- 6e-1 wo u CC .2 211 ~ .CC > . I- - . Ece Zc a- c’ cC I C! 0. - ZEC E ~C C 6-12 E 0 U- .0 E ~E 0 -6 -1 1 I- 8t~ V- .~ u osz w18...Materials and Waste Management Division Colorado Department of Health 4210 East 11th Avenue Denver, CO 80020 Victoria Peters , Esq. Office of Attorney...999 18th Street, Suite 500 Denver, CO 80202-2405 Dr. Peter Gober U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Bldg. 111 Commerce City, CO

  3. A Rock Retrospective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Grady, Terence J.

    1979-01-01

    The author offers an analysis of musical techniques found in the major rock trends of the 1960s. An annotated list of selected readings and a subject-indexed list of selected recordings are appended. This article is part of a theme issue on popular music. (Editor/SJL)

  4. Rock-hard coatings

    OpenAIRE

    Muller, M.

    2007-01-01

    Aircraft jet engines have to be able to withstand infernal conditions. Extreme heat and bitter cold tax coatings to the limit. Materials expert Dr Ir. Wim Sloof fits atoms together to develop rock-hard coatings. The latest invention in this field is known as ceramic matrix composites. Sloof has signed an agreement with a number of parties to investigate this material further.

  5. Fluids in metamorphic rocks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Touret, J.L.R.

    2001-01-01

    Basic principles for the study of fluid inclusions in metamorphic rocks are reviewed and illustrated. A major problem relates to the number of inclusions, possibly formed on a wide range of P-T conditions, having also suffered, in most cases, extensive changes after initial trapping. The

  6. Rock-hard coatings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muller, M.

    2007-01-01

    Aircraft jet engines have to be able to withstand infernal conditions. Extreme heat and bitter cold tax coatings to the limit. Materials expert Dr Ir. Wim Sloof fits atoms together to develop rock-hard coatings. The latest invention in this field is known as ceramic matrix composites. Sloof has

  7. Northeast Church Rock Mine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Northeast Church Rock Mine, a former uranium mine 17 miles northeast of Gallup, NM in the Pinedale Chapter of the Navajo Nation. EPA is working with NNEPA to oversee cleanup work by United Nuclear Corporation, a company owned by General Electric (GE).

  8. Smart Rocking Armour Units

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofland, B.; Arefin, Syed Shamsil; van der Lem, Cock; van gent, Marcel

    2018-01-01

    This paper describes a method to measure the rocking motion of lab-scale armour units. Sensors as found in mobile phones are used. These sensors, data-storage and battery are all embedded in the model units, such that they can be applied without wires attached to them. The technique is applied to

  9. Teaching the Rock Cycle with Ease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bereki, Debra

    2000-01-01

    Describes a hands-on lesson for teaching high school students the concept of the rock cycle using sedimentary, metamorphic, and igneous rocks. Students use a rock cycle diagram to identify pairs of rocks. From the rock cycle, students explain on paper how their first rock became the second rock and vice versa. (PVD)

  10. Geologic youth of galapagos islands confirmed by marine stratigraphy and paleontology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hickman, C S; Lipps, J H

    1985-03-29

    Six distinctive types of fossiliferous marine deposits occur on the Galádpagos Islands that provide evidence for the age of emergence of the islands above sea level and hence a maximum age for the islands' terrestrial biota. These subtidal to supratidal deposits include (i) volcanic tuffs with fossils, (ii) limestones and sandstones interbedded with basalt, (iii) terrace deposits, (iv) beach rock, (v) supratidal talus deposits, and (vi) recently uplifted tidal and subtidal rocks and sand. With the exception of (vi), the deposits were previously assigned ages varying from Miocene to Pleistocene, but all are less than about 2 million years old. This age, together with independently determined geologic ages, indicate that the islands emerged from the sea relatively recently and that all evolution of the islands' unique terrestrial biota occurred within the past 3 to 4 million years.

  11. For Those About to Rock : Naislaulajat rock-genressä

    OpenAIRE

    Herranen, Linda

    2015-01-01

    For those about to rock – naislaulajat rock-genressä antaa lukijalleen kokonaisvaltaisen käsityksen naisista rock-genressä: rockin historiasta, sukupuolittuneisuudesta, seksismistä, suomalaisten naislaulajien menestyksestä. Työn aineisto on koottu aihepiirin kirjallisuudesta ja alalla toimiville naislaulajille teetettyjen kyselyiden tuloksista. Lisäksi avaan omia kokemuksiani ja ajatuksiani, jotta näkökulma naisista rock-genressä tulisi esille mahdollisimman monipuolisesti. Ajatus aihees...

  12. Comparison of disposal concepts for rock salt and hard rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papp, R.

    1998-01-01

    The study was carried out in the period 1994-1996. The goals were to prepare a draft on spent fuel disposal in hard rock and additionally a comparison with existing disposal concepts for rock salt. A cask for direct disposal of spent fuel and a repository for hard rock including a safeguards concept were conceptually designed. The results of the study confirm, that the early German decision to employ rock salt was reasonable. (orig.)

  13. Elastic Rock Heterogeneity Controls Brittle Rock Failure during Hydraulic Fracturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langenbruch, C.; Shapiro, S. A.

    2014-12-01

    For interpretation and inversion of microseismic data it is important to understand, which properties of the reservoir rock control the occurrence probability of brittle rock failure and associated seismicity during hydraulic stimulation. This is especially important, when inverting for key properties like permeability and fracture conductivity. Although it became accepted that seismic events are triggered by fluid flow and the resulting perturbation of the stress field in the reservoir rock, the magnitude of stress perturbations, capable of triggering failure in rocks, can be highly variable. The controlling physical mechanism of this variability is still under discussion. We compare the occurrence of microseismic events at the Cotton Valley gas field to elastic rock heterogeneity, obtained from measurements along the treatment wells. The heterogeneity is characterized by scale invariant fluctuations of elastic properties. We observe that the elastic heterogeneity of the rock formation controls the occurrence of brittle failure. In particular, we find that the density of events is increasing with the Brittleness Index (BI) of the rock, which is defined as a combination of Young's modulus and Poisson's ratio. We evaluate the physical meaning of the BI. By applying geomechanical investigations we characterize the influence of fluctuating elastic properties in rocks on the probability of brittle rock failure. Our analysis is based on the computation of stress fluctuations caused by elastic heterogeneity of rocks. We find that elastic rock heterogeneity causes stress fluctuations of significant magnitude. Moreover, the stress changes necessary to open and reactivate fractures in rocks are strongly related to fluctuations of elastic moduli. Our analysis gives a physical explanation to the observed relation between elastic heterogeneity of the rock formation and the occurrence of brittle failure during hydraulic reservoir stimulations. A crucial factor for understanding

  14. Geology and geochronology of the Sub-Antarctic Snares Islands/Tini Heke, New Zealand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scott, JM; Turnbull, IM; Sagar, MW

    2015-01-01

    are prismatic and yield an essentially unimodal age population of c. 116 Ma that is within error of the granodiorite. These properties suggest that the dated raft represents a meta-igneous rock despite its mica-rich nature. Some schistose rocks on the Western Chain contain coarse relict plagioclase phenocrysts...... and appear to have an igneous protolith. No conclusive metasedimentary rocks have been identified, although sillimanite-bearing mica-rich schist occurs on Rua. Deformation of the crystalline rocks occurred after Snares Granite intrusion and before cooling below muscovite K–Ar closure at 400 ± 50 °C at 95 Ma......The first comprehensive geological map, a summary of lithologies and new radiogenic isotope data (U–Pb, Rb–Sr) are presented for crystalline rocks of the Sub-Antarctic Snares Islands/Tini Heke, 150 km south of Stewart Island. The main lithology is Snares Granite (c. 109 Ma from U–Pb dating...

  15. Range sections as rock models for intensity rock scene segmentation

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mkwelo, S

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents another approach to segmenting a scene of rocks on a conveyor belt for the purposes of measuring rock size. Rock size estimation instruments are used to monitor, optimize and control milling and crushing in the mining industry...

  16. Paradise Islands? Island States and Environmental Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sverker C. Jagers

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Island states have been shown to outperform continental states on a number of large-scale coordination-related outcomes, such as levels of democracy and institutional quality. The argument developed and tested in this article contends that the same kind of logic may apply to islands’ environmental performance, too. However, the empirical analysis shows mixed results. Among the 105 environmental outcomes that we analyzed, being an island only has a positive impact on 20 of them. For example, island states tend to outcompete continental states with respect to several indicators related to water quality but not in aspects related to biodiversity, protected areas, or environmental regulations. In addition, the causal factors previously suggested to make islands outperform continental states in terms of coordination have weak explanatory power in predicting islands’ environmental performance. We conclude the paper by discussing how these interesting findings can be further explored.

  17. Soil/Rock Properties Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Soil/Rock Properties LaboratoryLocation: Spokane SiteThe Soil/Rock Properties Laboratory is contained in the soils bay, a 4,700 sq. ft. facility that provides space...

  18. Critical issues in soft rocks

    OpenAIRE

    Milton Assis Kanji

    2014-01-01

    This paper discusses several efforts made to study and investigate soft rocks, as well as their physico-mechanical characteristics recognized up to now, the problems in their sampling and testing, and the possibility of its reproduction through artificially made soft rocks. The problems in utilizing current and widespread classification systems to some types of weak rocks are also discussed, as well as other problems related to them. Some examples of engineering works in soft rock or in soft ...

  19. Isotope shifting capacity of rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blattner, P.; Department of Scientific and Industrial Research, Lower Hutt

    1980-01-01

    Any oxygen isotope shifted rock volume exactly defines a past throughput of water. An expression is derived that relates the throughput of an open system to the isotope shift of reservoir rock and present-day output. The small isotope shift of Ngawha reservoir rock and the small, high delta oxygen-18 output are best accounted for by a magmatic water source

  20. Rock burst governance of working face under igneous rock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Zhenxing; Yu, Yue

    2017-01-01

    As a typical failure phenomenon, rock burst occurs in many mines. It can not only cause the working face to cease production, but also cause serious damage to production equipment, and even result in casualties. To explore how to govern rock burst of working face under igneous rock, the 10416 working face in some mine is taken as engineering background. The supports damaged extensively and rock burst took place when the working face advanced. This paper establishes the mechanical model and conducts theoretical analysis and calculation to predict the fracture and migration mechanism and energy release of the thick hard igneous rock above the working face, and to obtain the advancing distance of the working face when the igneous rock fractures and critical value of the energy when rock burst occurs. Based on the specific conditions of the mine, this paper put forward three kinds of governance measures, which are borehole pressure relief, coal seam water injection and blasting pressure relief.

  1. Uranium in alkaline rocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murphy, M.; Wollenberg, H.; Strisower, B.; Bowman, H.; Flexser, S.; Carmichael, I.

    1978-04-01

    Geologic and geochemical criteria were developed for the occurrence of economic uranium deposits in alkaline igneous rocks. A literature search, a limited chemical analytical program, and visits to three prominent alkaline-rock localities (Ilimaussaq, Greenland; Pocos de Caldas, Brazil; and Powderhorn, Colorado) were made to establish criteria to determine if a site had some uranium resource potential. From the literature, four alkaline-intrusive occurrences of differing character were identified as type-localities for uranium mineralization, and the important aspects of these localities were described. These characteristics were used to categorize and evaluate U.S. occurrences. The literature search disclosed 69 U.S. sites, encompassing nepheline syenite, alkaline granite, and carbonatite. It was possible to compare two-thirds of these sites to the type localities. A ranking system identified ten of the sites as most likely to have uranium resource potential

  2. Rock solidification method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakaya, Iwao; Murakami, Tadashi; Miyake, Takafumi; Funakoshi, Toshio; Inagaki, Yuzo; Hashimoto, Yasuhide.

    1985-01-01

    Purpose: To convert radioactive wastes into the final state for storage (artificial rocks) in a short period of time. Method: Radioactive burnable wastes such as spent papers, cloths and oils and activated carbons are burnt into ashes in a burning furnace, while radioactive liquid wastes such as liquid wastes of boric acid, exhausted cleaning water and decontaminating liquid wastes are powderized in a drying furnace or calcining furnace. These powders are joined with silicates as such as white clay, silica and glass powder and a liquid alkali such as NaOH or Ca(OH) 2 and transferred to a solidifying vessel. Then, the vessel is set to a hydrothermal reactor, heated and pressurized, then taken out about 20 min after and tightly sealed. In this way, radioactive wastes are converted through the hydrothermal reactions into aqueous rock stable for a long period of time to obtain solidification products insoluble to water and with an extremely low leaching rate. (Ikeda, J.)

  3. Uranium in alkaline rocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murphy, M.; Wollenberg, H.; Strisower, B.; Bowman, H.; Flexser, S.; Carmichael, I.

    1978-04-01

    Geologic and geochemical criteria were developed for the occurrence of economic uranium deposits in alkaline igneous rocks. A literature search, a limited chemical analytical program, and visits to three prominent alkaline-rock localities (Ilimaussaq, Greenland; Pocos de Caldas, Brazil; and Powderhorn, Colorado) were made to establish criteria to determine if a site had some uranium resource potential. From the literature, four alkaline-intrusive occurrences of differing character were identified as type-localities for uranium mineralization, and the important aspects of these localities were described. These characteristics were used to categorize and evaluate U.S. occurrences. The literature search disclosed 69 U.S. sites, encompassing nepheline syenite, alkaline granite, and carbonatite. It was possible to compare two-thirds of these sites to the type localities. A ranking system identified ten of the sites as most likely to have uranium resource potential.

  4. Rock and mineral magnetism

    CERN Document Server

    O’Reilly, W

    1984-01-01

    The past two decades have witnessed a revolution in the earth sciences. The quantitative, instrument-based measurements and physical models of. geophysics, together with advances in technology, have radically transformed the way in which the Earth, and especially its crust, is described. The study of the magnetism of the rocks of the Earth's crust has played a major part in this transformation. Rocks, or more specifically their constituent magnetic minerals, can be regarded as a measuring instrument provided by nature, which can be employed in the service of the earth sciences. Thus magnetic minerals are a recording magnetometer; a goniometer or protractor, recording the directions of flows, fields and forces; a clock; a recording thermometer; a position recorder; astrain gauge; an instrument for geo­ logical surveying; a tracer in climatology and hydrology; a tool in petrology. No instrument is linear, or free from noise and systematic errors, and the performance of nature's instrument must be assessed and ...

  5. Fibrates are an essential part of modern anti-dyslipidemic arsenal: spotlight on atherogenic dyslipidemia and residual risk reduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tenenbaum Alexander

    2012-10-01

    related to the effects on glucose metabolism and insulin resistance. Bezafibrate is the only clinically available pan - (alpha, beta, gamma PPAR balanced activator. Bezafibrate decreases blood glucose level, HbA1C, insulin resistance and reduces the incidence of T2DM compared to placebo or other fibrates. Among major fibrates, bezafibrate appears to have the strongest and fenofibrate the weakest effect on HDL-C. Current therapeutic use of statins as monotherapy is still leaving many patients with atherogenic dyslipidemia at high risk for coronary events because even intensive statin therapy does not eliminate the residual cardiovascular risk associated with low HDL and/or high triglycerides. As compared with statin monotherapy (effective mainly on LDL-C levels and plaque stabilization, the association of a statin with a fibrate will also have a major impact on triglycerides, HDL and LDL particle size. Moreover, in the specific case of bezafibrate one could expect neutralizing of the adverse pro-diabetic effect of statins. Though muscle pain and myositis is an issue in statin/fibrate treatment, adverse interaction appears to occur to a significantly greater extent when gemfibrozil is administered. However, bezafibrate and fenofibrate seems to be safer and better tolerated. Combined fibrate/statin therapy is more effective in achieving a comprehensive lipid control and may lead to additional cardiovascular risk reduction, as could be suggested for fenofibrate following ACCORD Lipid study subgroup analysis and for bezafibrate on the basis of one small randomized study and multiple observational data. Therefore, in appropriate patients with atherogenic dyslipidemia fibrates- either as monotherapy or combined with statins – are consistently associated with reduced risk of cardiovascular events. Fibrates currently constitute an indispensable part of the modern anti-dyslipidemic arsenal for patients with atherogenic dyslipidemia.

  6. Fibrates are an essential part of modern anti-dyslipidemic arsenal: spotlight on atherogenic dyslipidemia and residual risk reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenenbaum, Alexander; Fisman, Enrique Z

    2012-10-11

    glucose metabolism and insulin resistance. Bezafibrate is the only clinically available pan - (alpha, beta, gamma) PPAR balanced activator. Bezafibrate decreases blood glucose level, HbA1C, insulin resistance and reduces the incidence of T2DM compared to placebo or other fibrates. Among major fibrates, bezafibrate appears to have the strongest and fenofibrate the weakest effect on HDL-C. Current therapeutic use of statins as monotherapy is still leaving many patients with atherogenic dyslipidemia at high risk for coronary events because even intensive statin therapy does not eliminate the residual cardiovascular risk associated with low HDL and/or high triglycerides. As compared with statin monotherapy (effective mainly on LDL-C levels and plaque stabilization), the association of a statin with a fibrate will also have a major impact on triglycerides, HDL and LDL particle size. Moreover, in the specific case of bezafibrate one could expect neutralizing of the adverse pro-diabetic effect of statins. Though muscle pain and myositis is an issue in statin/fibrate treatment, adverse interaction appears to occur to a significantly greater extent when gemfibrozil is administered. However, bezafibrate and fenofibrate seems to be safer and better tolerated. Combined fibrate/statin therapy is more effective in achieving a comprehensive lipid control and may lead to additional cardiovascular risk reduction, as could be suggested for fenofibrate following ACCORD Lipid study subgroup analysis and for bezafibrate on the basis of one small randomized study and multiple observational data. Therefore, in appropriate patients with atherogenic dyslipidemia fibrates- either as monotherapy or combined with statins - are consistently associated with reduced risk of cardiovascular events. Fibrates currently constitute an indispensable part of the modern anti-dyslipidemic arsenal for patients with atherogenic dyslipidemia.

  7. Aram Chaos Rocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    8 September 2005 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows outcrops of light-toned, sedimentary rock among darker-toned mesas in Aram Chaos. Dark, windblown megaripples -- large ripples -- are also present at this location. Location near: 3.0oN, 21.6oW Image width: width: 3 km (1.9 mi) Illumination from: lower left Season: Northern Autumn

  8. Deformations of fractured rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stephansson, O.

    1977-09-01

    Results of the DBM and FEM analysis in this study indicate that a suitable rock mass for repository of radioactive waste should be moderately jointed (about 1 joint/m 2 ) and surrounded by shear zones of the first order. This allowes for a gentle and flexible deformation under tectonic stresses and prevent the development of large cross-cutting failures in the repository area. (author)

  9. Physical modeling of rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheney, J.A.

    1981-01-01

    The problems of statisfying similarity between a physical model and the prototype in rock wherein fissures and cracks place a role in physical behavior is explored. The need for models of large physical dimensions is explained but also testing of models of the same prototype over a wide range of scales is needed to ascertain the influence of lack of similitude of particular parameters between prototype and model. A large capacity centrifuge would be useful in that respect

  10. Rock disposal problems identified

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knox, R

    1978-06-01

    Mathematical models are the only way of examining the return of radioactivity from nuclear waste to the environment over long periods of time. Work in Britain has helped identify areas where more basic data is required, but initial results look very promising for final disposal of high level waste in hard rock repositories. A report by the National Radiological Protection Board of a recent study, is examined.

  11. Ratite eggshells from lanzarote, canary islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franz Sauer, E G; Rothe, P

    1972-04-07

    Struthious and aepyornithoid eggshells from Tertiary calcareous sediments on Lanzarote prove the presence, until about 12 million years ago, of large flightless birds. The calcarenite horizon is recognized as an old land surface. Mesozoic sedimentary rocks in the basement of the volcanic islands of Lanzarote and neighboring Fuerteventura indicate that at least part of the Canary Archipelago is underlain by continental crust. Separation of the eastern Canaries from Africa raight have been by rifting, and a land connection might still have existed in the lower Pliocene.

  12. Source identification of soil mercury in the Spanish islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez Martín, José Antonio; Carbonell, Gregoria; Nanos, Nikos; Gutiérrez, Carmen

    2013-02-01

    This study spatially analysed the relation between mercury (Hg) content in soil and Hg in rock fragment for the purpose of assessing natural soil Hg contribution compared with Hg from human inputs. We present the Hg content of 318 soil and rock fragment samples from 11 islands distributed into two Spanish archipelagos (the volcanic Canary Islands [Canaries] and the Mediterranean Balearic [Balearic] islands). Assumedly both are located far enough away from continental Hg sources to be able to minimise the effects of diffuse pollution. Physical and chemical soil properties were also specified for the samples. Hg contents were significantly greater in the Balearic limestone soils (61 μg kg(-1)) than in the volcanic soils of the Canaries (33 μg kg(-1)). Hg levels were also greater in topsoil than in rocky fragments, especially on the Balearics. The soil-to-rock ratios varied between 1 and 30. Interestingly, the highest topsoil-to-rock Hg ratio (>16 ×) was found in the vicinity of a coal-fired power plant in Majorca, whereas no similar areas in the Canary archipelago were identified.

  13. Rock pushing and sampling under rocks on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, H.J.; Liebes, S.; Crouch, D.S.; Clark, L.V.

    1978-01-01

    Viking Lander 2 acquired samples on Mars from beneath two rocks, where living organisms and organic molecules would be protected from ultraviolet radiation. Selection of rocks to be moved was based on scientific and engineering considerations, including rock size, rock shape, burial depth, and location in a sample field. Rock locations and topography were established using the computerized interactive video-stereophotogrammetric system and plotted on vertical profiles and in plan view. Sampler commands were developed and tested on Earth using a full-size lander and surface mock-up. The use of power by the sampler motor correlates with rock movements, which were by plowing, skidding, and rolling. Provenance of the samples was determined by measurements and interpretation of pictures and positions of the sampler arm. Analytical results demonstrate that the samples were, in fact, from beneath the rocks. Results from the Gas Chromatograph-Mass Spectrometer of the Molecular Analysis experiment and the Gas Exchange instrument of the Biology experiment indicate that more adsorbed(?) water occurs in samples under rocks than in samples exposed to the sun. This is consistent with terrestrial arid environments, where more moisture occurs in near-surface soil un- der rocks than in surrounding soil because the net heat flow is toward the soil beneath the rock and the rock cap inhibits evaporation. Inorganic analyses show that samples of soil from under the rocks have significantly less iron than soil exposed to the sun. The scientific significance of analyses of samples under the rocks is only partly evaluated, but some facts are clear. Detectable quantities of martian organic molecules were not found in the sample from under a rock by the Molecular Analysis experiment. The Biology experiments did not find definitive evidence for Earth-like living organisms in their sample. Significant amounts of adsorbed water may be present in the martian regolith. The response of the soil

  14. Geochemistry and petrogenesis of Mesoproterozoic A-type granitoids from the Danish island of Bornholm, southern Fennoscandia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansson, Åke; Waight, Tod Earle; Andersen, Tom

    2016-01-01

    Granitoids and gneisses from the Danish island of Bornholm have been investigated using whole rock geochemistry, Sr and Nd isotope geochemistry and Hf isotopes in zircon. Recent U–Pb dating shows that the rocks were formed during a short time interval at 1.45 to 1.46 Ga, penecontemporaneous...

  15. 76 FR 17034 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands; Final 2011...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-28

    ... Islands Management Area (BSAI). Two tables within the document contained errors. DATES: Effective from... listed an incidental catch allowance (ICA) of rock sole at ``10,000'' metric tons (mt), instead of the... Federal Register listed the phrase ``ICA rock sole'' in the ``sector'' column rather than the ``species...

  16. The Rock Characterization Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holmes, J.

    1994-01-01

    In 1989, UK Nirex began a programme of surface-based characterization of the geology and hydrogeology of a site at Sellafield to evaluate its suitability to host a deep repository for radioactive waste. The next major stage in site characterization will be the construction and operation of a Rock Characterization Facility (RCF). It will be designed to provide rock characterization information and scope for model validation to permit firmer assessment of long-term safety. It will also provide information needed to decide the detailed location, design and orientation of a repository and to inform repository construction methods. A three-phase programme is planned for the RCF. During each phase, testwork will steadily improve our geological, hydrogeological and geotechnical understanding of the site. The first phase will involve sinking two shafts. That will be preceded by the establishment of a network of monitoring boreholes to ensure that the impact of shaft sinking can be measured. This will provide valuable data for model validation. In phase two, initial galleries will be excavated, probably at a depth of 650 m below Ordnance datum, which will host a comprehensive suite of experiments. These galleries will be extended in phase three to permit access to most of the rock volume that would host the repository. (Author)

  17. Tanzania - Mafia Island Airport

    Data.gov (United States)

    Millennium Challenge Corporation — The evaluation design and subsequent data gathering activities will address the following key research questions: a) Has the Mafia Island Airport Upgrade Project...

  18. Rock in Rio: forever young

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Ferreira Freitas

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to discuss the role of Rock in Rio: The Musical, as herald of megafestival Rock in Rio. Driven by the success that musicals have reached in Brazil, we believe that the design of this spectacle of music, dance and staging renews the brand of the rock festival, once it adds the force of young and healthy bodies to its concept. Moreover, the musical provides Rock in Rio with some distance from the controversal trilogy of sex, drugs and rock and roll, a strong mark of past festivals around the world. Thus, the musical expands the possibilities of growth for the brand.

  19. New discoveries, new directions: Rock art research on Bornholm 2013 – 2014

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dodd, James Andrew; Dueñas García, Manuel de J.

    2014-01-01

    This article presents and discusses new dis- coveries and insights offered by recent rock art research carried out by staff and volun- teers from Bornholms Museum during 2013 and 2014. Investigations have been carried out at numerous locations across the island using a variety of strategies...... and techniques. Searches for new rock art panels have been undertaken at a variety of locations. Soil has been removed from the area around certain known panels in order to nd new carvings and investigate the archaeological context surrounding the rocks. New gures have been discovered on surfaces already...

  20. Development of artificial soft rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kishi, Kiyoshi

    1995-01-01

    When foundation base rocks are deeper than the level of installing structures or there exist weathered rocks and crushed rocks in a part of base rocks, often sound artificial base rocks are made by substituting the part with concrete. But in the construction of Kashiwazaki Kariwa Nuclear Power Station of Tokyo Electric Power Co., Inc., the foundation base rocks consist of mudstone, and the stiffness of concrete is large as compared with the surrounding base rocks. As the quality of the substituting material, the nearly same stiffness as that of the surrounding soft rocks and long term stability are suitable, and the excellent workability and economical efficiency are required, therefore, artificial soft rocks were developed. As the substituting material, the soil mortar that can obtain the physical property values in stable form, which are similar to those of Nishiyama mudstone, was selected. The mechanism of its hardening and the long term stability, and the manufacturing plant are reported. As for its application to the base rocks of Kashiwazaki Kariwa Nuclear Power Station, the verification test at the site and the application to the base rocks for No. 7 plant reactor building and other places are described. (K.I.)

  1. Hydrological characteristics of Japanese rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ijiri, Yuji; Sawada, Atsushi; Akahori, Kuniaki

    1999-11-01

    It is crucial to evaluate the hydrogeological characteristics of rock in Japan in order to assess the performance of geosphere. This report summarizes the hydrogeological characteristics of various rock types obtained from broad literature surveys and the fields experiments at the Kamaishi mine in northern Japan and at the Tono mine in central Japan. It is found that the hydraulic conductivity of rock mass ranges from 10 -9 m/s to 10 -8 m/s, whereas the hydraulic conductivity of fault zone ranges from 10 -9 m/s to 10 -3 m/s. It is also found that the hydraulic conductivity tends to decrease with depth. Therefore, the hydraulic conductivity of rock mass at the depth of a repository will be smaller than above values. From the investigations at outcrops and galleries throughout the country, fractures are observed as potential pathways in all rock types. All kinds of crystalline rocks and pre-Neogene sedimentary rocks are classified as fractured media where fracture flow is dominant. Among these rocks, granitic rock is considered the archetype fractured media. On the other hand, andesite, tuff and Neogene sedimentary rocks are considered as intermediate between fractured media and porous media where flow in fractures as well as in rock matrix are significant. (author)

  2. Grinding into Soft, Powdery Rock

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    This hole in a rock dubbed 'Clovis' is the deepest hole drilled so far in any rock on Mars. NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit captured this view with its microscopic imager on martian sol 217 (Aug. 12, 2004) after drilling 8.9 millimeters (0.35 inch) into the rock with its rock abrasion tool. The view is a mosaic of four frames taken by the microscopic imager. The hole is 4.5 centimeters (1.8 inches) in diameter. Clovis is key to a developing story about environmental change on Mars, not only because it is among the softest rocks encountered so far in Gusev Crater, but also because it contains mineral alterations that extend relatively deep beneath its surface. In fact, as evidenced by its fairly crumbly texture, it is possibly the most highly altered volcanic rock ever studied on Mars. Scientific analysis shows that the rock contains higher levels of the elements sulfur, chlorine, and bromine than are normally encountered in basaltic rocks, such as a rock dubbed 'Humphrey' that Spirit encountered two months after arriving on Mars. Humphrey showed elevated levels of sulfur, chlorine, and bromine only in the outermost 2 millimeters (less than 0.1 inch) of its surface. Clovis shows elevated levels of the same elements along with the associated softness of the rock within a borehole that is 4 times as deep. Scientists hope to compare Clovis to other, less-altered rocks in the vicinity to assess what sort of water-based processes altered the rock. Hypotheses include transport of sulfur, chlorine, and bromine in water vapor in volcanic gases; hydrothermal circulation (flow of volcanically heated water through rock); or saturation in a briny soup containing the same elements. In this image, very fine-grained material from the rock has clumped together by electrostatic attraction and fallen into the borehole. NASA/JPL/Cornell/USGS

  3. THE NEOPROTEROZOIC ISLAND-ARC ASSOCIATION OF THE MUKODEK GOLD-ORE FIELD, NORTHERN BAIKAL AREA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Vanin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Metamorphosed volcanic rocks of the Ushmukan suite were studied in the Mukodek gold-ore field located in the Baikal-Muya belt in the Northern Baikal area, Russia. The Ushmukan suite shows interleaving of ortoschists which compositions are widely variable. Basalt-andesite-dacite series of normal alkalinity are the substrate of the studied metavolcanic rocks. Based on the set of geochemical characteristics, it is concluded that the rocks were formed in suprasubduction geodynamic conditions corresponding to a mature island arc. The proximity of the geological locations and the similarity of the geochemical characteristics of the volcanic rocks of the Ushmukan suite and rocks of the Kelyan suite (Neoproterozoic, 823 Ma, which have similar compositions, give grounds to consider these two rock suites as age peers. Specific features of gold distribution through the Mukodek gold-ore field are analyzed. Industrial gold contents are recorded only in berezite-listvenite metasomatic rocks of the gold-quartz-sulfide formation which were formed on metavolcanic rocks of the Ushmukan suite. It is concluded that the volcanic rocks, which are specific of the island-arc setting, could be a source of gold for deposits in the Mukodek gold-ore field. 

  4. Petrography and geochemistry of rocks from the sor-rondane mountains, droning Maude land, eastern Antarctica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rehman, S.S.; Shah, M.T.; Jan, M.Q.; Majid, M.

    1999-01-01

    Mamyu rock specimens, were collected from the sor-rondane mountains and Breid Bay area of Drojnning Maud land, eastern Antarctica, during the 2nd Pakistan Antarctic Expedition, 1992-93. Petrography and geochemical studies suggest that the rocks are essentially of igneous origin. The samples dredged from ocean bottom include olivine basalt, amygdaloidal volcanics, dacites and rhyodacites. A majority of these rocks are calc-alkaline and formed by the fraction of olivine, clinopyroxene and plagioclase +- titanomagnetite. Most of these rocks apparently formed in an island arc or continental margin set up. However, volcanics showing ocean floor basalt character are also present. A metamorphosed and deformed basement consisting of amphibolites, calc-silicate rocks and gneisses is intrude by under formed or only slightly deformed granites with a minor arkosic sandstone cover. The granites are chemically distinguished as I-type, originate at deeper crystal level by collisional/subduction related processes during organic environments. (author)

  5. Rock mechanics for hard rock nuclear waste repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heuze, F.E.

    1981-09-01

    The mined geologic burial of high level nuclear waste is now the favored option for disposal. The US National Waste Terminal Storage Program designed to achieve this disposal includes an extensive rock mechanics component related to the design of the wastes repositories. The plan currently considers five candidate rock types. This paper deals with the three hard rocks among them: basalt, granite, and tuff. Their behavior is governed by geological discontinuities. Salt and shale, which exhibit behavior closer to that of a continuum, are not considered here. This paper discusses both the generic rock mechanics R and D, which are required for repository design, as well as examples of projects related to hard rock waste storage. The examples include programs in basalt (Hanford/Washington), in granitic rocks (Climax/Nevada Test Site, Idaho Springs/Colorado, Pinawa/Canada, Oracle/Arizona, and Stripa/Sweden), and in tuff

  6. Rock stress investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pahl, A.; Heusermann, St.; Braeuer, V.; Gloeggler, W.

    1989-04-01

    On the research project 'Rock Stress Mesurements' the BGR has developed and tested several methods for use in boreholes at a depth of 200 m. Indirect stress measurements using overcoring methods with BGR-probes and CSIR-triaxial cells as well as direct stress measurements using the hydraulic-fracturing method were made. To determine in-situ rock deformation behavior borehole deformation tests, using a BGR-dilatometer, were performed. Two types of the BGR-probe were applied: a four-component-probe to determine horizontal stresses and a five-component-probe to determine a quasi three-dimensional stress field. The first time a computer for data processing was installed in the borehole together with the BGR-probe. Laboratory tests on low cylinders were made to study the stress-deformation behavior. To validate and to interprete the measurement results some test methods were modelled using the finite-element method. The dilatometer-tests yielded high values of Young's modulus, whereas laboratory tests showed lower values with a distinct deformation anisotropy. Stress measurements with the BGR-probe yielded horizontal stresses being higher than the theoretical overburden pressure. These results are comparable to the results of the hydraulic fracturing tests, whereas stresses obtained with CSIR-triaxial cells are lower. The detailed geological mapping of the borehole indicated relationships between stress and geology. With regard to borehole depth different zones of rock structure joint frequency, joint orientation, and orientation of microfissures as well as stress magnitude, stress direction, and degree of deformation anisotropy could be distinguished. (author) 4 tabs., 76 figs., 31 refs

  7. Potential climatic refugia in semi-arid, temperate mountains: plant and arthropod assemblages associated with rock glaciers, talus slopes, and their forefield wetlands, Sierra Nevada, California, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constance I. Millar; Robert D. Westfall; Angela Evenden; Jeffrey G. Holmquist; Jutta Schmidt-Gengenbach; Rebecca S. Franklin; Jan Nachlinger; Diane L. Delany

    2015-01-01

    Unique thermal and hydrologic regimes of rock-glacier and periglacial talus environments support little-studied mountain ecosystems. We report the first studies of vascular plant and arthropod diversity for these habitats in the central Sierra Nevada, California, USA. Surfaces of active rock glaciers develop scattered islands of soil that provide habitat for vegetation...

  8. Paleomagnetism of rocks from Sumba: tectonic implications since the late Cretaceous

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wensink, H.

    1994-01-01

    The island of Sumba (Southeast Indonesia) is a continental fragment that is situated in the transition zone from the Sunda Arc to the Banda Arc, between the active volcanic inner arc to the north and the locally less well developed outer arc to the south. On Sumba, rock samples for paleomagnetic

  9. Seasonal variation in the proximate composition of rock oyster Saccostrea cucullata from Bombay coast

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Krishnakumari, L.; Nair, V.R.

    Changes in proximate composition of soft tissue of rock oyster Saccostrea cucullata inhabiting a polluted station at Bandra (stn. B) and a relatively clean area at Mudh Island (stn. M) were studied. An average protein content of 48.88 + or - 3...

  10. Geologic map of Saint Lawrence Island, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patton, William W.; Wilson, Frederic H.; Taylor, Theresa A.

    2011-01-01

    Saint Lawrence Island is located in the northern Bering Sea, 190 km southwest of the tip of the Seward Peninsula, Alaska, and 75 km southeast of the Chukotsk Peninsula, Russia (see index map, map sheet). It lies on a broad, shallow-water continental shelf that extends from western Alaska to northeastern Russia. The island is situated on a northwest-trending structural uplift exposing rocks as old as Paleozoic above sea level. The submerged shelf between the Seward Peninsula and Saint Lawrence Island is covered mainly with Cenozoic deposits (Dundo and Egiazarov, 1982). Northeast of the island, the shelf is underlain by a large structural depression, the Norton Basin, which contains as much as 6.5 km of Cenozoic strata (Grim and McManus, 1970; Fisher and others, 1982). Sparse test-well data indicate that the Cenozoic strata are underlain by Paleozoic and Proterozoic rocks, similar to those exposed on the Seward Peninsula (Turner and others, 1983). Saint Lawrence Island is 160 km long in an east-west direction and from 15 km to 55 km wide in a north-south direction. The east end of the island consists largely of a wave-cut platform, which has been elevated as much as 30 m above sea level. Isolated upland areas composed largely of granitic plutons rise as much as 550 m above the wave-cut platform. The central part of the island is dominated by the Kookooligit Mountains, a large Quaternary shield volcano that extends over an area of 850 km2 and rises to an elevation of 630 m. The west end of the island is composed of the Poovoot Range, a group of barren, rubble-covered hills as high as 450 m that extend from Boxer Bay on the southwest coast to Taphook Mountain on the north coast. The Poovoot Range is flanked on the southeast by the Putgut Plateau, a nearly flat, lake-dotted plain that stands 30?60 m above sea level. The west end of the island is marked by uplands underlain by the Sevuokuk pluton (unit Kg), a long narrow granite body that extends from Gambell on the

  11. Nd and Sr isotopic variations in acidic rocks from Japan: significance of upper-mantle heterogeneity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terakado, Yasutaka; Nakamura, Noboru

    1984-10-01

    Initial Nd and Sr isotopic ratios have been measured for Cretaceous acidic and related intermediate rocks (24 volcanic and two plutonic rocks) from the Inner Zone of Southwest Japan (IZSWJ) to investigate the genesis of acidic magmas. The initial Nd and Sr isotopic ratios for these rocks show three interesting features: (1) ɛ Nd values for acidic rocks (+2 to -9) are negatively correlated with ɛ Sr values (+10 to +90) together with those for intermediate rocks ( ɛ Nd=+3 to -8; ɛ Sr=0 to +65). (2) The ɛ Nd values for silica rich rocks (>60% SiO2) correlate with the longitude of the sample locality, decreasing from west to east in a stepwise fashion: Four areas characterized by uniform ɛ Nd values are discriminated. (3) Low silica rocks (Japan suggest that the acidic rocks can be formed neither by fractional crystallization processes from more basic magmas nor by crustal assimilation processes. The isotopic variations of the acidic rocks may reflect regional isotopic heterogeneity in the lower crust, and this heterogeneity may ultimately be attributed to the regional heterogeneity of the uppermost-mantle beneath the Japanese Islands.

  12. A smart rock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pressel, Phil

    2014-12-01

    This project was to design and build a protective weapon for a group of associations that believed in aliens and UFO's. They collected enough contributions from societies and individuals to be able to sponsor and totally fund the design, fabrication and testing of this equipment. The location of this facility is classified. It also eventually was redesigned by the Quartus Engineering Company for use at a major amusement park as a "shoot at targets facility." The challenge of this project was to design a "smart rock," namely an infrared bullet (the size of a gallon can of paint) that could be shot from the ground to intercept a UFO or any incoming suspicious item heading towards the earth. Some of the challenges to design this weapon were to feed cryogenic helium at 5 degrees Kelvin from an inair environment through a unique rotary coupling and air-vacuum seal while spinning the bullet at 1500 rpm and maintain its dynamic stability (wobble) about its spin axis to less than 10 micro-radians (2 arc seconds) while it operated in a vacuum. Precision optics monitored the dynamic motion of the "smart rock."

  13. Rock critics as 'Mouldy Modernists'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Becky Shepherd

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Contemporary rock criticism appears to be firmly tied to the past. The specialist music press valorise rock music of the 1960s and 1970s, and new emerging artists are championed for their ‘retro’ sounding music by journalists who compare the sound of these new artists with those included in the established ‘canon’ of rock music. This article examines the narrative tropes of authenticity and nostalgia that frame the retrospective focus of this contemporary rock writing, and most significantly, the maintenance of the rock canon within contemporary popular culture. The article concludes by suggesting that while contemporary rock criticism is predominately characterised by nostalgia, this nostalgia is not simply a passive romanticism of the past. Rather, this nostalgia fuels a process of active recontextualisation within contemporary popular culture.

  14. Titanium Alloys for Critical Ordnance Components. Producers Coordination Meeting on Titanium Materials for Davy Crockett and Other Weapon Systems Held at Watertown Arsenal, Watertown 72, Mass., 14 Apr 60 and Fabricators Coordination Meeting on Titanium Materials for Davy Crockett and Other Weapon Systems Held at Watervliet Arsenal, Watervliet, NY, 15 Apr 1960

    Science.gov (United States)

    1960-01-01

    Title Agenda and AV^stracts - Watertown Arsenal, Watnrtovm, Mass. llj April i960 - Producers Coordination Meeting, "Titanium Materials for Davy...u.nd J.i’.l~.Jhr!l’ Scicnti~’ic Comp::1.~1y1 Chlc::-.~~o, IJ~~nois. oth :r c~tUl’ll~nt and 1Jl’Occ1t.G.~cn !.Jn.y be uoed if :J..CCC:t.> td )le to

  15. Rock.XML - Towards a library of rock physics models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Erling Hugo; Hauge, Ragnar; Ulvmoen, Marit; Johansen, Tor Arne; Drottning, Åsmund

    2016-08-01

    Rock physics modelling provides tools for correlating physical properties of rocks and their constituents to the geophysical observations we measure on a larger scale. Many different theoretical and empirical models exist, to cover the range of different types of rocks. However, upon reviewing these, we see that they are all built around a few main concepts. Based on this observation, we propose a format for digitally storing the specifications for rock physics models which we have named Rock.XML. It does not only contain data about the various constituents, but also the theories and how they are used to combine these building blocks to make a representative model for a particular rock. The format is based on the Extensible Markup Language XML, making it flexible enough to handle complex models as well as scalable towards extending it with new theories and models. This technology has great advantages as far as documenting and exchanging models in an unambiguous way between people and between software. Rock.XML can become a platform for creating a library of rock physics models; making them more accessible to everyone.

  16. Vancouver Island gas supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Des Brisay, C.

    2005-01-01

    Terasen Gas is pursuing alternatives for the supply of additional natural gas capacity to Vancouver Island. Its subsidiary, Terasen Gas (Vancouver Island) Inc. (TGVI), is responding to the need for delivery of increased gas supply and, is supporting plans for new gas-fired power generation on Vancouver Island. TGVI's proposal for new natural gas capacity involves a combination of compression and pipeline loops as well as the addition of a storage facility for liquefied natural gas (LNG) at Mt. Hayes to help manage price volatility. This presentation outlined the objectives and components of the resource planning process, including demand forecast scenarios and the preferred infrastructure options. tabs., figs

  17. Iron-Manganese Redox Reactions in Endeavour Crater Rim Apron Rocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ming, D. W.; Mittlefehldt, D. W.; Gellert, R.; Peretyazhko, T.; Clark, B. C.; Morris, R. V.; Yen, A. S.; Arvidson, R. E.; Crumpler, L. S.; Farrand, W. H.; hide

    2015-01-01

    The Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity has been exploring Noachian age rocks and outcrops on the rim of the 22 km diameter Endeavour crater since August 2011. The Cape York area is a low-lying rim of Endeavour that contains 3 distinct lithologies: 1) the stratigraphically lowest Matijevic fm of pre-impact lithology, 2) Shoemaker fm of impact breccias, and 3) the stratigraphically highest rim lithology Grasberg fm of post-impact sediments that drape the lower slopes of the rim. The sulfate-rich sediment of the Burns fm lies unconformably over the Grasberg fm. Ca-sulfate veins were discovered in Grasberg fm sediments; the sulfates precipitated from aqueous fluids flowing upward through these materials. Opportunity investigated the chemistry and morphology of outcrops in the Matijevic fm that have Fe(sup 3+)-rich smectite detected by orbital signatures returned by CRISM on MRO. Matijevic fm also contains "boxwork" fractures with chemistry consistent with an Al-rich smectite and veins that appear to be rich in Ca-sulfate. More recently on Cape Tribulation, Opportunity has characterized two S-, Mg- and Mn-rich rich rocks overturned and fractured by the rover's wheels on Cook Haven. Those rocks have been dubbed "Pinnacle Island" and "Stuart Island" and will be referred to as the "Island" rocks. The objectives of this study are to characterize the Fe and Mn contents in the Cape York materials, including the two Island rocks, and to provide a model for Mn mobilization and precipitation. Detailed geochemistry of Endeavour rim rocks is presented in a companion paper. Geochemical trends and elemental associations were obtained from data returned by the Alpha Particle X-ray Spectrometer (APXS) on Opportunity.

  18. Island formation without attractive interaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, A.P.J.

    2008-01-01

    We show that adsorbates on surfaces can form islands even if there are no attractive interactions. Instead, strong repulsion between adsorbates at short distances can lead to islands, because such islands increase the entropy of the adsorbates that are not part of the islands. We suggest that this

  19. Rocks under pressure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-05-01

    Physicists have used nuclear magnetic resonance to investigate the destructive effects of the crystallization of salt. Salt-weathering is one of the main causes of rock disintegration in nature, particularly in deserts, polar regions and along coastlines. However, it is also a very widespread cause of damage to man-made constructions. Bridges, for example, are attacked by de-icing salts, and cities such as Bahrain, Abu Dhabi and Adelaide are affected by rising damp from high ground-water levels. Indeed, many examples of cultural heritage, including the Islamic sites of Bokhara and Petra in Jordan and the Sphinx in Egypt, may ultimately be destroyed due to the effects of salt-weathering. Now Lourens Rijniers and colleagues at Eindhoven University in the Netherlands have developed a way to observe the solubility of various salts inside porous materials directly (Phys. Rev. Lett. 94 075503). (U.K.)

  20. Rock the Globe

    CERN Multimedia

    Laëtitia Pedroso

    2010-01-01

    Created in 2005, the Swiss rock band "Wind of Change" is now candidate for the Eurovision Song Contest 2011 with a new song " Night & Light " with the music video filmed at CERN.   With over 20 gigs under their belt and two albums already released, the five members of the band (Alex Büchi, vocals; Arthur Spierer, drums; David Gantner, bass; Romain Mage and Yannick Gaudy, guitar) continue to excite audiences. For their latest composition "Night & Light", the group filmed their music video in the Globe of Science and Innovation. Winning the Eurovision contest would be a springboard in their artistic career for these young musicians. The selection results will be available December 11, 2010.      

  1. Electrochemistry of lunar rocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindstrom, D. J.; Haskin, L. A.

    1979-01-01

    Electrolysis of silicate melts has been shown to be an effective means of producing metals from common silicate materials. No fluxing agents need be added to the melts. From solution in melts of diopside (CaMgSi2O6) composition, the elements Si, Ti, Ni, and Fe have been reduced to their metallic states. Platinum is a satisfactory anode material, but other cathode materials are needed. Electrolysis of compositional analogs of lunar rocks initially produces iron metal at the cathode and oxygen gas at the anode. Utilizing mainly heat and electricity which are readily available from sunlight, direct electrolysis is capable of producing useful metals from common feedstocks without the need for expendable chemicals. This simple process and the products obtained from it deserve further study for use in materials processing in space.

  2. Migmatites and migmatite-like rocks of Olkiluoto

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaerki, A.

    2015-02-01

    Bedrock of the Olkiluoto Island in the western end of the Palaeoproterozoic Svecofennian Accretionary Arc Complex, SW Finland is composed of high-grade metamorphic pelites, arenites and intermediate, arc type metavolcanic rocks intruded by granodioritic to tonalitic plutonic rocks. Regional metamorphism culminated with voluminous migmatization in the temperature of 660 - 700 deg C and relatively low pressure of about 3.5 - 4 kbar. The end result of polyphase metamorphism and deformation is a metamorphic rock succession composed of diverse migmatite rocks, metatexites and diatexites. Metatexites are migmatites in which several, discrete components can be detected, and in which the paleosome with some pre-partial-melting textures is identifiable. Diatexites are more advanced migmatites in which the pre-migmatization structures are often totally destroyed and the rock is dominated by different neosome components meaning leucosome, melanosome or mesosome. Based on the migmatite structures the metatexites of Olkiluoto have been classified into six subgroups. Dike-structured metatexites are composed of well preserved paleosome intruded by one single set of narrow, subparallel leucosome dikes which cover ca. 5 - 10 % of the whole rock volume. Net-structure is composed of a network of narrow leucosome dikes which show a reticulated structure in a plane section and cover less than 30 % of the whole rock volume. Breccia-structure is composed of angular or rounded paleosome blocks surrounded by moderate amount of leucosome. Patch-structure is composed of irregular leucosome patches which intruded the well preserved paleosome and compose typically 20 - 70 % of the rock volume. Layer-structure is characterized by more or less regular leucosome dikes sub-parallel to the foliation of the well preserved paleosome. Vein-structured metatexites and also diatexites include a set of pipe-like, longish leucosome veins most probably generated by synchronous melting and deformation

  3. Migmatites and migmatite-like rocks of Olkiluoto

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaerki, A. [Kivitieto Oy, Oulu (Finland)

    2015-02-15

    Bedrock of the Olkiluoto Island in the western end of the Palaeoproterozoic Svecofennian Accretionary Arc Complex, SW Finland is composed of high-grade metamorphic pelites, arenites and intermediate, arc type metavolcanic rocks intruded by granodioritic to tonalitic plutonic rocks. Regional metamorphism culminated with voluminous migmatization in the temperature of 660 - 700 deg C and relatively low pressure of about 3.5 - 4 kbar. The end result of polyphase metamorphism and deformation is a metamorphic rock succession composed of diverse migmatite rocks, metatexites and diatexites. Metatexites are migmatites in which several, discrete components can be detected, and in which the paleosome with some pre-partial-melting textures is identifiable. Diatexites are more advanced migmatites in which the pre-migmatization structures are often totally destroyed and the rock is dominated by different neosome components meaning leucosome, melanosome or mesosome. Based on the migmatite structures the metatexites of Olkiluoto have been classified into six subgroups. Dike-structured metatexites are composed of well preserved paleosome intruded by one single set of narrow, subparallel leucosome dikes which cover ca. 5 - 10 % of the whole rock volume. Net-structure is composed of a network of narrow leucosome dikes which show a reticulated structure in a plane section and cover less than 30 % of the whole rock volume. Breccia-structure is composed of angular or rounded paleosome blocks surrounded by moderate amount of leucosome. Patch-structure is composed of irregular leucosome patches which intruded the well preserved paleosome and compose typically 20 - 70 % of the rock volume. Layer-structure is characterized by more or less regular leucosome dikes sub-parallel to the foliation of the well preserved paleosome. Vein-structured metatexites and also diatexites include a set of pipe-like, longish leucosome veins most probably generated by synchronous melting and deformation

  4. Coalescence of magnetic islands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pellat, R.

    1982-01-01

    The paper gives the analytical theory of the coalescence instability and of a new, one island, instability. These instabilities are expected to be relevant for the disruptions observed in Tokamak experiments and astrophysical plasmas

  5. Heat Island Compendium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heat islands can be mitigated through measures like planting trees and vegetation, installing green roofs and cool roofs, and using cool pavements. The compendium describes all of these strategies and shows how communities around the country are being used

  6. Rock Art in Kurdistan Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamal Lahafian

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Kurdistan, with great potential and prehistoric resources, has numerous petroglyphs in different areas of the province. During the last 14 years of extensive field study, more than 30 sites of rock art have been identified and introduced by the author. In this article, we summarize these rock art areas in Iranian Kurdistan.

  7. Rockin' around the Rock Cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frack, Susan; Blanchard, Scott Alan

    2005-01-01

    In this activity students will simulate how sedimentary rocks can be changed into metamorphic rocks by intense pressure. The materials needed are two small pieces of white bread, one piece of wheat bread, and one piece of a dark bread (such as pumpernickel or dark rye) per student, two pieces of waxed paper, scissors, a ruler, and heavy books.…

  8. 'Mister Badger' Pushing Mars Rock

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-01-01

    Viking's soil sampler collector arm successfully pushed a rock on the surface of Mars during the afternoon of Friday, October 8. The irregular-shaped rock was pushed several inches by the Lander's collector arm, which displaced the rock to the left of its original position, leaving it cocked slightly upward. Photographs and other information verified the successful rock push. Photo at left shows the soil sampler's collector head pushing against the rock, named 'Mister Badger' by flight controllers. Photo at right shows the displaced rock and the depression whence it came. Part of the soil displacement was caused by the collector s backhoe. A soil sample will be taken from the site Monday night, October 11. It will then be delivered to Viking s organic chemistry instrument for a series of analyses during the next few weeks. The sample is being sought from beneath a rock because scientists believe that, if there are life forms on Mars, they may seek rocks as shelter from the Sun s intense ultraviolet radiation.

  9. Three Mile Island revisited

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacLeod, G.K.

    1986-01-01

    The accident at Three Mile Island proved that the Pennsylvania Department of Health lacked the tools to deal with the serious health consequences that occurred during and after this emergency. Despite the relative safety of nuclear power generation, we must be better prepared for the health and medical consequences of serous radiation emergencies. The author reviews the Three Mile Island accident through the eyes of newspaper reporters

  10. Topography changes monitoring of small islands using camera drone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bang, E.

    2017-12-01

    Drone aerial photogrammetry was conducted for monitoring topography changes of small islands in the east sea of Korea. Severe weather and sea wave is eroding the islands and sometimes cause landslide and falling rock. Due to rugged cliffs in all direction and bad accessibility, ground based survey methods are less efficient in monitoring topography changes of the whole area. Camera drones can provide digital images and movie in every corner of the islands, and drone aerial photogrammetry is powerful to get precise digital surface model (DSM) for a limited area. We have got a set of digital images to construct a textured 3D model of the project area every year since 2014. Flight height is in less than 100m from the top of those islands to get enough ground sampling distance (GSD). Most images were vertically captured with automatic flights, but we also flied drones around the islands with about 30°-45° camera angle for constructing 3D model better. Every digital image has geo-reference, but we set several ground control points (GCPs) on the islands and their coordinates were measured with RTK surveying methods to increase the absolute accuracy of the project. We constructed 3D textured model using photogrammetry tool, which generates 3D spatial information from digital images. From the polygonal model, we could get DSM with contour lines. Thematic maps such as hill shade relief map, aspect map and slope map were also processed. Those maps make us understand topography condition of the project area better. The purpose of this project is monitoring topography change of these small islands. Elevation difference map between DSMs of each year is constructed. There are two regions showing big negative difference value. By comparing constructed textured models and captured digital images around these regions, it is checked that a region have experienced real topography change. It is due to huge rock fall near the center of the east island. The size of fallen rock can be

  11. Rock suitability classification RSC 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McEwen, T. (ed.) [McEwen Consulting, Leicester (United Kingdom); Kapyaho, A. [Geological Survey of Finland, Espoo (Finland); Hella, P. [Saanio and Riekkola, Helsinki (Finland); Aro, S.; Kosunen, P.; Mattila, J.; Pere, T.

    2012-12-15

    This report presents Posiva's Rock Suitability Classification (RSC) system, developed for locating suitable rock volumes for repository design and construction. The RSC system comprises both the revised rock suitability criteria and the procedure for the suitability classification during the construction of the repository. The aim of the classification is to avoid such features of the host rock that may be detrimental to the favourable conditions within the repository, either initially or in the long term. This report also discusses the implications of applying the RSC system for the fulfilment of the regulatory requirements concerning the host rock as a natural barrier and the site's overall suitability for hosting a final repository of spent nuclear fuel.

  12. Rock suitability classification RSC 2012

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McEwen, T.; Kapyaho, A.; Hella, P.; Aro, S.; Kosunen, P.; Mattila, J.; Pere, T.

    2012-12-01

    This report presents Posiva's Rock Suitability Classification (RSC) system, developed for locating suitable rock volumes for repository design and construction. The RSC system comprises both the revised rock suitability criteria and the procedure for the suitability classification during the construction of the repository. The aim of the classification is to avoid such features of the host rock that may be detrimental to the favourable conditions within the repository, either initially or in the long term. This report also discusses the implications of applying the RSC system for the fulfilment of the regulatory requirements concerning the host rock as a natural barrier and the site's overall suitability for hosting a final repository of spent nuclear fuel

  13. Rock strength under explosive loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rimer, N.; Proffer, W.

    1993-01-01

    This presentation emphasizes the importance of a detailed description of the nonlinear deviatoric (strength) response of the surrounding rock in the numerical simulation of underground nuclear explosion phenomenology to the late times needed for test ban monitoring applications. We will show how numerical simulations which match ground motion measurements in volcanic tuffs and in granite use the strength values obtained from laboratory measurements on small core samples of these rocks but also require much lower strength values after the ground motion has interacted with the rock. The underlying physical mechanisms for the implied strength reduction are not yet well understood, and in fact may depend on the particular rock type. However, constitutive models for shock damage and/or effective stress have been used successfully at S-Cubed in both the Geophysics Program (primarily for DARPA) and the Containment Support Program (for DNA) to simulate late time ground motions measured at NTS in many different rock types

  14. ROCK inhibitors in ocular disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Halasz

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Rho kinases (ROCKs have a crucial role in actin-cytoskeletal reorganization and thus are involved in broad aspects of cell motility, from smooth muscle contraction to neurite outgrowth. The first marketed ROCK inhibitor, called fasudil, has been used safely for treatment of cerebral vasospasm since 1995 in Japan. During the succeeding decades ROCK inhibitors have been applied in many pathological conditions from central nervous system disorders to cardiovascular disease as potential therapeutic agents or experimental tools to help understand the underlying (pathomechanisms. In 2014, a fasudil derivate named ripasudil was accepted for clinical use in glaucoma and ocular hypertension. Since ROCK kinases are widely expressed in ocular tissues, they have been implicated in the pathology of many ocular conditions such as corneal dysfunction, glaucoma, cataract, diabetic retinopathy, age-related macular degeneration, and retinal detachment. This paper aims to provide an overview of the most recent status/application of ROCK inhibitors in the field of eye disease.

  15. Geology and geothermics of the Island of Milos (Greece)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fytikas, M.; Marinelli, G.

    1976-01-01

    Geothermal research which has been conducted on the island of Milos is reviewed and the island's geology is discussed in terms of the geodynamics of the eastern Mediterranean. The rock formations which outcrop at Milos are described in detail, including the crystalline basement, Neogene transgressive conglomerates and limestones, and the Quaternary volcanics and volcano-sedimentary series. The recent disjunctive tectonics and volcano-tectonics affecting Milos and the neighboring islands are reviewed. Thermal manifestations and their attendant mineralizations and hydrothermal alterations are described. The geophysical methods utilized in exploration and for the siting of production wells are described. Exploration work involved the drilling of 55 wells for thermometric determinations and a full scale electrical survey. Preliminary data from two production wells with bottom-hole temperatures in excess of 300/sup 0/C are reported. Fifty-four references are provided.

  16. Rock coasts and seabird breeding sites : a common optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marie, Eveillard-Buchoux

    2014-05-01

    The North-West coasts of Europe support a lot of part of Northern hemisphere breeding seabirds. In that context, Scotland has a preponderant place and Brittany has southernmost limit of these species areas, for most of them. Outside the breeding season these species live mainly on the open sea and when they do visit the land to breed, they nest on a specific sites : almost all the time they breed on the rock coasts, often on seacliffs. This specific habitat are defines by geomorphological characteristics which offer special forms of the coast. The forms of rock coasts are originally and different because of several proprieties of geology, of lithology, of structures. Breeding seabird, occupying these sites, reveals, in a new light, the richness of these forms and the originals geographic location of the coastline : seabirds prefer nest in exposed coastline like rock caps, rocky points or islands. Seabirds and rock coasts are research topics in environmental geography since several years. However, these combination studies is a new approach in this field and enlargement in the heritage field allows supplement scientific approach. For example, it show that in most important touristic sites, environmental protection measures focused on landscape, habitat or bird, but much more rarely on rock coasts for these intrinsic values. Indeed, in Brittany or in Scotland, seabirds are often stars species in lot of coastal nature reserves, where they're considered like greater ecological heritage. We could see it in touristic promotion field : bird is everywhere, cliff is mostly kept in the dark, as well in leaflets as in speech visitor's guides - without, for example, as a part of this landscape. In all cases, combination of these two heritages is extremely rare. Yet, this current research illustrates the interest and the issue of development of this comparative approach seabirds / rock coasts for optimization of nature tourism and geotourism.

  17. Sedimentary facies and depositional history of the Swan Islands, Honduras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivey, Marvin L.; Breyer, John A.; Britton, Joseph C.

    1980-10-01

    Swan Island is a Honduran possession in the western Caribbean, located on the southeastern side of the Cayman Trench. Two sedimentary assemblages are found on the island: an older bedded sequence of mid-Tertiary age (Aquitanian or Burdigalian) and a younger sedimentary sequence of Late Pleistocene age. The older sequence is composed of a series of calcarenites, calcilutites, and siliciclastic mudstones; capping these are cliff-forming reefal carbonates of the younger sequence. The rocks of the older bedded sequence accumulated in deep water. Sedimentation consisted of a constant rain of pyroclastic debris interrupted by the episodic introduction of upslope carbonate material by turbidity currents. Uplift and deformation of this sequence was initiated sometime after the Early Miocene. By the Late Pleistocene, uplift had brought the rocks into water depths conducive to coral growth. Pleistocene sedimentation on the island was controlled by the interaction between tectonic uplift and eustatic sea-level changes. The primary controlling force on the tectonic history of the island is its proximity to the boundary between the North American and Caribbean plates.

  18. The variability and controls of rock strength along rocky coasts of central Spitsbergen, High Arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strzelecki, Mateusz Czesław

    2017-09-01

    This paper presents the results of the Schmidt Hammer Rock Tests (SHRTs) across a range of rocky coastal landforms. Northern Billefjorden (central Spitsbergen), represents typical High Arctic microtidal fjord environment. Sheltered location and prolonged sea-ice conditions limit wave action. Coastal cliffs, shore platforms and skerries are developed in various rock types including limestone, sandstone, anhydrite/gypsum, dolomite and metamorphic outcrops. SHRT demonstrated a broad variety of relationships between rock strength and distance from shoreline, presence of sediment cover, distribution of snow patches and icefoot, and accumulations of seaweed and driftwood. In general, rock cliff surfaces were the most resistant in their lower and middle zones, that are thermally insulated by thick winter snowdrifts. More exposed cliff tops were fractured and weathered. The differences in rock strength observed along the shore platforms were highly dependent on thickness of sediment cover and shoreline configuration promoting stronger rock surfaces in areas exposed to the longest wave fetch and washed from gravel deposits. Rock strength of skerry islands is influenced by tidal action controlling the duration of tide inundation and movement of sea-ice scratching boulder surfaces. The results presented in this paper emphasize the richness of rock coast geomorphology and processes operating in High Arctic settings.

  19. Palaeomagnetism and K-Ar age of Mesozoic and Cenozoic igneous rocks from Antarctica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valencio, D.A.; Mendia, J.E.; Vilas, J.F.

    1979-01-01

    A new analysis of palaeomagnetic data for igneous rocks from Deception Island, 25 de Mayo Island (King George Island) and Cape Spring, are given. K-Ar age determinations indicate that most of the igneous samples from 25 de Mayo Island included in the palaeomagnetic study are of Late Mesozoic/Early Tertiary age. The significance of these palaeomagnetic-radiometric data on the hypothesis of oroclinal bending of the Antarctic Peninsula and on the apparent polar movement of Antarctica is discussed. The positions of palaeomagnetic poles for the Andean igneous complex indicate that there has not been any apparent post-Late Cretaceous/Early Tertiary oroclinal bending in the Antarctic Peninsula from 74 0 S to 62 0 S. A comparison of the positions of palaeomagnetic poles for Antarctica and Australia suggests that the direction of apparent polar movement relative to Antarctica reversed after the Miocene. (Auth.)

  20. Streamlined islands and the English Channel megaflood hypothesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collier, J. S.; Oggioni, F.; Gupta, S.; García-Moreno, D.; Trentesaux, A.; De Batist, M.

    2015-12-01

    Recognising ice-age catastrophic megafloods is important because they had significant impact on large-scale drainage evolution and patterns of water and sediment movement to the oceans, and likely induced very rapid, short-term effects on climate. It has been previously proposed that a drainage system on the floor of the English Channel was initiated by catastrophic flooding in the Pleistocene but this suggestion has remained controversial. Here we examine this hypothesis through an analysis of key landform features. We use a new compilation of multi- and single-beam bathymetry together with sub-bottom profiler data to establish the internal structure, planform geometry and hence origin of a set of 36 mid-channel islands. Whilst there is evidence of modern-day surficial sediment processes, the majority of the islands can be clearly demonstrated to be formed of bedrock, and are hence erosional remnants rather than depositional features. The islands display classic lemniscate or tear-drop outlines, with elongated tips pointing downstream, typical of streamlined islands formed during high-magnitude water flow. The length-to-width ratio for the entire island population is 3.4 ± 1.3 and the degree-of-elongation or k-value is 3.7 ± 1.4. These values are comparable to streamlined islands in other proven Pleistocene catastrophic flood terrains and are distinctly different to values found in modern-day rivers. The island geometries show a correlation with bedrock type: with those carved from Upper Cretaceous chalk having larger length-to-width ratios (3.2 ± 1.3) than those carved into more mixed Paleogene terrigenous sandstones, siltstones and mudstones (3.0 ± 1.5). We attribute these differences to the former rock unit having a lower skin friction which allowed longer island growth to achieve minimum drag. The Paleogene islands, although less numerous than the Chalk islands, also assume more perfect lemniscate shapes. These lithologies therefore reached island

  1. They will rock you!

    CERN Multimedia

    Anaïs Schaeffer

    2013-01-01

    On 30 September, CERN will be the venue for one of the most prestigious events of the year: the concert for the Bosons&More event, the Organization’s celebration of the remarkable performance of the LHC and all its technical systems, as well as the recent fundamental discoveries. Topping the bill will be the Orchestre de la Suisse Romande, the CERN Choir, the Zürcher Sing-Akademie and the Alan Parsons Live Project rock group, who have joined forces to create an unforgettable evening’s entertainment.   The Orchestre de la Suisse Romande, directed by Maestro Neeme Järvi, artistic and musical director of the OSR. (Image: Grégory Maillot). >>> From the Orchestre de la Suisse Romande… Henk Swinnen, General Manager of the Orchestre de la Suisse Romande (OSR), answers some questions for the CERN Bulletin, just a few days before the event. How did this project come about? When CERN invited us to take part in the B...

  2. Rock salt constitutive modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nickell, R.E.

    1980-01-01

    The Serata model is the best operational model available today because it incorporates: (1) a yield function to demarcate between viscoelastic and viscoplastic behavior of rock salt; (2) a pressure and temperature dependence for yield stresses; and (3) a standard linear solid, which can be readily extended into the non-linear regime, to represent creep behavior. Its only deficiencies appear to be the lack of secondary creep behavior (a free dashpot) and some unsettling arbitrariness about the Poisson's ratio (ν → 0.5) argument for viscoplasticity. The Sandia/WIPP model will have good primary and secondary creep capability, but lacks the viscoplastic behavior. In some cases, estimated inelastic strains may be underpredicted. If a creep acceleration mechanism associated with brine inclusions is observed, this model may require extensive revision. Most of the other models available (SAI, RE-SPEC, etc.) are only useful for short-term calculations, because they employ temporal power law (t/sup n/) primary creep representations. These models are unsatisfactory because they cannot represent dual mechanisms with differing characteristic times. An approach based upon combined creep and plasticity is recommended in order to remove the remaining deficiency in the Serata model. DOE/Sandia/WIPP should be encouraged to move aggressively in this regard

  3. Research into basic rocks types

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-06-01

    Teollisuuden Voima Oy (TVO) has carried out research into basic rock types in Finland. The research programme has been implemented in parallel with the preliminary site investigations for radioactive waste disposal in 1991-1993. The program contained two main objectives: firstly, to study the properties of the basic rock types and compare those with the other rock types under the investigation; secondly, to carry out an inventory of rock formations consisting of basic rock types and suitable in question for final disposal. A study of environmental factors important to know regarding the final disposal was made of formations identified. In total 159 formations exceeding the size of 4 km 2 were identified in the inventory. Of these formations 97 were intrusive igneous rock types and 62 originally extrusive volcanic rock types. Deposits consisting of ore minerals, industrial minerals or building stones related to these formations were studied. Environmental factors like natural resources, protected areas or potential for restrictions in land use were also studied

  4. New Data on the Composition of Ophiolite Complexes on Karaginskii Island (Eastern Kamchatka)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skolotnev, S. G.; Tsukanov, N. V.; Sidorov, E. G.

    2018-03-01

    The geochemistry and composition of peridotite rock-forming minerals from blocks in the serpentinite mélange of Karaginskii Island have been studied. The composition features of the rock-forming minerals are indicative of the fact that they represent abyssal peridotites of the mid-oceanic ridges that did not undergo remelting under suprasubduction conditions. According to the geochemical data, these rocks were subject to metasomatic alterations under mantle conditions in the suprasubduction setting, which were caused by metasomatizing melts and/or fluids generated in the subduction zone.

  5. Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory. Annual report 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-04-01

    The Aespoe HRL has been constructed as part of the preparations for the deep geological repository for spent nuclear fuel in Sweden. Geoscientific investigations on Aespoe and nearby islands began 1986. Since then, bedrock conditions have been investigated by several deep boreholes. The Aespoe research village has been built and extensive underground construction work has been undertaken in parallel with comprehensive research. This has resulted in a thorough test of methods for investigation and evaluation of bedrock conditions for construction of a deep repository. The objective of the ZEDEX project is to compare the mechanical disturbance to the rock for excavation by tunnel boring and blasting. The results indicate that the role of the EDZ as a preferential pathway to radionuclide transport is limited to the damaged zone. The tracer retention understanding experiments are made to gain a better understanding of radionuclide retention in the rock and create confidence in the radionuclide transport models. During 1996 a series of tracer experiments in radially converging and dipole flow configuration have been performed. A special borehole probe has been designed for different kinds of retention experiments where data can be obtained representative for the in situ properties of groundwater at repository depth. The prototype repository test is focused on testing and demonstrating repository system function, and includes backfill and plug tests and demonstration of methods for deposition and retrieval of canisters in a new tunnel at the 420 m level. The long term tests of buffer material aim to validate models of buffer performance and at quantifying clay buffer alteration processes at adverse conditions. 80 refs, 53 figs, 16 tabs

  6. Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory. Annual report 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-04-01

    The Aespoe HRL has been constructed as part of the preparations for the deep geological repository for spent nuclear fuel in Sweden. Geoscientific investigations on Aespoe and nearby islands began 1986. Since then, bedrock conditions have been investigated by several deep boreholes. The Aespoe research village has been built and extensive underground construction work has been undertaken in parallel with comprehensive research. This has resulted in a thorough test of methods for investigation and evaluation of bedrock conditions for construction of a deep repository. The objective of the ZEDEX project is to compare the mechanical disturbance to the rock for excavation by tunnel boring and blasting. The results indicate that the role of the EDZ as a preferential pathway to radionuclide transport is limited to the damaged zone. The tracer retention understanding experiments are made to gain a better understanding of radionuclide retention in the rock and create confidence in the radionuclide transport models. During 1996 a series of tracer experiments in radially converging and dipole flow configuration have been performed. A special borehole probe has been designed for different kinds of retention experiments where data can be obtained representative for the in situ properties of groundwater at repository depth. The prototype repository test is focused on testing and demonstrating repository system function, and includes backfill and plug tests and demonstration of methods for deposition and retrieval of canisters in a new tunnel at the 420 m level. The long term tests of buffer material aim to validate models of buffer performance and at quantifying clay buffer alteration processes at adverse conditions. 80 refs, 53 figs, 16 tabs.

  7. Testing of multidimensional tectonomagmatic discrimination diagrams on fresh and altered rocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rivera-Gómez M. Abdelaly

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available We evaluated 55 multidimensional diagrams proposed during 2004-2013 for the tectonic discrimination of ultrabasic, basic, intermediate, and acid magmas. The Miocene to Recent rock samples for testing the diagrams had not been used for constructing them. Eighteen test studies (2 from ocean island; 2 from ocean island/continental rift; 6 from continental rift; 4 from continental arc; 2 from island arc; 1 from mid-ocean ridge, and 1 from collision of relatively fresh rocks fully confirmed the satisfactory functioning of these diagrams for all tectonic fields for which they were proposed. Eight additional case studies on hydrothermally altered or moderately to highly weathered rocks were also presented to achieve further understanding of the functioning of these diagrams. For these rocks as well, the diagrams indicated the expected tectonic setting. We also show that for testing or using these diagrams the freely-available geochemistry databases should be used with caution but certainly after ascertaining the correct magma types to select the appropriate diagram sets. The results encourage us to recommend these diagrams for deciphering the tectonic setting of older terranes or areas with complex or transitional tectonic settings.

  8. Modeling the Rock Glacier Cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, R. S.; Anderson, L. S.

    2016-12-01

    Rock glaciers are common in many mountain ranges in which the ELA lies above the peaks. They represent some of the most identifiable components of today's cryosphere in these settings. Their oversteepened snouts pose often-overlooked hazards to travel in alpine terrain. Rock glaciers are supported by avalanches and by rockfall from steep headwalls. The winter's avalanche cone must be sufficiently thick not to melt entirely in the summer. The spatial distribution of rock glaciers reflects this dependence on avalanche sources; they are most common on lee sides of ridges where wind-blown snow augments the avalanche source. In the absence of rockfall, this would support a short, cirque glacier. Depending on the relationship between rockfall and avalanche patterns, "talus-derived" and "glacier-derived" rock glaciers are possible. Talus-derived: If the spatial distribution of rock delivery is similar to the avalanche pattern, the rock-ice mixture will travel an englacial path that is downward through the short accumulation zone before turning upward in the ablation zone. Advected debris is then delivered to the base of a growing surface debris layer that reduces the ice melt rate. The physics is identical to the debris-covered glacier case. Glacier-derived: If on the other hand rockfall from the headwall rolls beyond the avalanche cone, it is added directly to the ablation zone of the glacier. The avalanche accumulation zone then supports a pure ice core to the rock glacier. We have developed numerical models designed to capture the full range of glacier to debris-covered glacier to rock glacier behavior. The hundreds of meter lengths, tens of meters thicknesses, and meter per year speeds of rock glaciers are well described by the models. The model can capture both "talus-derived" and "glacier-derived" rock glaciers. We explore the dependence of glacier behavior on climate histories. As climate warms, a pure ice debris-covered glacier can transform to a much shorter rock

  9. Multiverso: Rock'n'Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caballero, J. A.

    2012-05-01

    In the last few years, there have been several projects involving astronomy and classical music. But have a rock band ever appeared at a science conference or an astronomer at a rock concert? We present a project, Multiverso, in which we mix rock and astronomy, together with poetry and video art (Caballero, 2010). The project started in late 2009 and has already reached tens of thousands people in Spain through the release of an album, several concert-talks, television, radio, newspapers and the internet.

  10. Fault rocks and uranium mineralization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tong Hangshou.

    1991-01-01

    The types of fault rocks, microstructural characteristics of fault tectonite and their relationship with uranium mineralization in the uranium-productive granite area are discussed. According to the synthetic analysis on nature of stress, extent of crack and microstructural characteristics of fault rocks, they can be classified into five groups and sixteen subgroups. The author especially emphasizes the control of cataclasite group and fault breccia group over uranium mineralization in the uranium-productive granite area. It is considered that more effective study should be made on the macrostructure and microstructure of fault rocks. It is of an important practical significance in uranium exploration

  11. Test procedures for salt rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dusseault, M.B.

    1985-01-01

    Potash mining, salt mining, design of solution caverns in salt rocks, disposal of waste in salt repositories, and the use of granular halite backfill in underground salt rock mines are all mining activities which are practised or contemplated for the near future. Whatever the purpose, the need for high quality design parameters is evident. The authors have been testing salt rocks in the laboratory in a number of configurations for some time. Great care has been given to the quality of sample preparation and test methodology. This paper describes the methods, presents the elements of equipment design, and shows some typical results

  12. Heron Island, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    Heron Island is located at the sourthern end of Australia's 2,050 km-long Great Barrier Reef. Surrounded by coral reef and home to over 1000 species of fish, scuba divers and scientists alike are drawn to the island's resort and research station. The true-color image above was taken by Space Imaging's Ikonos satellite with a resolution of 4 meters per pixel-high enough to see individual boats tied up at the small marina. The narrow channel leading from the marina to the ocean was blasted and dredged decades ago, before the island became a national park. Since then the Australian government has implemented conservation measures, such as limiting the number of tourists and removing or recycling, instead of incinerating, all trash. One of the applications of remote sensing data from Ikonos is environmental monitoring, including studies of coral reef health. For more information about the island, read Heron Island. Image by Robert Simmon, based on data copyright Space Imaging

  13. Fluid and rock interaction in permeable volcanic rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindley, J.I.

    1985-01-01

    Four types of interrelated changes -geochemical, mineralogic, isotopic, and physical - occur in Oligocene volcanic units of the Mogollon-Datil volcanic field, New Mexico. These changes resulted from the operation of a geothermal system that, through fluid-rock interaction, affected 5 rhyolite ash-flow tuffs and an intercalated basaltic andesite lava flow causing a potassium metasomatism type of alteration. (1) Previous studies have shown enrichment of rocks in K 2 O as much as 130% of their original values at the expense of Na 2 O and CaO with an accompanying increase in Rb and decreases in MgO and Sr. (2) X-ray diffraction results of this study show that phenocrystic plagioclase and groundmass feldspar have been replaced with pure potassium feldspar and quartz in altered rock. Phenocrystic potassium feldspar, biotite, and quartz are unaffected. Pyroxene in basaltic andesite is replaced by iron oxide. (3) delta 18 O increases for rhyolitic units from values of 8-10 permil, typical of unaltered rock, to 13-15 permil, typical of altered rock. Basaltic andesite, however, shows opposite behavior with a delta 18 of 9 permil in unaltered rock and 6 permit in altered. (4) Alteration results in a density decrease. SEM revealed that replacement of plagioclase by fine-grained quartz and potassium feldspar is not a volume for volume replacement. Secondary porosity is created in the volcanics by the chaotic arrangement of secondary crystals

  14. Beach rock from Goa Coast

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Setty, M.G.A.P.; Wagle, B.G.

    constituents of beach rock found along Goa coast is dealt with in detail. While discussing the various views on its origin, it is emphasized that the process of cementation is chiefly controlled by ground water evaporation, inorganic precipitation and optimum...

  15. The Chronology of Rock Art

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Such phases are tentatively ascribed to different archaeological cultures on the basis of the contextual availability, stylistic similarities and so on. Ethnographic analogies are also attempted in the dating of rock art .

  16. Chemical methods of rock analysis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jeffery, P. G; Hutchison, D

    1981-01-01

    A practical guide to the methods in general use for the complete analysis of silicate rock material and for the determination of all those elements present in major, minor or trace amounts in silicate...

  17. Heat production in granitic rocks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Artemieva, Irina; Thybo, Hans; Jakobsen, Kiki

    2017-01-01

    Granitic rocks play special role in the dynamics and evolution of the Earth and its thermal regime. First, their compositional variability, reflected in the distribution of concentrations of radiogenic elements, provides constraints on global differentiation processes and large scale planetary...... evolution, where emplacement of granites is considered a particularly important process for the formation of continental crust. Second, heat production by radioactive decay is among the main heat sources in the Earth. Therefore knowledge of heat production in granitic rocks is pivotal for thermal modelling...... of the continental lithosphere, given that most radiogenic elements are concentrated in granitic rocks of the upper continental crust whereas heat production in rocks of the lower crust and lithospheric mantle is negligible. We present and analyze a new global database GRANITE2017 (with about 500 entries...

  18. Defending dreamer’s rock

    OpenAIRE

    Beck, Günter U.

    2007-01-01

    Defending dreamer’s rock : Geschichte, Geschichtsbewusstsein und Geschichtskultur im Native drama der USA und Kanadas. - Trier : WVT Wiss. Verl. Trier, 2007. - 445 S. - (CDE - Studies ; 14). - Zugl.: Augsburg, Univ., Diss., 2006

  19. Small Island Visitor Attractions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haven Allahar

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This article proposes a process framework for developing and managing visitor attractions (VA in small island developing states with Trinidad and Tobago, a two-island state in the Caribbean, as the case study. An extensive literature review was conducted, supported by field observations, individual depth interviews, and small and large focus group meetings. The process framework identified four sets of processes: national policy formulation and legislation; inventory, classification, evaluation, and ranking of VA; general operations management involving project management activities; and site specific activities of development, operations, and maintenance. The value of the framework lies in the fact that no similar framework applicable to small islands was covered in the literature and validation was obtained from a panel of experts and a cross section of tourism stakeholders in Tobago.

  20. Geology of Tok Island, Korea: eruptive and depositional processes of a shoaling to emergent island volcano

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohn, Y. K.

    1995-02-01

    Detailed mapping of Tok Island, located in the middle of the East Sea (Sea of Japan), along with lithofacies analysis and K-Ar age determinations reveal that the island is of early to late Pliocene age and comprises eight rock units: Trachyte I, Unit P-I, Unit P-II, Trachyandesite (2.7±0.1 Ma), Unit P-III, Trachyte II (2.7±0.1 Ma), Trachyte III (2.5±0.1 Ma) and dikes in ascending stratigraphic order. Trachyte I is a mixture of coherent trachytic lavas and breccias that are interpreted to be subaqueous lavas and related hyaloclastites. Unit P-I comprises massive and inversely graded basaltic breccias which resulted from subaerial gain flows and subaqueous debris flows. A basalt clast from the unit, derived from below Trachyte I, has an age of 4.6±0.4 Ma. Unit P-II is composed of graded and stratified lapilli tuffs with the characteristics of proximal pyroclastic surge deposits. The Trachyandesite is a massive subaerial lava ponded in a volcano-tectonic depression, probably a summit crater. A pyroclastic sequence containing flattened scoria clasts (Unit P-III) and a small volume subaerial lava (Trachyte II) occur above the Trachyandesite, suggesting resumption of pyroclastic activity and lava effusion. Afterwards, shallow intrusion of magma occurred, producing Trachyte III and trachyte dikes. The eight rock units provide an example of the changing eruptive and depositional processes and resultant succession of lithofacies as a seamount builds up above sea level to form an island volcano: Trachyte I represents a wholly subaqueous and effusive stage; Units P-I and P-II represent Surtseyan and Taalian eruptive phases during an explosive transitional (subaqueous to emergent) stage; and the other rock units represent later subaerial effusive and explosive stages. Reconstruction of volcano morphology suggests that the island is a remnant of the south-western crater rim of a volcano the vent of which lies several hundred meters to the north-east.

  1. Predicting rock bursts in mines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spall, H.

    1979-01-01

    In terms of lives lost, rock bursts in underground mines can be as hazardous as earthquakes on the surface. So it is not surprising that fo the last 40 years the U.S Bureau of Mines has been using seismic methods for detecting areas in underground mines where there is a high differential stress which could lead to structural instability of the rock mass being excavated.

  2. The volcanic and geochemical development of São Nicolau, Cape Verde Islands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duprat, Helene Inga; Holm, Paul Martin; Sherson, Jacob Friis

    2007-01-01

    We present 34 new age results from 40 Ar/39 Ar incremental heating analyses of groundmass separates from volcanic rocks from São Nicolau, Cape Verde. Combining the age results with field observations, we show that the volcanic activity that formed the island occurred in four separate stages: 1: >6...

  3. A volcanological and geochemical investigation of Boa Vistta, Cape Verde Islands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dyhr, Charlotte Thorup; Holm, Paul Martin

    2009-01-01

    Boa Vista, the easternmost island in the Cape Verde archipelago, consists of volcanic products, minor intrusions and a thin partial sedimentary cover. The first 15 age results from 40Ar/39Ar incremental heating analysis of groundmass separates from volcanic and plutonic rocks from Boa Vista are p...

  4. Isotopic age relations within the polymetamorphic complex of the island of Naxos (Cyclades, Greece)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andriessen, P.A.M.

    1978-01-01

    A general introduction outlining the goelogical setting, previous work, experimental procedures, analytical errors and constants is given. The results of K-Ar and Rb-Sr isotope dating experiments on the minerals and rocks of different areas are presented. Four phases of metamorphism can be recognised on the island. (C.F.)

  5. Thermally induced rock stress increment and rock reinforcement response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hakala, M.; Stroem, J.; Nujiten, G.; Uotinen, L.; Siren, T.; Suikkanen, J.

    2014-07-01

    This report describes a detailed study of the effect of thermal heating by the spent nuclear fuel containers on the in situ rock stress, any potential rock failure, and associated rock reinforcement strategies for the Olkiluoto underground repository. The modelling approach and input data are presented together repository layout diagrams. The numerical codes used to establish the effects of heating on the in situ stress field are outlined, together with the rock mass parameters, in situ stress values, radiogenic temperatures and reinforcement structures. This is followed by a study of the temperature and stress evolution during the repository's operational period and the effect of the heating on the reinforcement structures. It is found that, during excavation, the maximum principal stress is concentrated at the transition areas where the profile changes and that, due to the heating from the deposition of spent nuclear fuel, the maximum principal stress rises significantly in the tunnel arch area of NW/SW oriented central tunnels. However, it is predicted that the rock's crack damage (CD, short term strength) value of 99 MPa will not be exceeded anywhere within the model. Loads onto the reinforcement structures will come from damaged and loosened rock which is assumed in the modelling as a free rock wedge - but this is very much a worst case scenario because there is no guarantee that rock cracking would form a free rock block. The structural capacity of the reinforcement structures is described and it is predicted that the current quantity of the rock reinforcement is strong enough to provide a stable tunnel opening during the peak of the long term stress state, with damage predicted on the sprayed concrete liner. However, the long term stability and safety can be improved through the implementation of the principles of the Observational Method. The effect of ventilation is also considered and an additional study of the radiogenic heating effect on the brittle

  6. Thermally induced rock stress increment and rock reinforcement response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hakala, M. [KMS Hakala Oy, Nokia (Finland); Stroem, J.; Nujiten, G.; Uotinen, L. [Rockplan, Helsinki (Finland); Siren, T.; Suikkanen, J.

    2014-07-15

    This report describes a detailed study of the effect of thermal heating by the spent nuclear fuel containers on the in situ rock stress, any potential rock failure, and associated rock reinforcement strategies for the Olkiluoto underground repository. The modelling approach and input data are presented together repository layout diagrams. The numerical codes used to establish the effects of heating on the in situ stress field are outlined, together with the rock mass parameters, in situ stress values, radiogenic temperatures and reinforcement structures. This is followed by a study of the temperature and stress evolution during the repository's operational period and the effect of the heating on the reinforcement structures. It is found that, during excavation, the maximum principal stress is concentrated at the transition areas where the profile changes and that, due to the heating from the deposition of spent nuclear fuel, the maximum principal stress rises significantly in the tunnel arch area of NW/SW oriented central tunnels. However, it is predicted that the rock's crack damage (CD, short term strength) value of 99 MPa will not be exceeded anywhere within the model. Loads onto the reinforcement structures will come from damaged and loosened rock which is assumed in the modelling as a free rock wedge - but this is very much a worst case scenario because there is no guarantee that rock cracking would form a free rock block. The structural capacity of the reinforcement structures is described and it is predicted that the current quantity of the rock reinforcement is strong enough to provide a stable tunnel opening during the peak of the long term stress state, with damage predicted on the sprayed concrete liner. However, the long term stability and safety can be improved through the implementation of the principles of the Observational Method. The effect of ventilation is also considered and an additional study of the radiogenic heating effect on the

  7. Island of Luzon, Philippines

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    In this north to south view of the Island of Luzon, Philippines (13.0N, 120.0E), the prominent Cordillera Central mountain range where gold, copper and silver are mined. The several large rivers that drain this region normally carry a heavy silt load to the sea but the absence of sediment plumes in this view is evidence of hot dry weather and lack of recent rains. Manila, the capital city is just visible at the south end of the island.

  8. Chatham Islands Climate Change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mullan, B.; Salinger, J.; Thompson, C.; Ramsay, D.; Wild, M.

    2005-06-01

    This brief report provides guidance on climate change specific to the Chatham Islands, to complement the information recently produced for local government by the Ministry for the Environment in 'Climate Change Effects and Impacts Assessment: A guidance manual for Local Government in New Zealand' and 'Coastal Hazards and Climate Change: A guidance manual for Local Government in New Zealand'. These previous reports contain a lot of generic information on climate change, and how to assess associated risks, that is relevant to the Chatham Islands Council.

  9. Island in the Air

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Dorthe Gert

    2017-01-01

    In this article, I explore the formation of airspace in Britain from 1910 to 1913. The technology of flight challenged the “flat discourse” of nationalized geography, drawing up instead a volumetric space in the sky as airplanes flew from the Continent to England. The drive to control aerial...... extension of the Island Kingdom, extrapolating its coastal borders into the sky. However, even as Parliament passed the Aerial Navigation Act in 1913, this legal construction of an island in the air could not endure the agency of airplanes. The formation of airspace, I argue, is a history particularly well...

  10. Archaeoastronomy of Easter Island

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Edmundo

    Astronomer priests or "skywatchers" on Easter Island lived in stone towers that were used as observatories and built stone markers in the periphery that indicated the heliacal rising of certain stars that served to indicate the arrival of marine birds, turtles, the offshore fishing season, and times for planting and harvest. Petroglyphs related to such sites depict outriggers, fishhooks, pelagic fish, and turtles and supposedly represented a star map. In this chapter, we analyze a set of such skywatchers dwellings, and stone markers located upon the North coast of Easter Island that have astronomic orientations, its related petroglyphs, and the relations between these directions with their yearly activities and their ritual calendar.

  11. Long Island Solar Farm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anders, R.

    2013-05-01

    The Long Island Solar Farm (LISF) is a remarkable success story, whereby very different interest groups found a way to capitalize on unusual circumstances to develop a mutually beneficial source of renewable energy. The uniqueness of the circumstances that were necessary to develop the Long Island Solar Farm make it very difficult to replicate. The project is, however, an unparalleled resource for solar energy research, which will greatly inform large-scale PV solar development in the East. Lastly, the LISF is a superb model for the process by which the project developed and the innovation and leadership shown by the different players.

  12. Results of Monitoring at Olkiluoto in 2010. Rock Mechanics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lahti, M [ed.; Siren, T

    2011-12-15

    The rock mechanical monitoring at Olkiluoto concentrates on the assessment of potential tectonic movements and stability of the bedrock. The construction of ONKALO is not expected to induce large-scale movements of the rock blocks or affect the rate of isostatic uplift but the evaluation of any tectonic events is important for the safety assessment. The monitoring consists of seismic measurements, GPS measurements and precise levelling campaigns at Olkiluoto and vicinity and extensometer and convergence measurements carried out in ONKALO. Posiva established a local seismic network of six stations on the island of Olkiluoto in 2002. After that the number of seismic stations has increased gradually. In 2010 the permanent seismic network consists of 15 seismic stations and 20 triaxial sensors. The purpose of the microearthquake measurements at Olkiluoto is to improve understanding of the structure, behaviour and long term stability of the bedrock. The investigation area includes two target areas. The larger target area, called seismic semiregional area, covers the Olkiluoto Island and its surroundings. The purpose is to monitor explosions and tectonic earthquakes in regional scale inside that area. The smaller target area is called the seismic ONKALO block, which is a 2 km *2 km *2 km cube surrounding the ONKALO. It is assumed that all the expected excavation induced events occur within this volume. At the moment the seismic ONKALO block includes ten seismic stations. An additional task of monitoring is related to safeguarding of the ONKALO. This report gives the results of microseismic monitoring during 2010.

  13. Results of Monitoring at Olkiluoto in 2010. Rock Mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lahti, M.; Siren, T.

    2011-12-01

    The rock mechanical monitoring at Olkiluoto concentrates on the assessment of potential tectonic movements and stability of the bedrock. The construction of ONKALO is not expected to induce large-scale movements of the rock blocks or affect the rate of isostatic uplift but the evaluation of any tectonic events is important for the safety assessment. The monitoring consists of seismic measurements, GPS measurements and precise levelling campaigns at Olkiluoto and vicinity and extensometer and convergence measurements carried out in ONKALO. Posiva established a local seismic network of six stations on the island of Olkiluoto in 2002. After that the number of seismic stations has increased gradually. In 2010 the permanent seismic network consists of 15 seismic stations and 20 triaxial sensors. The purpose of the microearthquake measurements at Olkiluoto is to improve understanding of the structure, behaviour and long term stability of the bedrock. The investigation area includes two target areas. The larger target area, called seismic semiregional area, covers the Olkiluoto Island and its surroundings. The purpose is to monitor explosions and tectonic earthquakes in regional scale inside that area. The smaller target area is called the seismic ONKALO block, which is a 2 km *2 km *2 km cube surrounding the ONKALO. It is assumed that all the expected excavation induced events occur within this volume. At the moment the seismic ONKALO block includes ten seismic stations. An additional task of monitoring is related to safeguarding of the ONKALO. This report gives the results of microseismic monitoring during 2010

  14. Geochemistry of the alkaline volcanicsubvolcanic rocks of the Fernando de Noronha Archipelago, southern Atlantic Ocean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosana Peporine Lopes

    Full Text Available The Fernando de Noronha Archipelago presents, on its main island, a centrally-located stratigraphic unit, the Remédios Formation (age around 8 - 12 Ma constituted by basal pyroclastic rocks intruded by dikes, plugs and domes of varied igneous rocks, capped by flows and pyroclastics of mafic to ultramafic rocks of the Quixaba Formation (age around 1 - 3 Ma, which is limited from the underlying unit by an extensive irregular erosion surface. A predominant sodic Remédios series (basanites, tephrites, tephriphonolites, essexite, phonolites can be separated from a moderately potassic Remédios sequence (alkali basalts, trachyandesites, trachytes, both alkaline series showing mostly continuous geochemical trends in variation diagrams for major as well as trace elements, indicating evolution by crystal fractionation (mainly, separation of mafic minerals, including apatites and titanites. There are textural and mineralogical evidences pointing to hybrid origin of some intermediate rocks (e.g., resorbed pyroxene phenocrysts in basaltic trachyandesites, and in some lamprophyres. The primitive Quixaba rocks are mostly melanephelinites and basanites, primitive undersaturated sodic types. Geology (erosion surface, stratigraphy (two distinct units separated by a large time interval, petrography (varied Remédios Formation, more uniform Quixaba unit and geochemistry indicate that the islands represent the activity of a protracted volcanic episode, fueled by intermittent melting of an enriched mantle, not related to asthenospheric plume activity.

  15. Oil geology of carbonate rock (Part 9)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oshima, Kazuaki [Canpex Co., Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1989-04-01

    As related with the oil exploration and development, the geological and environmental situation, where coral and other biological reef forms, was explained in Mubarras shoal and Bu Tinah shoal off Abu Dhabi, and the Okinawa islands. Generally, reef-natured sediment is distributed in marine areas, high in wave energy and facing open sea, and composed of coarse sediment. While, for the formation of biological reef, life must have so strong skeleton as to stand such severe wave, current and other oceanographic conditions. In Mubarras shoal, underground upheaval is found mainly in the northern part of shoal, while, in Bu Tinah shoal, it is found at the central part of shoal. Both the shoals are mutually different in condition of coral reef and coarse particulate sediment however common in the point that coral reef is always formed from the central part of upheaval toward offshore, inside which formation coarse calcareous sediment is formed. While the existence of calcareous mud prevents coral from growing and simultaneously lower reservoir rock in form condition. 26 figs.

  16. Islanded operation of distribution networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    This report summarises the results of a study assessing the benefits and risks to distribution network of generator islanding and examining the technical, commercial and regulatory changes required to facilitate the operation of islanding. The background to the study is traced, and details are given of a literature review, the technical criteria for operating sections of the network in islanding mode, and the impact of islanding on trading. Case studies and a detailed implementation plan, data acquisition, and commercial incentives are discussed.

  17. Islanded operation of distribution networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    This report summarises the results of a study assessing the benefits and risks to distribution network of generator islanding and examining the technical, commercial and regulatory changes required to facilitate the operation of islanding. The background to the study is traced, and details are given of a literature review, the technical criteria for operating sections of the network in islanding mode, and the impact of islanding on trading. Case studies and a detailed implementation plan, data acquisition, and commercial incentives are discussed

  18. Will an "island" population of voles be recolonized if eradicated? Insights from molecular genetic analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Mark P.; Haig, Susan M.; Ledig, David B.; Vander Heyden, Madeleine F.; Bennett, Gregory

    2011-01-01

    We performed genetic analyses of Microtus longicaudus populations within the Crook Point Unit of the Oregon Islands National Wildlife Refuge. A M. longicaudus population at Saddle Rock (located approx. 65 m off-shore from the Crook Point mainland) is suspected to be partially responsible for declines of a Leach's storm-petrel colony at this important nesting site. Using Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism markers and mitochondrial DNA, we illustrate that Saddle Rock and Crook Point function as separate island and mainland populations despite their close proximity. In addition to genetic structure, we also observed reduced genetic diversity at Saddle Rock, suggesting that little individual movement occurs between populations. If local resource managers decide to perform an eradication at Saddle Rock, we conclude that immediate recolonization of the island by M. longicaudus would be unlikely. Because M. longicaudus is native to Oregon, we also consider the degree with which the differentiation of Saddle Rock signifies the presence of a unique entity that warrants conservation rather than eradication. ?? The Wildlife Society, 2011.

  19. Inference of coastal submergence from the study of beach rock off Visakhapatnam

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rajamanickam, G.V.; Rao, K.M.; Rao, T.C.S.

    . and the respective weight percentages were used tocalculat~the size parameters following Folk (I974). The composition of the cementing material w.as examined by directly staining with alizarin red-S on a weB poJished and Hel etched rock surface and by X... Bacteria and on the action of denitrifying bacteria in tropical and temperate seas, pap. Totuga Lab Carnegie Inst., Wash Publ., p. 182. Emery, K.O. and Cox, D.C., (I 956) Beach rock in the Jawaliah Islands, Pacific Science, V. 10, pp', 383. Folk, R.L, (1974...

  20. Pediatrics in the Marshall Islands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dungy, C.I.; Morgan, B.C.; Adams, W.H.

    1984-01-01

    The delivery of health care to children living on isolated island communities presents unique challenges to health professionals. An evolved method of providing longitudinal services to infants and children residing on islands of the Marshall Island chain - a central Pacific portion of the Micronesian archipelago - is presented. The difficulties associated with provision of comprehensive health care in a vast ocean area are discussed

  1. Groundwater flow in a relatively old oceanic volcanic island: The Betancuria area, Fuerteventura Island, Canary Islands, Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herrera, Christian, E-mail: cherrera@ucn.cl [Universidad Católica del Norte, Av. Angamos 0610, Antofagasta (Chile); Custodio, Emilio [Department of Geo-Engineering, Technical University of Catalonia (UPC), Barcelona (Spain)

    2014-10-15

    The island of Fuerteventura is the oldest of the Canary Islands' volcanic archipelago. It is constituted by volcanic submarine and subaerial activity and intrusive Miocene events, with some residual later volcanism and Quaternary volcanic deposits that have favored groundwater recharge. The climate is arid, with an average rainfall that barely attains 60 mm/year in the coast and up to 200 mm/year in the highlands. The aquifer recharge is small but significant; it is brackish due to large airborne atmospheric salinity, between 7 and 15 g m{sup −2} year{sup −1} of chloride deposition, and high evapo-concentration in the soil. The average recharge is estimated to be less than about 5 mm/year at low altitude and up to 10 mm/year in the highlands, and up to 20 mm/year associated to recent lava fields. Hydrochemical and water isotopic studies, supported by water table data and well and borehole descriptions, contribute a preliminary conceptual model of groundwater flow and water origin in the Betancuria area, the central area of the island. In general, water from springs and shallow wells tends to be naturally brackish and of recent origin. Deep saline groundwater is found and is explained as remnants of very old marine water trapped in isolated features in the very low permeability intrusive rocks. Preliminary radiocarbon dating indicates that this deep groundwater has an apparent age of less than 5000 years BP but it is the result of mixing recent water recharge with very old deep groundwater. Most of the groundwater flow occurs through the old raised volcanic shield of submarine and subaerial formations and later Miocene subaerial basalts. Groundwater transit time through the unsaturated zone is of a few decades, which allows the consideration of long-term quasi-steady state recharge. Transit times are up to a few centuries through the saturated old volcanics and up to several millennia in the intrusive formations, where isolated pockets of very old water may

  2. Evaluation of Rock Bolt Support for Polish Hard Rock Mines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skrzypkowski, Krzysztof

    2018-03-01

    The article presents different types of rock bolt support used in Polish ore mining. Individual point resin and expansion rock bolt support were characterized. The roof classes for zinc and lead and copper ore mines were presented. Furthermore, in the article laboratory tests of point resin rock bolt support in a geometric scale of 1:1 with minimal fixing length of 0.6 m were made. Static testing of point resin rock bolt support were carried out on a laboratory test facility of Department of Underground Mining which simulate mine conditions for Polish ore and hard coal mining. Laboratory tests of point resin bolts were carried out, especially for the ZGH Bolesław, zinc and lead "Olkusz - Pomorzany" mine. The primary aim of the research was to check whether at the anchoring point length of 0.6 m by means of one and a half resin cartridge, the type bolt "Olkusz - 20A" is able to overcome the load.The second purpose of the study was to obtain load - displacement characteristic with determination of the elastic and plastic range of the bolt. For the best simulation of mine conditions the station steel cylinders with an external diameter of 0.1 m and a length of 0.6 m with a core of rock from the roof of the underground excavations were used.

  3. Seismic response of rock joints and jointed rock mass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghosh, A.; Hsiung, S.M.; Chowdhury, A.H.

    1996-06-01

    Long-term stability of emplacement drifts and potential near-field fluid flow resulting from coupled effects are among the concerns for safe disposal of high-level nuclear waste (HLW). A number of factors can induce drift instability or change the near-field flow patterns. Repetitive seismic loads from earthquakes and thermal loads generated by the decay of emplaced waste are two significant factors. One of two key technical uncertainties (KTU) that can potentially pose a high risk of noncompliance with the performance objectives of 10 CFR Part 60 is the prediction of thermal-mechanical (including repetitive seismic load) effects on stability of emplacement drifts and the engineered barrier system. The second KTU of concern is the prediction of thermal-mechanical-hydrological (including repetitive seismic load) effects on the host rock surrounding the engineered barrier system. The Rock Mechanics research project being conducted at the Center for Nuclear Waste Regulatory Analyses (CNWRA) is intended to address certain specific technical issues associated with these two KTUs. This research project has two major components: (i) seismic response of rock joints and a jointed rock mass and (ii) coupled thermal-mechanical-hydrological (TMH) response of a jointed rock mass surrounding the engineered barrier system (EBS). This final report summarizes the research activities concerned with the repetitive seismic load aspect of both these KTUs

  4. The Island Smart Energy System and Market

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ma, Zheng; Billanes, Joy Dalmacio; Jørgensen, Bo Nørregaard

    2017-01-01

    developing island smart energy systems with the integration of renewable energy resources can increase the energy supply and address the global island energy issues. The island smart energy system operates either in a single-island or in multi-islands. However the island characteristics and influ...

  5. 30 CFR 57.3461 - Rock bursts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Rock bursts. 57.3461 Section 57.3461 Mineral...-Underground Only § 57.3461 Rock bursts. (a) Operators of mines which have experienced a rock burst shall— (1) Within twenty four hours report to the nearest MSHA office each rock burst which: (i) Causes persons to...

  6. Pb isotopes of Gorgona Island (Colombia): Isotopic variations correlated with magma type

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dupre, B.; Echeverria, L.M.

    1984-01-01

    Lead isotopic results obtained on komatiites and basalts from Gorgona Island provide evidence of large isotopic variations within a restricted area (8x2.5 km). The variations are correlated with differences in volcanic rock type. The highest isotopic ratios ( 206 Pb/ 204 Pbproportional19.75) correspond to tholeiites which make up most of the island. The lowest ratios (18.3) correspond to the komatiites of the west coast of the island. Other rock types (komatiites of the east coast, K-tholeiites, picrites and tuffs) have isotopic characteristics intermediate between these two extreme values. These results are explained by the existence of two distinct mantle sourbe regions, and by mixing or contamination between them. (orig.)

  7. Pb isotopes of Gorgona Island (Colombia): isotopic variations correlated with magma type

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupré, B.; Echeverría, L. M.

    1984-02-01

    Lead isotopic results obtained on komatiites and basalts from Gorgona Island provide evidence of large isotopic variations within a restricted area (8 × 2.5 km). The variations are correlated with differences in volcanic rock type. The highest isotopic ratios ( 206Pb/ 204Pb˜ 19.75 ) correspond to tholeiites which make up most of the island. The lowest ratios (18.3) correspond to the komatiites of the west coast of the island. Other rock types (komatiites of the east coast, K-tholeiites, picrites and tuffs) have isotopic characteristics intermediate between these two extreme values. These results are explained by the existence of two distinct mantle source regions, and by mixing or contamination between them.

  8. Geochemical studies on island arc volcanoes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Notsu, Kenji

    1998-01-01

    This paper summarizes advances in three topics of geochemical studies on island arc volcanoes, which I and my colleagues have been investigating. First one is strontium isotope studies of arc volcanic rocks mainly from Japanese island arcs. We have shown that the precise spatial distribution of the 87 Sr/ 86 Sr ratio reflects natures of the subduction structure and slab-mantle interaction. Based on the 87 Sr/ 86 Sr ratio of volcanic rocks in the northern Kanto district, where two plates subduct concurrently with different directions, the existence of an aseismic portion of the Philippine Sea plate ahead of the seismic one was suggested. Second one is geochemical monitoring of active arc volcanoes. 3 He/ 4 He ratio of volcanic volatiles was shown to be a good indicator to monitor the behavior of magma: ascent and drain-back of magma result in increase and decrease in the ratio, respectively. In the case of 1986 eruptions of Izu-Oshima volcano, the ratio began to increase two months after big eruptions, reaching the maximum and decreased. Such delayed response is explained in terms of travelling time of magmatic helium from the vent area to the observation site along the underground steam flow. Third one is remote observation of volcanic gas chemistry of arc volcanoes, using an infrared absorption spectroscopy. During Unzen eruptions starting in 1990, absorption features of SO 2 and HCl of volcanic gas were detected from the observation station at 1.3 km distance. This was the first ground-based remote detection of HCl in volcanic gas. In the recent work at Aso volcano, we could identify 5 species (CO, COS, CO 2 , SO 2 and HCl) simultaneously in the volcanic plume spectra. (author)

  9. 33 CFR 110.84 - Black Rock Channel opposite foot of Porter Avenue, Buffalo, N.Y.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... of Porter Avenue, Buffalo, N.Y. 110.84 Section 110.84 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... Channel opposite foot of Porter Avenue, Buffalo, N.Y. An area extending northwesterly between Black Rock... Triangulation Marker “N-5” on Bird Island Pier; thence southeasterly along the pier a distance of approximately...

  10. Solomon Islands Botany

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steenis, van C.G.G.J.

    1969-01-01

    A discussion of the Results of the Royal Society Expedition to the British Solomon Islands Protectorate, 1965. Organized by E.J.H. Corner. Phil. Trans. R. Soc. B 255 (1969) 185-631, 196 fig. University Printing House, Shaftesbury Road, Cambridge. Obtainable through booksellers or direct to the Royal

  11. Pacific Island Pharmacovigilance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McEwen, John; Vestergaard, Lasse S.; Sanburg, Amanda L C

    2016-01-01

    Many Pacific Island countries (PICs) are recipients of funding support from the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria (Global Fund). However, most of these countries cannot be expected to meet Global Fund and World Health Organization (WHO) minimum requirements for a functioning...

  12. Magnetic-island formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boozer, A.H.

    1983-08-01

    The response of a finite conductivity plasma to resonant magnetic perturbations is studied. The equations, which are derived for the time development of magnetic islands, help one interpret the singular currents which occur under the assumption of perfect plasma conductivity. The relation to the Rutherford regime of resistive instabilities is given

  13. Bone island and leprosy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carpintero, P.; Garcia-Frasquet, A. [Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Cordoba University, Medical School, Reina Sofia University Hospital, Cordoba (Spain); Tarradas, E. [Department of Imaging, Cordoba University, Medical School, Cordoba (Spain); Logrono, C. [Department of Dermatology, Reina Sofia University Hospital, Cordoba (Spain); Carrascal, A. [Department of Radiology, Infanta Elena Hospital, Huelva (Spain); Carreto, A. [Department of Radiology, Reina Sofia University Hospital, Cordoba (Spain)

    1998-06-01

    Objective. To determine the incidence of bone islands in leprosy patients. Design. X-rays of feet and hands of patients with Hansen`s disease (leprosy) were reviewed retrospectively. A second group of related age- and sex-matched patients who did not have Hansen`s disease was used for control purposes. Controls had undergone hand or foot X-rays during diagnosis of other pathologies. The patients with Hansen`s disease were compared with the control group, and were also analyzed as subgroups with different types of leprosy. The results were subjected to statistical analysis. Patients. Ninety patients with Hansen`s disease were randomly selected for this study. Patients who had had ulcers on hands or feet were excluded from the study. Results and conclusions. Bone islands were demonstrated in 20 patients with Hansen`s disease; no bone islands were observed in the controls. This was statistically significant (P<0.01). Bone islands were only seen in patients with lepromatous leprosy and borderline types but were not demonstrated in patients with tuberculoid leprosy. There was also a statistically significant relationship for a disease duration of 15 years or more. The cause of this raised incidence of enostosis in leprosy patients is not clear, but there may be a genetic predisposition in patients with leprosy, or it may be a side effect of leprosy, especially the lepromatous form. (orig.) With 4 figs., 2 tabs., 9 refs.

  14. Bone island and leprosy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carpintero, P.; Garcia-Frasquet, A.; Tarradas, E.; Logrono, C.; Carrascal, A.; Carreto, A.

    1998-01-01

    Objective. To determine the incidence of bone islands in leprosy patients. Design. X-rays of feet and hands of patients with Hansen's disease (leprosy) were reviewed retrospectively. A second group of related age- and sex-matched patients who did not have Hansen's disease was used for control purposes. Controls had undergone hand or foot X-rays during diagnosis of other pathologies. The patients with Hansen's disease were compared with the control group, and were also analyzed as subgroups with different types of leprosy. The results were subjected to statistical analysis. Patients. Ninety patients with Hansen's disease were randomly selected for this study. Patients who had had ulcers on hands or feet were excluded from the study. Results and conclusions. Bone islands were demonstrated in 20 patients with Hansen's disease; no bone islands were observed in the controls. This was statistically significant (P<0.01). Bone islands were only seen in patients with lepromatous leprosy and borderline types but were not demonstrated in patients with tuberculoid leprosy. There was also a statistically significant relationship for a disease duration of 15 years or more. The cause of this raised incidence of enostosis in leprosy patients is not clear, but there may be a genetic predisposition in patients with leprosy, or it may be a side effect of leprosy, especially the lepromatous form. (orig.)

  15. Multidecadal shoreline changes of atoll islands in the Marshall Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, M.

    2012-12-01

    Atoll islands are considered highly vulnerable to the impacts of continued sea level rise. One of the most commonly predicted outcomes of continued sea level rise is widespread and chronic shoreline erosion. Despite the widespread implications of predicted erosion, the decadal scale changes of atoll island shorelines are poorly resolved. The Marshall Islands is one of only four countries where the majority of inhabited land is comprised of reef and atoll islands. Consisting of 29 atolls and 5 mid-ocean reef islands, the Marshall Islands are considered highly vulnerable to the impacts of sea level rise. A detailed analysis of shoreline change on over 300 islands on 10 atolls was undertaken using historic aerial photos (1945-1978) and modern high resolution satellite imagery (2004-2012). Results highlight the complex and dynamic nature of atoll islands, with significant shifts in shoreline position observed over the period of analysis. Results suggest shoreline accretion is the dominant mode of change on the islands studied, often associated with a net increase in vegetated island area. However, considerable inter- and intra-atoll variability exists with regards to shoreline stability. Findings are discussed with respect to island morphodynamics and potential hazard mitigation and planning responses within atoll settings.

  16. Current status of crushed rock and whole rock column studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vine, E.N.; Daniels, W.R.; Rundberg, R.S.; Thompson, J.L.

    1980-01-01

    Measurements on a large number of crushed rock columns of tuff, granite, and argillite are discussed. The isotopes 85 Sr, 137 Cs, 133 Ba, 141 Ce, 152 Eu, /sup 95m/Tc, and 233 U were used. Flow rates were varied from approx. 30 to approx. 30000 m/y. Other parameters studied include isotope concentration and atmosphere. The sorption ratios calculated were compared with batch sorption ratios on the same samples. Methods of studying the movement of radionuclides through whole rock cores are described. The problems associated with sealing the cores to prevent leaking along the exterior surface and one possible solution are discussed. The strontium sorption ratio obtained by elution of one solid tuff core is compared with the batch and crushed rock column sorption ratios

  17. Understanding groundwater dynamics on barrier islands using geochronological data: An example from North Stradbroke Island, South-east Queensland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmann, Harald; Newborn, Dean; Cartwright, Ian

    2017-04-01

    Freshwater lenses underneath barrier islands are dynamic systems affected by changing sea levels and groundwater use. They are vulnerable to contamination and over-abstraction. Residence times of fresh groundwater in barrier islands are poorly understood and have mostly been assessed by modelling approaches and estimates without fundamental validation with geochronological data. Assessing residence time and recharge rates will improve significantly our understanding of hydrological processes of coastal environments that will in turn allow us to make informed decisions on groundwater use and environmental protection. This project focused on groundwater recharge rates and residence times of the fresh water aquifer system of North Stradbroke Island, south-east Queensland, Australia. Groundwater bores, wetlands and submarine groundwater discharge points in the tidal areas (wonky holes) were sampled along a transect across the island and were analysed for major ion chemistry and stable isotopes (δ2H, δ18O, δ13C) in combination with 3H and 14C analysis. Calculated 3H using a 95% exponential-piston flow model and 14C ages range from 12 to >100 years and modern to 3770 years, respectively, indicating a highly heterogeneous aquifer system with mixing from low and high conductive areas. The major ion chemistry in combination with stable and radiogenic isotopes suggests that a significant groundwater component derives from the fractured rock basement and older sedimentary formations underlying the sand dunes of the island. The results help refining the conceptual and numerical groundwater flow model for North Stradbroke island in this particular case but also demonstrate the possible complexity of barrier island hydrogeology.

  18. Rock Pore Structure as Main Reason of Rock Deterioration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ondrášik Martin

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Crashed or dimensional rocks have been used as natural construction material, decoration stone or as material for artistic sculptures. Especially old historical towns not only in Slovakia have had experiences with use of stones for construction purposes for centuries. The whole buildings were made from dimensional stone, like sandstone, limestone or rhyolite. Pavements were made especially from basalt, andesite, rhyolite or granite. Also the most common modern construction material - concrete includes large amounts of crashed rock, especially limestone, dolostone and andesite.

  19. Fracture characteristics in Japanese rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ijiri, Yuji; Sawada, Atsushi; Akahori, Kuniaki

    1999-11-01

    It is crucial for the performance assessment of geosphere to evaluate the characteristics of fractures that can be dominant radionuclide migration pathways from a repository to biosphere. This report summarizes the characteristics of fractures obtained from broad literature surveys and the fields surveys at the Kamaishi mine in northern Japan and at outcrops and galleries throughout the country. The characteristics of fractures described in this report are fracture orientation, fracture shape, fracture frequency, fracture distribution in space, transmissivity of fracture, fracture aperture, fracture fillings, alteration halo along fracture, flow-wetted surface area in fracture, and the correlation among these characteristics. Since granitic rock is considered the archetype fractured media, a large amount of fracture data is available in literature. In addition, granitic rock has been treated as a potential host rock in many overseas programs, and has JNC performed a number of field observations and experiments in granodiorite at the Kamaishi mine. Therefore, the characteristics of fractures in granitic rock are qualitatively and quantitatively clarified to some extent in this report, while the characteristics of fractures in another rock types are not clarified. (author)

  20. Hot dry rock heat mining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duchane, D.V.

    1992-01-01

    Geothermal energy utilizing fluids from natural sources is currently exploited on a commercial scale at sites around the world. A much greater geothermal resource exists, however, in the form of hot rock at depth which is essentially dry. This hot dry rock (HDR) resource is found almost everywhere, but the depth at which usefully high temperatures are reached varies from place to place. The technology to mine the thermal energy from HDR has been under development for a number of years. Using techniques adapted from the petroleum industry, water is pumped at high pressure down an injection well to a region of usefully hot rock. The pressure forces open natural joints to form a reservoir consisting of a small amount of water dispensed in a large volume of hot rock. This reservoir is tapped by second well located at some distance from the first, and the heated water is brought to the surface where its thermal energy is extracted. The same water is then recirculated to mine more heat. Economic studies have indicated that it may be possible to produce electricity at competitive prices today in regions where hot rock is found relatively close to the surface

  1. Big Rock Point: 35 years of electrical generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrosky, T.D.

    1998-01-01

    On September 27, 1962, the 75 MWe boiling water reactor, designed and built by General Electric, of the Big Rock Point Nuclear Power Station went critical for the first time. The US Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) and the plant operator, Consumers Power, had designed the plant also as a research reactor. The first studies were devoted to fuel behavior, higher burnup, and materials research. The reactor was also used for medical technology: Co-60 radiation sources were produced for the treatment of more than 120,000 cancer patients. After the accident at the Three Mile Island-2 nuclear generating unit in 1979, Big Rock Point went through an extensive backfitting phase. Personnel from numerous other American nuclear power plants were trained at the simulator of Big Rock Point. The plant was decommissioned permanently on August 29, 1997 after more than 35 years of operation and a cumulated electric power production of 13,291 GWh. A period of five to seven years is estimated for decommissioning and demolition work up to the 'green field' stage. (orig.) [de

  2. Mechanisms controlling rock coast evolution in paraglacial landscapes - examples from Arctic, Antarctic and Scandinavian regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strzelecki, M. C.; Lim, M.; Kasprzek, M.; Swirad, Z. M.; Rachlewicz, G.; Migoń, P.; Pawlowski, L.; Jaskolski, M.

    2017-12-01

    This paper presents the results of an investigation into the processes controlling development of paraglacial rock coast systems in Hornsund, Svalbard, Admiralty Bay, South Shetland Islands and Gotland Island, Scandinavia. A suite of nested geomorphological and geophysical methods have been applied to characterize the functioning of rock cliffs, shore platforms and stacks influenced by lithological control and geomorphic processes driven by paraglacial coast environments - both in glaciated and deglaciated study sites. Rock hardness, quantified by Schmidt hammer rebound tests, demonstrate strong spatial control on the degree of rock weathering (rock strength) along studied rock coasts. Elevation controlled geomorphic zones are identified and linked to distinct processes and mechanisms, transitioning from peak hardness values at the icefoot/sea-ice through the wave and storm dominated scour zones to the lowest values on the cliff tops, where the effects of periglacial weathering dominate. Observations of rock surface change using a traversing micro-erosion meter (TMEM) indicate that significant changes in erosion rates occur at the junction between shore platform and the cliff toe, where rock erosion is facilitated by frequent wetting and drying and operation of nivation and sea ice processes (formation and melting of snow patches and icefoot complexes). Electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) surveys have been used to investigate frozen ground control on rock coast dynamics and reveal the strong interaction with marine processes in polar coastal settings. In Gotland, Scandinavia the morphology of rocky coastal landforms (rauks) bear traces of numerous environmental changes that occurred in Baltic region over the Holocene including salinity, temperature, ice-cover/storminess and relative sea-level. The results are synthesised to propose a new conceptual model of paraglacial rock coast systems, with the aim of contributing towards a unifying concept of cold region

  3. Thermal expansion of granite rocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stephansson, O.

    1978-04-01

    The thermal expansion of rocks is strongly controlled by the thermal expansion of the minerals. The theoretical thermal expansion of the Stripa Granite is gound to be 21 . 10 -6 [deg C] -1 at 25 deg C and 38 . 10 -6 [deg C] -1 at 400 deg C. The difference in expansion for the rock forming minerals causes micro cracking at heating. The expansion due to micro cracks is found to be of the same order as the mineral expansion. Most of the micro cracks will close at pressures of the order of 10 - 20 MPa. The thermal expansion of a rock mass including the effect of joints is determined in the pilot heater test in the Stripa Mine

  4. Uranium endowments in phosphate rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ulrich, Andrea E.; Schnug, Ewald; Prasser, Horst-Michael; Frossard, Emmanuel

    2014-01-01

    This study seeks to identify and specify the components that make up the prospects of U recovery from phosphate rock. A systems approach is taken. The assessment includes i) reviewing past recovery experience and lessons learned; ii) identifying factors that determine recovery; and iii) establishing a contemporary evaluation of U endowments in phosphate rock reserves, as well as the available and recoverable amounts from phosphate rock and phosphoric acid production. We find that in the past, recovery did not fulfill its potential and that the breakup of the Soviet Union worsened then-favorable recovery market conditions in the 1990s. We find that an estimated 5.7 million tU may be recoverable from phosphate rock reserves. In 2010, the recoverable tU from phosphate rock and phosphoric acid production may have been 15,000 tU and 11,000 tU, respectively. This could have filled the world U supply-demand gap for nuclear energy production. The results suggest that the U.S., Morocco, Tunisia, and Russia would be particularly well-suited to recover U, taking infrastructural considerations into account. We demonstrate future research needs, as well as sustainability orientations. We conclude that in order to promote investment and production, it seems necessary to establish long-term contracts at guaranteed prices, ensuring profitability for phosphoric acid producers. - Highlights: • We identify components that underlie the recovery of uranium from phosphate rock. • We estimate that 11,000 tU may have been recoverable from phosphoric acid in 2010. • Recovery is a resource conservation and environmental pollution control strategy. • To ensure investment in recovery technology, profitability needs to be secured

  5. Uranium deposits in granitic rocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishimori, R.K.; Ragland, P.C.; Rogers, J.J.W.; Greenberg, J.K.

    1977-01-01

    This report is a review of published data bearing on the geology and origin of uranium deposits in granitic, pegmatitic and migmatitic rocks with the aim of assisting in the development of predictive criteria for the search for similar deposits in the U.S. Efforts were concentrated on the so-called ''porphyry'' uranium deposits. Two types of uranium deposits are primarily considered: deposits in pegmatites and alaskites in gneiss terrains, and disseminations of uranium in high-level granites. In Chapter 1 of this report, the general data on the distribution of uranium in igneous and metamorphic rocks are reviewed. Chapter 2 contains some comments on the classification of uranium deposits associated with igneous rocks and a summary of the main features of the geology of uranium deposits in granites. General concepts of the behavior of uranium in granites during crustal evolution are reviewed in Chapter 3. Also included is a discussion of the relationship of uranium mineralization in granites to the general evolution of mobile belts, plus the influence of magmatic and post-magmatic processes on the distribution of uranium in igneous rocks and related ore deposits. Chapter 4 relates the results of experimental studies on the crystallization of granites to some of the geologic features of uranium deposits in pegmatites and alaskites in high-grade metamorphic terrains. Potential or favorable areas for igneous uranium deposits in the U.S.A. are delineated in Chapter 5. Data on the geology of specific uranium deposits in granitic rocks are contained in Appendix 1. A compilation of igneous rock formations containing greater than 10 ppM uranium is included in Appendix 2. Appendix 3 is a report on the results of a visit to the Roessing area. Appendix 4 is a report on a field excursion to eastern Canada

  6. Uranium endowments in phosphate rock

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ulrich, Andrea E., E-mail: andrea.ulrich@env.ethz.ch [Institute for Environmental Decisions (IED), Natural and Social Science Interface, ETH Zurich Universitässtrasse 22, 8092 Zurich (Switzerland); Institute for Agricultural Sciences, Plant Nutrition, ETH Zurich, Eschikon 33, 8315 Lindau (Switzerland); Schnug, Ewald, E-mail: e.schnug@tu-braunschweig.de [Department of Life Sciences, Technical University of Braunschweig, Pockelsstraße 14, D-38106 Braunschweig (Germany); Prasser, Horst-Michael, E-mail: prasser@lke.mavt.ethz.ch [Institute of Energy Technology, Laboratory of Nuclear Energy Systems, ETH Zurich, Sonneggstrasse 3, 8092 Zurich (Switzerland); Frossard, Emmanuel, E-mail: emmanuel.frossard@usys.ethz.ch [Institute for Agricultural Sciences, Plant Nutrition, ETH Zurich, Eschikon 33, 8315 Lindau (Switzerland)

    2014-04-01

    This study seeks to identify and specify the components that make up the prospects of U recovery from phosphate rock. A systems approach is taken. The assessment includes i) reviewing past recovery experience and lessons learned; ii) identifying factors that determine recovery; and iii) establishing a contemporary evaluation of U endowments in phosphate rock reserves, as well as the available and recoverable amounts from phosphate rock and phosphoric acid production. We find that in the past, recovery did not fulfill its potential and that the breakup of the Soviet Union worsened then-favorable recovery market conditions in the 1990s. We find that an estimated 5.7 million tU may be recoverable from phosphate rock reserves. In 2010, the recoverable tU from phosphate rock and phosphoric acid production may have been 15,000 tU and 11,000 tU, respectively. This could have filled the world U supply-demand gap for nuclear energy production. The results suggest that the U.S., Morocco, Tunisia, and Russia would be particularly well-suited to recover U, taking infrastructural considerations into account. We demonstrate future research needs, as well as sustainability orientations. We conclude that in order to promote investment and production, it seems necessary to establish long-term contracts at guaranteed prices, ensuring profitability for phosphoric acid producers. - Highlights: • We identify components that underlie the recovery of uranium from phosphate rock. • We estimate that 11,000 tU may have been recoverable from phosphoric acid in 2010. • Recovery is a resource conservation and environmental pollution control strategy. • To ensure investment in recovery technology, profitability needs to be secured.

  7. Evaluation of Rock Joint Coefficients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Audy, Ondřej; Ficker, Tomáš

    2017-10-01

    A computer method for evaluation of rock joint coefficients is described and several applications are presented. The method is based on two absolute numerical indicators that are formed by means of the Fourier replicas of rock joint profiles. The first indicator quantifies the vertical depth of profiles and the second indicator classifies wavy character of profiles. The absolute indicators have replaced the formerly used relative indicators that showed some artificial behavior in some cases. This contribution is focused on practical computations testing the functionality of the newly introduced indicators.

  8. Ultrasonically assisted drilling of rocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikhailova, N. V.; Onawumi, P. Y.; Roy, A.; Silberschmidt, V. V.

    2018-05-01

    Conventional drilling of rocks can generate significant damage in the drilled material; a material layer is often split off a back surface of a sample during drilling, negatively affecting its strength. To improve finish quality, ultrasonically assisted drilling (UAD) was employed in two rocks - sandstone and marble. Damage areas in both materials were reduced in UAD when compared to conventional drilling. Reductions in a thrust force and a torque reduction were observed only for UAD in marble; ultrasonic assistance in sandstone drilling did not result in improvements in this regard.

  9. Rock mechanics studies for SMES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haimson, B.C.

    1981-01-01

    Superconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES) systems capable of storing thousands of MWh develop tremendous magnetically induced forces when charged. To prevent rutpure of the magnets these forces must be confined. Bedrock offers a practical and relatively inexpensive magnet containment structure. This paper examines the need for rock mechanics research in connection with the construction and use of SMES rock caverns; the unique problems related to housing superconducting magnets in bedrock; site investigations of granite, quartzite and dolomite deposits in Wisconsin; and cavern design requirements to assure cavern stability and limited deformation under the expected mechanical leads. Recommendations are made for siting SMES caverns

  10. Source rock potential of middle cretaceous rocks in Southwestern Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyman, T.S.; Palacas, J.G.; Tysdal, R.G.; Perry, W.J.; Pawlewicz, M.J.

    1996-01-01

    The middle Cretaceous in southwestern Montana is composed of a marine and nonmarine succession of predominantly clastic rocks that were deposited along the western margin of the Western Interior Seaway. In places, middle Cretaceous rocks contain appreciable total organic carbon (TOC), such as 5.59% for the Mowry Shale and 8.11% for the Frontier Formation in the Madison Range. Most samples, however, exhibit less than 1.0% TOC. The genetic or hydrocarbon potential (S1+S2) of all the samples analyzed, except one, yield less than 1 mg HC/g rock, strongly indicating poor potential for generating commercial amounts of hydrocarbons. Out of 51 samples analyzed, only one (a Thermopolis Shale sample from the Snowcrest Range) showed a moderate petroleum potential of 3.1 mg HC/g rock. Most of the middle Cretaceous samples are thermally immature to marginally mature, with vitrinite reflectance ranging from about 0.4 to 0.6% Ro. Maturity is high in the Pioneer Mountains, where vitrinite reflectance averages 3.4% Ro, and at Big Sky Montana, where vitrinite reflectance averages 2.5% Ro. At both localities, high Ro values are due to local heat sources, such as the Pioneer batholith in the Pioneer Mountains.

  11. Formerly utilized MED/AEC sites remedial action program. Radiological survey of the former Watertown arsenal property, Site 34 and Site 41, Watertown, Massachusetts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wynveen, R.A.; Smith, W.H.; Sholeen, C.M.; Justus, A.L.; Flynn, K.F.

    1983-10-01

    During the MED/AEC era, work involving radioactive materials was conducted at various sites within the arsenal complex. Building 34 housed a uranium machine shop, and a portion of Building 41 contained a foundry that was used for uranium work. Information provided by site personnel indicated that only depleted uranium was used in these buildings. Results of radiological analyses of contaminated material found at these sites indicated depleted uranium with uranium-236. Both buildings have been razed. The remnants still in place consist of the concrete floor slabs, access drives, and underground utility service trenches. This area is currently under the control of the Watertown Redevelopment Authority of Watertown, Massachusetts. During the period from June 25 through July 1, 1981, the Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), Occupational Health and Safety Division (OHS) Radiological Survey Group (RSG), conducted a radiological survey of Building Sites 34 and 41 at the direction of the US Department of Energy. Significant levels of contamination were found at 33 locations on the pad of Site 34 and in 5 out of 15 soild corings from the perimeter of the pad. No contamination was found on the pad of Site 41; however, two-thirds of this pad was covered with soil up to 4 ft thick. One of the 14 soil corings taken adjacent to the pad of Site 41 had elevated levels of uranium. Levels of contamination in excess of criteria, as identified in ANSI 13.12 and NRC Guidelines, were found at this site. The analyses of the samples from the sewer access points also revealed uranium and radium-226 anomalies. Therefore, according to NRC guidelines dated July 1982, it must be concluded that they are contaminated

  12. Status of the Island Night Lizard and Two Non-Native Lizards on Outlying Landing Field San Nicolas Island, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fellers, Gary M.; Drost, Charles A.; Murphey, Thomas G.

    2008-01-01

    More than 900 individually marked island night lizards (Xantusia riversiana) were captured on San Nicolas Island, California, between 1984 and 2007 as part of an ongoing study to monitor the status of this threatened species. Our data suggest that at least a few lizards are probably more than 20 years old, and one lizard would be 31.5 years old if it grew at an average rate for the population. Ages of 20 and 30 years seem reasonable given the remarkably slow growth during capture intervals of more than a decade for five of the lizards which we estimated to be 20 or more years old. Like other lizards, island night lizard growth rates vary by size, with larger lizards growing more slowly. In general, growth rates were somewhat greater on San Nicolas Island (compared with Santa Barbara Island), and this increase was sustained through all of the intermediate size classes. The higher growth rate may account for the somewhat larger lizards present on San Nicolas Island, although we cannot discount the possibility that night lizards on San Nicolas are merely living longer. The high percentage of small lizards in the Eucalyptus habitat might seem to reflect a healthy population in that habitat, but the high proportion of small lizards appears to be caused by good reproduction in the 1900s and substantially poorer reproduction in subsequent years. The Eucalyptus habitat has dried quite a bit in recent years. Night lizards in the Haplopappus/Grassland habitat have shown an increase in the proportion of larger lizards since 2000. There has also been an increase in the proportion of large lizards in the Rock Cobble habitat at Redeye Beach. However, there are has been some change in habitat with more elephant seals occupying the same area just above the high tide as do the night lizards. Southern alligator lizards and side-blotched lizards are both non-native on San Nicolas Island. Neither lizard causes obvious harm to island night lizards, and management time and effort should

  13. Soft Rock Yields Clues to Mars' Past

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Figure 1 This image taken by the Mars Exploration Rover Spirit shows the rock outcrop dubbed 'Clovis.' The rock was discovered to be softer than other rocks studied so far at Gusev Crater after the rover easily ground a hole into it with its rock abrasion tool. Spirit's solar panels can be seen in the foreground. This image was taken by the rover's navigation camera on sol 205 (July 31, 2004). Elemental Trio Found in 'Clovis' Figure 1 above shows that the interior of the rock dubbed 'Clovis' contains higher concentrations of sulfur, bromine and chlorine than basaltic, or volcanic, rocks studied so far at Gusev Crater. The data were taken by the Mars Exploration Rover Spirit's alpha particle X-ray spectrometer after the rover dug into Clovis with its rock abrasion tool. The findings might indicate that this rock was chemically altered, and that fluids once flowed through the rock depositing these elements.

  14. Island solution; Inselloesung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bah, Isaac

    2013-06-15

    On the Azores island Graciosa the Berlin-based company Younicos has installed a new electricity system with advanced storage technology, which will make the islanders independent from fossil fuels. With an energy mix of wind power, photovoltaics and biomass the dependence on fossil fuels should be terminated. In the center of the flagship project specifically developed hybrid batteries are used (combination of sodium-sulfur- and lithium-ion batteries) with 2.7 MW of power and a storage capacity of ten megawatts hours. [German] Auf der Azoren-Insel Graciosa installiert das Berliner Unternehmen Younicos ein neues Stromsystem mit modernster Speichertechnologie, das die Bewohner unabhaengig von fossilen Energietraegern machen soll. Mit einem Energiemix aus Windkraft, Photovoltaik und Biomasse soll die Abhaengigkeit von fossilen Brennstoffen beendet werden. Im Zentrum des Vorzeigeprojekts stehen speziell fuer den Inseleinsatz entwickelte Hybridbatterien (Kombination aus Natrium-Schwefel- und Lithium-Ionen-Akkus) mit 2,7 Megawatt Leistung und eine Speicherkapazitaet von zehn Megawattestunden.

  15. Urban heat island 1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bühler, Oliver; Jensen, Marina Bergen; Petersen, Karen Sejr

    2010-01-01

    Urban Heat Island beskriver det forhold, at temperaturen i byområder er højere end temperaturen i tilgrænsede landområder. Årsagen hertil ligger i den urbane arealanvendelse, hvor en mindre andel af arealerne er dækket af vegetation, og en større andel består af forseglede arealer.......Urban Heat Island beskriver det forhold, at temperaturen i byområder er højere end temperaturen i tilgrænsede landområder. Årsagen hertil ligger i den urbane arealanvendelse, hvor en mindre andel af arealerne er dækket af vegetation, og en større andel består af forseglede arealer....

  16. Charge Islands Through Tunneling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Daryl C.

    2002-01-01

    It has been recently reported that the electrical charge in a semiconductive carbon nanotube is not evenly distributed, but rather it is divided into charge "islands." This paper links the aforementioned phenomenon to tunneling and provides further insight into the higher rate of tunneling processes, which makes tunneling devices attractive. This paper also provides a basis for calculating the charge profile over the length of the tube so that nanoscale devices' conductive properties may be fully exploited.

  17. Islands in the Ocean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Bagina

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Today’s China is an outpost of modern western architecture. All famous architects and firms build here. Having lost their historical context, the objects of traditional Chinese architecture become islands in the ocean of new development. Their destiny is controversial. Architectural masterpieces are perceived in a superficial manner not only by tourists, but also by local people. The link of times that used to be cherished in Chinese culture is being broken today.

  18. Review on the prevailing methods for the prediction of potential rock burst / rock spalling in tunnels

    OpenAIRE

    Panthi, Krishna Kanta

    2017-01-01

    Rock burst / rock spalling is among the prevailing stability challenges, which can be met while tunneling through hard rock mass. Especially, this is very relevant for the mountainous country like Norway where hard rock is dominating and many road, railway and hydropower tunnels have to be aligned deep into the mountain with steep valley slope topography. Tunnels passing beneath deep rock cover (overburden), in general, are subjected to high in-situ stresses. If the rock mass is relatively un...

  19. Thermal properties of rock salt and quartz monzonite to 5730K and 50-MPa confining pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durham, W.B.; Abey, A.E.

    1981-01-01

    Measurements of thermal conductivity, thermal diffusivity, and thermal linear expansion have been made on two rock types, a rock salt and a quartz monzonite, at temperatures from 300 to 573 0 K and confining pressures from 10 to 50 MPa. The samples were taken from deep rock formations under consideration as possible sites for a nuclear waste repository - the rock salt from a domal salt formation at Avery Island, Louisiana, and the quartz monzonite from the Climax Stock, Nevada Test Site, Nevada. The testing temperature and pressures are meant to bracket conditions expected in the repository. In both rock types, the thermal properties show a strong dependence upon temperature and a weak or non-dependence upon confining pressure. Thermal conductivity and diffusivity both decrease with increasing temperature in approximately linear fashion for samples which have not been previously heated. At 50 MPa in both rocks this decrease closely matches the measured or expected intrinsic (crack-free) behavior of the material. Preliminary indications from the quartz monzonite suggest that conductivity and diffusivity at low pressure and temperature may decrease as a result of heat treatment above 400 0 K

  20. Simulation of rock deformation behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Я. И. Рудаев

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available A task of simulating the deformation behavior of geomaterials under compression with account of over-extreme branch has been addressed. The physical nature of rock properties variability as initially inhomogeneous material is explained by superposition of deformation and structural transformations of evolutionary type within open nonequilibrium systems. Due to this the description of deformation and failure of rock is related to hierarchy of instabilities within the system being far from thermodynamic equilibrium. It is generally recognized, that the energy function of the current stress-strain state is a superposition of potential component and disturbance, which includes the imperfection parameter accounting for defects not only existing in the initial state, but also appearing under load. The equation of state has been obtained by minimizing the energy function by the order parameter. The imperfection parameter is expressed through the strength deterioration, which is viewed as the internal parameter of state. The evolution of strength deterioration has been studied with the help of Fokker – Planck equation, which steady form corresponds to rock statical stressing. Here the diffusion coefficient is assumed to be constant, while the function reflecting internal sliding and loosening of the geomaterials is assumed as an antigradient of elementary integration catastrophe. Thus the equation of state is supplemented with a correlation establishing relationship between parameters of imperfection and strength deterioration. While deformation process is identified with the change of dissipative media, coupled with irreversible structural fluctuations. Theoretical studies are proven with experimental data obtained by subjecting certain rock specimens to compression.

  1. Los abuelos de nuestro rock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacobo Celnik

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Los Yetis. Una bomba atómica a go go. La historia de los abuelos de nuestro rock. Diego Londoño; Pulso & Letra Editores, Instituto para el Desarrollo de Antioquia, Instituto de Cultura y Patrimonio de Antioquia, 2014, 98 págs., fotografías.

  2. Gas migration in argillaceous rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alonso, E. E.; Olivella, S.

    2007-01-01

    The intrinsic gas permeability of fractured argillaceous rocks depends on the current structure of micro-cracks and fissures of the rock. They are a consequence of the initial state and the subsequent deformations induced by stress and gas pressure changes. Stresses are also coupled with fluid pressures and, therefore, gas flow and mechanical behaviour are intensely coupled. Laboratory experiments, aimed at determining intrinsic permeability, show the relevant effect of volumetric deformations induced by isotropic, as well as deviatoric stress changes. The relevance, in practice, of the flow-mechanical coupling is illustrated by means of some results obtained during the performance of the drift scale test (DST) in fractured tuff in the Yucca Mountain facility. The technique of embedding discontinuities in continuum thermo-hydro-mechanical elements is capable of reproducing observed features of gas flow migration in clayey rocks. An example is described. It is believed that the developed approach provides a powerful computational procedure to handle complex gas phenomena in clayey rocks. (author)

  3. MARICULTURE ON CROATIAN ISLANDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordana Šarušić

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available The first attempts of intensive mariculture in Croatia commenced at the very beginning of 1980’s. The mid-eighties brought an expansion of mariculture production, which has been continuously increasing. A few different marine organisms are intensively cultured - both fish and shellfish. Among them commercially most important and highly valued species are sea bass Dicentrarchus labrax and sea bream Sparus aurata. Mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis and oyster Ostrea edulis are the most important shellfish. Fish species such as dentex Dentex dentex, red sea bream Pagrus major and sheepshead bream Puntazzo puntazzo are reared too, but in a rather small quantities. Only recently the rearing, on-growing- of bluefin tuna Thunnus thynnus started in Croatia. The juveniles (70% are reared in a Croatian hatcheries, and 30% has to be imported mainly from Italy and France, due to a higher demand for this kind of culture among the small growers. Croatian part of Adriatic sea possesses a number of geomorfologicaly suitable sites and meteorological conditions which determined the choice - type - of intensive culture. All fish species are reared in a floating cages. The choice of cages i. e. semi off-shore or floating frames, size, rearing volume and design depend on the investors personal preference. The annual turnouf of a market size bass was about 600t and 300t bream in 1996., by 10 island farms which is 70% of total production in Croatia. Including other cultured fish species last year production was up to 1000t, and it™s being estimated to be about 1300t in the following year. The shellfish production on the islands is usually individual attempt of farmers, producing minor quantities mostly in polyculture. This production has bigger potential but it’s limited owing to the EU quality control regulations which do not allow the export, and by domestic market which has drastically decreased due to the collapse of tourism during the recent war. Almost 80

  4. Small population size of Pribilof Rock Sandpipers confirmed through distance-sampling surveys in Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruthrauff, Daniel R.; Tibbitts, T. Lee; Gill, Robert E.; Dementyev, Maksim N.; Handel, Colleen M.

    2012-01-01

    The Rock Sandpiper (Calidris ptilocnemis) is endemic to the Bering Sea region and unique among shorebirds in the North Pacific for wintering at high latitudes. The nominate subspecies, the Pribilof Rock Sandpiper (C. p. ptilocnemis), breeds on four isolated islands in the Bering Sea and appears to spend the winter primarily in Cook Inlet, Alaska. We used a stratified systematic sampling design and line-transect method to survey the entire breeding range of this population during springs 2001-2003. Densities were up to four times higher on the uninhabited and more northerly St. Matthew and Hall islands than on St. Paul and St. George islands, which both have small human settlements and introduced reindeer herds. Differences in density, however, appeared to be more related to differences in vegetation than to anthropogenic factors, raising some concern for prospective effects of climate change. We estimated the total population at 19 832 birds (95% CI 17 853–21 930), ranking it among the smallest of North American shorebird populations. To determine the vulnerability of C. p. ptilocnemis to anthropogenic and stochastic environmental threats, future studies should focus on determining the amount of gene flow among island subpopulations, the full extent of the subspecies' winter range, and the current trajectory of this small population.

  5. Marmara Island earthquakes, of 1265 and 1935; Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Altınok

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The long-term seismicity of the Marmara Sea region in northwestern Turkey is relatively well-recorded. Some large and some of the smaller events are clearly associated with fault zones known to be seismically active, which have distinct morphological expressions and have generated damaging earthquakes before and later. Some less common and moderate size earthquakes have occurred in the vicinity of the Marmara Islands in the west Marmara Sea. This paper presents an extended summary of the most important earthquakes that have occurred in 1265 and 1935 and have since been known as the Marmara Island earthquakes. The informative data and the approaches used have therefore the potential of documenting earthquake ruptures of fault segments and may extend the records kept on earthquakes far before known history, rock falls and abnormal sea waves observed during these events, thus improving hazard evaluations and the fundamental understanding of the process of an earthquake.

  6. Garnet - two pyroxene rock from the Gridino complex, Russia: a record of the early metasomatic stage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgunova, Alena A.; Perchuk, Alexei L.

    2010-05-01

    The Gridino complex is one of the oldest high pressure complexes on the Earth. The most spectacular exposures occur in islands and in a 10-50 m wide belt along the shore of the White Sea in the Gridino area. The exotic blocks show wide range of compositions. In addition to predominating amphibolites and eclogites, there are also peridotites, zoisitites and sapphirine-bearing rocks. The peridotites are represented by garnet - two pyroxene rocks and orthopyroxenites. It this paper we present an intriguing results of the petrological study of the garnet- two pyroxene rock. The garnet- two pyroxene rock considered occurs as elliptical body 4×6 m in size within amphibole-biotite gneiss in the island Visokii. The rock consists of mosaic of coarse-grained primary garnet, clinopyroxene and orthopyroxene. Accessories are represented by magnetite, ilmenite, pyrite and zircon. Garnet contains inclusions of clinopyroxene, Mg-calcite and chlorite. The chlorite inclusions always intergrow with dendritic mineral enriched in REE (mainly Ce) situated on the wall of vacuole which shows the tendency of negative crystal shape. Similar chlorite inclusions are hosted by clino- and orthopyroxenes. The chlorite is of diabantite composition. The inclusions are often surrounded by the two systems of cracks - radial and concentric, which is really exotic phenomenon for crystalline rock. The primary minerals experienced different degree of the retrograde alteration expressed as amphibolization and/or growth of the orthopyroxene-amphibole-garnet symplectites. The retrogression is patchy in the central part of garnet- two pyroxene body, but intensifies towards the rims where primary minerals are absent. Mineral thermobarometry reveals HP rock equilibration at 670-750 оС and 14-20 kbar followed by subisothermal decompression down to 640-740 оС and 6-14 kbar. Specific composition of the chlorite and its association with REE phase in all rock-forming minerals suggests that anhydrous HP

  7. Nd and Sr isotopes and K-Ar ages of the Ulreungdo alkali volcanic rocks in the East Sea, South Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim Kyuhan; Jang Sunkyung; Tanaka, Tsuyoshi; Nagao, Keisuke

    1999-01-01

    Temporal geochemical and isotopical variations in the Ulreundgo alkali volcanic rocks provide important constraints on the origin and evolution of the volcanic rocks in relation to backarc basin tectonism. We determined the K-Ar ages, major and trace element contents, and Nd and Sr isotopic rations of the alkali volcanic rocks. The activities of Ulreungdo volcanoes can be divided, on the basis of radiometric ages and field occurrences, into five stages, though their activities range from 1.4 Ma to 0.01 Ma with short volcanic hiatus (ca. 0.05-0.3 Ma). The Nd-Sr isotopic data for Ulreungdo volcanic rocks enable us to conclude that: (1) the source materials of Ulreungdo volcanics are isotopically heterogeneous in composition, which is explained by the mixing of mantle derived magma and continental crustal source rocks. There is no systematic isotopic variations with eruption stages. Particularly, some volcanic rocks of stage 2 and 3 have extremely wide initial 87 Sr/ 86 Sr isotopic variations ranging from 0.7038 to 0.7092, which are influenced by seawater alterations; (2) the Ulreungdo volcanic rocks show EMI characteristic, while volcanic rocks from the Jejudo, Yeong-il and Jeon-gok areas have slightly depleted mantle source characteristics; (3) the trachyandesite of the latest eruption stage was originated from the mantle source materials which differ from other stages. A schematic isotopic evolution model for alkali basaltic magma is presented in the Ulreungdo volcanic island of the backarc basin of Japanese island arc system. (author)

  8. Radioactivities (dose rates) of rocks in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuda, Hideharu; Minato, Susumu

    1995-01-01

    The radioactive distribution (radiation doses) of major rocks in Japan was monitored to clarify the factors influencing terrestrial gamma-ray absorbed dose rates. The rock samples were reduced to powder and analyzed by well-type NaI(Tl) scintillation detector and pulse height analyzer. Terrestrial gamma-ray dose rates were estimated in terms of gamma radiation dose rate 1 m above the ground. The radioactivity concentration was highest in acidic rock which contains much SiO 2 among igneous rock, followed by neutral rock, basic rock, and ultrabasic rock. The radioactive concentration was 30-40% lower in acidic and clastic rocks than those of the world average concentration. Higher radioactive concentration was observed in soils than the parent rocks of sedimentary rock and metamorphic rock. The gamma radiation dose rate was in proportion to the radioactive concentration of the rocks. To clarify the radioactive effect in the change course of rocks into soils, comparative measurement of outcrop and soil radioactive concentrations is important. (S.Y.)

  9. Multivariate statistical tools for the radiometric features of volcanic islands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basile, S.; Brai, M.; Marrale, M.; Micciche, S.; Lanzo, G.; Rizzo, S.

    2009-01-01

    The Aeolian Islands represents a Quaternary volcanic arc related to the subduction of the Ionian plate beneath the Calabrian Arc. The geochemical variability of the islands has led to a broad spectrum of magma rocks. Volcanic products from calc-alkaline (CA) to calc-alkaline high in potassium (HKCA) are present throughout the Archipelago, but products belonging to shoshonitic (SHO) and potassium (KS) series characterize the southern portion of Lipari, Vulcano and Stromboli. Tectonics also plays an important role in the process of the islands differentiation. In this work, we want to review and cross-analyze the data on Lipari, Stromboli and Vulcano, collected in measurement and sampling campaigns over the last years. Chemical data were obtained by X-ray fluorescence. High resolution gamma-ray spectrometry with germanium detectors was used to measure primordial radionuclide activities. The activity of primordial radionuclides in the volcanic products of these three islands is strongly dependent on their chemism. The highest contents are found in more differentiated products (rhyolites). The CA products have lower concentrations, while the HKCA and Shoshonitic product concentrations are in between. Calculated dose rates have been correlated with the petrochemical features in order to gain further insight in evolution and differentiation of volcanic products. Ratio matching technique and multivariate statistical analyses, such as Principal Component Analysis and Minimum Spanning Tree, have been applied as an additional tool helpful to better describe the lithological affinities of the samples. (Author)

  10. New Data on the Composition of Cretaceous Volcanic Rocks of the Alazeya Plateau, Northeastern Yakutia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsukanov, N. V.; Skolotnev, S. G.

    2018-02-01

    This work presents new data on the composition of volcanics, developed within the Alazeya Plateau of the Kolyma-Indigirka fold area (Northeast Russia), which indicate essential differences in their composition and, accordingly, different geodynamic settings of the formation of rocks. The studied igneous rocks are subdivided into two groups. Volcanics of the first group of the Late Cretaceous age, which are represented by differentiated volcanic rock series (from andesitobasalts to dacites and rhyolites), were formed under island arc conditions in the continent-ocean transition zone. Volcanics of the second group are ascribed to the tholeiitic series and were formed under the other geodynamic setting, which is associated with the regime of extension and riftogenesis, manifested in the studied area probably at the later stage.

  11. Self-sustained magnetic islands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chatenet, J H; Luciani, J F [Ecole Polytechnique, 91 - Palaiseau (France); Garbet, X [Association Euratom-CEA, Centre d` Etudes de Cadarache, 13 - Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France). Dept. de Recherches sur la Fusion Controlee

    1996-06-01

    Numerical simulations of a single magnetic island evolution are presented in the regime where the island width is smaller than an ion Larmor radius. It is shown that the island rotation is controlled by particle diffusion due to collisions or a background of microturbulence. As expected from the theory of a stationary island, there exist cases where linearly stable magnetic perturbation are nonlinearly self-sustained. This situation corresponds to large poloidal beta and temperature gradient. The drive is due to diamagnetic frequency effects. However, this situation is not generic, and islands can also decay. It is found that a magnetic island is self-sustained for a negative off-diagonal diffusion coefficient. This case occurs in a tokamak if the inward particle pinch is due to the temperature gradient. (author). 30 refs.

  12. Self-sustained magnetic islands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chatenet, J.H.; Luciani, J.F.; Garbet, X.

    1996-06-01

    Numerical simulations of a single magnetic island evolution are presented in the regime where the island width is smaller than an ion Larmor radius. It is shown that the island rotation is controlled by particle diffusion due to collisions or a background of microturbulence. As expected from the theory of a stationary island, there exist cases where linearly stable magnetic perturbation are nonlinearly self-sustained. This situation corresponds to large poloidal beta and temperature gradient. The drive is due to diamagnetic frequency effects. However, this situation is not generic, and islands can also decay. It is found that a magnetic island is self-sustained for a negative off-diagonal diffusion coefficient. This case occurs in a tokamak if the inward particle pinch is due to the temperature gradient. (author)

  13. Water in St. John, U.S. Virgin Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosner, O.J.

    1972-01-01

    Water for domestic and municipal supply on St. John, in the past, has been obtained from rain catchments, dug wells, and barge shipments from St. Thomas and Puerto Rico. As a result of this study, small ground-water supplies have been developed for the Virgin Islands National Park. Ground water occurs in significant but limited quantities in the fractured volcanic rock throughout most of the Island. Yield of wells in this aquifer ranges from less than 100 to about 2,000 gpd (gallons per day). The average long-term yield of the three drilled wells in use by the National Park Service in 1967 was about 1,000 gpd. Yield ofl,000 to 5,000 gpd may be expected in the Coral Bay and the Reef Bay areas. Estimated total recharge of the fractured volcanic rock on St. John, based on a recharge of 1 to 3 inches per year, is 1,000,000 to 3,000,000 gpd. Perhaps as much as a quarter to a third of this water could be developed practically, depending on the rainfall in a given year. The chemical quality of the ground water in the fractured-rock aquifer in areas uncontaminated by sea water ranges from 600 to 2,000 mg/l (milligrams per liter) or more dissolved solids. Water from-formations in the higher altitudes is of better quality than that in the lower formations. Small quantities of ground water are available from beach sand, alluvium, and fractured rock near the sea. However, these sources tend to be brackish and are subject to salt-water encroachment. There are no perennial streams on St. John. There are a few spring-fed pools in stream channels, however, that are sustained, except in severe drought. Storm runoff is estimated to average 1 inch over the island annually, and evaporation from open water surfaces is about 70 inches per year. Ponds can be developed, but because of the high .evaporation they may be unreliable during droughts. Rain water collected in cisterns from roofs and catchments yield about 50 gpd per 1,000 square feet of catch area during an average year of

  14. Demographic Ageing on Croatian Islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivo Nejašmić

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses the changes in the population structure of the Croatian islands by age, warns of the degree of ageing, provides spatial differentiation of this process and presents perspective of ageing at the level of settlement. Typing of population ageing is based on scores and has seven types. The total island population in 2011 belongs to the type 5 – very old population. Almost a half of the settlements (out of 303 have been affected by the highest levels of ageing (types 6 and 7. It was found that a quarter of island settlements will become “dead villages” in a foreseeable future; most of them are on small islands but also in the interior of larger islands. These are villages decaying in every respect, in which the way of life, as we know it, veins and goes out. The present ageing villagers are their last residents in most cases. Eve¬rything suggests that demographic recovery of the islands is not possible with the forces in situ. It is important to strike a balance between the needs and opportunities in order to successfully organize life on the islands, both small and large ones, and the fact is that there is a continuing disparity, which is especially profound in small islands. A sensitive and selective approach is needed to overcome the unfavourable demographic trends. Therefore it is necessary to respect the particularities of indi¬vidual islands and island groups in devising development strategy. Solutions to the problems must come of the local and wider community in synergy with relevant professional and scientific institutions. However, if the solutions are not found or measures do not give results, if the islands are left to desorganisation and senilisation, a part of the islands will become a wasteland. With regard to the value of this area whose wealth are people in the first place, this would be an intolerable civilization decline.

  15. Regulation of ROCK Activity in Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morgan-Fisher, Marie; Wewer, Ulla M; Yoneda, Atsuko

    2013-01-01

    , these findings demonstrate additional modes to regulate ROCK activity. This review describes the molecular mechanisms of ROCK activity regulation in cancer, with emphasis on ROCK isoform-specific regulation and interaction partners, and discusses the potential of ROCKs as therapeutic targets in cancer.......Cancer-associated changes in cellular behavior, such as modified cell-cell contact, increased migratory potential, and generation of cellular force, all require alteration of the cytoskeleton. Two homologous mammalian serine/threonine kinases, Rho-associated protein kinases (ROCK I and II), are key...... regulators of the actin cytoskeleton acting downstream of the small GTPase Rho. ROCK is associated with cancer progression, and ROCK protein expression is elevated in several types of cancer. ROCKs exist in a closed, inactive conformation under quiescent conditions, which is changed to an open, active...

  16. Rock Slope Design Criteria : Executive Summary Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    Based on the stratigraphy and the type of slope stability problems, the flat lying, Paleozoic age, sedimentary rocks of Ohio were divided into three design units: 1) competent rock design unit consisting of sandstones, limestones, and siltstones that...

  17. Rock glaciers, Central Andes, Argentina, Version 1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Primary rock glaciers are fed by avalanche chutes. At the El Salto rock glacier, surveys have been undertaken in order to determine the creep rate. Between 1981 and...

  18. Channelling of flow through fractures in rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bourke, P.J.

    1987-05-01

    A method of mapping the channelling of flow in rock fractures formed by contacts between rock faces and of measuring the effective apertures of channels has been developed. Some typical results are given. (author)

  19. Epigenetic alterations of sedimentary rocks at deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komarova, G.V.; Kondrat'eva, I.A.; Zelenova, O.I.

    1980-01-01

    Notions are explained, and technique for studying epigenetic alterations of sedimentary rocks at uranium deposits is described. Main types of epigenetic transformations and their mineralogic-geochemical characteristics are considered. Rock alterations, accompanying uranium mineralization, can be related to 2 types: oxidation and reduction. The main mineralogic-geochemical property of oxidation transformations is epigenetic limonitization. Stratal limonitization in primary grey-coloured terrigenic rocks and in epigenetically reduced (pyritized) rocks, as well as in rock, subjected to epigenetic gleying, are characterized. Reduction type of epigenetic transformations is subdivided into sulphidic and non-sulphidic (gley) subtypes. Sulphidic transformations in grey-coloured terrigenic rocks with organic substance of carbonic row, in rocks, containing organic substance of oil row, sulphide transformations of sedimentary rocks, as well as gley transformations, are considered

  20. Relict Forms of a Disappeared Mountain. The Periglacial Deposits in Asinara Island-Sardinia, Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio GINESU

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Asinara Island is located in northwestern Sardinia (Italy and only recently has been divested as a maximum-security prison and returned to nature protection as a National Park with Marine Protected Area along the coastal perimeter. Geologically, the island is formed by a Paleozoic basement in transition between the metamorphic rocks and the Pre-Hercynian granitic batholith of Sardinia. New surveys carried out to reconstruct the recent evolution of the landscape have shown a lot of deposits formed by large blocks of granitoid and anphibolitic rocks representing a favorable situation to produce this material formation in terms of differential erosion in periglaciar environment. Similar morphologies are possible to observe in many places in Sardinia continental hard rocks as effect of the conditions of refreezing periods ("glacial". These deposits are commonly known as " block streams " or " block fields " and reported for the first time in Italy in 1990 in the central area of the island of Sardinia, about 500 meters above sea level. Their presence in Sardinia is always documented in a range of altitudes not less than 350-400 meters and, in this case for the first time they have been identified in close proximity to the coastline. In addition, some of these deposits cover the thalwegs present on the granite rocks in the central portion of the island. The most interesting cases are represented by the deposits located on the northwestern side, near the lighthouse of Punta Scorno. The widespread presence of these deposits suggests significant areal erosion of the island terrain; they probably accumulated during the colder episodes that have characterized the Middle and Upper Pleistocene of the entire western Mediterranean. These testify the existence of an energy relief higher than the present one and a coastline located about 25 kilometers from the current position, however, documented by the block stream of Cala Arena, the first deposit located for

  1. Renewable energy islands in Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oestergaard, Iben [ed.

    1998-12-31

    This publication includes a compiled presentation of various aspects concerning the possible transformation of some European islands into renewable energy communities and these projects were presented by a selection of pioneer islands at the first European Seminar on Renewable Energy Islands, held on the Danish island of Samsoee, 29-30 June 1998. This issue has increased in importance with the presentation of the ambitious EU-White Paper: `Energy for the future: Renewable Sources of Energy` which was adopted in 1998. One of the key elements of the strategy for an accelerated implementation of renewable energy is to transform 100 localities within Europe into communities which are to be 100% self-sufficient with renewable energy before 2010. In line with this strategy, the Danish Government appointed the island of Samsoe towards the end of 1997 to be the first `official` Danish, renewable energy island. This is to serve as a demonstration project for other local communities, both in Denmark as well as in the rest Europe. Gothland, Madeira, Canary Islands, Cape Verde, Arki, Crete, Minorca and Orkney Islands were represented. Environmental advantages of wind, solar and wave power for distant island communities were indicated. Serious savings would be achieved by limitation of fossil fuel import and utilization of local resources. (EG)

  2. The comparative hydrochemistry of two granitic island aquifers. The Isles of Scilly, UK and the Hvaler Islands, Norway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banks, D.; Reimann, C.; Skarphagen, H.

    1998-01-01

    A comparative study is presented of granitic groundwaters from the Hvaler Islands, south-eastern Norway (11 samples) and the Scilly Islands, south-western England (10 samples). The islands display similar bulk lithologies (peraluminous S-type, U/Th-enriched granites) and land use, but differing glaciation and hence weathering histories. The groundwater of both groups bears a strong marine signature, although the Hvaler Islands display less marine influence and a greater degree of water-rock interaction. The most interesting hydrochemical dissimilarities concern the health related trace elements Rn, U and F. These display median (and maximum) values of 2510 Bq/l (8520 Bq/l), 15 μg/l (170 μg/l) and 3.3 mg/l (4.4 mg/l), respectively for Hvaler, compared with 140 Bq/l (200 Bq/l), 1.5 μg/l (4 μg/l) and 0.1 mg/l (0.27 mg/l) for Scilly. Commonly employed drinking water limits for these parameters are 500 Bq/l (Norwegian action level), 20 μg/l (Canadian limit) and 1.5 mg/l. The differences in groundwater contents of these elements between Hvaler and Scilly may be ascribed to: (1) differing trace element compositions of the granites and fracture mineralisations; (2) radically differing recent weathering histories; and (3) hydrodynamic factors

  3. Pine Bluff Arsenal Fish Survey

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Peacock, Lance

    2000-01-01

    Arkansas has a diverse ichthyofauna of over 215 species of fishes distributed in sixty-three genera and twenty-seven families which occupy a myriad of different aquatic habitats within its poltical boundaries...

  4. High-pressure mechanical instability in rocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byerlee, J D; Brace, W F

    1969-05-09

    At a confining pressure of a few kilobars, deformation of many sedimentary rocks, altered mafic rocks, porous volcanic rocks, and sand is ductile, in that instabilities leading to audible elastic shocks are absent. At pressures of 7 to 10 kilobars, however, unstable faulting and stick-slip in certain of these rocks was observed. This high pressure-low temperature instability might be responsible for earthquakes in deeply buried sedimentary or volcanic sequences.

  5. Use of a United States mid-Pacific Island territory for a Pacific Island Repository System (PIRS): Extended summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forsberg, C.W.

    1987-08-01

    The concept of using a mid-ocean island for a geologic high-level waste repository was investigated. The technical advantages include geographical isolation and near-infinite ocean dilution as a backup to repository geological waste isolation. The institutional advantages are reduced siting problems and the potential of creating an international waste repository. Establishment of international waste repository would allow cost sharing, aid US nonproliferation goals, and assure proper disposal of spent fuel from developing countries. The major uncertainties in this concept are rock conditions at waste disposal depths and costs. 13 refs., 2 tabs

  6. Organizations as Designed Islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pasquale Gagliardi

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The literature and practice of organizational design are mostly based on simplistic conceptions which ignore recent theoretical developments in organizational studies. Conceiving of organizations as ‘designed islands’, it is argued, can contribute to a more solid theoretical foundation to organization theory, viewed as normative science. Relying on the work of Peter Sloterdijk, who describes the forms of life in space in terms of spheres, the heuristic power of the island metaphor is explored. What can be learnt from the art of isolating in order to construct lived organizational environments is then discussed, and the paradoxical relationship between connection and isolation is highlighted.

  7. Three Mile Island

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, M.S.; Shultz, S.M.

    1988-01-01

    This bibliography is divided into the following categories: Accident Overviews, Sequence and Causes; International Commentary and Reaction; Emergency Preparedness and Disaster Planning; Health Effects; Radioactive Releases and the Environment; Accident Investigations/Commissions; Nuclear Industry: Safety, Occupational, and Financial Issues; Media and Communications; Cleanup; Sociopolitical Response and Commentary; Restart; Legal Ramifications; Federal Documents: President's Commission on the Accident at Three Mile Island; Federal Documents: Nuclear Regulatory Commission; Federal Documents: United States Department of Energy; Federal Documents: Miscellaneous Reports; Pennsylvania State Documents; Federal and State Hearings; and Popular Literature

  8. Weather In Some Islands

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王良华

    2007-01-01

    There are four seasons in a year. When spring comes, the weather is mild(温和的). Summer comes after spring. Summer is the hottest season of the year. Autumn follows summer. It is the best season of the year. Winter is the coldest season of the year. Some islands(岛) have their own particular(特别的) seasons because their weather is very much affected(影响) by the oceans(海洋) around them. In Britain, winter is not very cold and summer is not very hot.

  9. Rock Music's Place in the Library.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Politis, John

    1983-01-01

    Discussion of the importance of rock music as an expression of aural culture includes its history, rock music today, and the development of a rock music collection in the library (placement of collection and books which aid in developing a collection of permanent value). Three references are included. (EJS)

  10. Rock-degrading endophytic bacteria in cacti

    Science.gov (United States)

    M. Esther Puente; Ching Y. Li; Yoav Bashan

    2009-01-01

    A plant-bacterium association of the cardon cactus (Pachycereus pringlei) and endophytic bacteria promotes establishment of seedlings and growth on igneous rocks without soil. These bacteria weather several rock types and minerals, unbind significant amounts of useful minerals for plants from the rocks, fix in vitro N2. produce...

  11. Rock Art: Connecting to the Past.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knipe, Marianne

    2001-01-01

    Presents an activity for fourth-grade students in which they learn about ancient art and create their own authentic-looking rock sculptures with pictograms, or painted images. Explains how the students create their own rocks and then paint a pictograph on the rocks with brown paint. (CMK)

  12. Islands and non-islands in native and heritage Korean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boyoung eKim

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available To a large extent, island phenomena are cross-linguistically invariable, but English and Korean present some striking differences in this domain. English has wh-movement and Korean does not, and while both languages show sensitivity to wh-islands, only English has island effects for adjunct clauses. Given this complex set of differences, one might expect Korean/English bilinguals, and especially heritage Korean speakers (i.e. early bilinguals whose L2 became their dominant language during childhood to be different from native speakers, since heritage speakers have had more limited exposure to Korean, may have had incomplete acquisition and/or attrition, and may show significant transfer effects from the L2. Here we examine islands in heritage speakers of Korean in the U.S. Through a series of four formal acceptability experiments comparing these heritage speakers with native speakers residing in Korea, we show that the two groups are remarkably similar. Both show clear evidence for wh-islands and an equally clear lack of adjunct island effects. Given the very different linguistic environment that the heritage speakers have had since early childhood, this result lends support to the idea that island phenomena are largely immune to environmental influences and stem from deeper properties of the processor and/or grammar. Similarly, it casts some doubt on recent proposals that islands are learned from the input.

  13. The contributions of Donald Lee Johnson to understanding the Quaternary geologic and biogeographic history of the California Channel Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhs, Daniel R.

    2013-01-01

    Over a span of 50 years, native Californian Donald Lee Johnson made a number of memorable contributions to our understanding of the California Channel Islands. Among these are (1) recognizing that carbonate dunes, often cemented into eolianite and derived from offshore shelf sediments during lowered sea level, are markers of glacial periods on the Channel Islands; (2) identifying beach rock on the Channel Islands as the northernmost occurrence of this feature on the Pacific Coast of North America; (3) recognizing of the role of human activities in historic landscape modification; (4) identifying both the biogenic and pedogenic origins of caliche “ghost forests” and laminar calcrete forms on the Channel Islands; (5) providing the first soil maps of several of the islands, showing diverse pathways of pedogenesis; (6) pointing out the importance of fire in Quaternary landscape history on the Channel Islands, based on detailed stratigraphic studies; and (7), perhaps his greatest contribution, clarifying the origin of Pleistocene pygmy mammoths on the Channel Islands, due not to imagined ancient land bridges, but rather the superb swimming abilities of proboscideans combined with lowered sea level, favorable paleowinds, and an attractive paleovegetation on the Channel Islands. Don was a classic natural historian in the great tradition of Charles Darwin and George Gaylord Simpson, his role models. Don’s work will remain important and useful for many years and is an inspiration to those researching the California Channel Islands today.

  14. Rock Around the World: International Outreach for Scientific Education Using Infrared Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, L. D.; Klug, S. L.; Christensen, P. R.; Rogers, T. A.; Daub, G.

    2005-12-01

    Greenland, India, Switzerland and the Falkland Islands. We have received submissions that have included maps, drawings, pictures, stories, GPS readings and scientific literature and research about their rock sample and collection area. The number of RATW participants, and the enthusiasm with which they have participated, has shown that educational and scientific programs in Earth and Planetary Science draw worldwide interest among students and adults alike.

  15. Mechanism of Rock Burst Occurrence in Specially Thick Coal Seam with Rock Parting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jian-chao; Jiang, Fu-xing; Meng, Xiang-jun; Wang, Xu-you; Zhu, Si-tao; Feng, Yu

    2016-05-01

    Specially thick coal seam with complex construction, such as rock parting and alternative soft and hard coal, is called specially thick coal seam with rock parting (STCSRP), which easily leads to rock burst during mining. Based on the stress distribution of rock parting zone, this study investigated the mechanism, engineering discriminant conditions, prevention methods, and risk evaluation method of rock burst occurrence in STCSRP through setting up a mechanical model. The main conclusions of this study are as follows. (1) When the mining face moves closer to the rock parting zone, the original non-uniform stress of the rock parting zone and the advancing stress of the mining face are combined to intensify gradually the shearing action of coal near the mining face. When the shearing action reaches a certain degree, rock burst easily occurs near the mining face. (2) Rock burst occurrence in STCSRP is positively associated with mining depth, advancing stress concentration factor of the mining face, thickness of rock parting, bursting liability of coal, thickness ratio of rock parting to coal seam, and difference of elastic modulus between rock parting and coal, whereas negatively associated with shear strength. (3) Technologies of large-diameter drilling, coal seam water injection, and deep hole blasting can reduce advancing stress concentration factor, thickness of rock parting, and difference of elastic modulus between rock parting and coal to lower the risk of rock burst in STCSRP. (4) The research result was applied to evaluate and control the risk of rock burst occurrence in STCSRP.

  16. Kimberley rock art dating project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walsh, G.L.; Morwood, M.

    1997-01-01

    The art's additional value, unequalled by traditionally recognised artefacts, is its permanent pictorial documentation presenting a 'window' into the otherwise intangible elements of perceptions, vision and mind of pre-historic cultures. Unfortunately it's potential in establishing Kimberley archaeological 'big picture' still remains largely unrecognised. Some of findings of the Kimberley Rock Art Dating Project, using AMS and optical stimulated luminescence (OSL) dating techniques, are outlined. It is estimated that these findings will encourage involvement by a greater diversity of specialist disciplines to tie findings into levels of this art sequence as a primary reference point. The sequence represents a sound basis for selecting specific defined images for targeting detailed studies by a range of dating technique. This effectively removes the undesirable ad hoc sampling of 'apparently old paintings'; a process which must unavoidably remain the case with researchers working on most global bodies of rock art

  17. ESR dating of fault rocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Hee Kwon

    2002-03-01

    Past movement on faults can be dated by measurement of the intensity of ESR signals in quartz. These signals are reset by local lattice deformation and local frictional heating on grain contacts at the time of fault movement. The ESR signals then trow back as a result of bombardment by ionizing radiation from surrounding rocks. The age is obtained from the ratio of the equivalent dose, needed to produce the observed signal, to the dose rate. Fine grains are more completely reset during faulting, and a plot of age vs grain size shows a plateau for grains below critical size : these grains are presumed to have been completely zeroed by the last fault activity. We carried out ESR dating of fault rocks collected from the Yangsan fault system. ESR dates from the this fault system range from 870 to 240 ka. Results of this research suggest that long-term cyclic fault activity continued into the pleistocene

  18. Radionuclide fixation mechanisms in rocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakashima, S.

    1991-01-01

    In the safety evaluation of the radioactive waste disposal in geological environment, the mass balance equation for radionuclide migration is given. The sorption of radionuclides by geological formations is conventionally represented by the retardation of the radionuclides as compared with water movement. In order to quantify the sorption of radionuclides by rocks and sediments, the distribution ratio is used. In order to study quantitatively the long term behavior of waste radionuclides in geological environment, besides the distribution ratio concept in short term, slower radionuclide retention reaction involving mineral transformation should be considered. The development of microspectroscopic method for long term reaction path modeling, the behavior of iron during granite and water interaction, the reduction precipitation of radionuclides, radionuclide migration pathways, and the representative scheme of radionuclide migration and fixation in rocks are discussed. (K.I.)

  19. ESR dating of fault rocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Hee Kwon [Kangwon National Univ., Chuncheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-03-15

    Past movement on faults can be dated by measurement of the intensity of ESR signals in quartz. These signals are reset by local lattice deformation and local frictional heating on grain contacts at the time of fault movement. The ESR signals then trow back as a result of bombardment by ionizing radiation from surrounding rocks. The age is obtained from the ratio of the equivalent dose, needed to produce the observed signal, to the dose rate. Fine grains are more completely reset during faulting, and a plot of age vs grain size shows a plateau for grains below critical size : these grains are presumed to have been completely zeroed by the last fault activity. We carried out ESR dating of fault rocks collected from the Yangsan fault system. ESR dates from the this fault system range from 870 to 240 ka. Results of this research suggest that long-term cyclic fault activity continued into the pleistocene.

  20. Relative Permeability of Fractured Rock

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mark D. Habana

    2002-06-30

    Contemporary understanding of multiphase flow through fractures is limited. Different studies using synthetic fractures and various fluids have yielded different relative permeability-saturation relations. This study aimed to extend the understanding of multiphase flow by conducting nitrogen-water relative permeability experiments on a naturally-fractured rock from The Geysers geothermal field. The steady-state approach was used. However, steady state was achieved only at the endpoint saturations. Several difficulties were encountered that are attributed to phase interference and changes in fracture aperture and surface roughness, along with fracture propagation/initiation. Absolute permeabilities were determined using nitrogen and water. The permeability values obtained change with the number of load cycles. Determining the absolute permeability of a core is especially important in a fractured rock. The rock may change as asperities are destroyed and fractures propagate or st rain harden as the net stresses vary. Pressure spikes occurred in water a solute permeability experiments. Conceptual models of an elastic fracture network can explain the pressure spike behavior. At the endpoint saturations the water relative permeabilities obtained are much less than the nitrogen gas relative permeabilities. Saturations were determined by weighing and by resistivity calculations. The resistivity-saturation relationship developed for the core gave saturation values that differ by 5% from the value determined by weighing. Further work is required to complete the relative permeability curve. The steady-state experimental approach encountered difficulties due to phase interference and fracture change. Steady state may not be reached until an impractical length of time. Thus, unsteady-state methods should be pursued. In unsteady-state experiments the challenge will be in quantifying rock fracture change in addition to fluid flow changes.

  1. LifeStyle-Specific-Islands (LiSSI): Integrated Bioinformatics Platform for Genomic Island Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barbosa, Eudes; Rottger, Richard; Hauschild, Anne-Christin

    2017-01-01

    Distinct bacteria are able to cope with highly diverse lifestyles; for instance, they can be free living or host-associated. Thus, these organisms must possess a large and varied genomic arsenal to withstand different environmental conditions. To facilitate the identification of genomic features ...

  2. Mineral and rock chemistry of Mata da Corda Kamafugitic Rocks (Minas Gerais State, Brazil)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albuquerque Sgarbi, Patricia B. de; Valenca, Joel G.

    1995-01-01

    The volcanic rocks of the Mata da Corda Formation (Upper Cretaceous) in Minas Gerais, Brazil, are mafic potassic to ultra potassic rocks of kamafugitic affinity containing essentially clinopyroxenes, perovskite, magnetite and occasionally olivine, phlogopite, melilite pseudomorphs and apatite. The felsic phases are kalsilite and/or leucite pseudomorphs. The rocks are classified as mafitites, leucitites and kalsilitites. The analysis of the available data of the rocks studied, based on the relevant aspects of the main proposals for the classification of alkaline mafic to ultramafic potassic rocks leads to the conclusion that Sahama's (1974) proposal to divide potassium rich alkaline rocks in two large families is the one to which the Mata da Corda rocks adapt best. According to this and the data in the literature on the mineralogy and mineral and rock chemistries of the other similar occurrences, these rocks may be interpreted as alkaline potassic to ultra potassic rocks of hamafugitic affinity. 11 figs., 5 tabs

  3. ESR dating of fault rocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Hee Kwon

    2003-02-01

    Past movement on faults can be dated by measurement of the intensity of ESR signals in quartz. These signals are reset by local lattice deformation and local frictional heating on grain contacts at the time of fault movement. The ESR signals then grow back as a result of bombardment by ionizing radiation from surrounding rocks. The age is obtained from the ratio of the equivalent dose, needed to produce the observed signal, to the dose rate. Fine grains are more completely reset during faulting, and a plot of age vs. grain size shows a plateau for grains below critical size; these grains are presumed to have been completely zeroed by the last fault activity. We carried out ESR dating of fault rocks collected near the Gori nuclear reactor. Most of the ESR signals of fault rocks collected from the basement are saturated. This indicates that the last movement of the faults had occurred before the Quaternary period. However, ESR dates from the Oyong fault zone range from 370 to 310 ka. Results of this research suggest that long-term cyclic fault activity of the Oyong fault zone continued into the Pleistocene

  4. ESR dating of fault rocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Hee Kwon [Kangwon National Univ., Chuncheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-02-15

    Past movement on faults can be dated by measurement of the intensity of ESR signals in quartz. These signals are reset by local lattice deformation and local frictional heating on grain contacts at the time of fault movement. The ESR signals then grow back as a result of bombardment by ionizing radiation from surrounding rocks. The age is obtained from the ratio of the equivalent dose, needed to produce the observed signal, to the dose rate. Fine grains are more completely reset during faulting, and a plot of age vs. grain size shows a plateau for grains below critical size; these grains are presumed to have been completely zeroed by the last fault activity. We carried out ESR dating of fault rocks collected near the Gori nuclear reactor. Most of the ESR signals of fault rocks collected from the basement are saturated. This indicates that the last movement of the faults had occurred before the Quaternary period. However, ESR dates from the Oyong fault zone range from 370 to 310 ka. Results of this research suggest that long-term cyclic fault activity of the Oyong fault zone continued into the Pleistocene.

  5. Source rock hydrocarbons. Present status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vially, R.; Maisonnier, G.; Rouaud, T.

    2013-01-01

    This report first presents the characteristics of conventional oil and gas system, and the classification of liquid and gaseous non conventional hydrocarbons, with the peculiar case of coal-bed methane. The authors then describe how source rock hydrocarbons are produced: production of shale oils and gases (horizontal drilling, hydraulic fracturing, exploitation) and of coal-bed methane and coal mine methane. In the next part, they address and discuss the environmental impact of source rock hydrocarbon production: installation footprint, water resource management, drilling fluids, fracturing fluids composition, toxicity and recycling, air pollution, induced seismicity, pollutions from other exploitation and production activities. They propose an overview of the exploitation and production of source rock gas, coal-bed gas and other non conventional gases in the world. They describe the current development and discuss their economic impacts: world oil context and trends in the USA, in Canada and other countries, impacts on the North American market, on the world oil industry, on refining industries, on the world oil balance. They analyse the economic impacts of non conventional gases: development potential, stakes for the world gas trade, consequence for gas prices, development opportunities for oil companies and for the transport sector, impact on CO 2 emissions, macro-economic impact in the case of the USA

  6. Enjebi Island dose assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robison, W.L.; Conrado, C.L.; Phillips, W.A.

    1987-07-01

    We have updeated the radiological dose assessment for Enjebi Island at Enewetak Atoll using data derived from analysis of food crops grown on Enjebi. This is a much more precise assessment of potential doses to people resettling Enjebi Island than the 1980 assessment in which there were no data available from food crops on Enjebi. Details of the methods and data used to evaluate each exposure pathway are presented. The terrestrial food chain is the most significant potential exposure pathway and 137 Cs is the radionuclide responsible for most of the estimated dose over the next 50 y. The doses are calculated assuming a resettlement date of 1990. The average wholebody maximum annual estimated dose equivalent derived using our diet model is 166 mremy;the effective dose equivalent is 169 mremy. The estimated 30-, 50-, and 70-y integral whole-body dose equivalents are 3.5 rem, 5.1 rem, and 6.2 rem, respectively. Bone-marrow dose equivalents are only slightly higher than the whole-body estimates in each case. The bone-surface cells (endosteal cells) receive the highest dose, but they are a less sensitive cell population and are less sensitive to fatal cancer induction than whole body and bone marrow. The effective dose equivalents for 30, 50, and 70 y are 3.6 rem, 5.3 rem, and 6.6 rem, respectively. 79 refs., 17 figs., 24 tabs

  7. An Island Called Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Stubbs

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Review of: An Island Called Home: Returning to Jewish Cuba. Ruth Behar, photographs by Humberto Mayol. New Brunswick NJ: Rutgers University Press, 2007. xiii + 297 pp. (Cloth US$ 29.95 Fidel Castro: My Life: A Spoken Autobiography. Fidel Castro & Ignacio Ramonet. New York: Scribner/Simon & Schuster, 2008. vii + 724 pp. (Paper US$ 22.00, e-book US$ 14.99 Cuba: What Everyone Needs to Know. Julia E. Sweig. New York: Oxford University Press, 2009. xiv + 279 pp. (Paper US$ 16.95 [First paragraph] These three ostensibly very different books tell a compelling story of each author’s approach, as much as the subject matter itself. Fidel Castro: My Life: A Spoken Autobiography is based on a series of long interviews granted by the then-president of Cuba, Fidel Castro, to Spanish-Franco journalist Ignacio Ramonet. Cuba: What Everyone Needs to Know, by U.S. political analyst Julia Sweig, is one of a set country series, and, like Ramonet’s, presented in question/answer format. An Island Called Home: Returning to Jewish Cuba, with a narrative by Cuban-American anthropologist Ruth Behar and photographs by Cuban photographer Humberto Mayol, is a retrospective/introspective account of the Jewish presence in Cuba. While from Ramonet and Sweig we learn much about the revolutionary project, Behar and Mayol convey the lived experience of the small Jewish community against that backdrop.

  8. Results of monitoring at Olkiluoto in 2009. Rock mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lahti, M.; Hakala, M.

    2010-09-01

    The rock mechanical monitoring at Olkiluoto concentrates on the assessment of potential tectonic movements and stability of the bedrock. The construction of ONKALO is not expected to induce large-scale movements of the rock blocks or affect the rate of isostatic uplift but the evaluation of any tectonic events is important for the safety assessment. The monitoring consists of seismic measurements, GPS measurements and precise levelling campaigns at Olkiluoto and vicinity and additionally extensometer and convergence measurements carried out in ONKALO. Posiva established a local seismic network of six stations on the island of Olkiluoto in 2002. The number of seismic stations has increased gradually being in 2009 altogether 14. The purpose of the microearthquake measurements at Olkiluoto is to improve understanding of the structure, behaviour and long term stability of the bedrock. The investigation area includes two target areas. The larger target area, called seismic semi-regional area, covers the Olkiluoto Island and its surroundings. The purpose is to monitor explosions and tectonic earthquakes in regional scale. The smaller target area is s called the seismic ONKALO block, which is a 2 km *2 km *2 km cube surrounding the ONKALO. All the expected excavation induced events assumingly occur within this volume. At the moment the seismic ONKALO block includes 10 seismic stations. An additional task of monitoring is related to safeguarding of the ONKALO. The seismic network has operated continuously in 2009 and during the year altogether 1256 events have been located in the Olkiluoto area. Most of them (1161) are explosions that occurred inside the seismic semi-regional area and especially inside the seismic ONKALO block (1135 events)

  9. Land-use change and managed aquifer recharge effects on the hydrogeochemistry of two contrasting atoll island aquifers, Roi-Namur Island, Republic of the Marshall Islands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hejazian, Mehrdad; Gurdak, Jason J.; Swarzenski, Peter; Odigie, Kingsley O.; Storlazzi, Curt D.

    2017-01-01

    Freshwater resources on low-lying atoll islands are highly vulnerable to climate change and sea-level rise. In addition to rainwater catchment, groundwater in the freshwater lens is a critically important water resource on many atoll islands, especially during drought. Although many atolls have high annual rainfall rates, dense natural vegetation and high evapotranspiration rates can limit recharge to the freshwater lens. Here we evaluate the effects of land-use/land-cover change and managed aquifer recharge on the hydrogeochemistry and supply of groundwater on Roi-Namur Island, Republic of the Marshall Islands. Roi-Namur is an artificially conjoined island that has similar hydrogeology on the Roi and Namur lobes, but has contrasting land-use/land-cover and managed aquifer recharge only on Roi. Vegetation removal and managed aquifer recharge operations have resulted in an estimated 8.6 × 10"5 m"3 of potable groundwater in the freshwater lens on Roi, compared to only 1.6 × 10"4 m"3 on Namur. We use groundwater samples from a suite of 33 vertically nested monitoring wells, statistical testing, and geochemical modeling using PHREEQC to show that the differences in land-use/land-cover and managed aquifer recharge on Roi and Namur have a statistically significant effect on several groundwater-quality parameters and the controlling geochemical processes. Results also indicate a six-fold reduction in the dissolution of carbonate rock in the freshwater lens and overlying vadose zone of Roi compared to Namur. Mixing of seawater and the freshwater lens is a more dominant hydrogeochemical process on Roi because of the greater recharge and flushing of the aquifer with freshwater as compared to Namur. In contrast, equilibrium processes and dissolution-precipitation non-equilibrium reactions are more dominant on Namur because of the longer residence times relative to the rate of geochemical reactions. Findings from Roi-Namur Island support selective land

  10. Land-use change and managed aquifer recharge effects on the hydrogeochemistry of two contrasting atoll island aquifers, Roi-Namur Island, Republic of the Marshall Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hejazian, Mehrdad; Gurdak, Jason J.; Swarzenski, Peter W.; Odigie, Kingsley; Storlazzi, Curt

    2017-01-01

    Freshwater resources on low-lying atoll islands are highly vulnerable to climate change and sea-level rise. In addition to rainwater catchment, groundwater in the freshwater lens is a critically important water resource on many atoll islands, especially during drought. Although many atolls have high annual rainfall rates, dense natural vegetation and high evapotranspiration rates can limit recharge to the freshwater lens. Here we evaluate the effects of land-use/land-cover change and managed aquifer recharge on the hydrogeochemistry and supply of groundwater on Roi-Namur Island, Republic of the Marshall Islands. Roi-Namur is an artificially conjoined island that has similar hydrogeology on the Roi and Namur lobes, but has contrasting land-use/land-cover and managed aquifer recharge only on Roi. Vegetation removal and managed aquifer recharge operations have resulted in an estimated 8.6 x 105 m3 of potable groundwater in the freshwater lens on Roi, compared to only 1.6 x 104 m3 on Namur. We use groundwater samples from a suite of 33 vertically nested monitoring wells, statistical testing, and geochemical modeling using PHREEQC to show that the differences in land-use/land-cover and managed aquifer recharge on Roi and Namur have a statistically significant effect on several groundwater-quality parameters and the controlling geochemical processes. Results also indicate a seven-fold reduction in the dissolution of carbonate rock in the freshwater lens and overlying vadose zone of Roi compared to Namur. Mixing of seawater and the freshwater lens is a more dominant hydrogeochemical process on Roi because of the greater recharge and flushing of the aquifer with freshwater as compared to Namur. In contrast, equilibrium processes and dissolution-precipitation non-equilibrium reactions are more dominant on Namur because of the longer residence times relative to the rate of geochemical reactions. Findings from Roi-Namur Island support selective land-use/land-cover change and

  11. A Review on the British Rock Music

    OpenAIRE

    Hutapea, Alfian Hadi Pranata

    2011-01-01

    Music has an important role in people’s life. In people’s daily, music is often hearing of course and in people’s customs and traditions music is also be used. Music has many genres, one of them is rock music. Many people like rock music especially youngman because rock music has given a message in a song through enthusiasm expression. Rock music has many subgenres and each of subgenres have a distinctive feature. The developing of rock music is very wide in the world, especially in Great Bri...

  12. The physical principles of rock magnetism

    CERN Document Server

    Stacey, Frank

    1974-01-01

    Developments in Solid Earth Geophysics 5: The Physical Principles of Rock Magnetism explores the physical principles of rock magnetism, with emphasis on the properties of finely divided magnetic materials. It discusses the origin and stability of rock magnetizations, the role of remanent magnetism in interpreting magnetic surveys, magnetic anisotropy as an indicator of rock fabric, and the relationship between piezomagnetic changes and seismic activity. Organized into 13 chapters, this volume discusses the properties of solids, magnetite and hematite grains, and rocks with magnetite grains

  13. Effects of explosions in hard rocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heuze, F.E.; Walton, O.R.; Maddix, D.M.; Shaffer, R.J.; Butkovich, T.R.

    1993-01-01

    This work relates to explosions in hard rocks (ex: basalt, granite, limestone...). Hard rock masses typically have a blocky structure created by the existence of geologic discontinuities such as bedding contacts, faults, and joints. At very high pressure - hundreds of kilobars and above - these discontinuities do not act separately, and the rock appears to be an equivalent continuous medium. At stress of a few tens of kilobars and below, the geologic discontinuities control the kinematics of the rock masses. Hence, the simulation of rock dynamics, anywhere but in the very-near source region, should account for those kinematics

  14. Lead isotope analyses of standard rock samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koide, Yoshiyuki; Nakamura, Eizo

    1990-01-01

    New results on lead isotope compositions of standard rock samples and their analytical procedures are reported. Bromide form anion exchange chromatography technique was adopted for the chemical separation lead from rock samples. The lead contamination during whole analytical procedure was low enough to determine lead isotope composition of common natural rocks. Silica-gel activator method was applied for emission of lead ions in the mass spectrometer. Using the data reduction of 'unfractionated ratios', we obtained good reproducibility, precision and accuracy on lead isotope compositions of NBS SRM. Here we present new reliable lead isotope compositions of GSJ standard rock samples and USGS standard rock, BCR-1. (author)

  15. Monitoring developments in island waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crellin, L.V.

    1995-01-01

    The environmental effects of islands in the Irish Sea of the offshore oil and gas industry are discussed in this paper, in particular on sand and gravel resources. This information is considered by the Department of Trade and Industry when granting prospecting, exploration and production licenses. Consultation between industry and islanders forms part of the license granting process. (UK)

  16. Islands for nuclear power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Usher, E.F.F.W.; Fraser, A.P.

    1981-01-01

    The safety principles, design criteria and types of artificial island for an offshore nuclear power station are discussed with particular reference to siting adjacent to an industrial island. The paper concludes that the engineering problems are soluble and that offshore nuclear power stations will eventually be built but that much fundamental work is still required. (author)

  17. Relationship between terrestrial gamma ray dose rates and geology of Awaji Island in Hyogo Prefecture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shibayama, Motohiko; Hiraoka, Yoshitsugu; Ikeda, Tadashi; Terado, Shin

    2004-01-01

    In order to clarify the relationship between terrestrial gamma ray dose rates and surface geology, measurements were carried out for the entire part f Awaji Island in Hyogo Prefecture. The results of analysis were summarized as follows. (1) The mean value for each geology was nearly the same as that in the whole of Japan. (2) The granitic rocks can be divided into three groups, based on their stages of intrusion (Tainsyo, 1985). the dose rate levels for granitic rocks increased from fast stage over third stage. (author)

  18. Islanded operation of distributed networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    This report summarises the findings of a study to investigate the regulatory, commercial and technical risks and benefits associated with the operation of distributed generation to power an islanded section of distributed network. A review of published literature was carried out, and UK generators were identified who could operate as part of an island network under the existing technical, regulatory, and safety framework. Agreement on case studies for consideration with distributed network operators (DNOs) is discussed as well as the quantification of the risks, benefits and costs of islanding, and the production of a case implementation plan for each case study. Technical issues associated with operating sections of network in islanded mode are described, and impacts of islanding on trading and settlement, and technical and commercial modelling are explored.

  19. A roadmap for island biology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Patino, Jairo; Whittaker, Robert J.; Borges, Paulo A.V.

    2017-01-01

    Aims: The 50th anniversary of the publication of the seminal book, The Theory of Island Biogeography, by Robert H. MacArthur and Edward O. Wilson, is a timely moment to review and identify key research foci that could advance island biology. Here, we take a collaborative horizon-scanning approach...... to identify 50 fundamental questions for the continued development of the field. Location: Worldwide. Methods: We adapted a well-established methodology of horizon scanning to identify priority research questions in island biology, and initiated it during the Island Biology 2016 conference held in the Azores......); global change (5); conservation and management policies (5); and invasive alien species (4). Main conclusions: Collectively, this cross-disciplinary set of topics covering the 50 fundamental questions has the potential to stimulate and guide future research in island biology. By covering fields ranging...

  20. Islanded operation of distributed networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    This report summarises the findings of a study to investigate the regulatory, commercial and technical risks and benefits associated with the operation of distributed generation to power an islanded section of distributed network. A review of published literature was carried out, and UK generators were identified who could operate as part of an island network under the existing technical, regulatory, and safety framework. Agreement on case studies for consideration with distributed network operators (DNOs) is discussed as well as the quantification of the risks, benefits and costs of islanding, and the production of a case implementation plan for each case study. Technical issues associated with operating sections of network in islanded mode are described, and impacts of islanding on trading and settlement, and technical and commercial modelling are explored

  1. Diffusion in the matrix of granitic rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birgersson, L.; Neretnieks, I.

    1982-07-01

    A migration experiment in the rock matrix is presented. The experiment has been carried out in undisturbed rock, that is rock under its natural stress environment. Since the experiment was performed at the 360 m-level (in the Stripa mine), the rock had nearly the same conditions as the rock surrounding a nuclear waste storage. The results show that all three tracers (Uranine, Cr-EDTA and I - ) have passed the disturbed zone from the injection hole and migrated into undisturbed rock. At the distance of 11 cm from the injection hole 5-10 percent of the injection concentration was found. The results also indicate that the tracer have passed through fissure filling material. These results indicate that it is possible for tracers (and therefore radionuclides) to migrate from a fissure, through fissure filling material, and into the undisturbed rock matrix. (Authors)

  2. Carbonate rock depositional models: A microfacies approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carozzi, A.V.

    1988-01-01

    Carbonate rocks contain more than 50% by weight carbonate minerals such as calcite, dolomite, and siderite. Understanding how these rocks form can lead to more efficient methods of petroleum exploration. Micofacies analysis techniques can be used as a method of predicting models of sedimentation for carbonate rocks. Micofacies in carbonate rocks can be seen clearly only in thin sections under a microscope. This section analysis of carbonate rocks is a tool that can be used to understand depositional environments, diagenetic evolution of carbonate rocks, and the formation of porosity and permeability in carbonate rocks. The use of micofacies analysis techniques is applied to understanding the origin and formation of carbonate ramps, carbonate platforms, and carbonate slopes and basins. This book will be of interest to students and professionals concerned with the disciplines of sedimentary petrology, sedimentology, petroleum geology, and palentology.

  3. Island in an island – The suggestions for transportation improvement plan for Haidian Island, Haikou, Hainan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sia Rosalind Juo Ling

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Haidian Island, which situated at the Northern part of Haikou City of Hainan Province, is an island within a city. Haidian Island is unique in term of it's development which centered around an university, the Hainan University, besides some others important landmarks, such as Haikou city hospital, Baishamen municipal park, Golf Driving Range etc. All commercials, residential, recreational activities etc are planned to serve Hainan University in particular. The study, taking ‘Haidian Island Area Development Control Plan’ as case study, would like to look into the importance of transportation and traffic planning. The study used observation, site investigation and traffic study methods to gather data needed. Firstly the study analyzed the current state of transportation system for Haidian Island in accordance to the Island Development Control plan and Haikou master plan and identified the problems. Then, the study made some recommendations for these problems. The study highlighted the important of non-motorized, cycling and walking as the main transportation system for an education-based island and as supportive to domestic tourism activities found. The transportation planning suggested by the study took ‘green and low-carbon’ approaches considered the role of University as the core activity in the island.

  4. Aespoe hard rock laboratory. Current research projects 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-12-31

    In 1986 SKB decided to construct the Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory (HRL) in order to provide an opportunity for research, development and demonstration in a realistic and undisturbed underground rock environment down to the depth planned for the future deep repository. The focus of current and future work is on development and testing of site characterization methods, verification of models describing the function of the natural and engineered barriers and development, testing, and demonstration of repository technology. The program has been organised so that all important steps in the development of a repository are covered, in other words the Aespoe HRL constitutes a `dress rehearsal` for the Swedish deep geological repository for spent fuel and other long-lived waste. Geoscientific investigations on Aespoe and nearby islands began in 1986. Aespoe was selected as the site for the laboratory in 1988. Construction of the facility, which reaches a depth of 460 m below the surface, began in 1990 and was completed in 1995. A major milestone had been reached in 1996 with the completion of the pre-investigation and construction phases of the Aespoe HRL. The comprehensive research conducted has permitted valuable development and verification of site characterization methods applied from the ground surface, boreholes, and underground excavations. The results of this research are summarised in the book `Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory - 10 years of Research` published by SKB in 1996. The Operating Phase of the Aespoe HRL began in 1995 and is expected to continue for 15-20 years, that is until the first stage of the development of the Swedish deep geological repository for spent nuclear fuel is expected to be completed. A number of research projects were initiated at the start of the Operating Phase. Most of these projects have made substantial progress since then and important results have been obtained. The purpose of this brochure is to provide a brief presentation of the

  5. Aespoe hard rock laboratory. Current research projects 1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    In 1986 SKB decided to construct the Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory (HRL) in order to provide an opportunity for research, development and demonstration in a realistic and undisturbed underground rock environment down to the depth planned for the future deep repository. The focus of current and future work is on development and testing of site characterization methods, verification of models describing the function of the natural and engineered barriers and development, testing, and demonstration of repository technology. The program has been organised so that all important steps in the development of a repository are covered, in other words the Aespoe HRL constitutes a 'dress rehearsal' for the Swedish deep geological repository for spent fuel and other long-lived waste. Geoscientific investigations on Aespoe and nearby islands began in 1986. Aespoe was selected as the site for the laboratory in 1988. Construction of the facility, which reaches a depth of 460 m below the surface, began in 1990 and was completed in 1995. A major milestone had been reached in 1996 with the completion of the pre-investigation and construction phases of the Aespoe HRL. The comprehensive research conducted has permitted valuable development and verification of site characterization methods applied from the ground surface, boreholes, and underground excavations. The results of this research are summarised in the book 'Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory - 10 years of Research' published by SKB in 1996. The Operating Phase of the Aespoe HRL began in 1995 and is expected to continue for 15-20 years, that is until the first stage of the development of the Swedish deep geological repository for spent nuclear fuel is expected to be completed. A number of research projects were initiated at the start of the Operating Phase. Most of these projects have made substantial progress since then and important results have been obtained. The purpose of this brochure is to provide a brief presentation of the

  6. Energy Self-Sufficient Island

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bratic, S.; Krajacic, G.; Duic, N.; Cotar, A.; Jardas, D.

    2011-01-01

    In order to analyze energy self-sufficient island, example of a smaller island, connected to the power system of a bigger island with an undersea cable, was taken. Mounting substation 10/0,4 is situated on the island and for the moment it provides enough electricity using the medium voltage line. It is assumed that the island is situated on the north part of the Adriatic Sea. The most important problem that occurs on the island is the population drop that occurs for a significant number of years, therefore, life standard needs to be improved, and economic development needs to be encouraged immediately. Local authorities to stimulate sustainable development on the island through different projects, to breath in a new life to the island, open new jobs and attract new people to come live there. Because of the planned development and increase of the population, energy projects, planned as a support to sustainable development, and later achievement of the energy self-sufficiency, is described in this paper. Therefore, Rewisland methodology appliance is described taking into the account three possible scenarios of energy development. Each scenario is calculated until year 2030. Also, what is taken into the account is 100% usage of renewable sources of energy in 2030. Scenario PTV, PP, EE - This scenario includes installation of solar photovoltaic modules and solar thermal collectors on the buildings roofs, as well as well as implementation of energy efficiency on the island (replacement of the street light bulbs with LED lightning, replacement of the old windows and doors on the houses, as well as the installation of the thermal insulation). Scenario PV island - This scenario, similarly to the previous one, includes installation of solar photovoltaic modules and solar thermal collectors an the residential buildings, as well as the 2 MW photovoltaic power plant and ''Green Hotel'', a building that satisfies all of its energy needs completely from renewable energy sources

  7. Change with time in extrusion and chemical composition of volcanic rock in geothermal areas in central Kyushu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamata, Hiroki

    1986-10-01

    Changes with time in extrusion and chemical composition of volcanic rocks in central Kyushu are studied to provide basic data required for evaluation of geothermal resources. Distribution of volcanic rocks in successive 1Ma (10/sup 6/ year) periods and the average thickness of volcanic rock layers in each period are determined, from which the volume of volcanic rocks in each 1Ma period is calculated. Results indicate that volcanos in central Kyushu extruded about 3,000 km/sup 3//Ma of volcanic rocks during the early periods (about 5Ma), followed by a series of declining periods up to the present. Comparison of volcanic extrusive rocks of each 1Ma period shows that lava of hornblende andesite and pyroxenic andesite has been extruded in great quantities in every period. Chemical composition is studied based on diagrams showing changes in SiO/sub 2/ content. The K/sub 2/O content is relatively high in most volcanos younger than 1.6Ma, compared to those older than 1.6Ma. the K/sub 2/O content in extruded rocks has been high during the latest 0.4Ma in the Aso volcanic area, unlike other island arc conjunction areas. (4 figs, 5 tabs, 28 refs)

  8. Lithium, boron and chlorine as tracers for metasomatism in high-pressure metamorphic rocks: a case study from Syros (Greece)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marschall, Horst R.; Altherr, Rainer; Gméling, Katalin; Kasztovszky, Zsolt

    2009-03-01

    High-pressure metamorphic (HPM) rocks (derived from igneous protoliths) and their metasomatised rinds from the island of Syros (Greece) were analysed for their B and Cl whole-rock abundances and their H2O content by prompt-gamma neutron-activation analysis (PGNAA) and for their Li and Be whole-rock abundances by ICP-OES. In the HPM rocks, B /Be and Cl /Be ratios correlate with H2O contents and appear to be controlled by extraction of B and Cl during dehydration and prograde metamorphism. In contrast, samples of the metasomatised rinds show no such correlation. B /Be ratios in the rinds are solely governed by the presence or absence of tourmaline, and Cl /Be ratios vary significantly, possibly related to fluid inclusions. Li/Be ratios do not correlate with H2O contents in the HPM rocks, which may in part be explained by a conservative behaviour of Li during dehydration. However, Li abundances exceed the vast majority of published values for Li abundances in fresh, altered, or differentiated oceanic igneous rocks and presumably result from metasomatic enrichment of Li. High Li concentrations and highly elevated Li/Be ratios in most metasomatised samples demonstrate an enrichment of Li in the Syros HP mélange during fluid infiltration. This study suggests that B and Cl abundances of HPM meta-igneous rocks can be used to trace prograde dehydration, while Li concentrations seem to be more sensitive for retrograde metasomatic processes in such lithologies.

  9. Three Mile Island accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barre, B.; Olivier, E.; Roux, J.P.; Pelle, P.

    2010-01-01

    Deluded by equivocal instrumentation signals, operators at TMI-2 (Three Mile Island - unit 2) misunderstood what was going on in the reactor and for 2 hours were taking inadequate decisions that turned a reactor incident into a major nuclear event that led to the melting of about one third of the core. The TMI accident had worldwide impacts in the domain of nuclear safety. The main consequences in France were: 1) the introduction of the major accident approach and the reinforcement of crisis management; 2) the improvement of the reactor design, particularly that of the pressurizer valves; 3) the implementation of safety probabilistic studies; 4) a better taking into account of the feedback experience in reactor operations; and 5) a better taking into account of the humane factor in reactor safety. (A.C.)

  10. Three Mile Island update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snyder, B.J.

    1984-01-01

    Almost six years after the accident at Three Mile Island-2, cleanup operations are proceeding and the financial condition of the owners has improved. The author reviews some of the cleanup activities and notes the milestones ahead before reaching the September, 1988 target date for completion. A decision to decommission or refurbish will follow the completion of fuel removal activities in 1987. The cleanup has produced considerable data and useful information. In particular, the experience of large-scale decontamination and radioactive waste processing, along with information on fission product transport, is relevant for maintenance and safe operation of other plants. Both macro- and microscopic examination of the core could help in developing safer reactors in the future. 3 figures, 1 table

  11. PWR: nuclear islands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    Framatome and its partners have produced this glossary of technical terms that can be used in writing English language documents relating to power plants (nuclear islands, individual components, nuclear services, etc.) with the hope of improving the quality of the documents intended for their clients, suppliers and partners and for others. This glossary will be particularly useful to the translators and authors of technical proposals, design documents, manufacturing documents, construction and operating documents concerning Pressurized Water Reactors written in English or French. It can also be useful as a reference document for students, researchers, journalists, etc., having to write on this subject. We would like to thank all those individuals working at the Ministere de la Recherche et de la Technologie, Electricite de France, Jeumont Schneider and Framatome who have contributed to this glossary. We would also appreciate any comments or sugestions intended to improve subsequent editions of this glossary [fr

  12. Mauritius - a Sustainable Island

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Anders

    2010-01-01

    production is determined to be the way forward. A step in this direction is to devolve upon citizens the ability and motivation to produce electricity via small-scale distributed generation (SSDG), i.e. wind, photovoltaic and hydro installations below 50 kW. Given that SSDG is more expensive per installed......The Government of Mauritius has a long-term vision of transforming Mauritius into a sustainable Island. One important element towards the achievement of this vision is to increase the country's renewable energy usage and thereby reducing dependence on fossil fuels. Democratisation of energy...... capacity than the existing much larger power plants, subsidies are needed so as to provide incentives to small independent power producers (SIPP), households and firms to invest in SSDG.The paper presents the context, the theoretical considerations and the proposed incentive schemes to enable electricity...

  13. SRTM Anaglyph: Fiji Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    The Sovereign Democratic Republic of the Fiji Islands, commonly known as Fiji, is an independent nation consisting of some 332 islands surrounding the Koro Sea in the South Pacific Ocean. This topographic image shows Viti Levu, the largest island in the group. With an area of 10,429 square kilometers (about 4000 square miles), it comprises more than half the area of the Fiji Islands. Suva, the capital city, lies on the southeast shore. The Nakauvadra, the rugged mountain range running from north to south, has several peaks rising above 900 meters (about 3000 feet). Mount Tomanivi, in the upper center, is the highest peak at 1324 meters (4341 feet). The distinct circular feature on the north shore is the Tavua Caldera, the remnant of a large shield volcano that was active about 4 million years ago. Gold has been mined on the margin of the caldera since the 1930s. The Nadrau plateau is the low relief highland in the center of the mountain range. The coastal plains in the west, northwest and southeast account for only 15 percent of Viti Levu's area but are the main centers of agriculture and settlement.This shaded relief anaglyph image was generated using preliminary topographic data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission. A computer-generated artificial light source illuminates the elevation data from the top (north) to produce a pattern of light and shadows. Slopes facing the light appear bright, while those facing away are shaded. The stereoscopic effect was created by first draping the shaded relief image back over the topographic data and then generating two differing perspectives, one for each eye. When viewed through special glasses, the result is a vertically exaggerated view of the Earth's surface in its full three dimensions. Anaglyph glasses cover the left eye with a red filter and cover the right eye with a blue filter.This image was acquired by SRTM aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on February 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument

  14. Groundwater characteristics and problems in volcanic rock terrains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Custodio, E.

    1989-01-01

    Volcanic rock formations, each with their own particular hydrogeological characteristics, occur in circumstances that cover a multiplicity of situations. These range from permeable porous rock formations to permeable fissured formations and include all types of intermediate situation between the two. The type of volcanism, distance from the source of emission, age, alteration processes and tectonics are all factors which determine their behaviour. Volcanic formations usually constitute a single aquifer system, even though this may be very heterogeneous and may locally be separated into clearly defined subunits. At times, formations may be hundreds of metres thick and are fairly permeable almost throughout. As a rule, volcanic material does not yield directly soluble salts to the water that flows through it. Mineralization of the water is due to the concentration of rainfall and the hydrolysis of silicates as a result of CO 2 being absorbed from the atmosphere and the ground, or as a result of volcanism itself. Cationic grouping is usually closely correlated to that of the rock formation in which the chemical composition is formed. Most environmental isotope and radioisotope techniques may be used, and at times are of unquestionable value. However, the existence of evaporation in the soil with possible isotopic fractionation, the effects of marked relief, the dilution of dissolved carbon by volcanic carbon and isotopic exchange brought about by volcanic carbon, etc., should be taken into account before valid conclusions are drawn. The paper uses examples taken from existing studies, mainly those being carried out in the Canary Islands (Spain). (author). 98 refs, 18 figs, 4 tabs

  15. Developing two-phase flow modelling concepts for rock fractures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keto, V. (Fortum Nuclear Services Oy, Espoo (Finland))

    2010-01-15

    The Finnish nuclear waste disposal company, Posiva Oy, is planning an underground repository for spent nuclear fuel to be constructed on the island of Olkiluoto on the south-west coast of Finland. One element of the site investigations conducted at Olkiluoto is the excavation of the underground rock characterisation facility (ONKALO) that will be extended to the final disposal depth (approximately -400 m). The bedrock around the excavated tunnel volume is fully saturated with groundwater, which water commonly contains a mixture of dissolved gases. These gases remain dissolved due to the high hydrostatic pressure. During tunnel excavation work the natural hydrostatic pressure field is disturbed and the water pressure will decrease close to the atmospheric pressure in the immediate vicinity of the tunnel. During this pressure drop two-phase flow conditions (combined flow of both water and gas) may develop in the vicinity of the underground opening, as the dissolved gas is exsoluted under the low pressure (the term exsolution refers here to release of the dissolved gas molecules from the water phase into a separate gas phase). This report steers towards concept development for numerical two-phase flow modeling for fractured rock. The focus is on the description of gas phase formation process under disturbed hydraulic conditions by exsolution of dissolved gases from groundwater, and on understanding the effects of a possibly formed gas phase on groundwater flow conditions in rock fractures. A mathematical model of three mutually coupled nonlinear partial differential equations for two-phase flow is presented and corresponding constitutional relationships are introduced and discussed. Illustrative numerical simulations are performed in a simplified setting using COMSOL Multiphysics 3.5a - software package. Shortcomings and conceptual problems are discussed. (orig.)

  16. Developing two-phase flow modelling concepts for rock fractures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keto, V.

    2010-01-01

    The Finnish nuclear waste disposal company, Posiva Oy, is planning an underground repository for spent nuclear fuel to be constructed on the island of Olkiluoto on the south-west coast of Finland. One element of the site investigations conducted at Olkiluoto is the excavation of the underground rock characterisation facility (ONKALO) that will be extended to the final disposal depth (approximately -400 m). The bedrock around the excavated tunnel volume is fully saturated with groundwater, which water commonly contains a mixture of dissolved gases. These gases remain dissolved due to the high hydrostatic pressure. During tunnel excavation work the natural hydrostatic pressure field is disturbed and the water pressure will decrease close to the atmospheric pressure in the immediate vicinity of the tunnel. During this pressure drop two-phase flow conditions (combined flow of both water and gas) may develop in the vicinity of the underground opening, as the dissolved gas is exsoluted under the low pressure (the term exsolution refers here to release of the dissolved gas molecules from the water phase into a separate gas phase). This report steers towards concept development for numerical two-phase flow modeling for fractured rock. The focus is on the description of gas phase formation process under disturbed hydraulic conditions by exsolution of dissolved gases from groundwater, and on understanding the effects of a possibly formed gas phase on groundwater flow conditions in rock fractures. A mathematical model of three mutually coupled nonlinear partial differential equations for two-phase flow is presented and corresponding constitutional relationships are introduced and discussed. Illustrative numerical simulations are performed in a simplified setting using COMSOL Multiphysics 3.5a - software package. Shortcomings and conceptual problems are discussed. (orig.)

  17. Hot Dry Rock; Geothermal Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1990-01-01

    The commercial utilization of geothermal energy forms the basis of the largest renewable energy industry in the world. More than 5000 Mw of electrical power are currently in production from approximately 210 plants and 10 000 Mw thermal are used in direct use processes. The majority of these systems are located in the well defined geothermal generally associated with crustal plate boundaries or hot spots. The essential requirements of high subsurface temperature with huge volumes of exploitable fluids, coupled to environmental and market factors, limit the choice of suitable sites significantly. The Hot Dry Rock (HDR) concept at any depth originally offered a dream of unlimited expansion for the geothermal industry by relaxing the location constraints by drilling deep enough to reach adequate temperatures. Now, after 20 years intensive work by international teams and expenditures of more than $250 million, it is vital to review the position of HDR in relation to the established geothermal industry. The HDR resource is merely a body of rock at elevated temperatures with insufficient fluids in place to enable the heat to be extracted without the need for injection wells. All of the major field experiments in HDR have shown that the natural fracture systems form the heat transfer surfaces and that it is these fractures that must be for geothermal systems producing from naturally fractured formations provide a basis for directing the forthcoming but, equally, they require accepting significant location constraints on HDR for the time being. This paper presents a model HDR system designed for commercial operations in the UK and uses production data from hydrothermal systems in Japan and the USA to demonstrate the reservoir performance requirements for viable operations. It is shown that these characteristics are not likely to be achieved in host rocks without stimulation processes. However, the long term goal of artificial geothermal systems developed by systematic

  18. Hydraulic testing in crystalline rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almen, K.E.; Andersson, J.E.; Carlsson, L.; Hansson, K.; Larsson, N.A.

    1986-12-01

    Swedish Geolocical Company (SGAB) conducted and carried out single-hole hydraulic testing in borehole Fi 6 in the Finnsjoen area of central Sweden. The purpose was to make a comprehensive evaluation of different methods applicable in crystalline rocks and to recommend methods for use in current and scheduled investigations in a range of low hydraulic conductivity rocks. A total of eight different methods of testing were compared using the same equipment. This equipment was thoroughly tested as regards the elasticity of the packers and change in volume of the test section. The use of a hydraulically operated down-hole valve enabled all the tests to be conducted. Twelve different 3-m long sections were tested. The hydraulic conductivity calculated ranged from about 5x10 -14 m/s to 1x10 -6 m/s. The methods used were water injection under constant head and then at a constant rate-of-flow, each of which was followed by a pressure fall-off period. Water loss, pressure pulse, slug and drill stem tests were also performed. Interpretation was carried out using standard transient evaluation methods for flow in porous media. The methods used showed themselves to be best suited to specific conductivity ranges. Among the less time-consuming methods, water loss, slug and drill stem tests usually gave somewhat higher hydraulic conductivity values but still comparable to those obtained using the more time-consuming tests. These latter tests, however, provided supplementary information on hydraulic and physical properties and flow conditions, together with hydraulic conductivity values representing a larger volume of rock. (orig./HP)

  19. Suprasubduction volcanic rocks of the Char ophiolite belt, East Kazakhstan: new geochemical and first geochronological data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safonova, Inna; Simonov, Vladimir; Seltmann, Reimar; Yamamoto, Shinji; Xiao, Wenjiao

    2016-04-01

    The Char ophiolite belt is located in the western Central Asian Orogenic Belt, a world largest accretionary orogen, which has evolved during more than 800 Ma. The Char belt formed during Kazakhstan - Siberia collision. It has been known for hosting fragments of Late Devonian-Early Carboniferous oceanic crust, MORB, OPB and OIB, of the Paleo-Asian Ocean (Safonova et al., 2012). The Char is surrounded by two Paleozoic island-arc terranes: Zharma-Saur in the west and Rudny Altai in the east, however, until recent times, no island-arc units have been found within it. We were the first to find island-arc units as tectonic sheets occurring adjacent to those consisting of oceanic rocks. In places, island-arc andesites cut oceanic basalts. The Char volcanic and subvolcanic rocks of a probable suprasubduction origin are basalt, microgabbro, dolerite, andesite, tonalite and dacite. The mafic to andesitic volcanics possessing low TiO2 (0.85 wt.%av.) and show MgO vs. major elements crystallization trends suggesting two magma series: tholeiitic and calc-alkaline. The tholeiitic varieties are less enriched in incompatible elements then the calc-alkaline ones. Two samples are high-Mg and low-Ti andesibasalts similar to boninites. The rocks possess moderately LREE enriched rare-earth element patterns and are characterized by negative Nb anomalies present on the multi-element spectra (Nb/Lapm = 0.14-0.47; Nb/Thpm = 0.7-1.6).The distribution of rare-earth elements (La/Smn = 0.8-2.3, Gd/Ybn = 0.7-1.9) and the results of geochemical modeling in the Nb-Yb system suggest high degrees of melting of a depleted harzburgite-bearing mantle source at spinel facies depths. Fractional crystallization of clinopyroxene, plagioclase and opaque minerals also affected the final composition of the volcanic rocks. Clinopyroxene monomineral thermometry indicates crystallization of melts at 1020-1180°C. Melt inclusion composition based numerical calculations show that primary melts were derived at 1350

  20. Big Bang Day : Physics Rocks

    CERN Multimedia

    Brian Cox; John Barrowman; Eddie Izzard

    2008-01-01

    Is particle physics the new rock 'n' roll? The fundamental questions about the nature of the universe that particle physics hopes to answer have attracted the attention of some very high profile and unusual fans. Alan Alda, Ben Miller, Eddie Izzard, Dara O'Briain and John Barrowman all have interests in this branch of physics. Brian Cox - CERN physicist, and former member of 90's band D:Ream, tracks down some very well known celebrity enthusiasts and takes a light-hearted look at why this subject can appeal to all of us.

  1. ROCKS & MINERALS DETERMINATION AND ANALYSIS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    20150204 Abaydulla Alimjan(Department of Chemistry and Environmental Sciences,Kashgar Teachers College,Kashgar 844006,China);Cheng Chunying Non-Metallic Element Composition Analysis of Non-Ferrous Metal Ores from Oytagh Town,Xinjiang(Rock and Mineral Analysis,ISSN0254-5357,CN11-2131/TD,33(1),2014,p.44-50,5illus.,4tables,28refs.)Key words:nonferrous metals ore,nonmetals,chemical analysis,thermogravimetric analysis Anions in non-ferrous ore materials

  2. Hydrogeological characteristics of aquifer near Arctowski Polish Antarctic Station on King George Island (South Shetland Islands), Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krogulec, Ewa; Krogulec, Tomasz; Małecki, Jerzy; Pietrzykowski, Paweł; Dobak, Paweł

    2018-06-01

    During the Antarctic summer season of 2015/2016, the groundwater studies were performed in the area of Henryk Arctowski Polish Antarctic Station on King George Island (South Shetland Islands) in Admiralty Bay of Antarctica. Rock and groundwater samples were collected from 14 research excavations down to a depth of 0.8-2.5 m b.g.l. Analyses of surface waters were performed on water samples from streams, mossland, and a drinking water reservoir. The scope of hydrochemical studies comprised analyses of temperature, pH, mineralization, phosphates, nitrates, macroelements and selected microelements. Using empirical formulas, granulometric analysis of rock samples from various depths, measurements of sample moisture, and calculations of the hydraulic conductivity were performed. The groundwater is poorly mineralized, representing chloride-sulfate-bicarbonate-sodium and chloride-bicarbonate-sodium-calcium types. Studies on hydrochemical indicators show a small range of the effect of animal ecosystems on the waters; no effects of organic matter have been identified in the study area. Results of hydrogeochemical studies of waters and observations of groundwater levels in the summer season indicate groundwater recharge in a shallow groundwater circulation system, lateral inflow direction from land toward the seashore, and a low rate of rainwater infiltration. Groundwater drainage occurs through evapotranspiration and water runoff to the sea.

  3. Island biogeography of marine organisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinheiro, Hudson T.; Bernardi, Giacomo; Simon, Thiony; Joyeux, Jean-Christophe; Macieira, Raphael M.; Gasparini, João Luiz; Rocha, Claudia; Rocha, Luiz A.

    2017-09-01

    Studies on the distribution and evolution of organisms on oceanic islands have advanced towards a dynamic perspective, where terrestrial endemicity results from island geographical aspects and geological history intertwined with sea-level fluctuations. Diversification on these islands may follow neutral models, decreasing over time as niches are filled, or disequilibrium states and progression rules, where richness and endemism rise with the age of the archipelago owing to the splitting of ancestral lineages (cladogenesis). However, marine organisms have received comparatively little scientific attention. Therefore, island and seamount evolutionary processes in the aquatic environment remain unclear. Here we analyse the evolutionary history of reef fishes that are endemic to a volcanic ridge of seamounts and islands to understand their relations to island evolution and sea-level fluctuations. We also test how this evolutionary history fits island biogeography theory. We found that most endemic species have evolved recently (Pleistocene epoch), during a period of recurrent sea-level changes and intermittent connectivity caused by repeated aerial exposure of seamounts, a finding that is consistent with an ephemeral ecological speciation process. Similar to findings for terrestrial biodiversity, our data suggest that the marine speciation rate on islands is negatively correlated with immigration rate. However, because marine species disperse better than terrestrial species, most niches are filled by immigration: speciation increases with the random accumulation of species with low dispersal ability, with few opportunities for in situ cladogenesis and adaptive radiation. Moreover, we confirm that sea-level fluctuations and seamount location play a critical role in marine evolution, mainly by intermittently providing stepping stones for island colonization.

  4. Bamboo Diversity in Sumba Island

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KARSONO

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Bamboo is one of the economic plant which grow widely in the villages and have been used by the local people in the villages. Indonesia has about 10% of the world bamboo, 50% among them was endemic to Indonesia. According Widjaja (2001 Lesser Sunda Island which consists of Lombok, Sumbawa, Flores, Timor, Sumba and other small island eastern of Flores has 14 bamboo species, however, the information from the Sumba Island was lacking because of lacking data from this area except one species which was proposed by S. Soenarko in 1977 where the type specimens was collected by Iboet 443 in 1925. To fullfill data from the Sumba Island, an exploration to this area has been conducted on July 2003. The observation was done in West Sumba and East Sumba District, especially in two natioal parks at both districts. According to this inventory study in the Sumba Island, there were 10 bamboo species in Sumba Island, 1 species among them (Dinochloa sp. was a new species which has not been collected before, whereas the other species (Dinochloa kostermansiana has a new addition record from this area. The bamboo species in Sumba Island were Bambusa blumeana, Bambusa vulgaris, Dendocalamus asper, Dinochloa kostermansiana, Dinochloa sp., Gigantochloa atter, Nastus reholtumianus, Phyllostachys aurea, Schisotachyum brachycladum and Schizostachyum lima. From 10 recorded species, the genera Dinochloa and Nastus grow wild in the forest, whereas another species grow widly or cultivated in the garden. Furthermore, the genus Dinochloa was the only genus grow climbing. The endemic species found in Sumba Island was Nastus reholttumianus, whereas Dinochloa kostermansiana was also found in Flores Island.

  5. Rock Goes to School on Screen: A Model for Teaching Non-"Learned" Musics Derived from the Films "School of Rock" (2003) and "Rock School" (2005)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Michael

    2007-01-01

    What can be learned from two films with "rock" and "school" in their titles, about rock in school and about music and schooling more broadly? "School of Rock" (2003), a "family comedy," and "Rock School" (2005), a documentary, provoke a range of questions, ideological and otherwise, surrounding the inclusion of rock in formal instructional…

  6. A survey of the water resources of St. Thomas, Virgin Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordon, D.G.; Cosner, O.J.

    1973-01-01

    St. Thomas, with an area of 32 square miles, is the second largest of the Virgin Islands of the United States. The island is mountainous, and slopes commonly exceed 35 degrees along a central ridge 800 to 1,200 feet high running the length of the island. The general appearance is a panorama of numerous steep interstream spurs and rounded peaks. The island is made up of rocks of Cretaceous age, mostly volcanic flows and breccia s. A thin limestone and tuffaceous wacke complete the sequence of major rock types. All the rocks have been tilted and dip about 50 degrees north. Water in Charlotte Amalie, the capital, is supplied by sea-water desalting and water barged from Puerto Rico and is augmented by hillside rain catchments and individual roof catchments. Rainwater augmented by water hauling and a few wells is the source of water for the rural areas. Streamflow is meager--2 to 8 percent of the annual rainfall-and is predominantly storm runoff. Runoff after rainstorms seldom exceeds 5 percent of the rainfall. Runoff is rapid, however, and flash floods occasionally occur. Test drilling has shown that water can be obtained from fractured volcanic rocks in nearly all parts of the island. Wells will yield, generally, less than 1,000 gpd (gallons per day). In the upper Turpentine Run Valley and the Lovenlund Valley, short-term yields of individual wells are as great as 100 gallons per minute. Estimates of potential yield from these areas are 300,000 and 100,000 gpd, respectively. Two smaller areas--Long Bay and Lindberg Bay on the outskirts of Charlotte Amalie have estimated ground-water yields of 70,000 and 30,000 gpd, respectively. Fully developed, the surface- and ground-water resources of the island could yield 1.3 million gallons of water per day. Ground water is slightly saline, commonly containing more than 1,000 milligrams per liter dissolved solids. The principal source of the minerals is bulk fallout of sea- and land-derived dust from the atmosphere. Solution of

  7. Morphostructural Development of Gunungsewu Karst, Jawa Island

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. D. Tjia

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available DOI: 10.17014/ijog.v8i2.157Gunungsewu Karst (also known as Sewu karst in the literature is synonymous with morphology of a carbonate terrain dominated by hills crowned by accordant-level tops that developed in a humid tropical environment by comparatively more rapid dissolution and denudation. In addition, the hills are sinoid to cone-shaped. Surface drainage is negligible compared to subsurface water flow. Abandoned channel segments and spatial arrangements of karst hills have been found to correspond with fracture patterns that are genetically associated with the regional compression direction of Jawa Island. Images derived from space platforms show many landform patterns that were neither known from ground-based nor from aerial photograph study. Landforms arranged in ring, multi-ring, spiral, polygonal, and long linear to serpentine patterns are common beside the expected depressions of dolines, poljes, and uvalas. The orientations of the long linear ridges appear to change systematically from those near the coast to those located inland. These linear ridges are interpreted as depositional fronts, most likely representing breaker zones. The youngest depositional ridge fronts, located nearest to the present shoreline, are parallel to the geological strike of Jawa Island. Toward the island’s interior, linear depositional fronts deviate in orientation by as much as 40o. This is now interpreted to have resulted from counterclockwise rotation of the Gunungsewu microplate since the late Middle Miocene. Similar CCW rotations are indicated by the paleomagnetic orientations of igneous rocks located farther east in the southern range of the island. Active tectonics is expressed in stage-wise net uplift of Gunungsewu whereas regional tilting appears negligible. Stacked and often paired river terraces (thus suggesting land uplift have been used to relatively date paleoarcheological finds. Very recent uplift on the coast show up in lazy-V limestone

  8. Reliving Island Life: Staging Stories of the Blasket Islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daithí Kearney

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The Blasket Islands are located off the south-west coast of Ireland. No longer inhabited, the Great Blasket Island and its distinctive culture have been documented by a variety of writers and are celebrated today in an interpretative centre on the mainland and in performances by Siamsa Tíre, The National Folk Theatre of Ireland. “Siamsa” developed from local initiatives in North Kerry during the early 1960s and is located today in Tralee, Co. Kerry. It aims to present Irish folklore and folk culture through the medium of theatre involving music, song, dance and mime but invariably no dialogue. In this paper, I focus on the production Oiléan, based loosely on the stories of the Blasket Islanders, which was initially devised as part of the fiftieth anniversary commemoration of the departure of the last inhabitants of the islands in 2003.

  9. Sangkulirang Mangkalihat: The Earliest Prehistoric Rock-Art in the World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imam Gozali Sumantri, Dirga; Soeria Atmadja, Dicky A. S.; Setiawan, Pindi

    2018-05-01

    Borneo island, a part of Sundaland - a great mainland in South East Asia thousands of years ago - is the largest island in Indonesian Archipelago. In the middle-eastern of East Borneo, lies a peninsula karst region named Sangkulirang Mangkalihat. The region's biodiversity contains many species of flora and fauna which are part of karst ecosystem. Surprisingly, thousands prehistoric rock art paintings and engraving were found here, spread over 48 inland caves in seven different karst mountain areas. The rock arts are painted on the ceiling, wall, and hollow of the cave depends on the meaning. They illustrate forms such as spiritual images (zoomorphic and antropomorphic) for sacred spiritual meaning, and social phenomenon images (tools and weapons) for description of daily life. From all those rock-arts, hand paintings are the most common elements appeared. Compared to other paintings, these are the only negative images using different techniques. Radiocarbon dating indicated that the rock-arts at Tewet Cave in Sangkulirang Mangkalihat is 40,000 BP. It is much earlier compared to Lascaux Cave (35,400 BP) and Chauvet Cave (32,000) in France which were previously known as the earliest one in the world. Rock arts and some archeological findings also indicate the migration of Austronesian People. During the migration, Borneo's climate and land cover were changing from time to time. Continental climate occurred when all Sundaland was still dry (40,000-21,000 BP), followed by tropical savanna climate and archipelagic climate (12,000-7.000 BP), and then Tropical Rainforest consecutively (1,000 BP). Correlatively, geological interpretations from such areas indicate land cover changes. These changes effected Austronesian ways of living, e.g. from hunting to fishing, and were depicted clearly on their paintings. Today, - as observed from time series satellite images - industrial activities such as karst exploitation for cement production and land clearing for palm

  10. Petrography, Geochemistry and Petrogenesis of Volcanic Rocks, NW Ghonabad, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sedigheh Zirjanizadeh

    2016-07-01

    /contamination. Andesitic rocks displays lightly lower rangesof87Sr/86Sr (0.7067-0.7068 and εNdi values from -1.44 to -2.34, than rhyolite. Distinct Sr and Nd isotopic compositions are seen between rhyolitic rocks and andesitic rocks. The geochemical data suggest that the rhyolitic magmas probably represent the final differentiates of parental magmas, resulting from partial melting of mafic lower crust. Generally, the magmas from this area have low Sr (less than 400 ppm, high K2O/Na2O and negative Eu anomalies. References Hastie, A.R., Kerr, A.C., Pearce, J.A. and Mitchell, S.F., 2007. Classification of altered volcanic island arc rocks using immobile trace elements: development of the Th-Co discrimination diagram. Journal of Petrology, 48(12: 2341- 2357. Nakamura, N., 1974. Determination of REE, Ba, Fe, Mg, Na, and K in carbonaceous and ordinary chondrites. Geochim, Cosmochim, Acta, 38(5: 757–775. Taylor, S.R. and McLennan, S.M., 1985. The continental crust, its composition and evolution, an examination of the geochemical record preserved in sedimentary rocks. Blackwell, Oxford, 312 pp. Winchester, J.A. and Floyd, P.A., 1977. Geochemical discrimination of different magma series and their differentiation products using immobile elements. Chemical Geology, 20(4: 325-343.

  11. New species and new records of bryozoans from shallow waters of Madeira Island.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souto, Javier; Kaufmann, Manfred J; Canning-Clode, João

    2015-03-03

    Two new species of bryozoans encrusting subtidal rocks are described from the shallow waters of Madeira Island. We describe one cyclostome, Favosipora purpurea sp. nov., which represents the first record of this genus in the Atlantic Ocean, and one cheilostome, Rhynchozoon papuliferum sp. nov. In addition, one species, Beania maxilladentata, is recorded for the first time outside of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Six other species previously recorded in Madeira are redescribed to provide new data and SEM images.

  12. Equilibrium theory of island biogeography: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angela D. Yu; Simon A. Lei

    2001-01-01

    The topography, climatic pattern, location, and origin of islands generate unique patterns of species distribution. The equilibrium theory of island biogeography creates a general framework in which the study of taxon distribution and broad island trends may be conducted. Critical components of the equilibrium theory include the species-area relationship, island-...

  13. Oak restoration trials: Santa Catalina Island

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisa Stratton

    2002-01-01

    Two restoration trials involving four oak species have been implemented as part of a larger restoration program for Catalina Island. In 1997 the Catalina Island Conservancy began an active program of restoration after 50 years of ranching and farming activities on the island. The restoration program includes removing feral goats and pigs island-wide and converting 80...

  14. Radon exhalation from granitic rocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Del Claro, Flávia; Paschuk, Sergei A.; Corrêa, Janine N.; Mazer, Wellington; Narloch, Danielle Cristine; Martin, Aline Cristina; Denyak, Valeriy

    2017-01-01

    Naturally occurring radionuclides such as radon ( 222 Rn), its decay products and other elements from the radioactive series of uranium ( 238 U and 235 U) and thorium ( 232 Th) are an important source of human exposure to natural radioactivity. The worldwide evaluation of health radiobiological effects and risks from population exposure to natural radionuclides is a growing concern. About 50% of personal radiation annual dose is related to radionuclides such as radon ( 222 Rn), thoron ( 220 Rn), radium ( 226 Ra), thorium ( 232 Th) and potassium ( 40 K), which are present in modern materials commonly used in construction of dwellings and buildings. The radioactivity of marbles and granites is of big concern since under certain conditions the radioactivity levels of these materials can be hazardous to the population and require the implementation of mitigation procedures. Present survey of the 222 Rn and 220 Rn activity concentration liberated in the air was performed using commercialized Brazilian granite rocks at national market as well as exported to other countries. The 222 Rn and 220 Rn measurements were performed using the AlphaGUARD instant monitor and RAD7 detector, respectively. This study was performed at the Applied Nuclear Physics Laboratory of the Federal University of Technology – Paraná (UTFPR). Obtained results of radon concentration activity in air exhaled studied samples of granites varied from 3±1 Bq/m 3 to 2087±19 Bq/m 3 , which shows that some samples of granitic rocks represent rather elevated health risk the population. (author)

  15. Hydraulic gradients in rock aquifers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dahlblom, P.

    1992-05-01

    This report deals with fractured rock as a host for deposits of hazardous waste. In this context the rock, with its fractures containing moving groundwater, is called the geological barrier. The desired properties of the geological barrier are low permeability to water, low hydraulic gradients and ability to retain matter dissolved in the water. The hydraulic gradient together with the permeability and the porosity determines the migration velocity. Mathematical modelling of the migration involves calculation of the water flow and the hydrodynamic dispersion of the contaminant. The porous medium approach can be used to calculate mean flow velocities and hydrodynamic dispersion of a large number of fractures are connected, which means that a large volume have to be considered. It is assumed that the porous medium approach can be applied, and a number of idealized examples are shown. It is assumed that the groundwater table is replenished by percolation at a constant rate. One-dimensional analytical calculations show that zero hydraulic gradients may exist at relatively large distance from the coast. Two-dimensional numerical calculations show that it may be possible to find areas with low hydraulic gradients and flow velocities within blocks surrounded by areas with high hydraulic conductivity. (au)

  16. Laboratory characterization of rock joints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsiung, S.M.; Kana, D.D.; Ahola, M.P.; Chowdhury, A.H.; Ghosh, A.

    1994-05-01

    A laboratory characterization of the Apache Leap tuff joints under cyclic pseudostatic and dynamic loads has been undertaken to obtain a better understanding of dynamic joint shear behavior and to generate a complete data set that can be used for validation of existing rock-joint models. Study has indicated that available methods for determining joint roughness coefficient (JRC) significantly underestimate the roughness coefficient of the Apache Leap tuff joints, that will lead to an underestimation of the joint shear strength. The results of the direct shear tests have indicated that both under cyclic pseudostatic and dynamic loadings the joint resistance upon reverse shearing is smaller than that of forward shearing and the joint dilation resulting from forward shearing recovers during reverse shearing. Within the range of variation of shearing velocity used in these tests, the shearing velocity effect on rock-joint behavior seems to be minor, and no noticeable effect on the peak joint shear strength and the joint shear strength for the reverse shearing is observed

  17. Aespoe hard rock laboratory Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    The aim of the new Aespoe hard rock laboratory is to demonstrate state of the art of technology and evaluation methods before the start of actual construction work on the planned deep repository for spent nuclear fuel. The nine country OECD/NEA project in the Stripa mine in Sweden has been an excellent example of high quality international research co-operation. In Sweden the new Aespoe hard rock laboratory will gradually take over and finalize this work. SKB very much appreciates the continued international participation in Aespoe which is of great value for the quality efficiency, and confidence in this kind of work. We have invited a number of leading experts to this first international seminar to summarize the current state of a number of key questions. The contributions show the great progress that has taken place during the years. The results show that there is a solid scientific basis for using this knowledge on site specific preparation and work on actual repositories. (au)

  18. Proceedings of the 3. Canada-US rock mechanics symposium and 20. Canadian rock mechanics symposium : rock engineering 2009 : rock engineering in difficult conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-07-01

    This conference provided a forum for geologists, mining operators and engineers to discuss the application of rock mechanics in engineering designs. Members of the scientific and engineering communities discussed challenges and interdisciplinary elements involved in rock engineering. New geological models and methods of characterizing rock masses and ground conditions in underground engineering projects were discussed along with excavation and mining methods. Papers presented at the conference discussed the role of rock mechanics in forensic engineering. Geophysics, geomechanics, and risk-based approaches to rock engineering designs were reviewed. Issues related to high pressure and high flow water conditions were discussed, and new rock physics models designed to enhance hydrocarbon recovery were presented. The conference featured 84 presentations, of which 9 have been catalogued separately for inclusion in this database. tabs., figs.

  19. Chemical buffering capacity of clay rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beaucaire, C.; Pearson, F.J.; Gautschi, A.

    2004-01-01

    The long-term performance of a nuclear waste repository is strongly dependent on the chemical properties of the host rock. The host rock establishes the chemical environment that determines such important performance attributes as radionuclide solubilities from the waste and the transport rates from the repository to the accessible environment. Clay-rich rocks are especially favourable host rocks because they provide a strong buffering capacity to resist chemical changes prompted either internally, by reactions of the waste itself and emplacement materials, or externally, by changes in the hydrologic systems surrounding the host rock. This paper will focus on three aspects of the stability of clay-rich host rocks: their ability to provide pCO 2 and redox buffering, and to resist chemical changes imposed by changes in regional hydrology and hydro-chemistry. (authors)

  20. Mega-tsunami deposits or evidence of uplift within the Hawaiian Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keating, B. H.

    2004-12-01

    For several years there has been a controversy over the origin of coral-bearing deposits on the island of Lanai (Hawaii). Studies underway have expanded the study of marine deposits from Lanai to adjacent islands. Coral-bearing deposits are present at elevations up to 190 m on Lanai, 90 m on Maui, 90 m on Molokai, 30 m Oahu, 30 m on Niihau, roughly 75 m on Kauai (as well as a few m above sea level on the Kohala Volcano on the island of Hawaii). The deposits show a persistent pattern of increased weathering, color change, increasing age and increase in the number of fossils now extinct in Hawaiian waters, with elevation above modern sea level. Changes in slope are also observed reflecting changing relative sea level. A review of radiometric ages suggests in-situ corals as well as marine conglomerates were deposited near sea level and were contemporaneous. The distribution, stratigraphy and age of marine sediments around the islands are consistent with a history of uplift combined with changing sea level. We document the age, rock and fossil characteristics and distribution of sub-aerially exposed marine sediments, in the Hawaiian Island chain. We suggest that the Hawaiian Islands have experienced lithospheric adjustments during the last 500,000 years that have left marine deposits exposed above sea level.

  1. Reliable Refuge: Two Sky Island Scorpion Species Select Larger, Thermally Stable Retreat Sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Jamie E; Brown, Christopher A

    2016-01-01

    Sky island scorpions shelter under rocks and other surface debris, but, as with other scorpions, it is unclear whether these species select retreat sites randomly. Furthermore, little is known about the thermal preferences of scorpions, and no research has been done to identify whether reproductive condition might influence retreat site selection. The objectives were to (1) identify physical or thermal characteristics for retreat sites occupied by two sky island scorpions (Vaejovis cashi Graham 2007 and V. electrum Hughes 2011) and those not occupied; (2) determine whether retreat site selection differs between the two study species; and (3) identify whether thermal selection differs between species and between gravid and non-gravid females of the same species. Within each scorpion's habitat, maximum dimensions of rocks along a transect line were measured and compared to occupied rocks to determine whether retreat site selection occurred randomly. Temperature loggers were placed under a subset of occupied and unoccupied rocks for 48 hours to compare the thermal characteristics of these rocks. Thermal gradient trials were conducted before parturition and after dispersal of young in order to identify whether gravidity influences thermal preference. Vaejovis cashi and V. electrum both selected larger retreat sites that had more stable thermal profiles. Neither species appeared to have thermal preferences influenced by reproductive condition. However, while thermal selection did not differ among non-gravid individuals, gravid V. electrum selected warmer temperatures than its gravid congener. Sky island scorpions appear to select large retreat sites to maintain thermal stability, although biotic factors (e.g., competition) could also be involved in this choice. Future studies should focus on identifying the various biotic or abiotic factors that could influence retreat site selection in scorpions, as well as determining whether reproductive condition affects thermal

  2. PYROXENITE VEINS WITHIN SSZ PERIDOTITES – EVIDENCE OF MELT-ROCK INTERACTION (EGIINGOL MASSIF, MAJOR AND TRACE ELEMENT COMPOSITION OF MINERALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Karimov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Evidence of melt-rock reaction between suprasubduction zone (SSZ peridotites and island arc boninititc and tholeiitic melts are identified. This process is the cause of replacive dunites and pyroxenite veins forming, which are represent the ways of island-arc melts migration. The peridotite-melt interaction is confirmed by compositional features of rocks and minerals. Influence of boninitic melt in peridotites of South Sandwich island arc leads to increasing of TiO2 and Cr-number (Cr# in spinels [Pearce et al., 2000] e.g. REE patterns of clinopyroxene from Voykar are equilibrium to boninitic melts [Belousov et al., 2009]. We show that pyroxenites are formed sequential, orthopyroxenites are originated firstly, websterites – after, and the main forming process is interaction of SSZ peridotites with percolating boninite-like melts.

  3. Radiation transport in statistically inhomogeneous rocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lukhminskij, B.E.

    1975-01-01

    A study has been made of radiation transfer in statistically inhomogeneous rocks. Account has been taken of the statistical character of rock composition through randomization of density. Formulas are summarized for sigma-distribution, homogeneous density, the Simpson and Cauchy distributions. Consideration is given to the statistics of mean square ranges in a medium, simulated by the jump Markov random function. A quantitative criterion of rock heterogeneity is proposed

  4. Response of rocks to large stresses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schock, R.N.

    1976-01-01

    To predict the dimensions and characteristics of impact- and explosion-induced craters, one must know the equation of state of the rocks in which the crater is formed. Recent experimental data shed light upon inelastic processes that influence the stress/strain behavior of rocks. We examine these data with a view to developing models that could be used in predicting cratering phenomena. New data is presented on the volume behavior of two dissimilar rocks subjected to tensile stresses

  5. Oceanic mantle rocks reveal evidence for an ancient, 1.2-1.3 Ga global melting event

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dijkstra, A. H.; Sergeev, D.; McTaminey, L.; Dale, C. W.; Meisel, T. C.

    2011-12-01

    It is now increasingly being recognized that many oceanic peridotites are refertilized harzburgites, and that the refertilization often masks an extremely refractory character of the original mantle rock 'protolith'. Oceanic peridotites are, when the effects of melt refertilization are undone, often too refractory to be simple mantle melting residues after the extraction of mid-ocean ridge basalts at a spreading center. Rhenium-osmium isotope analysis is a powerful method to look through the effects of refertilization and to obtain constraints on the age of the melting that produced the refractory mantle protolith. Rhenium-depletion model ages of such anomalously refractory oceanic mantle rocks - found as abyssal peridotites or as mantle xenoliths on ocean islands - are typically >1 Ga, i.e., much older than the ridge system at which they were emplaced. In my contribution I will show results from two case studies of refertilized anciently depleted mantle rocks (Macquarie Island 'abyssal' peridotites and Lanzarote mantle xenoliths). Interestingly, very refractory oceanic mantle rocks from sites all around the world show recurring evidence for a Mesoproterozoic (~1.2-1.3 Ga) melting event [1]. Therefore, oceanic mantle rocks seem to preserve evidence for ancient melting events of global significance. Alternatively, such mantle rocks may be samples of rafts of ancient continental lithospheric mantle. Laser-ablation osmium isotope 'dating' of large populations of individual osmium-bearing alloys from mantle rocks is the key to better constrain the nature and significance of these ancient depletion events. Osmium-bearing alloys form when mantle rocks are melted to high-degrees. We have now extracted over >250 detrital osmium alloys from placer gold occurrences in the river Rhine. These alloys are derived from outcrops of ophiolitic mantle rocks in the Alps, which include blocks of mantle rocks emplaced within the Tethys Ocean, and ultramafic lenses of unknown

  6. The Three Mile Island Disaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crosby, Emeral

    1980-01-01

    For the past decade, education has been experiencing meltdown, explosions, radiation leaks, heat pollution, and management crises, just like the Three Mile Island disaster. This article offers suggestions on how to deal with these problems. (Author/LD)

  7. Ship impact against protection islands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Preben Terndrup

    1997-01-01

    The five most exposed piers and the anchor blocks on the East Bridge shall be protected by aritificial islands. Extensive analytical and experimental investitations were carried out to verify the efficiency of how these protection works....

  8. Three Mile Island Accident Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Three Mile Island Accident Data consists of mostly upper air and wind observations immediately following the nuclear meltdown occurring on March 28, 1979, near...

  9. Archaeology of Bet Dwarka Island

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sundaresh; Gaur, A.S.

    Explorations along the shore and in the intertidal zone at Bet Dwarka island, Gujarat, India were carried out by the Marine Archaeology Centre of National Institute of Oceanography (NIO), Goa, India between 1981-1994. Artefacts of both...

  10. Rock breaking methods to replace blasting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Huisheng; Xie, Xinghua; Feng, Yuqing

    2018-03-01

    The method of breaking rock by blasting has a high efficiency and the cost is relatively low, but the associated vibration, flyrock, production of toxic gases since the 1970’s, the Western developed countries began to study the safety of breaking rock. This paper introduces different methods and their progress to safely break rock. Ideally, safe rock breaking would have little vibration, no fly stone, and no toxic gases, which can be widely used in municipal engineering, road excavation, high-risk mining, quarrying and complex environment.

  11. Hopi and Anasazi Alignments and Rock Art

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bates, Bryan C.

    The interaction of light and shadow on ancestral Puebloan rock art, or rock art demarcating sunrise/set horizon points that align with culturally significant dates, has long been assumed to be evidence of "intentional construct" for marking time or event by the native creator. However, anthropological rock art research requires the scientific control of cultural time, element orientation and placement, structure, and association with other rock art elements. The evaluation of five exemplars challenges the oft-held assumption that "if the interaction occurs, it therefore supports intentional construct" and thereby conveys meaning to the native culture.

  12. Professional users handbook for rock bolting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stillborg, B.

    1986-01-01

    The paper is a practical handbook which reviews the basic principles of rock bolting and sets out the design considerations used for most types of rockbolts in current use. It discusses the characteristics of these bolts and gives information on installation procedures and the observations and measurement of rockbolt performance. Rockbolting is considered under the following chapter headings: review of typical rockbolt systems; rockbolt installation; testing of rockbolts; design considerations; design of rock reinforcement; monitoring; cost of rock bolting; and Atlas Lopco auxillary equipment for rock bolting. 45 refs.

  13. Tunnel Design by Rock Mass Classifications

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    Engineering," revised second edition, Institution of Mining and Metallurgy, London, 1977, pp 113-115 and 150-192. 42. Selmer - Olsen , R., and Broch, E...to wall when a)/03 > 10, re- stability) ................ 10-5 0.66-0.33 0.5-2.0 duce oc and ot to L. Mild rock burst (massive 0.6 cc and 0.6 on rock ...5-2.5 0.33-0.16 5-10 where: 0 c = uncon-fined compression M. Heavy rock burst (massive strength, at = rock

  14. Igneous rocks formed by hypervelocity impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osinski, Gordon R.; Grieve, Richard A. F.; Bleacher, Jacob E.; Neish, Catherine D.; Pilles, Eric A.; Tornabene, Livio L.

    2018-03-01

    Igneous rocks are the primary building blocks of planetary crusts. Most igneous rocks originate via decompression melting and/or wet melting of protolith lithologies within planetary interiors and their classification and compositional, petrographic, and textural characteristics, are well-studied. As our exploration of the Solar System continues, so too does the inventory of intrusive and extrusive igneous rocks, settings, and processes. The results of planetary exploration have also clearly demonstrated that impact cratering is a ubiquitous geological process that has affected, and will continue to affect, all planetary objects with a solid surface, whether that be rock or ice. It is now recognized that the production of igneous rocks is a fundamental outcome of hypervelocity impact. The goal of this review is to provide an up-to-date synthesis of our knowledge and understanding of igneous rocks formed by hypervelocity impact. Following a brief overview of the basics of the impact process, we describe how and why melts are generated during impact events and how impact melting differs from endogenic igneous processes. While the process may differ, we show that the products of hypervelocity impact can share close similarities with volcanic and shallow intrusive igneous rocks of endogenic origin. Such impact melt rocks, as they are termed, can display lobate margins and cooling cracks, columnar joints and at the hand specimen and microscopic scale, such rocks can display mineral textures that are typical of volcanic rocks, such as quench crystallites, ophitic, porphyritic, as well as features such as vesicles, flow textures, and so on. Historically, these similarities led to the misidentification of some igneous rocks now known to be impact melt rocks as being of endogenic origin. This raises the question as to how to distinguish between an impact versus an endogenic origin for igneous-like rocks on other planetary bodies where fieldwork and sample analysis may not

  15. Regulation of ROCK Activity in Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan-Fisher, Marie; Wewer, Ulla M.

    2013-01-01

    Cancer-associated changes in cellular behavior, such as modified cell-cell contact, increased migratory potential, and generation of cellular force, all require alteration of the cytoskeleton. Two homologous mammalian serine/threonine kinases, Rho-associated protein kinases (ROCK I and II), are key regulators of the actin cytoskeleton acting downstream of the small GTPase Rho. ROCK is associated with cancer progression, and ROCK protein expression is elevated in several types of cancer. ROCKs exist in a closed, inactive conformation under quiescent conditions, which is changed to an open, active conformation by the direct binding of guanosine triphosphate (GTP)–loaded Rho. In recent years, a number of ROCK isoform-specific binding partners have been found to modulate the kinase activity through direct interactions with the catalytic domain or via altered cellular localization of the kinases. Thus, these findings demonstrate additional modes to regulate ROCK activity. This review describes the molecular mechanisms of ROCK activity regulation in cancer, with emphasis on ROCK isoform-specific regulation and interaction partners, and discusses the potential of ROCKs as therapeutic targets in cancer. PMID:23204112

  16. Remarks on some rock neutron parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Czubek, J.A.

    1983-01-01

    A method to calculate the thermal neutron parameters (absorption cross-section, diffusion coefficient and diffusion length) of rocks is given. It is based on a proper energy averaging of cross-sections for all rock matrix and rock saturating liquid constituents. Special emphasis is given to the presence of hydrogen. The diffusion lengths in different lithologies in the function of the variable rock porosity have been calculated. An influence of the thermal neutron spectrum on the shape of the porosity calibration curves for the dual spacing neutron method is shown. This influence has been estimated on two porosity units, on average. (author)

  17. Sorption of radionuclides on hard rocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berry, J.A.; Bourke, P.J.; Green, A.; Littleboy, A.K.

    1987-09-01

    Methods for measuring sorption on hard rocks, particularly of strontium, caesium, neptunium and americium on Darley Dale sandstone and Welsh slate have been investigated. The methods tried included batch tests with crushed rock and tests of simultaneous diffusion and convection with sorption on intact rock. High pressures (800m H 2 O) were used in the convective tests to pump water quickly through the rock samples and to measure high sorptivities in times shorter than those needed in the diffusive methods with intact samples. (author)

  18. Magnetic island formation in tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshikawa, S.

    1989-04-01

    The size of a magnetic island created by a perturbing helical field in a tokamak is estimated. A helical equilibrium of a current- carrying plasma is found in a helical coordinate and the helically flowing current in the cylinder that borders the plasma is calculated. From that solution, it is concluded that the helical perturbation of /approximately/10/sup /minus/4/ of the total plasma current is sufficient to cause an island width of approximately 5% of the plasma radius. 6 refs

  19. Island biodiversity conservation needs palaeoecology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nogué, Sandra; de Nascimento, Lea; Froyd, Cynthia A.

    2017-01-01

    to human activities. Consequently, even the most degraded islands are a focus for restoration, eradication, and monitoring programmes to protect the remaining endemic and/or relict populations. Here, we build a framework that incorporates an assessment of the degree of change from multiple baseline...... and the introduction of non-native species. We provide exemplification of how such approaches can provide valuable information for biodiversity conservation managers of island ecosystems....

  20. Fire and vegetation history on Santa Rosa Island, Channel Islands, and long-term environmental change in southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starratt, Scott W.; Pinter, N.; Anderson, Robert S.; Jass, R.B.

    2009-01-01

    The long-term history of vegetation and fire was investigated at two locations – Soledad Pond (275 m; from ca. 12 000 cal. a BP) and Abalone Rocks Marsh (0 m; from ca. 7000 cal. a BP) – on Santa Rosa Island, situated off the coast of southern California. A coastal conifer forest covered highlands of Santa Rosa during the last glacial, but by ca. 11 800 cal. a BP Pinus stands, coastal sage scrub and grassland replaced the forest as the climate warmed. The early Holocene became increasingly drier, particularly after ca. 9150 cal. a BP, as the pond dried frequently, and coastal sage scrub covered the nearby hillslopes. By ca. 6900 cal. a BP grasslands recovered at both sites. Pollen of wetland plants became prominent at Soledad Pond after ca. 4500 cal. a BP, and at Abalone Rocks Marsh after ca. 3465 cal. a BP. Diatoms suggest freshening of the Abalone Rocks Marsh somewhat later, probably by additional runoff from the highlands. Introduction of non-native species by ranchers occurred subsequent to AD 1850. Charcoal influx is high early in the record, but declines during the early Holocene when minimal biomass suggests extended drought. A general increase occurs after ca. 7000 cal. a BP, and especially after ca. 4500 cal. a BP. The Holocene pattern closely resembles population levels constructed from the archaeological record, and suggests a potential influence by humans on the fire regime of the islands, particularly during the late Holocene.