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Sample records for rock grouting design

  1. Design for rock grouting based on analysis of grout penetration. Verification using Aespoe HRL data and parameter analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, Shinji; Stille, Haakan

    2007-01-01

    Grouting as a method to reduce the inflow of water into underground facilities will be important in both the construction and operation of the deep repository. SKB has been studying grouting design based on characterization of fractured rock and prediction of grout spread. However, as in other Scandinavian tunnels, stop criteria have been empirically set so that grouting is completed when the grout flow is less than a certain value at maximum pressure or the grout take is above a certain value. Since empirically based stop criteria are determined without a theoretical basis and are not related to grout penetration, the grouting result may be inadequate or uneconomical. In order to permit the choice of adequate and cost-effective grouting methods, stop criteria can be designed based on a theoretical analysis of grout penetration. The relationship between grout penetration and grouting time has been studied at the Royal Institute of Technology and Chalmers University of Technology. Based on these studies, the theory has been further developed in order to apply to real grouting work. Another aspect is using the developed method for parameter analysis. The purpose of parameter analysis is to evaluate the influence of different grouting parameters on the result. Since the grouting strategy is composed of many different components, the selection of a grouting method is complex. Even if the theoretically most suitable grouting method is selected, it is difficult to carry out grouting exactly as planned because grouting parameters such as grout properties can easily vary during the grouting operation. In addition, knowing the parameters precisely beforehand is impossible because there are uncertainties inherent in the rock mass. Therefore, it is important to asses the effects of variations in grouting parameters. The parameter analysis can serve as a guide in choosing an effective grouting method. The objectives of this report are to: Further develop the theory concerning

  2. R20 programme: Development of rock grouting design, techniques and procedures for ONKALO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sievaenen, U.

    2009-02-01

    Posiva Oy constructs an underground research facility ONKALO at Olkiluoto in Eurajoki. ONKALO is planned to be a part of the deep repository for the high level nuclear waste. Posiva Oy set up R20-programme for the years 2006-2008, with the target of having an acceptable grouting methodology in ONKALO. The programme was divided into three projects and the work and results of Technique-project is presented in this report. The implementation of the results (grouting design and execution) was outlined from the project. That work is under the responsibility of construction of the ONKALO-project. The Grouting Technique -project (INKE) studied the grouting experiences obtained from the first 2 km of the ONKALO access tunnel, searched for suitable grouting design approaches, carried out two grouting tests and one pilot grouting test with colloidal silica in ONKALO, analysed the expected grouting conditions in deep rock from the grouting point of view, studied the feasibility of so called optimal design solution in the expected grouting conditions. Based on these studies recommendations concerning the grouting design, design solutions for different rock conditions, grouting procedures, grouting stop criteria, the characterisation methods for grouting purposes, grouting materials and grouting work performance are presented. Swedish Time Stop Grouting, also named Grouting Time-Method was selected to be studied and used in this project and it was further developed. This work compiles the outcome of the project subtasks and presents the recommendations for developing the grouting in ONKALO. The key conclusion of this work are: (1) Grouting Time-method (time stop grouting) alone is not enough to be used as a grouting stop criterion due to the uncertainties related to the source parameters (fracture characteristics, rheological properties of grouts); these cause too high uncertainties when proving the sealing result via the grouting time, (2) due to the uncertainties related to

  3. A new design concept of fully grouted rock bolts in underground construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phich Nguyen, Quang; Nguyen, Van Manh; Tuong Nguyen, Ke

    2018-04-01

    The main problem after excavating an underground excavation is to maintain the stability of the excavation for a certain period of time. Failure in meeting this demand is a threat to safety of men and equipment. Support and reinforcement are different instruments with different mechanisms. Among the common support systems in tunnelling and mining, rock bolts have been widely used to reinforce rock mass and also to reduce geological hazards. Furthermore rock bolts can be applied under varying different geological conditions with cost-effectiveness. Although different methods are developed for grouted rock bolts design until now, the interaction mechanism of the rock bolts and rock mass is still very complicated issue. The paper addresses an analytical model for the analysis and design of fully grouted rock bolts based on the reinforcement principle. According to this concept the jointed rock mass reinforced by grouted rock bolts is considered as composite material which includes rock mass, the grout material and the bolt shank. The mechanical properties of this composite material depend on the ratio of the components. The closed-form solution was developed based on the assumption that the rock mass arround a circular tunnel remained elastic after installing fully grouted rock bolts. The main parameters of the rock-bolt system (the diameter and length of bolt shank, the space between the bolts) are then easily estimated from the obtained solution.

  4. Grouting design based on characterization of the fractured rock. Presentation and demonstration of a methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fransson, Aasa (SWECO Environment, Stockholm (Sweden); Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden))

    2008-12-15

    The design methodology presented in this document is based on an approach that considers the individual fractures. The observations and analyses made during production enable the design to adapt to the encountered conditions. The document is based on previously published material and overview flow charts are used to show the different steps. Parts of or the full methodology has been applied for a number of tunneling experiments and projects. SKB projects in the Aespoe tunnel include a pillar experiment and pre-grouting of a 70 meter long tunnel (TASQ). Further, for Hallandsas railway tunnel (Skaane south Sweden), a field pre-grouting experiment and design and post-grouting of a section of 133 meters have been made. For the Nygard railway tunnel (north of Goeteborg, Sweden), design and grouting of a section of 86 meters (pre-grouting) and 60 meters (post-grouting) have been performed. Finally, grouting work at the Tornskog tunnel (Stockholm, Sweden) included design and grouting along a 100 meter long section of one of the two tunnel tubes. Of importance to consider when doing a design and evaluating the result are: - The identification of the extent of the grouting needed based on inflow requirements and estimates of tunnel inflow before grouting. - The selection of grout and performance of grouting materials including penetration ability and length. The penetration length is important for the fan geometry design. - The ungrouted compared to the grouted and excavated rock mass conditions: estimates of tunnel inflow and (if available) measured inflows after grouting and excavation. Identify if possible explanations for deviations. For the Hallandsas, Nygard and Tornskog tunnel sections, the use of a Pareto distribution and the estimate of tunnel inflow identified a need for sealing small aperture fractures (< 50 - 100 mum) to meet the inflow requirements. The tunneling projects show that using the hydraulic aperture as a basis for selection of grout is a good

  5. Grouting design based on characterization of the fractured rock. Presentation and demonstration of a methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fransson, Aasa

    2008-12-01

    The design methodology presented in this document is based on an approach that considers the individual fractures. The observations and analyses made during production enable the design to adapt to the encountered conditions. The document is based on previously published material and overview flow charts are used to show the different steps. Parts of or the full methodology has been applied for a number of tunneling experiments and projects. SKB projects in the Aespoe tunnel include a pillar experiment and pre-grouting of a 70 meter long tunnel (TASQ). Further, for Hallandsas railway tunnel (Skaane south Sweden), a field pre-grouting experiment and design and post-grouting of a section of 133 meters have been made. For the Nygard railway tunnel (north of Goeteborg, Sweden), design and grouting of a section of 86 meters (pre-grouting) and 60 meters (post-grouting) have been performed. Finally, grouting work at the Tornskog tunnel (Stockholm, Sweden) included design and grouting along a 100 meter long section of one of the two tunnel tubes. Of importance to consider when doing a design and evaluating the result are: - The identification of the extent of the grouting needed based on inflow requirements and estimates of tunnel inflow before grouting. - The selection of grout and performance of grouting materials including penetration ability and length. The penetration length is important for the fan geometry design. - The ungrouted compared to the grouted and excavated rock mass conditions: estimates of tunnel inflow and (if available) measured inflows after grouting and excavation. Identify if possible explanations for deviations. For the Hallandsas, Nygard and Tornskog tunnel sections, the use of a Pareto distribution and the estimate of tunnel inflow identified a need for sealing small aperture fractures (< 50 - 100 μm) to meet the inflow requirements. The tunneling projects show that using the hydraulic aperture as a basis for selection of grout is a good

  6. Sensitivity analysis of efficiency thermal energy storage on selected rock mass and grout parameters using design of experiment method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wołoszyn, Jerzy; Gołaś, Andrzej

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Paper propose a new methodology to sensitivity study of underground thermal storage. • Using MDF model and DOE technique significantly shorter of calculations time. • Calculation of one time step was equal to approximately 57 s. • Sensitivity study cover five thermo-physical parameters. • Conductivity of rock mass and grout material have a significant impact on efficiency. - Abstract: The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of selected parameters on the efficiency of underground thermal energy storage. In this paper, besides thermal conductivity, the effect of such parameters as specific heat, density of the rock mass, thermal conductivity and specific heat of grout material was investigated. Implementation of this objective requires the use of an efficient computational method. The aim of the research was achieved by using a new numerical model, Multi Degree of Freedom (MDF), as developed by the authors and Design of Experiment (DoE) techniques with a response surface. The presented methodology can significantly reduce the time that is needed for research and to determine the effect of various parameters on the efficiency of underground thermal energy storage. Preliminary results of the research confirmed that thermal conductivity of the rock mass has the greatest impact on the efficiency of underground thermal energy storage, and that other parameters also play quite significant role

  7. Rheological Characteristics of Cement Grout and its Effect on Mechanical Properties of a Rock Fracture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Quansheng; Lei, Guangfeng; Peng, Xingxin; Lu, Chaobo; Wei, Lai

    2018-02-01

    Grouting reinforcement, which has an obvious strengthening effect on fractured rock mass, has been widely used in various fields in geotechnical engineering. The rheological properties of grout will greatly affect its diffusion radius in rock fractures, and the water-cement ratio is an important factor in determining the grouting flow patterns. The relationship between shear stress and shear rate which could reflect the grout rheological properties, the effects of water-cement ratio, and temperature on the rheological properties of grouting was studied in the laboratory. Besides, a new method for producing fractured rock specimens was proposed and solved the problem of producing natural fractured rock specimens. To investigate the influences of grouting on mechanical properties of a rock fracture, the fractured rock specimens made using the new method were reinforced by grouting on the independent designed grouting platform, and then normal and tangential mechanical tests were carried out on fractured rock specimens. The results showed that the mechanical properties of fractured rock mass are significantly improved by grouting, the peak shear strength and residual strength of rock fractures are greatly improved, and the resistance to deformation is enhanced after grouting. Normal forces affect the tangential behavior of the rock fracture, and the tangential stress strength increases with normal forces. The strength and stability of fractured rock mass are increased by grouting reinforcement.

  8. Strength Assessment of Broken Rock Postgrouting Reinforcement Based on Initial Broken Rock Quality and Grouting Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongfa Xu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available To estimate postgrouting rock mass strength growth is important for engineering design. In this paper, using self-developed indoor pressure-grouting devices, 19 groups of test cubic blocks were made of the different water cement ratio grouting into the broken rock of three kinds of particle sizes. The shear strength parameters of each group under different conditions were tested. Then this paper presents a quantitative calculation method for predicting the strength growth of grouted broken rock. Relational equations were developed to investigate the relationship between the growth rates of uniaxial compressive strength (UCS, absolute value of uniaxial tensile strength (AUTS, internal friction angle, and cohesion for post- to pregrouting broken rock based on Mohr-Coulomb strength criterion. From previous test data, the empirical equation between the growth rate of UCS and the ratio of the initial rock mass UCS to the grout concretion UCS has been determined. The equations of the growth rates of the internal friction coefficient and UCS for grouting broken rock with rock mass rating (RMR and its increment have been established. The calculated results are consistent with the experimental results. These observations are important for engineered design of grouting reinforcement for broken rock mass.

  9. Rock grouting. Current competence and development for the final repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emmelin, Ann; Brantberger, Martin; Eriksson, Magnus; Gustafson, Gunnar; St ille, Haakan

    2007-06-01

    The report aims at presenting the overall state of grouting competence and development relating to the final repository and at motivating and giving detail to the grouting sections presented in the 2007 version of the overall SKB report 'Programme for research, development and demonstration of methods for the management and disposal of nuclear waste' that is presented to the government every three years. The report offers suggestions for principles for planning, design and execution of grouting and describes the further work thought to be necessary in order to meet the requirements of the final repository, that are currently given as working premises. This report does not aim to, and cannot, describe the grouting processes in detail. For details of current concepts, experience and development work, a list of references is provided. In Chapter 2, the task of sealing the underground repository is examined and an overall approach presented. Although the requirements related to this task are preliminary, it is made evident that they concern both the actual grouting results and the process leading to the achievement of these results. Chapter 3 is a conceptual description of grouting and the factors that govern the spreading of grout in the rock mass. It is intended as an introduction to Chapters 4-6, which describe the state of grouting competence and the tools available for the sealing of the final repository facility. Both common practice and cutting-edge research are dealt with in these chapters, mainly relying on references where available. Chapters 4 and 5 focus on the system consisting of the fundamental components the rock mass, the grout materials and the grouting technology, and how these system components interact whilst, in Chapter 6, the rock/grout technical system is viewed in a brief organizational context. Based on the requirements on results and the overall grouting process on the one hand and the current competence in grouting theory and practice on the

  10. Rock grouting. Current competence and development for the final repository

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Emmelin, Ann (Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co., Stockholm (SE)); Brantberger, Martin (Ramboell (SE)); Eriksson, Magnus (Vattenfall Power Consultant (SE)); Gustafson, Gunnar (Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (SE)); Stille, Haakan (Royal Inst. of Technology, Stockholm (SE))

    2007-06-15

    The report aims at presenting the overall state of grouting competence and development relating to the final repository and at motivating and giving detail to the grouting sections presented in the 2007 version of the overall SKB report 'Programme for research, development and demonstration of methods for the management and disposal of nuclear waste' that is presented to the government every three years. The report offers suggestions for principles for planning, design and execution of grouting and describes the further work thought to be necessary in order to meet the requirements of the final repository, that are currently given as working premises. This report does not aim to, and cannot, describe the grouting processes in detail. For details of current concepts, experience and development work, a list of references is provided. In Chapter 2, the task of sealing the underground repository is examined and an overall approach presented. Although the requirements related to this task are preliminary, it is made evident that they concern both the actual grouting results and the process leading to the achievement of these results. Chapter 3 is a conceptual description of grouting and the factors that govern the spreading of grout in the rock mass. It is intended as an introduction to Chapters 4-6, which describe the state of grouting competence and the tools available for the sealing of the final repository facility. Both common practice and cutting-edge research are dealt with in these chapters, mainly relying on references where available. Chapters 4 and 5 focus on the system consisting of the fundamental components the rock mass, the grout materials and the grouting technology, and how these system components interact whilst, in Chapter 6, the rock/grout technical system is viewed in a brief organizational context. Based on the requirements on results and the overall grouting process on the one hand and the current competence in grouting theory and

  11. A new method for real-time monitoring of grout spread through fractured rocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henderson, A. E.; Robertson, I. A.; Whitfield, J. M.; Garrard, G. F. G.; Swannell, N. G.; Fisch, H.

    2008-01-01

    Reducing water ingress into the Shaft at Dounreay is essential for the success of future intermediate level waste (ILW) recovery using the dry retrieval method. The reduction is being realised by forming an engineered barrier of ultrafine cementitious grout injected into the fractured rock surrounding the Shaft. Grout penetration of 6 m in <50μm fractures is being reliably achieved, with a pattern of repeated injections ultimately reducing rock mass permeability by up to three orders of magnitude. An extensive field trials period, involving over 200 grout mix designs and the construction of a full scale demonstration barrier, has yielded several new field techniques that improve the quality and reliability of cementitious grout injection for engineered barriers. In particular, a new method has been developed for tracking in real-time the spread of ultrafine cementitious grout through fractured rock and relating the injection characteristics to barrier design. Fieldwork by the multi-disciplinary international team included developing the injection and real-time monitoring techniques, pre- and post injection hydro-geological testing to quantify the magnitude and extent of changes in rock mass permeability, and correlation of grout spread with injection parameters to inform the main works grouting programme. (authors)

  12. Experimental Characterization of Stress- and Strain-Dependent Stiffness in Grouted Rock Masses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ji-Won; Chong, Song-Hun; Cho, Gye-Chun

    2018-03-29

    Grouting of fractured rock mass prior to excavation results in grout-filled discontinuities that govern the deformation characteristics of a site. The influence of joint characteristics on the properties of grouted rocks is important in assessing the effects of grouting on jointed rock mass. However, grouting remains a predominantly empirical practice and the effects of grouting on rock joint behavior and material properties have yet to be accurately assessed. Granular materials, including jointed rocks, typically display nonlinear strain-dependent responses that can be characterized by the shear modulus degradation curve. In this study, the effects of grouting on the strain-dependent shear stiffness of jointed rock mass were investigated at the small-strain (below 10 -5 ) and mid-strain (10 -5 to 10 -3 ) ranges using the quasi-static resonant column test and rock mass dynamic test devices. The effects of curing time, axial stress, initial joint roughness, and grouted joint thickness were examined. The results show that (1) grouting of rock joints leads to decreased stress sensitivity and increased small-strain shear stiffness for all tested samples; (2) the grouted rock samples display similar modulus degradation characteristics as the applied grout material; (3) the initial joint roughness determines the stress-dependent behaviors and general stiffness range of the jointed and grouted rocks, but the strain-dependent behaviors are dependent on the properties of the grout material; (4) increased grouted joint thickness results in larger contribution of the grout properties in the overall grouted rock mass.

  13. Design and Control of Chemical Grouting : Volume 3 - Engineering Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-04-01

    Recent improvements in the engineering practice of chemical grouting have provided increased confidence in this method of ground modification. Designers can significantly improve the success of chemical grouting by defining their grouting program obj...

  14. Rock mass joint treated by jet grouting at Diavik A418 dike south abutment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baisre, C.A. [SNC-Lavalin, Montreal, PQ (Canada); Hatch Energy, Montreal, PQ (Canada)

    2009-07-01

    In order to exploit the diamond pipes at the Diavik mines, located in the Northwest Territories, two dikes were built into the Lac de Gras, dikes A154 and A418. However, during the construction of the curtain grouting of the A418 Dike, the pressure grouting technique did not achieve the desired closure of a subhorizontal joint located at variable depth beneath the dike foundation into the granite rock mass at the south abutment. The joint was filled mainly with silt, sand and gravel. This paper reviewed the problems with the pressure grouting treatment methodology, and the final decision of the designers and construction manager to treat the joint by jet grouting. The paper outlined pressure grouting, with particular reference to technical specifications; curtain grouting analysis; and joint grouting investigation. The joint treatment by jet grouting was described and the most important features of the core drilling after jetting were outlined. The permeability of the joint was reduced significantly in the treated area, according to observations made during jetting and in the recovered cores and the permeability tests. 1 tab., 7 figs.

  15. Experimental assessment of the sealing effectiveness of rock fracture grouting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaffer, A.; Daemen, J.J.K.

    1987-03-01

    The objective of this investigation is to determine the effectiveness of cement grouts as sealants of fractures in rock. Laboratory experiments have been conducted on seven 15-cm granite cubes containing saw cuts, three 23-cm diameter andesite cores containing induced tension cracks, and one 15-cm diameter marble core containing a natural fracture. Prior to grouting, the hydraulic conductivity of the fractures is determined under a range of normal stresses, applied in loading and unloading cycles, from 0 to 14 MPa (2000 psi). Grout is injected through an axial borehole, at a pressure of 1.2 to 8.3 MPa (180 to 1200 psi), pressure selected to provide a likely groutable fracture aperture, while the fracture is stressed at a constant normal stress. The fracture permeability is measured after grouting. Flow tests on the ungrouted samples confirm the inverse relation between normal stress and fracture permeability. The equivalent aperture determined by these tests is a reliable indicator of groutability. Postgrouting permeability measurements as performed here, and frequently in practice, can be misleading, since incomplete grouting of fractures can result in major apparent reductions in permeability. The apparent permeability reduction is caused by grouting of a small area of a highly preferential flowpath directly adjacent to the hole used for grouting and for permeability testing. Experimental results confirm claims in the literature that ordinary portland cement inadequately penetrates fine fractures

  16. Experimental Characterization of Stress- and Strain-Dependent Stiffness in Grouted Rock Masses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji-Won Kim

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Grouting of fractured rock mass prior to excavation results in grout-filled discontinuities that govern the deformation characteristics of a site. The influence of joint characteristics on the properties of grouted rocks is important in assessing the effects of grouting on jointed rock mass. However, grouting remains a predominantly empirical practice and the effects of grouting on rock joint behavior and material properties have yet to be accurately assessed. Granular materials, including jointed rocks, typically display nonlinear strain-dependent responses that can be characterized by the shear modulus degradation curve. In this study, the effects of grouting on the strain-dependent shear stiffness of jointed rock mass were investigated at the small-strain (below 10−5 and mid-strain (10−5 to 10−3 ranges using the quasi-static resonant column test and rock mass dynamic test devices. The effects of curing time, axial stress, initial joint roughness, and grouted joint thickness were examined. The results show that (1 grouting of rock joints leads to decreased stress sensitivity and increased small-strain shear stiffness for all tested samples; (2 the grouted rock samples display similar modulus degradation characteristics as the applied grout material; (3 the initial joint roughness determines the stress-dependent behaviors and general stiffness range of the jointed and grouted rocks, but the strain-dependent behaviors are dependent on the properties of the grout material; (4 increased grouted joint thickness results in larger contribution of the grout properties in the overall grouted rock mass.

  17. Rock fracture grouting with microbially induced carbonate precipitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minto, James M.; MacLachlan, Erica; El Mountassir, Gráinne; Lunn, Rebecca J.

    2016-11-01

    Microbially induced carbonate precipitation has been proposed for soil stabilization, soil strengthening, and permeability reduction as an alternative to traditional cement and chemical grouts. In this paper, we evaluate the grouting of fine aperture rock fractures with calcium carbonate, precipitated through urea hydrolysis, by the bacteria Sporosarcina pasteurii. Calcium carbonate was precipitated within a small-scale and a near field-scale (3.1 m2) artificial fracture consisting of a rough rock lower surfaces and clear polycarbonate upper surfaces. The spatial distribution of the calcium carbonate precipitation was imaged using time-lapse photography and the influence on flow pathways revealed from tracer transport imaging. In the large-scale experiment, hydraulic aperture was reduced from 276 to 22 μm, corresponding to a transmissivity reduction of 1.71 × 10-5 to 8.75 × 10-9 m2/s, over a period of 12 days under constantly flowing conditions. With a modified injection strategy a similar three orders of magnitude reduction in transmissivity was achieved over a period of 3 days. Calcium carbonate precipitated over the entire artificial fracture with strong adhesion to both upper and lower surfaces and precipitation was controlled to prevent clogging of the injection well by manipulating the injection fluid velocity. These experiments demonstrate that microbially induced carbonate precipitation can successfully be used to grout a fracture under constantly flowing conditions and may be a viable alternative to cement based grouts when a high level of hydraulic sealing is required and chemical grouts when a more durable grout is required.

  18. Geochemical modelling of grout-groundwater-rock interactions at the seal-rock interface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alcorn, S.; Christian-Frear, T.

    1992-02-01

    Theoretical investigations into the longevity of repository seals have dealt primarily with the development of a methodology to evaluate interactions between portland cement-based grout and groundwater. Evaluation of chemical thermodynamic equilibria among grout, groundwater, and granitic host rock phases using the geochemical codes EQ3NR/EQ6 suggests that a fracture filled with grout and saturated with groundwater will tend to fill and 'tighten' with time. These calculations predict that some grout and rock phases will dissolve, and that there will be precipitation of secondary phases which collectively have a larger overall volume than that of the material dissolved. Model assumptions include sealing of the fracture in a sluggish hydrologic regime (low gradient) characterized by a saline groundwater environment. The results of the calculations suggest that buffering of the fracture seals chemical system by the granitic rock may be important in determining the long-term fate of grout seals and the resulting phase assemblage in the fracture. The similarity of the predicted reaction product phases to those observed in naturally filled fractures suggests that with time equilibrium will be approached and grouted fractures subject to low hydrologic gradients will continue to seal. If grout injected into fractures materially reduces groundwater flux, the approach to chemical equilibrium will likely be accelerated. In light of this, even very thin or imperfectly grouted fractures would tighten in suitable hydrogeologic environments. In order to determine the period of time necessary to approach equilibrium, data on reaction rates are required. (au)

  19. Coupled Viscous Fluid Flow and Joint Deformation Analysis for Grout Injection in a Rock Joint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyung-Mok; Lee, Jong-Won; Yazdani, Mahmoud; Tohidi, Elham; Nejati, Hamid Reza; Park, Eui-Seob

    2018-02-01

    Fluid flow modeling is a major area of interest within the field of rock mechanics. The main objective of this study is to gain insight into the performance of grout injection inside jointed rock masses by numerical modeling of grout flow through a single rock joint. Grout flow has been widely simulated using non-Newtonian Bingham fluid characterized by two main parameters of dynamic viscosity and shear yield strength both of which are time dependent. The increasing value of these properties with injection time will apparently affect the parameters representing the grouting performance including grout penetration length and volumetric injection rate. In addition, through hydromechanical coupling a mutual influence between the injection pressure from the one side and the joint opening/closing behavior and the aperture profile variation on the other side is anticipated. This is capable of producing a considerable impact on grout spread within the rock joints. In this study based on the Bingham fluid model, a series of numerical analysis has been conducted using UDEC to simulate the flow of viscous grout in a single rock joint with smooth parallel surfaces. In these analyses, the time-dependent evolution of the grout fluid properties and the hydromechanical coupling have been considered to investigate their impact on grouting performance. In order to verify the validity of these simulations, the results of analyses including the grout penetration length and the injection flow rate were compared with a well-known analytical solution which is available for the simple case of constant grout properties and non-coupled hydraulic analysis. The comparison demonstrated that the grout penetration length can be overestimated when the time-dependent hardening of grout material is not considered. Moreover, due to the HM coupling, it was shown that the joint opening induced by injection pressure may have a considerable increasing impression on the values of penetration length and

  20. Numerical Simulation and Optimization of Hole Spacing for Cement Grouting in Rocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping Fu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The fine fissures of V-diabase were the main stratigraphic that affected the effectiveness of foundation grout curtain in Dagang Mountain Hydropower Station. Thus, specialized in situ grouting tests were conducted to determine reasonable hole spacing and other parameters. Considering time variation of the rheological parameters of grout, variation of grouting pressure gradient, and evolution law of the fracture opening, numerical simulations were performed on the diffusion process of cement grouting in the fissures of the rock mass. The distribution of permeability after grouting was obtained on the basis of analysis results, and the grouting hole spacing was discussed based on the reliability analysis. A probability of optimization along with a finer optimization precision as 0.1 m could be adopted when compared with the accuracy of 0.5 m that is commonly used. The results could provide a useful reference for choosing reasonable grouting hole spacing in similar projects.

  1. Characterisation, design and execution of two grouting fans at 450 m level, Aespoe HRL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Emmelin, Ann [Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co., Stockholm (Sweden); Eriksson, Magnus [Royal Inst. of Technology, Stockholm (Sweden); Fransson, Aasa [Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden)

    2004-09-01

    During June 2003 a grouting field experiment was carried out at Aespoe HRL, in connection with the construction of a tunnel (TASQ) for the Aespoe Pillar Stability Experiment (APSE). The tunnel is situated in connection to the elevator shaft landing at 450 m depth and runs in direction N/E. The grouting was carried out as part of the ordinary construction work, but was accompanied by extra investigations and analyses during operations and an active adaptation of a basic grouting design to the encountered conditions. The main objectives of this set-up were to Investigate what can be achieved with best available technology, material and knowledge under the current conditions, i.e. a relatively tight crystalline rock mass at great depth; Collect data and evaluate theories resulting from previous research projects on characterisation and predictions on grout spread; Collect data to further develop those above mentioned theories; Contribute to the achievement of good conditions at the experimental site for the pillar stability experiments. The characterization method is based on analyses of stepwise investigations consisting of investigations in an initially drilled core-drill hole followed by probe and grouting boreholes with pressure-build-up tests and measuring of inflow during drilling, all aiming at identifying the singular fractures that are to be sealed. The decision about grouting design is based on the successively up-dated rock description from the characterization and iterative selection and testing of grouting design and grout in a numeric model, resulting in an expected grout spread and sealing effect. Based on investigations and analysis of results from investigations of a core-drilled hole at the site, a basic design was set up, together with conditions for application. Probe boreholes covering the first anticipated fan gave substantially larger inflows than expected, and subsequently the design was changed. A first round was drilled and grouted, sealing

  2. Characterisation, design and execution of two grouting fans at 450 m level, Aespoe HRL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emmelin, Ann; Eriksson, Magnus; Fransson, Aasa

    2004-09-01

    During June 2003 a grouting field experiment was carried out at Aespoe HRL, in connection with the construction of a tunnel (TASQ) for the Aespoe Pillar Stability Experiment (APSE). The tunnel is situated in connection to the elevator shaft landing at 450 m depth and runs in direction N/E. The grouting was carried out as part of the ordinary construction work, but was accompanied by extra investigations and analyses during operations and an active adaptation of a basic grouting design to the encountered conditions. The main objectives of this set-up were to Investigate what can be achieved with best available technology, material and knowledge under the current conditions, i.e. a relatively tight crystalline rock mass at great depth; Collect data and evaluate theories resulting from previous research projects on characterisation and predictions on grout spread; Collect data to further develop those above mentioned theories; Contribute to the achievement of good conditions at the experimental site for the pillar stability experiments. The characterization method is based on analyses of stepwise investigations consisting of investigations in an initially drilled core-drill hole followed by probe and grouting boreholes with pressure-build-up tests and measuring of inflow during drilling, all aiming at identifying the singular fractures that are to be sealed. The decision about grouting design is based on the successively up-dated rock description from the characterization and iterative selection and testing of grouting design and grout in a numeric model, resulting in an expected grout spread and sealing effect. Based on investigations and analysis of results from investigations of a core-drilled hole at the site, a basic design was set up, together with conditions for application. Probe boreholes covering the first anticipated fan gave substantially larger inflows than expected, and subsequently the design was changed. A first round was drilled and grouted, sealing

  3. Review of results from SKB R and D on grouting technology for sealing the rock, years 1996-2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boden, A.; Eklund, D.; Eriksson, Magnus; Lagerblad, B.; Lindblom, U.

    2001-05-01

    In order identify the current state of the art and developments needs, SKB assembled a group of experts from universities and other research organisations. Internal plans were written for the subprojects 'Characterisation of rock for grouting purposes', 'Mechanisms that control the spreading of grout in jointed rock' and 'Cement based grouting material'. Later internal plans for the subprojects 'Demands on grouting' and 'Stabilising and sealing effect of pre-grouting' were written. The aims, which were set for the different subprojects, were in short, to summarise the technological advances, establish a method for rock characterisation from a grouting point of view, develop conceptual and numerical models for simulation of the grouting course, characterise grout in a relevant way, develop understanding and theoretical know-how of durability and chemical influence, identify and develop a number of grouting materials for different situations, develop a specification of requirements for grouting and to verify the theories in laboratory. In the subproject 'Demands on grouting' a literature review was carried out. One important conclusion from the study is that the concept is not very well dealt with in the literature. SKB are currently investigating the prerequisites for the construction of the deep repository. One part of that work is to further specify demands on maximum allowed volume of leakage water for the repository as a whole and also for each part of the deep repository. In the subproject 'Characterisation of rock for grouting purposes', the possibilities of using hydraulic tests for predictions and design have been studied. The idea of this study was to investigate correspondences and deviations to increase the understanding of what is measured in a water-loss measurement. One can draw the conclusion that hydraulic tests are useful when describing the fracture geometry. Numerical modelling and experiments indicate that the specific capacity, Q/Δh, (flow

  4. Field test of ethanol/bentonite slurry grouting into rock fracture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Motoyuki Asada; Hitoshi Nakashima; Takashi Ishii; Sumio Horiuchi

    2006-01-01

    Crystalline rocks have fractures which may cause unexpected routes of groundwater seepage. Cement grouting is one of the most effective methods to minimize seepage; however, cement materials may not be suitable for the purpose of extra-long durability, because cement is neutralized or degraded by chemical and physical influence of chemical reaction. Natural clay like bentonite is one of the most promising materials for seepage barrier; however, water/bentonite grout is so viscous that enough amount of bentonite can not be grouted into rock fractures. To increase bentonite content in grout with low viscosity, the utilization of ethanol as a mixing liquid was studied. Ethanol suppresses bentonite swelling, and more bentonite can be injected more than that of water/bentonite slurry. In this paper, grouting into in-situ rock mass fracture from the ground surface was tested to investigate the barrier performance and workability of ethanol/bentonite slurry as a grouting material. (author)

  5. Grouting Applications in Cindere Dam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devrim ALKAYA

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Grouting is one of the most popular method to control the water leakage in fill dam constructions. With this regard this method is widely used in all the world. Geological and geotechnical properties of rock are important parameters affect the design of grouting. In this study, geotechnical properties of Cindere Dam's base rock and the grouting prosedure have been investigated with grouting pressure.

  6. Grouting design for slope stability of kedung uling earthfill dam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Najib

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Kedung Uling earthfill dam locates at Wonogiri Regency, Central Java, Indonesia. The dam encountered sliding and settlement at the embankment wall. To minimize sliding and settlement and to optimize the dam, both field investigation and laboratory tests have been proceeded for slope stability analysis and remedial embankment wall. Soil and rock investigation around the dam, which is followed by 10 core drillings, have been conducted. Laboratory tests such as direct shear and index properties have also been carried on. The results were further used for dam slope stability model using slide 6.0 and were used to analyzed factor of safety (FS of Kedunguling dam. 10 conditions of dam were simulated and strengthening body of dam with grouting was designed. The results showed two conditions, which are condition of maximum water level with and without earthquake at downstream, were unsatisfy Indonesia National Standard (SNI for building and infrastructure. These conditions can be managed by using grouting for increasing stabilization of embankment wall. By setting up grouting, factor of safety increases and meet the SNI standard requirement.

  7. The Experimental Study of the Temperature Effect on the Interfacial Properties of Fully Grouted Rock Bolt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fuhai Li

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzes the phenomenon of performance deterioration in fully grouted rock bolts in tunnels with a dry, hot environment and high geothermal activity with a focus on temperature effects on interfacial bond performance. Three groups of fully grouted rock bolt specimens were designed based on similar mechanical principles. They were produced and maintained at 20 °C, 35 °C, and 50 °C. Through the indoor gradual loading tensile test of specimens, variations of axial force and shear stress between the rock bolt and mortar adhesive interface were obtained under different environmental temperatures. Distribution of the axial force and shear stress on the anchorage section were found under different tensile forces. Results showed that, with an increase in specimen environmental temperature, maximum shear stress of the rock bolt section became smaller, while shear stress distribution along the rock bolt segment became more uniform. In addition, the axial force value at the same position along the pull end was greater, while axial stress along the anchorage’s length decayed faster. With an increase in tensile force under different temperatures, the axial force and maximum shear stress of rock bolt specimens along the anchorage section has a corresponding increase.

  8. Sealing properties of cement-based grout materials used in the rock sealing project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onofrei, M.; Gray, M.N.; Pusch, R.; Boergesson, L.; Karnland, O.; Shenton, B.; Walker, B.

    1993-12-01

    The Task Force on Sealing Materials and Techniques of the Stripa Project recommended that work be undertaken to study the sealing properties of cement-based grout materials. A new class of cement-based grouts (high-performance grouts) with the ability to penetrate and seal fine fractures in granite was investigated. The materials were selected for their small mean particle size and the ability to be made fluid by a superplasticizer at low water/cementitious-materials ratios. The fundamental physical and chemical properties (such as the particle size and chemical composition) of the materials were evaluated. The rheological properties of freshly mixed grouts, which control the workability of the grouts, were determined together with the properties of hardened materials, which largely control the long-term performance (longevity) of the materials in repository settings. The materials selected were shown to remain gel-like during the setting period, and so the grouts may be expected to remain largely homogenous during and after injection into the rock without separating into solid and liquid phases. The hydraulic conductivity and strength of hardened grouts were determined. The microstructure of the bulk grouts was characterized by a high degree of homogeneity with extremely fine porosity. The low hydraulic conductivity and good mechanical properties are consistent with the extremely fine porosity. The ability of the fractured grouts to self-seal was also observed in tests in which the hydraulic conductivity of recompacted granulated grouts was determined. The laboratory tests were carried out in parallel with investigations of the in situ performance of the materials and with the development of geochemical and theoretical models for cement-based grout longevity. (author). 56 refs., 15 tabs., 98 figs

  9. Sealing properties of cement-based grout materials used in the rock sealing project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Onofrei, M; Gray, M N; Pusch, R; Boergesson, L; Karnland, O; Shenton, B; Walker, B

    1993-12-01

    The Task Force on Sealing Materials and Techniques of the Stripa Project recommended that work be undertaken to study the sealing properties of cement-based grout materials. A new class of cement-based grouts (high-performance grouts) with the ability to penetrate and seal fine fractures in granite was investigated. The materials were selected for their small mean particle size and the ability to be made fluid by a superplasticizer at low water/cementitious-materials ratios. The fundamental physical and chemical properties (such as the particle size and chemical composition) of the materials were evaluated. The rheological properties of freshly mixed grouts, which control the workability of the grouts, were determined together with the properties of hardened materials, which largely control the long-term performance (longevity) of the materials in repository settings. The materials selected were shown to remain gel-like during the setting period, and so the grouts may be expected to remain largely homogenous during and after injection into the rock without separating into solid and liquid phases. The hydraulic conductivity and strength of hardened grouts were determined. The microstructure of the bulk grouts was characterized by a high degree of homogeneity with extremely fine porosity. The low hydraulic conductivity and good mechanical properties are consistent with the extremely fine porosity. The ability of the fractured grouts to self-seal was also observed in tests in which the hydraulic conductivity of recompacted granulated grouts was determined. The laboratory tests were carried out in parallel with investigations of the in situ performance of the materials and with the development of geochemical and theoretical models for cement-based grout longevity. (author). 56 refs., 15 tabs., 98 figs.

  10. Final report of the rock sealing project - Sealing properties and longevity of smectitic clay grouts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pusch, R.; Karnland, O.; Hoekmark, H.; Sanden, T.; Boergesson, L.

    1991-12-01

    Na and Ca bentonite clay grouts with densities that make them easily injected into fine fractures have been hydrothermally treated and investigated with respect to the hydraulic conductivity and shear strength. Exposure of the grouts to salt groundwater increased the hydraulic conductivity up to around 10 -5 m/s, which is on the same order of magnitude as the value at complete conversion of soft montmorillonite clay to hydrous mica, i.e. the major ultimate reaction product. Still, even this 'worst scenario' case will not lead to a higher bulk conductivity of the grouted rock than around 10 -10 m/s of rock with a conductivity of 10 -8 m/s before grouting. The rate of such conversion, which is entirely dependent on the potassium content of the groundwater, can be anything from a few hundred years to several thousand years depending primarily on the magnitude of prevailing hydraulic gradients. The shear strength of the grouts, which determines the resistance to piping and erosion, increases with time and temperature. The most critical situation is immediately after injection into the rock, when hydraulic gradients exceeding about 30 may produce piping. (au)

  11. Drip Sealing Grouting of Tunnels in Crystalline Rock: Conceptualisation and Technical Strategies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butron, Christian

    2012-07-01

    A conceptual model of the groundwater hydraulic conditions around the tunnel contour in ancient brittle crystalline rocks has been developed and verified. The general aim has been to reach an understanding of the groundwater conditions in and close to the tunnel roof where dripping takes place and to propose technical and practical strategies for waterproofing. Dripping is accompanied by ice growth and icicle formation in cold regions, creating additional problems such as shotcrete fall-outs, icicle fall-outs, damage to vehicles, damage to trains, etc. The methodology for the development of the conceptual model is based mainly on transmissivity determinations from short-duration hydraulic tests and analyses of the connectivity of the fracture structure by means of semi-variogram analysis. The determination of the dimensionality of the flow in the fractures has also been found to be essential in order to describe the conductive system. This conceptual model describes the fracture systems as a combination of transmissive patches (2D-flow fractures) connected by less pervious channels (1D-flow fractures). It provides an understanding of the heterogeneity and connectivity of the fracture network and thus the groundwater conditions, not only in the roof but also around the tunnel contour. The pre-excavation grouting design process used in the tunnelling projects followed a structured approach and the evaluation showed that the grouting design reduced the inflow and fulfilled the environmental demands. However, dripping remained, making its characterisation very important when proposing a possible solution for its control. It is proposed that the remaining dripping comes from a channelised system that has been left unsealed and which would be extremely difficult to intersect with future boreholes, as well as from some ungrouted fractures with inconvenient orientations. Geomembrane lining and post-excavation grouting are possible solutions, although particular attention

  12. Bolt-Grout Interactions in Elastoplastic Rock Mass Using Coupled FEM-FDM Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debasis Deb

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Numerical procedure based on finite element method (FEM and finite difference method (FDM for the analysis of bolt-grout interactions are introduced in this paper. The finite element procedure incorporates elasto-plastic concepts with Hoek and Brown yield criterion and has been applied for rock mass. Bolt-grout interactions are evaluated based on finite difference method and are embedded in the elasto-plastic procedures of FEM. The experimental validation of the proposed FEM-FDM procedures and numerical examples of a bolted tunnel are provided to demonstrate the efficacy of the proposed method for practical applications.

  13. Study on Mechanical Characteristics of Fully Grouted Rock Bolts for Underground Caverns under Seismic Loads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guoqing Liu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study establishes an analytical model for the interaction between the bolt and surrounding rock based on the bearing mechanism of fully grouted rock bolts. The corresponding controlled differential equation for load transfer is deduced. The stress distributions of the anchorage body are obtained by solving the equations. A dynamic algorithm for the bolt considering shear damage on the anchoring interface is proposed based on the dynamic finite element method. The rationality of the algorithm is verified by a pull-out test and excavation simulation of a rounded tunnel. Then, a case study on the mechanical characteristics of the bolts in underground caverns under seismic loads is conducted. The results indicate that the seismic load may lead to stress originating from the bolts and damage on the anchoring interface. The key positions of the antiseismic support can be determined using the numerical simulation. The calculated results can serve as a reference for the antiseismic optimal design of bolts in underground caverns.

  14. Development and application of new composite grouting material for sealing groundwater inflow and reinforcing wall rock in deep mine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jinpeng, Zhang; Limin, Liu; Futao, Zhang; Junzhi, Cao

    2018-04-04

    With cement, bentonite, water glass, J85 accelerator, retarder and water as raw materials, a new composite grouting material used to seal groundwater inflow and reinforce wall rock in deep fractured rock mass was developed in this paper. Based on the reaction mechanism of raw material, the pumpable time, stone rate, initial setting time, plastic strength and unconfined compressive strength of multi-group proportion grouts were tested by orthogonal experiment. Then, the optimum proportion of composite grouting material was selected and applied to the grouting engineering for sealing groundwater inflow and reinforcing wall rock in mine shaft lining. The results show the mixing proportion of the maximum pumpable time, maximum stone rate and minimum initial setting time of grout are A K4 B K1 C K4 D K2 , A K3 B K1 C K1 D K4 and A K3 B K3 C K4 D K1 , respectively. The mixing proportion of the maximum plastic strength and unconfined compressive strength of grouts concretion bodies are A K1 B K1 C K1 D K3 and A K1 B K1 C K1 D K1 , respectively. Balanced the above 5 indicators overall and determined the optimum proportion of grouts: bentonite-cement ratio of 1.0, water-solid ratio of 3.5, accelerator content of 2.9% and retarder content of 1.45%. This new composite grouting material had good effect on the grouting engineering for sealing groundwater inflow and reinforcing wall rock in deep fractured rock mass.

  15. Data report on the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Small-Scale Seal Performance Test, Series F grouting experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahrens, E.H.; Dale, T.F.; Van Pelt, R.S.

    1996-03-01

    SSSPT-F was designed to evaluate sealing materials at WIPP. It demonstrated: (1) the ability to practically and consistently produce ultrafine cementitious grout at the grouting site, (2) successful, consistent, and efficient injection and permeation of the grout into fractured rock at the repository horizon, (3) ability of the grout to penetrate and seal microfractures, (4) procedures and equipment used to inject the grout. Also techniques to assess the effectiveness of the grout in reducing the gas transmissivity of the fractured rock were evaluated. These included gas-flow/tracer testing, post-grout coring, pre- and post-grout downhole televiewer logging, slab displacement measurements, and increased loading on jacks during grout injection. Pre- and post-grout diamond drill core was obtained for use in ongoing evaluations of grouting effectiveness, degradation, and compatibility. Diamond drill equipment invented for this test successfully prevented drill cuttings from plugging fractures in grout injection holes

  16. Data report on the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Small-Scale Seal Performance Test, Series F grouting experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahrens, E.H. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Dale, T.F.; Van Pelt, R.S. [INTERA, Inc., Austin, TX (United States)

    1996-03-01

    SSSPT-F was designed to evaluate sealing materials at WIPP. It demonstrated: (1) the ability to practically and consistently produce ultrafine cementitious grout at the grouting site, (2) successful, consistent, and efficient injection and permeation of the grout into fractured rock at the repository horizon, (3) ability of the grout to penetrate and seal microfractures, (4) procedures and equipment used to inject the grout. Also techniques to assess the effectiveness of the grout in reducing the gas transmissivity of the fractured rock were evaluated. These included gas-flow/tracer testing, post-grout coring, pre- and post-grout downhole televiewer logging, slab displacement measurements, and increased loading on jacks during grout injection. Pre- and post-grout diamond drill core was obtained for use in ongoing evaluations of grouting effectiveness, degradation, and compatibility. Diamond drill equipment invented for this test successfully prevented drill cuttings from plugging fractures in grout injection holes.

  17. Reactive transport modeling of the interaction between water and a cementitious grout in a fractured rock. Application to ONKALO (Finland)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soler, Josep M., E-mail: josep.soler@idaea.csic.es [IDAEA-CSIC, Jordi Girona 18-26, 08034 Barcelona (Spain); Vuorio, Marja; Hautojaervi, Aimo [POSIVA OY, Olkiluoto, FI-27160 Eurajoki (Finland)

    2011-07-15

    Highlights: > It is planned to seal conductive fractures near a repository with cementitious grout. > Modeling includes simultaneous hydration and leaching of the grout. > Modeling results show a very limited formation of the high-pH plume. > Results are in qualitative agreement with borehole monitoring data. - Abstract: Grouting of water-conducting fractures with low-alkali cement is foreseen for the potential future repository for spent nuclear fuel in Finland (ONKALO). A possible consequence of the interaction between groundwater and grout is the formation of high-pH solutions which will be able to react with the host rock (gneisses) and alter its mineralogy and porosity. A reactive transport modeling study of this possible alteration has been conducted. First, the hydration of the low-alkali cementitious grout has been modeled, using results from the literature as a guide. The hydrated cement is characterized by the absence of portlandite and the presence of a C-S-H gel with a Ca/Si ratio about 0.8 after tens of years (Ca/Si is about 1.7 in Ordinary Portland Cement). Second, calculations have simulated the interaction between flowing water and grout and the formation of an alkalinity plume, which flows beyond the grouted section of the fracture. The calculations include the hydration and simultaneous leaching of the grout through diffusive exchange between the porewater in the grout and the flowing water in the fracture. The formation of an alkaline plume is extremely limited when the low-pH grout is used. Even when using a grout with a lower silica fume content, the extent and magnitude of the alkaline plume is quite minor. These results are in qualitative agreement with monitoring at ONKALO.

  18. Development of rock bolt grout and shotcrete for rock support and corrosion of steel in low-pH cementitious materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boden, Anders (Vattenfall Power Consultant AB, Vaellingby (Sweden)); Pettersson, Stig (Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co., Stockholm (Sweden))

    2011-04-15

    It is foreseen that cementitious products will be utilized in the construction of the final repository. The use of conventional cementitious material creates pulses in the magnitude of pH 12.13 in the leachates and release alkalis. Such a high pH is detrimental mainly to impairment of bentonite functioning, but also to possibly enhanced dissolution of spent fuel and alteration of fracture filling materials. It also complicates the safety analysis of the repository, as the effect of a high pH-plume should be considered in the evaluation. As no reliable pH-plume models exist, the use of products giving a pH below 11 in the leachates facilitates the safety analysis, although limiting the amount of low-pH cement is recommended. In earlier studies it was found that shotcreting, standard casting and rock bolting with low-pH cement (pH . 11 in the leachate) should be possible without any major development work. This report summarizes the results of development work done during 2008 and 2009 in the fields of low-pH rock bolt grout, low-pH shotcrete and steel corrosion in low-pH concrete. Development of low-pH rock bolt grout mixes and laboratory testing of the selected grout was followed by installation of twenty rock bolts for rock support at Aspo HRL using the chosen low-pH grout. The operation was successful and the bolts and grout are subject to follow up the next ten years. Low-pH shotcrete for rock support was initially developed within the ESDRED project, which was an Integrated Project within the European Commission sixth framework for research and technological development. ESDRED is an abbreviation for Engineering Studies and Demonstrations of Repository Designs. ESDRED was executed from 1st February 2004 to 31st January 2009. The development of the mix design described in this report was based on the results from ESDRED. After laboratory testing of the chosen mix, it was field tested in niche NASA 0408A at Aspo HRL. Further, some areas in the TASS-tunnel were

  19. Development of rock bolt grout and shotcrete for rock support and corrosion of steel in low-pH cementitious materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boden, Anders; Pettersson, Stig

    2011-04-01

    It is foreseen that cementitious products will be utilized in the construction of the final repository. The use of conventional cementitious material creates pulses in the magnitude of pH 12.13 in the leachates and release alkalis. Such a high pH is detrimental mainly to impairment of bentonite functioning, but also to possibly enhanced dissolution of spent fuel and alteration of fracture filling materials. It also complicates the safety analysis of the repository, as the effect of a high pH-plume should be considered in the evaluation. As no reliable pH-plume models exist, the use of products giving a pH below 11 in the leachates facilitates the safety analysis, although limiting the amount of low-pH cement is recommended. In earlier studies it was found that shotcreting, standard casting and rock bolting with low-pH cement (pH . 11 in the leachate) should be possible without any major development work. This report summarizes the results of development work done during 2008 and 2009 in the fields of low-pH rock bolt grout, low-pH shotcrete and steel corrosion in low-pH concrete. Development of low-pH rock bolt grout mixes and laboratory testing of the selected grout was followed by installation of twenty rock bolts for rock support at Aspo HRL using the chosen low-pH grout. The operation was successful and the bolts and grout are subject to follow up the next ten years. Low-pH shotcrete for rock support was initially developed within the ESDRED project, which was an Integrated Project within the European Commission sixth framework for research and technological development. ESDRED is an abbreviation for Engineering Studies and Demonstrations of Repository Designs. ESDRED was executed from 1st February 2004 to 31st January 2009. The development of the mix design described in this report was based on the results from ESDRED. After laboratory testing of the chosen mix, it was field tested in niche NASA 0408A at Aspo HRL. Further, some areas in the TASS-tunnel were

  20. Research status and future trends on surface pre-grouting technology in reforming wall rock of vertical shafts in coal mines in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hua

    2018-02-01

    In the mine construction, the surface pre-grouting technology is an important method to prevent water blast in excavation process of vertical shaft when the shaft must pass through the thick, water-rich and high water-pressure bedrock aquifer. It has been nearly 60 years since the technology was used to reform wall rock of vertical shaft in coal mine in China for the first time, and the existing technology can basically meet the needs of constructing 1000m deep vertical shaft. Firstly, the article introduces that in view of Magg’s spherical seepage theory and Karol’s spherical seepage theory, Chinese scholars found that the diffusion of grout from borehole into the surrounding strata in horizontal direction is irregular through a lot of research and engineering practice of using the surface pre-grouting technology to reform wall rock of vertical shafts, and put forward the selecting principles of grout’s effective diffusion radius in one grouting engineering; Secondly, according to the shape of the grouting boreholes, surface pre-grouting technology of vertical shaft is divided into two stages: vertical borehole stage and S-type borehole stage. Thirdly, the development status of grouting materials and grouting equipment for the technology is introduced. Fourthly, grouting mode, stage height and pressure of the technology are introduced. Finally, it points out that with the increasing depth of coal mining in China, the technology of reforming wall rock of 1000~2000m deep vertical shafts will face many problems, such as grouting theory, grouting equipment, grouting finishing standard, testing and evaluation of grouting effect, and so on. And it put forward a preliminary approach to solving these problems. This paper points out future research directions of the surface pre-grouting technology in China.

  1. R20 Programme: The development of grouting technique. Stop criteria and field tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hollmen, K.

    2008-01-01

    This work is a part of the project 'Grouting Technique' by Posiva Oy, which is responsible for the final disposal of spent nuclear fuel in Finland. This study attempts to collect disperse information about the design parameters of the grouting and about a field-test stop criterion, which differs from the prevailing practice. The literature study describes salient processes of grouting design in sufficient extent. Different methods for grouting stop criterion are described in more detail. Grouting design based on selected grouting theory, grouting and evaluating of the grouting results are presented in the experiential part of this study. This study focuses on rock tunnel grouting using cement-based grout. The requirements for water tightness, which are set down by customer, direct the grouting design. Information about fractures in rock mass, which surrounds the rock facility, is the prime initial data for grouting design. In grouting work, fracturing is generally studied by water loss measurements performed in investigation, probe and grouting holes. Besides the water loss measurement, the Posiva Flow Log -tool, which measures location and transmissivity for every single fracture, is used in ONKALO. Grouting pressure and grout must be chosen together and case-specifically. Both pressure and yield strength of grout are influencing the penetration length of grout in a fracture. Grouting pressure must be high enough to ensure sufficient penetration length, but pressure must be under the level where rock mass breaks to avoid hydraulic fracturing. Raising the water to dry material ratio reduces the yield strength of grout, in which case the grouting pressure can be lowered. Stop criterion for grouting aims to define the point, when the result of the grouting is adequate, and the grouting after that point is uneconomical. Properly specified stop criterion minimizes extra grout volume and reduces the running time of grouting work. From the references, three different

  2. Strength of Experimental Grouts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Eigil V.

     The present report describes tests carried out on 5 experimental grouts developed by BASF Construction Materials and designed for use in grouted connections of offshore windmill foundations....... The present report describes tests carried out on 5 experimental grouts developed by BASF Construction Materials and designed for use in grouted connections of offshore windmill foundations....

  3. Review of results from SKB R and D on grouting technology for sealing the rock, years 1996-2000; Oeversikt av resuItat fraan SKB:s FoU inom injekteringsteknik foer bergtaetning aaren 1996-2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boden, A. (ed.) [Swedpower AB, Stockholm (Sweden); Eklund, D. [Vattenfall Utveckling AB, Aelvkarleby (Sweden); Eriksson, Magnus [Royal Inst. of Technology, Stockholm (Sweden). Div. Soil and Rock Mechanics; Fransson, Aasa [Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden). Inst. of Geology; Hansson, Paer [Vattenfall Utveckling AB, Aelvkarleby (Sweden); Lagerblad, B. [Swedish Cement and Concrete Research Inst., Stockholm (Sweden); Lindblom, U. [Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden). Dept. of Geotechnical Engineering; Wilen, P. [Swedpower AB, Goeteborg (Sweden)

    2001-05-01

    In order identify the current state of the art and developments needs, SKB assembled a group of experts from universities and other research organisations. Internal plans were written for the subprojects 'Characterisation of rock for grouting purposes', 'Mechanisms that control the spreading of grout in jointed rock' and 'Cement based grouting material'. Later internal plans for the subprojects 'Demands on grouting' and 'Stabilising and sealing effect of pre-grouting' were written. The aims, which were set for the different subprojects, were in short, to summarise the technological advances, establish a method for rock characterisation from a grouting point of view, develop conceptual and numerical models for simulation of the grouting course, characterise grout in a relevant way, develop understanding and theoretical know-how of durability and chemical influence, identify and develop a number of grouting materials for different situations, develop a specification of requirements for grouting and to verify the theories in laboratory. In the subproject 'Demands on grouting' a literature review was carried out. One important conclusion from the study is that the concept is not very well dealt with in the literature. SKB are currently investigating the prerequisites for the construction of the deep repository. One part of that work is to further specify demands on maximum allowed volume of leakage water for the repository as a whole and also for each part of the deep repository. In the subproject 'Characterisation of rock for grouting purposes', the possibilities of using hydraulic tests for predictions and design have been studied. The idea of this study was to investigate correspondences and deviations to increase the understanding of what is measured in a water-loss measurement. One can draw the conclusion that hydraulic tests are useful when describing the fracture geometry. Numerical modelling

  4. Design, construction and performance of the Oldman River Dam grout curtain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartmaier, H.; Davachi, M. [Acres International Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada); Dharmawardene, W. [Alberta Environment, Edmonton, AB (Canada); Sinclair, B. [Acres International Ltd., Niagara Falls, ON (Canada)

    2002-07-01

    The 76 m high Oldman River Dam was constructed between 1986 and 1991 near Pincher Creek, Alberta to provide flow regulation and on-stream storage of water for multi-purpose use and irrigation services as well as hydroelectric development. The dam's main structure includes an earth- and rockfill dam, a low earthfill dyke 1500 m long, twin diversion/low level outlet tunnels, a gated spillways structure, and 2 drainage tunnels. A 1.3 km long, three-line grout curtain up to 100 m deep extends below the foundation of the dam and spillway. The grout curtain was built in undeformed Paleocene sedimentary rocks affected by stress relief due to river valley erosion. 80 per cent of the grout consumption was from bedrock structural features. Piezometers, slope indicators and flow measurement weirs were installed in the dam and abutment areas both during and after construction to monitor the performance of the grout curtain. Instrument readings indicate that the grout curtain is successfully preventing the transmission of reservoir pressures to the foundation beneath the downstream shell of the dam. The piezometric pressures downstream of the grout curtain are the same as they were in the foundation before impounding. A small amount of seepage has appeared at the end of the grout curtain at the eastern end of the abutment of the spillway but it is not considered to be significant. 3 refs., 4 figs.

  5. The differences between soil grouting with cement slurry and cement-water glass slurry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Mingting; Sui, Haitong; Yang, Honglu

    2018-01-01

    Cement slurry and cement-water glass slurry are the most widely applied for soil grouting reinforcement project. The viscosity change of cement slurry is negligible during grouting period and presumed to be time-independent while the viscosity of cement-water glass slurry increases with time quickly and is presumed to be time-dependent. Due to the significantly rheology differences between them, the grouting quality and the increasing characteristics of grouting parameters may be different, such as grouting pressure, grouting surrounding rock pressure, i.e., the change of surrounding rock pressure deduced by grouting pressure. Those are main factors for grouting design. In this paper, a large-scale 3D grouting simulation device was developed to simulate the surrounding curtain grouting for a tunnel. Two series of surrounding curtain grouting experiments under different geo-stress of 100 kPa, 150 kPa and 200 kPa were performed. The overload test on tunnel was performed to evaluate grouting effect of all surrounding curtain grouting experiments. In the present results, before 240 seconds, the grouting pressure increases slowly for both slurries; after 240 seconds the increase rate of grouting pressure for cement-water glass slurry increases quickly while that for cement slurry remains roughly constant. The increasing trend of grouting pressure for cement-water glass is similar to its viscosity. The setting time of cement-water glass slurry obtained from laboratory test is less than that in practical grouting where grout slurry solidifies in soil. The grouting effect of cement-water glass slurry is better than that of cement slurry and the grouting quality decreases with initial pressure.

  6. Design procedure for formulating and assessing the durability of particulate grouts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okonkwo, I.O.; Altschaeff, A.G.

    1989-01-01

    The current disposal plans for low-level wastes call for stabilizing or encapsulating and storing of these wastes in steel drums which in turn are buried in shallow trenches. Complete sealing is accomplished with grout, a liquid injection comprising principally of cement and fly ash, etc. Upon solidification, the grout forms a rigid mass around the drum, thereby eliminating access of groundwater into or out of the waste barrier, or leaching of radionuclides. Since the primary mechanism for the likely introduction of hazardous and/or radioactive elements into the biosphere in this situation, is through physical or chemical deterioration of the waste barrier, it is necessary that the effect of adverse environments on the durability of the grouts be examined and incorporated in barrier design. Currently, procedures for formulating grout mixes to assure a given impermeability or durability of the grout over its service period is lacking, and so are the techniques for monitoring the in-service performance of waste barrier systems. This paper depicts a serious limitation in waste barrier system technology, for it is time that optimization in design be possible. To allow this, a method is needed that creates the grout formulation specification for an optimization of behavior parameters in the resulting product. These considerations suggest a strong need for improvement in the grout formulation specification to allow a focus upon behavior properties desired by the engineer in the creation of optimum performance. This paper addresses these problems

  7. Rock Slope Design Criteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    Based on the stratigraphy and the type of slope stability problems, the flat lying, Paleozoic age, sedimentary : rocks of Ohio were divided into three design units: 1) competent rock design unit consisting of sandstones, limestones, : and siltstones ...

  8. Sealing properties of cement-based grout materials. Final report on the Rock sealing project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onofrei, M.; Gray, Malcolm; Shenton, B.; Walker, Brad; Pusch, R.; Boergesson, L.; Karnland, O.

    1992-10-01

    This report presents the results of laboratory studies of material properties. A number of different high performance grouts were investigated. The laboratory studies focused on mixtures of sulphate resistant portland cement, silica fume, superplasticizer and water. The ability of the thin films to self seal was confirmed. The surface reactions were studied in specimens of hardened grouts. The leach rates were found to vary with grout and water composition and with temperature. The short-term hydraulic and strength or properties of the hardened grout were determined. These properties were determined for the grouts both in-bulk and as thin-films. The hydraulic conductivities of the bulk, hardened material were found to be less than 10 -14 m/s. The hydraulic conductivities of thin films were found to be less than 10 -11 m/s. Broken, the hydraulic conductivity of the thin films could be increased to 10 -7 m/s. Examination of the leached grout specimens revealed a trend for the pore sizes to decrease with time. The propensity for fractured grouts to self seal was also observed in tests in which the hydraulic conductivity of recompacted mechanically disrupted, granulated grouts was determined. These tests showed that the hydraulic conductivity decreased rapidly with time. The decreases were associated with decreases in mean pore size. In view of the very low hydraulic conductivity it is likely that surface leaching at the grout/groundwater interface will be that major process by which bulk high-performance grouts may degrade. With the completion of the laboratory, in situ and modelling studies it appears that high-performance cement based grouts can be considered as viable materials for some repository sealing applications. Some of the uncertainties that remain are identified in this report. (54 refs.)

  9. Rock slope design guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-01

    This Manual is intended to provide guidance for the design of rock cut slopes, rockfall catchment, and : rockfall controls. Recommendations presented in this manual are based on research presented in Shakoor : and Admassu (2010) entitled Rock Slop...

  10. Real Time Grouting Control Method. Development and application using Aespoe HRL data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, Shinji; Stille, Haakan; Gustafson, Gunnar; Stille, Bjoern

    2008-10-01

    The spread of grout is governed by a number of complex relations. The desired results, such as grout penetration and sealing of fractures, cannot be directly measured during the grouting process. This means that the issue of how or when the injection of grout should be stopped cannot be answered by simple rules of thumb. This is also the background to the great variety of empirical rules used in the grouting sector worldwide. The research during recent years has given a better understanding of the water-bearing structures of the rock mass as well as analytical solutions. In this report the methodology has been further studied and a method for design and control of rock grouting has been proposed. The concept of what we call the 'Real Time Grouting Control Method' is to calculate the grout penetration and control grouting in real time by applying the development of the theories for grout spread. Our intention is to combine our method with a computerized logging tool to acquire an active tool in order to be able to govern the grout spread in real time during the grouting operation. The objectives of this report are: to further develop the theory concerning the relationship between grout penetration and grouting time to describe the real course of grouting, to establish the concept of 'Real Time Grouting Control Method' for design and control for rock grouting based on the developed theory, and to verify the concept by using the field data from the grouting experiment at the 450 m level in the Aespoe HRL. In this report, the approximations and analysis of dimensionality have been checked and further developments of the theory with respect to varying grouting pressure, time-dependent grout properties, changing grout mixes, and changing the flow dimension of the fracture have been carried out. The concept of 'Real Time Grouting Control Method' has been described in order to calculate the grout penetration and to control grouting in real time by applying developed

  11. Strength of High Performance Grouts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Eigil V.

    The present report describes tests carried out on 5 experimental grouts developed by BASF Construction Materials and designed for use in grouted connections of offshore windmill foundations.......The present report describes tests carried out on 5 experimental grouts developed by BASF Construction Materials and designed for use in grouted connections of offshore windmill foundations....

  12. Colloidal silica-grouting in demonstration tunnel 2 in ONKALO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hollmen, K.; Sievaenen, U.; Funehag, J.; Granberg, N.; Lyytinen, T.; Syrjaenen, P.

    2013-12-01

    Posiva carried out grouting using colloidal silica as the grouting material and with the time stop method as the design approach.Three fans were pre-grouted at Posiva Oy's research space ONKALO demonstration tunnel 2 in autumn 2011 and early winter 2012. Colloidal silica is a mix of one-component colloidal silica and accelerator. Before gelling, colloidal silica behaves like a Newtonian liquid. Colloidal silica's efficiency of penetrating hydraulic apertures in small fractures in rock is significantly better than that of cement-based grout. The grouting design was based on an analytical calculation model. A new technique was used in the grouting implementation, which primarily differed from the previous technique in regard to vacuum pumping and packers. The goal of the first grouting fan in the demonstration tunnel was to check the functionality of the equipment and the method; therefore, the fan was drilled into rock mass with no hydraulic conducting fractures. The second grouting fan was drilled into rock mass with an observed fairly low hydraulic conductivity that was lower than the start criterion established in Posiva Oy's requirements to manage groundwater inflows. Nevertheless, the grouting was carried out. The sealing effect was estimated from the control holes, and a slight improvement in sealing was noted. The holes of the third grouting fan clearly penetrated a water conductive rock mass. The grouting was carried out in two phases, in which the new holes in the second phase were drilled between the existing ones that were drilled in the first phase. In the third fan, the grouting holes of the first phase were noted to be significantly crooked and the second phase grouting holes were drilled in locations that differed from the original design. The quantity of grouting holes was increased in the second phase. The sealing effect was estimated by monitoring the second phase holes and control holes. Based on observations from the control holes

  13. Tank closure reducing grout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caldwell, T.B.

    1997-01-01

    A reducing grout has been developed for closing high level waste tanks at the Savannah River Site in Aiken, South Carolina. The grout has a low redox potential, which minimizes the mobility of Sr 90 , the radionuclide with the highest dose potential after closure. The grout also has a high pH which reduces the solubility of the plutonium isotopes. The grout has a high compressive strength and low permeability, which enhances its ability to limit the migration of contaminants after closure. The grout was designed and tested by Construction Technology Laboratories, Inc. Placement methods were developed by the Savannah River Site personnel

  14. D7.21 Report on Validation of design of grouted joints Work Package 7.2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodriguez, Alvaro; Natarajan, Anand; Santos, Benjamin

    2017-01-01

    components. As offshore wind turbines reach 10 MW capacities, it is extremely important to determine the reliability of grouted joints and their design configurations so as to ensure integrity of the 10 MW support structure. This report investigates two types of grouted joint connections, the conventional...... cylindrical joint with shear keys and a conical joint without shear keys. In both cases, fully coupled load simulations are made to determine the fatigue resistance and ultimate load resistance of the joint. Key recommendations are made for the reliable design of grouted joints for 10 MW wind turbines...

  15. PERMEABILITY OF SAVCIBEY DAM (BİLECİK AXIS LOCATION AND DESIGN OF GROUT CURTAIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Can Canoğlu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study comprise the design of the planned grout curtain in Savcıbey Dam (Söğüt/Bilecik in order to provide impermeability along the dam axis. Within the context of field studies, engineering geology map was generated, ground investigation drilling was realized and permeability tests were performed. Within the field studies, the joint conditions of the geological units (Triassic aged Bozuyük Metamorphic schists under the dam axis and its effect on permeability was observed considering the positions of the discontinuities with regard to the dam axis location. Orientation of discontinuities generally have strikes changing between N – S and NNE – SSW. 5 boreholes on dam axis, 2 boreholes on cofferdam, 3 boreholes on diversion tunnel and 2 boreholes on spillway total 245 m ground investigation borehole were drilled. In order to determine the permeability profile of dam axis and design the grout curtain, Lugeon tests in Bozuyük Metamorphic units observed in dam axis, falling head permeability tests in alluviums observed in thalveg and slope debris observed in right abutment were performed. Lugeon tests realized in Bozuyük Metamorphic units show that the unit is generally permeable and partly low permeable. Alluvium and slope debris are highly permeable. In addition, drilling works realized in dam axis shows that the augmentation of the weathering degree cause an increase of permeability in Triassic aged Bozüyük Metamorphic schists. As a result of these studies information about the permeability of Savcıbey Dam was collected and the grout curtain hole was designed. Accordingly, it is predicted that approximately 40 m depth of grout curtain from the stripping excavation with the depth of 1.50 m would prevent the possible leakages.

  16. Systematic approach for the design of pumpable cement-based grouts for immobilization of hazardous wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sams, T.L.; Gilliam, T.M.

    1987-01-01

    Cement-based grouts have been proven to be an economical and environmentally acceptable means of waste disposal. Costs can be reduced if the grout is pumped to the disposal site. This paper presents a systematic approach to guide the development of pumpable grouts. 20 refs., 2 figs

  17. Grouting of karstic arch dam foundation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Young, J.; Rigbey, S. [Acres International, Niagara Falls, ON (Canada)

    2002-07-01

    A 200 m high arch dam and a 2000 MW underground power house complex is under development in the Middle East. The project is located in a highly seismic area in rugged, mountainous terrain. The arch dam is constructed on good quality limestone and dolomitic limestone rock mass, but it contains several zones of disturbed or sheared rock. The basement rock is slightly karstic with hydraulic conductivities in the order of 100 Lugeons. In order to get a satisfactory foundation surface for the dam, it will be necessary to excavate extensively and backfill with concrete. Because of the presence of many clay infilled cavities and fractures, geotechnicians are considering the installation of a multiple row grout curtain to a depth of 150 m below the dam foundation to ensure adequate seepage and uplift parameters when the reservoir is impounded. Initial grouting water pressure test results suggested that the grouting and drainage curtain should be extended to the left abutment beyond the current design. However, when horizontal slide models of the dam abutment were developed using the finite element program SEEPW, it was shown that there is no benefit to extending the length of grout curtains unless they are tied to an area of much lower hydraulic conductivity much deeper in the abutment. 1 tab., 5 figs.

  18. Parameters Optimization of Curtain Grouting Reinforcement Cycle in Yonglian Tunnel and Its Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingsong Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available For practical purposes, the curtain grouting method is an effective method to treat geological disasters and can be used to improve the strength and permeability resistance of surrounding rock. Selection of the optimal parameters of grouting reinforcement cycle especially reinforcement cycle thickness is one of the most interesting areas of research in curtain grouting designs. Based on the fluid-structure interaction theory and orthogonal analysis method, the influence of reinforcement cycle thickness, elastic modulus, and permeability on water inflow of tunnel after grouting and stability of surrounding rock was analyzed. As to the water inflow of tunnel after grouting used as performance evaluation index of grouting reinforcement cycle, it can be concluded that the permeability was the most important factor followed by reinforcement cycle thickness and elastic modulus. Furthermore, pore water pressure field, stress field, and plastic zone of surrounding rock were calculated by using COMSOL software under different conditions of reinforcement cycle thickness. It also can be concluded that the optimal thickness of reinforcement cycle and permeability can be adopted as 8 m and 1/100 of the surrounding rock permeability in the curtain grouting reinforcement cycle. The engineering case provides a reference for similar engineering.

  19. Practical Model of Cement Based Grout Mix Design, for Use into Low Level Radiation Waste Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radu Lidia

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The cement based grouts, as functional performance composite materials, are widely used for both immobilisation and encapsulation as well as for stabilization in the field of inorganic waste management. Also, to ensure that low level radioactive waste (LLW are contained for storage and ultimate disposal, they are encapsulated or immobilized in monolithic waste forms, with cement –based grouts.

  20. Grouting mixture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klyusov, A A; Bakshutov, V S; Kulyavtsev, V A

    1980-10-23

    A grouting mixture is proposed for low-temperature boreholes. The mixture contains cement, beta gypsum polyhydrate, and calcium chloride, so as to increase the water resistance and strength properties of expanding brick at conditions from 20 to -5/sup 0/ C, the components are in the following ratios: (by wt.-%): cement, 77.45-88.06; beta gypsum polyhydrate, 9.79-19.36; calcium chloride, 2.15-3.19. Grouting mortar for cold boreholes serves as the cement.

  1. The grouting handbook a step-by-step guide for foundation design and machinery installation

    CERN Document Server

    Harrison, Donald M

    2013-01-01

    Minimize loss of revenue and the downtime of critical assets by avoiding foundation cracking, poor bonds, and initial alignment changes. After their successful introduction as a maintenance material, machinery grouts are now being used for equipment placement in new construction. While certainly suitable for both markets and applications, a successful installation depends on proper grout selection, application, foundation preparation, and forming methods. Therefore, guidelines on their uses and limitations are needed for engineers and maintenance personnel. Based on 45 years of field experi

  2. Grout treatment facility dangerous waste permit application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-07-01

    The Grout Treatment Facility (GTF) will provide permanent disposal for approximately 43 Mgal of radioactive liquid waste currently being stored in underground tanks on the Hanford Site. The first step in permanent disposal is accomplished by solidifying the low-level liquid waste with cementitious dry materials. The resulting grout is cast within underground vaults. This report on the GTF contains information on the following: Hanford Site Maps, road evaluation for the grout treatment facility, Department of Ecology certificate of non-designation for centralia fly ash, double-shell tank waste compositional modeling, laboratory analysis reports for double-shell tank waste, stored in tanks 241-AN-103, 241-AN-106, and 241-AW-101, grout vault heat transfer results for M-106 grout formulation, test results for extraction procedure toxicity testing, test results for toxicity testing of double-shell tank grout, pilot-scale grout production test with a simulated low-level waste, characterization of simulated low-level waste grout produced in a pilot-scale test, description of the procedure for sampling nonaging waste storage tanks, description of laboratory procedures, grout campaign waste composition verification, variability in properties of grouted phosphate/sulfate N-reactor waste, engineering drawings, description of operating procedures, equipment list--transportable grout equipment, grout treatment facility--tank integrity assessment plan, long-term effects of waste solutions on concrete and reinforcing steel, vendor information, grout disposal facilities construction quality assurance plan, and flexible membrane liner/waste compatibility test results

  3. Contemporary drilling and grouting practices for dam remediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruce, D.A.; Naudts, A.

    1998-01-01

    A generic classification for the different methods used in rock drilling and overburden drilling is described, along with a classification of the range of grouting materials available and the different grouting methods that can be used. Examples are presented from two recent major dam remediation projects to demonstrate the basis for selection and use of the different methods and materials. It was shown that a high level of performance can be obtained when a project is properly designed, executed and monitored. 29 refs., 5 tabs., 5 figs

  4. Durability 2007. Injection grout investigations. Background description

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orantie, K.; Kuosa, H.

    2008-12-01

    The aim of this project was to evaluate the durability risks of injection grouts. The investigations were done with respect to the application conditions, materials and service life requirements at the ONKALO underground research facility. The study encompassed injection grout mixtures made of ultrafine cement with and without silica fume. Some of the mixtures hade a low pH and thus a high silica fume content. The project includes a background description on durability literature, laboratory testing programme, detailed analysis of results and recommendations for selecting of ideal grout mixtures. The background description was made for the experimental study of low-pH and reference rock injection grouts as regards pore- and microstructure, strength, shrinkage/swelling and thus versatile durability properties. A summary of test methods is presented as well as examples, i.e. literature information or former test results, of expected range of results from the tests. Also background information about how the test results correlate to other material properties and mix designs is presented. Besides the report provides basic information on the pore structure of cement based materials. Also the correlation between the pore structure of cement based materials and permeability is shortly discussed. The test methods included in the background description are compressive strength, measurement of bulk drying, autogenous and chemical shrinkage and swelling, hydraulic conductivity / permeability, capillary water uptake test, mercury intrusion porosimetry (MIP) and thin section analysis. Three main mixtures with water-binder ratio of 0.8, 1.0 and 1.4 and silica fume content of 0, 15 and 40% were studied in the laboratory. Besides two extra mixtures were studied to provide additional information about the effect of varying water-dry-material ratio and silica fume content on durability. The evaluation of water tightness based on water permeability coefficient and micro cracking was

  5. Rock Slope Design Criteria : Executive Summary Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    Based on the stratigraphy and the type of slope stability problems, the flat lying, Paleozoic age, sedimentary rocks of Ohio were divided into three design units: 1) competent rock design unit consisting of sandstones, limestones, and siltstones that...

  6. Analysis of Anchoring Mechanism of Fully Grouted Prestressed Anchor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WEN Zhi-jie

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Some researchers have been carried out on analysis of the influence of the full grouted prestressed anchor shape of borehole wall on its carrying capacity. Based on the self-affine fractal feature of anchor borehole wall structural plane, the relation equation among structural plane shear strength, liquid injection pressure, tensile load and structural plane fractal dimension D was built, the instability judgment criterion of anchoring bearing strata and rock structural plane was determined, the solving equations of disintegrated rock support density were derived. Based on the experimental results, the theoretical basis of support design under the disintegrated rock condition was offered.

  7. Kaolinitic clay-based grouting demonstration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCloskey, A.L.; Barry, C.J.; Wilmoth, R.

    1997-01-01

    An innovative Kaolinitic Clay-Based Grouting Demonstration was performed under the Mine Waste Technology Program (MWTP), funded by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and jointly administered by the EPA and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). The objective of the technology was to demonstrate the effectiveness of kaolinitic clay-based grouting in reducing/eliminating infiltration of surface and shallow groundwater through fractured bedrock into underground mine workings. In 1993, the Mike Horse Mine was selected as a demonstration site for the field implementation and evaluation of the grouting technology. The mine portal discharge ranged between 114 to 454 liters per minute (30 to 120 gpm) of water containing iron, zinc, manganese, and cadmium at levels exceeding the National Drinking Water Maximum Contaminant Levels. The grout formulation was designed by the developer Morrison Knudsen Corporation/Spetstamponazhgeologia (MK/STG), in May 1994. Grout injection was performed by Hayward Baker, Inc. under the directive of MSE Technology Applications, Inc. (MSE-TA) during fall of 1994. The grout was injected into directionally-drilled grout holes to form a grout curtain at the project site. Post grout observations suggest the grout was successful in reducing the infiltration of the surface and shallow groundwater from entering the underground mine workings. The proceeding paper describes the demonstration and technology used to form the subsurface barrier in the fracture system

  8. Mechanical Properties of High Cementitious Grout (I)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Eigil V.

     The present report describes tests carried out on the high performance grout MASTERFLOW 9500, marked WMG 7145 FP, developed by BASF Construction Materials and designed for use in grouted connections of offshore windmill foundations....

  9. Mechanical Properties of High Performance Cementitious Grout Masterflow 9200

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Eigil V.

    The present report describes tests carried out on the high performance grout Masterflow 9200, developed by BASF Construction Chemicals A/S and designed for use in grouted connections of windmill foundations....

  10. Theoretical investigations of grout seal longevity - Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alcorn, S.; Coons, W.; Christian-Frear, T.; Wallace, M.

    1992-04-01

    Theoretical investigations into the longevity of repository seals have dealt primarily with the development of a methodology to evaluate interactions between portland cement-based grout and groundwater. Evaluation of chemical thermodynamic equilibria between grout and groundwater, and among grout, groundwater, and granitic host rock phases using the geochemical codes EQ3NR/EQ6 suggests that a fracture filled with grout and saturated with groundwater will tend to fill and 'tighten' with time. Results of these investigations suggest that cement grout seals will maintain an acceptable level of performance for tens of thousands to millions of years, provided the repository is sited where groundwater chemistry is compatible with the seals and hydrologic gradients are low. The results of the grout: groundwater: rock calculations suggest that buffering of the fracture seals chemical systems by the granite rock may be important in determining the long-term fate of grout seals and the resulting phase assemblage in the fracture. The similarity of the modelled reaction products to those observed in naturally filled fractures suggests that with time equilibrium will be approached and grouted fractures subject to low hydrologic gradients will continue to seal. If grout injected into fractures materially reduces groundwater flux, the approach to chemical equilibrium will likely be accelerated. In light of this, even very thin or imperfectly grouted fractures would tighten in suitable hydrogeologic environments. (29 refs.) (au)

  11. Grout formulations for nuclear-waste isolation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buck, A.D.; Mather, K.

    1982-06-01

    It is imperative that control parameters for a grout mixture such as flow time, setting time, compressive strength, permeability, or combinations of these or of other properties be specified before a grout mixture is formulated and used. Once such parameters have been specified, it is possible to proportion a hydraulic cement-based grout mixture to meet the applicable requirements. This may be from experience or by trial mixtures or by both. While longevity of cemetitious mixtures in nonaggressive environments is known from history, satisfactory data involving specific mixtures in selected environments are still needed. Such testing is underway. While compatibility, especially long-term compatibility, of cemetitious mixtures with various rock types is also known, it is necessary to have such evidence for specific mixtures in contact with specific rocks in a selected environment or environments. Satisfactory grout mixtures may be proportioned using the standard practice set forth in Appendix A

  12. Mechanical Properties of High Performance Cementitious Grout (II)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Eigil V.

    The present report is an update of the report “Mechanical Properties of High Performance Cementitious Grout (I)” [1] and describes tests carried out on the high performance grout MASTERFLOW 9500, marked “WMG 7145 FP”, developed by BASF Construction Chemicals A/S and designed for use in grouted...

  13. Test plan: Sealing of the Disturbed Rock Zone (DRZ), including Marker Bed 139 (MB139) and the overlying halite, below the repository horizon, at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahrens, E.H.

    1992-05-01

    This test plan describes activities intended to demonstrate equipment and techniques for producing, injecting, and evaluating microfine cementitious grout. The grout will be injected in fractured rock located below the repository horizon at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). These data are intended to support the development of the Alcove Gas Barrier System (AGBS), the design of upcoming, large-scale seal tests, and ongoing laboratory evaluations of grouting efficacy. Degradation of the grout will be studied in experiments conducted in parallel with the underground grouting experiment

  14. Laboratory testing of cement grouting of fractures in welded tuff

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharpe, C.J.; Daemen, J.J.

    1991-03-01

    Fractures in the rock mass surrounding a repository and its shafts, access drifts, emplacement rooms and holes, and exploratory or in-situ testing holes, may provide preferential flowpaths for the flow of groundwater or air, potentially containing radionuclides. Such cracks may have to be sealed. The likelihood that extensive or at least local grouting will be required as part of repository sealing has been noted in numerous publications addressing high level waste repository closing. The objective of this work is to determine the effectiveness of fracture sealing (grouting) in welded tuff. Experimental work includes measurement of intact and fracture permeability under various normal stresses and injection pressures. Grout is injected into the fractures. The effectiveness of grouting is evaluated in terms of grout penetration and permeability reduction, compared prior to and after grouting. Analysis of the results include the effect of normal stress, injection pressure, fracture roughness, grout rheology, grout bonding, and the radial extent of grout penetration. Laboratory experiments have been performed on seventeen tuff cylinders with three types of fractures: (1) tension induced cracks, (2) natural fractures, and (3) sawcuts. Prior to grouting, the hydraulic conductivity of the intact rock and of the fractures is measured under a range of normal stresses. The surface topography of the fracture is mapped, and the results are used to determine aperture distributions across the fractures. 72 refs., 76 figs., 25 tabs

  15. Preliminary data on rheological limits for grouts in the Transportable Grout Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilliam, T.M.; McDaniel, E.W.; Dole, L.R.; West, G.A.

    1987-04-01

    This report describes a method for establishing rheological limits for grouts that can be pumped in the Hanford Transportable Grout Facility (TGF). This method is based on two models that require determining two key parameters - gel strength and density. This work also presents rheological data on grouts prepared with simulated customer phosphate wastes (CPW) and double shell slurry (DSS) from the Hanford complex. These data can be used to make preliminary estimates of operating rheological limits of the TFG grouts. The suggested design limits will include safety factors that will increase these limits significantly. 4 refs

  16. Grout treatment facility dangerous waste permit application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-07-01

    The Grout Treatment Facility (GTF) will provide permanent disposal for approximately 43 Mgal of low-level radioactive liquid waste currently being stored in underground tanks on the Hanford Site. The first step in permanent disposal is accomplished by solidifying the liquid waste with cementitious dry materials. The resulting grout is cast within underground vaults. This report on the GTF contains information on the following: Geologic data, hydrologic data, groundwater monitoring program, information, detection monitoring program, groundwater characterization drawings, building emergency plan--grout treatment facility, response action plan for grout treatment facility, Hanford Facility contingency plan, training course descriptions, overview of the Hanford Facility Grout Performance, assessment, bland use and zoning map, waste minimization plan, cover design engineering report, and clay liners (ADMIXTURES) in semiarid environments

  17. The injection of TASS-tunnel. Design, implementation and results from the pre-injection; Injekteringen av TASS-tunneln. Design, genomfoerande och resultat fraan foerinjekteringen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Funehag, Johan (Chalmers university of technology, Goeteborg (Sweden)); Emmelin, Ann (Golder Associates (Sweden))

    2011-06-15

    The Swedish repository facility for spent nuclear fuel will be placed in crystalline rock at a depth of 400-500 m. In order to limit groundwater inflow to the facility, grouting is planned. To comply with the stringent material, execution and inflow restrictions, a series of research and development projects concerned with rock characterization for grouting, grouting materials and grouting design have been carried out by the Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co (SKB). The understanding and methods developed were tested in the sealing project carried out at Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory (Aespoe HRL), Sweden, and presented in this report. The project consisted of the construction of a short tunnel at 450 m depth, the TASS-tunnel. Grouting was conducted as pre-grouting using ordinary grouting fans outside the planned tunnel contour, as well as with grout holes entirely within the planned contour. A cement-based low-pH grout and a silica based grouting agent, silica sol, were used. The methodology used included determination of the fracture transmissivity distribution; identification of the smallest hydraulic aperture that needs to be sealed; grout selection based on fracture aperture and grout penetrability; design of grout hole geometry, grouting pressure and time in order to achieve the penetration length required; and monitoring of the actual execution based on inflow in control holes with subsequent design revision. Special concern was given to equipment and execution due to the high groundwater pressures, 3.5 MPa. Before starting the construction, inflow to core drilled holes along the tunnel position amounted to 45-90 liters/minute. The project showed that it was possible to limit the inflow to the target value 1 liter/minute per 60 m tunnel

  18. Grouting of nuclear waste vault shafts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gyenge, M.

    1980-01-01

    A nuclear waste vault must be designed and built to ensure adequate isolation of the nuclear wastes from human contact. Consequently, after a vault has been fully loaded it must be adequately sealed off to prevent radionuclide migration which may be provided by circulating ground water. Of particular concern in vault sealing are the physical and chemical properties of the sealing materials its long-term durability and stability and the techniques used for its emplacement. Present grouting technology and grout material are reviewed in terms of the particular needs of shaft grouting. Areas requiring research and development are indicated

  19. Grout treatment facility dangerous waste permit application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-07-01

    The Grout Treatment Facility (GTF) will provide permanent disposal for approximately 43 Mgal of radioactive liquid waste currently being stored in underground tanks on the Hanford Site. The first step in permanent disposal is accomplished by solidifying the liquid waste with cementitious dry materials. The resulting grout is cast within underground vaults. This report on the GTF contains information on the following: Vault design, run-on/run-off control design, and asphalt compatibility with 90-degree celsius double-shell slurry feed

  20. Innovative grout/retrieval demonstration final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loomis, G.G.; Thompson, D.N.

    1995-01-01

    This report presents the results of an evaluation of an innovative retrieval technique for buried transuranic waste. Application of this retrieval technique was originally designed for full pit retrieval; however, it applies equally to a hot spot retrieval technology. The technique involves grouting the buried soil waste matrix with a jet grouting procedure, applying an expansive demolition grout to the matrix, and retrieving the debris. The grouted matrix provides an agglomeration of fine soil particles and contaminants resulting in an inherent contamination control during the dusty retrieval process. A full-scale field demonstration of this retrieval technique was performed on a simulated waste pit at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Details are reported on all phases of this proof-of-concept demonstration including pit construction, jet grouting activities, application of the demolition grout, and actual retrieval of the grouted pit. A quantitative evaluation of aerosolized soils and rare earth tracer spread is given for all phases of the demonstration, and these results are compared to a baseline retrieval activity using conventional retrieval means. 8 refs., 47 figs., 10 tabs

  1. Evaluation of the effectiveness of grouting curtain on the basis of the analysis of groundwater temperature fluctuations behind the dam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orekhov Vyacheslav Valentinovich

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In the article the authors considered the technique of evaluating the performance of a grouting curtain basing on the analysis of mathematical forecasting and regular measurements of water temperature in the reservoir and in the rock mass behind the dam. The initial data for the solution of heat transfer problem are the rate of filtration, obtained from the solution of the stationary problem of filtration, and the experimental factor, generalizing thermophysical properties of rocks. For calculating the period of time from to the change of the water temperature in the reservoir till the change of water temperature at the reference point of the rock mass a computer program was designed, which allows defining the path and time of filtration from the reservoir to the reference point in the rock mass with the help of the reverse conversion on flow lines. The calculation was carried out from the point in question in the rock mass till the crossing paths of filtration with the bottom boundary of the reservoir. As an example, we present the results of computational studies of filtration and temperature regimes in the rock foundation of a concrete dam at the design work of the grouting curtain and in case of the presence of pervious area. The calculations were performed with a time step dt = 2 days. At each time step, with account of water motion along the lines of the current through the rock mass, the previous position of the reference points in space has been determined, for which the value of the velocity vector of filtration field was corrected. In the first case, the motion of water from the reservoir was carried out in the circumvention of the grouting curtain. In the second case, the motion of water took place from the reservoir through the permeable portion of the grouting curtain. The change of the water temperature during its seepage from the water reservoir through permeable area of grouting curtain because of conductive heat transmission in

  2. A study of grout flow pattern analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, S. Y.; Hyun, S.

    2013-01-01

    A new disposal unit, designated as Salt Disposal Unit no. 6 (SDU6), is being designed for support of site accelerated closure goals and salt nuclear waste projections identified in the new Liquid Waste System plan. The unit is cylindrical disposal vault of 380 ft diameter and 43 ft in height, and it has about 30 million gallons of capacity. Primary objective was to develop the computational model and to perform the evaluations for the flow patterns of grout material in SDU6 as function of elevation of grout discharge port, and slurry rheology. A Bingham plastic model was basically used to represent the grout flow behavior. A two-phase modeling approach was taken to achieve the objective. This approach assumes that the air-grout interface determines the shape of the accumulation mound. The results of this study were used to develop the design guidelines for the discharge ports of the Saltstone feed materials in the SDU6 facility. The focusing areas of the modeling study are to estimate the domain size of the grout materials radially spread on the facility floor under the baseline modeling conditions, to perform the sensitivity analysis with respect to the baseline design and operating conditions such as elevation of discharge port, discharge pipe diameter, and grout properties, and to determine the changes in grout density as it is related to grout drop height. An axi-symmetric two-phase modeling method was used for computational efficiency. Based on the nominal design and operating conditions, a transient computational approach was taken to compute flow fields mainly driven by pumping inertia and natural gravity. Detailed solution methodology and analysis results are discussed here

  3. A new and superior ultrafine cementitious grout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahrens, E.H.

    1997-01-01

    Sealing fractures in nuclear waste repositories concerns all programs investigating deep burial as a means of disposal. Because the most likely mechanism for contaminant migration is by dissolution and movement through groundwater, sealing programs are seeking low-viscosity sealants that are chemically, mineralogically, and physically compatible with the host rock. This paper presents the results of collaborative work directed by Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) and supported by Whiteshell Laboratories, operated by Atomic Energy of Canada, Ltd. The work was undertaken in support of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), an underground nuclear waste repository located in a salt formation east of Carlsbad, NM. This effort addresses the technology associated with long-term isolation of nuclear waste in a natural salt medium. The work presented is part of the WIPP plugging and sealing program, specifically the development and optimization of an ultrafine cementitious grout that can be injected to lower excessive, strain-induced hydraulic conductivity in the fractured rock termed the Disturbed Rock Zone (DRZ) surrounding underground excavations. Innovative equipment and procedures employed in the laboratory produced a usable cement-based grout; 90% of the particles were smaller than 8 microns and the average particle size was 4 microns. The process involved simultaneous wet pulverization and mixing. The grout was used for a successful in situ test underground at the WIPP. Injection of grout sealed microfractures as small as 6 microns (and in one rare instance, 3 microns) and lowered the gas transmissivity of the DRZ by up to three orders of magnitude. Following the WIPP test, additional work produced an improved version of the grout containing particles 90% smaller than 5 microns and averaging 2 microns. This grout will be produced in dry form, ready for the mixer

  4. REACTOR GROUT THERMAL PROPERTIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steimke, J.; Qureshi, Z.; Restivo, M.; Guerrero, H.

    2011-01-28

    Savannah River Site has five dormant nuclear production reactors. Long term disposition will require filling some reactor buildings with grout up to ground level. Portland cement based grout will be used to fill the buildings with the exception of some reactor tanks. Some reactor tanks contain significant quantities of aluminum which could react with Portland cement based grout to form hydrogen. Hydrogen production is a safety concern and gas generation could also compromise the structural integrity of the grout pour. Therefore, it was necessary to develop a non-Portland cement grout to fill reactors that contain significant quantities of aluminum. Grouts generate heat when they set, so the potential exists for large temperature increases in a large pour, which could compromise the integrity of the pour. The primary purpose of the testing reported here was to measure heat of hydration, specific heat, thermal conductivity and density of various reactor grouts under consideration so that these properties could be used to model transient heat transfer for different pouring strategies. A secondary purpose was to make qualitative judgments of grout pourability and hardened strength. Some reactor grout formulations were unacceptable because they generated too much heat, or started setting too fast, or required too long to harden or were too weak. The formulation called 102H had the best combination of characteristics. It is a Calcium Alumino-Sulfate grout that contains Ciment Fondu (calcium aluminate cement), Plaster of Paris (calcium sulfate hemihydrate), sand, Class F fly ash, boric acid and small quantities of additives. This composition afforded about ten hours of working time. Heat release began at 12 hours and was complete by 24 hours. The adiabatic temperature rise was 54 C which was within specification. The final product was hard and displayed no visible segregation. The density and maximum particle size were within specification.

  5. Study on the mechanism of seepage flow in the grouting for multiple fractured model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishigaki, Makoto; Mikake, Shin-ichiro

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of study is to improve the grouting method for fractured rock masses. In this paper, the results on the fundamental phenomenon for grasping the properties of grouting injection and seepage flow are discussed. The case of grouting stage is studied about the multiple hydraulic fractured apertures in the injected borehole. So the theory on the mechanism is constructed, and experiment is executed in order to verify the availability of the theory. From the results, it is shown that Bernoulli's law is able to prove the behavior of the grouting. And the theoretical evaluation is executed on the experiential procedure of the grouting. (author)

  6. Protection against water or mud inrush in tunnels by grouting: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shucai Li

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Grouting is a major method used to prevent water and mud inrush in tunnels and underground engineering. In this paper, the current situation of control and prevention of water and mud inrush is summarized and recent advances in relevant theories, grout/equipment, and critical techniques are introduced. The time-variant equations of grout viscosity at different volumetric ratios were obtained based on the constitutive relation of typical fast curing grouts. A large-scale dynamic grouting model testing system (4000 mm × 2000 mm × 5 mm was developed, and the diffusions of cement and fast curing grouts in dynamic water grouting were investigated. The results reveal that the diffusions of cement grouts and fast curing grouts are U-shaped and asymmetric elliptical, respectively. A multi-parameter real-time monitoring system (ϕ = 1.5 m, h = 1.2 m was developed for the grouting process to study the diffusion and reinforcement mechanism of grouting in water-rich faulted zone. A high early strength cream-type reinforcing/plugging grout, a high permeability nano-scale silica gel grout, and a high-expansion filling grout were proposed for the control of water hazards in weak water-rich faulted zone rocks, water inrush in karst passages, and micro-crack water inrush, respectively. Complement technologies and equipment for industrial applications were also proposed. Additionally, a novel full-life periodic dynamic water grouting with the critical grouting borehole as the core was proposed. The key techniques for the control of water inrush in water-rich faulted zone, jointed fissures and karst passages, and micro-crack water inrush were developed.

  7. Pilot-scale grout production test with a simulated low-level waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fow, C.L.; Mitchell, D.H.; Treat, R.L.; Hymas, C.R.

    1987-05-01

    Plans are underway at the Hanford Site near Richland, Washington, to convert the low-level fraction of radioactive liquid wastes to a grout form for permanent disposal. Grout is a mixture of liquid waste and grout formers, including portland cement, fly ash, and clays. In the plan, the grout slurry is pumped to subsurface concrete vaults on the Hanford Site, where the grout will solidify into large monoliths, thereby immobilizing the waste. A similar disposal concept is being planned at the Savannah River Laboratory site. The underground disposal of grout was conducted at Oak Ridge National Laboratory between 1966 and 1984. Design and construction of grout processing and disposal facilities are underway. The Transportable Grout Facility (TGF), operated by Rockwell Hanford Operations (Rockwell) for the Department of Energy (DOE), is scheduled to grout Phosphate/Sulfate N Reactor Operations Waste (PSW) in FY 1988. Phosphate/Sulfate Waste is a blend of two low-level waste streams generated at Hanford's N Reactor. Other wastes are scheduled to be grouted in subsequent years. Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) is verifying that Hanford grouts can be safely and efficiently processed. To meet this objective, pilot-scale grout process equipment was installed. On July 29 and 30, 1986, PNL conducted a pilot-scale grout production test for Rockwell. During the test, 16,000 gallons of simulated nonradioactive PSW were mixed with grout formers to produce 22,000 gallons of PSW grout. The grout was pumped at a nominal rate of 15 gpm (about 25% of the nominal production rate planned for the TGF) to a lined and covered trench with a capacity of 30,000 gallons. Emplacement of grout in the trench will permit subsequent evaluation of homogeneity of grout in a large monolith. 12 refs., 34 figs., 5 tabs

  8. Expansive stresses of a grout plug on the walls of borehole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Licastro, P.H.; Malek, R.I.A.; Roy, D.M.

    1985-01-01

    The primary function of a concrete plug in a repository seal system is to provide a viable seal at the interface with the host rock by developing and maintaining a positive normal stress across the interface. While standards do exist for unrestrained and restrained expansion of mortar and concrete there are few systems that permit calculation of stress for a stimulated borehole geometry. A system was designed to determine the radial stresses introduced by expansive, cementitious grout on the borehole. It consists of a strain gage instrumented cell and its associated signal conditioner/amplifier. Cell material and thickness can be varied to simulate restraining conditions at given depths. Prior to sample emplacement the cell/system is calibrated by fluid pressurization. Special cell design eliminates the effects of longitudinal stresses during calibration. An analog output as a function of time is recorded, in conjunction with surface temperature of the cylinder. The cell containing grout is maintained under controlled temperature conditions which can be varied from 25 0 C to 90 0 C. Pressure can be applied to the grout column to simulate hydrostatic/geostatic load conditions. Using the equipment described, several expansive grout formulations were studied at 38 0 C. Results obtained for expansive stresses as a function of time are presented together with implications on repository-seal durability

  9. Analysis of core samples from jet grouted soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allan, M.L.; Kukacka, L.E.

    1995-10-01

    Superplasticized cementitious grouts were tested for constructing subsurface containment barriers using jet grouting in July, 1994. The grouts were developed in the Department of Applied Science at Brookhaven National Laboratory. The test site was located close to the Chemical Waste Landfill at Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM. Sandia was responsible for the placement contract. The jet grouted soil was exposed to the service environment for one year and core samples were extracted to evaluate selected properties. The cores were tested for strength, density, permeability (hydraulic conductivity) and cementitious content. The tests provided an opportunity to determine the performance of the grouts and grout-treated soil. Several recommendations arise from the results of the core tests. These are: (1) grout of the same mix proportions as the final grout should be used as a drilling fluid in order to preserve the original mix design and utilize the benefits of superplasticizers; (2) a high shear mixer should be used for preparation of the grout; (3) the permeability under unsaturated conditions requires consideration when subsurface barriers are used in the vadose zone; and (4) suitable methods for characterizing the permeability of barriers in-situ should be applied

  10. Cement-based grouts in geological disposal of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onofrei, M.

    1996-01-01

    The behavior and performance of a specially developed high-performance cement-based grout has been studied through a combined laboratory and in situ research program conducted under the auspices of the Canadian Nuclear Fuel Waste Management Program (CNFWMP). A new class of cement-based grouts - high-performance grouts-with the ability to penetrate and seal fine fractures was developed and investigated. These high-performance grouts, which were injected into fractures in the granitic rock at the Underground Research Laboratory (URL) in Canada, are shown to successfully reduce the hydraulic conductivity of the rock mass from -7 m s -1 to 10 -9 m s -1 and to penetrate fissures in the rock with apertures as small as 10 μm. Furthermore, the laboratory studies have shown that this high - performance grout has very low hydraulic conductivity and is highly leach resistant under repository conditions. Microcracks generated in this materials from shrinkage, overstressing or thermal loads are likely to self-seal. The results of these studies suggest that the high-performance grouts can be considered as viable materials in disposal-vault sealing applications. Further work is needed to fully justify extrapolation of the results of the laboratory studies to time scales relevant to performance assessment

  11. Cost estimate of grouting the proposed test pits at Idaho National Engineering Laboratory using the ORNL-recommended grouts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spence, R.D.

    1987-08-01

    EG and G Idaho will construct three experimental pits to simulate the TRU waste trenches at Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). Two of these pits will be grouted and then one will be destructively examined as soon as the grout cures and the other will be monitored for 10 years. Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is evaluating grouts and will recommend a grout to EG and G Idaho to reduce the permeability of the pit, fill the large voids, and encapsulate the waste. A previous ORNL report (ORNL/TM-9881) discusses the grouts evaluated and the grout recommended based on those evaluations. This report evaluates the economics of grouting the experimental pits. The cost of double grouting two of the EG and G Idaho design pits at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory using lance injection was estimated to be $100,000. Jet grouting the same two pits was estimated to cost $85,000. Both should be tried as part of the test EG and G Idaho is conducting

  12. Technical performance of cementitious grouting materials for ONKALO. Laboratory tests 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raivio, P.; Hansen, J.

    2007-09-01

    During 2006 the development of high and low-pH cementitious grouts for fractures > 100 μm designed for the ONKALO rock was continued within the LPHTEK/IMAproject. The main focus in laboratory was to study high pH micro cement grouts. The low pH (≥ 11.0) of the cementitious grout material is required in deep repository as natural pH plume deriving from pure cement paste is very high and moves via ground water circulation in bedrock. This may be deleterious to the protective covers of nuclear waste. The objective to study high pH grouts in laboratory was to optimise their composition and to get preliminary test results. Low pH grouts based on Portland cement + micro silica were also studied further in laboratory to understand their behaviour more thoroughly in different conditions and due to quality changes in materials and to compare the laboratory results with the field results. Alternative fine-grained glass material was briefly studied to replace silica in low pH grout. Low and high pH rock bolt mortars were also developed and tested to get the preliminary test results. The results of the 2006 laboratory work are presented in this report. The high pH micro cement mix U1 with no silica, mix 5/5 with moderate silica and low pH mix P308B rich in silica show generally good properties at fresh and hardening stage at +12 deg C. Lower temperature gives weaker strength build-up with all the mixes and weakens especially the Marsh fluidity and penetration ability of the mixes 5/5 and P308B as bulk density rises a little at lower temperature. Cement quality variation and insufficient mixing may also weaken the properties of all mixes. Deformation of the hardened mixes was observed in laboratory tests. This may weaken their durability if cracks are formed in the grouts at later ages and need to be studied more thoroughly. (orig.)

  13. Grout Facilities standby plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Claghorn, R.D.; Kison, P.F.; Nunamaker, D.R.; Yoakum, A.K.

    1994-09-29

    This plan defines how the Grout Facilities will be deactivated to meet the intent of the recently renegotiated Tri-Party Agreement (TPA). The TPA calls for the use of the grout process as an emergency option only in the event that tank space is not available to resolve tank safety issues. The availability of new tanks is expected by 1997. Since a grout startup effort would take an estimated two years, a complete termination of the Grout Disposal Program is expected in December 1995. The former Tank Waste Remediation (TWRS) Strategy, adopted in 1988, called for the contents of Hanford`s 28 newer double-shell waste tanks to be separated into high-level radioactive material to be vitrified and disposed of in a geologic repository; low-level wastes were to be sent to the Grout Facility to be made into a cement-like-mixture and poured into underground vaults at Hanford for disposal. The waste in the 149 older single-shell tanks (SST) were to undergo further study and analysis before a disposal decision was made.

  14. Grout Facilities standby plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Claghorn, R.D.; Kison, P.F.; Nunamaker, D.R.; Yoakum, A.K.

    1994-01-01

    This plan defines how the Grout Facilities will be deactivated to meet the intent of the recently renegotiated Tri-Party Agreement (TPA). The TPA calls for the use of the grout process as an emergency option only in the event that tank space is not available to resolve tank safety issues. The availability of new tanks is expected by 1997. Since a grout startup effort would take an estimated two years, a complete termination of the Grout Disposal Program is expected in December 1995. The former Tank Waste Remediation (TWRS) Strategy, adopted in 1988, called for the contents of Hanford's 28 newer double-shell waste tanks to be separated into high-level radioactive material to be vitrified and disposed of in a geologic repository; low-level wastes were to be sent to the Grout Facility to be made into a cement-like-mixture and poured into underground vaults at Hanford for disposal. The waste in the 149 older single-shell tanks (SST) were to undergo further study and analysis before a disposal decision was made

  15. PHYSICAL PROPERTY MEASUREMENTS OF LABORATORY PREPARED SALTSTONE GROUT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, E.; Cozzi, A.; Edwards, T.

    2014-05-05

    The Saltstone Production Facility (SPF) built two new Saltstone Disposal Units (SDU), SDU 3 and SDU 5, in 2013. The variable frequency drive (VFD) for the grout transfer hose pump tripped due to high current demand by the motor during the initial radioactive saltstone transfer to SDU 5B on 12/5/2013. This was not observed during clean cap processing on July 5, 2013 to SDU 3A, which is a slightly longer distance from the SPF than is SDU 5B. Saltstone Design Authority (SDA) is evaluating the grout pump performance and capabilities to transfer the grout processed in SPF to SDU 3/5. To assist in this evaluation, grout physical properties are required. At this time, there are no rheological data from the actual SPF so the properties of laboratory prepared samples using simulated salt solution or Tank 50 salt solution will be measured. The physical properties of grout prepared in the laboratory with de-ionized water (DI) and salt solutions were obtained at 0.60 and 0.59 water to premix (W/P) ratios, respectively. The yield stress of the DI grout was greater than any salt grout. The plastic viscosity of the DI grout was lower than all of the salt grouts (including salt grout with admixture). When these physical data were used to determine the pressure drop and fluid horsepower for steady state conditions, the salt grouts without admixture addition required a higher pressure drop and higher fluid horsepower to transport. When 0.00076 g Daratard 17/g premix was added, both the pressure drop and fluid horsepower were below that of the DI grout. Higher concentrations of Daratard 17 further reduced the pressure drop and fluid horsepower. The uncertainty in the single point Bingham Plastic parameters is + 4% of the reported values and is the bounding uncertainty. Two different mechanical agitator mixing protocols were followed for the simulant salt grout, one having a total mixing time of three minutes and the other having a time of 10 minutes. The Bingham Plastic parameters

  16. R20 Programme: Field testing of grouting materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ranta-Korpi, R.; Karttunen, P.; Sievaenen, U.

    2008-02-01

    In the year 2004 Finnish nuclear waste management organisation Posiva Oy started to construct an underground rock characterisation facility in Olkiluoto, Eurajoki, Western Finland. The ONKALO was planned to be a final disposal of spent nuclear fuel in Finland. This facility is going to be finished in the end of the year 2010. In ONKALO it is important to grout the water conductive structures to minimize the leakage of the inflowing groundwater in order to keep the geohydrogical environment unchanged and the repository conditions safe. Before the construction began the development of the grouts suitable for this demanding environment was started. Especially pH, the penetration ability and rheology have been the matter of interest. One target for the grout has been that the pH is relatively low. These grouts have different properties than the normal grouts. Several laboratory and field tests have been done for low pH grouts. The suitable recipies are studied in laboratory and the properties are verified in field. This work concerns the field testing of several low pH grout recipies. The different W/DM -ratios and SPL contents were studied. Besides the customary test methods, two new measurement methods were taken into use: the sand column test for measuring the penetration ability and the stick test for determining the plastic viscosity and yield value. The relationships between different properties, the properties as a function of the time and the effect of the (orig.)

  17. Silica sol as grouting material: a physio-chemical analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sögaard, Christian; Funehag, Johan; Abbas, Zareen

    2018-01-01

    At present there is a pressing need to find an environmentally friendly grouting material for the construction of tunnels. Silica nanoparticles hold great potential of replacing the organic molecule based grouting materials currently used for this purpose. Chemically, silica nanoparticles are similar to natural silicates which are essential components of rocks and soil. Moreover, suspensions of silica nanoparticles of different sizes and desired reactivity are commercially available. However, the use of silica nanoparticles as grouting material is at an early stage of its technological development. There are some critical parameters such as long term stability and functionality of grouted silica that need to be investigated in detail before silica nanoparticles can be considered as a reliable grouting material. In this review article we present the state of the art regarding the chemical properties of silica nanoparticles commercially available, as well as experience gained from the use of silica as grouting material. We give a detailed description of the mechanisms underlying the gelling of silica by different salt solutions such as NaCl and KCl and how factors such as particle size, pH, and temperature affect the gelling and gel strength development. Our focus in this review is on linking the chemical properties of silica nanoparticles to the mechanical properties to better understand their functionality and stability as grouting material. Along the way we point out areas which need further research.

  18. Predicting the Occurrence of Hydraulic Fracture in Grouting Operations Based on the Pressure in the Penetrated Cement Grout

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Bakhshandeh Amnieh

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Cement grouting is an operation often carried out to consolidate and seal the rock mass in dam sites and tunnels. The quality and efficiency of a grouting operation depends on various factors such as water take, grout properties and grouting pressure. One of the parameters which have the highest effect is pressure since the application of excessive pressure causes the hydraulic fracture phenomenon to occur in the rock mass and too little pressure leads to incomplete grouting and failure to seal the site in a perfect manner. Mathematical modeling is used for the first time in this study to predict and determine the optimum pressure. Thus, the joints that exist in the rock mass are simulated using cylindrical shell model. The joint surroundings are also modeled through Pasternak environment. To obtain equations governing the joints and the surroundings, energy method is used accompanied by Hamilton principle. In the end, an analytical solution method is used to obtain the maximum grouting pressure. In order to validate the modeling, the grouting pressure values obtained by the model were used in the sites of Seymareh and Aghbolagh dams and the relative error rates were measured considering the differences between calculated and actual pressures. Modeling in the examined sections of Seymareh dam showed 29.61, 5.57, 21.98, 32.50 and 9.09 percent error rates and in the sections of Aghbolagh dam it rendered the values of 4.32, 5.40 and 2.96 percent. The results indicate that this modeling can be used to estimate the amount of pressure for hydraulic fracture in grouting, to predict it and to prevent it.

  19. Calorimetric examination of hydrofracture grouts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stinton, D.P.; Berger, R.L.

    1985-01-01

    A hydrofracture grout sample obtained during the SI-10 injection campaign was studied by calorimetry. The calorimetry curve of this grout was compared with laboratory-produced grout containing simulated wastes. Initiation of the cement-water reaction for the actual grout was delayed several days by the presence of a large quantity of boron in the waste. Although the hydration of cement was delayed, eventually the cement reacted with water and the grout hardened. This test indicates the potential need to analyze sludges for compounds known to retard cement hydration. 10 references, 5 figures, 4 tables

  20. Mechanical response of shock conditioned HPNS-5 (R-1) grout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plannerer, H.N.

    1997-01-01

    HPNS-5 (R-1) grout is a portland cement formulated mix designed for use as a rigid containment plug in vertical boreholes at the Nevada Test Site. Coincident with field testing of this grout in 1991 and 1992 , two arums of the grout mix were collected and positioned in the by pass drift of the DISTANT ZENITH event to expose the grout to passage of a nuclear driven stress wave. The drums were later retrieved to determine the mechanical behavior of the shock conditioned grout. Sealed hollow tubes positioned within the grout-filled drums to detect ductile flow on passage of the stress wave were found partially to completely filled with HPNS-5 grout following the experiment. Static mechanical tests support the evidence for ductile flow and place the transition from brittle fracture failure to ductile behavior in the shock conditioned grout at a confining stress between ambient and 5 MPa (725 psi). Uniaxial and triaxial tests delineated a stress-strain field for interstice collapse that interposes between the mechanics of linear elastic deformation and dilatancy. Hydrostatic stress loading between 25 MPa (3.6 ksi) and 60 MPa (8.7 ksi) results in a significant change of permanent set from 1% to greater than 15% volume strain

  1. The use of alkali-activated fly ash grouts for the remediation of AMD from underground mines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eaker, C.A.; Longley, R.D.; Michaud, L.H.; Silsbee, M.R.

    1996-01-01

    In preparation for a field demonstration, laboratory studies were conducted using several fly ash grout formulations to determine the optimum grout for an underground mine environment. This paper discusses the portion of the overall project designed to examine grout-acid mine drainage (AMD) interactions including neutralization, leaching and armoring of the grouts. Leaching tests were performed to study the effects of fly ash grout on AMD, including the effects of armoring. The goal of this project is to study the feasibility of in-situ acid mine drainage treatment by injecting alkali-activated fly ash grout into an underground mine

  2. Tunnel Design by Rock Mass Classifications

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    Engineering," revised second edition, Institution of Mining and Metallurgy, London, 1977, pp 113-115 and 150-192. 42. Selmer - Olsen , R., and Broch, E...to wall when a)/03 > 10, re- stability) ................ 10-5 0.66-0.33 0.5-2.0 duce oc and ot to L. Mild rock burst (massive 0.6 cc and 0.6 on rock ...5-2.5 0.33-0.16 5-10 where: 0 c = uncon-fined compression M. Heavy rock burst (massive strength, at = rock

  3. Injection grout for deep repositories - Low-pH cementitious grout for larger fractures. Field testing in Finland, Pilot tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sievaeen, U.; Syrjaenen, P.; Ranta-aho, S.

    2005-10-01

    Portland cement-silica-superplastizicer -system. The most promising combinations were tested in the pilot field test 2, which was divided into two stages. In the first stage in the field (the mixing test) several recipes (varying water to dry material ratio, amount of superplastizicer and mixing order) were mixed with normal grouting mixer in field conditions and selected tests were done. The mixing test showed clear differences between the recipes. Based on the mixing test, the most promising recipe was selected to be tested in test grouting in ONKALO access tunnel. The penetration ability, fluidity and strength development were not totally satisfying. The temperature in the tunnel was low during test and it may have had an effect on the behaviour of this silica rich grout. The same tests were done also to the reference grout (normal grout used in ONKALO access tunnel), and the tests showed good values in the same temperature. The intake of the test grout was quite high in some holes and based on that there is no reason to evaluate the mix not to be able to penetrate into fractures. The rock characteristics explain some differences between grout takes. However, after excavation there were more moisture and dropping leakages in the area grouted with test mix compared to the area grouted with reference mix. (orig.)

  4. Mixing conditions in application of bentonite grouting to radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayakawa, Hiroaki; Ito, Hiroshi

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to understand the flow properties and permeability of bentonite grout with NaCl added, using laboratory tests, and to clarify the mixing conditions of bentonite as a material. Given that the required permeability of clay grout is 10 -9 (m/s), the combination of grout (W/B) becomes 6 or less. The viscosity of the grout was measured, and because the viscosity was higher than the thickest cement milk on dam grouting, it was found that grout with a W/B of less than 10 was difficult to inject into rock joints. We then added NaCl to grout with a W/B is 6, and its viscosity decreased as the amount of NaCl increased. A grout of viscosity able to be injected into rock joints was achieved by adding NaCl in a density higher than 'W:NaCl=40:1'. Next, the permeability of a bentonite suspension with NaCl was examined using the falling head permeability test. Testing the sample 'B:W:NaCl=20:20:1' for 10 days revealed that the initial permeability 10 -8 (m/s) decreased to 10 -10 - 10 -11 (m/s). These results showed that a suspension to inject into rock joints could be made by adding NaCl, and clarified that permeation of groundwater into the suspension causes a decline in permeability. (author)

  5. Study of furfural-urea grout

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-01-01

    An analysis of raw materials, formulation and performance of furfural-urea grout is given. Characteristics of the grout slurry, mechanism of stabilization and examples of shaft sinking with grouting in quicksand are summarized.

  6. Probabilistic structural assessment of conical grouted joint using numerical modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Njomo-Wandji, Wilfried; Natarajan, Anand; Dimitrov, Nikolay

    2018-01-01

    Conical grouted joints have been proposed as a solution for the relative settlement observed between the sleeve and the pile on monopiles for wind turbines. In this paper, the influence of the design parameters such as steel wall thicknesses and conical angle on the failure modes associated...... to continual loadings are assessed based on finite element analysis. It is found that both the sleeve's and pile's wall thicknesses have a significant impact on the grouted joint health. Namely, the larger are the wall thicknesses, the more vulnerable the grout is with respect to fatigue and material...

  7. R20 Programme: Grout setting and strength development in ONKALO. Literature review, observations and experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karttunen, P.; Raivio, P.

    2008-12-01

    ONKALO is an underground rock characterisation facility planned to be a part of nuclear waste repository in future. ONKALO is located in Olkiluoto Finland. Posiva Oy owned by Teollisuuden Voima Oy and Fortum Power and Heat Oy is responsible for the repository, research, construction and use of the ONKALO and closing of the underground facility after use. During construction of ONKALO it has been observed that the setting and strength of grouting materials have not sporadically developed as expected (in ONKALO). The phenomenon has been observed for the first time in the year 2005. The observations examined in this report are made in the grouting field tests and in ordinary grouting during the year 2007. The phenomenon has been observed with low pH and standard grouts and bolt grouting mortars. The reasons for this phenomenon are studied based on literature review, observations and tests in the field and laboratory. The effect of reactions between groundwater and grout, the effect of the raw materials as well as curing conditions, temperature and pressure are studied. There are several potential factors that can cause observed phenomenon. Some factors are more probable than others. Laboratory experiments for the samples of poor strength development were done. These samples were taken from the grouting holes or packers in which the strength of the grout was not developed as expected. The results of these experiments were compared to the results gained from the samples cast from the same grout batches and cured in the tunnel conditions. The purpose was to find out the factor causing slow strength development of the grouted mixes. One single reason, which can slow the setting of the grouts in ONKALO is the low temperature in the rock, but the temperature cannot cause the phenomenon alone. Locally groundwater contains compounds that can create chemically aggressive environment for (the Portland) cement based grouts. The groundwater chemistry in ONKALO has not been proved

  8. Development of grouting technologies for geological disposal of high level waste in Japan (1). Overall program and application of developed technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujita, Tomoo; Sasamoto, Hiroshi; Sugita, Yutaka; Matsui, Hiroya

    2013-01-01

    The Japan Atomic Energy Agency started a grout project for geological disposal of high-level radioactive waste (HLW) in 2007. The aim of the project was to develop new grouting technologies and grout materials and also to develop models for performance assessments, prediction of the long-term radionuclide migration and identify detrimental changes in the host rock by the grout material leachate. This study presents the overall program and the application of key engineering technologies to the construction and operation of an underground facility for the geological disposal of HLW, with particular emphasis on the long-term effects of grout materials. (author)

  9. Examination of sample of grout after 63 years exposure underground. Technical report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rhoderick, J.E.

    1981-05-01

    During an investigation of the Troy Lock and Dam, New York, a core was recovered that contained part of a metal anchor that had been grouted into foundation rock. Since this grout was about 63 years old and had presumably been continuously below the water table, it provided an opportunity to study the effect of this environment for this period of time on the phase composition and microstructure of this grout. The phase composition of the grout was studied by x-ray diffraction; its microstructure was studied by scanning electron microscopy. It was found that the grout had a normal composition and microstructure; the environmental conditions had not had a significant effect on either composition or microstructure. The original water content had been fairly high as would be expected

  10. Critically evaluate techniques for the in situ testing of steel tendon grouting effectiveness as a basis for reducing fall of ground injuries and fatalities

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Kelly, AM

    1996-10-01

    Full Text Available The quality of installation and grouting of rock reinforcing tendons is seen as a serious problem by the mining industry. Up to half of all full-column grouted steel tendons or rock bolts installed in South African gold and platinum mines...

  11. Self Cleanable Tile Grout

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet CANBAZ

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, In this study, self-cleaning tile grout and white cement specimens are produced and the effect of self-cleaning mechanism of TiO2 is tested. Effects of TiO2 amount and TiO2 type are tested and compared. Anatase form and rutile TiO2 additive are used in the study. In addition, effects of silicate additives on the self-cleaning mechanism is determined. Studies are conducted with respect to Italian UNI code. This study presents a method for solving rust between the tiles of ceramic wet floor coverings with photocatalysis method and then removing the dirt with secondary effects such as water, wind etc.

  12. Modeling Analysis For Grout Hopper Waste Tank

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, S.

    2012-01-01

    The Saltstone facility at Savannah River Site (SRS) has a grout hopper tank to provide agitator stirring of the Saltstone feed materials. The tank has about 300 gallon capacity to provide a larger working volume for the grout nuclear waste slurry to be held in case of a process upset, and it is equipped with a mechanical agitator, which is intended to keep the grout in motion and agitated so that it won't start to set up. The primary objective of the work was to evaluate the flow performance for mechanical agitators to prevent vortex pull-through for an adequate stirring of the feed materials and to estimate an agitator speed which provides acceptable flow performance with a 45 o pitched four-blade agitator. In addition, the power consumption required for the agitator operation was estimated. The modeling calculations were performed by taking two steps of the Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) modeling approach. As a first step, a simple single-stage agitator model with 45 o pitched propeller blades was developed for the initial scoping analysis of the flow pattern behaviors for a range of different operating conditions. Based on the initial phase-1 results, the phase-2 model with a two-stage agitator was developed for the final performance evaluations. A series of sensitivity calculations for different designs of agitators and operating conditions have been performed to investigate the impact of key parameters on the grout hydraulic performance in a 300-gallon hopper tank. For the analysis, viscous shear was modeled by using the Bingham plastic approximation. Steady state analyses with a two-equation turbulence model were performed. All analyses were based on three-dimensional results. Recommended operational guidance was developed by using the basic concept that local shear rate profiles and flow patterns can be used as a measure of hydraulic performance and spatial stirring. Flow patterns were estimated by a Lagrangian integration technique along the flow paths

  13. Jet grout strut for deep station boxes of the north/south metro line Amsterdam : Design and back analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Delfgaauw, S.; Buykx, S.M.; Bosch, J.W.

    2009-01-01

    The new North/South metro line in Amsterdam contains several stations, some of which with an excavation depth of 30 m below surface. The design of these station boxes is very much determined by the adjacent historic buildings, high water table and the relatively soft soil. A lot of effort is put

  14. Design of Rock Slope Reinforcement: An Himalayan Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, Gaurav; Latha, Gali Madhavi

    2016-06-01

    The stability analysis of the two abutment slopes of a railway bridge proposed at about 359 m above the ground level, crossing a river and connecting two hill faces in the Himalayas, India, is presented. The bridge is located in a zone of high seismic activity. The rock slopes are composed of a heavily jointed rock mass and the spacing, dip and dip direction of joint sets are varying at different locations. Geological mapping was carried out to characterize all discontinuities present along the slopes. Laboratory and field investigations were conducted to assess the geotechnical properties of the intact rock, rock mass and joint infill. Stability analyses of these rock slopes were carried out using numerical programmes. Loads from the foundations resting on the slopes and seismic accelerations estimated from site-specific ground response analysis were considered. The proposed slope profile with several berms between successive foundations was simulated in the numerical model. An equivalent continuum approach with Hoek and Brown failure criterion was initially used in a finite element model to assess the global stability of the slope abutments. In the second stage, finite element analysis of rock slopes with all joint sets with their orientations, spacing and properties explicitly incorporated into the numerical model was taken up using continuum with joints approach. It was observed that the continuum with joints approach was able to capture the local failures in some of the slope sections, which were verified using wedge failure analysis and stereographic projections. Based on the slope deformations and failure patterns observed from the numerical analyses, rock anchors were designed to achieve the target factors of safety against failure while keeping the deformations within the permissible limits. Detailed design of rock anchors and comparison of the stability of slopes with and without reinforcement are presented.

  15. Sludge displacement verification for reducing grout report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caldwell, T.B.; Langton, C.A.

    1997-01-01

    To support the closure of HLW tanks at SRS, a reducing grout was developed that is formulated to reduce the mobility of radionuclides left in each tank. During non-radioactive flow tests of the grout, it was discovered that, in addition to its desired properties, the grout has the ability to move residual waste a considerable distance across the tank floor

  16. Participation of civil engineers in designing facilities in rock salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duddeck, H.; Westhaus, T.

    1990-01-01

    For the design of underground facilities in rock salt layers or domes, as caverns for repositories, the civil engineering approach may be useful. The underground openings are analysed by determining the displacements and the stresses for actual states and hypothetical situations. The paper reports on the state of art in the development of suited time dependent material laws for rock salt, on time integration methods for the analysis, and on a possible procedure for a consistent safety analysis. The examples given include caverns filled by oil, analysis of a mine with vertical excavation chambers, and dams closing mine galleries. (orig.) [de

  17. Method of producing grouting mortar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shelomov, I K; Alchina, S I; Dizer, E I; Gruzdeva, G A; Nikitinskii, V I; Sabirzyanov, A K

    1980-10-07

    A method of producing grouting mortar by mixing the cement with an aqueous salt solution is proposed. So as to increase the quality of the mortar through an acceleration of the time for hardening, the mixture is prepared in two stages, in the first of which 20-30% of the entire cement batch hardens, and in the second of which the remainder of the cement hardens; 1-3-% of an aqueous salt solution is used in quantities of 0.5/1 wt.-% of weight of the cement. The use of this method of producing grouting mortar helps to increase the flexural strength of the cement brick up to 50% after two days ageing by comparison with the strength of cement brick produced from grouting mortar by ordinary methods utilizing identical quantities of the initial components (cement, water, chloride).

  18. Integrating rock mechanics issues with repository design through design process principles and methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bieniawski, Z.T.

    1996-01-01

    A good designer needs not only knowledge for designing (technical know-how that is used to generate alternative design solutions) but also must have knowledge about designing (appropriate principles and systematic methodology to follow). Concepts such as open-quotes design for manufactureclose quotes or open-quotes concurrent engineeringclose quotes are widely used in the industry. In the field of rock engineering, only limited attention has been paid to the design process because design of structures in rock masses presents unique challenges to the designers as a result of the uncertainties inherent in characterization of geologic media. However, a stage has now been reached where we are be able to sufficiently characterize rock masses for engineering purposes and identify the rock mechanics issues involved but are still lacking engineering design principles and methodology to maximize our design performance. This paper discusses the principles and methodology of the engineering design process directed to integrating site characterization activities with design, construction and performance of an underground repository. Using the latest information from the Yucca Mountain Project on geology, rock mechanics and starter tunnel design, the current lack of integration is pointed out and it is shown how rock mechanics issues can be effectively interwoven with repository design through a systematic design process methodology leading to improved repository performance. In essence, the design process is seen as the use of design principles within an integrating design methodology, leading to innovative problem solving. In particular, a new concept of open-quotes Design for Constructibility and Performanceclose quotes is introduced. This is discussed with respect to ten rock mechanics issues identified for repository design and performance

  19. A dynamic simulation of the Hanford site grout facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zimmerman, B.D.; Klimper, S.C.; Williamson, G.F.

    1992-01-01

    Computer-based dynamic simulation can be a powerful, low-cost tool for investigating questions concerning timing, throughput capability, and ability of engineering facilities and systems to meet established milestones. The simulation project described herein was undertaken to develop a dynamic simulation model of the Hanford site grout facility and its associated systems at the US Department of Energy's (DOE's) Hanford site in Washington State. The model allows assessment of the effects of engineering design and operation trade-offs and of variable programmatic constraints, such as regulatory review, on the ability of the grout system to meet milestones established by DOE for low-level waste disposal

  20. Grouted Connections with Shear Keys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Ronnie; Jørgensen, M. B.; Damkilde, Lars

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a finite element model in the software package ABAQUS in which a reliable analysis of grouted pile-to-sleeve connections with shear keys is the particular purpose. The model is calibrated to experimental results and a consistent set of input parameters is estimated so that dif...... that different structural problems can be reproduced successfully....

  1. Grouting for Pile Foundation Improvement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Stoel, A.E.C.

    2001-01-01

    The aim of this research was to examine the use of grouting methods for pile foundation improvement, a generic term that is used here to define both foundation renovation (increasing the bearing capacity of a pile foundation that has insufficient bearing capacity) and foundation protection

  2. Induced Polarization Surveying for Acid Rock Screening in Highway Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, K. E.; Al, T.; Bishop, T.

    2004-05-01

    Highway and pipeline construction agencies have become increasingly vigilant in their efforts to avoid cutting through sulphide-bearing bedrock that has potential to produce acid rock drainage. Blasting and fragmentation of such rock increases the surface area available for sulphide oxidation and hence increases the risk of acid rock drainage unless the rock contains enough natural buffering capacity to neutralize the pH. In December, 2001, the New Brunswick Department of Transportation (NBOT) sponsored a field trial of geophysical surveying in order to assess its suitability as a screening tool for locating near-surface sulphides along proposed highway alignments. The goal was to develop a protocol that would allow existing programs of drilling and geochemical testing to be targeted more effectively, and provide design engineers with the information needed to reduce rock cuts where necessary and dispose of blasted material in a responsible fashion. Induced polarization (IP) was chosen as the primary geophysical method given its ability to detect low-grade disseminated mineralization. The survey was conducted in dipole-dipole mode using an exploration-style time domain IP system, dipoles 8 to 25 m in length, and six potential dipoles for each current dipole location (i.e. n = 1 - 6). Supplementary information was provided by resistivity and VLF-EM surveys sensitive to lateral changes in electrical conductivity, and by magnetic field surveying chosen for its sensitivity to the magnetic susceptibility of pyrrhotite. Geological and geochemical analyses of samples taken from several IP anomalies located along 4.3 line-km of proposed highway confirmed the effectiveness of the screening technique. IP pseudosections from a region of metamorphosed shales and volcaniclastic rocks identified discrete, well-defined mineralized zones. Stronger, overlapping, and more laterally extensive IP anomalies were observed over a section of graphitic and sulphide-bearing metasedimentary

  3. Rock and pop venues acoustic and architectural design

    CERN Document Server

    Adelman-Larsen, Niels Werner

    2014-01-01

    Popular music plays an substantial role in most people’s life. The demand and financial revenue of Rock and pop concerts is large and still increasing. Though 80% of the music turnover is done in Rock and Pop Music, books assess only Classical concert and opera houses. However, the requirements for pop music halls are different from classical Music and opera houses. This book closes this gap including the following features: In part one, the book A. Gives a objective methodology to assess Rock and Pop Music Venues B. Shows essential construction details and choices of building materials in the design of new venues or the renovation of old ones. In part two, the book C. Presents a set of famous European rock and pop venues, their architecture, their beauty and their properties. D. These Venues are assessed by a new and comparably simple method to objectively rate halls. Subjective data complete the assessment and give a full picture of the sound quality of a venue.

  4. Performance of Grouted Splice Sleeve Connector under Tensile Load

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Alias

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The grouted splice sleeve connector system takes advantage of the bond-slip resistance of the grout and the mechanical gripping of reinforcement bars to provide resistance to tensile force. In this system, grout acts as a load-transferring medium and bonding material between the bars and sleeve. This study adopted the end-to-end rebars connection method to investigate the effect of development length and sleeve diameter on the bonding performance of the sleeve connector. The end-to-end method refers to the condition where reinforcement bars are inserted into the sleeve from both ends and meet at the centre before grout is filled. Eight specimens of grouted splice sleeve connector were tested under tensile load to determine their performance. The sleeve connector was designed using 5 mm thick circular hollow section (CHS steel pipe and consisted of one external and two internal sleeves. The tensile test results show that connectors with a smaller external and internal sleeve diameter appear to provide better bonding performance. Three types of failure were observed in this research, which are bar fracture (outside the sleeve, bar pullout, and internal sleeve pullout. With reference to these failure types, the development length of 200 mm is the optimum value due to its bar fracture type, which indicates that the tensile capacity of the connector is higher than the reinforcement bar. It is found that the performance of the grouted splice sleeve connector is influenced by the development length of the reinforcement bar and the diameter of the sleeve.

  5. In situ grouting of buried transuranic waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spalding, B.P.; Lee, S.Y.

    1987-01-01

    This task is a demonstration and evaluation of the in situ hydrologic stabilization of buried transuranic waste at a humid site via grout injection. Two small trenches, containing buried transuranic waste, were filled with 34,000 liters of polyacrylamide grout. Initial field results have indicated that voids within the trenches were totally filled by the grout and that the intratrench hydraulic conductivity was reduced to below field-measurable values. The grout was also completely contained within the two trenches as no grout constituents were observed in the 12 perimeter ground water monitoring wells. Polyacrylamide grout was selected for field demonstration over polyacrylate grout because of its superior performance in laboratory degradation studies. Also supporting the selection of polyacrylamide was the difficulty of controlling the set time of the acrylate polymerization process in the presence of potassium ferricyanide. Based on preliminary degradation monitoring, polyacrylamide was estimated to have a microbiological half-life of 115 years in the test soil. However, this calculated value is likely to be conservatively low because microbial degradation of the grout set accelerator or residual monomer may be contributing most to the measured microbial respiration. Addition work, using 14 C-labeled acrylate and acrylamide grouts, is being carried out to more accurately estimate the grouts' microbiological half-life

  6. Panel discussion on rock mechanics issues in repository design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bieniawski, Z.T.; Kim, K.S.; Nataraja, M.

    1996-01-01

    The panel discussion was introduced by Mr. Z.T.(Richard) Bieniawski and then continued with five additional speakers. The topics covered in the discussion included rock mechanics pertaining to the design of underground facilities for the disposal of radioactive wastes and the safety of such facilities. The speakers included: Mr. Kun-Soo Kim who is a specialist in the area of rock mechanics testing during the Basalt Waste Isolation Project; Dr. Mysore Nataraja who is the senior project manager with the NRC; Dr. Michael Voegele who is the project manager for Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC) on the Yucca Mountain Project; Dr. Edward Cording who is a member of the Nuclear Waste Technical Review Board; and Dr. Hemendra Kalia who is employed by Los Alamos National Laboratory and coordinates various activities of testing programs at the Yucca Mountain Site

  7. Grouting aid for controlling the separation of water for cement grout for grouting vertical tendons in nuclear concrete pressure vessels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schupack, M.

    1976-01-01

    Considerable testing and development work has led to grouting procedures which can successfully grout 60 m and taller tendons in containment structures. The exaggerated water separation phenomena of strand tendons can be controlled by chemical admixtures using proper mixing and pumping procedures. Experience with both vertical six-bar tendons and large capacity strand type tendons are described. History, development work, characteristics of grout using the admixtures, mixing and pumping procedure, full scale tests and practical applications are included. (author)

  8. Rheological measurements on cement grouts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dalton, M.J.

    1986-06-01

    This report describes the techniques which have been developed at Winfrith for assessing the rheological properties of cement grouts. A discussion of the theory of rheology and its application to cement is given and the methodology for calibrating a special paddle measuring system for a commercial viscometer is described. The use of the system for determining flow curves, equilibrium viscosity, viscosity as a function of shearing time and structure changes is also discussed. (author)

  9. Study of evaluation for grouting effect in a borehole; Yakueki chunyu koka hyoka gijutsu ni okeru ichikosatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakamura, H; Matsuo, T [Fukuoka Municipal Transportation Bureau, Fukuoka (Japan); Yamauchi, Y; Imanishi, H [Osaka Soil Test, Osaka (Japan)

    1996-10-01

    For the foundation improvement works by grouting in a borehole, evaluation of grouting effect is one of the most important management items. The grouting design and works are sometimes reconsidered depending on the evaluation of grouting effect during the test injection. The purpose of the evaluation of grouting effect is to grasp the range of improvement and consolidation after the injection, and to judge and estimate the strength and permeability of the consolidation part. This paper describes the judgment method of the strength using PS logging results and borehole televiewer (BHTV) logging results. The reflection intensity (Ir) by the BHTV logging increased after the grouting, which showed a same tendency as that using S-wave and P-wave velocities (Vs and Vp) before and after the grouting. This was considered to demonstrate the grouting effect. A relation was obtained between the Vs, Vp and Ir before and after the grouting, which was expressed by following equation. Ir=0.143{times}Vs-70=0.093{times}Vp-110. The relation with the dynamic elastic coefficient (Ed) was also obtained as follow; Ir=0.0013{times}Ed. 9 figs.

  10. Discussion on the Influence of Various Technological Parameters on Jet Grouting Columns Geometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bzówka Joanna

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available One of the most popular elements created by using jet grouting technology are columns. During designing such columns, it is a problem of estimating their shape and dimensions. The main factors that influence on columns geometry are soil characteristic and technological parameters. At the frame of Authors scientific research, following technological factors were taken into account: system of jet grouting, injection pressure, dimension of nozzles and rotation speed during injection. In the paper some results of the field tests of jet grouting columns are presented

  11. Development and enhancement of grouting technologies in the Mizunami Underground Research Laboratory (Contract research)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nobuto, Jun; Mikake, Shinichiro

    2008-03-01

    In the Tono Geoscience Center of Japan Atomic Energy Agency (hereafter, JAEA), Mizunami Underground Research Laboratory project is being advanced to develop a scientific and technological basis for geological disposal. The concept of geological disposal is based on a multi-barrier system which combines a stable geological environment with an engineered barrier system (EBS). In order to develop a engineering basis for the construction of disposal system, the enhancement of grouting technologies among engineering technologies is needed. In this study, the comprehensive performance of suspension type grouting materials to seal rock fractures encountered in excavation works at deep underground has been checked, and the clogging phenomenon at the entrance of rock fractures has been investigated following the previous year. Research issues are as follows; Study on grouting concept to secure high-level water sealing, study on the test method to check grout clogging under high injection pressure, study on grouting material which can penetrate into finer fractures. Among these, in the study on penetrability test method, prototype test instruments were made and a series of preliminary tests were conducted. (author)

  12. Hybrid life cycle assessment comparison of colloidal silica and cement grouted soil barrier remediation technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gallagher, Patricia M., E-mail: pmg24@drexel.edu [Civil, Architectural and Environmental Engineering, Drexel University, 3141 Chestnut Street, Philadelphia, PA 19038 (United States); Spatari, Sabrina; Cucura, Jeffrey [Civil, Architectural and Environmental Engineering, Drexel University, 3141 Chestnut Street, Philadelphia, PA 19038 (United States)

    2013-04-15

    Highlights: ► We use LCA to study environmental impacts of grouting techniques for site remediation. ► We consider colloidal silica permeation grouting and cement jet grouting. ► Manufacturing and transportation contribute significantly in all impact categories. ► Activity outside of direct site activity is important in assessing impacts. ► LCA can be used to consider sustainability criteria for remediation decisions. -- Abstract: Site remediation involves balancing numerous costs and benefits but often neglects the environmental impacts over the entire project life cycle. Life cycle assessment (LCA) offers a framework for inclusion of global environmental “systems-level” decision metrics in combination with technological and cost analysis. We compare colloidal silica (CS) and cement grouted soil barrier remediation technologies for soils affected by low level radionuclides at a U.S. Superfund site using hybrid LCA methods. CS is a new, high performance grouting material installed using permeation grouting techniques. Cement, a more traditional grouting material, is typically installed using jet grouting techniques. Life cycle impacts were evaluated using the US EPA TRACI 2 model. Results show the highest life cycle environmental impacts for the CS barrier occur during materials production and transportation to the site. In general, the life cycle impacts for the cement barrier were dominated by materials production; however, in the extreme scenario the life cycle impacts were dominated by truck transportation of spoils to a distant, off-site radioactive waste facility. It is only in the extreme scenario tested in which soils are transported by truck (Option 2) that spoils waste transport dominates LCIA results. Life cycle environmental impacts for both grout barriers were most sensitive to resource input requirements for manufacturing volumes and transportation. Uncertainty associated with the efficacy of new technology such as CS over its required

  13. Hybrid life cycle assessment comparison of colloidal silica and cement grouted soil barrier remediation technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gallagher, Patricia M.; Spatari, Sabrina; Cucura, Jeffrey

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► We use LCA to study environmental impacts of grouting techniques for site remediation. ► We consider colloidal silica permeation grouting and cement jet grouting. ► Manufacturing and transportation contribute significantly in all impact categories. ► Activity outside of direct site activity is important in assessing impacts. ► LCA can be used to consider sustainability criteria for remediation decisions. -- Abstract: Site remediation involves balancing numerous costs and benefits but often neglects the environmental impacts over the entire project life cycle. Life cycle assessment (LCA) offers a framework for inclusion of global environmental “systems-level” decision metrics in combination with technological and cost analysis. We compare colloidal silica (CS) and cement grouted soil barrier remediation technologies for soils affected by low level radionuclides at a U.S. Superfund site using hybrid LCA methods. CS is a new, high performance grouting material installed using permeation grouting techniques. Cement, a more traditional grouting material, is typically installed using jet grouting techniques. Life cycle impacts were evaluated using the US EPA TRACI 2 model. Results show the highest life cycle environmental impacts for the CS barrier occur during materials production and transportation to the site. In general, the life cycle impacts for the cement barrier were dominated by materials production; however, in the extreme scenario the life cycle impacts were dominated by truck transportation of spoils to a distant, off-site radioactive waste facility. It is only in the extreme scenario tested in which soils are transported by truck (Option 2) that spoils waste transport dominates LCIA results. Life cycle environmental impacts for both grout barriers were most sensitive to resource input requirements for manufacturing volumes and transportation. Uncertainty associated with the efficacy of new technology such as CS over its required

  14. Injection grout for deep repositories. Subproject 1: LowpH cementitious grout for larger fractures, leach testing of grout mixes and evaluation of the long-term safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vuorinen, U.; Lehikoinen, J.; Imoto, Harutake; Yamamoto, Takeshi; Cruz Alonso, M.

    2005-10-01

    Constructing an underground disposal facility for spent nuclear fuel deep in bedrock requires lowpH cement-based injection grout, because assured data of the extent of a possible high-pH plume in saturated bedrock conditions is lacking. In this work low-pH grout mixes of new design were subjected to leach testing. Before chosen to leach testing the grout mixes had to fulfil certain technical requirements. Leach testing was performed in order to establish that the pH requirement (≤11) set for the leachates was met. For comparison reasons also one conventionally used cement based grout material was included in the tests. Two kinds of lowpH grout cement mixes were tested; mixes with added blast furnace slag (4 mixes) or added silica (6 mixes). All the mixes were not completely tested according to the test plan, because for some mixes during leach testing factors detrimental to the long-term safety of a repository were observed, e.g. too high pH or leached sulphide, which is harmful for copper. Leach testing of the grout mixes was performed in a glove-box (N 2 atmosphere) in order to avoid the interference of atmospheric CO 2 on the alkaline leachates. Two simulated groundwater solutions, saline OL-SO and fresh ALL-MR, were used as leachates. Two leach tests were applied; equilibrium and diffusion tests. In the equilibrium test at each measuring point only a part of the leachate was exchanged, whereas in the diffusion test the entire leachate was exchanged. The pH value of each leachate sample was measured, but total alkalinity was determined only for some leachates. Na, K, Ca, Mg, Al, Fe, Si, SO 4 2- , S TOT , and Cl were analysed in the leach solutions collected in the diffusion test of four grout mixes chosen. Also the corresponding solid specimens were analysed (SEM, XRD, EPMA, MIP, TG) in Japan. A few grout pore fluid pH values were measured in Spain, as well. The simplified thermodynamic model calculations were successful in qualitatively reproducing the

  15. Investigation of a Hardened Cement Paste Grout

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Esteves, Luis Pedro; Sørensen, Eigil Verner

    This report documents a series of tests performed on a hardened cement paste grout delivered by the client, Det Norske Veritas A/S.......This report documents a series of tests performed on a hardened cement paste grout delivered by the client, Det Norske Veritas A/S....

  16. Quality assurance plan for placement of cold-cap grout, demonstration vault, Hanford Grout Vault Program. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrington, P.T.; Wakeley, L.D.; Ernzen, J.J.; Walley, D.M.

    1992-08-01

    During FY 91, the U.S. Army Engineer Waterways Experiment Station (WES) developed a grout to be used as a cold cap, a nonradioactive layer, between the solidified waste and the cover blocks of a demonstration waste disposal vault at the U.S. Department of Energy Hanford Facility. This document recommends requirements for a quality assurance (QA) plan for field mixing and placing of the cold-cap grout during final closure of the demonstration vault. Preplacement activities emphasize selection and testing of materials that will match the performance of materials used in the WES grout. Materials sources and applicable American Society of Testing and Materials, American Concrete Institute, and American Petroleum Institute specifications and requirements are provided. Archiving of physical samples of materials is essential, in addition to careful maintenance of test reports and laboratory data. Full-scale field trial mixing and a detailed preconstruction conference are recommended. Placement activities focus on production and placement of a grout that remains sufficiently constant throughout all batches and meets performance requirements. QA activities must be coordinated between the batch plant and delivery site. Recommended sampling during placement includes cylinders cast for subsequent tests of compressive strength and for nondestructive evaluation and prisms cast for monitoring volume stability. A minimum of two lifts is recommended. Postplacement activities include long-term monitoring of the properties of grout specimens cast during placement. Minimum testing of cylinders includes pulse velocity, fundamental frequency, and unconfined compressive strength. Monitoring characteristics of the microstructure also are recommended. The QA plan should designate an organization to have responsibility for maintaining complete records, reports, and archived samples, including details of deviations from plans written before field placement.

  17. Jet Grouting. Control of execution and result parameters. Test fields - Experience in Chile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ayarza, P. M.; Vukotic, G.

    2014-01-01

    This article emphasizes the importance of Test Fields in project that includes the Jet Grouting technique. In particular, the Chilean experience is analyzed, where the Jet Grouting was first introduced by Pilots Terratest S. A. in the year 2010, only, only in 2011 the first project using jet columns was constructed. The versatilely of this technique allows its use in a wide variety of projects, for example, soil capacity improvement, settlement control, reduction of soil permeability and other environmental applications. Currently, the most common applications are underpinning existing foundations, ground improvement, lateral support of excavations, hydraulic barriers, slope stabilization, liquefaction control, among others. The Jet Grouting is one of the most demanding soil improvement technique and requires excellence in designing and execution engineers and other involved specialist. It is therefore essential to ensure exhaustive control to the execution and final parameters, in order to check that the product- Jet Grouting element-have the design properties, and implement modifications if necessary. Many authors strongly advises that if there is no comparable experience and even if there is, a Test Field of Jet Grouting elements has to be executed in site. This field consists in a nearby area with similar geotechnical conditions of the project, where Jet Grouting test columns will be constructed. This Test Field will allow selecting the most effective execution parameters and verifying that the final product has he correct design properties. (Author)

  18. Field lysimeter studies for performance evaluation of grouted Hanford defense wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Last, G.V.; Serne, R.J.; LeGore, V.L.

    1995-02-01

    The Grout Waste Test Facility (GWTF) consisted of four large field lysimeters designed to test the leaching and migration rates of grout-solidified low-level radioactive wastes generated by Hanford Site operations. Each lysimeter was an 8-m-deep by 2-media closed-bottom caisson that was placed in the ground such that the uppermost rim remained just above grade. Two of these lysimeters were used; the other two remained empty. The two lysimeters that were used (A-1 and B-1) were backfilled with a two-layer soil profile representative of the proposed grout disposal site. The proposed grout disposal site (termed the Grout Treatment Facility Landfill) is located immediately east of the Hanford Site's 200 East Area. This soil profile consisted of a coarse sand into which the grout waste forms were placed and covered by 4 m of a very fine sand. The A-1 lysimeter was backfilled in March 1985, with a grout-solidified phosphate/sulfate liquid waste from N Reactor decontamination and ion exchange resin regeneration. The B-1 lysimeter was backfilled in September 1985 and received a grout-solidified simulated cladding removal waste representative of waste generated from fuel reprocessing operations at the head end of the Plutonium Uranium Extraction (PUREX) plant. Routine monitoring and leachate collection activities were conducted for over three years, terminating in January 1989. Drainage was collected sporadically between January 1989 and December 1992. Decontamination and decommissioning of these lysimeters during the summer of 1994, confirmed the presence of a 15 to 20-cm-long hairline crack in one of the bottom plate welds. This report discusses the design and construction of the GWTF, presents the routine data collected from this facility through January 1989 and subsequent data collected sporadically between 1989 and 1993, and provides a brief discussion concerning preliminary interpretation of the results

  19. Use of jet grouting to create a low permeability horizontal barrier below an incinerator ash landfill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furth, A.J.; Burke, G.K.; Deutsch, W.L. Jr.

    1997-01-01

    The City of Philadelphia's Division of Aviation (DOA) has begun construction of a new commuter runway, designated as Runway 8-26, at the Philadelphia International Airport. A portion of this runway will be constructed over a former Superfund site known as the Enterprise Avenue Landfill, which for many years was used to dispose of solid waste incinerator ash and other hazardous materials. The site was clay capped in the 1980's, but in order for the DOA to use the site, additional remediation was needed to meet US EPA final closure requirements. One component of the closure plan included installation of a low permeability horizontal barrier above a very thin (approximately 0.61 to 0.91 meters) natural clay stratum which underlies an approximately 1020 m 2 area of the landfill footprint so as to insure that a minimum 1.52 meter thick low permeability barrier exists beneath the entire 150,000 m 2 landfill. The new barrier was constructed using jet grouting techniques to achieve remote excavation and replacement of the bottom 0.91 meters of the waste mass with a low permeability grout. The grout was formulated to meet the low permeability, low elastic modulus and compressive strength requirements of the project design. This paper will discuss the advantages of using jet grouting for the work and details the development of the grout mixture, modeling of the grout zone under load, field construction techniques, performance monitoring and verification testing

  20. Large-Scale True Triaxial Apparatus for Geophysical Studies in Fractured Rock

    KAUST Repository

    Garcia, A. V.

    2018-05-12

    The study of fractured rock masses in the laboratory remains challenging because of the large specimen sizes and bulky loading systems that are required. This article presents the design, structural analysis, and operation of a compact and self-reacting true triaxial device for fractured rock. The frame subjects a 50 cm by 50 cm by 50 cm fractured rock specimen to a maximum stress of 3 MPa along three independent axes. Concurrent measurements include long-wavelength P-wave propagation, passive acoustic emission monitoring, deformations, and thermal measurements. The device can accommodate diverse research, from rock mass properties and geophysical fractured rock characterizations, to coupled hydro-chemo-thermo-mechanical processes, drilling, and grouting. Preliminary wave propagation data gathered under isotropic and anisotropic stress conditions for an assembly of 4,000 rock blocks demonstrate the system’s versatility and provide unprecedented information related to long-wavelength propagation in fractured rock under various stress anisotropies.

  1. Large-Scale True Triaxial Apparatus for Geophysical Studies in Fractured Rock

    KAUST Repository

    Garcia, A. V.; Rached, R. M.; Santamarina, Carlos

    2018-01-01

    The study of fractured rock masses in the laboratory remains challenging because of the large specimen sizes and bulky loading systems that are required. This article presents the design, structural analysis, and operation of a compact and self-reacting true triaxial device for fractured rock. The frame subjects a 50 cm by 50 cm by 50 cm fractured rock specimen to a maximum stress of 3 MPa along three independent axes. Concurrent measurements include long-wavelength P-wave propagation, passive acoustic emission monitoring, deformations, and thermal measurements. The device can accommodate diverse research, from rock mass properties and geophysical fractured rock characterizations, to coupled hydro-chemo-thermo-mechanical processes, drilling, and grouting. Preliminary wave propagation data gathered under isotropic and anisotropic stress conditions for an assembly of 4,000 rock blocks demonstrate the system’s versatility and provide unprecedented information related to long-wavelength propagation in fractured rock under various stress anisotropies.

  2. Assessment of annual exposure for grout operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potter, R.E.

    1994-01-01

    An analysis is presented of the direct radiation exposures and dose rates to personnel from assumed quantities of radioactive grout, and Double Shell Tank (DST) waste feed. This analysis was based on filling four disposal vaults per year. Whole body doses were analyzed for occupational workers assigned to the Grout Treatment Facility (GTF). The study makes assumptions that must be met by the facility. Otherwise, the GTF will meet all DOE and WHC direct radiation exposure criteria. This analysis will be published in the Grout Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR)

  3. In-situ grouting of the low-level radioactive waste disposal silos at ORNL's Solid Waste Storage Area Six

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Francis, C.W.; Farmer, C.D.; Stansfield, R.G.

    1993-07-01

    At Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), one method of solid low-level radioactive waste disposal has been disposed of in below-grade cylindrical concrete silos. Located in Solid Waste Storage Area 6 (SWSA 6), each silo measures 8 ft in diameter and 20 ft deep. Present day operations involve loading the silos with low-level radioactive waste and grouting the remaining void space with a particulate grout of low viscosity. Initial operations involving the disposal of wastes into the below-grade silos did not include the grouting process. Grouting was stated as a standard practice (in late 1988) after discovering that ∼75% of the silos accumulated water in the bottom of the silos in the ∼2 years after capping. Silo water (leachate) contained a wide range of types and concentrations of radionuclides. The migration of contaminated leachate out of the silo into adjoining soil and groundwater was considered to be a serious environmental concern. This report describes how a specially designed particulate-base grout was used to grout 54 silos previously filled with low-level radioactive waste. Grouting involved three steps: (1) silo preparation, (2) formulation and preparation of the grout mixture, and (3) injection of the grout into the silos. Thirty-five of the 54 silos grouted were equipped with a 3-in.-diam Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC) pipe used to monitor water levels in the silos. A method for rupturing the bottom section of these PVC wells was developed so that grout could be pumped to the bottom of those silos. Holes (2-in. diam) were drilled through the ∼18 in. thick concrete to fill the remaining 19 wells without the PVC monitoring wells. The formulation of grout injected into the silos was based on a Portland Type I cement, flyash, sand, and silica fume admixture. Compressive strength of grout delivered to SWSA6 during grouting operations averaged 1,808 lb/in 2 with a bulk density of 3,549 lb/yd 3

  4. Jet grouting for a groundwater cutoff wall in difficult glacial soil deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flanagan, R.F.; Pepe, F. Jr.

    1997-01-01

    Jet grouting is being used as part of a groundwater cutoff wall system in a major New York City subway construction project to limit drawdowns in an adjacent PCB contamination plume. A circular test shaft of jet grout columns was conducted during the design phase to obtain wall installation parameters. The test program also included shaft wall mapping, and measurements of; inflows, piezometric levels, ground heave and temperature, and jet grout hydraulic conductivity. An axisymmetric finite element method groundwater model was established to back calculate the in-situ hydraulic conductivities of both the surrounding glacial soils and the jet grout walls by matching observed inflows and piezometric levels. The model also verified the use of packer permeability test as a tool in the field to evaluate the hydraulic conductivities of jet grout columns. Both the test program and analytic studies indicated that adjustments to the construction procedures would be required to obtain lower hydraulic conductivities of the jet grout walls for construction. A comparison is made with the conductivities estimated from the test program/analytic studies with those from the present construction

  5. Sensitivity analysis of the long-term performance of the grout system for the disposal of a low-level radioactive waste stream at Hanford

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huizenga, D.G.; Farris, W.T.; Treat, R.L.; McMakin, A.H.

    1986-03-01

    The US Department of Energy is planning to design and construct a Transportable Grout Facility at the Hanford Site near Richland, Washington. The facility will combine grout-forming materials with low-level liquid radioactive wastes to produce solidified grout monoliths for near-surface disposal. Pacific Northwest Laboratory is conducting studies to verify that the process is workable and that the waste, as disposed of in grout, will provide long-term protection for people and the environment. The long-term performance of the grout disposal system is sensitive to several parameters that affect radionuclide release and transport (e.g., local climate, leach rate, and monolith integrity). The purpose of this analysis was to investigate variations in these parameters in order to evaluate several design options for the grout system, including the proposed design for the grout startup campaign. The analysis was performed by postulating several scenarios that included conditions that could potentially compromise the effectiveness of the grout system. The grout system's performance was then evaluated, under each set of conditions, to measure its ability to reduce the transport rate of contaminants to the biosphere

  6. Fatigue Life of High Performance Grout for Wind Turbine Grouted Connection in Wet or Dry Environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Eigil V.; Westhof, Luc; Yde, Elo

    Grouted connections of monopile supported offshore wind turbine structures are subjected to loads leading to very high oscillating service stresses in the grout material. The fatigue capacity of a high performance cement based grout was tested by dynamic compressive loading of cylindrical specimens...... at varying levels of cyclic frequency and load. The fatigue tests were performed in two series: one with the specimens in air and one with the specimens submerged in water during the test. The fatigue life of the grout, in terms of the number of cycles to failure, was found to be significantly shorter when...... tested in water than when tested in air....

  7. Fatigue Life of High Performance Grout in Dry and Wet Environment for Wind Turbine Grouted Connections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Eigil V.

    2011-01-01

    The cementitious material in grouted connections of offshore monopile wind turbine structures is subjected to very high oscillating service stresses. The fatigue capacity of the grout therefore becomes essential to the performance and service life of the grouted connection. In the present work...... the fatigue life of a high performance cement based grout was tested by dynamic compressive loading of cylindrical specimens at varying levels of cyclic frequency and load. The fatigue tests were performed in two series, one with the specimens tested in air and one with the specimens submerged in water during...

  8. Grout to meet physical and chemical requirements for closure at Hanford grout vaults. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The US Army Engineer Waterways Experiment Station (WES) developed a grout based on portland cement, Class F fly ash, and bentonite clay, for the Hanford Grout Vault Program. The purpose of this grout was to fill the void between a wasteform containing 106-AN waste and the vault cover blocks. Following a successful grout development program, heat output, volume change, and compressive strength were monitored with time in simulated repository conditions and in full-depth physical models. This research indicated that the cold-cap grout could achieve and maintain adequate volume stability and other required physical properties in the internal environment of a sealed vault. To determine if contact with 106-AN liquid waste would cause chemical deterioration of the cold-cap grout, cured specimens were immersed in simulated waste. Over a period of 21 days at 150 F, specimens increased in mass without significant changes in volume. X-ray diffraction of reacted specimens revealed crystallization of sodium aluminum silicate hydrate. Scanning electron microscopy used with X-ray fluorescence showed that clusters if this phase had formed in grout pores, increasing grout density and decreasing its effective porosity. Physical and chemical tests collectively indicate a sealing component. However, the Hanford Grout Vault Program was cancelled before completion of this research. This report summarizes close-out Waterways Experiment Station when the Program was cancelled

  9. In situ grouting of low-level burial trenches with a cement-based grout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Francis, C.W.; Spalding, B.P.

    1991-01-01

    A restoration technology being evaluated for use in the closure of one of the low-level radwaste burial grounds at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is trench stabilization using a cement-based grout. To demonstrate the applicability and effectiveness of this technology, two interconnecting trenches in Solid Waste Storage Area 6 (SWSA 6) were selected as candidates for in situ grouting with a particulate grout. The primary objective was to demonstrate the increased trench stability and decreased potential for leachate migration following in situ injection of a particulate grout into the waste trenches. Stability against trench subsidence is a critical issue. 7 refs., 3 figs., 5 tabs

  10. Task plan for TARA-II compaction and grouting demonstration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spalding, B.P.

    1991-11-01

    This task directly supports the corrective measures evaluation for the closure of Solid Waste Storage Area (SWSA) 6 but also supports technology development for the closure of other Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) SWSAs and waste management units. Previous demonstrations have established the effectiveness of dynamic compaction and in situ grouting in stabilizing burial trenches against subsidence, which would otherwise compromise the support of infiltration barrier structures designed to protect buried waste from leaching. In situ grouting with polyacrylamide has also been demonstrated to improve the hydrologic isolation of buried waste. Both of these stabilization techniques have been demonstrated on burial trenches that are situated well above the water table and, hence, are in a chronic unsaturated moisture regime. Further demonstrations of these shallow-land burial trench stabilization techniques are necessary to establish their effectiveness and safety when applied to burial trenches that are chronically inundated with groundwater

  11. Effects of hydrologic variables on rock riprap design for uranium tailings impoundments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walters, W.H.; Skaggs, R.L.

    1985-01-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory is studying the mitigation of erosion of earthen radon suppression covers for uranium tailings impoundments. Because the covers will require erosion protection for upwards of 1000 years, rock riprap (armoring) has been proposed as the primary protection method. This study investigates the sensitivity of riprap design procedures to extreme flood events that can generate high flow velocities and shear stresses. The study uses two decommissioned tailings sites (Grand Junction and Slick Rock, Colorado) as case studies to evaluate the sensitivity of design rock size with respect to variables such as flood discharge, side slope, specific gravity, safety factor, and channel roughness. The results indicate that design rock size can vary significantly for different design procedures. Other significant results indicate that embankment side slopes of about 4H:1V are optimum for rock riprap and that the use of rock material with specific gravities less than about 2.50 may prove too costly

  12. Dynamic design method for deep hard rock tunnels and its application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xia-Ting Feng

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Numerous deep underground projects have been designed and constructed in China, which are beyond the current specifications in terms of scale and construction difficulty. The severe failure problems induced by high in situ stress, such as rockburst, spalling, damage of deep surrounding rocks, and time-dependent damage, were observed during construction of these projects. To address these problems, the dynamic design method for deep hard rock tunnels is proposed based on the disintegration process of surrounding rocks using associated dynamic control theories and technologies. Seven steps are basically employed: (i determination of design objective, (ii characteristics of site, rock mass and project, and identification of constraint conditions, (iii selection or development of global design strategy, (iv determination of modeling method and software, (v preliminary design, (vi comprehensive integrated method and dynamic feedback analysis, and (vii final design. This dynamic method was applied to the construction of the headrace tunnels at Jinping II hydropower station. The key technical issues encountered during the construction of deep hard rock tunnels, such as in situ stress distribution along the tunnels, mechanical properties and constitutive model of deep hard rocks, determination of mechanical parameters of surrounding rocks, stability evaluation of surrounding rocks, and optimization design of rock support and lining, have been adequately addressed. The proposed method and its application can provide guidance for deep underground projects characterized with similar geological conditions.

  13. Fixation of waste materials in grouts. Part II. An empirical equation for estimating compressive strength for grouts from different wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tallent, O.K.; McDaniel, E.W.; Godsey, T.T.

    1986-04-01

    Compressive strength data for grouts prepared from three different nuclear waste materials have been correlated. The wastes include ORNL low-level waste (LLW) solution, Hanford Facility Waste (HFW) solution, and Hanford cladding removal waste (CRW) slurry. Data for the three wastes can be represented with a 0.96 coefficient of correlation by the following equation: S = -9.56 + 9.27 D/I + 18.11/C + 0.010 R, where S denotess 28-d compressive strength, in mPa; D designates Waste concentration, fraction of the original; I is ionic strength; C denotes Attapulgite-150 clay content of dry blend, in wt %; and R is the mix ratio, kg/m 3 . The equation may be used to estimate 28-d compressive strengths of grouts prepared within the compositional range of this investigation

  14. Executive summary and general conclusions of the rock sealing project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pusch, R.

    1992-06-01

    The Stripa Rock Sealing Project logically followed the two first Stripa research phases dealing with canister-embedment and plugging of excavations in repositories. The major activities in the third phase were: * Literature review and interviews for setting the state of art of rock fracture sealing. * Pilot field and lab testing applying a new effective 'dynamic' grouting technique. * Development of a general grout flow theory. * Investigation of physical properties and longevity of major candidate grouts. * Performance of 4 large-scale tests. The literature study showed that longevity aspects limited the number of potentially useful grout materials to smectitic clay and cement. The pilot testing showed that fine-grained grouts can be effectively injected in relatively fine fractures. The theoretical work led to a general grout flow theory valid both for grouting at a constant, static pressure with non-Newtonian material properties, and for 'dynamic' injection with superimposed oscillations, yielding Newtonian material behavior. The investigation of physical properties of candidate grouts with respect to hydraulic conductivity, shear strength, sensitivity to mechanical strain, as well as to chemical stability, showed that effective sealing is offered, and that any rock can have its bulk conductivity reduced to about 10 -10 m/s. The field tests comprised investigation of excavation-induced disturbance and attempts to seal disturbed rock, and in separate tests, grouting of deposition holes and a natural fine-fracture zone. Considerable disturbance of nearfield rock by blasting and stress changes, yielding an increase in axial hydraulic conductivity by 3 and 1 order of magnitude, respectively, was documented but various factors, primarily debris in the fractures, made grouting of blasted rock ineffective. Narrow fractures in deposition holes and in a natural fracture zone were sealed rather effectively. (au)

  15. Strength of Mock-up Trial Grout

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Eigil V.

    The present report describes tests carried out on samples taken and cast during the execution of a mock-up trial placement of the high performance grout MASTERFLOW 9500 on January 21, 2009.......The present report describes tests carried out on samples taken and cast during the execution of a mock-up trial placement of the high performance grout MASTERFLOW 9500 on January 21, 2009....

  16. A new method for controlling of floor heave of deep tunnels in soft rocks by mini-tube grouting piles of crushed stones%微型碎石管注桩治理深部软岩巷道底鼓新方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢芳; 王金安

    2013-01-01

    针对造成巷道底鼓的物理和力学两种重要机制,研究并提出微型碎石管注桩治理深部软岩巷道底鼓的新方法.在物理机制方面,微型碎石桩具有渗透性极好的特点,在巷道施工和使用期间可汲取岩体中的渗水并透过碎石桩中的插管排出,从而降低软岩层因遇水膨胀导致的变形;在力学机制方面,微型碎石桩一方面通过钻孔置换出少部分底板软岩,从体量上减少变形岩体,另一方面能利用碎石桩体的侧向可压缩性耗散岩体水平变形,底板岩层中的水平地应力得以释放,极大减缓了促使底鼓变形的力学作用;通过微型碎石桩中的插管注浆加固底板岩体,提高了底板复合地基整体承载力.通过数值分析,阐明该方法在治理软岩巷道底鼓机制上的有效性.%Focusing on two important mechanisms of physics and mechanics that give rise to the floor heave of tunnels , a new method of controlling the floor heave of deep tunnels in soft rocks was proposed by means of mini-tube grouting piles of crushed stones. In physical aspect, the method utilizes the characteristics of good permeability of crushed stone pile to absorb the water in rockmass and drainage out through the tubes in the pile during the construction and application of the tunnels, resulting in the decrease in expansion deformation of soft rock due to water saturation. In mechanical aspect, partial volume in floor stratum has been replaced, on one hand, by the installed mini piles which reduce the volume of the deforming rock body, and on the other hand, amount of horizontal deformation are dissipated through the lateral compressive deformation of the crushed stone pile, and the horizontal stress is released. As a result, the mechanical affect that induces the heave deformation in floor stratum is considerably reduced. By means of grouting the crushed stones through the tube inserted in the pile, the floor stratum is reinforced and the

  17. Grouting of uranium mill tailings piles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boegly, W.J. Jr.; Tamura, T.; Williams, J.D.

    1984-03-01

    A program of remedial action was initiated for a number of inactive uranium mill tailings piles. These piles result from mining and processing of uranium ores to meet the nation's defense and nuclear power needs and represent a potential hazard to health and the environment. Possible remedial actions include the application of covers to reduce radon emissions and airborne transport of the tailings, liners to prevent groundwater contamination by leachates from the piles, physical or chemical stabilization of the tailings, or moving the piles to remote locations. Conventional installation of liners would require excavation of the piles to emplace the liner; however, utilization of grouting techniques, such as those used in civil engineering to stabilize soils, might be a potential method of producing a liner without excavation. Laboratory studies on groutability of uranium mill tailings were conducted using samples from three abandoned piles and employing a number of particulate and chemical grouts. These studies indicate that it is possible to alter the permeability of the tailings from ambient values of 10 -3 cm/s to values approaching 10 -7 cm/s using silicate grouts and to 10 -8 cm/s using acrylamide and acrylate grouts. An evaluation of grouting techniques, equipment required, and costs associated with grouting were also conducted and are presented. 10 references, 1 table

  18. Description of the grout system dynamic simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zimmerman, B.D.

    1993-07-01

    The grout system dynamic computer simulation was created to allow investigation of the ability of the grouting system to meet established milestones, for various assumed system configurations and parameters. The simulation simulates the movement of tank waste through the system versus time, from initial storage tanks, through feed tanks and the grout plant, then finally to a grout vault. The simulation properly accounts for the following (1) time required to perform various actions or processes, (2) delays involved in gaining regulatory approval, (3) random system component failures, (4) limitations on equipment capacities, (5) available parallel components, and (6) different possible strategies for vault filling. The user is allowed to set a variety of system parameters for each simulation run. Currently, the output of a run primarily consists of a plot of projected grouting campaigns completed versus time, for comparison with milestones. Other outputs involving any model component can also be quickly created or deleted as desired. In particular, sensitivity runs where the effect of varying a model parameter (flow rates, delay times, number of feed tanks available, etc.) on the ability of the system to meet milestones can be made easily. The grout system simulation was implemented using the ITHINK* simulation language for Macintosh** computers

  19. Gas generation from Hanford grout samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jonah, C.D.; Kapoor, S.; Matheson, M.S.; Mulac, W.A.; Meisel, D.

    1996-01-01

    In an extension of our work on the radiolytic processes that occur in the waste tanks at the Hanford site, we studied the gas generation from grout samples that contained nuclear waste simulants. Grout is one option for the long-term storage of low-level nuclear waste solutions but the radiolytic effects on grout have not been thoroughly defined. In particular, the generation of potentially flammable and hazardous gases required quantification. A research team at Argonne examined this issue and found that the total amount of gases generated radiolytically from the WHC samples was an order of magnitude higher than predicted. This implies that novel pathways fro charge migration from the solid grout to the associated water are responsible for gas evolution. The grout samples produced hydrogen, nitrous oxide, and carbon monoxide as well as nitrogen and oxygen. Yields of each of these substances were determined for doses that are equivalent to about 80 years storage of the grout. Carbon monoxide, which was produced in 2% yield, is of particular importance because even small amounts may adversely affect catalytic conversion instrumentation that has been planned for installation in the storage vaults

  20. Grout treatment facility dangerous waste permit application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    This section briefly describes the Hanford Site, provides a general description of the site operations and administration, provides an overview of the contents of this Grout Treatment Facility (GTF) Permit Application, and gives a list of acronyms and abbreviations used in the document. The decision was made to use the checklist as a locator reference instead of using the checklist section numbers as paragraph section numbers because several different types of waste management units, some of which are not addressed in the checklists, are part of the GTF. The GTF is a waste management unit within the Hanford Site facility. In May 1988, permit application was filed that identified the GTF as an existing facility. The GTF mixes dry cementitious solids with liquid mixed wastes (containing both dangerous and radioactive constituents) produced by Hanford Site operations. In addition to the design and operating features of the GTF that are intended to meet the requirements of dangerous waste regulations, many additional design and operating features are necessary to comply with radioactive waste management practices. The GTF design features and practices are intended to keep operational exposure to radionuclides and dangerous substances ''as low as reasonably achievable'' (ALARA) and to provide a disposal system that protects the environment for at least 10,000 yr. In some instances, ALARA practices present difficulties when complying with requirements of dangerous waste regulations

  1. Grout treatment facility dangerous waste permit application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    This section briefly describes the Hanford Site, provides a general description of the site operations and administration, provides an overview of the contents of this Grout Treatment Facility (GTF) Permit Application, and gives a list of acronyms and abbreviations used in the document. The decision was made to use the checklist as a locator reference instead of using the checklist section numbers as paragraph section numbers because several different types of waste management units, some of which are not addressed in the checklists, are part of the GTF. The GTF is a waste management unit within the Hanford Site facility. In May 1988, a permit application was filed that identified the GTF as an existing facility. The GTF mixes dry cementitious solids with liquid mixed wastes (containing both dangerous and radioactive constituents) produced by Hanford Site operations. In addition to the design and operating features of the GTF that are intended to meet the requirements of dangerous waste regulations, many additional design and operating features are necessary to comply with radioactive waste management practices. The GTF design features and practices are intended to keep operational exposure to radionuclides and dangerous substances ''as low as reasonably achievable'' (ALARA) and to provide a disposal system that protects the environment for at least 10,000 yr. In some instances, ALARA practices present difficulties when complying with requirements of dangerous waste regulations. This volume contains 2 appendices covering engineering drawings and operating procedures

  2. Grout treatment facility dangerous waste permit application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    This section briefly describes the Hanford Site, provides a general description of the site operations and administration, provides an overview of the contents of this Grout Treatment Facility (GTF) Permit Application, and gives a list of acronyms and abbreviations used in the document. The decision was made to use the checklist as a locator reference instead of using the checklist section numbers as paragraph section numbers because several different types of waste management units, some of which are not addressed in the checklists, are part of the GTF. The GTF is a waste management unit within the Hanford Site facility. In May 1988, a permit application was filed that identified the GTF as an existing facility. The GTF mixes dry cementitious solids with liquid mixed wastes (containing both dangerous and radioactive constitutents) produced by Hanford Site operations. In addition to the design and operating features of the GTF that are intended to meet the requirements of dangerous waste regulations, many additional design and operating features are necessary to comply with radioactive waste management practices. The GTF design features and practices are intended to keep operational exposure to radionuclides and dangerous substances ''as low as reasonably achievable'' (ALARA) and to provide a disposal system that protects the environment for at least 10,000 yr. In some instances, ALARA practices present difficulties when complying with requirements of dangerous waste regulations. This volume contains 2 Appendices covering engineering drawings and operating procedures

  3. Grout Treatment Facility dangerous waste permit application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    This section briefly describes the Hanford Site, provides a general description of the site operations and administration, provides an overview of the contents of this Grout Treatment Facility (GTF) Permit Application, and gives a list of acronyms and abbreviations used in the document. The decision was made to use the checklist as a locator reference instead of using the checklist section numbers as paragraph section numbers because several different types of waste management units, some of which are not addressed in the checklists, are part of the GTF. The GTF is a waste management unit within the Hanford Site facility. In May 1988, a permit application was filed that identified the GTF as an existing facility. The GTF mixes dry cementitious solids with liquid wastes (containing both dangerous and radioactive constituents) produced by Hanford Site operations. In addition to the design and operating features of the GTF that are intended to meet the requirements of dangerous waste regulations, many additional design and operating features are necessary to comply with radioactive waste management practices. The GTF design features and practices are intended to keep operational exposure to radionuclides and dangerous substances ''as low as reasonably achievable'' (ALARA) and to provide a disposal system that protects the environment for at least 10,000 yr. In some instances, ALARA practices present difficulties when complying with requirements of dangerous waste regulations. This volume contains 14 Appendices. Topics include Engineering Drawings, Maps, Roads, Toxicity Testing, and Pilot-Scale Testing

  4. Grout Placement and Property Evaluation for Closing Hanford High-Level Waste Tanks - Scale-Up Testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LANGTON, CHRISTINE

    2003-01-01

    Hanford has 149 single-shell high level waste (HLW) tanks that were constructed between 1943 and 1964. Many of these tanks have leaked or are suspected of leaking HLW into the soil above the ground water. Consequently, a major effort is ongoing to transfer the liquid portion of the waste to the 28 newer, double-shell tanks. Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) was tasked to develop grout formulations for the three-layer closure concept selected by CH2M HILL for closing Tank C-106. These grout formulations were also evaluated for use as fill materials in the next six tanks scheduled to be closed. The overall scope consisted of both bench-scale testing to confirm mix designs and scale-up testing to confirm placement properties. This report provides results of the scale-up testing for the three-phase tank closure strategy. It also contains information on grouts for equipment and riser filling. The three-phase fill strategy is summarized as follows: Phase I fill encapsulates and minimizes dispersion of the residual waste in the tank. This fill is referred to as the Stabilization Layer and consists of the Stabilization Grout. The Phase II fill provides structural stability to the tank system and prevents subsidence. It is referred to as the Structural Layer and consists of the Structural Grout. A final Phase III fill consists of a grout designed to provide protection against intrusion and is referred to as the Capping Layer or Capping Grout

  5. PENGARUH PENAMBAHAN SIKA GROUT PADA MORTAR SEBAGAI BAHAN GROUTING TERHADAP LEKATAN TULANGAN DALAM BETON DENGAN COPPER SLAG SEBAGAI CEMENTITIOUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Sulton

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: The Impact of Sika Grout Addition on Grouting Mortar Toward Concrete Reinforcement Stickness with Copper Slag as Cementitious. The aim of this research is to identify the impact of Sika Grout addition on grouting mortar toward concrete reinforcement stickness with copper slag as cementitious. The experiment result of this research shows that (1 the addition of Sika Grout 215 in grouting mortar can improve the reinforcement stickness; (2 the use of 100% Sika Grout 215 in grouting mortar produces maximum stickness; (3 the stickness of 100% Sika Grout 215 has 12.800 kg stronger (2,8% of improvement than those of using copper slag reinforcement (without grouting as 12.450 kg; (4 the use of less than 100% Sika Grout produces less stickness of no-grouting reinforcement; and (5 there is similar slip characteristic between  concrete reinforcement added with grouting and without grouting as 2,5 mm on outer part of the mortar.

  6. Autogenous healing properties of cement-based grouts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onofrei, M.; Roe, L.; Shenton, B.

    1997-05-01

    This report presents the results of a study conducted to provide information on the ability of cement-based grouts to self-seal. Autogenous sealing was investigated both on bulk grouts and in thin films of grouts. In both cases, the self-sealing capabilities of the cement-based grouts were investigated with water flowing through the grout. Autogenous sealing was studied through changes in pore structure (decrease in pore radius and volume of pores) and changes in the rate of water flow through the cement-based grouts. (author)

  7. Study on grout-filled coupling steel sleeve; Kokan sleeve wo mochiita grout jutenshiki tekkin tsugite ni kansuru kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayashi, Y. [Osaka University, Osaka (Japan)

    1997-06-01

    Newly designed grout-filled coupling sleeve is discussed, which uses as the sleeve an electric resistance welded tube with protrusions formed in a checker pattern on its inner wall and is capable of using various premixed grouting materials available on the market. Specimens are subjected to uniaxial tensile loading and positive/negative cyclic loading, and the impact of various factors on the basic performance of the specimens and their stress/distortion characteristics at local spots in the reinforcing bar are disclosed. In the positive/negative cyclic loading in the plastic region, however, such findings are not obtained. In view of the stress/distortion characteristics at local spots in the reinforcing bar, a method is proposed for estimating the coupling strength and fracture type. A method for estimating the deformation behavior of the coupling, however, is not proposed. Investigations are conducted into the manufacture and installation of the grout holding framework, coupling fixing jigs, plugs, etc., and it is found that precasting should be studied in the future. 38 refs., 156 figs., 30 tabs.

  8. Rheology of sludge-slurry grouts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDaniel, E.W.

    1980-10-01

    A series of rheograms was developed that relates the critical velocity (velocity where flow changes from laminar to turbulent) of a cementitious grout that incorporates a suspended sludge-slurry to the critical velocity of a reference grout made with a simulated waste solution. The sludge that is now in the Gunite waste tanks at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) will be suspended and pumped to the new waste storage tanks in Melton Valley. The sludge will then be blended with a cement mix base to form a grout which will be injected underground by the shale fracturing process. This report describes the materials, equipment, and techniques used in the laboratory studies to suspend sludges and mix sludge-slurry grouts that have flow properties similar to those of current shale fracturing grouts. Bentonite clay is an effective suspender in dilute NaNO 3 solutions; 15 wt % solids can be suspended with 2.0 wt % bentonite in a 0.1 M NaNO 3 solution. Other suspending materials were evaluated, but bentonite gave the best results. If a slurry grout becomes too viscous to pump, methods must be available to thin the mixture. A number of thinners, friction reducers, and plasticizers were examined. Q-Broxin, a thinner supplied by Baroid, reduced the velocity of a grout required for turbulent flow in a 5.0-cm (2-in.)-diam tube from 1.76 to 1.20 m/s (5.79 to 3.95 ft/s); FX-32C, a plasticizer supplied by Fox Industries, Inc., reduced the velocity from 1.76 to 0.75 m/s

  9. Grout Treatment Facility Land Disposal Restriction Management Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hendrickson, D.W.

    1991-01-01

    This document establishes management plans directed to result in the land disposal of grouted wastes at the Hanford Grout Facilities in compliance with Federal, State of Washington, and Department of Energy land disposal restrictions. 9 refs., 1 fig

  10. Corrosion performance of prestressing strands in contact with dissimilar grouts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    To improve the corrosion protection provided to prestressing strands, anti-bleed grouts are used to fill voids in post-tensioning : ducts that result from bleeding and shrinkage of older Portland Cement grouts. Environmental differences caused by exp...

  11. Mechanisms of contaminant migration from grouted waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magnuson, S.O.; Yu, A.D.

    1992-01-01

    Low-level radioactive decontaminated salt solution is generated at the Savannah River Site (SRS) from the In-Tank Precipitation process. The solution is mixed with cement, slag, and fly ash, to form a grout, termed ''Saltstone'', that will be disposed in concrete vaults at the Saltstone Disposal Facility (SDF) [1]. Of the contaminants in the Saltstone, the greatest concern to SRS is the potential release of nitrate to the groundwater because of the high initial nitrate concentration (0.25 g/cm 3 ) in the Saltstone and the low Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA) maximum contaminant level (MCL) of 44 mg/L. The SDF is designed to allow a slow, controlled release over thousands of years. This paper addresses a modeling study of nitrate migration from intact non-degraded concrete vaults in the unsaturated zone for the Radiological Performance Assessment (PA) of the SRS Saltstone Disposal Facility [3]. The PA addresses the performance requirements mandated by DOE Order 5820.2A [4

  12. Design and development of a dust dispersion chamber to quantify the dispersibility of rock dust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perera, Inoka E; Sapko, Michael J; Harris, Marcia L; Zlochower, Isaac A; Weiss, Eric S

    2016-01-01

    Dispersible rock dust must be applied to the surfaces of entries in underground coal mines in order to inert the coal dust entrained or made airborne during an explosion and prevent propagating explosions. 30 CFR. 75.2 states that "… [rock dust particles] when wetted and dried will not cohere to form a cake which will not be dispersed into separate particles by a light blast of air …" However, a proper definition or quantification of "light blast of air" is not provided. The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) has, consequently, designed a dust dispersion chamber to conduct quantitative laboratory-scale dispersibility experiments as a screening tool for candidate rock dusts. A reproducible pulse of air is injected into the chamber and across a shallow tray of rock dust. The dust dispersed and carried downwind is monitored. The mass loss of the dust tray and the airborne dust measurements determine the relative dispersibility of the dust with respect to a Reference rock dust. This report describes the design and the methodology to evaluate the relative dispersibility of rock dusts with and without anti-caking agents. Further, the results of this study indicate that the dispersibility of rock dusts varies with particle size, type of anti-caking agent used, and with the untapped bulk density. Untreated rock dusts, when wetted and dried forming a cake that was much less dispersible than the reference rock dust used in supporting the 80% total incombustible content rule.

  13. Pressure grouting of fractured basalt flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaw, P.; Weidner, J.; Phillips, S.; Alexander, J.

    1996-04-01

    This report describes a field trial of pressure grouting in basalt and the results of subsequent coring and permeability measurement activities. The objective was to show that the hydraulic conductivity of fractured basalt bedrock can be significantly reduced by pressure injection of cementitious materials. The effectiveness of the pressure grout procedure was evaluated by measuring the change in the hydraulic conductivity of the bedrock. The extent of grout penetration was established by analyzing postgrout injection drilling chips for the presence of a tracer in the grout and also by examining cores of the treated basalt. Downhole radar mapping was used to establish major lava flow patterns and follow water movement during a surface infiltration test. A site called Box Canyon, which is located northwest of the INEL, was chosen for this study due to the similarity of this surface outcrop geology to that of the underlying bedrock fracture system found at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex. This study showed that hydraulic conductivity of basalt can be reduced through pressure grouting of cementitious material

  14. Microbial analyses of cement and grouting additives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hallbeck, L.; Jaegevall, S.; Paeaejaervi, A.; Rabe, L.; Edlund, J.; Eriksson, S.

    2012-01-01

    During sampling in the ONKALO tunnel in 2006, heavy growth of a slimy material was observed in connection with grouting. It was suggested to be microbial growth on organic additives leaching from the grout. Two sampling campaigns resulted in the isolation of several aerobic bacterial strains. Some of these strains were used in biodegradation studies of three solid cement powders, eight liquid grout additives, and six plastic drainage materials. Degradation was also studied using ONKALO groundwaters as inoculums. The isolated strains were most closely related to hydrocarbon-degrading microorganisms. The biodegradation of seven of the products was tested using microorganisms isolated from the ONKALO slime in 2006; none of these strains could degrade the tested products. When ONKALO drillhole groundwaters were used as inoculums in the degradation studies, it was demonstrated that Structuro 111X, Mighty 150, and Super-Parmix supported growth of the groundwater microorganisms. Structuro 111X is a polycarboxylate condensate while Mighty 150 and Super-Parmix are condensates with formaldehyde and naphthalene. Some of the isolated microorganisms belonged to the genus Pseudomonas, many strains of which can degrade organic molecules. None of the plastic drainage materials supported growth during the degradation studies. Microorganisms were present in two of the liquid products when delivered, GroutAid and Super-Parmix. The potential of the organic compounds in grout additives to be degraded by microorganisms, increasing the risk of biofilm formation and complexing compound production, must be considered. Microbial growth will also increase the possibility of hydrogen sulphide formation. (orig.)

  15. Non-destructive examination of grouted waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benny, H.L.

    1994-01-01

    This data report contains the results of ultrasonic pulse velocity (UPV) and unconfined compressive strength (USC) measurements on a grouted simulant of 106AN tank waste. This testing program was conducted according to the requirements detailed in WHC-1993a. If successful, these methods could lead to a system for the remote verification of waste form quality. The objectives of this testing program were: to determine if a relationship exists between the velocity of ultrasonic compression waves and the unconfined compressive strength of simulated grouted waste, and if so, determine if the relationship is a valid method for grout quality assessment; and to determine if a relationship exists between the attenuation of wave amplitude and the age of test specimens. The first objective was met, in that a relationship between the UPV waves and USC was determined. This method appears to provide a valid measure of the quality of the grouted waste, as discussed in Sections 3.0 and 4.0. The second objective, to determine if the attenuation of UPV waves was related to the age of test specimens was partially met. A relationship does exist between wave amplitude and age, but it is doubtful that this method alone can be used to verify the overall quality of grouted waste. Section 2.0 describes the test methods, with the results detailed in Section 3.0. A discussion of the results are provided in Section 4.0

  16. Grout treatment facility dangerous waste permit application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    The long-term performance of the grout disposal system for Phosphate/Sulfate Waste (PSW) was analyzed. PSW is a low-level liquid generated by activities associated with N Reactor operations. The waste will be mixed with dry solids and permanently disposed of as a cementitious grout in sub-surface concrete vaults at Hanford's 200-East Area. Two categories of scenarios were analyzed that could cause humans to be exposed to radionuclides and chemicals from the grouted waste: contaminated groundwater and direct intrusion. In the groundwater scenario, contaminants are released from the buried grout monoliths, then eventually transported via the groundwater to the Columbia River. As modeled, the contaminants are assumed to leach out of the monoliths at a constant rate over a 10,000-year period. The other category of exposure involves intruders who inadvertently contact the waste directly, either by drilling, excavating, or gardening. Long-term impacts that could result from disposal of PSW grout were expressed in terms of incremental increases of (1) chemical concentrations in the groundwater and surface waters, and (2) radiation doses. None of the calculated impacts exceeded the corresponding regulatory limits set by Washington State, Department of Energy, or the Nuclear Regulatory Commission

  17. Pressure grouting of fractured basalt flows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaw, P.; Weidner, J.; Phillips, S.; Alexander, J.

    1996-04-01

    This report describes a field trial of pressure grouting in basalt and the results of subsequent coring and permeability measurement activities. The objective was to show that the hydraulic conductivity of fractured basalt bedrock can be significantly reduced by pressure injection of cementitious materials. The effectiveness of the pressure grout procedure was evaluated by measuring the change in the hydraulic conductivity of the bedrock. The extent of grout penetration was established by analyzing postgrout injection drilling chips for the presence of a tracer in the grout and also by examining cores of the treated basalt. Downhole radar mapping was used to establish major lava flow patterns and follow water movement during a surface infiltration test. A site called Box Canyon, which is located northwest of the INEL, was chosen for this study due to the similarity of this surface outcrop geology to that of the underlying bedrock fracture system found at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex. This study showed that hydraulic conductivity of basalt can be reduced through pressure grouting of cementitious material.

  18. In-Situ Grouting Treatability Study for the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory Subsurface Disposal Area-Transuranic Pits and Trenches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loomis, G. G.; Jessmore, J. J.; Sehn, A. L.; Miller, C. M.

    2002-01-01

    At the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL), a Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) treatability study is being performed to examine the technology of in situ grouting for final in situ disposal of buried mixed transuranic (TRU) waste. At the INEEL, there is over 56,000 cubic meters of waste commingled with a similar amount of soil in a shallow (3-5 m) land burial referred to as Waste Area Group 7-13/14. Since this buried waste has been declared on the National Priorities List under CERCLA, it is being managed as a superfund site. Under CERCLA, options for this waste include capping and continued monitoring, retrieval and ex situ management of the retrieved waste, in situ stabilization by vitrification or grouting, in situ thermal dissorption, or some combination of these options. In situ grouting involves injecting grout at high pressures (400 bars) directly into the waste to create a solid monolith. The in situ grouting process is expected to both stabilize the waste against subsidence and provide containment against migration of waste to the Snake River Plain Aquifer lying 150-200 m below the waste. The treatability study involves bench testing, implementability testing, and field testing. The bench testing was designed to pick three grouts from six candidate grouts for the implementability field testing in full scale which were designed to down-select from those three grouts to one grout for use in a full-scale field demonstration of the technology in a simulated test pit. During the bench testing, grouts were evaluated for durability using American Nuclear Society 16.1 Leach Protocol as well as evaluating the effect on physical parameters such as hydraulic conductivity and compressive strength due to the presence of interferences such as soil, organic sludge, and nitrate salts. During full-scale implementability testing, three grouts were evaluated for groutability and monolith formation

  19. Properties of salt-saturated concrete and grout after six years in situ at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wakeley, L.D.; Harrington, P.T.; Weiss, C.A. Jr.

    1993-06-01

    Samples of concrete and grout were recovered from short boreholes in the repository floor at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant more than six years after the concrete and grout were placed. Plugs from the Plug Test Matrix of the Plugging and Sealing Program of Sandia National Laboratories were overcored to include a shell of host rock. The cores were analyzed at the Waterways Experiment Station to assess their condition after six years of service, having potentially been exposed to those aspects of their service environment (salt, brine, fracturing, anhydrite, etc.) that could cause deterioration. Measured values of compressive strength and pulse velocity of both the grout and the concrete equaled or exceeded values from tests performed on laboratory-tested samples of the same mixtures at ages of one month to one year after casting. The phase assemblages had changed very little. Materials performed as intended and showed virtually no chemical or physical evidence of deterioration. The lowest values for strength and pulse velocity were measured for samples taken from the Disturbed Rock Zone, indicating the influence of cracking in this zone on the properties of enclosed seal materials. There was evidence of movement of brine in the system. Crystalline phases containing magnesium, potassium, sulfate, and other ions had been deposited on free surfaces in fractures and pilot holes. There was a reaction rim in the anhydrite immediately surrounding each recovered borehole plug, suggesting interaction between grout or concrete and host rock. However, the chemical changes apparent in this reaction rim were not reflected in the chemical composition of the adjacent concrete or grout. The grout and concrete studied here showed no signs of the deterioration found to have occurred in some parts of the concrete liner of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant waste handling shaft

  20. In-situ grouting of uranium-mill-tailings piles: an assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamura, T.; Boegly, W.J. Jr.

    1983-05-01

    Passage in 1978 of the Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act (UMTRCA) initiated a program of remedial action for 22 existing mill tailings piles generated in the period 1940 to 1970 as part of the nation's defense and nuclear power programs. The presence of these piles poses potential health and environmental contamination concerns. Possible remedial actions proposed include multilayer covers over the piles to reduce water infiltration, reduce radon gas releases, and reduce airborne transport of tailings fines. In addition, suggested remedial actions include (1) the use of liners to prevent groundwater contamination by leachates from the piles and (2) chemical stabilization of the tailings to retain the radioactive and nonradioactive sources of contamination. Lining of the piles would normally be applicable only to piles that are to be moved from their present location such that the liner could be placed between the tailings and the groundwater. However, by using civil engineering techniques developed for grouting rocks and soils for strength and water control, it may be possible to produce an in situ liner for piles that are not to be relocated. The Department of Energy (DOE) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project Office requested that ORNL assess the potential application of grouting as a remedial action. This report examines the types of grouts, the equipment available, and the costs, and assesses the possibility of applying grouting technology as a remedial action alternative for uranium mill tailings piles

  1. Development of low alkaline cementitious grouting materials for a deep geological repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Kenichiro; Miura, Norihiko; Iriya, Keishiro; Kobayashi, Yasushi

    2012-01-01

    In order to reduce uncertainties of long-term safety assessment for a High Level radioactive Waste (HLW) repository system, low alkaline cementitious grouting materials have been studied. The pH of the leachate from the grouting material is targeted to be below 11.0, since the degradation of the bentonite buffer and host rock is limited. The current work focused on the effects of pozzolanic reactions to reduce pH and the development of low alkaline cementitious injection materials in which super-micro ordinary Portland cement (SOPC) was partially replaced by silica fume (SF), micro silica (MS) and fly ash (FA). As it is important to realize how the grouting material will respond to a high injection pressure into the fracture, and in order to understand the penetrability of different low alkaline cement mixes and to observe their flow behavior through the fracture, injection tests were conducted by using a simulated model fracture of 2 m diameter made from parallel plates of acrylic acid resin and stainless steel. Experimental results of the basic properties for selecting suitable materials and that of injecting into a simulated fracture to assess the grouting performance are described

  2. In-situ grouting of uranium-mill-tailings piles: an assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tamura, T.; Boegly, W.J. Jr.

    1983-05-01

    Passage in 1978 of the Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act (UMTRCA) initiated a program of remedial action for 22 existing mill tailings piles generated in the period 1940 to 1970 as part of the nation's defense and nuclear power programs. The presence of these piles poses potential health and environmental contamination concerns. Possible remedial actions proposed include multilayer covers over the piles to reduce water infiltration, reduce radon gas releases, and reduce airborne transport of tailings fines. In addition, suggested remedial actions include (1) the use of liners to prevent groundwater contamination by leachates from the piles and (2) chemical stabilization of the tailings to retain the radioactive and nonradioactive sources of contamination. Lining of the piles would normally be applicable only to piles that are to be moved from their present location such that the liner could be placed between the tailings and the groundwater. However, by using civil engineering techniques developed for grouting rocks and soils for strength and water control, it may be possible to produce an in situ liner for piles that are not to be relocated. The Department of Energy (DOE) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project Office requested that ORNL assess the potential application of grouting as a remedial action. This report examines the types of grouts, the equipment available, and the costs, and assesses the possibility of applying grouting technology as a remedial action alternative for uranium mill tailings piles.

  3. Hanford grout: predicting long-term performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sewart, G.H.; Mitchell, D.H.; Treat, R.L.; McMakin, A.H.

    1987-01-01

    Grouted disposal is being planned for the low-level portion of liquid radioactive wastes at the Hanford site in Washington state. The performance of the disposal system must be such that it will protect people and the environment for thousands of years after disposal. To predict whether a specific grout disposal system will comply with existing and foreseen regulations, a performance assessment (PA) is performed. Long-term PAs are conducted for a range of performance conditions. Performance assessment is an inexact science. Quantifying projected impacts is especially difficult when only scant data exist on the behavior of certain components of the disposal system over thousands of years. To develop defensible results, we are honing the models and obtaining experimental data. The combination of engineered features and PA refinements is being used to ensure that Hanford grout will meet its principal goal: to protect people and the environment in the future

  4. Jet Grouting. Control of execution and result parameters. Test fields - Experience in Chile; Jet Grouting. Control de parametros de ejecucion y de resultados. Campos de prueba-Experiencia en Chile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ayarza, P. M.; Vukotic, G.

    2014-07-01

    This article emphasizes the importance of Test Fields in project that includes the Jet Grouting technique. In particular, the Chilean experience is analyzed, where the Jet Grouting was first introduced by Pilots Terratest S. A. in the year 2010, only, only in 2011 the first project using jet columns was constructed. The versatilely of this technique allows its use in a wide variety of projects, for example, soil capacity improvement, settlement control, reduction of soil permeability and other environmental applications. Currently, the most common applications are underpinning existing foundations, ground improvement, lateral support of excavations, hydraulic barriers, slope stabilization, liquefaction control, among others. The Jet Grouting is one of the most demanding soil improvement technique and requires excellence in designing and execution engineers and other involved specialist. It is therefore essential to ensure exhaustive control to the execution and final parameters, in order to check that the product- Jet Grouting element-have the design properties, and implement modifications if necessary. Many authors strongly advises that if there is no comparable experience and even if there is, a Test Field of Jet Grouting elements has to be executed in site. This field consists in a nearby area with similar geotechnical conditions of the project, where Jet Grouting test columns will be constructed. This Test Field will allow selecting the most effective execution parameters and verifying that the final product has he correct design properties. (Author)

  5. Field application of innovative grouting agents for in situ stabilization of buried waste sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loomis, G.G.; Farnsworth, R.K.

    1997-01-01

    This paper presents field applications for two innovative grouting agents that were used to in situ stabilize buried waste sites, via jet grouting. The two grouting agents include paraffin and a proprietary iron oxide based cement grout called TECT. These materials were tested in specially designed cold test pits that simulate buried transuranic waste at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The field demonstrations were performed at the INEL in an area referred to as the Cold Test Pit, which is adjacent to the INEL Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC). At the RWMC, 56,000 m 3 of transuranic (TRU) waste is co-mingled with over 170,000 m 3 of soil in shallow land burial. Improving the confinement of this waste is one of the options for final disposition of this waste. Using jet-grouting technology to inject these materials into the pore spaces of buried waste sites results in the creation of buried monolithic waste forms that simultaneously protect the waste from subsidence, while eliminating the migratory potential of hazardous and radioactive contaminants in the waste

  6. The design on high slope stabilization in waste rock sites of uranium mines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Taoan; Zhou Xinghuo; Liu Jia

    2005-01-01

    Design methods, reinforcement measures, and flood control measures concerning high slope stabilization in harnessing waste rock site are described in brief according to some examples of two uranium mines in Hunan province. (authors)

  7. Modified Standard Penetration Test–based Drilled Shaft Design Method for Weak Rocks (Phase 2 Study)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-12-15

    In this project, Illinois-specific design procedures were developed for drilled shafts founded in weak shale or rock. In particular, a modified standard penetration test was developed and verified to characterize the in situ condition of weak shales ...

  8. Grouting guidelines for Hanford Tanks Initiative cone penetrometer borings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwatate, D.F.

    1998-01-01

    Grouting of an open cone penetrometer (CP) borehole is done to construct a barrier that prevents the vertical migration of fluids and contaminants between geologic units and aquifers intersected by the boring. Whether to grout, the types of grout, and the method of deployment are functions of the site-specific conditions. This report recommends the strategy that should be followed both before and during HTI [Hanford Tanks Initiative] CP deployment to decide specific borehole grouting needs at Hanford SST farms. Topics discussed in this report that bear on this strategy include: Regulatory guidance, hydrogeologic conditions, operational factors, specific CP grouting deployment recommendations

  9. Development of grout formulations for 106-AN waste: Mixture-experiment results and analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spence, R.D.; McDaniel, E.W.; Anderson, C.M.; Lokken, R.O.; Piepel, G.F.

    1993-09-01

    Twenty potential ingredients were identified for use in developing a 106-AN grout formulation, and 18 were subsequently obtained and tested. Four ingredients-Type II-LA (moderate heat of hydration) Portland cement, Class F fly ash, attapulgite 150 drilling clay, and ground air-cooled blast-furnace slag (GABFS) were selected for developing the 106-AN grout formulations. A mixture experiment was designed and conducted around the following formulation: 2.5 lb of cement per gallon, 1.2 lb of fly ash per gallon, 0.8 lb of attapulgite per gallon, and 3.5 lb of GABFS per gallon. Reduced empirical models were generated from the results of the mixture experiment. These models were used to recommend several grout formulations for 106-AN. Westinghouse Hanford Company selected one of these formulations to be verified for use with 106-AN and a backup formulation in case problems arise with the first choice

  10. A Comparison of underground opening support design methods in jointed rock mass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gharavi, M.; Shafiezadeh, N.

    2008-01-01

    It is of great importance to consider long-term stability of rock mass around the openings of underground structure. during design, construction and operation of the said structures in rock. In this context. three methods namely. empirical. analytical and numerical have been applied to design and analyze the stability of underground infrastructure at the Siah Bisheh Pumping Storage Hydro-Electric Power Project in Iran. The geological and geotechnical data utilized in this article were selected and based on the preliminary studies of this project. In the initial stages of design. it was recommended that, two methods of rock mass classification Q and rock mass rating should be utilized for the support system of the underground cavern. Next, based on the structural instability, the support system was adjusted by the analytical method. The performance of the recommended support system was reviewed by the comparison of the ground response curve and rock support interactions with surrounding rock mass, using FEST03 software. Moreover, for further assessment of the realistic rock mass behavior and support system, the numerical modeling was performed utilizing FEST03 software. Finally both the analytical and numerical methods were compared, to obtain satisfactory results complimenting each other

  11. Effects of using silica fume and polycarboxylate-type superplasticizer on physical properties of cementitious grout mixtures for semiflexible pavement surfacing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koting, Suhana; Karim, Mohamed Rehan; Mahmud, Hilmi; Mashaan, Nuha S; Ibrahim, Mohd Rasdan; Katman, Herdayati; Husain, Nadiah Md

    2014-01-01

    Semi-flexible pavement surfacing is a composite pavement that utilizes the porous pavement structure of the flexible bituminous pavement, which is subsequently grouted with appropriate cementitious materials. This study aims to investigate the compressive strength, flexural strength, and workability performance of cementitious grout. The grout mixtures are designed to achieve high strength and maintain flow properties in order to allow the cement slurries to infiltrate easily through unfilled compacted skeletons. A paired-sample t-test was carried out to find out whether water/cement ratio, SP percentages, and use of silica fume influence the cementitious grout performance. The findings showed that the replacement of 5% silica fume with an adequate amount of superplasticizer and water/cement ratio was beneficial in improving the properties of the cementitious grout.

  12. Effects of Using Silica Fume and Polycarboxylate-Type Superplasticizer on Physical Properties of Cementitious Grout Mixtures for Semiflexible Pavement Surfacing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suhana Koting

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Semi-flexible pavement surfacing is a composite pavement that utilizes the porous pavement structure of the flexible bituminous pavement, which is subsequently grouted with appropriate cementitious materials. This study aims to investigate the compressive strength, flexural strength, and workability performance of cementitious grout. The grout mixtures are designed to achieve high strength and maintain flow properties in order to allow the cement slurries to infiltrate easily through unfilled compacted skeletons. A paired-sample t-test was carried out to find out whether water/cement ratio, SP percentages, and use of silica fume influence the cementitious grout performance. The findings showed that the replacement of 5% silica fume with an adequate amount of superplasticizer and water/cement ratio was beneficial in improving the properties of the cementitious grout.

  13. In situ grouting of low-level burial trenches with a cement-based grout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Francis, C.W.; Spalding, B.P.

    1991-01-01

    A restoration technology being evaluated for use in the closure of one of the low-level radwaste burial grounds at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is trench stabilization using a cement-based grout. To demonstrate the applicability and effectiveness of this technology, two interconnecting trenches in Solid Waste Storage Area 6 (SWSA 6) were selected as candidates for in situ grouting with a particulate grout. The primary objective was to demonstrate the increased trench stability and decreased potential for leachate migration following in situ injection of a particulate grout into the waste trenches. Stability against trench subsidence is a critical issue. After grouting, soil-penetration tests disclosed that stability had been improved greatly. For example, refusal (defined as > 100 blows to penetrate 1 ft) was encountered in 17 of the 22 tests conducted within the trench area. Mean refusal depths for the two trenches were 3.5 and 2.6 m. Stability of the trench was significantly better than pregrout conditions, and at depths > 2.4 m, the stability was very near that observed in the native soil formation outside the trench. Tests within the trench showed lower stability within this range probably because of the presence of intermediate-sized soil voids (formed during backfilling) that were too small to be penetrated and filled by the conventional cement grout formulation. Hydraulic conductivity within the trench remained very high (>0.1 cm/s) and significantly greater than outside the trench. Postgrout air pressurization tests also revealed a large degree of intervoid linkage within and between the two trenches. To effectively reduce hydraulic conductivity and to develop stability within the upper level of the trench, injection of a clay/microfine cement grout into the upper level of the grouted trench is planned

  14. Design theory of full face rock tunnel boring machine transition cutter edge angle and its application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhaohuang; Meng, Liang; Sun, Fei

    2013-05-01

    At present, the inner cutters of a full face rock tunnel boring machine (TBM) and transition cutter edge angles are designed on the basis of indentation test or linear grooving test. The inner and outer edge angles of disc cutters are characterized as symmetric to each other with respect to the cutter edge plane. This design has some practical defects, such as severe eccentric wear and tipping, etc. In this paper, the current design theory of disc cutter edge angle is analyzed, and the characteristics of the rock-breaking movement of disc cutters are studied. The researching results show that the rotational motion of disc cutters with the cutter head gives rise to the difference between the interactions of inner rock and outer rock with the contact area of disc cutters, with shearing and extrusion on the inner rock and attrition on the outer rock. The wear of disc cutters at the contact area is unbalanced, among which the wear in the largest normal stress area is most apparent. Therefore, a three-dimensional model theory of rock breaking and an edge angle design theory of transition disc cutter are proposed to overcome the flaws of the currently used TBM cutter heads, such as short life span, camber wearing, tipping. And a corresponding equation is established. With reference to a specific construction case, the edge angle of the transition disc cutter has been designed based on the theory. The application of TBM in some practical project proves that the theory has obvious advantages in enhancing disc cutter life, decreasing replacement frequency, and making economic benefits. The proposed research provides a theoretical basis for the design of TBM three-dimensional disc cutters whose rock-breaking operation time can be effectively increased.

  15. In situ grouting of buried transuranic waste with polyacrylamide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spalding, B.P.; Lee, S.Y.; Farmer, C.D.; Hyder, L.K.; Supaokit, P.

    1987-01-01

    This project is a demonstration and evaluation of the in situ hydrologic stabilization of buried transuranic waste at a humid site via grout injection. Two small trenches, containing buried transuranic waste, were filled with 34.000 L of polyacrylamide grout. Initial field results have indicated that voids within the trenches were totally filled by the grout and that the intratrench hydraulic conductivity was reduced to below field-measurable values. No evidence of grout constituents were observed in twelve perimeter groundwater monitoring wells indicating that grout was contained completely within the two trenches. Polyacrylamide grout was selected for field demonstration over the polyacrylate grout due to its superior performance in laboratory degradation studies. Also supporting the selection of polyacrylamide was the difficulty in controlling the set time of the acrylate polymerization. Based on preliminary degradation monitoring, the polyacrylamide was estimated to have a microbiological half-life of 362 years in the test soil. 15 refs., 9 figs., 12 tabs

  16. In situ grouting of buried transuranic waste with polyacrylamide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spalding, B.P.; Lee, S.Y.; Farmer, C.D.; Hyder, L.K.; Supaokit, P.

    1987-01-01

    This project is a demonstration and evaluation of the in situ hydrologic stabilization of buried transuranic waste at a humid site via grout injection. Two small trenches, containing buried transuranic waste, were filled with 34.000 L of polyacrylamide grout. Initial field results have indicated that voids within the trenches were totally filled by the grout and that the intratrench hydraulic conductivity was reduced to below field-measurable values. No evidence of grout constituents were observed in twelve perimeter groundwater monitoring wells indicating that grout was contained completely within the two trenches. Polyacrylamide grout was selected for field demonstration over the polyacrylate grout due to its superior performance in laboratory degradation studies. Also supporting the selection of polyacrylamide was the difficulty in controlling the set time of the acrylate polymerization. Based on preliminary degradation monitoring, the polyacrylamide was estimated to have a microbiological half-life of 362 years in the test soil. 15 refs., 9 figs., 12 tabs.

  17. Grout Treatment Facility dangerous waste permit application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-07-01

    The Grout Treatment Facility (GTF) is an existing treatment, storage, and/or disposal (TSD) unit located in the 200 East Area and the adjacent 600 Area of the Hanford Site. The GTF mixes dry cementitious solids with liquid mixed waste (containing both dangerous and radioactive constituents) produced by Hanford Site operations. The GTF consists of the following: The 241-AP-02D and 241-AP-04D waste pump pits and transfer piping; Dry Materials Facility (DMF); Grout Disposal Facility (GDF), consisting of the disposal vault and support and monitoring equipment; and Grout Processing Facility (GPF) and Westinghouse Hanford Company on the draft Hanford Facility Dangerous Waste Permit and may not be read to conflict with those comments. The Grout Treatment Facility Dangerous Waste Permit Application consists of both a Part A and a Part B permit application. An explanation of the Part A revisions associated with this TSD unit, including the current revision, is provided at the beginning of the Part A section. The Part B consists of 15 chapters addressing the organization and content of the Part B checklist prepared by the Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology 1987). For ease of reference, the checklist section numbers, in brackets, follow chapter headings and subheadings

  18. Crack Formation in Grouted Annular Composite

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Eigil V.

    The objective of the present analysis is to identify the reason for extensive crack formation which occurred during an annulus grouting performance test, to evaluate possible consequences of the cracking, and to recommend measures to be taken in order to avoid similar problems in the future....

  19. CEMENTITIOUS GROUT FOR CLOSING SRS HIGH LEVEL WASTE TANKS - #12315

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Langton, C.; Burns, H.; Stefanko, D.

    2012-01-10

    In 1997, the first two United States Department of Energy (US DOE) high level waste tanks (Tanks 17-F and 20-F: Type IV, single shell tanks) were taken out of service (permanently closed) at the Savannah River Site (SRS). In 2012, the DOE plans to remove from service two additional Savannah River Site (SRS) Type IV high-level waste tanks, Tanks 18-F and 19-F. These tanks were constructed in the late 1950's and received low-heat waste and do not contain cooling coils. Operational closure of Tanks 18-F and 19-F is intended to be consistent with the applicable requirements of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) and the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) and will be performed in accordance with South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control (SCDHEC). The closure will physically stabilize two 4.92E+04 cubic meter (1.3 E+06 gallon) carbon steel tanks and isolate and stabilize any residual contaminants left in the tanks. The closure will also fill, physically stabilize and isolate ancillary equipment abandoned in the tanks. A Performance Assessment (PA) has been developed to assess the long-term fate and transport of residual contamination in the environment resulting from the operational closure of the F-Area Tank Farm (FTF) waste tanks. Next generation flowable, zero-bleed cementitious grouts were designed, tested, and specified for closing Tanks 18-F and 19-F and for filling the abandoned equipment. Fill requirements were developed for both the tank and equipment grouts. All grout formulations were required to be alkaline with a pH of 12.4 and chemically reduction potential (Eh) of -200 to -400 to stabilize selected potential contaminants of concern. This was achieved by including Portland cement and Grade 100 slag in the mixes, respectively. Ingredients and proportions of cementitious reagents were selected and adjusted, respectively, to support the mass placement strategy developed by

  20. Hybrid life cycle assessment comparison of colloidal silica and cement grouted soil barrier remediation technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, Patricia M; Spatari, Sabrina; Cucura, Jeffrey

    2013-04-15

    Site remediation involves balancing numerous costs and benefits but often neglects the environmental impacts over the entire project life cycle. Life cycle assessment (LCA) offers a framework for inclusion of global environmental "systems-level" decision metrics in combination with technological and cost analysis. We compare colloidal silica (CS) and cement grouted soil barrier remediation technologies for soils affected by low level radionuclides at a U.S. Superfund site using hybrid LCA methods. CS is a new, high performance grouting material installed using permeation grouting techniques. Cement, a more traditional grouting material, is typically installed using jet grouting techniques. Life cycle impacts were evaluated using the US EPA TRACI 2 model. Results show the highest life cycle environmental impacts for the CS barrier occur during materials production and transportation to the site. In general, the life cycle impacts for the cement barrier were dominated by materials production; however, in the extreme scenario the life cycle impacts were dominated by truck transportation of spoils to a distant, off-site radioactive waste facility. It is only in the extreme scenario tested in which soils are transported by truck (Option 2) that spoils waste transport dominates LCIA results. Life cycle environmental impacts for both grout barriers were most sensitive to resource input requirements for manufacturing volumes and transportation. Uncertainty associated with the efficacy of new technology such as CS over its required design life indicates that barrier replacement could increase its life cycle environmental impact above that of the cement barrier. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Feasibility of permeation grouting for constructing subsurface barriers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dwyer, B.P.

    1994-04-01

    Efforts are being made to devise technologies that provide interim containment of waste sites while final remediation alternatives are developed. Permeation grouting, a technique used extensively in the civil and mining engineering industry has been investigated as a method for emplacing a subsurface containment barrier beneath existing waste sites. Conceptually an underlying barrier is placed by injecting grout into the formation at less than fracturing pressure from a series of directionally drilled boreholes beneath the waste site. This study evaluated the penetration and performance characteristics in varying soil conditions of four different grout materials (two microfine cements, mineral wax, and sodium silicate) at a field scale. Field testing consisted of grout injection via sleeve (tube-a'-manchette) pipe into both vertical and horizontal borehole configurations at the Mixed Waste Landfill Integrated Demonstration site at Sandia National Laboratories. Prior to, during, and after grout injection non-intrusive geophysical techniques were used to map grout flow. Following the tests, the site was excavated to reveal details of the grout permeation, and grouted soil samples were cored for laboratory characterization. The non-intrusive and intrusive grout mapping showed preferential flow patterns, i.e., the grout tended to follow the path of least resistance. Preliminary testing indicates that permeation grouting is a feasible method for emplacing a low permeability subsurface barrier in the semi-arid unconsolidated alluvial soils common to the Southwest. Despite the success of this project, difficulties in predicting grout flow in heterogeneous soils and non-intrusive methods for imaging grout location and continuity are issues that need more attention

  2. Geological disposal of high-level radioactive waste. Conceptual repository design in hard rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beale, H.; Griffin, J.R.; Davies, J.W.; Burton, W.R.

    1980-01-01

    The paper gives an interim report on UK studies on possible designs for a repository for vitrified high-level radioactive waste in crystalline rock. The properties of the waste are described and general technical considerations of consequences of disposal in the rock. As an illustration, two basic designs are described associated with pre-cooling in an intermediate store. Firstly, a 'wet repository' is outlined wherein canisters are sealed up closely in boreholes in the rock in regions of low groundwater movement. Secondly, a 'dry repository' above sea level is described where emplacement in tunnels is followed by a loose backfill containing activity absorbers. A connection to deep permeable strata maintains water levels below emplacement positions. Variants on the two basic schemes (tunnel emplacement in a wet repository and in situ cooling) are also assessed. It is concluded that all designs discussed produce a size of repository feasible for construction in the UK. Further, (1) a working figure of 100 0 C per maximum rock temperature is not exceeded, (2) no insuperable engineering problems have so far been found, though rock mechanics studies are at an early stage; (3) it is not possible to discount the escape of a few long-lived 'man-made' isotopes. A minute increment to natural activity in the biosphere may occur from traces of uranium and its decay chains; (4) at this stage, all the designs are still possible candidates for the construction of a UK repository. (author)

  3. Some new developments in the design rules for coastal structures in relation with the new Rock Manual

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhagen, H.J.

    2005-01-01

    In 1991 CUR in the Netherlands and CIRIA in the UK have published the "manual on the use of rock in coastal engineering", usually referred to as the "Rock Manual". This book of 600 pages gave an overview of the state of the art regarding the design of rock structures along coasts. In 1995 CUR

  4. Characterization of Rocks and Grouts to Support DNA's Verification Program

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Martin, J

    2000-01-01

    .... Specifically, test data was generated for use with DNA's HYDROPLUS program. The tests performed included unconfined compression tests, uniaxial strain tests, physical properties, ultrasonic velocities, XRD mineralogy, and lithologic descriptions...

  5. Fractal Prediction of Grouting Volume for Treating Karst Caverns along a Shield Tunneling Alignment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Chieh Cheng

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Karst geology is common in China, and buried karst formations are widely distributed in Guangdong province. In the process of shield tunneling, the abundant water resources present in karst caverns could lead to the potential for high water ingress, and a subsequent in situ stress change-induced stratum collapse. The development and distribution of karst caverns should therefore be identified and investigated prior to shield tunnel construction. Grouting is an efficient measure to stabilize karst caverns. The total volume of karst caverns along the shield tunneling alignment, and its relationship with the required volume of grouts, should be evaluated in the preliminary design phase. Conventionally, the total volume of karst caverns is empirically estimated based on limited geological drilling hole data; however, accurate results are rarely obtained. This study investigates the hydrogeology and engineering geology of Guangzhou, the capital of Guangdong province, and determines the fractal characteristics of the karst caverns along the tunnel section of Guangzhou metro line no. 9. The karst grouting coefficients (VR were found to vary from 0.11 in the case of inadequate drilling holes to 1.1 in the case where adequate drilling holes are provided. A grouting design guideline was furthermore developed in this study for future projects in karst areas.

  6. 77 FR 69508 - Inservice Inspection of Prestressed Concrete Containment Structures With Grouted Tendons

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-19

    ... Containment Structures With Grouted Tendons AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Regulatory guide... (RG) 1.90, ``Inservice Inspection of Prestressed Concrete Containment Structures with Grouted Tendons... appropriate surveillance program for prestressed concrete containment structures with grouted tendons...

  7. Cement-latex grouting mortar for cementing boreholes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kateev, I S; Golyshkina, L A; Gorbunova, I V; Kurochkin, B M; Vakula, Ya V

    1980-01-01

    The need for the development of cement-latex grouting mortar for the purpose of separating strata when reinforcing boreholes at deposits in the Tatar Associated SSR is evaluated. Results of studies of the physical and mechanical properties of cement-latex grouting mortar systems (mortar plus brick) are presented. Formulas for preparing cement-latex grouting mortor are evaluated and results of industrial tests of such mortars shown.

  8. Geotechnical core and rock mass characterization for the UK radioactive waste repository design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rawlings, C.G.; Barton, N.; Loset, F.; Vik, G.; Bhasin, R.K.; Smallwood, A.; Davies, N.

    1996-01-01

    The NGI method of characterizing joints (using JRC, JCS and φ r ) and characterizing rock masses (using the Q-system) have been and are currently being used extensively in geotechnical consultancy projects. One such project recently completed for UK Nirex Ltd included the logging of 8 km of 100-mm-diameter drill core from boreholes up to 2km in depth. Preliminary rock reinforcement designs were derived from the Q-system statistics, which were logged in parallel with JRC, JCS and φ r . The data from the NGI method of characterizing joints and the Q-system for characterizing rock masses have also been used as the basis for UDEC-BB numerical modelling of the proposed cavern excavations for the disposal of solid, low- and intermediate-level radioactive wastes. The purpose of this numerical modelling was to investigate the stability of rock caverns and in particular the rock reinforcement requirements (giving predicted bolt loads and rock deformations), the extent of the disturbed zone (joint shearing and hydraulic aperture) with respect to cavern orientation, the effect of various pillar widths, and the effect of the cavern excavation sequence. (Author)

  9. Grout performance in support of in situ grouting of the TH4 tank sludge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunt, R.D.; Kauschinger, J.L.; Spence, R.D.

    1999-04-01

    The cold demonstration test proved that less water was required to pump the in situ grout formulation than had been previously tested in the laboratory. The previous in situ grout formulation was restandardized with the same relative amounts of dry blend ingredients, albeit adding a fluidized admixture, but specifying less water for the slurry mix that must by pumped through the nozzles at high pressure. Also, the target GAAT tank for demonstrating this is situ grouting technique has been shifted to Tank TH4. A chemical surrogate sludge for TH4 was developed and tested in the laboratory, meeting expectations for leach resistance and strenght at 35 wt % sludge loading. It addition, a sample of hot TH4 sludge was also tested at 35 wt % sludge loading and proved to have superior strength and leach resistance compared with the surrogate test.

  10. Tensile capacity of loop connections grouted with concrete or mortar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Jesper Harrild; Hoang, Linh Cao; Olesen, John Forbes

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents a study of grout failure in symmetric U-bar loop connections loaded in tension, with focus on the performance of two grouting materials – concrete and mortar. The study contains an experimental investigation as well as a rigid-plastic modelling of the tensile capacity. The test...... to allow yielding of the U-bars. The experimental work showed that connections grouted with concrete performed better than the connections grouted with mortar. In the theoretical models, the difference in tested capacity is explained by the difference in the internal angle of friction and in the softening...... behaviour of concrete as compared with mortar....

  11. Workshop on rock mechanics issues in repository design and performance assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-04-01

    The Center for Nuclear Waste Regulatory Analyses organized and hosted a workshop on ''Rock Mechanics Issues in Repository Design and Performance Assessment'' on behalf its sponsor the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). This workshop was held on September 19- 20, 1994 at the Holiday Inn Crowne Plaza, Rockville, Maryland. The objectives of the workshop were to stimulate exchange of technical information among parties actively investigating rock mechanics issues relevant to the proposed high-level waste repository at Yucca Mountain and identify/confirm rock mechanics issues important to repository design and performance assessment The workshop contained three technical sessions and two panel discussions. The participants included technical and research staffs representing the NRC and the Department of Energy and their contractors, as well as researchers from the academic, commercial, and international technical communities. These proceedings include most of the technical papers presented in the technical sessions and the transcripts for the two panel discussions

  12. Degree of saturation effect on the grout-soil interface shear strength of soil nailing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Qiong

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the grouted soil nailing system, the bonding strength of cement grout-soil interface offers the required resistance to maintain the stability of whole structure. In practice, soil nailing applications are often placed at unsaturated conditions, such as soil slopes, shallow foundations, retaining walls and pavement structures. In these cases, the water content in the soil nail zone may increase or decrease due to rain water or dry weather, and even cannot become saturated during their design service life. In this study, the effect of water content (degree of saturation on the shear strength of interface between cement grout and sand are experimentally investigated by means of direct shear test. Meanwhile the water retention curve was determined and interface microstructure was observed. Experimental results show that the shear strength of interface changes non-monotonously with degree of saturation when the interface was prepared, due to the non-monotonousness of the cohesiveness between soil particles. The less the cohesiveness between sand particles, the more grout was observed been penetrated into the voids, and thus the larger the interface shear stress.

  13. Phase I - Laboratory Study Effects of Cement Grout Structures on Colloid Formation from SRS Soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serkiz, S.M.

    2001-01-01

    Studies were conducted to better understand the influence of grout structures and fills on colloid formation. Low-Level Waste is disposed in concrete vaults and trenches at the E-Area Low-Level Waste Facility (LLWF). Two types of enhanced trench disposal are approved for use including; Intimately-Mixed Cement-Stabilized waste forms, such as Ashcrete and Blowcrete resulting from operation of the Consolidated Incinerator Facility, and Cement-Stabilized Encapsulated waste, where waste forms (e.g., contaminated equipment) will be surrounded by a grout or other cementitious material. The presence of concrete structures and process of grouting in trenches are expected to generate colloids, both from the grout itself and as a result of the interactions of these cementitious materials and their degradation products with the surrounding soils. The extent of occurrence, mobility, and influence on contaminant transport of colloidal materials in aquifer systems is the subject of this study. The intent of this study is not to modify the PA but to aid in our understanding of the significance of this phenomenon. Information generated in this study will help in considering whether colloid-enhanced contaminant migration should be considered in establishing waste acceptance criteria and in the design and development of waste disposal systems

  14. Assessment of rock mass quality based on rock quality designation and rock block index. Taking the Borehole BS01 in Beishan HLW disposal repository as example

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Jian; Wang Ju

    2006-01-01

    Rock mass quality assessment plays an important role in the security for all kinds of large-scale buildings, especially for the underground buildings. In this paper, based on two parameters of RQD and RBI, taking the Borehole BS01 as example, lots of measured data prove that the rock block index can reflect the integrity and corresponding variation of mechanical properties of core from Borehole BS01 to some extent. Meanwhile, the rock mass classification around the Borehole BS01 is given in this paper. Finally, comparison of the results for rock mass assessment between RBI and RQD is made. The research result shows that the rock block index has remarkable significance in engineering and advantages in rock mass quality assessment. (authors)

  15. Designing vertical shafts for mines with deepening and outlet of rock to the operating level

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Durov, Ye.M.

    1983-01-01

    Requirements for designing the cross sections of central shafts are examined, as well as those for determining the productivity of lifts and equipment of the shafts with a condition of use in a subsequent technological layout of their deepening with outlet of the rock to the operating level. Typical cross sections of skip and cellular shafts are given.

  16. Nature of the interfacial region between cementitious mixtures and rocks from the Palo Duro Basin and other seal components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wakeley, L.D.; Roy, D.M.

    1986-03-01

    Using the interface zone as an indicator of compatibility, preliminary tests were run using cement-based formulations designed to be used for shaft sealing in conjunction with evaporite and clastic rocks of the Palo Duro Basin, one of several potential sites for a high-level radioactive waste repository. Emphasis focused on two formulations, both designed to be slightly expansive. Mixture 83-05 was tested in combination with anhydrite and siltstone. A comparable mixture (83-03) containing salt was used with the halite. Cement, rocks, and their respective interfaces were examined using x-ray diffraction, optical microscopy, and scanning electron microscopy. Bond strengths between rock and cement as well as between selected steels and grout were determined as a function of curing conditions and pretest surface treatment. Permeabilities of cement/rock and cement/steel composites were also determined. Bond strength and permeability were found to vary with curing conditions as well as surface treatment

  17. Design method of large-diameter rock-socketed pile with steel casing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ming-wei; Fang, Fang; Liang, Yue

    2018-02-01

    There is a lack of the design and calculation method of large-diameter rock-socketed pile with steel casing. Combined with the “twelfth five-year plan” of the National Science & Technology Pillar Program of China about “Key technologies on the ports and wharfs constructions of the mountain canalization channels”, this paper put forward the structured design requirements of concrete, steel bar distribution and steel casing, and a checking calculation method of the bearing capacity of the normal section of the pile and the maximum crack width at the bottom of the steel casing. The design method will have some degree of guiding significance for the design of large-diameter rock-socketed pile with steel casing.

  18. A probabilistic approach to rock mechanical property characterization for nuclear waste repository design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Kunsoo; Gao, Hang

    1996-01-01

    A probabilistic approach is proposed for the characterization of host rock mechanical properties at the Yucca Mountain site. This approach helps define the probability distribution of rock properties by utilizing extreme value statistics and Monte Carlo simulation. We analyze mechanical property data of tuff obtained by the NNWSI Project to assess the utility of the methodology. The analysis indicates that laboratory measured strength and deformation data of Calico Hills and Bullfrog tuffs follow an extremal. probability distribution (the third type asymptotic distribution of the smallest values). Monte Carlo simulation is carried out to estimate rock mass deformation moduli using a one-dimensional tuff model proposed by Zimmermann and Finley. We suggest that the results of these analyses be incorporated into the repository design

  19. Effects of rock riprap design parameters on flood protection costs for uranium tailings impoundments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ecker, R.M.

    1984-07-01

    The Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) is studying the problem of long-term protection of earthen covers on decommissioned uranium tailings impoundments. The major erosive forces acting on these covers will be river flooding and overland flow from rainfall-runoff. For impoundments adjacent to rivers, overbank flooding presents the greater potential for significant erosion. To protect the earthen covers against flood erosion, rock riprap armoring will be placed over the cover surface. Because of the large size rock usually required for riprap, the quarrying, transport, and placement of the rock could be a significant part of the decommissioning cost. This report examines the sensitivity of riprap protection costs to certain design parameters at tailings impoundments. The parameters include flood discharge, riprap materials, impoundment side slopes, and an added safety factor. Two decommissioned tailings impoundments are used as case studies for the evaluation. These are the Grand Junction, Colorado, impoundment located adjacent to the Colorado River and the Slickrock, Colorado, impoundment located adjacent to the Dolores River. The evaluation considers only the cost of riprap protection against flood erosion. The study results show that embankment side slope and rock specific gravity can have optimum values or ranges at a specific site. For both case study sites the optimum side slope is about 5H:1V. Of the rock sources considered at Grand Junction, the optimum specific gravity would be about 2.50; however, an optimum rock specific gravity for the Slickrock site could not be determined. Other results indicate that the arbitrary safety factor usually added in riprap design can lead to large increases in protection costs. 22 references, 19 figures, 15 tables

  20. Design breakthrough in roof support systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1984-01-01

    The technical experts of the Mining Services sections of Monier Resources Australia have designed and developed a superior roof system for installation in underground mines. The Monier Big Bag Grout Chock is a patented system utilising pumped grout. The advantages of grout chocks over conventional timber chocks are many and varied.

  1. GROUT-CONCRETE INTERFACE BOND PERFORMANCE: EFFECT OF INTERFACE MOISTURE ON THE TENSILE BOND STRENGTH AND GROUT MICROSTRUCTURE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De la Varga, I; Muñoz, J F; Bentz, D P; Spragg, R P; Stutzman, P E; Graybeal, B A

    2018-05-01

    Bond between two cementitious materials is crucial in applications such as repairs, overlays, and connections of prefabricated bridge elements (PBEs), to name just a few. It is the latter that has special interest to the authors of this paper. After performing a dimensional stability study on grout-like materials commonly used as connections between PBEs, it was observed that the so-called 'non-shrink' cementitious grouts showed a considerable amount of early-age shrinkage. This might have negative effects on the integrity of the structure, due not only to the grout material's early degradation, but also to a possible loss of bond between the grout and the prefabricated concrete element. Many factors affect the bond strength between two cementitious materials (e.g., grout-concrete), the presence of moisture at the existing concrete substrate surface being one of them. In this regard, pre-moistening the concrete substrate surface prior to the application of the grout material is sometimes recommended for bond enhancement. This topic has been the focus of numerous research studies in the past; however, there is still controversy among practitioners on the real benefits that this practice might provide. This paper evaluates the tensile bond performance of two non-shrink cementitious grouts applied to the exposed aggregate surface of a concrete substrate, and how the supply of moisture at the grout-concrete interface affects the bond strength. "Pull-off" bond results show increased tensile bond strength when the concrete surface is pre-moistened. Reasons to explain the observed increased bond strength are given after a careful microstructural analysis of the grout-concrete interface. Interfaces where sufficient moisture is provided to the concrete substrate such that moisture movement from the grout is prevented show reduced porosity and increased hydration on the grout side of the interface, which is thought to directly contribute to the increased tensile bond

  2. Laboratory Testing of Silica Sol Grout in Coal Measure Mudstones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongjiang Pan

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The effectiveness of silica sol grout on mudstones is reported in this paper. Using X-ray diffraction (XRD, the study investigates how the silica sol grout modifies mudstone mineralogy. Micropore sizes and mechanical properties of the mudstone before and after grouting with four different materials were determined with a surface area/porosity analyser and by uniaxial compression. Tests show that, after grouting, up to 50% of the mesopore volumes can be filled with grout, the dominant pore diameter decreases from 100 nm to 10 nm, and the sealing capacity is increased. Uniaxial compression tests of silica sol grouted samples shows that their elastic modulus is 21%–38% and their uniaxial compressive strength is 16%–54% of the non-grouted samples. Peak strain, however, is greater by 150%–270%. After grouting, the sample failure mode changes from brittle to ductile. This paper provides an experimental test of anti-seepage and strengthening properties of silica sol.

  3. Silicate grout curtains behaviour for the protection of coastal aquifers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elektorowicz, M.; Chifrina, R.; Hesnawi, R.

    1997-01-01

    Tests were performed to evaluate the behaviour of silicate grout with different reagents (ethylacetate - formamide SA and calcium chloride SC) in pure silica sand and natural soils from coastal areas containing organic matter, clayey soil and silica sand. The grouted specimens were tested with simulated fresh and salt water. The setting process during chemical grouting in the soil and sand was studied. The grouting of soil and sand with SA caused a transfer to the environment of some compounds: sodium formate, sodium acetate, ammonia and part of the initial ethylacetate and formamide. This process had a tendency to decrease for approximately 4 months. The stability of specimens was low. The grouting of soil and sand with SC caused no significant contamination of the environment. The increase of pH of environmental water was even less than with SA grouting. Also, the stability of specimens is higher in comparison with SA grouting. Salt water protected the specimens grouted with SA and SC from destruction and prevented contamination

  4. Efficiency of Micro-fine Cement Grouting in Liquefiable Sand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mirjalili, Mojtaba; Mirdamadi, Alireza; Ahmadi, Alireza

    2008-01-01

    In the presence of strong ground motion, liquefaction hazards are likely to occur in saturated cohesion-less soils. The risk of liquefaction and subsequent deformation can be reduced by various ground improvement methods including the cement grouting technique. The grouting method was proposed for non-disruptive mitigation of liquefaction risk at developed sites susceptible to liquefaction. In this research, a large-scale experiment was developed for assessment of micro-fine cement grouting effect on strength behavior and liquefaction potential of loose sand. Loose sand samples treated with micro-fine grout in multidirectional experimental model, were tested under cyclic and monotonic triaxial loading to investigate the influence of micro-fine grout on the deformation properties and pore pressure response. The behavior of pure sand was compared with the behavior of sand grouted with a micro-fine cement grout. The test results were shown that cement grouting with low concentrations significantly decreased the liquefaction potential of loose sand and related ground deformation

  5. Evolution of technetium speciation in reducing grout

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lukens, Wayne W.; Bucher, Jerome J.; Shuh, David K.; Edelstein,Norman M.

    2003-11-24

    Cementitious waste forms (CWFs) are an important component of the strategy to immobilize high-level nuclear waste resulting from plutonium production by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). Technetium (99Tc) is an abundant fission product of particular concern in CWFs due to the high solubility and mobility of pertechnetate, TcO4-, the stable form of technetium in aerobic environments. CWFs can more effectively immobilize 99Tc if they contain additives that reduce mobile TcO4- to immobile Tc(IV) species. Leaching of 99Tc from reducing CWFs that contain Tc(IV) is much slower than for CWFs containing TcO4-. Previous X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) studies showed that the Tc(IV) species were oxidized to TcO4- in reducing grout samples prepared on a laboratory scale. Whether the oxidizer was atmospheric O2 or NO3- in the waste simulant was not determined. In actual CWFs, rapid oxidation of Tc(IV) by NO3- would be a concern, whereas oxidation by atmospheric O2 would be of less concern due to the slow diffusion and reaction of O2 with the reducing CWF. To address this uncertainty, two series of reducing grouts were prepared using TcO4- containing waste simulants with and without NO3-. In the first series of samples, the TcO4- was completely reduced using Na2S, and the samples were placed in containers that permitted O2 diffusion. In these samples, all of the technetium was initially present as aTc(IV) sulfide compound, TcSx, which was characterized using extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectroscopy, and is likely Tc2S7. The TcSx initially present in the grout samples was steadily oxidized over 4 years. In the second series of samples, all of the TcO4- was not initially reduced, and the grout samples were placed in airtight containers. In these samples, the remaining TcO4- continued to be reduced as the samples aged, presumably due to the presence of reducing blast furnace slag. When samples in the second series were exposed to atmosphere, the

  6. Estimating emissions from grout pouring operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ballinger, M.Y.; Hendrickson, D.W.

    1993-08-01

    Grouting is a method for disposal of low-level radioactive waste in which a contaminated solution is mixed into a slurry, poured into a large storage vault, then dried, fixing the contaminants within a stable solid matrix. A model (RELEASE) has been developed to estimate the quantity of aeorsol created during the pouring process. Information and equations derived from spill experiments were used in the model to determine release fractions. This paper discusses the derivation of the release fraction equation used in the code and the model used to account for gravity settling of particles in the vault. The input and results for a base case application are shown

  7. Smart Rocks for Bridge Scour Monitoring: Design and Localization Using Electromagnetic Techniques and Embedded Orientation Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radchenko, Andro

    River bridge scour is an erosion process in which flowing water removes sediment materials (such as sand, rocks) from a bridge foundation, river beds and banks. As a result, the level of the river bed near a bridge pier is lowering such that the bridge foundation stability can be compromised, and the bridge can collapse. The scour is a dynamic process, which can accelerate rapidly during a flood event. Thus, regular monitoring of the scour progress is necessary to be performed at most river bridges. Present techniques are usually expensive, require large man/hour efforts, and often lack the real-time monitoring capabilities. In this dissertation a new method--'Smart Rocks Network for bridge scour monitoring' is introduced. The method is based on distributed wireless sensors embedded in ground underwater nearby the bridge pillars. The sensor nodes are unconstrained in movement, are equipped with years-lasting batteries and intelligent custom designed electronics, which minimizes power consumption during operation and communication. The electronic part consists of a microcontroller, communication interfaces, orientation and environment sensors (such as are accelerometer, magnetometer, temperature and pressure sensors), supporting power supplies and circuitries. Embedded in the soil nearby a bridge pillar the Smart Rocks can move/drift together with the sediments, and act as the free agent probes transmitting the unique signature signals to the base-station monitors. Individual movement of a Smart Rock can be remotely detected processing the orientation sensors reading. This can give an indication of the on-going scour progress, and set a flag for the on-site inspection. The map of the deployed Smart Rocks Network can be obtained utilizing the custom developed in-network communication protocol with signals intensity (RSSI) analysis. Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) is applied for map reconstruction. Analysis of the map can provide detailed insight into the scour

  8. Effects of grouting, shotcreting and concrete leachates on backfill geochemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luna, Miguel; Arcos, David; Duro, Lara [Enviros Consulting, Valldoreix, Barc elona (Spain)

    2007-11-15

    The use of concrete to seal open fractures (grouting) and to impermeabilise the deposition tunnels (shotcreting) has been envisaged in the construction of a high level nuclear waste (HLNW) repository according to SKB designs. Nevertheless, the geochemical effect of using concrete in the repository is not fully understood. Concrete degradation due to the interaction with groundwater can affect the performance of other repository barriers, such as the backfill material used for sealing the deposition tunnels. One of the main effects of concrete degradation is the generation of alkaline plumes. For this reason, SKB is currently planning to use a type of concrete whose degradation result in lower pH values than those developed with Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC). In order to assess the long-term geochemical effect of including low-pH concrete elements in a HLNW repository, we performed a 2D reactive-transport model of a backfilled deposition tunnel that intersects a hydraulic conductive fracture which has been partially grouted. An additional case has been modelled where part of the deposition tunnel walls were covered with a shotcrete layer. The modelling results predict the development of a high-alkalinity plume, larger in the case of considering a grouted fracture, accompanied by the precipitation of CSH-phases in the fracture. However, the effect on the backfill material is only significant if concrete is in contact with the backfill (shotcrete case). In order to conduct these models, and considering that at the beginning of the present work there was not a specific composition for such a low-pH concrete, its composition has been assumed in order to meet the expected geochemical evolution of concrete degradation according to SKB expectations. This is a pH of pore water of around 11 and the degradation of CSH phases resulting in a source for Ca and Si into the system. For this reason, jennite and tobermorite have been selected, although it is known that jennite is

  9. Effects of grouting, shotcreting and concrete leachates on backfill geochemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luna, Miguel; Arcos, David; Duro, Lara

    2007-11-01

    The use of concrete to seal open fractures (grouting) and to impermeabilise the deposition tunnels (shotcreting) has been envisaged in the construction of a high level nuclear waste (HLNW) repository according to SKB designs. Nevertheless, the geochemical effect of using concrete in the repository is not fully understood. Concrete degradation due to the interaction with groundwater can affect the performance of other repository barriers, such as the backfill material used for sealing the deposition tunnels. One of the main effects of concrete degradation is the generation of alkaline plumes. For this reason, SKB is currently planning to use a type of concrete whose degradation result in lower pH values than those developed with Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC). In order to assess the long-term geochemical effect of including low-pH concrete elements in a HLNW repository, we performed a 2D reactive-transport model of a backfilled deposition tunnel that intersects a hydraulic conductive fracture which has been partially grouted. An additional case has been modelled where part of the deposition tunnel walls were covered with a shotcrete layer. The modelling results predict the development of a high-alkalinity plume, larger in the case of considering a grouted fracture, accompanied by the precipitation of CSH-phases in the fracture. However, the effect on the backfill material is only significant if concrete is in contact with the backfill (shotcrete case). In order to conduct these models, and considering that at the beginning of the present work there was not a specific composition for such a low-pH concrete, its composition has been assumed in order to meet the expected geochemical evolution of concrete degradation according to SKB expectations. This is a pH of pore water of around 11 and the degradation of CSH phases resulting in a source for Ca and Si into the system. For this reason, jennite and tobermorite have been selected, although it is known that jennite is

  10. Relationship Between Flowability And Tank Closure Grout Quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Langton, C. A.; Stefanko, D. B.; Hay, M. S.

    2012-01-01

    After completion of waste removal and chemical cleaning operations, Tanks 5-F and 6-F await final closure. The project will proceed with completing operational closure by stabilizing the tanks with grout. Savannah River Remediation's (SRR) experience with grouting Tanks 18-F and 19-F showed that slump-flow values were correlated with flow/spread inside these tanks. Less mounding was observed when using grouts with higher slump-flow. Therefore, SRNL was requested to evaluate the relationship between flowability and cured properties to determine whether the slump-flow maximum spread of Mix LP no. 8-16 could be increased from 28 inches to 30 inches without impacting the grout quality. A request was also made to evaluate increasing the drop height from 5 feet to 10 feet with the objective of enhancing the flow inside the tank by imparting more kinetic energy to the placement. Based on a review of the grout property data for Mix LP no. 8-16 collected from Tank 18-F and 19-F quality control samples, the upper limit for slump-flow measured per ASTM C 1611 can be increased from 28 to 30 inches without affecting grout quality. However, testing should be performed prior to increasing the drop height from 5 to 10 feet or observations should be made during initial filling operations to determine whether segregation occurs as a function of drop heights between 5 and 10 feet. Segregation will negatively impact grout quality. Additionally, increasing the delivery rate of grout into Tanks 5-F and 6-F by using a higher capacity concrete/grout pump will result in better grout spread/flow inside the tanks

  11. Hard-Rock Stability Analysis for Span Design in Entry-Type Excavations with Learning Classifiers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esperanza García-Gonzalo

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The mining industry relies heavily on empirical analysis for design and prediction. An empirical design method, called the critical span graph, was developed specifically for rock stability analysis in entry-type excavations, based on an extensive case-history database of cut and fill mining in Canada. This empirical span design chart plots the critical span against rock mass rating for the observed case histories and has been accepted by many mining operations for the initial span design of cut and fill stopes. Different types of analysis have been used to classify the observed cases into stable, potentially unstable and unstable groups. The main purpose of this paper is to present a new method for defining rock stability areas of the critical span graph, which applies machine learning classifiers (support vector machine and extreme learning machine. The results show a reasonable correlation with previous guidelines. These machine learning methods are good tools for developing empirical methods, since they make no assumptions about the regression function. With this software, it is easy to add new field observations to a previous database, improving prediction output with the addition of data that consider the local conditions for each mine.

  12. Hard-Rock Stability Analysis for Span Design in Entry-Type Excavations with Learning Classifiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Gonzalo, Esperanza; Fernández-Muñiz, Zulima; García Nieto, Paulino José; Bernardo Sánchez, Antonio; Menéndez Fernández, Marta

    2016-06-29

    The mining industry relies heavily on empirical analysis for design and prediction. An empirical design method, called the critical span graph, was developed specifically for rock stability analysis in entry-type excavations, based on an extensive case-history database of cut and fill mining in Canada. This empirical span design chart plots the critical span against rock mass rating for the observed case histories and has been accepted by many mining operations for the initial span design of cut and fill stopes. Different types of analysis have been used to classify the observed cases into stable, potentially unstable and unstable groups. The main purpose of this paper is to present a new method for defining rock stability areas of the critical span graph, which applies machine learning classifiers (support vector machine and extreme learning machine). The results show a reasonable correlation with previous guidelines. These machine learning methods are good tools for developing empirical methods, since they make no assumptions about the regression function. With this software, it is easy to add new field observations to a previous database, improving prediction output with the addition of data that consider the local conditions for each mine.

  13. Evaluation of Many Load Tests of Passive Rock Bolts in the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holý Ondřej

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Within the research project “FR-TI4/329 Research and development - creating an application system for the design and analysis of soil and rock anchors including the development of monitoring elements”, an extensive stage of field load tests of rock bolts was carried out. The tests were conducted at 14 locations with varied rock composition. Before the initial tests, a loading stand was designed and constructed. A total of 201 pieces of tensile tests of bolts having lengths from 0.5 up to 2.5 m, a diameter of 22-32 mm, were performed. These were fully threaded rods, self-drilling rods, and fiberglass rods. The bolts were clamped into the cement and resin. The loading tests were always performed until material failure of bolts or shear stress failure at the interface cement-rock. At each location, basic geotechnical survey was carried out in the form of core drilling in a length of 3.0 metres with the assessment of the rock mass in situ, and laboratory testing of rock mechanics. Upon the completion of testing protocols, rock mass properties analysis was performed focusing on the evaluation of shear friction at the grouting-rock interface.

  14. CsIX/TRU Grout Feasibility Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S. J. Losinski; C. M. Barnes; B. K. Grover

    1998-11-01

    A settlement agreement between the Department of Energy (DOE) and the State of Idaho mandates that liquid waste now stored at the Idaho Nuclear Technology Engineering Center (INTEC - formerly the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant, ICPP) will be calcined by the end of year 2012. This study investigates an alternative treatment of the liquid waste that removes undissolved solids (UDS) by filtration and removes cesium by ion exchange followed by cement-based grouting of the remaining liquid into 55-gal drums. Operations are assumed to be from January 2008 through December 2012. The grouted waste will be contact-handled and will be shipped to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in New Mexico for disposal. The small volume of secondary wastes such as the filtered solids and cesium sorbent (resin) would remain in storage at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory for treatment and disposal under another project, with an option to dispose of the filtered solids as a r emote-handled waste at WIPP.

  15. CsIX/TRU Grout Feasibility Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Losinski, S. J.; Barnes, C. M.; Grover, B. K.

    1998-01-01

    A settlement agreement between the Department of Energy (DOE) and the State of Idaho mandates that liquid waste now stored at the Idaho Nuclear Technology Engineering Center (INTEC - formerly the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant, ICPP) will be calcined by the end of year 2012. This study investigates an alternative treatment of the liquid waste that removes undissolved solids (UDS) by filtration and removes cesium by ion exchange followed by cement-based grouting of the remaining liquid into 55-gal drums. Operations are assumed to be FR-om January 2008 through December 2012. The grouted waste will be contact-handled and will be shipped to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in New Mexico for disposal. The small volume of secondary wastes such as the filtered solids and cesium sorbent (resin) would remain in storage at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory for treatment and disposal under another project, with an option to dispose of the filtered solids as a r emote-handled waste at WIPP

  16. ORNL grouting technologies for immobilizing hazardous wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dole, L.R.; Trauger, D.B.

    1983-01-01

    The Cement and Concrete Applications Group at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has developed versatile and inexpensive processes to solidify large quantities of hazardous liquids, sludges, and solids. By using standard off the shelf processing equipment, these batch or continuous processes are compatible with a wide range of disposal methods, such as above-ground storage, shallow-land burial, deep geological disposal, sea-bed dumping, and bulk in-situ solidification. Because of their economic advantages, these latter bulk in-situ disposal scenarios have received the most development. ORNL's experience has shown that tailored cement-based formulas can be developed which tolerate wide fluctuations in waste feed compositions and still maintain mixing properties that are compatible with standard equipment. In addition to cements, these grouts contain pozzolans, clays and other additives to control the flow properties, set-times, phase separations and impacts of waste stream fluctuation. The cements, fly ashes and other grout components are readily available in bulk quantities and the solids-blends typically cost less than $0.05 to 0.15 per waste gallon. Depending on the disposal scenario, total disposal costs (material, capital, and operating) can be as low as $0.10 to 0.50 per gallon

  17. Latex-modified grouts for in-situ stabilization of buried transuranic/mixed waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allan, M.L.

    1996-06-01

    The Department of Applied Science at Brookhaven national Laboratory was requested to investigate latex-modified grouts for in-situ stabilization of buried TRU/mixed waste for INEL. The waste exists in shallow trenches that were backfilled with soil. The objective was to formulate latex-modified grouts for use with the jet grouting technique to enable in-situ stabilization of buried waste. The stabilized waste was either to be left in place or retrieved for further processing. Grouting prior to retrieval reduces the potential release of contaminants. Rheological properties of latex-modified grouts were investigated and compared with those of conventional neat cement grouts used for jet grouting

  18. Effects of Coal Gangue on Cement Grouting Material Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, J. Y.; Chen, H. X.

    2018-05-01

    The coal gangue is one of the most abundant industrial solid wastes and pollute source of air and water. The use of coal gangue in the production of cement grouting material comforms to the basic state policy of environment protection and the circular using of natural resources. Through coal gangue processing experiment, coal gangue cement grouting materials making test, properties detection of properties and theoretical analysis, the paper studied the effects of coal gangue on the properties of cement grouting materials. It is found that at the range of 600 to 700 °C, the fluidity and the compressive and flexural strengths of the cement grouting materials increase with the rising up of the calcination temperatures of coal gangue. The optimum calcination temperature is around 700 °C. The part substitution of cement by the calcined coal gangue in the cement grouting material will improve the mechanical properties of the cement grouting material, even thought it will decrease its fluidity. The best substitution amount of cement by coal gangue is about 30%. The fluidity and the long term strength of the ordinary silicate cement grouting material is obviously higher than that of the sulphoaluminate cement one as well as that of the silicate-sulphoaluminate complex cement one.

  19. Some new developments in the design rules for coastal structures in relation with the new Rock Manual

    OpenAIRE

    Verhagen, H.J.

    2005-01-01

    In 1991 CUR in the Netherlands and CIRIA in the UK have published the "manual on the use of rock in coastal engineering", usually referred to as the "Rock Manual". This book of 600 pages gave an overview of the state of the art regarding the design of rock structures along coasts. In 1995 CUR published a adapted version of this book, also containing information on closure works and rock structures along rivers. Although the information in these books is not outdated, there was a general feeli...

  20. Superplasticizer function and sorption in high performance cement based grouts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onofrei, M.; Gray, M.N.; Roe, L.H.

    1991-08-01

    This report describes laboratory studies undertaken to determine interactions between the main components of high-performance cement-based grout. These interactions were studied with the grouts in both their unset and hardened states with the specific intention of determining the following: the mechanistic function of superplasticizer; the phase of residence of the superplasticizer in hardened materials; and the permanence of the superplasticizer in hardened grouts. In unset pastes attempts were made to extract superplasticizer by mechanical processes. In hardened grout the superplasticizer was leached from the grouts. A microautoradiographic method was developed to investigate the phases of residence of superplasticizer in hardened grouts and confirm the inferences from the leaching studies. In hardened grout the superplasticizer was located on the hydrated phases formed during the early stages of cement hydration. These include tricalcium aluminate hydrates and tricalcium silicate phases. There is some tendency for the superplasticizer to sorb on ettringite. The presence of superplasticizer did not coincide with the locations of unreacted silica fume and high silica content phases such as C 2 S-H. The observations explain the findings of the studies of unset pastes which also showed that the sorption of superplasticizer is likely to be enhanced with increased mixing water content and, hence, distribution in and exposure to the hydration reaction surfaces in the grout. Superplasticizer can be leached in very small quantities from the hardened grouts. Rapid release takes place from the unsorbed superplasticizer contained in the accessible pore space. Subsequent release likely occurs with dissolution of the cement phases and the exposure of isolated pores to groundwater. (au) (37 refs.)

  1. Non-destructive testing of full-length bonded rock bolts based on HHT signal analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Z. M.; Liu, L.; Peng, M.; Liu, C. C.; Tao, F. J.; Liu, C. S.

    2018-04-01

    Full-length bonded rock bolts are commonly used in mining, tunneling and slope engineering because of their simple design and resistance to corrosion. However, the length of a rock bolt and grouting quality do not often meet the required design standards in practice because of the concealment and complexity of bolt construction. Non-destructive testing is preferred when testing a rock bolt's quality because of the convenience, low cost and wide detection range. In this paper, a signal analysis method for the non-destructive sound wave testing of full-length bonded rock bolts is presented, which is based on the Hilbert-Huang transform (HHT). First, we introduce the HHT analysis method to calculate the bolt length and identify defect locations based on sound wave reflection test signals, which includes decomposing the test signal via empirical mode decomposition (EMD), selecting the intrinsic mode functions (IMF) using the Pearson Correlation Index (PCI) and calculating the instantaneous phase and frequency via the Hilbert transform (HT). Second, six model tests are conducted using different grouting defects and bolt protruding lengths to verify the effectiveness of the HHT analysis method. Lastly, the influence of the bolt protruding length on the test signal, identification of multiple reflections from defects, bolt end and protruding end, and mode mixing from EMD are discussed. The HHT analysis method can identify the bolt length and grouting defect locations from signals that contain noise at multiple reflected interfaces. The reflection from the long protruding end creates an irregular test signal with many frequency peaks on the spectrum. The reflections from defects barely change the original signal because they are low energy, which cannot be adequately resolved using existing methods. The HHT analysis method can identify reflections from the long protruding end of the bolt and multiple reflections from grouting defects based on mutations in the instantaneous

  2. Life on rock. Scaling down biological weathering in a new experimental design at Biosphere-2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaharescu, D. G.; Dontsova, K.; Burghelea, C. I.; Chorover, J.; Maier, R.; Perdrial, J. N.

    2012-12-01

    Biological colonization and weathering of bedrock on Earth is a major driver of landscape and ecosystem development, its effects reaching out into other major systems such climate and geochemical cycles of elements. In order to understand how microbe-plant-mycorrhizae communities interact with bedrock in the first phases of mineral weathering we developed a novel experimental design in the Desert Biome at Biosphere-2, University of Arizona (U.S.A). This presentation will focus on the development of the experimental setup. Briefly, six enclosed modules were designed to hold 288 experimental columns that will accommodate 4 rock types and 6 biological treatments. Each module is developed on 3 levels. A lower volume, able to withstand the weight of both, rock material and the rest of the structure, accommodates the sampling elements. A middle volume, houses the experimental columns in a dark chamber. A clear, upper section forms the habitat exposed to sunlight. This volume is completely sealed form exterior and it allows a complete control of its air and water parameters. All modules are connected in parallel with a double air purification system that delivers a permanent air flow. This setup is expected to provide a model experiment, able to test important processes in the interaction rock-life at grain-to- molecular scale.

  3. Response spectra by blind faults for design purpose of stiff structures on rock site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiroyuki Mizutani; Kenichi Kato; Masayuki Takemura; Kazuhiko Yashiro; Kazuo Dan

    2005-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to propose the response spectra by blind faults for seismic design of nuclear power facilities. It is impossible to evaluate earthquake ground motions from blind faults, because the size and the location of blind fault cannot be identified even if the detailed geological surveys are conducted. From the viewpoint of seismic design, it is crucial to investigate the upper level of earthquake ground motions due to blind faults. In this paper, 41 earthquakes that occurred in the upper crust in Japan and California are selected and classified into the active and the blind fault types. On the basis of near-source strong motion records observed on rock sites, upper level of response spectra by blind faults is examined. The estimated upper level is as follows: the peak ground acceleration is 450 cm/s 2 , the flat level of the acceleration response spectra is 1200 cm/s 2 , and the flat level of the velocity response spectra is 100 cm/s on rock sites with shear wave velocity Vs of about 700 m/s. The upper level can envelop the observed response spectra in near-source region on rock sites. (authors)

  4. Workshop on rock mechanics issues in repository design and performance assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-04-01

    The Center for Nuclear Waste Regulatory Analyses organized and hosted a workshop on ``Rock Mechanics Issues in Repository Design and Performance Assessment`` on behalf its sponsor the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). This workshop was held on September 19- 20, 1994 at the Holiday Inn Crowne Plaza, Rockville, Maryland. The objectives of the workshop were to stimulate exchange of technical information among parties actively investigating rock mechanics issues relevant to the proposed high-level waste repository at Yucca Mountain and identify/confirm rock mechanics issues important to repository design and performance assessment The workshop contained three technical sessions and two panel discussions. The participants included technical and research staffs representing the NRC and the Department of Energy and their contractors, as well as researchers from the academic, commercial, and international technical communities. These proceedings include most of the technical papers presented in the technical sessions and the transcripts for the two panel discussions. Selected papers have been indexed separately for inclusion the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  5. Hard rock excavation at the CSM/OCRD test site using Swedish blast design techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holmberg, R.

    1983-09-01

    This report is the third in a series describing research conducted by the Colorado School of Mines for the Office of Crystalline Repository Development (OCRD) to determine the extent of blast damage in rock surrounding an underground opening. A special room, called the CSM/OCRD room, was excavated at the CSM experimental mine for the purpose of assessing blast damage in the rock around the room. Even though this mine is not proposed as a nuclear waste repository site, the instrumentation and methods of blast damage assessment developed in this project are applicable to proposed repository sites. This report describes the application of Swedish blasting technology for the excavation of the test room. The design of the blasting patterns including the selection of explosives, hole sizes and location, explosive loading densities, and delay intervals is based upon the theories of Langefors and Kihlstrom in combination with methods used at the Swedish Detonic Research Foundation for minimizing unwanted rock damage. The practical application of the design procedures to seven rounds and the achieved results is discussed

  6. Sealing of decant structure at QCM using a tailings cement grout mix

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bedard, C.; Goulisty, P.; Lemieux, J. [Journeaux, Bedard and Associates Inc., Dorval, PQ (Canada)

    2001-10-01

    It became necessary for Quebec Cartier Mining (QCM) to transfer the decantation point at the Mont-Wright mine to the Hesse 4 dam and proceed with the permanent sealing of the decant structure at dam A, as a result of the gradual advancement of the tailings mine waste in the Hesse North primary settling basin. A study was conducted to evaluate the use of tailings incorporated in a non-shrink Portland cement grout mix to adequately seal the decant structure of the 30 m high process water earth dam, and the results are presented in this paper. Along with the existing tailings, a type I Portland cement and supplementary cementing materials including fly ash and silica fume were tested. Using a series of design criteria including durability requirements, strength, density, segregation, bleeding, initial and final set, shrinkage, expansion, underwater placement, flowability, pumpability, and others, Journeaux, Bedard and Associates Incorporated completed a series of laboratory tests and trial mixes. Air entrainment admixture, anti-washout admixture, expansion admixture, bentonite, superplasticizer, etc. were tested in the various grout mixes. The design criteria, methodology, laboratory results, various placing techniques, such as pressure grouting, pumping, tremie and others, and formwork used to seal the decant structures are all detailed in the paper. A section is also devoted to the many challenges encountered during the testing. 11 figs.

  7. Engineering and Design: Characterization and Measurement of Discontinuities in Rock Slopes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1983-01-01

    This ETL provides guidance for characterizing and measuring rock discontinuities on natural slopes or slopes constructed in rock above reservoirs, darn abutments, or other types of constructed slopes...

  8. Tanks 18 And 19-F Structural Flowable Grout Fill Material Evaluation And Recommendations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Langton, C. A.; Stefanko, D. B.

    2013-01-01

    Cementitious grout will be used to close Tanks 18-F and 19-F. The functions of the grout are to: 1) physically stabilize the final landfill by filling the empty volume in the tanks with a non-compressible material; 2) provide a barrier for inadvertent intrusion into the tank; 3) reduce contaminant mobility by a) limiting the hydraulic conductivity of the closed tank and b) reducing contact between the residual waste and infiltrating water; and 4) providing an alkaline, chemically reducing environment in the closed tank to control speciation and solubility of selected radionuclides. The objective of this work was to identify a single (all-in-one) grout to stabilize and isolate the residual radionuclides in the tank, provide structural stability of the closed tank and serve as an inadvertent intruder barrier. This work was requested by V. A. Chander, High Level Waste (HLW) Tank Engineering, in HLW-TTR-2011-008. The complete task scope is provided in the Task Technical and QA Plan, SRNL-RP-2011-00587 Revision 0. The specific objectives of this task were to: 1) Identify new admixtures and dosages for formulating a zero bleed flowable tank fill material selected by HLW Tank Closure Project personnel based on earlier tank fill studies performed in 2007. The chemical admixtures used for adjusting the flow properties needed to be updated because the original admixture products are no longer available. Also, the sources of cement and fly ash have changed, and Portland cements currently available contain up to 5 wt. % limestone (calcium carbonate). 2) Prepare and evaluate the placement, compressive strength, and thermal properties of the selected formulation with new admixture dosages. 3) Identify opportunities for improving the mix selected by HLW Closure Project personnel and prepare and evaluate two potentially improved zero bleed flowable fill design concepts; one based on the reactor fill grout and the other based on a shrinkage compensating flowable fill mix design. 4

  9. Tanks 18 And 19-F Structural Flowable Grout Fill Material Evaluation And Recommendations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Langton, C. A.; Stefanko, D. B.

    2013-04-23

    Cementitious grout will be used to close Tanks 18-F and 19-F. The functions of the grout are to: 1) physically stabilize the final landfill by filling the empty volume in the tanks with a non-compressible material; 2) provide a barrier for inadvertent intrusion into the tank; 3) reduce contaminant mobility by a) limiting the hydraulic conductivity of the closed tank and b) reducing contact between the residual waste and infiltrating water; and 4) providing an alkaline, chemically reducing environment in the closed tank to control speciation and solubility of selected radionuclides. The objective of this work was to identify a single (all-in-one) grout to stabilize and isolate the residual radionuclides in the tank, provide structural stability of the closed tank and serve as an inadvertent intruder barrier. This work was requested by V. A. Chander, High Level Waste (HLW) Tank Engineering, in HLW-TTR-2011-008. The complete task scope is provided in the Task Technical and QA Plan, SRNL-RP-2011-00587 Revision 0. The specific objectives of this task were to: 1) Identify new admixtures and dosages for formulating a zero bleed flowable tank fill material selected by HLW Tank Closure Project personnel based on earlier tank fill studies performed in 2007. The chemical admixtures used for adjusting the flow properties needed to be updated because the original admixture products are no longer available. Also, the sources of cement and fly ash have changed, and Portland cements currently available contain up to 5 wt. % limestone (calcium carbonate). 2) Prepare and evaluate the placement, compressive strength, and thermal properties of the selected formulation with new admixture dosages. 3) Identify opportunities for improving the mix selected by HLW Closure Project personnel and prepare and evaluate two potentially improved zero bleed flowable fill design concepts; one based on the reactor fill grout and the other based on a shrinkage compensating flowable fill mix design. 4

  10. Handbook for the design, selection, and construction of a rock cover for retired uranium-mill tailings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parker, G.B.

    1982-09-01

    As part of a Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) study to assess the long-term protection of retired uranium mill tailings, the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) is developing a Handbook to guide the design, selection, and construction of a rock cover (riprap) for decommissioned and reclaimed uranium-mill tailings. The rock cover is designed for long-term protection of mill tailings from wind and water erosion. The purpose of the Handbook is twofold. First, it can be used as a manual by the uranium mill operators for designing, selecting, and constructing a rock cover. Second, the Handbook can be used as a guide to help the NRC evaluate the decommissioning and reclamation plans submitted to them by mill operators. Although the Handbook is not site-specific, it is structured to allow the design of a rock cover for any NRC-licensed tailings impoundment

  11. Leaching of radioactive nuclides from cement grouts. Part II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stanley, W.T.; Avgerinos, G.F.; Gonzalez, B.; Hemley, P.J.

    1974-01-01

    The determination of the leaching rate of radioactive 137 Cs from a cement grout should the grout be contacted by water is necessary for environmental protection. The effect of the leachant turnover rate on 137 Cs leaching rates was evaluated with batch and continuous (modified Soxhlet extractor) modes of experimentation. Three additives (Grundite, potter's clay, and Conasauga shale) were compared in terms of capability of radioactive isotope retention, while two leachants (tap and distilled water) were investigated. The Soxhlet extractor experiment resulted in the highest rate of leaching, and Conasauga shale was found the best additive for 137 Cs immobilization. Tap water used as leachant was more effective than distilled water. Data were analyzed using models involving isotopic diffusion in the grout and involving diffusion plus a time dependent boundary condition at the interface of grout specimen and leachant

  12. Recent development in the design of hard rock tunnel boring machines for the mining industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snyder, L.L.; Williams, R.I.

    1991-01-01

    Underground development for nuclear waste storage will possibly require tunnels to be excavated in a variety of rock conditions and configurations. Recent innovations in Tunnel Boring Machine (TBM) design have allowed for an evolved style of TBM which has distinct advantages over the standard machines. Present day conventional hard rock TBM's were developed primarily for the long, relatively straight tunnels of the civil construction industry, thereby making them for the most part, unsuitable for the sharp curves, turnouts, declines, inclines and ramps required in many underground environments. The five foot to 36 foot (1.52 to 11 m) diameter machines are capable of boring tunnels with curve radiuses as small as 40 to 90 feet (12.2 to 27.5 m) depending on size. These short turning radiuses can be accomplished while gripping the tunnel walls horizontally in the traditional manner or vertically as required when intersecting existing tunnels, or making turnouts from the tunnel that the machine has just bored. The machine's length is approximately half of a traditional machine's length while still employing a full measure of thrust, horsepower and rock cutting ability. The machine's short length, combined with a patented machine structure allows it to steer while boring without causing harmful eccentric loads on the cutterhead and main bearing assembly. The machine configuration is versatile and can be easily modified to operate in a wide variety of conditions

  13. A novel design for storage of inner stress by colloidal processing on rock-like materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Weichang; Wang, Sijing; Lekan Olatayo, Afolagboye; Fu, Huanran

    2018-06-01

    Inner stress exists in rocks, affecting rock engineering, yet has received very little attention and quantitative investigation because of uncertainty about its characteristics. Previous studies have suggested that the inner stresses of rock materials are closely related to their physical state variation. In this work, a novel mold was designed to simulate the storage process of inner stress in specimens composed of quartz sands and epoxy. Then, thermal tests were carried out to change the physical state of the specimens, and expansion of the specimens was monitored. The results indicated that inner stress could be partly locked by the mold and it could also be released by heating. It can be inferred from the analysis that one necessary condition of storage and release of inner stress is physical state variation. Additionally, by using an XRD method, the variations in the interplanar spacing of the quartz sands were detected, and the results reflect that inner stress could be locked-in aggregates (quartz sands) by a cement constraint (solid epoxy). The inner stress stored in quartz sands was calculated using height and interplanar spacing variations.

  14. Design management and stress analysis of a circular rock tunnel and emplacement holes for storage of spent nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kandalaft-Ladkany, N.; Wyman, R.V.

    1992-01-01

    This paper discusses a critical path method (CPM) diagram and logic net which are used for the design cycle of the rock tunnel system for a high level nuclear waste repository. In the analysis the design tunnel is subjected to pre-existing temperature and overburden loads at time of construction. high thermal stresses develop later due to the long term influx of heat from the canisters stored in vertical emplacement holes. Results indicate that thermal stresses reach a critical level for the rock in the vicinity of the canisters which could lead to local collapse of the rock and damage to the canisters

  15. experimental study of cement grout: rheological behavior and sedimentation

    OpenAIRE

    Rosquoët , Frédéric; Alexis , Alain ,; Khelidj , Abdelhafid; Phelipot-Mardelé , Annabelle

    2002-01-01

    International audience; Three basic elements (cement, water and admixture) usually make up injectable cement grouts used for prestressed cable coating, repair and consolidation of masonry, soil grouting, etc... The present study was divided into two parts. First, in order to characterize rheologically fresh cement paste with W/C ratios (water/cement ratio) varying between 0.35 and 1, an experimental study was carried out and has revealed that the cement past behaves like a shear-thinning mate...

  16. Liquid Secondary Waste Grout Formulation and Waste Form Qualification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Um, Wooyong [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Williams, B. D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Snyder, Michelle M. V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Wang, Guohui [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-05-23

    This report describes the results from liquid secondary waste (LSW) grout formulation and waste form qualification tests performed at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for Washington River Protection Solutions (WRPS) to evaluate new formulations for preparing a grout waste form with high-sulfate secondary waste simulants and the release of key constituents from these grout monoliths. Specific objectives of the LSW grout formulation and waste form qualification tests described in this report focused on five activities: 1.preparing new formulations for the LSW grout waste form with high-sulfate LSW simulants and solid characterization of the cured LSW grout waste form; 2.conducting the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Method 1313 leach test (EPA 2012) on the grout prepared with the new formulations, which solidify sulfate-rich Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) off-gas condensate secondary waste simulant, using deionized water (DIW); 3.conducting the EPA Method 1315 leach tests (EPA 2013) on the grout monoliths made with the new dry blend formulations and three LSW simulants (242-A evaporator condensate, Environmental Restoration Disposal Facility (ERDF) leachate, and WTP off-gas condensate) using two leachants, DIW and simulated Hanford Integrated Disposal Facility (IDF) Site vadose zone pore water (VZPW); 4.estimating the 99Tc desorption Kd (distribution coefficient) values for 99Tc transport in oxidizing conditions to support the IDF performance assessment (PA); 5.estimating the solubility of 99Tc(IV)-bearing solid phases for 99Tc transport in reducing conditions to support the IDF PA.

  17. Biological toxicity evaluation of Hanford Site waste grouts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rebagay, T.V. Dodd, D.A.; Voogd, J.A.

    1992-10-01

    Liquid wastes containing radioactive, hazardous, and regulated chemicals have been generated throughout the 50 years of operation of the Hanford Site of the US Department of Energy near Richland, Washington. These wastes are currently stored onsite in single- and double-shell carbon steel tanks. To effectively handle and treat these wastes, their degree of toxicity must be determined. The disposal of the low-level radioactive liquid portion of the wastes involves mixing the wastes with pozzolanic blends to form grout. Potential environmental hazards posed by grouts are largely unknown. Biological evaluation of grout toxicity is needed to provide information on the potential risks of animal and plant exposure to the grouts. The fish, rat, and Microtox toxicity tests described herein indicate that the grouts formed from Formulations I and 2 are nonhazardous and nondangerous. Using the Microtox solid-phase protocol, both soluble and insoluble organic and inorganic toxicants in the grouts can be detected. This protocol may be used for rapid screening of environmental pollutants and toxicants

  18. Application of 3D Laser Scanning Technology in Complex Rock Foundation Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junjie, Ma; Dan, Lu; Zhilong, Liu

    2017-12-01

    Taking the complex landform of Tanxi Mountain Landscape Bridge as an example, the application of 3D laser scanning technology in the mapping of complex rock foundations is studied in this paper. A set of 3D laser scanning technologies are formed and several key engineering problems are solved. The first is 3D laser scanning technology of complex landforms. 3D laser scanning technology is used to obtain a complete 3D point cloud data model of the complex landform. The detailed and accurate results of the surveying and mapping decrease the measuring time and supplementary measuring times. The second is 3D collaborative modeling of the complex landform. A 3D model of the complex landform is established based on the 3D point cloud data model. The super-structural foundation model is introduced for 3D collaborative design. The optimal design plan is selected and the construction progress is accelerated. And the last is finite-element analysis technology of the complex landform foundation. A 3D model of the complex landform is introduced into ANSYS for building a finite element model to calculate anti-slide stability of the rock, and provides a basis for the landform foundation design and construction.

  19. Bioremediation in fractured rock: 1. Modeling to inform design, monitoring, and expectations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiedeman, Claire; Shapiro, Allen M.; Hsieh, Paul A.; Imbrigiotta, Thomas; Goode, Daniel J.; Lacombe, Pierre; DeFlaun, Mary F.; Drew, Scott R.; Johnson, Carole D.; Williams, John H.; Curtis, Gary P.

    2018-01-01

    Field characterization of a trichloroethene (TCE) source area in fractured mudstones produced a detailed understanding of the geology, contaminant distribution in fractures and the rock matrix, and hydraulic and transport properties. Groundwater flow and chemical transport modeling that synthesized the field characterization information proved critical for designing bioremediation of the source area. The planned bioremediation involved injecting emulsified vegetable oil and bacteria to enhance the naturally occurring biodegradation of TCE. The flow and transport modeling showed that injection will spread amendments widely over a zone of lower‐permeability fractures, with long residence times expected because of small velocities after injection and sorption of emulsified vegetable oil onto solids. Amendments transported out of this zone will be diluted by groundwater flux from other areas, limiting bioremediation effectiveness downgradient. At nearby pumping wells, further dilution is expected to make bioremediation effects undetectable in the pumped water. The results emphasize that in fracture‐dominated flow regimes, the extent of injected amendments cannot be conceptualized using simple homogeneous models of groundwater flow commonly adopted to design injections in unconsolidated porous media (e.g., radial diverging or dipole flow regimes). Instead, it is important to synthesize site characterization information using a groundwater flow model that includes discrete features representing high‐ and low‐permeability fractures. This type of model accounts for the highly heterogeneous hydraulic conductivity and groundwater fluxes in fractured‐rock aquifers, and facilitates designing injection strategies that target specific volumes of the aquifer and maximize the distribution of amendments over these volumes.

  20. Design and construction of a block test in closely jointed rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Black, M.T.; Cramer, M.L.

    1983-06-01

    The Basalt Waste Isolation Project developed a large-scale block test to investigate the in-situ deformational response of a basalt rock mass. The test was designed and installed into the vertical rib (wall) of a tunnel to examine the response of basalt both in a parallel and perpendicular mode to the basalt columns. The salient challenge confronting the design and development of the test was a lack of documented experience for testing into a vertical wall. Information was available for testing in a horizontal surface. The major tasks involved in the implementation of this test included flat-jack slot drilling, instrumentation hole drilling, cable anchor hole drilling, flat-jack installation, monitoring instrumentation installation, and cable anchor installation. Drilling in the closely jointed and fractured rock mass required extreme care to prevent unraveling of the columnar structure and to minimize the disturbance of the section to be tested. The adaptation of a high-strength cable anchor system to the space limitations of the test configuration and the design and implementation of an optical deformation monitoring device capable of achieving a measurement precision of 30 μm required equal innovation. Construction of the test facility was successfully completed on schedule in approx. 25 wk

  1. Grout and vitrification formula development for immobilization of hazardous radioactive tank sludges at ORNL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilliam, T.M.; Spence, R.D.

    1997-01-01

    Stabilization/solidification (S/S) has been identified as the preferred treatment option for hazardous radioactive sludges, and currently grouting and vitrification are considered the leading candidate S/S technologies. Consequently, a project was initiated at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to define composition envelopes, or operating windows, for acceptable grout and glass formulations containing Melton Valley Storage Tank (MVST) sludges. The resulting data are intended to be used as guidance for the eventual treatment of the MVST sludges by the government and/or private sector. Wastewater at ORNL is collected, evaporated, and stored in the MVSTs pending treatment for disposal. The waste separates into two phases: sludge and supernate. The sludges in the tank bottoms have been accumulating for several years and contain a high amount of radioactivity, with some classified as transuranic (TRU) sludges. The available total constituent analysis for the MVST sludge indicates that the Resource and Conservation Recovery Act (RCRA) metal concentrations are high enough to be potentially RCRA hazardous; therefore, these sludges have the potential to be designated as mixed TRU waste. S/S treatment must be performed to remove free liquids and reduce the leach rate of RCRA metals. This paper focuses on initial results for the development of the operating window for vitrification. However, sufficient data on grouting are presented to allow a comparison of the two options

  2. Development of grout formulations for 106-AN waste: Mixture-experiment results and analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spence, R.D.; McDaniel, E.W.; Anderson, C.M.; Lokken, R.O.; Piepel, G.F.

    1993-09-01

    Twenty potential ingredients were identified for use in developing a 106-AN grout formulation, and 18 were subsequently obtained and tested. Four ingredients: Type II-LA (moderate heat of hydration) Portland cement, Class F fly ash, attapulgite 150 drilling clay, and ground air-cooled blast-furnace slag (GABFS) -- were selected for developing the 106-AN grout formulations. A mixture experiment was designed and conducted around the following formulation: 2.5 lb of cement per gallon, 1.2 lb of fly ash per gallon, 0.8 lb of attapulgite per gallon, and 3.5 lb of GABFS per gallon. Reduced empirical models were generated from the results of the mixture experiment. These models were used to recommend several grout formulations for 106-AN. Westinghouse Hanford Company selected one of these formulations to be verified for use with 106-AN and a backup formulation in case problems arise with the first choice. This report presents the mixture-experimental results and leach data

  3. Grout and vitrification formula development for immobilization of hazardous radioactive tank sludges at ORNL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilliam, T.M.; Spence, R.D.

    1997-12-31

    Stabilization/solidification (S/S) has been identified as the preferred treatment option for hazardous radioactive sludges, and currently grouting and vitrification are considered the leading candidate S/S technologies. Consequently, a project was initiated at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to define composition envelopes, or operating windows, for acceptable grout and glass formulations containing Melton Valley Storage Tank (MVST) sludges. The resulting data are intended to be used as guidance for the eventual treatment of the MVST sludges by the government and/or private sector. Wastewater at ORNL is collected, evaporated, and stored in the MVSTs pending treatment for disposal. The waste separates into two phases: sludge and supernate. The sludges in the tank bottoms have been accumulating for several years and contain a high amount of radioactivity, with some classified as transuranic (TRU) sludges. The available total constituent analysis for the MVST sludge indicates that the Resource and Conservation Recovery Act (RCRA) metal concentrations are high enough to be potentially RCRA hazardous; therefore, these sludges have the potential to be designated as mixed TRU waste. S/S treatment must be performed to remove free liquids and reduce the leach rate of RCRA metals. This paper focuses on initial results for the development of the operating window for vitrification. However, sufficient data on grouting are presented to allow a comparison of the two options.

  4. Prediction and control of leachability of grouts used in low-level radioactive waste management. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Landolt, R.R.; Altschaeffl, A.G.

    1987-01-01

    The status of the following studies is reported: Uses of Grouting for Remedial Action and New Trench Stabilization; Water Movement and Grout Formulations; and Leachability of Grout Materials Used As Solidification Media. (LM)

  5. Engineering grouts - materials and applications with specific examples from Ra asthan Atomic Power Pro ect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singha Roy, P.K.; Sachchidanand; Sukhthankar, K.D.

    1978-01-01

    Grouting, though not very significant costwise, is an important aspect6 of construction in most of the major projects. According to modern construction technology, grouts have very stringent and diverse uses. The materials and practices generally found in India for grouting, mainly for structural grouts upto the middle of this decade are outlined along with details of specific grouts used in the construction of the twin reactor (440 MWe) of Rajasthan Atomic Power Station, one reactor of which is already operational. Some guidance and tables for selection of grout for a specific use have also been given. (auth.)

  6. In situ grouting of low-level burial trenches with a cement-based grout at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Francis, C.W.; Spence, R.D.; Tamura, T.; Spalding, B.P.

    1993-01-01

    A technology being evaluated for use in the closure of one of the low-level radwaste burial grounds at ORNL is trench stabilization using a cement-based grout. To demonstrate the applicability and effectiveness of this technology, two interconnecting trenches in SWSA 6 were selected as candidates for in situ grouting with a particulate grout. The primary objective was to demonstrate the increased trench stability (characterized by trench penetration tests) and the decreased potential for leachate migration (characterized by hydraulic conductivity tests) following in situ injection of a particulate grout into the waste trenches. Stability against trench subsidence is a critical issue. For example, construction of impermeable covers to seal the trenches will be ineffectual unless subsequent trench subsidence is permanently suspended. A grout composed of 39% Type 1 Portland cement, 55.5% Class F fly ash, and 5.5% bentonite mixed at 12.5 lb/gal of water was selected. Before the trenches were grouted, the primary characteristics relating to physical stability, hydraulic conductivity, and void volume of the trenches were determined. Their physical stability was evaluated using soil-penetration tests

  7. In situ heating experiments in hard rock: their objectives and design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cook, N.G.W.; Witherspoon, P.A.

    1978-01-01

    Of the many alternatives that are being considered for the disposal of nuclear wastes, deep underground burial is favored. The wealth of experience concerning the design and construction of underground excavations does not include the unique effects of heating excavations by radioactive decay, nor the issue of long-term isolation. The effects of heating are important in establishing the feasibility of this method of disposal, and are essential for the design of an underground repository. Near-field phenomena around individual canisters can be studied by full-scale experiments, using electrical heaters. The thermal diffusivity of rock is so low that information concerning the interaction between full-scale heaters and of the effects of heating a large volume of rock cannot be measured in full-scale experiments lasting less than a few decades. To overcome this difficulty, a time-scaled heating experiment has been developed in which a reduction in linear scale is accompanied by an acceleration of the time scale to the second power. In this experiment, the linear scale is about a third, so that the time scale is about ten fold

  8. In situ heating experiments in hard rock: their objectives and design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cook, N.G.W.; Witherspoon, P.A.; California Univ., Berkeley

    1978-01-01

    Of the many alternatives that are being considered for the disposal of nuclear wastes, deep underground burial is favored. The wealth of experience concerning the design and construction of underground excavations does not include the unique effects of heating excavations by radioactive decay, nor the issue of long-term isolation. The effects of heating are important in establishing the feasibility of this method of disposal and are essential for the design of an underground repository. Near-field phenomena around individual canisters can be studied by full-scale experiments, using electrical heaters. The thermal diffusivity of rock is so low that information concerning the interaction between full-scale heaters and of the effects of heating a large volume of rock cannot be measured in full-scale experiments lasting less than a few decades. To overcome this difficulty, a time-scaled heating experiment has been developed in which a reduction in linear scale is accompanied by an acceleration of the time scale to the second power. In this experiment, the linear scale is about a third, so that the time scale is about ten fold

  9. A Closer Look at the Design of Cutterheads for Hard Rock Tunnel-Boring Machines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamal Rostami

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The success of a tunnel-boring machine (TBM in a given project depends on the functionality of all components of the system, from the cutters to the backup system, and on the entire rolling stock. However, no part of the machine plays a more crucial role in the efficient operation of the machine than its cutterhead. The design of the cutterhead impacts the efficiency of cutting, the balance of the head, the life of the cutters, the maintenance of the main bearing/gearbox, and the effectiveness of the mucking along with its effects on the wear of the face and gage cutters/muck buckets. Overall, cutterhead design heavily impacts the rate of penetration (ROP, rate of machine utilization (U, and daily advance rate (AR. Although there has been some discussion in commonly available publications regarding disk cutters, cutting forces, and some design features of the head, there is limited literature on this subject because the design of cutterheads is mainly handled by machine manufacturers. Most of the design process involves proprietary algorithms by the manufacturers, and despite recent attention on the subject, the design of rock TBMs has been somewhat of a mystery to most end-users. This paper is an attempt to demystify the basic concepts in design. Although it may not be sufficient for a full-fledged design by the readers, this paper allows engineers and contractors to understand the thought process in the design steps, what to look for in a proper design, and the implications of the head design on machine operation and life cycle. Keywords: TBM cutterhead design, Cutterhead layout, Disk cutters, Cutting pattern, TBM efficiency

  10. A new energy-absorbing bolt for rock support in high stress rock masses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Charlie Chunlin Li [Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU) (Norway)

    2010-04-15

    An energy-absorbing rock support device, called a D bolt, has been recently developed to counteract both burst-prone and squeezing rock conditions that occur during underground excavation. The bolt is a smooth steel bar with a number of anchors along its length. The anchors are firmly fixed within a borehole using either cement grout or resin, while the smooth sections of the bolt between the anchors may freely deform in response to rock dilation. Failure of one section does not affect the reinforcement performance of the other sections. The bolt is designed to fully use both the strength and the deformation capacity of the bolt material along the entire length. The bolt has large load-bearing and deformation capacities. Static pull tests and dynamic drop tests show that the bolt length elongates by 14-20% at a load level equal to the strength of the bolt material, thereby absorbing a large amount of energy. The impact average load of a 20 mm D bolt is 200-230 kN, with only a small portion of the load transferred to the bolt plate. The cumulative dynamic energy absorption of the bolt is measured to be 47 kJ/m. D bolts were tested in three deep mines. Filed measurements show that D bolts are loaded less than rebar bolts. This paper presents the layout and principle of the D bolt, and corresponding results from static, dynamic, and field tests.

  11. Characterization of a low-level radioactive waste grout: Sampling and test results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, P.F.C.; Lokken, R.O.

    1992-12-01

    WHC manages and operates the grout treatment facility at Hanford as part of a DOE program to clean up wastes stored at federal nuclear production sites. PNL provides support to the grout disposal program through pilot-scale tests, performance assessments, and formulation verification activities. in 1988 and 1989, over one million gallons of a low-level radioactive liquid waste was processed through the facility to produce a grout waste that was then deposited in an underground vault. The liquid waste was phosphate/sulfate waste (PSW) generated in decontamination of the N Reactor. PNL sampled and tested the grout produced during the second half of the PSW campaign to support quality verification activities prior to grout vault closure. Samples of grout were obtained by inserting nested-tube samplers into the grout slurry in the vault. After the grout had cured, the inner tube of the sampler was removed and the grout samples extracted. Tests for compressive strength, sonic velocity, and leach testing were used to assess grout quality; results were compared to those from pilot-scale test grouts made with a simulated PSW. The grout produced during the second half of the PSW campaign exceeded compressive strength and leachability formulation criteria. The nested tube samplers were effective in collecting samples of grout although their use introduced greater variability into the compressive strength data

  12. Evaluation of dry-solids-blend material source for grouts containing 106-AN waste: September 1990 progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilliam, T.M.; Osborne, S.C.; Francis, C.L.; Scott, T.C.

    1993-09-01

    Stabilization/solidification (S/S) is the most widely used technology for the treatment and ultimate disposal of both radioactive and chemically hazardous wastes. Such technology is being utilized in a Grout Treatment Facility (GTF) by the Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) for the disposal of various wastes, including 106-AN wastes, located on the Hanford Reservation. The WHC personnel have developed a grout formula for 106-AN disposal that is designed to meet stringent performance requirements. This formula consists of a dry-solids blend containing 40 wt % limestone, 28 wt % granulated blast furnace slag (BFS), 28 wt % ASTM Class F fly ash, and 4 wt % Type I-II-LA Portland cement. The blend is mixed with 106-AN waste at a ratio of 9 lb of dry-solids blend per gallon of waste. This report documents progress made to date on efforts at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in support of WHC's Grout Technology Program to assess the effects of the source of the dry-solids-blend materials on the resulting grout formula

  13. Leach behavior of hydrofracture grout incorporating radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moore, J.G.; Godbee, H.W.; Kibbey, A.H.

    1976-01-01

    Rates at which Sr, Cs, Pu, and Cm are leached from hydrofracture grout were measured. The fraction of an isotope leached varied with the square root of time if the leachant was replaced more frequently than once per day, but was inhibited or depressed if replacement was made less often. The amount of Sr or Cs leached from the grout varied directly with the degree of drying during curing and inversely with the time of curing. Of the clay additives studied for enhancing cesium retention, Grundite, while satisfactory, was the least effective. In general, the isotope leach rate followed the order: Cs greater than Sr greater than Cm greater than Pu. The amount leached as a function of the leachant varied in the order: distilled water greater than tap water greater than grout water. Concentrating the waste by a factor of up to 4 before grouting had little effect on the leach rate. Comparison with results for other products indicates that the grout can provide leach rates comparable to those for wastes incorporated into borosilicate glass. Theoretical relationships that consider diffusion and instantaneous reaction (an equilibrium or time-dependent relationship between mobile and immobile forms of a species) were in good agreement with the data for the 28-day-cured grout when the leachant was initially replaced twice per day. The credibility of laboratory results with simulated waste was substantiated by a short-term continuous leach test made on a fragment of a core sample of actual hydrofracture grout. The modified effective diffusivities (10 -11 to 10 -10 cm 2 /s, equivalent to a leach rate of the order of 10 -7 g cm -2 day -1 ) for Sr and Cs calculated from these data are comparable to laboratory values. 17 figures, 5 tables

  14. Cement based grouts - longevity laboratory studies: leaching behaviour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onofrei, M.; Gray, M.; Roe, L.

    1991-12-01

    This report describes a series of laboratory tests carried out to determine the possible leaching behaviour of cement-based grouts in repository environments. A reference high-performance cement-based grout, comprised of Canadian Type 50 (U.S. Type V) Sulphate Resisting Portland Cement, silica fume, potable water and superplasticizer, and a commercially available cement grout were subjected to leaching in distilled water and three simulated groundwaters of different ionic strength. Hardened, monolithic specimens of the grout were leached in static, pulsed-flow and continuous flow conditions at temperatures from 10 degrees C to 150 degrees C for periods of up to 56 days. The changes in concentration of ions in the leachants with time were determined and the changes in the morphology of the surfaces of the grout specimens were examined using electron microscopy. After a review of possible mechanisms of degradation of cement-based materials, the data from these experiments are presented. The data show that the grouts will leach when in contact with water through dissolution of more soluble phases. Comparison of the leaching performance of the two grouts indicates that, while there are some minor differences, they behaved quite similarly. The rate of the leaching processes were found to tend to decrease with time and to be accompanied by precipitation and/or growth of an assemblage of secondary alteration phases (i.e., CaCO 3 , Mg(OH) 2 ). The mechanisms of leaching depended on the environmental conditions of temperature, groundwater composition and water flow rate. Matrix dissolution occurred. However, in many of the tests leaching was shown to be limited by the precipitated/reaction layers which acted as protective surface coatings. (37 refs.) (au)

  15. Preliminary assessment of a 'surface fusible grout' concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sellars, B.G.

    1992-03-01

    The Canadian Fusion Fuels Technology Project is evaluating the uptake and release of tritium (DT, T 2 ), tritiated hydrogen (HT) and tritiated water (HTO) by building materials to be used in fusion reactor enclosures. Concrete will be an important building material and poses a special problem because of its porous microstructure and the chemical makeup of the material. One approach to reducing the uptake of HT and HTO into concrete is to apply a permeation barrier directly onto the concrete. Glazed ceramic tiles are one barrier with low HT and HTO uptake; however, the grouting between tiles is a major concern. It would be desirable to seal the grout with a glassy permeation barrier. The concept investigated in this program is based on plasma spraying: injecting a powder into a high velocity flame to melt the powder particles and project them towards a target substrate. Glass on the substrate is then to be fused by the plasma flame while a molten glass is deposited on top. Ceramic bonded grouts were developed based on fused silica or borosilicate powders and ethyl silicate or sodium silicate air-set binders. Sodium silicate grouts exhibit lower porosity after drying than ethyl silicate-based grouts, although both are porous. Careful control of the ratio of coarse to fine powder fractions is necessary to minimize or eliminate drying shrinkage. The surface of grouts based on borosilicate glass could not be fused without cracking of neighbouring tiles. When a porcelain enamel glass was plasma spray deposited and fused onto the surface of a grout line and adjacent tiles crazing was observed upon dye penetrant testing

  16. Hydrogeophysics and remote sensing for the design of hydrogeological conceptual models in hard rocks - Sardón catchment (Spain)

    OpenAIRE

    Francés, Alain; Lubczynski, Maciek W.; Roy, Jean; Santos, Fernando A. Monteiro; Ardekani, Mohammad R. Mahmoudzadeh

    2014-01-01

    Hard rock aquifers are highly heterogeneous and hydrogeologically complex. To contribute to the design of hydrogeological conceptual models of hard rock aquifers, we propose a multi-techniques methodology based on a downward approach that combines remote sensing (RS), non-invasive hydrogeophysics and hydrogeological field data acquisition. The proposed methodology is particularly suitable for data scarce areas. It was applied in the pilot research area of Sardón catchment (80 km2)...

  17. Tanks 18 And 19-F Structural Flowable Grout Fill Material Evaluation And Recommendations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stefanko, D.; Langton, C.

    2011-01-01

    Cementitious grout will be used to close Tanks 18-F and 19-F. The functions of the grout are to: (1) physically stabilize the final landfill by filling the empty volume in the tanks with a non compressible material; (2) provide a barrier for inadvertent intrusion into the tank; (3) reduce contaminant mobility by (a) limiting the hydraulic conductivity of the closed tank and (b) reducing contact between the residual waste and infiltrating water; and (4) providing an alkaline, chemically reducing environment in the closed tank to control speciation and solubility of selected radionuclides. The objective of this work was to identify a single (all-in-one) grout to stabilize and isolate the residual radionuclides in the tank, provide structural stability of the closed tank and serve as an inadvertent intruder barrier. This work was requested by V. A. Chander, High Level Waste (HLW) Tank Engineering, in HLW-TTR-2011-008. The complete task scope is provided in the Task Technical and QA Plan, SRNL-RP-2011-00587 Revision 0. The specific objectives of this task were to: (1) Identify new admixtures and dosages for formulating a zero bleed flowable tank fill material selected by HLW Tank Closure Project personnel based on earlier tank fill studies performed in 2007. The chemical admixtures used for adjusting the flow properties needed to be updated because the original admixture products are no longer available. Also, the sources of cement and fly ash have changed, and Portland cements currently available contain up to 5 wt. % limestone (calcium carbonate). (2) Prepare and evaluate the placement, compressive strength, and thermal properties of the selected formulation with new admixture dosages. (3) Identify opportunities for improving the mix selected by HLW Closure Project personnel and prepare and evaluate two potentially improved zero bleed flowable fill design concepts; one based on the reactor fill grout and the other based on a shrinkage compensating flowable fill mix

  18. TANKS 18 AND 19-F STRUCTURAL FLOWABLE GROUT FILL MATERIAL EVALUATION AND RECOMMENDATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stefanko, D.; Langton, C.

    2011-11-01

    Cementitious grout will be used to close Tanks 18-F and 19-F. The functions of the grout are to: (1) physically stabilize the final landfill by filling the empty volume in the tanks with a non compressible material; (2) provide a barrier for inadvertent intrusion into the tank; (3) reduce contaminant mobility by (a) limiting the hydraulic conductivity of the closed tank and (b) reducing contact between the residual waste and infiltrating water; and (4) providing an alkaline, chemically reducing environment in the closed tank to control speciation and solubility of selected radionuclides. The objective of this work was to identify a single (all-in-one) grout to stabilize and isolate the residual radionuclides in the tank, provide structural stability of the closed tank and serve as an inadvertent intruder barrier. This work was requested by V. A. Chander, High Level Waste (HLW) Tank Engineering, in HLW-TTR-2011-008. The complete task scope is provided in the Task Technical and QA Plan, SRNL-RP-2011-00587 Revision 0. The specific objectives of this task were to: (1) Identify new admixtures and dosages for formulating a zero bleed flowable tank fill material selected by HLW Tank Closure Project personnel based on earlier tank fill studies performed in 2007. The chemical admixtures used for adjusting the flow properties needed to be updated because the original admixture products are no longer available. Also, the sources of cement and fly ash have changed, and Portland cements currently available contain up to 5 wt. % limestone (calcium carbonate). (2) Prepare and evaluate the placement, compressive strength, and thermal properties of the selected formulation with new admixture dosages. (3) Identify opportunities for improving the mix selected by HLW Closure Project personnel and prepare and evaluate two potentially improved zero bleed flowable fill design concepts; one based on the reactor fill grout and the other based on a shrinkage compensating flowable fill mix

  19. Florida Sinkholes and Grout Injection Stabilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles Hunt Griffith II

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Florida has a major problem when it comes to sinkholes. These sinkholes can become very hazardous to people, homes, and to the landscape as a whole. Florida sits on a carbonate platform which is highly indicative of sinkholes. There are three main types of sinkholes which occur in Florida: dissolution, cover subsidence, and cover collapse. I will compare these types of sinkholes to the underlying formation beneath Florida to see if there is a connection between the types of sinkholes that occur. I will also create a 3D model of grout injection stabilization and calculate its volume to compare to the actual volume placed under the house. This information will help inform and bring attention to the problem in Florida and in turn, may help alleviate the problem if we can understand what causes these sinkholes. The 3D model may help engineering companies become more efficient in predicting the projected amount of volume to stabilize a house that may be in danger.

  20. Retrievability of high-level nuclear waste from geologic repositories - Regulatory and rock mechanics/design considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanious, N.S.; Nataraja, M.S.; Daemen, J.J.K.

    1987-01-01

    Retrievability of nuclear waste from high-level geologic repositories is one of the performance objectives identified in 10CFR60 (Code of Federal Regulations, 1985). 10CFR60.111 states that the geologic repository operations area shall be designed to preserve the option of waste retrieval. In designing the repository operations area, rock mechanics considerations play a major role especially in evaluating the feasibility of retrieval operations. This paper discusses generic considerations affecting retrievability as they relate to repository design, construction, and operation, with emphasis on regulatory and rock mechanics aspects

  1. Seismic stability analysis of rock slopes by yield design theory using the generalized Hoek-Brown criterion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belghali Mounir

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The stability of rock slope is studied using the kinematic approach of yield design theory, under the condition of plane strain and by considering the last version of the Hoek-Brown failure criterion. This criterion, which is suitable to intact rock or rock mass highly fractured regarded as isotropic and homogeneous, is widely accepted by the rock mechanics community and has been applied in numerous projects around the world. The failure mechanism used to implement the kinematic approach is a log-spiral rotational mechanism. The stability analysis is carried out under the effects of gravity forces and a surcharge applied along the upper plateau of the slope. To take account of the effects of forces developed in the rock mass during the passage of a seismic wave, the conventional pseudo-static method is adopted. This method is often used in slope stability study for its simplicity and efficiency to simulate the seismic forces. The results found are compared with published numerical solutions obtained from other approaches. The comparison showed that the results are almost equal. The maximum error found is less than 1%, indicating that this approach is effective for analyzing the stability of rock slopes. The relevance of the approach demonstrated, investigations are undertaken to study the influence of some parameters on the stability of the slope. These parameters relate to the mechanical strength of the rock, slope geometry and loading.

  2. Solubility of krypton in hydrofracture grout at elevated pressures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fitzgerald, C.L.; Mailen, J.C.

    1982-01-01

    The solubilities of krypton in water, simulated waste solution, and simulated grout at about 25 0 C and to pressures of 150 atm have been determined. The results of these studies show that preliminary calculations of krypton solubility based on the aqueous component of the hydrofracture grout were overly pessimistic. The volume of noble gas generated annually by the reference reprocessing plant would be soluble in the annual hydrofracture grout injection at ORNL at about 10 atm. The amount of krypton in the gas phase would depend on the amount of air in the hydrofracture grout mixture. At 34 atm, and with a small air volume relative to the injected krypton, the krypton would constitute about 30% of the gas bubbles. The disposal of krypton via injection with hydrofracture grout seems to be a viable process. The next logical steps would be to determine the krypton diffusion rate at injection conditions, and possibly to perform a test injection. At present, the schedule for future work is uncertain since funds for this project have been reduced significantly

  3. The use of cement grouts for the immobilisation of solid radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, D.J.; Smith, D.L.

    1982-06-01

    The use of cement grouts is being considered for the immobilisation of solid items of radioactive waste. In this report the factors which influence the selection of a grout for use in an active plant are identified. The properties and limitations of standard cement grouts are summarised. Inactive grouting trials carried out in the period September 1981 to June 1982 on the 220 dm 3 scale are described. (author)

  4. Development of an in-line grout meter for improved quality control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Del Cul, G.D.; Gilliam, T.M.

    1991-05-01

    This report documents progress to date on the development of an in-line grout meter and demonstration of its applicability at operating temperature of 50 degree C. The grout meter, which is based on measurement of grout electrical resistance/capacitance, is intended to provide real-time measurements of grout mix ratio (ratio of dry-solids-blend materials to waste). 4 refs., 6 figs., 5 tabs

  5. Rock riprap design methods and their applicability to long-term protection of uranium mill tailings impoundments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walters, W.H.

    1982-08-01

    This report reviews the more accepted or recommended riprap design methods currently used to design rock riprap protection against soil erosion by flowing water. The basic theories used to develop the various methods are presented. The Riprap Design with Safety Factors Method is identified as the logical choice for uranium mill tailings impoundments. This method is compared to the other methods and its applicability to the protection requirements of tailings impoundments is discussed. Other design problems are identified and investigative studies recommended

  6. Solidification/stabilization of technetium in cement-based grouts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilliam, T.M.; Bostick, W.D.; Spence, R.D.; Shoemaker, J.L.

    1990-01-01

    Mixed low-level radioactive and chemically hazardous process treatment wastes from the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant are stabilized by solidification in cement-based grouts. Conventional portland cement and fly ash grouts have been shown to be effective for retention of hydrolyzable metals (e.g., lead, cadmium, uranium and nickel) but are marginally acceptable for retention of radioactive Tc-99, which is present in the waste as the highly mobile pertechnate anion. Addition of ground blast furnace slag to the grout is shown to reduce the leachability of technetium by several orders of magnitude. The selective effect of slag is believed to be due to its ability to reduce Tc(VII) to the less soluble Tc(IV) species. 12 refs., 4 tabs

  7. Innovative technology summary report: Innovative grouting and retrieval

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-10-01

    Innovative grouting and retrieval (IGR) technology provides an innovative and cost-effective approach for full-pit and hot-spot retrieval of buried transuranic (TRU) waste sites and in situ disposal of buried waste with improved confinement. Innovative grouting technology: minimizes spreading of contamination by agglomerating the soil particles containing plutonium/americium particulates into nonaerosolizable particles; minimizes worker risks and exposure; is more effective in controlling the spread of contamination than common mining practices such as directed air flow, misting, and fixant sprays; eliminates further treatment because the grouted, rubberized waste is ready for shipment to the Waste Isolation Pilot Project (WIPP); reduces capital expenditures, operating costs, and containment structure requirements; and is an estimated five times faster than the baseline technology of removal, packaging, and storage

  8. Liquid return from gas pressurization of grouted waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Powell, W.J.; Benny, H.L.

    1994-05-01

    The ability to force pore liquids out of a simulated waste grout matrix using air pressure was measured. Specimens cured under various conditions were placed in a permeameter and subjected to increasing air pressure. The pressure was held constant for 24 hours and then stepped up until either liquid was released or 150 psi was reached. One specimen was taken to 190 psi with no liquid release. Permeability to simulated tank waste was then measured. Compressive strength was measured following these tests. This data is to assess the amount of fluid that might be released from grouted waste resulting from the buildup of radiolytically generated hydrogen and other gasses within the waste form matrix. A plot of the unconfined compressive strength versus breakthrough pressures identifies a region of ''good'' grout, which will resist liquid release

  9. Pullout Performances of Grouted Rockbolt Systems with Bond Defects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Chang; Li, Zihan; Wang, Shanyong; Wang, Shuren; Fu, Lei; Tang, Chunan

    2018-03-01

    This paper presents a numerical study on the pullout behaviour of fully grouted rockbolts with bond defects. The cohesive zone model (CZM) is adopted to model the bond-slip behaviour between the rockbolt and grout material. Tensile tests were also conducted to validate the numerical model. The results indicate that the defect length can obviously influence the load and stress distributions along the rockbolt as well as the load-displacement response of the grouted system. Moreover, a plateau in the stress distribution forms due to the bond defect. The linear limit and peak load of the load-displacement response decrease as the defect length increases. A bond defect located closer to the loaded end leads to a longer nonlinear stage in the load-displacement response. However, the peak loads measured from the specimens made with various defect locations are almost approximately the same. The peak load for a specimen with the defects equally spaced along the bolt is higher than that for a specimen with defects concentrated in a certain zone, even with the same total defect length. Therefore, the dispersed pattern of bond defects would be much safer than the concentrated pattern. For the specimen with dispersed defects, the peak load increases with an increase in the defect spacing, even if the total defect length is the same. The peak load for a grouted rockbolt system with defects increases with an increases in the bolt diameter. This work leads to a better understanding of the load transfer mechanism for grouted rockbolt systems with bond defects, and paves the way towards developing a general evaluation method for damaged rockbolt grouted systems.

  10. Experimental study of cement grout : Rheological behavior and sedimentation

    OpenAIRE

    ROSQUOET, F; ALEXIS, A; KHELIDJ, A; PHELIPOT, A

    2003-01-01

    Three basic elements (cement, water and admixture) usually make up injectable cement grouts used for prestressed cable coating, repair and consolidation of masonry, soil grouting, etc. The present study was divided into two parts. First, in order to characterize rheologically fresh cement paste with water/cement ratios (W/C) varying between 0,35 and 1, an expeirmental study was carried out and has revealed that the cement past behaves like a shear-thinning material, whatever is the W/C ratio....

  11. Designing vertical mine shafts under conditions of increasing shaft depth with rock hoisting to the operating mining level

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Durov, E.M.

    1983-05-01

    A system for shaft excavation in deep coal mines with mining depth exceeding 1,000 m is discussed. During mine sinking rocks are removed to the ground surface. When depth of a deep mine shaft is increased rocks are removed to the operating mining level, causing lower investment costs than the system with rock hoisting to the ground surface. The Yuzhgiproshakht design firm carries out investigations on the optimum methods for increasing shaft depth in coal mines. Coal mines with the following coal output are included in evaluations: 0.9, 1.2, 1.5, and 1.8 Mt/year. Mine shaft depth of 600, 800, 1000, 1200, 1400 and 1600 m is analyzed. Shaft depth is increased by 100, 200, 300 or 400 m. Shaft sinking rate ranges from 10 to 70 m/month. Effects of rock hoisting from the shaft bottom on the hoisting scheme in a mine shaft are analyzed. Position of hoisting bucket in relation to cages or skips moving in a shaft is investigated. Investigation results are given in 5 schemes. Analyses show that use of a shaft sinking system with rock hoisting to the ground surface during shaft excavation and with rock hoisting to the operating mining level during shaft depth increasing is economical when a shaft with skips is from 7 to 8 m in diameter or when a cage shaft is 6 m, 7 m or 8 m in diameter. Use of standardized shaft excavation systems is recommended. (In Russian)

  12. Rock Testing Handbook (Test Standards 1993)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    relatively inert granular angle of shear resistance-see angle of internal friction. mineral material, such as sand, gravel, slag , crushed stone, angle of...by bleeding. another species, blocking -wood blocks placed between the excavated sur- batch-in growing, quantity of grout mixed at one time. face of a...layer of revetment . lowering electrodes into the hole and measuring any of the failure (in rocks)-cxceeding the maximum strength of the. various

  13. A Review of Rock Bolt Monitoring Using Smart Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gangbing Song

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Rock bolts have been widely used as rock reinforcing members in underground coal mine roadways and tunnels. Failures of rock bolts occur as a result of overloading, corrosion, seismic burst and bad grouting, leading to catastrophic economic and personnel losses. Monitoring the health condition of the rock bolts plays an important role in ensuring the safe operation of underground mines. This work presents a brief introduction on the types of rock bolts followed by a comprehensive review of rock bolt monitoring using smart sensors. Smart sensors that are used to assess rock bolt integrity are reviewed to provide a firm perception of the application of smart sensors for enhanced performance and reliability of rock bolts. The most widely used smart sensors for rock bolt monitoring are the piezoelectric sensors and the fiber optic sensors. The methodologies and principles of these smart sensors are reviewed from the point of view of rock bolt integrity monitoring. The applications of smart sensors in monitoring the critical status of rock bolts, such as the axial force, corrosion occurrence, grout quality and resin delamination, are highlighted. In addition, several prototypes or commercially available smart rock bolt devices are also introduced.

  14. A Review of Rock Bolt Monitoring Using Smart Sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Gangbing; Li, Weijie; Wang, Bo; Ho, Siu Chun Michael

    2017-04-05

    Rock bolts have been widely used as rock reinforcing members in underground coal mine roadways and tunnels. Failures of rock bolts occur as a result of overloading, corrosion, seismic burst and bad grouting, leading to catastrophic economic and personnel losses. Monitoring the health condition of the rock bolts plays an important role in ensuring the safe operation of underground mines. This work presents a brief introduction on the types of rock bolts followed by a comprehensive review of rock bolt monitoring using smart sensors. Smart sensors that are used to assess rock bolt integrity are reviewed to provide a firm perception of the application of smart sensors for enhanced performance and reliability of rock bolts. The most widely used smart sensors for rock bolt monitoring are the piezoelectric sensors and the fiber optic sensors. The methodologies and principles of these smart sensors are reviewed from the point of view of rock bolt integrity monitoring. The applications of smart sensors in monitoring the critical status of rock bolts, such as the axial force, corrosion occurrence, grout quality and resin delamination, are highlighted. In addition, several prototypes or commercially available smart rock bolt devices are also introduced.

  15. Improving corrosion resistance of post-tensioned substructures emphasizing high performance grouts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schokker, Andrea Jeanne

    The use of post-tensioning in bridges can provide durability and structural benefits to the system while expediting the construction process. When post-tensioning is combined with precast elements, traffic interference can be greatly reduced through rapid construction. Post-tensioned concrete substructure elements such as bridge piers, hammerhead bents, and straddle bents have become more prevalent in recent years. Chloride induced corrosion of steel in concrete is one of the most costly forms of corrosion each year. Coastal substructure elements are exposed to seawater by immersion or spray, and inland bridges may also be at risk due to the application of deicing salts. Corrosion protection of the post-tensioning system is vital to the integrity of the structure because loss of post-tensioning can result in catastrophic failure. Documentation for durability design of the grout, ducts, and anchorage systems is very limited. The objective of this research is to evaluate the effectiveness of corrosion protection measures for post-tensioned concrete substructures by designing and testing specimens representative of typical substructure elements using state-of-the-art practices in aggressive chloride exposure environments. This was accomplished through exposure testing of twenty-seven large-scale beam specimens and ten large-scale column specimens. High performance grout for post-tensioning tendon injection was also developed through a series of fresh property tests, accelerated exposure tests, and a large-scale pumping test to simulate field conditions. A high performance fly ash grout was developed for applications with small vertical rises, and a high performance anti-bleed grout was developed for applications involving large vertical rises such as tall bridge piers. Long-term exposure testing of the beam and column specimens is ongoing, but preliminary findings indicate increased corrosion protection with increasing levels of post-tensioning, although traditional

  16. Properties of cement-fly ash grout admixed with bentonite, silica fume, or organic fiber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, W.H.

    1997-01-01

    A detailed laboratory study was conducted to investigate the properties of cement-fly ash grout mixtures as barriers for isolation of hazardous and low-level radioactive wastes. In the grout studied, fly ash was used to replace 30 percent by mass of cement. Three additives including bentonite, silica fume, and polypropylene fiber were used individually in the grout mixes to improve the properties of the grouts in different aspects. The flowability, bleeding, and setting time of freshly mixed grouts were determined; and the unconfined compressive strength, pore size distribution, and water permeability were determined for hardened grouts at various curing durations up to 120 days. Finally, the durability of cement-fly ash grouts was carefully examined in terms of the changes in their physical properties after different levels of exposure to sulfate attack and wet-dry cycles

  17. Simulation of prepackaged grout bleed under field conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-01

    This report contains a summary of the research performed in the area of reproducing and determining the cause of soft : grout, which has been found in several PT (Post-Tensioned) tubes around the state of Florida. A modified version of the : Euronorm...

  18. Long-Term Mechanical Behavior of Nano Silica Sol Grouting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongjiang Pan

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The longevity of grouting has a significant effect on the safe and sustainable operation of many engineering projects. A 500-day experiment was carried out to study the long-term mechanical behavior of nano silica sol grouting. The nano silica sol was activated with different proportions of a NaCl catalyst and cured under fluctuating temperature and humidity conditions. The mechanical parameters of the grout samples were tested using an electrohydraulic uniaxial compression tester and an improved Vicat instrument. Scanning electron microscope, X-ray diffraction, and ultrasonic velocity tests were carried out to analyze the strength change micro-mechanism. Tests showed that as the catalyst dosage in the grout mix is decreased, the curves on the graphs showing changes in the weight and geometric parameters of the samples over time could be divided into three stages, a shrinkage stage, a stable stage, and a second shrinkage stage. The catalyst improved the stability of the samples and reduced moisture loss. Temperature rise was also a driving force for moisture loss. Uniaxial compressive stress-strain curves for all of the samples were elastoplastic. The curves for uniaxial compression strength and secant modulus plotted against time could be divided into three stages. Sample brittleness increased with time and the brittleness index increased with higher catalyst dosages in the latter part of the curing time. Plastic strength-time curves exhibit allometric scaling. Curing conditions mainly affect the compactness, and then affect the strength.

  19. Long-Term Mechanical Behavior of Nano Silica Sol Grouting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Nong; Zhang, Chenghao; Qian, Deyu; Han, Changliang; Yang, Sen

    2018-01-01

    The longevity of grouting has a significant effect on the safe and sustainable operation of many engineering projects. A 500-day experiment was carried out to study the long-term mechanical behavior of nano silica sol grouting. The nano silica sol was activated with different proportions of a NaCl catalyst and cured under fluctuating temperature and humidity conditions. The mechanical parameters of the grout samples were tested using an electrohydraulic uniaxial compression tester and an improved Vicat instrument. Scanning electron microscope, X-ray diffraction, and ultrasonic velocity tests were carried out to analyze the strength change micro-mechanism. Tests showed that as the catalyst dosage in the grout mix is decreased, the curves on the graphs showing changes in the weight and geometric parameters of the samples over time could be divided into three stages, a shrinkage stage, a stable stage, and a second shrinkage stage. The catalyst improved the stability of the samples and reduced moisture loss. Temperature rise was also a driving force for moisture loss. Uniaxial compressive stress-strain curves for all of the samples were elastoplastic. The curves for uniaxial compression strength and secant modulus plotted against time could be divided into three stages. Sample brittleness increased with time and the brittleness index increased with higher catalyst dosages in the latter part of the curing time. Plastic strength-time curves exhibit allometric scaling. Curing conditions mainly affect the compactness, and then affect the strength. PMID:29337897

  20. Fatigue Behaviour of High Performance Cementitious Grout Masterflow 9500

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Eigil V.

    The present report describes the fatigue behaviour of the high performance grout MASTERFLOW 9500 subjected to cyclic loading, in air as well as submerged in water, at various frequencies and levels of maximum stress. Part of the results were also reported in [1] together with other mechanical...

  1. Grouting applications in civil engineering. Volume I and II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Einstein, H.H.; Barvenik, M.J.

    1975-01-01

    A comprehensive description of grouting applications in civil engineering is presented that can serve as a basis for the selection of grouting methods in the borehole sealing problem. The breadth and depth of the study was assured by conducting the main part of the review, the collection and evaluation of information, without specifically considering the borehole sealing problem (but naturally incorporating any aspect of civil engineering applications that could be of potential use). Grouting is very much an art and not a science. In most cases, it is a trial and error procedure where an inexpensive method is initially tried and then a more expensive one is used until the desired results are obtained. Once a desired effect is obtained, it is difficult to credit any one procedure with the success because the results are due to the summation of all the methods used. In many cases, the method that proves successful reflects a small abnormality in the ground or structure rather than its overall characteristics. Hence, successful grouting relies heavily on good engineering judgement and experience, and not on a basic set of standard correlations or equations. 800 references

  2. Information base for waste repository design. Volume 3. Waste/rock interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koplick, C.M.; Pentz, D.L.; Oston, S.G.; Talbot, R.

    1979-01-01

    This report describes the important effects resulting from interaction between radioactive waste and the rock in a nuclear waste repository. The state of the art in predicting waste/rock interactions is summarized. Where possible, independent numerical calculations have been performed. Recommendations are made pointing out areas which require additional research

  3. Remedial action plan and site design for stabilization of the inactive uranium mill tailings sites at Slick Rock, Colorado

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-07-01

    The Slick Rock uranium mill tailings sites are located near the small town of Slick Rock, in San Miguel County, Colorado. There are two designated UMTRA sites at Slick Rock, the Union Carbide (UC) site and the North Continent (NC) site. Both sites are adjacent to the Dolores River. The UC site is approximately 1 mile (mi) [2 kilometers (km)] downstream of the NC site. Contaminated materials cover an estimated 55 acres (ac) [22 hectares (ha)] at the UC site and 12 ac (4.9 ha) at the NC site. The sites contain former mill building concrete foundations, tailings piles, demolition debris, and areas contaminated by windblown and waterborne radioactive materials. The total estimated volume of contaminated materials is approximately 620, 000 cubic yards (yd 3 ) [470,000 cubic meters (m 3 )]. In addition to the contamination at the two processing site areas, four vicinity properties were contaminated. Contamination associated with the UC and NC sites has leached into groundwater

  4. Design calculations for a combined ventilation and brine injection experiment at the Grimsel Rock Laboratory, Switzerland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finsterle, S.; Pruess, K.

    1993-07-01

    A combined ventilation and brine injection test is planned at the Grimsel Test Site. The objective of the experiment is to study the transport of liquid and gas in the vicinity of a ventilated drift in order to evaluate the impact of the drying process on the characterization of the rock matrix. The proposed test sequence includes a desaturation-resaturation cycle. In addition, brine and fresh water will be injected from a borehole as trace electrolytes in order to better track the propagation of the individual phases. Results of design calculations using the TOUGH2 code show that injection of brine may significantly influence the unsaturated flow behavior by changing the pressure and saturation distribution around the borehole. Transport velocity is predicted to be very slow, requiring several months for the brine to reach the draft wall. However, the presence of preferential flow paths may reduce travel time and alter brine content and saturation distribution so that certain sensors may respond earlier or not at all

  5. Grout for closure of the demonstration vault at the US DOE Hanford Facility. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wakeley, L.D.; Ernzen, J.J.

    1992-08-01

    The Waterways Experiment Station (WES) developed a grout to be used as a cold- (nonradioactive) cap or void-fill grout between the solidified low-level waste and the cover blocks of a demonstration vault for disposal of phosphate-sulfate waste (PSW) at the US Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Facility. The project consisted of formulation and evaluation of candidate grouts and selection of the best candidate grout, followed by a physical scale-model test to verify grout performance under project-specific conditions. Further, the project provided data to verify numerical models (accomplished elsewhere) of stresses and isotherms inside the Hanford demonstration vault. Evaluation of unhardened grout included obtaining data on segregation, bleeding, flow, and working time. For hardened grout, strength, volume stability, temperature rise, and chemical compatibility with surrogate wasteform grout were examined. The grout was formulated to accommodate unique environmental boundary conditions (vault temperature = 45 C) and exacting regulatory requirements (mandating less than 0.1% shrinkage with no expansion and no bleeding); and to remain pumpable for a minimum of 2 hr. A grout consisting of API Class H oil-well cement, an ASTM C 618 Class F fly ash, sodium bentonite clay, and a natural sand from the Hanford area met performance requirements in laboratory studies. It is recommended for use in the DOE Hanford demonstration PSW vault

  6. Rock sealing - interim report on the rock seealing project (stage 1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pusch, R.; Boergesson, L.; Fredrikson, A.; Markstroem, I.; Erlstroem, M.; Ramqvist, G.; Gray, M.; Coons, B.

    1988-09-01

    The objective of the Sealing Project is to find ways of sealing finely fractured rock by grouting. This requires development of new injection technique as well as to identify materials which are sufficiently fluid to be groutable and acceptably low-previous and physically and chemically stable. The present report describes the results of the first two years of investigation (stage 1), which gave very positive results as concluded from a large field-scale test. (orig.)

  7. Rock quality designation of the hydraulic properties in the near field of a final repository for spent nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlsson, Hans; Carlsson, Leif; Pusch, Roland

    1989-06-01

    Quality assurance of a final repository for spent nuclear fuel requires detailed information on the characteristics of the rock, backfill, canisters and the waste itself. Furthermore, and of fundamental importance, is the knowledge of the behaviour of the integrated system of the waste and the different barriers. The in-situ characteristics of the rock must therefore be assessed and their influence on and interactions with the remaining barriers must be predicted and verified. A rock quality designation process of the hydraulic properties in the near-field is out-lined both for the KBS-3 system as well as for the WP-cave system. The process, once updated and approved, will be included in a Quality Assurance Program for the final repository for spent nuclear fuel. Some of the available methods for the near-field designation process are presented as well as techniques that need further development or are not developed at all. Finally, a presentation is given of a generic designation process of the KBS-3 and WP-cave repository systems in the previously investigated area in Central Sweden, where the final repository for reactor waste, SFR, is located. Geological and hydrogeological data are here at hand and it is therefore possible to carry out a simulation of how the designation process would be accomplished. (authors) (72 figs., 12 tabs., 43 refs.)

  8. Fixation of waste materials in grouts. Part I. Empirical correlations of formulation data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tallent, O.K.; Gilliam, T.M.; McDaniel, E.W.; Godsey, T.T.

    1986-03-01

    Data correlations have demonstrated systematic relationships between important variables in hydrofracture grout formulation. The data are taken from an investigation to determine conditions for eliminating drainable water from the grout system. The two most important variables affecting drainable water are the amounts of Attapulgite-150 clay in the dry-solid blends and the ratios in which the blends are mixed with the waste. Empirical equations were developed relating the (1) vol % of drainable water, (2) time for free water adsorption, (3) wt % clay, (4) dry-blend liquid-waste mix ratio, (5) compressive strength, (6) wt % fly ash, and (7) pumping velocity required for turbulent flow through a 2-in.-ID pipe. The equations allow predictions of properties within the compositional range of the investigation from which the data were obtained. They also provide a relatively simple method that can be used to improve future test design, eliminate superfluous testing, decrease costs, and increase overall efficiency of individual investigations. 11 refs., 15 figs

  9. Experimental Study on Post Grouting Bearing Capacity of Large Diameter Bored Piles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Duanduan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Post grouting can improve the inherent defects such as the formation of the mud cake at pile side and the sediment at pile end in the process of bored pile construction. Thus post grouting has been widely used in Engineering. The purpose of this paper is to research the influences of post grouting to pile bearing capacity more systematically and intuitively. Combined with the static load test of four test piles in Weihe River Bridge test area of new airport highway in Xi’an, the bearing capacity and settlement of routine piles and post grouting piles are comparatively analyzed. The test results show that under the same geological condition, post grouting can improve the properties of pile tip and pile shaft soil of bored piles significantly, enhance the ultimate resistance, improve the ultimate bearing capacity and reduce the pile tip settlement. Then post grouting can aim to optimize pile foundation.

  10. Initial formulation results for in situ grouting of a waste trench at ORNL Site No. 6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tallent, O.K.; McDaniel, E.W.; Spence, R.D.; Godsey, T.T.

    1987-01-01

    An investigation is being conducted by the Chemical Technology Division to assist the Environmental Sciences Division in developing a grout formulation for use in testing in situ grouting in a waste trench at ORNL Site 6. This final report satisfies the milestone of Subtack 12 entitled, ''Low Level Waste (LLW) Trench Grouting Assessment,'' which was initially issued as RAP-86-7, December 31, 1985. Grouts prepared from dry-solid blends containing Type I Portland cement, ASTM Class C or Class F fly ash, and bentonite, mixed water at ratios of 10 to 15 lb/gal, were evaluated. The grouts prepared with ASTM Class C fly ash exhibited significantly better properties than those prepared with ASTM Class F fly ash. The grouts containing ASTM Class C fly ash satisfy tentative performance criteria for the project. 8 refs., 7 tabs

  11. Uranium Metal Reaction Behavior in Water, Sludge, and Grout Matrices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delegard, Calvin H.; Schmidt, Andrew J.

    2009-05-27

    This report summarizes information and data on the reaction behavior of uranium metal in water, in water-saturated simulated and genuine K Basin sludge, and in grout matrices. This information and data are used to establish the technical basis for metallic uranium reaction behavior for the K Basin Sludge Treatment Project (STP). The specific objective of this report is to consolidate the various sources of information into a concise document to serve as a high-level reference and road map for customers, regulators, and interested parties outside the STP (e.g., external reviewers, other DOE sites) to clearly understand the current basis for the corrosion of uranium metal in water, sludge, and grout.

  12. Uranium Metal Reaction Behavior in Water, Sludge, and Grout Matrices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delegard, Calvin H.; Schmidt, Andrew J.

    2008-09-25

    This report summarizes information and data on the reaction behavior of uranium metal in water, in water-saturated simulated and genuine K Basin sludge, and in grout matrices. This information and data are used to establish the technical basis for metallic uranium reaction behavior for the K Basin Sludge Treatment Project (STP). The specific objective of this report is to consolidate the various sources of information into a concise document to serve as a high-level reference and road map for customers, regulators, and interested parties outside the STP (e.g., external reviewers, other DOE sites) to clearly understand the current basis for the corrosion of uranium metal in water, sludge, and grout.

  13. Roof instability characteristics and pre-grouting of the roof caving zone in residual coal mining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Tong; Liu, Changyou

    2017-12-01

    Abandoned roadways and roof caving zones are commonly found in residual coal, and can destroy the integrity of the coal seam and roof. Resulting from mining-induced stress, continuous collapse and fracture instability in roof caving zones (RCZs) jeopardize the safety and efficiency of residual coal mining. Based on the engineering geology conditions of remining face 3101 in Shenghua Mine, the roof fracture and instability features of the RCZ were analyzed through physical simulation, theoretical analysis, and field measurements. In this case, influenced by the RCZ, the main roof across the RCZ fractured and rotated towards the goaf, greatly increasing the working resistance, and crushing the supports. The sudden instability of the coal pillars weakened its support of the main roof, thus resulting in long-key blocks across the RCZ and hinged roof structures, which significantly decreased the stability of the underlying immediate roof. This study establishes a mechanical model for the interactions between the surrounding rock and the supports in the RCZ, determines the reasonable working resistance, and examines the use of pre-grouting solidification restoration technology (PSRT) to solidify the RCZ and reinforce the coal pillars—thus increasing their bearing capacity. Field measurements revealed no roof flaking, inhomogeneous loading or support crushing, indicating that the PSRT effectively controlled the surrounding rock of the RCZ.

  14. Rock mechanics methods and in situ heater tests for design of a nuclear waste repository in basalt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Board, M.P.

    1978-01-01

    Methods of integrating data from the Near-Surface Test Facility into the overall Waste Isolation Program are examined. Discussions are presented dealing primarily with the application of numerical models to the design of a waste repository. The various types of models currently available are discussed with reference to design in basalt and the breakdown of the problem of repository design is summarized. It is shown that the most efficient method for analyzing repository design is to break the problem down into several problems which are based on physical scale. These include the area directly surrounding a single waste canister (the very near field), the area including many canisters and canister emplacement rooms (the near field), and the area including the entire repository and the rock mass to the free surface (the far field). The methods by which numerical models are used for design are discussed. Flow charts are used to show the basic input data required, the calculational processes used, and the preliminary criteria for judgment of suitable repository performance. It is shown that the ultimate design of the allowable gross thermal loading density, and, thus, the layout of the underground workings is highly dependent upon the rock mass properties supplied as base line input data to the numerical models. Of the many input properties required, the thermal conductivity, the thermal expansion coefficient, and elastic moduli of the rock mass have, perhaps, the greatest effect on the calculation of induced temperatures, stresses, and displacements and, thus, repository design. To ensure that the design continues with confidence, field (in situ) values of input data must be obtained. The role of the Near-Surface Test Facility in situ testing in obtaining these basic required data is discussed

  15. Radiolytic and thermal generation of gases from Hanford grout samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meisel, D.; Jonah, C.D.; Kapoor, S.; Matheson, M.S.; Mulac, W.A.

    1993-10-01

    Gamma irradiation of WHC-supplied samples of grouted Tank 102-AP simulated nonradioactive waste has been carried out at three dose rates, 0.25, 0.63, and 130 krad/hr. The low dose rate corresponds to that in the actual grout vaults; with the high dose rate, doses equivalent to more than 40 years in the grout vault were achieved. An average G(H{sub 2}) = 0.047 molecules/100 eV was found, independent of dose rate. The rate of H2 production decreases above 80 Mrad. For other gases, G(N{sub 2}) = 0.12, G(O{sub 2}) = 0.026, G(N{sub 2}O) = 0.011 and G(CO) = 0.0042 at 130 krad/hr were determined. At lower dose rates, N{sub 2} and O{sub 2} could not be measured because of interference by trapped air. The value of G(H{sub 2}) is higher than expected, suggesting segregation of water from nitrate and nitrite salts in the grout. The total pressure generated by the radiolysis at 130 krad/h has been independently measured, and total amounts of gases generated were calculated from this measurement. Good agreement between this measurement and the sum of all the gases that were independently determined was obtained. Therefore, the individual gas measurements account for most of the major components that are generated by the radiolysis. At 90 {degree}C, H{sub 2}, N{sub 2}, and N{sub 2}O were generated at a rate that could be described by exponential formation of each of the gases. Gases measured at the lower temperatures were probably residual trapped gases. An as yet unknown product interfered with oxygen determinations at temperatures above ambient. The thermal results do not affect the radiolytic findings.

  16. Numerical Simulations of Settlement of Jet Grouting Columns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juzwa Anna

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the comparison of results of numerical analyses of interaction between group of jet grouting columns and subsoil. The analyses were conducted for single column and groups of three, seven and nine columns. The simulations are based on experimental research in real scale which were carried out by authors. The final goal for the research is an estimation of an influence of interaction between columns working in a group.

  17. The influence of clay drilling grout on the quality of well cementation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romic, L; Martinko, B

    1979-01-01

    The influence of clay drilling grout on the behavior of the cement mixture during the cementing of casings is described. Experimental results are given which demonstrate that clay drill grout slows down the setting of the cement mixture, lowers the durability of cement stone and its adherence to the well's walls, and changes the rheological properties and viscosity of the cement mixture. Separating devices, which prevent the mixing of the clay drilling grout and the cement solutions during the cementation process, are recommended.

  18. Laboratory Evaluation of Underwater Grouting of CPP-603 Basins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, V.J.; Pao, J.H.; Demmer, R.L.; Tripp, J.L.

    2002-01-01

    A project is underway to deactivate a Fuel Storage Basin. The project specifies the requirements and identifies the tasks that will be performed for deactivation of the CPP- 603 building at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center of the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory. The Fuel Receiving and Storage Building (CPP- 603) was originally used to receive and store spent nuclear fuel from various facilities. The area to undergo deactivation includes the three spent nuclear fuel storage basins and a transfer canal (1.5 million gallons of water storage). Deactivation operations at the task site include management of the hot storage boxes and generic fuel objects, removal of the fuel storage racks, basin sludge, water evaporation and basin grouting, and interior equipment, tanks, and associated components. This includes a study to develop a grout formulation and placement process for this deactivation project. Water will be allowed to passively evaporate to r educe the spread of contamination from the walls of the basin. The basins will be filled with grout, underwater, as the water evaporates to maintain the basin water at a safe level. The objective of the deactivation project is to eliminate potential exposure to hazardous and radioactive materials and eliminate potential safety hazards associated with the CPP-603 building

  19. Test Technical of Bottom Grouting Effect Above High Confined Water Mining%隧道工程富水破碎带注浆加固效果综合评定技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姬程飞; 孙小菊; 刘涛

    2017-01-01

    注浆技术已成为地下工程中重要的辅助工法,它对于破碎带加固、断层注浆堵水、沉降控制等工程有着极好效果,而注浆效果检验评定技术对于注浆效果质量的优劣具有重要意义.以山西某隧道为试验隧道,采用物探法、开挖取样法、渗透系数测试法、数字钻孔电视法对隧道工程注浆效果进行评定.研究结果表明:注浆后黑色条纹已经变淡或者消失,注浆材料已充填破碎围岩,注浆后隧道岩层整体性得到提高;注浆后地层的渗透系数为1.57×10-5~1.64×10-5cm/s之间;注浆后裂隙数量减少20条且裂隙宽度明显降低;隧道开挖过程中围岩稳定且无漏水现象,实现了安全开挖.%Grouting technology is an important auxiliary method to underground engineering for it has a good effect on reinforcement of fracture zone,water blockage,subsidence control,etc..but,technology of grouting effect test is very significance for pros and cons of quality of grouting effect.taking Shanxi a certain tunnel as the experimental tunnel,by using physical exploration method、method of inspection hole、test method of permeability coefficient,grouting effect of floor undulation is evaluated,At the same time,Characteristic of tunnel excavation is monitored.The results show that: ① The black fringe image has paled or disappeared,Grouting material has been filled with crushed surrounding rock,the integrity of floor strata is improved;② Permeability coefficient of strata is 1.58×10-5~1.64×10-5cm/s after grouting;③ Quantity of fractures is reduced 35 and width of fractures is obvious decreased after grouting;④ During excavation tunnel surrounding rock without leaks,and rock stability,to achieve objective of safety mining.

  20. Grout testing and characterization for shallow-land burial trenches at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tallent, O.K.; Sams, T.L.; Tamura, T.; Godsey, T.T.; Francis, C.L.; McDaniel, E.W.

    1986-10-01

    An investigation was conducted to develop grout formulations suitable for in situ stabilization of low-level and transuranic (TRU) waste in shallow-land burial trenches at Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The acceptabilities of soil, ordinary particulate, and fine particulate grouts were evaluated based on phase separation, compressive strength, freeze/thaw, penetration resistance, rheological, water permeability, column, and other tests. Soil grouts with soil-to-cement weight ratios from 0.91 to 1.60 were found to be suitable for open trench or drum disposal. Ordinary particulate grouts containing type I,II Portland cement, class C fly ash, bentonite, water, and a fluidizer were formulated to fill large voids within the soil/waste matrix of a closed shallow-land burial trench. Fine particulate grouts containing fine (mean particle size, 9.6 m) cement and water were formulated to fill smaller voids and to establish a grout-soil barrier to prevent water intrusion into the grouted waste trench. Solution, or chemical grouts, were evaluated as possible substitutes for the fine particulate grouts

  1. Improvement of Shear Strength of Sandy Soil by Cement Grout with Fly Ash

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haifaa Abdulrasool Ali

    2018-12-01

    Full Text Available The effects of the permeation cement grout with fly ash on the sandy soil skeleton were studied in the present work in two phase; first phase the shear strength parameters, and the second phase effect of these grouted materials on volume grouted zone by injection (51 cm³ of slurry in sandy soil placed in steel cylinder model with dimension 15 cm in diameter and 30 cm in height. The soil sample was obtained from Karbala city and it is classified as poorly graded sand (SP according to USCS. The soil samples were improved by cement grout with three percentages weight of water cement ratio (w:c; (0.1w:0.9c, 0.8w:0.2c, and 0.7w:0.3c, while the soil samples were dehydrated for one day curing time. Fly ash class (F was used with cement grout as filler material; it was added to the mixture as a replacement material for cement in weight percentages; 10%, 25% and 40%. According to the results of tests, both shear strength and approximate volume of the effective grouted zone for treated samples soil with cement grout was increased when the water cement ratio decreased. Fly ash with cement grout needs to increase the water demand for the grout mixing to give best results in both shear strength and filling the soil voids.

  2. Monitoring of Grouting Compactness in a Post-Tensioning Tendon Duct Using Piezoceramic Transducers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tianyong Jiang

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available A post-tensioning tendon duct filled with grout can effectively prevent corrosion of the reinforcement, maintain bonding behavior between the reinforcement and concrete, and enhance the load bearing capacity of concrete structures. In practice, grouting of the post-tensioning tendon ducts always causes quality problems, which may reduce structural integrity and service life, and even cause accidents. However, monitoring of the grouting compactness is still a challenge due to the invisibility of the grout in the duct during the grouting process. This paper presents a stress wave-based active sensing approach using piezoceramic transducers to monitor the grouting compactness in real time. A segment of a commercial tendon duct was used as research object in this study. One lead zirconate titanate (PZT piezoceramic transducer with marble protection, called a smart aggregate (SA, was bonded on the tendon and installed in the tendon duct. Two PZT patch sensors were mounted on the top outside surface of the duct, and one PZT patch sensor was bonded on the bottom outside surface of the tendon duct. In the active sensing approach, the SA was used as an actuator to generate a stress wave and the PZT sensors were utilized to detect the wave response. Cement or grout in the duct functions as a wave conduit, which can propagate the stress wave. If the cement or grout is not fully filled in the tendon duct, the top PZT sensors cannot receive much stress wave energy. The experimental procedures simulated four stages during the grout pouring process, which includes empty status, half grouting, 90% grouting, and full grouting of the duct. Experimental results show that the bottom PZT sensor can detect the signal when the grout level increases towards 50%, when a conduit between the SA and PZT sensor is formed. The top PZT sensors cannot receive any signal until the grout process is completely finished. The wavelet packet-based energy analysis was adopted in this

  3. Variability in properties of grouted Phosphate/Sulfate N-Reactor Waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lokken, R.O.; Martin, P.F.C.; Bowen, W.M.; Harty, H.; Treat, R.L.

    1987-02-01

    A Transportable Grout Facility (TGF) is being constructed at the Hanford site in Washington State to convert various low-level liquid wastes to a grout waste form for onsite disposal. The TGF Project is managed by Rockwell Hanford Operations (Rockwell). Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has provided a grout formulation for Phosphate/Sulfate N-Reactor Waste, the first waste stream scheduled for grouting beginning in late 1987. The formulation includes a blend of portland cement, fly ash, attapulgite clay, and an illitic clay. Grout will be produced by mixing the blend with Phosphate/Sulfate N-Reactor Waste. These wastes result from decontamination and ion-exchange regeneration activities at Hanford's N-Reactor. Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) is conducting studies on grouted Phosphate/Sulfate N-Reactor Waste to verify that the grout can be successfully processed and, when hardened, that it will meet all performance and regulatory requirements. As part of these studies, PNL is assessing the variability that may be encountered when processing Phosphate/Sulfate N-Reactor Waste grout. Sources of variability that may affect grout properties include the composition and concentrations of the waste and dry solids, temperature, efficiency of dry solids blending, and dry blend storage time. 13 refs., 20 figs., 9 tabs

  4. HYDRAULIC AND PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF SALTSTONE GROUTS AND VAULT CONCRETES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dixon, K.; Harbour, J.; Phifer, M.

    2008-01-01

    The Saltstone Disposal Facility (SDF), located in the Z-Area of the Savannah River Site (SRS), is used for the disposal of low-level radioactive salt solution. The SDF currently contains two vaults: Vault 1 (6 cells) and Vault 4 (12 cells). Additional disposal cells are currently in the design phase. The individual cells of the saltstone facility are filled with saltstone. Saltstone is produced by mixing the low-level radioactive salt solution, with blast furnace slag, fly ash, and cement (dry premix) to form a dense, micro-porous, monolithic, low-level radioactive waste form. The saltstone is pumped into the disposal cells where it subsequently solidifies. Significant effort has been undertaken to accurately model the movement of water and contaminants through the facility. Key to this effort is an accurate understanding of the hydraulic and physical properties of the solidified saltstone. To date, limited testing has been conducted to characterize the saltstone. The primary focus of this task was to estimate the hydraulic and physical properties of three types of saltstone and two vault concretes. The saltstone formulations included saltstone premix batched with (1) Deliquification, Dissolution, and Adjustment (DDA) salt simulant (w/pm 0.60), (2) Actinide Removal Process (ARP)/Modular Caustic Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU) salt simulant (w/pm 0.60), and (3) Salt Waste Processing Facility (SWPF) salt simulant (w/pm 0.60). The vault concrete formulations tested included the Vault 1/4 concrete and two variations of the Vault 2 concrete (Mix 1 and Mix 2). Wet properties measured for the saltstone formulations included yield stress, plastic viscosity, wet unit weight, bleed water volume, gel time, set time, and heat of hydration. Hydraulic and physical properties measured on the cured saltstone and concrete samples included saturated hydraulic conductivity, moisture retention, compressive strength, porosity, particle density, and dry bulk density. These properties

  5. Super-compactor and grouting. Efficient and safe treatment of nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Hongyou; Starke, Holger; Muetzel, Wolfgang; Winter, Marc

    2014-01-01

    The conditioning and volume reduction of nuclear waste are increasingly important factors throughout the world. Efficient and safe treatment of nuclear waste therefore plays a decisive role. Babcock Noell designed, manufactured and supplied a complete waste treatment facility for conditioning of the solid radioactive waste of a nuclear power plant to China. This facility consists of a Sorting Station, a Super-Compactor, a Grouting Unit with Capping Device and other auxiliary equipment which is described in more detail in the following article. This article gives an overview of the efficient and safe treatment of nuclear waste. Babcock Noell is a subsidiary of the Bilfinger Power Systems and has 40 years of experience in the field of design, engineering, construction, static and dynamic calculations, manufacturing, installation, commissioning, as well as in the service and operation of a wide variety of nuclear components and facilities worldwide.

  6. Integrity assessment of grouted posttensioning cables and reinforced concrete of a nuclear containment building

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philipose, K.; Shenton, B.

    2011-04-01

    The Containment Buildings of CANDU Nuclear Generating Stations were designed to house nuclear reactors and process equipment and also to provide confinement of releases from a potential nuclear accident such as a Loss Of Coolant Accident (LOCA). To meet this design requirement, a post-tensioning system was designed to induce compressive stresses in the structure to counteract the internal design pressure. The CANDU reactor building at Gentilly-1 (G-1), Quebec, Canada (250 MWe) was built in the early 1970s and is currently in a decommissioned state. The structure at present is under surveillance and monitoring. In the year 2000, a field investigation was conducted as part of a condition assessment and corrosion was detected in some of the grouted post-tension cable strands. However, no further work was done at that time to determine the cause, nature, impact and extent of the corrosion. An investigation of the Gentilly-1 containment building is currently underway to assess the condition of grouted post-tensioning cables and reinforced concrete. At two selected locations, concrete and steel reinforcements were removed from the containment building wall to expose horizontal cables. Individual cable strands and reinforcement bars were instrumented and measurements were taken in-situ before removing them for forensic examination and destructive testing to determine the impact of ageing and corrosion. Concrete samples were also removed and tested in a laboratory. The purpose of the field investigation and laboratory testing, using this structure as a test bed, was also to collect material ageing data and to develop potential Nondestructive Examination (NDE) methods to monitor Containment Building Integrity. The paper describes the field work conducted and the test results obtained for concrete, reinforcement and post-tensioning cables.

  7. Integrity assessment of grouted posttensioning cables and reinforced concrete of a nuclear containment building

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shenton B.

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The Containment Buildings of CANDU Nuclear Generating Stations were designed to house nuclear reactors and process equipment and also to provide confinement of releases from a potential nuclear accident such as a Loss Of Coolant Accident (LOCA. To meet this design requirement, a post-tensioning system was designed to induce compressive stresses in the structure to counteract the internal design pressure. The CANDU reactor building at Gentilly-1 (G-1, Quebec, Canada (250 MWe was built in the early 1970s and is currently in a decommissioned state. The structure at present is under surveillance and monitoring. In the year 2000, a field investigation was conducted as part of a condition assessment and corrosion was detected in some of the grouted post-tension cable strands. However, no further work was done at that time to determine the cause, nature, impact and extent of the corrosion. An investigation of the Gentilly-1 containment building is currently underway to assess the condition of grouted post-tensioning cables and reinforced concrete. At two selected locations, concrete and steel reinforcements were removed from the containment building wall to expose horizontal cables. Individual cable strands and reinforcement bars were instrumented and measurements were taken in-situ before removing them for forensic examination and destructive testing to determine the impact of ageing and corrosion. Concrete samples were also removed and tested in a laboratory. The purpose of the field investigation and laboratory testing, using this structure as a test bed, was also to collect material ageing data and to develop potential Nondestructive Examination (NDE methods to monitor Containment Building Integrity. The paper describes the field work conducted and the test results obtained for concrete, reinforcement and post-tensioning cables.

  8. An Experimental Study of Portland Cement and Superfine Cement Slurry Grouting in Loose Sand and Sandy Soil

    OpenAIRE

    Weijing Yao; Jianyong Pang; Yushan Liu

    2018-01-01

    Grouting technology is widely applied in the fields of geotechnical engineering in infrastructure. Loose sand and sandy soil are common poor soils in tunnel and foundation treatments. It is necessary to use superfine cement slurry grouting in the micro-cracks of soil. The different effectiveness of Portland cement slurry and superfine cement slurry in sandy soil by the laboratory grouting experiment method were presented in this paper. The grouting situations of superfine cement slurry inject...

  9. THERMALLY CONDUCTIVE CEMENTITIOUS GROUTS FOR GEOTHERMAL HEAT PUMPS. PROGRESS REPORT BY 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ALLAN,M.L.; PHILIPPACOPOULOS,A.J.

    1998-11-01

    Research commenced in FY 97 to determine the suitability of superplasticized cement-sand grouts for backfilling vertical boreholes used with geothermal heat pump (GHP) systems. The overall objectives were to develop, evaluate and demonstrate cementitious grouts that could reduce the required bore length and improve the performance of GHPs. This report summarizes the accomplishments in FY 98.

  10. Durability of double-shell slurry feed grouts: FY-90 results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lokken, R.O.; Martin, P.F.C.

    1992-12-01

    Plans for disposal of the low-level fraction of selected double-shell tank wastes at Hanford include grouting. Grout disposal is the process of mixing low-level liquid waste with cementitious powders and pumping the slurry to near-surface, underground concrete vaults; hydration results in the formation of a solid product that binds/encapsulates the radioactive/hazardous constituents. In this durability program, previous studies have indicated a strong impact from curing temperature/time on strength and leach resistance of DSSF grouts. The current studies were expanded to determine whether these impacts could be attributed to other factors, such as dry blend composition and waste concentration. Major conclusions: grouts from dry blends with 40 wt% limestone had lower strengths; compressive strengths and leach resistance decreased with increased curing temperature/time; leach resistance increased for grouts prepared with dilute DSSF; nitrate leach resistance increased with high slag/cement ratios, dilute DSSF, and low curing temperatures; amount of drainable liquids for grouts using diluted DSSF was lowest when slag content was high; the 2 most significant factors affecting grout properties were the slag/cement ratio and waste dilution (slag-waste reactions appear to dominate the properties of DSSF grouts)

  11. Heat transfer analyses for grout disposal of radioactive double-shell slurry and customer wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, S.M.; Gilliam, T.M.; McDaniel, E.W.

    1987-04-01

    Grout immobilization is being considered by Rockwell Hanford Operations (Rockwell Hanford) as a permanent disposal method for several radioactive waste streams. These include disposal of customer and double-shell slurry wastes in earthen trenches and in single-shell underground waste storage tanks. Heat transfer studies have previously been made to determine the maximum heat loading for grout disposal of various wastes under similar conditions, but a sensitivity analysis of temperature profiles to input parameters was needed. This document presents the results of heat transfer calculations for trenches containing grouted customer and double-shell slurry wastes and for in situ disposal of double-shell wastes in single-shell, domed concrete storage tanks. It discusses the conditions that lead to maximum grout temperatures of 250 0 F during the curing stage and 350 0 F thereafter and shows the dependence of these temperatures on input parameters such as soil and grout thermal conductivity, grout specific heat, waste loading, and disposal geometries. Transient heat transfer calculations were made using the HEATING6 computer code to predict temperature profiles in solidified low-level radioactive waste disposal scenarios at the Rockwell Hanford site. The calculations provide guidance for the development of safe, environmentally acceptable grout formulas for the Transportable Grout Facility. 11 refs

  12. Hydrogeophysics and remote sensing for the design of hydrogeological conceptual models in hard rocks - Sardón catchment (Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francés, Alain P.; Lubczynski, Maciek W.; Roy, Jean; Santos, Fernando A. M.; Mahmoudzadeh Ardekani, Mohammad R.

    2014-11-01

    Hard rock aquifers are highly heterogeneous and hydrogeologically complex. To contribute to the design of hydrogeological conceptual models of hard rock aquifers, we propose a multi-techniques methodology based on a downward approach that combines remote sensing (RS), non-invasive hydrogeophysics and hydrogeological field data acquisition. The proposed methodology is particularly suitable for data scarce areas. It was applied in the pilot research area of Sardón catchment (80 km2) located west of Salamanca (Spain). The area was selected because of hard-rock hydrogeology, semi-arid climate and scarcity of groundwater resources. The proposed methodology consisted of three main steps. First, we detected the main hydrogeological features at the catchment scale by processing: (i) a high resolution digital terrain model to map lineaments and to outline fault zones; and (ii) high-resolution, multispectral satellite QuickBird and WorldView-2 images to map the outcropping granite. Second, we characterized at the local scale the hydrogeological features identified at step one with: i) ground penetrating radar (GPR) to assess groundwater table depth complementing the available monitoring network data; ii) 2D electric resistivity tomography (ERT) and frequency domain electromagnetic (FDEM) to retrieve the hydrostratigraphy along selected survey transects; iii) magnetic resonance soundings (MRS) to retrieve the hydrostratigraphy and aquifer parameters at the selected survey sites. In the third step, we drilled 5 boreholes (25 to 48 m deep) and performed slug tests to verify the hydrogeophysical interpretation and to calibrate the MRS parameters. Finally, we compiled and integrated all acquired data to define the geometry and parameters of the Sardón aquifer at the catchment scale. In line with a general conceptual model of hard rock aquifers, we identified two main hydrostratigraphic layers: a saprolite layer and a fissured layer. Both layers were intersected and drained by

  13. Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project (UMTRAP), Slick Rock, Colorado, Revision 1, Volume 3. Calculations, Final design for construction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-09-01

    Volume three contains calculations for: site hydrology--rainfall intensity, duration, and frequency relations; site hydrology-- probable maximum precipitation; erosion protection--rock quality evaluation; erosion protection--embankment top and side slope; erosion protection--embankment toe apron; erosion protection-- gradations and layer thicknesses; Union Carbide site--temporary drainage ditch design; Union Carbide site--retention basin sediment volume; Union Carbide site--retention basin sizing; Burro Canyon site temporary drainage--temporary drainage facilities; and Union Carbide site temporary drainage--water balance

  14. Proposed apparatus for measuring internal friction in rocks at high temperatures and pressures: a design analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonner, B.P.

    1977-10-03

    An apparatus is described that measures internal friction in rocks at high temperatures (approximately 800/sup 0/C) and pressures (approximately 1.0 GPa). Steady oscillations (approximately 1.0 Hz) are induced in a jacketed sample while coaxial capacitive transducers monitor the resulting radial strain. Sample strains are continuously compared to the deformation of a low-loss standard, which acts as a stress transducer. The stress state produced is uniaxial stress. We use the theory of viscoelasticity to partition the loss into components depending on pure shear and dilatation. The theoretical results emphasize the importance of ultimately measuring each loss independently.

  15. Feasibility of permeation grouting for constructing subsurface barriers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dwyer, B.P.

    1994-03-01

    The technical feasibility of emplacing a barrier beneath a waste site using directionally drilled boreholes and permeation grouting was investigated. The benefits of this emplacement system are: (1) Directionally drilled boreholes provide access beneath a waste site without disturbing the waste; (2) interim containment of contaminants allows time for the development of remediation options; (3) in the interim, the volume of waste remains fixed; (4) barriers may enhance the effectiveness of in situ remediation actions; and (5) barrier systems may provide permanent waste containment

  16. Development testing of grouting and liner technology for humid sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaughan, N.D.

    1981-01-01

    Shallow land burial, although practiced for many years, has not always secured radionuclides from the biosphere in humid environments. To develop and demonstrate improved burial technology the Engineered Test Facility was implemented. An integral part of this experiment was site characterization, with geologic and hydrologic factors as major the components. Improved techniques for burial of low-level waste were developed and tested in the laboratory before being applied in the field. The two techniques studied were membrane trench liner and grouting void spaces

  17. Gamma irradiation test report of simulated grout specimens for gas generation/liquid advection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hinman, C.A.

    1994-01-01

    This report presents the results from an irradiation test performed on four specimens of grout that were fabricated from synthetic Double Shell Slurry Feed (DSSF) liquid waste. The objective was to investigate the radiolytic generation of gases and the potential for advective rejection of waste liquids from the grout matrix and to provide experimental information for the validation of the C-Cubed calculated model. It has been demonstrated that a number of gases can be formed within the grout due to radiolytic decomposition of various chemical components that make up the grout. This observation leads to the conjecture that the potential exists for the rejection of a portion of the 60 vol% free liquid from the grout matrix driven by pressurization by these gases. It was found that, for the specimen geometries used in this test series, and for peak radiation dose accumulation rates on the order of 4 to 60 times of the initial rate expected in the grout vaults (300 Rads/hr), no liquid rejection was observed from 2% to 35% of the target exposure expected in the grout vaults (1E+08 Rads). When the irradiation rate exceeded the projected grout vault dose rate by a factor of 200 a small amount of liquid rejection was observed from one of two specimens that had received 20% more than the goal exposure. Because of the differences in the magnitudes of the relative radiation field strengths between this study and an actual grout vault, it is concluded that the potential for liquid rejection by internal gas pressurization from presently configured grout waste forms is very low for the expected conditions

  18. Develop guidelines for the design of pillar systems for shallow and intermediate depth, tabular, hard rock mines and provide methodology for assessing hangingwall stability and support requirements for the panels between pillars

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Haile, AT

    1995-12-01

    Full Text Available The overall view of the research being conducted at Impala platinum was to improve pillar design techniques through a rock testing programme, underground instrumentation and back analysis. The laboratory rock testing programme has provided a useful...

  19. Hanford grout disposal program - an environmentally sound alternative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergman, T.B.; Allison, J.M.

    1987-01-01

    The Hanford Grout Disposal Program (HGDP) is a comprehensive, integrated program to develop technology and facilities for the disposal of ∼ 3.0 x 10 5 m 3 (80 million gal) of the low-level fraction of liquid radioactive tank wastes at the Hanford site in southeastern Washington state. Environmentally sound disposal via long-term protection of the public and the environment is the principal goal of the HGDP. To accomplish this goal, several criteria have been established that guide technology and facility development activities. The key criteria are discussed. To meet the challenges posed by disposal of these wastes, the HGDP is developing a waste form using grout-forming materials, such as blast furnace slag, fly ash, clays, and Portland cement for solidification and immobilization of both the radioactive and hazardous chemical constituents. In addition to development of a final waste form, the HGDP is also developing a unique disposal system to assure long-term protection of the public and the environment. Disposal of a low-level nonhazardous waste will be initiated, as a demonstration of the disposal system concept, in June 1988. Disposal of higher activity hazardous wastes is scheduled to begin in October 1989

  20. Low-pH injection grout for deep repositories. Summary report from a co-operation project between NUMO (Japan), Posiva (Finland) and SKB (Sweden)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boden, Anders; Sievaenen, Ursula

    2005-06-01

    experiments. 5. Fly ash system was ruled out at an early stage due to expected problems concerning the availability and stability of the raw material properties as well as expected difficulties with the setting time of the mixes. The grouting related properties tested in laboratory were penetrability, bleeding, early age shear strength viscosity and yield value. For some selected mixes fluidity was also measured. The key uncertainties identified with respect to the use of cement in a repository are related to the uncertainties in the estimation of the range and effect of the pH-plume on the rock, as well as the possible detrimental effects on bentonite due to cement/bentonite interaction. In the present study the potential effects on the repository performance and the rock have been evaluated based on the composition of the materials and leaching tests, expert judgement and some simple mass balance and diffusion calculations. A first review of the potential effects of organic cement additives on the radionuclide mobility has also been done, although the preference at the outset of the project was to develop an injection grout without organic additives. Also the long-term durability of the low-pH cementitious material and the long-term phase changes/degradation and leaching of the grout is not yet known and need to be evaluated. The non-cementitious candidate materials were investigated regarding basic properties and long-term safety aspects in order to form the basis for the decision whether silica sol can be used in the deep repository and whether periclase (MgO) should be further investigated. In a small field-test it was also investigated if the penetration of silica sol can be predicted based on hydraulic tests, transmissivity and hydraulic aperture. Silica sol, colloidal silica, is a stable dispersion of discrete non porous particles of amorphous silicon dioxide. Rock grouting with silica sol is a relatively new application. Colloidal silica seems to be a feasible

  1. Low-pH injection grout for deep repositories. Summary report from a co-operation project between NUMO (Japan), Posiva (Finland) and SKB (Sweden)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boden, Anders [SwedPower AB, Stockholm (Sweden); Sievaenen, Ursula [JP-Suoraplan Oy, Vantaa (Finland)

    2005-06-01

    fineness, were modified in the present experiments. 5. Fly ash system was ruled out at an early stage due to expected problems concerning the availability and stability of the raw material properties as well as expected difficulties with the setting time of the mixes. The grouting related properties tested in laboratory were penetrability, bleeding, early age shear strength viscosity and yield value. For some selected mixes fluidity was also measured. The key uncertainties identified with respect to the use of cement in a repository are related to the uncertainties in the estimation of the range and effect of the pH-plume on the rock, as well as the possible detrimental effects on bentonite due to cement/bentonite interaction. In the present study the potential effects on the repository performance and the rock have been evaluated based on the composition of the materials and leaching tests, expert judgement and some simple mass balance and diffusion calculations. A first review of the potential effects of organic cement additives on the radionuclide mobility has also been done, although the preference at the outset of the project was to develop an injection grout without organic additives. Also the long-term durability of the low-pH cementitious material and the long-term phase changes/degradation and leaching of the grout is not yet known and need to be evaluated. The non-cementitious candidate materials were investigated regarding basic properties and long-term safety aspects in order to form the basis for the decision whether silica sol can be used in the deep repository and whether periclase (MgO) should be further investigated. In a small field-test it was also investigated if the penetration of silica sol can be predicted based on hydraulic tests, transmissivity and hydraulic aperture. Silica sol, colloidal silica, is a stable dispersion of discrete non porous particles of amorphous silicon dioxide. Rock grouting with silica sol is a relatively new application

  2. Rocks Can Wow? Yes, Rocks Can Wow!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardman, Sally; Luke, Sue

    2016-01-01

    Rocks and fossils appear in the National Curriculum of England science programmes of study for children in year 3 (ages 7-8). A frequently asked question is "How do you make the classification of rocks engaging?" In response to this request from a school, a set of interactive activities was designed and organised by tutors and students…

  3. Geochemical factors influencing vault design and layout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gascoyne, M.; Stroes-Gascoyne, S.; Sargent, F.P.

    1995-01-01

    The design and construction of a vault for used nuclear fuel in crystalline rock may be influenced by a number of geochemical factors. During the siting stage, information is needed regarding the rock type, heterogeneities in its composition and the mineralogy of permeable zones because these will cause variations in thermal conductivity, strength and radionuclide sorptive properties of the rock. These factors may affect decisions regarding depth of vault construction, tunnel dimensions and spacing of panels and waste containers. The decision on whether groundwaters are allowed to flow freely into a planned excavation may depend on measurements of their chemical compositions, microbiological contents and presence of hazardous or corrosive constituents. During site characterization, borehole drilling from the surface and subsequent hydraulic testing will introduce both chemical and microbiological contaminants that may further influence this decision. During vault construction, the geochemistry of the rock may cause changes to the characterization, design and construction of the vault. For example, high salinity fluids in micropores in the rock could prevent the use of radar surveys to detect fractures in the surrounding rock. High rock salinity may also cause unacceptably high total dissolved solids loadings in water discharged from the facility. Again, the presence of toxic, corrosive or radioactive constituents in inflowing groundwater may require grouting or, if inflow is needed for service operations, development of treatment facilities both above and below ground. In addition, the use of explosives will cause high organic and nitrate loadings in service water as well as the possible impregnation of these chemicals in the damaged wall-rock surrounding an excavation. These chemicals may remain despite cleaning efforts and act as nutrients to promote microbial activity in the post-closure phase. In the operational phase, further design and construction, changes

  4. Long-term degradation (or improvement?) of cementitious grout/concrete for waste disposal at Hanford

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piepho, M.G.

    1997-01-01

    If grout and/or concrete barriers and containments are considered for long-term (500 yrs to 100,000 ) waste disposal, then long-term degradation of grout/cement materials (and others) need to be studied. Long-term degradations of a cementitious grout monolith (15.4mW x 10.4mH x 37.6mL) and its containment concrete shell and asphalt shell (each 1-m thick) were analyzed. The main degradation process of the concrete shell was believed to be fractures due to construction joints, shrinkage, thermal stress, settlement, and seismic events. A scenario with fractures was modeled (flow and transport model) for long-term risk performance (out to a million yrs). Even though the concrete/grout is expected to fracture, the concrete/grout chemistry, which has high Ph value, is very beneficial in causing calcite deposits from calcium in the water precipitating in the fractures. These calcite deposits will tend to plug the fracture and keep water from entering. The effectiveness of such plugging needs to be studied more. It's possible that the plugged fractures are more impermeable than the original concrete/grout. The long-term performance of concrete/grout barriers will be determined by its chemistry, not its mechanical properties

  5. Acute toxicity screening of Hanford Site waste grouts using aquatic invertebrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rebagay, T.V.; Dodd, D.A.; Lockrem, L.L.; Voogd, J.A.

    1993-01-01

    Liquid wastes containing radioactive, hazardous, and regulated chemicals have been generated throughout the 50 years operation of the Hanford Site of the US Department of Energy near Richland, Washington. The current strategy for the disposal of the low-level radioactive portion of these wastes involves immobilization of the waste in the form of grout. Because the potential risk of animal and plant exposure to grouts is unknown, acute toxicity screening of grouts is needed. Grouts were prepared by mixing a surrogate nonradioactive liquid waste with a blend consisting of cement, fly ash, and clay. Aqueous extracts of the grout were then screened for acute toxicity using aquatic invertebrates as test organisms and a fluorogenic substrate as the toxic stress indicator. After a 1-hour exposure of juvenile daphnids (D, magna, D. pulex, and C. dubia) to the grout extracts followed by a 15-minute reaction with the fluorogenic substrate, the degree of in vivo enzymatic inhibition was measured by the number of resulting fluorescent daphnids. The EC50 values calculated by probit analysis were 2,877 mg/L, 2,983 mg/L, and 3,174 mg/L for D. pulex, D. magna, and C. dubia, respectively. The slight difference in the responses may be attributed to the subjective pass-fail scoring of the fluorescence criterion. The results indicated that the grout studied is nonhazardous and nondangerous

  6. Thermally conductive cementitious grouts for geothermal heat pumps. Progress report FY 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allan, M.L.; Philippacopoulos, A.J.

    1998-11-01

    Research commenced in FY 97 to determine the suitability of superplasticized cement-sand grouts for backfilling vertical boreholes used with geothermal heat pump (GHP) systems. The overall objectives were to develop, evaluate and demonstrate cementitious grouts that could reduce the required bore length and improve the performance of GHPs. This report summarizes the accomplishments in FY 98. The developed thermally conductive grout consists of cement, water, a particular grade of silica sand, superplasticizer and a small amount of bentonite. While the primary function of the grout is to facilitate heat transfer between the U-loop and surrounding formation, it is also essential that the grout act as an effective borehole sealant. Two types of permeability (hydraulic conductivity) tests was conducted to evaluate the sealing performance of the cement-sand grout. Additional properties of the proposed grout that were investigated include bleeding, shrinkage, bond strength, freeze-thaw durability, compressive, flexural and tensile strengths, elastic modulus, Poisson`s ratio and ultrasonic pulse velocity.

  7. Laboratory leach tests of phosphate/sulfate waste grout and leachate adsorption tests using Hanford sediment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serne, R.J.; Martin, W.J.; McLaurine, S.B.; Airhart, S.P.; LeGore, V.L.; Treat, R.L.

    1987-12-01

    An assessment of the long-term risks posed by grout disposal at Hanford requires data on the ability of grout to resist leaching of waste species contained in the grout via contact with water that percolates through the ground. Additionally, data are needed on the ability of Hanford sediment (soil) surrounding the grout and concrete vault to retard migration of any wastes released from the grout. This report describes specific laboratory experiments that are producing empirical leach rate data and leachate-sediment adsorption data for Phosphate-Sulfate Waste (PSW) grout. The leach rate and adsorption values serve as inputs to computer codes used to forecast potential risk resulting from the use of ground water containing leached species. In addition, the report discusses other chemical analyses and geochemical computer code calculations that were used to identify mechanisms that control leach rates and adsorption potential. Knowledge of the controlling chemical and physical processes provides technical defensibility for using the empirical laboratory data to extrapolate the performance of the actual grout disposal system to the long time periods of interest. 59 refs., 83 figs., 18 tabs.

  8. Laboratory leach tests of phosphate/sulfate waste grout and leachate adsorption tests using Hanford sediment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serne, R.J.; Martin, W.J.; McLaurine, S.B.; Airhart, S.P.; LeGore, V.L.; Treat, R.L.

    1987-12-01

    An assessment of the long-term risks posed by grout disposal at Hanford requires data on the ability of grout to resist leaching of waste species contained in the grout via contact with water that percolates through the ground. Additionally, data are needed on the ability of Hanford sediment (soil) surrounding the grout and concrete vault to retard migration of any wastes released from the grout. This report describes specific laboratory experiments that are producing empirical leach rate data and leachate-sediment adsorption data for Phosphate-Sulfate Waste (PSW) grout. The leach rate and adsorption values serve as inputs to computer codes used to forecast potential risk resulting from the use of ground water containing leached species. In addition, the report discusses other chemical analyses and geochemical computer code calculations that were used to identify mechanisms that control leach rates and adsorption potential. Knowledge of the controlling chemical and physical processes provides technical defensibility for using the empirical laboratory data to extrapolate the performance of the actual grout disposal system to the long time periods of interest. 59 refs., 83 figs., 18 tabs

  9. Durability of low-pH injection grout. A literature survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holt, E.

    2008-01-01

    This publication provides an overview of the durability of injection grouts. It is intended for use during planning and construction at the ONKALO underground research facility. The review has been done with respect to the application conditions, materials and service life requirements expressed by Posiva Oy. The publication describes all types of cement-based material durability, with an emphasis on the key issues of shrinkage cracking, leaching and sulphate attack. The second part of the report provides information on how durability expectations have changed with the history of injection grout development. The report gives information specific to low-pH injection grouts containing high amounts of silica fume performance and how their durability is expected to differ from traditional normal cement-based mixtures. The final part of the report provides suggestions for future research needs for ensuring the service life of injection grouts. The key finding from this study is that the low-pH grout material is not expected to have worse durability performance compared to the standard injection grout. Combining high amounts of silica fume with the cement to produce low-pH grout should result in a material having lower permeability and thus greater resistance to leaching and chemical attack. Further laboratory testing is needed to quantitatively verify these findings and to provide inputs for future service life modeling. (orig.)

  10. Use of a Paraffin Based Grout to Stabilize Buried Beryllium and Other Wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gretchen Matthern; Duane Hanson; Neal Yancey; Darrell Knudson

    2005-01-01

    The long term durability of WAXFIXi, a paraffin based grout, was evaluated for in situ grouting of activated beryllium wastes in the Subsurface Disposal Area (SDA), a radioactive landfill at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex, part of the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). The evaluation considered radiological and biological mechanisms that could degrade the grout using data from an extensive literature search and previous tests of in situ grouting at the INL. Conservative radioactive doses for WAXFIX were calculated from the ''hottest'' (i.e., highest-activity) Advanced Test Reactor beryllium block in the SDA.. These results indicate that WAXFIX would not experience extensive radiation damage for many hundreds of years. Calculation of radiation induced hydrogen generation in WAXFIX indicated that grout physical performance should not be reduced beyond the effects of radiation dose on the molecular structure. Degradation of a paraffin-based grout by microorganisms in the SDA is possible and perhaps likely, but the rate of degradation will be at a slower rate than found in the literature reviewed. The calculations showed the outer 0.46 m (18 in.) layer of each monolith, which represents the minimum expected distance to the beryllium block, was calculated to require 1,000 to 3,600 years to be consumed. The existing data and estimations of biodegradation and radiolysis rates for WAXFIX/paraffin do not indicate any immediate problems with the use of WAXFIX for grouting beryllium or other wastes in the SDA

  11. Field demonstration of in situ grouting of radioactive solid waste burial trenches with polyacrylamide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spalding, B.P.; Fontaine, T.A.

    1990-01-01

    Demonstrations of in situ grouting with polyacrylamide were carried out on two undisturbed burial trenches and one dynamically compacted burial trench in Solid Waste Storage Area (SWSA) 6 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The injection of polyacrylamide was achieved quite facilely for the two undisturbed burial trenches which were filled with grout, at typical pumping rates of 95 L/min, in several batches injected over several days. The compacted burial trench, however, failed to accept grout at more than 1.9 L/min even when pressure was applied. Thus, it appears that burial trenches, stabilized by dynamic compaction, have a permeability too low to be considered groutable. The water table beneath the burial trenches did not respond to grout injections indicating a lack of hydrologic connection between fluid grout and the water table which would have been observed if the grout failed to set. Because grout set times were adjusted to less than 60 min, the lack of hydrologic connection was not surprising. Postgrouting penetration testing revealed that the stability of the burial trenches was increased from 26% to 79% that measured in the undisturbed soil surrounding the trenches. In situ permeation tests on the grouted trenches indicated a significant reduction in hydraulic conductivity of the trench contents from a mean of 2.1 x 10 -3 to 1.85 x 10 -5 cm/s. Preliminary observations indicated that grouting with polyacrylamide is an excellent method for both improved stability and hydrologic isolation of radioactive waste and its incidental hazardous constituents

  12. Literature review of stabilization/solidification of volatile organic compounds and the implications for Hanford grouts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spence, R.D.; Osborne, S.C.

    1993-09-01

    A literature review was conducted on the stabilization/solidification of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Based on this literature, it is likely that the limestone-containing grout will not permanently immobilize VOCs and that no presently available additives can guarantee permanent immobilization. The Westinghouse hanford company grout may be fairly effective at retarding aqueous leaching of VOCs, and commercial additives can improve this performance. Significant VOC losses do occur during stabilization/solidification, and the high temperatures of the Westinghouse Hanford Company waste and grout should exacerbate this problem. In fact, these high temperatures raise doubts about the presence of VOCs in the double-shell tanks supernates

  13. Approaches to control the quality of cementitious PFA grouts for nuclear waste encapsulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rice, G.; Miles, N.; Farris, S. [University of Nottingham, Nottingham (United Kingdom). Nottingham Mining & Minerals Centre

    2007-05-15

    Pulverised Fuel Ash (PFA) is combined with Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC) powder and water to form cementitious grouts for use in various aspects of nuclear waste encapsulation. Whilst specific PFA supplies in the United Kingdom currently deliver adequate grout performance it is also clear that some alternative supplies result in inferior performance, leading to concern over the long term availability of suitable raw material. This paper presents the results of an investigation into the characteristics of PFA that affect critical aspects of grout performance and identifies strategies that could be used to ensure high quality PFA supplies in the future.

  14. In situ grouting of a low-level radioactive waste trench

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spence, R.D.; Godsey, T.T.; McDaniel, E.W.

    1987-11-01

    A shallow land burial trench containing low level radioactive waste was injected with a particulate grout to help control subsidence and radionuclide migration. The trench's accessible voids have been estimated at 20 vol %, and most of these voids appear to have been filled with grout. This injection was accomplished with a simple, labor intensive technique, and an inexperienced crew at an estimated cost of about $55,000. The grout costs $0.21/gal and 8081 gal was injected into the trench. 5 refs., 10 figs., 4 tabs

  15. The effect of using different sources of dry materials on waste-form grout properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spence, R.D.; Gilliam, T.M.; McDaniel, E.W.

    1992-01-01

    A reference grout formulation had been developed for a liquid low-level radioactive waste using the following dry materials: ground limestone, ground granulated blast furnace slag, fly ash, and cement. The effect of varying the sources of these dry materials are tested. Two limestones, two fly ashes, two cements, and eight slags were tested. Varying the source of dry materials significantly affected the grout properties, but only the 28-d free-standing liquid varied outside of the preferred range. A statistical technique, Tukey's paired comparison, can be used to ascertain whether a given combination of dry materials resulted in grout properties significantly different from those of other combinations of dry materials

  16. Grout formulation for disposal of low-level and hazardous waste streams containing fluoride

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDaniel, E.W.; Sams, T.L.; Tallent, O.K.

    1987-06-02

    A composition and related process for disposal of hazardous waste streams containing fluoride in cement-based materials is disclosed. the presence of fluoride in cement-based materials is disclosed. The presence of fluoride in waste materials acts as a set retarder and as a result, prevents cement-based grouts from setting. This problem is overcome by the present invention wherein calcium hydroxide is incorporated into the dry-solid portion of the grout mix. The calcium hydroxide renders the fluoride insoluble, allowing the grout to set up and immobilize all hazardous constituents of concern. 4 tabs.

  17. Comment and response document for the final remedial action plan and site design for stabilization of the inactive uranium mill tailings sites at Slick Rock, Colorado. Revision 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-05-01

    This document for the final remedial action plan and site design has been prepared for US Department of Energy Environmental Restoration Division as part of the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action plan. Comments and responses are included for the site design for stabilization of the inactive uranium mill tailings sites at Slick Rock, Colorado

  18. Design and implementation of a shearing apparatus for the experimental study of shear displacement in rocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Johnathan; Crandall, Dustin; Gill, Magdalena; Brown, Sarah; Tennant, Bryan

    2018-04-01

    Fluid flow in the subsurface is not well understood in the context of "impermeable" geologic media. This is especially true of formations that have undergone significant stress fluctuations due to injection or withdrawal of fluids that alters the localized pressure regime. When the pressure regime is altered, these formations, which are often already fractured, move via shear to reduce the imbalance in the stress state. While this process is known to happen, the evolution of these fractures and their effects on fluid transport are still relatively unknown. Numerous simulation and several experimental studies have been performed that characterize the relationship between shearing and permeability in fractures; while many of these studies utilize measurements of fluid flow or the starting and ending geometries of the fracture to characterize shear, they do not characterize the intermediate stages during shear. We present an experimental apparatus based on slight modifications to a commonly available Hassler core holder that allows for shearing of rocks, while measuring the hydraulic and mechanical changes to geomaterials during intermediate steps. The core holder modification employs the use of semi-circular end caps and structural supports for the confining membrane that allow for free movement of the sheared material while preventing membrane collapse. By integrating this modified core holder with a computed tomography scanner, we show a new methodology for understanding the interdependent behavior between fracture structure and flow properties during intermediate steps in shearing. We include a case study of this device function which is shown here through shearing of a fractured shale core and simultaneous observation of the mechanical changes and evolution of the hydraulic properties during shearing.

  19. Task plan to evaluate the effectiveness of in situ grouting of an ORNL waste burial trench with a cement-based grout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Francis, C.W.

    1991-11-01

    This task will demonstrate the feasibility of using an in situ grouting technique with a particulate-grout formulation as a closure action to stabilize waste trenches in Solid Waste Storage Area (SWSA) 6. It also supports technology development for closure of other SWSAs. A particulate grout will be formulated using cement-bentonite and fly ash from a coal-fired power plant. The grout solids will be dry-blended, mixed with water, and injected (using ∼5 to 10 lb/in. 2 pressure) into five injection wells per trench. After 28 days for setting, soil penetration resistance and hydraulic conductivity measurements will be repeated for comparison to pregrouting measurements. The primary objective of this task is to demonstrate the feasibility and effectiveness of the in situ injection of a particulate grout into waste burial trenches. Effectiveness is defined here as increased trenched stability (characterized by trench penetration resistance tests) and decreased potential for leachate migration (characterized by hydraulic conductivity tests)

  20. Preliminary design and definition of field experiments for welded tuff rock mechanics program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zimmerman, R.M.

    1982-06-01

    The preliminary design contains objectives, typical experiment layouts, definitions of equipment and instrumentation, test matrices, preliminary design predictive modeling results for five experiments, and a definition of the G-Tunnel Underground Facility (GTUF) at the Nevada Test Site where the experiments are to be located. Experiments described for investigations in welded tuff are the Small Diameter Heater, Unit Cell-Canister Scale, Heated Block, Rocha Slot, and Miniature Heater

  1. Grouts and concretes for the Waste Isolation Pilot Project (WIPP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wakeley, L.D.

    1990-01-01

    The Structures Laboratory of the U.S. Army Engineer Waterways Experiment Station has conducted research on cement-based composites for the Waste Isolation Pilot Project (WIPP) since 1977, in cooperation with Sandia National Laboratories. Field testing requirements guided initial development of grouts. Concurrent and later laboratory studies explored the chemical stability and probable durability of these mixtures. Beginning in 1985, a series of small-scale seal performance tests at the WIPP prompted development of an expansive salt-saturated concrete. Important lessons learned from this ongoing work include: (1) carefully tailored mixtures can tolerate phase changes involving Ca, Al, and SO 4 , without loss of structural integrity; (2) handling and placement properties are probably more crucial to the mixtures than is exact phase composition; and (3) for the environment of a geologic repository, demonstrated chemical durability will be the best indicator of long-term performance

  2. Science design for two shafts in phase 1a of the proposed rock characterisation facility at Sellafield, UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ledingham, P.; Proughten, A.J.; Saulnier, G.J. Jr.

    1998-01-01

    In 1997, United Kingdom Nirex planned to begin construction of an underground Rock Characterisation Facility (RCF) at Sellafield as part of it's ongoing assessment of the suitability of the site as a host for a deep radioactive waste repository. The RCF was to have addressed issues relating to the geology, hydrogeology and geomechanical behaviour of the site by collecting data for testing predictive models and acquiring information only available from an underground situation. In March 1997, the UK Government refused permission for Nirex to begin construction and work at Sellafield was wound down. However, the science design for Phase 1a of the RCF, two vertical access shafts, was completed to provide a set of conceptual designs which address the issues identified by Nirex. By using Sellafield as an example, the designs contribute to a series of reports which demonstrate an approach to validation using an underground facility. This paper describes the Science Design for data collection during shaft construction, which began with the information requirements specified by Nirex on the basis of it's conceptual models and predictive work. It describes the scientific measurements designed to acquire this information and the process of combining the individual measurements into test plans for each shaft. Measurements were planned in the shafts themselves and in boreholes drilled from the shafts. They were designed to provide data on formation porosity and permeability, the geochemistry of formation water and the nature of the fresh-water salt-water interface, shaft inflow, the influence of geological structures on performance, and geomechanical responses to shaft excavation. A key element of the design process was the development of test plans, requiring the co-ordination and integration of the construction and science activities so that both could be carried out in a timely and cost-effective manner

  3. Disposal of radioactive grouts into hydraulically fractured shale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    A process for permanent waste disposal has been in operation for nearly 20 years at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). In this method, intermediate-level radioactive waste effluents in the form of a slurry containing hydraulic binders (grouts) are injected by means of fracturing into a deep underground formation (a nearly impervious shale formation) considered to be isolated from the surface. The composition of the grout is carefully chosen so that the slurry thus injected solidifies in situ, ensuring fixation of the waste and rendering this type of disposal final in character. This process - ''hydrofracture'' or ''shale fracturing'' - immobilizes the wastes directly in situ, in such a condition that is well removed from the biosphere. It is an inexpensive process that is particularly suited for the permanent disposal of large batches of certain types of wastes under specific conditions. Some sections of this report are concerned with the general aspects of the hydrofracture process. Other sections are site specific and discuss the development of the process at ORNL and the operating experience with the ORNL facility. Sections 2 and 3 are concerned with the general aspects of site selection and are not site specific. Sections 4, 5, 6 and 8 are concerned with operating experience at ORNL and are site specific. Section 7 (safety assessment) is based on ORNL experience, but the considerations that are discussed in this section have general application. Details of the operating experience with the process at ORNL and West Valley are given in Appendix 1. Appendix 2 is a brief treatment of the theory of fracture mechanics

  4. Concept study: Use of grout vaults for disposal of long-length contaminated equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clem, D.K.

    1994-01-01

    Study considers the potential for use of grout vaults for disposal of untreated long length equipment removed from waste tanks. Looks at ways to access vaults, material handling, regulatory aspects, and advantages and disadvantages of vault disposal

  5. Corrosion performance of prestressing strands in contact with dissimilar grouts : technical summary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Inspections of post-tensioned bridges : by the Kansas Department of Transportation : have revealed voids in strand ducts due to : bleeding and shrinkage of older Portland : Cement grouts. The Kansas Department : of Transportation is faced with a deci...

  6. Grouting techniques for the unfavorable geological conditions of Xiang'an subsea tunnel in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dingli Zhang

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available One of the major challenges during subsea tunnel construction is to seal the potential water inflow. The paper presents a case study of Xiang'an subsea tunnel in Xiamen, the first subsea tunnel in China. During its construction, different grades of weathered geomaterials were encountered, which was the challenging issue for this project. To deal with these unfavorable geological conditions, grouting was adopted as an important measure for ground treatment. The grouting mechanism is first illustrated by introducing a typical grouting process. Then the site-specific grouting techniques employed in the Xiang'an subsea tunnel are elaborated. By using this ground reinforcement technique, the tunneling safety of the Xiang'an subsea tunnel was guaranteed.

  7. Rock fragmentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, W.S.; Green, S.J.; Hakala, W.W.; Hustrulid, W.A.; Maurer, W.C. (eds.)

    1976-01-01

    Experts in rock mechanics, mining, excavation, drilling, tunneling and use of underground space met to discuss the relative merits of a wide variety of rock fragmentation schemes. Information is presented on novel rock fracturing techniques; tunneling using electron beams, thermocorer, electric spark drills, water jets, and diamond drills; and rock fracturing research needs for mining and underground construction. (LCL)

  8. Grout and Glass Performance Maximizing the Loading of ORNL Tank Sludges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burgess, M.W.; Mattus, A.J.; Spence, R.D.; Travis, J.R.

    1999-01-01

    Grouting and vitrification are currently two likely stabilization and solidification alternatives for radioactive and hazardous mixed wastes stored at Department of Energy (DOE) facilities. Grouting has been used to stabilize and solidify hazardous and low-level radioactive waste for decades. Vitrification has been developed as a high-level radioactive alternative for decades and has been under development recently as a mixed-waste alternative disposal technology

  9. Characterisation of vibration equipment used for the immobilisation of solid items in cement grout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dalton, M.J.

    1984-12-01

    Processes are being developed at AEE Winfrith for the immobilisation of solid radioactive waste in cement grouts. The flow of grout during the infilling stage is assisted by vibration of the waste container. A high resolution signal analyser has been used to measure the operating frequency and amplitude characteristics of vibrating equipment used in the solid immobilisation process. In this report the commissioning of the instrument and results obtained on the equipment are described. (author)

  10. Development of Freshwater Grout Subsequent to the Bell Canyon Tests (BCT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-04-01

    specimens of those grouts cured and studied in the SL, to three-years age. Selected data from earlier tests of related fresh-water grouts are...specimens were either coated with a strippable plastic momn;rane, or sealed in plastic cylinders with tightly fitting lids. Sealed in plastiC habs in...for expansion prisms, the strippable coating applied to SPDV specimens did not prevent water loss. Lower strength gain may be attributable to partial

  11. Grout compactness monitoring of concrete-filled fiber-reinforced polymer tube using electromechanical impedance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Yaokun; Luo, Mingzhang; Li, Weijie; Song, Gangbing

    2018-05-01

    The concrete-filled fiber-reinforced polymer tube (CFFT) is a type of structural element widely used in corrosive environments. Poor grout compactness results in incomplete contact or even no contact between the fiber-reinforced polymer (FRP) tube and the concrete grout, which reduces the load bearing capacity of a CFFT. The monitoring of grout compactness for CFFTs is important. The piezoceramic-based electromechanical impedance (EMI) method has emerged as an efficient and low-cost structural health monitoring technique. This paper presents a feasibility study using the EMI method to monitor grout compactness of CFFTs. In this research, CFFT specimens with different levels of compactness (empty, 1/5, 1/3, 1/2, 2/3, and full compactness) were prepared and subjected to EMI measurement by using four piezoceramic patches that were bonded circumferentially along the outer surface of the CFFT. To analyze the correlation between grout compactness and EMI signatures, a compactness index (CI) was proposed based on the root-mean-square deviation (RMSD). The experimental results show that the changes in admittance signatures are able to determine the grout compactness qualitatively. The proposed CI is able to effectively identify the compactness of the CFFT, and provides location information of the incomplete concrete infill.

  12. Grouting as a remedial technique for buried low-level radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spalding, B.P.; Hyder, L.K.; Munro, I.L.

    1985-01-01

    Seven grout formulations were tested in the laboratory for their ability to penetrate and to reduce the hydraulic conductivities of soils used as backfills for shallow land burial trenches. Soils from two sites, in Oak Ridge, TN, and Maxey Flats, KY were used and both are classified as Typic Dystrochrepts. Three soluble grout formulations (sodium silicate, polypropenamide [polyacrylamide], and 1,3-Benzenediol [resorcinol]-formaldehyde) were able to both penetrate soil and sand columns and reduce hydraulic conductivities from initial values of ca. 10 -4 m s -1 to -8 m s -1 . Three particulate grouts (lime [calcium oxide]-fly ash, fly ash-cement-bentonite, and bentonite alone) could not penetrate columns; such formulations would, therefore, be difficult to inject into closed burial trenches. Field demonstrations with both sodium silicate and polyacrylamide showed that grout could be distributed throughout a burial trench and that waste-backfill hydraulic conductivity could be reduced several orders of magnitude. Field grouting with polyacrylamide reduced the mean hydraulic conductivity of nine intratrench monitoring wells from 10 -4 to 10 -8 m s -1 . Grouting of low-level radioactive solid waste in situ, therefore, should be an effective technique to correct situations where leaching of buried wastes has or will result in groundwater contamination

  13. Use of a Paraffin Based Grout to Stabilize Buried Beryllium and Other Wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gretchen Matthern; Duane Hanson; Neal Yancey; Darrell Knudson

    2005-12-01

    The long term durability of WAXFIXi, a paraffin based grout, was evaluated for in situ grouting of activated beryllium wastes in the Subsurface Disposal Area (SDA), a radioactive landfill at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex, part of the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). The evaluation considered radiological and biological mechanisms that could degrade the grout using data from an extensive literature search and previous tests of in situ grouting at the INL. Conservative radioactive doses for WAXFIX were calculated from the "hottest" (i.e., highest-activity) Advanced Test Reactor beryllium block in the SDA.. These results indicate that WAXFIX would not experience extensive radiation damage for many hundreds of years. Calculation of radiation induced hydrogen generation in WAXFIX indicated that grout physical performance should not be reduced beyond the effects of radiation dose on the molecular structure. Degradation of a paraffin-based grout by microorganisms in the SDA is possible and perhaps likely, but the rate of degradation will be at a slower rate than found in the literature reviewed. The calculations showed the outer 0.46 m (18 in.) layer of each monolith, which represents the minimum expected distance to the beryllium block, was calculated to require 1,000 to 3,600 years to be consumed. The existing data and estimations of biodegradation and radiolysis rates

  14. Laboratory stabilization/solidification of surrogate and actual mixed-waste sludge in glass and grout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spence, R.D.; Gilliam, T.M.; Mattus, C.H.; Mattus, A.J.

    1998-01-01

    Grouting and vitrification are currently the most likely stabilization/solidification technologies for mixed wastes. Grouting has been used to stabilize and solidify hazardous and low-level waste for decades. Vitrification has long been developed as a high-level-waste alternative and has been under development recently as an alternative treatment technology for low-level mixed waste. Laboratory testing has been performed to develop grout and vitrification formulas for mixed-waste sludges currently stored in underground tanks at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and to compare these waste forms. Envelopes, or operating windows, for both grout and soda-lime-silica glass formulations for a surrogate sludge were developed. One formulation within each envelope was selected for testing the sensitivity of performance to variations (±10 wt%) in the waste form composition and variations in the surrogate sludge composition over the range previously characterized in the sludges. In addition, one sludge sample of an actual mixed-waste tank was obtained, a surrogate was developed for this sludge sample, and grout and glass samples were prepared and tested in the laboratory using both surrogate and the actual sludge. The sensitivity testing of a surrogate tank sludge in selected glass and grout formulations is discussed in this paper, along with the hot-cell testing of an actual tank sludge sample

  15. NanoRocks: Design and performance of an experiment studying planet formation on the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brisset, Julie; Colwell, Joshua; Dove, Adrienne; Maukonen, Doug

    2017-07-01

    In an effort to better understand the early stages of planet formation, we have developed a 1.5U payload that flew on the International Space Station (ISS) in the NanoRacks NanoLab facility between September 2014 and March 2016. This payload, named NanoRocks, ran a particle collision experiment under long-term microgravity conditions. The objectives of the experiment were (a) to observe collisions between mm-sized particles at relative velocities of acrylic, glass, and copper beads and 0.75 mm-sized JSC-1 lunar regolith simulant grains. The particles were placed in sample cells carved out of an aluminum tray. This tray was attached to one side of the payload casing with three springs. Every 60 s, the tray was agitated, and the resulting collisions between the particles in the sample cells were recorded by the experiment camera. During the 18 months the payload stayed on ISS, we obtained 158 videos, thus recording a great number of collisions. The average particle velocities in the sample cells after each shaking event were around 1 cm/s. After shaking stopped, the inter-particle collisions damped the particle kinetic energy in less than 20 s, reducing the average particle velocity to below 1 mm/s, and eventually slowing them to below our detection threshold. As the particle velocity decreased, we observed the transition from bouncing to sticking collisions. We recorded the formation of particle clusters at the end of each experiment run. This paper describes the design and performance of the NanoRocks ISS payload.

  16. Structural model testing for prestressed concrete pressure vessels: a study of grouted vs nongrouted posttensioned prestressing tendon systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naus, D.J.

    1979-04-01

    Nongrouted tendons are predominantly used in this country as the prestressing system for prestressed concrete pressure vessels (PCPVs) because they are more easily surveyed to detect reductions in prestressing level and distress such as results from corrosion. Grouted tendon systems, however, offer advantages which may make them cost-effective for PCPV applications. Literature was reviewed to (1) provide insight on the behavior of grouted tendon system, (2) establish performance histories for structures utilizing grouted tendons, (3) examine corrosion protection procedures for prestressing tendons, (4) identify arguments for and against using grouted tendons, and (5) aid in the development of the experimental investigation. The experimental investigation was divided into four phases: (1) grouted-nongrouted tendon behavior, (2) evaluation of selected new material systems, (3) bench-scale corrosion studies, and (4) preliminary evaluation of acoustic emission techniques for monitoring grouted tendons in PCPVs. The groutability of large tendon systems was also investigated

  17. Programme for repository host rock characterisation in the ONKALO (ReRoC)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aalto, P.; Aaltonen, I.; Kemppainen, K.

    2009-04-01

    The excavation of the ONKALO is now entering the deep bedrock regime, where the ambient rock conditions are representative of those to be found in the vicinity of future deposition tunnels and deposition holes. It is proposed to study the properties of the rock under these conditions using specially-excavated rock rooms, investigation niches or stations and characterisation holes. This report provides an overview of these plans, which are designed to obtain the relevant site-specific knowledge. This report summarises the outstanding issues of the site modelling that are driving the deep rock investigations. It also lists the main long-term safety needs from the site characterisation and presents a short description of the data needs raised by the RSC (Rock Suitability Criteria) programme. The report presents the general characterisation programme of the ONKALO access tunnel. It includes geological mapping in the tunnel and the shafts and investigations in pilot, probe and characterisation hole. It also presents a programme for the pre-grouting hole studies in the shafts. The main aim of the report is to present the experimental studies that are to be carried out in the niches and studies that will be carried out below hydrogeological zone HZ20 at different locations in the tunnel, in order to obtain information on rock properties that are comparable to the rock at the disposal depth. This document provides a detailed discussion of the following experiments: (1) the sulphate reduction experiment at a depth of between 300-350 m to investigate the production, presence and effects of sulphide in the groundwater; (2) the hydrogeological interference experiment at tunnel chainage 3620 or 3748 for a detailed characterisation of connected fracture networks in the rock mass, representative of those in the near field of the deposition holes; (3) the rock matrix diffusion experiment(s) below chainage 4000 to determine the bedrock's essential retention properties for

  18. Effects of gaseous radioactive nuclides on the design and operation of repositories for spent LWR fuel in rock salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jenks, G.H.

    1979-12-01

    Information relating to the identities and amounts of gaseous radionuclides present in spent LWR fuel and to their release from canistered spent fuel under plausible storage and disposal conditions was assembled, reviewed, and analyzed. Information was also reviewed and analyzed on several other subjects that relate to the integrity of the carbon steel canister in which the spent fuel is to be encapsulated and to the expected rates of transfer of gaseous radionuclides through crushed salt backfill within a disposal room in a reference repository in rock salt. The advantages and disadvantages were considered for several different canister-backfill materials, and recommendations were made regarding preferred materials. Other recommendations relate to encapsulation procedures and specifications and to needs for additional experimental studies. The objective of this work was to provide reference information, conclusions, and recommendations that could be used to establish design and operating conditions and procedures for a bedded salt repository for spent LWR fuel and that could also be used to help evaluate the safety of the repository. The results of this work will also generally apply to spent fuel repositories in domal salt. However, because the domal salt may have little or no brine inclusions within it, there may be little or no possibility that brine will migrate into open spaces around an emplaced canister. Addordingly, some of the concerns that result from the possible occurrence of brine migration in bedded salt may be of no importance in domal salt

  19. Rock Art

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henn, Cynthia A.

    2004-01-01

    There are many interpretations for the symbols that are seen in rock art, but no decoding key has ever been discovered. This article describes one classroom's experiences with a lesson on rock art--making their rock art and developing their own personal symbols. This lesson allowed for creativity, while giving an opportunity for integration…

  20. Develop guidelines for the design of pillar systems for shallow and intermediate depth, tabular, hard rock mines and provide a methodology for assessing hangingwall stability and support requirements for the panels between pillars

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    York, G

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available The design of hard rock pillars, in shallow to intermediate depth hard rock mines, has been redefined as the determination of the pillar system load bearing capacity. This entails the ability to design each of the components of the pillar system...

  1. Remedial action and site design for stabilization of the inactive uranium mill tailings sites at Slick Rock, Colorado

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-07-01

    This report presents geologic considerations that are pertinent to the Remedial Action Plan for Slick Rock mill tailings. Topics covered include regional geology, site geology, geologic stability, and geologic suitability

  2. Grout for closure of waste-disposal vaults at the US DOE Hanford Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wakeley, L.D.; Ernzen, J.J.; McDaniel, E.W.; Voogd, J.

    1991-01-01

    For permanent disposal of radioactive wastes from reprocessing, the US Department of Energy (DOE) has chosen to grout wastes in concrete vaults within a subsurface multiple-barrier system. The subject of this research is the non-radioactive, or ''cold cap'' grout, which fills the upper 120 cm of these vaults, and provides support for overlying barriers. Because of the heat evolved by the wasteform, this void-filling grout must perform at temperatures higher than those of usual large-volume grouting operations. It must have: low potential for thermal expansion and heat retention; a low modulus to withstand thermal and mechanical stresses without cracking; strength adequate to support overlying barrier-system components; and minimal potential for shrinkage. In addition, it must be pumpable, self-leveling, and non-segregating. Materials for formulation included a large percentage of Class F fly ash, and coarsely ground oil-well cement. Grout development included chemical and physical characterization, and physical and thermal modeling

  3. Grout performance in support of in situ stabilization/solidification of the GAAT tank sludges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spence, R.D.; Kauschinger, J.L.

    1997-05-01

    The Gunite trademark and associated tanks (GAATs) were constructed at ORNL between 1943 and 1951 and were used for many years to collect radioactive and chemical wastes. These tanks are currently inactive. Varying amounts of the sludge were removed and disposed of through the Hydrofracture Program. Thus, some tanks are virtually empty, while others still contain significant amounts of sludge and supernatant. In situ grouting of the sludges in the tanks using multi-point injection (MPI trademark), a patented, proprietary technique, is being investigated as a low-cost alternative to (1) moving the sludges to the Melton Valley Storage Tanks (MVSTs) for later solidification and disposal, (2) ex situ grouting of the sludges followed by either disposal back in the tanks or containerizing and disposal elsewhere, and (3) vitrification of the sludges. The paper discusses the chemical characteristics of the GAATs and the type of chemical surrogate that was used during the leachability tests. This is followed by the experimental work, which, consisted of scope testing and sensitivity testing. The scope testing explored the rheology of the proposed jetting slurries and the settling properties of the proposed grouts using sand-water mixes for the wet sludge. After establishing a jetting slurry and grout with an acceptable rheology and settling properties, the proposed in situ grout formulation was subjected to sensitivity testing for variations in the formulation

  4. Characterization results for 106-AN grout produced in a pilot-scale test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lokken, R.O.; Bagaasen, L.M.; Martin, P.F.C.; Palmer, S.E.; Anderson, C.M.

    1993-06-01

    The Grout Treatment Facility (GTF) at Hanford. Washington, will process the low-level fraction of selected double-shell tank (DST) wastes into a cementitious waste form. This facility, which is operated by Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC), mixes liquid waste with cementitious materials to produce a waste form that immobilizes hazardous constituents through chemical reactions and/or microencapsulation. Over one million gallons of phosphate/sulfate waste were solidified in the first production campaign with this facility. The next tank waste scheduled for treatment is 106-AN (the waste from Tank 241-AN-106). After laboratory studies were conducted to select the grout formulation, tests using the 1/4-scale pilot facilities at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) were conducted as part of the formulation verification process. The major objectives of these pilot-scale tests were to determine if the proposed grout formulation could be processed in the pilotscale equipment. to collect thermal information to help determine the best way to manage the grout hydration heat, and to characterize the solidified grout

  5. Comparison of disposal concepts for rock salt and hard rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papp, R.

    1998-01-01

    The study was carried out in the period 1994-1996. The goals were to prepare a draft on spent fuel disposal in hard rock and additionally a comparison with existing disposal concepts for rock salt. A cask for direct disposal of spent fuel and a repository for hard rock including a safeguards concept were conceptually designed. The results of the study confirm, that the early German decision to employ rock salt was reasonable. (orig.)

  6. Effect of hygrothermal conditioning on the mechanical and thermal properties of epoxy grouts for offshore pipeline rehabilitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allan Manalo

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Offshore oil and gas pipelines are susceptible to corrosion and need rehabilitation to keep them operating in-service conditions. Fibre composite filled with epoxy-based grout is emerging as an effective repair and rehabilitation system for offshore pipelines performing underwater. In such applications, the infill grout is often subjected to moisture and elevated temperature along with compressive, tensile and localised stresses at the defect. Current standards and practices for composite repairs suggest detailed investigation of the fibre reinforced sleeve, while the characterisation of the infill material is yet to be conducted for performance evaluation. The present work investigates the mechanical and thermal properties of three epoxy grouts as candidates for infill in a grouted sleeve repair for underwater pipeline. An understanding on the effect of hygrothermal ageing on the grout properties for defining the period of 1000 hours as “long-term” according to ISO/TS 24817, in comparison to their unconditioned state, is also presented. The compressive and tensile strength of the unconditioned grouts ranges from 100–120 MPa, and 19–32 MPa, respectively, which indicates that these grouts are suitable for structural rehabilitation of the pipelines. Moreover, the glass transition temperatures, Tg and Tt of the unconditioned grouts are found to be within the ranges of 50–60 °C, and 80–90 °C, respectively, which are reduced by about 20°C after conditioning.

  7. 'Escher' Rock

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Chemical Changes in 'Endurance' Rocks [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Figure 1 This false-color image taken by NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity shows a rock dubbed 'Escher' on the southwestern slopes of 'Endurance Crater.' Scientists believe the rock's fractures, which divide the surface into polygons, may have been formed by one of several processes. They may have been caused by the impact that created Endurance Crater, or they might have arisen when water leftover from the rock's formation dried up. A third possibility is that much later, after the rock was formed, and after the crater was created, the rock became wet once again, then dried up and developed cracks. Opportunity has spent the last 14 sols investigating Escher, specifically the target dubbed 'Kirchner,' and other similar rocks with its scientific instruments. This image was taken on sol 208 (Aug. 24, 2004) by the rover's panoramic camera, using the 750-, 530- and 430-nanometer filters. The graph above shows that rocks located deeper into 'Endurance Crater' are chemically altered to a greater degree than rocks located higher up. This chemical alteration is believed to result from exposure to water. Specifically, the graph compares ratios of chemicals between the deep rock dubbed 'Escher,' and the more shallow rock called 'Virginia,' before (red and blue lines) and after (green line) the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity drilled into the rocks. As the red and blue lines indicate, Escher's levels of chlorine relative to Virginia's went up, and sulfur down, before the rover dug a hole into the rocks. This implies that the surface of Escher has been chemically altered to a greater extent than the surface of Virginia. Scientists are still investigating the role water played in influencing this trend. These data were taken by the rover's alpha particle X-ray spectrometer.

  8. The effect of using different sources of dry materials on waste-form grout properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spence, R.D.; Gilliam, T.M.; McDaniel, E.W.

    1992-01-01

    A reference grout formulation had been developed for a liquid low-level radioactive waste using the following dry materials: ground limestone, ground granulated blast furnace slag, fly ash, and cement. The effect of varying the sources of these dry materials was tested. Two limestones, two fly ashes, two cements, and eight slags were tested. Varying the source of dry materials significantly affected the grout properties, but only the 28-d free-standing liquid varied outside of the preferred range. A statistical technique, Tukey's paired comparison, can be used to ascertain whether a given combination of dry materials resulted in grout properties significantly different from those of other combinations of dry materials. (author)

  9. Grouting of fly ash in sanitary landfills; Injektering av flygaska i hushaallsavfallsdeponi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wikman, Karin; Berg, Magnus [AaF-Energi och Miljoe AB, Stockhom (Sweden); Andreas, Lale; Lagerkvist, Anders [Luleaa Univ. of Technology (Sweden); Jannes, Sara; Tham, Gustav [Telge Aatervinning AB, Soedertaelje (Sweden); Sjoeblom, Rolf [Tekedo AB, Nykoeping (Sweden)

    2003-10-01

    The purpose of the study was to investigate the potential for stabilization of sanitary landfills by injecting fly ash. The method is supposed to prevent differential settlements in landfills and by that to counteract damages in the final cover. Injecting fly ash may also affect the chemical development in a positive way and prevent metal leaching. Pilot experiments at the Tveta waste recycling center (Tveta Aatervinningsanlaeggning) have been performed in order to estimate if the grouting technology is a suitable method for sanitary landfills. Fly ashes from the combustion of bio fuels were used in these tests. A literature study and laboratory experiments in order to prepare the field experiments were also part of the project. About 100 tons of ash slurry were injected during the pilot experiments. This corresponds to a filling degree of approximately 12-16 % of the available pores in the landfill body. As a result of the pilot test, the following conclusions can be drawn: Ash can be mixed with water to a pumpable slurry which can be injected without hardening inside the equipment. Neither the waste nor the grouting material caused a backpressure during the injection and nothing indicates that the injected ash deforms the landfilled waste. The ash-water-slurry flows through the voids in the waste easily. Thus, the ash may dispread quite far from the injection holes. Using a more powerful equipment backpressure and movements in the waste might occur. It was not possible to estimate the flow required for backpressure in this study. Large variations are possible but for safety reasons the maximal pressure should be limited with regard to the expected stability in the actual area. The grouted ash will harden within the landfill body within a couple of days. It accumulates in hard but brittle lumps, which may result in an increased stability of the landfill. Further studies are necessary in order to evaluate how the stability is affected and what amounts of ash are

  10. Acid mine drainage abatement resulting from pressure grouting of buried bituminous mine spoils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scheetz, B.; Silsbee, M.; Schueck, J.

    1998-01-01

    A 37 acre surface coal mine located in Clinton County, PA, USA, was mined and reclaimed between 1974 and 1977. Buried pyrite-rich pit floor cleanings and tipple refuse were found to be producing severe acid mine drainage. The pyritic material is located in discrete piles or pods in the backfill. The pods and the resulting contaminant plumes were initially defined using geophysical techniques and confirmed by drilling. The approach taken was to use a cementitious grout, composed of fluidized bed combustion ash and water, which would be placed in a manner which would prevent water and oxygen from contacting the pyritic materials. Statistically significant water quality improvements have been noted as a result of the grouting. After four years of post-grouting monitoring, reductions in concentrations of most of the mine drainage parameters range from 40 to 90%. 12 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs

  11. Rock engineering in Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1986-01-01

    Contains a large collection of short articles concerned with tunnels and underground caverns and their construction and use. The articles are grouped under the following headings: use of the subsurface space; water supply; waste water services; energy management (includes articles on power stations, district heating and oil storage and an article on coal storage); multipurpose tunnels; waste disposal; transport; shelters; sporting and recreational amenities located in rock caverns; storage facilities; industrial, laboratory, and service facilities; rock foundations; tourism and culture; utilization of rock masses; research on the disposal of nuclear waste; training and research in the field of rock engineering; site investigation techniques; design of structures in rock; construction; the environment and occupational safety; modern equipment technology; underground space in Helsinki.

  12. Acoustic tomography and 3-D resistivity imaging of grout filled waste cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morgan, F.D.; Chauvelier, C.; Shi, Weiqun; Lesmes, D.

    1997-01-01

    The Scientific Ecology Group, Inc., (SEG) was contracted by Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., to demonstrate and evaluate four grout compounds for use in stabilizing radioactive waste trenches at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The demonstration site was constructed at SEG's Gallaher Road test facility in Kingston, Tennessee. SEG's objectives in this project were to compare the effectiveness of the candidate grouts and grouting procedures to hydrologically isolate the waste contained within the trenches and to stabilize the trenches against subsequent subsidence. In a separate agreement with Martin Marietta Energy Systems, MIT was contracted to demonstrate the feasibility of using high-frequency acoustic tomographic imaging to evaluate the performance of the various grouts and grouting procedures, and to monitor the stability of the grouted test cells over time. The test trench consisted of four contiguous cells, each 14 feet long x 12 feet wide x 12 feet deep. The native soil in which the test cells were constructed consisted of fine red clay which is typical of the Oak Ridge area. A plan view of the test cells is shown in Figure 1 , and a cross-sectional view of one of the cells within the trench. Each cell within the trench was filled with approximately 75 cubic yards of simulated waste. The simulated waste, which included 55 gallon drums and HEPA filters, consisted of approximately 35% metal, 15% wood, and 50% paper/plastic. After the cells were loaded with the simulated waste, the trench was covered by three feet of soil to grade, to duplicate the trench configuration commonly found at ORNL

  13. Nuclear waste viewed in a new light; a synchrotron study of uranium encapsulated in grout

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stitt, C.A., E-mail: Camilla.stitt@bristol.ac.uk [Interface Analysis Centre, H. H. Wills Physics Laboratory, University of Bristol, Tyndall Avenue, Bristol BS8 1TL (United Kingdom); Hart, M., E-mail: oxford.mike@gmail.com [Diamond Light Source Limited, Harwell Science and Innovation Campus, Fermi Avenue, Didcot, Oxfordshire OX11 0QX (United Kingdom); Harker, N.J., E-mail: nicholas.harker@esrf.fr [Interface Analysis Centre, H. H. Wills Physics Laboratory, University of Bristol, Tyndall Avenue, Bristol BS8 1TL (United Kingdom); Hallam, K.R., E-mail: k.r.hallam@bristol.ac.uk [Interface Analysis Centre, H. H. Wills Physics Laboratory, University of Bristol, Tyndall Avenue, Bristol BS8 1TL (United Kingdom); MacFarlane, J., E-mail: james.macfarlane@bristol.ac.uk [Interface Analysis Centre, H. H. Wills Physics Laboratory, University of Bristol, Tyndall Avenue, Bristol BS8 1TL (United Kingdom); Banos, A., E-mail: antonis.banos@bristol.ac.uk [Interface Analysis Centre, H. H. Wills Physics Laboratory, University of Bristol, Tyndall Avenue, Bristol BS8 1TL (United Kingdom); Paraskevoulakos, C., E-mail: cp13846@bristol.ac.uk [Interface Analysis Centre, H. H. Wills Physics Laboratory, University of Bristol, Tyndall Avenue, Bristol BS8 1TL (United Kingdom); Butcher, E., E-mail: ed.j.butcher@nnl.co.uk [National Nuclear Laboratory, Seascale, Cumbria CA20 1 PG (United Kingdom); Padovani, C., E-mail: cristiano.padovani@nda.gov.uk [Radioactive Waste Management Limited (formerly the Radioactive Waste Management Directorate of the UK Nuclear Decommissioning Authority), Curie Avenue, Didcot, Oxfordshire OX11 0RH (United Kingdom); Scott, T.B., E-mail: t.b.scott@bristol.ac.uk [Interface Analysis Centre, H. H. Wills Physics Laboratory, University of Bristol, Tyndall Avenue, Bristol BS8 1TL (United Kingdom)

    2015-03-21

    Highlights: • Unirradiated Magnox uranium was encapsulated in grout and exposed to hydrogen. • Synchrotron X-ray tomography imaged the uranium corrosion before and after exposure. • Synchrotron X-ray powder diffraction identified the corrosion products; UH{sub 3} and UO{sub 2}. • Uranium encapsulated in grout oxidised via the anoxic U + H{sub 2}O regime. • Successful in-situ, non-invasive examination of pyrophoric and radioactive material - Abstract: How do you characterise the contents of a sealed nuclear waste package without breaking it open? This question is important when the contained corrosion products are potentially reactive with air and radioactive. Synchrotron X-rays have been used to perform micro-scale in-situ observation and characterisation of uranium encapsulated in grout; a simulation for a typical intermediate level waste storage packet. X-ray tomography and X-ray powder diffraction generated both qualitative and quantitative data from a grout-encapsulated uranium sample before, and after, deliberately constrained H{sub 2} corrosion. Tomographic reconstructions provided a means of assessing the extent, rates and character of the corrosion reactions by comparing the relative densities between the materials and the volume of reaction products. The oxidation of uranium in grout was found to follow the anoxic U + H{sub 2}O oxidation regime, and the pore network within the grout was observed to influence the growth of uranium hydride sites across the metal surface. Powder diffraction analysis identified the corrosion products as UO{sub 2} and UH{sub 3}, and permitted measurement of corrosion-induced strain. Together, X-ray tomography and diffraction provide means of accurately determining the types and extent of uranium corrosion occurring, thereby offering a future tool for isolating and studying the reactions occurring in real full-scale waste package systems.

  14. Remedial action plan and site design for stabilization of the inactive uranium mill tailings sites at Slick Rock, Colorado. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-08-01

    This document contains the page changes for Attachment 3, Ground Water Hydrology Report dated August, 1996 for the Remedial Action Plan and Site Design for Stabilization of the Inactive Uranium Mill Tailings at Slick Rock, Colorado. This portion of Attachment 3 contains the Table of Contents pages i and ii, and pages numbered 3-3 through 3-56 of the Ground Water Hydrology Report. Also included are the cover sheets for Appendix A, B, and C to Attachment 3

  15. Research on Anchorage Performance of Grouting Anchor Connection of Precast Concrete Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Donghui; Liu, Xudong; Wang, Sheng; Cao, Xixi

    2018-03-01

    The bonding of grouted anchor bars is one of the vertical connection forms of steel bars in fabricated concrete structures. The performance of grouted connection is mainly affected by the anchorage length and lap length of steel bars. The mechanisms of bond and anchorage between steel bar and concrete are analyzed, and the factors that influence the anchorage performance of steel bar are systematically summarized. Results show that the bond and anchorage performance of steel and concrete have been studied widely, but there are still shortcomings, and the connection forms need to be further improved.

  16. Quantitative modelling of the degradation processes of cement grout. Project CEMMOD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grandia, Fidel; Galindez, Juan-Manuel; Arcos, David; Molinero, Jorge (Amphos21 Consulting S.L., Barcelona (Spain))

    2010-05-15

    Grout cement is planned to be used in the sealing of water-conducting fractures in the deep geological storage of spent nuclear fuel waste. The integrity of such cementitious materials should be ensured in a time framework of decades to a hundred of years as mimum. However, their durability must be quantified since grout degradation may jeopardize the stability of other components in the repository due to the potential release of hyperalkaline plumes. The model prediction of the cement alteration has been challenging in the last years mainly due to the difficulty to reproduce the progressive change in composition of the Calcium-Silicate-Hydrate (CSH) compounds as the alteration proceeds. In general, the data obtained from laboratory experiments show a rather similar dependence between the pH of pore water and the Ca-Si ratio of the CSH phases. The Ca-Si ratio decreases as the CSH is progressively replaced by Si-enriched phases. An elegant and reasonable approach is the use of solid solution models even keeping in mind that CSH phases are not crystalline solids but gels. An additional obstacle is the uncertainty in the initial composition of the grout to be considered in the calculations because only the recipe of low-pH clinker is commonly provided by the manufacturer. The hydration process leads to the formation of new phases and, importantly, creates porosity. A number of solid solution models have been reported in literature. Most of them assumed a strong non-ideal binary solid solution series to account for the observed changes in the Ca-Si ratios in CSH. However, it results very difficult to reproduce the degradation of the CSH in the whole Ca-Si range of compositions (commonly Ca/Si=0.5-2.5) by considering only two end-members and fixed nonideality parameters. Models with multiple non-ideal end-members with interaction parameters as a function of the solid composition can solve the problem but these can not be managed in the existing codes of reactive

  17. Analysis on pile testing results of post-grouting bored pile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, A. R.

    2017-04-01

    Based on static load test results, the bearing capacity of bored piles with pile-toe and pile-shaft post-grouting has been analyzed. The analysis reveals that: with post-grouting, the interface between pile and surrounding soil are strengthened and the relative sliding displacement in between is reduced; end resistance of pile is enhanced and can be mobilized at earlier stage with smaller sliding displacement. As a result, the performance of bored pile is improved with increased bearing capacity and reduced settlement.

  18. Application of high-strength non-shrink cement based grouting material in nuclear power installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Zhong; Zuo Weiwei

    2011-01-01

    This paper briefly describes the related technical requirement of secondary grouting during the process of equipment installation in nuclear power projects. The method and procedure are introduced in detail from the aspects of acceptance, preparation, pouring, collecting and maintenance of the high-strength non-shrinking based pouring cement material, and the cautions during the construction is also provided. The factors affecting the quality of the field grouting is analyzed, and the measures to reduce or eliminate the micro-cracks during the process is provided. (authors)

  19. Research on cement-based grouts for the OECD/NEA international Stripa project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onofrei, M.

    1994-01-01

    This paper deals with the work that has been carried out on cement-based by AECL research in Canada. The results indicate that it is possible to manufacture low water content high-performance cement-grouts, the performance of which would be acceptable for at least thousands of years and probably for much longer periods. Moreover, these grouts were shown to have negligible hydraulic conductivity, associated with very low porosity and to be highly leach resistant in repository conditions. (TEC). 18 refs., 1 tab., 6 figs

  20. Underground design Laxemar, Layout D2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2009-11-15

    relative to the maximum horizontal stress. The estimated amount of support is on average very low because of the very good quality rock mass anticipated. This conclusion is also supported by the underground experience at the Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory. The layout of the repository area has the deposition tunnels aligned < 30 deg relative to the maximum horizontal stress. With this orientation spalling is not anticipated in the deposition tunnels or deposition holes. The excavations for the Repository Access (shafts and ramps) will encounter the greatest frequency of open water-bearing fractures located between 0 and 150 m depth. These access excavations may result in a groundwater drawdown that will need to be minimised. The rock mass at the repository horizon is expected to encounter water-bearing fractures approximately 1 every 10 m, and in some areas even more frequently. Groundwater inflows are expected to be significant at repository level requiring extensive grouting. Results from grouting analyses indicate that conventional grouting measures may not be sufficient to meet the inflow criterion. In some areas of the repository, e.g. hydraulic domain HRD-EW007, sealing may not be practical with cement-based grouts and other sealing technologies, such as silica sol technology, may be required. The design and layout presented in this report is based on information compiled at the end of the complete site investigation phase and contained in the report SDM Site TR-09-01. As with all site investigations, at the scale of the repository, there are uncertainties associated with the interpretation of geological information based on borehole investigations. These uncertainties were identified and the impact of these on the current design was evaluated using risk assessment methodologies. The conclusion from the risk assessment is that the available gross capacity of about 8,000 deposition positions is unlikely to be sufficient to host a repository with 6,000 deposited canisters

  1. Mizunami Underground Research Laboratory project. Rock mechanical investigations measurement of the rock strain and displacement during shaft excavation at GL.-200m level of research galley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirano, Toru; Seno, Yasuhiro; Hikima, Ryoichi; Matsui, Hiroya

    2011-09-01

    In order to establish the scientific and technical basis for geological disposal of high-level radioactive waste, Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) is proceeding with the geoscientific research in the research galleries excavated at the Mizunami Underground Research Laboratory (MIU). One of the scientific and technical objectives of this project is to understand the change of geological environment due to excavation of research galleries. The investigation described herein is the measurement of the rock strain / displacement while pre-excavation grouting or excavating of the shaft around the GL.-200m level of research gallery. A brief summary is presented as follows. 1) Apparent strain with pre-excavation grouting: Injection pressure during pre-excavation grouting could explain the observed strain. Maximum principal strain 'E1' (extension) was oriented to NS direction. The measured fracture system at the site includes a fracture set perpendicular to E1. We infer that these fracture expanded due to grout injection pressure. 2) Apparent strain during excavation of the shaft: Rock behavior of stress release was observed when the bottom of shaft passed by and lining of shaft was constructed. The observed strain was very small and almost same scale as the expected strain for elastic material. But the observed strain of radial direction was compression whereas the expected strain was extension. Therefore it was estimated that rock behavior was affected by cracks. 3) Applicability of the FBG sensors for in situ displacement measurement near the shaft: FBG sensors were stable and reliable in comparison to strain meters or inclinometers. There was no electrical equipment trouble nor large drift in measurements. FBG results can lead to understand bending mode of borehole. But we cannot specify the displacement direction from these data in some cases. (author)

  2. Rock properties data base

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jackson, R.; Gorski, B.; Gyenge, M.

    1991-03-01

    As mining companies proceed deeper and into areas whose stability is threatened by high and complex stress fields, the science of rock mechanics becomes invaluable in designing underground mine strata control programs. CANMET's Mining Research Laboratories division has compiled a summary of pre- and post-failure mechanical properties of rock types which were tested to provide design data. The 'Rock Properties Data Base' presents the results of these tests, and includes many rock types typical of Canadian mine environments. The data base also contains 'm' and 's' values determined using Hoek and Brown's failure criteria for both pre- and post-failure conditions. 7 refs., 3 tabs., 9 figs., 1 append.

  3. Comprenhensive Program of Engineering and Geologic Surveys for Designing and Constructing Radioactive Waste Storage Facilities in Hard Rock Massifs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupalo, T.; Milovidov, V.; Prokopoca, O.; Jardine, L.

    2002-01-01

    Geological, geophysical, and engineering-geological research conducted at the 'Yeniseisky' site obtained data on climatic, geomorphologic, geological conditions, structure and properties of composing rock, and conditions of underground water recharge and discharge. These results provide suficient information to make an estimate of the suitability of locating a radioactive waste (RW) underground isolation facility at the Nizhnekansky granitoid massif.

  4. Recreating Rocks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Posth, Nicole R

    2008-01-01

    Nicole Posth and colleagues spent a month touring South African rock formations in their quest to understand the origin of ancient iron and silicate layers.......Nicole Posth and colleagues spent a month touring South African rock formations in their quest to understand the origin of ancient iron and silicate layers....

  5. A two-stage ceramic tile grout sealing process using a high power diode laser—Grout development and materials characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, J.; Li, L.; Spencer, J. T.

    1998-04-01

    Work has been conducted using a 60 Wcw high power diode laser (HPDL) in order to determine the feasibility and characteristics of sealing the void between adjoining ceramic tiles with a specially developed grout material having an impermeable enamel surface glaze. A two-stage process has been developed using a new grout material which consists of two distinct components: an amalgamated compound substrate and a glazed enamel surface; the amalgamated compound seal providing a tough, heat resistant bulk substrate, whilst the enamel provides an impervious surface. HPDL processing has resulted in crack free seals produced in normal atmospheric conditions. The basic process phenomena are investigated and the laser effects in terms of seal morphology, composition and microstructure are presented. Also, the resultant heat affects are analysed and described, as well as the effects of the shield gases, O 2 and Ar, during laser processing. Tiles were successfully sealed with power densities as low as 500 W/cm 2 and at rates up to 600 mm/min. Contact angle measurements revealed that due to the wettability characteristics of the amalgamated oxide compound grout (AOCG), laser surface treatment was necessary in order to alter the surface from a polycrystalline to a semi-amorphous structure, thus allowing the enamel to adhere. Bonding of the enamel to the AOCG and the ceramic tiles was identified as being principally due to van der Waals forces, and on a very small scale, some of the base AOCG material dissolving into the glaze.

  6. Rock sealing - large scale field test and accessory investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pusch, R.

    1988-03-01

    The experience from the pilot field test and the basic knowledge extracted from the lab experiments have formed the basis of the planning of a Large Scale Field Test. The intention is to find out how the 'instrument of rock sealing' can be applied to a number of practical cases, where cutting-off and redirection of groundwater flow in repositories are called for. Five field subtests, which are integrated mutually or with other Stripa projects (3D), are proposed. One of them concerns 'near-field' sealing, i.e. sealing of tunnel floors hosting deposition holes, while two involve sealing of 'disturbed' rock around tunnels. The fourth concerns sealing of a natural fracture zone in the 3D area, and this latter test has the expected spin-off effect of obtaining additional information on the general flow pattern around the northeastern wing of the 3D cross. The fifth test is an option of sealing structures in the Validation Drift. The longevity of major grout types is focussed on as the most important part of the 'Accessory Investigations', and detailed plans have been worked out for that purpose. It is foreseen that the continuation of the project, as outlined in this report, will yield suitable methods and grouts for effective and long-lasting sealing of rock for use at stategic points in repositories. (author)

  7. Rock in Rio: forever young

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Ferreira Freitas

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to discuss the role of Rock in Rio: The Musical, as herald of megafestival Rock in Rio. Driven by the success that musicals have reached in Brazil, we believe that the design of this spectacle of music, dance and staging renews the brand of the rock festival, once it adds the force of young and healthy bodies to its concept. Moreover, the musical provides Rock in Rio with some distance from the controversal trilogy of sex, drugs and rock and roll, a strong mark of past festivals around the world. Thus, the musical expands the possibilities of growth for the brand.

  8. Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project (UMTRAP), Slick Rock, Colorado, Revision 1. Volume 2, Calculations, Final design for construction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-09-01

    Volume two contains calculations for: embankment design--slope stability analysis; embankment design--excavation stability; embankment design--settlement and cover cracking analysis; radon barrier design--statistical analysis of ra-226 concentrations for North Continent and Union Carbide sites; radon barrier design--RAECOM input data; radon barrier design--design thickness; and cover design--frost penetration depth

  9. Rock mechanics for hard rock nuclear waste repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heuze, F.E.

    1981-09-01

    The mined geologic burial of high level nuclear waste is now the favored option for disposal. The US National Waste Terminal Storage Program designed to achieve this disposal includes an extensive rock mechanics component related to the design of the wastes repositories. The plan currently considers five candidate rock types. This paper deals with the three hard rocks among them: basalt, granite, and tuff. Their behavior is governed by geological discontinuities. Salt and shale, which exhibit behavior closer to that of a continuum, are not considered here. This paper discusses both the generic rock mechanics R and D, which are required for repository design, as well as examples of projects related to hard rock waste storage. The examples include programs in basalt (Hanford/Washington), in granitic rocks (Climax/Nevada Test Site, Idaho Springs/Colorado, Pinawa/Canada, Oracle/Arizona, and Stripa/Sweden), and in tuff

  10. Leach and EP [extraction procedure] toxicity tests on grouted waste from Tank 106-AN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serne, R.J.; Martin, W.J.; Lokken, R.O.; LeGore, V.L.; Lindenmeier, C.W.; Martin, P.F.C.

    1989-09-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory is conducting laboratory experiments to produce leach rate data for various waste species that will be contained in grout at Hanford. In the work reported here, grout made from Tank 106-AN liquid waste was used to produce empirical leach rate data for several radionuclides ( 60 Co, 90 Sr, 99Tc, 129I, 137Cs, and 241 Am), stable major components (NO 3 - , NO 2 - , F, Cl, and Na), and trace metals (Cr, Mo, and Ni). Two types of tests were used to produce leach rate data: an intermittent replacement leach test (ANS 16.1 leach test) and a static leach test. Measured effective diffusivities of key species are as follows: 4 to 6 x 10 -8 cm 2 /sec for 99 Tc, 3 to 7 x 10 -8 cm 2 /sec for 129 I, 4 to 6 x 10 -9 cm 2 /sec for nitrate, and 6 to 7 x 10 -9 cm 2 /sec for nitrite. The leach indices of all species studied are above (more favorable than) the waste form criteria. The leach indices for 99 Tc and 129 I are 7.4 ± 1.2 and 7.6 ± 0.4, respectively, and are being further investigated in continuing studies of double-shell slurry feed grouts. An Extraction Procedure (EP) toxicity test was also conducted and the grouted water is considered nontoxic per this test protocol. 19 refs., 9 figs., 8 tabs

  11. Nuclear waste viewed in a new light; a synchrotron study of uranium encapsulated in grout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stitt, C A; Hart, M; Harker, N J; Hallam, K R; MacFarlane, J; Banos, A; Paraskevoulakos, C; Butcher, E; Padovani, C; Scott, T B

    2015-03-21

    How do you characterise the contents of a sealed nuclear waste package without breaking it open? This question is important when the contained corrosion products are potentially reactive with air and radioactive. Synchrotron X-rays have been used to perform micro-scale in-situ observation and characterisation of uranium encapsulated in grout; a simulation for a typical intermediate level waste storage packet. X-ray tomography and X-ray powder diffraction generated both qualitative and quantitative data from a grout-encapsulated uranium sample before, and after, deliberately constrained H2 corrosion. Tomographic reconstructions provided a means of assessing the extent, rates and character of the corrosion reactions by comparing the relative densities between the materials and the volume of reaction products. The oxidation of uranium in grout was found to follow the anoxic U+H2O oxidation regime, and the pore network within the grout was observed to influence the growth of uranium hydride sites across the metal surface. Powder diffraction analysis identified the corrosion products as UO2 and UH3, and permitted measurement of corrosion-induced strain. Together, X-ray tomography and diffraction provide means of accurately determining the types and extent of uranium corrosion occurring, thereby offering a future tool for isolating and studying the reactions occurring in real full-scale waste package systems. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Performance assessment of grouted double-shell tank waste disposal at Hanford. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shade, J.W., Kincaid, C.T.; Whyatt, G.A.; Rhoads, K.; Westsik, J.H. Jr.; Freshley, M.D.; Blanchard, K.A.; Shade, J.W.; Piepho, M.G.; Voogd, J.A.

    1994-09-01

    This document assesses the performance of the Grout Disposal Facility after closure. The facility and disposal environment are modeled to predict the long-term impacts of the disposal action. The document concludes that the disposal system provides reasonable assurance that doses to the public will remain within the performance objectives. This document is required for DOC Order 5820.2A

  13. High-performance cement-based grouts for use in a nuclear waste disposal facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onofrei, M.; Gray, M.N.

    1992-12-01

    National and international agencies have identified cement-based materials as prime candidates for sealing vaults that would isolate nuclear fuel wastes from the biosphere. Insufficient information is currently available to allow a reasonable analysis of the long-term performance of these sealing materials in a vault. A combined laboratory and modelling research program was undertaken to provide the necessary information for a specially developed high-performance cement grout. The results indicate that acceptable performance is likely for at least thousands of years and probably for much longer periods. The materials, which have been proven to be effective in field applications, are shown to be virtually impermeable and highly leach resistant under vault conditions. Special plasticizing additives used in the material formulation enhance the physical characteristics of the grout without detriment to its chemical durability. Neither modelling nor laboratory testing have yet provided a definitive assessment of the grout's longevity. However, none of the results of these studies has contraindicated the use of high-performance cement-based grouts in vault sealing applications. (Author) (24 figs., 6 tabs., 21 refs.)

  14. Time-Lapse Electrical Resistivity Investigations for Imaging the Grouting Injection in Shallow Subsurface Cavities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Farooq

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The highway of Yongweol-ri, Muan-gun, south-western part of the South Korean Peninsula, is underlain by the abandoned of subsurface cavities, which were discovered in 2005. These cavities lie at shallow depths with the range of 5∼15 meters below the ground surface. Numerous subsidence events have repeatedly occurred in the past few years, damaging infrastructure and highway. As a result of continuing subsidence issues, the Korean Institute of Geosciences and Mineral Resources (KIGAM was requested by local administration to resolve the issue. The KIGAM used geophysical methods to delineate subsurface cavities and improve more refined understanding of the cavities network in the study area. Cement based grouting has been widely employed in the construction industry to reinforce subsurface ground. In this research work, time-lapse electrical resistivity surveys were accomplished to monitor the grouting injection in the subsurface cavities beneath the highway, which have provided a quasi-real-time monitoring for modifying the subsurface cavities related to ground reinforcement, which would be difficult with direct methods. The results obtained from time-lapse electrical resistivity technique have satisfactory imaged the grouting injection experiment in the subsurface cavities beneath the highway. Furthermore, the borehole camera confirmed the presence of grouting material in the subsurface cavities, and hence this procedure increases the mechanical resistance of subsurface cavities below the highway.

  15. Test plan for formulation and evaluation of grouted waste forms with shine process wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ebert, W. L. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Jerden, J. L. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2015-09-01

    The objective of this experimental project is to demonstrate that waste streams generated during the production of Mo99 by the SHINE Medical Technologies (SHINE) process can be immobilized in cement-based grouted waste forms having physical, chemical, and radiological stabilities that meet regulatory requirements for handling, storage, transport, and disposal.

  16. Grouting applications in civil engineering. Volume I and II. [800 references

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Einstein, H.H.; Barvenik, M.J.

    1975-01-01

    A comprehensive description of grouting applications in civil engineering is presented that can serve as a basis for the selection of grouting methods in the borehole sealing problem. The breadth and depth of the study was assured by conducting the main part of the review, the collection and evaluation of information, without specifically considering the borehole sealing problem (but naturally incorporating any aspect of civil engineering applications that could be of potential use). Grouting is very much an art and not a science. In most cases, it is a trial and error procedure where an inexpensive method is initially tried and then a more expensive one is used until the desired results are obtained. Once a desired effect is obtained, it is difficult to credit any one procedure with the success because the results are due to the summation of all the methods used. In many cases, the method that proves successful reflects a small abnormality in the ground or structure rather than its overall characteristics. Hence, successful grouting relies heavily on good engineering judgement and experience, and not on a basic set of standard correlations or equations. 800 references. (JRD)

  17. 106-AN grout pilot-scale test HGTP-93-0501-02

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bagaasen, L.M.

    1993-05-01

    The Grout Treatment Facility (GTF) at Hanford, Washington will process the low-level fraction of selected double-shell tank (DST) wastes into a cementitious waste form. This facility, which is operated by Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC), mixes liquid waste with cementitious materials to produce a waste form that immobilizes hazardous constituents through chemical reactions and/or microencapsulation. Over 1,000,000 gal of Phosphate/Sulfate Waste were solidified in the first production campaign with this facility. The next tank scheduled for treatment is 106-AN. After conducting laboratory studies to select the grout formulation, part of the normal formulation verification process is to conduct tests using the 1/4-scale pilot facilities at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL). The major objectives of these pilot-scale tests were to determine if the proposed grout formulation could be processed in the pilot-scale equipment and to collect thermal information to help determine the best way to manage the grout hydration heat

  18. Pretreatment of Tc-Containing Waste and Its Effect on Tc-99 Leaching From Grouts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aloy, Albert; Kovarskaya, Elena N.; Harbour, John R.; Langton, Christine A.; Holtzscheiter, E. William

    2007-01-01

    A salt solution (doped with Tc-99), that simulates the salt waste stream to be processed at the Saltstone Production Facility, was immobilized in grout waste forms with and without (1) ground granulated blast furnace slag and (2) pretreatment with iron salts. The degree of immobilization of Tc-99 was measured through monolithic and crushed grout leaching tests. Although Fe (+2) was shown to be effective in reducing Tc-99 to the +4 state, the strong reducing nature of the blast furnace slag present in the grout formulation dominated the reduction of Tc-99 in the cured grouts. An effective diffusion coefficient of 4.75 x 10 -12 (Leach Index of 11.4) was measured using the ANSI/ANS-16.1 protocol. The leaching results show that, even in the presence of a concentrated salt solution, blast furnace slag can effectively reduce pertechnetate to the immobile +4 oxidation state. The measured diffusivity was introduced into a flow and transport model (PORFLOW) to calculate the release of Tc-99 from a Saltstone Vault as a function of hydraulic conductivity of the matrix. (authors)

  19. Pilot-scale production of grout with simulated double-shell slurry feed. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whyatt, G.A.

    1994-08-01

    This report describes the pilot-scale production of grout with simulated double-shell slurry feed (DSSF) waste performed in November 1988, and the subsequent thermal behavior of the grout as it cured in a large, insulated vessel. The report was issued in draft form in April 1989 and comments were subsequently received; however, the report was not finalized until 1994. In finalizing this report, references or information gained after the report was drafted in April 1989 have not been incorporated to preserve the report`s historical perspective. This report makes use of criteria from Ridelle (1987) to establish formulation criteria. This document has since been superseded by a document prepared by Reibling and Fadeef (1991). However, the reference to Riddelle (1987) and any analysis based on its content have been maintained within this report. In addition, grout is no longer being considered as the waste form for disposal of Hanford`s low-level waste. However, grout disposal is being maintained as an option in case there is an emergency need to provide additional tank space. Current plans are to vitrify low-level wastes into a glass matrix.

  20. Theoretical analysis and design of hydro-hammer with a jet actuator: An engineering application to improve the penetration rate of directional well drilling in hard rock formations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Jiang-Fu; Liang, Yun-Pei; Li, Li-Jia; Luo, Yong-Jiang

    2018-01-01

    Rapid horizontal directional well drilling in hard or fractured formations requires efficient drilling technology. The penetration rate of conventional hard rock drilling technology in horizontal directional well excavations is relatively low, resulting in multiple overgrinding of drill cuttings in bottom boreholes. Conventional drilling techniques with reamer or diamond drill bit face difficulties due to the long construction periods, low penetration rates, and high engineering costs in the directional well drilling of hard rock. To improve the impact energy and penetration rate of directional well drilling in hard formations, a new drilling system with a percussive and rotary drilling technology has been proposed, and a hydro-hammer with a jet actuator has also been theoretically designed on the basis of the impulse hydro-turbine pressure model. In addition, the performance parameters of the hydro-hammer with a jet actuator have been numerically and experimentally analyzed, and the influence of impact stroke and pumped flow rate on the motion velocity and impact energy of the hydro-hammer has been obtained. Moreover, the designed hydro-hammer with a jet actuator has been applied to hard rock drilling in a trenchless drilling program. The motion velocity of the hydro-hammer ranges from 1.2 m/s to 3.19 m/s with diverse flow rates and impact strokes, and the motion frequency ranges from 10 Hz to 22 Hz. Moreover, the maximum impact energy of the hydro-hammer is 407 J, and the pumped flow rate is 2.3 m3/min. Thus, the average penetration rate of the optimized hydro-hammer improves by over 30% compared to conventional directional drilling in hard rock formations.

  1. Immobilized low-activity waste interim storage facility, Project W-465 conceptual design report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pickett, W.W.

    1997-12-30

    This report outlines the design and Total Estimated Cost to modify the four unused grout vaults for the remote handling and interim storage of immobilized low-activity waste (ILAW). The grout vault facilities in the 200 East Area of the Hanford Site were constructed in the 1980s to support Tank Waste disposal activities. The facilities were to serve project B-714 which was intended to store grouted low-activity waste. The existing 4 unused grout vaults, with modifications for remote handling capability, will provide sufficient capacity for approximately three years of immobilized low activity waste (ILAW) production from the Tank Waste Remediation System-Privatization Vendors (TWRS-PV). These retrofit modifications to the grout vaults will result in an ILAW interim storage facility (Project W465) that will comply with applicable DOE directives, and state and federal regulations.

  2. Immobilized low-activity waste interim storage facility, Project W-465 conceptual design report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pickett, W.W.

    1997-01-01

    This report outlines the design and Total Estimated Cost to modify the four unused grout vaults for the remote handling and interim storage of immobilized low-activity waste (ILAW). The grout vault facilities in the 200 East Area of the Hanford Site were constructed in the 1980s to support Tank Waste disposal activities. The facilities were to serve project B-714 which was intended to store grouted low-activity waste. The existing 4 unused grout vaults, with modifications for remote handling capability, will provide sufficient capacity for approximately three years of immobilized low activity waste (ILAW) production from the Tank Waste Remediation System-Privatization Vendors (TWRS-PV). These retrofit modifications to the grout vaults will result in an ILAW interim storage facility (Project W465) that will comply with applicable DOE directives, and state and federal regulations

  3. Art Rocks with Rock Art!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bickett, Marianne

    2011-01-01

    This article discusses rock art which was the very first "art." Rock art, such as the images created on the stone surfaces of the caves of Lascaux and Altimira, is the true origin of the canvas, paintbrush, and painting media. For there, within caverns deep in the earth, the first artists mixed animal fat, urine, and saliva with powdered minerals…

  4. Finite Element Analysis of Grouting Compactness Monitoring in a Post-Tensioning Tendon Duct Using Piezoceramic Transducers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tianyong Jiang

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available With the development of the post-tensioning technique, prestressed concrete structures have been widely used in civil engineering. To ensure the long-term effectiveness of the prestressed tendon, the grouting quality of the tendon duct is one of the important factors. However, it is still a challenge to monitor the grouting quality of post-tensioning tendon ducts, due to the invisibility of the grouting. The authors’ previous work proposed a real-time method that employed a stress wave-based active sensing approach with piezoceramic transducers to monitor the grouting compactness of a Post-Tensioning Tendon Duct (PTTD. To further understand the piezoceramic induced stress wave propagation in the PTTD with different grouting levels, this paper develops a two-dimensional finite element model for monitoring the grouting compactness of the tendon duct with a piezoceramic transducer. A smart aggregate (SA developed to utilize one Lead Zirconate Titanate (PZT transducer with marble protection is installed in the center location of the tendon duct as an actuator. Two PZT patches are bonded on the bottom and top surface of the tendon duct as the sensors. The analysis results show that the finite element analysis results are in good agreement with the experimental results, which demonstrates that the finite element analysis is feasible and reliable. For the top half of the specimen, not much stress wave could be detected before the full grouting level, except for negligible signals that may propagate through the walls of the tendon duct. When the tendon duct grouting is at 100%, the stress wave propagates to the top of the specimen, and the displacements are symmetric in both left-right and top-bottom directions before the stress waves reach the boundary. The proposed two-dimensional finite element model has the potential to be implemented to simulate the stress wave propagation principle for monitoring grouting compaction of the post-tensioning tendon

  5. Finite Element Analysis of Grouting Compactness Monitoring in a Post-Tensioning Tendon Duct Using Piezoceramic Transducers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Tianyong; Zheng, Junbo; Huo, Linsheng; Song, Gangbing

    2017-09-29

    With the development of the post-tensioning technique, prestressed concrete structures have been widely used in civil engineering. To ensure the long-term effectiveness of the prestressed tendon, the grouting quality of the tendon duct is one of the important factors. However, it is still a challenge to monitor the grouting quality of post-tensioning tendon ducts, due to the invisibility of the grouting. The authors' previous work proposed a real-time method that employed a stress wave-based active sensing approach with piezoceramic transducers to monitor the grouting compactness of a Post-Tensioning Tendon Duct (PTTD). To further understand the piezoceramic induced stress wave propagation in the PTTD with different grouting levels, this paper develops a two-dimensional finite element model for monitoring the grouting compactness of the tendon duct with a piezoceramic transducer. A smart aggregate (SA) developed to utilize one Lead Zirconate Titanate (PZT) transducer with marble protection is installed in the center location of the tendon duct as an actuator. Two PZT patches are bonded on the bottom and top surface of the tendon duct as the sensors. The analysis results show that the finite element analysis results are in good agreement with the experimental results, which demonstrates that the finite element analysis is feasible and reliable. For the top half of the specimen, not much stress wave could be detected before the full grouting level, except for negligible signals that may propagate through the walls of the tendon duct. When the tendon duct grouting is at 100%, the stress wave propagates to the top of the specimen, and the displacements are symmetric in both left-right and top-bottom directions before the stress waves reach the boundary. The proposed two-dimensional finite element model has the potential to be implemented to simulate the stress wave propagation principle for monitoring grouting compaction of the post-tensioning tendon duct.

  6. Ultrasonic test application in geothermal heat exchangers and civil works to monitor the grout integrity (TUC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandrone, Giuseppe; Comina, Cesare; Giuliani, Andrea

    2013-04-01

    The working of a vertical geothermal probe, realized with a pipe U-tubes of high-density-polyethylene (HDPE) inserted in a grouted boreholes, is linked to the possibility to exchange heat with the surrounding soil. The concrete material useful for the borehole heat exchangers allows to satisfy a double purpose: sealing the polyethylene pipes from groundwater in the event of loss and increasing the thermal properties of the whole probe to provide a greater interaction with the underground. If this operation is not performed properly, the complete system may not satisfy the required heat demand, even with a well dimensioned installation, wasting the value of the entire carried out work. This paper offers to a wide group of professional actors a possible ultrasonic method of a draft and economically sustainable investigation for the identification of defects that could be present in the cementation realized inside a geothermal probe, but also in the realization of sonic piles. The instrument used for this type of test (TUC - Test Ultrasonic Cementation) has been designed and tested by the technicians of AG3, a Spin Off Company of Torino University, in collaboration with 3DM Electric and PASI companies, then subjected to patenting procedure (Patent Pending TO2011A000036). The main innovative feature of this approach has been the miniaturization of the equipment, able to investigate the geothermal probes with U-tubes with standard dimension (the maximum overall dimensions of the instruments detectors is 26 mm), maintaining a sampling rate appropriate to investigate the cementation and the early centimetres of the surrounding soil. The processing of the recorded data was performed by a dedicated Matlab software. In the first part of the article is presented the calibration process, that it was carried out through ad hoc creation of two situations likely to be investigated, while in the second part the paper reports the results obtained by the application of the TUC

  7. Injection of FGD Grout to Abate Acid Mine Drainage in Underground Coal Mines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mafi, S.; Damian, M.T.; Senita, R.E.; Jewitt, W.C.; Bair, S.; Chin, Y.C.; Whitlatch, E.; Traina, S.; Wolfe, W.

    1997-07-01

    Acid Mine Drainage (AMD) from abandoned underground coal mines in Ohio is a concern for both residents and regulatory agencies. Effluent from these mines is typically characterized by low pH and high iron and sulfate concentrations and may contaminate local drinking-water supplies and streams. The objective of this project is to demonstrate the technical feasibility of injecting cementitious alkaline materials, such as Flue Gas Desulfurization (FGD) material to mitigate current adverse environmental impacts associated with AMD in a small, abandoned deep mine in Coshocton County Ohio. The Flue Gas Desulfurization material will be provided from American Electric Power`s (AEP) Conesville Plant. It will be injected as a grout mix that will use Fixated Flue Gas Desulfurization material and water. The subject site for this study is located on the border of Coshocton and Muskingum Counties, Ohio, approximately 1.5 miles south-southwest of the town of Wills Creek. The study will be performed at an underground mine designated as Mm-127 in the Ohio Department of Natural Resources register, also known as the Roberts-Dawson Mine. The mine operated in the mid-1950s, during which approximately 2 million cubic feet of coal was removed. Effluent discharging from the abandoned mine entrances has low pH in the range of 2.8-3.0 that drains directly into Wills Creek Lake. The mine covers approximately 14.6 acres. It is estimated that 26,000 tons of FGD material will be provided from AEP`s Conesville Power Plant located approximately 3 miles northwest of the subject site.

  8. Injection of FGD Grout to Abate Acid Mine Drainage in Underground Coal Mines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mafi, S.; Damian, M.T.; Senita, R.E.; Jewitt, W.C.; Bair, S.; Chin, Y.C.; Whitlatch, E.; Traina, S.; Wolfe, W.

    1997-07-01

    Acid Mine Drainage (AMD) from abandoned underground coal mines in Ohio is a concern for both residents and regulatory agencies. Effluent from these mines is typically characterized by low pH and high iron and sulfate concentrations and may contaminate local drinking-water supplies and streams. The objective of this project is to demonstrate the technical feasibility of injecting cementitious alkaline materials, such as Flue Gas Desulfurization (FGD) material to mitigate current adverse environmental impacts associated with AMD in a small, abandoned deep mine in Coshocton County Ohio. The Flue Gas Desulfurization material will be provided from American Electric Power's (AEP) Conesville Plant. It will be injected as a grout mix that will use Fixated Flue Gas Desulfurization material and water. The subject site for this study is located on the border of Coshocton and Muskingum Counties, Ohio, approximately 1.5 miles south-southwest of the town of Wills Creek. The study will be performed at an underground mine designated as Mm-127 in the Ohio Department of Natural Resources register, also known as the Roberts-Dawson Mine. The mine operated in the mid-1950s, during which approximately 2 million cubic feet of coal was removed. Effluent discharging from the abandoned mine entrances has low pH in the range of 2.8-3.0 that drains directly into Wills Creek Lake. The mine covers approximately 14.6 acres. It is estimated that 26,000 tons of FGD material will be provided from AEP's Conesville Power Plant located approximately 3 miles northwest of the subject site

  9. Rational Design of Tunnel Supports: An Interactive Graphics Based Analysis of the Support Requirements of Excavations in Jointed Rock Masses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-09-01

    joint orientetion and joint slippage than to failure of the intact rock mass. Dixon (1971) noted the importance of including the confining influence of...dedicated computer. The area of research not covered by this investigation which holds promise for a future study is a detailed comparison of the results of...block data, type key "W". The program writes this data on Linc tapes for future retripval. This feature can be used to store the consolidated block

  10. Rock Physics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fabricius, Ida Lykke

    2017-01-01

    Rock physics is the discipline linking petrophysical properties as derived from borehole data to surface based geophysical exploration data. It can involve interpretation of both elastic wave propagation and electrical conductivity, but in this chapter focus is on elasticity. Rock physics is based...... on continuum mechanics, and the theory of elasticity developed for statics becomes the key to petrophysical interpretation of velocity of elastic waves. In practice, rock physics involves interpretation of well logs including vertical seismic profiling (VSP) and analysis of core samples. The results...

  11. Quantitative modelling of the degradation processes of cement grout. Project CEMMOD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grandia, Fidel; Galindez, Juan-Manuel; Arcos, David; Molinero, Jorge

    2010-05-01

    Grout cement is planned to be used in the sealing of water-conducting fractures in the deep geological storage of spent nuclear fuel waste. The integrity of such cementitious materials should be ensured in a time framework of decades to a hundred of years as mimum. However, their durability must be quantified since grout degradation may jeopardize the stability of other components in the repository due to the potential release of hyperalkaline plumes. The model prediction of the cement alteration has been challenging in the last years mainly due to the difficulty to reproduce the progressive change in composition of the Calcium-Silicate-Hydrate (CSH) compounds as the alteration proceeds. In general, the data obtained from laboratory experiments show a rather similar dependence between the pH of pore water and the Ca-Si ratio of the CSH phases. The Ca-Si ratio decreases as the CSH is progressively replaced by Si-enriched phases. An elegant and reasonable approach is the use of solid solution models even keeping in mind that CSH phases are not crystalline solids but gels. An additional obstacle is the uncertainty in the initial composition of the grout to be considered in the calculations because only the recipe of low-pH clinker is commonly provided by the manufacturer. The hydration process leads to the formation of new phases and, importantly, creates porosity. A number of solid solution models have been reported in literature. Most of them assumed a strong non-ideal binary solid solution series to account for the observed changes in the Ca-Si ratios in CSH. However, it results very difficult to reproduce the degradation of the CSH in the whole Ca-Si range of compositions (commonly Ca/Si=0.5-2.5) by considering only two end-members and fixed nonideality parameters. Models with multiple non-ideal end-members with interaction parameters as a function of the solid composition can solve the problem but these can not be managed in the existing codes of reactive

  12. Solid as a rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pincus, H.J.

    1984-01-01

    Recent technologic developments have required a more comprehensive approach to the behavior of rock mass or rock substance plus discontinuities than was adequate previously. This work considers the inherent problems in such operations as the storage of hot or cold fluids in caverns and aquifers, underground storage of nuclear waste, underground recovery of heat from hydrocarbon fuels, tertiary recovery of oil by thermal methods, rapid excavation of large openings at shallow to great depths and in hostile environments, and retrofitting of large structures built on or in rock. The standardization of methods for determining rock properties is essential to all of the activities described, for use not only in design and construction but also in site selection and post-construction monitoring. Development of such standards is seen as a multidisciplinary effort

  13. Rocking pneumonia

    OpenAIRE

    Rijkers, Ger T.; Rodriguez Gomez, Maria

    2017-01-01

    Ever since Chuck Berry coined the term “rocking pneumonia” in his 1956 song “Roll over Beethoven”, pneumonia has been mentioned frequently in modern blues and rock songs. We analyzed the lyrics of these songs to examine how various elements of pneumonia have been represented in popular music, specifically the cause of pneumonia, the risk groups, comorbidity (such as the boogie woogie flu), the clinical symptoms, and treatment and outcome. Up to this day, songwriters suggest that pneumonia is ...

  14. ASSESSMENT OF THE POTENTIAL FOR HYDROGEN GENERATION DURING GROUTING OPERATIONS IN THE R AND P REACTOR VESSELS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiersma, B.

    2010-05-24

    The R- and P-reactor buildings were retired from service and are now being prepared for deactivation and decommissioning (D and D). D and D activities consist primarily of immobilizing contaminated components and structures in a grout-like formulation. Aluminum corrodes very rapidly when it comes in contact with the alkaline grout materials and as a result produces hydrogen gas. To address this potential deflagration/explosion hazard, the Materials Science and Technology Directorate (MS and T) of the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) has been requested to review and evaluate existing experimental and analytical studies of this issue to determine if any process constraints on the chemistry of the fill material and the fill operation are necessary. Various options exist for the type of grout material that may be used for D and D of the reactor vessels. The grout formulation options include ceramicrete (pH 6-8), low pH portland cement + silica fume grout (pH 10.4), or Portland cement groupt (pH 12.5). The assessment concluded that either ceramicrete or the silica fume grout may be used to safely grout the P-reactor vessel. The risk of accumulation of a flammable mixture of hydrogen between the grout-air interface and the top of the reactor is very low. Portland cement grout, on the other hand, for the same range of process parameters does not provide a margin of safety against the accumulation of flammable gas in the reactor vessel during grouting operations in the P-reactor vessel. It is recommended that this grout not be utilized for this task. The R-reactor vessel cotnains significantly less aluminum based on current facility process knowledge, surface observations, and drawings. Therefore, a Portland cement grout may be considered for grouting operations as well as the other grout formulations. For example, if the grout fill rate is less than 1 inch/min and the grout temperature is maintained at 70 C or less, the risk of hydrogen accumulation during fill

  15. Site investigations, design, construction, operation, shutdown and surveillance of repositories for low- and intermediate-level radioactive wastes in rock cavities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    The report provides an overview and technical guidelines for considerations and for activities to be undertaken for safety assessment, site investigations, design, construction, operation, shutdown and surveillance of repositories for the disposal of low- and intermediate-level radioactive wastes in rock cavities. A generalized sequence of investigations is introduced which proceeds through region and site selection to the stage where the site is confirmed by detailed geoscientific investigations as being suitable for a waste repository. The different procedures and somewhat specific investigative needs with respect to existing mines are dealt with separately. General design, as well as specific requirements with respect to the different stages of design and construction, are dealt with. A review of activities related to the operational and post-operational stages of repositories in rock cavities is presented. The report describes in general terms the procedures related to different stages of disposal operation; also the conditions for shutdown together with essential shutdown and sealing activities and the related safety assessment requirements. Guidance is also given on the surveillance programme which will allow for inspection, testing, maintenance and security of a disposal facility during the operational phase, as well as for the post-operational stage for periods determined as necessary by the national authorities

  16. Remedial action and site design for stabilization of the inactive uranium mill tailings sites at Slick Rock, Colorado

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-07-01

    The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has established health and environmental protection regulations to correct and prevent groundwater contamination resulting from processing activities at inactive uranium milling sites (EPA, 1987). According to the Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act (UMTRCA) of 1978 Public Law (PL) 95-604 (PL 95-604), the US Department of Energy (DOE) is responsible for assessing the inactive uranium processing sites. The DOE has determined that for Slick Rock, this assessment shall include hydrogeologic site characterization for two separate uranium processing sites, the Union Carbide (UC) site and the North Continent (NC) site, and for the proposed Burro Canyon disposal site

  17. Development of concrete mix proportions for minimizing/eliminating shrinkage cracks in slabs and high performance grouts : final report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-02-01

    The two focus areas of this research address longstanding problems of (1) cracking of concrete slabs due to creep and shrinkage and (2) high performance compositions for grouting and joining precast concrete structural elements. Cracking of bridge de...

  18. Remedial action plan and site design for stabilization of the inactive uranium mill tailings sites at Slick Rock, Colorado: Remedial Action Selection Report. Preliminary final

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-03-01

    This proposed remedial action plan incorporates the results of detailed investigation of geologic, geomorphic, and seismic conditions at the proposed disposal site. The proposed remedial action will consist of relocating the uranium mill tailings, contaminated vicinity property materials, demolition debris, and windblown/waterborne materials to a permanent repository at the proposed Burro Canyon disposal cell. The proposed disposal site will be geomorphically stable. Seismic design parameters were developed for the geotechnical analyses of the proposed cell. Cell stability was analyzed to ensure long-term performance of the disposal cell in meeting design standards, including slope stability, settlement, and liquefaction potential. The proposed cell cover and erosion protection features were also analyzed and designed to protect the RRM (residual radioactive materials) against surface water and wind erosion. The location of the proposed cell precludes the need for permanent drainage or interceptor ditches. Rock to be used on the cell top-, side-, and toeslopes was sized to withstand probable maximum precipitation events.

  19. A THERMAL MODEL OF THE IMMOBILIZATION OF LOW-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTE AS GROUT IN CONCRETE VAULTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shadday, M

    2008-10-27

    Salt solution will be mixed with cement and flyash/slag to form a grout which will be immobilized in above ground concrete vaults. The curing process is exothermic, and a transient thermal model of the pouring and curing process is herein described. A peak temperature limit of 85 C for the curing grout restricts the rate at which it can be poured into a vault. The model is used to optimize the pouring.

  20. An Experimental Study of Portland Cement and Superfine Cement Slurry Grouting in Loose Sand and Sandy Soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weijing Yao

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Grouting technology is widely applied in the fields of geotechnical engineering in infrastructure. Loose sand and sandy soil are common poor soils in tunnel and foundation treatments. It is necessary to use superfine cement slurry grouting in the micro-cracks of soil. The different effectiveness of Portland cement slurry and superfine cement slurry in sandy soil by the laboratory grouting experiment method were presented in this paper. The grouting situations of superfine cement slurry injected into sand and sandy soil were explored. The investigated parameters were the dry density, wet density, moisture content, internal friction angle, and cohesion force. The results show that the consolidation effect of superfine cement is better than that of Portland cement due to the small size of superfine cement particles. The superfine cement can diffuse into the sand by infiltration, extrusion, and splitting. When the water–cement ratio of superfine cement slurry is less than 2:1 grouting into loose sand, the dry and wet density decrease with the increase in the water–cement ratio, while the moisture content and cohesive force gradually increase. When the water–cement ratio of superfine cement slurry is 1:1 grouting into loose sand and sandy soil, the dry density, wet density, and cohesive force of loose sand are larger than those of sandy soil. The results of the experiment may be relevant for engineering applications.

  1. KBS-3H design description 2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Autio, J.; Hagros, A.; Johansson, E.

    2008-12-01

    The presented KBS-3H design work was carried out in KBS-3H project in 2004 - 2007, which was a joint project between Svensk Kaernbraenslehantering AB (SKB) in Sweden and Posiva Oy in Finland. The overall objectives of the project phase were to demonstrate that the horizontal deposition alternative is technically feasible and to demonstrate that it fulfils the same long-term safety requirements as the reference design KBS-3V. The KBS-3H design is a variant of the KBS-3 method and an alternative to the KBS-3V design. In the KBS-3H design alternative, multiple canisters containing spent fuel are emplaced at about 420 m depth in bedrock in parallel, 100 - 300 m long, approximately horizontal deposition drifts whereas the KBS-3V design calls for vertical emplacement of the canisters in individual deposition holes. As a result of design work, the two previous KBS-3H repository candidate designs called Basic Design (BD) and design based on Drainage, Artificial Watering and air Evacuation (DAWE) were developed on two different functional principles. At later phase of the project the BD alternative was found not to be robust in drifts with several large inflows and therefore a third less mature alternative called Semi Tight Compartments design (STC) was introduced to function in these conditions. Significant effort was made in the project to resolve studies and testing the functional uncertainties related to buffer behaviour which could e.g. cause piping, erosion, displacement and rupture of distance blocks. Major work was also carried for the design of supercontainer, development of large-scale post-grouting device, Mega-Packer, for grouting of rock, excavation of deposition drifts, layout design and evaluation of residual materials. This report also summarizes and highlights differences between different design alternatives and gives reasoning why DAWE design alternative is seen as the most interesting for future development together with novel less mature STC

  2. Source rock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abubakr F. Makky

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available West Beni Suef Concession is located at the western part of Beni Suef Basin which is a relatively under-explored basin and lies about 150 km south of Cairo. The major goal of this study is to evaluate the source rock by using different techniques as Rock-Eval pyrolysis, Vitrinite reflectance (%Ro, and well log data of some Cretaceous sequences including Abu Roash (E, F and G members, Kharita and Betty formations. The BasinMod 1D program is used in this study to construct the burial history and calculate the levels of thermal maturity of the Fayoum-1X well based on calibration of measured %Ro and Tmax against calculated %Ro model. The calculated Total Organic Carbon (TOC content from well log data compared with the measured TOC from the Rock-Eval pyrolysis in Fayoum-1X well is shown to match against the shale source rock but gives high values against the limestone source rock. For that, a new model is derived from well log data to calculate accurately the TOC content against the limestone source rock in the study area. The organic matter existing in Abu Roash (F member is fair to excellent and capable of generating a significant amount of hydrocarbons (oil prone produced from (mixed type I/II kerogen. The generation potential of kerogen in Abu Roash (E and G members and Betty formations is ranging from poor to fair, and generating hydrocarbons of oil and gas prone (mixed type II/III kerogen. Eventually, kerogen (type III of Kharita Formation has poor to very good generation potential and mainly produces gas. Thermal maturation of the measured %Ro, calculated %Ro model, Tmax and Production index (PI indicates that Abu Roash (F member exciting in the onset of oil generation, whereas Abu Roash (E and G members, Kharita and Betty formations entered the peak of oil generation.

  3. The effect of the cover and landscape design of waste rock dumps and tailings ponds on the water balance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haehne, R.; Eckart, M.; Marski, R.; Wolf, J.

    1998-01-01

    The dimensioning of cover systems for waste rock dumps and tailings ponds requires the prognosis of the water balances. Site specific field experiments as well as additional modelling efforts are necessary. The cover system could be a simple recultivation layering or a storage systems or a complex multi-layer-system. Uncovered dumps show typical percolation rates between 30 and 60%. Storage cover systems reduce the percolation rate down to 15 to 35%. The evapotranspiration rate is influenced especially by exposition and vegetation. Specific features for the cover of tailings ponds include a very low surface slope and the of percolation rate below 10%. Therefore, multi-layer-systems are most suitable, also because it is characterized by very low drainage velocities of hypodermic runoffs. The resulting, but temporarily high moisture and almost standing water at the surface leads to extreme evapotranspiration rates and consequently to an increase of percolation. (orig.) [de

  4. Mejoramiento de cimentaciones en suelos y rocas aplicando las técnicas de grouting

    OpenAIRE

    Ampuero Cayo, Salomón Edgard; Ampuero Cayo, Salomón Edgard

    2012-01-01

    Las técnicas de inyecciones de grouting, se conocen desde el año 1802 en Francia, desde entonces se ha recopilado información y se practica esta técnica mejorando cada vez. Los diseños, procedimientos de inyección, están orientados hacia los objetivos básicos, que son el control de agua subterránea y el tratamiento de los macizos rocosos fracturados y suelos sin cohesión. La aplicación de las técnicas de grouting en rocas; reducen el flujo de agua, refuerzan las rocas y mitigan la formaci...

  5. The grout/glass performance assessment code system (GPACS) with verification and benchmarking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piepho, M.G.; Sutherland, W.H.; Rittmann, P.D.

    1994-12-01

    GPACS is a computer code system for calculating water flow (unsaturated or saturated), solute transport, and human doses due to the slow release of contaminants from a waste form (in particular grout or glass) through an engineered system and through a vadose zone to an aquifer, well and river. This dual-purpose document is intended to serve as a user's guide and verification/benchmark document for the Grout/Glass Performance Assessment Code system (GPACS). GPACS can be used for low-level-waste (LLW) Glass Performance Assessment and many other applications including other low-level-waste performance assessments and risk assessments. Based on all the cses presented, GPACS is adequate (verified) for calculating water flow and contaminant transport in unsaturated-zone sediments and for calculating human doses via the groundwater pathway

  6. Performance testing of blast furnace slag for immobilization of technetium in grout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilliam, T.M.; Spence, R.D.; Evans-Brown, B.S.; Morgan, I.L.; Shoemaker, J.L.; Bostick, W.D.

    1988-01-01

    This paper presents preliminary results of a grout development effort to identify grout formulas that can satisfactorily sequester 99 Tc contained in an existing Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant waste. Technetium is of particular concern to the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) because of its mobility and biological activity. The mobility of technetium results in large part from the movement of the pertechnate anion [prevalent in low-level radioactive waste (LLW)] through soil and geologic strata with little or no interaction with the surrounding matrix. Ground blast furnace slag has been shown to improve the leach resistance of cement-based waste forms, particularly in regard to technetium. This improved performance has been attributed to fewer and smaller pores in the solidified slags (versus a neat cement paste) and to the reduction of the pertechnate ion to a less soluble form. 9 refs., 2 tabs

  7. Seismic performance of a grout-repaired construction defect in a column plastic hinge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Budek, A.

    2006-01-01

    A column built to test the use of high-strength transverse reinforcement in seismically-loaded shear-critical columns was found to have a construction defect. The column was built to be loaded in double bending and as such was expected to develop two plastic hinges, one at each end of column. In the plastic hinge region at the column top, a void was formed because the concrete could not pass through the load stub's reinforcing steel cage. This void was repaired using nonshrink grout placed in a fluid state. The column was tested after repair and performed satisfactorily. The grouted repair was able to support large plastic rotations and allowed the column to reach a high level of ductility. The only effects of the repair were slightly reduced concrete dilation and stiffness in the repaired hinge. (author)

  8. The relationship between compressive strength and flexural strength of pavement geopolymer grouting material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, L.; Han, X. X.; Ge, J.; Wang, C. H.

    2018-01-01

    To determine the relationship between compressive strength and flexural strength of pavement geopolymer grouting material, 20 groups of geopolymer grouting materials were prepared, the compressive strength and flexural strength were determined by mechanical properties test. On the basis of excluding the abnormal values through boxplot, the results show that, the compressive strength test results were normal, but there were two mild outliers in 7days flexural strength test. The compressive strength and flexural strength were linearly fitted by SPSS, six regression models were obtained by linear fitting of compressive strength and flexural strength. The linear relationship between compressive strength and flexural strength can be better expressed by the cubic curve model, and the correlation coefficient was 0.842.

  9. Fixation of waste materials in grouts: Part 3, Equation for critical flow rate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tallent, O.K.; McDaniel, E.W.; Spence, R.D.; Godsey, T.T.; Dodson, K.E.

    1986-12-01

    Critical flow rate data for grouts prepared from three distinctly different nuclear waste materials have been correlated. The wastes include Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) low-level waste (LLW) solution, Hanford Facility waste (HFW) solution, and cladding removal waste (CRW) slurry. Data for the three wastes have been correlated with a 0.96 coefficient of correlation by the following equation: log V/sub E/ = 0.289 + 0.707 log μ/sub E/, where V/sub E/ and μ/sub E/ denote critical flow rate in m 3 /min and apparent viscosity in Pa.s, respectively. The equation may be used to estimate critical flow rate for grouts prepared within the compositional range of the investigation. 5 refs., 4 figs., 7 tabs

  10. Remedial Action Plan and Site Design for stabilization of the inactive Uranium Mill Tailings sites at Slick Rock, Colorado: Appendix C to Attachment 3, Calculations. Final

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-09-01

    This volume contains calculations for: Slick Rock processing sites background ground water quality; Slick Rock processing sites lysimeter water quality; Slick Rock processing sites on-site and downgradient ground water quality; Slick Rock disposal site background water quality; Burro Canyon disposal site, Slick Rock, Colorado, average hydraulic gradients and average liner ground water velocities in the upper, middle, and lower sandstone units of the Burro Canyon formation; Slick Rock--Burro Canyon disposal site, Burro Canyon pumping and slug tests--analyses; water balance and surface contours--Burro Canyon disposal cell; and analytical calculation of drawdown in a hypothetical well completed in the upper sandstone unit of the Burro Canyon formation

  11. Intellektuaalne rock

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2007-01-01

    Briti laulja-helilooja ja näitleja Toyah Willcox ning Bill Rieflin ansamblist R.E.M. ja Pat Mastelotto King Krimsonist esinevad koos ansamblitega The Humans ja Tuner 25. okt. Tallinnas Rock Cafés ja 27. okt Tartu Jaani kirikus

  12. Development of a Unified Rock Bolt Model in Discontinuous Deformation Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, L.; An, X. M.; Zhao, X. B.; Zhao, Z. Y.; Zhao, J.

    2018-03-01

    In this paper, a unified rock bolt model is proposed and incorporated into the two-dimensional discontinuous deformation analysis. In the model, the bolt shank is discretized into a finite number of (modified) Euler-Bernoulli beam elements with the degrees of freedom represented at the end nodes, while the face plate is treated as solid blocks. The rock mass and the bolt shank deform independently, but interact with each other through a few anchored points. The interactions between the rock mass and the face plate are handled via general contact algorithm. Different types of rock bolts (e.g., Expansion Shell, fully grouted rebar, Split Set, cone bolt, Roofex, Garford and D-bolt) can be realized by specifying the corresponding constitutive model for the tangential behavior of the anchored points. Four failure modes, namely tensile failure and shear failure of the bolt shank, debonding along the bolt/rock interface and loss of the face plate, are available in the analysis procedure. The performance of a typical conventional rock bolt (fully grouted rebar) and a typical energy-absorbing rock bolt (D-bolt) under the scenarios of suspending loosened blocks and rock dilation is investigated using the proposed model. The reliability of the proposed model is verified by comparing the simulation results with theoretical predictions and experimental observations. The proposed model could be used to reveal the mechanism of each type of rock bolt in realistic scenarios and to provide a numerical way for presenting the detailed profile about the behavior of bolts, in particular at intermediate loading stages.

  13. Field-scale permeation testing of jet-grouted buried waste sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loomis, G.G.; Zdinak, A.P.

    1996-01-01

    The Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) conducted field-scale hydraulic conductivity testing of simulated buried waste sites with improved confinement. The improved confinement was achieved by jet grouting the buried waste, thus creating solid monoliths. The hydraulic conductivity of the monoliths was determined using both the packer technique and the falling head method. The testing was performed on simulated buried waste sites utilizing a variety of encapsulating grouts, including high-sulfate-resistant Portland cement, TECT, (a proprietary iron oxide cement) and molten paraffin. By creating monoliths using in-situ jet grouting of encapsulating materials, the waste is simultaneously protected from subsidence and contained against further migration of contaminants. At the INEL alone there is 56,000 m 3 of buried transuranic waste commingled with 170,000--224,000 m 3 of soil in shallow land burial. One of the options for this buried waste is to improve the confinement and leave it in place for final disposal. Knowledge of the hydraulic conductivity for these monoliths is important for decision-makers. The packer tests involved coring the monolith, sealing off positions within the core with inflatable packers, applying pressurized water to the matrix behind the seal, and observing the water flow rate. The falling head tests were performed in full-scale 3-m-diameter, 3-m-high field-scale permeameters. In these permeameters, both water inflow and outflow were measured and equated to a hydraulic conductivity

  14. Grout and glass performance in support of stabilization/solidification of ORNL tank sludges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spence, R.D.; Mattus, C.H.; Mattus, A.J.

    1998-09-01

    Wastewater at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is collected, evaporated, and stored in the Melton Valley Storage Tanks (MVST) and Bethel Valley Evaporator Storage Tanks (BVEST) pending treatment for disposal. In addition, some sludges and supernatants also requiring treatment remain in two inactive tank systems: the gunite and associated tanks (GAAT) and the old hydrofracture (OHF) tank. The waste consists of two phases: sludge and supernatant. The sludges contain a high amount of radioactivity, and some are classified as TRU sludges. Some Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) metal concentrations are high enough to be defined as RCRA hazardous; therefore, these sludges are presumed to be mixed TRU waste. Grouting and vitrification are currently two likely stabilization/solidification alternatives for mixed wastes. Grouting has been used to stabilize/solidify hazardous and low-level radioactive waste for decades. Vitrification has been developed as a high-level radioactive alternative for decades and has been under development recently as an alternative disposal technology for mixed waste. The objective of this project is to define an envelope, or operating window, for grout and glass formulations for ORNL tank sludges. Formulations will be defined for the average composition of each of the major tank farms (BVEST/MVST, GAAT, and OHF) and for an overall average composition of all tank farms. This objective is to be accomplished using surrogates of the tank sludges with hot testing of actual tank sludges to check the efficacy of the surrogates

  15. Test procedures for salt rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dusseault, M.B.

    1985-01-01

    Potash mining, salt mining, design of solution caverns in salt rocks, disposal of waste in salt repositories, and the use of granular halite backfill in underground salt rock mines are all mining activities which are practised or contemplated for the near future. Whatever the purpose, the need for high quality design parameters is evident. The authors have been testing salt rocks in the laboratory in a number of configurations for some time. Great care has been given to the quality of sample preparation and test methodology. This paper describes the methods, presents the elements of equipment design, and shows some typical results

  16. Igneous Rocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doe, Bruce R.

    “Igneous Rocks was written for undergraduate geology majors who have had a year of college-level chemistry and a course in mineralogy … and for beginning graduate students. Geologists working in industry, government, or academia should find this text useful as a guide to the technical literature up to 1981 and as an overview of topics with which they have not worked but which may have unanticipated pertinence to their own projects.” So starts the preface to this textbook.As one who works part time in research on igneous rocks, especially as they relate to mineral deposits, I have been looking for such a book with this avowed purpose in a field that has a choking richness of evolving terminology and a bewildering volume of interdisciplinary literature. In addition to the standard topics of igneous petrology, the book contains a chapter on the role of igneous activity in the genesis of mineral deposits, its value to geothermal energy, and the potential of igneous rocks as an environment for nuclear waste disposal. These topics are presented rather apologetically in the preface, but the author is to be applauded for including this chapter. The apology shows just how new these interests are to petrology. Recognition is finally coming that, for example, mineral deposits are not “sports of nature,” a view held even by many economic geologists as recently as the early 1960's; instead they are perfectly ordinary geochemical features formed by perfectly ordinary geologic processes. In fact, the mineral deposits and their attendant alteration zones probably have as much to tell us about igneous rocks as the igneous rocks have to tell us about mineral deposits.

  17. Rock engineering applications, 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franklin, J.A.; Dusseault, M.B.

    1991-01-01

    This book demonstrates how to apply the theories and principles of rock engineering to actual engineering and construction tasks. It features insights on geology for mining and tunnelling applications. It is practical resource that focuses on the latest technological innovation and examines up-to-date procedures used by engineers for coping with complex rock conditions. The authors also discuss question related to underground space, from design approaches to underground housing and storage. And they cover the monitoring of storage caverns for liquid and gaseous products or toxic and radioactive wastes

  18. Optimization of compressive strength in admixture-reinforced cement-based grouts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahin Zaimoglu, A.

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The Taguchi method was used in this study to optimize the unconfined (7-, 14- and 28-day compressive strength of cement-based grouts with bentonite, fly ash and silica fume admixtures. The experiments were designed using an L16 orthogonal array in which the three factors considered were bentonite (0%, 0.5%, 1.0% and 3%, fly ash (10%, 20%, 30% and 40% and silica fume (0%, 5%, 10% and 20% content. The experimental results, which were analyzed by ANOVA and the Taguchi method, showed that fly ash and silica fume content play a significant role in unconfined compressive strength. The optimum conditions were found to be: 0% bentonite, 10% fly ash, 20% silica fume and 28 days of curing time. The maximum unconfined compressive strength reached under the above optimum conditions was 17.1 MPa.En el presente trabajo se ha intentado optimizar, mediante el método de Taguchi, las resistencias a compresión (a las edades de 7, 14 y 28 días de lechadas de cemento reforzadas con bentonita, cenizas volantes y humo de sílice. Se diseñaron los experimentos de acuerdo con un arreglo ortogonal tipo L16 en el que se contemplaban tres factores: la bentonita (0, 0,5, 1 y 3%, las cenizas volantes (10, 20, 30 y 40% y el humo de sílice (0, 5, 10 y 20% (porcentajes en peso del sólido. Los datos obtenidos se analizaron con mediante ANOVA y el método de Taguchi. De acuerdo con los resultados experimentales, el contenido tanto de cenizas volantes como de humo de sílice desempeña un papel significativo en la resistencia a compresión. Por otra parte, las condiciones óptimas que se han identificado son: 0% bentonita, 10% cenizas volantes, 20% humo de sílice y 28 días de tiempo de curado. La resistencia a compresión máxima conseguida en las anteriores condiciones era de 17,1 MPa.

  19. Pressurized grout remote backfilling at AML sites near Beulah and Zap, North Dakota

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weiner, E.J.; Dodd, W.E.

    1999-01-01

    The Abandoned Mine Lands (AML) Division of the North Dakota Public Service Commission (PSC) is charged with the reclamation of hazardous abandoned mine sites in North Dakota. Several underground lignite coalmines were operated near the cities of Beulah and Zap, North Dakota, from the early 1900's until about 1955. Coal seams in this area were relatively thick and the overburden generally shallow. As these mines have deteriorated with time, deep collapse features, or sinkholes, have surfaced in many areas. These features are very dangerous, especially when they occur at or near residential and commercial areas and public roads. In the past five years, sinkholes have surfaced beneath a commercial building (boat dealership, lounge, and gas station) and beneath a nearby occupied mobile home north of Beulah. sinkholes have also surfaced near KHOL Radio Station in Beulah and in the right of way of a public road south of Zap. The AML Division has conducted several emergency sinkhole-filling projects in these areas. In 1995--97, the AML Division conducted exploratory drilling which confirmed the presence of collapsing underground mines at these sites. The remediation of these sites around Beulah/Zap will take place over several years and involve three or more separate contracts due to budget considerations. In 1997, the AML Division began reclamation at these sties utilizing pressurized grout remote backfilling. In this technique, a cementitious grout is pumped through cased drill holes directly into the mine cavities to fill them and thereby stabilize the surface from collapse. The successful contractor for Phase One of the project was The Concrete Doctor, Inc. (TCDI). This paper will concentrate on Phase One of this work performed from June through September 1997. This project is especially interesting because grout was pumped through holes drilled inside the occupied commercial building. Grout was also pumped through angled holes that intercepted mined workings directly

  20. Pressurized grout remote backfilling at AML sites near Beulah and Zap, North Dakota

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weiner, E.J.; Dodd, W.E.

    1999-07-01

    The Abandoned Mine Lands (AML) Division of the North Dakota Public Service Commission (PSC) is charged with the reclamation of hazardous abandoned mine sites in North Dakota. Several underground lignite coalmines were operated near the cities of Beulah and Zap, North Dakota, from the early 1900's until about 1955. Coal seams in this area were relatively thick and the overburden generally shallow. As these mines have deteriorated with time, deep collapse features, or sinkholes, have surfaced in many areas. These features are very dangerous, especially when they occur at or near residential and commercial areas and public roads. In the past five years, sinkholes have surfaced beneath a commercial building (boat dealership, lounge, and gas station) and beneath a nearby occupied mobile home north of Beulah. sinkholes have also surfaced near KHOL Radio Station in Beulah and in the right of way of a public road south of Zap. The AML Division has conducted several emergency sinkhole-filling projects in these areas. In 1995--97, the AML Division conducted exploratory drilling which confirmed the presence of collapsing underground mines at these sites. The remediation of these sites around Beulah/Zap will take place over several years and involve three or more separate contracts due to budget considerations. In 1997, the AML Division began reclamation at these sties utilizing pressurized grout remote backfilling. In this technique, a cementitious grout is pumped through cased drill holes directly into the mine cavities to fill them and thereby stabilize the surface from collapse. The successful contractor for Phase One of the project was The Concrete Doctor, Inc. (TCDI). This paper will concentrate on Phase One of this work performed from June through September 1997. This project is especially interesting because grout was pumped through holes drilled inside the occupied commercial building. Grout was also pumped through angled holes that intercepted mined workings

  1. White Rock

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    (Released 19 April 2002) The Science 'White Rock' is the unofficial name for this unusual landform which was first observed during the Mariner 9 mission in the early 1970's. As later analysis of additional data sets would show, White Rock is neither white nor dense rock. Its apparent brightness arises from the fact that the material surrounding it is so dark. Images from the Mars Global Surveyor MOC camera revealed dark sand dunes surrounding White Rock and on the floor of the troughs within it. Some of these dunes are just apparent in the THEMIS image. Although there was speculation that the material composing White Rock could be salts from an ancient dry lakebed, spectral data from the MGS TES instrument did not support this claim. Instead, the White Rock deposit may be the erosional remnant of a previously more continuous occurrence of air fall sediments, either volcanic ash or windblown dust. The THEMIS image offers new evidence for the idea that the original deposit covered a larger area. Approximately 10 kilometers to the southeast of the main deposit are some tiny knobs of similarly bright material preserved on the floor of a small crater. Given that the eolian erosion of the main White Rock deposit has produced isolated knobs at its edges, it is reasonable to suspect that the more distant outliers are the remnants of a once continuous deposit that stretched at least to this location. The fact that so little remains of the larger deposit suggests that the material is very easily eroded and simply blows away. The Story Fingers of hard, white rock seem to jut out like icy daggers across a moody Martian surface, but appearances can be deceiving. These bright, jagged features are neither white, nor icy, nor even hard and rocky! So what are they, and why are they so different from the surrounding terrain? Scientists know that you can't always trust what your eyes see alone. You have to use other kinds of science instruments to measure things that our eyes can

  2. Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project (UMTRAP), Slick Rock, Colorado, Revision 1. Volume 1, Calculations, Final design for construction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-09-01

    Volume one contains calculations for: embankment design--embankment material properties; Union Carbide site--bedrock contours; vicinity properties--origin of contamination; North Continent and Union Carbide sites contaminated materials--excavation quantities; and demolition debris--quantity estimate

  3. Masonry arches retrofitted with steel reinforced grout materials: In-situ experimental tests and advanced FE simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertolesi, Elisa; Carozzi, Francesca Giulia; Milani, Gabriele; Poggi, Carlo

    2017-11-01

    The paper presents the results of a series of in-situ tests carried out on two masonry arches, one unreinforced and the other reinforced with SRG (Steel Reinforced Grout). The arches are built adopting a peculiar construction technique using common Italian bricks with dimensions 250 × 120 × 55 mm3 and 10 mm thick mortar joints. One of the two arches has been reinforced with an SRG material constituted by an inox grid embedded into a layer of lime mortar, whereas the second one is maintained unreinforced for comparison purposes. The experimental set-up is designed to apply an eccentric vertical load placed at ¼ of the span in a series of loading and unloading cycles up to the failure. The numerical analyses have been performed using a sophisticated heterogeneous micro-modeling technique, where bricks, mortar joints and the strengthening have been modeled separately. Finally, the numerical outcomes have been comparatively assessed with respect to the experimental results and the crack patterns obtained at the end of the tests, showing a satisfactory agreement in terms of the global behavior of the arches and their collapse mechanisms.

  4. Rock stresses (Grimsel rock laboratory)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pahl, A.; Heusermann, S.; Braeuer, V.; Gloeggler, W.

    1989-01-01

    On the research and development project 'Rock Stress Measurements' the BGR has developed and tested several test devices and methods at GTS for use in boreholes at a depth of 200 m and has carried out rock mechanical and engineering geological investigations for the evaluation and interpretation of the stress measurements. The first time a computer for data processing was installed in the borehole together with the BGR-probe. Laboratory tests on hollow cylinders were made to study the stress-deformation behavior. To validate and to interprete the measurement results some test methods were modelled using the finite-element method. The dilatometer-tests yielded high values of Young's modulus, whereas laboratory tests showed lower values with a distinct deformation anisotropy. Stress measurements with the BGR-probe yielded horizontal stresses being higher than the theoretical overburden pressure and vertical stresses which agree well with the theoretical overburden pressure. These results are comparable to the results of the hydraulic fracturing tests, whereas stresses obtained with CSIR-triaxial cells are generally lower. The detailed geological mapping of the borehole indicated relationships between stress and geology. With regard to borehole depth different zones of rock structure joint frequency, joint orientation, and orientation of microfissures as well as stress magnitude, stress direction, and degree of deformation anisotropy could be distinguished. (orig./HP) [de

  5. Thermal Inertia of Rocks and Rock Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golombek, M. P.; Jakosky, B. M.; Mellon, M. T.

    2001-01-01

    The effective thermal inertia of rock populations on Mars and Earth is derived from a model of effective inertia versus rock diameter. Results allow a parameterization of the effective rock inertia versus rock abundance and bulk and fine component inertia. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  6. Field grouting summary report on the WAG 4 seeps 4 and 6 removal action project, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Volume 2: Appendixes A--D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-05-01

    During the summer of 1996, a unique multi-phase, multi-stage, low-pressure permeation grouting pilot program was performed inside portions of four unlined waste disposal trenches at Waste Area Grouping (WAG) 4 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The project was deemed a non-time-critical removal action under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA); however, due to a history of heavy precipitation in the fall, the schedule was fast-tracked to meet an October 31, 1996 grouting completion data. The technical objective of the removal action was to reduce the off-site transport of Strontium 90 ( 90 Sr) by grouting portions of four waste disposal trenches believed to be responsible for over 70% of the 90 Sr leaving the site. A goal of the grouting operation was to reduce the average in situ hydraulic conductivity of the grouted waste materials to a value equal to or less than 1 X 10 -6 cm/sec. This target hydraulic conductivity value was established to be at least two orders of magnitude lower than that of the surrounding natural ground. The main report describes brief background to the project, describes and analyzes the grouting operations, draws conclusions from the work performed, and presents some of the lessons learned. Appendices contain: (A) pipe driving records; (B) casing grout injection records; (C) in-situ hydraulic conductivity testing records; and (D) grout quality control testing records

  7. Extrapolation of creep behavior of high-density polyethylene liner in the Catch Basin of grout vaults

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whyatt, G.A.

    1995-07-01

    Testing was performed to determine if gravel particles will creep into and puncture the high-density polyethylene (HDPE) liner in the catch basin of a grout vault over a nominal 30-year period. Testing was performed to support a design without a protective geotextile cover after the geotextile was removed from the design. Recently, a protective geotextile cover over the liner was put back into the design. The data indicate that the geotextile has an insignificant effect on the creep of gravel into the liner. However, the geotextile may help to protect the liner during construction. Two types of tests were performed to evaluate the potential for creep-related puncture. In the first type of test, a very sensitive instrument measured the rate at which a probe crept into HDPE over a 20-minute period at temperatures of 176 degrees F to 212 degrees F (80 degrees C to 100 degrees C). The second type of test consisted of placing the liner between gravel and mortar at 194 degrees F (90 degrees C) and 45.1 psi overburden pressure for periods up to 1 year. By combining data from the two tests, the long-term behavior of the creep was extrapolated to 30 years of service. After 30 years of service, the liner will be in a nearly steady condition and further creep will be extremely small. The results indicate that the creep of gravel into the liner will not create a puncture during service at 194 degrees F (90 degrees C). The estimated creep over 30 years is expected to be less than 25 mils out of the total initial thickness of 60 mils. The test temperature of 194 degrees F (90 degrees C) corresponds to the design basis temperature of the vault. Lower temperatures are expected at the liner, which makes the test conservative. Only the potential for failure of the liner resulting from creep of gravel is addressed in this report

  8. Rock suitability classification RSC 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McEwen, T. (ed.) [McEwen Consulting, Leicester (United Kingdom); Kapyaho, A. [Geological Survey of Finland, Espoo (Finland); Hella, P. [Saanio and Riekkola, Helsinki (Finland); Aro, S.; Kosunen, P.; Mattila, J.; Pere, T.

    2012-12-15

    This report presents Posiva's Rock Suitability Classification (RSC) system, developed for locating suitable rock volumes for repository design and construction. The RSC system comprises both the revised rock suitability criteria and the procedure for the suitability classification during the construction of the repository. The aim of the classification is to avoid such features of the host rock that may be detrimental to the favourable conditions within the repository, either initially or in the long term. This report also discusses the implications of applying the RSC system for the fulfilment of the regulatory requirements concerning the host rock as a natural barrier and the site's overall suitability for hosting a final repository of spent nuclear fuel.

  9. Rock suitability classification RSC 2012

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McEwen, T.; Kapyaho, A.; Hella, P.; Aro, S.; Kosunen, P.; Mattila, J.; Pere, T.

    2012-12-01

    This report presents Posiva's Rock Suitability Classification (RSC) system, developed for locating suitable rock volumes for repository design and construction. The RSC system comprises both the revised rock suitability criteria and the procedure for the suitability classification during the construction of the repository. The aim of the classification is to avoid such features of the host rock that may be detrimental to the favourable conditions within the repository, either initially or in the long term. This report also discusses the implications of applying the RSC system for the fulfilment of the regulatory requirements concerning the host rock as a natural barrier and the site's overall suitability for hosting a final repository of spent nuclear fuel

  10. Technical Note: Example of the Application of Jet Grouting to the Neutralisation of Geotechnical Hazard in Shaft Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dybeł Piotr

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The article presents a geotechnical hazard neutralisation technology for shaft structures. The diagnosis of problems with uncontrolled subsidence of the ventilation duct provided by the authors enabled the development of a schedule of works required for the protection and reinforcement of foundation soil in the shaft area. The technology of protection works was selected after the analysis of the technical condition of shaft structures as well as hydrological and geomechanical conditions. Due to the closeness of the shaft lining, it was necessary to form grout columns using jet grouting and low-pressure grouting technologies. The article presents the issues related to the selected technology and its application to the neutralisation of the emergent geotechnical hazard. The method of performance of recommended works was also described together with their impact on the technical condition of structures discussed as well as their functionality and usage.

  11. Idaho Chemical Processing Plant low-level waste grout stabilization development program FY-96 status report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herbst, A.K.

    1996-09-01

    The general purpose of the Grout Stabilization Development Program is to solidify and stabilize the liquid low-level wastes (LLW) generated at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP). It is anticipated that LLW will be produced from the following: (1) chemical separation of the tank farm high-activity sodium-bearing waste; (2) retrieval, dissolution, and chemical separation of the aluminum, zirconium, and sodium calcines; (3) facility decontamination processes; and (4) process equipment waste. The main tasks completed this fiscal year as part of the program were chromium stabilization study for sodium-bearing waste and stabilization and solidification of LLW from aluminum and zirconium calcines. The projected LLW will be highly acidic and contain high amounts of nitrates. Both of these are detrimental to Portland cement chemistry; thus, methods to precondition the LLW and to cure the grout were explored. A thermal calcination process, called denitration, was developed to solidify the waste and destroy the nitrates. A three-way blend of Portland cement, blast furnace slag, and fly ash was successfully tested. Grout cubes were prepared at various waste loadings to maximize loading while meeting compressive strength and leach resistance requirements. For the sodium LLW, a 25% waste loading achieves a volume reduction of 3.5 and a compressive strength of 2,500 pounds per square inch while meeting leach, mix, and flow requirements. It was found that the sulfur in the slag reduces the chromium leach rate below regulatory limits. For the aluminum LLW, a 15% waste loading achieves a volume reduction of 8.5 and a compressive strength of 4,350 pounds per square inch while meeting leach requirements. Likewise for zirconium LLW, a 30% waste loading achieves a volume reduction of 8.3 and a compressive strength of 3,570 pounds per square inch

  12. Quality assurance consideration for cement-based grout technology programs at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDaniel, E.W.; Tallent, O.K.; Sams, T.L.; Delzer, D.B.

    1987-01-01

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory has developed and is continuing to refine a method of immobilizing low-level radioactive liquid wastes by mixing them with cementitious dry-solid blends. A quality assurance program is vital to the project because Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and state environmental regulations must be demonstrably met (the work must be defensible in a court of law). The end result of quality assurance (QA) is, by definition, a product of demonstrable quality. In the laboratory, this entails traceability, repeatability, and credibility. This paper describes the application of QA in grout technology development at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

  13. A portable high-power diode laser-based single-stage ceramic tile grout sealing system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, J.; Schmidt, M. J. J.; Li, L.; Edwards, R. E.; Gale, A. W.

    2002-02-01

    By means of a 60 W high-power diode laser (HPDL) and a specially developed grout material the void between adjoining ceramic tiles has been successfully sealed. A single-stage process has been developed which uses a crushed ceramic tile mix to act as a tough, inexpensive bulk substrate and a glazed enamel surface to provide an impervious surface glaze. The single-stage ceramic tile grout sealing process yielded seals produced in normal atmospheric conditions that displayed no discernible cracks and porosities. The single-stage grout is simple to formulate and easy to apply. Tiles were successfully sealed with power densities as low as 200 kW/ mm2 and at rates of up to 600 mm/ min. Bonding of the enamel to the crushed ceramic tile mix was identified as being primarily due to van der Waals forces and, on a very small scale, some of the crushed ceramic tile mix material dissolving into the glaze. In terms of mechanical, physical and chemical characteristics, the single-stage ceramic tile grout was found to be far superior to the conventional epoxy tile grout and, in many instances, matched and occasionally surpassed that of the ceramic tiles themselves. What is more, the development of a hand-held HPDL beam delivery unit and the related procedures necessary to lead to the commercialisation of the single-stage ceramic tile grout sealing process are presented. Further, an appraisal of the potential hazards associated with the use of the HPDL in an industrial environment and the solutions implemented to ensure that the system complies with the relevant safety standards are given.

  14. Decommissioning of a grout- and waste-filled storage tank in the 200 East Area of the Hanford Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marske, S.G.

    1991-01-01

    A self-concentrating waste tank located at the Strontium Semiworks Facility in the 200 East Area of the Hanford Site will be decommissioned following waste removal. During a previous decommissioning phase, the tank, thought to be empty, was filled with grout to prevent it from collapsing over time. Several years later, an agitator rod was pulled from within the tank and found to contain significant amounts of radiation, indicating there was still radioactive waste in the tank. Several alternative waste-removal options have been researched and evaluated. It is concluded that before the waste is to be disposed, the grout must be removed. This paper addresses that effort

  15. A thermal model of the immobilization of low-level radioactive waste as grout in concrete vaults

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shadday, Martin A.

    2009-01-01

    Salt solution, from radioactive waste generated by the production of plutonium and tritium in nuclear reactors at the Savannah River Site, will be mixed with cement and flyash/slag to form a grout which will be poured into above ground concrete vaults. The curing process is exothermic, and a transient thermal model of the pouring and curing process is herein described. A peak temperature limit of 85 o C for the curing grout restricts the rate at which it can be poured into a vault. The model is used to optimize the pouring.

  16. Water - rock interaction in different rock environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lamminen, S.

    1995-01-01

    The study assesses the groundwater geochemistry and geological environment of 44 study sites for radioactive waste disposal. Initially, the study sites were divided by rock type into 5 groups: (1) acid - intermediate rocks, (2) mafic - ultramafic rocks, (3) gabbros, amphibolites and gneisses that contain calc-silicate (skarn) rocks, (4) carbonates and (5) sandstones. Separate assessments are made of acid - intermediate plutonic rocks and of a subgroup that comprises migmatites, granite and mica gneiss. These all belong to the group of acid - intermediate rocks. Within the mafic -ultramafic rock group, a subgroup that comprises mafic - ultramafic plutonic rocks, serpentinites, mafic - ultramafic volcanic rocks and volcanic - sedimentary schists is also evaluated separately. Bedrock groundwaters are classified by their concentration of total dissolved solids as fresh, brackish, saline, strongly saline and brine-class groundwaters. (75 refs., 24 figs., 3 tabs.)

  17. The disposal of Canada`s nuclear fuel waste: a study of postclosure safety of in-room emplacement of used CANDU fuel in copper containers in permeable plutonic rock volume 1: summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wikjord, A G; Baumgartner, P; Johnson, L H; Stanchell, F W; Zach, R; Goodwin, B W

    1996-06-01

    The concept for disposal of Canada`s nuclear fuel waste involves isolating the waste in corrosion-resistant containers emplaced and sealed within a vault at a depth of 500 to 1000 m in plutonic rock of the Canadian Shield. The case for the acceptability of the concept as a means of safely disposing of Canada`s nuclear fuel waste is presented in an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) The disposal concept permits a choice of methods, materials, site locations and designs. The EIS presents a case study of the long-term (i.e., postclosure) performance of a hypothetical implementation of the concept, referred to in this report as the reference disposal system. The reference disposal system is based on borehole emplacement of used CANDU fuel in Grade-2 titanium alloy containers in low-permeability, sparsely fractured plutonic rock of the Canadian Shield. We evaluate the long-term performance of another hypothetical implementation of the concept based on in-room emplacement of used CANDU fuel in copper containers in permeable plutonic rock. The geological characteristics of the geosphere assumed for this study result in short groundwater travel times from the disposal vault to the surface. In the present study, the principal barrier to the movement of contaminants is the long-lasting copper container. We show that the long-lasting container can effectively compensate for a permeable host rock which results in an unfavourable groundwater flow condition. These studies illustrate the flexibility of AECL`s disposal concept to take advantage of the retention, delay, dispersion, dilution and radioactive decay of contaminants in a system of natural barriers provided by the geosphere and hydrosphere and of engineered barriers provided by the waste form, container, buffer, backfills, other vault seals and grouts. In an actual implementation, the engineered system would be designed for the geological conditions encountered at the host site. 34 refs., 2 tabs., 11 figs.

  18. The disposal of Canada's nuclear fuel waste: a study of postclosure safety of in-room emplacement of used CANDU fuel in copper containers in permeable plutonic rock volume 1: summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wikjord, A.G.; Baumgartner, P.; Johnson, L.H.; Stanchell, F.W.; Zach, R.; Goodwin, B.W.

    1996-06-01

    The concept for disposal of Canada's nuclear fuel waste involves isolating the waste in corrosion-resistant containers emplaced and sealed within a vault at a depth of 500 to 1000 m in plutonic rock of the Canadian Shield. The case for the acceptability of the concept as a means of safely disposing of Canada's nuclear fuel waste is presented in an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) The disposal concept permits a choice of methods, materials, site locations and designs. The EIS presents a case study of the long-term (i.e., postclosure) performance of a hypothetical implementation of the concept, referred to in this report as the reference disposal system. The reference disposal system is based on borehole emplacement of used CANDU fuel in Grade-2 titanium alloy containers in low-permeability, sparsely fractured plutonic rock of the Canadian Shield. We evaluate the long-term performance of another hypothetical implementation of the concept based on in-room emplacement of used CANDU fuel in copper containers in permeable plutonic rock. The geological characteristics of the geosphere assumed for this study result in short groundwater travel times from the disposal vault to the surface. In the present study, the principal barrier to the movement of contaminants is the long-lasting copper container. We show that the long-lasting container can effectively compensate for a permeable host rock which results in an unfavourable groundwater flow condition. These studies illustrate the flexibility of AECL's disposal concept to take advantage of the retention, delay, dispersion, dilution and radioactive decay of contaminants in a system of natural barriers provided by the geosphere and hydrosphere and of engineered barriers provided by the waste form, container, buffer, backfills, other vault seals and grouts. In an actual implementation, the engineered system would be designed for the geological conditions encountered at the host site. 34 refs., 2 tabs., 11 figs

  19. Pore solution chemistry of simulated low-level liquid waste incorporated in cement grouts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kruger, A.A.

    1995-12-01

    Expressed pore solutions from simulated low level liquid waste cement grouts cured at room temperature, 50 degree C and 90 degree C for various duration were analyzed by standard chemical methods and ion chromatography. The solid portions of the grouts were formulated with portland cement, fly ash, slag, and attapulgite clay in the ratios of 3:3:3:1. Two different solutions simulating off-gas condensates expected from vitrification of Hanford low level tank wastes were made. One is highly alkaline and contains the species Na + , P0 4 3- , N0 2 - , NO 3 - and OH - . The other is carbonated and contains the species, Na + , PO 4 3- , NO 2 - , NO 3 - , and CO 3 2- . In both cases phosphate rapidly disappeared from the pore solution, leaving behind sodium in the form of hydroxide. The carbonates were also removed from the pore solution to form calcium carbonate and possibly calcium monocarboaluminate. These reactions resulted in the increase of hydroxide ion concentration in the early period. Subsequently there was a significant reduction OH - and Na + ion concentrations. In contrast high concentration of N0 2 - and N0 3 - were retained in the pore solution indefinitely

  20. Tank 18-F And 19-F Tank Fill Grout Scale Up Test Summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stefanko, D.; Langton, C.

    2012-01-01

    High-level waste (HLW) tanks 18-F and 19-F have been isolated from FTF facilities. To complete operational closure the tanks will be filled with grout for the purpose of: (1) physically stabilizing the tanks, (2) limiting/eliminating vertical pathways to residual waste, (3) entombing waste removal equipment, (4) discouraging future intrusion, and (5) providing an alkaline, chemical reducing environment within the closure boundary to control speciation and solubility of select radionuclides. This report documents the results of a four cubic yard bulk fill scale up test on the grout formulation recommended for filling Tanks 18-F and 19-F. Details of the scale up test are provided in a Test Plan. The work was authorized under a Technical Task Request (TTR), HLE-TTR-2011-008, and was performed according to Task Technical and Quality Assurance Plan (TTQAP), SRNL-RP-2011-00587. The bulk fill scale up test described in this report was intended to demonstrate proportioning, mixing, and transportation, of material produced in a full scale ready mix concrete batch plant. In addition, the material produced for the scale up test was characterized with respect to fresh properties, thermal properties, and compressive strength as a function of curing time.

  1. TANK 18-F AND 19-F TANK FILL GROUT SCALE UP TEST SUMMARY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stefanko, D.; Langton, C.

    2012-01-03

    High-level waste (HLW) tanks 18-F and 19-F have been isolated from FTF facilities. To complete operational closure the tanks will be filled with grout for the purpose of: (1) physically stabilizing the tanks, (2) limiting/eliminating vertical pathways to residual waste, (3) entombing waste removal equipment, (4) discouraging future intrusion, and (5) providing an alkaline, chemical reducing environment within the closure boundary to control speciation and solubility of select radionuclides. This report documents the results of a four cubic yard bulk fill scale up test on the grout formulation recommended for filling Tanks 18-F and 19-F. Details of the scale up test are provided in a Test Plan. The work was authorized under a Technical Task Request (TTR), HLE-TTR-2011-008, and was performed according to Task Technical and Quality Assurance Plan (TTQAP), SRNL-RP-2011-00587. The bulk fill scale up test described in this report was intended to demonstrate proportioning, mixing, and transportation, of material produced in a full scale ready mix concrete batch plant. In addition, the material produced for the scale up test was characterized with respect to fresh properties, thermal properties, and compressive strength as a function of curing time.

  2. Application of alternative methods for determination of rock quality designation (RQD) index: a case study from the Rožná I uranium mine, Strážek Moldanubicum, Bohemian Massif, Czech Republic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vavro, Martin; Souček, Kamil; Staš, Lubomír; Waclawik, Petr; Vavro, Leona; Koníček, Petr; Ptáček, Jiří

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 52, č. 10 (2015), s. 1466-1476 ISSN 0008-3674. [International Colloquium on Geomechanics and Geophysics /5./. Karolinka, 25.06.2014-27.06.2014] R&D Projects: GA MŠk ED2.1.00/03.0082; GA MŠk(CZ) LO1406 Institutional support: RVO:68145535 Keywords : rock quality designation (RQD) index * geotechnical monitoring * borehole–wall imaging * structural mapping * rock mass fracturing Subject RIV: DH - Mining, incl. Coal Mining Impact factor: 1.877, year: 2015 http://www.nrcresearchpress.com/doi/pdf/10.1139/cgj-2014-0377

  3. Professional users handbook for rock bolting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stillborg, B.

    1986-01-01

    The paper is a practical handbook which reviews the basic principles of rock bolting and sets out the design considerations used for most types of rockbolts in current use. It discusses the characteristics of these bolts and gives information on installation procedures and the observations and measurement of rockbolt performance. Rockbolting is considered under the following chapter headings: review of typical rockbolt systems; rockbolt installation; testing of rockbolts; design considerations; design of rock reinforcement; monitoring; cost of rock bolting; and Atlas Lopco auxillary equipment for rock bolting. 45 refs.

  4. Optimization design of foundation excavation for Xiluodu super-high arch dam in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qixiang Fan

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available With better understanding of the quality and physico-mechanical properties of rocks of dam foundation, and the physico-mechanical properties and structure design of arch dam in association with the foundation excavation of Xiluodu arch dam, the excavation optimization design was proposed for the foundation surface on the basis of feasibility study. Common analysis and numerical analysis results demonstrated the feasibility of using the weakly weathered rocks III1 and III2 as the foundation surface of super-high arch dam. In view of changes in the geological conditions at the dam foundation along the riverbed direction, the design of extending foundation surface excavation area and using consolidating grouting and optimizing structure of dam bottom was introduced, allowing for harmonization of the arch dam and foundation. Three-dimensional (3D geomechanics model test and finite element analysis results indicated that the dam body and foundation have good overload stability and high bearing capacity. The monitoring data showed that the behaviors of dam and foundation correspond with the designed patterns in the construction period and the initial operation period.

  5. The Rock Characterization Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holmes, J.

    1994-01-01

    In 1989, UK Nirex began a programme of surface-based characterization of the geology and hydrogeology of a site at Sellafield to evaluate its suitability to host a deep repository for radioactive waste. The next major stage in site characterization will be the construction and operation of a Rock Characterization Facility (RCF). It will be designed to provide rock characterization information and scope for model validation to permit firmer assessment of long-term safety. It will also provide information needed to decide the detailed location, design and orientation of a repository and to inform repository construction methods. A three-phase programme is planned for the RCF. During each phase, testwork will steadily improve our geological, hydrogeological and geotechnical understanding of the site. The first phase will involve sinking two shafts. That will be preceded by the establishment of a network of monitoring boreholes to ensure that the impact of shaft sinking can be measured. This will provide valuable data for model validation. In phase two, initial galleries will be excavated, probably at a depth of 650 m below Ordnance datum, which will host a comprehensive suite of experiments. These galleries will be extended in phase three to permit access to most of the rock volume that would host the repository. (Author)

  6. Testing and modeling of cyclically loaded rock anchors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joar Tistel

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The Norwegian Public Roads Administration (NPRA is planning for an upgrade of the E39 highway route at the westcoast of Norway. Fixed links shall replace ferries at seven fjord crossings. Wide spans and large depths at the crossings combined with challenging subsea topography and environmental loads call for an extension of existing practice. A variety of bridge concepts are evaluated in the feasibility study. The structures will experience significant loads from deadweight, traffic and environment. Anchoring of these forces is thus one of the challenges met in the project. Large-size subsea rock anchors are considered a viable alternative. These can be used for anchoring of floating structures but also with the purpose of increasing capacity of fixed structures. This paper presents first a thorough study of factors affecting rock anchor bond capacity. Laboratory testing of rock anchors subjected to cyclic loading is thereafter presented. Finally, the paper presents a model predicting the capacity of a rock anchor segment, in terms of a ribbed bar, subjected to a cyclic load history. The research assumes a failure mode occurring in the interface between the rock anchor and the surrounding grout. The constitutive behavior of the bonding interface is investigated for anchors subjected to cyclic one-way tensile loads. The model utilizes the static bond capacity curve as a basis, defining the ultimate bond τbu and the slip s1 at τbu. A limited number of input parameters are required to apply the model. The model defines the bond-slip behavior with the belonging rock anchor capacity depending on the cyclic load level (τmax cy/τbu, the cyclic load ratio (R = τmin cy/τmax cy, and the number of load cycles (N. The constitutive model is intended to model short anchor lengths representing an incremental length of a complete rock anchor.

  7. CERN Rocks

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    The 15th CERN Hardronic Festival took place on 17 July on the terrace of Rest 3 (Prévessin). Over 1000 people, from CERN and other International Organizations, came to enjoy the warm summer night, and to watch the best of the World's High Energy music. Jazz, rock, pop, country, metal, blues, funk and punk blasted out from 9 bands from the CERN Musiclub and Jazz club, alternating on two stages in a non-stop show.  The night reached its hottest point when The Canettes Blues Band got everybody dancing to sixties R&B tunes (pictured). Meanwhile, the bars and food vans were working at full capacity, under the expert management of the CERN Softball club, who were at the same time running a Softball tournament in the adjacent "Higgs Field". The Hardronic Festival is the main yearly CERN music event, and it is organized with the support of the Staff Association and the CERN Administration.

  8. Low-ph injection grout for deep repositories. Summary report from a co-operation project between NUMO (Japan), Posiva (Finland) and SKB (Sweden)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boden, A. (ed.) [SwedPower Ab, Stockholm (Sweden); Sievaenen, U. (ed.) [JP-Suoraplan Oy, Vantaa (Finland)

    2006-02-15

    This report summarises results achieved in the joint SKB, Posiva and NUMO project 'Injection grout for deep repositories'. The work has been carried out in four subprojects with SKB and Posiva as responsible for two sub-projects each. This report summarises the original reporting. Posiva was responsible for the studies on low-pH cementitious grout, while SKB was responsible for the studies on non-cementitious grout. The work was done by literature surveys, laboratory analyses and field tests A result of the project is that there are both low-pH cementitious material for grouting larger fractures ((>-) 100 {mu}m) and non-cementitious material for grouting smaller fractures ((<-) 100 {mu}m) that will, after further optimisation work, be recommended for grouting of deep repositories. This project concentrated on the technical development of properties for the low pH grouts. Long-term safety and environmental aspects and durability of materials were preliminarily considered. Continued evaluations have to be carried out. (orig.)

  9. Development of new methodologies to assess the structural integrity of the grouted joint of a 10MW wind turbine substructure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Santos, Benjamin; Gintautas, Tomas; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    2018-01-01

    Monopiles are currently the most commonly used substructure in the offshore wind market due to their ease of installation in shallow to medium waters. The monopile and the transition piece are connected by a grouted joint. Fatigue and corrosion are two of the most important degradation mechanisms...

  10. Grout disposal facility vault exhauster: Technical background document on demonstration of best available control technology for toxics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glissmeyer, J.A.; Glantz, C.S.; Rittman, P.D.

    1994-09-01

    The Grout Disposal Facility (GDF) is currently operated on the US Department of Energy's Hanford Site. The GDF is located near the east end of the Hanford Site's 200 East operations area, and is used for the treatment and disposal of low-level radioactive liquid wastes. In the grout treatment process, selected radioactive wastes from double-shell tanks are mixed with grout-forming solids; the resulting grout slurry is pumped to near-surface concrete vaults for solidification and permanent disposal. As part of this treatment process, small amounts of toxic particles and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) may be released to the atmosphere through the GDF's exhaust system. This analysis constitutes a Best Available Control Technology for Toxics (T-BACT) study, as required in the Washington Administrative Code (WAC 173-460) to support a Notice of Construction for the operation of the GDF exhaust system at a modified flow rate that exceeds the previously permitted value. This report accomplishes the following: assesses the potential emissions from the GDF; estimates air quality impacts to the public from toxic air pollutants; identifies control technologies that could reduce GDF emissions; evaluates impacts of the control technologies; and recommends appropriate emissions controls

  11. Development of cementitious grouts for the incorporation of radioactive wastes. Part 2. Continuation of cesium and strontium leach studies. [Hydrofracture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moore, J.G.

    1976-09-01

    Additional leach studies were completed on the leachability of cesium and strontium from simulated hydrofracture grout. These studies followed the test method proposed by IAEA or a modification which exposed smaller specimens with a higher su