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Sample records for rock grouting design

  1. Influence Mechanism of Grouting on Mechanical Characteristics of Rock Mass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Jixun

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Grouting technology has been widely used in all fields of geotechnical and civil engineering. Prospective engineering objectives including reinforcement of rock mass and groundwater leakage treatment can be achieved by grouting which will change the mechanical parameters of rock mass such as strength, elastic modulus, and coefficient of permeability. In this paper, rock mass is assumed as a composite material consisting of rock particles and random microcracks initially. Since part or all of the cracks will be filled with cement slurry after grouting, rock mass consists of rock particles, grout condensate, and some or no random microcracks after grouting. The damage constitutional law of the mesoscopic element is established based on the theory of mesoscopic damage mechanics. With the heterogeneity of the components of rock mass considered, the variation of mechanical characteristics of rock mass is studied before and after grouting. And the influence mechanism of grouting on rock mass is investigated at mesoscale level.

  2. Strength Assessment of Broken Rock Postgrouting Reinforcement Based on Initial Broken Rock Quality and Grouting Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongfa Xu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available To estimate postgrouting rock mass strength growth is important for engineering design. In this paper, using self-developed indoor pressure-grouting devices, 19 groups of test cubic blocks were made of the different water cement ratio grouting into the broken rock of three kinds of particle sizes. The shear strength parameters of each group under different conditions were tested. Then this paper presents a quantitative calculation method for predicting the strength growth of grouted broken rock. Relational equations were developed to investigate the relationship between the growth rates of uniaxial compressive strength (UCS, absolute value of uniaxial tensile strength (AUTS, internal friction angle, and cohesion for post- to pregrouting broken rock based on Mohr-Coulomb strength criterion. From previous test data, the empirical equation between the growth rate of UCS and the ratio of the initial rock mass UCS to the grout concretion UCS has been determined. The equations of the growth rates of the internal friction coefficient and UCS for grouting broken rock with rock mass rating (RMR and its increment have been established. The calculated results are consistent with the experimental results. These observations are important for engineered design of grouting reinforcement for broken rock mass.

  3. Rock grouting. Current competence and development for the final repository

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Emmelin, Ann (Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co., Stockholm (SE)); Brantberger, Martin (Ramboell (SE)); Eriksson, Magnus (Vattenfall Power Consultant (SE)); Gustafson, Gunnar (Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (SE)); Stille, Haakan (Royal Inst. of Technology, Stockholm (SE))

    2007-06-15

    The report aims at presenting the overall state of grouting competence and development relating to the final repository and at motivating and giving detail to the grouting sections presented in the 2007 version of the overall SKB report 'Programme for research, development and demonstration of methods for the management and disposal of nuclear waste' that is presented to the government every three years. The report offers suggestions for principles for planning, design and execution of grouting and describes the further work thought to be necessary in order to meet the requirements of the final repository, that are currently given as working premises. This report does not aim to, and cannot, describe the grouting processes in detail. For details of current concepts, experience and development work, a list of references is provided. In Chapter 2, the task of sealing the underground repository is examined and an overall approach presented. Although the requirements related to this task are preliminary, it is made evident that they concern both the actual grouting results and the process leading to the achievement of these results. Chapter 3 is a conceptual description of grouting and the factors that govern the spreading of grout in the rock mass. It is intended as an introduction to Chapters 4-6, which describe the state of grouting competence and the tools available for the sealing of the final repository facility. Both common practice and cutting-edge research are dealt with in these chapters, mainly relying on references where available. Chapters 4 and 5 focus on the system consisting of the fundamental components the rock mass, the grout materials and the grouting technology, and how these system components interact whilst, in Chapter 6, the rock/grout technical system is viewed in a brief organizational context. Based on the requirements on results and the overall grouting process on the one hand and the current competence in grouting theory and

  4. Experimental Study on Mechanical Characteristics of Cracked Rock Mass Reinforced by Bolting and Grouting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    The stress hardening characteristics of the reinforced rock mass in uniaxial compression tests were revealed by means of the experimental study on mechanical characteristics of cracked rock mass reinforced by bolting and grouting. And the load-bearing mechanism of the reinforced rock mass was perfectly reflected by the experiment. The results can offer some useful advice for support design and stability analysis of deep drifts in unstable strata.

  5. Rock fracture grouting with microbially induced carbonate precipitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minto, James M.; MacLachlan, Erica; El Mountassir, Gráinne; Lunn, Rebecca J.

    2016-11-01

    Microbially induced carbonate precipitation has been proposed for soil stabilization, soil strengthening, and permeability reduction as an alternative to traditional cement and chemical grouts. In this paper, we evaluate the grouting of fine aperture rock fractures with calcium carbonate, precipitated through urea hydrolysis, by the bacteria Sporosarcina pasteurii. Calcium carbonate was precipitated within a small-scale and a near field-scale (3.1 m2) artificial fracture consisting of a rough rock lower surfaces and clear polycarbonate upper surfaces. The spatial distribution of the calcium carbonate precipitation was imaged using time-lapse photography and the influence on flow pathways revealed from tracer transport imaging. In the large-scale experiment, hydraulic aperture was reduced from 276 to 22 μm, corresponding to a transmissivity reduction of 1.71 × 10-5 to 8.75 × 10-9 m2/s, over a period of 12 days under constantly flowing conditions. With a modified injection strategy a similar three orders of magnitude reduction in transmissivity was achieved over a period of 3 days. Calcium carbonate precipitated over the entire artificial fracture with strong adhesion to both upper and lower surfaces and precipitation was controlled to prevent clogging of the injection well by manipulating the injection fluid velocity. These experiments demonstrate that microbially induced carbonate precipitation can successfully be used to grout a fracture under constantly flowing conditions and may be a viable alternative to cement based grouts when a high level of hydraulic sealing is required and chemical grouts when a more durable grout is required.

  6. Characterisation, design and execution of two grouting fans at 450 m level, Aespoe HRL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Emmelin, Ann [Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co., Stockholm (Sweden); Eriksson, Magnus [Royal Inst. of Technology, Stockholm (Sweden); Fransson, Aasa [Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden)

    2004-09-01

    During June 2003 a grouting field experiment was carried out at Aespoe HRL, in connection with the construction of a tunnel (TASQ) for the Aespoe Pillar Stability Experiment (APSE). The tunnel is situated in connection to the elevator shaft landing at 450 m depth and runs in direction N/E. The grouting was carried out as part of the ordinary construction work, but was accompanied by extra investigations and analyses during operations and an active adaptation of a basic grouting design to the encountered conditions. The main objectives of this set-up were to Investigate what can be achieved with best available technology, material and knowledge under the current conditions, i.e. a relatively tight crystalline rock mass at great depth; Collect data and evaluate theories resulting from previous research projects on characterisation and predictions on grout spread; Collect data to further develop those above mentioned theories; Contribute to the achievement of good conditions at the experimental site for the pillar stability experiments. The characterization method is based on analyses of stepwise investigations consisting of investigations in an initially drilled core-drill hole followed by probe and grouting boreholes with pressure-build-up tests and measuring of inflow during drilling, all aiming at identifying the singular fractures that are to be sealed. The decision about grouting design is based on the successively up-dated rock description from the characterization and iterative selection and testing of grouting design and grout in a numeric model, resulting in an expected grout spread and sealing effect. Based on investigations and analysis of results from investigations of a core-drilled hole at the site, a basic design was set up, together with conditions for application. Probe boreholes covering the first anticipated fan gave substantially larger inflows than expected, and subsequently the design was changed. A first round was drilled and grouted, sealing

  7. Bolt-grouting combined support technology in deep soft rock roadway

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Yanlong; Meng Qingbin; Xu Guang; Wu Haoshuai; Zhang Guimin

    2016-01-01

    Analyzing the mineral composition, mechanical properties and ground stress testing in surrounding rock, the study investigated the failure mechanism of deep soft rock roadway with high stress. The bolt-grouting combined support system was proposed to prevent such failures. By means of FLAC3D numer-ical simulation and similar material simulation, the feasibility of the support design and the effectiveness of support parameters were discussed. According to the monitoring the surface and deep displacement in surrounding rock as well as bolt axial load, this paper analyzed the deformation of surrounding rock and the stress condition of the support structure. The monitor results were used to optimize the proposed support scheme. The results of field monitors demonstrate that the bolt-grouting combined support tech-nology could improve the surround rock strength and bearing capacity of support structure, which con-trolled the great deformation failure and rheological property effectively in deep soft rock roadway with high stress. As a result, the long term stability and safety are guaranteed.

  8. Analytical Study of the Mechanical Behavior of Fully Grouted Bolts in Bedding Rock Slopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, C. H.; Li, Y. Z.

    2017-09-01

    Bolting is widely used as a reinforcement means for rock slopes. The support force of a fully grouted bolt is often provided by the combination of the axial and shear forces acting at the cross section of the bolt, especially for bedding rock slopes. In this paper, load distribution and deformation behavior of the deflecting section of a fully grouted bolt were analyzed, and a structural mechanical model was established. Based on force method equations and deformation compatibility relationships, an analytical approach, describing the contribution of the axial and shear forces acting at the intersection between the bolt and the joint plane to the stability of a rock slope, was developed. Influence of the inclination of the bolt to the joint plane was discussed. Laboratory tests were conducted with different inclinations of the bolt to the joint plane. Comparisons between the proposed approach, the experimental data and a code method were made. The calculation results are in good agreement with the test data. It is shown that transverse shear resistance plays a significant role to the bolting contribution and that the bigger the dip of the bolt to the joint plane, the more significant the dowel effect. It is also shown that the design method suggested in the code overestimates the resistance of the bolt. The proposed model considering dowel effect provides a more precise description on bolting properties of bedding rock slopes than the code method and will be helpful to improve bolting design methods.

  9. RESEARCH ON THE SEROSITY DURING INJECTING CLAY GROUTS INTO THE OVERLYING ROCK STRATA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨逾; 范学理; 杨伦; 赵德深; 刘文生

    2000-01-01

    On the basis of the mechanism study of injecting clay grouts into overlying strata, the clay grouts are researched in greater detail from three aspects. The flowing state of clay grouts in the strata——the pattern of different direction flowing around a point source is advanced and the flowing equation is put forward which is correspond with experiment result, and the corresponding mechanical model is set up which has its formulistic study, and the function of clay grouts is also discussed after the water in it has been lost, at the same time the concept of similar rock in effective supporting zone is given. It would draw great positive inspiration from what studied in this paper for studying on drawing down the surface subsidence by injecting.

  10. Drip Sealing Grouting of Tunnels in Crystalline Rock: Conceptualisation and Technical Strategies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butron, Christian

    2012-07-01

    A conceptual model of the groundwater hydraulic conditions around the tunnel contour in ancient brittle crystalline rocks has been developed and verified. The general aim has been to reach an understanding of the groundwater conditions in and close to the tunnel roof where dripping takes place and to propose technical and practical strategies for waterproofing. Dripping is accompanied by ice growth and icicle formation in cold regions, creating additional problems such as shotcrete fall-outs, icicle fall-outs, damage to vehicles, damage to trains, etc. The methodology for the development of the conceptual model is based mainly on transmissivity determinations from short-duration hydraulic tests and analyses of the connectivity of the fracture structure by means of semi-variogram analysis. The determination of the dimensionality of the flow in the fractures has also been found to be essential in order to describe the conductive system. This conceptual model describes the fracture systems as a combination of transmissive patches (2D-flow fractures) connected by less pervious channels (1D-flow fractures). It provides an understanding of the heterogeneity and connectivity of the fracture network and thus the groundwater conditions, not only in the roof but also around the tunnel contour. The pre-excavation grouting design process used in the tunnelling projects followed a structured approach and the evaluation showed that the grouting design reduced the inflow and fulfilled the environmental demands. However, dripping remained, making its characterisation very important when proposing a possible solution for its control. It is proposed that the remaining dripping comes from a channelised system that has been left unsealed and which would be extremely difficult to intersect with future boreholes, as well as from some ungrouted fractures with inconvenient orientations. Geomembrane lining and post-excavation grouting are possible solutions, although particular attention

  11. Bolt-Grout Interactions in Elastoplastic Rock Mass Using Coupled FEM-FDM Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debasis Deb

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Numerical procedure based on finite element method (FEM and finite difference method (FDM for the analysis of bolt-grout interactions are introduced in this paper. The finite element procedure incorporates elasto-plastic concepts with Hoek and Brown yield criterion and has been applied for rock mass. Bolt-grout interactions are evaluated based on finite difference method and are embedded in the elasto-plastic procedures of FEM. The experimental validation of the proposed FEM-FDM procedures and numerical examples of a bolted tunnel are provided to demonstrate the efficacy of the proposed method for practical applications.

  12. Data report on the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Small-Scale Seal Performance Test, Series F grouting experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahrens, E.H. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Dale, T.F.; Van Pelt, R.S. [INTERA, Inc., Austin, TX (United States)

    1996-03-01

    SSSPT-F was designed to evaluate sealing materials at WIPP. It demonstrated: (1) the ability to practically and consistently produce ultrafine cementitious grout at the grouting site, (2) successful, consistent, and efficient injection and permeation of the grout into fractured rock at the repository horizon, (3) ability of the grout to penetrate and seal microfractures, (4) procedures and equipment used to inject the grout. Also techniques to assess the effectiveness of the grout in reducing the gas transmissivity of the fractured rock were evaluated. These included gas-flow/tracer testing, post-grout coring, pre- and post-grout downhole televiewer logging, slab displacement measurements, and increased loading on jacks during grout injection. Pre- and post-grout diamond drill core was obtained for use in ongoing evaluations of grouting effectiveness, degradation, and compatibility. Diamond drill equipment invented for this test successfully prevented drill cuttings from plugging fractures in grout injection holes.

  13. Study on Mechanical Characteristics of Fully Grouted Rock Bolts for Underground Caverns under Seismic Loads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guoqing Liu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study establishes an analytical model for the interaction between the bolt and surrounding rock based on the bearing mechanism of fully grouted rock bolts. The corresponding controlled differential equation for load transfer is deduced. The stress distributions of the anchorage body are obtained by solving the equations. A dynamic algorithm for the bolt considering shear damage on the anchoring interface is proposed based on the dynamic finite element method. The rationality of the algorithm is verified by a pull-out test and excavation simulation of a rounded tunnel. Then, a case study on the mechanical characteristics of the bolts in underground caverns under seismic loads is conducted. The results indicate that the seismic load may lead to stress originating from the bolts and damage on the anchoring interface. The key positions of the antiseismic support can be determined using the numerical simulation. The calculated results can serve as a reference for the antiseismic optimal design of bolts in underground caverns.

  14. Review of results from SKB R and D on grouting technology for sealing the rock, years 1996-2000; Oeversikt av resuItat fraan SKB:s FoU inom injekteringsteknik foer bergtaetning aaren 1996-2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boden, A. (ed.) [Swedpower AB, Stockholm (Sweden); Eklund, D. [Vattenfall Utveckling AB, Aelvkarleby (Sweden); Eriksson, Magnus [Royal Inst. of Technology, Stockholm (Sweden). Div. Soil and Rock Mechanics; Fransson, Aasa [Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden). Inst. of Geology; Hansson, Paer [Vattenfall Utveckling AB, Aelvkarleby (Sweden); Lagerblad, B. [Swedish Cement and Concrete Research Inst., Stockholm (Sweden); Lindblom, U. [Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden). Dept. of Geotechnical Engineering; Wilen, P. [Swedpower AB, Goeteborg (Sweden)

    2001-05-01

    In order identify the current state of the art and developments needs, SKB assembled a group of experts from universities and other research organisations. Internal plans were written for the subprojects 'Characterisation of rock for grouting purposes', 'Mechanisms that control the spreading of grout in jointed rock' and 'Cement based grouting material'. Later internal plans for the subprojects 'Demands on grouting' and 'Stabilising and sealing effect of pre-grouting' were written. The aims, which were set for the different subprojects, were in short, to summarise the technological advances, establish a method for rock characterisation from a grouting point of view, develop conceptual and numerical models for simulation of the grouting course, characterise grout in a relevant way, develop understanding and theoretical know-how of durability and chemical influence, identify and develop a number of grouting materials for different situations, develop a specification of requirements for grouting and to verify the theories in laboratory. In the subproject 'Demands on grouting' a literature review was carried out. One important conclusion from the study is that the concept is not very well dealt with in the literature. SKB are currently investigating the prerequisites for the construction of the deep repository. One part of that work is to further specify demands on maximum allowed volume of leakage water for the repository as a whole and also for each part of the deep repository. In the subproject 'Characterisation of rock for grouting purposes', the possibilities of using hydraulic tests for predictions and design have been studied. The idea of this study was to investigate correspondences and deviations to increase the understanding of what is measured in a water-loss measurement. One can draw the conclusion that hydraulic tests are useful when describing the fracture geometry. Numerical modelling

  15. Development of rock bolt grout and shotcrete for rock support and corrosion of steel in low-pH cementitious materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boden, Anders (Vattenfall Power Consultant AB, Vaellingby (Sweden)); Pettersson, Stig (Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co., Stockholm (Sweden))

    2011-04-15

    It is foreseen that cementitious products will be utilized in the construction of the final repository. The use of conventional cementitious material creates pulses in the magnitude of pH 12.13 in the leachates and release alkalis. Such a high pH is detrimental mainly to impairment of bentonite functioning, but also to possibly enhanced dissolution of spent fuel and alteration of fracture filling materials. It also complicates the safety analysis of the repository, as the effect of a high pH-plume should be considered in the evaluation. As no reliable pH-plume models exist, the use of products giving a pH below 11 in the leachates facilitates the safety analysis, although limiting the amount of low-pH cement is recommended. In earlier studies it was found that shotcreting, standard casting and rock bolting with low-pH cement (pH . 11 in the leachate) should be possible without any major development work. This report summarizes the results of development work done during 2008 and 2009 in the fields of low-pH rock bolt grout, low-pH shotcrete and steel corrosion in low-pH concrete. Development of low-pH rock bolt grout mixes and laboratory testing of the selected grout was followed by installation of twenty rock bolts for rock support at Aspo HRL using the chosen low-pH grout. The operation was successful and the bolts and grout are subject to follow up the next ten years. Low-pH shotcrete for rock support was initially developed within the ESDRED project, which was an Integrated Project within the European Commission sixth framework for research and technological development. ESDRED is an abbreviation for Engineering Studies and Demonstrations of Repository Designs. ESDRED was executed from 1st February 2004 to 31st January 2009. The development of the mix design described in this report was based on the results from ESDRED. After laboratory testing of the chosen mix, it was field tested in niche NASA 0408A at Aspo HRL. Further, some areas in the TASS-tunnel were

  16. Strength of Experimental Grouts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Eigil V.

     The present report describes tests carried out on 5 experimental grouts developed by BASF Construction Materials and designed for use in grouted connections of offshore windmill foundations....... The present report describes tests carried out on 5 experimental grouts developed by BASF Construction Materials and designed for use in grouted connections of offshore windmill foundations....

  17. Measuring the dynamic compression and release behavior of rocks and grouts associated with HYDROPLUS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furnish, M.D.

    1993-10-01

    Gas-gun impact tests were performed on twelve rocks and rock simulants pertinent to the HYDROPLUS nuclear yield measurement program: A variety of tuffs, rhyolites, carbonates, grouts, an epoxy-alumina mixture and quartzite permafrost samples recovered in an apparently preserved frozen state from northern Canada. The present report presents results for all of these materials except for the carbonates. Two classes of impact techniques were employed for measuring equation-of-state properties for these materials. Both use velocity interferometry diagnostics. One, employing a sample-in-projectile geometry, provides high-precision Hugoniot data and continuous release trajectories for dry or water-saturated materials. The majority of the experiments were performed with this geometry. The other, employing a sample-in-target geometry, provides loading path and Hugoniot data as well as limited release data. Uncertainties in the results have been estimated by analyzing the effects of errors in observables and ancillary material properties.

  18. Strength of High Performance Grouts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Eigil V.

    The present report describes tests carried out on 5 experimental grouts developed by BASF Construction Materials and designed for use in grouted connections of offshore windmill foundations.......The present report describes tests carried out on 5 experimental grouts developed by BASF Construction Materials and designed for use in grouted connections of offshore windmill foundations....

  19. Tank closure reducing grout

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caldwell, T.B.

    1997-04-18

    A reducing grout has been developed for closing high level waste tanks at the Savannah River Site in Aiken, South Carolina. The grout has a low redox potential, which minimizes the mobility of Sr{sup 90}, the radionuclide with the highest dose potential after closure. The grout also has a high pH which reduces the solubility of the plutonium isotopes. The grout has a high compressive strength and low permeability, which enhances its ability to limit the migration of contaminants after closure. The grout was designed and tested by Construction Technology Laboratories, Inc. Placement methods were developed by the Savannah River Site personnel.

  20. Grout long radius flow testing to support Saltstone disposal Unit 5 design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stefanko, D. B.; Langton, C. A.; Serrato, M. G.; Brooks, T. E. II; Huff, T. H.

    2013-02-24

    The Saltstone Facility, located within the Savannah River Site (SRS) near Aiken, South Carolina, consists of two facility segments: The Saltstone Production Facility (SPF) and the Saltstone Disposal Facility (SDF). The SPF receives decontaminated legacy low level sodium salt waste solution that is a byproduct of prior nuclear material processing. The salt solution is mixed with cementitious materials to form a grout slurry known as “Saltstone”. The grout is pumped to the SDF where it is placed in a Saltstone Disposal Unit (SDU) to solidify. SDU 6 is referred to as a “mega vault” and is currently in the design stage. The conceptual design for SDU 6 is a single cell, cylindrical geometry approximately 114.3 meters in diameter by 13.1 meter high and is larger than previous cylindrical SDU designs, 45.7 meters in diameter by 7.01 meters high (30 million gallons versus 2.9 million gallons of capacity). Saltstone slurry will be pumped into the new waste disposal unit through roof openings at a projected flow rate of about 34.1 cubic meters per hour. Nine roof openings are included in the design to discharge material into the SDU with an estimated grout pour radius of 22.9 to 24.4 meters and initial drop height of 13.1 meters. The conceptual design for the new SDU does not include partitions to limit the pour radius of the grout slurry during placement other than introducing material from different pour points. This paper addresses two technical issues associated with the larger diameter of SDU 6; saltstone flow distance in a tank 114.3 meters in diameter and quality of the grout. A long-radius flow test scaled to match the velocity of an advancing grout front was designed to address these technology gaps. The emphasis of the test was to quantify the flow distance and to collect samples to evaluate cured properties including compressive strength, porosity, density, and saturated hydraulic conductivity. Two clean cap surrogate mixes (saltstone premix plus water

  1. Grout Long Radius Flow Testing to Support Saltstone Disposal Unit 6 Design - 13352

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stefanko, D.B.; Langton, C.A.; Serrato, M.G. [Savannah River National Laboratory, Savannah River Nuclear Solutions, LLC, Savannah River Site, Aiken, SC 29808 (United States); Brooks, T.E. II; Huff, T.H. [Savannah River Remediation, LLC, Savannah River Site, Aiken, SC 29808 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    The Saltstone Facility, located within the Savannah River Site (SRS) near Aiken, South Carolina, consists of two facility segments: The Saltstone Production Facility (SPF) and the Saltstone Disposal Facility (SDF). The SPF receives decontaminated legacy low level sodium salt waste solution that is a byproduct of prior nuclear material processing. The salt solution is mixed with cementitious materials to form a grout slurry known as 'Saltstone'. The grout is pumped to the SDF where it is placed in a Saltstone Disposal Unit (SDU) to solidify. SDU 6 is referred to as a 'mega vault' and is currently in the design stage. The conceptual design for SDU 6 is a single cell, cylindrical geometry approximately 114.3 meters in diameter by 13.1 meter high and is larger than previous cylindrical SDU designs, 45.7 meters in diameter by 7.01 meters high (30 million gallons versus 2.9 million gallons of capacity). Saltstone slurry will be pumped into the new waste disposal unit through roof openings at a projected flow rate of about 34.1 cubic meters per hour. Nine roof openings are included in the design to discharge material into the SDU with an estimated grout pour radius of 22.9 to 24.4 meters and initial drop height of 13.1 meters. The conceptual design for the new SDU does not include partitions to limit the pour radius of the grout slurry during placement other than introducing material from different pour points. This paper addresses two technical issues associated with the larger diameter of SDU 6; Saltstone flow distance in a tank 114.3 meters in diameter and quality of the grout. A long-radius flow test scaled to match the velocity of an advancing grout front was designed to address these technology gaps. The emphasis of the test was to quantify the flow distance and to collect samples to evaluate cured properties including compressive strength, porosity, density, and saturated hydraulic conductivity. Two clean cap surrogate mixes (Saltstone premix

  2. Grout Spread and Injection Period of Silica Solution and Cement Mix in Rock Fractures

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Tani, Mohamed; Stille, Håkan

    2017-09-01

    A systematic presentation of the analytic relations of grout spread to the time period is established. They are divided following the nature of the flow, the property of the mix and the driving process. This includes channel flow between parallel plates and radial flow between parallel discs, nonlinear Newtonian fluids like silica solution, polyurethane and epoxy, and Bingham material like cement-based grout, and three grouting processes at a constant flow rate, constant pressure and constant energy. The analytic relations for the constant energy process are new and complete the relations of the constant flow rate and constant pressure processes. The well-known statement that refusal cannot be obtained during finite time for any injected material at a constant flow rate or constant injection pressure is extended to include the energy process. The term refusal pressure or energy cannot be supported for stop criteria. Stop criteria have to be defined considering confirmed relation of the spread to the time period and of the flow rate to the pressure and spread. It is shown that it is always possible to select a grouting process along which the work will exceed any predefined energy, the consequence of which is that jacking is related to the applied forces and not to the injected energy. Furthermore, a clarification is undertaken concerning the radial flow rate of a Bingham material since there are two different formulations. Their difference is explained and quantified. Finally, it is shown that the applied Lugeon theory is not supported by the analytic relations and needs to be substantially modified.

  3. On the Micro Fracture Rock Grouting Water Plugging Material%浅谈微裂隙岩体注浆堵水材料

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陶泽源; 王源

    2014-01-01

    The grouting material is an important link of water engineering, especially plays a decisive role in the rock fractured zone grouting engineering. This paper mainly introduces the performance characteristics of two grouting materials commonly used in water shutoff at home and abroad:urea formaldehyde resin slurry fine cement grout and chemical grout.%注浆材料主要是注浆堵水工程中一个重要的环节,尤其是在岩体裂隙发育带注浆堵水工程中起到了决定性的作用。本文主要说明了目前国内外常用的注浆材料成分,介绍了两种微裂隙注浆堵水中常用到的注浆材料:超细水泥浆液和化学浆液中的脲醛树脂浆液的性能特点。

  4. Rock engineering design of post-tensioned anchors for dams – A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.T. Brown

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available High-capacity, post-tensioned anchors have found wide-spread use, originally in initial dam design and construction, and more recently in the strengthening and rehabilitation of concrete dams to meet modern design and safety standards. Despite the advances that have been made in rock mechanics and rock engineering during the last 80 years in which post-tensioned anchors have been used in dam engineering, some aspects of the rock engineering design of high-capacity rock anchors for dams have changed relatively little over the last 30 or 40 years. This applies, in particular, to the calculations usually carried out to establish the grouted embedment lengths required for deep, post-tensioned anchors. These calculations usually make simplified assumptions about the distribution and values of rock–grout interface shear strengths, the shape of the volume of rock likely to be involved in uplift failure under the influence of a system of post-tensioned anchors, and the mechanism of that failure. The resulting designs are generally conservative. It is concluded that these aspects of the rock engineering design of large, post-tensioned rock anchors for dams can be significantly improved by making greater use of modern, comprehensive, numerical analyses in conjunction with three-dimensional (3D models of the rock mass structure, realistic rock and rock mass properties, and the results of prototype anchor tests in the rock mass concerned.

  5. 破碎围岩锚注加固浆液扩散规律研究%Slurry diffusion within cracked wall rock during the bolt-grouting process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李慎举; 王连国; 陆银龙; 张蓓

    2011-01-01

    基于连续介质力学和渗流力学理论,运用渗透张量法得出浆液在破碎围岩中扩散的基本方程;并通过对实际锚注支护工程进行假设与简化,建立锚注加固系统浆液在包含正交裂隙组的围岩中渗透扩散的数学模型.在此基础上,运用COMSOL软件对锚注支护工程进行实时模拟,研究了不同注浆压力和不同注浆锚杆布置方式对浆液流动扩散规律的影响.结果表明:对于巷道锚注支护工程,合理的注浆压力约为1.0~4.0MPa,合理的钻孔间距约为浆液扩散半径的1.3倍左右.将研究成果用于祁南煤矿新掘大巷锚注支护设计,取得了良好的效果.%Continuum mechanics were used with seepage theory to obtain a basic equation for slurry diffusion within cracked wall rock.The permeability tensor method was used to obtain the diffusion behavior.A mathematical model of slurry diffusion in a bolt grouting system within a wall rock having orthogonal fractures was developed.Certain assumptions and simplifications of field grouting and support methods were used during this derivation.A numerical simulation of the bolt grouting process was conducted using COMSOL.The slurry diffusion at different grouting pressures and for different bolt layouts were studied.The results show that a rational grouting pressure is from 1.0 to 4.0 MPa for roadway bolt supports.The borehole spacing should be nearly 1.3 times the slurry diffusion radius.These results were applied to the design of roadway supports in the Qinan coal of the Huaibei mine to good effect.

  6. Penetration grouting reinforcement of sandy gravel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Ping; PENG Zhen-bin; TANG Yi-qun; PENG Wen-xiang; HE Zhong-ming

    2008-01-01

    To study the relationship between grouting effect and grouting factors, three factors (seven parameters) directionless pressure and small cycle grouting model experiment on sandy gravel was done, which was designed according to uniform design method. And regressing was applied to analysis of the test data. The two models test results indicate that when the diffusing radius of grout changes from 26 to 51 era, the grouted sandy gravel compressing strength changes fTom 2.13 to 12.30 MPa; the relationship between diffusing radius(R) and water cement ratio(m), permeability coefficient(k), grouting pressure(p), grouting time(t) is R=19.953m0.121k0.429p0.412t0.437, the relationship between compressing strength(P) and porosity(n), water cement ratio, grouting pressure, grouting time is P=0.984n0.517m-1.488p0.118t0.031.So the porosity of sandy gravel, the permeability coefficient of sandy gravel, grouting pressure, grouting time, water cement ratio are main factors to influence the grouting effect. The grouting pressure is the main factor to influence grouting diffusing radius, and the water cement ratio is the main factor to influence grouted sandy gravel compressing strength.

  7. Parameters Optimization of Curtain Grouting Reinforcement Cycle in Yonglian Tunnel and Its Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingsong Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available For practical purposes, the curtain grouting method is an effective method to treat geological disasters and can be used to improve the strength and permeability resistance of surrounding rock. Selection of the optimal parameters of grouting reinforcement cycle especially reinforcement cycle thickness is one of the most interesting areas of research in curtain grouting designs. Based on the fluid-structure interaction theory and orthogonal analysis method, the influence of reinforcement cycle thickness, elastic modulus, and permeability on water inflow of tunnel after grouting and stability of surrounding rock was analyzed. As to the water inflow of tunnel after grouting used as performance evaluation index of grouting reinforcement cycle, it can be concluded that the permeability was the most important factor followed by reinforcement cycle thickness and elastic modulus. Furthermore, pore water pressure field, stress field, and plastic zone of surrounding rock were calculated by using COMSOL software under different conditions of reinforcement cycle thickness. It also can be concluded that the optimal thickness of reinforcement cycle and permeability can be adopted as 8 m and 1/100 of the surrounding rock permeability in the curtain grouting reinforcement cycle. The engineering case provides a reference for similar engineering.

  8. The grouting handbook a step-by-step guide for foundation design and machinery installation

    CERN Document Server

    Harrison, Donald M

    2013-01-01

    Minimize loss of revenue and the downtime of critical assets by avoiding foundation cracking, poor bonds, and initial alignment changes. After their successful introduction as a maintenance material, machinery grouts are now being used for equipment placement in new construction. While certainly suitable for both markets and applications, a successful installation depends on proper grout selection, application, foundation preparation, and forming methods. Therefore, guidelines on their uses and limitations are needed for engineers and maintenance personnel. Based on 45 years of field experi

  9. Grouted Pile and Its Bearing Capacity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The grouting method applied in bored pile is an improvement to the conventional bored pile. Load tests have proved that grouting under the bored pile tip is an effective method to enhance the bearing capacity of the pile and to reduce the pile settlement. In this paper, the grouting technology is described and pile-load test results are discussed. In order to put the grouting method into design practice, the authors analyze the working mechanism of soil compaction. And, based on the theory of cavities expansion in soil mass, approximate formulae are proposed for estimating the bearing capacity of the grouted pile. The theoretical prediction agrees well with the load test results.

  10. Rock engineering design of post-tensioned anchors for dams e A review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    E.T. Brown

    2015-01-01

    abstract High-capacity, post-tensioned anchors have found wide-spread use, originally in initial dam design and construction, and more recently in the strengthening and rehabilitation of concrete dams to meet modern design and safety standards. Despite the advances that have been made in rock mechanics and rock engineering during the last 80 years in which post-tensioned anchors have been used in dam en-gineering, some aspects of the rock engineering design of high-capacity rock anchors for dams have changed relatively little over the last 30 or 40 years. This applies, in particular, to the calculations usually carried out to establish the grouted embedment lengths required for deep, post-tensioned anchors. These calculations usually make simplified assumptions about the distribution and values of rockegrout interface shear strengths, the shape of the volume of rock likely to be involved in uplift failure under the influence of a system of post-tensioned anchors, and the mechanism of that failure. The resulting designs are generally conservative. It is concluded that these aspects of the rock engineering design of large, post-tensioned rock anchors for dams can be significantly improved by making greater use of modern, comprehensive, numerical analyses in conjunction with three-dimensional (3D) models of the rock mass structure, realistic rock and rock mass properties, and the results of prototype anchor tests in the rock mass concerned.

  11. Rock mechanics investigations, design and construction of the Ridracoli dam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberti, G.; Bavestrello, F.; Rossi, P. P.; Flamigni, F.

    1986-07-01

    The Ridracoli arch-gravity concrete dam is the major work in a multipurpose project whose main scope is the water supply to 37 communities in the Forlì and Ravenna Provinces. The particular geological and structural characteristics of the foundation rock mass, consisting of a rhythmical alternation of sandstone, silstone and marl, required a wide program of in situ and laboratory investigations in order to obtain a detailed physical and mechanical characterization of the foundation. The design criteria based on the use of a physical and mathematical model are illustrated as well as the limit equilibrium analysis of the stability conditions of the abutments. Particular attention has been devoted to the problem of the excavation stability; excavation methods and stabilizing works are illustrated in detail. The scepage problems are also presented with the description of grouting and drainage works.

  12. Study on the characteristics of grout permeation based on cylindrical diffusion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shen-gang LI; Wen ZHAO; Yun-sheng HUANG; Yun-xia LEI; Long-mei YU

    2013-01-01

    Permeation grouting is widely applied for its low grouting pressure and minor disturbance to the stratum in grouting engineering,especially in engineering with strict requirements on ground settlement.However,permeation grouting theory lags behind compared with other engineering disciplines,and the theoretical formulas now available cannot accurately be used to guide grouting engineering design and predict the cost and effects of grouting due to many factors affecting grout permeation in stratum.In this study,permeation grouting experiment devices were independently manufactured with the characteristics of easily controlling grouting pressure,simulating sandy strata grout,and detecting grouting effect.Using a uniform design,the sand consolidation agent,as grouting material,its spread in Shenyang sandy strata was tested with these experiment devices.The quantitative relations between grouting factors (grouting pressure,strata parameters,water-sand consolidation agent ratio)and grouting effects (grout spread radius,gell strength,grout amount) are obtained with regression analysis,and the influence degree of grouting factors on grouting effects is studied.

  13. Mechanical Properties of High Cementitious Grout (I)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Eigil V.

     The present report describes tests carried out on the high performance grout MASTERFLOW 9500, marked WMG 7145 FP, developed by BASF Construction Materials and designed for use in grouted connections of offshore windmill foundations....... The present report describes tests carried out on the high performance grout MASTERFLOW 9500, marked WMG 7145 FP, developed by BASF Construction Materials and designed for use in grouted connections of offshore windmill foundations....

  14. 大松动圈破碎围岩二次注浆加固试验研究%Experiment Study on Secondary Grouting Reinforcement of Broken Surrounding Rock in Large Loose Circle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李云; 韩立军; 孙昌兴; 董叶茂

    2012-01-01

    为解决赵庄煤矿高地应力条件下松软破碎围岩巷道持续变形的问题,通过理论分析、试验模拟和现场观测的手段对二次注浆加固进行研究,基于松动圈理论,采用地质雷达探测技术、深浅孔原位复注浆技术及锚注加固技术,在西翼南回风巷原有的锚网索支护基础上进行了全断面二次注浆加固试验。采用数值模拟以及巷道变形量观测的方法对支护效果进行检验。结果表明:二次注浆加固提高了围岩的整体强度,塑性区大幅减小,形成了复合承载结构,实现了锚固体与破碎围岩共同承载和自承载,可有效解决破碎围岩的持续变形问题。%In order to solve the continued deformation problem of the gateway with broken surrounding rock under the high geostress conditions in Zhaozhuang Mine, a study was conducted on the secondary grouting reinforcement with the theoretical analysis, test simulation and site observation means. Based on the loose circle theory, the geological radar detection technology, the in-situ re-grouting technology with shallow borehole and the boh and grouting reinforcement technology were applied to the full section secondary grouting reinforcement test based on the previous bolt/steel mesh/anchor support of the south air returning gateway in the west wing of the mine. The numerical software similar simulation and the gateway deformation observation were applied to the inspection of the support effect. The results showed that the secondary grouting reinforcement had improved the integrated strength of the surrounding rock, high reduced the plastic zone, formed a complex loading structure, released the joint loading and self loading of the anchoring mass and the broken surrounding rock and could effectively solve the continued deformation problem of the broken surrounding rock.

  15. Hot bitumen grouting rediscovered

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naudts, A. [ECO Grouting Specialists, Grand Valley, ON (Canada)

    2001-10-01

    The article extols the value of hot bitumen grouting, in conjunction with cement-based grout, as a fast, safe, environmentally-friendly and cost-effective sealant. A major advantage of bitumen grout is that blown bitumen will never wash out. The article discusses the properties and some applications of bitumen grout. A diagram shows an application of bitumen and cement-based grout at a large dam. Examples of preventing water flow in dams, in a coal mine and in a potash mine are also given.

  16. Research on method of pressure grouting piling of driven tube

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dianqi PAN; Zupei ZHANG; Diancai PAN; Yong CHEN; Maosen TAN

    2006-01-01

    The pressure grouting pile of driven tube can improve the load bearing capacity of the single pile from the mechanism of pressure grouting pile of driven tube. On the basis of analyzing the mechanism, the authors designed the machines and tools of pressure grouting, determined the operating manufacture and technology parameter on the pressure grouting secondly. The result shows that the pressure grouting pile of driven tube not only changes the pile type but also reduce the length of the pile and its engineering cost, it enhances the load bearing capacity of single pile an the same time.

  17. Earthquake resistant design of rock oil tanks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamada, M.; Iwano, M.; Izumi, H.; Shiba, Y.; Sugihara, Y.

    1983-01-01

    In order to establish a rational procedure of the earthquake resistant design of large rock caverns, such as oil storage tanks on nuclear power plants, experimental and numerical studies were conducted. Dynamic strains during earthquakes were observed on the lining of a railway tunnel constructed in a hard rock mountain, while the seismic motion in the surrounding rock was examined precisely. The observation clarified that the lining strain of the tunnel was linearly and statically related to the rock strain and the ratio of the lining strain to the rock strain was dominated by the relative stiffness of the lining and rock. Based on the results of the earthquake observation, numerical models were proposed for the estimation of the dynamic strains of rock caverns. A good agreement between the calculated strains and the observed ones assured the adequacy of the numerical models.

  18. The injection of TASS-tunnel. Design, implementation and results from the pre-injection; Injekteringen av TASS-tunneln. Design, genomfoerande och resultat fraan foerinjekteringen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Funehag, Johan (Chalmers university of technology, Goeteborg (Sweden)); Emmelin, Ann (Golder Associates (Sweden))

    2011-06-15

    The Swedish repository facility for spent nuclear fuel will be placed in crystalline rock at a depth of 400-500 m. In order to limit groundwater inflow to the facility, grouting is planned. To comply with the stringent material, execution and inflow restrictions, a series of research and development projects concerned with rock characterization for grouting, grouting materials and grouting design have been carried out by the Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co (SKB). The understanding and methods developed were tested in the sealing project carried out at Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory (Aespoe HRL), Sweden, and presented in this report. The project consisted of the construction of a short tunnel at 450 m depth, the TASS-tunnel. Grouting was conducted as pre-grouting using ordinary grouting fans outside the planned tunnel contour, as well as with grout holes entirely within the planned contour. A cement-based low-pH grout and a silica based grouting agent, silica sol, were used. The methodology used included determination of the fracture transmissivity distribution; identification of the smallest hydraulic aperture that needs to be sealed; grout selection based on fracture aperture and grout penetrability; design of grout hole geometry, grouting pressure and time in order to achieve the penetration length required; and monitoring of the actual execution based on inflow in control holes with subsequent design revision. Special concern was given to equipment and execution due to the high groundwater pressures, 3.5 MPa. Before starting the construction, inflow to core drilled holes along the tunnel position amounted to 45-90 liters/minute. The project showed that it was possible to limit the inflow to the target value 1 liter/minute per 60 m tunnel

  19. Experimental Studying on Rock Fractures and Grouting Influence Based on Ultrasonic Testing%基于超声波检测的岩体裂隙及注浆影响的试验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许延春; 谢小锋; 李昆奇; 刘世奇

    2016-01-01

    基于超声波检测速度快、 对试样尺寸和形状要求低并且可以反映岩石强度的特点,通过室内试验模拟岩体裂隙及注浆过程,应用超声波检测技术测定岩体在不同裂隙宽度下声波传播速度,并对比分析了岩体注浆前后、 干式状态及湿式状态的波速变化规律.结果表明:不同岩性的岩石波速差异较大,同一岩性的岩石,其波速也不尽相同,灰岩中波速相对最高,其次是砂岩,泥岩中波速相对最低;各类岩性的岩石纵波波速均随着裂隙宽度的增大而减小;在同一裂隙宽度下,随着含水量增加,波速增大;注浆后与未注浆时相比,波速也明显增大.通过本试验不仅认识了岩体裂隙及注浆的波速变化规律,同时试验也证实了利用超声波测试岩石内部声波速度是评价裂隙岩体注浆加固效果的一种有效手段.%Based on the characters of ultrasonic testing, such as high testing speed, low standard ofsample size and shape and rock strength could be reflected, ultrasonic testing was used to test sound wave propagation velocity in different fractures width, then sound wave velocity change rule in three different states were compared and analyzed, which included before and after grouting of rock mass, dry and wet situation.The results showed that sonic velocity was different in different rock, sonic velocity was also different in the same rock, the highest was limestone, and the second was sandstone, the last was mudstone.Longitudinal wave velocity of all kinds of rocks decreased with fractures width increased, sonic velocity increased with moisture increased under the same fracture width, sonic velocity increased obviously after grouting.The experiment showed that ultrasonic testing was a useful method, which evaluated grouting effect of fractured rock effectively at the same time.

  20. 围岩松动圈锚注联合支护技术研究与应用%Research and Application of Surrounding Rock Loosen Zone Bolting Grouting United Support Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李飞鹏; 郜建明

    2014-01-01

    为解决赵庄煤业西翼胶带巷极破碎软岩的变形控制技术问题,对西翼胶带巷两帮和底板进行了探地雷达松动圈测试,得出了巷道围岩松动圈范围和破碎情况,基于松动圈测试及分析,提出了由预留变形量让压、初次全锚索网喷支护、深浅孔注浆加固、底角锚注加固组成的锚注联合支护体系,并在西翼胶带巷进行了应用。数值模拟和现场围岩变形监测结果表明,全锚索及深浅孔注浆加固下,巷道围岩强度提高,整体性较好,围岩破坏范围大幅减小,巷道表面变形得到有效控制,能够较好地满足巷道的使用,成功地解决了胶带巷大松动圈极破碎软岩条件下的巷道稳定控制问题。%In order to solve the problem of the deformation control technology in the Zhao Zhuang coal mine west wing belt roadway with bro-ken soft surrounding rock , the GPR loose circle testing was carried on two sides wall and bottom of the roadway surrounding rock and got the loose circle range and broken rock conditions. Based on the analysis of the loose circle testing , a combined support system was proposed with a reserved deformation pressure first, the anchor net spray support, deep-shallow hole grouting reinforcement and bottom anchor grouting re-inforcement, which were applied in the West Wing belt roadway. Deformation monitoring and the numerical simulation results show that under the deep-shallow hole grouting reinforcement, the surrounding rock strength is improved, integrity is better, rock damage range is greatly re-duced, the roadway surface deformation is effectively controlled, which means the scheme can better meet the roadway operating requirement, successfully resolved the conveyor broken roadway stability control problem of soft rock conditions.

  1. GROUT HOPPER MODELING STUDY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, S.

    2011-08-30

    The Saltstone facility has a grout hopper tank to provide agitator stirring of the Saltstone feed materials. The tank has about 300 gallon capacity to provide a larger working volume for the grout slurry to be held in case of a process upset, and it is equipped with a mechanical agitator, which is intended to keep the grout in motion and agitated so that it won't start to set up. The dry feeds and the salt solution are already mixed in the mixer prior to being transferred to the hopper tank. The hopper modeling study through this work will focus on fluid stirring and agitation, instead of traditional mixing in the literature, in order to keep the tank contents in motion during their residence time so that they will not be upset or solidified prior to transferring the grout to the Saltstone disposal facility. The primary objective of the work is to evaluate the flow performance for mechanical agitators to prevent vortex pull-through for an adequate stirring of the feed materials and to estimate an agitator speed which provides acceptable flow performance with a 45{sup o} pitched four-blade agitator. In addition, the power consumption required for the agitator operation was estimated. The modeling calculations were performed by taking two steps of the Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) modeling approach. As a first step, a simple single-stage agitator model with 45{sup o} pitched propeller blades was developed for the initial scoping analysis of the flow pattern behaviors for a range of different operating conditions. Based on the initial phase-1 results, the phase-2 model with a two-stage agitator was developed for the final performance evaluations. A series of sensitivity calculations for different designs of agitators and operating conditions have been performed to investigate the impact of key parameters on the grout hydraulic performance in a 300-gallon hopper tank. For the analysis, viscous shear was modeled by using the Bingham plastic approximation

  2. GROUT HOPPER MODELING STUDY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, S.

    2011-08-30

    The Saltstone facility has a grout hopper tank to provide agitator stirring of the Saltstone feed materials. The tank has about 300 gallon capacity to provide a larger working volume for the grout slurry to be held in case of a process upset, and it is equipped with a mechanical agitator, which is intended to keep the grout in motion and agitated so that it won't start to set up. The dry feeds and the salt solution are already mixed in the mixer prior to being transferred to the hopper tank. The hopper modeling study through this work will focus on fluid stirring and agitation, instead of traditional mixing in the literature, in order to keep the tank contents in motion during their residence time so that they will not be upset or solidified prior to transferring the grout to the Saltstone disposal facility. The primary objective of the work is to evaluate the flow performance for mechanical agitators to prevent vortex pull-through for an adequate stirring of the feed materials and to estimate an agitator speed which provides acceptable flow performance with a 45{sup o} pitched four-blade agitator. In addition, the power consumption required for the agitator operation was estimated. The modeling calculations were performed by taking two steps of the Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) modeling approach. As a first step, a simple single-stage agitator model with 45{sup o} pitched propeller blades was developed for the initial scoping analysis of the flow pattern behaviors for a range of different operating conditions. Based on the initial phase-1 results, the phase-2 model with a two-stage agitator was developed for the final performance evaluations. A series of sensitivity calculations for different designs of agitators and operating conditions have been performed to investigate the impact of key parameters on the grout hydraulic performance in a 300-gallon hopper tank. For the analysis, viscous shear was modeled by using the Bingham plastic approximation

  3. A study of grout flow pattern analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, S. Y. [Savannah River National Lab., Aiken, SC (United States); Hyun, S. [Mercer Univ., Macon, GA (United States)

    2013-01-10

    A new disposal unit, designated as Salt Disposal Unit no. 6 (SDU6), is being designed for support of site accelerated closure goals and salt nuclear waste projections identified in the new Liquid Waste System plan. The unit is cylindrical disposal vault of 380 ft diameter and 43 ft in height, and it has about 30 million gallons of capacity. Primary objective was to develop the computational model and to perform the evaluations for the flow patterns of grout material in SDU6 as function of elevation of grout discharge port, and slurry rheology. A Bingham plastic model was basically used to represent the grout flow behavior. A two-phase modeling approach was taken to achieve the objective. This approach assumes that the air-grout interface determines the shape of the accumulation mound. The results of this study were used to develop the design guidelines for the discharge ports of the Saltstone feed materials in the SDU6 facility. The focusing areas of the modeling study are to estimate the domain size of the grout materials radially spread on the facility floor under the baseline modeling conditions, to perform the sensitivity analysis with respect to the baseline design and operating conditions such as elevation of discharge port, discharge pipe diameter, and grout properties, and to determine the changes in grout density as it is related to grout drop height. An axi-symmetric two-phase modeling method was used for computational efficiency. Based on the nominal design and operating conditions, a transient computational approach was taken to compute flow fields mainly driven by pumping inertia and natural gravity. Detailed solution methodology and analysis results are discussed here.

  4. A study of grout flow pattern analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, S. Y. [Savannah River National Lab., Aiken, SC (United States); Hyun, S. [Mercer Univ., Macon, GA (United States)

    2013-01-10

    A new disposal unit, designated as Salt Disposal Unit no. 6 (SDU6), is being designed for support of site accelerated closure goals and salt nuclear waste projections identified in the new Liquid Waste System plan. The unit is cylindrical disposal vault of 380 ft diameter and 43 ft in height, and it has about 30 million gallons of capacity. Primary objective was to develop the computational model and to perform the evaluations for the flow patterns of grout material in SDU6 as function of elevation of grout discharge port, and slurry rheology. A Bingham plastic model was basically used to represent the grout flow behavior. A two-phase modeling approach was taken to achieve the objective. This approach assumes that the air-grout interface determines the shape of the accumulation mound. The results of this study were used to develop the design guidelines for the discharge ports of the Saltstone feed materials in the SDU6 facility. The focusing areas of the modeling study are to estimate the domain size of the grout materials radially spread on the facility floor under the baseline modeling conditions, to perform the sensitivity analysis with respect to the baseline design and operating conditions such as elevation of discharge port, discharge pipe diameter, and grout properties, and to determine the changes in grout density as it is related to grout drop height. An axi-symmetric two-phase modeling method was used for computational efficiency. Based on the nominal design and operating conditions, a transient computational approach was taken to compute flow fields mainly driven by pumping inertia and natural gravity. Detailed solution methodology and analysis results are discussed here.

  5. 三关庙水电站浆砌石重力坝设计%Grouted Rubble Gravity Dam Design for Sanguan Temple Hydropower Station

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马杰

    2014-01-01

    This paper introduces the structure design in overfall section and non-overfall section of Sanguan temple hydropower grouted rubble gravity dam.The result of stability stress calculation of the dam shows that structure design of this gravity dam is reasonable.%本文对三关庙水电站浆砌石重力坝的溢流坝段和非溢流坝段结构设计做了介绍。坝体稳定应力计算结果表明该重力坝的结构设计是合理的。

  6. REACTOR GROUT THERMAL PROPERTIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steimke, J.; Qureshi, Z.; Restivo, M.; Guerrero, H.

    2011-01-28

    Savannah River Site has five dormant nuclear production reactors. Long term disposition will require filling some reactor buildings with grout up to ground level. Portland cement based grout will be used to fill the buildings with the exception of some reactor tanks. Some reactor tanks contain significant quantities of aluminum which could react with Portland cement based grout to form hydrogen. Hydrogen production is a safety concern and gas generation could also compromise the structural integrity of the grout pour. Therefore, it was necessary to develop a non-Portland cement grout to fill reactors that contain significant quantities of aluminum. Grouts generate heat when they set, so the potential exists for large temperature increases in a large pour, which could compromise the integrity of the pour. The primary purpose of the testing reported here was to measure heat of hydration, specific heat, thermal conductivity and density of various reactor grouts under consideration so that these properties could be used to model transient heat transfer for different pouring strategies. A secondary purpose was to make qualitative judgments of grout pourability and hardened strength. Some reactor grout formulations were unacceptable because they generated too much heat, or started setting too fast, or required too long to harden or were too weak. The formulation called 102H had the best combination of characteristics. It is a Calcium Alumino-Sulfate grout that contains Ciment Fondu (calcium aluminate cement), Plaster of Paris (calcium sulfate hemihydrate), sand, Class F fly ash, boric acid and small quantities of additives. This composition afforded about ten hours of working time. Heat release began at 12 hours and was complete by 24 hours. The adiabatic temperature rise was 54 C which was within specification. The final product was hard and displayed no visible segregation. The density and maximum particle size were within specification.

  7. Pilot-scale grout production test with a simulated low-level waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fow, C.L.; Mitchell, D.H.; Treat, R.L.; Hymas, C.R.

    1987-05-01

    Plans are underway at the Hanford Site near Richland, Washington, to convert the low-level fraction of radioactive liquid wastes to a grout form for permanent disposal. Grout is a mixture of liquid waste and grout formers, including portland cement, fly ash, and clays. In the plan, the grout slurry is pumped to subsurface concrete vaults on the Hanford Site, where the grout will solidify into large monoliths, thereby immobilizing the waste. A similar disposal concept is being planned at the Savannah River Laboratory site. The underground disposal of grout was conducted at Oak Ridge National Laboratory between 1966 and 1984. Design and construction of grout processing and disposal facilities are underway. The Transportable Grout Facility (TGF), operated by Rockwell Hanford Operations (Rockwell) for the Department of Energy (DOE), is scheduled to grout Phosphate/Sulfate N Reactor Operations Waste (PSW) in FY 1988. Phosphate/Sulfate Waste is a blend of two low-level waste streams generated at Hanford's N Reactor. Other wastes are scheduled to be grouted in subsequent years. Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) is verifying that Hanford grouts can be safely and efficiently processed. To meet this objective, pilot-scale grout process equipment was installed. On July 29 and 30, 1986, PNL conducted a pilot-scale grout production test for Rockwell. During the test, 16,000 gallons of simulated nonradioactive PSW were mixed with grout formers to produce 22,000 gallons of PSW grout. The grout was pumped at a nominal rate of 15 gpm (about 25% of the nominal production rate planned for the TGF) to a lined and covered trench with a capacity of 30,000 gallons. Emplacement of grout in the trench will permit subsequent evaluation of homogeneity of grout in a large monolith. 12 refs., 34 figs., 5 tabs.

  8. Protection against water or mud inrush in tunnels by grouting: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shucai Li

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Grouting is a major method used to prevent water and mud inrush in tunnels and underground engineering. In this paper, the current situation of control and prevention of water and mud inrush is summarized and recent advances in relevant theories, grout/equipment, and critical techniques are introduced. The time-variant equations of grout viscosity at different volumetric ratios were obtained based on the constitutive relation of typical fast curing grouts. A large-scale dynamic grouting model testing system (4000 mm × 2000 mm × 5 mm was developed, and the diffusions of cement and fast curing grouts in dynamic water grouting were investigated. The results reveal that the diffusions of cement grouts and fast curing grouts are U-shaped and asymmetric elliptical, respectively. A multi-parameter real-time monitoring system (ϕ = 1.5 m, h = 1.2 m was developed for the grouting process to study the diffusion and reinforcement mechanism of grouting in water-rich faulted zone. A high early strength cream-type reinforcing/plugging grout, a high permeability nano-scale silica gel grout, and a high-expansion filling grout were proposed for the control of water hazards in weak water-rich faulted zone rocks, water inrush in karst passages, and micro-crack water inrush, respectively. Complement technologies and equipment for industrial applications were also proposed. Additionally, a novel full-life periodic dynamic water grouting with the critical grouting borehole as the core was proposed. The key techniques for the control of water inrush in water-rich faulted zone, jointed fissures and karst passages, and micro-crack water inrush were developed.

  9. REINFORCING MECHANISM AND SIMULATING METHOD FOR REINFORCING EFFECTS OF SYSTEMICALLY GROUTED BOLTS IN DEEP-BURIED HARD ROCK TUNNELS%深埋硬岩隧洞系统砂浆锚杆的加固机制与加固效果模拟方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴文平; 冯夏庭; 张传庆; 邱士利; 李占海

    2012-01-01

    Systematically grouted bolts, as the main support structure of deep-buried hard rock tunnels, compose the bolt-rock composite structure with surrounding rocks. which reinforces the mechanical property of surrounding rocks. Based on the Mohr-Coulomb(M-C) criterion, the stress condition and the strength of the composite structure meeting the M-C criterion were derived under high-stress conditions. Combining with the rock mass deterioration model(RDM) of brittle rock, an approach to determine the mechanical parameters of the composite structure was presented. The difference of mechanical parameters between two different composite structures of bolt-elastic surrounding rock and bolt-yielding surrounding rock was taken into account. In this approach, the mechanical parameters of the bolt-yielding surrounding rock composite structure were associated with present equivalent plastic strain of surrounding rocks. A numerical method, which could model the reinforcing effect of normally grouted bolts laid out systematically during excavating and supporting stages, was proposed. It is identified that this method has an advantage over other methods in modeling the effect of supporting time on surrounding rock stability. Finally, the method was applied to evaluate the stability of surrounding rocks, and related references were provided for design and construction of the diversion tunnel #2 of Jinping Ⅱ hydropower station.%系统布置的砂浆锚杆是深埋硬岩隧洞主要支护结构,锚杆与围岩组成锚杆-围岩复合结构体,使围岩的力学特性得到改善.基于岩体的莫尔-库仑(M-C)屈服准则,推导锚杆-围岩复合结构体满足M-C准则的应力条件.结合岩体劣化本构模型,提出确定锚杆-围岩复合结构体力学参数的方法.锚杆与弹性围岩和屈服围岩组成的锚杆-围岩复合结构体的力学参数确定方法不同,锚杆与屈服围岩组成的锚杆-围岩复合结构体的力学参数与围岩当前状态的等

  10. Geoelectric response of porous media in water and grout injection processes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙强; 刘盛东; 姜春露; 王勃

    2014-01-01

    Significant changes in spontaneous potential and exciting currents are observed during water and grout injection in a simulated porous media. Obvious correlations between the seepage flow field and the electric field in the porous media are identified. In this work, a detailed experimental study of geoelectric field variation occurring in water migration was reported by analyzing water and grout injection processes in a simulated porous media. The spontaneous potential varies linearly with the thickness of unsaturated porous media. Very interestingly, the spontaneous potential generated in the second grout injection exhibits some“memory”of previous grouting paths. The decreases in spontaneous potential observed during grout injection is very probably due to that the spontaneous potential variations are primarily caused by electro-filtration potential, as indicated by the far larger viscosity of grout compared to that of water. The geoelectric response can be utilized to effectively identify the grouting paths in water-bearing rocks.

  11. Cement-based grouts in geological disposal of radioactive waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Onofrei, M. [AECL Research, Pinnawa, Manitoba (Canada)

    1996-04-01

    The behavior and performance of a specially developed high-performance cement-based grout has been studied through a combined laboratory and in situ research program conducted under the auspices of the Canadian Nuclear Fuel Waste Management Program (CNFWMP). A new class of cement-based grouts - high-performance grouts-with the ability to penetrate and seal fine fractures was developed and investigated. These high-performance grouts, which were injected into fractures in the granitic rock at the Underground Research Laboratory (URL) in Canada, are shown to successfully reduce the hydraulic conductivity of the rock mass from <10{sup -7} m s{sup -1} to 10{sup -9} m s{sup -1} and to penetrate fissures in the rock with apertures as small as 10 {mu}m. Furthermore, the laboratory studies have shown that this high - performance grout has very low hydraulic conductivity and is highly leach resistant under repository conditions. Microcracks generated in this materials from shrinkage, overstressing or thermal loads are likely to self-seal. The results of these studies suggest that the high-performance grouts can be considered as viable materials in disposal-vault sealing applications. Further work is needed to fully justify extrapolation of the results of the laboratory studies to time scales relevant to performance assessment.

  12. PHYSICAL PROPERTY MEASUREMENTS OF LABORATORY PREPARED SALTSTONE GROUT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, E.; Cozzi, A.; Edwards, T.

    2014-05-05

    The Saltstone Production Facility (SPF) built two new Saltstone Disposal Units (SDU), SDU 3 and SDU 5, in 2013. The variable frequency drive (VFD) for the grout transfer hose pump tripped due to high current demand by the motor during the initial radioactive saltstone transfer to SDU 5B on 12/5/2013. This was not observed during clean cap processing on July 5, 2013 to SDU 3A, which is a slightly longer distance from the SPF than is SDU 5B. Saltstone Design Authority (SDA) is evaluating the grout pump performance and capabilities to transfer the grout processed in SPF to SDU 3/5. To assist in this evaluation, grout physical properties are required. At this time, there are no rheological data from the actual SPF so the properties of laboratory prepared samples using simulated salt solution or Tank 50 salt solution will be measured. The physical properties of grout prepared in the laboratory with de-ionized water (DI) and salt solutions were obtained at 0.60 and 0.59 water to premix (W/P) ratios, respectively. The yield stress of the DI grout was greater than any salt grout. The plastic viscosity of the DI grout was lower than all of the salt grouts (including salt grout with admixture). When these physical data were used to determine the pressure drop and fluid horsepower for steady state conditions, the salt grouts without admixture addition required a higher pressure drop and higher fluid horsepower to transport. When 0.00076 g Daratard 17/g premix was added, both the pressure drop and fluid horsepower were below that of the DI grout. Higher concentrations of Daratard 17 further reduced the pressure drop and fluid horsepower. The uncertainty in the single point Bingham Plastic parameters is + 4% of the reported values and is the bounding uncertainty. Two different mechanical agitator mixing protocols were followed for the simulant salt grout, one having a total mixing time of three minutes and the other having a time of 10 minutes. The Bingham Plastic parameters

  13. Time-frequency analysis of guided ultrasonic waves used for assessing integrity of rock bolts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepinski, Tadeusz

    2017-04-01

    The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate application of the time-frequency analysis (TFA) for processing guided ultrasonic waves measured by means of a specially designed ultrasonic rock bolt tester during nondestructive inspection of rock bolts. A pulse-echo method is adopted in the instrument as the most appropriate for the in-field applications. This paper presents methods for analysis of the measured guided ultrasonic waves using the TFA. The proposed TFA methodology is first demonstrated on the simulated signals and then verified using the experimental signals gathered from grouted prepared rock bolts provided with artificial defects simulating grout discontinuities.

  14. ELAWD GROUT HOPPER MOCK-UP TESTING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pickenheim, B.; Hansen, E.; Leishear, R.; Marzolf, A.; Reigel, M.

    2011-10-27

    A 10-inch READCO mixer is used for mixing the premix (45 (wt%) fly ash, 45 wt% slag, and 10 wt% portland cement) with salt solution in the Saltstone Production Facility (SPF). The Saltstone grout free falls into the grout hopper which feeds the suction line leading to the Watson SPX 100 duplex hose pump. The Watson SPX 100 pumps the grout through approximately 1500 feet of piping prior to being discharged into the Saltstone Disposal Facility (SDF) vaults. The existing grout hopper has been identified by the Saltstone Enhanced Low Activity Waste Disposal (ELAWD) project for re-design. The current nominal working volume of this hopper is 12 gallons and does not permit handling an inadvertent addition of excess dry feeds. Saltstone Engineering has proposed a new hopper tank that will have a nominal working volume of 300 gallons and is agitated with a mechanical agitator. The larger volume hopper is designed to handle variability in the output of the READCO mixer and process upsets without entering set back during processing. The objectives of this task involve scaling the proposed hopper design and testing the scaled hopper for the following processing issues: (1) The effect of agitation on radar measurement. Formation of a vortex may affect the ability to accurately measure the tank level. The agitator was run at varying speeds and with varying grout viscosities to determine what parameters cause vortex formation and whether measurement accuracy is affected. (2) A dry feeds over addition. Engineering Calculating X-ESR-Z-00017 1 showed that an additional 300 pounds of dry premix added to a 300 gallon working volume would lower the water to premix ratio (W/P) from the nominal 0.60 to 0.53 based on a Salt Waste Processing Facility (SWPF) salt simulant. A grout with a W/P of 0.53 represents the upper bound of grout rheology that could be processed at the facility. A scaled amount of dry feeds will be added into the hopper to verify that this is a recoverable situation

  15. Failure Mechanism Analysis and Support Design for Deep Composite Soft Rock Roadway: A Case Study of the Yangcheng Coal Mine in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bangyou Jiang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presented a case study of the failure mechanisms and support design for deep composite soft rock roadway in the Yangcheng Coal Mine of China. Many experiments and field tests were performed to reveal the failure mechanisms of the roadway. It was found that the surrounding rock of the roadway was HJS complex soft rock that was characterized by poor rock quality, widespread development of joint fissures, and an unstable creep property. The major horizontal stress, which was almost perpendicular to the roadway, was 1.59 times larger than the vertical stress. The weak surrounding rock and high tectonic stress were the main internal causes of roadway instabilities, and the inadequate support was the external cause. Based on the failure mechanism, a new support design was proposed that consisted of bolting, cable, metal mesh, shotcrete, and grouting. A field experiment using the new design was performed in a roadway section approximately 100 m long. Detailed deformation monitoring was conducted in the experimental roadway sections and sections of the previous roadway. The monitoring results showed that deformations of the roadway with the new support design were reduced by 85–90% compared with those of the old design. This successful case provides an important reference for similar soft rock roadway projects.

  16. Cure shrinkage in epoxy grouts for grouted repairs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamsuddoha, Md.; Islam, Md. Mainul; Aravinthan, Thiru; Manalo, Allan; Lau, Kin-tak

    2013-08-01

    Structures can go through harsh environmental adversity and can experience material loss and cracks during their service lives. Infill material is used to ensure a supporting bed for a grouted repair. Epoxy grouts are used for repairing and rehabilitating structures, such as foundations, bridges, piers, transportation pipelines, etc., because they are resistant to typical chemicals and possess superior mechanical properties than other grouts. The resin based infill used inside the void or cracked space of the repair is vulnerable to shrinkage. When these filled grouts have high resin content, cracks can develop from residual stresses, which can affect the load transfer performance. It follows that interlayer separation and cracking of infill layer can occur in a grouted repair. In this study, volumetric shrinkage of two epoxy grouts was measured over 28 days using a Pycnometer. The highest volumetric shrinkage measured after 7 days was found to be 2.72%. The results suggest that the volumetric shrinkage can be reduced to 1.1% after 7 days, through the introduction of a coarse aggregate filler; a 2.5 times reduction in shrinkage. About 98% and 92% of the total shrinkage over the 28 day period, of the unfilled and filled grouts respectively, was found to occur within 7 days of mixing. The gel-time shrinkages were also calculated, to determine the "postgel" part of the curing contraction which subsequently produces residual stresses in the hardened grout systems.

  17. Tunnel Design by Rock Mass Classifications

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    fact, rock mass classifications have been successfully applied throughout the world : in the United States,2 - Canada,7 8 Western Europe, 9 -12 South...gneiss. Very high strength >30000 >200 Quartzite, dolerite, gabbro , basalt. Table 10 3 Classification for Discontinuity Spacing Spacing of Rock Mass

  18. Rock Cracking Indices for Improved Tunnel Support Design: A Case Study for Columnar Jointed Rock Masses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Xia-Ting; Hao, Xian-Jie; Jiang, Quan; Li, Shao-jun; Hudson, John A.

    2016-06-01

    Measurements indicate that the development of cracking is a key feature relating to the strength and collapse of a columnar jointed rock mass. In this context, a new support design method utilising rock cracking indices for columnar jointed rock mass under high stress is proposed to restrain the development of cracking in the surrounding rock mass. The method involves limiting the cracking evolution of the surrounding rock mass by designing the appropriate parameters and time of installation of the support system. Two indices are suggested: the allowable depth of the excavation damaged zone (EDZ); and the allowable damage extent of the rock mass in the EDZ. The method involves limiting the evolution of cracking in the surrounding rock mass by designing the parameters and time of installation of the support system. The support system should have a suitable stiffness and installation time so as to restrain the evolution of the depth and damage extent of the EDZ within the surrounding rock. Therefore, the depth and damage extent of the EDZ, as well as the axial stress in the anchor bolts, are calculated at different distances between the support location and the tunnel working face to find the appropriate stiffness and installation time of the support system. The method has been successfully adopted to determine the thickness of shotcrete, the arrangement and installation time of rockbolts, and other parameters, for five large diversion tunnels at the Baihetan hydropower station, China, which were excavated in columnar jointed rock masses.

  19. GEOTHERMAL HEAT PUMP GROUTING MATERIALS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ALLAN,M.

    1998-04-01

    The thermal conductivity of cementitious grouts has been investigated in order to determine suitability of these materials for grouting vertical boreholes used with geothermal heat pumps. The roles of mix variables such as water/cement ratio, sand/cement ratio and superplasticizer dosage were measured. The cement-sand grouts were also tested for rheological characteristics, bleeding, permeability, bond to HDPE pipe, shrinkage, coefficient of thermal expansion, exotherm, durability and environmental impact. This paper summarizes the thermal conductivity, permeability, bonding and exotherm data for selected cementitious grouts. The theoretical reduction in bore length that could be achieved with the BNL-developed cement-sand grouts is examined. Finally, the FY 98 research and field trials are discussed.

  20. Geothermal heat pump grouting materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allan, M.

    1998-08-01

    The thermal conductivity of cementitious grouts has been investigated in order to determine suitability of these materials for grouting vertical boreholes used with geothermal heat pumps. The roles of mix variables such as water/cement ratio, sand/cement ratio and superplasticizer dosage were measured. The cement-sand grouts were also tested for rheological characteristics, bleeding, permeability, bond to HDPE pipe, shrinkage, coefficient of thermal expansion, exotherm, durability and environmental impact. This paper summarizes the thermal conductivity, permeability, bonding and exotherm data for selected cementitious grouts. The theoretical reduction in bore length that could be achieved with the BNL-developed cement-sand grouts is examined. Finally, the FY 98 research and field trials are discussed.

  1. APPLICATION OF TIME-VARYING VISCOUS GROUT IN GRAVEL- FOUNDATION ANTI-SEEPAGE TREATMENT*

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHENG Peng-da; LI Lu; TANG Ju; WANG Dao-zeng

    2011-01-01

    The time-varying viscosity of common grout and the controllable grout are measured with a rotation viscometer in experiments. The time-varying viscosity of grout is analyzed according to the characteristics in the process of anti-seepage treatment for gravel foundation. The principle of effective stress for porous medium is applied to analyzes the fluid-structure coupling in grouting. In the consideration of coupling physical variables, dynamic models of porosity, permeability and viscosity are constructed.The difiusion radius can thus be defined by the foundational porosity. The distribution of holes in field experiments is designed according to the diffusion radius of grout. Then, the permeability test is designed to verify the grout effect. The calculated diffusion radius coincides with experimental results, and the permeability meets the requirements of the project, which is valuable for the anti-seepage treatment in gravel foundation.

  2. The physical model for research of behavior of grouting mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajovsky, Radovan; Pies, Martin; Lossmann, Jaroslav

    2016-06-01

    The paper deals with description of physical model designed for verification of behavior of grouting mixtures when applied below underground water level. Described physical model has been set up to determine propagation of grouting mixture in a given environment. Extension of grouting in this environment is based on measurement of humidity and temperature with the use of combined sensors located within preinstalled special measurement probes around grouting needle. Humidity was measured by combined capacity sensor DTH-1010, temperature was gathered by a NTC thermistor. Humidity sensors measured time when grouting mixture reached sensor location point. NTC thermistors measured temperature changes in time starting from initial of injection. This helped to develop 3D map showing the distribution of grouting mixture through the environment. Accomplishment of this particular measurement was carried out by a designed primary measurement module capable of connecting 4 humidity and temperature sensors. This module also takes care of converting these physical signals into unified analogue signals consequently brought to the input terminals of analogue input of programmable automation controller (PAC) WinPAC-8441. This controller ensures the measurement itself, archiving and visualization of all data. Detail description of a complex measurement system and evaluation in form of 3D animations and graphs is supposed to be in a full paper.

  3. CLOSURE OF HLW TANKS FORMULATION FOR A COOLING COIL GROUT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harbour, J; Vickie Williams, V; Erich Hansen, E

    2008-05-23

    The Tank Closure and Technology Development Groups are developing a strategy for closing the High Level Waste (HLW) tanks at the Savannah River Site (SRS). Two Type IV tanks, 17 and 20 in the F-Area Tank Farm, have been successfully filled with grout. Type IV tanks at SRS do not contain cooling coils; on the other hand, the majority of the tanks (Type I, II, III and IIIA) do contain cooling coils. The current concept for closing tanks equipped with cooling coils is to pump grout into the cooling coils to prevent pathways for infiltrating water after tank closure. This task addresses the use of grout to fill intact cooling coils present in most of the remaining HLW tanks on Site. The overall task was divided into two phases. Phase 1 focused on the development of a grout formulation (mix design) suitable for filling the HLW tank cooling coils. Phase 2 will be a large-scale demonstration of the filling of simulated cooling coils under field conditions using the cooling coil grout mix design recommended from Phase 1. This report summarizes the results of Phase 1, the development of the cooling coil grout formulation. A grout formulation is recommended for the full scale testing at Clemson Environmental Technology Laboratory (CETL) that is composed by mass of 90% Masterflow (MF) 816 (a commercially available cable grout) and 10% blast furnace slag, with a water to cementitious material (MF 816 + slag) ratio of 0.33. This formulation produces a grout that meets the fresh and cured grout requirements detailed in the Task Technical Plan (2). The grout showed excellent workability under continuous mixing with minimal change in rheology. An alternative formulation using 90% MF 1341 and 10% blast furnace slag with a water to cementitious material ratio of 0.29 is also acceptable and generates less heat per gram than the MF 816 plus slag mix. However this MF 1341 mix has a higher plastic viscosity than the MF 816 mix due to the presence of sand in the MF 1341 cable grout and a

  4. 东敢水库松散堆石坝体充填灌浆的设计与施工%Design and construction of loose rockfill dam body filling grouting for Donggan Reservoir

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王之岑

    2013-01-01

      Filling grouting of loose rockfill dam body at downstream side of main dam is the most complicated of all reinforcement measures for Donggan Reservoir. The grouting effects also play key role in dam body stress calcula⁃tion. An introduction was made on the design,construction and examination results of loose rockfill dam body fill⁃ing grouting.%  东敢水库除险加固工程各项加固措施中,尤以主坝下游侧松散堆石坝体充填灌浆最为复杂,灌浆效果能否达到设计要求对坝体的应力分析计算起关键作用。介绍了松散堆石坝体充填灌浆的设计与施工,以及完工后工程检测的结果。

  5. Critically evaluate techniques for the in situ testing of steel tendon grouting effectiveness as a basis for reducing fall of ground injuries and fatalities

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Kelly, AM

    1996-10-01

    Full Text Available The quality of installation and grouting of rock reinforcing tendons is seen as a serious problem by the mining industry. Up to half of all full-column grouted steel tendons or rock bolts installed in South African gold and platinum mines...

  6. Self Cleanable Tile Grout

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet CANBAZ

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, In this study, self-cleaning tile grout and white cement specimens are produced and the effect of self-cleaning mechanism of TiO2 is tested. Effects of TiO2 amount and TiO2 type are tested and compared. Anatase form and rutile TiO2 additive are used in the study. In addition, effects of silicate additives on the self-cleaning mechanism is determined. Studies are conducted with respect to Italian UNI code. This study presents a method for solving rust between the tiles of ceramic wet floor coverings with photocatalysis method and then removing the dirt with secondary effects such as water, wind etc.

  7. Calculation method of composite foundation sedimentation of grouting pile with cover plate under embankment load

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    顾长存; 洪昌地; 马文彬; 李雪平

    2008-01-01

    Grouting pile is a new soft soil foundation treatment method with characteristics such as no vibration, no noise, no soil compaction, light construction machines and quick construction velocity and so on. At present, study on reinforcement mechanism and design calculation method of composite foundation of grouting pile is initially started without design specifications, so it is usually required to draw on design specifications of stump pile when designing composite foundation of grouting pile while grouting pile has its characteristics and difference although reinforcement mechanisms and construction processes of two types of piles are similar. Sedimentation formula of composite foundation of grouting pile with cover plate is educed and a suitable deformation mode is proposed by aiming to deformation characteristics of composite foundation of grouting pile with cover plate under embankment load on basis of relevant sedimentation theories of composite foundation by combination of characteristics of composite foundation of grouting pile. The sedimentation calculation formula of grouting pile with cover plate under embankment load is educed according to balance relation of force and displacement coordination conditions by elastic theory and sedimentation calculation model established is validated by sedimentation monitoring documents of one expressway in China.

  8. Jet grout strut for deep station boxes of the north/south metro line Amsterdam: Design and back analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Delfgaauw, S.; Buykx, S.M.; Bosch, J.W.

    2009-01-01

    The new North/South metro line in Amsterdam contains several stations, some of which with an excavation depth of 30 m below surface. The design of these station boxes is very much determined by the adjacent historic buildings, high water table and the relatively soft soil. A lot of effort is put

  9. Leach test of cladding removal waste grout using Hanford groundwater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serne, R.J.; Martin, W.J.; Legore, V.L.

    1995-09-01

    This report describes laboratory experiments performed during 1986-1990 designed to produce empirical leach rate data for cladding removal waste (CRW) grout. At the completion of the laboratory work, funding was not available for report completion, and only now during final grout closeout activities is the report published. The leach rates serve as inputs to computer codes used in assessing the potential risk from the migration of waste species from disposed grout. This report discusses chemical analyses conducted on samples of CRW grout, and the results of geochemical computer code calculations that help identify mechanisms involved in the leaching process. The semi-infinite solid diffusion model was selected as the most representative model for describing leaching of grouts. The use of this model with empirically derived leach constants yields conservative predictions of waste release rates, provided no significant changes occur in the grout leach processes over long time periods. The test methods included three types of leach tests--the American Nuclear Society (ANS) 16.1 intermittent solution exchange test, a static leach test, and a once-through flow column test. The synthetic CRW used in the tests was prepared in five batches using simulated liquid waste spiked with several radionuclides: iodine ({sup 125}I), carbon ({sup 14}C), technetium ({sup 99}Tc), cesium ({sup 137}Cs), strontium ({sup 85}Sr), americium ({sup 241}Am), and plutonium ({sup 238}Pu). The grout was formed by mixing the simulated liquid waste with dry blend containing Type I and Type II Portland cement, class F fly ash, Indian Red Pottery clay, and calcium hydroxide. The mixture was allowed to set and cure at room temperature in closed containers for at least 46 days before it was tested.

  10. Grout diffusion characteristics during chemical grouting in a deep water-bearing sand layer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Dangliang; Sui Wanghua

    2012-01-01

    The deep,loose bottom aquifer of the eastern air shaft in the Xinglongzhuang Coal Mine was used to develop an experimental model of shaft grouting through Model deep soil.Lab experiments using chemical grouting were done to study the grout.The grouted soil shapes and osmotic pressure were measured during the experiments.The tested characteristics of the grouted soil show that the diffusion mode of grout in saturated sandy soil is a combination of split compaction and osmosis.More specifically,the shape of the grouted soil is determined by split compaction while the size of the grouted soil shape is determined by osmosis.Sensor test results indicate that the main reason for the non-uniform grout diffusion is the anisotropic osmotic pressure field surrounding the grouting holes.

  11. Experimental study on pile-end post-grouting piles for super large bridge pile foundations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Weiming GONG; Guoliang DAI; Haowen ZHANG

    2009-01-01

    The application of pile-end post-grouting piles for super-large bridge pile foundations in some important projects was introduced in this paper. There are totally 21 test piles. The maximum pile diameter varies from 2.5 m to 3 m, and the maximum length is 125m; the bearing capacity of the post-grouting piles is over ten thousands tons. Based on the test results, the bearing capacity,displacement, and beating characteristics before and after grouting were analyzed. The results show that the beating capacity of the piles is increased in different degrees after grouting although the technical parameters, including the patterns of grouting pipes, pressure, dosages of cement, duration of grouting lasting time, are different. However,the obtained values are very discrete. In addition, the calculation formula for the post-grouting piles under specified grouting condition was deduced based on the statistics analysis results of 57 test piles. The research results have been applied in the design of bridge foundation.

  12. Seepage Control Design of Dam Diaphragm Wall Combined with Grout Curtain for Danger-removing and Consolidating Project of Taiping Reservoir%太平水库除险加固工程墙幕结合防渗设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王彩丽

    2012-01-01

    太平水库于1975年建成,已运行30多年,枢纽建筑物存在诸多问题,其中问题之一就是坝肩及坝基渗漏问题,已影响到水库经济效益及运行安全,为此采取了防渗墙与帷幕灌浆相结合的防渗处理措施以解决这一问题。文中介绍了水库的防渗设计,帷幕灌浆和防渗墙的施工工艺及质量控制。%The Taiping Reservoir had been completed in the year 1975,and its operation has lasted for 30-odd years.But there are many problems in building of hydroproject,one of which is seepage in dam shoulder and dam foundation.This problem has impacted the reservoir's economical benefit and operation safety.Therefore,a seepage control measure of dam diaphragm wall combined with grout curtain is adopted to solve this problem.In this paper,the reservoir's seepage control design,the construction techniques and the quality control measures of grout curtain and diaphrage wall are expounded.

  13. Grouting for Pile Foundation Improvement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Stoel, A.E.C.

    2001-01-01

    The aim of this research was to examine the use of grouting methods for pile foundation improvement, a generic term that is used here to define both foundation renovation (increasing the bearing capacity of a pile foundation that has insufficient bearing capacity) and foundation protection (safeguar

  14. Grouted Connections with Shear Keys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Ronnie; Jørgensen, M. B.; Damkilde, Lars

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a finite element model in the software package ABAQUS in which a reliable analysis of grouted pile-to-sleeve connections with shear keys is the particular purpose. The model is calibrated to experimental results and a consistent set of input parameters is estimated so...

  15. Performance of Grouted Splice Sleeve Connector under Tensile Load

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Alias

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The grouted splice sleeve connector system takes advantage of the bond-slip resistance of the grout and the mechanical gripping of reinforcement bars to provide resistance to tensile force. In this system, grout acts as a load-transferring medium and bonding material between the bars and sleeve. This study adopted the end-to-end rebars connection method to investigate the effect of development length and sleeve diameter on the bonding performance of the sleeve connector. The end-to-end method refers to the condition where reinforcement bars are inserted into the sleeve from both ends and meet at the centre before grout is filled. Eight specimens of grouted splice sleeve connector were tested under tensile load to determine their performance. The sleeve connector was designed using 5 mm thick circular hollow section (CHS steel pipe and consisted of one external and two internal sleeves. The tensile test results show that connectors with a smaller external and internal sleeve diameter appear to provide better bonding performance. Three types of failure were observed in this research, which are bar fracture (outside the sleeve, bar pullout, and internal sleeve pullout. With reference to these failure types, the development length of 200 mm is the optimum value due to its bar fracture type, which indicates that the tensile capacity of the connector is higher than the reinforcement bar. It is found that the performance of the grouted splice sleeve connector is influenced by the development length of the reinforcement bar and the diameter of the sleeve.

  16. MODELING ANALYSIS FOR GROUT HOPPER WASTE TANK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, S.

    2012-01-04

    The Saltstone facility at Savannah River Site (SRS) has a grout hopper tank to provide agitator stirring of the Saltstone feed materials. The tank has about 300 gallon capacity to provide a larger working volume for the grout nuclear waste slurry to be held in case of a process upset, and it is equipped with a mechanical agitator, which is intended to keep the grout in motion and agitated so that it won't start to set up. The primary objective of the work was to evaluate the flow performance for mechanical agitators to prevent vortex pull-through for an adequate stirring of the feed materials and to estimate an agitator speed which provides acceptable flow performance with a 45{sup o} pitched four-blade agitator. In addition, the power consumption required for the agitator operation was estimated. The modeling calculations were performed by taking two steps of the Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) modeling approach. As a first step, a simple single-stage agitator model with 45{sup o} pitched propeller blades was developed for the initial scoping analysis of the flow pattern behaviors for a range of different operating conditions. Based on the initial phase-1 results, the phase-2 model with a two-stage agitator was developed for the final performance evaluations. A series of sensitivity calculations for different designs of agitators and operating conditions have been performed to investigate the impact of key parameters on the grout hydraulic performance in a 300-gallon hopper tank. For the analysis, viscous shear was modeled by using the Bingham plastic approximation. Steady state analyses with a two-equation turbulence model were performed. All analyses were based on three-dimensional results. Recommended operational guidance was developed by using the basic concept that local shear rate profiles and flow patterns can be used as a measure of hydraulic performance and spatial stirring. Flow patterns were estimated by a Lagrangian integration technique along

  17. MODELING ANALYSIS FOR GROUT HOPPER WASTE TANK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, S.

    2012-01-04

    The Saltstone facility at Savannah River Site (SRS) has a grout hopper tank to provide agitator stirring of the Saltstone feed materials. The tank has about 300 gallon capacity to provide a larger working volume for the grout nuclear waste slurry to be held in case of a process upset, and it is equipped with a mechanical agitator, which is intended to keep the grout in motion and agitated so that it won't start to set up. The primary objective of the work was to evaluate the flow performance for mechanical agitators to prevent vortex pull-through for an adequate stirring of the feed materials and to estimate an agitator speed which provides acceptable flow performance with a 45{sup o} pitched four-blade agitator. In addition, the power consumption required for the agitator operation was estimated. The modeling calculations were performed by taking two steps of the Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) modeling approach. As a first step, a simple single-stage agitator model with 45{sup o} pitched propeller blades was developed for the initial scoping analysis of the flow pattern behaviors for a range of different operating conditions. Based on the initial phase-1 results, the phase-2 model with a two-stage agitator was developed for the final performance evaluations. A series of sensitivity calculations for different designs of agitators and operating conditions have been performed to investigate the impact of key parameters on the grout hydraulic performance in a 300-gallon hopper tank. For the analysis, viscous shear was modeled by using the Bingham plastic approximation. Steady state analyses with a two-equation turbulence model were performed. All analyses were based on three-dimensional results. Recommended operational guidance was developed by using the basic concept that local shear rate profiles and flow patterns can be used as a measure of hydraulic performance and spatial stirring. Flow patterns were estimated by a Lagrangian integration technique along

  18. Rock Engineering Design by Xiating Feng and John A Hudson

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    E.T.Brown

    2012-01-01

    This highly original and innovative book is the outcome of the work of the Commission on Rock Engineering Design Methodology of the International Society for Rock Mechanics (ISRM) in the period 2007-2011.The work of the Commission was managed by the authors,Professor John A Hudson,ISRM President for 2007-2011,and Professor Xiating Feng,ISRM President for 2011-2015,in association with the Chinese Society for Rock Mechanics and Engineering.Recently,this reviewer (2011) has argued that the work of its Commissions has been among the major achievements of the ISRM in the 50 years since its foundation in 1962.This book adds to that impressive record of achievement.

  19. Integrating rock mechanics issues with repository design through design process principles and methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bieniawski, Z.T. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States)

    1996-04-01

    A good designer needs not only knowledge for designing (technical know-how that is used to generate alternative design solutions) but also must have knowledge about designing (appropriate principles and systematic methodology to follow). Concepts such as {open_quotes}design for manufacture{close_quotes} or {open_quotes}concurrent engineering{close_quotes} are widely used in the industry. In the field of rock engineering, only limited attention has been paid to the design process because design of structures in rock masses presents unique challenges to the designers as a result of the uncertainties inherent in characterization of geologic media. However, a stage has now been reached where we are be able to sufficiently characterize rock masses for engineering purposes and identify the rock mechanics issues involved but are still lacking engineering design principles and methodology to maximize our design performance. This paper discusses the principles and methodology of the engineering design process directed to integrating site characterization activities with design, construction and performance of an underground repository. Using the latest information from the Yucca Mountain Project on geology, rock mechanics and starter tunnel design, the current lack of integration is pointed out and it is shown how rock mechanics issues can be effectively interwoven with repository design through a systematic design process methodology leading to improved repository performance. In essence, the design process is seen as the use of design principles within an integrating design methodology, leading to innovative problem solving. In particular, a new concept of {open_quotes}Design for Constructibility and Performance{close_quotes} is introduced. This is discussed with respect to ten rock mechanics issues identified for repository design and performance.

  20. Study of evaluation for grouting effect in a borehole; Yakueki chunyu koka hyoka gijutsu ni okeru ichikosatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakamura, H.; Matsuo, T. [Fukuoka Municipal Transportation Bureau, Fukuoka (Japan); Yamauchi, Y.; Imanishi, H. [Osaka Soil Test, Osaka (Japan)

    1996-10-01

    For the foundation improvement works by grouting in a borehole, evaluation of grouting effect is one of the most important management items. The grouting design and works are sometimes reconsidered depending on the evaluation of grouting effect during the test injection. The purpose of the evaluation of grouting effect is to grasp the range of improvement and consolidation after the injection, and to judge and estimate the strength and permeability of the consolidation part. This paper describes the judgment method of the strength using PS logging results and borehole televiewer (BHTV) logging results. The reflection intensity (Ir) by the BHTV logging increased after the grouting, which showed a same tendency as that using S-wave and P-wave velocities (Vs and Vp) before and after the grouting. This was considered to demonstrate the grouting effect. A relation was obtained between the Vs, Vp and Ir before and after the grouting, which was expressed by following equation. Ir=0.143{times}Vs-70=0.093{times}Vp-110. The relation with the dynamic elastic coefficient (Ed) was also obtained as follow; Ir=0.0013{times}Ed. 9 figs.

  1. Mechanics model and numerical analysis of floor heave in soft rock roadway

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Chuan-qu; WANG Yong; CHEN Miao-ming; CHEN Zhi; WANG Hong-ming

    2011-01-01

    The mechanism of floor heave was analyzed by establishing mechanics models and solving differential equations.The amount of floor heave is proportional to the abutment pressure of surrounding rock,roadway width,and the distance of support pressure peak to the roadway and is inversely proportional to the elastic modulus of floor rock.Using FLAC2D to simulate floor rock grouting in soft rock roadway verifies the active role of floor rock grouting in the floor controlling of soft rock roadway; floor rock grouting and grouting range directly impact on the stability scope of surrounding rock,namely,with the increase of grouting range,the subsidence of roof,the approach of both sides,and the amount of floor heave decreased gradually,the stability of surrounding rock is enhanced.

  2. Real-Time Grouting Monitoring and Visualization Analysis System for Dam Foundation Curtain Grouting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    樊贵超; 钟登华; 任炳昱; 崔博; 李晓超; 岳攀

    2016-01-01

    A real-time monitoring and 3D visualization analysis system is proposed for dam foundation curtain grouting. Based on the real-time control technology, the optimization method and the set theory, a mathematical model of the system is established. The real-time collection and transmission technology of the grouting data pro-vides a data foundation for the system. The real-time grouting monitoring and dynamic alarming method helps the system control the grouting quality during the grouting process, thus, the abnormalities of grouting, such as jacking and hydraulic uplift, can be effectively controlled. In addition, the 3D grouting visualization analysis technology is proposed to establish the grouting information model(GIM). The GIM provides a platform to visualize and ana-lyze the grouting process and results. The system has been applied to a hydraulic project of China as a case study, and the application results indicate that the real-time grouting monitoring and 3D visualization analysis for the grouting process can help engineers control the grouting quality more efficiently.

  3. Induced Polarization Surveying for Acid Rock Screening in Highway Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, K. E.; Al, T.; Bishop, T.

    2004-05-01

    Highway and pipeline construction agencies have become increasingly vigilant in their efforts to avoid cutting through sulphide-bearing bedrock that has potential to produce acid rock drainage. Blasting and fragmentation of such rock increases the surface area available for sulphide oxidation and hence increases the risk of acid rock drainage unless the rock contains enough natural buffering capacity to neutralize the pH. In December, 2001, the New Brunswick Department of Transportation (NBOT) sponsored a field trial of geophysical surveying in order to assess its suitability as a screening tool for locating near-surface sulphides along proposed highway alignments. The goal was to develop a protocol that would allow existing programs of drilling and geochemical testing to be targeted more effectively, and provide design engineers with the information needed to reduce rock cuts where necessary and dispose of blasted material in a responsible fashion. Induced polarization (IP) was chosen as the primary geophysical method given its ability to detect low-grade disseminated mineralization. The survey was conducted in dipole-dipole mode using an exploration-style time domain IP system, dipoles 8 to 25 m in length, and six potential dipoles for each current dipole location (i.e. n = 1 - 6). Supplementary information was provided by resistivity and VLF-EM surveys sensitive to lateral changes in electrical conductivity, and by magnetic field surveying chosen for its sensitivity to the magnetic susceptibility of pyrrhotite. Geological and geochemical analyses of samples taken from several IP anomalies located along 4.3 line-km of proposed highway confirmed the effectiveness of the screening technique. IP pseudosections from a region of metamorphosed shales and volcaniclastic rocks identified discrete, well-defined mineralized zones. Stronger, overlapping, and more laterally extensive IP anomalies were observed over a section of graphitic and sulphide-bearing metasedimentary

  4. Rock and pop venues acoustic and architectural design

    CERN Document Server

    Adelman-Larsen, Niels Werner

    2014-01-01

    Popular music plays an substantial role in most people’s life. The demand and financial revenue of Rock and pop concerts is large and still increasing. Though 80% of the music turnover is done in Rock and Pop Music, books assess only Classical concert and opera houses. However, the requirements for pop music halls are different from classical Music and opera houses. This book closes this gap including the following features: In part one, the book A. Gives a objective methodology to assess Rock and Pop Music Venues B. Shows essential construction details and choices of building materials in the design of new venues or the renovation of old ones. In part two, the book C. Presents a set of famous European rock and pop venues, their architecture, their beauty and their properties. D. These Venues are assessed by a new and comparably simple method to objectively rate halls. Subjective data complete the assessment and give a full picture of the sound quality of a venue.

  5. 导波在端锚锚杆锚固段上界面的反射研究%Research on the guided wave reflecting from the upper interface of partially grouted rock bolt

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何文; 王成; 宁建国; 唐永刚

    2009-01-01

    Finite element method was used to simulate longitudinal guided wave reflecting from the upper interface of partially grouted bolt, with the excitation wave frequencies 5 ~ 60 kHz. Reflection coefficient was used to evaluate the upper interface reflection wave which can be seen clearly while reflection coefficient was large. The effect of thickness of the grout layer, wedge angle between the upper interface and the bolt axial direction and grout materials on the upper interface reflection wave was studied. The results show that the factors above have little effect on reflection coefficient with the same excitation wave frequency, and reflection coefficient is larger when the excitation wave frequency is lower than 20 kHz, and reflection coefficient reaches its minimun when the frequency is 40 kHz. The results of numerical simulation agree well with the experimental results.%利用有限元数值模拟研究了5~60 kHz纵向导波在端锚锚杆锚固段上界面的反射情况.使用反射系数衡量导波在锚固段上界面反射能量的大小,反射系数越大,即导波在锚固段上界面的反射越明显.通过改变锚固层厚度、锚固段上界面与锚杆轴向间的楔角和锚固层的材料,研究了反射系数的变化.結果表明,以上因素对同频率导波的反射系数影响不大;当激发波频率低于20 kHz,反射系数较大;而频率为40 kHz时,反射系数最小.数值模拟导波在锚固段上界面反射系数与现场测试所得结果吻合较好.

  6. Effective grouting area of jointed slope and stress deformation responses by numerical analysis with FLAC3D

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Zi-qiang; LIU Qun-yi; ZENG Fan-he; QING Du-gan

    2009-01-01

    To study the grouting reinforcement mechanism in jointed rock slope, first, the theoretical deduction was done to calculate the critical length of slipping if the slope angle is larger than that of joint inclination; Second, the numerical calculation model was founded by FLAG3D, so as to find the stress and deformation responses of rock mass in the state before and after grouting, the analysis results show that the range between the boundary of critical slipping block and the joint plane that passes the slope toe is the effective grouting area (EGA). After excavation, large deformation occurs along the joint plane. After grouting, the displacements of rock particles become uniform and continuous, and large deformations along the joint plane are controlled; the dynamic displacement can reflect the deformation response of slope during excavation in the state before and after grouting, as well as the shear location of potential slip plane. After grouting, the dynamic displacement of each monitoring point reaches the peak value with very few time steps,which indicate that the parameters of the joint plane, such as strength and stiffness, are improved; the stress field becomes uniform. Tensile area reduces gradually; whole stability of the slope and its ability to resist tensile and shear stress are improved greatly.

  7. GROUT TEMPERATURE MEASUREMENTS IN 105-R DISASSEMBLY BASIN D AND E CANAL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fogle, R.; Collins, M.; Guerrero, H.

    2010-06-03

    The 105-R Reactor Disassembly Basin Grout Placement Strategy Report (SRNL-TR-2009-00157) identifies various portions of the facility that will undergo an in-situ decommissioning process. The estimated residual radioactive contamination in the 105-R facility is shown in Figure 1. Cementitious grout formulations developed by SRNL are being used to immobilize and isolate the radioactive contamination in existing below grade portions of the 105-R building as shown by the gray-hatched area in Figure 2. A Zero Bleed flowable fill was formulated for both dry placement and for underwater placement. The first major area in the 105-R Disassembly Basin to undergo the grouting process was the D&E Canal and an underlying void space known as the Chase. Grout temperature data was needed to ensure that the grout mix design was on the correct grout curing trajectory to meet the material compressive strength requirement of 50 pounds per square inch. Initial grout temperature measurements were needed to confirm and optimize grout mix design fresh property characteristics; i.e. material strength, and set time. Grout curing temperature is an integrating fresh property characteristic that is used to estimate cementitious material strength in accordance with the Standard Practice for Estimating Concrete Strength by the Maturity Method, ASTM C 1074. The Maturity Method is used in the construction industry to estimate in-place strength of concrete to allow the start of critical construction activities; e.g. formwork removal, removal of cold weather protection, opening of roadways to traffic, etc. Applying this methodology provides an expeditious means to estimate in-place grout strength based on compressive strength laboratory results. The Maturity Method results define the relationship between strength-time and age-time that may be utilized in the field for estimating strength after a given time of placement. Maturation curves were developed under the 105-R Reactor Disassembly Basin

  8. Panel discussion on rock mechanics issues in repository design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bieniawski, Z.T.; Kim, K.S.; Nataraja, M. [and others

    1996-04-01

    The panel discussion was introduced by Mr. Z.T.(Richard) Bieniawski and then continued with five additional speakers. The topics covered in the discussion included rock mechanics pertaining to the design of underground facilities for the disposal of radioactive wastes and the safety of such facilities. The speakers included: Mr. Kun-Soo Kim who is a specialist in the area of rock mechanics testing during the Basalt Waste Isolation Project; Dr. Mysore Nataraja who is the senior project manager with the NRC; Dr. Michael Voegele who is the project manager for Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC) on the Yucca Mountain Project; Dr. Edward Cording who is a member of the Nuclear Waste Technical Review Board; and Dr. Hemendra Kalia who is employed by Los Alamos National Laboratory and coordinates various activities of testing programs at the Yucca Mountain Site.

  9. Development of Freshwater Grout Subsequent to the Bell Canyon Tests (BCT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-04-01

    southeastern New Mex ic o. 1his salt-f ree grout, desi gnated BCT- I F, was Placed in the field in 1 981 (Site andl V rc 1iia ar%- Design Val idatiton, or...boreholes and sealing shafts through and near underground facilities for disposal of high-level *" wastes; b) to emplace test plugs that will prevent...7. Grouts placed underground at the WIPP site during the early 1980’s

  10. Final report of the rock sealing project. Sealing of zones disturbed by blasting and stress release

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boergesson, L.; Pusch, R.; Fredriksson, A.; Hoekmark, H.; Karnland, O.; Sanden, T. (Clay Technology AB, Lund (Sweden))

    1992-04-01

    Test 2 and 3 of the rock sealing project comprised determination of the hydraulic properties of the disturbed rock around tunnels and drifts and the possibilities of decreasing the hydraulic conductivity of the disturbed zones by an attempt to seal the very fine excavation-induced fractures that cause an increase in conductivity. This report deals with the grouting procedures and their effect while the hydraulic testing before grouting is described in volume 2. The macro flow test of the BMT drift before grouting showed that the disturbed zone around the drift has a highly increased hydraulic conductivity reaching more than 1 m into the rock from the periphery of the drift. The most conductive shallow part of this zone was grouted by 350 1 m long 'hedgehog' holes. The holes were injected with cement using dynamic as well as static techniques. The injections were preceded by laboratory investigations of the rheological properties of different cement mixtures, by theoretical modelling of grout penetration in factures, and by full scale injections in an artificial fracture. The macro flow test was repeated after the grouting and the results evaluated by using the same finite element models as before the grouting. The conclusion was that the effect of the grouting was very small. Excavation of the rock after grouting showed that the grout penetration has been very poor into chlorite-coated fractures and a conclusion was that such fractures are hardly groutable due to debris hindering the grout from penetrating. (au).

  11. Investigation of a Hardened Cement Paste Grout

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Esteves, Luis Pedro; Sørensen, Eigil Verner

    This report documents a series of tests performed on a hardened cement paste grout delivered by the client, Det Norske Veritas A/S.......This report documents a series of tests performed on a hardened cement paste grout delivered by the client, Det Norske Veritas A/S....

  12. Numerical method to determine mechanical parameters of engineering design in rock masses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    薛廷河; 项贻强; 郭发忠

    2004-01-01

    This paper proposes a new continuity model for engineering in rock masses and a new schematic method for reporting the engineering of rock continuity. This method can be used to evaluate the mechanics of every kind of medium;and is a new way to determine the mechanical parameters used in engineering design in rock masses. In the numerical simulation, the experimental parameters of intact rock were combined with the structural properties of field rock. Theexperimental results for orthogonally-jointed rock are given. The results included the curves of the stress-strain relationship of some rock masses, the curve of the relationship between the dimension Δ and the uniaxial pressure-resistant strength σc of these rock masses, and pictures of the destructive procedure of some rock masses in uniaxial or triaxial tests, etc. Application of the method to engineering design in rock masses showed the potential of its application to engineering practice.

  13. Numerical method to determine mechanical parameters of engineering design in rock masses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Ting-He; Xiang, Yi-Qiang; Guo, Fa-Zhong

    2004-07-01

    This paper proposes a new continuity model for engineering in rock masses and a new schematic method for reporting the engineering of rock continuity. This method can be used to evaluate the mechanics of every kind of medium; and is a new way to determine the mechanical parameters used in engineering design in rock masses. In the numerical simulation, the experimental parameters of intact rock were combined with the structural properties of field rock. The experimental results for orthogonally-jointed rock are given. The results included the curves of the stress-strain relationship of some rock masses, the curve of the relationship between the dimension Delta and the uniaxial pressure-resistant strength sc of these rock masses, and pictures of the destructive procedure of some rock masses in uniaxial or triaxial tests, etc. Application of the method to engineering design in rock masses showed the potential of its application to engineering practice.

  14. Compensation Grouting in Sand: Experiments, Field Experiences and Mechanisms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bezuijen, A.

    2010-01-01

    This thesis reports on experimental research on compensation grouting in sand. It is investigated in model tests, how the shape of the grout bodies made during injection depends on the grout properties, the density of the sand and the way the tubes are installed. The shape of the grout body affects

  15. Field lysimeter studies for performance evaluation of grouted Hanford defense wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Last, G.V.; Serne, R.J.; LeGore, V.L.

    1995-02-01

    The Grout Waste Test Facility (GWTF) consisted of four large field lysimeters designed to test the leaching and migration rates of grout-solidified low-level radioactive wastes generated by Hanford Site operations. Each lysimeter was an 8-m-deep by 2-media closed-bottom caisson that was placed in the ground such that the uppermost rim remained just above grade. Two of these lysimeters were used; the other two remained empty. The two lysimeters that were used (A-1 and B-1) were backfilled with a two-layer soil profile representative of the proposed grout disposal site. The proposed grout disposal site (termed the Grout Treatment Facility Landfill) is located immediately east of the Hanford Site`s 200 East Area. This soil profile consisted of a coarse sand into which the grout waste forms were placed and covered by 4 m of a very fine sand. The A-1 lysimeter was backfilled in March 1985, with a grout-solidified phosphate/sulfate liquid waste from N Reactor decontamination and ion exchange resin regeneration. The B-1 lysimeter was backfilled in September 1985 and received a grout-solidified simulated cladding removal waste representative of waste generated from fuel reprocessing operations at the head end of the Plutonium Uranium Extraction (PUREX) plant. Routine monitoring and leachate collection activities were conducted for over three years, terminating in January 1989. Drainage was collected sporadically between January 1989 and December 1992. Decontamination and decommissioning of these lysimeters during the summer of 1994, confirmed the presence of a 15 to 20-cm-long hairline crack in one of the bottom plate welds. This report discusses the design and construction of the GWTF, presents the routine data collected from this facility through January 1989 and subsequent data collected sporadically between 1989 and 1993, and provides a brief discussion concerning preliminary interpretation of the results.

  16. Use of jet grouting to create a low permeability horizontal barrier below an incinerator ash landfill

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furth, A.J.; Burke, G.K. [Hayward Baker Inc., Odenton, MD (United States); Deutsch, W.L. Jr. [Roy F. Weston, Inc., West Chester, PA (United States)

    1997-12-31

    The City of Philadelphia`s Division of Aviation (DOA) has begun construction of a new commuter runway, designated as Runway 8-26, at the Philadelphia International Airport. A portion of this runway will be constructed over a former Superfund site known as the Enterprise Avenue Landfill, which for many years was used to dispose of solid waste incinerator ash and other hazardous materials. The site was clay capped in the 1980`s, but in order for the DOA to use the site, additional remediation was needed to meet US EPA final closure requirements. One component of the closure plan included installation of a low permeability horizontal barrier above a very thin (approximately 0.61 to 0.91 meters) natural clay stratum which underlies an approximately 1020 m{sup 2} area of the landfill footprint so as to insure that a minimum 1.52 meter thick low permeability barrier exists beneath the entire 150,000 m{sup 2} landfill. The new barrier was constructed using jet grouting techniques to achieve remote excavation and replacement of the bottom 0.91 meters of the waste mass with a low permeability grout. The grout was formulated to meet the low permeability, low elastic modulus and compressive strength requirements of the project design. This paper will discuss the advantages of using jet grouting for the work and details the development of the grout mixture, modeling of the grout zone under load, field construction techniques, performance monitoring and verification testing.

  17. CONSIDERATIONS FOR GROUT FORMULATIONS FOR FACILITY CLOSURES USING IN SITU STRATEGIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gladden, J.; Serrato, M.; Langton, C.; Long, T.; Blankenship, J.; Hannah, G.; Stubblefield, R.; Szilagyi, A.

    2010-08-25

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is conducting in situ closures (entombment) at a large number of facilities throughout the complex. Among the largest closure actions currently underway are the closures of the P and R Reactors at the Savannah River Site (SRS), near Aiken, South Carolina. In these facilities, subgrade open spaces are being stabilized with grout; this ensures the long term structural integrity of the facilities and permanently immobilizes and isolates residual contamination. The large size and structural complexity of these facilities present a wide variety of challenges for the identification and selection of appropriate fill materials. Considerations for grout formulations must account for flowability, long term stability, set times, heat generation and interactions with materials within the structure. The large size and configuration of the facility necessitates that grout must be pumped from the exterior to the spaces to be filled, which requires that the material must retain a high degree of flowability to move through piping without clogging while achieving the required leveling properties at the pour site. Set times and curing properties must be controlled to meet operations schedules, while not generating sufficient heat to compromise the properties of the fill material. The properties of residual materials can result in additional requirements for grout formulations. If significant quantities of aluminum are present in the facility, common formulations of highly alkaline grouts may not be appropriate because of the potential for hydrogen generation with the resultant risks. SRS is developing specialized inorganic grout formulations that are designed to address this issue. One circum-neutral chemical grout formulation identified for initial consideration did not possess the proper chemical characteristics, having exceptionally short set times and high heat of hydration. Research efforts are directed toward developing grout formulations

  18. Jet grouting for a groundwater cutoff wall in difficult glacial soil deposits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flanagan, R.F.; Pepe, F. Jr. [Parsons Brinckerhoff Quade & Douglas, New York, NY (United States)

    1997-12-31

    Jet grouting is being used as part of a groundwater cutoff wall system in a major New York City subway construction project to limit drawdowns in an adjacent PCB contamination plume. A circular test shaft of jet grout columns was conducted during the design phase to obtain wall installation parameters. The test program also included shaft wall mapping, and measurements of; inflows, piezometric levels, ground heave and temperature, and jet grout hydraulic conductivity. An axisymmetric finite element method groundwater model was established to back calculate the in-situ hydraulic conductivities of both the surrounding glacial soils and the jet grout walls by matching observed inflows and piezometric levels. The model also verified the use of packer permeability test as a tool in the field to evaluate the hydraulic conductivities of jet grout columns. Both the test program and analytic studies indicated that adjustments to the construction procedures would be required to obtain lower hydraulic conductivities of the jet grout walls for construction. A comparison is made with the conductivities estimated from the test program/analytic studies with those from the present construction.

  19. Grout to meet physical and chemical requirements for closure at Hanford grout vaults. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-07-21

    The US Army Engineer Waterways Experiment Station (WES) developed a grout based on portland cement, Class F fly ash, and bentonite clay, for the Hanford Grout Vault Program. The purpose of this grout was to fill the void between a wasteform containing 106-AN waste and the vault cover blocks. Following a successful grout development program, heat output, volume change, and compressive strength were monitored with time in simulated repository conditions and in full-depth physical models. This research indicated that the cold-cap grout could achieve and maintain adequate volume stability and other required physical properties in the internal environment of a sealed vault. To determine if contact with 106-AN liquid waste would cause chemical deterioration of the cold-cap grout, cured specimens were immersed in simulated waste. Over a period of 21 days at 150 F, specimens increased in mass without significant changes in volume. X-ray diffraction of reacted specimens revealed crystallization of sodium aluminum silicate hydrate. Scanning electron microscopy used with X-ray fluorescence showed that clusters if this phase had formed in grout pores, increasing grout density and decreasing its effective porosity. Physical and chemical tests collectively indicate a sealing component. However, the Hanford Grout Vault Program was cancelled before completion of this research. This report summarizes close-out Waterways Experiment Station when the Program was cancelled.

  20. Fatigue Life of High Performance Grout for Wind Turbine Grouted Connection in Wet or Dry Environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Eigil V.; Westhof, Luc; Yde, Elo;

    Grouted connections of monopile supported offshore wind turbine structures are subjected to loads leading to very high oscillating service stresses in the grout material. The fatigue capacity of a high performance cement based grout was tested by dynamic compressive loading of cylindrical specimens...... at varying levels of cyclic frequency and load. The fatigue tests were performed in two series: one with the specimens in air and one with the specimens submerged in water during the test. The fatigue life of the grout, in terms of the number of cycles to failure, was found to be significantly shorter when...... tested in water than when tested in air....

  1. Strength of Mock-up Trial Grout

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Eigil V.

    The present report describes tests carried out on samples taken and cast during the execution of a mock-up trial placement of the high performance grout MASTERFLOW 9500 on January 21, 2009.......The present report describes tests carried out on samples taken and cast during the execution of a mock-up trial placement of the high performance grout MASTERFLOW 9500 on January 21, 2009....

  2. A new method for controlling of floor heave of deep tunnels in soft rocks by mini-tube grouting piles of crushed stones%微型碎石管注桩治理深部软岩巷道底鼓新方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢芳; 王金安

    2013-01-01

    针对造成巷道底鼓的物理和力学两种重要机制,研究并提出微型碎石管注桩治理深部软岩巷道底鼓的新方法.在物理机制方面,微型碎石桩具有渗透性极好的特点,在巷道施工和使用期间可汲取岩体中的渗水并透过碎石桩中的插管排出,从而降低软岩层因遇水膨胀导致的变形;在力学机制方面,微型碎石桩一方面通过钻孔置换出少部分底板软岩,从体量上减少变形岩体,另一方面能利用碎石桩体的侧向可压缩性耗散岩体水平变形,底板岩层中的水平地应力得以释放,极大减缓了促使底鼓变形的力学作用;通过微型碎石桩中的插管注浆加固底板岩体,提高了底板复合地基整体承载力.通过数值分析,阐明该方法在治理软岩巷道底鼓机制上的有效性.%Focusing on two important mechanisms of physics and mechanics that give rise to the floor heave of tunnels , a new method of controlling the floor heave of deep tunnels in soft rocks was proposed by means of mini-tube grouting piles of crushed stones. In physical aspect, the method utilizes the characteristics of good permeability of crushed stone pile to absorb the water in rockmass and drainage out through the tubes in the pile during the construction and application of the tunnels, resulting in the decrease in expansion deformation of soft rock due to water saturation. In mechanical aspect, partial volume in floor stratum has been replaced, on one hand, by the installed mini piles which reduce the volume of the deforming rock body, and on the other hand, amount of horizontal deformation are dissipated through the lateral compressive deformation of the crushed stone pile, and the horizontal stress is released. As a result, the mechanical affect that induces the heave deformation in floor stratum is considerably reduced. By means of grouting the crushed stones through the tube inserted in the pile, the floor stratum is reinforced and the

  3. Development of a technical approach for assessing environmental release and migration characteristics of Hanford Grout

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serne, R. J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Treat, R. L. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Lokken, R. O. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    1985-09-01

    ) detailed analysis of solution data by equilibrium thermodynamic codes to identify possible solid phase solubility controls and 3) mathematical analyses of the combined test results by mass transport theory ("waste package") models deschbed in existing literature. Recommendations for future study include 1) additional development of combined tests under saturated and partially saturated conditions 2) an evaluation of whether CO{sub 2} gas will be supplied to the disposed grout monolith at a rate that maintains CO{sub 2} equilibrium conditions at the grout-sediment interface 3) development of methods to supply CO{sub 2} at an adequate rate should CO{sub 2} equilibrium prove to be a controlling factor and 4) testing of artificially aged grout for leaching properties. Until the mechanisms of leaching and the subsequent interactions with sediments are better understood, it is difficult to suggest a specific direction for the development of combined tests. It is our hope that the analyses yet to be performed on the separate leaching and adsorption tests and the combined test will provide knowledge on controlling mechanisms and shed light on what parameters should be considered as most important in designing experiments to provide the data upon which long-term performance assessments are based. In spite of the current lack of understanding of the interactions among grout, sediment, and groundwater, and considering that this effort was not started until January 1985, significant progress has been made toward the establishment of testing methodologies for assessing the long-term performance of Hanford grout.

  4. Dynamic design method for deep hard rock tunnels and its application

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xia-Ting Feng; Chuanqing Zhang; Shili Qiu; Hui Zhou; Quan Jiang; Shaojun Li

    2016-01-01

    Numerous deep underground projects have been designed and constructed in China, which are beyond the current specifications in terms of scale and construction difficulty. The severe failure problems induced by high in situ stress, such as rockburst, spalling, damage of deep surrounding rocks, and time-dependent damage, were observed during construction of these projects. To address these problems, the dynamic design method for deep hard rock tunnels is proposed based on the disintegration process of surrounding rocks using associated dynamic control theories and technologies. Seven steps are basically employed: (i) determination of design objective, (ii) characteristics of site, rock mass and project, and identification of constraint conditions, (iii) selection or development of global design strategy, (iv) determination of modeling method and software, (v) preliminary design, (vi) comprehensive integrated method and dynamic feedback analysis, and (vii) final design. This dynamic method was applied to the construction of the headrace tunnels at Jinping II hydropower station. The key technical issues encountered during the construction of deep hard rock tunnels, such as in situ stress distribution along the tunnels, mechanical properties and constitutive model of deep hard rocks, determination of me-chanical parameters of surrounding rocks, stability evaluation of surrounding rocks, and optimization design of rock support and lining, have been adequately addressed. The proposed method and its application can provide guidance for deep underground projects characterized with similar geological conditions.

  5. Fatigue Life of High Performance Grout in Dry and Wet Environment for Wind Turbine Grouted Connections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Eigil V.

    2011-01-01

    The cementitious material in grouted connections of offshore monopile wind turbine structures is subjected to very high oscillating service stresses. The fatigue capacity of the grout therefore becomes essential to the performance and service life of the grouted connection. In the present work...... the fatigue life of a high performance cement based grout was tested by dynamic compressive loading of cylindrical specimens at varying levels of cyclic frequency and load. The fatigue tests were performed in two series, one with the specimens tested in air and one with the specimens submerged in water during...... the test. The fatigue life of the grout, in terms of the number of cycles to failure, was found to be significantly shorter when tested in water than when tested in air, particularly at low frequency....

  6. Method of effecting expanding chemical anchor/seals for rock cavities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swanson, D.; Schlump, M.

    1989-06-20

    This method discusses sealing a cavity formed in a rock against the passage of fluids without fracturing the rock; by placing wadding in the cavity and adding a supply of expanding chemical grout; a seal was been developed upon hardening.

  7. Rheology of sludge-slurry grouts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDaniel, E. W.

    1980-10-01

    A series of rheograms was developed that relates the critical velocity (velocity where flow changes from laminar to turbulent) of a cementitious grout that incorporates a suspended sludge-slurry to the critical velocity of a reference grout made with a simulated waste solution. The sludge that is now in the Gunite waste tanks at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) will be suspended and pumped to the new waste storage tanks in Melton Valley. The sludge will then be blended with a cement mix base to form a grout which will be injected underground by the shale fracturing process. This report describes the materials, equipment, and techniques used in the laboratory studies to suspend sludges and mix sludge-slurry grouts that have flow properties similar to those of current shale fracturing grouts. Bentonite clay is an effective suspender in dilute NaNO/sub 3/ solutions; 15 wt % solids can be suspended with 2.0 wt % bentonite in a 0.1 M NaNO/sub 3/ solution. Other suspending materials were evaluated, but bentonite gave the best results. If a slurry grout becomes too viscous to pump, methods must be available to thin the mixture. A number of thinners, friction reducers, and plasticizers were examined. Q-Broxin, a thinner supplied by Baroid, reduced the velocity of a grout required for turbulent flow in a 5.0-cm (2-in.)-diam tube from 1.76 to 1.20 m/s (5.79 to 3.95 ft/s); FX-32C, a plasticizer supplied by Fox Industries, Inc., reduced the velocity from 1.76 to 0.75 m/s (5.6 to 2.45 ft/s).

  8. Development of fractures in soft rock surrounding a roadway and their control

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Xuehua; Yao Qiangling; Man Jiankang; Chen Chaoqun; He Lihui

    2011-01-01

    As the excavation of roadway,new fractures will be formed and the pre-existing fractures extend with the redistribution of stress in surrounding rocks.Eventually,fracture zone and bed separation are formed in rocks because of the developed fractures.Therefore,mastering the fracture evolution of surrounding rocks is very important to maintain the stability of roadway.The surrounding rocks of main haulage roadway in a certain coal mine is so broken and loose that the supporting is very difficult.Based on comprehensive analysis of the engineering geological conditions,a sight instrument was used to observe the fractures of internal surrounding rocks.Four indices,i.e.,the width of fracture zone W,the number of fractures n,the width of fractures d and rock fracture designation RFD,are put forward to evaluate the fracture development.According to the evolution rules of the soft rock roadway from this paper,control principles by stages and by regions are presented through the research.At the same time,the best time of grouting reinforcement is determined on the basis of fracture saturation.Field practice shows that the roadway can satisfy normal production during service periods by suitable first support and grouting reinforcement.

  9. Pillar Design in the Hard Rock Mines of South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.F. Malan

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper gives an overview of the difficulties associated with the design of hard rock pillars in South African mines. Recent examples of large scale pillar collapses in South Africa suggest that these were caused by weak partings which traversed the pillars. Currently two different methods are used to determine the strength of pillars, namely, empirical equations derived from back analyses of failed and stable cases and numerical modeling tools using appropriate failure criteria. It is illustrated in the paper that both techniques have their limitations and additional work is required to obtain a better understanding of pillar strength.Empirical methods based on observations of pillar behaviour in a given geotechnical setting are popular and easy to use, but care should be exercised that the results are not inappropriately extrapolated beyond the environment in which they are established. An example is the Hedley and Grant formula (derived for the Canadian uranium mines that has been used for many years in the South African platinum and chrome mines (albeit with some adaptation of the K-value. Very few collapses have been reported in South Africa for layouts designed using this formula, suggesting that in some cases it might yield estimates of pillar strength that are too conservative.As an alternative, some engineers strongly advocate the use of numerical techniques to determine pillar strength. A close examination unfortunately reveals that these techniques also rely on many assumptions. An area where numerical modeling is invaluable, however, is to determine pillar stresses accurately and to study specific pillar failure mechanisms, such as the influence of weak partings on pillar strength.

  10. Microbial analyses of cement and grouting additives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hallbeck, L.; Jaegevall, S.; Paeaejaervi, A.; Rabe, L.; Edlund, J.; Eriksson, S. [Microbial Analytics Sweden AB, Moelnlycke (Sweden)

    2012-01-15

    During sampling in the ONKALO tunnel in 2006, heavy growth of a slimy material was observed in connection with grouting. It was suggested to be microbial growth on organic additives leaching from the grout. Two sampling campaigns resulted in the isolation of several aerobic bacterial strains. Some of these strains were used in biodegradation studies of three solid cement powders, eight liquid grout additives, and six plastic drainage materials. Degradation was also studied using ONKALO groundwaters as inoculums. The isolated strains were most closely related to hydrocarbon-degrading microorganisms. The biodegradation of seven of the products was tested using microorganisms isolated from the ONKALO slime in 2006; none of these strains could degrade the tested products. When ONKALO drillhole groundwaters were used as inoculums in the degradation studies, it was demonstrated that Structuro 111X, Mighty 150, and Super-Parmix supported growth of the groundwater microorganisms. Structuro 111X is a polycarboxylate condensate while Mighty 150 and Super-Parmix are condensates with formaldehyde and naphthalene. Some of the isolated microorganisms belonged to the genus Pseudomonas, many strains of which can degrade organic molecules. None of the plastic drainage materials supported growth during the degradation studies. Microorganisms were present in two of the liquid products when delivered, GroutAid and Super-Parmix. The potential of the organic compounds in grout additives to be degraded by microorganisms, increasing the risk of biofilm formation and complexing compound production, must be considered. Microbial growth will also increase the possibility of hydrogen sulphide formation. (orig.)

  11. Jet Grouting. Control of execution and result parameters. Test fields - Experience in Chile; Jet Grouting. Control de parametros de ejecucion y de resultados. Campos de prueba-Experiencia en Chile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ayarza, P. M.; Vukotic, G.

    2014-07-01

    This article emphasizes the importance of Test Fields in project that includes the Jet Grouting technique. In particular, the Chilean experience is analyzed, where the Jet Grouting was first introduced by Pilots Terratest S. A. in the year 2010, only, only in 2011 the first project using jet columns was constructed. The versatilely of this technique allows its use in a wide variety of projects, for example, soil capacity improvement, settlement control, reduction of soil permeability and other environmental applications. Currently, the most common applications are underpinning existing foundations, ground improvement, lateral support of excavations, hydraulic barriers, slope stabilization, liquefaction control, among others. The Jet Grouting is one of the most demanding soil improvement technique and requires excellence in designing and execution engineers and other involved specialist. It is therefore essential to ensure exhaustive control to the execution and final parameters, in order to check that the product- Jet Grouting element-have the design properties, and implement modifications if necessary. Many authors strongly advises that if there is no comparable experience and even if there is, a Test Field of Jet Grouting elements has to be executed in site. This field consists in a nearby area with similar geotechnical conditions of the project, where Jet Grouting test columns will be constructed. This Test Field will allow selecting the most effective execution parameters and verifying that the final product has he correct design properties. (Author)

  12. Field application of innovative grouting agents for in situ stabilization of buried waste sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loomis, G.G.; Farnsworth, R.K. [Idaho National Engineering Lab., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    1997-12-31

    This paper presents field applications for two innovative grouting agents that were used to in situ stabilize buried waste sites, via jet grouting. The two grouting agents include paraffin and a proprietary iron oxide based cement grout called TECT. These materials were tested in specially designed cold test pits that simulate buried transuranic waste at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The field demonstrations were performed at the INEL in an area referred to as the Cold Test Pit, which is adjacent to the INEL Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC). At the RWMC, 56,000 m{sup 3} of transuranic (TRU) waste is co-mingled with over 170,000 m{sup 3} of soil in shallow land burial. Improving the confinement of this waste is one of the options for final disposition of this waste. Using jet-grouting technology to inject these materials into the pore spaces of buried waste sites results in the creation of buried monolithic waste forms that simultaneously protect the waste from subsidence, while eliminating the migratory potential of hazardous and radioactive contaminants in the waste.

  13. In-situ grouting of uranium-mill-tailings piles: an assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tamura, T.; Boegly, W.J. Jr.

    1983-05-01

    Passage in 1978 of the Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act (UMTRCA) initiated a program of remedial action for 22 existing mill tailings piles generated in the period 1940 to 1970 as part of the nation's defense and nuclear power programs. The presence of these piles poses potential health and environmental contamination concerns. Possible remedial actions proposed include multilayer covers over the piles to reduce water infiltration, reduce radon gas releases, and reduce airborne transport of tailings fines. In addition, suggested remedial actions include (1) the use of liners to prevent groundwater contamination by leachates from the piles and (2) chemical stabilization of the tailings to retain the radioactive and nonradioactive sources of contamination. Lining of the piles would normally be applicable only to piles that are to be moved from their present location such that the liner could be placed between the tailings and the groundwater. However, by using civil engineering techniques developed for grouting rocks and soils for strength and water control, it may be possible to produce an in situ liner for piles that are not to be relocated. The Department of Energy (DOE) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project Office requested that ORNL assess the potential application of grouting as a remedial action. This report examines the types of grouts, the equipment available, and the costs, and assesses the possibility of applying grouting technology as a remedial action alternative for uranium mill tailings piles.

  14. Re-grouting of Maroon Dam foundation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palassi, M. [Tehran Univ. (Iran, Islamic Republic of). Dept. of Civil Engineering; Sharghi, A. [JTMA Co., Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2003-07-01

    The Maroon dam, built on the Maroon River in the Khoozestan province (southwest) of Iran, has a height of 176 metres and a 1.2 billion cubic metre reservoir. It is one of the largest embankment dams in Iran. A number of unpredicted inflows of water into tunnels and other underground openings occurred during the first impoundment of the Maroon dam. Impoundment was halted and the reservoir was emptied to correct the problem. This paper reviews the measures that were implemented during the remediation process, and presented an evaluation of the effectiveness of the process. The foundation treatment involved placing concrete in the caverns, constructing a concrete lining, and extending the grout curtain. The grouting procedure was also described. The overall effectiveness of the concrete work and grouting resulted in a reduction in leakage from 8.5 cubic metres per second to a more acceptable 10 litres per second. 8 figs.

  15. Characterization of hydrofracture grouts for radionuclide migration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stinton, D.P.; McDaniel, E.W.; Weeren, H.O.

    1983-01-01

    Detailed characterization of hydrofracture grouts was performed by optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, x-ray diffraction, and ..beta..-..gamma.. autoradiography. Laboratory-produced samples containing simulated wastes as well as actual radioactive samples of hydrofracture grout sheets obtained by core drilling were examined in this work. X-ray diffraction results revealed that both laboratory-produced samples and a core-drilled sample consisted primarily of calcium carbonate phases. Both sample types contained very small amounts of strontium or cesium wastes, neither of which could be detected by microscopic techniques. The core-drilled sample contained radioactive /sup 90/Sr, /sup 137/Cs, and /sup 60/Co that could be detected by ..beta..-..gamma.. autoradiography. The autoradiograph revealed that these radionuclides were still present in the 20-year-old grout and that they had not migrated into the trapped shale fragments.

  16. Grout cement. ; Grout cement to fill ground/grout cement to fill cracks. Chunyuyo cement. ; Jiban chunyuyo cement /hibiware chunyuyo cement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okaue, H. (Nittetsu Cement Co. Ltd., Hokkaido (Japan))

    1991-09-01

    Ground grout cement is grouted into the ground under high pressure in high water ratio (100 to 1000%) in the form of milk differing from concrete in terms of the water-cement ratio. The grouted milk is governed by characteristics of the cement the milk itself possesses, resulting in variable grouting modes, which are divided in fracture grouting, permeation grouting and boundary grouting. Their applications include cutting off of water in dams, ground reinforcement, prevention of water gushing in tunnel excavation, natural ground reinforcement, improvement of sandy soil and prevention of its collapse, and stabilization of ground for urban civil engineering works such as subway, water supply and sewerage constructions. Grout cement to fill cracks in concrete structures is so grouted into cracks that the slurry fills up contiguous cracks to a certain level and goes upward while pushing out air or water existing in the cracks. The slurry filled into the cracks solidifies and hardens while being absorbed into the concrete, and finally integrates with the concrete. The grout cement is used to rework such concrete structures as dams, tunnels, and bridge bases. 6 figs., 4 tabs.

  17. TANKS 18 AND 19-F EQUIPMENT GROUT FILL MATERIAL EVALUATION AND RECOMMENDATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stefanko, D.; Langton, C.

    2011-12-15

    performance properties; (3) Design up to 2 additional grout systems for filling the Tank 18-F and Tank 19-F equipment; (4) Prepare samples of candidate grouts and measure fresh properties, thermal properties and cured properties; (5) Recommend a grout for the Tier 1A equipment fill mock up - ADMP 4 foot high mock up, 1 inch and 2 inch pipes; (6) Support procurement of materials for the Tier 1A equipment fill mock up test; (7) Prepare samples of the recommended grout for hydraulic property measurements which can be used for comparison to values used in the F- Tank Farm Performance Assessment (PA); and (8) Document equipment fill grout data and recommendations in a report.

  18. Investigation of Hardened Filling Grout Samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Eigil V.

     Suzlon Wind Energy A/S requested on August 28, 2007 an investigation of 2 samples of a hardened filling grout to be carried out, comprising drilling and strength determination of 4 test cylinders, and description of the surface characteristics of the samples....... Suzlon Wind Energy A/S requested on August 28, 2007 an investigation of 2 samples of a hardened filling grout to be carried out, comprising drilling and strength determination of 4 test cylinders, and description of the surface characteristics of the samples....

  19. Assessing the influence of jet-grouting underpinning on the nearby buildings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Aleksandra Chepurnova

    2014-01-01

    This paper focuses on the underpinning-induced ground movement due to jet-grouting. Jet-grouting technique can cause distortions as a result of an inaccurate processing sequence and/or errors made at different stages of work execution. The aim of this paper is to determine the minimum value of such movement on the basis of the findings obtained at two similar construction sites located in the Historical Center of Moscow, considering that the maximum value is usually unpredictable. Numerical simulation of the process of soil eroding agrees well with the observational data at the current stage. It was found that the minimum value of deformations (only settlement was considered in this study) due to jet-grouting is no less than 2e3 mm. By contrast, the negative scenario of deformation due to foundation underpinning is clearly demonstrated. Also, this paper provides some general solutions for excavation supporting system as well as for underpinning design.

  20. Effects of Using Silica Fume and Polycarboxylate-Type Superplasticizer on Physical Properties of Cementitious Grout Mixtures for Semiflexible Pavement Surfacing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karim, Mohamed Rehan; Mahmud, Hilmi; Mashaan, Nuha S.; Katman, Herdayati; Husain, Nadiah Md

    2014-01-01

    Semi-flexible pavement surfacing is a composite pavement that utilizes the porous pavement structure of the flexible bituminous pavement, which is subsequently grouted with appropriate cementitious materials. This study aims to investigate the compressive strength, flexural strength, and workability performance of cementitious grout. The grout mixtures are designed to achieve high strength and maintain flow properties in order to allow the cement slurries to infiltrate easily through unfilled compacted skeletons. A paired-sample t-test was carried out to find out whether water/cement ratio, SP percentages, and use of silica fume influence the cementitious grout performance. The findings showed that the replacement of 5% silica fume with an adequate amount of superplasticizer and water/cement ratio was beneficial in improving the properties of the cementitious grout. PMID:24526911

  1. Analyzing and studying factors for determining neutral point position of fully grouted rock bolt%全长注浆岩石锚杆中性点影响因素分析研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱训国; 杨庆

    2009-01-01

    The neutral point theory is the important theory in underground engineering reinforcement theory. At present, the formula to determine neutral point position has been existed some unreasonable place. The neutral point theory had been further consummated and improved on the foundation of pre-researchers. Base on the developed analytical model and the theory of frictional resistance is zero at the neutral point, the factors have been detailed analyzed for affecting the neutral point position; and the correlations have been gained which affecting neutral point position. Through analyzing, it is revealed that the hydrostatic primary stress, bolt length, bolt spacing having no influence to neutral point position, and the radius of tunnel, Young's moduli of rock and bolt, the bolt diameter having remarkable influence to it. Among them, it is linear relation among the radius of tunnel, the bolt diameter with the neutral point position, but it is exponential function relations among the Young's modulus of rock and bolt with the neutral point position. The relationship of Young's modulus of rock mass and neutral point position presents exponential decreasing; the relationship of -Young's modulus of bolt and neutral point position presents exponential increasing. Through the factors analyzed, it has obtained that the general functional between the neutral point position and the correlation parameter, for further to study the neutral point theory providing the certain reference significance.%中性点理论是地下工程锚固理论中的重要理论,但目前对于中性点位置的确定计算公式存在不合理之处.在前人工作的基础上,对中性点理论进行了完善和改进.在建立的锚杆解析本构模型的基础上,结合中性点理论中锚杆中性点位置处的摩阻力为0的思想,对影响中性点位置的因素进行了较详细的分析,得出了影响锚杆中性点位置的相关因素.通过分析研究得到,

  2. 锦屏一级水电站f5断层、煌斑岩脉复合灌浆技术研究%ANALYSIS OF COMPOUND GROUTING TECHNOLOGY FOR F5 FAULT AND LAMPROPHYRE VEIN AT JINPING Ⅰ HYDROPOWER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王胜; 黄润秋; 祝华平

    2012-01-01

    锦屏一级水电站发育的f5断层和煌斑岩脉对坝基的变形稳定、基础应力传递等极为不利,严重影响大坝稳定性及安全运营.针对f5断层、煌斑岩脉水泥灌浆存在的问题,结合f5断层和煌斑岩脉工程地质特征,开展f5断层、煌斑岩脉的水泥-化学复合灌浆加固技术研究.首先,对水泥-化学复合灌浆的作用机理进行分析,从灌浆材料、灌浆方法、现场灌浆试验、灌浆效果评价等方面进行了分析研究.研究结果表明,所采用灌浆材料可灌性较好,施工工艺、灌浆参数基本合理;灌浆后岩体透水性得到了改善,对f5断层、煌斑岩脉声波波速、变形模量等有一定程度提高,但仍然没有达到设计要求.基于水泥-化学复合灌浆存在的问题,分别从灌浆材料、灌浆参数和灌浆质量检查等方面提出了优化建议.%The f5 fault and lamprophyre vein of Jinping I Hydropower have an adverse effect to deformation stabil-ity and stress transfer of dam foundation. They can seriously affect the stability and safe operation of the dam. This paper investigates the cement grout problems for the f5 fault and lamprophyre vein. It is combined with its engineer-ing geology. It examines the cement-chemical compound grouting technology from grouting materials, grouting method, and field grouting. It evaluates the grouting on the basis of mechanism of cement-chemical compound grou-ting. The results show that the use of grouting materials can be better irrigation. Construction technology and grou-ting parameters are reasonable. The permeability of rock has been improved. The wave velocity and deformation modulus of the f5 fault and lamprophyre have a certain degree of improvement. But they still do not meet the design requirements. Optimization proposal has been got from grouting materials, parameters and quality checks on the ba-sis of the grouting evaluation results.

  3. CLOSURE OF HLW TANKS PHASE 2 FULL SCALE COOLING COILS GROUT FILL DEMONSTATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, E; Alex Cozzi, A

    2008-06-19

    This report documents the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) support for the Tank Closure and Technology Development (TCTD) group's strategy for closing high level radioactive waste (HLW) tanks at the Savannah River Site (SRS). Specifically, this task addresses the ability to successfully fill intact cooling coils, presently within the HLW tanks, with grout that satisfies the fresh and cured grout requirements [1] under simulated field conditions. The overall task was divided into two phases. The first phase was the development of a grout formulation that satisfies the processing requirements for filling the HLW tank cooling coils [5]. The second phase of the task, which is documented in this report, was the filling of full scale cooling coils under simulated field conditions using the grout formulation developed in the first phase. SRS Type I tank cooling coil assembly design drawings and pressure drop calculations were provided by the Liquid Waste (LW) customer to be used as the basis for configuring the test assemblies. The current concept for closing tanks equipped with internal cooling coils is to pump grout into the coils to inhibit pathways for infiltrating water. Access to the cooling coil assemblies is through the existing supply/return manifold headers located on top of the Type I tanks. The objectives for the second phase of the testing, as stated in the Task Technical and Quality Assurance plan (TTQAP) [2], were to: (1) Perform a demonstration test to assess cooling coil grout performance in simulated field conditions, and (2) Measure relevant properties of samples prepared under simulated field conditions. SRNL led the actual work of designing, fabricating and filling two full-scale cooling coil assemblies which were performed at Clemson Engineering Technologies Laboratory (CETL) using the South Carolina University Research and Education Foundation (SCUREF) program. A statement of work (SOW) was issued to CETL [6] to perform this work.

  4. In-situ grouting of the low-level radioactive waste disposal silos at ORNL`s Solid Waste Storage Area Six

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Francis, C.W.; Farmer, C.D. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (US); Stansfield, R.G. [Stansfield (Robert G.), Knoxville, TN (US)

    1993-07-01

    At Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), one method of solid low-level radioactive waste disposal has been disposed of in below-grade cylindrical concrete silos. Located in Solid Waste Storage Area 6 (SWSA 6), each silo measures 8 ft in diameter and 20 ft deep. Present day operations involve loading the silos with low-level radioactive waste and grouting the remaining void space with a particulate grout of low viscosity. Initial operations involving the disposal of wastes into the below-grade silos did not include the grouting process. Grouting was stated as a standard practice (in late 1988) after discovering that {approximately}75% of the silos accumulated water in the bottom of the silos in the {approximately}2 years after capping. Silo water (leachate) contained a wide range of types and concentrations of radionuclides. The migration of contaminated leachate out of the silo into adjoining soil and groundwater was considered to be a serious environmental concern. This report describes how a specially designed particulate-base grout was used to grout 54 silos previously filled with low-level radioactive waste. Grouting involved three steps: (1) silo preparation, (2) formulation and preparation of the grout mixture, and (3) injection of the grout into the silos. Thirty-five of the 54 silos grouted were equipped with a 3-in.-diam Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC) pipe used to monitor water levels in the silos. A method for rupturing the bottom section of these PVC wells was developed so that grout could be pumped to the bottom of those silos. Holes (2-in. diam) were drilled through the {approximately}18 in. thick concrete to fill the remaining 19 wells without the PVC monitoring wells. The formulation of grout injected into the silos was based on a Portland Type I cement, flyash, sand, and silica fume admixture. Compressive strength of grout delivered to SWSA6 during grouting operations averaged 1,808 lb/in{sup 2} with a bulk density of 3,549 lb/yd{sup 3}.

  5. CEMENTITIOUS GROUT FOR CLOSING SRS HIGH LEVEL WASTE TANKS - #12315

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Langton, C.; Burns, H.; Stefanko, D.

    2012-01-10

    In 1997, the first two United States Department of Energy (US DOE) high level waste tanks (Tanks 17-F and 20-F: Type IV, single shell tanks) were taken out of service (permanently closed) at the Savannah River Site (SRS). In 2012, the DOE plans to remove from service two additional Savannah River Site (SRS) Type IV high-level waste tanks, Tanks 18-F and 19-F. These tanks were constructed in the late 1950's and received low-heat waste and do not contain cooling coils. Operational closure of Tanks 18-F and 19-F is intended to be consistent with the applicable requirements of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) and the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) and will be performed in accordance with South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control (SCDHEC). The closure will physically stabilize two 4.92E+04 cubic meter (1.3 E+06 gallon) carbon steel tanks and isolate and stabilize any residual contaminants left in the tanks. The closure will also fill, physically stabilize and isolate ancillary equipment abandoned in the tanks. A Performance Assessment (PA) has been developed to assess the long-term fate and transport of residual contamination in the environment resulting from the operational closure of the F-Area Tank Farm (FTF) waste tanks. Next generation flowable, zero-bleed cementitious grouts were designed, tested, and specified for closing Tanks 18-F and 19-F and for filling the abandoned equipment. Fill requirements were developed for both the tank and equipment grouts. All grout formulations were required to be alkaline with a pH of 12.4 and chemically reduction potential (Eh) of -200 to -400 to stabilize selected potential contaminants of concern. This was achieved by including Portland cement and Grade 100 slag in the mixes, respectively. Ingredients and proportions of cementitious reagents were selected and adjusted, respectively, to support the mass placement strategy developed by

  6. Hybrid life cycle assessment comparison of colloidal silica and cement grouted soil barrier remediation technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, Patricia M; Spatari, Sabrina; Cucura, Jeffrey

    2013-04-15

    Site remediation involves balancing numerous costs and benefits but often neglects the environmental impacts over the entire project life cycle. Life cycle assessment (LCA) offers a framework for inclusion of global environmental "systems-level" decision metrics in combination with technological and cost analysis. We compare colloidal silica (CS) and cement grouted soil barrier remediation technologies for soils affected by low level radionuclides at a U.S. Superfund site using hybrid LCA methods. CS is a new, high performance grouting material installed using permeation grouting techniques. Cement, a more traditional grouting material, is typically installed using jet grouting techniques. Life cycle impacts were evaluated using the US EPA TRACI 2 model. Results show the highest life cycle environmental impacts for the CS barrier occur during materials production and transportation to the site. In general, the life cycle impacts for the cement barrier were dominated by materials production; however, in the extreme scenario the life cycle impacts were dominated by truck transportation of spoils to a distant, off-site radioactive waste facility. It is only in the extreme scenario tested in which soils are transported by truck (Option 2) that spoils waste transport dominates LCIA results. Life cycle environmental impacts for both grout barriers were most sensitive to resource input requirements for manufacturing volumes and transportation. Uncertainty associated with the efficacy of new technology such as CS over its required design life indicates that barrier replacement could increase its life cycle environmental impact above that of the cement barrier. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Stress Evolution in Roadway Rock Bolts During Mining in a Fully Mechanized Longwall Face, and an Evaluation of Rock Bolt Support Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Kai; Zhang, Guimin; Hou, Rongbin; Wu, Yu; Zhou, Hongqi

    2015-01-01

    Rock bolts are widely used in coal mines throughout China. Approximately 8,000 km of roadways are excavated in coal mines every year in China, 80 % of which are supported by rock bolts. At present, the design of rock bolt support schemes is mainly based on analogies and experience from previous projects. In the present study, in order to evaluate the design of rock bolt support in roadways, several cross sections of a roadway were monitored for rock bolt stress during the roadway excavation and mining. The study results show that the stress in the rock bolts varied in the areas 20 m behind the excavating face and 30 m ahead of the mining face. For the rock bolts observed in this study, the max axial force was within the design limit of the bolts, thus the support design was shown to be acceptable. Then, numerical simulation was performed using FLAC3D to investigate the stress evolution in the rock bolts during the mining of the fully mechanized longwall face. The simulation results show an overall agreement with the in situ measurements. Finally, parametric study pertaining to length, anchorage length, and rock bolt spacing was carried out with the numerical model, and several suggestions for the support design were proposed.

  8. Engineering and Design: Rock Mass Classification Data Requirements for Rippability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    geomechanics classification system (reference ~a(l))~ Bieniawski proposed the geomechanics classification system (RMR) to rate a rock mass by assigning...Weaver (bibliography 3b(l)) proposed a rippability rating chart based upon a modification of the geomechanics rating system; a similar chart is...as used in the geomechanics rating system. 9. Correlation with Tractor Size. Rippability for a given tractor selectlon 1s correlated with he total

  9. Establishment and application of drilling sealing model in the spherical grouting mode based on the loosing-circle theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hao; Zhiyong; Lin; Baiquan; Gao; Yabin; Cheng; Yanying

    2012-01-01

    There are quite a few studies that have been done on borehole sealing theory both domestically and internationally.The existing researches usually consider drilling of the surroundings as a dense homogeneous elastic body which does not meet the characteristics of real drilling of the fractured body.Based on the loosing-circle theory and analyses of the surrounding rock stress field,cracks and seepage fields,combined with Newtonian fluid spherical grouting model,we deduced the dynamic relationship between the seepage coefficient and rock or grouting parameters of the drilling sealing fluid mode of spherical fissure grouting.In this experiment,mucus was injected in the simulated coal seam and the permeability coefficient of the sealing body was calculated by using the model.To verify the validity of the model,the calculated sealing body number was compared with the extreme negative pressure that the sealing body could withstand.The theoretical model revealed the drilling sealing fluid mechanism,provided a method for the quantitative calculation of the drilling sealing fluid effect by grouting mode and a reference for the subsequent research of sealing mechanism.

  10. Fractal Prediction of Grouting Volume for Treating Karst Caverns along a Shield Tunneling Alignment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Chieh Cheng

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Karst geology is common in China, and buried karst formations are widely distributed in Guangdong province. In the process of shield tunneling, the abundant water resources present in karst caverns could lead to the potential for high water ingress, and a subsequent in situ stress change-induced stratum collapse. The development and distribution of karst caverns should therefore be identified and investigated prior to shield tunnel construction. Grouting is an efficient measure to stabilize karst caverns. The total volume of karst caverns along the shield tunneling alignment, and its relationship with the required volume of grouts, should be evaluated in the preliminary design phase. Conventionally, the total volume of karst caverns is empirically estimated based on limited geological drilling hole data; however, accurate results are rarely obtained. This study investigates the hydrogeology and engineering geology of Guangzhou, the capital of Guangdong province, and determines the fractal characteristics of the karst caverns along the tunnel section of Guangzhou metro line no. 9. The karst grouting coefficients (VR were found to vary from 0.11 in the case of inadequate drilling holes to 1.1 in the case where adequate drilling holes are provided. A grouting design guideline was furthermore developed in this study for future projects in karst areas.

  11. Prediction of ground surface displacement caused by grouting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭风琪; 刘晓潭; 童无期; 单智

    2015-01-01

    Ground surface displacement caused by grouting was calculated with stochastic medium theory. Ground surface displacement was assumed to be caused by the cavity expansion of grouting, slurry seepage, and slurry contraction. A prediction method of ground surface displacement was developed. The reliability of the presented method was validated through a comparison between theoretical results and results from engineering practice. Results show that the present method is effective. The effect of parameters on uplift displacement was illustrated under different grouting conditions. Through analysis, it can be known that the ground surface uplift is mainly caused by osmosis of slurry and the primary influence angle of stratum βdetermines the influence range of surface uplift. Besides, the results show that ground surface uplift displacement decreases notably with increasing depth of the grouting cavity but it increases with increasing diffusion radius of grout and increasing grouting pressure.

  12. Grouting Control for Deep-Water Jacket Skirt Pile

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Qing; ZHANG Jianxin; XU Lianjiang

    2006-01-01

    Deep-water jacket skirt pile grouting is a critical step in ocean platform construction. Because of the complexity of the skirt pile structure and grouting pipeline, the calculation of grouting pressure and the control of output pressure are involved. Beginning with the jacket skirt pile grouting construction scheme, grouting pressure is estimated on the basis of engineering fluid mechanics theory and variable frequency control technique. Programmable logic controller is the center of grouting pressure control system, which accomplishes the flow control of cement buffer tank water buffer tank, additive buffer tank, cement metering tank, water metering tank, additive metering tank, mixer and agitator. Based on PROFIBUS-DP network, the output pressure of the slurry pump is controlled by the inverter. This method has been applied successfully in JZ20-2 Nor. high spot jacket platform construction.

  13. Oak Ridge National Laboratory Old Hydrofracture Facility Tank Closure Plan and Grout Development Status Report for FY 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewis, B.E.

    2000-05-08

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) facilities across the country have radioactive waste underground storage tanks, which will require either complete removal of the tank contents and tank shells or in-place stabilization of sludge heels. Complete removal of the sludge and tank shells can become costly while providing little benefit to health, safety, and the environment. An alternative to the removal of the residual wastes and tank shells is the use of in situ solidification and stabilization techniques to immobilize the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) and radioactive components present in waste storage tanks. One technology for in situ remediation of tank wastes is Ground Environmental Service's (GES's) Multi-Point-Injection (MPI.) technology. MPI technology is a patented delivery system, which uses simple and inexpensive injection tools for rapid delivery of grout or other treatment agents, as well as for the emplacement of subsurface barriers. Through the use of tailored grout formulations in conjunction with a system of specially designed grout injection tools, MPI technology is capable of producing a uniform mixture of sludge and grout. Grouts can be tailored for the immobilization of specific RCRA and radioactive constituents. The system of injection tools is designed to maximize the mixing efficiency of the grout with the wastes in the tank. MPI technology has been successfully demonstrated on the solidification of shallow buried wastes at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant and in large-scale pumping and mixing tests in both cylindrical and horizontal simulated waste tanks. Hot demonstration of the technology will be accomplished during the closure of the Old Hydrofracture Facility (OHF) tank at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in fiscal year 2000. This report describes the closure plan for the OHF tanks and presents the status of grout formulation development at ORNL.

  14. Study on calculation of rock pressure for ultra-shallow tunnel in poor surrounding rock and its tunneling procedure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaojun Zhou; Jinghe Wang; Bentao Lin

    2014-01-01

    A computational method of rock pressure applied to an ultra-shallow tunnel is presented by key block theory, and its mathematical formula is proposed according to a mechanical tunnel model with super-shallow depth. Theoretical analysis shows that the tunnel is subject to asymmetric rock pressure due to oblique topography. The rock pressure applied to the tunnel crown and sidewall is closely related to the surrounding rock bulk density, tunnel size, depth and angle of oblique ground slope. The rock pressure applied to the tunnel crown is much greater than that to the sidewalls, and the load applied to the left side-wall is also greater than that to the right sidewall. Mean-while, the safety of the lining for an ultra-shallow tunnel in strata with inclined surface is affected by rock pressure and tunnel support parameters. Steel pipe grouting from ground surface is used to consolidate the unfavorable surrounding rock before tunnel excavation, and the reinforcing scope is proposed according to the analysis of the asymmetric load induced by tunnel excavation in weak rock with inclined ground surface. The tunneling procedure of bench cut method with pipe roof protection is still discussed and carried out in this paper according to the special geological condition. The method and tunneling procedure have been successfully utilized to design and drive a real expressway tunnel. The practice in building the super-shallow tunnel has proved the feasibility of the calculation method and tunneling procedure presented in this paper.

  15. Use of metakaolin in grouts intended for soil nailing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Husson B.

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to carry out a feasibility study to evaluate the pertinence of using metakaolin in grout intended for soil nailing. After a first step of grout optimisation based on technical and environmental constraints, an in-situ study was performed to evaluate the compatibility of metakaolin with this kind of application. This part highlights the minimum performance levels necessary if grout is to fulfil its role of transferring stresses between soil and nail.

  16. Gel time of calcium acrylate grouting material

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩同春

    2004-01-01

    Calcium acrylate is a polymerized grout, and can polymerize in an aqueous solution. The polymerizationreaction utilizes ammonium persulfate as a catalyst and sodium thiosulfate as the activator. Based on the theory of reactionkinetics, this study on the relation between gel time and concentration of activator and catalyst showed that gel time ofcalcium acrylate is inversely proportional to activator and catalyst concentration. A formula of gel time is proposed, and anexample is provided to verify the proposed formula.

  17. Gel time of calcium acrylate grouting material

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩同春

    2004-01-01

    Calcium acrylate is a polymerized grout, and can polymerize in an aqueous solution. The polymerization reaction utilizes ammonium persulfate as a catalyst and sodium thiosulfate as the activator. Based on the theory of reaction kinetics, this study on the relation between gel time and concentration of activator and catalyst showed that gel time of calcium acrylate is inversely proportional to activator and catalyst concentration. A formula of gel time is proposed, and an example is provided to verify the proposed formula.

  18. Pressured Grouting Method (PGM) in Pile Engineering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴兴序; 于志强; 王旭

    2002-01-01

    Application of pressured grouting method (PGM) in pile engineering can tackle problems encountered during construction of bored piles. Bearing capacity of piles can be increased through compaction of subsoils around piles. This paper reports research efforts of this technique by the pile research team in Southwest Jiaotong University in last decade with respect to the construction process, test findings, and primary research conclusions. The social-economical benefits of this method and application market in pile engineering are also analyzed.

  19. Maintenance Implementation Plan for the Grout Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoakum, A.K.

    1993-08-01

    The objective of the Maintenance Implementation Plan (MIP) is to describe how the Grout Treatment Facility will implement the requirements established by US Department of Energy (DOE) Order 4330.4A, Maintenance Management Program, Chapter 2.0 Nuclear Facilities (DOE 1990). The plan provides a blueprint for a disciplined approach to implementation and compliance. Each element of the order is prioritized, categorized, and then placed into one of three phases for implementation.

  20. Evaluation of the Performance of Grouting Materials for Saturated Riprap

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daehyeon Kim

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, four types of grout were developed to evaluate the effect of grouting of saturated riprap layers on ground water flow. The developed types of grout are divided into a quick-setting type and a general-type, and also into high and low viscosities. A number of grout tests were performed in a model acrylic chamber, 0.4 m in diameter and 2.0 m in length, for visual observation of injection. To reproduce the field flow condition of the saturated riprap layers (approach flow, the grout tests were carried out at 0 cm/s and 100 cm/s for the flow speed and 10 L/min for the grout injection speed after installing a flow injection opening on the lower part of the chamber. Based on the results of the grout tests, the injection of each grout in the saturated riprap layers was examined to find out the most effective grout.

  1. ENVIRONMENTAL EVALUATION HANFORD GROUT LYSIMETER FACILITY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruno, G. A.

    1984-06-01

    The Hanford Grout Lysimeter Facility (HGLF) will be constructed to test the leaching and migration of radioactive and nonradioactive tracers embedded in a solidification agent (grout) under actual burial conditions in Hanford soil. Three different water treatment rates will be used: natural precipitation, 4 times and 8 times natural precipitation. Six lysimeters will be assembled. Each unit will measure 6 feet in diameter, 25 feet deep. Their construction and instrumentation will be performed during June-July, 1984 by J. A. Jones Construction Company and/or their subcontractor. The routine monitoring will be performed by Battelle staff over a 5.5 year period beginning in November 1984. The total estimated project cost will be approximately $200,000. The only anticipated environmental impact from this project will be a temporary nuisance-type local dust problem during the construction phase. This will not be a detriment to the environment. The results of dose calculations indicate that dose rates from the grouted waste cans will be quite low when the cans are covered by a meter or more of earth. Dose rates at or near the surface of the individual cans are not high enough to preclude their handling. The facility area will be fenced, posted as a radiation zone and operated under a radiation work procedure.

  2. Grout performance in support of in situ grouting of the TH4 tank sludge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunt, R.D.; Kauschinger, J.L.; Spence, R.D.

    1999-04-01

    The cold demonstration test proved that less water was required to pump the in situ grout formulation than had been previously tested in the laboratory. The previous in situ grout formulation was restandardized with the same relative amounts of dry blend ingredients, albeit adding a fluidized admixture, but specifying less water for the slurry mix that must by pumped through the nozzles at high pressure. Also, the target GAAT tank for demonstrating this is situ grouting technique has been shifted to Tank TH4. A chemical surrogate sludge for TH4 was developed and tested in the laboratory, meeting expectations for leach resistance and strenght at 35 wt % sludge loading. It addition, a sample of hot TH4 sludge was also tested at 35 wt % sludge loading and proved to have superior strength and leach resistance compared with the surrogate test.

  3. Degree of saturation effect on the grout-soil interface shear strength of soil nailing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Qiong

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the grouted soil nailing system, the bonding strength of cement grout-soil interface offers the required resistance to maintain the stability of whole structure. In practice, soil nailing applications are often placed at unsaturated conditions, such as soil slopes, shallow foundations, retaining walls and pavement structures. In these cases, the water content in the soil nail zone may increase or decrease due to rain water or dry weather, and even cannot become saturated during their design service life. In this study, the effect of water content (degree of saturation on the shear strength of interface between cement grout and sand are experimentally investigated by means of direct shear test. Meanwhile the water retention curve was determined and interface microstructure was observed. Experimental results show that the shear strength of interface changes non-monotonously with degree of saturation when the interface was prepared, due to the non-monotonousness of the cohesiveness between soil particles. The less the cohesiveness between sand particles, the more grout was observed been penetrated into the voids, and thus the larger the interface shear stress.

  4. Design of controlled rocking steel frames to limit higher mode effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andree Wiebe, Lydell Deighton

    Because conventional seismic force resisting systems rely on yielding of key structural members to limit seismic forces, structural damage is expected after a design-level earthquake. Repairing this damage can be very expensive, if it is possible at all. Researchers have been developing a new family of self-centring systems that avoid structural damage. One such system is a controlled rocking steel frame, which is the subject of this thesis. In a controlled rocking steel frame, the columns of a frame are permitted to uplift from the foundation, and the response is controlled by using a combination of post-tensioning and energy dissipation. Although previous studies have confirmed the viability of this system, they have also shown that rocking does not fully limit the peak seismic forces because of higher mode effects. If a structure is designed to account for these effects, it may be uneconomical, but if it is not designed to account for them, it may be unsafe. The purpose of this thesis is to develop recommendations for the design of controlled rocking steel frames, particularly with regard to higher mode effects. A theoretical framework for understanding higher mode effects is developed, and large-scale shake table testing is used to study the behaviour of a controlled rocking steel frame. Two mechanisms are proposed to mitigate the increase in structural forces due to higher mode effects, and these mechanisms are validated by shake table testing. Numerical modelling of controlled rocking steel frames is shown to become more reliable when higher mode mitigation mechanisms are used to limit the seismic response. In the final chapters, the thesis proposes and validates a new methodology for the limit states design of controlled rocking steel frames.

  5. Design of Earthquake Resistant Bridges Using Rocking Columns

    OpenAIRE

    Barthes, Clement Benjamin

    2012-01-01

    The California Department of Transportation (CalTrans) is urging researchers and contractors to develop the next generation highway bridge design. New design solutions should favor the use of modular construction techniques over conventional cast-in-place reinforced concrete in order to reduce the cost of the projects and the amount of constructions on site. Earthquake resistant bridges are designed such that the columns are monolithically connected to the girder and the foundations. Hence, d...

  6. Fatigue Life of High Performance Grout in Dry and Wet Environment for Wind Turbine Grouted Connections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Eigil V.

    2011-01-01

    the fatigue life of a high performance cement based grout was tested by dynamic compressive loading of cylindrical specimens at varying levels of cyclic frequency and load. The fatigue tests were performed in two series, one with the specimens tested in air and one with the specimens submerged in water during...... the test. The fatigue life of the grout, in terms of the number of cycles to failure, was found to be significantly shorter when tested in water than when tested in air, particularly at low frequency....

  7. Some new developments in the design rules for coastal structures in relation with the new Rock Manual

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhagen, H.J.

    2005-01-01

    In 1991 CUR in the Netherlands and CIRIA in the UK have published the "manual on the use of rock in coastal engineering", usually referred to as the "Rock Manual". This book of 600 pages gave an overview of the state of the art regarding the design of rock structures along coasts. In 1995 CUR publis

  8. Some new developments in the design rules for coastal structures in relation with the new Rock Manual

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhagen, H.J.

    2005-01-01

    In 1991 CUR in the Netherlands and CIRIA in the UK have published the "manual on the use of rock in coastal engineering", usually referred to as the "Rock Manual". This book of 600 pages gave an overview of the state of the art regarding the design of rock structures along coasts. In 1995 CUR publis

  9. Some new developments in the design rules for coastal structures in relation with the new Rock Manual

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhagen, H.J.

    2005-01-01

    In 1991 CUR in the Netherlands and CIRIA in the UK have published the "manual on the use of rock in coastal engineering", usually referred to as the "Rock Manual". This book of 600 pages gave an overview of the state of the art regarding the design of rock structures along coasts. In 1995 CUR

  10. 软基岩层上的混凝土重力坝设计及基础处理%The Design and Foundation Treatment of Concrete Gravity Dams on Rock Foundations with Weak Layers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    薛晓鹏; 王维维; 郑柯君

    2015-01-01

    坝体结构稳定和坝基防渗是决定工程安全和预期效益的关键因素。柏岭寺水库水利枢纽工程设计方案,大坝采用碾压混凝土重力坝,大坝基础开挖后,坝基持力层由砾岩变为砂岩。现有的混凝土重力坝大多数建在硬岩,软基上建坝的较少,通过调整坝体边坡,改变局部尺寸和坝基灌浆方案的措施,解决了软弱基岩上坝体稳定,坝基渗漏等问题,可为类似工程设计方案的选定提供一定的参考价值。%The stability of dam structure and the seepage prevention of the dam foundation are the key factors that affect the safety of the construction and the achievement of the expected benefit .The design scheme of a hydro - junction pro-ject ,Bailingsi reservoir was introduced in this paper .Its dam is roller-compacted gravity dam .After the excavation of the dam foundation ,the supporting layer of the foundation transferred from the conglomerate layer to the sandstone layer . However ,existing concrete gravity dams were mostly built on hard rocks ,rarely on soft rocks .Through the adjustment of the slope ,partial specification and the grouting measures of the dam foundation ,the stability and seepage problems of the Bailingsi reservoir dam which was built on the soft rock foundation were solved .This study can provide some references for the design of similar engineering projects .

  11. Silicate grout curtains behaviour for the protection of coastal aquifers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elektorowicz, M.; Chifrina, R.; Hesnawi, R. [Concordia Univ., Montreal, Quebec (Canada)

    1997-12-31

    Tests were performed to evaluate the behaviour of silicate grout with different reagents (ethylacetate - formamide SA and calcium chloride SC) in pure silica sand and natural soils from coastal areas containing organic matter, clayey soil and silica sand. The grouted specimens were tested with simulated fresh and salt water. The setting process during chemical grouting in the soil and sand was studied. The grouting of soil and sand with SA caused a transfer to the environment of some compounds: sodium formate, sodium acetate, ammonia and part of the initial ethylacetate and formamide. This process had a tendency to decrease for approximately 4 months. The stability of specimens was low. The grouting of soil and sand with SC caused no significant contamination of the environment. The increase of pH of environmental water was even less than with SA grouting. Also, the stability of specimens is higher in comparison with SA grouting. Salt water protected the specimens grouted with SA and SC from destruction and prevented contamination.

  12. Mechanical Properties of High Performance Cementitious Grout Masterflow 9300

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Eigil V.

    The present report describes tests carried out on the high performance grout MASTERFLOW 9300, developed by BASF Construction Chemicals A/S.......The present report describes tests carried out on the high performance grout MASTERFLOW 9300, developed by BASF Construction Chemicals A/S....

  13. New design equations for estimation of ultimate bearing capacity of shallow foundations resting on rock masses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Amir H Alavi; Ehsan Sadrossadat

    2016-01-01

    Rock masses are commonly used as the underlying layer of important structures such as bridges, dams and transportation constructions. The success of a foundation design for such structures mainly depends on the accuracy of estimating the bearing capacity of rock beneath them. Several traditional numerical approaches are proposed for the estimation of the bearing capacity of foundations resting on rock masses to avoid performing elaborate and expensive experimental studies. Despite this fact, there still exists a serious need to develop more robust predictive models. This paper proposes new nonlinear prediction models for the ultimate bearing capacity of shallow foundations resting on non-fractured rock masses using a novel evolutionary computational approach, called linear genetic programming. A comprehen-sive set of rock socket, centrifuge rock socket, plate load and large-scaled footing load test results is used to develop the models. In order to verify the validity of the models, the sensitivity analysis is conducted and discussed. The results indicate that the proposed models accurately characterize the bearing capacity of shallow foundations. The correlation coefficients between the experimental and predicted bearing capacity values are equal to 0.95 and 0.96 for the best LGP models. Moreover, the derived models reach a notably better prediction performance than the traditional equations.

  14. Research on the stability analysis and design of soil tunnel surrounding rock

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zheng Yingren; Qiu Chenyu; Xiao Qiang

    2010-01-01

    The paper first analyzes the failure mechanism and mode of tunnel according to model experiments and mechanical calculation and then discusses the deficiency of taking the limit value of displacement around the tunnel and the size of the plastic zone of surrounding rock as the criterion of stability.So the writers put forward the idea that the safety factor of surrounding rock calculated through strength reduction FEM(finit element method)should be regarded as the criterion of stability,which has strict mechanical basis and unified standard and would not be influenced by other factors.The paper also studies the safety factors of tunnel surrounding rock(safety factors of shear and tension failure)and lining and some methods of designing and calculating tunnels.At last,the writers take the loess tunnel for instance and show the design and calculation results of two-lane railway tunnel.

  15. Effects of grouting, shotcreting and concrete leachates on backfill geochemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luna, Miguel; Arcos, David; Duro, Lara [Enviros Consulting, Valldoreix, Barc elona (Spain)

    2007-11-15

    The use of concrete to seal open fractures (grouting) and to impermeabilise the deposition tunnels (shotcreting) has been envisaged in the construction of a high level nuclear waste (HLNW) repository according to SKB designs. Nevertheless, the geochemical effect of using concrete in the repository is not fully understood. Concrete degradation due to the interaction with groundwater can affect the performance of other repository barriers, such as the backfill material used for sealing the deposition tunnels. One of the main effects of concrete degradation is the generation of alkaline plumes. For this reason, SKB is currently planning to use a type of concrete whose degradation result in lower pH values than those developed with Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC). In order to assess the long-term geochemical effect of including low-pH concrete elements in a HLNW repository, we performed a 2D reactive-transport model of a backfilled deposition tunnel that intersects a hydraulic conductive fracture which has been partially grouted. An additional case has been modelled where part of the deposition tunnel walls were covered with a shotcrete layer. The modelling results predict the development of a high-alkalinity plume, larger in the case of considering a grouted fracture, accompanied by the precipitation of CSH-phases in the fracture. However, the effect on the backfill material is only significant if concrete is in contact with the backfill (shotcrete case). In order to conduct these models, and considering that at the beginning of the present work there was not a specific composition for such a low-pH concrete, its composition has been assumed in order to meet the expected geochemical evolution of concrete degradation according to SKB expectations. This is a pH of pore water of around 11 and the degradation of CSH phases resulting in a source for Ca and Si into the system. For this reason, jennite and tobermorite have been selected, although it is known that jennite is

  16. Evolution of technetium speciation in reducing grout

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lukens, Wayne W.; Bucher, Jerome J.; Shuh, David K.; Edelstein,Norman M.

    2003-11-24

    Cementitious waste forms (CWFs) are an important component of the strategy to immobilize high-level nuclear waste resulting from plutonium production by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). Technetium (99Tc) is an abundant fission product of particular concern in CWFs due to the high solubility and mobility of pertechnetate, TcO4-, the stable form of technetium in aerobic environments. CWFs can more effectively immobilize 99Tc if they contain additives that reduce mobile TcO4- to immobile Tc(IV) species. Leaching of 99Tc from reducing CWFs that contain Tc(IV) is much slower than for CWFs containing TcO4-. Previous X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) studies showed that the Tc(IV) species were oxidized to TcO4- in reducing grout samples prepared on a laboratory scale. Whether the oxidizer was atmospheric O2 or NO3- in the waste simulant was not determined. In actual CWFs, rapid oxidation of Tc(IV) by NO3- would be a concern, whereas oxidation by atmospheric O2 would be of less concern due to the slow diffusion and reaction of O2 with the reducing CWF. To address this uncertainty, two series of reducing grouts were prepared using TcO4- containing waste simulants with and without NO3-. In the first series of samples, the TcO4- was completely reduced using Na2S, and the samples were placed in containers that permitted O2 diffusion. In these samples, all of the technetium was initially present as aTc(IV) sulfide compound, TcSx, which was characterized using extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectroscopy, and is likely Tc2S7. The TcSx initially present in the grout samples was steadily oxidized over 4 years. In the second series of samples, all of the TcO4- was not initially reduced, and the grout samples were placed in airtight containers. In these samples, the remaining TcO4- continued to be reduced as the samples aged, presumably due to the presence of reducing blast furnace slag. When samples in the second series were exposed to atmosphere, the

  17. Development of grout formulations for 106-AN waste: Mixture-experiment results and analysis. Volume 1, Narrative and recommendations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spence, R.D.; McDaniel, E.W. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Anderson, C.M.; Lokken, R.O.; Piepel, G.F. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1993-09-01

    Twenty potential ingredients were identified for use in developing a 106-AN grout formulation, and 18 were subsequently obtained and tested. Four ingredients-Type II-LA (moderate heat of hydration) Portland cement, Class F fly ash, attapulgite 150 drilling clay, and ground air-cooled blast-furnace slag (GABFS) were selected for developing the 106-AN grout formulations. A mixture experiment was designed and conducted around the following formulation: 2.5 lb of cement per gallon, 1.2 lb of fly ash per gallon, 0.8 lb of attapulgite per gallon, and 3.5 lb of GABFS per gallon. Reduced empirical models were generated from the results of the mixture experiment. These models were used to recommend several grout formulations for 106-AN. Westinghouse Hanford Company selected one of these formulations to be verified for use with 106-AN and a backup formulation in case problems arise with the first choice.

  18. 工作面注浆堵水期间沉淀系统设计的优化及应用%Optimization and Application of Precipitation during the System Design Grouting and Blocking Water Face

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔钦

    2014-01-01

    针对孟津煤矿11011工作面注浆堵水期间可能出现跑砂、跑浆的现象,在已掘巷道中构建了沉淀阵地,起到了有效的沉淀作用,对今后的矿井堵水工作具有借鉴和指导意义。%11011 Face Grouting may arise during the shutoff Mengjin Coal Mine run against sand, running pulp phenomenon, to build positions in precipitation have been digging tunnel, precipitation played an effective role in the future work of mine has a reference and shutoff guidance.

  19. Supporting technique with advanced pipe-shed grouting in extremely complicated faulting zone%超前管棚注浆支护技术在极复杂断层带中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵毅鑫; 姜耀东; 孟磊; 王涛; 刘华博

    2013-01-01

    Based on the application cases of roadways successfully passing through the complicated fault zones by using supporting technique with advanced pipe-shed grouting, the technical problems of roadway support in passing through the extremely complicated fault zone were analyzed firstly in this paper. Meanwhile, the design parameters of advanced pipe-shed grouting were calculated, and the stress and deformation of surrounding rock in the fault zone under various supporting conditions were also analyzed by numerical simulation. Moreover, the in-situ deformation of roadway supported by advanced pipe-shed grouting was measured, and the successful application experiences of the pipe-shed grouting technique were summarized. The practice results show that the supporting technique with pipe-shed grouting can not only improve the integrity of surrounding rock and the supporting capacity, but also form a strong pre-support system. It can be well used as one of effective roadway support techniques in the complicated geological zones. However, some other measures, such as geophysical prospecting, effective in-situ monitoring, et al, are needed to improve the grouting quality and ensure the safety of passing through the complicated fault zones. The experiences in this paer can provide ref- erence to the design and construction of similar projects in complicated geological zones.%基于煤矿巷道采用超前管棚注浆支护技术顺利通过复杂断层带的实际案例,研究了巷道通过极复杂断层带面临的破碎围岩变形控制问题.通过计算确定了超前管棚注浆支护的设计参数,采用数值计算手段分析了过断层区域不同支护条件下的围岩应力和巷道变形情况,并针对施工后的管棚支护巷道变形量进行了现场实测,总结了超前管棚注浆支护技术在巷道通过复杂断层带的成功经验.实践证明:超前管棚注浆支护技术提高了围岩的完整性及整体承载能力,能够形成较强的

  20. Fate of Contaminants in Contact with West Valley Grouts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuhrmann,M.; Gillow, J.

    2009-07-01

    The objective of the work described here is to determine to what extent a variety of contaminants, including fission products, actinides, and RCRA elements are sequestered by the two grout formulations. The conceptual model for this study is as follows: a large mass of grout having been poured into a high-level waste tank is in the process of aging and weathering for thousands of years. The waste remaining in the tank will contain radionuclides and other contaminants, much of which will adhere to tank walls and internal structures. The grout will encapsulate the contaminants. Initially the grout will be well sequestered, but over time rainwater and groundwater will gain access to it. Ultimately, the grout/waste environment will be an open system. In this condition water will move through the grout, exposing it to O{sub 2} and CO{sub 2} from the air and HCO{sub 3}{sup -} from the groundwater. Thus we are considering an oxic environment containing HCO{sub 3}{sup -}. Initially the solubility of many contaminants, but not all, will be constrained by chemistry dominated by the grout, primarily by the high pH, around 11.8. This is controlled and buffered by the portland cement and blast furnace slag components of the grout, which by themselves maintain a solution pH of about 12.5. Slowly the pH will diminish as Ca(OH){sub 2} and KOH dissolve, are carried away by water, and CaCO{sub 3} forms. As these conditions develop, the behavior of these elements comes into question. In our conceptual model, although the grout is formulated to provide some reducing capacity, in order to be conservative this mechanism is not considered. In addition to solubility constraints imposed by pH, the various contaminants may be incorporated into a variety of solid phases. Some may be incorporated into newly forming compounds as the grout sets and cures. Others (like soddyite, (UO{sub 2}){sub 2}SiO{sub 4}(H{sub 2}O){sub 2}) are the result of slower reactions but may become important over time

  1. Latex-modified grouts for in-situ stabilization of buried transuranic/mixed waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allan, M.L.

    1996-06-01

    The Department of Applied Science at Brookhaven national Laboratory was requested to investigate latex-modified grouts for in-situ stabilization of buried TRU/mixed waste for INEL. The waste exists in shallow trenches that were backfilled with soil. The objective was to formulate latex-modified grouts for use with the jet grouting technique to enable in-situ stabilization of buried waste. The stabilized waste was either to be left in place or retrieved for further processing. Grouting prior to retrieval reduces the potential release of contaminants. Rheological properties of latex-modified grouts were investigated and compared with those of conventional neat cement grouts used for jet grouting.

  2. Jet grouted cut-off is used at Pergau in Malaysia. [Dam construction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1993-04-01

    One of the most important hydropower projects currently under way in South-East Asia is the 600 MW Pergau scheme in Kelantan, in the northeast corner of Malaysia. The project, which involves many complex construction difficulties, is being built on a design-and-construct basis. The 67 m-high main dam involves a cut-off which is being constructed by jet grouting. (author)

  3. CsIX/TRU Grout Feasibility Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S. J. Losinski; C. M. Barnes; B. K. Grover

    1998-11-01

    A settlement agreement between the Department of Energy (DOE) and the State of Idaho mandates that liquid waste now stored at the Idaho Nuclear Technology Engineering Center (INTEC - formerly the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant, ICPP) will be calcined by the end of year 2012. This study investigates an alternative treatment of the liquid waste that removes undissolved solids (UDS) by filtration and removes cesium by ion exchange followed by cement-based grouting of the remaining liquid into 55-gal drums. Operations are assumed to be from January 2008 through December 2012. The grouted waste will be contact-handled and will be shipped to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in New Mexico for disposal. The small volume of secondary wastes such as the filtered solids and cesium sorbent (resin) would remain in storage at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory for treatment and disposal under another project, with an option to dispose of the filtered solids as a r emote-handled waste at WIPP.

  4. A probabilistic approach to rock mechanical property characterization for nuclear waste repository design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Kunsoo; Gao, Hang [Columbia Univ., New York, NY (United States)

    1996-04-01

    A probabilistic approach is proposed for the characterization of host rock mechanical properties at the Yucca Mountain site. This approach helps define the probability distribution of rock properties by utilizing extreme value statistics and Monte Carlo simulation. We analyze mechanical property data of tuff obtained by the NNWSI Project to assess the utility of the methodology. The analysis indicates that laboratory measured strength and deformation data of Calico Hills and Bullfrog tuffs follow an extremal. probability distribution (the third type asymptotic distribution of the smallest values). Monte Carlo simulation is carried out to estimate rock mass deformation moduli using a one-dimensional tuff model proposed by Zimmermann and Finley. We suggest that the results of these analyses be incorporated into the repository design.

  5. Research on the Grouting Reinforcement Technique in the Fault of Liudian Coal Mine%刘店矿过断层注浆加固技术研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    代礼永

    2015-01-01

    为解决刘店煤矿北翼东回风大巷掘进过程中遇DF2正断层问题,基于巷道围岩控制原理,提出巷道注浆加固技术,并从注浆加固技术原理、注浆材料选择、注浆孔布置、注浆参数四个方面,研究巷道过DF2正断层时注浆加固方案。结果表明:北翼东回风大巷过DF2正断层时提前对迎头断层带煤体进行预注浆加固,改善了围岩条件;采用注浆加固技术,掘进过程中片帮冒顶次数减小,压力显现现象明显降低。%In order to solve the problem of DF2 positive fault in the process of digging, based on the principle of the control of roadway surrounding rock, the roadway grouting reinforcement technique was proposed in this paper. From the aspects of technique principle, material, grouting hole arrangement and grouting parameter, the grouting reinforcement scheme for DF2 positive fault was studied. The results showed that grouting reinforcement can improve the conditions of surrounding rock. In the process of excavating, through grouting reinforcement technique, there were fewer roof fall and rib spalling accidents and pressure appeared phenomenon was decreased obviously.

  6. Evaluation of Many Load Tests of Passive Rock Bolts in the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holý Ondřej

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Within the research project “FR-TI4/329 Research and development - creating an application system for the design and analysis of soil and rock anchors including the development of monitoring elements”, an extensive stage of field load tests of rock bolts was carried out. The tests were conducted at 14 locations with varied rock composition. Before the initial tests, a loading stand was designed and constructed. A total of 201 pieces of tensile tests of bolts having lengths from 0.5 up to 2.5 m, a diameter of 22-32 mm, were performed. These were fully threaded rods, self-drilling rods, and fiberglass rods. The bolts were clamped into the cement and resin. The loading tests were always performed until material failure of bolts or shear stress failure at the interface cement-rock. At each location, basic geotechnical survey was carried out in the form of core drilling in a length of 3.0 metres with the assessment of the rock mass in situ, and laboratory testing of rock mechanics. Upon the completion of testing protocols, rock mass properties analysis was performed focusing on the evaluation of shear friction at the grouting-rock interface.

  7. Low-Cost Tower Root Fatigue Load Estimation for Structural Health Monitoring of Grouted Connections in Offshore Wind Turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perisic, Nevena; Kirkegaard, Poul Henning

    2013-01-01

    The sinking of wind turbines (WTs) with monopile foundations is one of the major issues in the offshore wind industry nowadays. Dynamic wind and wave loads act on the WTs causing vibrations of the structure. However, grouted connections in the monopiled WTs are not designed well enough to transfe...

  8. Hard-Rock Stability Analysis for Span Design in Entry-Type Excavations with Learning Classifiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Gonzalo, Esperanza; Fernández-Muñiz, Zulima; García Nieto, Paulino José; Bernardo Sánchez, Antonio; Menéndez Fernández, Marta

    2016-06-29

    The mining industry relies heavily on empirical analysis for design and prediction. An empirical design method, called the critical span graph, was developed specifically for rock stability analysis in entry-type excavations, based on an extensive case-history database of cut and fill mining in Canada. This empirical span design chart plots the critical span against rock mass rating for the observed case histories and has been accepted by many mining operations for the initial span design of cut and fill stopes. Different types of analysis have been used to classify the observed cases into stable, potentially unstable and unstable groups. The main purpose of this paper is to present a new method for defining rock stability areas of the critical span graph, which applies machine learning classifiers (support vector machine and extreme learning machine). The results show a reasonable correlation with previous guidelines. These machine learning methods are good tools for developing empirical methods, since they make no assumptions about the regression function. With this software, it is easy to add new field observations to a previous database, improving prediction output with the addition of data that consider the local conditions for each mine.

  9. Tanks 18 And 19-F Structural Flowable Grout Fill Material Evaluation And Recommendations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Langton, C. A.; Stefanko, D. B.

    2013-04-23

    Cementitious grout will be used to close Tanks 18-F and 19-F. The functions of the grout are to: 1) physically stabilize the final landfill by filling the empty volume in the tanks with a non-compressible material; 2) provide a barrier for inadvertent intrusion into the tank; 3) reduce contaminant mobility by a) limiting the hydraulic conductivity of the closed tank and b) reducing contact between the residual waste and infiltrating water; and 4) providing an alkaline, chemically reducing environment in the closed tank to control speciation and solubility of selected radionuclides. The objective of this work was to identify a single (all-in-one) grout to stabilize and isolate the residual radionuclides in the tank, provide structural stability of the closed tank and serve as an inadvertent intruder barrier. This work was requested by V. A. Chander, High Level Waste (HLW) Tank Engineering, in HLW-TTR-2011-008. The complete task scope is provided in the Task Technical and QA Plan, SRNL-RP-2011-00587 Revision 0. The specific objectives of this task were to: 1) Identify new admixtures and dosages for formulating a zero bleed flowable tank fill material selected by HLW Tank Closure Project personnel based on earlier tank fill studies performed in 2007. The chemical admixtures used for adjusting the flow properties needed to be updated because the original admixture products are no longer available. Also, the sources of cement and fly ash have changed, and Portland cements currently available contain up to 5 wt. % limestone (calcium carbonate). 2) Prepare and evaluate the placement, compressive strength, and thermal properties of the selected formulation with new admixture dosages. 3) Identify opportunities for improving the mix selected by HLW Closure Project personnel and prepare and evaluate two potentially improved zero bleed flowable fill design concepts; one based on the reactor fill grout and the other based on a shrinkage compensating flowable fill mix design. 4

  10. Liquid Secondary Waste Grout Formulation and Waste Form Qualification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Um, Wooyong [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Williams, B. D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Snyder, Michelle M. V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Wang, Guohui [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-05-23

    This report describes the results from liquid secondary waste (LSW) grout formulation and waste form qualification tests performed at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for Washington River Protection Solutions (WRPS) to evaluate new formulations for preparing a grout waste form with high-sulfate secondary waste simulants and the release of key constituents from these grout monoliths. Specific objectives of the LSW grout formulation and waste form qualification tests described in this report focused on five activities: 1.preparing new formulations for the LSW grout waste form with high-sulfate LSW simulants and solid characterization of the cured LSW grout waste form 2.conducting the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Method 1313 leach test (EPA 2012) on the grout prepared with the new formulations, which solidify sulfate-rich Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) off-gas condensate secondary waste simulant, using deionized water (DIW) 3.conducting the EPA Method 1315 leach tests (EPA 2013) on the grout monoliths made with the new dry blend formulations and three LSW simulants (242-A evaporator condensate, Environmental Restoration Disposal Facility (ERDF) leachate, and WTP off-gas condensate) using two leachants, DIW and simulated Hanford Integrated Disposal Facility (IDF) Site vadose zone pore water (VZPW) 4.estimating the 99Tc desorption Kd (distribution coefficient) values for 99Tc transport in oxidizing conditions to support the IDF performance assessment (PA) 5.estimating the solubility of 99Tc(IV)-bearing solid phases for 99Tc transport in reducing conditions to support the IDF PA.

  11. Assessing the influence of jet-grouting underpinning on the nearby buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Chepurnova

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the underpinning-induced ground movement due to jet-grouting. Jet-grouting technique can cause distortions as a result of an inaccurate processing sequence and/or errors made at different stages of work execution. The aim of this paper is to determine the minimum value of such movement on the basis of the findings obtained at two similar construction sites located in the Historical Center of Moscow, considering that the maximum value is usually unpredictable. Numerical simulation of the process of soil eroding agrees well with the observational data at the current stage. It was found that the minimum value of deformations (only settlement was considered in this study due to jet-grouting is no less than 2–3 mm. By contrast, the negative scenario of deformation due to foundation underpinning is clearly demonstrated. Also, this paper provides some general solutions for excavation supporting system as well as for underpinning design.

  12. Environmental Technology Verification Report: Grouts for Wastewater Collection Systems, Warren Environmental, Inc. 301-04 Epoxy Grout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Municipalities are discovering rapid degradation of infrastructures in wastewater collection and treatment facilities due to infiltration of leaking water from the surrounding environments. Rehabilitation of these facilities by in situ methods, including the use of grouting, is u...

  13. Hard rock excavation at the CSM/OCRD test site using Swedish blast design techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holmberg, R.

    1983-09-01

    This report is the third in a series describing research conducted by the Colorado School of Mines for the Office of Crystalline Repository Development (OCRD) to determine the extent of blast damage in rock surrounding an underground opening. A special room, called the CSM/OCRD room, was excavated at the CSM experimental mine for the purpose of assessing blast damage in the rock around the room. Even though this mine is not proposed as a nuclear waste repository site, the instrumentation and methods of blast damage assessment developed in this project are applicable to proposed repository sites. This report describes the application of Swedish blasting technology for the excavation of the test room. The design of the blasting patterns including the selection of explosives, hole sizes and location, explosive loading densities, and delay intervals is based upon the theories of Langefors and Kihlstrom in combination with methods used at the Swedish Detonic Research Foundation for minimizing unwanted rock damage. The practical application of the design procedures to seven rounds and the achieved results is discussed.

  14. Workshop on rock mechanics issues in repository design and performance assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-04-01

    The Center for Nuclear Waste Regulatory Analyses organized and hosted a workshop on ``Rock Mechanics Issues in Repository Design and Performance Assessment`` on behalf its sponsor the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). This workshop was held on September 19- 20, 1994 at the Holiday Inn Crowne Plaza, Rockville, Maryland. The objectives of the workshop were to stimulate exchange of technical information among parties actively investigating rock mechanics issues relevant to the proposed high-level waste repository at Yucca Mountain and identify/confirm rock mechanics issues important to repository design and performance assessment The workshop contained three technical sessions and two panel discussions. The participants included technical and research staffs representing the NRC and the Department of Energy and their contractors, as well as researchers from the academic, commercial, and international technical communities. These proceedings include most of the technical papers presented in the technical sessions and the transcripts for the two panel discussions. Selected papers have been indexed separately for inclusion the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  15. Life on rock. Scaling down biological weathering in a new experimental design at Biosphere-2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaharescu, D. G.; Dontsova, K.; Burghelea, C. I.; Chorover, J.; Maier, R.; Perdrial, J. N.

    2012-12-01

    Biological colonization and weathering of bedrock on Earth is a major driver of landscape and ecosystem development, its effects reaching out into other major systems such climate and geochemical cycles of elements. In order to understand how microbe-plant-mycorrhizae communities interact with bedrock in the first phases of mineral weathering we developed a novel experimental design in the Desert Biome at Biosphere-2, University of Arizona (U.S.A). This presentation will focus on the development of the experimental setup. Briefly, six enclosed modules were designed to hold 288 experimental columns that will accommodate 4 rock types and 6 biological treatments. Each module is developed on 3 levels. A lower volume, able to withstand the weight of both, rock material and the rest of the structure, accommodates the sampling elements. A middle volume, houses the experimental columns in a dark chamber. A clear, upper section forms the habitat exposed to sunlight. This volume is completely sealed form exterior and it allows a complete control of its air and water parameters. All modules are connected in parallel with a double air purification system that delivers a permanent air flow. This setup is expected to provide a model experiment, able to test important processes in the interaction rock-life at grain-to- molecular scale.

  16. In situ grouting of low-level burial trenches with a cement-based grout at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Francis, C.W.; Spence, R.D.; Tamura, T.; Spalding, B.P.

    1993-01-01

    A technology being evaluated for use in the closure of one of the low-level radwaste burial grounds at ORNL is trench stabilization using a cement-based grout. To demonstrate the applicability and effectiveness of this technology, two interconnecting trenches in SWSA 6 were selected as candidates for in situ grouting with a particulate grout. The primary objective was to demonstrate the increased trench stability (characterized by trench penetration tests) and the decreased potential for leachate migration (characterized by hydraulic conductivity tests) following in situ injection of a particulate grout into the waste trenches. Stability against trench subsidence is a critical issue. For example, construction of impermeable covers to seal the trenches will be ineffectual unless subsequent trench subsidence is permanently suspended. A grout composed of 39% Type 1 Portland cement, 55.5% Class F fly ash, and 5.5% bentonite mixed at 12.5 lb/gal of water was selected. Before the trenches were grouted, the primary characteristics relating to physical stability, hydraulic conductivity, and void volume of the trenches were determined. Their physical stability was evaluated using soil-penetration tests.

  17. Gas generation from Hanford grout samples. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jonah, C.D.; Kapoor, S.: Matheson, M.S.; Mulac, W.A.; Meisel, D.

    1994-03-01

    The radiolytic yields of H{sub 2}, N{sub 2}, O{sub 2}, N{sub 2}O, and CO from two batches of WHC-supplied samples of grouted simulated waste have been {gamma} irradiated at several dose rates (0.025, 0.63 and 130 krad/h for H{sub 2} and 130 krad/h for all other gases). In one batch, the liquid waste simulant that was added to the grout included the original components that were added to Tank 102-AP (labeled ``virgin``waste.) The second batch included a similar liquid waste simulant that was preirradiated to 35 Mrad prior to incorporation into the grout. It is believed that the preirradiated samples more closely represent radioactive waste that was stored in the tank for several years. The lowest dose rate corresponds approximately to that expected in the grout; with the high dose rate, doses equivalent to about 85 years storage in grout vaults were achieved. Most of the results on the batch of virgin samples have been reported recently (Report ANL 93/42). Here we report the results from the batch of preirradiated grout samples and compare the results from the two batches. The radiolytic yields of H{sub 2} and N{sub 2} are lower in the preirradiated than in the virgin grout. On the other hand G(O{sub 2}) is higher in the preirradiated samples: 0.078 vs. 0.026. The yield of nitrous oxide is essentially the same, G(N{sub 2}O) =0.010, in both. The yields measured from both batches are significantly higher than previously reported values. At 90{degrees}C similar amounts of H{sub 2} were generated thermally from both batches of grout, whereas the total amounts of N{sub 2} and N{sub 2}O were larger for the preirradiated than for the virgin grout samples. At lower temperatures the rate of generation was hardly measurable. Mass spectrometric analysis suggests that NO is thermally (but not radiolytically) released from the grout samples.

  18. Evaluation of dry-solids-blend material source for grouts containing 106-AN waste: September 1990 progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilliam, T.M.; Osborne, S.C.; Francis, C.L.; Scott, T.C.

    1993-09-01

    Stabilization/solidification (S/S) is the most widely used technology for the treatment and ultimate disposal of both radioactive and chemically hazardous wastes. Such technology is being utilized in a Grout Treatment Facility (GTF) by the Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) for the disposal of various wastes, including 106-AN wastes, located on the Hanford Reservation. The WHC personnel have developed a grout formula for 106-AN disposal that is designed to meet stringent performance requirements. This formula consists of a dry-solids blend containing 40 wt % limestone, 28 wt % granulated blast furnace slag (BFS), 28 wt % ASTM Class F fly ash, and 4 wt % Type I-II-LA Portland cement. The blend is mixed with 106-AN waste at a ratio of 9 lb of dry-solids blend per gallon of waste. This report documents progress made to date on efforts at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in support of WHC`s Grout Technology Program to assess the effects of the source of the dry-solids-blend materials on the resulting grout formula.

  19. Laboratory Study on Grout Injection for Improving Subgrade of Airfield Pavements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teck Shang Goh

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper shares the authors’ experience of using low pressure grouting to improve the subgrade performance. The first part of the paper introduced a case history where low pressure grouting was applied in weakened subgrade of the active airport pavements in Kuala Lumpur International Airport (KLIA. The treated areas seemed to have been improved and only one of all eight treated areas had reoccurrence of depression. However, the performance of the treated area was difficult to be evaluated. The latter part of the paper investigated the effectiveness of grout injection through laboratory experiments. The laboratory equipment used for the grout injection tests included an injection mold and a steel tank of 1 m length x 0.6 m wide x 0.6 m depth for subgrade soil sample. Three grout types namely neat cement grout, fly ash cement grout, bentonite cement grout were used for this study. Six tests were conducted on sandy soil samples to examine the effect of grout type on the effectiveness of injection. The sandy soil was compacted to approximate 80 % of the maximum dry density. The injection pressure was fixed at 0.5 MPa. Insitu CBR test was also conducted to determine the strength of the grouted sample. The results showed that the fly ash cement grout could penetrate further than the neat cement grout; however its strength was lower than the neat cement grout.

  20. TANKS 18 AND 19-F STRUCTURAL FLOWABLE GROUT FILL MATERIAL EVALUATION AND RECOMMENDATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stefanko, D.; Langton, C.

    2011-11-01

    Cementitious grout will be used to close Tanks 18-F and 19-F. The functions of the grout are to: (1) physically stabilize the final landfill by filling the empty volume in the tanks with a non compressible material; (2) provide a barrier for inadvertent intrusion into the tank; (3) reduce contaminant mobility by (a) limiting the hydraulic conductivity of the closed tank and (b) reducing contact between the residual waste and infiltrating water; and (4) providing an alkaline, chemically reducing environment in the closed tank to control speciation and solubility of selected radionuclides. The objective of this work was to identify a single (all-in-one) grout to stabilize and isolate the residual radionuclides in the tank, provide structural stability of the closed tank and serve as an inadvertent intruder barrier. This work was requested by V. A. Chander, High Level Waste (HLW) Tank Engineering, in HLW-TTR-2011-008. The complete task scope is provided in the Task Technical and QA Plan, SRNL-RP-2011-00587 Revision 0. The specific objectives of this task were to: (1) Identify new admixtures and dosages for formulating a zero bleed flowable tank fill material selected by HLW Tank Closure Project personnel based on earlier tank fill studies performed in 2007. The chemical admixtures used for adjusting the flow properties needed to be updated because the original admixture products are no longer available. Also, the sources of cement and fly ash have changed, and Portland cements currently available contain up to 5 wt. % limestone (calcium carbonate). (2) Prepare and evaluate the placement, compressive strength, and thermal properties of the selected formulation with new admixture dosages. (3) Identify opportunities for improving the mix selected by HLW Closure Project personnel and prepare and evaluate two potentially improved zero bleed flowable fill design concepts; one based on the reactor fill grout and the other based on a shrinkage compensating flowable fill mix

  1. Florida Sinkholes and Grout Injection Stabilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles Hunt Griffith II

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Florida has a major problem when it comes to sinkholes. These sinkholes can become very hazardous to people, homes, and to the landscape as a whole. Florida sits on a carbonate platform which is highly indicative of sinkholes. There are three main types of sinkholes which occur in Florida: dissolution, cover subsidence, and cover collapse. I will compare these types of sinkholes to the underlying formation beneath Florida to see if there is a connection between the types of sinkholes that occur. I will also create a 3D model of grout injection stabilization and calculate its volume to compare to the actual volume placed under the house. This information will help inform and bring attention to the problem in Florida and in turn, may help alleviate the problem if we can understand what causes these sinkholes. The 3D model may help engineering companies become more efficient in predicting the projected amount of volume to stabilize a house that may be in danger.

  2. Microstructural Effects of Sulphate Attack in Sustainable Grouts for Micropiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Marcos Ortega Álvarez

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, the use of micropiles has undergone a great development. In general, they are made with cement grout, reinforced with steel tubing. In Spain, these grouts are prepared using OPC, although the standards do not forbid the use of other cements, like sustainable ones. Micropiles are in contact with soils and groundwater, in which the presence of sulphates is common. Their deleterious effects firstly affect to the microstructure. Then, the aim of this research is to study the effects of sulphate attack in the microstructure of micropiles grouts, prepared with OPC, fly ash and slag commercial cements, compared to their behaviour when they are exposed to an optimum hardening condition. The microstructure evolution has been studied with the non-destructive impedance spectroscopy technique, which has never been used for detecting the effects of sulphate attack when slag and fly ash cements are used. Its results have been contrasted with mercury intrusion porosimetry and “Wenner” resistivity ones. The 28-day compressive strength of grouts has been also determined. The results of microstructure characterization techniques are in agreement, although impedance spectroscopy is the most sensitive for following the changes in the porous network of grouts. The results showed that micropiles made using fly ash and slag cements could have a good performance in contact with aggressive sodium sulphate media, even better than OPC ones.

  3. Dynamic model of vibrating-sliding-uplift rocking coupled motion and dynamic design method of caisson breakwaters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG; Yuanzhan; HUA; Leina; DONG; Shaowei

    2004-01-01

    Vibrating, sliding and uplift rocking are three elementary motion types of caisson breakwaters. The dynamic model and the numerical simulation method of vibrating-sliding-uplift rocking coupled motion of caisson breakwaters are developed. The histories of displacement, rotation, sliding force and overturning moment of a caisson breakwater under the excitation of breaking wave impact are calculated for the motion models of vibrating, vibrating-sliding, vibrating-uplift rocking and vibrating-sliding-uplift rocking. The effects of various motion models on the stability of caisson breakwaters are investigated. The feasibility of the dynamic design idea that the sliding motion and the uplift rocking motion of caisson breakwaters are allowed under the excitation of breaking wave impact is discussed.

  4. FINITE-ELEMENT ANALYSIS OF ROCK FALL ON UNCANISTERED FUEL WASTE PACKAGE DESIGNS (SCPB: N/A)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Z. Ceylan

    1996-10-18

    The objective of this analysis is to explore the Uncanistered Fuel (UCF) Tube Design waste package (WP) resistance to rock falls. This analysis will also be used to determine the size of rock that can strike the WP without causing failure in the containment barriers from a height based on the starter tunnel dimensions. The purpose of this analysis is to document the models and methods used in the calculations.

  5. Using infrared thermography to determine the presence and correct placement of grouted cells in single-width concrete masonry unit (CMU) walls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stockton, Gregory R.; Allen, Lee R.

    1999-03-01

    Determining the placement of reinforcing grout in single-width CMU (Concrete Masonry Unit) walls has, in the past, been a painstaking and destructive undertaking. Usually, a test is performed because -- by accident -- missing cells are discovered when a wall penetration is retrofitted or change order is executed, requiring that the wall be opened. Often, a hammer or hammer drill is used to punch holes where the grouting is supposed to be. The test results are used to extrapolate the extent of the problem. This method falls short, since the sample is so small, that only outright fraud can be found, and excess grouting cannot be determined. This paper discusses the results of a joint effort between Stockton Infrared Thermographic Services, Inc. (SITS) and Allen Applied Infrared Technology, Inc. (AAIT) to produce a methodology for using non-destructive infrared thermography to ensure that the design specifications are being met.

  6. Determination of the biodegradation rate of asphalt for the Hanford grout vaults. Hanford Grout Technology Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luey, J.; Li, S.W.

    1993-04-01

    Testing was initiated in March 1991 and completed in November 1992 to determine the rate at which asphalt is biodegraded by microorganisms native to the Hanford Site soils. The asphalt tested (AR-6000, US Oil, Tacoma, Washington) is to be used in the construction of a diffusion barrier for the Hanford grout vaults. Experiments to determine asphalt biodegradation rates were conducted using three separate test sets. These test sets were initiated in March 1991, January 1992, and June 1992 and ran for periods of 6 months, 11 months, and 6 months, respectively. The experimental method used was one originally developed by Bartha and Pramer (1965), and further refined by Bowerman et al. (1985), that determined the asphalt biodegradation rate through the measurement of carbon dioxide evolved.

  7. Field investigations of high stress soft surrounding rocks and deformation control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weijian Yu

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Field investigations of high stress soft rock deformations show that the high stress soft rock roadway can slide with large deformation. Severe extrusion and floor heave can also be subsequently observed. The supported roadway can be locally damaged or completely fail, where the floor has a large deformation and/or is seriously damaged. The factors inducing large deformation of surrounding rocks in deep roadway are rock strengths, structure face cutting types, stress states, stress release, support patterns, and construction methods. Based on the deformation characteristics of high stress soft rock roadway, a comprehensive support scheme is proposed. The overall support technology of “step-by-step and joint, hierarchical reinforcement” for roadway is presented, and the anchor cable and bolt parameters to check the design methods are also given. Finally, the proposed comprehensive support method “bolt + metal mesh + U-steel arch + shortcrete + grouting and cable” is used in the extension section of east main haulage roadway at −850 m level of Qujiang coal mine. The 173-day monitoring results show that the average convergence of sidewalls reaches 208 mm, and the average relative convergence of roof and floor reaches 448 mm, suggesting that this kind of support technology for controlling large deformation of high stress soft surrounding rock roadway is effective.

  8. Design and testing of coring bits on drilling lunar rock simulant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Peng; Jiang, Shengyuan; Tang, Dewei; Xu, Bo; Ma, Chao; Zhang, Hui; Qin, Hongwei; Deng, Zongquan

    2017-02-01

    Coring bits are widely utilized in the sampling of celestial bodies, and their drilling behaviors directly affect the sampling results and drilling security. This paper introduces a lunar regolith coring bit (LRCB), which is a key component of sampling tools for lunar rock breaking during the lunar soil sampling process. We establish the interaction model between the drill bit and rock at a small cutting depth, and the two main influential parameters (forward and outward rake angles) of LRCB on drilling loads are determined. We perform the parameter screening task of LRCB with the aim to minimize the weight on bit (WOB). We verify the drilling load performances of LRCB after optimization, and the higher penetrations per revolution (PPR) are, the larger drilling loads we gained. Besides, we perform lunar soil drilling simulations to estimate the efficiency on chip conveying and sample coring of LRCB. The results of the simulation and test are basically consistent on coring efficiency, and the chip removal efficiency of LRCB is slightly lower than HIT-H bit from simulation. This work proposes a method for the design of coring bits in subsequent extraterrestrial explorations.

  9. Thermal conductivity of cementitious grouts for geothermal heat pumps. Progress report FY 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allan, M.L.

    1997-11-01

    Grout is used to seal the annulus between the borehole and heat exchanger loops in vertical geothermal (ground coupled, ground source, GeoExchange) heat pump systems. The grout provides a heat transfer medium between the heat exchanger and surrounding formation, controls groundwater movement and prevents contamination of water supply. Enhanced heat pump coefficient of performance (COP) and reduced up-front loop installation costs can be achieved through optimization of the grout thermal conductivity. The objective of the work reported was to characterize thermal conductivity and other pertinent properties of conventional and filled cementitious grouts. Cost analysis and calculations of the reduction in heat exchanger length that could be achieved with such grouts were performed by the University of Alabama. Two strategies to enhance the thermal conductivity of cementitious grouts were used simultaneously. The first of these was to incorporate high thermal conductivity filler in the grout formulations. Based on previous tests (Allan and Kavanaugh, in preparation), silica sand was selected as a suitable filler. The second strategy was to reduce the water content of the grout mix. By lowering the water/cement ratio, the porosity of the hardened grout is decreased. This results in higher thermal conductivity. Lowering the water/cement ratio also improves such properties as permeability, strength, and durability. The addition of a liquid superplasticizer (high range water reducer) to the grout mixes enabled reduction of water/cement ratio while retaining pumpability. Superplasticizers are commonly used in the concrete and grouting industry to improve rheological properties.

  10. Multipoint Grout Injection System. Innovative Technology Summary Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2001-09-01

    At the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR), radioactive waste contained in the 16 cylindrical Gunite and Associated Tanks (GAATs) must retrieved so the tanks can be closed. In many cases, removing the small amounts of sludge that remain in the tank after the bulk of the waste is retrieved is extremely costly and provides little benefit from site health and environmental standpoints. The Tanks Focus Area is working with ORR's M and I contractor (Bechtel-Jacobs), Oak Ridge National Laboratory, and Ground Environmental Services to demonstrate the application of multi-point-injection (MPI) grout emplacement technology for horizontal cylindrical tanks during a cold demonstration in FY99. GAAT TH-4 has been identified as the tank to be used for the hot demonstration in FY00. Evaluation efforts continue on the effect of slag on strength performance of the grout to be used in TH-4 tank closure. The site must find out what level of slag can be accommodated in the grout while maintaining strength performance requirements. Other efforts in support of the utilization of MPI TM technology in large-scale waste tanks will continue. Also, ORR is collaborating with SRS to evaluate the use this technology to support grouting of the Old Burial Ground tanks at SRS.

  11. A Review of Rock Bolt Monitoring Using Smart Sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Gangbing; Li, Weijie; Wang, Bo; Ho, Siu Chun Michael

    2017-04-05

    Rock bolts have been widely used as rock reinforcing members in underground coal mine roadways and tunnels. Failures of rock bolts occur as a result of overloading, corrosion, seismic burst and bad grouting, leading to catastrophic economic and personnel losses. Monitoring the health condition of the rock bolts plays an important role in ensuring the safe operation of underground mines. This work presents a brief introduction on the types of rock bolts followed by a comprehensive review of rock bolt monitoring using smart sensors. Smart sensors that are used to assess rock bolt integrity are reviewed to provide a firm perception of the application of smart sensors for enhanced performance and reliability of rock bolts. The most widely used smart sensors for rock bolt monitoring are the piezoelectric sensors and the fiber optic sensors. The methodologies and principles of these smart sensors are reviewed from the point of view of rock bolt integrity monitoring. The applications of smart sensors in monitoring the critical status of rock bolts, such as the axial force, corrosion occurrence, grout quality and resin delamination, are highlighted. In addition, several prototypes or commercially available smart rock bolt devices are also introduced.

  12. Rock riprap design for protection of stream channels near highway structures; Volume 2, Evaluation of Riprap design procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blodgett, J.C.; McConaughy, C.E.

    1986-01-01

    In volume 2, seven procedures now being used for design of rock riprap installations were evaluated using data from 26 field sites. Four basic types of riprap failures were identified: Particle erosion, translational slide, modified slump, and slump. Factors associated with riprap failure include stone size , bank side slope, size gradation, thickness, insufficient toe or endwall, failure of the bank material, overtopping during floods, and geomorphic changes in the channel. A review of field data and the design procedures suggests that estimates of hydraulic forces acting on the boundary based on flow velocity rather than shear stress are more reliable. Several adjustments for local conditions, such as channel curvature, superelevation, or boundary roughness, may be unwarranted in view of the difficulty in estimating critical hydraulic forces for which the riprap is to be designed. Success of the riprap is related not only to the appropriate procedure for selecting stone size, but also to the reliability of estimated hydraulic and channel factors applicable to the site. (See also W89-04910) (Author 's abstract)

  13. 注浆工艺在平煤六矿暗轨猴车联络巷的应用%Application of Grouting Processing in PingMei Sixth Mine Dark Rail-monkey Car Contact Lane

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵广金; 任名扬

    2013-01-01

    平顶山矿区是我国地质条件复杂的矿区之一.受围岩破碎、软岩流变等地质条件的影响,平煤股份六矿三水平暗轨猴车联络巷位于为软岩巷道,围岩松散破碎,围岩主要以泥岩、砂质泥岩为主,为满足矿井发展需要三水平暗轨猴车道进行底板注浆.在分析了巷道岩性的基础上,提出了注浆管初注和内注式锚杆二次注浆施工方案,并进行了实地试验.%Pingdingshan Coal Mine is one .of China's complex geological conditions. Affected by the broken country rock, soft rock rheology and geological conditions, six mine in Pingdingshan shares three-level dark rail—monkey car contact lane belong to soft rock tunnel, and the surrounding rock is broken and loose, country rock gives priority to mudstone, sandy mudstone. To meet the development of mine, we need to conduct bottom grouting to three-level dark rail-monkey car contact lane. Based on the analysis of roadway lithology, grouting pipe eariy injection and injection anchor secondary grouting construction program was proposed, and field trial was carried out.

  14. Grout for closure of the demonstration vault at the US DOE Hanford Facility. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wakeley, L.D.; Ernzen, J.J.

    1992-08-01

    The Waterways Experiment Station (WES) developed a grout to be used as a cold- (nonradioactive) cap or void-fill grout between the solidified low-level waste and the cover blocks of a demonstration vault for disposal of phosphate-sulfate waste (PSW) at the US Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Facility. The project consisted of formulation and evaluation of candidate grouts and selection of the best candidate grout, followed by a physical scale-model test to verify grout performance under project-specific conditions. Further, the project provided data to verify numerical models (accomplished elsewhere) of stresses and isotherms inside the Hanford demonstration vault. Evaluation of unhardened grout included obtaining data on segregation, bleeding, flow, and working time. For hardened grout, strength, volume stability, temperature rise, and chemical compatibility with surrogate wasteform grout were examined. The grout was formulated to accommodate unique environmental boundary conditions (vault temperature = 45 C) and exacting regulatory requirements (mandating less than 0.1% shrinkage with no expansion and no bleeding); and to remain pumpable for a minimum of 2 hr. A grout consisting of API Class H oil-well cement, an ASTM C 618 Class F fly ash, sodium bentonite clay, and a natural sand from the Hanford area met performance requirements in laboratory studies. It is recommended for use in the DOE Hanford demonstration PSW vault.

  15. Physical and Mechanical Properties of Injected Granular Soil with Thick Super Plasticized Grouts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Costas A. Anagnostopoulos

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The use of super-plasticizers in micro fine or regular cement-based grouts has become of vital importance in advanced professional grouting practices. These super-plasticizers play an important role in the production of more durable grouts with improved rheological characteristics. This report presents a laboratory study of the effect of a new-generation Polycarboxylate Super-plasticizer (PCE on the inject ability of thick cement grouts into a coarse soil, under different grouting pressures, in comparison to that of a polynaphthalene (SNF super-plasticizer. Finally, the physical (dry unit weight, porosity and permeability and mechanical properties (compressive strength, elastic modulus of grouted specimens with various grouts were examined. The experiments were conducted using different additive dosages with grouts proportioned with a water to cement ratio (w/c of 0.33, 0.4 and 0.5, respectively. The results showed that PCE super-plasticizer is more effective than the SNF one for the increase of grout inject ability and the improvement of physical and mechanical properties of grouted soil.

  16. Application of Screw directional drilling technology in mine grouting and plugging water engineering%螺杆定向钻井技术在煤矿注浆堵水工程中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋建国; 井旋; 郭冬兰

    2014-01-01

    Due to the anisotropy of rock and rock hardness larger gap interbed and artiifcial drilling operation process is not reasonable factors, the borehole deviation rate of the ground ultra deep grouting and plugging water borehole is dififcult to control, and often appear the serious overrun of the ifnal hole offset, which were unable to meet the requirements of grouting phenomenon, seriously affected grouting effect and even caused drilling scrap. By using the directional drilling technology can construct the branch directional drilling in the grouting hole which offset were serious overrun, and rock hardness that is soft and full, reasonable curvature radius, achieve the deviation or reconstruction branch grouting holes.%地面超深注浆堵水钻孔由于受到岩石的各向异性、岩石硬度差距较大的互层以及人为钻进操作工艺不合理等因素影响,钻孔偏斜率难以控制,往往出现终孔偏距严重超限,无法满足注浆要求的现象,严重影响注浆效果甚至造成钻孔报废。采用定向钻井技术可以在偏距严重超限的注浆钻孔内且岩石完整、硬度较软和曲率半径合理的孔段施工分支定向钻孔,达到纠偏或重新施工分支注浆钻孔的目的。

  17. Development of grout formulations for 106-AN waste: Mixture-experiment results and analysis. Volume 2, Data presentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spence, R.D.; McDaniel, E.W. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Anderson, C.M.; Lokken, R.O.; Piepel, G.F. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1993-09-01

    Twenty potential ingredients were identified for use in developing a 106-AN grout formulation, and 18 were subsequently obtained and tested. Four ingredients: Type II-LA (moderate heat of hydration) Portland cement, Class F fly ash, attapulgite 150 drilling clay, and ground air-cooled blast-furnace slag (GABFS) -- were selected for developing the 106-AN grout formulations. A mixture experiment was designed and conducted around the following formulation: 2.5 lb of cement per gallon, 1.2 lb of fly ash per gallon, 0.8 lb of attapulgite per gallon, and 3.5 lb of GABFS per gallon. Reduced empirical models were generated from the results of the mixture experiment. These models were used to recommend several grout formulations for 106-AN. Westinghouse Hanford Company selected one of these formulations to be verified for use with 106-AN and a backup formulation in case problems arise with the first choice. This report presents the mixture-experimental results and leach data.

  18. Information base for waste repository design. Volume 3. Waste/rock interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koplick, C.M.; Pentz, D.L.; Oston, S.G.; Talbot, R.

    1979-01-01

    This report describes the important effects resulting from interaction between radioactive waste and the rock in a nuclear waste repository. The state of the art in predicting waste/rock interactions is summarized. Where possible, independent numerical calculations have been performed. Recommendations are made pointing out areas which require additional research.

  19. Experimental Study on Post Grouting Bearing Capacity of Large Diameter Bored Piles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Duanduan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Post grouting can improve the inherent defects such as the formation of the mud cake at pile side and the sediment at pile end in the process of bored pile construction. Thus post grouting has been widely used in Engineering. The purpose of this paper is to research the influences of post grouting to pile bearing capacity more systematically and intuitively. Combined with the static load test of four test piles in Weihe River Bridge test area of new airport highway in Xi’an, the bearing capacity and settlement of routine piles and post grouting piles are comparatively analyzed. The test results show that under the same geological condition, post grouting can improve the properties of pile tip and pile shaft soil of bored piles significantly, enhance the ultimate resistance, improve the ultimate bearing capacity and reduce the pile tip settlement. Then post grouting can aim to optimize pile foundation.

  20. Characteristics of thermally-enhanced bentonite grouts for geothermal heat exchanger in South Korea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chulho; LEE; Kangja; LEE; Hangseok; CHOI; Hyo-Pum; CHOI

    2010-01-01

    The thermal conductivity and viscosity of bentonite grouts have been evaluated and compared each other to determine the suitability of these materials for backfilling vertical boreholes of ground heat exchangers.Seven bentonite grouts from different product sources were considered in this paper.Two additives,silica sand and graphite were added in bentonite grouts to enhance thermal performance.The bentonite grouts indicate that both the thermal conductivity and the viscosity increase with the content of silica sand and graphite.Therefore,it is recommended to select cautiously the amount of silica sand and graphite considering not only thermal conductivity but also viscosity for the optimum condition of backfilling.Finally,the effect of salinity in the pore water on the change of swelling potential of the bentonite-based grouts has been quantitatively evaluated to show the feasibility of bentonite grouts in the coastal area.

  1. Macro-micro mechanical on joint -grout-bolt interaction in rockmass subjected to shear loading%剪切荷载下岩体结构面-浆体-锚杆相互作用机理宏细观研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王刚; 袁康; 蒋宇静; 吴学震

    2015-01-01

    The mechanical behavior of bolted rock joints was researched by using bilinear constitutive model of bolt in virtue of the inner-embed FISH language of PFC based on DEM. Through a variation of the bolt’s elastic modulus and the strength of grout, their influence on macroscopic mechanical response and microscopic mechanical response of anchoring system were studied under the bolt−grout−rock interaction. The results show that there is a clear relationship between the mechanical response of bolted rock joint and the mechanical property of anchoring structures. Macroscopic aspect: the stiffer the bolt the more shear strength of bolted rock joint has. Microscopic aspect: the quantity of cracks in grout and rock increase with the increase of bolt’s stiffness so as to result in more damage to anchoring system. Cracks will appear in the joint and the intersection of bolt and joint initially. With the increase of shear displacement, the cracks in joint will be generated at the place whose compressive contact force is very concentrated while the cracks around the bolt will propagate from the intersection of bolt and joint to the two ends of bolt. Besides, the cracks are mainly concentrated on the compression side. Most of the cracks are tension cracks which are induced by compression among particles. The number of cracks in rock and grout will increase when the strength of grout is much larger or smaller. The cracks are mainly tension cracks which are result from the compression among the particles. When the strength of grout is much smaller, the cracks are mainly concentrated on the rock otherwise the cracks will be mainly distributed in grout. Therefore, the shearing strength of bolted rock joint in macroscopic aspect and the damage of anchoring system resulting from anchoring structure in microscopic aspect should be considered comprehensively while reinforcing jointed rock mass so as to realize the macroscopic-microscopic coupling support. It has a certain

  2. Design calculations for a combined ventilation and brine injection experiment at the Grimsel Rock Laboratory, Switzerland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finsterle, S.; Pruess, K.

    1993-07-01

    A combined ventilation and brine injection test is planned at the Grimsel Test Site. The objective of the experiment is to study the transport of liquid and gas in the vicinity of a ventilated drift in order to evaluate the impact of the drying process on the characterization of the rock matrix. The proposed test sequence includes a desaturation-resaturation cycle. In addition, brine and fresh water will be injected from a borehole as trace electrolytes in order to better track the propagation of the individual phases. Results of design calculations using the TOUGH2 code show that injection of brine may significantly influence the unsaturated flow behavior by changing the pressure and saturation distribution around the borehole. Transport velocity is predicted to be very slow, requiring several months for the brine to reach the draft wall. However, the presence of preferential flow paths may reduce travel time and alter brine content and saturation distribution so that certain sensors may respond earlier or not at all.

  3. Uranium Metal Reaction Behavior in Water, Sludge, and Grout Matrices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delegard, Calvin H.; Schmidt, Andrew J.

    2009-05-27

    This report summarizes information and data on the reaction behavior of uranium metal in water, in water-saturated simulated and genuine K Basin sludge, and in grout matrices. This information and data are used to establish the technical basis for metallic uranium reaction behavior for the K Basin Sludge Treatment Project (STP). The specific objective of this report is to consolidate the various sources of information into a concise document to serve as a high-level reference and road map for customers, regulators, and interested parties outside the STP (e.g., external reviewers, other DOE sites) to clearly understand the current basis for the corrosion of uranium metal in water, sludge, and grout.

  4. Uranium Metal Reaction Behavior in Water, Sludge, and Grout Matrices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delegard, Calvin H.; Schmidt, Andrew J.

    2008-09-25

    This report summarizes information and data on the reaction behavior of uranium metal in water, in water-saturated simulated and genuine K Basin sludge, and in grout matrices. This information and data are used to establish the technical basis for metallic uranium reaction behavior for the K Basin Sludge Treatment Project (STP). The specific objective of this report is to consolidate the various sources of information into a concise document to serve as a high-level reference and road map for customers, regulators, and interested parties outside the STP (e.g., external reviewers, other DOE sites) to clearly understand the current basis for the corrosion of uranium metal in water, sludge, and grout.

  5. Experimental Test Plan for Grouting H-3 Calcine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alan K. Herbst

    2006-01-01

    Approximately 4400 cubic meters of solid high-level waste called calcine are stored at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center. Under the Idaho Cleanup Project, dual disposal paths are being investigated. The first path includes calcine retrieval, package "as-is", and ship to the Monitored Geological Repository (MGR). The second path involves treatment of the calcine with such methods as vitrification or grouting. This test plan outlines the hot bench scale tests to grout actual calcine and verify that the waste form properties meet the waste acceptance criteria. This is a necessary sequential step in the process of qualifying a new waste form for repository acceptance. The archive H-3 calcine samples at the Contaminated Equipment Maintenance Building attached to New Waste Calcining Facility will be used in these tests at the Remote Analytical Laboratory. The tests are scheduled for the second quarter of fiscal year 2007.

  6. Numerical Simulations of Settlement of Jet Grouting Columns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juzwa Anna

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the comparison of results of numerical analyses of interaction between group of jet grouting columns and subsoil. The analyses were conducted for single column and groups of three, seven and nine columns. The simulations are based on experimental research in real scale which were carried out by authors. The final goal for the research is an estimation of an influence of interaction between columns working in a group.

  7. Environmental Assessment of Selected Cone Penetrometer Grouts and a Tracer

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-08-01

    Geocem Section II-Chemical Data Chemical family: Calcium Salts Formula: Grout cement consists of finely ground portland cement clinker and limestone...Portland cement clinker is a sintered material produced by heating to high temperature (greater than 1200 degrees Celsius) a mixture of substances...provided by burning fossil fuels, trace , but detectable, amounts of naturally occurring, and possible harmful, elements may be found during chemical

  8. Preliminary design study of underground pumped hydro and compressed-air energy storage in hard rock. Volume 1: Executive summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-05-01

    A preliminary design study of water compensated Compressed Air Energy Storage (CAES) and Underground Pumped Hydroelectric (UPH) plants for siting in geological conditions suitable for hard rock excavations was performed. The study was divided into five primary tasks as follows: establishment of design criteria and analysis of impact on power system; selection of site and establishment of site characteristics; formulation of design approaches; assessment of environmental and safety aspects; and preparation of preliminary design of plant. The salient aspects considered and the conclusions reached during the consideration of the five primary tasks for both CAES and UPH are presented.

  9. Monitoring of Grouting Compactness in a Post-Tensioning Tendon Duct Using Piezoceramic Transducers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Tianyong; Kong, Qingzhao; Wang, Wenxi; Huo, Linsheng; Song, Gangbing

    2016-08-22

    A post-tensioning tendon duct filled with grout can effectively prevent corrosion of the reinforcement, maintain bonding behavior between the reinforcement and concrete, and enhance the load bearing capacity of concrete structures. In practice, grouting of the post-tensioning tendon ducts always causes quality problems, which may reduce structural integrity and service life, and even cause accidents. However, monitoring of the grouting compactness is still a challenge due to the invisibility of the grout in the duct during the grouting process. This paper presents a stress wave-based active sensing approach using piezoceramic transducers to monitor the grouting compactness in real time. A segment of a commercial tendon duct was used as research object in this study. One lead zirconate titanate (PZT) piezoceramic transducer with marble protection, called a smart aggregate (SA), was bonded on the tendon and installed in the tendon duct. Two PZT patch sensors were mounted on the top outside surface of the duct, and one PZT patch sensor was bonded on the bottom outside surface of the tendon duct. In the active sensing approach, the SA was used as an actuator to generate a stress wave and the PZT sensors were utilized to detect the wave response. Cement or grout in the duct functions as a wave conduit, which can propagate the stress wave. If the cement or grout is not fully filled in the tendon duct, the top PZT sensors cannot receive much stress wave energy. The experimental procedures simulated four stages during the grout pouring process, which includes empty status, half grouting, 90% grouting, and full grouting of the duct. Experimental results show that the bottom PZT sensor can detect the signal when the grout level increases towards 50%, when a conduit between the SA and PZT sensor is formed. The top PZT sensors cannot receive any signal until the grout process is completely finished. The wavelet packet-based energy analysis was adopted in this research to

  10. Monitoring of Grouting Compactness in a Post-Tensioning Tendon Duct Using Piezoceramic Transducers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tianyong Jiang

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available A post-tensioning tendon duct filled with grout can effectively prevent corrosion of the reinforcement, maintain bonding behavior between the reinforcement and concrete, and enhance the load bearing capacity of concrete structures. In practice, grouting of the post-tensioning tendon ducts always causes quality problems, which may reduce structural integrity and service life, and even cause accidents. However, monitoring of the grouting compactness is still a challenge due to the invisibility of the grout in the duct during the grouting process. This paper presents a stress wave-based active sensing approach using piezoceramic transducers to monitor the grouting compactness in real time. A segment of a commercial tendon duct was used as research object in this study. One lead zirconate titanate (PZT piezoceramic transducer with marble protection, called a smart aggregate (SA, was bonded on the tendon and installed in the tendon duct. Two PZT patch sensors were mounted on the top outside surface of the duct, and one PZT patch sensor was bonded on the bottom outside surface of the tendon duct. In the active sensing approach, the SA was used as an actuator to generate a stress wave and the PZT sensors were utilized to detect the wave response. Cement or grout in the duct functions as a wave conduit, which can propagate the stress wave. If the cement or grout is not fully filled in the tendon duct, the top PZT sensors cannot receive much stress wave energy. The experimental procedures simulated four stages during the grout pouring process, which includes empty status, half grouting, 90% grouting, and full grouting of the duct. Experimental results show that the bottom PZT sensor can detect the signal when the grout level increases towards 50%, when a conduit between the SA and PZT sensor is formed. The top PZT sensors cannot receive any signal until the grout process is completely finished. The wavelet packet-based energy analysis was adopted in this

  11. Predicting the Grouting Ability of Sandy Soils by Artificial Neural Networks Based On Experimental Tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud Hassanlourad

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the grouting ability of sandy soils is investigated by artificial neural networks based on the results of chemical grout injection tests. In order to evaluate the soil grouting potential, experimental samples were prepared and then injected. The sand samples with three different particle sizes (medium, fine, and silty and three relative densities (%30, %50, and %90 were injected with the sodium silicate grout with three different concentrations (water to sodium silicate ratio of 0.33, 1, and 2. A multi-layer Perceptron type of the artificial neural network was trained and tested using the results of 138 experimental tests. The multi-layer Perceptron included one input layer, two hidden layers and one output layer. The input parameters consisted of initial relative densities of grouted samples, the average size of particles (D50, the ratio of the grout water to sodium silicate and the grout pressure. The output parameter was the grout injection radius. The results of the experimental tests showed that the radius of grout injection is a complicated function of the mentioned parameters. In addition, the results of the trained artificial neural network showed to be reasonably consistent with the experimental results.

  12. Grout testing and characterization for shallow-land burial trenches at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tallent, O.K.; Sams, T.L.; Tamura, T.; Godsey, T.T.; Francis, C.L.; McDaniel, E.W.

    1986-10-01

    An investigation was conducted to develop grout formulations suitable for in situ stabilization of low-level and transuranic (TRU) waste in shallow-land burial trenches at Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The acceptabilities of soil, ordinary particulate, and fine particulate grouts were evaluated based on phase separation, compressive strength, freeze/thaw, penetration resistance, rheological, water permeability, column, and other tests. Soil grouts with soil-to-cement weight ratios from 0.91 to 1.60 were found to be suitable for open trench or drum disposal. Ordinary particulate grouts containing type I,II Portland cement, class C fly ash, bentonite, water, and a fluidizer were formulated to fill large voids within the soil/waste matrix of a closed shallow-land burial trench. Fine particulate grouts containing fine (mean particle size, 9.6 m) cement and water were formulated to fill smaller voids and to establish a grout-soil barrier to prevent water intrusion into the grouted waste trench. Solution, or chemical grouts, were evaluated as possible substitutes for the fine particulate grouts.

  13. Experimental Study of Contaminant Release from Reducing Grout

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waiting D.J.

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available A column experiment was conducted to study the release behavior of technetium, uranium, and selenium initially sequestered in reducing grout similar in composition to Savannah River Site (SRS saltstone, a cementitious waste form made by mixing salt solution from SRS liquid waste storage tanks with a dry mix containing blast furnace slag, fly ash, and Portland cement. The data suggest that uranium was retained in the grout possibly as a CaUO4 phase, whereas most of the selenium was released. Technetium release initially was relatively constant, and then increased significantly after 26 pore volumes. The increase in technetium release was slightly delayed relative to the observed Eh increase. The system Eh-pH started under conditions in which technetium solubility is low, constrained by Tc3O4 solubility, but eventually transitioned into the stability field of the pertechnetate ion. The delay in technetium release relative to the Eh increase was possibly due to slow oxidation of technetium at depth within the grout particles, which in turn was likely controlled by O2 diffusion into the particles. In contrast to technetium and uranium, selenium release was not solubility limited and selenium likely was present in the pore solution initially as a HSe− species.

  14. Laboratory Evaluation of Underwater Grouting of CPP-603 Basins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, V.J.; Pao, J.H.; Demmer, R.L.; Tripp, J.L.

    2002-01-17

    A project is underway to deactivate a Fuel Storage Basin. The project specifies the requirements and identifies the tasks that will be performed for deactivation of the CPP- 603 building at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center of the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory. The Fuel Receiving and Storage Building (CPP- 603) was originally used to receive and store spent nuclear fuel from various facilities. The area to undergo deactivation includes the three spent nuclear fuel storage basins and a transfer canal (1.5 million gallons of water storage). Deactivation operations at the task site include management of the hot storage boxes and generic fuel objects, removal of the fuel storage racks, basin sludge, water evaporation and basin grouting, and interior equipment, tanks, and associated components. This includes a study to develop a grout formulation and placement process for this deactivation project. Water will be allowed to passively evaporate to r educe the spread of contamination from the walls of the basin. The basins will be filled with grout, underwater, as the water evaporates to maintain the basin water at a safe level. The objective of the deactivation project is to eliminate potential exposure to hazardous and radioactive materials and eliminate potential safety hazards associated with the CPP-603 building.

  15. Laboratory Evaluation of Underwater Grouting of CPP-603 Basins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Virgil James; Pao, Jenn Hai; Demmer, Ricky Lynn; Tripp, Julia Lynn

    2002-02-01

    A project is underway to deactivate a Fuel Storage Basin. The project specifies the requirements and identifies the tasks that will be performed for deactivation of the CPP- 603 building at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center of the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory. The Fuel Receiving and Storage Building (CPP- 603) was originally used to receive and store spent nuclear fuel from various facilities. The area to undergo deactivation includes the three spent nuclear fuel storage basins and a transfer canal (1.5 million gallons of water storage). Deactivation operations at the task site include management of the hot storage boxes and generic fuel objects, removal of the fuel storage racks, basin sludge, water evaporation and basin grouting, and interior equipment, tanks, and associated components. This includes a study to develop a grout formulation and placement process for this deactivation project. Water will be allowed to passively evaporate to reduce the spread of contamination from the walls of the basin. The basins will be filled with grout, underwater, as the water evaporates to maintain the basin water at a safe level. The objective of the deactivation project is to eliminate potential exposure to hazardous and radioactive materials and eliminate potential safety hazards associated with the CPP-603 building.

  16. The hardening compositions from the burnt rocks for using in the mining conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galpern, E.I. [Inst. of Industrial Construction and Building, Donetsk, (Ukraine); Pashchenko, L.V.; Saranchuk, V.I. [Inst. of Physical, Organic and Coal Chemistry NAS, Donetsk (Ukraine)

    1997-12-31

    The complex investigation of burnt coal rocks as raw material for hardening alkaline cements reception have been carried out. The hardening composition on the base of pit heap burnt rocks for the grouting of worked-out space in mining conditions have been obtained. It has been shown that burnt rocks activation by blast granulated slag and water glass allowed to obtain the cements of needed strength. The influence of main technological factors on obtained hardening composition properties have been studied. (orig.)

  17. HYDRAULIC AND PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF SALTSTONE GROUTS AND VAULT CONCRETES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dixon, K; John Harbour, J; Mark Phifer, M

    2008-11-25

    The Saltstone Disposal Facility (SDF), located in the Z-Area of the Savannah River Site (SRS), is used for the disposal of low-level radioactive salt solution. The SDF currently contains two vaults: Vault 1 (6 cells) and Vault 4 (12 cells). Additional disposal cells are currently in the design phase. The individual cells of the saltstone facility are filled with saltstone. Saltstone is produced by mixing the low-level radioactive salt solution, with blast furnace slag, fly ash, and cement (dry premix) to form a dense, micro-porous, monolithic, low-level radioactive waste form. The saltstone is pumped into the disposal cells where it subsequently solidifies. Significant effort has been undertaken to accurately model the movement of water and contaminants through the facility. Key to this effort is an accurate understanding of the hydraulic and physical properties of the solidified saltstone. To date, limited testing has been conducted to characterize the saltstone. The primary focus of this task was to estimate the hydraulic and physical properties of three types of saltstone and two vault concretes. The saltstone formulations included saltstone premix batched with (1) Deliquification, Dissolution, and Adjustment (DDA) salt simulant (w/pm 0.60), (2) Actinide Removal Process (ARP)/Modular Caustic Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU) salt simulant (w/pm 0.60), and (3) Salt Waste Processing Facility (SWPF) salt simulant (w/pm 0.60). The vault concrete formulations tested included the Vault 1/4 concrete and two variations of the Vault 2 concrete (Mix 1 and Mix 2). Wet properties measured for the saltstone formulations included yield stress, plastic viscosity, wet unit weight, bleed water volume, gel time, set time, and heat of hydration. Hydraulic and physical properties measured on the cured saltstone and concrete samples included saturated hydraulic conductivity, moisture retention, compressive strength, porosity, particle density, and dry bulk density. These properties

  18. Super-compactor and grouting. Efficient and safe treatment of nuclear waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Hongyou; Starke, Holger; Muetzel, Wolfgang; Winter, Marc [Babcock Noell GmbH, Wuerzburg (Germany)

    2014-08-15

    The conditioning and volume reduction of nuclear waste are increasingly important factors throughout the world. Efficient and safe treatment of nuclear waste therefore plays a decisive role. Babcock Noell designed, manufactured and supplied a complete waste treatment facility for conditioning of the solid radioactive waste of a nuclear power plant to China. This facility consists of a Sorting Station, a Super-Compactor, a Grouting Unit with Capping Device and other auxiliary equipment which is described in more detail in the following article. This article gives an overview of the efficient and safe treatment of nuclear waste. Babcock Noell is a subsidiary of the Bilfinger Power Systems and has 40 years of experience in the field of design, engineering, construction, static and dynamic calculations, manufacturing, installation, commissioning, as well as in the service and operation of a wide variety of nuclear components and facilities worldwide.

  19. Integrity assessment of grouted posttensioning cables and reinforced concrete of a nuclear containment building

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shenton B.

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The Containment Buildings of CANDU Nuclear Generating Stations were designed to house nuclear reactors and process equipment and also to provide confinement of releases from a potential nuclear accident such as a Loss Of Coolant Accident (LOCA. To meet this design requirement, a post-tensioning system was designed to induce compressive stresses in the structure to counteract the internal design pressure. The CANDU reactor building at Gentilly-1 (G-1, Quebec, Canada (250 MWe was built in the early 1970s and is currently in a decommissioned state. The structure at present is under surveillance and monitoring. In the year 2000, a field investigation was conducted as part of a condition assessment and corrosion was detected in some of the grouted post-tension cable strands. However, no further work was done at that time to determine the cause, nature, impact and extent of the corrosion. An investigation of the Gentilly-1 containment building is currently underway to assess the condition of grouted post-tensioning cables and reinforced concrete. At two selected locations, concrete and steel reinforcements were removed from the containment building wall to expose horizontal cables. Individual cable strands and reinforcement bars were instrumented and measurements were taken in-situ before removing them for forensic examination and destructive testing to determine the impact of ageing and corrosion. Concrete samples were also removed and tested in a laboratory. The purpose of the field investigation and laboratory testing, using this structure as a test bed, was also to collect material ageing data and to develop potential Nondestructive Examination (NDE methods to monitor Containment Building Integrity. The paper describes the field work conducted and the test results obtained for concrete, reinforcement and post-tensioning cables.

  20. Study on applicability of clay-based grout injection in the excavated damaged zone around the plug (TSX project)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sugita, Yutaka [Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Works

    2002-09-01

    JNC has joined the international joint project, the TSX project, with AECL at the Underground Research Laboratory (URL) in Canada. Full-scale sealing technologies are applied to an underground tunnel in the TSX project. Regarding clay grouting, which supports the performance of the clay plug, a grouting experiment in the Excavated Damaged Zone around the tunnel was performed in the TSX project. A pre-injection test was the trial for the development of the grouting procedure, and the injection test was to evaluate the grouting effectiveness of the grouting in the EDZ around the tunnel. The results of the experiments showed the efficiency injection concentration of the grout slurry was between 4.0 and 6.0wt%. Grouted EDZ had lower hydraulic conductivity than that before grouting. (author)

  1. On the use of hydration heat for quality management of borehole heat exchanger grouting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suibert Oskar Seibertz, Klodwig; Händel, Falk; Dietrich, Peter; Vienken, Thomas

    2016-04-01

    The ongoing energy transition from conventional, fossil fuel based energy generation, over to renewable energy sources led to an increase in geothermal energy use. Different systems for extracting heat from the subsurface are in use, whereas a commonly used system is the borehole heat exchanger (BHE). A BHE generally consist of a closed loop pipe system through which a heat exchanging fluid is circulated. The BHE is surrounded by grouting. The grouting, focus of this work, has two main objectives to fulfill: Firstly, to thermally couple the subsurface and the BHE pipes; and, secondly, to protect the pipes and to prevent the heat exchanging fluid from entering the subsurface in case of BHE mechanical failure. Therefore, to provide proper functionality, efficiency, and safety of a BHE, it has to be guaranteed that the grouting does not have defects. The hardening reaction (hydration) of the grouting is exothermic, whereas the grouting is mostly a variant of (thermally enhanced) cement. The hydration temperature depends on the type of grout as well as the possible dilutions (resulting in defects) of the grouting material by water, air or drilling debris, and the thermal transport potential of the subsurface. Therefore the quality of the grouting can be investigated by temperature measurements during the hardening process. To validate this further, tests on field and laboratory scale were conducted. For laboratory testing, different columns were built in which different defects of BHE grouting and pipes were simulated. For defect simulation isolation and mixing with drilling debris were chosen, representing inclusions of water and/or air during cement casting as well as partial collapse of the borehole. The temperature changes during installation and hardening of the grouting are measured by fiber-optic distributed temperature sensing (DTS). This allows for temporal and spatial high resolution, continuous temperature measurements at the interface of pipe to grout

  2. Capacity and failure mechanism of laterally loaded jet-grouting reinforced piles: Field and numerical investigation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Ben; WANG LiZhong; HONG Yi

    2016-01-01

    This study presents the results of field and numerical investigations of lateral stiffness,capacity,and failure mechanisms for plain piles and reinforced concrete piles in soft clay.A plastic-damage model is used to simulate concrete piles and jet-grouting in the numerical analyses.The field study and numerical investigations show that by applying jet-grouting surrounding the upper 7.5D (D =pile diameter) of a pile,lateral stiffness and bearing capacity of the pile are increased by about 110% and 100%,respectively.This is partially because the jet-grouting increases the apparent diameter of the pile,so as to enlarge the extent of failure wedge and hence passive resistance in front of the reinforced pile.Moreover,the jet-grouting provides a circumferential confinement to the concrete pile,which suppresses development of tensile stress in the pile.Correspondingly,tension-induced plastic damage in the concrete pile is reduced,causing less degradation of stiffness and strength of the pile than that of a plain pile.Effectiveness of the circumferential confinement provided by the jet-grouting,however,diminishes once the grouting cracks because of the significant vertical and circumferential tensile stress near its mid-depth.The lateral capacity of the jet-grouting reinforced pile is,therefore,governed by mobilized passive resistance of soil and plastic damage of jet-grouting.

  3. Durability of double-shell slurry feed grouts: FY-90 results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lokken, R.O.; Martin, P.F.C.

    1992-12-01

    Plans for disposal of the low-level fraction of selected double-shell tank wastes at Hanford include grouting. Grout disposal is the process of mixing low-level liquid waste with cementitious powders and pumping the slurry to near-surface, underground concrete vaults; hydration results in the formation of a solid product that binds/encapsulates the radioactive/hazardous constituents. In this durability program, previous studies have indicated a strong impact from curing temperature/time on strength and leach resistance of DSSF grouts. The current studies were expanded to determine whether these impacts could be attributed to other factors, such as dry blend composition and waste concentration. Major conclusions: grouts from dry blends with 40 wt% limestone had lower strengths; compressive strengths and leach resistance decreased with increased curing temperature/time; leach resistance increased for grouts prepared with dilute DSSF; nitrate leach resistance increased with high slag/cement ratios, dilute DSSF, and low curing temperatures; amount of drainable liquids for grouts using diluted DSSF was lowest when slag content was high; the 2 most significant factors affecting grout properties were the slag/cement ratio and waste dilution (slag-waste reactions appear to dominate the properties of DSSF grouts).

  4. Structural Health Monitoring of a Grouted Foundation Part for Offshore Wind Turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Ronnie; Kirkegaard, Poul Henning; Pedersen, B. j.;

    2013-01-01

    a structural health monitoring (SHM) method for detecting failures in a grouted connection. A finite element model representing different assumed damage stages of the grout connection is established and acceleration time series are simulated. A time series model based on the SHM method indicates that minor...

  5. THERMALLY CONDUCTIVE CEMENTITIOUS GROUTS FOR GEOTHERMAL HEAT PUMPS. PROGRESS REPORT BY 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ALLAN,M.L.; PHILIPPACOPOULOS,A.J.

    1998-11-01

    Research commenced in FY 97 to determine the suitability of superplasticized cement-sand grouts for backfilling vertical boreholes used with geothermal heat pump (GHP) systems. The overall objectives were to develop, evaluate and demonstrate cementitious grouts that could reduce the required bore length and improve the performance of GHPs. This report summarizes the accomplishments in FY 98.

  6. Rock Paintings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Julienne Edwards

    1998-01-01

    Discusses the integration of art and academics in a fifth-grade instructional unit on Native American culture. Describes how students studied Native American pictographs, designed their own pictographs, made their own tools, and created rock paintings of their pictographs using these tools. Provides a list of references on Native American…

  7. Experimental study on the compressive strength of grouted concrete block masonry based on nondestructive detection methods

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG Hong-bin; LI Long-fei

    2009-01-01

    Existing nondestructive detection methods were adopted to test the compressive strength of grouted concrete block masonry, i.e. the rebound method, pulling-out method and core drilling method were employed to test the strength of block, mortar and grouted concrete, respectively. The suitability of these methods for the testing of strength of grouted concrete block masonry was discussed, and the comprehensive strength of block masonry was appraised by combining existing nondestructive or micro-destructive detection methods. The nondestructive detection test on 25 grouted concrete block masonry specimens was carried out. Experimental results show that these methods mentioned above are applicable for the strength detection of grouted concrete block masonry. Moreover, the formulas of compressive strength, detection methods and proposals are given as well.

  8. Design of Raft Foundations for High-Rise Buildings on Jointed Rock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Justo, J. L.; García-Núñez, J.-C.; Vázquez-Boza, M.; Justo, E.; Durand, P.; Azañón, J. M.

    2014-07-01

    This paper presents calculations of displacements and bending moments in a 2-m-thick reinforced-concrete foundation slab using three-dimensional finite-element software. A preliminary paper was presented by Justo et al. (Rock Mech Rock Eng 43:287-304, 2010). The slab is the base of a tower of 137 m height above foundation, supported on jointed and partly weathered basalt and scoria. Installation of rod extensometers at different depths below foundation allowed comparison between measured displacements and displacements calculated using moduli obtained from rock classification systems and three material models: elastic, Mohr-Coulomb and hardening (H). Although all three material models can provide acceptable results, the H model is preferable when there are unloading processes. Acceptable values of settlement may be achieved with medium meshing and an approximate distribution of loads. The absolute values of negative bending moments (tensions below) increase as the rock mass modulus decreases or when the mesh is refined. The paper stresses the importance of adequately representing the details of the distribution of loads and the necessity for fine meshing to obtain acceptable values of bending moments.

  9. Defining X-Ray Diffraction Parameters for the Design and Operation of a Planetary-Surface Rock Analyzer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzger, Ellen P.; Keaten, Rendy; Marshall, John R.; Kojiro, Dan

    1996-01-01

    Our joint research effort was aimed at developing techniques for X-ray diffractometry that was being investigated by NASA as possible flight instrumentation for the exploration of Mars. SJSU would provide the use of in-house X-ray facilities for calibration of the instrumentation , and would provide technical expertise regarding interpretation of data acquired during both laboratory testing, and during field testing of instruments on the Marsokhod rover at Ames. Accomplishments are: (1) quantification of X-ray signals from rock surfaces using San Jose State University (SJSU) diffractometer; (2) development of criteria for fingerprinting rock samples using pattern recognition of diffraction spectra, and augmentation of diffraction data with X-ray fluorescence information; (3) calibration of NASA instrumentation using SJSU-generator data; and (4) assistance in the development, lab testing, and field deployment of the NASA instrument on the Russian Marsokhod roving vehicle designed for martian exploration.

  10. Project GNOME, Design, Testing, AND Field Pumping of Grout Mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    1962-07-01

    DATE RECEIVED IN DTIC PT.OTOGR ,’,11 T ::2.,T AND RETURN TO I) TIC -I)DA-2 DTIC 70A "OCUMI NT PROCLSSING S.! I I -C 79 00 0 RGSGARCH CCNTGR LIBRARY U. S...in a salt formation from thoue detonated Ln oth :r types of fornat:Lons. c. Study the practicability of recovering usoful radioisotopes for peaceful

  11. Low-pH injection grout for deep repositories. Summary report from a co-operation project between NUMO (Japan), Posiva (Finland) and SKB (Sweden)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boden, Anders [SwedPower AB, Stockholm (Sweden); Sievaenen, Ursula [JP-Suoraplan Oy, Vantaa (Finland)

    2005-06-01

    fineness, were modified in the present experiments. 5. Fly ash system was ruled out at an early stage due to expected problems concerning the availability and stability of the raw material properties as well as expected difficulties with the setting time of the mixes. The grouting related properties tested in laboratory were penetrability, bleeding, early age shear strength viscosity and yield value. For some selected mixes fluidity was also measured. The key uncertainties identified with respect to the use of cement in a repository are related to the uncertainties in the estimation of the range and effect of the pH-plume on the rock, as well as the possible detrimental effects on bentonite due to cement/bentonite interaction. In the present study the potential effects on the repository performance and the rock have been evaluated based on the composition of the materials and leaching tests, expert judgement and some simple mass balance and diffusion calculations. A first review of the potential effects of organic cement additives on the radionuclide mobility has also been done, although the preference at the outset of the project was to develop an injection grout without organic additives. Also the long-term durability of the low-pH cementitious material and the long-term phase changes/degradation and leaching of the grout is not yet known and need to be evaluated. The non-cementitious candidate materials were investigated regarding basic properties and long-term safety aspects in order to form the basis for the decision whether silica sol can be used in the deep repository and whether periclase (MgO) should be further investigated. In a small field-test it was also investigated if the penetration of silica sol can be predicted based on hydraulic tests, transmissivity and hydraulic aperture. Silica sol, colloidal silica, is a stable dispersion of discrete non porous particles of amorphous silicon dioxide. Rock grouting with silica sol is a relatively new application

  12. MAGNESIUM MONO POTASSIUM PHOSPHATE GROUT FOR P-REACTOR VESSEL IN-SITU DECOMISSIONING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Langton, C.; Stefanko, D.

    2011-01-05

    The objective of this report is to document laboratory testing of magnesium mono potassium phosphate grouts for P-Reactor vessel in-situ decommissioning. Magnesium mono potassium phosphate cement-based grout was identified as candidate material for filling (physically stabilizing) the 105-P Reactor vessel (RV) because it is less alkaline than portland cement-based grout (pH of about 12.4). A less alkaline material ({<=} 10.5) was desired to address a potential materials compatibility issue caused by corrosion of aluminum metal in highly alkaline environments such as that encountered in portland cement grouts. Information concerning access points into the P-Reactor vessel and amount of aluminum metal in the vessel is provided elsewhere. Fresh and cured properties were measured for: (1) commercially blended magnesium mono potassium phosphate packaged grouts, (2) commercially available binders blended with inert fillers at SRNL, (3) grouts prepared from technical grade MgO and KH{sub 2}PO{sub 4} and inert fillers (quartz sands, Class F fly ash), and (4) Ceramicrete{reg_sign} magnesium mono potassium phosphate-based grouts prepared at Argonne National Laboratory. Boric acid was evaluated as a set retarder in the magnesium mono potassium phosphate mixes.

  13. Bio-grout based on microbially induced sand solidification by means of asparaginase activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Mengmeng; Fu, Qing-Long; Zhang, Qiuzhuo; Achal, Varenyam; Kawasaki, Satoru

    2015-11-03

    Bio-grout, a new ground improvement method, has been recently developed to improve the mechanical properties, decrease the permeability of porous materials, reinforce or repair cementitious materials and modify the properties of soil or sand. Bio-grout production depends on microbially induced calcite precipitation (MICP), which is driven mainly by an enzyme, urease. However, urease-based MICP process produces excessive ammonia, in addition to secondary pollution generated by urea that is used as substrate in it. In the present study, we reported asparaginase-based MICP process for sand bio-grout development using Bacillus megaterium, and results were also compared with urease-based bio-grouts. The asparaginase activity led to significantly less ammonia production compared to urease without compromising with desired properties of a novel grout. The UCS of bio-grout was obtained at 980 kPa, while the permeability was decreased substantially. The mineralogical composition of precipitated substance was identified as calcite using XRD and the crystal morphology was observed under SEM. The mass percentage of calcite in bio-grout was calculated by thermogravimetric analysis and XCT verified calcite precipitation in it. The results confirmed that biocalcification by means of bacterial asparaginase is a potential solution for geotechnical problems. The asparaginase-based MICP process could be of wider acceptance in future.

  14. Bio-grout based on microbially induced sand solidification by means of asparaginase activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Mengmeng; Fu, Qing-Long; Zhang, Qiuzhuo; Achal, Varenyam; Kawasaki, Satoru

    2015-11-01

    Bio-grout, a new ground improvement method, has been recently developed to improve the mechanical properties, decrease the permeability of porous materials, reinforce or repair cementitious materials and modify the properties of soil or sand. Bio-grout production depends on microbially induced calcite precipitation (MICP), which is driven mainly by an enzyme, urease. However, urease-based MICP process produces excessive ammonia, in addition to secondary pollution generated by urea that is used as substrate in it. In the present study, we reported asparaginase-based MICP process for sand bio-grout development using Bacillus megaterium, and results were also compared with urease-based bio-grouts. The asparaginase activity led to significantly less ammonia production compared to urease without compromising with desired properties of a novel grout. The UCS of bio-grout was obtained at 980 kPa, while the permeability was decreased substantially. The mineralogical composition of precipitated substance was identified as calcite using XRD and the crystal morphology was observed under SEM. The mass percentage of calcite in bio-grout was calculated by thermogravimetric analysis and XCT verified calcite precipitation in it. The results confirmed that biocalcification by means of bacterial asparaginase is a potential solution for geotechnical problems. The asparaginase-based MICP process could be of wider acceptance in future.

  15. Long-term degradation (or improvement?) of cementitious grout/concrete for waste disposal at Hanford

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piepho, M.G. [Daniel B. Stephens & Associates, Inc., Richland, WA (United States)

    1997-12-31

    If grout and/or concrete barriers and containments are considered for long-term (500 yrs to 100,000 ) waste disposal, then long-term degradation of grout/cement materials (and others) need to be studied. Long-term degradations of a cementitious grout monolith (15.4mW x 10.4mH x 37.6mL) and its containment concrete shell and asphalt shell (each 1-m thick) were analyzed. The main degradation process of the concrete shell was believed to be fractures due to construction joints, shrinkage, thermal stress, settlement, and seismic events. A scenario with fractures was modeled (flow and transport model) for long-term risk performance (out to a million yrs). Even though the concrete/grout is expected to fracture, the concrete/grout chemistry, which has high Ph value, is very beneficial in causing calcite deposits from calcium in the water precipitating in the fractures. These calcite deposits will tend to plug the fracture and keep water from entering. The effectiveness of such plugging needs to be studied more. It`s possible that the plugged fractures are more impermeable than the original concrete/grout. The long-term performance of concrete/grout barriers will be determined by its chemistry, not its mechanical properties.

  16. Laboratory leach tests of phosphate/sulfate waste grout and leachate adsorption tests using Hanford sediment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serne, R.J.; Martin, W.J.; McLaurine, S.B.; Airhart, S.P.; LeGore, V.L.; Treat, R.L.

    1987-12-01

    An assessment of the long-term risks posed by grout disposal at Hanford requires data on the ability of grout to resist leaching of waste species contained in the grout via contact with water that percolates through the ground. Additionally, data are needed on the ability of Hanford sediment (soil) surrounding the grout and concrete vault to retard migration of any wastes released from the grout. This report describes specific laboratory experiments that are producing empirical leach rate data and leachate-sediment adsorption data for Phosphate-Sulfate Waste (PSW) grout. The leach rate and adsorption values serve as inputs to computer codes used to forecast potential risk resulting from the use of ground water containing leached species. In addition, the report discusses other chemical analyses and geochemical computer code calculations that were used to identify mechanisms that control leach rates and adsorption potential. Knowledge of the controlling chemical and physical processes provides technical defensibility for using the empirical laboratory data to extrapolate the performance of the actual grout disposal system to the long time periods of interest. 59 refs., 83 figs., 18 tabs.

  17. Thermally conductive cementitious grouts for geothermal heat pumps. Progress report FY 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allan, M.L.; Philippacopoulos, A.J.

    1998-11-01

    Research commenced in FY 97 to determine the suitability of superplasticized cement-sand grouts for backfilling vertical boreholes used with geothermal heat pump (GHP) systems. The overall objectives were to develop, evaluate and demonstrate cementitious grouts that could reduce the required bore length and improve the performance of GHPs. This report summarizes the accomplishments in FY 98. The developed thermally conductive grout consists of cement, water, a particular grade of silica sand, superplasticizer and a small amount of bentonite. While the primary function of the grout is to facilitate heat transfer between the U-loop and surrounding formation, it is also essential that the grout act as an effective borehole sealant. Two types of permeability (hydraulic conductivity) tests was conducted to evaluate the sealing performance of the cement-sand grout. Additional properties of the proposed grout that were investigated include bleeding, shrinkage, bond strength, freeze-thaw durability, compressive, flexural and tensile strengths, elastic modulus, Poisson`s ratio and ultrasonic pulse velocity.

  18. Practice and monitoring analysis of building lifting due to grouting%房屋注浆抬升实践与监测分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    易小明; 张顶立; 逄铁铮; 骆建军

    2009-01-01

    厦门梧村山浅埋大跨隧道,要求下穿浦南片区密集建筑群,其工程难度国内外罕见.通过对现场房屋的抬升实践和监测分析发现:房屋注浆抬升可分为两个层次,即注浆止沉和注浆抬升.现场抬升试验表明:采用动态跟踪补偿注浆能够较好地实现房屋止沉,而房屋的抬升则极富挑战性.一方面房屋抬升必须以补偿注浆、止浆墙完成、地层加固密实为前提;另一方面还必须选取合适的注浆工艺、注浆量、压力、抬升孔分布、注浆深度等,才可能实现抬升.抬升过程监控还发现:地层抬升明显,房屋止沉效果良好;但房屋抬升呈波动趋势,最终房屋仍呈沉降趋势.该结果反应了注浆地层抬升与房屋抬升是不一致的,只有较大范围、稳定的、均匀的、不消散的地表抬升,才能形成安全有效的房屋抬升.通过相关的解析和数值方法,对抬升注浆参数进行初步优选以及对房屋抬升量进行预测,结果可以满足工程需要.%Wucunshan Tunnel of Xiamen which is designed as shallow large span structure needs to go through dense buildings in Punan territory, and construction difficulties is unusual both at home and abroad. By in-situ building lifting test and monitoring, two levels of building lifting by grouting can be seen: the first level is controlling and cutting building subsidence, the second is named building lifting strictly. The in-situ lifting tests show that the first level can be achieved with dynamic tracking and retrieving grouting successfully, whereas the second level requires much more refined grouting techniques. On one hand, the fulfilling of building lifting must be on the premise of the first level of retrieving grouting, finishing wall for grouting, and enforcing foundation soil. On the other hand, it depends on adequate grouting technologies, grouting amount, pressure, arrangement of grouting holes, holes and depths, etc. Related monitoring results

  19. Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project (UMTRAP), Slick Rock, Colorado, Revision 1, Volume 3. Calculations, Final design for construction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    Volume three contains calculations for: site hydrology--rainfall intensity, duration, and frequency relations; site hydrology-- probable maximum precipitation; erosion protection--rock quality evaluation; erosion protection--embankment top and side slope; erosion protection--embankment toe apron; erosion protection-- gradations and layer thicknesses; Union Carbide site--temporary drainage ditch design; Union Carbide site--retention basin sediment volume; Union Carbide site--retention basin sizing; Burro Canyon site temporary drainage--temporary drainage facilities; and Union Carbide site temporary drainage--water balance.

  20. 水工隧洞水泥灌浆的若干问题%Some Issues on Cement Grouting of Hydraulic Tunnel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏鲁平

    2002-01-01

    Based on the practices of construction supervision to cement grouting at the reservoir emptying and power tunnels of the TSQ stage Ⅰ Hydropower station, some issues on quality control of cement grouting of hydraulic tunnel are discussed, and corresponding suggestions are put forward for revision of current standard (SL62-94). It is regarded that the refilling grouting could not be used for remedying the thickness of concrete lining; the end sealing of refilling grouting section should not be neglected; higher grouting pressure would be used. For the consolidation grouting, grout return pipe should be placed at the grout hole top for pure pressure type grouting; five-grade water cement ratio of grout mix is suggested; a certain standard should be specified for changing the grout to thicker mix by skipping the intermediate grade; the standard for ending the grouting should be relaxed. In current grouting standard, some terms should be complemented for contact grouting of steel penstock and spiral case and for plug grouting of circular-anchor hole.

  1. Proposed apparatus for measuring internal friction in rocks at high temperatures and pressures: a design analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonner, B.P.

    1977-10-03

    An apparatus is described that measures internal friction in rocks at high temperatures (approximately 800/sup 0/C) and pressures (approximately 1.0 GPa). Steady oscillations (approximately 1.0 Hz) are induced in a jacketed sample while coaxial capacitive transducers monitor the resulting radial strain. Sample strains are continuously compared to the deformation of a low-loss standard, which acts as a stress transducer. The stress state produced is uniaxial stress. We use the theory of viscoelasticity to partition the loss into components depending on pure shear and dilatation. The theoretical results emphasize the importance of ultimately measuring each loss independently.

  2. Develop guidelines for the design of pillar systems for shallow and intermediate depth, tabular, hard rock mines and provide methodology for assessing hangingwall stability and support requirements for the panels between pillars

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Haile, AT

    1995-12-01

    Full Text Available The overall view of the research being conducted at Impala platinum was to improve pillar design techniques through a rock testing programme, underground instrumentation and back analysis. The laboratory rock testing programme has provided a useful...

  3. Stress evolution and support mechanism of a bolt anchored in a rock mass with a weak interlayer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ding Shuxue; Jing Hongwen; Chen Kunfu; Xu Guo'an; Meng Bo

    2017-01-01

    By applying experimental method, the bolt stress and supporting mechanism is studied during the deformation process of a rock mass containing a weak interlayer. The force measuring bolt is installed manually and instrumented five pairs of symmetrical strain gauges. The experimental results show that the fully grouted bolt suffers tensile, compressive, bending and shear stress at the same time. The bolt stress evolution is closely related to the deformation stages of the rock mass which are very gradually varying stage, gradually varying stage at the pre-peak and suddenly varying stage at the post peak stage.The axial compressive stress in the bolt is mainly induced by the moment. Thus, in most cases the axial compressive stress is distributed on one side of the bolt. For axial stresses, induced by the axial force and the bending moment at the post-peak stage, three types of changing are observed, viz. increasingincreasing type, decreasing-increasing type and increasing-decreasing type. The stress characteristics of the bolt section in the weak interlayer are significantly different from those in the hard rock. The failure models of the anchored bolt are tensile failure and shear failure, respectively. The bolt not only provides constraints on the free surface of the rock mass, but also resists the axial and lateral loading by the bending moment. This study provides valuable guidelines for bolting support design and its safetyssessment.

  4. Effect of crystal shape on neutron rocking curves of perfect single crystals designed for ultra-small-angle scattering experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freund, A. K.; Rehm, C.

    2014-07-01

    The present study has been conducted in the framework of the channel-cut crystal design for the Kookaburra ultra-small-angle neutron scattering (USANS) instrument to be installed at the OPAL reactor of ANSTO. This facility is based on the classical Bonse-Hart method that uses two multiple-reflection crystal systems. The dynamical theory of diffraction by perfect crystals distinguishes two cases: the Darwin case applying to infinitely thick crystals and the Ewald solution for very small absorption taking into account the reflection from the rear face of a plane-parallel crystal reflecting in Bragg geometry. The former is preferable because it yields narrower rocking curves. To prevent the neutrons to "see" the rear face, grooves were machined into the backside of perfect Si test crystals for single reflection and filled with neutron absorbing material. These samples were examined at the S18 instrument of the Institut Laue-Langevin. Unexpectedly the crystals with empty slots showed an increase of the rocking curve width. When filling the slots with an absorber the widths decreased, but without reaching that of the Darwin curve. Understanding the results and achieving a successful crystal design call for the development of a theory that permits to describe neutron diffraction from crystals with a structured back face.

  5. WASTEWATER EFFLUENT GENERATED BY GROUT INDUSTRIES IN BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda C. Zola

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Civil construction has grown inadvertently in Brazil, and, consequently, its demands for raw material. The production of such materials, as to any industrial process, yields wastewater effluents and has as destination, in general, water resources such as rivers and lakes. Nonetheless, government inspection cannot keep up with the number of starting companies, resulting in impunity due to lack of inspection. In the present work, the first of the kind, some chemical-physics aspects of wastewater effluents samples generated from grout industries were analyzed. The study shows that the pH of these samples lie outside the established limit by the national laws. The extremely alkaline pH and high conductivity of these effluents may cause severe damage to the aquatic environment in which they are disposed.

  6. Grouting techniques for the unfavorable geological conditions of Xiang'an subsea tunnel in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dingli Zhang

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available One of the major challenges during subsea tunnel construction is to seal the potential water inflow. The paper presents a case study of Xiang'an subsea tunnel in Xiamen, the first subsea tunnel in China. During its construction, different grades of weathered geomaterials were encountered, which was the challenging issue for this project. To deal with these unfavorable geological conditions, grouting was adopted as an important measure for ground treatment. The grouting mechanism is first illustrated by introducing a typical grouting process. Then the site-specific grouting techniques employed in the Xiang'an subsea tunnel are elaborated. By using this ground reinforcement technique, the tunneling safety of the Xiang'an subsea tunnel was guaranteed.

  7. ASSESSMENT OF THE POTENTIAL FOR HYDROGEN GENERATION DURING GROUTING OPERATIONS IN THE R- AND P-REACTOR VESSELS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiersma, B.

    2009-12-29

    The R- and P-reactor buildings were retired from service and are now being prepared for deactivation and decommissioning (D&D). D&D activities will consist primarily of immobilizing contaminated components and structures in a grout-like formulation. Aluminum corrodes very rapidly when it comes in contact with the alkaline grout materials and as a result produces hydrogen gas. To address this potential deflagration/explosion hazard, the Materials Science and Technology Directorate (MS&T) of the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) has been requested to review and evaluate existing experimental and analytical studies of this issue to determine if any process constraints on the chemistry of the fill material and the fill operation are necessary. Various options exist for the type of grout material that may be used for D&D of the reactor vessels. The grout formulation options include ceramicrete (pH 6-8), low pH portland cement + silica fume grout (pH 10.4), or Portland cement grout (pH 12.5). The assessment concluded that either ceramicrete or the silica fume grout may be used to safely grout the P-reactor vessel. The risk of accumulation of a flammable mixture of hydrogen between the grout-air interface and the top of the reactor is very low. Portland cement grout, on the other hand, for the same range of process parameters does not provide a significant margin of safety against the accumulation of flammable gas in the reactor vessel during grouting operations in the P-reactor vessel. It is recommended that this grout not be utilized for this task. The R-reactor vessel contains significantly less aluminum and thus a Portland cement grout may be considered as well. For example, if the grout fill rate is less than 1 inch/min and the grout temperature is maintained at 70 C or less, the risk of hydrogen accumulation in the R-reactor vessel is very low for the Portland cement. Alternatively, if the grout fill rate is less than 0.5 inch/min and the grout is maintained

  8. Analysis on Seepage Field of Grouting Circle in Subsea Tunnel Based on Fluid-solid Coupling%基于流固耦合的海底隧道注浆圈渗流场影响分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪优; 王星华; 刘建华; 陈俊儒

    2012-01-01

    Taking fissured body of rock as the equivalent continuum, the seepage model of subsea tunnel was established and the characteristics of seepage field were analyzed. By case-study of the Subsea Tunnel Project of the Jiaozhou Bay, the law of influence of grouting circles on the seepage field was analyzed. The calculation results show as follows: The principle "to block mainly, to emit limitedly" should be taken in waterproofing amd drainage of subsea tunnel; the water plugging effect of the grouting circle is related to the thickness of the grouting circle, and the thickness of the grounting circle is in direct proportion to the permeability coefficient of the grouting circle; when the ratio between the permeability coefficient of rocks and the permeability coefficient of grouting consolidation circle is greater than 100 and the thickness of grouting circle is not smaller than10m. neither the permeability coefficient of grouting circle nor the thickness of grouting circle affects the volume of tunnel gushing water significantly; the larger the difference between the volume of tunnel gushing vatei amd the controlled drainage volume, the greater the external water pressure on tunnel lining; the grouting circle can be used to block seepage paths of groundwater so as to significantly reduce the external water pressure on. turn-nel lining; in the stage of free drainage, tunnel lining does not bear any water pressure and the volume of gush-ing water is equal to the volume of controlled drainage.%将存在裂隙的岩体视为等效连续介质,建立海底隧道稳定渗流分析计算模型,并对渗流场相关特性进行探讨;结合青岛胶州湾海底隧道工程计算注浆圈对渗流场影响.结果表明:海底隧道防排水应采取“以堵为主,限量排放”的原则;注浆圈堵水效果与其厚度相关,且注浆圈厚度与其渗透系数成正比.但当围岩渗透系数与注浆加固圈渗透系数之比大于100,且注浆圈厚度不小于10

  9. Grout and Glass Performance Maximizing the Loading of ORNL Tank Sludges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burgess, M.W.; Mattus, A.J.; Spence, R.D.; Travis, J.R.

    1999-03-01

    Grouting and vitrification are currently two likely stabilization and solidification alternatives for radioactive and hazardous mixed wastes stored at Department of Energy (DOE) facilities. Grouting has been used to stabilize and solidify hazardous and low-level radioactive waste for decades. Vitrification has been developed as a high-level radioactive alternative for decades and has been under development recently as a mixed-waste alternative disposal technology.

  10. Coal Mine Roadway Stability in Soft Rock: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Baotang

    2014-11-01

    Roadway instability has always been a major concern in deep underground coal mines where the surrounding rock strata and coal seams are weak and the in situ stresses are high. Under the high overburden and tectonic stresses, roadways could collapse or experience excessive deformation, which not only endangers mining personnel but could also reduce the functionality of the roadway and halt production. This paper describes a case study on the stability of roadways in an underground coal mine in Shanxi Province, China. The mine was using a longwall method to extract coal at a depth of approximately 350 m. Both the coal seam and surrounding rock strata were extremely weak and vulnerable to weathering. Large roadway deformation and severe roadway instabilities had been experienced in the past, hence, an investigation of the roadway failure mechanism and new support designs were needed. This study started with an in situ stress measurement programme to determine the stress orientation and magnitude in the mine. It was found that the major horizontal stress was more than twice the vertical stress in the East-West direction, perpendicular to the gateroads of the longwall panel. The high horizontal stresses and low strength of coal and surrounding rock strata were the main causes of roadway instabilities. Detailed numerical modeling was conducted to evaluate the roadway stability and deformation under different roof support scenarios. Based on the modeling results, a new roadway support design was proposed, which included an optimal cable/bolt arrangement, full length grouting, and high pre-tensioning of bolts and cables. It was expected the new design could reduce the roadway deformation by 50 %. A field experiment using the new support design was carried out by the mine in a 100 m long roadway section. Detailed extensometry and stress monitorings were conducted in the experimental roadway section as well as sections using the old support design. The experimental section

  11. Use of a Paraffin Based Grout to Stabilize Buried Beryllium and Other Wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gretchen Matthern; Duane Hanson; Neal Yancey; Darrell Knudson

    2005-12-01

    The long term durability of WAXFIXi, a paraffin based grout, was evaluated for in situ grouting of activated beryllium wastes in the Subsurface Disposal Area (SDA), a radioactive landfill at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex, part of the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). The evaluation considered radiological and biological mechanisms that could degrade the grout using data from an extensive literature search and previous tests of in situ grouting at the INL. Conservative radioactive doses for WAXFIX were calculated from the "hottest" (i.e., highest-activity) Advanced Test Reactor beryllium block in the SDA.. These results indicate that WAXFIX would not experience extensive radiation damage for many hundreds of years. Calculation of radiation induced hydrogen generation in WAXFIX indicated that grout physical performance should not be reduced beyond the effects of radiation dose on the molecular structure. Degradation of a paraffin-based grout by microorganisms in the SDA is possible and perhaps likely, but the rate of degradation will be at a slower rate than found in the literature reviewed. The calculations showed the outer 0.46 m (18 in.) layer of each monolith, which represents the minimum expected distance to the beryllium block, was calculated to require 1,000 to 3,600 years to be consumed. The existing data and estimations of biodegradation and radiolysis rates

  12. Application of Distributed Optical Fiber Sensing Technology in the Anomaly Detection of Shaft Lining in Grouting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunde Piao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The rupture of the shaft lining caused by grouting has seriously undermined the safety in coal mining. Based on BOTDR distributed optical fiber sensing technology, this paper studied the layout method of optical fiber sensors and the anomaly detection method of the deformation and obtained the evolution law of shaft deformation triggered by grouting. The research results showed that the bonding problem of optical fiber sensors in damp environment could be effectively solved, by applying the binder consisting of sodium silicate and cement. Through BOTDR-based deformation detection, the real-time deformation of the shaft lining caused by grouting was immediately spotted. By comparing the respective strain of shaft lining deformation and concrete deformation, the risk range of shaft lining grouting was identified. With the additional strain increment of the shaft lining triggered by each process of grouting, the saturated condition of grouting volume in strata was analyzed, providing an important technical insight into the field construction and the safety of the shaft lining.

  13. Applications of Uncertainty Theory to Rock Mechanics and Geotechnical Mine Design

    OpenAIRE

    Mayer, John Markus

    2015-01-01

    Uncertainty analysis remains at the forefront of geotechnical design, due to the predictive nature of the applied discipline. Designs must be analysed within a reliability-based framework, such that inherent risks are demonstrated to decision makers. This research explores this paradigm in three important areas of geotechnical design; namely, continuum, Discrete Fracture Network (DFN) and discontinuum modelling. Continuum modelling examined the negative effects of ignoring spatial heteroge...

  14. Design and operation of a comprehensive and permanent rock slope deformation monitoring system at the Great Aletsch Glacier (Switzerland)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glueer, Franziska; Loew, Simon; Seifert, Reto; Frukacz, Mariusz; Wieser, Andreas

    2015-04-01

    Most geodetic monitoring systems of rock slope instabilities include a series of stable reference points. However, detailed studies of Alpine rock slopes with long term Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS), high-resolution tilt meters and Total Stations (TPS) have shown unequivocally, that truly stable points are very rare. The underlying causes of such natural movements are long- and short-periodic reversible deformations of stable slopes caused by annual and daily changes of pore pressure and temperature in fractured rock masses. These movements impact TPS measurements and cause inconsistencies in the reference frame which, if not accounted for, will introduce systematic errors in the calculated deformation pattern and time series. This complex situation can be found in many mountain slopes. However, detailed measurements and analyses of the superposition of reversible slope deformations and gravitational mass movements of active instabilities are not existing. At the terminus of the Great Aletsch Glacier a comprehensive permanent deformation and displacement monitoring system has been installed, which allows to investigate large scale reversible deformations as well as active rock slope instabilities (Moosfluh and Driest) in response to rapid glacier retreat. The system includes 2 high-precision TPS stations with automated reflector recognition, 58 reflectors, 4 GNSS stations, climate sensors, and 2 high-resolution tilt meters and provides a fully automated survey with high accuracies over distances up to 2 km. The self-sustaining monitoring systems at Aletsch are installed at two high-alpine locations, remotely operated and automatically collect data on a set time schedule mainly at night. Deformation artefacts from thermal and wind disturbances of total stations' pillars and climatic refraction are studied with separate monitoring programs. We describe various aspects of the design, construction, testing and practical operation of this unique monitoring

  15. Structural model testing for prestressed concrete pressure vessels: a study of grouted vs nongrouted posttensioned prestressing tendon systems. [HTGR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naus, D.J.

    1979-04-01

    Nongrouted tendons are predominantly used in this country as the prestressing system for prestressed concrete pressure vessels (PCPVs) because they are more easily surveyed to detect reductions in prestressing level and distress such as results from corrosion. Grouted tendon systems, however, offer advantages which may make them cost-effective for PCPV applications. Literature was reviewed to (1) provide insight on the behavior of grouted tendon system, (2) establish performance histories for structures utilizing grouted tendons, (3) examine corrosion protection procedures for prestressing tendons, (4) identify arguments for and against using grouted tendons, and (5) aid in the development of the experimental investigation. The experimental investigation was divided into four phases: (1) grouted-nongrouted tendon behavior, (2) evaluation of selected new material systems, (3) bench-scale corrosion studies, and (4) preliminary evaluation of acoustic emission techniques for monitoring grouted tendons in PCPVs. The groutability of large tendon systems was also investigated.

  16. A methodology for lining design of circular mine shafts in different rock masses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ozturk Hasan⇑; Guler Erdogan

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the finite element numerical modelling of 2D shaft sections in a Hoek–Brown medium are carried out in a non-hydrostatic stress state in an attempt to predict pressures developing around mine shafts. An iterative process of applying support pressure until observing no failure zone around the shaft is used to simulate the required lining support pressure for different shaft models. Later, regression anal-ysis is carried out to find a generic shaft pressure equation representing the rock mass and the stress state. Finally, the developed pressure equation which shows a good agreement with a case study is used in elastic‘thick-walled cylinder”equation to calculate the lining thickness required to prevent the devel-opment of a failure zone around the shaft. At the end of the study, a user-friendly object-oriented com-puter program‘Shaft 2D”is developed to simplify the rigorous shaft lining thickness calculation process.

  17. Test Study on Monitoring and Evaluation of Grouting Effect in the Immersed Tube Tunnel%沉管隧道注浆效果监测与评价的试验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈永芳; 黄醒春

    2013-01-01

    为了探索沉管隧道管底注浆效果的监测方法和评价体系,在国内率先采用探地雷达和数字地震仪对舟山沈家门港海底隧道模型的注浆基础进行了测试研究.通过在注浆前、注浆过程中以及注浆完成2小时后所进行的现场检测,将采集到雷达波形和面波波形与模型中预先设置的观察窗现场观察的结果进行对比,确定注浆前、注浆过程中、注浆完成后三个阶段的典型波形,以判别和评价沉管隧道管底注浆基础效果.试验结果表明,探地雷达结合面波法的监测方法能作为在管底注浆施工时的停止注浆条件之一,可满足沉管隧道现场施工时管底注浆基础效果的监测和评价,进而可为沉管隧道的工程设计方案提供依据.%In order to explore the monitoring methods and evaluation system of the immersed tube tunnel grouting effect,the grouting foundation of Shenjiamen port cross-harbour tunnel model has been tested firstly using ground penetrating radar and digital seismograph in Zhoushan,Zhejiang,China.By field testing before grouting,during grouting process and 2 hours after grouting,the collected waveforms by ground penetrating radar and surface wave have been compared with the results of field observations in pre-set viewing window.The typical waveforms of three phases (before grouting,in grouting process and after grouting) would be determined,which have been to differentiate and evaluate the foundation grouting effect of the immersed tube tunnel.The test results showed that the monitoring method combining ground penetrating radar and surface wave could be used as one of the conditions to stop grouting in the construction of the tube bottom and could meet the monitoring and evaluation of the foundation grouting effect in the immersed tube tunnel construction site.This method will also provide the basis for engineering design programs of the immersed tube tunnel.

  18. OPERATIONAL AND COMPOSITIONAL FACTORS THAT AFFECT THE PERFORMANCE PROPERTIES OF ARP/MCU SALTSTONE GROUT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reigel, M.; Edwards, T.; Pickenheim, B.

    2012-02-15

    The Saltstone Production Facility (SPF) receives low level waste (LLW) salt solution from Tank 50H for treatment and disposal. Tank 50H receives transfers from the Effluent Treatment Project (ETP), the H-Canyon General Purpose Evaporator, and the Actinide Removal Process/Modular Caustic Side Solvent Extraction Unit (ARP/MCU) Decontaminated Salt Solution Hold Tank (DSS-HT). At the SPF, the LLW is mixed with premix (a cementitious mixture of portland cement (PC), blast furnace slag (BFS) and Class F fly ash (FA)) in a Readco mixer to produce fresh (uncured) saltstone that is transferred to the Saltstone Disposal Facility (SDF) vaults. The saltstone formulation (mix design) must produce a grout waste form that meets both placement and performance properties. In previous simulated saltstone studies, multiple compositional factors were identified that drive the performance properties of saltstone made from the projected ARP/MCU salt solution. This composition was selected as salt solution simulant since ARP/MCU is the primary influent into Tank 50H. The primary performance property investigated was hydraulic conductivity since it is a variable input property to the saltstone Performance Assessment (PA) transport model. In addition, the porosity, also referred to as void structure, is another variable that impacts the PA response. In addition, Young's modulus and cured density are other performance properties analyzed in this report; however they are indicators of the performance of saltstone and not direct inputs into the PA. The data from previous studies showed that the largest impact on the performance properties of saltstone was due to curing temperature, followed by aluminate concentration in the salt solution, water to premix ratio and premix composition. However, due to the scope of the previous studies, only a few mixes were cured and analyzed at higher temperatures. The samples cured at 60 C had an increased hydraulic conductivity of approximately 600

  19. Preliminary design study of underground pumped hydro and compressed-air energy storage in hard rock. Volume 5: Site selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-04-01

    A six-step site selection process undertaken to identify and subsequently rank potential sites suitable for either an underground pumped hydroelectric (UPH) facility, or a water-compensated hard-rock cavern compressed air energy storage (CAES) facility is described. The region of study was confined to the service area of the Potomac Electric Power Company (PEPCO) and contiguous areas. Overriding considerations related to geology, environmental impact and transmission-line routing were studies within the context of minimizing plant costs. The selection process led to the identification of several sites suitable for the development of either a CAES or an UPH facility. Design development and site exploration at the selected site are described.

  20. Direct Grout Stabilization of High Cesium Salt Waste: Salt Alternative Phase III Feasibility Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Langton, C.A.

    1998-12-07

    The direct grout alternative is a viable option for treatment/stabilization and disposal of salt waste containing Cs-137 concentrations of 1-3 Ci/gal. The composition of the direct grout salt solution is higher in sodium salts and contains up to a few hundred ppm Cs-137 more than the current reference salt solution. However it is still similar to the composition of the current reference salt solution. Consequently, the processing, setting, and leaching properties (including TCLP for Cr and Hg) of the direct grout and current saltstone waste forms are very similar. The significant difference between these waste solutions is that the high cesium salt solution will contain between 1 and 3 Curies of Cs-137 per gallon compared to a negligible amount in the current salt solution. This difference will require special engineering and shielding for a direct grout processing facility and disposal units to achieve acceptable radiation exposure conditions. The Cs-137 concentration in the direct grout salt solution will also affect the long-term curing temperature of the waste form since 4.84 Watts of energy are generated per 1000 Ci of Cs-137. The temperature rise of the direct grout during long-term curing has been calculated by A. Shaddy, SRTC.1 The effect of curing temperature on the strength, leaching and physical durability of the direct grout saltstone is described in this report. At the present time, long term curing at 90 degrees C appears to be unacceptable because of cracking which will affect the structural integrity as evaluated in the immersion test. (The experiments conducted in this feasibility study do not address the effect of cracking on leaching of contaminants other than Cr, Hg, and Cs.) No cracking of the direct grout or reference saltstone waste forms was observed for samples cured at 70 degrees C. At the present time the implications of waste form cracking at elevated curing temperatures has not been fully addressed. The direct grout falls within the

  1. In-situ testing study on convection and temperature characteristics of a new crushed-rock slope embankment design in a permafrost region

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MingHao Liu; FuJun Niu; JianHong Fang; ZhanJu Lin; Jing Luo; GuoAn Yin

    2014-01-01

    For-the-purpose-of-enhancing-air-convection-and-controlling-solar-radiation,-a-new-crushed-rock-slope-embankment-design-combined-with-a-sun-shade-measure-is-proposed.-A-newly-designed-embankment-was-constructed-in-the-Tuotuohe-section-of-the-Qinghai-Tibet-Railway-and-a-field-testing-experiment-was-carried-out-to-determine-its-convection-and-temperature-char-acteristics.-The-results-show-that-distinct-air-convection-occurred-in-the-crushed-rock-layer-of-the-new-embankment,-especially-in-cold-seasons,-which-was-enhanced-when-it-flowed-upwards-along-the-slope.-This-preliminarily-indicated-that-the-new-design-of-the-embankment-slope-was-good-for-reinforcing-air-convection-in-the-crushed-rock-layer.-The-frequent-fluctuations-of-the-convection-speed-and-the-environmental-wind-speed-were-in-good-agreement,-suggesting-that-the-convection-in-the-crushed-rock-primarily-came-from-the-ambient-wind.-It-was-also-preliminarily-determined-that-the-new-embankment-had-a-better-cooling-effect-and-sun-shade-effect-for-decreasing-the-temperature-of-the-embankment-slope-compared-with-a-traditional-crushed-rock-slope-embankment,-and-the-mean-temperature-difference-between-them-was-up-to-1.7-°C.-The-mean-annual-temperature-at-the-bottom-boundary-of-the-crushed-rock-layer-was-obviously-lower-than-that-at-the-top-boundary,-and-heat-flux-calculation-showed-that-the-shallow-soil-beneath-the-embankment-slope-was-weakly-releasing-heat,-all-of-which-indicated-that-the-new-embankment-slope-design-was-beneficial-to-the-thermal-stability-of-the-embankment.-This-study-is-helpful-in-providing-some-references-for-improved-engineering-design-and-maintenance-of-roadbeds-in-permafrost-regions.

  2. 超高水材料覆岩离层及冒落裂隙带注浆充填技术%Grouting Backfill Technology with Super High Water Material for Overburden Bed-separation and Falling Fractured Zone

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王成真; 冯光明

    2011-01-01

    In order to the problems occurred by the great amount pressurized flowing water in the bed-separation after the traditional grouting and subsidence control technology conducted in the overburden bed-separation, in combination with the basic performances of the super water material, based on the key strata theory of the strata control as the guide, the grouting backfill technology with the super water material was provided for the overburden strata bed-separation and falling fractured zone.The technology would fully fill with the super water material in the bed-separation space, the space between the falling rocks of the falling zone and the cracks of the fractured zone.After the grouting material solidified, the filled material could control the activities of the overburden strata.The previous practical results of the overburden strata grouting and the application of the grouting and backfill technology to an imaginary coal mining face showed that the grouting and backfill with the super water material in the overburden strata bed-separation and falling fractured zone would have a subsidence reduction rate between 80% ~ 90% and would have a high production and high efficient coal mining in seam under the buildings,railway line and water body.%为了解决传统覆岩离层注浆减沉技术实施后离层区内大量承压可流动水体所带来的问题,结合超高水材料基本性能,以岩层控制的关键层理论为指导,提出了超高水材料覆岩离层及冒落裂隙带注浆充填技术.该技术将超高水材料浆液充满关键层下的离层空间、冒落带垮落矸石间缝隙以及裂缝带裂隙,凝固后的充填体控制上覆岩活动.根据以往覆岩离层注浆实践结果及超高水材料注浆充填技术在假想工作面的应用可知:超高水材料覆岩离层及冒落裂隙带注浆充填的减沉率在80%~90%,有助实现"三下"压煤开采的高产高效.

  3. Geoengineering Research for a Deep Underground Science and Engineering Laboratory in Sedimentary Rock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauldon, M.

    2004-12-01

    stresses - with parallel geophysical imaging of the rock mass (and subsequent verification) flow and transport processes, and time-dependent stress and strain. An experimental advantage of sedimentary rock is the presence of pervasive mechanical interfaces (bedding planes), which suggest a host of experimental designs on large rock blocks and slabs (induced flexure, shear strength of interfaces, etc). Thus DUSEL will enable fundamental research about the behavior of a layered rock mass - the dominant structural architecture in near-surface environments worldwide. A further benefit is the natural suitability of sedimentary rocks for experiments related to oil and gas production, or to CO2 sequestration. For example, fluid-induced fracturing of sedimentary rock has long been used by the hydrocarbon industry to improve oil and coal bed methane recovery. Since some fracturing agents are potential contaminants, a major concern and legal responsibility in the US is ensuring the integrity of nearby aquifers. Hydraulic fracturing from a sedimentary rock DUSEL will be followed by injection of low viscosity grout. The rock mass will then be mined back to expose network characteristics of the induced hydraulic fractures. Key questions related to hydrocarbon extraction, CO2 sequestration, waste isolation, and remediation of subsurface contaminants depend critically on the connectivity and architecture of fractures and on coupled thermal, hydrological, mechanical and chemical processes. Fluid flow, particle transport and reaction transport processes are coupled to the stress across fractures, and to thermal, chemical and hydraulic gradients. All can best be studied via large block tests in a subterranean laboratory, ideally in a sedimentary environment.

  4. NanoRocks: Design and performance of an experiment studying planet formation on the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brisset, Julie; Colwell, Joshua; Dove, Adrienne; Maukonen, Doug

    2017-07-01

    In an effort to better understand the early stages of planet formation, we have developed a 1.5U payload that flew on the International Space Station (ISS) in the NanoRacks NanoLab facility between September 2014 and March 2016. This payload, named NanoRocks, ran a particle collision experiment under long-term microgravity conditions. The objectives of the experiment were (a) to observe collisions between mm-sized particles at relative velocities of < 1 cm/s and (b) to study the formation and disruption of particle clusters for different particle types and collision velocities. Four types of particles were used: mm-sized acrylic, glass, and copper beads and 0.75 mm-sized JSC-1 lunar regolith simulant grains. The particles were placed in sample cells carved out of an aluminum tray. This tray was attached to one side of the payload casing with three springs. Every 60 s, the tray was agitated, and the resulting collisions between the particles in the sample cells were recorded by the experiment camera. During the 18 months the payload stayed on ISS, we obtained 158 videos, thus recording a great number of collisions. The average particle velocities in the sample cells after each shaking event were around 1 cm/s. After shaking stopped, the inter-particle collisions damped the particle kinetic energy in less than 20 s, reducing the average particle velocity to below 1 mm/s, and eventually slowing them to below our detection threshold. As the particle velocity decreased, we observed the transition from bouncing to sticking collisions. We recorded the formation of particle clusters at the end of each experiment run. This paper describes the design and performance of the NanoRocks ISS payload.

  5. Curtain grouting gushing water treatment under special geological conditions%特殊地质条件下的帷幕灌浆涌水处理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁时伟; 唐正前

    2013-01-01

      大型水电站的基础帷幕灌浆作为工程设计的重要组成部分,其施工质量关系到工程后期的安全运行。大多数工程坝基帷幕灌浆施工时,受坝基地质条件和承受的河床水头影响,涌水压力和涌水量不同。向家坝水电站因特殊的地质条件和河床水位较高,在帷幕灌浆施工中有近85%的孔段出现涌水,且涌水压力和涌水量较大,给施工造成很多困难,国内其它工程较为少见。通过对向家坝水电站坝基帷幕灌浆各类涌水情况施工详细研究和大量试验,取得了大涌水量和特殊地质条件下帷幕灌浆成功的施工技术和施工经验,供其他类似工程参考。%The foundation of large-scale hydropower curtain grouting as an important part of the engineering design,its construction quality is related to the safe operation of the project built.The most engineering Curtain Grouting construction,the dam foundation geological conditions and withstand the riverbed head impact,the gushing pressure and water inflow different.Xiangjiaba hydropower station because of the special geological conditions and the high water level of the river bed,curtain grouting nearly 85% of the hole section gushing and gushing water pressure and water inflow and cause a lot of difficulties to the construction and other do-mestic works.By a detailed study and a large number of tests of the various types of water gushing to the Xi-angjiaba hydropower dam foundation curtain grouting.It achieved many successful construction technologys and construction experiences in large inflow and special geological conditions curtain grouting,which provides ref-erence to similar projects.

  6. Collecting Rocks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙铮

    2007-01-01

    My hobby is collecting rocks.It is very special,isn’t it?I began to collect rocks about four years ago.I usually go hiking in the mountains,or near the river to look for rocks.When I find a rock,I pick it up and clean it with the brush and water.Then I put it into my bag.Most of the rocks I have collected are quartzite~*.They are really

  7. MECHANICAL MODEL AND ELASTIC MODULUS OF GROUTED CONCRETE BLOCK MASONRY IN COMPRESSION%灌孔混凝土砌块砌体受压力学模型及其弹性模量

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁建国; 龙腾

    2012-01-01

    灌孔混凝土砌块砌体是由砌体和灌孔混凝土两部分组合而成,为了得到竖向压力作用下两种材料的相互作用机理,该文基于最小势能原理推导了砌体对灌孔混凝土的套箍系数以及灌孔混凝土砌块砌体内的应力分布,得到了灌孔混凝土砌块砌体的弹性模量可近似按材料力学组合截面公式进行计算,其计算结果与收集的全国65组281个试件试验结果符合良好,并通过试验结果统计得到了灌孔混凝土砌块砌体弹性模量的建议公式。理论分析和试验结果表明,我国现行规范中灌孔混凝土砌块砌体弹性模量取值偏低,将使配筋砌块砌体结构的设计计算结果偏于不安全。%In order to obtain the interaction mechanism between the grout and masonry in grouted concrete block masonry structures under vertical load, the hooping factor which denotes the hooping action of the masonry to the grouted concrete and the stress distribution in the grouted concrete block masonry is studied based on the minimum potential energy principle. The elastic modulus of grouted concrete block masonry can be approximately calculated according to the assembled section formula in material mechanics, and the calculation results of this formula agree well with the test results of 281 specimens in 65 groups. Another proposed formula to calculate the elastic modulus of the grouted concrete block is derived base on the test results by regression analysis method. Theoretical analysis and test results show that the value of elastic modulus of grouted concrete block masonry in our current code is low, indicating it is unsafe to guide the design of reinforced concrete block masonry structures.

  8. Experimental studies on behavior of fully grouted reinforced-concrete masonry shear walls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yan; Wang, Fenglai

    2015-12-01

    An experimental study is conducted on fully grouted reinforced masonry shear walls (RMSWs) made from concrete blocks with a new configuration. Ten RMSWs are tested under reversed cyclic lateral load to investigate the influence of different reinforcements and applied axial stress values on their seismic behavior. The results show that flexural strength increases with the applied axial stress, and shear strength dominated by diagonal cracking increases with both the amount of horizontal reinforcement and applied axial stress. Yield displacement, ductility, and energy dissipation capability can be improved substantially by increasing the amount of horizontal reinforcement. The critical parameters for the walls are derived from the experiment: displacement ductility values corresponding to 15% strength degradation of the walls reach up to 2.6 and 4.5 in the shear and flexure failure modes, respectively; stiffness values of flexure- and shear-dominated walls rapidly degrade to 17%-19% and 48%-57% of initial stiffness at 0.50 D max (displacement at peak load). The experiment suggests that RMSWs could be assigned a higher damping ratio (˜14%) for collapse prevention design and a lower damping value (˜7%) for a fully operational limit state or serviceability limit state.

  9. The Application and Design of High Pressure Jet Grouting Pile in the Sluice Foundation Treatment of Both Sides of Qiantang River%高压旋喷桩在钱塘江两岸水闸地基处理中的应用设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王立新

    2013-01-01

      Along with the use of sluice operation, it exposed the defects of the tidal gate: the uneven settlement between each part of the sluice is serious. According to the investigation and analysis of risks, the main reason of the situation formation is that the sluice foundation is washed away by the tide. High pressure jet grouting pile can be used not only as the foundation reinforcement of existing buildings and new buildings, but also can be used as a temporary measure in construction (such as retaining soil and water, waterproof of deep foundation pit side etc. ), especially as the best way of the sluice foundation reinforcement of both sides of Qiantang River. The use of high pressure jet grouting pile technology in sluice foundation treatment has achieved satisfying results.%  随着水闸的运行使用,暴露出一个这一带挡潮闸的通病:水闸各段各部位之间不均匀沉降严重。根据险情调查分析,出现该状况的主要原因是潮水对水闸地基的冲刷所致。高压旋喷桩不仅可作为既有建筑和新建建筑的地基加固之用,也可作为施工中的临时措施(如深基坑侧壁挡土或挡水、防水帷幕等),尤其是目前钱塘江两岸水闸的地基加固、防渗处理的最佳方法。目前在该地区相关水闸地基处理中采用高压旋喷桩技术,取得了令人较满意的结果。

  10. Formulation and Analysis of Compliant Grouted Waste Forms for SHINE Waste Streams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ebert, William [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Pereira, Candido [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Heltemes, Thad A. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Youker, Amanda [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Makarashvili, Vakhtang [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Vandegrift, George F. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Optional grouted waste forms were formulated for waste streams generated during the production of 99Mo to be compliant with low-level radioactive waste regulations. The amounts and dose rates of the various waste form materials that would be generated annually were estimated and used to determine the effects of various waste processing options, such as the of number irradiation cycles between uranium recovery operations, different combinations of waste streams, and removal of Pu, Cs, and Sr from waste streams for separate disposition (which is not evaluated in this report). These calculations indicate that Class C-compliant grouted waste forms can be produced for all waste streams. More frequent uranium recovery results in the generation of more chemical waste, but this is balanced by the fact that waste forms for those waste streams can accommodate higher waste loadings, such that similar amounts of grouted waste forms are required regardless of the recovery schedule. Similar amounts of grouted waste form are likewise needed for the individual and combined waste streams. Removing Pu, Cs, and Sr from waste streams lowers the waste form dose significantly at times beyond about 1 year after irradiation, which may benefit handling and transport. Although these calculations should be revised after experimentally optimizing the grout formulations and waste loadings, they provide initial guidance for process development.

  11. Evaluation of Compressive Strength and Stiffness of Grouted Soils by Using Elastic Waves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    In-Mo Lee

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cement grouted soils, which consist of particulate soil media and cementation agents, have been widely used for the improvement of the strength and stiffness of weak ground and for the prevention of the leakage of ground water. The strength, elastic modulus, and Poisson’s ratio of grouted soils have been determined by classical destructive methods. However, the performance of grouted soils depends on several parameters such as the distribution of particle size of the particulate soil media, grouting pressure, curing time, curing method, and ground water flow. In this study, elastic wave velocities are used to estimate the strength and elastic modulus, which are generally obtained by classical strength tests. Nondestructive tests by using elastic waves at small strain are conducted before and during classical strength tests at large strain. The test results are compared to identify correlations between the elastic wave velocity measured at small strain and strength and stiffness measured at large strain. The test results show that the strength and stiffness have exponential relationship with elastic wave velocities. This study demonstrates that nondestructive methods by using elastic waves may significantly improve the strength and stiffness evaluation processes of grouted soils.

  12. Grouting of Multiple Leaf-Masonry Walls: Application on Some Islamic Historical Monuments in Cairo, Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayed HEMEDA

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Present study summarizes an overview on the available experimental and practical data and results from laboratory testing (ungrouted and grouted three leaf masonry wallettes in compression and in diagonal compression. On the basis of the experimental results, (A the structural behavior of the multiple leaf-masonry walls studied in details (b the parameters that affect the behavior of ungrouted masonry are detected and commented upon, and (c the behavior of grouted masonry studied in details. Particularly attention to be paid to large walls whose construction may comprise different kinds of materials. Such walls include cavity walls; rubble filled masonry walls and veneered brick walls which have poor quality core. Not only may the interior of the wall be less capable of carrying load but movement of the core material may also be a source of new stresses. As the experimental results show that the key parameter for the improvement of the mechanical properties of masonry is not the compressive strength of the injected grout, emphasis is given to ternary, as well as to hydraulic lime based grouts: those materials are expected to ensure durable interventions, they lead to a significant enhancement of the mechanical properties of masonry. On the basis of the experimental data on wallettes, as well as based on recent data from tests on grouted cylinders made of filling materials, simple formulae are drived, allowing for the strength of masonry to be calculated, and scientifically interventions processes and techniques had been applied to selected historical monuments in Cairo.

  13. Grout performance in support of in situ stabilization/solidification of the GAAT tank sludges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spence, R. D. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Kauschinger, J. L. [Ground Environmental Services, Inc., Alpharetta, GA (United States)

    1997-05-01

    The Gunite{trademark} and associated tanks (GAATs) were constructed at ORNL between 1943 and 1951 and were used for many years to collect radioactive and chemical wastes. These tanks are currently inactive. Varying amounts of the sludge were removed and disposed of through the Hydrofracture Program. Thus, some tanks are virtually empty, while others still contain significant amounts of sludge and supernatant. In situ grouting of the sludges in the tanks using multi-point injection (MPI{trademark}), a patented, proprietary technique, is being investigated as a low-cost alternative to (1) moving the sludges to the Melton Valley Storage Tanks (MVSTs) for later solidification and disposal, (2) ex situ grouting of the sludges followed by either disposal back in the tanks or containerizing and disposal elsewhere, and (3) vitrification of the sludges. The paper discusses the chemical characteristics of the GAATs and the type of chemical surrogate that was used during the leachability tests. T his is followed by the experimental work, which, consisted of scope testing and sensitivity testing. The scope testing explored the rheology of the proposed jetting slurries and the settling properties of the proposed grouts using sand-water mixes for the wet sludge. After establishing a jetting slurry and grout with an acceptable rheology and settling properties, the proposed in situ grout formulation was subjected to sensitivity testing for variations in the formulation.

  14. Principles of rock mechanics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turchaninov, I.A.; Iofis, M.A.; Kasparyan, E.V.

    1979-01-01

    This book presents the principles of rock mechanics in a systematic way, reflecting both the historic development and the contemporary status of theoretical and experimental techniques used for the determination of the properties and stress state of rock masses, calculation of elements of systems for exploitation of useful mineral deposits and the design of mine openings. The subject of rock mechanics is discussed and methods and basic approaches are analyzed. The most widely used methods for determining the properties of rock in specimens and in situ are described. Problems of determining the stress strain state of the rock around mine openings by both experimental and analytic methods are discussed. The primary results of the study of the stress state of rock around main, development and production openings are presented. Problems of the movement of rock due to extraction of minerals are analyzed in detail, as are the conditions and causes of the development of rock bursts and sudden release of rock and gas in both surface and underground mines. Procedures for preventing or localizing rock bursts or sudden outbursts are described. (313 refs.)

  15. Evaluation of In Situ Grouting as a Potential Remediation Method for the Hanford Central Plateau Deep Vadose Zone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Truex, Michael J.; Pierce, Eric M.; Nimmons, Michael J.; Mattigod, Shas V.

    2011-01-11

    The Deep Vadose Zone Treatability Test Plan for the Hanford Central Plateau report identifies in situ grouting as a potential remediation technology for the deep vadose zone and includes a planned effort to evaluate in situ grouting to provide information for future feasibility studies. This report represents the first step in this evaluation effort.

  16. Low-pH injection grout for deep repositories. Summary report from a co-operation project between NUMO (Japan), Posiva (Finland) and SKB (Sweden)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boden, Anders [SwedPower AB, Stockholm (Sweden); Sievaenen, Ursula [JP-Suoraplan Oy, Vantaa (Finland)

    2005-06-01

    fineness, were modified in the present experiments. 5. Fly ash system was ruled out at an early stage due to expected problems concerning the availability and stability of the raw material properties as well as expected difficulties with the setting time of the mixes. The grouting related properties tested in laboratory were penetrability, bleeding, early age shear strength viscosity and yield value. For some selected mixes fluidity was also measured. The key uncertainties identified with respect to the use of cement in a repository are related to the uncertainties in the estimation of the range and effect of the pH-plume on the rock, as well as the possible detrimental effects on bentonite due to cement/bentonite interaction. In the present study the potential effects on the repository performance and the rock have been evaluated based on the composition of the materials and leaching tests, expert judgement and some simple mass balance and diffusion calculations. A first review of the potential effects of organic cement additives on the radionuclide mobility has also been done, although the preference at the outset of the project was to develop an injection grout without organic additives. Also the long-term durability of the low-pH cementitious material and the long-term phase changes/degradation and leaching of the grout is not yet known and need to be evaluated. The non-cementitious candidate materials were investigated regarding basic properties and long-term safety aspects in order to form the basis for the decision whether silica sol can be used in the deep repository and whether periclase (MgO) should be further investigated. In a small field-test it was also investigated if the penetration of silica sol can be predicted based on hydraulic tests, transmissivity and hydraulic aperture. Silica sol, colloidal silica, is a stable dispersion of discrete non porous particles of amorphous silicon dioxide. Rock grouting with silica sol is a relatively new application

  17. Stability analysis and optimum reinforcement design for an intense weathered rock slope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Kuan; Tan, Zhuoying; Li, Wen

    2017-05-01

    In view of the complex structural characters of Chengmenshan copper mine slope, the slope stability should be analyzed and additional reinforcement measures need to be considered to ensure mining safety. In this paper, the slope model was built and its stability was analyzed by numerical simulation method under nature and dynamic loading state. After that the design of orthogonal experiment was discussed for the key factors which influence the reinforcement effect of anchors with SPSS software, and the primary and secondary relation of factors and the optimal combination were obtained using the range analysis method. Finally, the slope stability with optimal reinforcement measure was tested. The results show that the safety factor of slope under nature state is low and it is in the critical instability condition. Under dynamic loading state, the failure probability of slope increases from 0 to 18% as the seismic magnitude varies from 6 to 8. Primary and secondary sequence of factors that influence the anchor reinforcement effect is the bonding length, anchor installing angle, anchor length at 3rd bench, anchor length at 2nd bench and anchor length at 1st bench .The safety factor of slope reinforced with anchors is larger than 1.1, which could ensure the safety and stability of the slope.

  18. Grouting of fly ash in sanitary landfills; Injektering av flygaska i hushaallsavfallsdeponi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wikman, Karin; Berg, Magnus [AaF-Energi och Miljoe AB, Stockhom (Sweden); Andreas, Lale; Lagerkvist, Anders [Luleaa Univ. of Technology (Sweden); Jannes, Sara; Tham, Gustav [Telge Aatervinning AB, Soedertaelje (Sweden); Sjoeblom, Rolf [Tekedo AB, Nykoeping (Sweden)

    2003-10-01

    The purpose of the study was to investigate the potential for stabilization of sanitary landfills by injecting fly ash. The method is supposed to prevent differential settlements in landfills and by that to counteract damages in the final cover. Injecting fly ash may also affect the chemical development in a positive way and prevent metal leaching. Pilot experiments at the Tveta waste recycling center (Tveta Aatervinningsanlaeggning) have been performed in order to estimate if the grouting technology is a suitable method for sanitary landfills. Fly ashes from the combustion of bio fuels were used in these tests. A literature study and laboratory experiments in order to prepare the field experiments were also part of the project. About 100 tons of ash slurry were injected during the pilot experiments. This corresponds to a filling degree of approximately 12-16 % of the available pores in the landfill body. As a result of the pilot test, the following conclusions can be drawn: Ash can be mixed with water to a pumpable slurry which can be injected without hardening inside the equipment. Neither the waste nor the grouting material caused a backpressure during the injection and nothing indicates that the injected ash deforms the landfilled waste. The ash-water-slurry flows through the voids in the waste easily. Thus, the ash may dispread quite far from the injection holes. Using a more powerful equipment backpressure and movements in the waste might occur. It was not possible to estimate the flow required for backpressure in this study. Large variations are possible but for safety reasons the maximal pressure should be limited with regard to the expected stability in the actual area. The grouted ash will harden within the landfill body within a couple of days. It accumulates in hard but brittle lumps, which may result in an increased stability of the landfill. Further studies are necessary in order to evaluate how the stability is affected and what amounts of ash are

  19. Efficiency of jet grout columns and sand-recycled material mixtures for mitigating liquefaction damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerem Ertek, M.; Demir, Gökhan; Köktan, Utku

    2017-04-01

    Liquefaction is an important seismic phenomena that has to be assessed and consequently makes it essential to take measures in order to reduce related hazards. There are several ways to assess liquefaction potential analytically and some constitutive models implemented in FEM softwares presenting cyclic behaviour of sand making it possible to observe shear strain or excess pore pressure ratio which are measures to hold a view about liquefaction occurrence. According to various studies in the literature, post-earthquake inspections show that the measures in terms of grouting, piled rafts and sand mixtures with different non-liquefiable materials reduce liquefaction related damage. This paper aims to provide a brief information about effectiveness of jet-grout columns and recycled material-sand mixtures against liquefaction by the help of numerical analyses performed with MIDAS GTS NX software with regard to generation of shear strains. Key words: liquefaction, numerical analyses, jet-grout, sand mixtures

  20. The radiation stability of ground granulated blast furnace slag/ordinary Portland cement grouts containing organic admixtures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palmer, J.D.; Fairhall, G.A. [British Nuclear Fuels, Sellafield (United Kingdom)

    1993-12-31

    At the British Nuclear Fuels (BNFL) Sellafield reprocessing plant in the United Kingdom, cement grouts based on ground granulated blast-furnace slag (BFS) and ordinary Portland cement (OPC) are used extensively for immobilizing radioactive wastes. These grouts have excluded organic admixtures in order to reduce process complexity and uncertainties, regarding the performance of organic admixtures with BFS/OPC grouts, particularly under irradiation. This study has investigated the effects of sulfonated melamine formaldehyde and naphthalene condensates on grout properties. The results show grout settlement and strengths increase on addition of additives, with the additives remaining largely in the pore solution. Under irradiation the additives breakdown liberating hydrogen and carbon dioxide. Strength and product dimensions are unaffected by irradiation.

  1. Analysis on contaminants transport process through clay-solidified grouting curtain in MSW landfills

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Yong-gui; ZHANG Ke-neng; HUANG Chang-bo

    2005-01-01

    Clay-solidified grouting curtains are commonly used for remediation by containment or pollution prevention, in addition to their use as a barrier to water flow in municipal solid waste(MSW) landfills. A hydrological model.of water flow and a hydrodynamic model of contaminant are presented to simulate the migration of leachate through clay-solidified grouting curtain in MSW landfills, with particular attention paid to the role of diffusive and adsorptive fluxes in contaminant transport. The models were applied to simulate the sensitivity of the curtain's behavior to changes in parameters, such as thickness, depth, permeability coefficient, diffusion coefficient,resistance coefficient and concentration, and also to demonstrate the contaminant distribution on the evolution of travel time and offset distance of clay-solidified grouting curtain in landfills. It is found that a part of leachate components stays or is retarded in clay-solidified grouting curtain by precipitate or exchange, the retention rate is closely related to composition of clay-solidified grouting curtain, more than 800%, and the maximum occurs at the cementclay ratio of 2: 4 under experimental conditions. Contamination distribution is variable on travel time and offset distance, the highest concentration takes place where the contamination intensity is nearest to the pollution resource or takes place at early middle period of transport, and the pollutant attenuates gradually. The results indicate that claysolidified grouting curtain with a proper thickness, a low permeability coefficient and a high resistance coefficient might serve as a sufficiently effective vertical barrier against leachate seepage and contamination migration in MSWlandfills.

  2. Nuclear waste viewed in a new light; a synchrotron study of uranium encapsulated in grout

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stitt, C.A., E-mail: Camilla.stitt@bristol.ac.uk [Interface Analysis Centre, H. H. Wills Physics Laboratory, University of Bristol, Tyndall Avenue, Bristol BS8 1TL (United Kingdom); Hart, M., E-mail: oxford.mike@gmail.com [Diamond Light Source Limited, Harwell Science and Innovation Campus, Fermi Avenue, Didcot, Oxfordshire OX11 0QX (United Kingdom); Harker, N.J., E-mail: nicholas.harker@esrf.fr [Interface Analysis Centre, H. H. Wills Physics Laboratory, University of Bristol, Tyndall Avenue, Bristol BS8 1TL (United Kingdom); Hallam, K.R., E-mail: k.r.hallam@bristol.ac.uk [Interface Analysis Centre, H. H. Wills Physics Laboratory, University of Bristol, Tyndall Avenue, Bristol BS8 1TL (United Kingdom); MacFarlane, J., E-mail: james.macfarlane@bristol.ac.uk [Interface Analysis Centre, H. H. Wills Physics Laboratory, University of Bristol, Tyndall Avenue, Bristol BS8 1TL (United Kingdom); Banos, A., E-mail: antonis.banos@bristol.ac.uk [Interface Analysis Centre, H. H. Wills Physics Laboratory, University of Bristol, Tyndall Avenue, Bristol BS8 1TL (United Kingdom); Paraskevoulakos, C., E-mail: cp13846@bristol.ac.uk [Interface Analysis Centre, H. H. Wills Physics Laboratory, University of Bristol, Tyndall Avenue, Bristol BS8 1TL (United Kingdom); Butcher, E., E-mail: ed.j.butcher@nnl.co.uk [National Nuclear Laboratory, Seascale, Cumbria CA20 1 PG (United Kingdom); Padovani, C., E-mail: cristiano.padovani@nda.gov.uk [Radioactive Waste Management Limited (formerly the Radioactive Waste Management Directorate of the UK Nuclear Decommissioning Authority), Curie Avenue, Didcot, Oxfordshire OX11 0RH (United Kingdom); Scott, T.B., E-mail: t.b.scott@bristol.ac.uk [Interface Analysis Centre, H. H. Wills Physics Laboratory, University of Bristol, Tyndall Avenue, Bristol BS8 1TL (United Kingdom)

    2015-03-21

    Highlights: • Unirradiated Magnox uranium was encapsulated in grout and exposed to hydrogen. • Synchrotron X-ray tomography imaged the uranium corrosion before and after exposure. • Synchrotron X-ray powder diffraction identified the corrosion products; UH{sub 3} and UO{sub 2}. • Uranium encapsulated in grout oxidised via the anoxic U + H{sub 2}O regime. • Successful in-situ, non-invasive examination of pyrophoric and radioactive material - Abstract: How do you characterise the contents of a sealed nuclear waste package without breaking it open? This question is important when the contained corrosion products are potentially reactive with air and radioactive. Synchrotron X-rays have been used to perform micro-scale in-situ observation and characterisation of uranium encapsulated in grout; a simulation for a typical intermediate level waste storage packet. X-ray tomography and X-ray powder diffraction generated both qualitative and quantitative data from a grout-encapsulated uranium sample before, and after, deliberately constrained H{sub 2} corrosion. Tomographic reconstructions provided a means of assessing the extent, rates and character of the corrosion reactions by comparing the relative densities between the materials and the volume of reaction products. The oxidation of uranium in grout was found to follow the anoxic U + H{sub 2}O oxidation regime, and the pore network within the grout was observed to influence the growth of uranium hydride sites across the metal surface. Powder diffraction analysis identified the corrosion products as UO{sub 2} and UH{sub 3}, and permitted measurement of corrosion-induced strain. Together, X-ray tomography and diffraction provide means of accurately determining the types and extent of uranium corrosion occurring, thereby offering a future tool for isolating and studying the reactions occurring in real full-scale waste package systems.

  3. Experimental studies on the physico-mechanical properties of jet-grout columns in sandy and silty soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akin, Muge K.

    2016-04-01

    The term of ground improvement states to the modification of the engineering properties of soils. Jet-grouting is one of the grouting methods among various ground improvement techniques. During jet-grouting, different textures of columns can be obtained depending on the characteristics of surrounding subsoil as well as the adopted jet-grouting system for each site is variable. In addition to textural properties, strength and index parameters of jet-grout columns are highly affected by the adjacent soil. In this study, the physical and mechanical properties of jet-grout columns constructed at two different sites in silty and sandy soil conditions were determined by laboratory tests. A number of statistical relationships between physical and mechanical properties of soilcrete were established in this study in order to investigate the dependency of numerous variables. The relationship between qu and γd is more reliable for sandy soilcrete than that of silty columns considering the determination coefficients. Positive linear relationships between Vp and γd with significantly high determination coefficients were obtained for the jet-grout columns in silt and sand. The regression analyses indicate that the P-wave velocity is a very dominant parameter for the estimation of physical and mechanical properties of jet-grout columns and should be involved during the quality control of soilcrete material despite the intensive use of uniaxial compressive strength test. Besides, it is concluded that the dry unit weight of jet-grout column is a good indicator of the efficiency of employed operational parameters during jet-grouting.

  4. Rock Stars

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张国平

    2000-01-01

    Around the world young people are spending unbelievable sums of money to listen to rock music. Forbes Magazine reports that at least fifty rock stars have incomes between two million and six million dollars per year.

  5. KREEP Rocks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹永廖; 徐琳; 欧阳自远

    2004-01-01

    KREEP rocks with high contents of K, REE and P were first recognized in Apollo-12 samples, and it was confirmed later that there were KREEP rock fragments in all of the Apollo samples, particularly in Apollo-12 and-14 samples. The KREEP rocks distributed on the lunar surface are the very important objects of study on the evolution of the moon, as well as to evaluate the utilization prospect of REE in KREEP rocks. Based on previous studies and lunar exploration data, the authors analyzed the chemical and mineral characteristics of KREEP rocks, the abundance of Th on the lunar surface materials, the correlation between Th and REE of KREEP rocks in abundance, studied the distribution regions of KREEP rocks on the lunar surface, and further evaluated the utilization prospect of REE in KREEP rocks.

  6. 塔什店主井及副井井筒地面预注浆方案设计%The design of Tashidian main shaft and auxiliary shaft surface pregrouting scheme

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨再江; 李宁; 陈红蕾

    2016-01-01

    结合工程实例,介绍了全"S"孔注浆施工方案,从注浆起止深度、注浆孔布置、注浆段高与压力、浆液注入量等方面,探讨了注浆施工中的设计要点,有助于凿井掘进工作的顺利进行,为类似工程的施工提供了参考.%Combining with the engineering example,this paper introduced the all"S"hole grouting construction scheme,from the start-stop depth of grouting,grouting hole layout,the height and pressure of grouting section,grout injection amount and other aspects,discussed the de-sign key points of grouting construction,help sinking tunnelling work smoothly,provided reference for similar engineering construction.

  7. Quantitative modelling of the degradation processes of cement grout. Project CEMMOD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grandia, Fidel; Galindez, Juan-Manuel; Arcos, David; Molinero, Jorge (Amphos21 Consulting S.L., Barcelona (Spain))

    2010-05-15

    Grout cement is planned to be used in the sealing of water-conducting fractures in the deep geological storage of spent nuclear fuel waste. The integrity of such cementitious materials should be ensured in a time framework of decades to a hundred of years as mimum. However, their durability must be quantified since grout degradation may jeopardize the stability of other components in the repository due to the potential release of hyperalkaline plumes. The model prediction of the cement alteration has been challenging in the last years mainly due to the difficulty to reproduce the progressive change in composition of the Calcium-Silicate-Hydrate (CSH) compounds as the alteration proceeds. In general, the data obtained from laboratory experiments show a rather similar dependence between the pH of pore water and the Ca-Si ratio of the CSH phases. The Ca-Si ratio decreases as the CSH is progressively replaced by Si-enriched phases. An elegant and reasonable approach is the use of solid solution models even keeping in mind that CSH phases are not crystalline solids but gels. An additional obstacle is the uncertainty in the initial composition of the grout to be considered in the calculations because only the recipe of low-pH clinker is commonly provided by the manufacturer. The hydration process leads to the formation of new phases and, importantly, creates porosity. A number of solid solution models have been reported in literature. Most of them assumed a strong non-ideal binary solid solution series to account for the observed changes in the Ca-Si ratios in CSH. However, it results very difficult to reproduce the degradation of the CSH in the whole Ca-Si range of compositions (commonly Ca/Si=0.5-2.5) by considering only two end-members and fixed nonideality parameters. Models with multiple non-ideal end-members with interaction parameters as a function of the solid composition can solve the problem but these can not be managed in the existing codes of reactive

  8. Rock Art

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henn, Cynthia A.

    2004-01-01

    There are many interpretations for the symbols that are seen in rock art, but no decoding key has ever been discovered. This article describes one classroom's experiences with a lesson on rock art--making their rock art and developing their own personal symbols. This lesson allowed for creativity, while giving an opportunity for integration…

  9. Rock Art

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henn, Cynthia A.

    2004-01-01

    There are many interpretations for the symbols that are seen in rock art, but no decoding key has ever been discovered. This article describes one classroom's experiences with a lesson on rock art--making their rock art and developing their own personal symbols. This lesson allowed for creativity, while giving an opportunity for integration…

  10. Rock Finding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rommel-Esham, Katie; Constable, Susan D.

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the authors discuss a literature-based activity that helps students discover the importance of making detailed observations. In an inspiring children's classic book, "Everybody Needs a Rock" by Byrd Baylor (1974), the author invites readers to go "rock finding," laying out 10 rules for finding a "perfect" rock. In this way, the…

  11. ASSESSMENT OF THE POTENTIAL FOR HYDROGEN GENERATION DURING GROUTING OPERATIONS IN THE R AND P REACTOR VESSELS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiersma, B.

    2009-10-29

    The R- and P-reactor buildings were retired from service and are now being prepared for deactivation and decommissioning (D&D). D&D activities will consist primarily of immobilizing contaminated components and structures in a grout-like formulation. Aluminum corrodes very rapidly when it comes in contact with the alkaline grout materials and as a result produces hydrogen gas. To address this potential deflagration/explosion hazard, the Materials Science and Technology Directorate (MS&T) of the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) has been requested to review and evaluate existing experimental and analytical studies of this issue to determine if any process constraints on the chemistry of the fill material and the fill operation are necessary. Various options exist for the type of grout material that may be used for D&D of the reactor vessels. The grout formulation options include ceramicrete (pH 6-8), low pH portland cement + silica fume grout (pH 10.4), or portland cement grout (pH 12.5). The assessment concluded that either ceramicrete or the silica fume grout may be used to safely grout the R- and P- reactor vessels. The risk of accumulation of a flammable mixture of hydrogen between the grout-air interface and the top of the reactor is very low. Conservative calculations estimate that either ceramicrete or the silica fume grout may be used to safely grout the R- and P- reactor vessels. The risk of accumulation of a flammable mixture of hydrogen between the grout-air interface and the top of the reactor is very low. Although these calculations are conservative, there are some measures that may be taken to further minimize the potential for hydrogen evolution. (1) Minimize the temperature of the grout as much as practical. Lower temperatures will mean lower hydrogen generation rates. Grout temperatures less than 100 C should however, still provide an adequate safety margin for the pH 8 and pH 10.4 grout formulations. (2) Minimize the fill rate as much as

  12. COMPREHENSIVE GROUTING TREATMENT FOR WATER GUSHING ANALYSIS IN LIMESTONE BRECCIAS FRACTURE ZONE%灰岩角砾岩破碎带涌水综合注浆治理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张庆松; 韩伟伟; 李术才; 袁晏仁; 刘人太; 李金求; 孙怀凤

    2012-01-01

    Water gushing in limestone breccia fracture zone is a complex geological disaster often encountered in tunnel construction. Compared with the general water gushing in fracture rock mass, due to the poor stability of surrounding rock and rock heterogeneity, gushing treatment in limestone breccias fracture zone is very difficult. For controlling the water gushing in breccias fracture zone with high water pressure and quantity in Zhongliangshan tunnel, water analysis and transient electromagnetic detection were conducted; and groundwater source and channel were analyzed. Based on this, drainage was done first to reduce the water pressure in surrounding rock, then grouting was carried out to strengthen shallow layer. The shallow layer grouting was divided into two parts, i.e. upper part and lower part. Curtain in deep rock was done to plug water. Plugging and drainage were combined in water gushing control. Those four measures formed a comprehensive treatment method. A good control effect was achieved through choosing adaptive grouting materials and matched technology. Surrounding rock deformation and water quantity were measured and analyzed to avoid rock instability induced by grouting pressure. The comprehensive water gushing treatment method well solved the problems during grouting process in breccia fracture zone and realized informatization construction.%灰岩角砾岩破碎带涌水是岩溶隧道建设中经常遇到的地质灾害,由于破碎带围岩稳定性较差且具有较强的不均一性,与一般的裂隙岩体涌水相比,其治理难度较大.针对中梁山隧道角砾岩破碎带高压大流量涌水,进行涌水地质分析和含水区域的瞬变电磁探测,对地下水的来源和通道进行深入分析,在此基础上提出并实施先分流泄压后浅层加固、上下分区治理、深部帷幕和堵排结合的综合治理方案,通过选择适当的注浆材料和配套工艺,取得较好的治理效果.为避免注浆压力可能造

  13. Mechanism Research on the Improvement of Bearing Capacity of Single Pile by Pile-base Post Grouting Technique and Estimation of Bearing Capacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao Feng

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The slurry wall bored grouting has some defects. The pile-base post grouting technique can efficiently make up these defects and greatly improve the bearing capacity. Based on the pile-base post grouting technique and its process analysis, this paper carries out a detailed analysis about the improvement of mechanism of bearing capacity and mechanism of spherical expansion by the use of pile-base post grouting technique, as well as the estimation method of the bearing capacity of pile-base post grouting pile, which has a certain reference value for theoretical research and technical application of the technique.

  14. Underground design Laxemar, Layout D2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2009-11-15

    relative to the maximum horizontal stress. The estimated amount of support is on average very low because of the very good quality rock mass anticipated. This conclusion is also supported by the underground experience at the Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory. The layout of the repository area has the deposition tunnels aligned < 30 deg relative to the maximum horizontal stress. With this orientation spalling is not anticipated in the deposition tunnels or deposition holes. The excavations for the Repository Access (shafts and ramps) will encounter the greatest frequency of open water-bearing fractures located between 0 and 150 m depth. These access excavations may result in a groundwater drawdown that will need to be minimised. The rock mass at the repository horizon is expected to encounter water-bearing fractures approximately 1 every 10 m, and in some areas even more frequently. Groundwater inflows are expected to be significant at repository level requiring extensive grouting. Results from grouting analyses indicate that conventional grouting measures may not be sufficient to meet the inflow criterion. In some areas of the repository, e.g. hydraulic domain HRD-EW007, sealing may not be practical with cement-based grouts and other sealing technologies, such as silica sol technology, may be required. The design and layout presented in this report is based on information compiled at the end of the complete site investigation phase and contained in the report SDM Site TR-09-01. As with all site investigations, at the scale of the repository, there are uncertainties associated with the interpretation of geological information based on borehole investigations. These uncertainties were identified and the impact of these on the current design was evaluated using risk assessment methodologies. The conclusion from the risk assessment is that the available gross capacity of about 8,000 deposition positions is unlikely to be sufficient to host a repository with 6,000 deposited canisters

  15. Design and analysis of tracer tests to determine effective porosity and dispersivity in fractured sedimentary rocks, Newark Basin, New Jersey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carleton, G.B.; Welty, C.; Buxton, H.T.

    1999-11-01

    Investigations of the transport and fate of contaminants in fractured-rock aquifers require knowledge of aquifer hydraulic and transport characteristics to improve prediction of the rate and direction of movement of contaminated ground water. This report describes an approach to estimating hydraulic and transport properties in fractured-rock aquifers; demonstrates the approach at a sedimentary fractured-rock site in the Newark Basin, N.J.; and provides values for hydraulic and transport properties at the site. The approach has three components: (1) characterization of the hydrogeologic framework of ground-water flow within the rock-fracture network, (2) estimation of the distribution of hydraulic properties (hydraulic conductivity and storage coefficient) within that framework, and (3) estimation of transport properties (effective porosity and dispersivity). The approach includes alternatives with increasingly complex data-collection and analysis techniques.

  16. Design and analysis of tracer tests to determine effective porosity and dispersivity in fractured sedimentary rocks, Newark Basin, New Jersey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carleton, G.B.; Welty, C.; Buxton, H.T.

    1999-01-01

    Investigations of the transport and fate of contaminants in fractured-rock aquifers require knowledge of aquifer hydraulic and transport characteristics to improve prediction of the rate and direction of movement of contaminated ground water. This report describes an approach to estimating hydraulic and transport properties in fractured-rock aquifers; demonstrates the approach at a sedimentary fractured-rock site in the Newark Basin, N.J.; and provides values for hydraulic and transport properties at the site. The approach has three components: (1) characterization of the hydrogeologic framework of ground-water flow within the rock-fracture network, (2) estimation of the distribution of hydraulic properties (hydraulic conductivity and storage coefficient) within that framework, and (3) estimation of transport properties (effective porosity and dispersivity). The approach includes alternatives with increasingly complex data-collection and analysis techniques.

  17. Immobilized low-activity waste interim storage facility, Project W-465 conceptual design report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pickett, W.W.

    1997-12-30

    This report outlines the design and Total Estimated Cost to modify the four unused grout vaults for the remote handling and interim storage of immobilized low-activity waste (ILAW). The grout vault facilities in the 200 East Area of the Hanford Site were constructed in the 1980s to support Tank Waste disposal activities. The facilities were to serve project B-714 which was intended to store grouted low-activity waste. The existing 4 unused grout vaults, with modifications for remote handling capability, will provide sufficient capacity for approximately three years of immobilized low activity waste (ILAW) production from the Tank Waste Remediation System-Privatization Vendors (TWRS-PV). These retrofit modifications to the grout vaults will result in an ILAW interim storage facility (Project W465) that will comply with applicable DOE directives, and state and federal regulations.

  18. Immobilized low-activity waste interim storage facility, Project W-465 conceptual design report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pickett, W.W.

    1997-12-30

    This report outlines the design and Total Estimated Cost to modify the four unused grout vaults for the remote handling and interim storage of immobilized low-activity waste (ILAW). The grout vault facilities in the 200 East Area of the Hanford Site were constructed in the 1980s to support Tank Waste disposal activities. The facilities were to serve project B-714 which was intended to store grouted low-activity waste. The existing 4 unused grout vaults, with modifications for remote handling capability, will provide sufficient capacity for approximately three years of immobilized low activity waste (ILAW) production from the Tank Waste Remediation System-Privatization Vendors (TWRS-PV). These retrofit modifications to the grout vaults will result in an ILAW interim storage facility (Project W465) that will comply with applicable DOE directives, and state and federal regulations.

  19. Nuclear waste viewed in a new light; a synchrotron study of uranium encapsulated in grout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stitt, C A; Hart, M; Harker, N J; Hallam, K R; MacFarlane, J; Banos, A; Paraskevoulakos, C; Butcher, E; Padovani, C; Scott, T B

    2015-03-21

    How do you characterise the contents of a sealed nuclear waste package without breaking it open? This question is important when the contained corrosion products are potentially reactive with air and radioactive. Synchrotron X-rays have been used to perform micro-scale in-situ observation and characterisation of uranium encapsulated in grout; a simulation for a typical intermediate level waste storage packet. X-ray tomography and X-ray powder diffraction generated both qualitative and quantitative data from a grout-encapsulated uranium sample before, and after, deliberately constrained H2 corrosion. Tomographic reconstructions provided a means of assessing the extent, rates and character of the corrosion reactions by comparing the relative densities between the materials and the volume of reaction products. The oxidation of uranium in grout was found to follow the anoxic U+H2O oxidation regime, and the pore network within the grout was observed to influence the growth of uranium hydride sites across the metal surface. Powder diffraction analysis identified the corrosion products as UO2 and UH3, and permitted measurement of corrosion-induced strain. Together, X-ray tomography and diffraction provide means of accurately determining the types and extent of uranium corrosion occurring, thereby offering a future tool for isolating and studying the reactions occurring in real full-scale waste package systems.

  20. Time-Lapse Electrical Resistivity Investigations for Imaging the Grouting Injection in Shallow Subsurface Cavities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Farooq

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The highway of Yongweol-ri, Muan-gun, south-western part of the South Korean Peninsula, is underlain by the abandoned of subsurface cavities, which were discovered in 2005. These cavities lie at shallow depths with the range of 5∼15 meters below the ground surface. Numerous subsidence events have repeatedly occurred in the past few years, damaging infrastructure and highway. As a result of continuing subsidence issues, the Korean Institute of Geosciences and Mineral Resources (KIGAM was requested by local administration to resolve the issue. The KIGAM used geophysical methods to delineate subsurface cavities and improve more refined understanding of the cavities network in the study area. Cement based grouting has been widely employed in the construction industry to reinforce subsurface ground. In this research work, time-lapse electrical resistivity surveys were accomplished to monitor the grouting injection in the subsurface cavities beneath the highway, which have provided a quasi-real-time monitoring for modifying the subsurface cavities related to ground reinforcement, which would be difficult with direct methods. The results obtained from time-lapse electrical resistivity technique have satisfactory imaged the grouting injection experiment in the subsurface cavities beneath the highway. Furthermore, the borehole camera confirmed the presence of grouting material in the subsurface cavities, and hence this procedure increases the mechanical resistance of subsurface cavities below the highway.

  1. Test plan for formulation and evaluation of grouted waste forms with shine process wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ebert, W. L. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Jerden, J. L. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2015-09-01

    The objective of this experimental project is to demonstrate that waste streams generated during the production of Mo99 by the SHINE Medical Technologies (SHINE) process can be immobilized in cement-based grouted waste forms having physical, chemical, and radiological stabilities that meet regulatory requirements for handling, storage, transport, and disposal.

  2. Grouting applications in civil engineering. Volume I and II. [800 references

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Einstein, H.H.; Barvenik, M.J.

    1975-01-01

    A comprehensive description of grouting applications in civil engineering is presented that can serve as a basis for the selection of grouting methods in the borehole sealing problem. The breadth and depth of the study was assured by conducting the main part of the review, the collection and evaluation of information, without specifically considering the borehole sealing problem (but naturally incorporating any aspect of civil engineering applications that could be of potential use). Grouting is very much an art and not a science. In most cases, it is a trial and error procedure where an inexpensive method is initially tried and then a more expensive one is used until the desired results are obtained. Once a desired effect is obtained, it is difficult to credit any one procedure with the success because the results are due to the summation of all the methods used. In many cases, the method that proves successful reflects a small abnormality in the ground or structure rather than its overall characteristics. Hence, successful grouting relies heavily on good engineering judgement and experience, and not on a basic set of standard correlations or equations. 800 references. (JRD)

  3. 'Escher' Rock

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Chemical Changes in 'Endurance' Rocks [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Figure 1 This false-color image taken by NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity shows a rock dubbed 'Escher' on the southwestern slopes of 'Endurance Crater.' Scientists believe the rock's fractures, which divide the surface into polygons, may have been formed by one of several processes. They may have been caused by the impact that created Endurance Crater, or they might have arisen when water leftover from the rock's formation dried up. A third possibility is that much later, after the rock was formed, and after the crater was created, the rock became wet once again, then dried up and developed cracks. Opportunity has spent the last 14 sols investigating Escher, specifically the target dubbed 'Kirchner,' and other similar rocks with its scientific instruments. This image was taken on sol 208 (Aug. 24, 2004) by the rover's panoramic camera, using the 750-, 530- and 430-nanometer filters. The graph above shows that rocks located deeper into 'Endurance Crater' are chemically altered to a greater degree than rocks located higher up. This chemical alteration is believed to result from exposure to water. Specifically, the graph compares ratios of chemicals between the deep rock dubbed 'Escher,' and the more shallow rock called 'Virginia,' before (red and blue lines) and after (green line) the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity drilled into the rocks. As the red and blue lines indicate, Escher's levels of chlorine relative to Virginia's went up, and sulfur down, before the rover dug a hole into the rocks. This implies that the surface of Escher has been chemically altered to a greater extent than the surface of Virginia. Scientists are still investigating the role water played in influencing this trend. These data were taken by the rover's alpha particle X-ray spectrometer.

  4. 'Escher' Rock

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Chemical Changes in 'Endurance' Rocks [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Figure 1 This false-color image taken by NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity shows a rock dubbed 'Escher' on the southwestern slopes of 'Endurance Crater.' Scientists believe the rock's fractures, which divide the surface into polygons, may have been formed by one of several processes. They may have been caused by the impact that created Endurance Crater, or they might have arisen when water leftover from the rock's formation dried up. A third possibility is that much later, after the rock was formed, and after the crater was created, the rock became wet once again, then dried up and developed cracks. Opportunity has spent the last 14 sols investigating Escher, specifically the target dubbed 'Kirchner,' and other similar rocks with its scientific instruments. This image was taken on sol 208 (Aug. 24, 2004) by the rover's panoramic camera, using the 750-, 530- and 430-nanometer filters. The graph above shows that rocks located deeper into 'Endurance Crater' are chemically altered to a greater degree than rocks located higher up. This chemical alteration is believed to result from exposure to water. Specifically, the graph compares ratios of chemicals between the deep rock dubbed 'Escher,' and the more shallow rock called 'Virginia,' before (red and blue lines) and after (green line) the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity drilled into the rocks. As the red and blue lines indicate, Escher's levels of chlorine relative to Virginia's went up, and sulfur down, before the rover dug a hole into the rocks. This implies that the surface of Escher has been chemically altered to a greater extent than the surface of Virginia. Scientists are still investigating the role water played in influencing this trend. These data were taken by the rover's alpha particle X-ray spectrometer.

  5. The Effects of Friction on the Performance of A Concrete Block Mine Seal with Pressurized Grout Bags

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Kyle A.

    2014-10-01

    Mine seals are necessary in nearly every underground coal mine to isolate mined-out areas from the ventilation network. Many seals are already in place in active mines and more need to be constructed to keep up with the development of underground coal reserves. The accidents involving seal failures at Sago and Darby prompted MSHA to create and implement new regulations regarding the strength of the seals. These regulations require the design and construction of seals that are larger and stronger than ever before. Structural seals capable of withstanding the new required design loads are now designed by an engineer and no longer approved through explosion testing. Prior to the seal failure accidents, a solid-block wall with pressurized grout bags at the wall/ribs and wall/roof interfaces was a popular design which met the 137.9 kPa (20 psi) requirement. After implementation of the new 344.7 kPa (50 psi) or 827.4 kPa (120 psi) design regulations depending on whether the atmosphere is kept inert inby the seal, a re-design of the seal was necessary. This paper discusses the quantification of the coefficients of friction which are then implemented into finite element modeling.

  6. Soft rocks in Argentina

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Giambastiani; Mauricio

    2014-01-01

    Soft rocks are a still fairly unexplored chapter in rock mechanics. Within this category are the clastic sedimentary rocks and pyroclastic volcanic rocks, of low to moderate lithification (consolidation, cemen-tation, new formed minerals), chemical sedimentary rocks and metamorphic rocks formed by minerals with Mohs hardness less than 3.5, such as limestone, gypsum, halite, sylvite, between the first and phyllites, graphitic schist, chloritic shale, talc, etc., among the latter. They also include any type of rock that suffered alteration processes (hydrothermal or weathering). In Argentina the study of low-strength rocks has not received much attention despite having extensive outcrops in the Andes and great impact in the design criteria. Correlation between geomechanical properties (UCS, deformability) to physical index (porosity, density, etc.) has shown promising results to be better studied. There are many studies and engineering projects in Argentina in soft rock geological environments, some cited in the text (Chihuído dam, N. Kirchner dam, J. Cepernic Dam, etc.) and others such as International Tunnel in the Province of Mendoza (Corredor Bioceánico), which will require the valuable contribution from rock mechanics. The lack of consistency between some of the physical and mechanical parameters explored from studies in the country may be due to an insufficient amount of information and/or non-standardization of criteria for testing materials. It is understood that more and better academic and professional efforts in improv-ing techniques will result in benefits to the better understanding of the geomechanics of weak rocks.

  7. Engineering practice of reducing ground subsidence by grouting into overburden bed-separated and similar model experiment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO Yan-fa; ZHONG Ya-ping; LI Jian-min; WANG Su-hua; ZHANG Qing-song

    2007-01-01

    The subsidence prediction theory under the condition of grouting into bedseparated was developed. Reducing ground subsidence by grouting was carried out on eight fully-mechanized top-coal caving faces, by using the continuous grouting in multiple-layer to obtain experiment results of reducing subsidence under fully mining. The similar material model that can be dismantled under the condition of constant temperature and constant humidity was developed. The model was used to simulate the evolution of overburden bed-separated under such constraints of temperature and humidity, at the same time, and to test the hardening process of similar materials.

  8. 'Earhart' Rock

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    This false-color image taken by NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity shows a rock informally named 'Earhart' on the lower slopes of 'Endurance Crater.' The rock was named after the pilot Amelia Earhart. Like 'Escher' and other rocks dotting the bottom of Endurance, scientists believe fractures in Earhart could have been formed by one of several processes. They may have been caused by the impact that created Endurance Crater, or they might have arisen when water leftover from the rock's formation dried up. A third possibility is that much later, after the rock was formed, and after the crater was created, the rock became wet once again, then dried up and developed cracks. Rover team members do not have plans to investigate Earhart in detail because it is located across potentially hazardous sandy terrain. This image was taken on sol 219 (Sept. 4) by the rover's panoramic camera, using its 750-, 530- and 430-nanometer filters.

  9. Rock Art

    OpenAIRE

    Huyge, Dirk

    2009-01-01

    Rock art, basically being non-utilitarian, non-textual anthropic markings on natural rock surfaces, was an extremely widespread graphical practice in ancient Egypt. While the apogee of the tradition was definitely the Predynastic Period (mainly fourth millennium BCE), examples date from the late Palaeolithic (c. 15,000 BCE) until the Islamic era. Geographically speaking, “Egyptian” rock art is known from many hundreds of sites along the margins of the Upper Egyptian and Nubian Nile Valley and...

  10. Rock blocks

    OpenAIRE

    Turner, W.

    2007-01-01

    Consider representation theory associated to symmetric groups, or to Hecke algebras in type A, or to q-Schur algebras, or to finite general linear groups in non-describing characteristic. Rock blocks are certain combinatorially defined blocks appearing in such a representation theory, first observed by R. Rouquier. Rock blocks are much more symmetric than general blocks, and every block is derived equivalent to a Rock block. Motivated by a theorem of J. Chuang and R. Kessar in the case of sym...

  11. Determining the stress of rock massif

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Defining the stress rock massif is essential for design of underground facilities and methods of mining in the mines. Assessment the value of stress state of rock massif and rock strength in the various loads allows rational design. This is of particular importance when sizing columns, determining the extent of excavation, the cross-sections of underground rooms in problems with rock bursts and others. This paper briefly gives the basic methods of determining the rock massif stress as part of...

  12. ASSESSMENT OF THE POTENTIAL FOR HYDROGEN GENERATION DURING GROUTING OPERATIONS IN THE R AND P REACTOR VESSELS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiersma, B.

    2010-05-24

    The R- and P-reactor buildings were retired from service and are now being prepared for deactivation and decommissioning (D and D). D and D activities consist primarily of immobilizing contaminated components and structures in a grout-like formulation. Aluminum corrodes very rapidly when it comes in contact with the alkaline grout materials and as a result produces hydrogen gas. To address this potential deflagration/explosion hazard, the Materials Science and Technology Directorate (MS and T) of the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) has been requested to review and evaluate existing experimental and analytical studies of this issue to determine if any process constraints on the chemistry of the fill material and the fill operation are necessary. Various options exist for the type of grout material that may be used for D and D of the reactor vessels. The grout formulation options include ceramicrete (pH 6-8), low pH portland cement + silica fume grout (pH 10.4), or Portland cement groupt (pH 12.5). The assessment concluded that either ceramicrete or the silica fume grout may be used to safely grout the P-reactor vessel. The risk of accumulation of a flammable mixture of hydrogen between the grout-air interface and the top of the reactor is very low. Portland cement grout, on the other hand, for the same range of process parameters does not provide a margin of safety against the accumulation of flammable gas in the reactor vessel during grouting operations in the P-reactor vessel. It is recommended that this grout not be utilized for this task. The R-reactor vessel cotnains significantly less aluminum based on current facility process knowledge, surface observations, and drawings. Therefore, a Portland cement grout may be considered for grouting operations as well as the other grout formulations. For example, if the grout fill rate is less than 1 inch/min and the grout temperature is maintained at 70 C or less, the risk of hydrogen accumulation during fill

  13. 盾构隧道同步注浆浆液压力消散规律研究%Research on the Dissipation Law of Grout Pressure during the Simultaneous Grouting of Shield Tunnel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张莎莎; 戴志仁; 白云

    2012-01-01

    基于达西定律、力学平衡原理和广义虎克定律,推导盾尾空隙内浆液的固结方程,以软土地区典型的盾构隧道同步注浆参数为例,分析浆液压力消散规律.结果表明:浆饼(浆液固结层)厚度与土体剪切模量、泊松比成反比,与注浆压力成正比,与浆液固结前后孔隙比的变化密切相关;不计地层渗流阻力影响时,浆液压力的消散与浆饼厚度的形成主要集中在浆液注入盾尾空隙后的2.1h以内;地层渗流阻力可以延缓浆液的固结过程,但不能影响其最终固结状态;土体剪切模量的增大有利于促进浆液压力的快速消散;孔隙水压力的增大能明显抑制浆液压力的消散;注浆压力的增大对初始时刻浆液压力的消散具有明显的促进作用,但却会相应延长压力消散的时间.%Guided by Darcy law, the mechanical equilibrium principle and the generalized Hooke's law, the formula of grout consolidation in tail void was derived. Based on the typical grouting parameters during simultaneous grouting in soft soils, the dissipation law of grout pressure was analyzed. Results show that the thickness of grout cake (grout consolidated layer) is inversely proportional to soil shear modulus and Poisson's ratio, is proportional to grouting pressure, and is still closely related to the change of void ratio before and after grout consolidation. Excluded the influence of ground osmotic resistance, the dissipation of grout pressure and the formation of grout cake is mainly concentrated in the first 2. 1 hours after grout injected into tail void. Ground osmotic resistance can obviously delay grout consolidation process, but not the finial consolidation state. The increment of soil shear modulus helps to accelerate the dissipation speed of grout pressure. The increment of pore water pressure can obviously restrain the dissipation of grout pressure. The increase of grouting pressure can obviously promote the initial

  14. Design and proof of function of a closure system for an HLW-repository in rock salt. Results of the preliminary safety analysis for the Gorleben site (VSG)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller-Hoeppe, Nina; Breustedt, Michael; Engelhardt, Hans-Joachim; Wolf, Johanna [DBE Technology GmbH, Peine (Germany); Buhmann, Dieter; Czaikowski, Oliver; Herbert, Horst-Juergen; Wieczorek, Klaus; Xie, Mingliang [Gesellschaft fuer Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit mbH, Braunschweig (Germany)

    2015-07-01

    Within the preliminary safety analysis for the Gorleben site (VSG), a closure system was designed in order to complement the containment providing rock zone (CRZ) by sealing and backfilling measures. The design procedure as well as the technical proof of function was mainly performed according to standard procedures in civil engineering. In the context of VSG, rough individual technical proofs of several measures were carried out. Meanwhile, this gap has been closed by subsequent investigations. Altogether the results of all the individual technical proofs of function indicate that safe containment of radioactive waste is a realistic possibility at the Gorleben site.

  15. Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project (UMTRAP), Slick Rock, Colorado, Revision 1. Volume 2, Calculations, Final design for construction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    Volume two contains calculations for: embankment design--slope stability analysis; embankment design--excavation stability; embankment design--settlement and cover cracking analysis; radon barrier design--statistical analysis of ra-226 concentrations for North Continent and Union Carbide sites; radon barrier design--RAECOM input data; radon barrier design--design thickness; and cover design--frost penetration depth.

  16. Rock blasting and explosives engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Persson, P.-A.; Holmberg, R.; Lee, J. (New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology, Socorro, NM (United States). Research Center for Energetic Materials)

    1994-01-01

    The book covers the practical engineering aspects of different kinds of rock blasting. It includes a thorough analysis of the cost of the entire process of tunneling by drilling and blasting compared with full-face boring. It covers the economics of the entire rock blasting operation and its dependence on the size of excavation. The book highlights the fundamentals of rock mechanics, shock waves and detonation, initiation and mechanics of rock motion. It describes the engineering design principles and computational techniques for many separate mining methods and rock blasting operations. 274 refs.

  17. Rock in Rio: forever young

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Ferreira Freitas

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to discuss the role of Rock in Rio: The Musical, as herald of megafestival Rock in Rio. Driven by the success that musicals have reached in Brazil, we believe that the design of this spectacle of music, dance and staging renews the brand of the rock festival, once it adds the force of young and healthy bodies to its concept. Moreover, the musical provides Rock in Rio with some distance from the controversal trilogy of sex, drugs and rock and roll, a strong mark of past festivals around the world. Thus, the musical expands the possibilities of growth for the brand.

  18. Rock in Rio: eternamente jovem

    OpenAIRE

    Ricardo Ferreira Freitas; Flávio Lins Rodrigues

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to discuss the role of Rock in Rio: The Musical, as herald of megafestival Rock in Rio. Driven by the success that musicals have reached in Brazil, we believe that the design of this spectacle of music, dance and staging renews the brand of the rock festival, once it adds the force of young and healthy bodies to its concept. Moreover, the musical provides Rock in Rio with some distance from the controversal trilogy of sex, drugs and rock and roll, a strong mark ...

  19. The spaces of art: the design of panel and the articulation of landscape in Galician rock art

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santos Estévez, Manuel

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses open air rock engravings both as resources to create space in panels and as mechanisms for landscape construction. A series of models are defined, both in panels and in panel groups, that structure the space of art. We also highlight the importance of placement as an essential element in the understanding of open air rock art. Through the study of panels, we have discovered that the motifs apparently referring to the male -weapons, riding scenes and stags— are placed at the top of panels. At a second level of analysis, the groups of engraved rocks, those motifs appear on rocks located at points which stand out in the landscape. Finally we find a third level of analysis, the so called Systems of Groups of Engraved Rocks, formed by groups of petroglyphs delimiting Bronze Age territories.

    Se estudian los grabados rupestres al aire libre como un recurso para construir el espacio de los paneles y como forma de articular el paisaje. En los paneles y en las estaciones de arte rupestre se definen una serie de modelos que estructuran el espacio del arte. Se resalta también la importancia del emplazamiento como elemento fundamental para comprender el arte rupestre al aire libre. Así en el estudio de los paneles, los motivos, probablemente alusivos a lo masculino: armas, escenas de equitación y ciervos macho aparecen en la parte superior del panel. En un segundo nivel de análisis, en las estaciones son estos mismos motivos los que aparecen en emplazamientos más destacados en el paisaje. También se estudian los llamados Sistemas de Estaciones, formados por grupos de petroglifos que delimitan territorios en la Edad del Bronce.

  20. Construction Design of “Conical” Coal (Rock) Warehouse%“锥形”煤(岩)仓的施工设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张振营

    2012-01-01

    随着安全高产高效矿井建设的大力推进,煤矿出煤连续化工程以及岩巷后运皮带化施工工艺得到了迅猛发展.致使煤(岩)仓在设计、使用中所存在的一些问题得到了凸显.为有效解决煤(岩)块堵仓、粘仓、溃仓等问题我们创新出了——“锥形”煤(岩)仓.“锥形”煤(岩)仓是在分析、总结原煤仓优缺点的基础上,由圆形垂直式煤仓发展而来的.其重点是对煤仓的仓体进行了“锥形”优化设计,重在解决堵仓、粘仓事故的发生以及堵仓、粘仓后的安全高效处理等.%Along with vigorous promotion of mine construction with safety and high production as well as high efficiency, continuous engineering of coal mine and construction technology of stone head after the transport belt have been developed rapidly, which causes highlighted problems of coal (rock) warehouse in design and use. In order to effectively solve the problems of coal (rock)warehouse, such as blocking warehouse, sticky warehouse and defeated warehouse, we create the "Conical" coal(rock)warehouse. The development of "Conical" coal(rock)warehouse is evolved from circular vertical coal warehouse based on the summary of the advantages and disadvantages of original coal warehouse. To make "Conical" optimal design is its key, and it focus on solving the previously mentioned problems and the safe and efficient processing after blocking warehouse and sticky warehouse.

  1. A THERMAL MODEL OF THE IMMOBILIZATION OF LOW-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTE AS GROUT IN CONCRETE VAULTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shadday, M

    2008-10-27

    Salt solution will be mixed with cement and flyash/slag to form a grout which will be immobilized in above ground concrete vaults. The curing process is exothermic, and a transient thermal model of the pouring and curing process is herein described. A peak temperature limit of 85 C for the curing grout restricts the rate at which it can be poured into a vault. The model is used to optimize the pouring.

  2. A THERMAL MODEL OF THE IMMOBILIZATION OF LOW-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTE AS GROUT IN CONCRETE VAULTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shadday, M

    2008-10-27

    Salt solution will be mixed with cement and flyash/slag to form a grout which will be immobilized in above ground concrete vaults. The curing process is exothermic, and a transient thermal model of the pouring and curing process is herein described. A peak temperature limit of 85 C for the curing grout restricts the rate at which it can be poured into a vault. The model is used to optimize the pouring.

  3. Reinforcement and Rectification for the Coal Bunker Foundation by Composite Grouting Method%复合注浆法在煤仓地基加固纠偏中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯旭海; 李生生

    2014-01-01

    大荷载煤仓因为地基土承载力不够而产生不均匀沉降和倾斜,需要进行加固和纠偏处理。复合注浆法综合利用注浆的加固和抬升效应,进行地基加固和构筑物沉降控制。以大荷载煤仓地基加固为例,对注浆设计与施工进行了介绍,实现了提高地基承载力和降低沉降差的目的。%A coal bunker with large loads is easy to appear uneven settlement and tilt because of lack of ground bearing capacity. The foundation needs to be reinforced and the coal bunker needs to be rectified for use. The composite grouting method can reinforce the foundation and control the sedimentation of structures by utilizing the compaction and jacking effects of grouting. Taking a large load bunker foundation’ s reinforcement for example, the paper introduced the design and construction of the composite grouting method to improve the bearing capacity and reduce differential settlement.

  4. Art Rocks with Rock Art!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bickett, Marianne

    2011-01-01

    This article discusses rock art which was the very first "art." Rock art, such as the images created on the stone surfaces of the caves of Lascaux and Altimira, is the true origin of the canvas, paintbrush, and painting media. For there, within caverns deep in the earth, the first artists mixed animal fat, urine, and saliva with powdered minerals…

  5. Art Rocks with Rock Art!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bickett, Marianne

    2011-01-01

    This article discusses rock art which was the very first "art." Rock art, such as the images created on the stone surfaces of the caves of Lascaux and Altimira, is the true origin of the canvas, paintbrush, and painting media. For there, within caverns deep in the earth, the first artists mixed animal fat, urine, and saliva with powdered minerals…

  6. “视界有声”--简析中国摇滚唱片封面设计%ANALYSIS OF CHINESE ROCK AND ROLL ALBUM COVER DESIGN

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈志莹; 何娇

    2016-01-01

    In the era of “digital music”,with the demise of recording industry, this is a thought-provoking question to designers that how to combine the design of album covers with the Music Player interface design in new mediums. This article mainly introduces numerous china’s representative Rock and rol record covers, from the point of view of a graphic designer, on the one hand, in order to analyzes the development and changes since the rock music introduced into China for nearly 35 years, on the other hand to analyze the impact of Chinese traditional culture and contemporary social forms and artistic concepts for rock album cover art.%在“数字音乐”时代,唱片产业逐渐没落,如何将唱片封面设计和新媒介下音乐播放界面设计相结合,是值得设计师深思的问题。本文以中国摇滚乐的代表性唱片为线索,从平面设计师的角度分析摇滚自传入中国至今近35年来设计表现的发展变化,中国传统文化以及现当代社会形态和艺术观念对摇滚唱片封面艺术的影响。

  7. Study on reasonable grouting sealing pressure for Hole Sealing in the Determination of Coal Seam Gas Pressure%煤层瓦斯压力测定的合理封孔注浆压力研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨宏民; 杨峰峰; 安丰华; 陈向军

    2015-01-01

    煤层瓦斯压力测定是煤矿安全生产基础参数测定的重要内容之一,测压成功的关键是封孔技术。当围岩裂隙较发育时需要采用压力注浆封孔,注浆压力就成为封孔的技术关键。为了确定一定围岩岩性条件下的合理封孔注浆压力,采用数值模拟的方法对测压钻孔塑性区大小进行了仿真模拟,并根据浆液渗流规律和钻孔围岩性质之间的关系建立了浆液流动数学模型,得出了合理的注浆压力为4MPa,结合新型“两堵一注”囊袋式封孔装置与CPD8M型煤层瓦斯压力自动测定仪进行了现场应用,结果表明4MPa的注浆压力满足平煤十三矿试验现场围岩条件下的封孔要求,对同类条件下瓦斯压力测定具有一定的指导意义。%Coal seam gas pressure measurement is an important part of the basic parameter determination of safety production in coal mine , the key to successful manometry is sealing technology .When the surrounding rock fracture is developed by using pressure grouting hole needs , grouting pressure has become the key technology of hole seal-ing.In order to determine a reasonable hole sealing grouting pressure of surrounding rock lithology conditions , u-sing numerical simulation method to pressure hole the size of the plastic zone is simulated , and the establishment of slurry flow mathematical model according to the relationship between the flow of slurry and drilling properties of sur -rounding rock, grouting pressure obtained reasonable 4MPa, combined with the new "two block a injection"bag type sealing device and CDP8M type coal gas pressure automatic measuring instrument for field application , the re-sults show that the grouting pressure 4 MPa meet thirteen min of Ping dingshan mining site test of surrounding rock conditions of sealing requirements , it has certain guiding significance for similar conditions of gas pressure determi-nation.

  8. Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory. Annual Report 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2009-07-15

    The Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory (HRL) is an important part of SKB's work with the design and construction of a deep geological repository for the final disposal of spent nuclear fuel. The main activities in the geoscientific fields have been: (1) Geology - completion of the feasibility study concerning geological mapping techniques and mapping of rock surfaces in the new tunnel, (2) Hydrogeology - monitoring and storage of data in the computerised Hydro Monitoring System, (3) Geochemistry - sampling of groundwater in the yearly campaign and for specific experiments and (4) Rock Mechanics - field tests to evaluate the counterforce needed to prevent thermally-induced spalling in deposition holes. At Aespoe HRL, experiments are performed under the conditions that are expected to prevail at repository depth. The aim is to provide information about the long-term function of natural and repository barriers. Experiments are performed to develop and test methods and models for the description of groundwater flow, radionuclide migration, and chemical conditions at repository depth. The programme includes projects which aim to determine parameter values that are required as input to the conceptual and numerical models. A number of large-scale field experiments and supporting activities concerning Engineered barriers are carried out at Aespoe HRL. The experiments focus on different aspects of engineering technology and performance testing: The Prototype Repository is a demonstration of the integrated function of the repository and provides a full-scale reference for tests of predictive models concerning individual components as well as the complete repository system; The Long Term Test of Buffer Material (Lot-experiment) aims at validating models and hypotheses concerning physical properties in a bentonite buffer material and of related processes regarding microbiology, radionuclide transport, copper corrosion and gas transport; The objective of the project Alternative

  9. The grout/glass performance assessment code system (GPACS) with verification and benchmarking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piepho, M.G.; Sutherland, W.H.; Rittmann, P.D.

    1994-12-01

    GPACS is a computer code system for calculating water flow (unsaturated or saturated), solute transport, and human doses due to the slow release of contaminants from a waste form (in particular grout or glass) through an engineered system and through a vadose zone to an aquifer, well and river. This dual-purpose document is intended to serve as a user`s guide and verification/benchmark document for the Grout/Glass Performance Assessment Code system (GPACS). GPACS can be used for low-level-waste (LLW) Glass Performance Assessment and many other applications including other low-level-waste performance assessments and risk assessments. Based on all the cses presented, GPACS is adequate (verified) for calculating water flow and contaminant transport in unsaturated-zone sediments and for calculating human doses via the groundwater pathway.

  10. ROCK ON

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Thomas Grose

    2014-01-01

    ..., however, was music - especially the high-pitched sounds of pop and rock, which boosted energy output by up to 40 percent. By contrast, classical music's lower pitches barely raised effectiveness. O...

  11. Durability and compressive strength of blast furnace slag-based cement grout for special geotechnical applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ortega, J. M.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Special foundations, most prominently micropiles and soil anchors, are frequently used in construction today. In Spain, the grout for these special technical applications is generally prepared with portland cement, although the codes and standards in place stipulate only the minimum compressive strength required, with no mention of cement type. Those texts also establish a range of acceptable water:cement ratios. In the present study, durability and compressive strength in cement grout prepared with blast furnace slag cement at different w/c ratios are characterised and compared to the findings for a reference portland cement grout. The results show that slag grout exhibits greater durability than the portland cement material and complies with the compressive strength requirements laid down in the respective codes.Actualmente es muy frecuente el empleo de cimentaciones especiales, entre las que destacan los micropilotes y los anclajes. En España, las lechadas de cemento para estos trabajos geotécnicos especiales se preparan habitualmente con cemento Portland, aunque las diferentes normativas al respecto no restringen el tipo de cemento a emplear, siempre que se alcance una determinada resistencia a compresión. Respecto a la dosificación de las lechadas, la normativa permite emplear diferentes relaciones agua/cemento dentro de un determinado rango. En vista de ello, en este trabajo se han caracterizado las propiedades de durabilidad y resistencia a compresión de lechadas de cemento preparadas con un cemento con escoria de alto horno y con diferentes relaciones a/c, tomando como referencia de comportamiento lechadas de cemento Portland. El uso de un cemento con escoria conlleva una mejora en la durabilidad de las lechadas, cumpliendo los requisitos de resistencia a compresión establecidos por la normativa.

  12. Leach and EP (extraction procedure) toxicity tests on grouted waste from Tank 106-AN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serne, R.J.; Martin, W.J.; Lokken, R.O.; LeGore, V.L.; Lindenmeier, C.W.; Martin, P.F.C.

    1989-09-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory is conducting laboratory experiments to produce leach rate data for various waste species that will be contained in grout at Hanford. In the work reported here, grout made from Tank 106-AN liquid waste was used to produce empirical leach rate data for several radionuclides ({sup 60}Co, {sup 90}Sr, {99}Tc, {129}I, {137}Cs, and {sup 241}Am), stable major components (NO{sub 3}{sup {minus}}, NO{sub 2}{sup {minus}}, F, Cl, and Na), and trace metals (Cr, Mo, and Ni). Two types of tests were used to produce leach rate data: an intermittent replacement leach test (ANS 16.1 leach test) and a static leach test. Measured effective diffusivities of key species are as follows: 4 to 6 {times} 10{sup {minus}8} cm{sup 2}/sec for {sup 99}Tc, 3 to 7 {times} 10{sup {minus}8} cm{sup 2}/sec for {sup 129}I, 4 to 6 {times} 10{sup {minus}9} cm{sup 2}/sec for nitrate, and 6 to 7 {times} 10{sup {minus}9} cm{sup 2}/sec for nitrite. The leach indices of all species studied are above (more favorable than) the waste form criteria. The leach indices for {sup 99}Tc and {sup 129}I are 7.4 {plus minus} 1.2 and 7.6 {plus minus} 0.4, respectively, and are being further investigated in continuing studies of double-shell slurry feed grouts. An Extraction Procedure (EP) toxicity test was also conducted and the grouted water is considered nontoxic per this test protocol. 19 refs., 9 figs., 8 tabs.

  13. IMPACT OF ALUMINATE IONS ON THE PROPERTIES OF SALTSTONE GROUT MIXES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harbour, J; Tommy Edwards, T; Erich Hansen, E; Vickie Williams, V

    2008-02-21

    It is important to identify and control the operational and compositional variables that impact the important processing and performance properties of Saltstone grout mixes. The grout that is produced at the Saltstone Production Facility (SPF) is referred to as Saltstone and is a waste form that immobilizes low concentrations of radionuclides as well as certain toxic metals. The Saltstone will be disposed of in vaults at Savannah River Site (SRS). An effort referred to as the Saltstone Variability Study has been initiated to achieve this goal. The protocols developed in this variability study are also ideally suited as a tool to assess the impact of proposed changes to the processing flow sheet for Liquid Waste Operations at SRS. One such proposal that is currently under consideration is to introduce a leaching step in the treatment of the High Level Waste (HLW) sludge to remove aluminum prior to vitrification at the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). This leachate would significantly increase the soluble aluminate concentration in the salt feed that will be processed at the SPF. Consequently, an initial study of the impact of increased aluminate concentration on the Saltstone grout properties was performed. Prior work by Lukens (1) showed that aluminate in the salt solutions increases the amount of heat generation.

  14. Grout and glass performance in support of stabilization/solidification of ORNL tank sludges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spence, R.D.; Mattus, C.H.; Mattus, A.J.

    1998-09-01

    Wastewater at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is collected, evaporated, and stored in the Melton Valley Storage Tanks (MVST) and Bethel Valley Evaporator Storage Tanks (BVEST) pending treatment for disposal. In addition, some sludges and supernatants also requiring treatment remain in two inactive tank systems: the gunite and associated tanks (GAAT) and the old hydrofracture (OHF) tank. The waste consists of two phases: sludge and supernatant. The sludges contain a high amount of radioactivity, and some are classified as TRU sludges. Some Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) metal concentrations are high enough to be defined as RCRA hazardous; therefore, these sludges are presumed to be mixed TRU waste. Grouting and vitrification are currently two likely stabilization/solidification alternatives for mixed wastes. Grouting has been used to stabilize/solidify hazardous and low-level radioactive waste for decades. Vitrification has been developed as a high-level radioactive alternative for decades and has been under development recently as an alternative disposal technology for mixed waste. The objective of this project is to define an envelope, or operating window, for grout and glass formulations for ORNL tank sludges. Formulations will be defined for the average composition of each of the major tank farms (BVEST/MVST, GAAT, and OHF) and for an overall average composition of all tank farms. This objective is to be accomplished using surrogates of the tank sludges with hot testing of actual tank sludges to check the efficacy of the surrogates.

  15. Remedial action plan and site design for stabilization of the inactive uranium mill tailings sites at Slick Rock, Colorado: Remedial Action Selection Report. Preliminary final

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-03-01

    This proposed remedial action plan incorporates the results of detailed investigation of geologic, geomorphic, and seismic conditions at the proposed disposal site. The proposed remedial action will consist of relocating the uranium mill tailings, contaminated vicinity property materials, demolition debris, and windblown/waterborne materials to a permanent repository at the proposed Burro Canyon disposal cell. The proposed disposal site will be geomorphically stable. Seismic design parameters were developed for the geotechnical analyses of the proposed cell. Cell stability was analyzed to ensure long-term performance of the disposal cell in meeting design standards, including slope stability, settlement, and liquefaction potential. The proposed cell cover and erosion protection features were also analyzed and designed to protect the RRM (residual radioactive materials) against surface water and wind erosion. The location of the proposed cell precludes the need for permanent drainage or interceptor ditches. Rock to be used on the cell top-, side-, and toeslopes was sized to withstand probable maximum precipitation events.

  16. Determination of ejection velocity of rock fragments during rock burst in consideration of damage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZUO Yu-jun; LI Xi-bing; ZHOU Zi-long

    2005-01-01

    The ejection velocity of rock fragments during rock burst, one of the important indexes representing the rock burst strength, is used most conveniently in the supporting design of tunnel with rock burst tendency and is often determined by means of observation devices. In order to calculate the average ejection velocity of rock fragments theoretically, the energy of rock burst was divided into damage consuming energy and kinetic energy gained by unit volume of rock firstly, and then the rock burst kinetic proportional coefficient η was brought up which could be determined according to the rock-burst damage energy index WD , at last the expression of the average ejection velocity of rock fragments during rock burst was obtained and one deep level underground tunnel was researched using the mentioned method. The results show that the calculation method is valid with or without considering the tectonic stress of tunnels, and that the method can be a reference for supporting design of deep mining.

  17. Optimization of compressive strength in admixture-reinforced cement-based grouts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahin Zaimoglu, A.

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The Taguchi method was used in this study to optimize the unconfined (7-, 14- and 28-day compressive strength of cement-based grouts with bentonite, fly ash and silica fume admixtures. The experiments were designed using an L16 orthogonal array in which the three factors considered were bentonite (0%, 0.5%, 1.0% and 3%, fly ash (10%, 20%, 30% and 40% and silica fume (0%, 5%, 10% and 20% content. The experimental results, which were analyzed by ANOVA and the Taguchi method, showed that fly ash and silica fume content play a significant role in unconfined compressive strength. The optimum conditions were found to be: 0% bentonite, 10% fly ash, 20% silica fume and 28 days of curing time. The maximum unconfined compressive strength reached under the above optimum conditions was 17.1 MPa.En el presente trabajo se ha intentado optimizar, mediante el método de Taguchi, las resistencias a compresión (a las edades de 7, 14 y 28 días de lechadas de cemento reforzadas con bentonita, cenizas volantes y humo de sílice. Se diseñaron los experimentos de acuerdo con un arreglo ortogonal tipo L16 en el que se contemplaban tres factores: la bentonita (0, 0,5, 1 y 3%, las cenizas volantes (10, 20, 30 y 40% y el humo de sílice (0, 5, 10 y 20% (porcentajes en peso del sólido. Los datos obtenidos se analizaron con mediante ANOVA y el método de Taguchi. De acuerdo con los resultados experimentales, el contenido tanto de cenizas volantes como de humo de sílice desempeña un papel significativo en la resistencia a compresión. Por otra parte, las condiciones óptimas que se han identificado son: 0% bentonita, 10% cenizas volantes, 20% humo de sílice y 28 días de tiempo de curado. La resistencia a compresión máxima conseguida en las anteriores condiciones era de 17,1 MPa.

  18. Quantitative modelling of the degradation processes of cement grout. Project CEMMOD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grandia, Fidel; Galindez, Juan-Manuel; Arcos, David; Molinero, Jorge (Amphos21 Consulting S.L., Barcelona (Spain))

    2010-05-15

    Grout cement is planned to be used in the sealing of water-conducting fractures in the deep geological storage of spent nuclear fuel waste. The integrity of such cementitious materials should be ensured in a time framework of decades to a hundred of years as mimum. However, their durability must be quantified since grout degradation may jeopardize the stability of other components in the repository due to the potential release of hyperalkaline plumes. The model prediction of the cement alteration has been challenging in the last years mainly due to the difficulty to reproduce the progressive change in composition of the Calcium-Silicate-Hydrate (CSH) compounds as the alteration proceeds. In general, the data obtained from laboratory experiments show a rather similar dependence between the pH of pore water and the Ca-Si ratio of the CSH phases. The Ca-Si ratio decreases as the CSH is progressively replaced by Si-enriched phases. An elegant and reasonable approach is the use of solid solution models even keeping in mind that CSH phases are not crystalline solids but gels. An additional obstacle is the uncertainty in the initial composition of the grout to be considered in the calculations because only the recipe of low-pH clinker is commonly provided by the manufacturer. The hydration process leads to the formation of new phases and, importantly, creates porosity. A number of solid solution models have been reported in literature. Most of them assumed a strong non-ideal binary solid solution series to account for the observed changes in the Ca-Si ratios in CSH. However, it results very difficult to reproduce the degradation of the CSH in the whole Ca-Si range of compositions (commonly Ca/Si=0.5-2.5) by considering only two end-members and fixed nonideality parameters. Models with multiple non-ideal end-members with interaction parameters as a function of the solid composition can solve the problem but these can not be managed in the existing codes of reactive

  19. 某水电站f18断层水泥+化学浆液复合灌浆施工%Compound grouting using cement+ chemical slurry for the f18 fault of a hydropower station

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贡建兵; 李焰

    2014-01-01

    某水电站一断层贯穿坝基上下游,在河床上游与水库联系,且断层及下盘煌斑岩脉岩体破碎、性状差,在水库运行期长期高压水渗透作用下,可能发生逐渐软化、泥化现象,形成渗漏通道,导致坝体局部开裂。为了提高该断层的抗渗、抗变形能力等,在断层区域布置了水泥+化学浆液灌浆孔进行复合灌浆补强处理。介绍了灌浆施工技术及类似工程可以借鉴的工艺方法。%A fault penetrates the dam foundation and connects reservoir at the upstream river bed. As the broken rock and poor performance of the fault and the lamprophyre underneath, argillization and soft-ening may occur with long-term seepage of high-pressure water. This may form a seepage passage in-side the dam body and cause cracks. To improve the resistance of seepage and deformation of the fault, compound grouting using cement+chemical slurry was carried out. This paper introduced the grouting construction, for reference.

  20. Three-dimensional numerical simulation of curtain grouting in the dam bedrock based on binghamian grouts%大坝基岩帷幕宾汉姆浆液灌浆的三维数值模拟

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓韶辉; 王晓玲; 敖雪菲; 任炳昱; 李瑞金

    2016-01-01

    Because of the grouting engineering of masking and the complexity of geological conditions, how to accurately determine the diffusion regularity of grout under complicated geological conditions is the key and difficult point of grouting numerical simulation analysis. Binghamian grouts two-phase flow characteris⁃tics in the process of grout diffusion and complex geological conditions of dam bedrock is not considered in the present numerical simulation research of grouting in the hydraulic engineering. These research objects mainly focus on a single fracture or a single grout hole, while the simulation of grout front has not in⁃volved. Aim at the above-mentioned problems,a three-dimensional refined geological information model,in⁃cluded different formations,unfavorable geological body, curtains, grouting holes, was firstly established in this paper. Then, coupled with the volume of fluid (VOF) method in the CFD commercial software STAR-CCM+, a three-dimensional grouting mathematical model of Binghamian grouts air-grout two-phase flow was developed to achieve the numerical simulation of the multiple holes and sequencing grouting in the dam bedrock,also analyzing the grout diffusion rule and curtain lap after grouting. Finally,a hydropow⁃er station of bedrock curtain grouting process was taken as a case. The results show that the grout diffu⁃sion radius increases with time in a certain time range,but its rate of change shows a decline trend. After grouting completion of each sequence hole,grout front laps well. Furthermore,comparing the simulation val⁃ue with the actual measuring value of the grouting quantity and time, the average errors were 9.08% and 6.32% respectively,which verified the reliability of the method.%由于灌浆工程的掩蔽性和地质条件的复杂性,如何准确地确定复杂地质条件下浆液的扩散规律是灌浆数值模拟分析的关键及难点。目前,在水利工程中灌浆数值模拟的

  1. 'Wopmay' Rock

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    This approximate true-color image taken by NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity shows an unusual, lumpy rock informally named 'Wopmay' on the lower slopes of 'Endurance Crater.' The rock was named after the Canadian bush pilot Wilfrid Reid 'Wop' May. Like 'Escher' and other rocks dotting the bottom of Endurance, scientists believe the lumps in Wopmay may be related to cracking and alteration processes, possibly caused by exposure to water. The area between intersecting sets of cracks eroded in a way that created the lumpy appearance. Rover team members plan to drive Opportunity over to Wopmay for a closer look in coming sols. This image was taken by the rover's panoramic camera on sol 248 (Oct. 4, 2004), using its 750-, 530- and 480-nanometer filters.

  2. Source rock

    OpenAIRE

    Abubakr F. Makky; Mohamed I. El Sayed; Ahmed S. Abu El-Ata; Ibrahim M. Abd El-Gaied; Mohamed I. Abdel-Fattah; Zakaria M. Abd-Allah

    2014-01-01

    West Beni Suef Concession is located at the western part of Beni Suef Basin which is a relatively under-explored basin and lies about 150 km south of Cairo. The major goal of this study is to evaluate the source rock by using different techniques as Rock-Eval pyrolysis, Vitrinite reflectance (%Ro), and well log data of some Cretaceous sequences including Abu Roash (E, F and G members), Kharita and Betty formations. The BasinMod 1D program is used in this study to construct the burial history ...

  3. Reactor physics and safety aspects of various design options of a Russian light water reactor with rock-like fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bondarenko, A. V.; Komissarov, O. V.; Kozmenkov, Ya. K.; Matveev, Yu. V.; Orekhov, Yu. I.; Pivovarov, V. A.; Sharapov, V. N.

    2003-06-01

    This paper presents results of analytical studies on weapons grade plutonium incineration in VVER (640) medium size light water reactors using a special composition of rock-like fuel (ROX-fuel) to assure spent fuel long-term storage without its reprocessing. The main goal is to achieve high degree of plutonium incineration in once-through cycle. In this paper we considered two fuel compositions. In both compositions weapons grade plutonium is used as fissile material. Spinel (MgAl 2O 4) is used as the 'preserving' material assuring safe storage of the spent fuel. Besides an inert matrix, the option of rock-like fuel with thorium dioxide was studied. One of principal problems in the realization of the proposed approach is the substantial change of properties of the light water reactor core when passing to the use of the ROX-fuel, in particular: (i) due to the absence of 238U the Doppler effect playing a crucial role in reactor's self-regulation and limiting the consequences of reactivity accidents, decreases significantly, (ii) no fuel breeding on one hand, and the quest to attain the maximum plutonium burnup on the other hand, would result in a drastical change of the fuel assembly power during the lifetime and, as a consequence, the rise in irregularity of the power density of fuel assemblies, (iii) both the control rods worth and dissolved boron worth decrease in view of neutron spectrum hardening brought on by the larger absorption cross-section of plutonium as compared to uranium, (iv) βeff is markedly reduced. All these distinctive features are potentially detrimental to the reactor nuclear safety. The principal objective of this work is that to identify a variant of the fuel composition and the reactor layout, which would permit neutralize the negative effect of the above-mentioned distinctive features.

  4. Engineering study on roadway support in high-stress composite soft rock

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾明魁; 程东泉

    2003-01-01

    The present study is focused on the roadway support in high-stress composite soft rock. This paper expounds the two main features of roadway in soft rock, i.e., great deformation of surrounding rock and remarkable rheological deformation. Furthermore, on the basis of analyzing physico-chemical component of surrounding rock and the situation of the damaged roadway, the method of adopting strong bolting and shotcreting mesh for the primary support, bolting and grouting for the secondary support is put forward in light of the on-the-spot investigation of stress tension, mechanical parameter and engineering geology. The application reveals the method facilitates the continuation of west main roadway and the restoration of shaft station and chambers. Consequently, better techno-economic results have been achieved.

  5. 桩底后压浆浆液扩散问题研究%Study on Grout Diffusion of Pile-bottom Post Grouting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭仕奇

    2013-01-01

      采用钻探取样方法,对渗透性地层中桩底后注浆浆液扩散及固结状态进行检验。实物样品表明,在相对均匀的地层中,浆液扩散呈现出向下、向侧、向上不同的渗透能力:向下最强,向侧次之,向上最弱。在粗细交互地层中,颗粒越粗,渗透更好,扩散更远;水泥浆的含量更高。在同一地层中,距注浆出口越近,水泥浆含量越高。取样结果还表明:在桩底,压力、温度不同于地表,特别是有丰富地下水的环境下,水泥浆的凝结固化时间延迟非常显著。%  In permeable formation, the diffusion and consolidation states of pile-bottom post grout were inspected with the sampling method.The practicality samples showed that in relatively homogeneous strata, grout diffusion were with different downward, sideward and upward penetration ability, each was the strongest, the second place and the weakest.In the al-ternating strata of coarse and fine particles, more coarse was the particle, the better was the permeability, the farther was the diffusion and the higher was the cement content;and in the same strata, the nearer to the grout outlet, the higher was the cement content.The sampling also indicates that the pressure and temperature at the pile bottom are different from the surface;especially in the environment with plentiful groundwater, the time delay for cement slurry condensation curing was very obvious.

  6. 压密注浆顶升效应的研究%Research on lift effect of compaction grouting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵明

    2012-01-01

    The paper adopts SIGMA/W formwork of Geostudio software to simulate the compaction grouting correction procedure of 4 000 t stored fluid tank in Shanghai, compares the influence of the various grouting depth on the lift effect and the grouting lift effect of four kinds of common soils in Shanghai, and illustrates the analysis results show the rectification magnitude of the compaction grouting is 10-1 m, its grouting depth should be less than the half of the bottom consolidation depth and the lift effect of the mucky soil with the minimal compression modulus is the best.%运用Geostudio软件中的SIGMA/W模块模拟了上海4 000 t储液槽的压密注浆纠偏过程,对比了不同注浆深度对顶升效应的影响,以及上海常见的四类土的注浆顶升效应,分析结果显示压密注浆的纠偏量级为10-1m,注浆深度宜不大于底层加固深度的一半,压缩模量最小的淤泥质土的顶升效果最好。

  7. Remedial Action Plan and Site Design for stabilization of the inactive Uranium Mill Tailings sites at Slick Rock, Colorado: Appendix C to Attachment 3, Calculations. Final

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    This volume contains calculations for: Slick Rock processing sites background ground water quality; Slick Rock processing sites lysimeter water quality; Slick Rock processing sites on-site and downgradient ground water quality; Slick Rock disposal site background water quality; Burro Canyon disposal site, Slick Rock, Colorado, average hydraulic gradients and average liner ground water velocities in the upper, middle, and lower sandstone units of the Burro Canyon formation; Slick Rock--Burro Canyon disposal site, Burro Canyon pumping and slug tests--analyses; water balance and surface contours--Burro Canyon disposal cell; and analytical calculation of drawdown in a hypothetical well completed in the upper sandstone unit of the Burro Canyon formation.

  8. Ayers Rock

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王慧茹

    2002-01-01

    Ayers Rock is right in the centre of Australia.It's nearly two thousand kilometres______Sydney.So we flew most of the way.h was rather cloudy______But after we left the mountains behind us, there was hardly a cloud in thesky.

  9. Intellektuaalne rock

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2007-01-01

    Briti laulja-helilooja ja näitleja Toyah Willcox ning Bill Rieflin ansamblist R.E.M. ja Pat Mastelotto King Krimsonist esinevad koos ansamblitega The Humans ja Tuner 25. okt. Tallinnas Rock Cafés ja 27. okt Tartu Jaani kirikus

  10. Intellektuaalne rock

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2007-01-01

    Briti laulja-helilooja ja näitleja Toyah Willcox ning Bill Rieflin ansamblist R.E.M. ja Pat Mastelotto King Krimsonist esinevad koos ansamblitega The Humans ja Tuner 25. okt. Tallinnas Rock Cafés ja 27. okt Tartu Jaani kirikus

  11. Development and application demonstration of stemming slurry materials for high-pressure grouting in soft stratum%松软地层高压灌浆封孔浆体研制及应用论证

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张贵金; 曾柳絮; 陈安重; 杨松林; 彭春雷

    2012-01-01

    For the impervious construction in soft stratum, there are various technical problems, such as easy collapse of boreholes, vertical lift induced by difficultly pressed grouting, large waste led by easy grouting leakage, and difficult grouting control. The traditional methods of "sleeve valve pipe grouting", "embedded screen pipe tube" and "orifice closed grouting" are difficult to meet the design requirements in deep soft ground. To reduce cost and to improve efficiency, a new construction method, high pulsating pressure grouting from below with stemming slurry materials, is put forward, and one of the key techniques, slurry sealing technique, is described. For the construction requirements, a kind of lowAntensity, rapidly solidified and hard plastic-like sealing slurry is developed, and its performance parameters are obtained. It is enough to stem grouting and to consume energy by filling slurry materials between grouting pipe and bore hole pipe wall based on the grouting mechanism. The bottom-up pulling force which provides the basis for choosing pulling machines for construction is calculated. In addition, if you turn the grouting pipe continuously during the process of grouting, the work efficiency can be improved and the grouting pipe can be smoothly promoted to avoid locking accidents even in deep borehole cases without pipe drawing machines. Through the tests on the deep soft stratum in the bay area of Tuokou Hydropower Station, the slurry materials achieve the desired effect. Theoretical study and engineering practice show that it's feasible to adopt slurry sealing technology and to implement high-pressure grouting in soft stratum, and that the construction techniques by means of stemming slurry material can meet requirements.%在松软地层进行防渗工程施工时,存在钻孔易塌孔,灌浆难起压易导致垂向挤密抬动,灌浆易漏浆串浆导致耗浆量大,灌浆过程难控制等技术难题。传统的“袖阀

  12. Technical Note: Example of the Application of Jet Grouting to the Neutralisation of Geotechnical Hazard in Shaft Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dybeł Piotr

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The article presents a geotechnical hazard neutralisation technology for shaft structures. The diagnosis of problems with uncontrolled subsidence of the ventilation duct provided by the authors enabled the development of a schedule of works required for the protection and reinforcement of foundation soil in the shaft area. The technology of protection works was selected after the analysis of the technical condition of shaft structures as well as hydrological and geomechanical conditions. Due to the closeness of the shaft lining, it was necessary to form grout columns using jet grouting and low-pressure grouting technologies. The article presents the issues related to the selected technology and its application to the neutralisation of the emergent geotechnical hazard. The method of performance of recommended works was also described together with their impact on the technical condition of structures discussed as well as their functionality and usage.

  13. Idaho Chemical Processing Plant low-level waste grout stabilization development program FY-96 status report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herbst, A.K.

    1996-09-01

    The general purpose of the Grout Stabilization Development Program is to solidify and stabilize the liquid low-level wastes (LLW) generated at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP). It is anticipated that LLW will be produced from the following: (1) chemical separation of the tank farm high-activity sodium-bearing waste; (2) retrieval, dissolution, and chemical separation of the aluminum, zirconium, and sodium calcines; (3) facility decontamination processes; and (4) process equipment waste. The main tasks completed this fiscal year as part of the program were chromium stabilization study for sodium-bearing waste and stabilization and solidification of LLW from aluminum and zirconium calcines. The projected LLW will be highly acidic and contain high amounts of nitrates. Both of these are detrimental to Portland cement chemistry; thus, methods to precondition the LLW and to cure the grout were explored. A thermal calcination process, called denitration, was developed to solidify the waste and destroy the nitrates. A three-way blend of Portland cement, blast furnace slag, and fly ash was successfully tested. Grout cubes were prepared at various waste loadings to maximize loading while meeting compressive strength and leach resistance requirements. For the sodium LLW, a 25% waste loading achieves a volume reduction of 3.5 and a compressive strength of 2,500 pounds per square inch while meeting leach, mix, and flow requirements. It was found that the sulfur in the slag reduces the chromium leach rate below regulatory limits. For the aluminum LLW, a 15% waste loading achieves a volume reduction of 8.5 and a compressive strength of 4,350 pounds per square inch while meeting leach requirements. Likewise for zirconium LLW, a 30% waste loading achieves a volume reduction of 8.3 and a compressive strength of 3,570 pounds per square inch.

  14. Microbially Induced Carbonate Precipitation: a Novel Grout for Permeability Control in Subsurface Engineering Works

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minto, J. M.; Hingerl, F.; Lunn, R. J.; Benson, S. M.

    2016-12-01

    ContextWe utilise the urea hydrolysing capability of soil bacteria Sporosarcina pasteurii to precipitate CaCO3 in a process termed Microbially Induced Carbonate Precipitation (MICP). MICP injection fluid properties are low particle size and low viscosity giving excellent grout penetrability. The CaCO3 grout has been shown to be effective at reducing permeability in porous and fractured media. MICP has consequently been proposed as an alternative to more traditional cement and chemical grouts, particularly in the fields of radioactive waste disposal and geological sequestration of CO2. This study investigates the role of fluid flow/CaCO3 feedback during precipitation and accelerated dissolution to better understand the longevity of an MICP grout under low pH environmental conditions such as found in a carbon sequestration reservoir. MethodsExperiments were conducted on a single Berea sandstone core in a high pressure core holder to characterise permeability, porosity and multiphase flow behaviour at sequestration reservoir temperature and pressure. Characterisation was carried out before MICP, after MICP, and after accelerated dissolution with hydrochloric acid. At each step the entire core was scanned in a medical x-ray CT scanner to spatially resolve (with a resolution of 0.5x0.5x1mm) the changes in porosity and saturation with CaCO3 precipitation and dissolution. Finally, the dried core was scanned with μ-CT at 30μm (full core) and 10μm (sub-volume) resolutions to investigate structural changes to the Berea at near pore scale. ResultsSix MICP treatment cycles over two days reduced core permeability from 886 mDarcy to 40 mDarcy with a greater reduction in porosity at the inlet. Dissolution with acid restored much of the porosity, but did not restore permeability to the same extent. Preferential flow paths formed during the dissolution step were visible in the first 4mm of the 100mm core, but did not extend further into the core. DiscussionThis study provides

  15. Modified-sulfur cements for use in concretes, flexible pavings, coatings, and grouts

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBee, W. C.; Sullivan, T. A.; Jong, B. W.

    1981-05-01

    A family of modified-sulfur cements was developed for the preparation of construction materials with improved properties. Various types of sulfur cements were prepared by reacting sulfur with mixtures of dicyclopentadiene and oligomers of cyclopentadiene. Durable cements were prepared with structural characteristics ranging from rigid to flexible. These cements were used to prepare corrosion-resistant materials for use in a wide variety of industrial applications where resistance to acidic and salt conditions is needed. These materials were prepared as rigid concretes, flexible pavings, spray coatings, and grouts. Production of modified-sulfur cements in a commercial-size plant was demonstrated.

  16. Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project (UMTRAP), Slick Rock, Colorado, Revision 1. Volume 1, Calculations, Final design for construction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    Volume one contains calculations for: embankment design--embankment material properties; Union Carbide site--bedrock contours; vicinity properties--origin of contamination; North Continent and Union Carbide sites contaminated materials--excavation quantities; and demolition debris--quantity estimate.

  17. Fracture characteristics of a soft rock roadway: staged and zoned control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Xue-hua; Yao Qiang-ling; Zhang Nong [China University of Mining & Technology, Xuzhou (China). State Key Laboratory of Coal Resource and Mine Safety

    2009-05-15

    An accurate understanding of fracture and cracking in surrounding rock is the key to solving the problem of maintaining a soft-rock roadway. Experimental studies have been done within a typical soft-rock roadway in a coal mine. The components and micro-structural features of the surrounding rock were investigated. The properties of the rocks around the roadway and the process of fracture expansion were tested on site. The results show that crack propagation and run-through are non-uniform and occur in several stages. Key technologies for supporting the roadway by stages in different regions were put forward after considering time effects, local breakdown characteristics and fracture development. Staged concrete spraying, intensive support from anchor bolting (cabling) and control of the grouting process in the surrounding rock are the main parts of strengthened support technology. Practice shows that rock cracking in soft rock surrounding a roadway can be effectively controlled by this support technology. Stability of the rock surrounding the roadway can be achieved. 12 refs., 13 figs., 1 tab.

  18. Optimization design of foundation excavation for Xiluodu super-high arch dam in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qixiang Fan; Shaowu Zhou; Ning Yang

    2015-01-01

    With better understanding of the quality and physico-mechanical properties of rocks of dam foundation, and the physico-mechanical properties and structure design of arch dam in association with the foun-dation excavation of Xiluodu arch dam, the excavation optimization design was proposed for the foundation surface on the basis of feasibility study. Common analysis and numerical analysis results demonstrated the feasibility of using the weakly weathered rocks III1 and III2 as the foundation surface of super-high arch dam. In view of changes in the geological conditions at the dam foundation along the riverbed direction, the design of extending foundation surface excavation area and using consolidating grouting and optimizing structure of dam bottom was introduced, allowing for harmonization of the arch dam and foundation. Three-dimensional (3D) geomechanics model test and finite element analysis re-sults indicated that the dam body and foundation have good overload stability and high bearing capacity. The monitoring data showed that the behaviors of dam and foundation correspond with the designed patterns in the construction period and the initial operation period.

  19. Optimization design of foundation excavation for Xiluodu super-high arch dam in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qixiang Fan

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available With better understanding of the quality and physico-mechanical properties of rocks of dam foundation, and the physico-mechanical properties and structure design of arch dam in association with the foundation excavation of Xiluodu arch dam, the excavation optimization design was proposed for the foundation surface on the basis of feasibility study. Common analysis and numerical analysis results demonstrated the feasibility of using the weakly weathered rocks III1 and III2 as the foundation surface of super-high arch dam. In view of changes in the geological conditions at the dam foundation along the riverbed direction, the design of extending foundation surface excavation area and using consolidating grouting and optimizing structure of dam bottom was introduced, allowing for harmonization of the arch dam and foundation. Three-dimensional (3D geomechanics model test and finite element analysis results indicated that the dam body and foundation have good overload stability and high bearing capacity. The monitoring data showed that the behaviors of dam and foundation correspond with the designed patterns in the construction period and the initial operation period.

  20. Rock suitability classification RSC 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McEwen, T. (ed.) [McEwen Consulting, Leicester (United Kingdom); Kapyaho, A. [Geological Survey of Finland, Espoo (Finland); Hella, P. [Saanio and Riekkola, Helsinki (Finland); Aro, S.; Kosunen, P.; Mattila, J.; Pere, T.

    2012-12-15

    This report presents Posiva's Rock Suitability Classification (RSC) system, developed for locating suitable rock volumes for repository design and construction. The RSC system comprises both the revised rock suitability criteria and the procedure for the suitability classification during the construction of the repository. The aim of the classification is to avoid such features of the host rock that may be detrimental to the favourable conditions within the repository, either initially or in the long term. This report also discusses the implications of applying the RSC system for the fulfilment of the regulatory requirements concerning the host rock as a natural barrier and the site's overall suitability for hosting a final repository of spent nuclear fuel.

  1. TANK 18-F AND 19-F TANK FILL GROUT SCALE UP TEST SUMMARY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stefanko, D.; Langton, C.

    2012-01-03

    High-level waste (HLW) tanks 18-F and 19-F have been isolated from FTF facilities. To complete operational closure the tanks will be filled with grout for the purpose of: (1) physically stabilizing the tanks, (2) limiting/eliminating vertical pathways to residual waste, (3) entombing waste removal equipment, (4) discouraging future intrusion, and (5) providing an alkaline, chemical reducing environment within the closure boundary to control speciation and solubility of select radionuclides. This report documents the results of a four cubic yard bulk fill scale up test on the grout formulation recommended for filling Tanks 18-F and 19-F. Details of the scale up test are provided in a Test Plan. The work was authorized under a Technical Task Request (TTR), HLE-TTR-2011-008, and was performed according to Task Technical and Quality Assurance Plan (TTQAP), SRNL-RP-2011-00587. The bulk fill scale up test described in this report was intended to demonstrate proportioning, mixing, and transportation, of material produced in a full scale ready mix concrete batch plant. In addition, the material produced for the scale up test was characterized with respect to fresh properties, thermal properties, and compressive strength as a function of curing time.

  2. Performance assessment on grouted double-shell tank waste at Hanford

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitchell, D.H; McNair, G.W. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Allison, J.M. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States)

    1989-11-01

    The low-level fraction of liquid waste stored in double-shell tanks at Hanford will be solidified in a cementitious matrix (grout) and disposed in subsurface vaults. This paper discusses activities related to the preparation of a site-specific performance assessment as required by DOE Order 5820.2A. A draft performance assessment has been prepared for the planned grout disposal system at Hanford using site-specific data. The assessment estimates the incremental increase in the dose to future populations who, after loss of institutional control at the site, use groundwater downgradient of the disposal site. Increases in nonradiological species in water from a hypothetical well are also estimated. Two-dimensional transport models were used to estimate contaminant concentrations in groundwater. Based on diffusional release from the waste package, the projected radiological dose to an individual on a hypothetical farm using water from a well at the disposal facility boundary is estimated at less than one percent of the 25 mrem/yr standard in Order 5820.2. Technetium accounted for about 95% of the dose. Nitrate was the principle chemical contaminant at 0.3% to 0.5% of apportioned drinking water standards. Sensitivity studies on various parameters are in progress. This performance assessment will be updated as additional data become available.

  3. Experimental research on ultimate bearing capacity of grouted-round-steel-tube N-joint

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENG Wen-zhong; LIU Xu-dong; ZHANG Ge-ming; ZHANG Bo-yi

    2007-01-01

    As an important structural member in self-supporting concrete floor during construction, encased steel truss-concrete composite beam has brilliant prospect in outer-jacketing structures for adding stories or mega frame structures. Compared with encased angle truss, encased round steel tube truss can facilitate layout of itself in column and facilitate layout and anchorage of prestressed reinforcement placed horizontally. N-joint is wildly used in encased steel truss. For cave-in failure easily occurs in hollow steel-tube joint, the idea that the chord is grouted to increase cave-in bearing capacity of hollow tube is proposed. Test results of 8 grouted-roundsteel-tube N-joints from the beginning of loading to failure are reported. Mechanical property and failure mode of this kind of truss joint are analyzed, and the formulas of ultimate bearing capacity of the joint corresponding to different failure modes are established. All these can provide basic data for spreading encased steel truss-concrete composite beam.

  4. ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION PROGRAM: PROTOCOL FOR THE VERIFICATION OF GROUTING MATERIALS FOR INFRASTRUCTURE REHABILITATION AT THE UNIVERSITY OF HOUSTON - CIGMAT

    Science.gov (United States)

    This protocol was developed under the Environmental Protection Agency's Environmental Technology Verification (ETV) Program, and is intended to be used as a guide in preparing laboratory test plans for the purpose of verifying the performance of grouting materials used for infra...

  5. Grout disposal facility vault exhauster: Technical background document on demonstration of best available control technology for toxics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glissmeyer, J.A.; Glantz, C.S. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Rittman, P.D. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States)

    1994-09-01

    The Grout Disposal Facility (GDF) is currently operated on the US Department of Energy`s Hanford Site. The GDF is located near the east end of the Hanford Site`s 200 East operations area, and is used for the treatment and disposal of low-level radioactive liquid wastes. In the grout treatment process, selected radioactive wastes from double-shell tanks are mixed with grout-forming solids; the resulting grout slurry is pumped to near-surface concrete vaults for solidification and permanent disposal. As part of this treatment process, small amounts of toxic particles and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) may be released to the atmosphere through the GDF`s exhaust system. This analysis constitutes a Best Available Control Technology for Toxics (T-BACT) study, as required in the Washington Administrative Code (WAC 173-460) to support a Notice of Construction for the operation of the GDF exhaust system at a modified flow rate that exceeds the previously permitted value. This report accomplishes the following: assesses the potential emissions from the GDF; estimates air quality impacts to the public from toxic air pollutants; identifies control technologies that could reduce GDF emissions; evaluates impacts of the control technologies; and recommends appropriate emissions controls.

  6. BLENDED CALCIUM ALUMINATE-CALCIUM SULFATE CEMENT-BASED GROUT FOR P-REACTOR VESSEL IN-SITU DECOMMISSIONING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Langton, C.; Stefanko, D.

    2011-03-10

    The objective of this report is to document laboratory testing of blended calcium aluminate - calcium hemihydrate grouts for P-Reactor vessel in-situ decommissioning. Blended calcium aluminate - calcium hemihydrate cement-based grout was identified as candidate material for filling (physically stabilizing) the 105-P Reactor vessel (RV) because it is less alkaline than portland cement-based grout which has a pH greater than 12.4. In addition, blended calcium aluminate - calcium hemihydrate cement compositions can be formulated such that the primary cementitious phase is a stable crystalline material. A less alkaline material (pH {<=} 10.5) was desired to address a potential materials compatibility issue caused by corrosion of aluminum metal in highly alkaline environments such as that encountered in portland cement grouts [Wiersma, 2009a and b, Wiersma, 2010, and Serrato and Langton, 2010]. Information concerning access points into the P-Reactor vessel and amount of aluminum metal in the vessel is provided elsewhere [Griffin, 2010, Stefanko, 2009 and Wiersma, 2009 and 2010, Bobbitt, 2010, respectively]. Radiolysis calculations are also provided in a separate document [Reyes-Jimenez, 2010].

  7. 低强度砂浆灌孔砌块砌体抗压性能试验研究%EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH ON COMPRESSIVE BEHAVIORS OF GROUTED BLOCK MASONRY WITH LOW-STRENGTH MORTAR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄靓; 王辉; 陈胜云

    2012-01-01

    In order to study the effect of mortar strength on compressive behaviors of grouted concrete masonry,nine specimens using lime mortar were analyzed.According to failure pattern,cracking load,ultimate capacity and deformation capacity,a formula was provided to calculate the compressive capacity of grouted concrete masonry when the mortar strength is very low.The ratio of cracking load to ultimate load is very small,which affects the durability of masonry building.Therefore,this paper states that the mortar strength should be higher than a critical value when designing and constructing grouted concrete masonry.%为了研究低强度砂浆对灌孔砌块砌体抗压性能的影响,该文通过9个采用石灰砂浆砌筑的灌孔砌块砌体的抗压试验,对其抗压破坏形态、开裂荷载、极限荷载及变形能力进行了分析,提出了适用于砂浆强度很低的灌孔砌块砌体的抗压强度计算公式。分析表明:低强度砂浆砌块砌体的初裂荷载与极限荷载之比较小,而开裂荷载过低将会对砌体房屋的耐久性产生不利影响,因此,该文认为在进行灌孔砌块砌体的设计和施工时,砂浆的强度应得到保证,不能过低。

  8. 垃圾土地基灌浆处理试验%Grouting improvement of foundation of municipal solid waste

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高海; 施建勇; 陈继东; 艾英钵; 张坤勇

    2011-01-01

    Based on the in-situ grouting tests, the mass fraction of cement was analyzed by boring samples of municipal solid waste after cement grouting. The cement was uniformly distributed over the foundation of municipal solid waste, and the mass fraction of cement reached 10% after the first grouting and increased to 25% after the socond grouting. Through the strength tests on laboratory cement-waste samples after curing of 28 days. the stress-strain relation of the cement-wate samples exhibited hardening characteristics even when the dosage of cement reached 25 % and the curing age was 60 days, and the cement-waste samples were loose and not consolidated. The static load tests on the foundation of municipal solid waste before and after grouting indicated that the bearing properties of the foundation of municipal solid waste cotld he improved by grouting, and the bearing capacity was obviously raised. However, the failure mode of the foundation of municipal solid waste after the second grouting was brittle becauso of the restricted in-situ curing conditions.%通过现场灌浆试验,钻取灌浆处理后的水泥垃圾土样进行水泥质量分数的分析试验,得到一次灌浆能使水泥浆在垃圾土地基中较均匀分布,水泥质量分数达到约10%,二次灌浆能增加水泥质量分数约25%的结果.经过室内水泥垃圾土样28 d养护强度试验,发现即使水泥掺入量达到25%、养护60d,得到的应力应变曲线仍呈硬化型,水泥垃圾土仍是松散体,没有形成固结体.灌浆前后垃圾土地基的静载荷试验表明,灌浆能明显改善垃圾土地基的承载特性,提高地基的承载力,但由于垃圾填埋场现场养护条件限制,二次灌浆后垃圾土地基的破坏表现为脆性特征.

  9. Preliminary design study of underground pumped hydro and compressed-air energy storage in hard rock. Volume 2: Project design criteria: UPH

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-05-01

    The design criteria for an underground pumped hydroelectric (JPH) storage facility having a maximum generating capacity of 2000 MW and a storage capacity of 20,000 MWh at a nominal head of 5000 ft are documented. The UPH facility is a two step configuration with single stage reversible pump turbines, each step consisting of a 1000 MW plant at a nominal head of 2500 ft. Overall design criteria including operating requirements, civil/structural criteria, geotechnical criteria, mechanical criteria and electrical criteria are detailed. Specific requirements are given for the upper reservoir, intake/outlet structure, penstock and draft tubes, powerhouses, transformer galleries, intermediate reservoir, lower reservoir, shafts and hoists, switchyard and surface buildings. The requirements for the power plant electrical and mechanical equipment, including pump turbine and motor generator units, are referred to. Electrical design criteria are given to meet the requirements of two power houses located underground at different depths, but these criteria may not necessarily reflect PEPCO's current engineering practice. The criteria refer to a specific site and take into account the site investigation results. The design criteria given were used as the basis for the plant design.

  10. Grouting of the cracks in the Arch 5-6 Daniel Johnson dam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lariviere, R.; Routhier, L.; Roy, V.; Saleh, K.; Tremblay, S.

    1999-07-01

    The Daniel-Johnson dam is located 800 km northeast of Montreal, PQ, and is 1314 m in length and 214 m high. Just after completion of dam construction different types of cracks started to appear on the upstream and downstream faces. During and after the construction of the dam, numerous cracks and joints were grouted in order to reduce water infiltration. In some cases, as a result of high injection pressures and inaccurate methods, the injections provoked the propagation of the existing cracks or the initiation of new ones. Because of this situation and to determine the contribution of injection to dam safety, in 1985, Hydro-Quebec applied a moratorium on all future injection work on the dam. Research work was initiated in 1986 in the areas of grouting materials, methods, equipment and behavioral analysis to establish a safe method for the injection of the cracks. A committee was formed in 1993 with members from various groups, in order to: carry out extensive behavioral analysis of the Arch 5-6 dam, carry out an investigation program in order to determine the cause of the increase of the water infiltration, undertake a structural analysis program in order to evaluate the impact of an injection on the safety of the dam, and identify the proper method and injection products to use. In 1997, as a result of the progress of the structural analysis studies and the injection research project, a decision was made to proceed with the injection of the dam. A description is included of the results of the investigation, recommendations and results of the injection research project, as well as some details of the grouting campaign carried out in January 1999. On the whole, a better knowledge was acquired of the structure, of the plunging cracks and the behaviour of the dam during the injection. In the field of injection methods, materials and equipment, research work was invaluable when it came to the injection of micro-fine cracks in concrete dams. 5 refs., 8 figs.

  11. Preliminary design study of underground pumped hydro and compressed-air energy storage in hard rock. Volume 8: Design approaches - UPH. Appendix B: Shafts

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-04-01

    An assessment of shaft requirements for an underground pumped hydroelectric (UPH) facility is documented. Shaft requirements for both the construction and the permanent operation phases of the facility are outlined. Possible shaft arrangements are developed and the design of shaft linings is discussed. Methods of shaft sinking are reviewed. Alternative schedules for the sinking of the shafts are described and a preferred schedule selected. The material presented and also the cost estimates are based on the requirements for a 2000 MW plant providing 20,000 MWh of storage with a nominal head of 4600 ft. Studies subsequently carried out, including power plant design, head optimization analyses for the overall UPH surface and underground configuration, and further refinement of selected designs, have modified some of the material given.

  12. Preliminary design study of underground pumped hydro and compressed-air energy storage in hard rock. Volume 8: Design approaches: UPH

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-06-01

    The development of the design approaches used to determine the plant and overall layout for a underground pumped hydroelectric (UPH) storage facility having a maximum generating capacity of 2000 MW and a storage capacity of 20,000 MWh is discussed. Key factors were the selection of the high head pump-turbine equipment and the geotechnical considerations relevant to the underground cavern designs. The comparison of pump-turbine alternatives is described leading to the selection for detailed study of both a single-step configurations, using multistage reversible pump-turbines, and a two-step configuration, with single-stage reversible pump-turbines.

  13. Grout and Glass Performance in Support of Stabilization/Solidification of the MVST Tank Sludges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilliam, T.M.; Spence, R.D.

    1998-11-01

    Wastewater at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is collected, evaporated, and stored in the Melton Valley Storage Tanks (MVST) pending treatment for disposal. The waste separates into two phases: sludge and supematant. Some of the supematant from these tanks has been decanted, solidified into a grout, and stored for disposal as a solid low-level waste. The sludges in the tank bottoms have been accumulating ,for several years. Some of the sludges contain a high amount of gamma activity (e.g., `37CS concentration range of 0.01 3-11 MBq/g) and contain enough transuranic (TRU) radioisotopes to be classified as TRU wastes. Some Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) metal concentrations are high enough in the available total constituent analysis for the MVST sludge to be classified as RCRA hazardous; therefore, these sludges are presumed to be mixed TRU waste.

  14. Simulation and analysis on ultrasonic testing for the cement grouting defects of the corrugated pipe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qingbang, Han; Ling, Chen; Changping, Zhu [Changzhou Key Laboratory of Sensor Networks and Environmental Sensing, College of IOT, Hohai University Changzhou, Jiangsu, 213022 (China)

    2014-02-18

    The defects exist in the cement grouting process of prestressed corrugated pipe may directly impair the bridge safety. In this paper, sound fields propagation in concrete structures with corrugated pipes and the influence of various different defects are simulated and analyzed using finite element method. The simulation results demonstrate a much complex propagation characteristic due to multiple reflection, refraction and scattering, where the scattering signals caused by metal are very strong, while the signals scattered by an air bubble are weaker. The influence of defect both in time and frequency domain are found through deconvolution treatment. In the time domain, the deconvolution signals correspond to larger defect display a larger head wave amplitude and shorter arrive time than those of smaller defects; in the frequency domain, larger defect also shows a stronger amplitude, lower center frequency and lower cutoff frequency.

  15. DSC and curing kinetics study of epoxy grouting diluted with furfural -acetone slurry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, H.; Sun, D. W.; Li, B.; Liu, Y. T.; Ran, Q. P.; Liu, J. P.

    2016-07-01

    The use of furfural-acetone slurry as active diluents of Bisphenol-A epoxy resin (DGEBA) groutings has been studied by dynamic and non-isothermal DSC for the first time. Curing kinetics study was investigated by non-isothermal differential scanning calorimetries at different heating rates. Activation enery (Ea) was calculated based on Kissinger and Ozawa Methods, and the results showed that Ea increased from 58.87 to 71.13KJ/mol after the diluents were added. The furfural-acetone epoxy matrix could cure completely at the theoretical curing temperature of 365.8K and the curing time of 139mins, which were determined by the kinetic model parameters.

  16. Preliminary design study of underground pumped hydro and compressed-air energy storage in hard rock. Volume 8: Design approaches. UPH. Appendix E: Lower reservoir

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-04-01

    Operational, construction, and geotechnical requirements were examined. Overriding considerations including operating range, volume, construction methods, cavern cross section and reservoir layout were studied within the context of minimizing facility costs and optimizing the plant layout. The study led to a preliminary arrangement of fourteen parallel caverns, each 60 ft wide by 85 ft high in cross section and 3610 ft in length. The requirements for and preliminary design of the intermediate reservoir in the case of a two step UPH facility is also described. The design and the cost estimates presented are based on the requirements for a 2000 MW plant providing 20,000 MWh of storage at a nominal head of 4600 ft.

  17. Mineral Compositions and Micro-Structural of Epoxy-Repaired Rock Revealed by X-ray Diffraction and Scanning Electron Microscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Hu

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In order to improve the mechanical properties of rock with lots of cracks, this study adopts electronic methods (X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy to determine the mineral compositions and micro structural characteristics of epoxy-repaired rock. Fractured rocks with low strength or high permeability may not be appropriate for dam foundation. The strength and durability of fractured rock are increased after chemical grouting. Test results show that, some of the cracks and voids are repaired by epoxy particles, resulted in the decreasing rock porosity. The proportion of epoxy resins is about 3.5%-5.5%, showing a discrete distribution and can not connect with each other.

  18. CERN Rocks

    CERN Document Server

    2004-01-01

    The 15th CERN Hardronic Festival took place on 17 July on the terrace of Rest 3 (Prévessin). Over 1000 people, from CERN and other International Organizations, came to enjoy the warm summer night, and to watch the best of the World's High Energy music. Jazz, rock, pop, country, metal, blues, funk and punk blasted out from 9 bands from the CERN Musiclub and Jazz club, alternating on two stages in a non-stop show.  The night reached its hottest point when The Canettes Blues Band got everybody dancing to sixties R&B tunes (pictured). Meanwhile, the bars and food vans were working at full capacity, under the expert management of the CERN Softball club, who were at the same time running a Softball tournament in the adjacent "Higgs Field". The Hardronic Festival is the main yearly CERN music event, and it is organized with the support of the Staff Association and the CERN Administration.

  19. Research on Grouting Technology with Abandoned Drilling Mud%钻井废弃泥浆注浆利用技术研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋雪飞; 王正胜; 陈振国; 徐润; 周兴旺

    2011-01-01

    为了缓解煤矿钻井废弃泥浆排放处理难的问题,研究利用废弃泥浆配制成地面预注浆浆液,通过对研制的泥浆采用降黏改性处理后,浆液的密度及黏度降低;塑性强度缓慢增长,约15 h可以达到50 kPa.淮北矿业集团袁店二矿主井井筒的S孔注浆工程利用钻井泥浆注浆材料7 606m3,经井筒掘进测量,注浆段井筒剩余涌水量仅为3 m3/h,注浆效果达到优良.%In order to release the problems of the abandoned drilling mud discharging and treatment, the paper had a study on the preparation of the surface pre-grouting grout with the abandoned drilling mud.With the sticky reduction and modification treatment of the prepared mud, the density and sticky of the grout would be reduced.The plasticity strength of the grout would be slowly increased and could be reached to 50 kPa after about 15 h.The grouting project with S bereholes for the mine main shaft of Yuandian No.2 Mine, Huaibei Coal Mining Group had consumed the drilling mud grout of 7 606 m3.After the mine shaft excavation and measurement, the residual water inrush quantity at the grouting section of the mine shaft was about 3 m3/h and the grouting effect was excellent.

  20. Preliminary design study of underground pumped hydro and compressed-air energy storage in hard rock. Volume 8: Design approaches: UPH. Appendix A: Upper reservoir

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-04-01

    Overriding considerations including operating range, volume and lining of reservoir, embankment design, intake/outlet arrangements and filling and make up water provisions were studied within the context of minimizing facility costs and optimizing the plant layout. The study led to the selection of a reservoir formed by embankment of compacted rockfill together with an intake/outlet structure located in the embankment. The reservoir floor and upstream slopes of the embankment will have an asphalt lining to prevent leakage. The material and cost estimates presented are based on the requirements for a 2000 MW plant providing 20,000 MWh of storage with a nominal head of 4600 ft.

  1. Study on Roadway Reinforcement Technique by Retractable Circular Support and Backfilling Grouting%可缩性圆形支架壁后充填注浆加固技术研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李书民; 孙小岩; 张丰

    2011-01-01

    By analyzing the failure of traditional support by 36 U-shaped steel and wire mesh in the track dip in Changcun coal mine, it can be concluded that anchoring property is the primary cause for the low anchorage force and the poor effect of anchoring. Through analyzing the cross section of roadway and roadway reinforcement theory by backfilling grouting, roadway reinforcement technique by retractable circular support and backfilling grouting is put into effect This industrial practice demonstrates that this technique can solve the matter of deformation failure of soft rock roadway and can be used in other roadways with the similar situation in Changcun coal mine.%通过对常村煤矿轨道下山采用锚网(索)+ 36U型钢等常规支护形式失败的原因进行分析,得出巷道可锚性差是造成锚杆锚固力低和锚固效果差的主要因素;同时对巷道断面的选择和壁后充填注浆加固机理的分析,提出采用可缩性圆形支架壁后充填注浆加固技术.实践证明,采用可缩性圆形支架壁后充填注浆加固技术可有效解决软岩巷道变形的难题,为常村煤矿类似的巷道提供了一个有效的支护新途径.

  2. A smart rock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pressel, Phil

    2014-12-01

    This project was to design and build a protective weapon for a group of associations that believed in aliens and UFO's. They collected enough contributions from societies and individuals to be able to sponsor and totally fund the design, fabrication and testing of this equipment. The location of this facility is classified. It also eventually was redesigned by the Quartus Engineering Company for use at a major amusement park as a "shoot at targets facility." The challenge of this project was to design a "smart rock," namely an infrared bullet (the size of a gallon can of paint) that could be shot from the ground to intercept a UFO or any incoming suspicious item heading towards the earth. Some of the challenges to design this weapon were to feed cryogenic helium at 5 degrees Kelvin from an inair environment through a unique rotary coupling and air-vacuum seal while spinning the bullet at 1500 rpm and maintain its dynamic stability (wobble) about its spin axis to less than 10 micro-radians (2 arc seconds) while it operated in a vacuum. Precision optics monitored the dynamic motion of the "smart rock."

  3. Development of a Comprehensive Plan for Scientific Research, Exploration, and Design: Creation of an Undergroung Radioactive Waste Isloation Facility at the Nizhnekansky Rock Massif

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jardine, L J

    2005-06-15

    ISTC Partner Project No.2377, ''Development of a General Research and Survey Plan to Create an Underground RW Isolation Facility in Nizhnekansky Massif'', funded a group of key Russian experts in geologic disposal, primarily at Federal State Unitary Enterprise All-Russian Design and Research Institute of Engineering Production (VNIPIPT) and Mining Chemical Combine Krasnoyarsk-26 (MCC K-26) (Reference 1). The activities under the ISTC Partner Project were targeted to the creation of an underground research laboratory which was to justify the acceptability of the geologic conditions for ultimate isolation of high-level waste in Russia. In parallel to this project work was also under way with Minatom's financial support to characterize alternative sections of the Nizhnekansky granitoid rock massif near the MCC K-26 site to justify the possibility of creating an underground facility for long-term or ultimate isolation of radioactive waste (RW) and spent nuclear fuel (SNF). (Reference 2) The result was a synergistic, integrated set of activities several years that advanced the geologic repository site characterization and development of a proposed underground research laboratory better than could have been expected with only the limited funds from ISTC Partner Project No.2377 funded by the U.S. DOE-RW. There were four objectives of this ISTC Partner Project 2377 geologic disposal work: (1) Generalize and analyze all research work done previously at the Nizhnekansky granitoid massif by various organizations; (2) Prepare and issue a declaration of intent (DOI) for proceeding with an underground research laboratory in a granite massif near the MCC K-26 site. (The DOI is similar to a Record of Decision in U.S. terminology). (3) Proceeding from the data obtained as a result of scientific research and exploration and design activities, prepare a justification of investment (JOI) for an underground research laboratory in as much detail as the available

  4. Preliminary design study of underground pumped hydro and compressed-air energy storage in hard rock. Volume 11: Plant design. UPH

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-06-01

    The plant design for an underground pumped hydroelectric (UPH) storage facility having maximum generating capacity of 2000 MW and energy storage capacity of 20,000 MWh at a nominal heat of 5000 ft. is presented. The UPH facility is a two step configuration with single-stage reversible pump-turbines, each step consisting of a 1000 MW plant at a nominal head of 2500 ft. The surface facilities and upper reservoir, shafts and hoists, penstocks and hydraulic tunnels, powerhouses, and intermediate and lower reservoirs are described. Details of the power plant electrical and mechanical equipment, including pump-turbine and motor-generator units, are given. The development of the site is outlined together with the construction methods and schedule. The cost estimates and a cost-risk analysis are presented. Plant operation, including unit operation, two-step operation, plant efficiency, and availability, is outlined.

  5. SOLIDIFICATION TESTING FOR A HIGH ACTIVITY WASTESTREAM FROM THE SAVANNAH RIVER SITE USING GROUT AND GAMMA RADIATION SHEILDING MATERIALS - 10017

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burns, H.

    2009-11-10

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) tasked MSE Technology Applications, Inc. (MSE) with evaluating grouts that include gamma radiation shielding materials to solidify surrogates of liquid aqueous radioactive wastes from across the DOE Complex. The Savannah River Site (SRS) identified a High Activity Waste (HAW) that will be treated and solidified at the Waste Solidification Building (WSB) for surrogate grout testing. The HAW, which is produced at the Mixed Oxide Fuel Fabrication Facility (MFFF), is an acidic aqueous wastestream generated by the alkaline treatment process and the aqueous purification process. The HAW surrogate was solidified using Portland cement with and without the inclusion of different gamma radiation shielding materials to determine the shielding material that is the most effective to attenuate gamma radiation for this application.

  6. Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory. Annual Report 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2009-07-15

    The Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory (HRL) is an important part of SKB's work with the design and construction of a deep geological repository for the final disposal of spent nuclear fuel. The main activities in the geoscientific fields have been: (1) Geology - completion of the feasibility study concerning geological mapping techniques and mapping of rock surfaces in the new tunnel, (2) Hydrogeology - monitoring and storage of data in the computerised Hydro Monitoring System, (3) Geochemistry - sampling of groundwater in the yearly campaign and for specific experiments and (4) Rock Mechanics - field tests to evaluate the counterforce needed to prevent thermally-induced spalling in deposition holes. At Aespoe HRL, experiments are performed under the conditions that are expected to prevail at repository depth. The aim is to provide information about the long-term function of natural and repository barriers. Experiments are performed to develop and test methods and models for the description of groundwater flow, radionuclide migration, and chemical conditions at repository depth. The programme includes projects which aim to determine parameter values that are required as input to the conceptual and numerical models. A number of large-scale field experiments and supporting activities concerning Engineered barriers are carried out at Aespoe HRL. The experiments focus on different aspects of engineering technology and performance testing: The Prototype Repository is a demonstration of the integrated function of the repository and provides a full-scale reference for tests of predictive models concerning individual components as well as the complete repository system; The Long Term Test of Buffer Material (Lot-experiment) aims at validating models and hypotheses concerning physical properties in a bentonite buffer material and of related processes regarding microbiology, radionuclide transport, copper corrosion and gas transport; The objective of the project Alternative

  7. Leach tests on grouts made with actual and trace metal-spiked synthetic phosphate/sulfate waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serne, R.J.; Martin, W.J.; LeGore, V.L.; Lindenmeier, C.W.; McLaurine, S.B.; Martin, P.F.C.; Lokken, R.O.

    1989-10-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory conducted experiments to produce empirical leach rate data for phosphate-sulfate waste (PSW) grout. Effective diffusivities were measured for various radionuclides ({sup 90}Sr, {sup 99}Tc, {sup 14}C, {sup 129}I, {sup 137}Cs, {sup 60}Co, {sup 54}Mn, and U), stable major components (NO{sub 3}{sup {minus}}, SO{sub 4}{sup 2{minus}}, H{sub 3}BO{sub 3}, K and Na) and the trace constituents Ag, As, Cd, Hg, Pb, and Se. Two types of leach tests were used on samples of actual PSW grout and synthetic PSW grout: the American Nuclear Society (ANS) 16.1 intermittent replacement leach test and a static leach test. Grout produced from both synthetic and real PSW showed low leach rates for the trace metal constituents and most of the waste radionuclides. Many of the spiked trace metals and radionuclides were not detected in any leachates. None of the effluents contained measurable quantities of {sup 137}Cs, {sup 60}Co, {sup 54}Mn, {sup 109}Cd, {sup 51}Cr, {sup 210}Pb, {sup 203}Hg, or As. For those trace species with detectable leach rates, {sup 125}I appeared to have the greatest leach rate, followed by {sup 99}Tc, {sup 75}Se, and finally U, {sup 14}C, and {sup 110m}Ag. Leach rates for nitrate are between those for I and Tc, but there is much scatter in the nitrate data because of the very low nitrate inventory. 32 refs., 6 figs., 15 tabs.

  8. Rollerjaw Rock Crusher

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Gregory; Brown, Kyle; Fuerstenau, Stephen

    2009-01-01

    The rollerjaw rock crusher melds the concepts of jaw crushing and roll crushing long employed in the mining and rock-crushing industries. Rollerjaw rock crushers have been proposed for inclusion in geological exploration missions on Mars, where they would be used to pulverize rock samples into powders in the tens of micrometer particle size range required for analysis by scientific instruments.

  9. 考虑滤过效应的卵砾石层浆液扩散研究%CEMENT GROUT DISPERSION CONSIDERING FILTRATION IN GRAVEL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    房凯; 夏唐代; 包柳青; 叶建梁; 陈士才

    2013-01-01

      Due to progressive blocking of cement grains within the soil matrix,filtration of grout plays a significant role during grout dispersion process. The influence of filtration on the grout dispersion in gravel is studied. The injectability criterion of the grout is first summarized. Then the linear filtration law is introduced into the mass balance relationships of water,cement and soil to develop a cement grout dispersion model in spherical coordinates with account for filtration. The comparison between model results and experimental data proves the validity of the given model and the necessity of considering the phenomenon of filtration. In addition,the influences of filtration on permeation grouting under different injection durations and water-cement ratios are also studied. The results reveal that the penetration resistance increases gradually due to grout filtration,leading to the increase in grouting pressure with time. For grout with smaller water-cement ratio,the grouting pressure is larger and the influence of filtration is more obvious.%  渗透注浆过程中水泥颗粒对土体孔隙的堵塞会产生滤过效应,滤过效应在浆液扩散过程中起着非常重要的作用。基于此,研究滤过效应对卵砾石层中注浆浆液扩散的影响。在总结浆液可注入性标准的基础上,考虑浆液滤过过程中水、水泥和土体的质量平衡,引入线性滤过定律,给出一种球孔扩散条件下考虑滤过效应的水泥浆浆液扩散模型,并通过模型理论结果和现场实测数据的对比,说明该方法的合理性和考虑滤过效应的必要性。不同注浆时间和水灰比条件下滤过效应对渗透注浆的影响分析表明,滤过效应导致土体的渗透阻力逐渐增大,土体中注浆压力随时间逐渐增加。浆液水灰比越小,注浆压力越大,滤过效应也越显著。

  10. Long-Term Behaviour of Fly Ash and Slag Cement Grouts for Micropiles Exposed to a Sulphate Aggressive Medium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Marcos Ortega

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, one of the most popular ways to get a more sustainable cement industry is using additions as cement replacement. However, there are many civil engineering applications in which the use of sustainable cements is not extended yet, such as special foundations, and particularly micropiles, even though the standards do not restrict the cement type to use. These elements are frequently exposed to the sulphates present in soils. The purpose of this research is to study the effects in the very long-term (until 600 days of sulphate attack in the microstructure of micropiles grouts, prepared with ordinary Portland cement, fly ash and slag commercial cements, continuing a previous work, in which these effects were studied in the short-term. The microstructure changes have been analysed with the non-destructive impedance spectroscopy technique, mercury intrusion porosimetry and the “Wenner” resistivity test. The mass variation and the compressive strength have also been studied. The impedance spectroscopy has been the most sensitive technique for following the sulphate attack process. Considering the results obtained, micropiles grouts with slag and fly ash, exposed to an aggressive medium with high content of sulphates, have shown good behaviour in the very long-term (600 days compared to grouts made with OPC.

  11. Effects of the Length of Jet Grouted Columns and Soil Profile on the Settlement of Shallow Foundations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaheer Ahmed Almani

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the effect of length of jet grouted columns and varying soil profile under shallow foundations of buildings constructed on the liquefiable ground was studied. The isolated shallow footing pad which supports a typical simple frame structure was constructed on the liquefiable ground. This ground was reinforced with jet grouted column rows under the shallow foundations of structure. The system was modeled as plane-strain using the FLAC 2D (Fast Lagrangian Analysis of Continua dynamic modelling and analysis code. This case focuses on the length of jet grouted columns in a soil profile and the effect of soil profiles of varying thickness on the settlements of building structure when the soil is liquefied during an earthquake. The results show that liquefaction-induced large settlements of shallow foundation of building decrease to tolerable limits with the increase in the length of columns. For soil profiles, with a relatively thinner liquefiable layer, a certain minimum length of columns (extended in base non liquefiable layer is required to meet the settlement tolerable limits. For soil profiles, with a relatively thicker liquefiable layer, this length should be equal to the thickness of the liquefiable layer from the footing base plus some extension in the base non liquefiable dense layer. In the soil profile with the base liquefiable layer underlying the non liquefiable layer, settlements could not be reduced to the tolerable limits even with columns of relatively larger length which may be critical.

  12. Removal of Pb2+ and Cd2+ by adsorption on clay-solidified grouting curtain for waste landfills

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Yong-gui; ZHANG Ke-neng; ZOU Yin-sheng; DENG Fei-yue

    2006-01-01

    Pb2+ and Cd2+ in leachate were adsorbed on clay-solidified grouting curtain for waste landfills with equilibrium experiment. The cation exchange capacity was determined with ammonium acetate. And the concentration of heavy metal cations in leachate was determined with atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Their equilibrium isotherms were measured, and the experimental isotherm data were analyzed by using Freundlich and Langmuir models. The results show that the adsorption capacities of the heavy metal cations are closely related to the compositions of clay-solidified grouting curtain, and the maximum adsorption appears at the ratio of cement to clay of 2: 4 in the experimental conditions. At their maximum adsorption and pH 5.0, the adsorption capacities of Pb2+ and Cd2+ are 16.19 mg/g and 1.21 mg/g. The competitive adsorption coefficients indicate that the adsorption of clay-solidified grouting curtain for Pb2+ is stronger than that for Cd2+. The adsorption process conforms to Freundlich's model with related coefficient higher than 0. 996.

  13. Failure mechanism and stability control technology of rock surrounding a roadway in complex stress conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu Yang; Bai Jianbiao; Chen Ke; Wang Xiangyu; Xiao Tongqiang; Chen Yong

    2011-01-01

    To solve the problem of supporting three downhill coal structures in the Yongan Coal Mine of Shanxi Jincheng,we studied the regular development of stress and plastic zones and characteristics of deformation of rock surrounding roadway groups after a period of roadway driving,mining one side as well as mining both sides,we used FLAC3D for our numerical and theoretical analyses.Field test were carried out,where we revealed the deformation mechanism of roadways and its coal pillars in complex stress conditions.We proposed a roadway stability control technology using backwall grouting with high-water rapid hardening material and combined support with bolt and cable anchoring after mining both sides.Our field practices showed that deformation of rock surrounding roadways can be controlled with this technology.

  14. Water Gushing Mechanism and Grouting Sealing Technology of Vertical Shaft lining in Yiqiao Coal Mine%义桥煤矿立井井简涌水机理与注浆封堵技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林东才; 魏夕合; 刘尊欣; 张培森

    2012-01-01

    针对义桥煤矿复杂水文地质条件下深厚表土层立井壁破裂、井筒涌水严重,采用单液及双液水泥、水玻璃多次封堵无效的技术难题,结合井壁破裂理论中的施工质量说和竖直附加应力说,分析了义桥煤矿主副立井井壁涌水特征及变形破坏机理,在此基础上,研究了高分子化学材料马丽散N注浆封堵涌水、加固围岩机理,并制定了主副井筒表土段壁间注浆、基岩段壁后注浆的钻孔布置与施工工艺,并对注浆量、注浆压力等进行了过程监控,对井筒涌水量进行了长期监测,实测涌水量已小于0.05m^3/h,达到了防治井壁破裂、封堵涌水、稳定含水层水压的目的,缓释和抑制了井壁附加压力。%According to the technical problem of mine shaft lining breaking, water gushing seriously in shaft, many invalid sealing of using single liquid and dual fluid cement and sodium silicate in the deep and thick topsoil under complex hydrogeology conditions of Yiqiao coal mine, combining with the construction quality hypothesis and the vertical additional stress hypothesis of the mine shaft lin- ing breaking theory, the water gushing characteristics and deformation failure mechanism of the main and auxiliary shaft were analyzed.And on this basis, grouting and blocking water gushing and reinforcement of surrounding rock mechanism of the high polymer chemistry material marithan N were studied, and the drill hole layout and the construction technology of grouting between borehole wall of topsoil section, grouting behind the wall of the bedrock section were formulated, and the process monitoring for the grouting quantity and grou- ting pressure were carried out. Through long - term monitoring of the shaft lining water gushing, the shaft lining water gushing was less than O. 05 m3/h, which realized the purpose of preventing and controlling of shaft lining water gushing, shaft lining breaking, stability of

  15. Toe rock stability for rubble mound breakwaters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baart, S.; Ebbens, R.; Nammuni-Krohn, J.; Verhagen, H.J.

    2010-01-01

    Present design tools, as found in the Rock Manual or Coastal Engineering Manual, for the determination of toe rock size for rubble mound breakwaters are based on test data with a large spread: data is relatively dispersed around the centre and descriptive equations have limited applicability ranges.

  16. Acoustics in rock and pop music halls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Niels Werner; Thompson, Eric Robert; Gade, Anders Christian

    2007-01-01

    The existing body of literature regarding the acoustic design of concert halls has focused almost exclusively on classical music, although there are many more performances of rhythmic music, including rock and pop. Objective measurements were made of the acoustics of twenty rock music venues...

  17. Thermally induced rock stress increment and rock reinforcement response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hakala, M. [KMS Hakala Oy, Nokia (Finland); Stroem, J.; Nujiten, G.; Uotinen, L. [Rockplan, Helsinki (Finland); Siren, T.; Suikkanen, J.

    2014-07-15

    brittle deformation zones is included. The main conclusion is that, despite deep reaching damage potential, in all the load cases studied the currently designed and used reinforcement types and configurations (rock bolts, shotcrete) are capable of handling the dead weight of the damaged rock should this occur, with damage occurring on the shotcrete liner. The long term safety and stability of the repository during its lifetime can be guaranteed by perceiving the reinforcement strategy in two stages. Firstly, by installing the rock reinforcement to sustain the initial stresses and short term increases from the start of deposition with a monitoring programme in place. Secondly, by installing additional reinforcement, if found necessary through monitoring and observation of the underground facilities. In this way, the effect of any time dependent rock stress increase affecting the reinforcement structures can be observed, in addition to creep based damage, thus providing a better level of safety than a single stage design. (orig.)

  18. 穿越航道的海底管道堆石保护设计方法研究与探讨%Study on Rock Armour Protection Design Method of Subsea Pipeline in Shipping Lanes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马坤明; 刘志刚; 李庆; 戚晓明; 李旭

    2012-01-01

    The subsea pipeline will be in danger or be damaged under many conditions, especially the severe risk for anchor drop. Rock armour protection method is adopted in this paper. The key technique for rock armour protection design including such contents as dimension of rock berm, trench slope stability, rock grading design and so on are researched, Some suggestions for optimization are presented. The study of this paper has a remarkable means to keep the subsea pipeline safe and economic, and will provide a good theory instruction for engineering design in the future.%穿越航道的海底管道面临着诸多风险,尤其是船舶落锚和拖锚将给其带来严峻的考验.采用的管道保护方法为堆石覆盖保护法.针对堆石保护设计的关键技术,包括堆石层的尺寸设计、管沟边坡稳定性设计、回填石块的粒径级配设计等内容进行了研究和探讨,并就如何进行优化设计提出了一些建议.研究成果在保证管道安全性和经济性方面意义明显,同时还将为今后的工程设计提供一定的理论指导.

  19. Relaxation study of cement based grouting material using nuclear magnetic resonance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Xianzhong; Lin Baiquan; Zhai Cheng; Ni Guanhua; Li Ziwen

    2012-01-01

    Aiming at actual condition of poor effect of hole sealing for the reason of poor cement paste fluidity in the process of coal mine gas drainage,by adding a water reducing agent,cement paste for hole sealing was produced.The changes of initial distribution,weighted average values and total relaxation signal intensity of transverse relaxation time (T2) of water in pure cement paste and water reducing agent added cement paste were studied with low field proton nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR).The results show that there are four peaks in T2 distribution curves of cement paste:the first peak is related to the bound water in flocculation,the second and the third peaks are related to the water in flocculation,water reducing agent makes it extending towards the long relaxation time,increasing its liquidity,and the fourth peak is related to the free water.By using weighted average values of T2 and total relaxation signal intensity,hydration process of cement pastes could be roughly divided into four stages:the initial period,reaction period,accelerated period and steady period.By analyzing the periods,it makes sure that the grouting process should be completed in the reaction period in the site,and the drainage process should be started in the steady period.The results have great guiding significance to the hole sealing and methane drainage.

  20. Relaxation study of cement based grouting material using nuclear magnetic resonance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li; Xianzhong; Lin; Baiquan; Zhai; Cheng; Ni; Guanhua; Li; Ziwen

    2012-01-01

    Aiming at actual condition of poor effect of hole sealing for the reason of poor cement paste fluidity in the process of coal mine gas drainage,by adding a water reducing agent,cement paste for hole sealing was produced.The changes of initial distribution,weighted average values and total relaxation signal intensity of transverse relaxation time(T 2) of water in pure cement paste and water reducing agent added cement paste were studied with low field proton nuclear magnetic resonance(NMR).The results show that there are four peaks in T2 distribution curves of cement paste:the first peak is related to the bound water in flocculation,the second and the third peaks are related to the water in flocculation,water reducing agent makes it extending towards the long relaxation time,increasing its liquidity,and the fourth peak is related to the free water.By using weighted average values of T2 and total relaxation signal intensity,hydration process of cement pastes could be roughly divided into four stages:the initial period,reaction period,accelerated period and steady period.By analyzing the periods,it makes sure that the grouting process should be completed in the reaction period in the site,and the drainage process should be started in the steady period.The results have great guiding significance to the hole sealing and methane drainage.

  1. Mechanical properties and failure characteristics of fractured sandstone with grouting and anchorage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zong Yijiang; Han Lijun; Qu Tao; Yang Shengqi

    2014-01-01

    Based on uniaxial compression experimental results on fractured sandstone with grouting and anchorage, we studied the strength and deformation properties, the failure model, crack formation and evolution laws of fractured sandstone under different conditions of anchorage. The experimental results show that the strength and elastic modulus of fractured sandstone with different fracture angles are sig-nificantly lower than those of intact sandstone. Compared with the fractured samples without anchorage, the peak strength, residual strength, peak and ultimate axial strain of fractured sandstone under different anchorage increase by 64.5-320.0%, 62.8-493.0%, and 31.6-181.4%, respectively. The number of bolts and degree of pre-stress has certain effects on the peak strength and failure model of fractured sandstone. The peak strength of fractured sandstone under different anchorage increases to some extent, and the failure model of fractured sandstone also transforms from tensile failure to tensile-shear mixed failure with the number of bolts. The pre-stress can restrain the formation and evolution process of tensile cracks, delay the failure process of fractured sandstone under anchorage and impel the transformation of failure model from brittle failure to plastic failure.

  2. Remedial action plan and site design for stabilization of the inactive uranium mill tailings sites at Slick Rock, Colorado: Appendix A to Attachment 3, tables; Preliminary final

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-03-01

    This appendix contains the supporting tables for the remedial action plan for uranium mill tailings sites at Slick Rock, CO. The tables contain monitoring well information, background groundwater quality data, regulated constituent summaries, tailings pore fluid sample analyses, and other data for each of the sites studied.

  3. Geotechnical Descriptions of Rock and Rock Masses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-04-01

    weathering is presented by Dornbusch (1982). 39. Mechanical, or physical, weathering of rock occurs primarily by (a) freeze expansion (or frost wedging...34Engineering Classifica- tion of In-Situ Rock," Technical Report No. AFWL-TR-67-144, Air Force Weapons Laboratory, Kirtland Air Force Base, N. Mex. Dornbusch , W

  4. Field grouting summary report on the WAG 4 seeps 4 and 6 removal action project, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Volume 3. Appendixes E and F

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-05-01

    During the summer of 1996, a unique multi-phase, multi-stage, low-pressure permeation grouting pilot program was performed inside portions of four unlined waste disposal trenches at Waste Area Grouping (WAG) 4 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The project was deemed a non-time-critical removal action under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA); however, due to a history of heavy precipitation in the fall, the schedule was fast-tracked to meet an October 31, 1996 grouting completion date. The technical objective of the removal action was to reduce the off-site transport of j Strontium 90 ({sup 90}Sr) by grouting portions of four waste disposal trenches believed to be responsible for over 70 percent of the {sup 90}Sr leaving the site. A goal of the grouting operation was to reduce the average in situ hydraulic conductivity of the grouted waste materials to a value equal to or less than 1 x 10{sup -6} cm/sec. This target hydraulic conductivity value was established to be at least two orders of magnitude lower than that of the surrounding natural ground.

  5. Influence of Silica Fume Addition in the Long-Term Performance of Sustainable Cement Grouts for Micropiles Exposed to a Sulphate Aggressive Medium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Marcos Ortega

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available At present, sustainability is of major importance in the cement industry, and the use of additions such as silica fume as clinker replacement contributes towards that goal. Special foundations, and particularly micropiles, are one of the most suitable areas for the use of sustainable cements. The aim of this research is to analyse the effects in the very long-term (for 600 days produced by sulphate attack in the microstructure of grouts for micropiles in which OPC (ordinary Portland cement has been replaced by 5% and 10% silica fume. This line of study is building on a previous work, where these effects were studied in slag and fly ash grouts. Grouts made using a commercial sulphate-resisting Portland cement were also studied. The non-destructive impedance spectroscopy technique, mercury intrusion porosimetry, and Wenner resistivity testing were used. Mass variation and the compressive strength have also been analysed. Apparently, impedance spectroscopy is the most suitable technique for studying sulphate attack development. According to the results obtained, grouts for micropiles with a content of silica fume up to 10% and exposed to an aggressive sulphate medium, have a similar or even better behaviour in the very long-term, compared to grouts prepared using sulphate-resisting Portland cement.

  6. Field grouting summary report on the WAG seeps 4 and 6 removal action project, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Volume 1: Text

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-05-01

    During the summer of 1996, a unique multi-phase, multi-stage, low-pressure permeation grouting pilot program was performed inside portions of four unlined waste disposal trenches at Waste Area Grouping (WAG) 4 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The project was deemed a non-time-critical removal action under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA); however, due to a history of heavy precipitation in the fall, the schedule was fast-tracked to meet an October 31, 1996 grouting completion date. The technical objective of the removal action was to reduce the off-site transport of Strontium 90 ({sup 90}Sr) by grouting portions of four waste disposal trenches believed to be responsible for over 70% of the {sup 90}Sr leaving the site. A goal of the grouting operation was to reduce the average in situ hydraulic conductivity of the grouted waste materials to a value equal to or less than 1 x 10{sup {minus}6} cm/sec. This target hydraulic conductivity value was established to be at least two orders of magnitude lower than that of the surrounding natural ground.

  7. The Rock Cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Raman J.; Bushee, Jonathan

    1977-01-01

    Presents a rock cycle diagram suitable for use at the secondary or introductory college levels which separates rocks formed on and below the surface, includes organic materials, and separates products from processes. (SL)

  8. Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory. The TASS-tunnel. Geological mapping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hardenby, Carljohan (Vattenfall Power Consultant AB (Sweden)); Sigurdsson, Oskar (HAskGeokonsult AB (Sweden))

    2010-12-15

    The project entitled 'Sealing of tunnel at great depth' (Fintaetning av tunnel paa stort djup) needed a new tunnel in an area as undisturbed as possible and with cross-cutting water-bearing structures. The new tunnel, which was given the name TASS, was excavated on the -450 m level of SKB's Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory (Aespoe HRL). The length of the tunnel is approximately 80 m and the theoretical tunnel area 19 m2. As is the case with all the other tunnels of the Aespoe HRL, the new tunnel has been geologically mapped. In addition, laser scanning combined with digital photography has been carried out. The tunnel was also used to test various types of explosives, borehole layouts and drilling techniques. The geological mapping of tunnel floor, walls and roof took place on four major occasions when a halt was made in tunnel excavation to allow for various tests. Before the mapping started on these occasions, laser scanning took place. The tunnel faces were mapped after each round (drilling, blasting and unloading). The present report describes the geological features of the tunnel and briefly how the laser scanning was performed. Water-bearing structures have been compared to similar structures in the neighbouring tunnels. The rock type names used here follow the old established Aespoe HRL nomenclature. Narrow (<0.1 m wide) dykes are normally mapped as fracture fillings. The dominating rock type is Aespoe diorite, which constitutes some 90 % of the rock mass. It is mostly mapped as fresh rock. . Minor constituents of the rock mass are fine-grained granite, hybrid rock, pegmatite, quartz veins/lenses and undifferentiated mafic rock. The mapping of fractures and deformation zones considers a number of parameters such as number of fractures, open/healed, width, length, description of fracture surfaces (roughness, planarity, etc), fracture filling, alteration and water. The deformation zones are discriminated into two main categories (&apos

  9. Distinct roles for ROCK1 and ROCK2 in the regulation of cell detachment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Jianjian; Wu, Xiangbing; Surma, Michelle; Vemula, Sasidhar; Zhang, Lumin; Yang, Yu; Kapur, Reuben; Wei, Lei

    2013-02-07

    This study, using mouse embryonic fibroblast (MEF) cells derived from ROCK1(-/-) and ROCK2(-/-) mice, is designed to dissect roles for ROCK1 and ROCK2 in regulating actin cytoskeleton reorganization induced by doxorubicin, a chemotherapeutic drug. ROCK1(-/-) MEFs exhibited improved actin cytoskeleton stability characterized by attenuated periphery actomyosin ring formation and preserved central stress fibers, associated with decreased myosin light chain 2 (MLC2) phosphorylation but preserved cofilin phosphorylation. These effects resulted in a significant reduction in cell shrinkage, detachment, and predetachment apoptosis. In contrast, ROCK2(-/-) MEFs showed increased periphery membrane folding and impaired cell adhesion, associated with reduced phosphorylation of both MLC2 and cofilin. Treatment with inhibitor of myosin (blebbistatin), inhibitor of actin polymerization (cytochalasin D), and ROCK pan-inhibitor (Y27632) confirmed the contributions of actomyosin contraction and stress fiber instability to stress-induced actin cytoskeleton reorganization. These results support a novel concept that ROCK1 is involved in destabilizing actin cytoskeleton through regulating MLC2 phosphorylation and peripheral actomyosin contraction, whereas ROCK2 is required for stabilizing actin cytoskeleton through regulating cofilin phosphorylation. Consequently, ROCK1 and ROCK2 can be functional different in regulating stress-induced stress fiber disassembly and cell detachment.

  10. 象山隧道岩溶段注浆技术优化研究%Optimization of Grouting Technologies for Karst Sections:Case Study on Xiangshan Tunnel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高广义; 陈立杰

    2011-01-01

    为了快速通过象山隧道岩溶段,贯通全隧,通过引进专业化注浆队伍,优化注浆技术,提高注浆效果,保证安全快速开挖.对原注浆方案,注浆工艺、注浆效果评定标准优化和研究,提出象山隧道岩溶段注浆施工技术,即保证了注浆效果、加快了施工进度,又节约了施工成本.通过实践应用证实优化后的施工方法具有明显的经济效益和社会效益,值得在类似工程中借鉴和推广.%Professional grouting teams are introduced and grouting technologies are optimized to improve the grouting efficiency and to guarantee the safe and rapid construction so as to pass through the karst sections of Xiangshan tunnel successfully. The original grouting plans, grouting technologies and grouting effect assessment standards are optimized and studied and grouting technologies for the karst sections of Xiangshan tunnel are proposed. In the end, the grouting effect is guaranteed and the construction progress is accelerated. The practice proves that the technologies optimized have significant economic and social benefits and are worth to be popularized in similar works.

  11. Discussion of Key Points in Reservoir Anti-seepage Grouting Project Quality Test%水库防渗灌浆工程质量检测的要点探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    劳正绍

    2013-01-01

    Impermeable grouting reinforcement is the main implementation content in weak dam risk removal reinforcement.Impermeable grouting commonly adopts high pressure jet grouting , filling grouting, dam foundation curtain grouting and the like .However , quality inspection of high pressure jet grouting , filling grouting and dam foundation curtain grouting is mainly based on inspection hole drilling water injection and drilling packer permeability test .The paper provides important scientific basis for project quality inspection and acceptance through inspection hole test results .%  防渗灌浆加固是病险水库除险加固的主要实施内容,防渗灌浆加固常用高压喷射灌浆、充填灌浆、坝基帷幕灌浆等,而高压喷射灌浆、充填灌浆、坝基帷幕灌浆质量检测是以检查孔钻孔注水和钻孔压水试验为主,通过检查孔的试验成果,为工程质量检查、验收提供重要的科学依据。

  12. A Novel Mobile Testing Equipment for Rock Cuttability Assessment: Vertical Rock Cutting Rig (VRCR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasar, Serdar; Yilmaz, Ali Osman

    2017-04-01

    In this study, a new mobile rock cutting testing apparatus was designed and produced for rock cuttability assessment called vertical rock cutting rig (VRCR) which was designed specially to fit into hydraulic press testing equipment which are available in almost every rock mechanics laboratory. Rock cutting trials were initiated just after the production of VRCR along with calibration of the measuring load cell with an external load cell to validate the recorded force data. Then, controlled rock cutting tests with both relieved and unrelieved cutting modes were implemented on five different volcanic rock samples with a standard simple-shaped wedge tool. Additionally, core cutting test which is an important approach for roadheader performance prediction was simulated with VRCR. Mini disc cutters and point attack tools were used for execution of experimental trials. Results clearly showed that rock cutting tests were successfully realized and measuring system is delicate to rock strength, cutting depth and other variables. Core cutting test was successfully simulated, and it was also shown that rock cutting tests with mini disc cutters and point attack tools are also successful with VRCR.

  13. My Pet Rock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lark, Adam; Kramp, Robyne; Nurnberger-Haag, Julie

    2008-01-01

    Many teachers and students have experienced the classic pet rock experiment in conjunction with a geology unit. A teacher has students bring in a "pet" rock found outside of school, and the students run geologic tests on the rock. The tests include determining relative hardness using Mohs scale, checking for magnetization, and assessing luster.…

  14. My Pet Rock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lark, Adam; Kramp, Robyne; Nurnberger-Haag, Julie

    2008-01-01

    Many teachers and students have experienced the classic pet rock experiment in conjunction with a geology unit. A teacher has students bring in a "pet" rock found outside of school, and the students run geologic tests on the rock. The tests include determining relative hardness using Mohs scale, checking for magnetization, and assessing luster.…

  15. Instability mechanism and control technology of soft rock roadway affected by mining and high confined water

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Guichen; Jiang Zuohan; Lv Chuangxin; Huang Chao; Chen Gui; Li Mingyuan

    2015-01-01

    Based on deformation and failure characteristics of the second belt conveyor roadway at level II of Zhuxianzhuang coal mine, laboratory experiments, numerical calculation and field test were adopted to analyze the composition and microstructure of mudstone, the law of mudstone hydration and its strength weakening induced by water, the characteristics of surrounding rock deformation and failure under the action of confined water. Results showed that montmorillonite clay minerals accounted for as much as 76% of mudstone, with a large number of pores existing in the microstructure. Besides, as the molecular structure of montmorillonite changed, mudstone microstructure damage occurred with the macroscopic manifestation of its rheological instability. Weakening degree of confined water on residual strength of mudstone was almost 50%. The instability mechanism of soft rock roadway caused by high confined water is that surrounding rock circulates the process of ‘fracture-seepage-mud ding-closed’ twice, which weakens its strength and leads to roadway instability. A combined support technology, namely the, ‘high-toughness sealing layer+hollow grouting cables+full-length anchoring bolts with deep borehole’ was proposed. Based on field observation, the soft rock roadway was controlled effectively, which also verified the effectiveness of new control technology for surrounding rock.

  16. Preliminary design study of underground pumped hydro and compressed-air energy storage in hard rock. Volume 6: Site investigation: Shallow drilling

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-04-01

    The work was undertaken to define the surficial geological conditions and the nature of the overburden and the bedrock at shallow depths as part of the field exploration program for underground pumped hydro (UPH) and compressed air energy storage (CAES) facility. Testing was performed on selected rock and soil samples to define the physical and mechanical properties of the subsurface material. Piezometers were installed on the site for long term monitoring of the groundwater.

  17. Methods of rock burst prediction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Genkin, V.A.; Minin, Yu.Ya.; Morozov, G.D.; Proskuryakov, V.M.; Cmirnov, V.A.

    1979-07-01

    Some methods of predicting rock bursts in underground coal and iron ore mines are evaluated: using BP-18 indenters and the MGD indenter with automatic recording; seismic method consisting in measuring the speed of shock waves travelling through various layers (apparatus SB-20 is designed for use in coal mines); electrometric method (measuring resistance between two electrodes when electric currents flow through coal and rocks). The design of the AEhSSh-1 measuring instrument, used in the electrometric method in coal mines is also described. Each of the methods is described and mathematical fomulae used as their theoretical basis are presented. The calculating process is explained and brief information on the design and use of the measuring instrument is given. The methods are evaluated from the viewpoint of precision. (In Russian)

  18. Experiments on Hybrid Precast Concrete Shear Walls Emulating Monolithic Construction with Different Amounts of Posttensioned Strands and Different Debond Lengths of Grouted Reinforcements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhangfeng Zhu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposed a hybrid precast concrete shear wall emulating monolithic construction (HPWEM that utilized grouted vertical connecting reinforcements and unbonded posttensioned high-strength strands across the horizontal joint for the lateral resistance. The grouted reinforcements with predetermined debond length were used to provide strength by tension and energy dissipation by yielding. The posttensioned strands were mainly employed to offer the restoring force to reduce the residual displacement by elastic extension. The overlapping welded closed stirrups improved the confinement property of the restrained concrete, avoiding the brittle failure. Six HPWEM specimens, considering variables including the amounts of strands and the debond lengths of grouted reinforcements, as well as one referenced cast-in-place monolithic wall specimen, were tested under the low-cycle reversed lateral load. The HPWEM specimens were capable of providing strength, stiffness, ductility, and energy dissipation equivalent to that of the monolithic wall specimen under certain variable condition.

  19. 地铁隧道下穿人行天桥注浆加固技术%Grouting Reinforement Technology for Metro Tunnel beneath Pedestrian Footbridge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    侯宝利; 张鹏飞; 廖秋林

    2013-01-01

    北京地铁7号线湾子站-达官营站区间采用矿山法施工,并通过注浆加固措施成功实现暗挖隧道下穿人行天桥。文章简要介绍工程中注浆支护方案选择、后退式深孔灌注双液浆施工方法、后退式深孔全断面注浆施工方法,以及注浆检测与效果评价。%The paper briefly describes the project grouting support scheme selection, retreating deep slurry with two liquids construction methods, retreating deep hole total tunnel grouting methods, and grouting detection and evaluation.

  20. Soil Improvement By Jet Grout Method And Geogrid Against Liquefaction: Example Of Samsun-Tekkeköy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Öztürk, Seda; Banu İkizler, S.; Şadoǧlu, Erol; Dadaşbilge, Ozan; Angın, Zekai

    2017-04-01

    scenarios of earthquakes with 6.0, 6.5, 7.0 and 7.2 magnitudes. As a result of the analyses made, it has been deemed necessary to improve the soil in order to prevent or reduce the liquefaction effects which may occur in a possible earthquake due to the presence of liquefaction potential in the research area. For this purpose, jet grouting method and geogrid fill system, which are used widely in Turkey, have been chosen as appropriate improvement methods. Geogrids are strong in tension so they are commonly used to reinforce subsoils below foundations. Additionally, jet grouting method provides high bearing capacity; it is solution to the settlement problems, it can be applied to almost any kind of soil and it has a short production period. Within this scope, optimal solution was obtained with 616 pieces of 8 m and 12 m jet grout columns with the diameter of 0.65 m and with geogrid mechanical fillings laid on jet grout columns. Thus, not only the risk of liquefaction was eliminated but also an improvement of more than 3 times of the bearing capacity of the foundation was acquired. In addition, the required quality control tests were carried out for the jet grout columns built in the research area and no adverse effects were observed. Key words: Liquefaction, soil improvement, jet grouting, geogrid

  1. The High Pressure Jet Grouting Pile Engineering Examples in the Construction Waste Landfill Area%高压旋喷桩在建筑垃圾填埋区的工程实例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    凌海

    2014-01-01

    工程建造于废弃的采石场,采石场留下较大的采石坑,坑中填充了各种建筑垃圾和生活垃圾。原设计采用冲孔灌注桩作为工程的基础桩,由于场地内存在小范围的土洞,开始施工冲孔灌注桩时就发生了严重的塌孔事故。改用高压旋喷桩地基处理的基础方案达到了良好的效果。就此讨论了在此类建筑垃圾填埋区域进行高压旋喷桩地基处理的整个流程。对试桩过程、设计参数取用、施工过程和检测过程中应注意的问题进行了研究和讨论。%The engineering construction in the abandoned quarry,quarry left large quarries,pit filled with all sorts of construction waste and household refuse.The original design using punching as the basis of engineering pile,due to the existence of a small scale soil caves in field,when punching pile construction a serious down hole accidents took place. To switch to foundation treatment of the high pressure j et grouting pile foundation scheme achieved good effect.This paper discussed the whole process of high pressure j et grouting pile foundation treatment.Process of test pile,design parameters,construction process and testing process were studied.

  2. Rock History and Culture

    OpenAIRE

    Gonzalez, Éric

    2013-01-01

    Two ambitious works written by French-speaking scholars tackle rock music as a research object, from different but complementary perspectives. Both are a definite must-read for anyone interested in the contextualisation of rock music in western popular culture. In Une histoire musicale du rock (i.e. A Musical History of Rock), rock music is approached from the point of view of the people – musicians and industry – behind the music. Christophe Pirenne endeavours to examine that field from a m...

  3. Sorption (Kd) measurements on cinder block and grout in support of dose assessments for Zion Nuclear Station decommissioning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milian L.; Sullivan T.

    2014-06-24

    The Zion Nuclear Power Station is being decommissioned. ZionSolutions proposes to leave much of the below grade structures in place and to fill them with a backfill to provide structural support. Backfills under consideration include “clean” concrete demolition debris from the above grade parts of the facility, a flowable grout, cinder block construction debris and sand. A previous study (Yim, 2012) examined the sorption behavior of five nuclides (Fe-55, Co-60, Ni-63, Sr-85, and Cs-137) on concrete and local soils. This study, commissioned by ZionSolutions and conducted by the Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) examines the sorption behavior on cinder block and grout materials. Specifically, this study measured the distribution coefficient for four radionuclides of concern using site-groundwater and cinder block from the Zion site and a flowable grout. The distributions coefficient is a measure of the amount of the radionuclide that will remain sorbed to the solid material that is present relative to the amount that will remain in solution. A high distribution coefficient indicates most of the radionuclide will remain on the solid material and will not be available for transport by the groundwater. The radionuclides examined in this set of tests were Co-60, Ni-63, Sr-85, and Cs-137. Tests were performed following ASTM C1733-10, Standard Test Methods for Distribution Coefficients of Inorganic Species by the Batch Method. Sr-85 was used in the testing as an analogue for Sr-90 because it behaves similarly with respect to sorption and has a gamma emission that is easier to detect than the beta emission from Sr-90.

  4. Updated Liquid Secondary Waste Grout Formulation and Preliminary Waste Form Qualification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saslow, Sarah A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Um, Wooyong [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Russell, Renee L. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Wang, Guohui [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Asmussen, Robert M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Sahajpal, Rahul [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2017-07-01

    This report describes the results from liquid secondary waste grout (LSWG) formulation and cementitious waste form qualification tests performed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for Washington River Protection Solutions, LLC (WRPS). New formulations for preparing a cementitious waste form from a high-sulfate liquid secondary waste stream simulant, developed for Effluent Management Facility (EMF) process condensates merged with low activity waste (LAW) caustic scrubber, and the release of key constituents (e.g. 99Tc and 129I) from these monoliths were evaluated. This work supports a technology development program to address the technology needs for Hanford Site Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF) liquid secondary waste (LSW) solidification and supports future Direct Feed Low-Activity Waste (DFLAW) operations. High-priority activities included simulant development, LSWG formulation, and waste form qualification. The work contained within this report relates to waste form development and testing and does not directly support the 2017 integrated disposal facility (IDF) performance assessment (PA). However, this work contains valuable information for use in PA maintenance past FY17, and for future waste form development efforts. The provided data should be used by (i) cementitious waste form scientists to further understanding of cementitious dissolution behavior, (ii) IDF PA modelers who use quantified constituent leachability, effective diffusivity, and partitioning coefficients to advance PA modeling efforts, and (iii) the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) contractors and decision makers as they assess the IDF PA program. The results obtained help fill existing data gaps, support final selection of a LSWG waste form, and improve the technical defensibility of long-term waste form performance estimates.

  5. Shear Performance of Horizontal Joints in Short Precast Concrete Columns with Sleeve Grouted Connections under Cyclic Loading

    OpenAIRE

    Feng, Bo; Xiong, Feng; Liu, Bingyu; Chen, Jiang; Zhang, Yiping

    2016-01-01

    In this study, two short precast concrete columns and two cast-in-situ concrete columns were tested under cyclic loads. It was shown that the sleeve grouted connection was equivalent to the cast-in-situ connections for short columns when the axial compression ratio was 0.6. In order to determine the influence of the axial compression ratio and the shear-span ratio on the shear capacity of the horizontal joint, a FE model was established and verified. The analysis showed that the axial compres...

  6. 帷幕注浆堵水技术在山环煤矿的应用%Application of Curtain Grouting Water Shutoff Technology in Shanhuan Colliery, Meilin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡政明

    2012-01-01

    Curtain grouting technology is used to conduct Shanhuan Colliery, which enables shaft inflow to reduce tees the smooth construction of shaft. water shutoff of vertical to 5 m3/h from 35 m3/h shaft sand-gravel aquifer in before grouting, and guaran-%山环煤矿采用帷幕注浆技术,对立井井筒砂砾石含水层进行堵水,使井筒涌水量由注浆前的35rn3/h减少到5m3/h,保证了井简的顺利施工。

  7. Integrating straight & swirling jets bit design and its rock breaking characteristics for radial horizontal hole drilling%径向水平钻孔直旋混合射流钻头设计与破岩特性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    廖华林; 李根生; 牛继磊; 黄中伟

    2013-01-01

    In order to solve the contradiction between borehole diameter and the depth of borehole of high pressure jet drilling in laterally radial horizontal wells, a new type of jet bit design was proposed which integrated both advantages of round jet and swirling jet. The design method was given,and the jet flow structure and its rock breaking characteristics were analyzed in terms of high speed photograph and rock drilling experiments. The results show that the jet formed by the new designed jet bit has both features of round straight jet and swirling jet, with larger hole diameter than a conical round jet bit and deeper depth than a swirling jet bit. Furthermore, many structural parameters of the jet bit affect the rock breaking results. By optimizing jet bit structure configure, hole drilling characteristics could be adjusted. The study can provide a reference for jet bit design in radial horizontal drilling. It is further needed to perform flow field, and rock breaking mechanism analysis to improve the jet utilization efficiency.%为解决高压水射流径向水平钻孔时孔径和孔深相互矛盾的问题,设计了一种兼具直射流和旋转射流特点的直旋混合射流钻头.给出了射流钻头设计方法,通过破岩实验,分析了直旋混合射流钻头结构对其破岩特性的影响.结果表明,直旋混合射流结合了直射流和旋转射流优点,比锥形喷嘴圆直射流扩孔能力强,比纯旋转射流钻孔深度大.影响直旋混合射流钻头破岩效果的结构参数较多,存在最优破岩效果结构参数,可通过不同参数组合调节破岩钻孔特征.需要进一步开展流场结构与破岩机理分析,为径向水平钻孔中射流钻头的设计提供更好的指导.

  8. Effect of Nanosilica on the Fresh Properties of Cement-Based Grouting Material in the Portland-Sulphoaluminate Composite System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shengli Li

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of NS particle size and content on the fresh properties of the grouting material based on the portland-sulphoaluminate composite system was analyzed. The experimental results indicated that air content increased and apparent density decreased, with increased NS content, but the NS particle sizes have minimal effect on the air content and apparent density. The setting time of mortar was significantly shortened, with increased NS content; however, NS particle sizes had little influence on the setting time. The effect of fluidity on the mortars adding NS with particle size of 30 nm is larger than NS with particle sizes of 15 and 50 nm and the fluidity decreased with increased NS content, but the fluidity of mortars with the particle sizes of 15 and 50 nm is almost not affected by the NS content. XRD analysis shows that the formation of ettringite was promoted and the process of hydration reaction of cement was accelerated with the addition of NS. At the microscopic level, the interfacial transition zone (ITZ of the grouting material became denser and the formation of C-S-H gel was promoted after adding NS.

  9. ONKALO rock mechanics model (RMM) - Version 2.0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moenkkoenen, H. [WSP Finland Oy, Helsinki (Finland); Hakala, M. [KMS Hakala Oy, Nokia (Finland); Paananen, M.; Laine, E. [Geological Survey of Finland, Espoo (Finland)

    2012-02-15

    The Rock Mechanics Model of the ONKALO rock volume is a description of the significant features and parameters related to rock mechanics. The main objective is to develop a tool to predict the rock properties, quality and hence the potential for stress failure which can then be used for continuing design of the ONKALO and the repository. This is the second implementation of the Rock Mechanics Model and it includes sub-models of the intact rock strength, in situ stress, thermal properties, rock mass quality and properties of the brittle deformation zones. Because of the varying quantities of available data for the different parameters, the types of presentations also vary: some data sets can be presented in the style of a 3D block model but, in other cases, a single distribution represents the whole rock volume hosting the ONKALO. (orig.)

  10. 松软地层防渗灌浆帷幕结构性状实验研究%FIELD EXPERIMENTAL STUDY ON TRAITS OF GROUTING IMPERVIOUS CURTAIN IN SOFT LAYER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张贵金; 潘烨; 彭春雷; 陈安重; 杨松林

    2015-01-01

    The high permeability of loose formation,the large consumption plasma of anti-seepage grouting and irregular diffusion have a great deal of uncertainty.So,it is very difficult to accurately grasp the structural traits of the formed impervious curtain,which contains impervious curtain thickness,mechanical properties,anti-seepage effect and other elements.Existing methods and techniques on the assessment of impervious quality mainly include that water pressure test,standard grout depth,coring,physical probe and other methods to access relevant information,which would impose a direct effect.In this study,injection test,hole skew measurement,coring test, whole section excavation and other methods are applied in field,the characters of anti-seepage structure include curtain effective thickness and its sphere of influence,curtain strength properties and permeability characteristic. They are revealed by experimental tests in various operating conditions.Under the condition of 1.5m pitch-row and 0.8m double-row distance,the experimental results show that it is very simple and efficient to adopt the technique of slurry sealing means and pulsating grouting ways to control the grouting process and the utilization of controllable clay grout material with appropriate grouting control parameters.Meanwhile,the periphery hole compaction zone, effective body and cemented stones curtain body are formed uniform and effective.The seepage coefficient reaches 5 lu below.The 28days stone strength after grouting reaches over 3.0MPa.In the effect contrast to pulp and stable slurry paste perfusion,it is found that if grout with stable slurry,it will be mainly with splitting permeability and the diffusion distance will be further than pulp.For higher seepage reinforcement requirements engineering,it will be the best to do the paste perfusion first,and then the stable slurry irrigation.Pulp veins mainly concentrate in the 1m radius around the grouting pipe,accounting for more than 60% of the

  11. Acoustics in rock and pop music halls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adelman-Larsen, Niels Werner; Thompson, Eric Robert; Gade, Anders Christian

    2007-01-01

    The existing body of literature regarding the acoustic design of concert halls has focused almost exclusively on classical music, although there are many more performances of rhythmic music, including rock and pop. Objective measurements were made of the acoustics of twenty rock music venues...... in Denmark and a questionnaire was used in a subjective assessment of those venues with professional rock musicians and sound engineers. Correlations between the objective and subjective results lead, among others, to a recommendation for reverberation time as a function of hall volume. Since the bass...

  12. THEORIES OF ROCK BREAKAGE WITH EXPLOSIVES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinko Škrlec

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The prediction and observation of the nature and dimensions of damaged zones in the surrounding rock mass and understanding the mechanisms of fracturing and crushing of the rock mass with explosives is one of the most important parameters in blasting design in order to obtain preferred granulation and reduce damaging effects of blasting on the environment. An overview of existing rock breakage theories with the energy released by the detonation of explosives is given in this paper (the paper is published in Croatian.

  13. Using Prestressed Concrete Pipe to Test the Grouting Reinforcement Effection%采用试桩验证注浆加固效果

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李连营; 王志强; 张学飞

    2012-01-01

    在新回填的坑中兴建建筑物存在很多安全隐患,为提高填土密实度、均匀性和承载能力,防止地面产生过大的沉降和不均匀沉降,同时解决桩的负摩阻力问题,采用注浆加固工艺对填土进行加固,并通过在坑内、坑外进行预应力管桩试桩验证加固效果.结果表明,填土经注浆加固后的性质明显提高,采用注浆技术进行加固处理是合理的.%There are many existing security risks of buildings in the new backfill pit By using the grouting technologies to reinforce density, uniformity and bearing capacity, we can produce large settlement and uneven settlement in order to problem of negative skin friction of pile, and through the prestressed concrete pipe to test grouting effect in and outside the pit The results showed that, the character of fill is improved obviously after grouting reinforcement So,using grouting technology to treat fill is reasonable.

  14. Application of Grouting Water Shutoff Technology in Mingxi Mine%注浆堵水技术在鸣西矿井的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪来春; 刘敏

    2012-01-01

    The paper narrated the application and effect of grouting water shutoff technology in the treatment of karst-fractured groundwater in Maokou Limestone.%叙述了注浆堵水技术在治理茅口灰岩岩溶裂隙水中的应用及效果。

  15. 地震波CT在注浆效果检测评价中的应用%THE APPLICATION OF SEISMIC WAVE CT TO GROUTING DETECTION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毛星

    2012-01-01

    The seismic wave CT( Computerized Tomography) is a high resolution geophysical method containing abundant information, and hence it is very suitable for engineering geological exploration. Grouting filling,as a goaf treatment scheme,has been used frequently in recent years. Owing to the considerable uncertainty of the grouting slurry position and reinforcement effect after the grouting treatment, it is difficult to conduct quality examination on the basis of traditional sampling and compactness methods. Due to its own advantage , seismic wave CT has become a suitable choice for grouting quality detection, and it has achieved good results in practical applications.%地震波CT(Computerized Tomography)是一种信息量大、分辨率高的地球物理方法,非常适用于工程地质勘查.注浆充填是近几年来应用较多的一种采空区治理方案,由于采空区注浆治理后,其浆液位置和加固效果具有较大的不确定性,因此难以通过传统的取样、密实度等方法进行质量检测.地震波CT以其自身的优势成为了一种注浆质量检测的合适选择,并在实际应用中取得了良好的效果.

  16. Geotechnical basis for underground energy storage in hard rock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farquhar, O. C.

    1982-03-01

    Underground pumped hydroelectric storage requires the excavation of caverns in hard rock. Hard rock caverns, also, are one option for compressed air stoage. Preliminary design studies for both technologies at a specific site were completed. The geotechnical aspects of these storage systems are discussed from a generic viewpoint. Information about effective use of hard rock openings, including tunnels and shafts, comes mainly from other types of underground projects. These are power houses for hydroelectric and conventional pumped storage schemes, as well as transportation facilities and mines. Rock strength, support, instrumentation, costs, management, and experimental work are among the items considered. Mapping of geologic structures, rock fragmentation, and rock mass properties is also discussed. The general conclusions are that rock types favorable for underground energy storage are present at suitable depths in many areas and that they can be identified by adequate geotechnical exploration prior to detailed design.

  17. Preliminary rock mechanics laboratory: Investigation plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oschman, K.P.; Hummeldorf, R.G.; Hume, H.R.; Karakouzian, M.; Vakili, J.E.

    1987-01-01

    This document presents the rationale for rock mechanics laboratory testing (including the supporting analysis and numerical modeling) planned for the site characterization of a nuclear waste repository in salt. This plan first identifies what information is required for regulatory and design purposes, and then presents the rationale for the testing that satisfies the required information needs. A preliminary estimate of the minimum sampling requirements for rock laboratory testing during site characterization is also presented. Periodic revision of this document is planned.

  18. Acoustics in rock and pop music halls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adelman-Larsen, Niels Werner; Thompson, Eric Robert; Gade, Anders Christian

    2007-01-01

    The existing body of literature regarding the acoustic design of concert halls has focused almost exclusively on classical music, although there are many more performances of rhythmic music, including rock and pop. Objective measurements were made of the acoustics of twenty rock music venues in D...... frequency sounds are typically highly amplified, they play an important role in the subjective ratings and the 63-Hz-band must be included in objective measurements and recommendations....

  19. Engineering geology and geomechanics as fundamentals of rock engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, L. (ed.)

    1982-01-01

    Topics covered included modelling of flexural slip phenomena, statistical methods in engineering geology, design of tunnels, calculating strength properties of jointed clay, retaining measures and foundations in rock slopes, slope design for open pit mines, slopes of dams, use of convergency and workability of coal as indication of rock bursts, deformation in bearing rock mass mechanical drivage of tunnels, and control of water inflows during construction of tunnels. Two papers have previously been abstracted.

  20. Robotic Instrument for Grinding Rocks Into Thin Sections (GRITS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulsen, Gale; Zacny, Kris; Dreyer, Christopher B.; Szucs, Attila; Szczesiak, Matt; Santoro, Chris; Craft, Jack; Hedlund, Magnus; Skok, John

    2013-06-01

    We have developed a rock grinding and polishing mechanism for in situ planetary exploration based on abrasive disks, called Grinding Rocks Into Thin Sections (GRITS). Performance characteristics and design considerations of GRITS are presented. GRITS was developed as part of a broader effort to develop an in situ automated rock thin section (ISARTS) instrument. The objective of IS-ARTS was to develop an instrument capable of producing petrographic rock thin sections on a planetary science spacecraft. GRITS may also be useful to other planetary science missions with in situ instruments in which rock surface preparation are necessary.

  1. Rock Cycle Roulette.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Stan M.; Palmer, Courtney

    2000-01-01

    Introduces an activity on the rock cycle. Sets 11 stages representing the transitions of an earth material in the rock cycle. Builds six-sided die for each station, and students move to the stations depending on the rolling side of the die. Evaluates students by discussing several questions in the classroom. Provides instructional information for…

  2. Sensitivity analysis of GSI based mechanical characterization of rock mass

    CERN Document Server

    Ván, P

    2012-01-01

    Recently, the rock mechanical and rock engineering designs and calculations are frequently based on Geological Strength Index (GSI) method, because it is the only system that provides a complete set of mechanical properties for design purpose. Both the failure criteria and the deformation moduli of the rock mass can be calculated with GSI based equations, which consists of the disturbance factor, as well. The aim of this paper is the sensitivity analysis of GSI and disturbance factor dependent equations that characterize the mechanical properties of rock masses. The survey of the GSI system is not our purpose. The results show that the rock mass strength calculated by the Hoek-Brown failure criteria and both the Hoek-Diederichs and modified Hoek-Diederichs deformation moduli are highly sensitive to changes of both the GSI and the D factor, hence their exact determination is important for the rock engineering design.

  3. Design and Construction of Wangjiahe Hydropower Station Concrete Panel Rock-fill Dam%王家河水电站混凝土面板堆石坝设计与施工

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    覃建波

    2014-01-01

    王家河水电站拦水坝为混凝土面板堆石坝,采用侧槽式溢洪道自由泄洪,工程区河床砂砾石料丰富,枢纽建筑物开挖料较少,大坝填筑料主要为上下游河床砂砾料。初步设计时趾板建在砂砾层上,在技施设计阶段,通过回填混凝土的方式将基础置于基岩上,确保了趾板的稳定性。采用河床砂砾料经筛分做垫层料,减少了施工工序。在面板堆石坝坝体填筑中,有效利用枢纽建筑物和料场开挖的风化料、软岩料。该工程的设计对于其他采用风化料建坝的类似工程具有参考价值。%Wangjiahe-Hydropower-Station-Retaining-Dam-belongs-to-concrete-panel-rock-fill-dam.Side-channel-spillway-is-adopted-for-free-flood-discharge.The-project-area-riverbed-has-rich-gravel-stone.Water-control-building-has-less-excavation.Upstream-and-downstream-riverbed-gravel-materials-are-mainly-used-for-filling-the-dam.The-toe-board-is-constructed-on-gravel-layer-during-preliminary-design.Foundation-is-placed-on-bedrock-through-the-mode-of-backfilling-concrete,thereby-ensuring-stability-of-toe-board-in-the-technical-construction-design-stage.Riverbed-gravels-are-screened-and-used-as-cushion-material-so-as-to-simplify-the-construction-process.Water-control-building-as-well-as-weathered-material-and-soft-rock-material-excavated-from-material-fields-are-effectively-utilized-in-panel-rock-fill-dam-filling.The-design-of-the-project-has-reference-value-on-other-similar-projects-adopting-weathered-material-for-constructing-dams.

  4. Conceptual design report, TWRS Privatization Phase I, site development and roads, subproject W-505

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, G.

    1997-06-05

    This document includes Conceptual Design Report (CDR) for the site development, construction of new roads and improvements at existing road intersections, habitat mitigation, roadway lighting, and construction power needed for the construction of two Private Contractor (PC) Facilities. Approximately 50 hectare (124 acres) land parcel, east of the Grout Facility, is planned for the PC facilities.

  5. Economics of a 75-MW(e) hot-dry-rock geothermal power station based upon the design of the Phase II reservoir at Fenton Hill

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murphy, H.; Drake, R.; Tester, J.; Zyvoloski, G.

    1982-02-01

    Based upon EE-2 and EE-3 drilling costs and the proposed Fenton Hill Phase II reservoir conditions the break-even cost of producing electricity is 4.4 cents per kWh at the bus bar. This cost is based upon a 9-well, 12-reservoir hot dry rock (HDR) system producing 75 MW(e) for 10 yr with only 20% drawdown, and an assumed annual finance charge of 17%. Only one-third of the total, potentially available heat was utilized; potential reuse of wells as well as thermal stress cracking and augmentation of heat transfer was ignored. Nearly half the bus bar cost is due to drilling expenses, which prompted a review of past costs for wells GT-2, EE-1, EE-2, and EE-3. Based on comparable depth and completion times it is shown that significant cost improvements have been accomplished in the last seven years. Despite these improvements it was assumed for this study that no further advancements in drilling technology would occur, and that even in commercially mature HDR systems, drilling problems would continue nearly unabated.

  6. CRITERIA FOR ROCK ENGINEERING FAILURE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHUDeren; ZHANGYuzhuo

    1995-01-01

    A great number of underground rock projects are maintained in the rock mass which is subject to rock damage and failure development. In many cases, the rock. engineering is still under normal working conditions even though rock is already fails to some extent. This paper introduces two different concepts: rock failure and rock engineering failure. Rock failure is defined as a mechanical state under which an applicable characteristic is changed or lost.However, the rock engineering failure is an engineering state under which an applicable function is changed or lost. The failure of surrounding rocks is the major reason of rock engineering failure. The criterion of rock engineering failure depends on the limit of applicable functions. The rock engineering failure state possesses a corresponding point in rock failure state. In this paper, a description of rock engineering failure criterion is given by simply using a mechanical equation or expression. It is expected that the study of rock engineering failure criterion will be an optimal approach that combines research of rock mechanics with rock engineering problems.

  7. Performance Assessment of Hard Rock TBM and Rock Boreability Using Punch Penetration Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Ho-Young; Cho, Jung-Woo; Jeon, Seokwon; Rostami, Jamal

    2016-04-01

    Rock indentation tests are often called punch penetration tests and are known to be related to penetration rates of drilling equipment and hard rock tunnel boring machines (TBMs). Various indices determined from analysis of the force-penetration plot generated from indentation tests have been used to represent the drillability, boreability, and brittleness of rocks. However, no standard for the punch penetration test procedure or method for calculating the related indices has been suggested or adopted in the rock mechanics community. This paper introduces new indices based on the punch test to predict the performance of hard rock TBMs. A series of punch tests was performed on rock specimens representing six rock formations in Korea with different dimensions, i.e., the core specimens had different lengths and diameters. Of the indices obtained from the punch tests, the peak load index and mean load index showed good correlations with the cutting forces measured in full-scale linear cutting machine tests on the same rock types. The indices also showed good linear correlations with the ratio of uniaxial strength to Brazilian tensile strength, which indicates the brittleness of rock. The scale effect of using core specimens was investigated, and a preferred dimension for the punch test specimens is proposed. This paper also discusses the results of the punch test and full-scale rock cutting tests using LCM. The results of this study confirm that the proposed indices from the punch tests can be used to provide a reliable prediction of the cutting forces that act on a disc cutter. The estimated cutting forces can then be used for optimization of cutter-head design and performance prediction of hard rock TBMs.

  8. 山地城市高落差"嵌岩式跌水箱涵"排水系统设计%Design of Drainage System of Rock-socketed Water Drop Box Culverts with High Fall in Mountainous City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张智; 余薇薇; 毕生兰; 张勤; 胡建; 陈杰云

    2011-01-01

    山地城市地形坡度较大、地面情况较复杂,排水管道系统上、下端落差大.在设计某排水管道系统时,综合考虑了当地地势、地质条件以及周边环境,在落差为43 m的"雨、污水瀑布"处采用钢筋混凝土嵌岩式跌水箱涵的方式将该处污水截流,末端连接架空球墨铸铁管将污水排至主干管.雨季部分雨水进入箱涵及管道,大部分雨水通过溢流堰溢出.设计充分利用了"雨、污水瀑布"冲刷形成的梯级岩石,采用"嵌岩式跌水箱涵"收集污水,从根本上改善了周边环境,为相关工程提供了设计参考.%In the mountainous cities, the terrain slope is steep, the ground is relatively complex,and the drainage pipe system has big ups and downs.After the comprehensive consideration of local topography, geology conditions and the surrounding environment, the design of a drainage pipe system adopts the reinforced concrete rock-socketed drop water box culverts at the rainwater and sewage waterfall with a drop of 43 m to intercept the sewage and drain it to the trunk pipe through overhead ductile iron pipes.In the rainy season, a part of rainwater enters the box culverts and the pipeline, and most rainwater overflows through the overflow weir.The design makes full use of stair-shaped rock formed by the rainwater and sewage waterfall, and the rock-socketed drop water box culverts is used to collect sewage, which can radically improve the surrounding environment and provides a reference to the relevant projects.

  9. 声波测井与地震直达波测井在采空区注浆质量检测中的联合应用%Combined Application of Acoustic Logging and Seismic Direct Wave Logging in Grouting Quality Detection of Goaf

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

      在采空区注浆质量检测时,由于地质条件的限制,钻孔常常不能完全充水,钻孔的下部充水,符合声波测井的条件,采用声波测井法;而在测孔的上部由于不能充水,故采用地震直达波测井法。通过这两种方法分别得到超声波与地震波在井壁岩层的传播速度,从而初步判断井壁的岩性情况,再通过与钻孔岩芯特征比较,进而对注浆质量进行综合评估。%In the grouting quality detection of goaf , due to geological conditions limitation, the drilling holes often can not be completely water-filled.The lower part of drilling holes is water-filled, which is in accorded with the condition of acoustic logging , so we can use acoustic logging;but the upper part of the drilling holes is not water-filled,we use seismic direct wave logging.We can preliminary judge the litholo-gy of the borehole wall by using the propagation velocity of ultrasonic wave and seismic wave in the bore -hole wall rock.Then we can make a comprehensive assessment of grouting quality by comparing with the drilling holes core characteristics.

  10. Days of Rock

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YUAN

    2004-01-01

    FROM last October 1 st to 3rd, at the foot of Fragrant Hill, a suburban Beijing resort famous for its flaming maple leaves in autumn, more than 20,000 rock fans indulged themselves in music for three days.

  11. Writing Rock Music Reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Donal

    1980-01-01

    Suggests ways student reviewers of rock music groups can write better reviews. Among the suggestions made are that reviewers occasionally discuss the audience or what makes a particular group unique, support general comment with detail, and avoid ecstatic adjectives. (TJ)

  12. Rock kinoekraanil / Katrin Rajasaare

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Rajasaare, Katrin

    2008-01-01

    7.-11. juulini kinos Sõprus toimuval filminädalal "Rock On Screen" ekraanile jõudvatest rockmuusikuid portreteerivatest filmidest "Lou Reed's Berlin", "The Future Is Unwritten: Joe Strummer", "Control: Joy Division", "Hurriganes", "Shlaager"

  13. Art on Rock

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    With sprawling deserts and serene lakes, the natural wonders of Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region have never failed totake the breath away from visitors. The areahas another major attraction, though: the Helan Mountain rock engravings.

  14. Rock kinoekraanil / Katrin Rajasaare

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Rajasaare, Katrin

    2008-01-01

    7.-11. juulini kinos Sõprus toimuval filminädalal "Rock On Screen" ekraanile jõudvatest rockmuusikuid portreteerivatest filmidest "Lou Reed's Berlin", "The Future Is Unwritten: Joe Strummer", "Control: Joy Division", "Hurriganes", "Shlaager"

  15. Pop & rock / Berk Vaher

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Vaher, Berk, 1975-

    2001-01-01

    Uute heliplaatide Redman "Malpractice", Brian Eno & Peter Schwalm "Popstars", Clawfinger "A Whole Lot of Nothing", Dario G "In Full Color", MLTR e. Michael Learns To Rock "Blue Night" lühitutvustused

  16. Pop & rock / Berk Vaher

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Vaher, Berk, 1975-

    2001-01-01

    Uute heliplaatide Redman "Malpractice", Brian Eno & Peter Schwalm "Popstars", Clawfinger "A Whole Lot of Nothing", Dario G "In Full Color", MLTR e. Michael Learns To Rock "Blue Night" lühitutvustused

  17. Art on Rock

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU YUE

    2010-01-01

    @@ With sprawling deserts and serene lakes, the natural wonders of Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region have never failed to take the breath away from visitors. The area has another major attraction, though: the Helan Mountain rock engravings.

  18. Search for magnetic minerals in Martian rocks: Overview of the Rock Abrasion Tool (RAT) magnet investigation on Spirit and Opportunity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goetz, W.; Leer, K.; Gunnlaugsson, H.P.;

    2008-01-01

    The Rock Abrasion Tool (RAT) on board the Mars Exploration Rovers (MER) is a grinding tool designed to remove dust coatings and/or weathering rinds from rocks and expose fresh rock material. Four magnets of different strengths that are built into the structure of the RAT have been attracting...... substantial amounts of magnetic material during RAT activities from rocks throughout both rover missions. The RAT magnet experiment as performed on Spirit demonstrates the presence of a strongly ferrimagnetic phase in Gusev crater rocks, which based on Mossbauer and visible/near-infrared reflectance spectra...... is interpreted as magnetite. The amount of abraded rock material adhering to the magnets varied strongly during the mission and is correlated in a consistent way to the amount of magnetite inferred from Mossbauer spectra for the corresponding rock. The RAT magnet experiment as performed on Opportunity also...

  19. Rock avalanches on glaciers

    OpenAIRE

    Shugar, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    This thesis examines relations between rock avalanches and the glaciers on which they are deposited. I have attempted to understand a geophysical phenomenon from two viewpoints: sedimentology and glaciology. The contributions are both methodological, and practical. I have used a GIS to quantify debris sheet geomorphology. A thorough characterization of rock avalanche debris is a necessary step in understanding the flow mechanics of large landslide. I have also developed a technique for solvin...

  20. Evolution of sedimentary rock formation of a rock association level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuznetsov, V. G.

    2017-07-01

    The evolution of sedimentary rock formation of a highly organized level (paragenetic rock associations) is more complex than that of a poorly organized level (rocks). Subjacent rock associations are established for the entire geological evolution of the Earth: they varied in time and were obsolescent or, in contrast, nascent and momentary. A certain cyclicity of evolution is identified along with directed changes.

  1. See Also:Mechanics of Cohesive-frictional MaterialsCopyright © 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.Get Sample CopyFree Online Trial -->Recommend to Your LibrarianSave Title to My ProfileSet E-Mail Alert language="javascript">var homepagelinks = new Array(new Array("Journal Home","/cgi-bin/jhome/3312",""),new Array("Issues","/cgi-bin/jtoc/3312/",""),new Array("Early View","/cgi-bin/jeview/3312/",""),new Array("News","/cgi-bin/jabout/3312/News.html","e"),new Array("","","s"),new Array("Product Information","/cgi-bin/jabout/3312/ProductInformation.html",""),new Array("Editorial Board","/cgi-bin/jabout/3312/EditorialBoard.html",""),new Array("For Authors","/cgi-bin/jabout/3312/ForAuthors.html",""),new Array("Subscribe","http://jws-edcv.wiley.com/jcatalog/JournalsCatalogOrder/JournalOrder?PRINT_ISSN=0363-9061",""),new Array("Advertise","/cgi-bin/jabout/3312/Advertise.html",""),new Array("Contact","/cgi-bin/jabout/3312/Contact.html",""),new Array("","","x"));writeJournalLinks("", "3312"); Previous Issue | Next Issue >Volume 29, Issue1 (January 2005)Articles in the Current Issue:Research ArticleHomogenization framework for three-dimensional elastoplastic finite element analysis of a grouted pipe-roofing reinforcement method for tunnelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, G. J.; Shin, H. S.; Sicilia, C.; Choi, Y. G.; Lim, J. J.

    2005-01-01

    This paper deals with the grouted pipe-roofing reinforcement method that is used in the construction of tunnels through weak grounds. This system consists on installing, prior to the excavation of a length of tunnel, an array of pipes forming a kind of umbrella above the area to be excavated. In some cases, these pipes are later used to inject grout to strengthen the ground and connect the pipes.This system has proven to be very efficient in reducing tunnel convergence and water inflow when tunnelling through weak grounds. However, due to the geometrical and mechanical complexity of the problem, existing finite element frameworks are inappropriate to simulate tunnelling using this method.In this paper, a mathematical framework based on a homogenization technique to simulate grouted pipe-roofing reinforced ground and its implementation into a 3-D finite element programme that can consider stage construction situations are presented. The constitutive model developed allows considering the main design parameters of the problem and only requires geometrical and mechanical properties of the constituents. Additionally, the use of a homogenization approach implies that the generation of the finite element mesh can be easily produced and that re-meshing is not required as basic geometrical parameters such as the orientation of the pipes are changed.The model developed is used to simulate tunnelling with the grouted pipe-roofing reinforcement method. From the analyses, the effects of the main design parameters on the elastic and the elastoplastic analyses are considered. Copyright

  2. Weathering of rock 'Ginger'

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    One of the more unusual rocks at the site is Ginger, located southeast of the lander. Parts of it have the reddest color of any material in view, whereas its rounded lobes are gray and relatively unweathered. These color differences are brought out in the inset, enhanced at the upper right. In the false color image at the lower right, the shape of the visible-wavelength spectrum (related to the abundance of weathered ferric iron minerals) is indicated by the hue of the rocks. Blue indicates relatively unweathered rocks. Typical soils and drift, which are heavily weathered, are shown in green and flesh tones. The very red color in the creases in the rock surface correspond to a crust of ferric minerals. The origin of the rock is uncertain; the ferric crust may have grown underneath the rock, or it may cement pebbles together into a conglomerate. Ginger will be a target of future super-resolution studies to better constrain its origin.Mars Pathfinder is the second in NASA's Discovery program of low-cost spacecraft with highly focused science goals. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, developed and manages the Mars Pathfinder mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) was developed by the University of Arizona Lunar and Planetary Laboratory under contract to JPL. Peter Smith is the Principal Investigator. JPL is an operating division of the California Institute of Technology (Caltech).

  3. ROCK MASS DAMAGED ZONE CAUSED BY BLASTING DURING TUNNEL EXCAVATION

    OpenAIRE

    Hrvoje Antičević; Mario Dobrilović; Hrvoje Perković

    2012-01-01

    Design of underground spaces, including tunnels, and repositories for radioactive waste include the application of the same or similar technologies. Tunnel excavation by blasting inevitably results in the damage in the rock mass around the excavation profile. The damage in the rock mass immediately next to the tunnel profile emerges as the expanding of the existing cracks and the appearance of new cracks, i.e. as the change of the physical and-mechanical properties of the rock mass. Concernin...

  4. 岩体注浆对裂隙的影响分析%Influence on Crack of Grouting in Rock Mass

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郝哲; 马秀荣

    2002-01-01

    建立了孤立裂隙与连通裂隙两种裂隙模型,分别研究了注浆时浆液对裂隙变形的影响及其劈裂作用,推导出相应的裂隙开度变化公式及扩展压力公式,对岩体裂隙注浆研究具有重要的理论价值.

  5. Final repository for spent nuclear fuel. Underground design Forsmark, Layout D1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brantberger, Martin; Zetterqvist, Anders [Ramboell Sweden AB, Stockholm (Sweden); Arnbjerg-Nielsen, Torben [Ramboell Denmark A/S, Virum (Denmark); Olsson, Tommy [IandT Olsson AB, Uppsala (Sweden); Outters, Nils [Golder Associates AB, Uppsala (Sweden); Syrjaenen, Pauli [Gridpoint Oy, Helsinki (Sweden)

    2006-04-15

    to the applied design criteria as well as a recommendation on repository depth. In Chapter 5 the layout studies are reported, and two alternative layouts for each repository level at 400 and 500 m depths have been prepared. The layout studies were based on findings reported in previous chapters, and all presented layouts are designed for a minimum of 6,000 canisters, including allowance for the calculated loss of deposition holes. Studies of identified passages through deformation zones are presented in Chapter 6. The studies concluded that no major problems are expected during tunnelling through the deterministically determined deformation zones, and that only standard grouting and rock support methods would be required. However, extensive probe drilling, grouting and special excavation requirements and rock support are expected to be needed when the ramp and shafts pass through sub-horizontal near-surface fracture zones (approximately in the upper 200 m). Chapter 7 of the report deals with the seepage and the hydrogeological situation into and around the repository with respect to the distance of influence and the salinity. The rock quality is generally very good and no major stability problems are expected. The rock support is installed primarily to ensure that no isolated blocks or smaller pieces of rock fall out. Most of the rock reinforcement will be installed as minimum support, including spot bolting and a 50 mm thickness of steel fibre reinforced shotcrete in the roof. This rock support will be installed irrespective of the rock quality. A technical risk assessment has been performed and is dealt with in Chapter 10 of the report. The main objective of the technical risk assessment was to quantify an answer to the question 'Can the repository be accommodated within the 'priority site'?'. A model considering variations in different factors, which influence the available area for the repository (such as the dip of deformation zones), was

  6. Optimizing accuracy of determinations of CO₂ storage capacity and permanence, and designing more efficient storage operations: An example from the Rock Springs Uplift, Wyoming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bentley, Ramsey [Univ. of Wyoming, Laramie, WY (United States). Dept. of Chemistry; Dahl, Shanna [Univ. of Wyoming, Laramie, WY (United States). Dept. of Chemistry; Deiss, Allory [Univ. of Wyoming, Laramie, WY (United States). Dept. of Chemistry; Duguid, Andrew [Univ. of Wyoming, Laramie, WY (United States). Dept. of Chemistry; Ganshin, Yuri [Univ. of Wyoming, Laramie, WY (United States). Dept. of Chemistry; Jiao, Zunsheng [Univ. of Wyoming, Laramie, WY (United States). Dept. of Chemistry; Quillinan, Scott [Univ. of Wyoming, Laramie, WY (United States). Dept. of Chemistry

    2015-12-01

    At a potential injection site on the Rock Springs Uplift in southwest Wyoming, an investigation of confining layers was undertaken to develop and test methodology, identify key data requirements, assess previous injection scenarios relative to detailed confining layer properties, and integrate all findings in order to reduce the uncertainty of CO₂ storage permanence. The assurance of safe and permanent storage of CO₂ at a storage site involves a detailed evaluation of the confining layers. Four suites of field data were recognized as crucial for determining storage permanence relative to the confining layers; seismic, core and petrophysical data from a wellbore, formation fluid samples, and in-situ formation tests. Core and petrophysical data were used to create a vertical heterogenic property model that defined porosity, permeability, displacement pressure, geomechanical strengths, and diagenetic history. These analyses identified four primary confining layers and multiple redundant confining layers. In-situ formation tests were used to evaluate fracture gradients, regional stress fields, baseline microseismic data, step-rate injection tests, and formation perforation responses. Seismic attributes, correlated with the vertical heterogenic property models, were calculated and used to create a 3-D volume model over the entire site. The seismic data provided the vehicle to transform the vertical heterogenic property model into a horizontal heterogenic property model, which allowed for the evaluation of confining layers across the entire study site without risking additional wellbore perforations. Lastly, formation fluids were collected and analyzed for geochemical and isotopic compositions from stacked reservoir systems. These data further tested primary confining layers, by evaluating the evidence of mixing between target reservoirs (mixing would imply an existing breach of primary confining layers). All data were propagated into a dynamic, heterogenic geologic

  7. APPLICATION OF THE THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY CRITERION IN THE DESIGN OF FOAM-CERAMIC CONCRETES BASED ON THE OPAL-CRYSTOBALITE ROCK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Korolev Evgeniy Valerevich

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Design method of the foam-ceramic concrete with the pre-set value of thermal conductivity is proposed. Computed dependencies between the thermal conductivity, strength and generalized structural criterion - porosity - are presented. As a result of the research, it was identified that local input materials are ecological and easy to extract, and that they may be used as the mineral basis for the manufacturing of effective foam-glass ceramic materials that demonstrate their porous structure, similar to the one of the foam-ceramic concrete. The employment of the proposed approach to the design of the composition of foam-glass ceramic materials may substantially improve the most important properties of this material, namely, it may reduce the sorption capacity and improve the strength, if compared with the benchmark composition.

  8. Design of the Earth-rock Separation Mixer in Grape Planting Based on the Theory of TRIZ%葡萄种植中土石分离混料机的设计-基于TRIZ理论

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵威; 尚欣

    2016-01-01

    针对宁夏贺兰山东麓葡萄种植基地,葡萄种植定值沟的挖掘作业步骤繁琐、耗费时间长,劳动强度大、工作效率低等现状,基于TRIZ理论并运用技术矛盾冲突设计了土石分离混料机。该机是集土石分离、土壤与农家肥混合并回填定植沟等作业同步进行的机械设备,彻底改变了人工捡石、施肥、旋耕、机械挖掘等传统的作业模式,大大节省了人力、物力,并提高了葡萄种植定植沟挖掘作业的工作效率。%In Ningxia Helan mountain grape planting base ,grape planting of fixed value ditch excavation steps cumber-some and time-consuming ,labor-intensive ,working efficiency low status .The author designed the earth-rock separation mixer which was based on the theory of TRIZ and application of technical contradiction .Is a concentration of earth-rock separation , soil mixed with farmyard manure and backfill ditch colonize a simultaneous operation of mechanical equip -ment.Revolutionized the artificial pick up stone ,fertilizing,rotary tillage,mining machinery,such as the traditional opera-tion modeand greatly saves manpower and material resources .And improve the grape planting engraftment ditch the work-ing efficiency of the mining operation .

  9. Preliminary design study of underground pumped hydro and compressed-air energy storage in hard rock. Volume 4: System planning studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-04-01

    Preliminary design and planning studies of water compensated compressed air energy storage (CAES) and underground pumped hydroelectric (UPH) power plants are presented. The costs of the CAES and UPH plant designs, and the results of economic evaluations performed for the PEPCO system are presented. The PEPCO system planning analysis was performed in parallel stages with plant design development. Analyses performed early in the project indicated a requirement for 1000 MW/10,000 MWH of energy storage on a daily operating schedule, with economic installation in two segments of 500 MW in 1990 and 1997. The analysis was updated eighteen months later near the end of the project to reflect the impact of new growth projections and revised plant costs. The revised results indicated economic installations for either UPH or CAES of approximately 675 MW/6750 MWH on a daily cycle, installed in blocks of approximately 225 MW in 1990, 1993 and 1995. Significant savings in revenue requirements and oil fuel over the combustion turbine alternative were identified for both CAES and UPH.

  10. Grouting reinforcement technology for mine roadway repair in fault fracture zone%断层破碎带巷修注浆加固技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    兰永伟; 李凤义

    2012-01-01

    为了完善断层破碎带巷道维修方法,以注浆加固理论为基础,通过注浆材料配比实验,分析不同体积配比条件下,水泥水玻璃与凝固时间、抗压强度的关系,确定水泥水玻璃体积比为1∶0.4的注浆加固最佳配比方案。根据现场实际情况,提出了利用注浆加固技术、U型钢梁棚和喷射混凝土相结合的巷道维修方案,成功解决了现场问题。该研究对于类似矿井的断层破碎带巷道维修具有借鉴意义。%Aimed at improving mine roadway repair in fault fracture zone,this paper,building on grouting reinforcement theory and the experiments of grouting material ratio,presents an analysis of the relation between the geling time and cement-water-glass in different volume ratio conditions,and an analysis of the relation between the compressive strength and cement-water-glass in different volume ratio conditions.The paper features the best volume ratio of cement-water glass of 1:0.4 for grouting reinforcement,offers the mine roadway repair scheme tailored to the grouting reinforcement by combining U-shaped shed with shotcrete according to the practical conditions,and provides a better solution to on-site problems.The research has reference to repairing similar mine roadway with fault fracture zones.

  11. 水库大坝劈裂灌浆的施工技术%On Construction Technique of Dam Fracturing Grouting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈海港

    2012-01-01

    结合临汾市洹河水库大坝除险加固改造工程,详细介绍了大坝劈裂灌浆的施工方法及施工工艺。%In combination of the danger-removing and consolidating works for the dam of the Juhe Reservoir in Linfen city, the paper details the construction method and technique of dam fracturing grouting.

  12. Support failure of a high-stress soft-rock roadway in deep coal mine and the equalized yielding support technology:a case study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lihui Sun; Haoyuan Wu; Bensheng Yang; Qiangqiang Li

    2015-01-01

    There are many soft-rock roadway coal mines in China. The surrounding rocks of the high-stress soft-rock roadways in deep mine are especially difficult to be supported using the traditional supporting way. In this study, the south wing rail roadway on the second level of Yunjialing coal mine in China was used as an example to analyze the deformation and failure characteristics and influencing factors of roadway. On this basis, this study proposed the equalized yielding support idea which employs the yielding rings to realize the pressure equalization on the bolts and cables in the section. To achieve this purpose, the first bolt-mesh-cable equalizing pressure yielding support was integrated with the second grouting reinforcement. The results proved that the yield rings of the bolts and cables on the spandrel of the arched roadway firstly developed yielding deformation;then the deformation extended to the vault of the roadway;the bolts and cables achieved a yielding extreme value of 15 and 18 tonnes, respectively. The roadway surrounding rock tended to be stable at the 26th day after the maintenance. The equalizing pressure yielding supporting technology plays a moderate pressure-releasing and actively controlling role on the surrounding rocks in the soft-rock roadway with large deformation.

  13. 富水砂卵石地层注浆参数优化研究%Study on optimization of grouting parameters in water -soaked sand and cobble stratu m

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李享松; 覃娟; 罗概; 邓俊

    2016-01-01

    Choosing reasonable grouting parameter is the key to grouting reinforcement for Water -soaked sand and cobble stratum,which has the characteristics of looseness,large porosity and high permeability.Taking a subway station in Changsha as the project background,in the light of the actual problems of cement -sodium sili-cate slurry grouting including difficultly controlling the setting time and empirically determining grouting hole spacing,the paper has optimized grouting material parameters and hole spacing by indoor grouting material tes-ting,field grouting testing and finite element numerical simulation and proposed the corresponding grouting con-trol standards.It is suggested that water -cement ratio should be 0.8 -1.0,water glass about 40 Baume De-grees,water glass addition 8% -10% and grouting hole spacing about 1.8 m when Water -soaked sand and cobble stratum adopted cement -water class to grout.%富水砂卵石地层具有结构松散、空隙率大、高渗透性的特点,在进行注浆加固设计时,合理地确定注浆参数是注浆加固成功与否的关键。以长沙某地铁车站为工程依托,结合富水砂卵石地层的特点,针对水泥-水玻璃(CS)双液浆注浆凝结时间控制难、注浆孔距设计凭经验确定等问题,通过室内注浆材料试验、现场注浆试验及有限元数值模拟对注浆材料参数及注浆孔距进行优化分析,提出相应的注浆控制标准。研究结果表明:富水砂卵石地层采用 CS 双液浆注浆,当水灰比取0.8~1.0时,水玻璃浓度应控制在40波美度左右,水玻璃掺合量控制在8%~10%,注浆孔间距宜控制在1.8 m 左右。

  14. 水平注浆在盾构隧道接收洞口中的应用%Application of horizontal grouting method in receipt well of shield-driven tunnel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘广仁; 曹会清; 杜伟; 尹昆仑; 郝永杰

    2013-01-01

    以某泥水平衡式盾构接收洞口地层加固工程为例,对盾构隧道接收洞口周边土体加固技术进行研究.通过对比分析地面垂直注浆、高压旋喷和水平注浆等加固方案的优缺点,择优选择水平注浆加固工艺.介绍了根据实际地质情况优化注浆孔位的平面布置,井壁钻孔与埋设孔口管工艺,注浆孔口管的使用方法及注浆工艺与参数等.通过井壁预留孔检查注浆固结情况,效果良好,有效防止了涌水、涌砂及倒灌等,可为后续盾构机顺利进洞提供保障.实践表明:水平注浆工艺有效缩短了施工时间,对于砂卵石层有较好的可操作性和可灌入性,提高了地层固结的成功率.%Taking the reinforced engineering of receipt well in cement-water balance type shield-driven tunnel as an example, the paper researches the reinforcement technology for the soil around the receipt well. By comparing and different reinforcement schemes, such as surface vertical grouting, high-pressure rotary jet grouting, and horizontal grouting, etc, the reinforcement process of horizontal grouting was selected. The plane arrangement of grouting location was determined and optimized according to actual geological condition, process in well wall bore and buried borehole orifice-pipe, method of grouting orifice pipe and grouting process and parameters, etc. Grouting consolidation situation was checked out through preserved bores of well wall. Results showed that this method had a sound project effectiveness, preventing the water burst, sand gushing, back flushing, etc, which can provide protection to the operation of subsequent shield machines. Practices prove that the horizontal grouting method can shorten the construction time, have better operability and grouting ability for sand and gravel layer, and have improved the success rate of formation consolidation.

  15. The application research of lightweight foam cement in the grouting materials%轻质泡沫水泥注浆材料的应用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡焕校; 罗玮; 唐良智; 彭春雷; 夏凌云

    2011-01-01

    A preliminary study was made that inflatable foam cement slurry was used as grouting material by employing orthogonal experiment. The indicators such as specific density, viscosity, syneresis rate, stone density and stone rate of inflatable foam cement slurry had been tested, which depended on the different foaming and foam stabilizing agent by the orthogonal experimental method. The experimental results show that it can be used as grouting material for a variety of anti-seepage grouting works. The reasonable parameters and ratio were given by considering stone density and stone rate of inflatable foam cement slurry.%用不同的发泡剂和稳泡剂,采用正交实验,对轻质泡沫水泥浆液作为注浆材料作了初步研究,测试了轻质泡沫水泥浆液的比重、粘度、析水率、结石体密度和结石率等指标,根据实验结果进行了分析研究,从结石体密度和结石体的结石率考虑优选出一种作为注浆材料用于充填防渗注浆的轻质泡沫水泥浆液的合理参数配比.

  16. 单组份水溶性聚氨酯灌浆材料研究%Research of one-component water-soluble polyurethane grouting material

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑先军; 李红英; 伊善科

    2013-01-01

    One-component water-soluble polyurethane grouting material was prepared by hydrophilic polyether polyols with toluene diisocyanate,the influence of the various-NCO content of prepolymer、the amount of solvent and the amount of retarder on the properties of grouting materials have been studied.Results show that when the NCO% content of 7%~11%,the amount of solvent at 15%~25%,the retarder amount of about 2%,the one-component water-soluble polyurethane grouting material was the best performance,suitable for fast water blocking and protection of wet substrate in engineering.%采用亲水性聚醚多元醇与TDI反应合成了单组份水溶性聚氨酯灌浆材料,研究了NCO含量、溶剂用量、缓凝剂用量对灌浆材料性能的影响.结果表明,NCO含量在7%~11%、溶剂用量在15%~25%、缓凝剂用量在2%左右时,制备的单组份水溶性聚氨酯灌浆材料性能较好,适用于工程的快速堵水或潮湿基面的防护.

  17. Digital carbonate rock physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saenger, Erik H.; Vialle, Stephanie; Lebedev, Maxim; Uribe, David; Osorno, Maria; Duda, Mandy; Steeb, Holger

    2016-08-01

    Modern estimation of rock properties combines imaging with advanced numerical simulations, an approach known as digital rock physics (DRP). In this paper we suggest a specific segmentation procedure of X-ray micro-computed tomography data with two different resolutions in the µm range for two sets of carbonate rock samples. These carbonates were already characterized in detail in a previous laboratory study which we complement with nanoindentation experiments (for local elastic properties). In a first step a non-local mean filter is applied to the raw image data. We then apply different thresholds to identify pores and solid phases. Because of a non-neglectable amount of unresolved microporosity (micritic phase) we also define intermediate threshold values for distinct phases. Based on this segmentation we determine porosity-dependent values for effective P- and S-wave velocities as well as for the intrinsic permeability. For effective velocities we confirm an observed two-phase trend reported in another study using a different carbonate data set. As an upscaling approach we use this two-phase trend as an effective medium approach to estimate the porosity-dependent elastic properties of the micritic phase for the low-resolution images. The porosity measured in the laboratory is then used to predict the effective rock properties from the observed trends for a comparison with experimental data. The two-phase trend can be regarded as an upper bound for elastic properties; the use of the two-phase trend for low-resolution images led to a good estimate for a lower bound of effective elastic properties. Anisotropy is observed for some of the considered subvolumes, but seems to be insignificant for the analysed rocks at the DRP scale. Because of the complexity of carbonates we suggest using DRP as a complementary tool for rock characterization in addition to classical experimental methods.

  18. Formative Assessment Probes: Is It a Rock? Continuous Formative Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keeley, Page

    2013-01-01

    A lesson plan is provided for a formative assessment probe entitled "Is It a Rock?" This probe is designed for teaching elementary school students about rocks through the use of a formative assessment classroom technique (FACT) known as the group Frayer Model. FACT activates students' thinking about a concept and can be used to…

  19. Las Rocas Nos Cuentan (Rocks Tell Their Stories)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llerandi-Roman, Pablo A.

    2012-01-01

    Many Earth science lessons today still focus on memorizing the names of rocks and minerals. This led the author to develop a lesson that reveals the fascinating stories told by rocks through the study of their physical properties. He first designed the lesson for Puerto Rican teachers, hence its Spanish title: "Las Rocas Nos Cuentan Su Historia."…

  20. Las Rocas Nos Cuentan (Rocks Tell Their Stories)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llerandi-Roman, Pablo A.

    2012-01-01

    Many Earth science lessons today still focus on memorizing the names of rocks and minerals. This led the author to develop a lesson that reveals the fascinating stories told by rocks through the study of their physical properties. He first designed the lesson for Puerto Rican teachers, hence its Spanish title: "Las Rocas Nos Cuentan Su Historia."…

  1. Session: Hard Rock Penetration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tennyson, George P. Jr.; Dunn, James C.; Drumheller, Douglas S.; Glowka, David A.; Lysne, Peter

    1992-01-01

    This session at the Geothermal Energy Program Review X: Geothermal Energy and the Utility Market consisted of five presentations: ''Hard Rock Penetration - Summary'' by George P. Tennyson, Jr.; ''Overview - Hard Rock Penetration'' by James C. Dunn; ''An Overview of Acoustic Telemetry'' by Douglas S. Drumheller; ''Lost Circulation Technology Development Status'' by David A. Glowka; ''Downhole Memory-Logging Tools'' by Peter Lysne.

  2. The Dynamic Evaluation of Rock Slope Stability Considering the Effects of Microseismic Damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, N. W.; Dai, F.; Liang, Z. Z.; Zhou, Z.; Sha, C.; Tang, C. A.

    2014-03-01

    A state-of-the-art microseismic monitoring system has been implemented at the left bank slope of the Jinping first stage hydropower station since June 2009. The main objectives are to ensure slope safety under continuous excavation at the left slope, and, very recently, the safety of the concrete arch dam. The safety of the excavated slope is investigated through the development of fast and accurate real-time event location techniques aimed at assessing the evolution and migration of the seismic activity, as well as through the development of prediction capabilities for rock slope instability. Myriads of seismic events at the slope have been recorded by the microseismic monitoring system. Regions of damaged rock mass have been identified and delineated on the basis of the tempo-spatial distribution analysis of microseismic activity during the periods of excavation and consolidation grouting. However, how to effectively utilize the abundant microseismic data in order to quantify the stability of the slope remains a challenge. In this paper, a rock mass damage evolutional model based on microseismic data is proposed, combined with a 3D finite element method (FEM) model for feedback analysis of the left bank slope stability. The model elements with microseismic damage are interrogated and the deteriorated mechanical parameters determined accordingly. The relationship between microseismic activities induced by rock mass damage during slope instability, strength degradation, and dynamic instability of the slope are explored, and the slope stability is quantitatively evaluated. The results indicate that a constitutive relation considering microseismic damage is concordant with the simulation results and the influence of rock mass damage can be allowed for its feedback analysis of 3D slope stability. In addition, the safety coefficient of the rock slope considering microseismic damage is reduced by a value of 0.11, in comparison to the virgin rock slope model. Our results

  3. Numerical simulation study of the failure evolution process and failure mode of surrounding rock in deep soft rock roadways

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Meng Qingbin; Han Lijun; Xiao Yu; Li Hao; Wen Shengyong; Zhang Jian

    2016-01-01

    Based on the safety coefficient method, which assigns rock failure criteria to calculate the rock mass unit, the safety coefficient contour of surrounding rock is plotted to judge the distribution form of the frac-tured zone in the roadway. This will provide the basis numerical simulation to calculate the surrounding rock fractured zone in a roadway. Using the single factor and multi-factor orthogonal test method, the evolution law of roadway surrounding rock displacements, plastic zone and stress distribution under different conditions is studied. It reveals the roadway surrounding rock burst evolution process, and obtains five kinds of failure modes in deep soft rock roadway. Using the fuzzy mathematics clustering analysis method, the deep soft surrounding rock failure model in Zhujixi mine can be classified and pat-terns recognized. Compared to the identification results and the results detected by geological radar of surrounding rock loose circle, the reliability of the results of the pattern recognition is verified and lays the foundations for the support design of deep soft rock roadways.

  4. Teaching the Rock Cycle with Ease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bereki, Debra

    2000-01-01

    Describes a hands-on lesson for teaching high school students the concept of the rock cycle using sedimentary, metamorphic, and igneous rocks. Students use a rock cycle diagram to identify pairs of rocks. From the rock cycle, students explain on paper how their first rock became the second rock and vice versa. (PVD)

  5. Hot Dry Rock; Geothermal Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1990-01-01

    The commercial utilization of geothermal energy forms the basis of the largest renewable energy industry in the world. More than 5000 Mw of electrical power are currently in production from approximately 210 plants and 10 000 Mw thermal are used in direct use processes. The majority of these systems are located in the well defined geothermal generally associated with crustal plate boundaries or hot spots. The essential requirements of high subsurface temperature with huge volumes of exploitable fluids, coupled to environmental and market factors, limit the choice of suitable sites significantly. The Hot Dry Rock (HDR) concept at any depth originally offered a dream of unlimited expansion for the geothermal industry by relaxing the location constraints by drilling deep enough to reach adequate temperatures. Now, after 20 years intensive work by international teams and expenditures of more than $250 million, it is vital to review the position of HDR in relation to the established geothermal industry. The HDR resource is merely a body of rock at elevated temperatures with insufficient fluids in place to enable the heat to be extracted without the need for injection wells. All of the major field experiments in HDR have shown that the natural fracture systems form the heat transfer surfaces and that it is these fractures that must be for geothermal systems producing from naturally fractured formations provide a basis for directing the forthcoming but, equally, they require accepting significant location constraints on HDR for the time being. This paper presents a model HDR system designed for commercial operations in the UK and uses production data from hydrothermal systems in Japan and the USA to demonstrate the reservoir performance requirements for viable operations. It is shown that these characteristics are not likely to be achieved in host rocks without stimulation processes. However, the long term goal of artificial geothermal systems developed by systematic

  6. Microcraters on lunar rocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, D. A.; Mckay, D. S.; Heiken, G. H.; Moore, H. J.

    1972-01-01

    Microcrater frequency distributions have been obtained for nine Apollo rocks and an exterior chip of an Apollo 12 rock. The frequency distributions indicate that five of the Apollo 14 rocks were tumbled more than once exposing different rock faces whereas four were not tumbled and represent a single exposure interval. The cumulative frequency of craters per square centimeter was extended below optical resolution limits using a SEM scan of an exterior chip of breccia 12073. No craters with central pit diameters less than 15 microns were seen in a total area of 0.44 sq cm. A detailed SEM scan of crystal faces and glassy crater liners revealed no microcraters equal to or larger than the resolution limit of 5 microns. An upper limit of 170 craters per sq cm with central pit diameters larger than 5 microns was set. The slope of the cumulative frequency curve for craters with central pit diameters less than about 75 microns is less than that obtained by other workers.

  7. Umhlanga Rocks coastal defense

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Jong, L.; De Jong, B.; Ivanova, M.; Gerritse, A.; Rietberg, D.; Dorrepaal, S.

    2014-01-01

    The eThekwini coastline is a vulnerable coastline subject to chronic erosion and damage due to sea level rise. In 2007 a severe storm caused major physical and economic damage along the coastline, proving the need for action. Umhlanga Rocks is a densely populated premium holiday destination on the

  8. Rock-hard coatings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muller, M.

    2007-01-01

    Aircraft jet engines have to be able to withstand infernal conditions. Extreme heat and bitter cold tax coatings to the limit. Materials expert Dr Ir. Wim Sloof fits atoms together to develop rock-hard coatings. The latest invention in this field is known as ceramic matrix composites. Sloof has sign

  9. Slippery Rock University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnhold, Robert W.

    2008-01-01

    Slippery Rock University (SRU), located in western Pennsylvania, is one of 14 state-owned institutions of higher education in Pennsylvania. The university has a rich tradition of providing professional preparation programs in special education, therapeutic recreation, physical education, and physical therapy for individuals with disabilities.…

  10. Umhlanga Rocks coastal defense

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Jong, L.; De Jong, B.; Ivanova, M.; Gerritse, A.; Rietberg, D.; Dorrepaal, S.

    2014-01-01

    The eThekwini coastline is a vulnerable coastline subject to chronic erosion and damage due to sea level rise. In 2007 a severe storm caused major physical and economic damage along the coastline, proving the need for action. Umhlanga Rocks is a densely populated premium holiday destination on the e

  11. The global rock art database: developing a rock art reference model for the RADB system using the CIDOC CRM and Australian heritage examples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haubt, R. A.

    2015-08-01

    The Rock Art Database (RADB) is a virtual organisation that aims to build a global rock art community. It brings together rock art enthusiasts and professionals from around the world in one centralized location through the deployed publicly available RADB Management System. This online platform allows users to share, manage and discuss rock art information and offers a new look at rock art data through the use of new technologies in rich media formats. Full access to the growing platform is currently only available for a selected group of users but it already links over 200 rock art projects around the globe. This paper forms a part of the larger Rock Art Database (RADB) project. It discusses the design stage of the RADB System and the development of a conceptual RADB Reference Model (RARM) that is used to inform the design of the Rock Art Database Management System. It examines the success and failure of international and national systems and uses the Australian heritage sector and Australian rock art as a test model to develop a method for the RADB System design. The system aims to help improve rock art management by introducing the CIDOC CRM in conjunction with a rock art specific domain model. It seeks to improve data compatibility and data sharing to help with the integration of a variety of resources to create the global Rock Art Database Management System.

  12. Integrity assessment of grouted posttensioning cables and reinforced concrete of a nuclear containment building

    OpenAIRE

    Shenton B.; Philipose K.

    2011-01-01

    The Containment Buildings of CANDU Nuclear Generating Stations were designed to house nuclear reactors and process equipment and also to provide confinement of releases from a potential nuclear accident such as a Loss Of Coolant Accident (LOCA). To meet this design requirement, a post-tensioning system was designed to induce compressive stresses in the structure to counteract the internal design pressure. The CANDU reactor building at Gentilly-1 (G-1), Quebec, Canada (250 MWe) was built in th...

  13. Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory. Annual Report 2002

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-06-01

    Buffer Material aims at validating models and hypotheses concerning physical properties in a bentonite buffer material and of related processes regarding microbiology, radionuclide transport, copper corrosion, and gas transport at conditions similar to those in a KBS3 repository. A project with the aim to qualify the use of low-pH cementitious products (leachates below pH 11) for applications like structural cast concrete, shotcrete, rock bolting, and grouting in a repository is carried out by SKB, Posiva, and NUMO in co-operation. In the project Cleaning and sealing of investigation boreholes the best available techniques for this are to be identified and demonstrated. A state of the art report summarising the developments of the techniques during the last 10-15 years has been put together. Eight organisations from seven countries participated in the co-operation at Aespoe HRL during 2002. [abstract truncated

  14. Range sections as rock models for intensity rock scene segmentation

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mkwelo, S

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents another approach to segmenting a scene of rocks on a conveyor belt for the purposes of measuring rock size. Rock size estimation instruments are used to monitor, optimize and control milling and crushing in the mining industry...

  15. Acoustics in rock and pop music halls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Niels Werner; Thompson, Eric Robert; Gade, Anders Christian

    2007-01-01

    The existing body of literature regarding the acoustic design of concert halls has focused almost exclusively on classical music, although there are many more performances of rhythmic music, including rock and pop. Objective measurements were made of the acoustics of twenty rock music venues...... in Denmark and a questionnaire was used in a subjective assessment of those venues with professional rock musicians and sound engineers. Correlations between the objective and subjective results lead, among others, to a recommendation for reverberation time as a function of hall volume. Since the bass...... frequency sounds are typically highly amplified, they play an important role in the subjective ratings and the 63-Hz-band must be included in objective measurements and recommendations....

  16. Engineering properties of coal measure rocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thill, R.E.; Jessop, J.A.

    1982-04-01

    Engineering properties of rock are essential in most phases of mining from site reconaissance through mineral processing. Review of the literature indicates, however, that property data is scarce for most coal measure rocks in the United States. The Bureau of Mines has undertaken a wide-ranging testing program to provide more complete property data for coal strata in the U.S. coal basins. The property data are expected to have applications in geophysical exploration, development of premining and hazard detection probes and instrumentation, mine design, engineering and rock mass classification, subsidence engineering, and ground control. This paper describes the comprehensive program encompassing in situ geological, geophysical, and geotechnical properties and laboratory determinations of acoustic, electromagnetic, physical, mechanical, and index properties and discusses results for 500 feet of coal measures at a mine site in the northern Appalachian, eastern coal province.

  17. Study of the Behavior of Grouting Cement Mortar%注浆用水泥浆体性能研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁乃兴; 陈忠明

    2000-01-01

    对注浆加固公路路基用的水泥浆体从稳定性、流动度、粘滞度、凝结时间、析水率等方面进行了研究.掺加适量的粉煤灰可增加浆体的稳定性,外加剂水玻璃可增加浆体的稳定性及结石率,同时对浆体的流动性有降低作用,而外加剂氯化钙则对浆体的流动性有增强作用.%In this paper, the behavior of grouting cement mortar to reinforce highway subgrade is analyzed from the aspects of stability, fluidity, viscosity, bleeding ratio and setting time of cement mortar. Mixing a certain content of fly ash to cement mortar can improve stability of mortar. Mixing water glass can improve stability and increase forming stone percent of mortar and can reduce the fluidity of mortar. While mixing CaCl2 can increase fluidity of mortar also

  18. Shear Performance of Horizontal Joints in Short Precast Concrete Columns with Sleeve Grouted Connections under Cyclic Loading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Bo; Xiong, Feng; Liu, Bingyu; Chen, Jiang; Zhang, Yiping

    2016-01-01

    In this study, two short precast concrete columns and two cast-in-situ concrete columns were tested under cyclic loads. It was shown that the sleeve grouted connection was equivalent to the cast-in-situ connections for short columns when the axial compression ratio was 0.6. In order to determine the influence of the axial compression ratio and the shear-span ratio on the shear capacity of the horizontal joint, a FE model was established and verified. The analysis showed that the axial compression ratio is advantageous to the joint and the shear capacity of the horizontal joint increases with increase of the shear-span ratio. Based on the results, the methods used to estimate the shear capacity of horizontal joints in the Chinese Specification and the Japanese Guidelines are discussed and it was found that both overestimated the shear capacity of the horizontal joint. In addition, the Chinese Specification failed to consider the influence of the shear-span ratio.

  19. Development programs in the United States of America for the application of cement-based grouts in radioactive waste management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dole, L.R.; Row, T.H.

    1984-01-01

    This paper briefly reviews seven cement-based waste form development programs at six of the US Department of Energy (DOE) sites. These sites have developed a variety of processes that range from producing 25 mm (1 in.) diameter pellets in a glove box to producing 240 m (800 ft.) diameter grout sheets within the bedding planes of a deep shale formation. These successful applications of cement-based waste forms to the many radioactive waste streams from nuclear facilities bear witness to the flexibility and reliability of this class of materials. This paper also discusses the major issues regarding the application of cement-based waste forms to radioactive waste management problems. These issues are (1) leachability, (2) radiation stability, (3) thermal stability, (4) phase complexity of the matrix, and (5) effects of the waste stream composition. A cursory review of current research in each of these areas is given This paper also discusses future trends in cement-based waste form development and applications. 31 references, 11 figures.

  20. Stresses induced by post-tensioned anchor in jointed rock mass

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Alan Showkati; Parviz Maarefvand; Hossein Hassani

    2015-01-01

    A new analytical study on stresses around a post-tensioned anchor in rocks with two perpendicular joint sets is presented. The assumptions of orthotropic elastic rock with plane strain conditions are made in derivation of the formulations. A tri-linear bond-slip constitutive law is used for modeling the tendon-grout interface behavior and debonding of this interface. The bearing plate width is also considered in the analysis. The obtained solutions are in the integral forms and numerical techniques that have been used for evaluation. In the illustrative example given, the major principal stress is compressive in the anchor free zone and compressive stress concentrations of 815 kPa and 727 kPa (for the anchor load of 300 kN) are observed under the bearing plate and the bond length proximal end, respectively. However, large values of tensile stresses with the maximum of−434 kPa are formed at the bond length distal end. The results obtained using the proposed solution are compared very those of numerical method (FEM).