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Sample records for rock doves columba

  1. Ultrastructural characterization of the pulmonary cellular defences in the lung of a bird, the rock dove, Columba livia

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    Maina, J. N.; Cowley, H. M.

    1998-01-01

    Free (surface) avian respiratory macrophages (FARMs) were harvested by lavage of the lung/air-sac system of the rock dove, Columba livia. The presence of FARMs in the atria and infundibula was confirmed by scanning electron microscopy. The respiratory system has developed several cellular defence lines that include surface macrophages, epithelial, subepithelial and interstitial phagocytes, and pulmonary intravascular macrophages (PIMs). Hence, C. livia appears to have a multiple pulmonary cellular protective armoury. Ultrastructurally, the FARMs and the PIMs were similar to the corresponding cells of mammals. The purported high susceptibility of birds to respiratory diseases, a state that has largely been deduced from morbidities and mortalities of commercial birds, and which has chiefly been attributed to paucity of the FARMs, is not supported by the present observations.

  2. Marked dietary differences between sympatric feral rock doves and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1993-06-24

    Jun 24, 1993 ... Although feral rock doves Columba Iivia and rock pigeons C. guinea fly daily in mixed flocks between roosting and nesting sites in Cape Town, South Africa, they feed separately in farmlands north of the city during the austral summer. Examination of the crop contents of 32 feral rock doves and 48 rock ...

  3. Marked dietary differences between sympatric feral rock doves and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Although feral rock doves Columba livia and rock pigeons C. guineafly daily in mixed flocks between roosting and nesting sites in Cape Town, South Africa, they feed separately in farmlands north of the city during the austral summer. Examination of the crop contents of 32 feral rock doves and 48 rock pigeons revealed that ...

  4. Natural Infections With Pigeon Paramyxovirus Serotype 1: Pathologic Changes in Eurasian Collared-Doves ( Streptopelia decaocto) and Rock Pigeons ( Columba livia) in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isidoro-Ayza, M; Afonso, C L; Stanton, J B; Knowles, S; Ip, H S; White, C L; Fenton, H; Ruder, M G; Dolinski, A C; Lankton, J

    2017-07-01

    Pigeon paramyxovirus serotype 1 (PPMV-1) is a globally distributed, virulent member of the avian paramyxovirus serotype 1 serogroup that causes mortality in columbiformes and poultry. Following introduction into the United States in the mid-1980s, PPMV-1 rapidly spread causing numerous mortality events in Eurasian collared-doves ( Streptopelia decaocto) (ECDOs) and rock pigeons ( Columba livia) (ROPIs). The investigators reviewed pathological findings of 70 naturally infected, free-ranging columbiforms from 25 different mortality events in the United States. Immunohistochemistry targeting PPMV-1 nucleoprotein was used to determine the tissue distribution of the virus in a subset of 17 birds from 10 of the studied outbreaks. ECDOs (61 birds) and ROPIs (9 birds) were the only species in which PPMV-1-associated disease was confirmed by viral isolation and presence of histologic lesions. Acute to subacute tubulointerstitial nephritis and necrotizing pancreatitis were the most frequent histologic lesions, with immunolabeling of viral antigen in renal tubular epithelial cells and pancreatic acinar epithelium. Lymphoid depletion of bursa of Fabricius and spleen was common, but the presence of viral antigen in these organs was inconsistent among infected birds. Hepatocellular necrosis was occasionally present with immunolabeling of hypertrophic Kupffer cells, and immunopositive eosinophilic intracytoplasmic inclusion bodies were present in hepatocytes of 1 ECDO. Immunopositive lymphocytic choroiditis was present in 1 ECDO, while lymphocytic meningoencephalitis was frequent in ROPIs in absence of immunolabeling. This study demonstrates widespread presence of PPMV-1 antigen in association with histologic lesions, confirming the lethal potential of this virus in these particular bird species.

  5. Natural infections with pigeon paramyxovirus serotype 1: Pathologic changes in Eurasian collared-doves (Streptopelia decaocto) and rock pigeons (Columba livia) in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isidoro Ayza, Marcos; Afonso, C.L.; Stanton, J.B.; Knowles, Susan N.; Ip, Hon S.; White, C. LeAnn; Fenton, Heather; Ruder, M.G.; Dolinski, A. C.; Lankton, Julia S.

    2017-01-01

    Pigeon paramyxovirus serotype 1 (PPMV-1) is a globally distributed, virulent member of the avian paramyxovirus serotype 1 serogroup that causes mortality in columbiformes and poultry. Following introduction into the United States in the mid-1980s, PPMV-1 rapidly spread causing numerous mortality events in Eurasian collared-doves (Streptopelia decaocto) (ECDOs) and rock pigeons (Columba livia) (ROPIs). The investigators reviewed pathological findings of 70 naturally infected, free-ranging columbiforms from 25 different mortality events in the United States. Immunohistochemistry targeting PPMV-1 nucleoprotein was used to determine the tissue distribution of the virus in a subset of 17 birds from 10 of the studied outbreaks. ECDOs (61 birds) and ROPIs (9 birds) were the only species in which PPMV-1-associated disease was confirmed by viral isolation and presence of histologic lesions. Acute to subacute tubulointerstitial nephritis and necrotizing pancreatitis were the most frequent histologic lesions, with immunolabeling of viral antigen in renal tubular epithelial cells and pancreatic acinar epithelium. Lymphoid depletion of bursa of Fabricius and spleen was common, but the presence of viral antigen in these organs was inconsistent among infected birds. Hepatocellular necrosis was occasionally present with immunolabeling of hypertrophic Kupffer cells, and immunopositive eosinophilic intracytoplasmic inclusion bodies were present in hepatocytes of 1 ECDO. Immunopositive lymphocytic choroiditis was present in 1 ECDO, while lymphocytic meningoencephalitis was frequent in ROPIs in absence of immunolabeling. This study demonstrates widespread presence of PPMV-1 antigen in association with histologic lesions, confirming the lethal potential of this virus in these particular bird species.

  6. Morphological study of the testes of the dove Columba livia (Gmelin (Columbidae, Columbiformes

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    Sandra Maria das Graças Maruch

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available Known as "domestic dove", the Columba livia (Gmelin, 1789 is a columbidae species widely distributed in Brazil, whose reproductive biology has been studied by many researchers. The testes of 12 Columba livia males were collected and prepared for histologic examination under an optical microscope, the results of which were analysed and photographed. The tunica albuginea that covers the testes consists of a thick, not very cellular layer of dense connective tissue. Groups of interstitial cells with typical morphological appearance and surrounded by loose, well vascularized connective tissue are observable within the organ, between the seminiferous tubules. The seminiferous tubules are thick, intensely wound and, when seen in cross section, show Sertoli cells and spermatogenic lineage cells in different stages of development. These include spermatogonia (type A, clear; type A, dark; and type B, spermatocytes I and II, spermatids, and a large number of spermatozoons. Similarities are found between the histological findings described and those reported for the testes of Columbina talpacoti (Temminck, 1811.

  7. Efficacy of rock doves at the Hanford site, Washington, as radiological indicators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Houser, M.R.

    1996-02-01

    Site faithfulness and general movement patterns of five rock dove (Columba livia) flocks were estimated in order to evaluate their efficacy as radiological indicators on the Hanford Site. Of 367 individually marked birds, 311 were resighted or recaptured at least once during onsite and offsite monitoring. Average site faithfulness for all flocks from resightings was 87.1% and was not significantly different than a hypothesized 90% site faithful distribution. Average site faithfulness from pooled resightings and recaptures was 91.3%, which was also not significantly different than a 90% distribution. Since Hanford rock doves exhibit site faithfulness and can be easily monitored, I conclude that they can be used as radiological indicators. I found 107 birds at 21 different locations during offsite surveys in agricultural areas adjacent to the Hanford Site. Mean movement distances from capture areas to offsite locations for each of the five flocks were significantly different. Mean movement distances from capture areas to offsite locations for each flock were highly correlated with closest possible distances for each flock. Mean movement directions from capture areas to offsite locations for each flock were significantly different than random movement patterns for each flock.

  8. Efficacy of rock doves at the Hanford site, Washington, as radiological indicators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Houser, M.R.

    1996-02-01

    Site faithfulness and general movement patterns of five rock dove (Columba livia) flocks were estimated in order to evaluate their efficacy as radiological indicators on the Hanford Site. Of 367 individually marked birds, 311 were resighted or recaptured at least once during onsite and offsite monitoring. Average site faithfulness for all flocks from resightings was 87.1% and was not significantly different than a hypothesized 90% site faithful distribution. Average site faithfulness from pooled resightings and recaptures was 91.3%, which was also not significantly different than a 90% distribution. Since Hanford rock doves exhibit site faithfulness and can be easily monitored, I conclude that they can be used as radiological indicators. I found 107 birds at 21 different locations during offsite surveys in agricultural areas adjacent to the Hanford Site. Mean movement distances from capture areas to offsite locations for each of the five flocks were significantly different. Mean movement distances from capture areas to offsite locations for each flock were highly correlated with closest possible distances for each flock. Mean movement directions from capture areas to offsite locations for each flock were significantly different than random movement patterns for each flock

  9. Persistence of Antibodies to West Nile Virus in Naturally Infected Rock Pigeons (Columba livia)

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    Gibbs, Samantha E. J.; Hoffman, Douglas M.; Stark, Lillian M.; Marlenee, Nicole L.; Blitvich, Bradley J.; Beaty, Barry J.; Stallknecht, David E.

    2005-01-01

    Wild caught rock pigeons (Columba livia) with antibodies to West Nile virus were monitored for 15 months to determine antibody persistence and compare results of three serologic techniques. Antibodies persisted for the entire study as detected by epitope-blocking enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and plaque reduction neutralization test. Maternal antibodies in squabs derived from seropositive birds persisted for an average of 27 days. PMID:15879030

  10. Improved Genome Assembly and Annotation for the Rock Pigeon (Columba livia).

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    Holt, Carson; Campbell, Michael; Keays, David A; Edelman, Nathaniel; Kapusta, Aurélie; Maclary, Emily; T Domyan, Eric; Suh, Alexander; Warren, Wesley C; Yandell, Mark; Gilbert, M Thomas P; Shapiro, Michael D

    2018-05-04

    The domestic rock pigeon ( Columba livia ) is among the most widely distributed and phenotypically diverse avian species. C. livia is broadly studied in ecology, genetics, physiology, behavior, and evolutionary biology, and has recently emerged as a model for understanding the molecular basis of anatomical diversity, the magnetic sense, and other key aspects of avian biology. Here we report an update to the C. livia genome reference assembly and gene annotation dataset. Greatly increased scaffold lengths in the updated reference assembly, along with an updated annotation set, provide improved tools for evolutionary and functional genetic studies of the pigeon, and for comparative avian genomics in general. Copyright © 2018 Holt et al.

  11. Avian poxvirus in a free-range juvenile speckled (rock pigeon (Columba guinea

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    Dauda G. Bwala

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available A flightless wild juvenile rock pigeon (Columba guinea with pox-like lesions was picked up on the premises of the Faculty of Veterinary Science, University of Pretoria, Onderstepoort. The pigeon was housed overnight for possible treatment the following day but died before any other intervention could be instituted. At necropsy, coalescing masses of yellowish nodular cutaneous tumour-like lesions principally on the featherless areas were noticed on the dead pigeon’s head as well as the beak. Histological examination of the sampled skin lesions revealed multifocal areas of hypertrophic and hyperplastic epidermal epithelial cells with eosinophilic intracytoplasmic inclusion bodies (Bollinger bodies. Extract from the lesion was processed and inoculated on the chorioallantoic membranes (CAM of 11-day-old embryonated chicken eggs and this produced pocks on one of the CAM at day 7 post-inoculation. Electron microscopy confirmed the presence of poxvirus in the CAM with the pock lesions.

  12. Avian poxvirus in a free-range juvenile speckled (rock) pigeon (Columba guinea).

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    Bwala, Dauda G; Fasina, Folorunso O; Duncan, Neil M

    2015-04-30

    A flightless wild juvenile rock pigeon (Columba guinea) with pox-like lesions was picked up on the premises of the Faculty of Veterinary Science, University of Pretoria, Onderstepoort. The pigeon was housed overnight for possible treatment the following day but died before any other intervention could be instituted. At necropsy, coalescing masses of yellowish nodular cutaneous tumour-like lesions principally on the featherless areas were noticed on the dead pigeon's head as well as the beak. Histological examination of the sampled skin lesions revealed multifocal areas of hypertrophic and hyperplastic epidermal epithelial cells with eosinophilic intracytoplasmic inclusion bodies (Bollinger bodies). Extract from the lesion was processed and inoculated on the chorioallantoic membranes (CAM) of 11-day-old embryonated chicken eggs and this produced pocks on one of the CAM at day 7 post-inoculation. Electron microscopy confirmed the presence of poxvirus in the CAM with the pock lesions.

  13. Novel avian oropharyngeal trichomonads isolated from European turtle doves (Streptopelia turtur) and racing pigeons (Columba livia): genetic and morphometric characterisation of clonal cultures.

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    Martínez-Herrero, M C; Garijo-Toledo, M M; Liebhart, D; Ganas, P; Martínez-Díaz, R A; Ponce-Gordo, F; Carrero-Ruiz, A; Hess, M; Gómez-Muñoz, M T

    2017-11-01

    Extensive diversity has been described within the avian oropharyngeal trichomonad complex in recent years. In this study we developed clonal cultures from four isolates selected by their different ITS1/5.8S/ITS2 (ITS) genotype and their association with gross lesions of avian trichomonosis. Isolates were obtained from an adult racing pigeon and a nestling of Eurasian eagle owl with macroscopic lesions, and from a juvenile wood pigeon and an European turtle dove without clinical signs. Multi-locus sequence typing analysis of the ITS, small subunit of ribosomal rRNA (SSUrRNA) and Fe-hydrogenase (Fe-hyd) genes together with a morphological study by optical and scanning electron microscopy was performed. No significant differences in the structures were observed with scanning electron microscopy. However, the genetic characterisation revealed novel sequence types for the SSUrRNA region and Fe-hyd gene. Two clones were identified as Trichomonas gallinae in the MLST analysis, but the clones from the racing pigeon and European turtle dove showed higher similarity with Trichomonas tenax and Trichomonas canistomae than with T. gallinae at their ITS region, respectively. SSUrRNA sequences grouped all the clones in a clade that includes T. gallinae, T. tenax and T. canistomae. Further diversity was detected within the Fe-hyd locus, with a clear separation from T. gallinae of the clones obtained from the racing pigeon and the European turtle dove. In addition, morphometric comparison by optical microscopy with clonal cultures of T. gallinae revealed significant statistical differences on axostyle projection length in the clone from the European turtle dove. Morphometric and genetic data indicate that possible new species within the Trichomonas genus were detected. Taking in consideration the diversity in Trichomonas species present in the oral cavity of birds, a proper genetic analysis is highly recommended when outbreaks occur. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights

  14. Maternal thyroid hormones enhance hatching success but decrease nestling body mass in the rock pigeon (Columba livia).

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    Hsu, Bin-Yan; Dijkstra, Cor; Darras, Veerle M; de Vries, Bonnie; Groothuis, Ton G G

    2017-01-01

    Thyroid hormones (THs) - triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4) - are essential for embryonic development in vertebrates. All vertebrate embryos are exposed to THs from maternal origin. As maternal TH levels are known to be essential to embryonic development, the natural variation of maternal THs probably represents a pathway of maternal effects that can modify offspring phenotype. However, potential fitness consequences of variation of maternal TH exposure within the normal physiological range and without confounding effects of the mother have never been experimentally investigated. We experimentally manipulated the levels of yolk T3 and T4 within the physiological range in a species in which the embryo develops outside the mother's body, the Rock Pigeon (Columba livia) eggs. Making use of the natural difference of yolk testosterone between the two eggs of pigeon clutches, we were also able to investigate the potential interaction between THs and testosterone. Elevated yolk TH levels enhanced embryonic development and hatching success, and reduced body mass but not tarsus length between day 14 and fledging. The yolk hormones increased plasma T4 concentrations in females but reduced it in males, in line with the effect on metabolic rate at hatching. Plasma concentrations of T3 and testosterone were not significantly affected. The effects of treatment did not differ between eggs with high or low testosterone levels. Our data indicate that natural variation in maternal yolk TH levels affects offspring phenotype and embryonic survival, potentially influencing maternal and chick fitness. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Mitochondrial genome sequence of Egyptian swift Rock Pigeon (Columba livia breed Egyptian swift).

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    Li, Chun-Hong; Shi, Wei; Shi, Wan-Yu

    2015-06-01

    The Egyptian swift Rock Pigeon is a breed of fancy pigeon developed over many years of selective breeding. In this work, we report the complete mitochondrial genome sequence of Egyptian swift Rock Pigeon. The total length of the mitogenome was 17,239 bp and its overall base composition was estimated to be 30.2% for A, 24.0% for T, 31.9% for C and 13.9% for G, indicating an A-T (54.2%)-rich feature in the mitogenome. It contained the typical structure of 13 protein-coding genes, 2 ribosomal RNA genes, 22 transfer RNA genes and a non-coding control region (D-loop region). The complete mitochondrial genome sequence of Egyptian swift Rock Pigeon would serve as an important data set of the germplasm resources for further study.

  16. Lead concentrations in the bones of city and country doves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siegfried, W.R.; Frost, P.G.H.; Redelinghuys, E.P.; van der Merwe, R.P.

    The lead content of bones of laughing doves Streptopelia senegalensis was assayed by means of atomic absorption spectrophotometry. A significant difference in the mean lead content was found between two groups of wild doves. The one group was taken in the city of Cape Town, and the other group 50 km away in rural farmland near Stellenbosch. The bones of the urban doves contained on average seven times more lead per unit weight of tissue than those of their rural con-specifics. Concentrations of lead in the bones of rural and urban doves are approximately 70% and 80% below those recorded for corresponding pigeon Columba livia populations in Pennsylvania, USA. These differences between urban and rural populations are believed to reflect the relatively greater degree of lead in the atmosphere of the urban environment, presumably as a result of motor car exhaust emissions. 2 references, 1 table.

  17. The complete mitochondrial genome of the Feral Rock Pigeon (Columba livia breed feral).

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    Li, Chun-Hong; Liu, Fang; Wang, Li

    2014-10-01

    Abstract In the present work, we report the complete mitochondrial genome sequence of feral rock pigeon for the first time. The total length of the mitogenome was 17,239 bp with the base composition of 30.3% for A, 24.0% for T, 31.9% for C, and 13.8% for G and an A-T (54.3 %)-rich feature was detected. It harbored 13 protein-coding genes, 2 ribosomal RNA genes, 22 transfer RNA genes and 1 non-coding control region (D-loop region). The arrangement of all genes was identical to the typical mitochondrial genomes of pigeon. The complete mitochondrial genome sequence of feral rock pigeon would serve as an important data set of the germplasm resources for further study.

  18. External fixation to correct tarsal-metatarsal fracture in rock pigeon (Columba livia

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    Leandro Almeida Rui

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Orthopedic conditions, such as bone fractures, are very common in avian medicine. External fixators have been considered the gold standard for birds, since they allow early movement of the limbs and minimal invasive surgery. Fractures in several bones have been successfully treated in pigeons. However, to the best of our knowledge, this case represents the first report of successful surgical repair of tarsal-metatarsal fracture in rock pigeon. External fixator was made with four 24G catheters, being inserted manually proximal and distal to the fracture and connected with polymerizable acrylic. Radiographic consolidation of fracture was observed 60 days post-surgery and anti-inflammatory and antibiotic protocols were successful on avoiding pain and infection during surgery and bone healing.

  19. A Val85Met Mutation in Melanocortin-1 Receptor Is Associated with Reductions in Eumelanic Pigmentation and Cell Surface Expression in Domestic Rock Pigeons (Columba livia)

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    Guernsey, Michael W.; Ritscher, Lars; Miller, Matthew A.; Smith, Daniel A.; Schöneberg, Torsten; Shapiro, Michael D.

    2013-01-01

    Variation in the melanocortin-1 receptor (Mc1r) is associated with pigmentation diversity in wild and domesticated populations of vertebrates, including several species of birds. Among domestic bird species, pigmentation variation in the rock pigeon ( Columba livia ) is particularly diverse. To determine the potential contribution of Mc1r variants to pigment diversity in pigeons, we sequenced Mc1r in a wide range of pigeon breeds and identified several single nucleotide polymorphisms, including a variant that codes for an amino acid substitution (Val85Met). In contrast to the association between Val85Met and eumelanism in other avian species, this change was associated with pheomelanism in pigeons. In vitro cAMP accumulation and protein expression assays revealed that Val85Met leads to decreased receptor function and reduced cell surface expression of the mutant protein. The reduced in vitro function is consistent with the observed association with reduced eumelanic pigmentation. Comparative genetic and cellular studies provide important insights about the range of mechanisms underlying diversity among vertebrates, including different phenotypic associations with similar mutations in different species. PMID:23977400

  20. Transcontinental mourning dove recovery

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    Sharp, Brian

    1971-01-01

    A Mourning Dove (Zenaida macroura) banded in New York has been reported shot in California. On 25 August 1969, near Palmyra (43°00' N, 77°10' W), New York Department of Environmental Conservation personnel placed U. S. Fish & Wildlife Service band 883-97279 on the leg of a hatching-year Mourning Dove of unknown sex. During the first weekend of the dove season in September 1970, Stan Solus (P.O. Box 594, Seiad Valley, California) recovered the band from a dove he shot in the Shasta Valley, Siskiyou County, California (41°30' N, 122°20' W). As Mr. Solus included the band with his reporting letter and, in response to my asking him for verification, reaffirmed his original information, the recovery has been accepted as authentic. I suggest this vagrancy may be explained by assuming that the inexperienced New York bird got emotionally involved with a western bird with which it shared winter quarters, perhaps in Mexico, and thus the following year ended up a flower child in California.

  1. Structural Color of Rock Dove’s Neck Feather

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    Nakamura, Eri; Yoshioka, Shinya; Kinoshita, Shuichi

    2008-12-01

    It is well known that some kinds of animal have surprisingly brilliant colors showing beautiful iridescence. These colors are called structural colors, and are thought to originate from optical interference caused by periodic microstructures that have sizes comparable with the wavelength of light. However, much larger structural modifications can also play an important role in the coloration mechanism. In this paper, we show through careful optical and structural investigations that the structural color of the neck feather of rock dove, Columba livia, has a very comprehensive mechanism: the thin-layer optical interference phenomenon fundamentally produces the iridescence, while the layer structure is accompanied by various kinds of larger-size structural modifications that control the angular range of the reflection. Further, it is found that the granules containing melanin pigment exist in a localized manner to effectively enhance the contrast of the color caused by optical interference.

  2. Characterization of Newcastle disease virus isolates obtained from Eurasian collared doves (Streptopelia decaocto) in Italy.

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    Terregino, Calogero; Cattoli, Giovanni; Grossele, Barbara; Bertoli, Elena; Tisato, Ernesto; Capua, Ilaria

    2003-02-01

    Eurasian collared doves (Streptopelia decaocto) are thought to originate from India and they have colonized, throughout the centuries, the Middle East and, more recently, Mediterranean countries such as Italy and Spain. In the present paper we report of the isolation and characterization of Newcastle disease viruses (NDV) obtained from Eurasian collared doves during 2000-2001, and compare them to isolates obtained from feral pigeons (Columba livia) during the same period. All isolates could be classified as avian paramyxovirus type 1 (APMV1) and belonged to the pigeon variant group (PPMV1), as their haemagglutinating activity was inhibited by mAb 161/617 which is specific for PPMV1. The intracerebral pathogenicity indices ranged from 0.68 to 1.38 and all isolates contained multiple basic amino acids at the deduced cleavage site of the fusion protein, which is a typical feature of virulent viruses. Phylogenetic analysis of the isolates indicate that 18/20 of these form a separate cluster from the isolates obtained from pigeons in the same period. These findings suggest that different lineages are circulating in feral pigeon populations, and that a separate lineage affects Eurasian collared doves.

  3. Aging mourning doves by outer primary wear

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    Wight, H.M.; Blankenship, L.H.; Tomlinson, R.E.

    1967-01-01

    Many immature mourning doves (Zenaidura macroura) cannot be aged by the conventional white-tipped primary covert method if molt has proceeded beyond the 7th primary. A new method of aging doves in this group is based on the presence (immature) or absence (adult) of a buff-colored fringe on the tips of the 9th and 10th primaries. Experienced biologists were nearly 100 percent accurate in aging wings of 100 known-age doves from eastern and midwestern states. The technique is not as reliable for doves from southwestern United States because of added feather wear, apparently from harsh vegetative and soil conditions.

  4. Experimental infection of rock pigeons (Columba livia) with three West Nile virus lineage 1 strains isolated in Italy between 2009 and 2012.

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    Spedicato, M; Carmine, I; Bellacicco, A L; Marruchella, G; Marini, V; Pisciella, M; Di Francesco, G; Lorusso, A; Monaco, F; Savini, G

    2016-04-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) circulation dynamics in the context of the urban environment is not yet elucidated. In this perspective, three groups of eight rock pigeons (Columbia livia) were inoculated with three WNV lineage 1 strains isolated in Italy between 2009 and 2012. The pigeons did not develop any clinical signs consistent with WNV acute infection. All animals seroconverted and shed virus up to 15 days post-infection by the oral or cloacal routes. In all infected groups viraemia lasted for 4 days post-infection. No WNV-specific gross or histological lesions were found in infected birds compared to control birds and immunohistochemistry remained constantly negative from all tissues. The reservoir competence index was also assessed and it ranged between 0·11 and 0·14. This study demonstrates that pigeons are competent reservoir hosts for Italian WNV lineage 1 circulating strains thus potentially posing a risk to the public health system.

  5. Aspectos histológicos e histoquímicos da cloaca feminina de Columba livia (Gmelin (Columbidae, Columbiformes Histological and histochemical aspects of female cloaca of Columba livia (Gmelin (Columbidae, Columbiforme

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    Maria Eloíza de Oliveira Teles

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available The domestic dove Columba livia (Gmelin, 1789 is a species well adapted to Brazil and the study of its reproductive biology is part of a broad research project on birds. This essay describes the morphological aspects of the cloaca of female Columba livia, describing compartments lengthwise starting from the head such as the coprodeo, urodeo and proctodeo limited by mucosal folds. Each compartment of the cloaca presents its own morphological characteristics which differ one from the other in form, height and position of mucosal projections, kinds of tissues, presence and histological aspects of glands, presence of lymphonodus. The rectum opens into the coprodeo, the ureter opens into the oviduct and the cloacal sac opening into the proctodeo. Histochemical studies have shown the presence of glycoproteins in tissue cells and gland cells on the three segments of the cloaca.

  6. Reappraising factors affecting mourning dove perch coos

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    Sayre, M.W.; Atkinson, R.D.; Baskett, T.S.; Haas, G.H.

    1978-01-01

    Results confirmed pairing as the primary factor influencing perch-cooing rates of wild mourning doves (Zenaida macroura). Marked unmated males cooed at substantially higher rates (6.2x) than mated males, had greater probability of cooing (2.3x) during 3-minute periods, and continued cooing longer each morning than mated males. Population density was not a major factor affecting cooing. Unmated males cooed more frequently in the presence of other cooing doves (P < 0.05) than when alone, but the number of additional doves above 1 was unimportant. Cooing rates of both mated and unmated males on areas with dissimilar dove densities were not significantly different. Within limits of standard call-count procedure, weather exerted no detectable influence on cooing.

  7. The analyzing of Dove marketing strategy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guo; Yaohui

    2015-01-01

    <正>1.Introduction In this report,I try to analyze the related information about DOVE chocolate.Firstly,I would like to introduce this product.Dove chocolate is one of a series of products launched by the world’s largest pet food and snack food manufacturers,U.S.multinational food company Mars(Mars).Entered China in 1989,It becomes China’s leading brand of chocolate in

  8. Intestinal Helminths in Mourning Doves (Zenaida macroura) from Arizona, Pennsylvania, South Carolina, and Tennessee, U.S.A.

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    Lee, K.A.; Franson, J.C.; Kinsella, J.M.; Hollmen, T.; Hansen, S.P.; Hollmen, A.

    2004-01-01

    We examined 115 hunter-killed mourning doves (Zenaida macroura) from 4 states (Arizona, Pennsylvania, South Carolina, and Tennessee, U.S.A.) in 1998 and 1999 to investigate geographical variation in the prevalence and intensity of intestinal helminth infections. Four intestinal helminth species were identified: Killigrewia delafondi, Ornithostrongylus crami, Ascaridia columbae, and Capillaria obsignata. The number of worms (all helminth species combined) per infected bird ranged from 1 to 166 (mean ± SE = 12.7 ± 7.45, median = 2.0). Filarids. Aproctella stoddardi, were found in 2 birds but were probably adhering to the outside of the intestine. Overall, 18% of the doves were infected with 1 or more species of helminths. The percentage of doves infected with at least 1 helminth species varied from 4% in Arizona to 27% in South Carolina. Mixed infections occurred in only 3 individuals (14% of infected birds). We found no significant differences in prevalence of infection among any of the 4 helminths by host age or sex, and prevalences were too low to test for differences among states. The intensity of O. crami was higher in males than in females but did not differ significantly among states. Intensities of the other 3 helminths did not differ by sex or state, and we found no differences in helminth intensity by age. Intestinal length was significantly greater in infected than in uninfected birds.

  9. Pox in mourning doves in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locke, L.N.

    1961-01-01

    Pox infection has occurrcd in mourning doves in at least 8 states on 12 separate occasions. Unsuccessful attempts were made to transmit both fowl pox (chicken isolate) and passerine pox (cowbird isolate) to mourning doves.

  10. Case report: Pox in the mourning dove in Maryland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locke, L.N.; Herman, C.M.; King, E.S.

    1960-01-01

    Although trichomoniasis has received attention as a cause of death among mourning doves (Zenaidura macroura),  ittle work has been done on other diseases of this species. Kossack and Hanson2 reported the occurrence of pox lesions in mourning doves in Illinois. Rosen3 reported that "pigeon pox" had caused a severe mortality in a mourning dove flock near Yreka, Siskiyou County, California. A severe outbreak of pox that occurred in a captive flock of mourning doves at the Patuxent Research Refuge further emphasizes the need for more study of this disease as a cause of dove mortality. Twenty-two mourning doves were live trapped on the Agricultural Research Center, Beltsville, Maryland, in September, 1958. The doves were examined for presence of Trichomonas gallinae and, when found to be free of trichomonads, were made the nucleus of a captive dove colony. A mourning dove that had a small, pink nodule on the left eyelid was captured on the Agricultural Research Center on September 17, 1958. The nodule was excised and the cut surface was treated with tincture of merthiolate. The dove then was added to the dove colony.

  11. Eggshell thickness in mourning dove populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreitzer, J.F.

    1971-01-01

    Eggs (n = 452) of the mourning dove (Zenaidura macroura) were collected from 9 states in 1969 and 11 states in 1970, and shell thickness was compared with that of eggs (n = 97) collected from 24 states during the years 1861 to 1935. Mean shell thickness did not differ significantly in the test groups.

  12. Ecology and behavior of the zenaida dove

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiley, J.W.

    1991-01-01

    Data are summarized from a 10 year study of the Zenaida Dove (Zenaida aurita) in Puerto Rico and its offshore islands. The dove displays sexual size dimorphism, with males generally larger than females: Most activities (feeding, courtship, fighting) occurred in mornings and afternoons, whereas loafing and maintenance activities were more prevalent at mid-day. I recorded 77 plant species used as food by Zenaida Doves in Puerto Rico. Major food species uncluded Scleria lithosperma, Argemone mexicana, Croton rigidus, Phyllanthus amarus, Cordia angustifolia, Zanthoxylum martinicense, Euphorbia heterophylla, and several species of legumes. Zenaida Doves have two major vocalizations: the 'Coo', or Advertisement Call, given in assertive and sexual contexts, and the Nest Call, primarily used at or near the nest. Doves nested in a wide variety of habitats, including forest edge, mangrove forest, dry scrub, and mixed agriculture-urban areas. Nests were generally placed in trees, but doves nested on the ground where certain terrestrial predators were absent. Nests were found in all months of the year, although a breeding peak occurred from March through Mayor July. Doves replaced clutches when nests were destroyed, and recycled up to four times in a season. Males selected nest sites and initiated building. Eggs (2) were laid on alternate days, beginning about two days after the nest was completed. Incubation and nestling stages averaged 13.9 :t 0.5 [SE] and 14.3 :t 0.6 days. The male attended the nest from mid-morning (X = 08:59 hr) through mid-afternoon (x = 16:53), then the female took over incubation and brooding duties for the night. Nests were continuously covered from the laying of the first egg through day seven of the nestling stage. Thereafter, adult attendance dropped steadily until day 14, when they carne to the nest only for chick feedings. Chicks (days 0-15) showed a mean daily weight gain of 18.3% and attained a fledging weight of about 120g (81% of adult weight

  13. Effect of Haemoproteus columbae infection on the hemogram of the Pigeons (Columba livia domestica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samani, Amir Dehghani; Kheirabadi, Khodadad Pirali; Mohebbi, Abdonnaser

    2016-12-01

    It has been reported that parasites affect the health and productivity of birds, initiate excessive preening which interrupts feeding, as the birds spend much time preening rather than being involved in other essential life activities. Haemoproteus columbae occurs in pigeons widely in tropical and subtropical regions. The present investigation was concentrated on the effect of H. columbae infection on the hemogram and changes in the number of white blood cells in infected pigeons. Blood samples taked from 100 pigeons in Shahrekord. Blood smears stained and observed for H. columbae infection. Packed cell volume (PCV) and total white blood cells (WBC) count and differential WBC count determinate for every smears. This study show that PCV increased in infected pigeons by H. columbae than non infected pigeons. There were increasing in the number of total WBC in the infected pigeons by H. columbae than non infected pigeons. Also there were significant differences between the number of lymphocytes and eosinophils in the infected pigeons by H. columbae than non infected pigeons. This study and same studies show the part of the effects of blood parasites on the hemogram, but there were many questions about the effects of blood parasites such as H. columbae on the other parameters of host's blood, so we advise to focus on the other hematological parameters in the future studies.

  14. First records in Guinea Bissau of Adamawa Turtle Dove Streptopelia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There are no confirmed records of the Adamawa Turtle Dove Streptopelia hypopyrrha in north-eastern Guinea Bissau and there is very little information available on the biology of the species. Eight individuals of the Adamawa Turtle Dove were identified from the game bags of sport hunters in north-eastern Guinea Bissau, ...

  15. Immunologic status of mourning doves following an epizootic of trichomoniasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocan, R.M.; Amend, S.R.

    1972-01-01

    An epizootic of trichomoniasis in mourning doves at the Carolina Sandhills National Wildlife Refuge began in 1969 and continued into 1970. The disease was seen in 16% of the adults and 2% of the immatures in 1970, but only one immature bird out of 37 surveyed (3%) carried Trichomonas gallinae. Challenge infection of 33 doves from the epizootic area showed 85 percent to be resistant to trichomoniasis, compared to 69 percent resistance in doves from Maryland, where no epizootic has occurred for at least 3 years. Plasma protein changes which occurred following challenge infection were identical in CSNWR and Maryland doves which showed evidence of disease. Of the doves which showed no signs of disease, those from the CSNWR exhibited no change in beta globulins, identical to the response in pigeons which survive an infection by T. gallinae, but they had some tissue invasion by the parasite.

  16. Parasites of Columba livia (Aves: Columbiformes in Tenerife (Canary Islands and their role in the conservation biology of the Laurel pigeons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Foronda P.

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence and intensity of the parasites from 50 wild doves (Columba livia from the city of Santa Cruz de Tenerife, in the island of Tenerife (Canary Archipelago, were studied. The following ectoparasites were found in apparently healthy pigeons (prevalences are shown in percentage (% and mean intensities with their standard deviations: the acari Dermanyssus gallinae (De Geer, 1778 (6 241 .0 ± 138.9 and Tinaminyssus melloi Fain, 1962 (10 %, 218.3 ± 117.3; the louses, Columbicola columbae Linnaeus, 1758 (100 %, 111.4 ± 76.8 and Campanulotes bidentatus Scopoli, 1763 (94 %, 48.4 ± 26.6; and the pigeon fly, Pseudolynchia canariensis Macquart, 1839 (36 %, 6.2 ± 1.6. The endoparasites we found, were: a haemoprotozoan species, Haemoproteus columbae Kruze, 1890 (82 %, 14.8 ± 10.3 per 1000; coccidian oocysts, Eimeria sp. (50 %, 0.2 x 103 ± 1.7 x 103 per gr; a cestode species Raillietina micracantha (Fuhrmann, 1909 López Neyra, 1947 (44 %, 12.3 ± 9.4; and four nematode species, Tetrameres (Tetrameres fissispina (Diesing, 1861 Travassos, 1915 (4 %, 99.5 ± 34,1, Synhimantus (Dispharynx spiralis (Molin, 1858 (8 %, 46. 8 ± 11.6, Ascaridia columbae (Gmelin, 1790 Travassos, 1913 (40 %, 8.4 ± 8.8 and Aonchotheca sp. (18 %, 6.0 ± 3.1. Several species detected in our study can be pathogens for C. bollii and C. junoniae, which are endemic pigeons of the Canary Islands, considered endangered species. Parasites (ectoparasites, protozoa and helminths of C. livia found in Tenerife and others from wild and farm birds in the island were considered as healthy controls.

  17. Parasites of Columba livia (Aves: Columbiformes) in Tenerife (Canary Islands) and their role in the conservation biology of the laurel pigeons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foronda, P; Valladares, B; Rivera-Medina, J A; Figueruelo, E; Abreu, N; Casanova, J C

    2004-09-01

    The prevalence and intensity of the parasites from 50 wild doves (Columba livia) from the city of Santa Cruz de Tenerife, in the island of Tenerife (Canary Archipelago), were studied. The following ectoparasites were found in apparently healthy pigeons (prevalences are shown in percentage (%) and mean intensities with their standard deviations): the acari Dermanyssus gallinae (De Geer, 1778) (6, 241.0 +/- 138.9) and Tinaminyssus melloi Fain, 1962 (10%, 218.3 +/- 117.3); the louses, Columbicola columbae Linnaeus, 1758 (100%, 111.4 +/- 76.8) and Campanulotes bidentatus Scopoli, 1763 (94%, 48.4 +/- 26.6); and the pigeon fly, Pseudolynchia canariensis Macquart, 1839 (36%, 6.2 +/- 1.6). The endoparasites we found were: a haemoprotozoan species, Haemoproteus columbae Kruze, 1890 (82%, 14.8 +/- 10.3 per 1000); coccidian oocysts, Eimeria sp. (50%, 0.2 x 10(3) +/- 1.7 x 10(3) per gr); a cestode species Raillietina micracantha (Fuhrmann, 1909) López Neyra, 1947 (44%, 12.3 +/- 9.4); and four nematode species, Tetrameres (Tetrameres) fissispina (Diesing, 1861) Travassos, 1915 (4%, 99.5 +/- 34.1), Synhimantus (Dispharynx) spiralis (Molin, 1858) (8%, 46.8 +/- 11.6), Ascaridia columbae (Gmelin, 1790) Travassos, 1913 (40%, 8.4 +/- 8.8) and Aonchotheca sp. (18%, 6.0 +/- 3.1). Several species detected in our study can be pathogens for C. bollii and C. junoniae, which are endemic pigeons of the Canary Islands, considered endangered species. Parasites (ectoparasites, protozoa and helminths) of C. livia found in Tenerife and others from wild and farm birds in the island were considered as healthy controls.

  18. An observation of a partially albinistic zenaida macroura (Mourning Dove)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berdeen, James; Otis, D.L.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Three of the 4 forms of albinism that occur in avifauna have been detected in Zenaida macroura (Mourning Dove). Albinism is rare in this species, and the incidence rate of each age and sex cohort is not well known. Consequently, we examined the pigmentation of Mourning Doves encountered in the Coastal Plain of South Carolina, and classified the age and sex of all individuals. One adult male Mourning Dove had unusually light coloration of some feathers and the upper mandible. This pigmentation is consistent with partial albinism. This was the only individual out of 10,749 examined that appeared to be albinistic. This low incidence rate of albinism supports the conclusion that this condition is relatively rare in Mourning Doves (Mirarchi 1993).

  19. Human infestation by pigeon fleas (Ceratophyllus columbae) from feral pigeons.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haag-Wackernagel, D; Spiewak, R.W.

    2004-01-01

    The report concerns a married couple who were repeatedly invaded by pigeon fleas (Ceratophyllus columbae) over a period of 2 months. The source of the fleas was a pair of breeding feral pigeons (Columba livia). The birds' nest was located in the attic immediately above the couple's apartment, and

  20. Unretrieved shooting loss of mourning doves in north-central South Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haas, G.H.

    1977-01-01

    Unretrieved loss for mourning doves (Zenaida macroura) in north-central South Carolina was between 27 and 41 percent of the retrieved kill for the 1973 through 1975 hunting seasons based on 1,396 doves shot by 281 hunters. Dove hunters hunted in groups, fired 8.6 shots per retrieved dove, and engaged in a substantial number of illegal activities. Increased dove populations and hunter bag resulted in increased unretrieved loss, numbers of shots per bagged bird, and illegal activities. Retriever dogs increased the efficiency of dove hunters.

  1. Il De gemitu Columbae del cardinale Roberto Bellarmino e lo jus publicum ecclesiasticum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Borghi

    2018-02-01

    ABSTRACT: One of the minor works of cardinal Roberto Bellarmino, De Gemitu Columbae sive De Bono lacrymarum (1617 is composed of three books: the first is dedicated to the "need for moans"; the second and third, respectively, to the sources and the fruits of the "tears". In investigating the origin of the moan, after quoting Isaiah and Nahum, the Author insists on a verse, particularly evocative, taken from the Song of Songs (6, 9. Therefore, the moan is not referred only to the animal in itself, but also to the whole Church: the work in question seems to be more connected to the textures of a "political theology" than to the classic counter-reformed edification readings. The present contribution aims to examine the relationships between De gemitu and the jus publicum ecclesiasticum, not only externum but also - and above all - internum. And, by this way, the highly debated theme of belonging to the Ecclesia, faced by the great Counter-reform theorist through the images of the dove and the chant.

  2. Manipulation of primary sex ratio in birds: lessons from the homing pigeon (Columba livia domestica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goerlich-Jansson, Vivian C; Müller, Martina S; Groothuis, Ton G G

    2013-12-01

    Across various animal taxa not only the secondary sex ratio but also the primary sex ratio (at conception) shows significant deviations from the expected equal proportions of sons and daughters. Birds are especially intriguing to study this phenomenon as avian females are the heterogametic sex (ZW); therefore sex determination might be under direct control of the mother. Avian sex ratios vary in relation to environmental or maternal condition, which can also affect the production of maternal steroids that in turn are involved in reproduction and accumulate in the developing follicle before meiosis. As the proximate mechanisms underlying biased primary sex ratio are largely elusive, we explored how, and to what extent, maternal steroid hormones may be involved in affecting primary or secondary sex ratio in clutches of various species of pigeons. First we demonstrated a clear case of seasonal change in sex ratio in first eggs both in the Rock Pigeon (Columba livia) and in a related species, the Wood Pigeon (Columba palumbus), both producing clutches of two eggs. In the Homing Pigeon (Columba livia domestica), domesticated from the Rock Pigeon, testosterone treatment of breeding females induced a clear male bias, while corticosterone induced a female bias in first eggs and we argue that this is in line with sex allocation theory. We next analyzed treatment effects on follicle formation, yolk mass, and yolk hormones, the latter both pre- and post-ovulatory, in order to test a diversity of potential mechanisms related to both primary and secondary sex ratio manipulation. We conclude that maternal plasma hormone levels may affect several pre-ovulatory mechanisms affecting primary sex ratio, whereas egg hormones are probably involved in secondary sex ratio manipulation only.

  3. Mourning Dove nesting habitat and nest success in Central Missouri

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drobney, R.D.; Schulz, J.H.; Sheriff, S.L.; Fuemmeler, W.J.

    1998-01-01

    Previous Mourning Dove (Zenaida macroura) nesting studies conducted in areas containing a mixture of edge and continuous habitats have focused on edge habitats. Consequently, little is known about the potential contribution of continuous habitats to dove production. In this study we evaluated the relative importance of these two extensive habitat types by monitoring the habitat use and nest success of 59 radio-marked doves during 1990-1991 in central Missouri. Of 83 nests initiated by our marked sample, most (81.9%) were located in edge habitats. Although continuous habitats were selected less as nest sites, the proportion of successful nests did not differ significantly from that in edge habitats. Our data indicate that continuous habitats should not be considered marginal nesting habitat. If the intensity of use and nest success that we observed are representative regionally or nationally, continuous habitats could contribute substantially to annual Mourning Dove production because of the high availability of these habitats throughout much of the Mourning Dove breeding range.

  4. A risk assessment for consumers of mourning doves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burger, J.; Kennamer, R.A.; Brisbin, I.L. Jr.; Gochfeld, M.

    1998-01-01

    Recreational and subsistence hunters and anglers consume a wide range of species, including birds, mammals, fish and shellfish, some of which represent significant exposure pathways for environmental toxic agents. This study focuses on the Department of Energy's (DOE's) Savannah River Site (SRS), a former nuclear weapons production facility in South Carolina. The potential risk of contaminant intake from consuming mourning doves (Zenaida macroura), the most popular United States game bird, was examined under various risk scenarios. For all of these scenarios the authors used the mean tissue concentration of six metals (lead, mercury, cadmium, selenium, chromium, manganese) and radiocesium, in doves collected on and near SRS. They also estimated risk to a child consuming doves that had the maximum contaminant level. The authors used the cancer slope factor for radiocesium, the Environmental Protection Agencies Uptake/Biokinetic model for lead, and published reference doses for the other metals. As a result of their risk assessments they recommend management of water levels in contaminated reservoirs so that lake bed sediments are not exposed to use by gamebirds and other terrestrial wildlife. Particularly, measures should be taken to insure that the hunting public does not h ave access to such a site. Their data also indicate that doves on popular hunting areas are exposed to excess lead, suggesting that banning lead shot for doves, as has been done for waterfowl, is desirable

  5. Importance of structural stability to success of mourning dove nests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coon, R.A.; Nichols, J.D.; Percival, H.F.

    1981-01-01

    Studies of nest-site selection and nesting habitats often involve a "characterization" of nests and of habitats in which nests are found. Our objective in the present work is to identify nest-site characteristics that are associated with variation in components of Mourning Dove (Zenaida macroura) fitness (e.g. the probability of a nest succeeding), as opposed to simply "characterizing" dove nest sites. If certain nest- site characteristics affect the probability that a nest will succeed, then we suspect that these characteristics will be associated with either concealment (the probability of detection by certain predators) or structural stability (the probability of eggs or entire nests falling to the ground as a result of wind, rain storms, parental activity, etc.). Although other workers agree that structural stability is an important determinant of Mourning Dove nesting success (e.g. McClure 1944: 384; Woolfenden and Rohwer 1969: 59), we are aware of no actual tests of this hypothesis.

  6. 76 FR 38202 - Proposed Information Collection; Mourning Dove Call Count Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-29

    ...] Proposed Information Collection; Mourning Dove Call Count Survey AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service... we gather accurate data on various characteristics of migratory bird populations. The Mourning Dove... determine the population status of the mourning dove. If this survey were not conducted, we would not be...

  7. Fairness and Reciprocity in the Hawk-Dove Game

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Anders; Neugebauer, Tibor; Schram, Arthur

    2002-01-01

    We study fairness and reciprocity in a Hawk-Dove game, using an experimental approach. This allows us to test various models in one framework. We observe a large extent of selfish and rational behavior. Our results are inconsistent with leading models in this field.......We study fairness and reciprocity in a Hawk-Dove game, using an experimental approach. This allows us to test various models in one framework. We observe a large extent of selfish and rational behavior. Our results are inconsistent with leading models in this field....

  8. О питании сизого голубя Columba livia сочными плодами древесных растений в Архангельске

    OpenAIRE

    АНДРЕЕВ ВАЛЕРИЙ АРКАДЬЕВИЧ

    2014-01-01

    Recopilación de observaciones de la Paloma bravía (Columba livia) realizadas durante numerosas salidas de campo a diferentes enclaves de las provincias de Valladolid y Burgos, entre fechas anteriores al 27 de junio de 1948, y 1956. Compilation of observations of the Rock Pigeon (Columba livia) achieved through many field trips to different habitats of the provinces of Valladolid and Burgos, prior to the period between the 27th of June of 1948, and 1956.

  9. 50 CFR 20.103 - Seasons, limits, and shooting hours for mourning and white-winged doves and wild pigeons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... mourning and white-winged doves and wild pigeons. 20.103 Section 20.103 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED... shooting hours for mourning and white-winged doves and wild pigeons. This section provides for the annual hunting of certain doves and pigeons in the 48 contiguous United States. The mourning dove hunting...

  10. Human infestation by pigeon fleas (Ceratophyllus columbae) from feral pigeons.

    OpenAIRE

    Haag-Wackernagel, D; Spiewak, R.W.

    2004-01-01

    The report concerns a married couple who were repeatedly invaded by pigeon fleas (Ceratophyllus columbae) over a period of 2 months. The source of the fleas was a pair of breeding feral pigeons (Columba livia). The birds' nest was located in the attic immediately above the couple's apartment, and the fleas found their way along an unsealed heating pipe. The people encountered up to 40 bites per night. With invasions repeated almost every night, the man gradually developed an allergic urticari...

  11. The Holy Spirit as Dove and as Tongues of Fire

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kirsten

    2011-01-01

    This article analyses the dove and the tongues of fire in Jørgen Gustava Brandt's hymn "Hør himmelsus i tredie time!" (Hear the rush from heaven at the third hour!) The following intertexts are included in the analysis: Acts 2:1-4; Gen 11:1-9, examples of fire as image of God in the Old Testament...

  12. Using fecal glucocorticoids for stress assessment in Mourning Doves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washburn, Brian E.; Millspaugh, Joshua J.; Schulz, John H.; Jones, Susan B.; Mong, T.

    2003-01-01

    Fecal glucocorticoid assays provide a potentially useful, noninvasive means to study physiological responses of wildlife to various stressors. The objective of our study was to validate a method for measuring glucocorticoid metabolites in Mourning Dove (Zenaida macroura) feces. We validated the assay using standard procedures (e.g., parallelism, recovery of exogenous corticosterone) to demonstrate that the assay accurately and precisely measured glucocorticoid metabolites in Mourning Dove fecal extracts. We conducted adrenocorticotropin (ACTH) challenge experiments to validate the assay's ability to determine biologically important changes in fecal glucocorticoids. Fecal glucocorticoid levels increased significantly approximately 2-3 hr after administration of ACTH at 50 IU per kg body mass to wild Mourning Doves held in captivity. In contrast, fecal glucocorticoid metabolites did not increase in control birds, birds that received saline injections, or a lower dose of ACTH (1 IU per kg body mass). Variation in overall fecal glucocorticoid metabolite levels may have been influenced by season and the length of time birds were held in captivity. Non-invasive fecal glucocorticoid metabolite analyses, in combination with demographic information, may have considerable utility for monitoring the effects of natural and anthropogenic disturbances on Mourning Dove populations.

  13. Population demographics of two local South Carolina mourning dove populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGowan, D.P.; Otis, D.L.

    1998-01-01

    The mourning dove (Zenaida macroura) call-count index had a significant (P 2,300 doves and examined >6,000 individuals during harvest bag checks. An age-specific band recovery model with time- and area-specific recovery rates, and constant survival rates, was chosen for estimation via Akaike's Information Criterion (AIC), likelihood ratio, and goodness-of-fit criteria. After-hatching-year (AHY) annual survival rate was 0.359 (SE = 0.056), and hatching-year (HY) annual survival rate was 0.118 (SE = 0.042). Average estimated recruitment per adult female into the prehunting season population was 3.40 (SE = 1.25) and 2.32 (SE = 0.46) for the 2 study areas. Our movement data support earlier hypotheses of nonmigratory breeding and harvested populations in South Carolina. Low survival rates and estimated population growth rate in the study areas may be representative only of small-scale areas that are heavily managed for dove hunting. Source-sink theory was used to develop a model of region-wide populations that is composed of source areas with positive growth rates and sink areas of declining growth. We suggest management of mourning doves in the Southeast might benefit from improved understanding of local population dynamics, as opposed to regional-scale population demographics.

  14. Landscape correlates along mourning dove call-count routes in Mississippi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmore, R.D.; Vilella, F.J.; Gerard, P.D.

    2007-01-01

    Mourning dove (Zenaida macroura) call-count surveys in Mississippi, USA, suggest declining populations. We used available mourning dove call-count data to evaluate long-term mourning dove habitat relationships. Dove routes were located in the Mississippi Alluvial Valley, Deep Loess Province, Mid Coastal Plain, and Hilly Coastal Plain physiographic provinces of Mississippi. We also included routes in the Blackbelt Prairie region of Mississippi and Alabama, USA. We characterized landscape structure and composition within 1.64-km buffers around 10 selected mourning dove call-count routes during 3 time periods. Habitat classes included agriculture, forest, urban, regeneration stands, wetland, and woodlot. We used Akaike's Information Criterion to select the best candidate model. We selected a model containing percent agriculture and edge density that contained approximately 40% of the total variability in the data set. Percent agriculture was positively correlated with relative dove abundance. Interestingly, we found a negative relationship between edge density and dove abundance. Researchers should conduct future research on dove nesting patterns in Mississippi and threshold levels of edge necessary to maximize dove density. During the last 20 years, Mississippi lost more than 800,000 ha of cropland while forest cover represented largely by pine (Pinus taeda) plantations increased by more than 364,000 ha. Our results suggest observed localized declines in mourning dove abundance in Mississippi may be related to the documented conversion of agricultural lands to pine plantations.

  15. Microbacterium faecale sp. nov., isolated from the faeces of Columba livia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiu; Li, Gui-Ding; Li, Qin-Yuan; Xu, Fang-Ji; Jiang, Cheng-Lin; Han, Li; Huang, Xue-Shi; Jiang, Yi

    2016-11-01

    A novel, yellow, aerobic strain, YIM 101168T, isolated from the faeces of a dove (Columba livia), was studied to determine its taxonomic position. Cells were Gram-stain-positive, short rod-shaped, oxidase-negative, catalase-positive and non-motile. The strain could grow at 7-37 °C, at pH 6-10 and in the presence of 0-13 % (w/v) NaCl. The strain had a 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity and DNA-DNA hybridization relatedness value with Microbacteriumgubbeenense NCIMB 30129T of 97.8 % and 41.5±8.7 %, respectively. Ornithine was detected as the diagnostic amino acid in the hydrolysate of the cell wall. Whole-cell sugars were found to be galactose, glucose, rhamnose, mannose and ribose. Major fatty acids (>10 %) were iso-C16 : 0, anteiso-C15 : 0 and anteiso-C17 : 0. Major menaquinones were identified as MK-10, MK-11 and MK-12. The polar lipids included diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylinositol, glycolipids and four unidentified lipids. The phylogenetic analyses as well as the chemotaxonomic and phenotypic characteristics indicate that strain YIM 101168T represents a novel species of the genus Microbacterium; the name Microbacterium faecale sp. nov. is proposed for the novel species and the type strain is YIM 101168T (=DSM 27232T=KCTC 39554T=CGMCC 1.15152T).

  16. Genomic diversity and evolution of the head crest in the rock pigeon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shapiro, Michael D.; Kronenberg, Zev; Li, Cai

    2013-01-01

    The geographic origins of breeds and the genetic basis of variation within the widely distributed and phenotypically diverse domestic rock pigeon (Columba livia) remain largely unknown. We generated a rock pigeon reference genome and additional genome sequences representing domestic and feral...

  17. Ultrastructural observations of previtellogenic ovarian follicles of dove.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarnescu, Otilia

    2004-11-01

    Dove ovarian follicle is a complex structure composed of oocyte surrounded by a somatic compartment consisting of theca externa, theca interna and granulosa. The structure of ovarian follicle (1 and 2 mm) of dove was studied by electron microscopy. The granulosa was pseudostratified in the 1-mm-diameter follicles and stratified with two or three irregular rows of cells in the 2-mm-diameter follicles. In the larger follicle indentations between oocyte and granulosa cells become more numerous and the microvilli of granulosa cell elongated to form a zona radiata with similarly elongated oocyte microvilli. Lining bodies were present at the tips of granulosa microvilli and in the cortical region of the oocyte. In the oocyte cortex were observed coated pits, coated vesicles, dense tubules, multivesicular bodies and primordial yolk spheres. Primordial yolk spheres may contain lining bodies and were observed fused with dense tubules and multivesicular bodies or associated with smooth cisternae.

  18. A new stratification of mourning dove call-count routes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blankenship, L.H.; Humphrey, A.B.; MacDonald, D.

    1971-01-01

    The mourning dove (Zenaidura macroura) call-count survey is a nationwide audio-census of breeding mourning doves. Recent analyses of the call-count routes have utilized a stratification based upon physiographic regions of the United States. An analysis of 5 years of call-count data, based upon stratification using potential natural vegetation, has demonstrated that this uew stratification results in strata with greater homogeneity than the physiographic strata, provides lower error variance, and hence generates greatet precision in the analysis without an increase in call-count routes. Error variance was reduced approximately 30 percent for the contiguous United States. This indicates that future analysis based upon the new stratification will result in an increased ability to detect significant year-to-year changes.

  19. Survival models for harvest management of mourning dove populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otis, D.L.

    2002-01-01

    Quantitative models of the relationship between annual survival and harvest rate of migratory game-bird populations are essential to science-based harvest management strategies. I used the best available band-recovery and harvest data for mourning doves (Zenaida macroura) to build a set of models based on different assumptions about compensatory harvest mortality. Although these models suffer from lack of contemporary data, they can be used in development of an initial set of population models that synthesize existing demographic data on a management-unit scale, and serve as a tool for prioritization of population demographic information needs. Credible harvest management plans for mourning dove populations will require a long-term commitment to population monitoring and iterative population analysis.

  20. Upper digestive tract trichomoniasis in mourning doves and other birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stabler, R.M.; Herman, C.M.

    1951-01-01

    This paper, while partially a review of previously published reports from North America, presents many new records on the occurrence of Trichomonas gallinae in North American columbiform birds. Evidence is presented that the .infection is present throughout most of the United States and on occasion has reached epizootic proportions in mourning doves and band-tiled pigeons in isolated areas. An extensive epizootic is reported involving several thousand eastern mourning doves in the Southeastern States during the summer of 1950. Although probably the chief means of transmission is from. parent to offspring in columbiform birds (and the occurrence of infection in nestling mourning doves demonstrates that this mode of inoculation occurs) in severe epizootics there also is undoubtedly a transmission by contamination of water or food besides, or as well as, the parent to offspring transfers. When T. gallinae is implanted in clean pigeons it becomes evident that there is a variety of strains of the organisms and that they differ considerably in virulence. Some strains may kill almost every recipient, while others, though they readily infect, never produce the slightest discomfort or pathology. Nonlethal infections produce an immunity to all strains tested. In some cases, however, when these double-strain infections are further inoculated into. clean birds, the effects of either the nonlethal or the killing strain may predominate. The mechanism by which this virulence acts in the blrds is undoubtedly an important factor in determining the morbidity or mortality that may occur in a population. The prevalence of trichomoniasis in native pigeons and doves presents many practical as well as academic problems. Ultimate application of control measures, evenon an experimental basis, must await further knowledge of many more basic facts.

  1. Primary feather molt of adult mourning doves in North and South Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haas, G.H.; Amend, S.R.

    1979-01-01

    Examination of 8,141 adult mourning doves (Zenaida macroura) in North and South Carolina revealed that substantial numbers complete primary feather molt in September. Adult mourning doves shed primaries at the rate of 1 per 14 days. No difference was found in this rate between sexes or among years, 1969-74. The initiation of molt differed from year to year, and female molt always preceded male molt. Available data show that southern doves complete primary molt a month earlier than northern doves. Therefore, age based on primary molt can be biased upward if all molt-complete wings from southern hunting samples are considered immature.

  2. Reward banding to determine reporting rate of recovered mourning dove bands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomlinson, R.E.

    1968-01-01

    Reward bands placed on the other leg of certain regularly banded immature mourning doves (Zenaidura macroura) were used to develop information on reporting rates of recovered dove bands. Reports from 15 widely separated sections of the United States showed considerable variation in recovery rate of doves both with and without reward bands. The overall percentages of banded doves that were reported as recovered were 9.69% for those with reward bands and 3.83% for controls. The bandreporting rate for states influenced by publicity was 66%; that for states not influenced was 32%.

  3. Haemoproteus, a blood parasite, in domestic pigeons and mourning doves in Maryland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knisley, J.O.; Herman, C.M.

    1967-01-01

    The occurrence of Haemoproteus in pigeons throughout the world and in mourning doves in the United States is reviewed. Haemoproteus has previously been reported only once from pigeons in Maryland. During this study it was found in all of 18 pigeons from one area but in none of 12 from an adjacent area. No infections were found in 90 Maryland mourning doves. All of the 10 mourning doves from Florida were infected whereas 60 nestlings from Texas and Mississippi had no parasites. None was found in 358 nestling white-winged doves from Texas.

  4. Survival, fidelity, and recovery rates of white-winged doves in Texas

    KAUST Repository

    Collier, Bret A.; Kremer, Shelly R.; Mason, Corey D.; Peterson, Markus J.; Calhoun, Kirby W.

    2012-01-01

    the last 30 years. Because >85% of white-winged dove harvest in the United States (approx. 1.3 million annually) now occurs in Texas, information on vital rates of expanding white-winged dove populations is necessary for informed management. We used band

  5. Newcastle disease B1 vaccine strain in wild rock pigeons in Atlanta, Georgia

    Science.gov (United States)

    From June to October of 2012, samples were collected from wild Rock Pigeons (Columba livia) in urban neighborhoods of Atlanta, Georgia to ascertain the prevalence of pigeon paramyxovirus serotype-1 (PPMV-1). PPMV-1 strains are a subset of avian paramyxovirus serotype-1 (APMV-1) commonly isolated fro...

  6. Necrotizing hepatitis in a domestic pigeon (Columba livia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Himmel, L; O'Connor, M; Premanandan, C

    2014-11-01

    An adult male domestic pigeon (Columba livia) was presented for necropsy following natural death after a period of chronic weight loss and severe intestinal ascariasis. Histopathologic examination of the liver found moderate to marked, multifocal necrotizing hepatitis with large, basophilic intranuclear inclusion bodies. Transmission electron microscopy of affected hepatocytes demonstrated numerous intra- and perinuclear icosahedral virions arranged in a lattice structure, consistent with adenoviral infection. © The Author(s) 2014.

  7. Progress of primary feather molt of adult mourning doves in Missouri

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadler, K.C.; Tomlinson, R.E.; Wight, H.M.

    1970-01-01

    The examination of 7,892 adult doves in Missouri between 1953 and 1965 showed that less than 2.5% of adult doves completed their molt before October 1. Adult doves of both sexes began molting their primary feathers during early June in Missouri and lost the last (tenth) primary during the latter half of October. Approximately 140-150 days were required to complete the molt. Thus, early-hatched immatures, which begin their primary molt 25-30 days after hatching, contributed the bulk of the wings with completed molts in September. By correctly classifying September samples of dove wings with a completed molt as young-of-the-year a more accurate young:adult ratio is obtained.

  8. Yue Joseph Wang named Grant A. Dove Professor of Electrical and Computer Engineering

    OpenAIRE

    Owczarski, Mark

    2009-01-01

    Yue Joseph Wang, professor of electrical and computer engineering in the College of Engineering at Virginia Tech, has been named the Grant A. Dove Professor of Electrical and Computer Engineering by the Virginia Tech Board of Visitors.

  9. Spent shot availability and ingestion on areas managed for mourning doves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, J.H.; Millspaugh, J.J.; Washburn, B.E.; Wester, G.R.; Lanigan, J. T.; Franson, J.C.

    2002-01-01

    Mourning dove (Zenaida macroura) hunting is becoming increasingly popular, especially in managed shooting fields. Given the possible increase in the availability of lead (Pb) shot on these areas, our objective was to estimate availability and ingestion of spent shot at the Eagle Bluffs Conservation Area (EBCA, hunted with nontoxic shot) and the James A. Reed Memorial Wildlife Area (JARWA, hunted with Pb shot) in Missouri. During 1998, we collected soil samples one or 2 weeks prior to the hunting season (prehunt) and after 4 days of dove hunting (posthunt). We also collected information on number of doves harvested, number of shots fired, shotgun gauge, and shotshell size used. Dove carcasses were collected on both areas during 1998-99. At EBCA, 60 hunters deposited an estimated 64,775 pellets/ha of nontoxic shot on or around the managed field. At JARWA, approximately 1,086,275 pellets/ha of Pb shot were deposited by 728 hunters. Our posthunt estimates of spent-shot availability from soil sampling were 0 pellets/ha for EBCA and 6,342 pellets/ha for JARWA. Our findings suggest that existing soil sampling protocols may not provide accurate estimates of spent-shot availability in managed dove shooting fields. During 1998-99, 15 of 310 (4.8%) mourning doves collected from EBCA had ingested nontoxic shot. Of those doves, 6 (40.0%) contained a?Y7 shot pellets. In comparison, only 2 of 574 (0.3%) doves collected from JARWA had ingested Pb shot. Because a greater proportion of doves ingested multiple steel pellets compared to Pb pellets, we suggest that doves feeding in fields hunted with Pb shot may succumb to acute Pb toxicosis and thus become unavailable to harvest, resulting in an underestimate of ingestion rates. Although further research is needed to test this hypothesis, our findings may partially explain why previous studies have shown few doves with ingested Pb shot despite their feeding on areas with high Pb shot availability.

  10. Survival, fidelity, and recovery rates of white-winged doves in Texas

    KAUST Repository

    Collier, Bret A.

    2012-03-12

    Management of migratory birds at the national level has historically relied on regulatory boundaries for definition of harvest restrictions and estimation of demographic parameters. Most species of migratory game birds are not expanding their ranges, so migratory corridors are approximately fixed. White-winged doves (Zenaida asiatica), however, have undergone significant variation in population structure with marked range expansion occurring in Texas, and range contraction in Arizona, during the last 30 years. Because >85% of white-winged dove harvest in the United States (approx. 1.3 million annually) now occurs in Texas, information on vital rates of expanding white-winged dove populations is necessary for informed management. We used band recovery and mark-recapture data to investigate variation in survival and harvest across 3 geographic strata for white-winged doves banded in the pre-hunting season in Texas during 2007-2010. We banded 60,742 white-winged doves, recovered 2,458 bands via harvest reporting, and recaptured 455 known-age birds between 2007 and 2010. The best supporting model found some evidence for geographic differences in survival rates among strata (A-C) in both hatch-year (juvenile; A = 0.205 [SE = 0.0476], B = 0.213 [SE = 0.0278], C = 0.364 [SE = 0.0254]) and after-hatch year (adult; A = 0.483 [SE = 0.0775], B = 0.465 [SE = 0.0366], C = 0.538 [SE = 0.251]) birds. White-winged doves had a low probability of moving among strata (0.009) or being recaptured (0.002) across all strata. Harvest recovery rates were concordant with estimates for other dove species, but were variable across geographic strata. Based on our results, harvest management strategies for white-winged doves in Texas and elsewhere should consider differences in population vital rates among geographic strata. © 2012 The Wildlife Society.

  11. Surto de malária por Haemoproteus columbae em pombos An outbreak of malaria by Haemoproteus columbae in pigeons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.S. Resende

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Relata-se um surto de malária por Haemoproteus columbae em pombos-correio (Columba livia, caracterizado por um quadro agudo com mortalidade de 3% ao dia em aves de aspecto saudável ou crônico com prostração e fraqueza. O exame clínico das aves doentes evidenciou sinusite e conjuntivite e à necropsia traqueíte hemorrágica, aerossaculite, esplenomegalia, nefromegalia e hepatomegalia com hemorragias. O díptero hematófago da família Hippoboscidae Pseudolynchia canariensis foi encontrado inserido entre as penas dos indivíduos. Esfregaços de sangue periférico e cardíaco e impressões de baço e fígado corados por Giemsa permitiram a visualização de inclusões intraeritrocitárias características de Haemoproteus columbae

  12. Changes in land use as a possible factor in Mourning Dove population decline in Central Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostrand, William D.; Meyers, P.M.; Bissonette, J.A.; Conover, M.R.

    1998-01-01

    Mourning Dove (Zenaida macroura) population indices for the western United States have declined significantly since 1966. Based on data collected in 1951-1952, in Fillmore, Utah, we examined whether there had been a local decline in the dove population index since the original data were collected. We then determined whether habitat had been altered, identified which foraging habitats doves preferred, and assessed whether changes in land use could be responsible, in part, for a decline in the local population index. We found that dove population indices declined 72% and 82% from 1952-1992 and 1952-1993, respectively. The most dramatic change in habitat was an 82% decline in land devoted to dry land winter wheat production and a decline in livestock feed pens. Doves foraged primarily in harvested wheat fields, feed pens, and weedy patches. We hypothesize that a decrease in wheat availability during the spring and the consolidation of the livestock industry have contributed to a population decline of Mourning Doves in central Utah.

  13. Calibrating recruitment estimates for mourning doves from harvest age ratios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, David A.; Otis, David L.

    2010-01-01

    We examined results from the first national-scale effort to estimate mourning dove (Zenaida macroura) age ratios and developed a simple, efficient, and generalizable methodology for calibrating estimates. Our method predicted age classes of unknown-age wings based on backward projection of molt distributions from fall harvest collections to preseason banding. We estimated 1) the proportion of late-molt individuals in each age class, and 2) the molt rates of juvenile and adult birds. Monte Carlo simulations demonstrated our estimator was minimally biased. We estimated model parameters using 96,811 wings collected from hunters and 42,189 birds banded during preseason from 68 collection blocks in 22 states during the 2005–2007 hunting seasons. We also used estimates to derive a correction factor, based on latitude and longitude of samples, which can be applied to future surveys. We estimated differential vulnerability of age classes to harvest using data from banded birds and applied that to harvest age ratios to estimate population age ratios. Average, uncorrected age ratio of known-age wings for states that allow hunting was 2.25 (SD 0.85) juveniles:adult, and average, corrected ratio was 1.91 (SD 0.68), as determined from harvest age ratios from an independent sample of 41,084 wings collected from random hunters in 2007 and 2008. We used an independent estimate of differential vulnerability to adjust corrected harvest age ratios and estimated the average population age ratio as 1.45 (SD 0.52), a direct measure of recruitment rates. Average annual recruitment rates were highest east of the Mississippi River and in the northwestern United States, with lower rates between. Our results demonstrate a robust methodology for calibrating recruitment estimates for mourning doves and represent the first large-scale estimates of recruitment for the species. Our methods can be used by managers to correct future harvest survey data to generate recruitment estimates for use in

  14. Distribution and derivation of white-winged dove harvests in Texas

    KAUST Repository

    Collier, Bret A.; Skow, Kevin L.; Kremer, Shelly R.; Mason, Corey D.; Snelgrove, Robert T.; Calhoun, Kirby W.

    2012-01-01

    Band recoveries provide requisite data for evaluating the spatial distribution of harvest relative to the distribution of breeding stocks for a wide variety of migratory species. We used direct and indirect band-recovery data to evaluate the distribution and derivation of harvest of white-winged doves (Zenaida asiatica) banded before hunting season in 3 distinct strata in Texas, USA, during 2007-2010. We banded 60,742 white-winged doves during 2007-2010, and based on 2,458 harvest recoveries, the majority (>95%) of white-winged dove harvest occurred during the first 2 months of the hunting season (Sep-Oct). Juvenile white-winged doves represented a greater percentage of the direct recoveries than adults across all strata (north = 80%, central = 69%, south = 82%) and the majority of direct band recoveries (north = 75%, central = 90%, south = 78%) occurred within the original banding strata. Age-specific weighting factors and harvest derivation indicated that both juvenile and adult harvest were highest within the strata of original banding. Harvest distribution data corrected for band-reporting rates indicated high fidelity of white-winged doves to specific geographic strata, with little interplay between strata. Our results suggest that population vital-rate estimates for survival and harvest for use in future Adaptive Harvest Management should focus on stock-specific levels. © 2012 The Wildlife Society.

  15. Evaluating call-count procedures for measuring local mourning dove populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armbruster, M.J.; Baskett, T.S.; Goforth, W.R.; Sadler, K.C.

    1978-01-01

    Seventy-nine mourning dove call-count runs were made on a 32-km route in Osage County, Missouri, May 1-August 31, 1971 and 1972. Circular study areas, each 61 ha, surrounding stop numbers 4 and 5, were delineated for intensive nest searches and population estimates. Tallies of cooing male doves along the entire call-count route were quite variable in repeated runs, fluctuating as much as 50 percent on consecutive days. There were no consistent relationships between numbers of cooing males tallied at stops 4 and 5 and the numbers of current nests or doves estimated to be present in the surrounding study areas. We doubt the suitability of call-count procedures to estimate precisely the densities of breeding pairs, nests or production of doves on small areas. Our findings do not dispute the usefulness of the national call-count survey as an index to relative densities of mourning doves during the breeding season over large portions of the United States, or as an index to annual population trends.

  16. Distribution and derivation of white-winged dove harvests in Texas

    KAUST Repository

    Collier, Bret A.

    2012-04-25

    Band recoveries provide requisite data for evaluating the spatial distribution of harvest relative to the distribution of breeding stocks for a wide variety of migratory species. We used direct and indirect band-recovery data to evaluate the distribution and derivation of harvest of white-winged doves (Zenaida asiatica) banded before hunting season in 3 distinct strata in Texas, USA, during 2007-2010. We banded 60,742 white-winged doves during 2007-2010, and based on 2,458 harvest recoveries, the majority (>95%) of white-winged dove harvest occurred during the first 2 months of the hunting season (Sep-Oct). Juvenile white-winged doves represented a greater percentage of the direct recoveries than adults across all strata (north = 80%, central = 69%, south = 82%) and the majority of direct band recoveries (north = 75%, central = 90%, south = 78%) occurred within the original banding strata. Age-specific weighting factors and harvest derivation indicated that both juvenile and adult harvest were highest within the strata of original banding. Harvest distribution data corrected for band-reporting rates indicated high fidelity of white-winged doves to specific geographic strata, with little interplay between strata. Our results suggest that population vital-rate estimates for survival and harvest for use in future Adaptive Harvest Management should focus on stock-specific levels. © 2012 The Wildlife Society.

  17. Functional morphology and seed anatomy of the invasive weed, benghal dayflower (Commelina benghalensis): Implications for dispersal by mourning doves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benghal dayflower (BD) is an exotic weed that reduces yields in many agricultural crops. Potential dispersal of this weed by migratory Mourning doves was investigated in this study. Evidence shows that doves feed on BD seeds, with some birds containing hundreds of seeds. Seeds extracted from harvest...

  18. Evaluation of environmental genotoxicity by comet assay in Columba livia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Acevedo, Anahi; García-Salas, Juan A; Gosálvez, Jaime; Fernández, José Luis; Dávila-Rodríguez, Martha I; Cerda-Flores, Ricardo M; Méndez-López, Luis F; Cortés-Gutiérrez, Elva I

    2016-01-01

    The concentrations of recognized or suspected genotoxic and carcinogenic agents found in the air of large cities and, in particular, developing countries, have raised concerns about the potential for chronic health effects in the populations exposed to them. The biomonitoring of environmental genotoxicity requires the selection of representative organisms as "sentinels," as well as the development of suitable and sensitive assays, such as those aimed at assessing DNA damage. The aim of this study was to evaluate DNA damage levels in erythrocytes from Columba livia living in the metropolitan area of Monterrey, Mexico, compared with control animals via comet assay, and to confirm the results via Micronuclei test (MN) and DNA breakage detection-fluorescence in situ hybridization (DBD-FISH). Our results showed a significant increase in DNA migration in animals from the area assayed compared with that observed in control animals sampled in non-contaminated areas. These results were confirmed by MN test and DBD-FISH. In conclusion, these observations confirm that the examination of erythrocytes from Columba livia via alkaline comet assay provides a sensitive and reliable end point for the detection of environmental genotoxicants.

  19. Human infestation by pigeon fleas (Ceratophyllus columbae) from feral pigeons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haag-Wackernagel, Daniel; Spiewak, Radosław

    2004-01-01

    The report concerns a married couple who were repeatedly invaded by pigeon fleas (Ceratophyllus columbae) over a period of 2 months. The source of the fleas was a pair of breeding feral pigeons (Columba livia). The birds' nest was located in the attic immediately above the couple's apartment, and the fleas found their way along an unsealed heating pipe. The people encountered up to 40 bites per night. With invasions repeated almost every night, the man gradually developed an allergic urticarial reaction. The most traumatic experience for the couple, however, was to learn that they were invaded by fleas (initially, they had presumed they were bothered by mosquitoes). This information resulted in severe psychological distress with phobic reactions and insomnia. Despite the successful removal of the fleas and the pigeons that were source of the pest, parasitophobia of the man persisted over the following 4 months. This case is discussed from the broader aspect of health risks related to feral pigeons and animal fleas. Also summarised are previous observations on people invaded by pigeon fleas.

  20. Resistance of Benghal Dayflower (Commelina benghalensis) Seeds to Harsh Environments and the Implications for Dispersal by Mourning Doves (Zenaida macroura) in Georgia, U.S.A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The potential dispersal of Benghal dayflower seeds by mourning doves was studied in southern Georgia, U.S.A. The gut contents (both crop and gizzard) of mourning doves harvested in the autumn months were investigated to determine if mourning doves fed on Benghal dayflower and whether seeds can surv...

  1. Dietary habits of urban pigeons (Columba livia and implications of excreta pH – a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spennemann Dirk H. R.

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Pigeons are considered to be urban pests, causing untold damage to buildings and potentially impacting the health of humans who come into contact with them or their faeces. Pigeon faecal matter has been implicated in both health impacts and building damage, with the acidity of the excreta playing an important role. Purpose of the Review. This paper is a wide-ranging review of the chemical processes of excreta in the pigeon to aid our understanding of the potential problems of pigeons to buildings and human amenity in the urban space. The natural pH of pigeons is shown to vary based on the bird’s and age as well as reproductive stage. Key findings of the review. The influences of the altered diet between the rock dove (the wild progenitor of the feral pigeon and the feral pigeon are detailed, indicating that the human-based diet of urban pigeons most likely causes the feral pigeon excreta to be more acidic than the rock dove excreta. This higher acidity is due in part to diet, but also to potential increases in faecal and/or uric acid volumes due to the low quality of human-based diets. Again, this area of interest is highly data deficient due to the few number of studies and unspecified dietary intake before pH measurement. Implications of the review. Humans are increasingly concerned about pigeon populations (and presumably their accumulated faeces in the urban space, and control comprises a large part of the interaction between humans and feral pigeons. This review provides a greater understanding of feral pigeons and the true effects of their excreta.

  2. Rapid change in the defense of flightless young by a mourning dove parent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berdeen, James; Otis, D.L.

    2011-01-01

    We report that an adult-sized Zenaida macroura (Mourning Dove), presumably a parent, rapidly decreased risk taken in defense of a juvenile as the likelihood of predation to the juvenile increased. We attribute this decrease in risk taken to (1) the parent's perception that the risk of predation had increased to the extent that a continuation of defensive behaviors would not prevent the death of the juvenile, and (2) its attempt to minimize its own risk of death. It may be that there is a threshold beyond which Mourning Dove parents will forgo the risk of additional defense of offspring in favor of making another reproductive attempt.

  3. Nesting characteristics of mourning doves in central New Mexico: Response to riparian forest change

    Science.gov (United States)

    D. Max Smith; Deborah M. Finch; David L. Hawksworth

    2012-01-01

    Riparian forests of the American Southwest are especially prone to changes in composition and structure due to natural and anthropogenic factors. To determine how breeding mourning doves (Zenaida macroura) respond to these changes, we examined nest site use and nest survival in control plots, fuel reduction plots before and after mechanical thinning, and post-wildfire...

  4. Mourning dove ( Zenaida macroura) wing-whistles may contain threat-related information for con- and hetero-specifics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, Seth W.

    2008-10-01

    Distinct acoustic whistles are associated with the wing-beats of many doves, and are especially noticeable when doves ascend from the ground when startled. I thus hypothesized that these sounds may be used by flock-mates as cues of potential danger. To test this hypothesis, I compared the responses of mourning doves ( Zenaida macroura), northern cardinals ( Cardinalis cardinalis), and house sparrows ( Passer domesticus) to audio playbacks of dove ‘startle wing-whistles’, cardinal alarm calls, dove ‘nonstartle wing-whistles’, and sparrow ‘social chatter’. Following playbacks of startle wing-whistles and alarm calls, conspecifics and heterospecifics startled and increased vigilance more than after playbacks of other sounds. Also, the latency to return to feeding was greater following playbacks of startle wing-whistles and alarm calls than following playbacks of other sounds. These results suggest that both conspecifics and heterospecifics may attend to dove wing-whistles in decisions related to antipredator behaviors. Whether the sounds of dove wing-whistles are intentionally produced signals warrants further testing.

  5. Mortality associated with fenbendazole administration in pigeons (Columba livia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gozalo, Alfonso S; Schwiebert, Rebecca S; Lawson, Gregory W

    2006-11-01

    A group of 12 domestic pigeons (Columba livia domestica) was treated for capillariasis by use of fenbendazole at 30 mg/kg orally once daily for 5 d. After treatment, 8 of the 12 pigeons exhibited signs of anorexia, lethargy, and dehydration; these birds died within 2 d after the onset of clinical signs. A total of 6 birds were necropsied, and all had unremarkable gross findings. Microscopic examination of tissues revealed acute hemorrhagic enteritis, diffuse lymphoplasmacytic enteritis, small intestinal crypt necrosis, periportal lymphoplasmacytic hepatitis, bile duct hyperplasia, and renal tubular necrosis. Erythrocytes in blood samples collected from surviving birds demonstrated polychromasia compatible with a regenerative anemia. The clinical and histopathologic findings in these pigeons were consistent with recent reports of fenbendazole toxicity in domestic pigeons and other columbiform birds.

  6. Molecular cloning and sequencing analysis of the interferon receptor (IFNAR-1) from Columba livia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chao; Chang, Wei Shan

    2014-01-01

    Partial sequence cloning of interferon receptor (IFNAR-1) of Columba livia. In order to obtain a certain length (630 bp) of gene, a pair of primers was designed according to the conserved nucleotide sequence of Gallus (EU477527.1) and Taeniopygia guttata (XM_002189232.1) IFNAR-1 gene fragment that was published by GenBank. Special primers were designed by the Race method to amplify the 3'terminal cDNA. The Columba livia IFNAR-1 displayed 88.5%, 80.5% and 73.8% nucleotide identity to Falco peregrinus, Gallus and Taeniopygia guttata, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis of the IFNAR1 gene showed that the relationship of Columba livia, Falco peregrinus and chicken had high homology. We successfully obtained a Columba livia IFNAR-1 gene partial sequence. Analysis of the genetic tree showed that the relationship of Columba livia and Falco peregrinus IFNAR-1 had high homology. This result can be used as reference for further research and practical application.

  7. Mourning dove hunting regulation strategy based on annual harvest statistics and banding data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otis, D.L.

    2006-01-01

    Although managers should strive to base game bird harvest management strategies on mechanistic population models, monitoring programs required to build and continuously update these models may not be in place. Alternatively, If estimates of total harvest and harvest rates are available, then population estimates derived from these harvest data can serve as the basis for making hunting regulation decisions based on population growth rates derived from these estimates. I present a statistically rigorous approach for regulation decision-making using a hypothesis-testing framework and an assumed framework of 3 hunting regulation alternatives. I illustrate and evaluate the technique with historical data on the mid-continent mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) population. I evaluate the statistical properties of the hypothesis-testing framework using the best available data on mourning doves (Zenaida macroura). I use these results to discuss practical implementation of the technique as an interim harvest strategy for mourning doves until reliable mechanistic population models and associated monitoring programs are developed.

  8. RELIGIOUS SEARCH AND SECTARIAN UTOPIA IN ANDREY BELY'S NOVEL "THE SILVER DOVE"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kolikhalova N. G.

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available The article analyses Andrey Bely's novel "The Silver Dove" in the context of his religious, spiritual and artistic search during 1905–1907. Analysis of the novel's architectonics reveals both Christian and occult motifs and images. The main character's denial of sectarian utopia based on the "spiritualization of flesh" concept, as well as his inner self-crucifixion (confession of guilt brings positive outlook to the ending of the novel.

  9. Fungal Diversity in a Dark Oligotrophic Volcanic Ecosystem (DOVE on Mount Erebus, Antarctica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hubert Staudigel

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Fumarolic Ice caves on Antarctica’s Mt. Erebus contain a dark oligotrophic volcanic ecosystem (DOVE and represent a deep biosphere habitat that can provide insight into microbial communities that utilize energy sources other than photosynthesis. The community assembly and role of fungi in these environments remains largely unknown. However, these habitats could be relatively easily contaminated during human visits. Sixty-one species of fungi were identified from soil clone libraries originating from Warren Cave, a DOVE on Mt. Erebus. The species diversity was greater than has been found in the nearby McMurdo Dry Valleys oligotrophic soil. A relatively large proportion of the clones represented Malassezia species (37% of Basidomycota identified. These fungi are associated with skin surfaces of animals and require high lipid content for growth, indicating that contamination may have occurred through the few and episodic human visits in this particular cave. These findings highlight the importance of fungi to DOVE environments as well as their potential use for identifying contamination by humans. The latter offers compelling evidence suggesting more strict management of these valuable research areas.

  10. Mourning dove population trend estimates from Call-Count and North American Breeding Bird Surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauer, J.R.; Dolton, D.D.; Droege, S.

    1994-01-01

    The mourning dove (Zenaida macroura) Callcount Survey and the North American Breeding Bird Survey provide information on population trends of mourning doves throughout the continental United States. Because surveys are an integral part of the development of hunting regulations, a need exists to determine which survey provides precise information. We estimated population trends from 1966 to 1988 by state and dove management unit, and assessed the relative efficiency of each survey. Estimates of population trend differ (P lt 0.05) between surveys in 11 of 48 states; 9 of 11 states with divergent results occur in the Eastern Management Unit. Differences were probably a consequence of smaller sample sizes in the Callcount Survey. The Breeding Bird Survey generally provided trend estimates with smaller variances than did the Callcount Survey. Although the Callcount Survey probably provides more withinroute accuracy because of survey methods and timing, the Breeding Bird Survey has a larger sample size of survey routes and greater consistency of coverage in the Eastern Unit.

  11. Description of the celiac artery in domestic pigeons (Columba livia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cibele Geeverghese

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper aimed to define the origin and distribution of the celiac artery and its collateral branches in 15 fowls from the Columba livia species, which were obtained from the Zoonosis Control Center of Brasilia, Brazil. In order to mark the arterial system of the specimens, the left brachiocephalic trunk was canullated and a colored water-latex solution was injected there. Afterwards, fowls were fixed in a 10% v/v formaldehyde solution and dissected with appropriate equipment, presenting the results described in this paper. The celiac artery originated from the ventral face of the descendent aorta. The first collateral branch arose from the celiac artery itself, forming the esophageal artery. Then, the celiac artery has bifurcated into two branches, named left and right branches of the celiac artery. The left branch emitted the proventricular ventral artery, followed by the splenic arteries, proventricular dorsal artery, and the left hepatic artery. The left branch has bifurcated into two branches, known as ventral and left gastric arteries. The right branch emitted the right hepatic artery, followed by the ileal artery and the right gastric artery. Finally, the right branch turned into the pancreaticoduodenal artery. Our findings showed a great similarity with the avian lineages of the Gallus gallus species, except for the lack of ileocecal artery, cystic branches, and dorsal gastric artery.

  12. Paramyxovirus-1 in feral pigeons (Columba livia) in Ontario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Kathleen M.; Key, Douglas W.

    1992-01-01

    Paramyxovirus-1 (PMV-1) infection was diagnosed in racing pigeons in Ontario during 1985, but it was not until January 1989, that the virus was isolated from feral pigeons (Columba livia) in this province. During an 18 month period beginning January 1988, a total of 43 feral pigeons was submitted to the Wildlife Diseases Laboratory, Pathology Department, Ontario Veterinary College. A history of neurological signs accompanied most of the birds. Tissues from 29 birds were submitted for PMV-1 isolation. Allantoic inoculation of embryonated chicken eggs yielded PMV-1 in 10 of the pigeons submitted. On the basis of histological criteria, we believe that 12 other birds were also infected with PMV-1. Gross pathological changes were unremarkable. Lymphplasmacytic interstitial nephritis was observed histologically in all birds from which PMV-1 was isolated. Other lesions seen, in decreasing frequency of occurrence, were lymphoplasmacytic interstitial hepatitis and multifocal hepatic necrosis, lymphoplasmacytic interstitial pancreatitis, nonsuppurative encephalitis and myelitis. The existence of PMV-1 in feral pigeons poses a potential threat to the poultry population since there is ample opportunity for mingling with poultry under open housing management. There is also a concern that pigeons may harbor the virus, perhaps in the kidney, and become chronic carriers and potential long-term disseminators of the disease. ImagesFigure 1.Figure 2. PMID:17424132

  13. Prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii antibodies in domestic (Columba livia domestica) and wild (Columba livia livia) pigeons in Niğde region, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karatepe, Mustafa; Kılıç, Selçuk; Karatepe, Bilge; Babür, Cahit

    2011-01-01

    The present study was conducted to investigate the prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii specific antibodies in domestic (Columba livia domestica) and wild (Columba livia livia) pigeons between October 2003-June 2004. Blood samples were collected from 216 pigeons, consisting of 105 (55 female, 50 male) domestic pigeons and 111 (53 female, 58 male) wild pigeons. The sera were tested for T. gondii antibodies using the Sabin Feldman Dye Test (SFDT). One of the 105 (0.95%) domestic pigeon and one of the 111 (0.90%) wild pigeon were found to be seropositive for T. gondii antibodies at the titer of 1:16. This is the first serological study on toxoplasmosis in the domestic and wild pigeon in the Niğde region of Turkey.

  14. Pulluterina karachiensis sp.n. (Cestoda: Anaplocephalidae) from the Wild Pigeon Columba livia Gmelin

    OpenAIRE

    GHAZI, Rafia Rehana

    2014-01-01

    A new species, Pulluterina karachiensis, is described from the common pigeon Columba livia Gmelin in Karachi. The new species is characterized by possessing small suckers; a longer neck; fewer testes, smaller in size, and the comparatively smaller size of ova. This is the second species of the genus from Pakistan and third in the literature.

  15. [Cloning and characterization of Caveolin-1 gene in pigeon, Columba livia domestica].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ying; Yu, Jian-Feng; Yang, Li; Wang, Xing-Guo; Gu, Zhi-Liang

    2010-10-01

    Caveolins, a class of principal proteins forming the structure of caveolae in plasmalemma, were encoded by caveolins gene family. Caveolin-1 gene is a member of caveolins gene family. In the present study, a full-length of 2605 bp caveolin-1 cDNA sequence in Columba livia domestica, which included a 537 bp complete ORF encoding a 178 amino acids long putative peptide, were obtained by using RT-PCR and RACE technique. The Columba livia domestica caveolin-1 CDS shared 80.1% - 93.4% homology with Bos taurus, Canis lupus familiaris, Gallus gallus and Rattus norvegicus. Meanwhile, the putative amino acid sequence of Columba livia domestica caveolin-1 shared 85.4% - 97.2% homology with the above species. The semi-quantity RT-PCR revealed that Caveolin-1 expressions were detectable in all the Columba livia domestica tissues and the expressional level of caveolin-1 gene was high in adipose, medium in various muscles, low in liver. These results demonstrated that Caveolin-1 gene was potentially involved in some metabolic pathways in adipose and muscle.

  16. First description of Cryptosporidium parvum in carrier pigeons (Columba livia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Bruno César Miranda; Ferrari, Elis Domingos; da Cruz Panegossi, Mariele Fernanda; Nakamura, Alex Akira; Corbucci, Flávio Sader; Nagata, Walter Bertequini; Dos Santos, Bianca Martins; Gomes, Jancarlo Ferreira; Meireles, Marcelo Vasconcelos; Widmer, Giovanni; Bresciani, Katia Denise Saraiva

    2017-08-30

    The carrier pigeon and the domestic pigeon are different breeds of the species Columba livia. Carrier pigeons are used for recreational activities such as bird contests and exhibitions. Due to the close contact with humans, these birds may potentially represent a public health risk, since they can host and disseminate zoonotic parasites, such as those belonging to the genus Cryptosporidium (phylum Apicomplexa). The purpose of this work was the detection by microscopic and molecular techniques of Cryptosporidium spp. oocysts in fecal samples of carrier pigeons, and subsequently to sequence the 18S ribosomal RNA marker of positive samples to identify the species. A total of 100 fecal samples were collected individually in two pigeon breeding facilities from Formiga and Araçatuba, cities located in Minas Gerais state and São Paulo state, Brazil, respectively. The age of the birds ranged from one to 12 years; 56 were females and 44 males. Fecal smears were stained with negative malachite green, whereas the molecular characterization was based on the sequence of a ∼800bp fragment of the 18S rRNA gene. Microscopic examination of fecal smears revealed 4% (4/100) oocyst positivity. On the other hand, 7% (7/100) of positivity were found using nested PCR. Three samples were 99% to 100% similar to Cryptosporidium parvum 18S rDNA type A (Genbank AH006572) and the other three samples had 99% to 100% similarity to C. parvum 18S rDNA type B (Genbank AF308600). To our knowledge, this is the first report of C. parvum oocysts in carrier pigeons. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. When One Hemisphere Takes Control: Metacontrol in Pigeons (Columba livia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adam, Ruth; Güntürkün, Onur

    2009-01-01

    Background Vertebrate brains are composed of two hemispheres that receive input, compute, and interact to form a unified response. How the partially different processes of both hemispheres are integrated to create a single output is largely unknown. In some cases one hemisphere takes charge of the response selection – a process known as metacontrol. Thus far, this phenomenon has only been shown in a handful of studies with primates, mostly conducted in humans. Metacontrol, however, is even more relevant for animals like birds with laterally placed eyes and complete chiasmatic decussation since visual input to the hemispheres is largely different. Methodology/Principal Findings Homing pigeons (Columba livia) were trained with a color discrimination task. Each hemisphere was trained with a different color pair and therefore had a different experience. Subsequently, the pigeons were binocularly examined with two additional stimuli that combined the positive color of one hemisphere with a negative color that had been shown to the other, omitting the availability of a coherent solution and confronting the pigeons with a conflicting situation. Some of the pigeons responded to both stimuli, indicating that none of the hemispheres dominated the overall preference. Some birds, however, responded primarily to one of the conflicting stimuli, showing that they based their choice on the left- or right-monocularly learned color pair, indicating hemispheric metacontrol. Conclusions/Significance We could demonstrate for the first time that metacontrol is a widespread phenomenon that also exists in birds, and thus in principle requires no corpus callosum. Our results are closely similar to those in humans: monocular performance was higher than binocular one and animals displayed different modes of hemispheric dominance. Thus, metacontrol is a dynamic and widely distributed process that possibly constitutes a requirement for all animals with a bipartite brain to confront the

  18. Stress-induced core temperature changes in pigeons (Columba livia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bittencourt, Myla de Aguiar; Melleu, Fernando Falkenburger; Marino-Neto, José

    2015-02-01

    Changes in body temperature are significant physiological consequences of stressful stimuli in mammals and birds. Pigeons (Columba livia) prosper in (potentially) stressful urban environments and are common subjects in neurobehavioral studies; however, the thermal responses to stress stimuli by pigeons are poorly known. Here, we describe acute changes in the telemetrically recorded celomatic (core) temperature (Tc) in pigeons given a variety of potentially stressful stimuli, including transfer to a novel cage (ExC) leading to visual isolation from conspecifics, the presence of the experimenter (ExpR), gentle handling (H), sham intracelomatic injections (SI), and the induction of the tonic immobility (TI) response. Transfer to the ExC cage provoked short-lived hyperthermia (10-20 min) followed by a long-lasting and substantial decrease in Tc, which returned to baseline levels 2 h after the start of the test. After a 2-hour stay in the ExC, the other potentially stressful stimuli evoked only weak, marginally significant hyperthermic (ExpR, IT) or hypothermic (SI) responses. Stimuli delivered 26 h after transfer to the ExC induced definite and intense increases in Tc (ExpR, H) or hypothermic responses (SI). These Tc changes appear to be unrelated to modifications in general activity (as measured via telemetrically recorded actimetric data). Repeated testing failed to affect the hypothermic responses to the transference to the ExC, even after nine trials and at 1- or 8-day intervals, suggesting that the social (visual) isolation from conspecifics may be a strong and poorly controllable stimulus in this species. The present data indicated that stress-induced changes in Tc may be a consistent and reliable physiological parameter of stress but that they may also show stressor type-, direction- and species-specific attributes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. When one hemisphere takes control: metacontrol in pigeons (Columba livia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth Adam

    Full Text Available Vertebrate brains are composed of two hemispheres that receive input, compute, and interact to form a unified response. How the partially different processes of both hemispheres are integrated to create a single output is largely unknown. In some cases one hemisphere takes charge of the response selection--a process known as metacontrol. Thus far, this phenomenon has only been shown in a handful of studies with primates, mostly conducted in humans. Metacontrol, however, is even more relevant for animals like birds with laterally placed eyes and complete chiasmatic decussation since visual input to the hemispheres is largely different.Homing pigeons (Columba livia were trained with a color discrimination task. Each hemisphere was trained with a different color pair and therefore had a different experience. Subsequently, the pigeons were binocularly examined with two additional stimuli that combined the positive color of one hemisphere with a negative color that had been shown to the other, omitting the availability of a coherent solution and confronting the pigeons with a conflicting situation. Some of the pigeons responded to both stimuli, indicating that none of the hemispheres dominated the overall preference. Some birds, however, responded primarily to one of the conflicting stimuli, showing that they based their choice on the left- or right-monocularly learned color pair, indicating hemispheric metacontrol.We could demonstrate for the first time that metacontrol is a widespread phenomenon that also exists in birds, and thus in principle requires no corpus callosum. Our results are closely similar to those in humans: monocular performance was higher than binocular one and animals displayed different modes of hemispheric dominance. Thus, metacontrol is a dynamic and widely distributed process that possibly constitutes a requirement for all animals with a bipartite brain to confront the problem of choosing between two hemisphere

  20. MtDNA genetic diversity and structure of Eurasian Collared Dove (Streptopelia decaocto).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagi, Zoltán; Dimopoulos, Evangelos Antonis; Loukovitis, Dimitrios; Eraud, Cyril; Kusza, Szilvia

    2018-01-01

    The Eurasian Collared Dove (Streptopelia decaocto) is one of the most successful biological invaders among terrestrial vertebrates. However, little information is available on the genetic diversity of the species. A total of 134 Eurasian Collared Doves from Europe, Asia and the Caribbean (n = 20) were studied by sequencing a 658-bp length of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) cytochrome oxidase I (COI). Fifty-two different haplotypes and relatively high haplotype and nucleotide diversities (Hd±SD = 0.843±0.037 and π±SD = 0.026±0.013) were detected. Haplotype Ht1 was particularly dominant: it included 44.03% of the studied individuals, and contained sequences from 75% of the studied countries. Various analyses (FST, AMOVA, STRUCTURE) distinguished 2 groups on the genetic level, designated 'A' and 'B'. Two groups were also separated in the median-joining network and the maximum likelihood tree. The results of the neutrality tests were negative (Fu FS = -25.914; Tajima D = -2.606) and significantly different from zero (P≤0.001) for group A, whereas both values for group B were positive (Fu FS = 1.811; Tajima D = 0.674) and not significant (P>0.05). Statistically significant positive autocorrelation was revealed among individuals located up to 2000 km apart (r = 0.124; P = 0.001). The present results provide the first information on the genetic diversity and structure of the Eurasian Collared Dove, and can thereby serve as a factual and comparative basis for similar studies in the future.

  1. Domestic Violence Enhanced Perinatal Home Visits: The DOVE Randomized Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharps, Phyllis W; Bullock, Linda F; Campbell, Jacquelyn C; Alhusen, Jeanne L; Ghazarian, Sharon R; Bhandari, Shreya S; Schminkey, Donna L

    2016-11-01

    Perinatal intimate partner violence (IPV) is common and has significant negative health outcomes for mothers and infants. This study evaluated the effectiveness of an IPV intervention in reducing violence among abused women in perinatal home visiting programs. This assessor-blinded multisite randomized control trial of 239 women experiencing perinatal IPV was conducted from 2006 to 2012 in U.S. urban and rural settings. The Domestic Violence Enhanced Home Visitation Program (DOVE) intervention group (n = 124) received a structured abuse assessment and six home visitor-delivered empowerment sessions integrated into home visits. All participants were screened for IPV and referred appropriately. IPV was measured by the Conflicts Tactics Scale2 at baseline through 24 months postpartum. There was a significant decrease in IPV over time (F = 114.23; p < 0.001) from baseline to 1, 3, 6, 12, 18, and 24 months postpartum (all p < 0.001). Additional models examining change in IPV from baseline indicated a significant treatment effect (F = 6.45; p < 0.01). Women in the DOVE treatment group reported a larger mean decrease in IPV scores from baseline compared to women in the usual care group (mean decline 40.82 vs. 35.87). All models accounted for age and maternal depression as covariates. The DOVE intervention was effective in decreasing IPV and is brief, thereby facilitating its incorporation within well-woman and well-child care visits, as well as home visiting programs, while satisfying recommendations set forth in the Affordable Care Act for IPV screening and brief counseling.

  2. Diet of Eared Doves (Zenaida auriculata, Aves, Columbidae in a sugar-cane colony in South-eastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. RANVAUD

    Full Text Available Farmers in the Paranapanema Valley (São Paulo, Brazil have reported problems with flocks of Eared Doves (Zenaida auriculata eating sprouting soybeans. In this region these birds breed colonially in sugar-cane, and eat four crop seeds, using 70% of the dry weight, in the following order of importance: maize, wheat, rice, and soybeans. Three weeds (Euphorbia heterophylla, Brachiaria plantaginea, and Commelina benghalensis were important. This information suggests that the doves adapted particularly well to the landscape created by the agricultural practices in the region, exploiting many available foods.

  3. The Hawk-Dove game in phenotypically homogeneous and heterogeneous populations of finite dimension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laruelle, Annick; da Silva Rocha, André Barreira; Escobedo, Ramón

    2018-02-01

    The Hawk-Dove game played between individuals in populations of finite dimension is analyzed by means of a stochastic model. We take into account both cases when all individuals in the population are either phenotypically homogeneous or heterogeneous. A strategy in the model is a gene representing the probability of playing the Hawk strategy. Individual interactions at the microscopic level are described by a genetic algorithm where evolution results from the interplay among selection, mutation, drift and cross-over of genes. We show that the behavioral patterns observed at the macroscopic level can be reproduced as the emergent result of individual interactions governed by the rules of the Hawk-Dove game at the microscopic level. We study how the results of the genetic algorithm compare with those obtained in evolutionary game theory, finding that, although genes continuously change both their presence and frequency in the population over time, the population average behavior always achieves stationarity and, when this happens, the final average strategy played in the population oscillates around the evolutionarily stable strategy in the homogeneous population case or the neutrally stable set in the heterogeneous population case.

  4. Rock fragmentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, W.S.; Green, S.J.; Hakala, W.W.; Hustrulid, W.A.; Maurer, W.C. (eds.)

    1976-01-01

    Experts in rock mechanics, mining, excavation, drilling, tunneling and use of underground space met to discuss the relative merits of a wide variety of rock fragmentation schemes. Information is presented on novel rock fracturing techniques; tunneling using electron beams, thermocorer, electric spark drills, water jets, and diamond drills; and rock fracturing research needs for mining and underground construction. (LCL)

  5. Hormonal underpinnings of status conflict : Testosterone and cortisol are related to decisions and satisfaction in the hawk-dove game

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mehta, Pranjal H.; Lawless DesJardins, Nicole M.; van Vugt, Mark; Josephs, Robert A.

    2017-01-01

    A contribution to a special issue on Hormones and Human Competition.Testosterone is theorized to influence status-seeking behaviors such as social dominance and competitive behavior, but supporting evidence is mixed. The present study tested the roles of testosterone and cortisol in the hawk-dove

  6. Toxoplasmosis in a bar-shouldered dove (Geopelia humeralis) from the zoo of Clères, France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toxoplasmosis causes mortality in several avian species, especially passerine birds. Toxoplasmosis was diagnosed in a bar-shouldered dove (Geopelia humeralis) found dead at the zoo of Clères (France). The bird had necrotizing pneumonia and nephritis with intralesional tachyzoites of Toxoplasma gondi...

  7. A comparison of the nesting success of mourning doves and American robins in conventionally managed and organic orchards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fluetsch, K.M.

    1992-01-01

    A comparative study was undertaken to document more closely the effects of operational pesticide use on non-target avian species. Mourning Dove (Zenaida macroura) and American Robin (Turdus migratorius) nesting activity was monitored in three organic and three conventional orchards during two breeding seasons. Surveys were conducted to characterize the avian community within orchards under both management practices. Organophosphorus (OP) and carbamate pesticides, known to be extremely toxic to birds, were repeatedly sprayed during the peaks in dove and robin breeding activity. Spray card tests revealed that OP pesticides were deposited on 85.5% of the nests tested during routine spray operations. The threat of direct pesticide exposure to eggs, nestlings, and adult birds was considerable. Nest daily survival rates (DSRs) for both doves and robins, were significantly higher in the organic orchards than in the conventional orchards in 1991 and years combined (P < 0.05). Species diversity was significantly greater in the organic orchards (H = 2.43) than in the conventional orchards (H = 1.79). Results suggest that repeated applications of pesticides, within the conventional orchards, directly or indirectly, affected the reproductive success of doves and robins, as well as influenced species diversity within the treated orchards. Organic orchards appear to provide more favorable nesting and foraging habitat for birds than conventional orchards.

  8. Serological and molecular detection of Toxoplasma gondii in Columba livia hunting pigeons of AL-Qadisiyah province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiba Riyadth Jameel Al-abodi

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Toxoplasma gondii were detected and diagnosed in 80 Columba livia birds at the province of Al-Qadisiyah during the period started from January 2016 until June 2016 using latex test and rapid cassette test ,Moreover molecular diagnosis with Polymerase Chain Rraction technique for identification of B1 gene had been also used Results showed that antibodies were detected in 11 samples out of 80 (13.75%. of Columba livia pigeons in Al-Qadisiyah province, Since significant highest (P≤0.05 titration were indicated at 1/80 (36.37%,whereas the lowest titer indicated at 1/40 (9.09 and According to type of antibodies in Columba livia toxoplasmosis suspected samples using rapid test cassette, results were indicated that Six samples out of 80 (7.5% were found positive. However IgG, IgM and IgG plus IgM were found in (33.34%,(16.66 and (50 respectively with no significance difference, furthermore results of PCR technique for detection of B1 gene revealed that 5% of samples from the Columba livia were only found positive ,Moreover the B1 gene were had a molecular weight of the private 399bp.It had been concluded that Columba livia birds were found infected with T.gondii with possible transmission to human being .

  9. Rock Art

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henn, Cynthia A.

    2004-01-01

    There are many interpretations for the symbols that are seen in rock art, but no decoding key has ever been discovered. This article describes one classroom's experiences with a lesson on rock art--making their rock art and developing their own personal symbols. This lesson allowed for creativity, while giving an opportunity for integration…

  10. 'Escher' Rock

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Chemical Changes in 'Endurance' Rocks [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Figure 1 This false-color image taken by NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity shows a rock dubbed 'Escher' on the southwestern slopes of 'Endurance Crater.' Scientists believe the rock's fractures, which divide the surface into polygons, may have been formed by one of several processes. They may have been caused by the impact that created Endurance Crater, or they might have arisen when water leftover from the rock's formation dried up. A third possibility is that much later, after the rock was formed, and after the crater was created, the rock became wet once again, then dried up and developed cracks. Opportunity has spent the last 14 sols investigating Escher, specifically the target dubbed 'Kirchner,' and other similar rocks with its scientific instruments. This image was taken on sol 208 (Aug. 24, 2004) by the rover's panoramic camera, using the 750-, 530- and 430-nanometer filters. The graph above shows that rocks located deeper into 'Endurance Crater' are chemically altered to a greater degree than rocks located higher up. This chemical alteration is believed to result from exposure to water. Specifically, the graph compares ratios of chemicals between the deep rock dubbed 'Escher,' and the more shallow rock called 'Virginia,' before (red and blue lines) and after (green line) the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity drilled into the rocks. As the red and blue lines indicate, Escher's levels of chlorine relative to Virginia's went up, and sulfur down, before the rover dug a hole into the rocks. This implies that the surface of Escher has been chemically altered to a greater extent than the surface of Virginia. Scientists are still investigating the role water played in influencing this trend. These data were taken by the rover's alpha particle X-ray spectrometer.

  11. Migration routes and staging areas of trans-Saharan Turtle Doves appraised from light-level geolocators.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cyril Eraud

    Full Text Available The identification of migration routes, wintering grounds and stopover sites are crucial issues for the understanding of the Palearctic-African bird migration system as well as for the development of relevant conservation strategies for trans-Saharan migrants. Using miniaturized light-level geolocators we report a comprehensive and detailed year round track of a granivorous trans-Saharan migrant, the European Turtle Dove (Streptopelia turtur. From five recovered loggers, our data provide new insights on migratory journeys and winter destinations of Turtle Doves originating from a breeding population in Western France. Data confirm that Turtle Doves wintered in West Africa. The main wintering area encompassed Western Mali, the Inner Delta Niger and the Malian/Mauritanian border. Some individuals also extended their wintering ranges over North Guinea, North-West of Burkina Faso and the Ivory-Coast. Our results reveal that all individuals did not spend the winter period at a single location; some of them experienced a clear eastward shift of several hundred kilometres. We also found evidence for a loop migration pattern, with a post-breeding migration flyway lying west of the spring route. Finally, we found that on their way back to breeding grounds Turtle Doves needed to refuel after crossing the Sahara desert. Contrary to previous suggestions, our data reveal that birds used stopover sites for several weeks, presumably in Morocco and North Algeria. This later finding is a crucial issue for future conservation strategies because environmental conditions on these staging areas might play a pivotal role in population dynamics of this declining species.

  12. Preliminary Surficial Geology of the Dove Spring Off-Highway Vehicle Open Area, Mojave Desert, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, David M.; Amoroso, Lee

    2007-01-01

    Introduction As part of a U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) monitoring plan to evaluate the environmental impact of off-highway vehicle (OHV) use on Bureau of Land Management (BLM) land in California, this report presents results of geologic studies in the Dove Spring OHV Open Area. This study produced baseline data, which when combined with historic and current patterns of land use, forms the basis for vegetation and wildlife monitoring designed to address the following questions: 1. Is the density and length of OHV routes increasing? 2. Are there cumulative effects of past and current OHV use associated with changes in the environmental integrity of soils, plants, and wildlife? 3. Is the spread of invasive species associated with levels of OHV use? 4. Is there a threshold of OHV impact that might be translated to management action by the BLM? The monitoring studies will be used to collect baseline environmental information to determine levels of environmental impact of OHV use. This approach will use a low-impact area as a proxy for pre-impact conditions (substituting space for time) to determine thresholds of OHV impacts beyond which environmental integrity is affected. Indicators of environmental integrity will emphasize factors that are fundamental to ecosystem structure and function and likely to be sensitive to OHV impacts. Surficial geology is studied because material properties such as texture and chemistry strongly control soil moisture and nutrient availability and therefore affect plant growth and distribution. An understanding of surficial geology can be used to predict and extrapolate soil properties and improve understanding of vegetation assemblages and their distribution. In the present study, vegetation associations may be examined as a function of surficial geology as well as other environmental variables such as slope, aspect, NRCS (National Resources Conservation Service) soil classification, elevation, and land-use history. Ground measurements of

  13. Chlamydia psittaci and C. avium in feral pigeon (Columba livia domestica) droppings in two cities in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burt, Sara A.; Röring, Romy E.; Heijne, Marloes

    2018-01-01

    Background: Feral pigeons (Columba livia domestica) live and breed in many city centres and contact with their droppings can be a hazard for human health if the birds carry Chlamydia psittaci. Objective: The aim of this study was to establish whether pigeon droppings in two Dutch cities (Utrecht and

  14. Prevalence of avian trichomoniasis in different species of pigeons in Mosul

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. S. Al-Bakry

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The current study was carried out to determine the prevalence of avian trichomoniasis in different species of pigeons in Mosul city during 2005-2007. In addition, the work aimed to investigate the effects of possible relationships between age, sex, season of the year, weight and health status on the incidence of the disease. Three species of pigeons were included viz, stock dove (Columba oenas, rock mountain dove (C. livia, and collared doves (Streptopelia decaocto.Examination of 250, 200 and 40 doves of the three fore–mentioned groups of birds indicated prevalence rates of 22%, 17.5% and 10%, for the three species, respectively. High infection rates were reported in squabs of all birds of the three groups. Regarding the effect of sex on the infection rate, the results revealed high percentage of infection were seen in male stock doves and female rock doves in comparison with their counterparts, however similar rates were observed in both sexes of collared doves. Also, it was found that there was an impact of season of the year on the prevalence rates of the parasite, so the infection was increased in spring and winter more than other seasons, for all birds studied. Depending upon our findings, factors such as body weight and health status have no effects on incidence of the disease.

  15. The role of dopamine in the timing of Pavlovian conditioned keypecking in ring doves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohyama, T; Horvitz, J C; Kitsos, E; Balsam, P D

    2001-01-01

    The effect of dopaminergic drugs on the timing of conditioned keypecking in ring doves was studied in two experiments. Subjects were given pairings of a keylight with food and the temporal distribution of keypecks was obtained during unreinforced probe trials. Experiment 1 demonstrated that injections of pimozide before each session immediately decreased response rates but shifted timing distributions gradually to the right over several days of treatment. Experiment 2 showed similar results using a longer interstimulus interval (ISI). No shifts were observed when the drug was injected after training sessions, or when a delay, identical to each subject's average latency to eat during the drug condition, was inserted between keylight offset and food presentation. Consequently, the shifts in timing were mediated neither by mere accumulation of the drug nor a delay from keylight offset to food presentation resulting from the drug's ability to slow motor processes. The results suggest that pimozide modulates response rate through its effect on motor processes or incentive value, and response timing through a conditioned response (CR) to injection-related cues established via their repeated pairings with the drug.

  16. Recreating Rocks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Posth, Nicole R

    2008-01-01

    Nicole Posth and colleagues spent a month touring South African rock formations in their quest to understand the origin of ancient iron and silicate layers.......Nicole Posth and colleagues spent a month touring South African rock formations in their quest to understand the origin of ancient iron and silicate layers....

  17. Gastrointestinal helminths of two populations of wild pigeons (Columba livia in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederico Fontanelli Vaz

    Full Text Available Abstract The present study analyzed gastrointestinal helminth communities in 265 wild pigeons (Columba livia living in the municipalities of São Paulo and Tatuí, state of São Paulo, Brazil, over a one-year period. The birds were caught next to grain storage warehouses and were necropsied. A total of 790 parasites comprising one nematode species and one cestode genus were recovered from 110 pigeons, thus yielding an overall prevalence of 41.5%, mean intensity of infection of 7.2 ± 1.6 (range 1-144 and discrepancy index of 0.855. Only 15 pigeons (5.7% presented mixed infection. The helminths isolated from the birds were Ascaridia columbae (Ascaridiidae and Raillietina sp. (Davaineidae. The birds’ weights differed according to sex but this did not influence the intensity of infection. The overall prevalence and intensity of infection did not differ between the sexes, but the prevalence was higher among the birds from Tatuí (47.8%. The gastrointestinal helminth community of C. livia was characterized in the two areas studied and parasite homogeneity was observed over the 12 months analyzed at both locations. These results make contributions to the current literature on health aspects of wild C. livia populations.

  18. Gastrointestinal helminths of two populations of wild pigeons (Columba livia) in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaz, Frederico Fontanelli; Silva, Lidiane Aparecida Firmino da; Ferreira, Vivian Lindmayer; Silva, Reinaldo José da; Raso, Tânia Freitas

    2017-01-01

    The present study analyzed gastrointestinal helminth communities in 265 wild pigeons (Columba livia) living in the municipalities of São Paulo and Tatuí, state of São Paulo, Brazil, over a one-year period. The birds were caught next to grain storage warehouses and were necropsied. A total of 790 parasites comprising one nematode species and one cestode genus were recovered from 110 pigeons, thus yielding an overall prevalence of 41.5%, mean intensity of infection of 7.2 ± 1.6 (range 1-144) and discrepancy index of 0.855. Only 15 pigeons (5.7%) presented mixed infection. The helminths isolated from the birds were Ascaridia columbae (Ascaridiidae) and Raillietina sp. (Davaineidae). The birds' weights differed according to sex but this did not influence the intensity of infection. The overall prevalence and intensity of infection did not differ between the sexes, but the prevalence was higher among the birds from Tatuí (47.8%). The gastrointestinal helminth community of C. livia was characterized in the two areas studied and parasite homogeneity was observed over the 12 months analyzed at both locations. These results make contributions to the current literature on health aspects of wild C. livia populations.

  19. THE TUCANA/HOROLOGIUM, COLUMBA, AB DORADUS, AND ARGUS ASSOCIATIONS: NEW MEMBERS AND DUSTY DEBRIS DISKS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zuckerman, B.; Rhee, Joseph H.; Song, Inseok; Bessell, M. S.

    2011-01-01

    We propose 35 star systems within ∼70 pc of Earth as newly identified members of nearby young stellar kinematic groups; these identifications include the first A- and late-B-type members of the AB Doradus moving group and field Argus Association. All but one of the 35 systems contain a bright solar- or earlier-type star that should make an excellent target for the next generation of adaptive optics (AO) imaging systems on large telescopes. AO imaging has revealed four massive planets in orbit around the λ Boo star HR 8799. Initially, the planets were of uncertain mass due in large part to the uncertain age of the star. We find that HR 8799 is a likely member of the ∼30 Myr old Columba Association, implying planet masses ∼6 times that of Jupiter. We consider Spitzer Space Telescope MIPS photometry of stars in the ∼30 Myr old Tucana/Horologium and Columba Associations, the ∼40 Myr old field Argus Association, and the ∼70 Myr old AB Doradus moving group. The percentage of stars in these young stellar groups that display excess emission above the stellar photosphere at 24 and 70 μm wavelengths-indicative of the presence of a dusty debris disk-is compared with corresponding percentages for members of 11 open clusters and stellar associations with ages between 8 and 750 Myr, thus elucidating the decay of debris disks with time.

  20. The Tucana/Horologium, Columba, AB Doradus, and Argus Associations: New Members and Dusty Debris Disks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuckerman, B.; Rhee, Joseph H.; Song, Inseok; Bessell, M. S.

    2011-05-01

    We propose 35 star systems within ~70 pc of Earth as newly identified members of nearby young stellar kinematic groups; these identifications include the first A- and late-B-type members of the AB Doradus moving group and field Argus Association. All but one of the 35 systems contain a bright solar- or earlier-type star that should make an excellent target for the next generation of adaptive optics (AO) imaging systems on large telescopes. AO imaging has revealed four massive planets in orbit around the λ Boo star HR 8799. Initially, the planets were of uncertain mass due in large part to the uncertain age of the star. We find that HR 8799 is a likely member of the ~30 Myr old Columba Association, implying planet masses ~6 times that of Jupiter. We consider Spitzer Space Telescope MIPS photometry of stars in the ~30 Myr old Tucana/Horologium and Columba Associations, the ~40 Myr old field Argus Association, and the ~70 Myr old AB Doradus moving group. The percentage of stars in these young stellar groups that display excess emission above the stellar photosphere at 24 and 70 μm wavelengths—indicative of the presence of a dusty debris disk—is compared with corresponding percentages for members of 11 open clusters and stellar associations with ages between 8 and 750 Myr, thus elucidating the decay of debris disks with time.

  1. Art Rocks with Rock Art!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bickett, Marianne

    2011-01-01

    This article discusses rock art which was the very first "art." Rock art, such as the images created on the stone surfaces of the caves of Lascaux and Altimira, is the true origin of the canvas, paintbrush, and painting media. For there, within caverns deep in the earth, the first artists mixed animal fat, urine, and saliva with powdered minerals…

  2. Diversity and phylogenetic relationships of hemosporidian parasites in birds of Socorro Island, México, and their role in the re-introduction of the Socorro dove (Zenaida graysoni).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Jenny S; Martínez-Gómez, Juan E; Valkiūnas, Gediminas; Loiseau, Claire; Bell, Douglas A; Sehgal, Ravinder N M

    2013-04-01

    The Socorro dove Zenaida graysoni , endemic to Socorro Island, was last reported in the wild in 1972. Fortunately, the species has been propagated in zoos in Europe and the United States, and plans are under way to re-introduce it to its native habitat. This will be the first known attempt to return a bird species extinct in the wild to its ancestral island. In order to assess the disease threats the Socorro dove may face, the avifauna of Socorro Island, with a specific focus on Socorro ground doves Columbina passerina socorroensis and mourning doves Zenaida macroura , as well as Socorro doves in captivity, were screened for blood parasites of the genera Plasmodium , Haemoproteus, Leucocytozoon, and Trypanosoma spp. We found Haemoproteus spp. in 17 (74%) of 23 Socorro ground doves, 23 (92%) of 25 mourning doves, and 3 (14%) of 21 northern mockingbirds; none of the other bird species showed infections. Here, we report the phylogenetic analysis of 19 distinct lineages of Haemoproteus spp. detected in birds of Socorro Island and compare their evolutionary relationships to parasites detected in the avifauna of the Galápagos Islands, continental Latin America, and Europe. Microscopic examination revealed 1 mourning dove infected with Plasmodium ( Haemamoeba ), thus underscoring the importance of using both PCR and microscopy when analyzing avian blood samples for hemosporidian parasites. The study confirms that the Socorro dove will most likely be exposed to Haemoproteus spp. that currently infect mourning doves and Socorro ground doves of Socorro Island. A monitoring program for both birds and vectors should be implemented to establish the prevalence of Plasmodium sp. and as a necessary conservation measure for critically endangered birds on the island.

  3. Rock Physics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fabricius, Ida Lykke

    2017-01-01

    Rock physics is the discipline linking petrophysical properties as derived from borehole data to surface based geophysical exploration data. It can involve interpretation of both elastic wave propagation and electrical conductivity, but in this chapter focus is on elasticity. Rock physics is based...... on continuum mechanics, and the theory of elasticity developed for statics becomes the key to petrophysical interpretation of velocity of elastic waves. In practice, rock physics involves interpretation of well logs including vertical seismic profiling (VSP) and analysis of core samples. The results...

  4. Rocking pneumonia

    OpenAIRE

    Rijkers, Ger T.; Rodriguez Gomez, Maria

    2017-01-01

    Ever since Chuck Berry coined the term “rocking pneumonia” in his 1956 song “Roll over Beethoven”, pneumonia has been mentioned frequently in modern blues and rock songs. We analyzed the lyrics of these songs to examine how various elements of pneumonia have been represented in popular music, specifically the cause of pneumonia, the risk groups, comorbidity (such as the boogie woogie flu), the clinical symptoms, and treatment and outcome. Up to this day, songwriters suggest that pneumonia is ...

  5. Hormonal underpinnings of status conflict: Testosterone and cortisol are related to decisions and satisfaction in the hawk-dove game.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Pranjal H; Lawless DesJardins, Nicole M; van Vugt, Mark; Josephs, Robert A

    2017-06-01

    A contribution to a special issue on Hormones and Human Competition.Testosterone is theorized to influence status-seeking behaviors such as social dominance and competitive behavior, but supporting evidence is mixed. The present study tested the roles of testosterone and cortisol in the hawk-dove game, a dyadic economic decision-making paradigm in which earnings depend on one's own and the other player's choices. If one person selects the hawk strategy and the other person selects the dove strategy, the player who selected hawk attains a greater financial pay-off (status differentiation). The worst financial outcome occurs when both players choose the hawk strategy (status confrontation). Ninety-eight undergraduate students (42 men) provided saliva samples and played ten rounds of the hawk-dove game with another same-sex participant. In support of the hypothesis that testosterone is related to status concern, individuals higher in basal testosterone made more hawk decisions - decisions that harmed the other player. Acute decreases in cortisol were also associated with more hawk decisions. There was some empirical support for the dual-hormone hypothesis as well: basal testosterone was positively related to satisfaction in the game among low basal-cortisol individuals but not among high basal-cortisol individuals. There were no significant sex differences in these hormonal effects. The present findings align with theories of hormones and status-seeking behavior at the individual level, but they also open up new avenues for research on hormone profiles at the collective level. Our results suggest that the presence of two or more high-testosterone members increases the likelihood of status confrontations over a limited resource that can undermine collective outcomes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Differential effects of visual context on pattern discrimination by pigeons (Columba livia) and humans (Homo sapiens).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Debbie M; Cook, Robert G

    2003-06-01

    Three experiment examined the role of contextual information during line orientation and line position discriminations by pigeons (Columba livia) and humans (Homo sapiens). Experiment 1 tested pigeons' performance with these stimuli in a target localization task using texture displays. Experiments 2 and 3 tested pigeons and humans, respectively, with small and large variations of these stimuli in a same-different task. Humans showed a configural superiority effect when tested with displays constructed from large elements but not when tested with the smaller, more densely packed texture displays. The pigeons, in contrast, exhibited a configural inferiority effect when required to discriminate line orientation, regardless of stimulus size. These contrasting results suggest a species difference in the perceptionand use of features and contextual information in the discrimination of line information.

  7. Acute Lameness in a Roller Pigeon ( Columba livia ) with Multicentric Lymphosarcoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Susan M; Williams, Robert J; Gogal, Robert M

    2017-06-01

    A 3-yr-old adult female roller pigeon ( Columba livia ) used as part of a breeding pair for an ongoing research study presented with acute left limb lameness. Palpation of the left leg and region revealed a large lump near the coxofemoral joint. The bird was able to ambulate in the cage, but would not brood her hatchling. The bird was humanely euthanized and necropsy was performed. Grossly, multiple large white to pale tan nodules were noted in the pancreas, lung, rib cage, intestines, and unilaterally in the left kidney. Microscopic examination of the various organs revealed neoplastic proliferation of round cells consistent with lymphoblasts. Immunohistochemistry was performed with the use of antibodies to CD3, CD79a, CD20, and CD21 to phenotype the cells. The results indicated that the neoplastic infiltrating cells were predominantly of T-cell origin.

  8. Organization of ascending auditory pathways in the pigeon (Columba livia) as determined by autoradiographic methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Correia, M.J.; Eden, A.R.; Westlund, K.N.; Coulter, J.D.

    1982-01-01

    A mixture of tritiated proline and fucose was injected into the labyrinthine endolymphatic space of 5 white king pigeons (Columba livia). Using standard autoradiographic techniques, the authors observed transsynaptic labeling in ascending auditory pathways to the level of the mesencephalon. Auditory system structures, ipsilateral to the injection site, which labeled heavily were the cochlear nerve, the magnocellular and angular nuclei, and the superior olive. Those ipsilateral structures which were slightly labeled were the lateral lemniscus and the dorsal part of the lateral mesencephalic nucleus. Contralateral structures which labeled were the superior olive, lateral lemniscus, and dorsal part of the lateral mesencephalic nucleus. The results of this study suggest that ascending auditory pathways (to the level of mesencephalon) in the pigeon are more similar to those described for mammals in general than previously thought. (Auth.)

  9. Helminth-bacteria interaction in the gut of domestic pigeon Columba livia domestica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswal, Debraj; Nandi, Anadi Prasad; Chatterjee, Soumendranath

    2016-03-01

    The present paper is an attempt to study the interaction between the helminth parasite and bacteria residing in the gut of domestic pigeon, Columba livia domestica. Biochemical and molecular characterization of the gut bacterial isolate were done and the isolate was identified as Staphylococcus sp. DB1 (JX442510). The interaction of Staphylococcus sp. with Cotugnia cuneata, an intestinal helminth parasite of domestic pigeon was studied on the basis of the difference between 'mean worm burden' of antibiotic treated infected pigeons and infected pigeons without any antibiotic treatment. The ANOVA and Tukey tests of the data obtained showed that antibiotic treatment reduced the mean worm burden significantly. The biochemical properties of Staphylococcus sp. DB1 (JX442510) also showed a mutualistic relationship with the physiology of C. cuneata.

  10. Invasion of Flukes of the Echinostomatidae Family in Racing Pigeon ( Columba livia var. domestica) Lofts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledwoń, Aleksandra; Dolka, Beata; Piasecki, Tomasz; Dolka, Izabella; Szeleszczuk, Piotr

    2016-06-01

    Over 4 years, only two known cases of fluke invasions were diagnosed in racing pigeons ( Columba livia ) originating from different regions of Poland. In both cases, the invasion was characterized by a very high mortality (approximately 70%), and the source of the infestation was snails of the Lymnaeidae family eaten by pigeons. Fluke invasions in pigeons are extremely rare and to date have not been described in Poland. Therefore, the occurrence of the symptoms of hemorrhagic diarrhea and sudden deaths of either adult pigeons or nestlings were suspected to be associated with poisoning. Autopsy revealed an invasion of flukes causing hemorrhagic enteritis. Renal failure and spleen atrophy were also found in the birds. Using molecular biology techniques, infestation with the fluke Echinostoma revolutum was determined in the second case.

  11. Organization of ascending auditory pathways in the pigeon (Columba livia) as determined by autoradiographic methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Correia, M.J.; Eden, A.R.; Westlund, K.N.; Coulter, J.D. (Texas Univ., Galveston (USA). Medical Branch)

    1982-02-25

    A mixture of tritiated proline and fucose was injected into the labyrinthine endolymphatic space of 5 white king pigeons (Columba livia). Using standard autoradiographic techniques, the authors observed transsynaptic labeling in ascending auditory pathways to the level of the mesencephalon. Auditory system structures, ipsilateral to the injection site, which labeled heavily were the cochlear nerve, the magnocellular and angular nuclei, and the superior olive. Those ipsilateral structures which were slightly labeled were the lateral lemniscus and the dorsal part of the lateral mesencephalic nucleus. Contralateral structures which labeled were the superior olive, lateral lemniscus, and dorsal part of the lateral mesencephalic nucleus. The results of this study suggest that ascending auditory pathways (to the level of mesencephalon) in the pigeon are more similar to those described for mammals in general than previously thought.

  12. Mycoplasma columbinum Isolated From a Racing Pigeon ( Columba livia ) With Arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellebuyck, Tom; Garmyn, An; De Cooman, Lien; Boyen, Filip; Pasmans, Frank; Martel, An

    2014-09-01

    A juvenile racing pigeon ( Columba livia ) was presented with drooping of the wing and inability to fly. On physical examination, the right shoulder joint was swollen. The pigeon was euthanatized and submitted for necropsy. An excessive amount of fibrin was present in the canalis triosseus with severe arthritis of the affected shoulder joint. A pure growth of Mycoplasma-like colonies was obtained on microbiological culture of the shoulder joint. A 16S ribosomal RNA gene-specific polymerase chain reaction assay was performed on the isolate and revealed 100% similarity with Mycoplasma columbinum . Although infectious arthritis in homing pigeons is primarily associated with paratyphoid and Streptococcus gallolyticus infection, clinical practitioners should consider the potential role of Mycoplasma columbinum in arthritis in pigeons.

  13. Source rock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abubakr F. Makky

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available West Beni Suef Concession is located at the western part of Beni Suef Basin which is a relatively under-explored basin and lies about 150 km south of Cairo. The major goal of this study is to evaluate the source rock by using different techniques as Rock-Eval pyrolysis, Vitrinite reflectance (%Ro, and well log data of some Cretaceous sequences including Abu Roash (E, F and G members, Kharita and Betty formations. The BasinMod 1D program is used in this study to construct the burial history and calculate the levels of thermal maturity of the Fayoum-1X well based on calibration of measured %Ro and Tmax against calculated %Ro model. The calculated Total Organic Carbon (TOC content from well log data compared with the measured TOC from the Rock-Eval pyrolysis in Fayoum-1X well is shown to match against the shale source rock but gives high values against the limestone source rock. For that, a new model is derived from well log data to calculate accurately the TOC content against the limestone source rock in the study area. The organic matter existing in Abu Roash (F member is fair to excellent and capable of generating a significant amount of hydrocarbons (oil prone produced from (mixed type I/II kerogen. The generation potential of kerogen in Abu Roash (E and G members and Betty formations is ranging from poor to fair, and generating hydrocarbons of oil and gas prone (mixed type II/III kerogen. Eventually, kerogen (type III of Kharita Formation has poor to very good generation potential and mainly produces gas. Thermal maturation of the measured %Ro, calculated %Ro model, Tmax and Production index (PI indicates that Abu Roash (F member exciting in the onset of oil generation, whereas Abu Roash (E and G members, Kharita and Betty formations entered the peak of oil generation.

  14. Genomic diversity and evolution of the head crest in the rock pigeon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, Michael D; Kronenberg, Zev; Li, Cai; Domyan, Eric T; Pan, Hailin; Campbell, Michael; Tan, Hao; Huff, Chad D; Hu, Haofu; Vickrey, Anna I; Nielsen, Sandra C A; Stringham, Sydney A; Hu, Hao; Willerslev, Eske; Gilbert, M Thomas P; Yandell, Mark; Zhang, Guojie; Wang, Jun

    2013-03-01

    The geographic origins of breeds and the genetic basis of variation within the widely distributed and phenotypically diverse domestic rock pigeon (Columba livia) remain largely unknown. We generated a rock pigeon reference genome and additional genome sequences representing domestic and feral populations. We found evidence for the origins of major breed groups in the Middle East and contributions from a racing breed to North American feral populations. We identified the gene EphB2 as a strong candidate for the derived head crest phenotype shared by numerous breeds, an important trait in mate selection in many avian species. We also found evidence that this trait evolved just once and spread throughout the species, and that the crest originates early in development by the localized molecular reversal of feather bud polarity.

  15. Expansion of an exotic species and concomitant disease outbreaks: pigeon paramyxovirus in free-ranging Eurasian collared doves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuler, Krysten L; Green, David E; Justice-Allen, Anne E; Jaffe, Rosemary; Cunningham, Mark; Thomas, Nancy J; Spalding, Marilyn G; Ip, Hon S

    2012-06-01

    Eurasian collared doves (Streptopelia decaocto) have expanded their range across the United States since their introduction several decades ago. Recent mortality events in Eurasian collared doves in Arizona and Montana, USA, during the winter of 2009-2010 were the result of pigeon paramyxovirus (PPMV), a novel disease agent. The first instance of mortality by this emerging infectious disease in this species occurred in Florida in 2001 with subsequent disease events in 2006 and 2008. Full diagnostic necropsies were performed on carcasses from the three states. PPMV was identified by RT-PCR and virus isolation and was sequenced to the VIb genotype of avian paramyxovirus-1 (APMV). Other APMVs are common in a variety of free-ranging birds, but concern is warranted because of the potential for commingling of this species with native birds, virus evolution, and threats to domestic poultry. Improved surveillance for wildlife mortality events and efforts to prevent introduction of non-native animals could reduce the threat of introducing new pathogens.

  16. Effects of dietary aluminium in combination with reduced calcium and phosphorous on the ring dove (Streptopelia risoria)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carriere, D.; Fischer, K.; Peakall, D.; Angehrn, P.

    1986-10-01

    Elevated levels of Al have been reported in surface waters and in certain aquatic organisms including aquatic insects in areas receiving acidic precipitation. It has been suggested that Al can affect avian reproduction. In this study, Ring doves were assigned to a control group fed a diet reduced in Ca and P and to a treated group fed the same diet supplemented with 0.1% Al. A four month dosing period did not result in any effect on egg production, fertility or hatchability. Eggshell permeability was decreased initially but subsequently recovered to a normal level. Dietary aluminium suLphate did not affect plasma Ca, P nor Mg levels of adults nor did it affect the pattern of growth nor the final weight of chicks fed on the same diet. There was a tendency for Al to accumulate in the sternum of growing doves fed levels up to 1500 ppm Al. Neither reproduction nor growth of this species were influenced by levels of Al equivalent to those occuring in areas receiving acid deposition. However, the results of a preliminary experiment suggest that decreasing the dietary levels of Ca and P below 0.9% and 0.5% respectively, in combination with excess Al (0.075%) caused significant impacts upon reproduction and growth. Similar experimental findings have been reported in the literature for domestic birds where levels of dietary Al exceeded those of Ca and P. 21 refs.

  17. Colonisation and diversification of the Zenaida Dove (Zenaida aurita) in the Antilles: phylogeography, contemporary gene flow and morphological divergence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monceau, Karine; Cézilly, Frank; Moreau, Jérôme; Motreuil, Sébastien; Wattier, Rémi

    2013-01-01

    Caribbean avifaunal biogeography has been mainly studied based on mitochondrial DNA. Here, we investigated both past and recent island differentiation and micro-evolutionary changes in the Zenaida Dove (Zenaida aurita) based on combined information from one mitochondrial (Cytochrome c Oxydase subunit I, COI) and 13 microsatellite markers and four morphological characters. This Caribbean endemic and abundant species has a large distribution, and two subspecies are supposed to occur: Z. a. zenaida in the Greater Antilles (GA) and Z. a. aurita in the Lesser Antilles (LA). Doves were sampled on two GA islands (Puerto Rico and the British Virgin Islands) and six LA islands (Saint Barthélemy, Guadeloupe, Les Saintes, Martinique, Saint Lucia and Barbados). Eleven COI haplotypes were observed that could be assembled in two distinct lineages, with six specific to GA, four to LA, the remaining one occurring in all islands. However, the level of divergence between those two lineages was too moderate to fully corroborate the existence of two subspecies. Colonisation of the studied islands appeared to be a recent process. However, both phenotypic and microsatellite data suggest that differentiation is already under way between all of them, partly associated with the existence of limited gene flow. No isolation by distance was observed. Differentiation for morphological traits was more pronounced than for neutral markers. These results suggest that despite recent colonisation, genetic drift and/or restricted gene flow are promoting differentiation for neutral markers. Variation in selective pressures between islands may explain the observed phenotypic differentiation.

  18. Colonisation and diversification of the Zenaida Dove (Zenaida aurita in the Antilles: phylogeography, contemporary gene flow and morphological divergence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karine Monceau

    Full Text Available Caribbean avifaunal biogeography has been mainly studied based on mitochondrial DNA. Here, we investigated both past and recent island differentiation and micro-evolutionary changes in the Zenaida Dove (Zenaida aurita based on combined information from one mitochondrial (Cytochrome c Oxydase subunit I, COI and 13 microsatellite markers and four morphological characters. This Caribbean endemic and abundant species has a large distribution, and two subspecies are supposed to occur: Z. a. zenaida in the Greater Antilles (GA and Z. a. aurita in the Lesser Antilles (LA. Doves were sampled on two GA islands (Puerto Rico and the British Virgin Islands and six LA islands (Saint Barthélemy, Guadeloupe, Les Saintes, Martinique, Saint Lucia and Barbados. Eleven COI haplotypes were observed that could be assembled in two distinct lineages, with six specific to GA, four to LA, the remaining one occurring in all islands. However, the level of divergence between those two lineages was too moderate to fully corroborate the existence of two subspecies. Colonisation of the studied islands appeared to be a recent process. However, both phenotypic and microsatellite data suggest that differentiation is already under way between all of them, partly associated with the existence of limited gene flow. No isolation by distance was observed. Differentiation for morphological traits was more pronounced than for neutral markers. These results suggest that despite recent colonisation, genetic drift and/or restricted gene flow are promoting differentiation for neutral markers. Variation in selective pressures between islands may explain the observed phenotypic differentiation.

  19. Intellektuaalne rock

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2007-01-01

    Briti laulja-helilooja ja näitleja Toyah Willcox ning Bill Rieflin ansamblist R.E.M. ja Pat Mastelotto King Krimsonist esinevad koos ansamblitega The Humans ja Tuner 25. okt. Tallinnas Rock Cafés ja 27. okt Tartu Jaani kirikus

  20. Maternal thyroid hormones enhance hatching success but decrease nestling body mass in the rock pigeon (Columba livia)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hsu, Bin-Yan; Dijkstra, Cor; Darras, Veerle M.; Vries, de Bonnie; Groothuis, Ton G. G.

    2017-01-01

    Thyroid hormones (THs) - triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4) - are essential for embryonic development in vertebrates. All vertebrate embryos are exposed to THs from maternal origin. As maternal TH levels are known to be essential to embryonic development, the natural variation of maternal THs

  1. Flight feather attachment in rock pigeons (Columba livia): covert feathers and smooth muscle coordinate a morphing wing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hieronymus, Tobin L

    2016-11-01

    Mechanisms for passively coordinating forelimb movements and flight feather abduction and adduction have been described separately from both in vivo and ex vivo studies. Skeletal coordination has been identified as a way for birds to simplify the neuromotor task of controlling flight stroke, but an understanding of the relationship between skeletal coordination and the coordination of the aerodynamic control surface (the flight feathers) has been slow to materialize. This break between the biomechanical and aerodynamic approaches - between skeletal kinematics and airfoil shape - has hindered the study of dynamic flight behaviors. Here I use dissection and histology to identify previously overlooked interconnections between musculoskeletal elements and flight feathers. Many of these structures are well-placed to directly link elements of the passive musculoskeletal coordination system with flight feather movements. Small bundles of smooth muscle form prominent connections between upper forearm coverts (deck feathers) and the ulna, as well as the majority of interconnections between major flight feathers of the hand. Abundant smooth muscle may play a role in efficient maintenance of folded wing posture, and may also provide an autonomically regulated means of tuning wing shape and aeroelastic behavior in flight. The pattern of muscular and ligamentous linkages of flight feathers to underlying muscle and bone may provide predictable passive guidance for the shape of the airfoil during flight stroke. The structures described here provide an anatomical touchstone for in vivo experimental tests of wing surface coordination in an extensively researched avian model species. © 2016 Anatomical Society.

  2. Igneous Rocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doe, Bruce R.

    “Igneous Rocks was written for undergraduate geology majors who have had a year of college-level chemistry and a course in mineralogy … and for beginning graduate students. Geologists working in industry, government, or academia should find this text useful as a guide to the technical literature up to 1981 and as an overview of topics with which they have not worked but which may have unanticipated pertinence to their own projects.” So starts the preface to this textbook.As one who works part time in research on igneous rocks, especially as they relate to mineral deposits, I have been looking for such a book with this avowed purpose in a field that has a choking richness of evolving terminology and a bewildering volume of interdisciplinary literature. In addition to the standard topics of igneous petrology, the book contains a chapter on the role of igneous activity in the genesis of mineral deposits, its value to geothermal energy, and the potential of igneous rocks as an environment for nuclear waste disposal. These topics are presented rather apologetically in the preface, but the author is to be applauded for including this chapter. The apology shows just how new these interests are to petrology. Recognition is finally coming that, for example, mineral deposits are not “sports of nature,” a view held even by many economic geologists as recently as the early 1960's; instead they are perfectly ordinary geochemical features formed by perfectly ordinary geologic processes. In fact, the mineral deposits and their attendant alteration zones probably have as much to tell us about igneous rocks as the igneous rocks have to tell us about mineral deposits.

  3. White Rock

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    (Released 19 April 2002) The Science 'White Rock' is the unofficial name for this unusual landform which was first observed during the Mariner 9 mission in the early 1970's. As later analysis of additional data sets would show, White Rock is neither white nor dense rock. Its apparent brightness arises from the fact that the material surrounding it is so dark. Images from the Mars Global Surveyor MOC camera revealed dark sand dunes surrounding White Rock and on the floor of the troughs within it. Some of these dunes are just apparent in the THEMIS image. Although there was speculation that the material composing White Rock could be salts from an ancient dry lakebed, spectral data from the MGS TES instrument did not support this claim. Instead, the White Rock deposit may be the erosional remnant of a previously more continuous occurrence of air fall sediments, either volcanic ash or windblown dust. The THEMIS image offers new evidence for the idea that the original deposit covered a larger area. Approximately 10 kilometers to the southeast of the main deposit are some tiny knobs of similarly bright material preserved on the floor of a small crater. Given that the eolian erosion of the main White Rock deposit has produced isolated knobs at its edges, it is reasonable to suspect that the more distant outliers are the remnants of a once continuous deposit that stretched at least to this location. The fact that so little remains of the larger deposit suggests that the material is very easily eroded and simply blows away. The Story Fingers of hard, white rock seem to jut out like icy daggers across a moody Martian surface, but appearances can be deceiving. These bright, jagged features are neither white, nor icy, nor even hard and rocky! So what are they, and why are they so different from the surrounding terrain? Scientists know that you can't always trust what your eyes see alone. You have to use other kinds of science instruments to measure things that our eyes can

  4. Columba livia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chibuike

    Karst. (Aphyllophoromycetideae) – a mushrooming medicinal mushroom. International Journal of Medicinal Mushrooms 1: 139 –. 146. Chang ST and Mshigeni KE (2001) Mushrooms and human health: their growing significance as potent dietary supplements. University of Namibia, Windhoek, Namibia, 79. Costanon JIR ...

  5. A Dragon and a Dove? A Comparative Overview of Chinese and European Trade Relations with Sub-Saharan Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bert Jacobs

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available As China’s footprint in African trade grows larger by the day, the need to contextualize this rise through comparative analysis becomes ever more necessary. This paper contrasts the sub-Saharan trade relations of both China and Europe with their respective designated stereotypes: those of a dragon and a dove. The article compares the trade dynamics on four levels: the policies and institutional mechanisms that shape the relationship; the composition of the trade flows; the geographic distribution of trade dominance; and the influence of norms and values on the trade pattern. It concludes that although there are empirical grounds behind these stereotypes, Chinese and European trade relations with sub-Saharan Africa are becoming more similar, partly due to a more hawkish European stance.

  6. Rock stresses (Grimsel rock laboratory)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pahl, A.; Heusermann, S.; Braeuer, V.; Gloeggler, W.

    1989-01-01

    On the research and development project 'Rock Stress Measurements' the BGR has developed and tested several test devices and methods at GTS for use in boreholes at a depth of 200 m and has carried out rock mechanical and engineering geological investigations for the evaluation and interpretation of the stress measurements. The first time a computer for data processing was installed in the borehole together with the BGR-probe. Laboratory tests on hollow cylinders were made to study the stress-deformation behavior. To validate and to interprete the measurement results some test methods were modelled using the finite-element method. The dilatometer-tests yielded high values of Young's modulus, whereas laboratory tests showed lower values with a distinct deformation anisotropy. Stress measurements with the BGR-probe yielded horizontal stresses being higher than the theoretical overburden pressure and vertical stresses which agree well with the theoretical overburden pressure. These results are comparable to the results of the hydraulic fracturing tests, whereas stresses obtained with CSIR-triaxial cells are generally lower. The detailed geological mapping of the borehole indicated relationships between stress and geology. With regard to borehole depth different zones of rock structure joint frequency, joint orientation, and orientation of microfissures as well as stress magnitude, stress direction, and degree of deformation anisotropy could be distinguished. (orig./HP) [de

  7. Individual variation in baseline and stress-induced corticosterone and prolactin levels predicts parental effort by nesting mourning doves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, David A.; Vleck, Carol M.; Otis, David L.

    2009-01-01

    Endocrine systems have an important mechanistic role in structuring life-history trade-offs. During breeding, individual variation in prolactin (PRL) and corticosterone (CORT) levels affects behavioral and physiological processes that drive trade-offs between reproduction and self-maintenance. We examined patterns in baseline (BL) and stress induced (SI; level following a standard capture-restraint protocol) levels of PRL and CORT for breeding mourning doves (Zenaida macroura). We determined whether the relationship of adult condition and parental effort to hormone levels in wild birds was consistent with life-history predictions. Both BL PRL and BL CORT level in adults were positively related to nestling weight at early nestling ages, consistent with the prediction of a positive relationship of hormone levels to current parental effort of adults and associated increased energy demand. Results are consistent with the two hormones acting together at baseline levels to limit negative effects of CORT on reproduction while maintaining beneficial effects such as increased foraging for nestling feeding. Our data did not support predictions that SI responses would vary in response to nestling or adult condition. The magnitude of CORT response in the parents to our capture-restraint protocol was negatively correlated with subsequent parental effort. Average nestling weights for adults with the highest SI CORT response were on average 10–15% lighter than expected for their age in follow-up visits after the stress event. Our results demonstrated a relationship between individual hormone levels and within population variation in parental effort and suggested that hormonal control plays an important role in structuring reproductive decisions for mourning doves.

  8. Thermal Inertia of Rocks and Rock Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golombek, M. P.; Jakosky, B. M.; Mellon, M. T.

    2001-01-01

    The effective thermal inertia of rock populations on Mars and Earth is derived from a model of effective inertia versus rock diameter. Results allow a parameterization of the effective rock inertia versus rock abundance and bulk and fine component inertia. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  9. Endoscopic Vasectomy of Male Feral Pigeons (Columba livia) as a Possible Method of Population Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heiderich, Elisabeth; Schildger, Bernd; Lierz, Michael

    2015-03-01

    To evaluate whether single-entry endoscopic vasectomy of male feral pigeons (Columba livia) significantly reduced fertility and would potentially be valuable for control of feral pigeon populations, 252 male feral pigeons were caught in the city of Berne and endoscopically vasectomized. In this procedure, approximately 1 cm of the deferent duct was removed bilaterally. Rapid, uneventful recoveries occurred in 94% (237/252) of the pigeons, whereas 6% (15/252) died because of complications associated with the procedure, consisting of perforation of the ureter (9/15), major hemorrhage (5/15), and respiratory arrest (1/15). Mean anesthesia time was 23±6 minutes. The vasectomized males were habituated to 2 pigeon houses together with fertile females. Another pigeon house with fertile pairs acted as control. All eggs laid were candled weekly to assess fertility. In the 2 pigeon houses with vasectomized males, the mean fertilization rate was 0.9% (5/563), while in the control pigeon house, the rate was 100% (39/39). The results indicate that endoscopic vasectomy of male feral pigeons may be a promising tool for field control of feral pigeon populations, especially in combination with other methods such as pigeon houses.

  10. Visual artificial grammar learning: comparative research on humans, kea (Nestor notabilis) and pigeons (Columba livia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stobbe, Nina; Westphal-Fitch, Gesche; Aust, Ulrike; Fitch, W. Tecumseh

    2012-01-01

    Artificial grammar learning (AGL) provides a useful tool for exploring rule learning strategies linked to general purpose pattern perception. To be able to directly compare performance of humans with other species with different memory capacities, we developed an AGL task in the visual domain. Presenting entire visual patterns simultaneously instead of sequentially minimizes the amount of required working memory. This approach allowed us to evaluate performance levels of two bird species, kea (Nestor notabilis) and pigeons (Columba livia), in direct comparison to human participants. After being trained to discriminate between two types of visual patterns generated by rules at different levels of computational complexity and presented on a computer screen, birds and humans received further training with a series of novel stimuli that followed the same rules, but differed in various visual features from the training stimuli. Most avian and all human subjects continued to perform well above chance during this initial generalization phase, suggesting that they were able to generalize learned rules to novel stimuli. However, detailed testing with stimuli that violated the intended rules regarding the exact number of stimulus elements indicates that neither bird species was able to successfully acquire the intended pattern rule. Our data suggest that, in contrast to humans, these birds were unable to master a simple rule above the finite-state level, even with simultaneous item presentation and despite intensive training. PMID:22688635

  11. Study of pathological changes in digestive system of domestic pigeons (Columba livia in Mosul city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. G. Saeed

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available One hundred diseased cases of pigeons (Columba livia in Mosul city were examined, 67 birds (67% showed pathologicallesions in digestive system. Most of the gross and histopathological lesions occurred in intestine (29.3% followed byoropharynx, liver, esophagus, crop, proventriculus, and pancreas the values (20.8%, 16.6%, 12.5%, 10.4%, 6.2%, 4.2%respectively. Gross lesions of intestine showed severe tape worms infestation with petechial hemorrhage in some cases,histopathologically there were catarrhal enteritis, necrotic and hemorrhagic enteritis were less, and desquamation of mucosawith bacterial colonies. Gross lesions of oropharynx, esophagus and crop in most cases were yellow caseated masses ornecrotic material. In some cases white diphtheritic membrane with thickening of mucosa in esophagus, crop and proventriculuswere founded, petichial hemorrhage on the mucosa of proventriculus were less some cases. Histopathological lesions oforopharynx and esophagus were thickening of mucosa and presence of necrotic caseated foci on the submucosa. In crop therewere epithelial hyperplasia and in some cases infiltration of inflammatory cells with cocobacilli bacteria and desquamation ofepithelial cells were founded. In proventriculus desquamation and necrosis of epithelial cells of mucus glands with infiltrationof inflammatory cells. Gross lesions in liver and pancreas were limited represented by enlargement and congestion, histopathologically coagulative necrosis of hepatic cells with cocobacilli bacteria, pancreas showed two types of inflammationone was non-suppurative and another was suppurative.

  12. Lead Effect on Aminolevulinic Acid Dehydratase Activity of Feral Pigeon (Columba livia in Drenas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albana Plakiqi Milaimi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This study was aimed to investigate the effects of environmental pollution with heavy metals from ferro-nickel smelter on Aminolevulinic Acid Dehydratase (ALAD activity, and to analyze the blood lead level of feral pigeon (Columba livia in ferro-nickel smelter courtyard in Drenas City, Republic of Kosovo. For this purpose, twenty specimens of feral pigeon (20 birds, males and females, were collected in Drenas city which were living in ferro-nickel smelter courtyard, and 20 specimens in Lubizhdë village as control group (non-contaminated area. ALAD activity in Drenas group was significantly inhibited (P<0.001, compared with ALAD activity of controls. The blood lead level was significantly increased (P=0.015 compared to control group. Correlation between ALAD and blood lead level in Drenas group was negative (r=-0.117; P>0.050 and positive in Lubizhdë group (r=0.452; P> 0.050, but not in significant difference between the input groups. Feral pigeons can play an important role as bioindicators, which can used to monitor the environmental pollution with heavy metals that may originate from Nickel metallurgy.

  13. Purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction studies on avian haemoglobin from pigeon (Columba livia)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sathya Moorthy, Pon.; Neelagandan, K.; Balasubramanian, M.; Ponnuswamy, M. N.

    2009-01-01

    Crystallization of pigeon haemoglobin at low pH (5.5) and high ionic concentration (1 M) using the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method is reported. Haemoglobin is a physiologically significant metalloprotein that is involved in the exchange of gases for sustaining life. The respiratory system of birds is unique and complex compared with that of mammals. Many investigations of avian haemoglobins have revealed the presence of inositol pentaphosphate (IP5), a principal allosteric effector that is involved in regulation of their function. Structural investigations of avian haemoglobins are presently not adequate to explain their function. Efforts have been made in this direction in order to understand the oxygen-binding affinity involved in adapting to hypoxia in avian haemoglobins. Fresh whole blood was collected from pigeon (Columba livia) and purified using a DEAE cellulose anion-exchange chromatographic column. Crystallization of pigeon haemoglobin was accomplished using the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method using PEG 3350 as a precipitant in 50 mM sodium acetate buffer pH 5.5 with 1 M NaCl. Data collection was carried out using a MAR345 image-plate detector system. The crystals diffracted to 2 Å resolution. Pigeon haemoglobin crystallizes in a triclinic space group, with two whole biological molecules in the asymmetric unit and with unit-cell parameters a = 55.005, b = 65.528, c = 104.370 Å, α = 78.742, β = 89.819, γ = 65.320°

  14. Purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction studies on avian haemoglobin from pigeon (Columba livia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sathya Moorthy, Pon.; Neelagandan, K.; Balasubramanian, M.; Ponnuswamy, M. N.

    2009-01-01

    Haemoglobin is a physiologically significant metalloprotein that is involved in the exchange of gases for sustaining life. The respiratory system of birds is unique and complex compared with that of mammals. Many investigations of avian haemoglobins have revealed the presence of inositol pentaphosphate (IP5), a principal allosteric effector that is involved in regulation of their function. Structural investigations of avian haemoglobins are presently not adequate to explain their function. Efforts have been made in this direction in order to understand the oxygen-binding affinity involved in adapting to hypoxia in avian haemoglobins. Fresh whole blood was collected from pigeon (Columba livia) and purified using a DEAE cellulose anion-exchange chromatographic column. Crystallization of pigeon haemoglobin was accomplished using the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method using PEG 3350 as a precipitant in 50 mM sodium acetate buffer pH 5.5 with 1 M NaCl. Data collection was carried out using a MAR345 image-plate detector system. The crystals diffracted to 2 Å resolution. Pigeon haemoglobin crystallizes in a triclinic space group, with two whole biological molecules in the asymmetric unit and with unit-cell parameters a = 55.005, b = 65.528, c = 104.370 Å, α = 78.742, β = 89.819, γ = 65.320°. PMID:19194000

  15. Screening for several potential pathogens in feral pigeons (Columba livia in Madrid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ballesteros Carlos

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pathogens with the zoonotic potential to infect humans, such as Campylobacter jejuni, Campylobacter coli and Chlamydophila psittaci, can be found in feral pigeons (Columba livia. Given the high density of these birds in the public parks and gardens of most cities, they may pose a direct threat to public health. Methods A total of 118 pigeons were captured in three samplings carried out in 2006-2007 in public parks and gardens in Madrid, Spain. Standard haematological and morphological analyses were carried out on the pigeons. PCR was used to screen for the presence of Campylobacter jejuni, C. coli and Chlamydophila psittaci. Positive samples were confirmed by DNA sequencing. Results The analyses demonstrated a high prevalence of Chlamydophila psittaci (52.6% and Campylobacter jejuni (69.1% among the birds captured. In contrast, Campylobacter coli was rarely detected (1.1%. Conclusions Pigeons in Madrid can carry Chlamydophila psittaci and Campylobacter jejuni. They may be asymptomatic or subclinical carriers of both pathogens.

  16. Molecular survey on zoonotic tick-borne bacteria and chlamydiae in feral pigeons (Columba livia domestica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebani, Valentina Virginia; Bertelloni, Fabrizio; Mani, Paolo

    2016-04-01

    To determine the presence of zoonotic tick-borne bacteria in feral pigeons (Columba livia domestica) from urban areas. Spleen samples from 84 feral pigeons, found dead with traumatic injuries in urban areas, were examined by PCR to detect DNA of Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Bartonella spp., Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, Coxiella burnetii, Rickettsia spp., and Chlamydophila spp. Twenty (23.8%) pigeons were infected by tick-borne agents, in particular 2 (2.38%) animals resulted positive for Bartonella spp., 5 (5.95%) for C. burnetii, 5 (5.95%) for Rickettsia spp., 13 (15.47%) for B. burgdorferi sensu lato. All birds scored negative for A. phagocytophilum. Moreover, 17 (20.23%) pigeons were positive for Chlamydophila spp. and among them 10 (11.9%) for Chlamydophila psittaci. Mixed infections by two or three agents were detected in 8 (9.52%) animals. Feral pigeons living in urban and periurban areas are a hazard for the human health as source of several pathogens. The obtained results confirm pigeons as reservoirs of chlamydial agents and suggest that they may be involved in the epidemiology of zoonotic tick-borne infections too. Copyright © 2016 Hainan Medical College. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Ocorrência de Chlamydophila psittaci em pombos (Columba livia na cidade de Salvador, Bahia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.C. Leal

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available A existência de populações numerosas de pombos (Columba livia em centros urbanos, em quase todo o mundo, tem se tornado um risco à saúde pública em vista das zoonoses que podem transmitir. A infecção por Chlamydophila psittaci foi avaliada em pombos que frequentam áreas públicas, como praças, ruas e pontos turísticos na cidade de Salvador, Bahia, por meio da PCR em amostras de fezes frescas, suabes cloacais e orofaríngeos. O estudo revelou uma frequência de infecção por C. psittaci de 11,7% (16/137 dos pombos, e oito dos 10 locais pesquisados apresentavam aves infectadas. A detecção de C. psittaci em amostras de cloaca e orofaringe foi maior (15,8% - 3/19 que em amostras de fezes frescas (11% - 13/118. Os resultados demonstram a ocorrência de infecção por C. psittaci em pombos que habitam as áreas públicas da cidade de Salvador e apontam para a necessária elaboração de medidas de controle e monitoramento das populações de pombos urbanos, bem como de ações voltadas à conscientização da sociedade sobre os riscos à saúde pública.

  18. Screening for several potential pathogens in feral pigeons (Columba livia) in Madrid

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background Pathogens with the zoonotic potential to infect humans, such as Campylobacter jejuni, Campylobacter coli and Chlamydophila psittaci, can be found in feral pigeons (Columba livia). Given the high density of these birds in the public parks and gardens of most cities, they may pose a direct threat to public health. Methods A total of 118 pigeons were captured in three samplings carried out in 2006-2007 in public parks and gardens in Madrid, Spain. Standard haematological and morphological analyses were carried out on the pigeons. PCR was used to screen for the presence of Campylobacter jejuni, C. coli and Chlamydophila psittaci. Positive samples were confirmed by DNA sequencing. Results The analyses demonstrated a high prevalence of Chlamydophila psittaci (52.6%) and Campylobacter jejuni (69.1%) among the birds captured. In contrast, Campylobacter coli was rarely detected (1.1%). Conclusions Pigeons in Madrid can carry Chlamydophila psittaci and Campylobacter jejuni. They may be asymptomatic or subclinical carriers of both pathogens. PMID:20569487

  19. Homing pigeons ( Columba livia f. domestica) can use magnetic cues for locating food

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thalau, Peter; Holtkamp-Rötzler, Elke; Fleissner, Gerta; Wiltschko, Wolfgang

    2007-10-01

    An experimental group of homing pigeons ( Columba livia f. domestica) learned to associate food with a magnetic anomaly produced by bar magnets that were fixed to the bowl in which they received their daily food ration in their home loft; the control group lacked this experience. Both groups were trained to search for two hidden food depots in a rectangular sand-filled arena without obvious visual cues; for the experimental birds, these depots were also marked with three 1.15 × 106 μT bar magnets. During the tests, there were two food depots, one marked with the magnets, the other unmarked; their position within the arena was changed from test to test. The experimental birds searched within 10 cm of the magnetically marked depot in 49% of the test sessions, whereas the control birds searched there in only 11% of the sessions. Both groups searched near the control depot in 11 and 13% of the sessions, respectively. The significant preference of the magnetically marked food depot by the experimental birds shows that homing pigeons cannot only detect a magnetic anomaly but can also use it as a cue for locating hidden food in an open arena.

  20. Cryptococcus spp. isolation from excreta of pigeons (Columba livia) in and around Monterrey, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canónico-González, Yolanda; Adame-Rodríguez, Juan Manuel; Mercado-Hernández, Roberto; Aréchiga-Carvajal, Elva Teresa

    2013-01-01

    The presence of Cryptococcus spp. has been reported in Mexico's capital city; however, to our knowledge there are no reports of its presence in the state of Nuevo León located in northeast Mexico. This is presumed to be because the hot and dry climate in this region does not favor cryptococcal proliferation. This study confirmed the presence of C. neoformans and C. albidus in 20% (10/50) of randomly selected fecal samples of pigeons (Columba livia) in the Monterrey metropolitan area. The presence of this yeast in the state of Nuevo León is proof of its adaptation to the typically hot climate of the area and is consistent with recent reviews of cryptococcosis cases in several local hospitals. The two species were identified and characterized through microbiological tests and molecular identification by DNA extraction and PCR amplification of highly conserved 18S ribosomal DNA using ITS1 and ITS2 as target regions. The PCR products were sequenced and compared with those reported in GenBank.

  1. Implicit learning in cotton-top tamarins (Saguinus oedipus) and pigeons (Columba livia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locurto, Charles; Fox, Maura; Mazzella, Andrea

    2015-06-01

    There is considerable interest in the conditions under which human subjects learn patterned information without explicit instructions to learn that information. This form of learning, termed implicit or incidental learning, can be approximated in nonhumans by exposing subjects to patterned information but delivering reinforcement randomly, thereby not requiring the subjects to learn the information in order to be reinforced. Following acquisition, nonhuman subjects are queried as to what they have learned about the patterned information. In the present experiment, we extended the study of implicit learning in nonhumans by comparing two species, cotton-top tamarins (Saguinus oedipus) and pigeons (Columba livia), on an implicit learning task that used an artificial grammar to generate the patterned elements for training. We equated the conditions of training and testing as much as possible between the two species. The results indicated that both species demonstrated approximately the same magnitude of implicit learning, judged both by a random test and by choice tests between pairs of training elements. This finding suggests that the ability to extract patterned information from situations in which such learning is not demanded is of longstanding origin.

  2. Co-occurrence of Mycoplasma Species and Pigeon Herpesvirus-1 Infection in Racing Pigeons ( Columba livia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellebuyck, Tom; Göbel, Stephan; Pasmans, Frank; Adriaensen, Connie; Martel, An

    2017-12-01

    Oropharyngeal swab samples were collected from 438 live racing pigeons ( Columba livia), with and without signs of respiratory disease, that were housed in 220 lofts in 3 provinces in the western part of the Netherlands. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used to identify Mycoplasma species and pigeon herpesvirus-1 (PHV-1) from the samples. In 8.6% of the pigeon lofts tested, signs of respiratory disease were present in pigeons at sampling, and in 30.9% of the sampled pigeon lofts, respiratory signs were observed in pigeons during the 6-month period immediately before sampling. A total of 39.8% of tested pigeons (54.5% of tested lofts) were positive for Mycoplasma species, and 30.6% of tested pigeons (48.6% of tested lofts) were positive for PHV-1. In 15.8% of the tested pigeons (26.8% of tested pigeon lofts), coinfection by Mycoplasma species and PHV-1 was identified. The number of pigeon lofts having pigeons coinfected by Mycoplasma species and PHV-1 was higher than that where only one of the infections was identified. Neither the presence of Mycoplasma species, PHV-1, nor the co-occurrence of both infections was significantly associated with signs of respiratory disease.

  3. Inhibition of the reproductive system by deslorelin in male and female pigeons (Columba livia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowan, Melinda Lee; Martin, Graeme Bruce; Monks, Deborah Jane; Johnston, Stephen Douglas; Doneley, Robert James Tyson; Blackberry, Margaret Anne

    2014-06-01

    Veterinary practitioners frequently encounter disorders of the reproductive system in avian patients. Management of these disorders relies on manipulating reproduction by modifying the environment, diet, and social interactions, and by the use of pharmacologic agents and surgery, with varying levels of success and side effects. An alternative is to use the gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) agonist deslorelin to suppress the pituitary-gonadal axis. To determine the efficacy of deslorelin in domestic pigeons (Columba livia), male (n = 10) and female (n = 10) birds each were implanted intramuscularly with a single long-acting implant containing 4.7 mg deslorelin. Untreated males (n = 11) and females (n = 10) were used as controls. The baseline serum concentration of luteinizing hormone (LH) was assayed at 7, 28, 56, and 84 days after treatment, and egg production was recorded weekly. In females, deslorelin administration significantly reduced serum LH concentrations compared to pretreatment levels at 7, 28, 56, and 84 days (P < .05). In males, deslorelin significantly reduced LH concentrations at 7, 28, and 56 days (P < .05). Female birds treated with deslorelin laid significantly fewer eggs over the course of the study (mean = 1.46, SEM = 0.84) compared with controls (mean = 5.54, SEM = 0.88). Deslorelin treatment had no discernible effect on body weight. Deslorelin is effective for controlling egg laying in female pigeons for at least 49 days, but further research is required to determine the effects on male fertility and the duration of action in both sexes.

  4. Analysis of Pigeon (Columba) Ovary Transcriptomes to Identify Genes Involved in Blue Light Regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ying; Ding, Jia-tong; Yang, Hai-ming; Yan, Zheng-jie; Cao, Wei; Li, Yang-bai

    2015-01-01

    Monochromatic light is widely applied to promote poultry reproductive performance, yet little is currently known regarding the mechanism by which light wavelengths affect pigeon reproduction. Recently, high-throughput sequencing technologies have been used to provide genomic information for solving this problem. In this study, we employed Illumina Hiseq 2000 to identify differentially expressed genes in ovary tissue from pigeons under blue and white light conditions and de novo transcriptome assembly to construct a comprehensive sequence database containing information on the mechanisms of follicle development. A total of 157,774 unigenes (mean length: 790 bp) were obtained by the Trinity program, and 35.83% of these unigenes were matched to genes in a non-redundant protein database. Gene description, gene ontology, and the clustering of orthologous group terms were performed to annotate the transcriptome assembly. Differentially expressed genes between blue and white light conditions included those related to oocyte maturation, hormone biosynthesis, and circadian rhythm. Furthermore, 17,574 SSRs and 533,887 potential SNPs were identified in this transcriptome assembly. This work is the first transcriptome analysis of the Columba ovary using Illumina technology, and the resulting transcriptome and differentially expressed gene data can facilitate further investigations into the molecular mechanism of the effect of blue light on follicle development and reproduction in pigeons and other bird species. PMID:26599806

  5. Change detection by rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) and pigeons (Columba livia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmore, L Caitlin; Magnotti, John F; Katz, Jeffrey S; Wright, Anthony A

    2012-08-01

    Two monkeys (Macaca mulatta) learned a color change-detection task where two colored circles (selected from a 4-color set) were presented on a 4 × 4 invisible matrix. Following a delay, the correct response was to touch the changed colored circle. The monkeys' learning, color transfer, and delay transfer were compared to a similar experiment with pigeons. Monkeys, like pigeons (Columba livia), showed full transfer to four novel colors, and to delays as long as 6.4 s, suggesting they remembered the colors as opposed to perceptual based attentional capture process that may work at very short delays. The monkeys and pigeons were further tested to compare transfer with other dimensions. Monkeys transferred to shape and location changes, unlike the pigeons, but neither species transferred to size changes. Thus, monkeys were less restricted in their domain to detect change than pigeons, but both species learned the basic task and appear suitable for comparative studies of visual short-term memory. 2012 APA, all rights reserved

  6. Analysis of Pigeon (Columba Ovary Transcriptomes to Identify Genes Involved in Blue Light Regulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Wang

    Full Text Available Monochromatic light is widely applied to promote poultry reproductive performance, yet little is currently known regarding the mechanism by which light wavelengths affect pigeon reproduction. Recently, high-throughput sequencing technologies have been used to provide genomic information for solving this problem. In this study, we employed Illumina Hiseq 2000 to identify differentially expressed genes in ovary tissue from pigeons under blue and white light conditions and de novo transcriptome assembly to construct a comprehensive sequence database containing information on the mechanisms of follicle development. A total of 157,774 unigenes (mean length: 790 bp were obtained by the Trinity program, and 35.83% of these unigenes were matched to genes in a non-redundant protein database. Gene description, gene ontology, and the clustering of orthologous group terms were performed to annotate the transcriptome assembly. Differentially expressed genes between blue and white light conditions included those related to oocyte maturation, hormone biosynthesis, and circadian rhythm. Furthermore, 17,574 SSRs and 533,887 potential SNPs were identified in this transcriptome assembly. This work is the first transcriptome analysis of the Columba ovary using Illumina technology, and the resulting transcriptome and differentially expressed gene data can facilitate further investigations into the molecular mechanism of the effect of blue light on follicle development and reproduction in pigeons and other bird species.

  7. Monitoring temporal and spatial variability in sandeel (Ammodytes hexapterus) abundance with pigeon guillemot (Cepphus columba) diets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litzow, Michael A.; Piatt, John F.; Abookire, Alisa A.; Prichard, A.K.; Robards, Martin D.

    2000-01-01

    We evaluated pigeon guillemots (Cepphus columba) as monitors of nearshore fish abundance and community composition during 1995-1999 at Kachemak Bay, Alaska. We studied the composition of chick diets at 10 colonies and simultaneously measured fish abundance around colonies with beach seines and bottom trawls. Sandeels (Ammodytes hexapterus) formed the majority of the diet at one group of colonies. Temporal variability in sandeel abundance explained 74% of inter-annual variability in diet composition at these colonies and 93% of seasonal variability. Diets at other colonies were dominated by demersal fish. Among these colonies, 81% of the variability in the proportion of sandeels in diets was explained by spatial differences in sanded abundance. Pigeon guillemots exhibited a non-linear functional response to sandeel abundance in the area where these fish were most abundant. Temporal and spatial variability in demersal fish abundance was not consistently reflected in diets. Spatial differences in the proportion of different demersal fishes in the diet may have been driven by differences in guillemot prey preference. Prey specialization by individual pigeon guillemots was common, and may operate at the colony level. Inter-annual variability in sandeel abundance may have been tracked more accurately because the magnitude of change (11-fold) was greater than that of demersal fish (three-fold). (C) 2000 International Council for the Exploration of the Sea.

  8. Acute, fatal Sarcocystis calchasi-associated hepatitis in Roller pigeons (Columba livia f. dom.) at Philadelphia Zoo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trupkiewicz, J G; Calero-Bernal, R; Verma, S K; Mowery, J; Davison, S; Habecker, P; Georoff, T A; Ialeggio, D M; Dubey, J P

    2016-01-30

    Four Roller pigeons (Columba livia f. dom.) at the Philadelphia Zoo died suddenly. Necropsy examination revealed macroscopic hepatitis. Microscopically, the predominant lesions were in liver, characterized with necrosis and mixed cell inflammatory response. Sarcocystis calchasi-like schizonts and free merozoites were identified in liver. Transmission electron microscopy confirmed that schizonts were in hepatocytes. A few schizonts were in spleen. PCR using S. calchasi-specific primers confirmed the diagnosis. Neither lesions nor protozoa were found in brain and muscles. This is the first report of acute visceral S. calchasi-associated sarcocystosis in naturally infected avian hosts. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. Monitoring air pollution at Mohammedia (Morocco): Pb, Cd and Zn in the blood of pigeons (Columba livia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouddane, N; Mouhir, L; Fekhaoui, M; Elabidi, A; Benaakame, R

    2016-05-01

    The concentrations of Pb, Cd and Zn were investigated in the blood of pigeons (Columba livia) in order to assess the degree of pollution by heavy metal. For this, wild city pigeons were caught at four different locations in Mohammedia classified according to their industrial activity and road traffic density. Significant difference in heavy metal concentrations were observed between sites studied, the highest lead and cadmium levels were found in industrial area and center town, while the highest zinc level was found in the less contaminated area. These results indicate that the industrial activities and the road traffic are the most important source of pollution.

  10. A study of feral pigeon Columba livia var. in urban and suburban areas in the city of Jena, Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferman, L. M.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available A population of feral pigeons, Columba livia var. was conducted in the city of Jena, Germany, from July to December 2007. Daily censuses were conducted by walking ten transects in a selected area of the city, five transects in built up areas and five in the suburbs. Pigeon population density was higher in urban areas than in suburbs but differences were not significant. Main behavioural activities recorded were resting, preening, flying, eating, sunning and roosting. Regular locations of activities were rooftops and roof edges in urban areas, and rooftops, eaves on balconies in suburban areas. The plumage phenotype most frequently recorded in both areas was Blue bar.

  11. Water - rock interaction in different rock environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lamminen, S.

    1995-01-01

    The study assesses the groundwater geochemistry and geological environment of 44 study sites for radioactive waste disposal. Initially, the study sites were divided by rock type into 5 groups: (1) acid - intermediate rocks, (2) mafic - ultramafic rocks, (3) gabbros, amphibolites and gneisses that contain calc-silicate (skarn) rocks, (4) carbonates and (5) sandstones. Separate assessments are made of acid - intermediate plutonic rocks and of a subgroup that comprises migmatites, granite and mica gneiss. These all belong to the group of acid - intermediate rocks. Within the mafic -ultramafic rock group, a subgroup that comprises mafic - ultramafic plutonic rocks, serpentinites, mafic - ultramafic volcanic rocks and volcanic - sedimentary schists is also evaluated separately. Bedrock groundwaters are classified by their concentration of total dissolved solids as fresh, brackish, saline, strongly saline and brine-class groundwaters. (75 refs., 24 figs., 3 tabs.)

  12. Re-analysis of a banding study to test the effects of an experimental increase in bag limits of mourning doves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otis, D.L.; White, Gary C.

    2002-01-01

    In 1966-1971, eastern US states with hunting seasons on mourning doves (Zenaida macroura) participated in a study designed to estimate the effects of bag limit increases on population survival rates. More than 400 000 adult and juvenile birds were banded and released during this period, and subsequent harvest and return of bands, together with total harvest estimates from mail and telephone surveys of hunters, provided the database for analysis. The original analysis used an ANOVA framework, and resulted in inferences of no effect of bag limit increase on population parameters (Hayne 1975). We used a logistic regression analysis to infer that the bag limit increase did not cause a biologically significant increase in harvest rate and thus the experiment could not provide any insight into the relationship between harvest and annual survival rates. Harvest rate estimates of breeding populations from geographical subregions were used as covariates in a Program MARK analysis and revealed an association between annual survival and harvest rates, although this relationship is potentially confounded by a latitudinal gradient in survival rates of dove populations. We discuss methodological problems encountered in the analysis of these data, and provide recommendations for future studies of the relationship between harvest and annual survival rates of mourning dove populations.

  13. Genomic evidence of demographic fluctuations and lack of genetic structure across flyways in a long distance migrant, the European turtle dove.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderón, Luciano; Campagna, Leonardo; Wilke, Thomas; Lormee, Hervé; Eraud, Cyril; Dunn, Jenny C; Rocha, Gregorio; Zehtindjiev, Pavel; Bakaloudis, Dimitrios E; Metzger, Benjamin; Cecere, Jacopo G; Marx, Melanie; Quillfeldt, Petra

    2016-11-07

    Understanding how past climatic oscillations have affected organismic evolution will help predict the impact that current climate change has on living organisms. The European turtle dove, Streptopelia turtur, is a warm-temperature adapted species and a long distance migrant that uses multiple flyways to move between Europe and Africa. Despite being abundant, it is categorized as vulnerable because of a long-term demographic decline. We studied the demographic history and population genetic structure of the European turtle dove using genomic data and mitochondrial DNA sequences from individuals sampled across Europe, and performing paleoclimatic niche modelling simulations. Overall our data suggest that this species is panmictic across Europe, and is not genetically structured across flyways. We found the genetic signatures of demographic fluctuations, inferring an effective population size (Ne) expansion that occurred between the late Pleistocene and early Holocene, followed by a decrease in the Ne that started between the mid Holocene and the present. Our niche modelling analyses suggest that the variations in the Ne are coincident with recent changes in the availability of suitable habitat. We argue that the European turtle dove is prone to undergo demographic fluctuations, a trait that makes it sensitive to anthropogenic impacts, especially when its numbers are decreasing. Also, considering the lack of genetic structure, we suggest all populations across Europe are equally relevant for conservation.

  14. CERN Rocks

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    The 15th CERN Hardronic Festival took place on 17 July on the terrace of Rest 3 (Prévessin). Over 1000 people, from CERN and other International Organizations, came to enjoy the warm summer night, and to watch the best of the World's High Energy music. Jazz, rock, pop, country, metal, blues, funk and punk blasted out from 9 bands from the CERN Musiclub and Jazz club, alternating on two stages in a non-stop show.  The night reached its hottest point when The Canettes Blues Band got everybody dancing to sixties R&B tunes (pictured). Meanwhile, the bars and food vans were working at full capacity, under the expert management of the CERN Softball club, who were at the same time running a Softball tournament in the adjacent "Higgs Field". The Hardronic Festival is the main yearly CERN music event, and it is organized with the support of the Staff Association and the CERN Administration.

  15. How do seasonality and host traits influence the distribution patterns of parasites on juveniles and adults of Columba livia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaral, Hugo Leonardo da Cunha; Bergmann, Fabiane Borba; Dos Santos, Paulo Roberto Silveira; Silveira, Tony; Krüger, Rodrigo Ferreira

    2017-12-01

    Parasites may influence host fitness and consequently exert a selective pressure on distinct phenotypes of the host population. This pressure can result in an evolutionary response, maintaining only individuals with certain traits in the population. The present study was aimed at identifying the morphological characteristics of juveniles and adults of Columba livia that may influence the distribution patterns of lice, Pseudolynchia canariensis and Haemoproteus columbae and how the populations of these parasites vary throughout the seasons of the year. Between July 2012 and July 2014, 377 specimens of C. livia were captured. We observed a significant increase in the mean intensities of infestation by pigeon flies and lice, as well as in species richness of ectoparasites during the warmest seasons, suggesting a reproductive synchrony between ectoparasites and host species. Bill length, body mass, and body length did not affect the infestation levels of ectoparasites on adults and juveniles of C. livia with three distinct plumage colors. In juveniles, plumage color affected only the mean intensity of infestation by lice, with Spread individuals as the most infested. This indicates that melanin in feathers was not an effective barrier against ectoparasites. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Hierarchical modeling of an invasive spread: The eurasian collared-dove streptopelia decaocto in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bled, F.; Royle, J. Andrew; Cam, E.

    2011-01-01

    Invasive species are regularly claimed as the second threat to biodiversity. To apply a relevant response to the potential consequences associated with invasions (e.g., emphasize management efforts to prevent new colonization or to eradicate the species in places where it has already settled), it is essential to understand invasion mechanisms and dynamics. Quantifying and understanding what influences rates of spatial spread is a key research area for invasion theory. In this paper, we develop a model to account for occupancy dynamics of an invasive species. Our model extends existing models to accommodate several elements of invasive processes; we chose the framework of hierarchical modeling to assess site occupancy status during an invasion. First, we explicitly accounted for spatial structure and how distance among sites and position relative to one another affect the invasion spread. In particular, we accounted for the possibility of directional propagation and provided a way of estimating the direction of this possible spread. Second, we considered the influence of local density on site occupancy. Third, we decided to split the colonization process into two subprocesses, initial colonization and recolonization, which may be ground-breaking because these subprocesses may exhibit different relationships with environmental variations (such as density variation) or colonization history (e.g., initial colonization might facilitate further colonization events). Finally, our model incorporates imperfection in detection, which might be a source of substantial bias in estimating population parameters. We focused on the case of the Eurasian Collared-Dove (Streptopelia decaocto) and its invasion of the United States since its introduction in the early 1980s, using data from the North American BBS (Breeding Bird Survey). The Eurasian Collared-Dove is one of the most successful invasive species, at least among terrestrial vertebrates. Our model provided estimation of the

  17. Fate of egg proteins during the development of Columba livia domestica embryo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shbailat, Seba Jamal; Aslan, Ibtisam Omar

    2018-01-01

    The transfer of egg white into the yolk and consumption of yolk proteins by the embryo are largely unexplored in the pigeon Columba livia domestica. Here, we investigated the route of egg white transfer as well as the degradation and uptake of yolk proteins by the pigeon embryo. Initially, we tested the electrophoretic patterns of proteins in different egg compartments throughout development. Then, we used lysozyme as a reference protein to follow the egg white transfer, and we measured its activity using Micrococcus lysodeikticus as a substrate. Moreover, we determined the general protease activity during different developmental stages in the yolk using casein. Finally, we examined the expression of aminopeptidase-N (APN) and oligopeptide transporter PepT1 genes in the yolk sac membrane (YSM) from incubation day 8 until day 17. Several electrophoretic bands of presumptive egg white proteins appeared in different egg compartments. Also, lysozyme activity was detected chronologically in the egg compartments. It appeared on day 12 in the amniotic and intestinal fluids and on day 14 in the yolk. Moreover, protease activity in the yolk increased significantly on day 14 and thereafter. APN expression was largest on day 8 and reduced generally afterward, whereas PepT1 expression peaked between days 13 and 15 but then reduced substantially. Our results suggest that the egg white proteins move through the amnion and intestine into the yolk where they undergo degradation by the activated proteases. Furthermore, the YSM appears to have a role in protein consumption, and this role decreases toward hatch. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Homing pigeons (Columba livia) modulate wingbeat characteristics as a function of route familiarity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Lucy A; Portugal, Steven J; Biro, Dora

    2017-08-15

    Mechanisms of avian navigation have received considerable attention, but whether different navigational strategies are accompanied by different flight characteristics is unknown. Managing energy expenditure is critical for survival; therefore, understanding how flight characteristics, and hence energy allocation, potentially change with birds' familiarity with a navigational task could provide key insights into the costs of orientation. We addressed this question by examining changes in the wingbeat characteristics and airspeed of homing pigeons ( Columba livia ) as they learned a homing task. Twenty-one pigeons were released 20 times individually either 3.85 or 7.06 km from home. Birds were equipped with 5 Hz GPS trackers and 200 Hz tri-axial accelerometers. We found that, as the birds' route efficiency increased during the first six releases, their median peak-to-peak dorsal body (DB) acceleration and median DB amplitude also increased. This, in turn, led to higher airspeeds, suggesting that birds fly slower when traversing unfamiliar terrain. By contrast, after route efficiency stabilised, birds exhibited increasing wingbeat frequencies, which did not result in further increases in speed. Overall, higher wind support was also associated with lower wingbeat frequencies and increased DB amplitude. Our study suggests that the cost of early flights from an unfamiliar location may be higher than subsequent flights because of both inefficient routes (increased distance) and lower airspeeds (increased time). Furthermore, the results indicate, for the first time, that birds modulate their wingbeat characteristics as a function of navigational knowledge, and suggest that flight characteristics may be used as 'signatures' of birds' route familiarity. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  19. Anatomical, histological and immunohistochemical study of testicular development in Columba livia (Aves: Columbiformes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olea, G B; Aguirre, M V; Lombardo, D M

    2018-07-01

    In this work, testicular ontogeny is analyzed at the anatomical, histological and immunohistochemical levels; the latter through the detection of GnRHR and PCNA in the testicles of embryos, neonates and juveniles of Columba livia. We analyzed 150 embryos, 25 neonates and 5 juveniles by means of observations under a stereoscopic magnifying glass and scanning electron microscope (SEM). The histological analysis was performed using hematoxylin-eosin staining techniques and the PAS reaction. For the immunohistochemical analysis, the expression of GnRHR and PCNA in embryos corresponding to stages 41, 43 and in neonates of 2, 5, 7 and 75 days post-hatch was revealed in testicular histological preparations. That gonadal outline is evident in stage 18. In stage 29, the testes are constituted of a medulla in which the PGCs are surrounded by the Sertoli cells, constituting the seminiferous tubules. From stage 37 a greater organization of the tubules is visualized and at the time of hatching the testicle is constituted of the closed seminiferous tubules, formed of the PGCs and Sertoli cells. The Leydig cells are evident outside the tubules. In the juvenile stages, the differentiation of germline cells and the organization of small vessels that irrigate the developing testicle begin to be visible. In the analyzed stages, the immunodetection of the GnRHR receptor and PCNA revealed specific marking in the plasma membrane and in the perinuclear zone for GnRHR and in the nucleus of the germline cells in juvenile testicles for PCNA. These results can be used as a basis for further study of endocrine regulation events during testicular ontogeny in avian species. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  20. Evaluation of gastroscopy and biopsy of the proventriculus and ventriculus in pigeons (Columba livia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sladakovic, Izidora; Ellis, Angela E; Divers, Stephen J

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To evaluate the efficacy and safety of gastroscopy and biopsy of the proventriculus and ventriculus in pigeons (Columba livia). ANIMALS 15 adult pigeons. PROCEDURES Each pigeon was anesthetized, and the upper gastrointestinal tract (from the cervical portion of the esophagus to the ventriculus) was endoscopically evaluated by use of a rigid endoscope inserted orally. Saline (0.9% NaCl) solution was orally infused to achieve lumen dilation and visibility. Two mucosal biopsy specimens were collected from each of the proventriculus and ventriculus, histologically evaluated, and graded for crush artifacts and depth. Pigeons were monitored for adverse effects for 3 to 6 days after the procedure, after which they were euthanized for necropsy. RESULTS Gastroscopy via the oral approach provided excellent visibility of the lumen and mucosal surfaces of the proventriculus and cranial portion of the ventriculus and was safe provided that appropriate precautions were taken. Two intraoperative deaths occurred at the beginning of the study; following procedure refinement, no additional deaths occurred. No major adverse effects of the procedure were detected in the remaining 13 pigeons during the postoperative monitoring period or at necropsy. Diagnostic quality of proventriculus specimens was adequate for 10 of 13 pigeons. Eight of 13 ventriculus specimens were of inadequate quality, and only 3 were of adequate quality. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Gastroscopy was useful for evaluating the lumen and mucosal surface of the proventriculus and ventriculus in pigeons, and biopsy of those organs was safely performed with the appropriate technique. Further evaluation of these techniques is needed in birds with clinical disease and birds of other species.

  1. Clinical and serological tests for arboviruses in free-living domestic pigeons (Columba livia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Bruna Alves; Chiang, Jannifer Oliveira; Martins, Lívia Carício; Chagas, Liliane Leal das; Silva, Franko de Arruda E; Ferreira, Milene Silveira; Freitas, Maria Nazaré Oliveira; Alcantara, Bianca Nascimento de; Silva, Sandro Patroca da; Miranda, Stefânia Araújo; Sepulvreda, Barbara Alves; Corrêa, Layna Thayssa Guimarães; Negrão, Andréa Maria Góes; Vasconcelos, Pedro Fernando da Costa; Casseb, Alexandre do Rosário

    2017-08-01

    In this study, we evaluated the role of free-living domestic pigeons (Columba livia) as a reservoir of arboviruses in the city of Belém, state of Pará, Brazil. We investigated the presence of antibodies against the most prevalent arboviruses. This study was aimed at evaluating some clinical and physical parameters of domestic pigeons, including the presence of antibodies to Amazon-endemic arboviruses. Eighty-five healthy pigeons were captured in Mangal das Garças Park, in Belém, and were bled. Upon capture, the birds were subjected to a clinical examination in search of alterations that could indicate the presence of arboviruses. Blood samples were converted to serum and tested using the haemagglutination inhibition (HI) technique with a panel of 19 antigens of arboviruses circulating in the Amazon. The confirmation assay for the positive reactions to the viral species tested by HI was a neutralisation test in new-born Swiss albino mice (Mus musculus) [mouse neutralisation test (MNT)]. A total of 10 (11.8%) serum samples tested positive for antiflavivirus antibodies by HI. All the samples positive for the HI test were subjected to MNT for detection of viruses and yielded negative results (logarithmic neutralisation index < 1.7). The results represent the first serological detection of antiarbovirus antibodies in domestic pigeons as potential hosts of arboviruses in Brazil. The detection of haemagglutination-inhibiting antibodies against genus Flavivirus indicated that there was recent contact between the analysed domestic pigeons and these arboviruses. Further studies are needed to evaluate the role of free-living pigeons in the maintenance cycle and spread of arboviruses in the Amazon.

  2. Defensive behaviors and prosencephalic neurogenesis in pigeons (Columba livia) are affected by environmental enrichment in adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melleu, F F; Pinheiro, M V; Lino-de-Oliveira, C; Marino-Neto, J

    2016-05-01

    Neurogenesis in the adult brain appears to be phylogenetically conserved across the animal kingdom. In pigeons and other adult non-oscine birds, immature neurons are observed in several prosencephalic areas, suggesting that neurogenesis may participate in the control of different behaviors. The mechanisms controlling neurogenesis and its relevance to defensive behaviors in non-oscine birds remain elusive. Herein, the contribution of the environment to behavior and neurogenesis of pigeons was investigated. Adult pigeons (Columba livia, n = 6/group), housed in standard (SE) or enriched environment (EE) for 42 days, were exposed to an unfamiliar environment (UE) followed by presentation to a novel object (NO). Video recordings of UE+NO tests were analyzed and scored for latency, duration and frequency of angular head movements, peeping, grooming, immobility and locomotion. Twenty-four hours later, pigeons were submitted to the tonic immobility test (TI) and number of trials for TI and TI duration were scored, followed by euthanasia 2 h later. Brains were immunohistochemically processed to reveal doublecortin (DCX), a marker for newborn neurons. Compared to those housed in SE, the pigeons housed in EE responded to a NO with more immobility. In addition, the pigeons housed in EE presented longer TI, more DCX-immunoreactive (DCX-ir) cells in the hippocampus and fewer DCX-ir cells in the lateral striatum than those housed in SE. There was no correlation between the number of DCX-ir cells and the scores of immobility in behavioral tests. Together, these data suggest that enrichment favored behavioral inhibition and neurogenesis in the adult pigeons through different, parallel mechanisms.

  3. Pigeons (Columba livia) as Trainable Observers of Pathology and Radiology Breast Cancer Images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levenson, Richard M; Krupinski, Elizabeth A; Navarro, Victor M; Wasserman, Edward A

    2015-01-01

    Pathologists and radiologists spend years acquiring and refining their medically essential visual skills, so it is of considerable interest to understand how this process actually unfolds and what image features and properties are critical for accurate diagnostic performance. Key insights into human behavioral tasks can often be obtained by using appropriate animal models. We report here that pigeons (Columba livia)-which share many visual system properties with humans-can serve as promising surrogate observers of medical images, a capability not previously documented. The birds proved to have a remarkable ability to distinguish benign from malignant human breast histopathology after training with differential food reinforcement; even more importantly, the pigeons were able to generalize what they had learned when confronted with novel image sets. The birds' histological accuracy, like that of humans, was modestly affected by the presence or absence of color as well as by degrees of image compression, but these impacts could be ameliorated with further training. Turning to radiology, the birds proved to be similarly capable of detecting cancer-relevant microcalcifications on mammogram images. However, when given a different (and for humans quite difficult) task-namely, classification of suspicious mammographic densities (masses)-the pigeons proved to be capable only of image memorization and were unable to successfully generalize when shown novel examples. The birds' successes and difficulties suggest that pigeons are well-suited to help us better understand human medical image perception, and may also prove useful in performance assessment and development of medical imaging hardware, image processing, and image analysis tools.

  4. Molecular cloning, characterization, and expression analysis of ghrelin and cholecystokinin in the pigeon (Columba livia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, P; Wan, X P; Bu, Z; Zou, X T

    2016-11-01

    Ghrelin and cholecystokinin (CCK) are multifunctional peptides. In the current study, complete sequences of ghrelin (800 bp) and CCK (739 bp) were firstly cloned in Columba livia by using rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) method. The open reading frames of ghrelin (351bp) and CCK (393bp) encoded 116 amino acids and 130 amino acids, respectively. Sequence comparison indicated that pigeon ghrelin and CCK shared high identity with those reported in other avian species. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis found that ghrelin and CCK mRNAs expressed in three intestinal segments of pigeon during development. Both ghrelin and CCK showed generally higher expressions at days posthatch than embryonic periods regardless of intestinal segments. In duodenum and ileum, the expressions of ghrelin and CCK mRNA reached the peak values at 8 d posthatch. Jejunum CCK mRNA level increased linearly after hatching, and reached the highest point at posthatch 28 d. Based on documented effects of long chain fatty acids (LCFAs) on pigeon ghrelin and CCK expression were also investigated in vitro. Higher concentrations (50 μM or 250 μM) of linoleic acid, α-linolenic acid or arachidonic acid can significantly increase ghrelin mRNA level in pigeon jejunum. However, for oleic acid, the induction of ghrelin gene expressions needed a lower concentration (5 μM). 5 μM of linoleic acid, α-linolenic acid or arachidonic acid and 250 μM palmitic acid repressed CCK expression significantly. A higher concentration (250 μM) of oleic acid or α-linolenic acid can up-regulate CCK mRNA level significantly. Our results indicated that ghrelin and CCK may act key functions in pigeon intestine development and their expressions could be regulated by LCFAs. © 2016 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  5. Detection and molecular status of Isospora sp. from the domestic pigeon (Columba livia domestica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsubara, Ryuma; Fukuda, Yasuhiro; Murakoshi, Fumi; Nomura, Osamu; Suzuki, Toru; Tada, Chika; Nakai, Yutaka

    2017-10-01

    The domestic pigeon, Columba livia domestica, is reared for meat production, as a pet, or for racing. Few reports have characterized the parasitic protists from the genus Isospora isolated from Columbiformes. We detected Isospora-like oocysts from C. livia reared for racing. The oocyst contained two sporocysts, and each sporocyst included four sporozoites. The sporulated oocysts (n=4) were spherical; their mean diameters were 25.6 (24.0-27.2)×24.7 (23.4-26.0) μm. Micropyles, polar granules, and oocyst residuum were absent. The mean length and width of the sporocysts (n=8) were 19.5 (18.5-20.5) and 11.2 (10.2-12.1) μm, respectively. Stieda and sub-Stieda bodies were observed. Single-oocyst PCR revealed two different 18S rRNA gene sequences and one 28S rRNA gene sequence in a single oocyst of Isospora sp. Based on a phylogenetic analysis of the 18S rRNA gene, the two sequences made a group which fell within a cluster of known avian Isospora species. A tree based on the 28S rRNA gene sequence indicated that sequences from the pigeon Isospora sp. fell within a cluster of avian Isospora species. Both trees failed to clarify the phylogenetic relationships among the avian Isospora species due to limited resolution. Because the morphological description of Isospora sp. is based on only four oocysts, Isospora sp. is not proposed as a novel species here. This is the first description of Isospora sp. isolated from the domestic pigeon C. livia. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Residues of organochlorine pesticides, mercury, and PCB's in mourning doves from eastern United States--1970-71

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreitzer, J.F.

    1974-01-01

    Mourning dove (Zenaidura macroura) breast muscle samples from birds collected in 1970-71 from Rhode Island, Pennsylvania, Maryland, Missouri, Kentucky, Virginia, Arkansas, Tennessee, North Carolina, South Carolina, Mississippi, Alabama, Georgia, Louisiana, and Florida were found to contain residues of DDT, DDE, DDD, polychlorinated biphenyls, dieldrin, mirex, mercury, and heptachlor epoxide in amounts not considered hazardous to consumers, human or nonhuman. There were 145 birds involved, 7 to 10 from each State. Residues of DDT plus DDE plus DDD averaged 5.83 ppm lipid weight (0.068 ppm wet weight); those of PCB's, 9.75 ppm lipid weight (0.121 ppm wet weight); compounds were found in all birds. Heptachlor epoxide and dieldrin were found in little more than trace amounts: heptachlor in all birds, dieldrin in 73. Mirex was found only in birds from South Carolina, Georgia, and Florida, averaging 4.32 ppm lipid weight (0.046 ppm wet weight) in eight birds. Less than 0.05 ppm (wet weight) mercury was found in all birds except 10, in which it ranged from 0.07 to 0.67 ppm. The 10 were from Rhode Island, Pennsylvania, Maryland, Virginia, Tennessee, and Alabama.

  7. Rollerjaw Rock Crusher

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Gregory; Brown, Kyle; Fuerstenau, Stephen

    2009-01-01

    The rollerjaw rock crusher melds the concepts of jaw crushing and roll crushing long employed in the mining and rock-crushing industries. Rollerjaw rock crushers have been proposed for inclusion in geological exploration missions on Mars, where they would be used to pulverize rock samples into powders in the tens of micrometer particle size range required for analysis by scientific instruments.

  8. Presencia de parásitos y enterobacterias en palomas ferales (Columba livia en áreas urbanas en Envigado, Colombia / Presence of parasites and enterobacteria in feral pigeons (Columba livia in urban areas of Envigado, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janeth Pérez-García

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Resumen Objetivo: diagnosticar la presencia de parásitos y enterobacterias de importancia en Salud Pública en poblaciones ferales de Columba livia en zonas urbanas del municipio de Envigado, Colombia. Metodología: Estudio descriptivo transversal prospectivo con cuarenta palomas en seis lugares diferentes. Se evaluó plumaje para determinar ectoparásitos, hisopado coanal y cloacal, y muestra de sangre de la vena axilar. Se realizó examen directo con solución salina y yodada; técnica de flotación y tinción de Ziehl-Neelsen. El diagnóstico de hemoparásitos se efectuó mediante método de gota gruesa, coloración de Wright y tinción Hemacolor®. Se utilizó API 20e® para Enterobacterias. Se realizó estadística descriptiva y análisis de correlación entre hemoparásitos y ectoparásitos. Resultados: Escherichia coli (95%, Haemoproteus spp. (73%, Columbicola columbae (64%, ooquistes compatibles con Eimeria spp. (55%, Pseudolynchia canariensis (52%, Trichomona spp. (40%, Capillaria spp. (28%, Menopon gallinae (24%, Ascaridia spp. (8%, y un caso de Enterobacter cloacae. Se identificó la presencia de Ornithonyssus bursa en nidos de algunas de las aves muestreadas. Discusión: Aunque se han presentado reportes de casos eventuales de ellos en personas dentro de la revisión de literatura, los microorganismos aislados tienen un bajo riesgo de transmisión en humanos; sin embargo pueden convertirse en un problema de salud pública veterinaria al ser potenciales fuentes de infección a la fauna silvestre urbana con quienes comparten albergue, fuentes de agua y alimento. Conclusión: El mayor porcentaje fue ooquistes compatibles con Eimeria spp (55% y enterobacterias como E. coli (95%. Ornithonyssus bursa en las palomeras evidencia la presencia de un patógeno potencialmente zoonótico, causante de lesiones dérmicas en humanos./ Abstract Objective: to determine the presence of parasites and enterobacteria that are relevant to public health

  9. Photocurrents in retinal rods of pigeons (Columba livia): kinetics and spectral sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palacios, A G; Goldsmith, T H

    1993-01-01

    1. Membrane photocurrents were recorded from outer segments of isolated retinal rods of pigeons (Columba livia), the first such measurements on the photoreceptors of a bird. The amplitude of the response to 20 ms flashes of narrow wavelength bands of light increases linearly with intensity at low photon fluxes and saturates at higher intensities. The maximum (saturating) photocurrent observed in forty-nine rod cells was 50 pA. Larger responses with less variability in the intensity for half-maximal responses were observed when the physiological saline contained 20 mM bicarbonate (in addition to Hepes buffer). 2. The dependence of peak amplitude on intensity is well fitted by an exponential function; it is usually less well fitted by the Michaelis-Menten (Naka-Rushton) equation. 3. In the presence of bicarbonate, the average sensitivity of pigeon rods to dim flashes was 0.56 pA photon-1 microns -2. The effective collecting area per photon was 1.8 microns 2. About 83 +/- 26 (mean +/- S.D.) photoisomerizations were required for a half-saturating response. 4. The response kinetics of rods to dim flashes can be reasonably well described by a series of four to five either Poisson or independent filters. The time to peak, measured from the mid-point of a 20 ms flash, was 319 +/- 83 ms (mean +/- S.D.). The integration time of the response was 851 +/- 86 ms (mean +/- S.D.) with bicarbonate present and 572 +/- 126 ms in the absence of bicarbonate. The responses of pigeon rods appear to be slower than those of mammals at the same temperature. The fraction of current suppressed by a single photoisomerization is smaller in pigeon than in mammalian rods by a factor of at least two. 5. The spectral sensitivity function was measured between 680 and 330 nm. The maximum at about 505 nm (range 497-508 nm) corresponds to the alpha-band of a vertebrate rhodopsin and agrees with previous behavioural measurements of scotopic sensitivity of pigeons as well as the absorption spectrum of

  10. Experimental infection of broiler chicks with Salmonella Typhimurium from pigeon (Columba livia

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    Átilla Holanda de Albuquerque

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Several cases of animal and human salmonellosis caused by the Salmonella serotype Typhimurium have been reported. In animals, subclinical infection favors pathogen dissemination through feces. In this context, the domestic pigeon (Columba livia with an asymptomatic condition may play an important role in the transmission of salmonellosis, through the elimination of contaminated feces in commercial aviaries or in poultry feed facilities, causing economic losses to the poultry industry and presenting a risk to public health. This study aimed to evaluate the mortality, clinical signs and the presence of Salmonella Typhimurium in the feces and organs of chicks previously inoculated with bacteria isolated from a pigeon. One-day-old chicks were distributed in two experimental groups (G1 and G2 of 32 birds each, and a control group of six birds. Two inocula of 0.4 and 0.7 mL with 105 and 106 colony forming units were used in G1 and G2 birds, respectively. At 1, 4, 7 and 14 days post-inoculation (dpi fecal samples were pooled from each cage and individual cloacal swabs were collected. At 14 dpi, all chicks were euthanized and samples were collected from the liver, spleen, lung, cecum and intestine for microbiological analysis. Mortality was only observed among G2 birds (6.25%. Most birds presented clinical signs of diarrhea at 4 dpi and no symptom as observed at 14 dpi. The results from cloacal swabs demonstrated bacterial elimination in 68.8% and 53.1% of G2 and G1 birds, respectively at 1 dpi. Additionally, fecal samples had elevated bacterial shedding in all four periods of observation , with a higher excretion at 4 dpi (62.5% for both groups. Among G2 birds, 74.2% were positive for the pathogen in the intestine; G1 birds presented the lowest rate of lung infection (29%, and both groups had more than 50% positivity for liver and caeca. The results revealed that infected chicks with a Salmonella Typhimurium strains isolated from pigeons may host the

  11. Study of innervation and vascularization of the thoracic limb of Columba livia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raphaela da Cunha Franceschi

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available No estudo referente aos territórios vásculo-nervosos em membro torácico de Pombos (Columba livia foram utilizados 10 animais. Após a retirada de penas e pele, procedeu-se à identificação dos nervos no membro torácico direito, iniciando-se pela aplicação de compressas de ácido acético glacial 3% e dissecação de cada ramo do plexo braquial e seus músculos de inervação. Para a identificação dos territórios vasculares realizou-se a abertura da cavidade toracoabdominal, canulação do coração seguida de injeção de látex sintético via ventrículo esquerdo, dissecação dos vasos, medição e confecção de esquemas dos resultados. O plexo braquial é composto pelos nervos axilar, radial, peitoral e medianoulnar, em que os dois primeiros são responsáveis pela inervação da musculatura extensora, enquanto os dois últimos responsabilizam-se pela motricidade da musculatura flexora. Ainda pode ser observado um plexo acessório. O tronco braquiocefálico surge da Aorta ascendente, sendo encontrado um tronco direito e um esquerdo, emitindo as artérias carótida comum e subclávia como troncos principais. Destes surgem vasos que irrigam a cabeça, a região cervical e os membros torácicos. Em todas as aves observou-se uma constância na irrigação e inervação da musculatura, articulações e ossos do membro torácico, onde se pode presumir que existe uma constante na delimitação dos territórios vásculo-nervosos.

  12. Yersinia pseudotuberculosis in Eurasian Collared Doves (Streptopelia decaocto) and Retrospective Study of Avian Yersiniosis at the California Animal Health and Food Safety Laboratory System (1990-2015).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoute, Simone T; Cooper, George L; Bickford, Arthur A; Carnaccini, Silvia; Shivaprasad, H L; Sentíes-Cué, C Gabriel

    2016-03-01

    In February 2015, two Eurasian collared doves (Streptopelia decaocto) were submitted dead to the California Animal Health and Food Safety (CAHFS) Laboratory, Turlock branch, from a private aviary experiencing sudden, high mortality (4/9) in adult doves. In both doves, the gross and histologic lesions were indicative of acute, fatal septicemia. Grossly, there were numerous pale yellow foci, 1 to 2 mm in diameter, in the liver and spleen. Microscopically, these foci were composed of acute severe multifocal coagulative necrosis of hepatocytes and splenic pulp with infiltration of heterophils mixed with fibrin and dense colonies of gram-negative bacteria. Yersinia pseudotuberculosis was isolated from the lung, liver, spleen, heart, ovary, kidney, and trachea. The organism was susceptible to most antibiotics it was tested against, except erythromycin. Based on a retrospective study of necropsy submissions to CAHFS between 1990 and 2015, there were 77 avian case submissions of Y. pseudotuberculosis. There were 75/77 cases identified from a wide range of captive avian species from both zoo and private facilities and 2/77 cases from two backyard turkeys submitted from one premise. The largest number of cases originated from psittacine species (31/77). The lesions most commonly described were hepatitis (63/77), splenitis (49/77), pneumonia (30/77), nephritis (16/77), and enteritis (12/77). From 1990 to 2015, there was an average of three cases of avian pseudotuberculosis per year at CAHFS. Although there were no cases diagnosed in 1993 and 1994, in all other years, there were between one and eight cases of Y. pseudotuberculosis detected from avian diagnostic submissions.

  13. Rocks Can Wow? Yes, Rocks Can Wow!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardman, Sally; Luke, Sue

    2016-01-01

    Rocks and fossils appear in the National Curriculum of England science programmes of study for children in year 3 (ages 7-8). A frequently asked question is "How do you make the classification of rocks engaging?" In response to this request from a school, a set of interactive activities was designed and organised by tutors and students…

  14. Rock slope design guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-01

    This Manual is intended to provide guidance for the design of rock cut slopes, rockfall catchment, and : rockfall controls. Recommendations presented in this manual are based on research presented in Shakoor : and Admassu (2010) entitled Rock Slop...

  15. Rock Slope Design Criteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    Based on the stratigraphy and the type of slope stability problems, the flat lying, Paleozoic age, sedimentary : rocks of Ohio were divided into three design units: 1) competent rock design unit consisting of sandstones, limestones, : and siltstones ...

  16. The Rock Cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Raman J.; Bushee, Jonathan

    1977-01-01

    Presents a rock cycle diagram suitable for use at the secondary or introductory college levels which separates rocks formed on and below the surface, includes organic materials, and separates products from processes. (SL)

  17. Rock History and Culture

    OpenAIRE

    Gonzalez, Éric

    2013-01-01

    Two ambitious works written by French-speaking scholars tackle rock music as a research object, from different but complementary perspectives. Both are a definite must-read for anyone interested in the contextualisation of rock music in western popular culture. In Une histoire musicale du rock (i.e. A Musical History of Rock), rock music is approached from the point of view of the people – musicians and industry – behind the music. Christophe Pirenne endeavours to examine that field from a m...

  18. Pigeons ("Columba Livia") Approach Nash Equilibrium in Experimental Matching Pennies Competitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanabria, Federico; Thrailkill, Eric

    2009-01-01

    The game of Matching Pennies (MP), a simplified version of the more popular Rock, Papers, Scissors, schematically represents competitions between organisms with incentives to predict each other's behavior. Optimal performance in iterated MP competitions involves the production of random choice patterns and the detection of nonrandomness in the…

  19. Molecular phylogeny of some avian species using Cytochrome b gene sequence analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awad, A; Khalil, S. R; Abd-Elhakim, Y. M

    2015-01-01

    Veritable identification and differentiation of avian species is a vital step in conservative, taxonomic, forensic, legal and other ornithological interventions. Therefore, this study involved the application of molecular approach to identify some avian species i.e. Chicken (Gallus gallus), Muskovy duck (Cairina moschata), Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica), Laughing dove (Streptopelia senegalensis), and Rock pigeon (Columba livia). Genomic DNA was extracted from blood samples and partial sequence of the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene (358 bp) was amplified and sequenced using universal primers. Sequences alignment and phylogenetic analyses were performed by CLC main workbench program. The obtained five sequences were deposited in GenBank and compared with those previously registered in GenBank. The similarity percentage was 88.60% between Gallus gallus and Coturnix japonica and 80.46% between Gallus gallus and Columba livia. The percentage of identity between the studied species and GenBank species ranged from 77.20% (Columba oenas and Anas platyrhynchos) to 100% (Gallus gallus and Gallus sonneratii, Coturnix coturnix and Coturnix japonica, Meleagris gallopavo and Columba livia). Amplification of the partial sequence of mitochondrial cytochrome b gene proved to be practical for identification of an avian species unambiguously. PMID:27175180

  20. E ora dove?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.A.E. GOODHART

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The author is one of the UK's eminent monetary economists and a member of the UK's Monetary Policy Committee. After summarising his early academic career, he discusses his time at the Bank of England and the formation of UK monetary policy. This leads on to a survey of his later experiences in returning to academia and his analysis of foreign exchange markets and central bank autonomy. The movements of foreign exchange markets have been thought to react upon the arrival of news concerning changes in monetary policy. However, close examination of the US forex market does not show any significant fluctuations in reaction to particular news disclosures. Economic news with pre-announced release dates have been proven to produce jumps in volatility within minutes of disclosure. The use of high frequency data at given intervals has been shown to produce price spikes and subsidence after a few minutes.  JEL Codes: E02, F31Keywords: Market fluctuations, Economic news, Volatility, Foreign exchange markets

  1. Discrimination of artificial categories structured by family resemblances: a comparative study in people (Homo sapiens) and pigeons (Columba livia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makino, Hiroshi; Jitsumori, Masako

    2007-02-01

    Adult humans (Homo sapiens) and pigeons (Columba livia) were trained to discriminate artificial categories that the authors created by mimicking 2 properties of natural categories. One was a family resemblance relationship: The highly variable exemplars, including those that did not have features in common, were structured by a similarity network with the features correlating to one another in each category. The other was a polymorphous rule: No single feature was essential for distinguishing the categories, and all the features overlapped between the categories. Pigeons learned the categories with ease and then showed a prototype effect in accord with the degrees of family resemblance for novel stimuli. Some evidence was also observed for interactive effects of learning of individual exemplars and feature frequencies. Humans had difficulty in learning the categories. The participants who learned the categories generally responded to novel stimuli in an all-or-none fashion on the basis of their acquired classification decision rules. The processes that underlie the classification performances of the 2 species are discussed.

  2. Chlamydia psittaci genotype B in a pigeon (Columba livia inhabiting a public place in San José, Costa Rica

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    G. Dolz

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Human chlamydiosis is a zoonotic disease of avian origin caused by Chlamydia psittaci. The highest infection rates have been detected in parrots (Psittacidae and pigeons (Columbiformes, the latter most frequently carry the genotypes B and E. These genotypes have been shown to also infect humans. Because pigeons (Columba livia cohabit with humans in urban areas, C. psittaci present in the dust from dry feces of infected pigeons may be transmitted by inhalation and represent a significant public health problem. Between 2012 and 2013 a total of 120 fecal samples were collected from pigeons at four public places (Plaza de la Cultura, Parque Morazán, Parque Central de Guadalupe, Plaza de las Garantías Sociales in San José, Costa Rica. A nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR was used to amplify a region of the outer membrane protein A gene of C. psittaci. Only one sample was positive in PCR and the positive sample was further subjected to sequencing and genotyping. Sequencing identified this sample as C. psittaci genotype B. This study is the first report to show the presence of this organism in pigeons of Costa Rica, and shows that the infected pigeons may represent a significant risk for humans who visit public places that are inhabited by pigeons.

  3. Chlamydia psittaci genotype B in a pigeon (Columba livia) inhabiting a public place in San José, Costa Rica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolz, G.; Solórzano-Morales, Á.; Angelova, L.; Tien, C.; Fonseca, L.; Bonilla, M.C.

    2013-01-01

    Human chlamydiosis is a zoonotic disease of avian origin caused by Chlamydia psittaci. The highest infection rates have been detected in parrots (Psittacidae) and pigeons (Columbiformes), the latter most frequently carry the genotypes B and E. These genotypes have been shown to also infect humans. Because pigeons (Columba livia) cohabit with humans in urban areas, C. psittaci present in the dust from dry feces of infected pigeons may be transmitted by inhalation and represent a significant public health problem. Between 2012 and 2013 a total of 120 fecal samples were collected from pigeons at four public places (Plaza de la Cultura, Parque Morazán, Parque Central de Guadalupe, Plaza de las Garantías Sociales) in San José, Costa Rica. A nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used to amplify a region of the outer membrane protein A gene of C. psittaci. Only one sample was positive in PCR and the positive sample was further subjected to sequencing and genotyping. Sequencing identified this sample as C. psittaci genotype B. This study is the first report to show the presence of this organism in pigeons of Costa Rica, and shows that the infected pigeons may represent a significant risk for humans who visit public places that are inhabited by pigeons. PMID:26623327

  4. Association of MYF5 and KLF15 gene polymorphisms with carcass traits in domestic pigeons (Columba livia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Z Z; Dong, X Y; Dong, D J; Ma, Y Z

    2016-10-01

    Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the exons of the myogenic factor 5 (MYF5) and Kruppel-like factor 15 (KLF15) genes were identified and analysed by using DNA sequencing methods in 60 female domestic pigeons (Columba livia). Five SNPs (T5067A, C5084T, C5101T, T5127A and C5154G) were detected in exon 3 of MYF5 and 6 SNPs (C1398T, C1464T, G1542A, C1929T, G1965A and A2355G) were found in exon 2 of KLF15, respectively. The analysis revealed three genotypes, in which the AA genotype was dominant and the A allele showed a dominant advantage. For the MYF5 gene, the C5084T and T5127A SNP genotypes were significantly associated with carcass traits of pigeons. Within those two SNPs, the BB genotype showed relatively higher trait association values than those of AA or AB genotypes. No significant association was observed between the KLF15 SNP genotypes and carcass traits. These results indicated that the MYF5 gene is a potential major gene affecting carcass traits in domestic pigeons. The BB genotype of the C5084T and T5127A SNPs could be a potential candidate genetic marker for marker-assisted selection in pigeon.

  5. Chlamydia psittaci and C. avium in feral pigeon (Columba livia domestica) droppings in two cities in the Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burt, Sara A; Röring, Romy E; Heijne, Marloes

    2018-06-05

    Feral pigeons (Columba livia domestica) live and breed in many city centres and contact with their droppings can be a hazard for human health if the birds carry Chlamydia psittaci. The aim of this study was to establish whether pigeon droppings in two Dutch cities (Utrecht and Haarlem) contain C. psittaci and/or C. avium, which could be a potential hazard for transmission to humans. In May 2017 seven feral pigeon 'hot spots' with between 5 and 40+ pigeons present were identified in two cities by visual observations over two days. During the following ten days fresh droppings were collected at these hot spots and the samples were pooled per three droppings to achieve 40-41 samples per city. Samples were analysed for Chlamydia DNA with a broad range 23S Chlamydiaceae Real-Time PCR and positive samples were tested with a specific C. psittaci and C. avium Real-Time PCR. Positive C. psittaci samples were genotyped. C. psittaci and C. avium were detected in both cities. For C. psittaci the prevalences in Utrecht and Haarlem were 2.4% and 7.5%, respectively; for C. avium 36.6% and 20.0%, respectively. One sample contained both species. All C. psittaci samples belonged to genotype B. C. psittaci and C. avium are present in feral pigeon droppings in Utrecht and Haarlem. Human contact with droppings from infected pigeons or inhalation of dust from dried droppings represent a potential hazard to public health.

  6. Association of DGAT2 gene polymorphisms with carcass and meat quality traits in domestic pigeons (Columba livia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, H G; Dong, X Y; Cao, H Y; Xu, N Y; Yin, Z Z

    2018-04-01

    1. Diacylglycerol acyltransferase (DGAT) plays an important role in the synthesis of triacylglycerol, but its effects on meat quality and carcass composition in pigeons are unclear. In this study, single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the exons of the DGAT2 gene were identified and analysed by using DNA sequencing methods in 200 domestic pigeons (Columba livia). The associations between DGAT2 polymorphisms and carcass and meat quality traits were also analysed. 2. Sequencing results showed that 5 nucleotide mutations were detected in exons 3, 4, 5 and 6 of the DGAT2 gene. The analysis revealed three genotypes (AA, AB and BB) in G18398T and G22484C, in which the AA genotype and A allele had the highest frequency. 3. In the SNP of G18398T located in exon 5, individuals with genotype BB had significantly higher meat quality and lower abdominal fat content than those with AA or AB genotype. In the SNP of G22484C located in exon 6, the genotype AA showed highest carcass trait values, while the genotype BB represented better meat quality, compared to AA and AB genotypes. 4. The results imply that DGAT2 gene has a close relationship with carcass and meat quality traits in pigeons, and the SNPs of G18398T and G22484C can be used as genetic markers for marker-assisted breeding in pigeon.

  7. Are Birds Smarter Than Mathematicians? Pigeons (Columba livia) Perform Optimally on a Version of the Monty Hall Dilemma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbranson, Walter T.; Schroeder, Julia

    2011-01-01

    The “Monty Hall Dilemma” (MHD) is a well known probability puzzle in which a player tries to guess which of three doors conceals a desirable prize. After an initial choice is made, one of the remaining doors is opened, revealing no prize. The player is then given the option of staying with their initial guess or switching to the other unopened door. Most people opt to stay with their initial guess, despite the fact that switching doubles the probability of winning. A series of experiments investigated whether pigeons (Columba livia), like most humans, would fail to maximize their expected winnings in a version of the MHD. Birds completed multiple trials of a standard MHD, with the three response keys in an operant chamber serving as the three doors and access to mixed grain as the prize. Across experiments, the probability of gaining reinforcement for switching and staying was manipulated, and birds adjusted their probability of switching and staying to approximate the optimal strategy. Replication of the procedure with human participants showed that humans failed to adopt optimal strategies, even with extensive training. PMID:20175592

  8. Who are the real bird brains? Qualitative differences in behavioral flexibility between dogs (Canis familiaris) and pigeons (Columba livia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laude, Jennifer R; Pattison, Kristina F; Rayburn-Reeves, Rebecca M; Michler, Daniel M; Zentall, Thomas R

    2016-01-01

    Pigeons given a simultaneous spatial discrimination reversal, in which a single reversal occurs at the midpoint of each session, consistently show anticipation prior to the reversal as well as perseveration after the reversal, suggesting that they use a less effective cue (time or trial number into the session) than what would be optimal to maximize reinforcement (local feedback from the most recent trials). In contrast, rats (Rattus norvegicus) and humans show near-optimal reversal learning on this task. To determine whether this is a general characteristic of mammals, in the present research, pigeons (Columba livia) and dogs (Canis familiaris) were tested with a simultaneous spatial discrimination mid-session reversal. Overall, dogs performed the task more poorly than pigeons. Interestingly, both pigeons and dogs employed what resembled a timing strategy. However, dogs showed greater perseverative errors, suggesting that they may have relatively poorer working memory and inhibitory control with this task. The greater efficiency shown by pigeons with this task suggests they are better able to time and use the feedback from their preceding choice as the basis of their future choice, highlighting what may be a qualitative difference between the species.

  9. Clinicopathologic, gross necropsy, and histologic findings after intramuscular injection of carprofen in a pigeon (Columba livia) model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zollinger, Tawina J; Hoover, John P; Payton, Mark E; Schiller, Chris A

    2011-09-01

    To evaluate the pathologic effects of carprofen in a pigeon model (Columba livia), 52 young adult pigeons were used in a randomized control study design. Sixteen pigeons were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 treatment groups and received carprofen by intramuscular injection at dosages of either 2, 5, or 10 mg/kg once daily for 7 days. Four pigeons served as saline-injected controls. Four pigeons from each group and 1 control pigeon were randomly selected on days 2, 4, 6, and 8 to obtain blood samples and then were euthanatized and submitted for necropsy. Histologic lesions in pectoral muscle, liver, kidney, and digestive tract tissue samples were ranked in severity as 0, normal/not present; 1, minimal; 2, mild; 3, mild to moderate; 4, moderate; 5, moderate to marked; and 6, marked pathologic changes. Two-way analysis of variance (day x dose) and pairwise t tests revealed significant (P carprofen treatments. Gross lesions in carprofen-treated pigeons were pale injection sites (23/48 [47.9%]), mottled yellow livers (9/48 [18.8%]), and congestion of small intestines (7/48 [14.6%]). Liver, kidney, and muscle injection sites had significantly increased (P carprofen is associated with increased aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase enzyme concentrations, gross lesions in muscle injection sites and liver, and histologic lesions in liver and muscle.

  10. Expansión del rango de la Paloma Coroniblanca Columba leucocephala al territorio continental de Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moreno José Gregorio

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available Entre las 32 especies de la familia Columbidae anotadas para Colombia, Hilty & Brown (1986 incluyeron a la Paloma Coroniblanca Columba leucocephala L. como restringida al archipiélago de San Andrés y Providencia. Esta especie, de amplia distribución en las Antillas, ha sido registrada en algunas islas continentales o localidades costeras en el sur de la Florida, Costa Rica y Panamá (Bond 1950, 1961, Wetmore 1968, Stiles & Skutch 1989. En Colombia C leucocephala fue encontrada en las islas de San Bernardo, a menos de 30 km del litoral Caribe del Departamento de Sucre (9° 40'Norte, 75° 45'Oeste en 1980 y 1981 por Moreno & López (1982, hallazgo que no fue reseñado en la literatura ornitológica de amplia circulación. En esta nota formalizamos la ampliación del rango geográfico de esta especie al territorio continental colombiano, agregando registros adicionales recientes.

  11. Are birds smarter than mathematicians? Pigeons (Columba livia) perform optimally on a version of the Monty Hall Dilemma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbranson, Walter T; Schroeder, Julia

    2010-02-01

    The "Monty Hall Dilemma" (MHD) is a well known probability puzzle in which a player tries to guess which of three doors conceals a desirable prize. After an initial choice is made, one of the remaining doors is opened, revealing no prize. The player is then given the option of staying with their initial guess or switching to the other unopened door. Most people opt to stay with their initial guess, despite the fact that switching doubles the probability of winning. A series of experiments investigated whether pigeons (Columba livia), like most humans, would fail to maximize their expected winnings in a version of the MHD. Birds completed multiple trials of a standard MHD, with the three response keys in an operant chamber serving as the three doors and access to mixed grain as the prize. Across experiments, the probability of gaining reinforcement for switching and staying was manipulated, and birds adjusted their probability of switching and staying to approximate the optimal strategy. Replication of the procedure with human participants showed that humans failed to adopt optimal strategies, even with extensive training.

  12. Porphyrin pattern and methemoglobin levels in Columba livia applied to assess toxicological risk by air pollution in urban areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sicolo, Matteo; Tringali, Maria; Orsi, Federica; Santagostino, Angela

    2009-11-01

    The study has explored two conservative biomarkers, porphyrin pattern in guano and methemoglobin levels in blood of Columba livia, in order to assay their potential use for monitoring toxic effects induced by exposure to urban air pollution. Fieldwork was conducted between October 2003 and June 2005 in the city of Milan, Italy, by sampling the pigeons in different areas almost twice a week. Six air contaminants, CO, PM10, NO(2), O(3), SO(2), and C(6)H(6), plus polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in fine particles, temperature, and UV index, were considered. Protoporphyrins from pigeon excreta sampled outdoors were always higher than in indoor animals, particularly in winter. A positive correlation (p urban air showed significant differences from season to season but only in summer and autumn did the outdoor pigeons show higher values than indoor animals. In summer, a regression model with a positive correlation between O(3) and benzene was determined (p urban air pollution as well as for detecting complex interactions between contaminants in the urban air pollutant mixture was discussed.

  13. Chlamydia psittaci genotype B in a pigeon (Columba livia) inhabiting a public place in San José, Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolz, G; Solórzano-Morales, Á; Angelova, L; Tien, C; Fonseca, L; Bonilla, M C

    2013-01-01

    Human chlamydiosis is a zoonotic disease of avian origin caused by Chlamydia psittaci. The highest infection rates have been detected in parrots (Psittacidae) and pigeons (Columbiformes), the latter most frequently carry the genotypes B and E. These genotypes have been shown to also infect humans. Because pigeons (Columba livia) cohabit with humans in urban areas, C. psittaci present in the dust from dry feces of infected pigeons may be transmitted by inhalation and represent a significant public health problem. Between 2012 and 2013 a total of 120 fecal samples were collected from pigeons at four public places (Plaza de la Cultura, Parque Morazán, Parque Central de Guadalupe, Plaza de las Garantías Sociales) in San José, Costa Rica. A nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used to amplify a region of the outer membrane protein A gene of C. psittaci. Only one sample was positive in PCR and the positive sample was further subjected to sequencing and genotyping. Sequencing identified this sample as C. psittaci genotype B. This study is the first report to show the presence of this organism in pigeons of Costa Rica, and shows that the infected pigeons may represent a significant risk for humans who visit public places that are inhabited by pigeons.

  14. Escherichia coli and Salmonella ser. Saintpaul natural co-infection in a free-living ruddy ground dove (Columbina talpacoti: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W.G.A. Bezerra

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This study reports a co-infection of Escherichia coli and Salmonella in a free-living ruddy ground dove (Columbina talpacoti received at the Laboratory of Ornithological Studies of the State University of Ceará, Brazil. The bird presented diarrhea, leg paralysis and anorexia, and died shortly after. Necropsy was then performed and samples from lung, kidney, liver and intestine were collected for microbiological and histopathological analyses. Escherichia coli was isolated from cloacal swab, lung and kidney samples. Salmonella ser. Saintpaul was identified in liver and spleen samples. Escherichia coli isolates were tested for the presence of eight diagnostic genes for diarrheagenic pathotypes (STEC, ETEC, EPEC, EIEC, EAEC with conventional polymerase chain reaction (PCR. EAEC was detected in the lung and kidney, and STEC in the intestine. In conclusion, Columbina talpacoti is susceptible to enteroaggregative Escherichia coli and Salmonella ser. Saintpaul infection, which may have public health implications.

  15. Rock Cycle Roulette.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Stan M.; Palmer, Courtney

    2000-01-01

    Introduces an activity on the rock cycle. Sets 11 stages representing the transitions of an earth material in the rock cycle. Builds six-sided die for each station, and students move to the stations depending on the rolling side of the die. Evaluates students by discussing several questions in the classroom. Provides instructional information for…

  16. Rock engineering in Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1986-01-01

    Contains a large collection of short articles concerned with tunnels and underground caverns and their construction and use. The articles are grouped under the following headings: use of the subsurface space; water supply; waste water services; energy management (includes articles on power stations, district heating and oil storage and an article on coal storage); multipurpose tunnels; waste disposal; transport; shelters; sporting and recreational amenities located in rock caverns; storage facilities; industrial, laboratory, and service facilities; rock foundations; tourism and culture; utilization of rock masses; research on the disposal of nuclear waste; training and research in the field of rock engineering; site investigation techniques; design of structures in rock; construction; the environment and occupational safety; modern equipment technology; underground space in Helsinki.

  17. Eos Chaos Rocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    11 January 2006 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows light-toned, layered rock outcrops in Eos Chaos, located near the east end of the Valles Marineris trough system. The outcrops occur in the form of a distinct, circular butte (upper half of image) and a high slope (lower half of image). The rocks might be sedimentary rocks, similar to those found elsewhere exposed in the Valles Marineris system and the chaotic terrain to the east of the region. Location near: 12.9oS, 49.5oW Image width: 3 km (1.9 mi) Illumination from: lower left Season: Southern Summer

  18. The complete mitochondrial genome of the Fancy Pigeon, Columba livia (Columbiformes: Columbidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Rui-Hua; Xu, Ming-Ju; Wang, Cun-Lian; Xu, Tong; Wei, Dong; Liu, Bao-Jian; Wang, Guo-Hua

    2015-02-01

    The fancy pigeons are domesticated varieties of the rock pigeon developed over many years of selective breeding. In the present work, we report the complete mitochondrial genome sequence of fancy pigeon for the first time. The total length of the mitogenome was 17,233 bp with the base composition of 30.1% for A, 24.0% for T, 31.9% for C, and 14.0% for G and an A-T (54.2 %)-rich feature was detected. It harbored 13 protein-coding genes, 2 ribosomal RNA genes, 22 transfer RNA genes and 1 non-coding control region (D-loop region). The arrangement of all genes was identical to the typical mitochondrial genomes of pigeon. The complete mitochondrial genome sequence of fancy pigeon would serve as an important data set of the germplasm resources for further study.

  19. Rock properties data base

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jackson, R.; Gorski, B.; Gyenge, M.

    1991-03-01

    As mining companies proceed deeper and into areas whose stability is threatened by high and complex stress fields, the science of rock mechanics becomes invaluable in designing underground mine strata control programs. CANMET's Mining Research Laboratories division has compiled a summary of pre- and post-failure mechanical properties of rock types which were tested to provide design data. The 'Rock Properties Data Base' presents the results of these tests, and includes many rock types typical of Canadian mine environments. The data base also contains 'm' and 's' values determined using Hoek and Brown's failure criteria for both pre- and post-failure conditions. 7 refs., 3 tabs., 9 figs., 1 append.

  20. Eclogite facies rocks

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Carswell, D. A

    1990-01-01

    ... of eclogite evolution and genesis. The authors present a thorough treatment of the stability relations and geochemistry of these rocks, their intimate association with continental plate collision zones and suture zones...

  1. Rock kinoekraanil / Katrin Rajasaare

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Rajasaare, Katrin

    2008-01-01

    7.-11. juulini kinos Sõprus toimuval filminädalal "Rock On Screen" ekraanile jõudvatest rockmuusikuid portreteerivatest filmidest "Lou Reed's Berlin", "The Future Is Unwritten: Joe Strummer", "Control: Joy Division", "Hurriganes", "Shlaager"

  2. Eclogite facies rocks

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Carswell, D. A

    1990-01-01

    .... This is the first volume to provide a coherent and comprehensive review of the conditions necessary for the formation of eclogites and eclogite facies rocks and assemblages, and a detailed account...

  3. Solid as a rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pincus, H.J.

    1984-01-01

    Recent technologic developments have required a more comprehensive approach to the behavior of rock mass or rock substance plus discontinuities than was adequate previously. This work considers the inherent problems in such operations as the storage of hot or cold fluids in caverns and aquifers, underground storage of nuclear waste, underground recovery of heat from hydrocarbon fuels, tertiary recovery of oil by thermal methods, rapid excavation of large openings at shallow to great depths and in hostile environments, and retrofitting of large structures built on or in rock. The standardization of methods for determining rock properties is essential to all of the activities described, for use not only in design and construction but also in site selection and post-construction monitoring. Development of such standards is seen as a multidisciplinary effort

  4. Rock Equity Holdings, LLC

    Science.gov (United States)

    The EPA is providing notice of an Administrative Penalty Assessment in the form of an Expedited Storm Water Settlement Agreement against Rock Equity Holdings, LLC, for alleged violations at The Cove at Kettlestone/98th Street Reconstruction located at 3015

  5. Pop & rock / Berk Vaher

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Vaher, Berk, 1975-

    2001-01-01

    Uute heliplaatide Redman "Malpractice", Brian Eno & Peter Schwalm "Popstars", Clawfinger "A Whole Lot of Nothing", Dario G "In Full Color", MLTR e. Michael Learns To Rock "Blue Night" lühitutvustused

  6. Basic rocks in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piirainen, T.; Gehoer, S.; Iljina, M.; Kaerki, A.; Paakkola, J.; Vuollo, J.

    1992-10-01

    Basic igneous rocks, containing less than 52% SiO 2 , constitute an important part of the Finnish Archaean and Proterozoic crust. In the Archaean crust exist two units which contain the majority of the basic rocks. The Arcaean basic rocks are metavolcanics and situated in the Greenstone Belts of Eastern Finland. They are divided into two units. The greenstones of the lower one are tholeiites, komatiites and basaltic komatiites. The upper consists of bimodal series of volcanics and the basic rocks of which are Fe-tholeiites, basaltic komatiites and komatiites. Proterozoic basic rocks are divided into seven groups according to their ages. The Proterozoic igneous activity started by the volominous basic magmatism 2.44 Ga ago. During this stage formed the layered intrusions and related dykes in the Northern Finland. 2.2 Ga old basic rocks are situated at the margins of Karelian formations. 2.1 Ga aged Fe-tholeiitic magmatic activity is widespread in Eastern and Northern Finland. The basic rocks of 1.97 Ga age group are met within the Karelian Schist Belts as obducted ophiolite complexes but they occur also as tholeiitic diabase dykes cutting the Karelian schists and Archean basement. The intrusions and the volcanics of the 1.9 Ga old basic igneous activity are mostly encountered around the Granitoid Complex of Central Finland. Subjotnian, 1.6 Ga aged tholeiitic diabases are situated around the Rapakivi massifs of Southern Finland, and postjotnian, 1.2 Ga diabases in Western Finland where they form dykes cutting Svecofennian rocks

  7. Effects of human disturbance on nest placement of the woodpigeon (Columba palumbus): a case study from the Middle Atlas, Morocco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanane, Saâd

    2014-06-01

    The woodpigeon (Columba palumbus) is a common and widespread bird in Morocco (North Africa). I examined, over 2 years (2010 and 2011), the breeding density and nest placement of this game species in relation to nest site habitat and degree of human disturbance. The study area was in the Middle Atlas Tighboula mountain forest, Morocco, in a disturbed and an undisturbed site. Using data collected in the 2 study sites, I aimed to identify the factors influencing the placement of nests within holm oak trees (Quercus rotundifolia) and their densities. I found that habitat structures, influenced by grazing disturbance, have affected nesting density and the location of nests of this species. Woodpigeons place their nests in a higher position (3.42 ± 0.19 m) when disturbance intensity is high and lower (1.68 ± 0.1 m) when disturbance intensity is low, and show higher nesting density in less disturbed zone (3.1 ± 0.4 nests/ha) than in highly disturbed zones (1.4 ± 0.2 nests/ha). Grazing disturbance could pose a threat to population persistence at a broader scale and could potentially reduce the abundance of this species by altering the composition and the structure of the forest nesting habitat. Further multi-scale studies are needed to assess the effects of different levels of grazing disturbance on woodpigeon nest density and placement, and to enhance our knowledge of the breeding behavior of this game species under variable environments. © 2013 International Society of Zoological Sciences, Institute of Zoology/Chinese Academy of Sciences and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  8. Trace metals, melanin-based pigmentation and their interaction influence immune parameters in feral pigeons (Columba livia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatelain, M; Gasparini, J; Frantz, A

    2016-04-01

    Understanding the effects of trace metals emitted by anthropogenic activities on wildlife is of great concern in urban ecology; yet, information on how they affect individuals, populations, communities and ecosystems remains scarce. In particular, trace metals may impact survival by altering the immune system response to parasites. Plumage melanin is assumed to influence the effects of trace metals on immunity owing to its ability to bind metal ions in feathers and its synthesis being coded by a pleiotropic gene. We thus hypothesized that trace metal exposure would interact with plumage colouration in shaping immune response. We experimentally investigated the interactive effect between exposure to an environmentally relevant range of zinc and/or lead and melanin-based plumage colouration on components of the immune system in feral pigeons (Columba livia). We found that zinc increased anti-keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH) IgY primary response maintenance, buffered the negative effect of lead on anti-KLH IgY secondary response maintenance and tended to increase T-cell mediated phytohaemagglutinin (PHA) skin response. Lead decreased the peak of the anti-KLH IgY secondary response. In addition, pheomelanic pigeons exhibited a higher secondary anti-KLH IgY response than did eumelanic ones. Finally, T-cell mediated PHA skin response decreased with increasing plumage eumelanin level of birds exposed to lead. Neither treatments nor plumage colouration correlated with endoparasite intensity. Overall, our study points out the effects of trace metals on some parameters of birds' immunity, independently from other confounding urbanization factors, and underlines the need to investigate their impacts on other life history traits and their consequences in the ecology and evolution of host-parasite interactions.

  9. The effect of endoscopic sterilization on reproductive behavior and pair bond maintenance of feral pigeons (Columba livia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heiderich, E; Failing, K; Lierz, M; Schildger, B

    2016-01-01

    Problems related to feral pigeons (Columba livia) in cities mainly result from their large numbers due to uncontrolled population growth. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether endoscopic guided sterilization affects the reproductive behavior of feral pigeons under experimental conditions, with the intention of assessing this technique as a potential method for feral pigeon population control. Five groups of four pairs of feral pigeons each were studied from 8 weeks before, to 7 weeks after sterilization. Both the male and female of the first pair of each group were sterilized, in the second pair only the female and in the third pair only the male was sterilized. The fourth pair acted as a control. All eggs laid were candled to assess fertility. Surgical sterilization had minimal effects on behavior and therefore seems not to have impact on possible field application for population control. All pairs maintained their pair bonds and continued to defend their nesting sites against other pigeons. Only one female copulated with a foreign fertile male while her primary partner was debilitated due to surgery, but returned to him as soon as he recovered. All eggs laid more than 5 days after male sterilization were infertile, whereas all control pairs had fertile eggs. Only one fertile clutch was produced, 5 days after the male's sterilization. Therefore it is assumed that males remain fertile for a limited period of time. Endoscopic sterilization seems to be a promising method for field control of feral pigeon populations and sterilization of the male only seems sufficient.

  10. Parasite distribution and early-stage encephalitis in Sarcocystis calchasi infections in domestic pigeons (Columba livia f. domestica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maier, Kristina; Olias, Philipp; Enderlein, Dirk; Klopfleisch, Robert; Mayr, Sylvia L; Gruber, Achim D; Lierz, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Pigeon protozoal encephalitis is a biphasic, neurologic disease of domestic pigeons (Columba livia f. domestica) caused by the apicomplexan parasite Sarcocystis calchasi. Despite severe inflammatory lesions of the brain, associated parasitic stages have only rarely been identified and the cause of the lesions is still unclear. The aim of this study was therefore to characterize the tissue distribution of S. calchasi within pigeons between the two clinical phases and during the occurrence of neurological signs. For this purpose, a semi-quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was developed. Forty-five domestic pigeons were infected orally (via a cannula into the crop) with 200 S. calchasi sporocysts and euthanized in groups of three pigeons at intervals of 2 to 10 days over a period of 61 days. Tissue samples including brain and skeletal muscle were examined by histology, immunohistochemistry, and PCR. Schizonts were detected in the liver of one pigeon at day 10 post infection. A mild encephalitis was detected at day 20 post infection, around 4 weeks before the onset of neurological signs. At the same time, immature sarcocysts were present in the skeletal muscle. In seven pigeons a few sarcocysts were identified in the brain, but not associated with any lesion. These results suggest that the encephalitis is induced at a very early stage of the S. calchasi lifecycle rather than in the chronic phase of pigeon protozoal encephalitis. Despite the increasing severity of lesions in the central nervous system, the amount of sarcocysts did not increase. This supports the hypothesis of a delayed-type hypersensitivity response as the cause of the encephalitis. The study also demonstrated that S. calchasi DNA is detectable in tissues negative by histological methods, indicating a higher sensitivity of the real-time PCR.

  11. Putative adult neurogenesis in two domestic pigeon breeds (Columba livia domestica): racing homer versus utility carneau pigeons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazengenya, Pedzisai; Bhagwandin, Adhil; Nkomozepi, Pilani; Manger, Paul R; Ihunwo, Amadi O

    2017-07-01

    Generation of neurons in the brains of adult birds has been studied extensively in the telencephalon of song birds and few studies are reported on the distribution of PCNA and DCX in the telencephalon of adult non-song learning birds. We report here on adult neurogenesis throughout the brains of two breeds of adult domestic pigeons (Columba livia domestica), the racing homer and utility carneau using endogenous immunohistochemical markers proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) for proliferating cells and doublecortin (DCX) for immature and migrating neurons. The distribution of PCNA and DCX immunoreactivity was very similar in both pigeon breeds with only a few minor differences. In both pigeons, PCNA and DCX immunoreactivity was observed in the olfactory bulbs, walls of the lateral ventricle, telencephalic subdivisions of the pallium and subpallium, diencephalon, mesencephalon and cerebellum. Generally, the olfactory bulbs and telencephalon had more PCNA and DCX cells than other regions. Two proliferative hotspots were evident in the dorsal and ventral poles of the lateral ventricles. PCNA- and DCX-immunoreactive cells migrated radially from the walls of the lateral ventricle into the parenchyma. In most telencephalic regions, the density of PCNA- and DCX-immunoreactive cells increased from rostral to caudal, except in the mesopallium where the density decreased from rostral to middle levels and then increased caudally. DCX immunoreactivity was more intense in fibres than in cell bodies and DCX-immunoreactive cells included small granular cells, fusiform bipolar cells, large round and or polygonal multipolar cells. The similarity in the distribution of proliferating cells and new neurons in the telencephalon of the two breeds of pigeons may suggest that adult neurogenesis is a conserved trait as an ecological adaptation irrespective of body size.

  12. Histologic Evaluation of Critical Size Defect Healing With Natural and Synthetic Bone Grafts in the Pigeon ( Columba livia ) Ulna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tunio, Ahmed; Jalila, Abu; Goh, Yong Meng; Shameha-Intan; Shanthi, Ganabadi

    2015-06-01

    Fracture and bone segment loss are major clinical problems in birds. Achieving bone formation and clinical union in a fracture case is important for the survival of the bird. To evaluate the efficacy of bone grafts for defect healing in birds, 2 different bone grafts were investigated in the healing of a bone defect in 24 healthy pigeons ( Columba livia ). In each bird, a 1-cm critical size defect (CSD) was created in the left ulna, and the fracture was stabilized with external skeletal fixation (ESF). A graft of hydroxyapatite (HA) alone (n = 12 birds) or demineralized bone matrix (DBM) combined with HA (n = 12 birds) was implanted in the CSD. The CSD healing was evaluated at 3 endpoints: 3, 6, and 12 weeks after surgery. Four birds were euthanatized at each endpoint from each treatment group, and bone graft healing in the ulna CSD was evaluated by histologic examination. The CSD and graft implants were evaluated for quality of union, cortex development, and bone graft incorporation. Results showed no graft rejection in any bird, and all birds had connective tissue formation in the defect because of the bone graft application. These results suggest that bone defect healing can be achieved by a combination of osteoinductive and osteoconductive bone graft materials for clinical union and new bone regeneration in birds. The combination of DBM and HA resulted in a better quality bone graft (P < .05) than did HA alone, but there was no significant differences in cortex development or bone graft incorporation at 3, 6, or 12 weeks. From the results of this study, we conclude that HA bone grafts, alone or in combination with DBM, with external skeletal fixation is suitable and safe for bone defect and fracture treatment in pigeons.

  13. Putative adult neurogenesis in two domestic pigeon breeds (Columba livia domestica: racing homer versus utility carneau pigeons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedzisai Mazengenya

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Generation of neurons in the brains of adult birds has been studied extensively in the telencephalon of song birds and few studies are reported on the distribution of PCNA and DCX in the telencephalon of adult non-song learning birds. We report here on adult neurogenesis throughout the brains of two breeds of adult domestic pigeons (Columba livia domestica, the racing homer and utility carneau using endogenous immunohistochemical markers proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA for proliferating cells and doublecortin (DCX for immature and migrating neurons. The distribution of PCNA and DCX immunoreactivity was very similar in both pigeon breeds with only a few minor differences. In both pigeons, PCNA and DCX immunoreactivity was observed in the olfactory bulbs, walls of the lateral ventricle, telencephalic subdivisions of the pallium and subpallium, diencephalon, mesencephalon and cerebellum. Generally, the olfactory bulbs and telencephalon had more PCNA and DCX cells than other regions. Two proliferative hotspots were evident in the dorsal and ventral poles of the lateral ventricles. PCNA- and DCX-immunoreactive cells migrated radially from the walls of the lateral ventricle into the parenchyma. In most telencephalic regions, the density of PCNA- and DCX-immunoreactive cells increased from rostral to caudal, except in the mesopallium where the density decreased from rostral to middle levels and then increased caudally. DCX immunoreactivity was more intense in fibres than in cell bodies and DCX-immunoreactive cells included small granular cells, fusiform bipolar cells, large round and or polygonal multipolar cells. The similarity in the distribution of proliferating cells and new neurons in the telencephalon of the two breeds of pigeons may suggest that adult neurogenesis is a conserved trait as an ecological adaptation irrespective of body size.

  14. COMPARATIVE EFFICACY (SEDATIVE AND ANAESTHETIC OF DETOMIDINE, KETAMINE AND DETOMIDINE-KETAMINE COCKTAIL IN PIGEONS (COLUMBA LIVIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    UZMA F. DURRANI, M. ARIF KHAN1 AND S. SALEEM AHMAD

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted to compare the synergistic efficacy of detomidine, ketamine and their cocktail in pigeons (Columba livia. For this study, 15 adult and healthy pigeons were divided into three equal groups A, B and C. Birds of groups A and B were intramuscularly administered detomidine and ketamine @ 1.4 and 60 mg/kg b. wt., respectively. Pigeons of group C received detomidine + Ketamine cocktail @ 0.7 and 30 mg/kg b. wt. Induction of sedation and anaesthesia was smooth in all groups. Mean duration of induction was 11.1 + 2.03, 11.0 + 1.49 and 1.6 + 0.48 minutes in groups A, B, C, respectively. In groups A and B, smooth but light sedation and anaesthesia were observed accompanied by superficial analgesia, while in group C, birds showed deep anaesthesia alongwith deep analgesia. Birds in groups A and C elicited hypothermia, respiratory depression and bradycardia till complete recovery, while group B showed hyperthermia and tachycardia with rapid respiration. In group A, sedation persisted for 54.2 + 21.82 minutes and mean recovery period was 49.9 + 5.91 minutes, while groups B and C had anaesthesia for 47.7 + 8.06 and 103.5 + 27.52 minutes, and recovery periods were 52.6 + 9.64 and 61.3 + 17.26 minutes, respectively. Recovery was rough in group B and smooth in groups A and C. It was concluded that in pigeons, detomidine (alone is safe for handling and for least painful procedures, while detomidine-ketamine cocktail is safe as intramuscular anaesthetic for major surgical procedures. However, ketamine is not a good anaesthetic to be used alone in pigeons.

  15. Weathering of rock 'Ginger'

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    One of the more unusual rocks at the site is Ginger, located southeast of the lander. Parts of it have the reddest color of any material in view, whereas its rounded lobes are gray and relatively unweathered. These color differences are brought out in the inset, enhanced at the upper right. In the false color image at the lower right, the shape of the visible-wavelength spectrum (related to the abundance of weathered ferric iron minerals) is indicated by the hue of the rocks. Blue indicates relatively unweathered rocks. Typical soils and drift, which are heavily weathered, are shown in green and flesh tones. The very red color in the creases in the rock surface correspond to a crust of ferric minerals. The origin of the rock is uncertain; the ferric crust may have grown underneath the rock, or it may cement pebbles together into a conglomerate. Ginger will be a target of future super-resolution studies to better constrain its origin.Mars Pathfinder is the second in NASA's Discovery program of low-cost spacecraft with highly focused science goals. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, developed and manages the Mars Pathfinder mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) was developed by the University of Arizona Lunar and Planetary Laboratory under contract to JPL. Peter Smith is the Principal Investigator. JPL is an operating division of the California Institute of Technology (Caltech).

  16. Transporting radioactive rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pearce, G.

    1990-01-01

    The case is made for exempting geological specimens from the IAEA Regulations for Safer Transport of Radioactive Materials. It is pointed out that many mineral collectors in Devon and Cornwall may be unwittingly infringing these regulations by taking naturally radioactive rocks and specimens containing uranium ores. Even if these collectors are aware that these rocks are radioactive, and many are not, few have the necessary equipment to monitor the activity levels. If the transport regulations were to be enforced alarm could be generated and the regulations devalued in case of an accident. The danger from a spill of rock specimens is negligible compared with an accident involving industrial or medical radioactive substances yet would require similar special treatment. (UK)

  17. Redução fechada e fixação esquelética externa tipo II para o tratamento de fraturas de tibiotarso em pombos domésticos (Columba livia Closed reduction and type-II external skeletal fixation for treatment of tibiotarsus fractures in domestic pigeons (Columba livia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Meller Alievi

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available A redução fechada e o fixador esquelético externo tipo II foram avaliados para o tratamento de fraturas de tibiotarso em pombos domésticos (Columba livia. Foram utilizadas doze aves adultas. Os pombos foram anestesiados com a associação de xilazina e cetamina e, em seguida, foi realizada fratura do tibiotarso direito através de pressão digital sobre a diáfise do membro. Quatro pinos de Kirschner, dois proximais e dois distais ao foco da fratura, foram inseridos através de ambas as corticais ósseas e, após redução fechada da fratura, conectados externamente por duas barras de acrílico autopolimerizável, uma na face lateral e outra na face medial do membro. Em cinco aves, foi observado radiograficamente desvio ósseo angular, porém, a função do membro não foi afetada. O tempo médio e o desvio padrão para a cicatrização óssea foram 24,8 ± 4,89 dias. Os resultados demonstram que a redução fechada e o fixador esquelético externo tipo II são efetivos para o tratamento de fraturas de tibiotarso em pombos domésticos (Columba livia.The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of closed reduction and type-II external skeletal fixation for treatment of tibiotarsus fractures in domestic pigeons (Columba livia. Twelve adult domestic pigeons were used. Anesthesia was induced with xylazine and ketamine hydrochloride; the right tibiotarsus was manually fractured by digital pressure applied at the mid-diaphysis. Four Kirschner wires were placed through both cortices of the bone, two proximal and two distal to the fracture site, and, after closed reduction of the fracture, they were stabilized by two acrilic bars, one in the lateral and another in the medial surface of the tibiotarsus. Abnormalities in bone angulation were observed radiographically in five birds; however, the function of the limb was not noticeably impaired. The mean time ± standard deviation for fracture healing was 24.8 ± 4.89 days. The results of this

  18. Geotechnical properties of rock

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jackson, R.; Gorski, B.; Gyenge, M.

    1995-12-31

    The manual is a compilation of the geotechnical properties of many types of rock that are typical of Canadian mining environments. Included are values for density, porosity, compressive and shear wave velocity, uniaxial compressive strength, Young`s modulus, and Poisson`s ratio. The data base contains material constants that were determined using the Hoek and Brown failure criteria for both before and after failure conditions. 76 data sheets of rock properties in Canadian mines are included. 7 refs., 85 figs., 3 tabs.

  19. Rock engineering applications, 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franklin, J.A.; Dusseault, M.B.

    1991-01-01

    This book demonstrates how to apply the theories and principles of rock engineering to actual engineering and construction tasks. It features insights on geology for mining and tunnelling applications. It is practical resource that focuses on the latest technological innovation and examines up-to-date procedures used by engineers for coping with complex rock conditions. The authors also discuss question related to underground space, from design approaches to underground housing and storage. And they cover the monitoring of storage caverns for liquid and gaseous products or toxic and radioactive wastes

  20. Smart Rocking Armour Units

    OpenAIRE

    Hofland, B.; Arefin, Syed Shamsil; van der Lem, Cock; van gent, Marcel

    2018-01-01

    This paper describes a method to measure the rocking motion of lab-scale armour units. Sensors as found in mobile phones are used. These sensors, data-storage and battery are all embedded in the model units, such that they can be applied without wires attached to them. The technique is applied to double-layer units in order to compare the results to the existing knowledge for this type of armour layers. In contrast to previous research, the gyroscope reading is used to determine the (rocking)...

  1. Rock Hellsinki, Marketing Research

    OpenAIRE

    Todd, Roosa; Jalkanen, Katariina

    2013-01-01

    This paper is a qualitative research about rock and heavy metal music tourism in the capital city of Finland, Helsinki. As Helsinki can be considered the city of contrasts, the silent nature city mixed with urban activities, it is important to also use the potential of the loud rock and heavy metal music contrasting the silence. Finland is known abroad for bands such as HIM, Nightwish, Korpiklaani and Children of Bodom so it would make sense to utilize these in the tourism sector as well. The...

  2. Artrópodes em ninhos de Columba livia Gmelin, 1789 (Aves, Columbidae em área urbana de Manaus, Amazonas, Brasil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme Maerschner Ogawa

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Resumo. Foi realizado um estudo sobre artrópodes que vivem em ninhos de Columba livia Gmelin 1789, ave conhecida como pombo urbano e que nidifica em construções humanas, com o intuito de inventariar as espécies de artrópodes associadas. Foram coletados 14 ninhos de C. livia em nove bairros da área urbana de Manaus os quais foram levados ao laboratótio e colocados em um extrator do tipo Berlese-Tulgren por 12 dias, para a captura dos artrópodes. Foram encontrados 10.323 artrópodes, pertencentes a 3 subfilos, 3 classes, 14 ordens e 33famílias. Acari foi mais abundante com 7.879 indivíduos, sendo o gênero Caloglyphus Berlese, 1923, o mais representativo (75%. A maioria das espécies encontradas é detritívora. A diversidade de artrópodes foi menor em Manaus se comparada à registrada em trabalhos da região Paleártica, provavelmente por C. livia ser uma espécie exótica na fauna Neotropical. Arthropods in the nests of Columba livia Gmelin 1789 (Aves, Columbidae in the urban area of Manaus, Amazonas, Brazil. Abstract. The objective of this study was identify the arthropod fauna in nests of the urban pigeon, Columba livia Gmelin 1789 who build their nests in man-made buildings. Fourteen nests were collected in nine districts of the built up area of the city of Manaus. For twelve days, arthropods were extracted in a Berlese-Tulgren funnel. A total of 10.323 arthropods representing 3 subphyla, 3 classes, 14 orders and 33 families were detected. Acari was the most abundant group with 7879 individuals. Mites of the genus Caloglyphus Berlese, 1923, made up over 75 % of all arthropods collected. Most of the arthropods extracted are detrivorous and apterous. The diversity found in Manaus was lower than that reported for samples collected in the Palearctic Region, probably because C. livia is exotic in the Neotropical fauna. The introduction of this pigeon can be responsible for a major contact between some arthropods and humans.

  3. Growth of embryo and gene expression of nutrient transporters in the small intestine of the domestic pigeon (Columba livia)*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ming-xia; Li, Xiang-guang; Yang, Jun-xian; Gao, Chun-qi; Wang, Bin; Wang, Xiu-qi; Yan, Hui-chao

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between gene expression of nutrient (amino acid, peptide, sodium and proton) transporters in the small intestine and embryonic growth in domestic pigeons (Columba livia). One hundred and twenty-five fertilized eggs were randomly assigned into five groups and were incubated under optimal conditions (temperature of 38.1 °C and relative humidity of 55%). Twenty embryos/birds from each group were sacrificed by cervical dislocation on embryonic day (E) 9, 11, 13, 15 and day of hatch (DOH). The eggs, embryos (without yolk sac), and organs (head, brain, heart, liver, lungs, kidney, gizzard, small intestine, legs, and thorax) were dissected, cleaned, and weighed. Small intestine samples were collected for RNA isolation. The mRNA abundance of intestinal nutrient transporters was evaluated by real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). We classified these ten organs into four types according to the changes in relative weight during embryonic development. In addition, the gene expression of nutrient transporters was differentially regulated by embryonic day. The mRNA abundances of b0,+AT, EAAT3, y+LAT2, PepT1, LAT4, NHE2, and NHE3 increased linearly with age, whereas mRNA abundances of CAT1, CAT2, LAT1, EAAT2, SNAT1, and SNAT2 were increased to higher levels on E9 or E11 and then decreased to lower levels until DOH. The results of correlation analysis showed that the gene expressions of b0,+AT, EAAT3, PepT1, LAT4, NHE2, NHE3, and y+LAT2 had positive correlations with body weight (0.71

  4. Changes in hepatic glucose and lipid metabolism-related parameters in domestic pigeon (Columba livia) during incubation and chick rearing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, X P; Xie, P; Bu, Z; Zou, X T

    2018-04-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the hepatic glucose and lipid metabolism-related parameters of adult male and female White King pigeons (Columba livia) during incubation and chick rearing. At day 4 (I4), 10 (I10) and 17 (I17) of incubation and day 1 (R1), 7 (R7), 15 (R15) and 25 (R25) of chick rearing, livers were sampled from six pigeons for each sex. Glycogen and fat contents, activities of glycolytic enzymes (hexokinase, HK; 6-phosphofructokinase, 6-PFK), and genes expressions of key enzymes involved in glycolysis (pyruvate kinase, PK; glucokinase, GK), gluconeogenesis (phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase cytosolic, PCK1; fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase, FBP1; glucose-6-phosphatase, G6Pase), fatty acid synthesis (fatty acid synthase, FAS; acetyl-CoA carboxylase, ACC) and fatty acid β-oxidation (carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1, CPT1; acyl-CoA 1, ACO) were measured. In male and female pigeon livers, glycogen content and HK activity dramatically increased after I17 and after R1, respectively; expressions of FBP1 and G6Pase genes were maximized at R15; activity of 6-PFK and expressions of PK and CPT1 genes were highest at R7; fat content and expressions of FAS and ACC genes steeply increased from I10 to R1. In females, hepatic expressions of GK and PCK1 genes were greatest at R7 and I17, respectively; however, in males, both of them were maximized at R15. Hepatic expression of ACO gene was significantly enhanced at R1 compared to I17 and R7 in males, whereas it was notably up-regulated at I17 and R7 in females. Furthermore, expressions of PCK1, GK, FAS and ACC genes were in significant relation to fat content in the livers of female pigeons, while fat content in male pigeons was highly correlated with expression of PCK1, ACC, CPT1 and ACO genes. In conclusion, regulations of glucose and lipid metabolic processes were enhanced in parent pigeon livers from terminal phases of incubation to mid phase of chick rearing with sexual effects. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  5. Growth of embryo and gene expression of nutrient transporters in the small intestine of the domestic pigeon (Columba livia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ming-xia; Li, Xiang-guang; Yang, Jun-xian; Gao, Chun-qi; Wang, Bin; Wang, Xiu-qi; Yan, Hui-chao

    2015-06-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between gene expression of nutrient (amino acid, peptide, sodium and proton) transporters in the small intestine and embryonic growth in domestic pigeons (Columba livia). One hundred and twenty-five fertilized eggs were randomly assigned into five groups and were incubated under optimal conditions (temperature of 38.1 °C and relative humidity of 55%). Twenty embryos/birds from each group were sacrificed by cervical dislocation on embryonic day (E) 9, 11, 13, 15 and day of hatch (DOH). The eggs, embryos (without yolk sac), and organs (head, brain, heart, liver, lungs, kidney, gizzard, small intestine, legs, and thorax) were dissected, cleaned, and weighed. Small intestine samples were collected for RNA isolation. The mRNA abundance of intestinal nutrient transporters was evaluated by real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). We classified these ten organs into four types according to the changes in relative weight during embryonic development. In addition, the gene expression of nutrient transporters was differentially regulated by embryonic day. The mRNA abundances of b(0,+)AT, EAAT3, y(+)LAT2, PepT1, LAT4, NHE2, and NHE3 increased linearly with age, whereas mRNA abundances of CAT1, CAT2, LAT1, EAAT2, SNAT1, and SNAT2 were increased to higher levels on E9 or E11 and then decreased to lower levels until DOH. The results of correlation analysis showed that the gene expressions of b(0,+)AT, EAAT3, PepT1, LAT4, NHE2, NHE3, and y(+)LAT2 had positive correlations with body weight (0.71

  6. Convergent Evolution of Head Crests in Two Domesticated Columbids Is Associated with Different Missense Mutations in EphB2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vickrey, Anna I.; Domyan, Eric T.; Horvath, Martin P.; Shapiro, Michael D.

    2015-01-01

    Head crests are important display structures in wild bird species and are also common in domesticated lineages. Many breeds of domestic rock pigeon (Columba livia) have crests of reversed occipital feathers, and this recessive trait is associated with a nonsynonymous coding mutation in the intracellular kinase domain of EphB2 (Ephrin receptor B2). The domestic ringneck dove (Streptopelia risoria) also has a recessive crested morph with reversed occipital feathers, and interspecific crosses between crested doves and pigeons produce crested offspring, suggesting a similar genetic basis for this trait in both species. We therefore investigated EphB2 as a candidate for the head crest phenotype of ringneck doves and identified a nonsynonymous coding mutation in the intracellular kinase domain that is significantly associated with the crested morph. This mutation is over 100 amino acid positions away from the crest mutation found in rock pigeons, yet both mutations are predicted to negatively affect the function of ATP-binding pocket. Furthermore, bacterial toxicity assays suggest that “crest” mutations in both species severely impact kinase activity. We conclude that head crests are associated with different mutations in the same functional domain of the same gene in two different columbid species, thereby representing striking evolutionary convergence in morphology and molecules. PMID:26104009

  7. A Rock Retrospective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Grady, Terence J.

    1979-01-01

    The author offers an analysis of musical techniques found in the major rock trends of the 1960s. An annotated list of selected readings and a subject-indexed list of selected recordings are appended. This article is part of a theme issue on popular music. (Editor/SJL)

  8. Rock-hard coatings

    OpenAIRE

    Muller, M.

    2007-01-01

    Aircraft jet engines have to be able to withstand infernal conditions. Extreme heat and bitter cold tax coatings to the limit. Materials expert Dr Ir. Wim Sloof fits atoms together to develop rock-hard coatings. The latest invention in this field is known as ceramic matrix composites. Sloof has signed an agreement with a number of parties to investigate this material further.

  9. Fluids in metamorphic rocks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Touret, J.L.R.

    2001-01-01

    Basic principles for the study of fluid inclusions in metamorphic rocks are reviewed and illustrated. A major problem relates to the number of inclusions, possibly formed on a wide range of P-T conditions, having also suffered, in most cases, extensive changes after initial trapping. The

  10. Rock-hard coatings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muller, M.

    2007-01-01

    Aircraft jet engines have to be able to withstand infernal conditions. Extreme heat and bitter cold tax coatings to the limit. Materials expert Dr Ir. Wim Sloof fits atoms together to develop rock-hard coatings. The latest invention in this field is known as ceramic matrix composites. Sloof has

  11. Northeast Church Rock Mine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Northeast Church Rock Mine, a former uranium mine 17 miles northeast of Gallup, NM in the Pinedale Chapter of the Navajo Nation. EPA is working with NNEPA to oversee cleanup work by United Nuclear Corporation, a company owned by General Electric (GE).

  12. Smart Rocking Armour Units

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofland, B.; Arefin, Syed Shamsil; van der Lem, Cock; van gent, Marcel

    2018-01-01

    This paper describes a method to measure the rocking motion of lab-scale armour units. Sensors as found in mobile phones are used. These sensors, data-storage and battery are all embedded in the model units, such that they can be applied without wires attached to them. The technique is applied to

  13. Teaching the Rock Cycle with Ease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bereki, Debra

    2000-01-01

    Describes a hands-on lesson for teaching high school students the concept of the rock cycle using sedimentary, metamorphic, and igneous rocks. Students use a rock cycle diagram to identify pairs of rocks. From the rock cycle, students explain on paper how their first rock became the second rock and vice versa. (PVD)

  14. For Those About to Rock : Naislaulajat rock-genressä

    OpenAIRE

    Herranen, Linda

    2015-01-01

    For those about to rock – naislaulajat rock-genressä antaa lukijalleen kokonaisvaltaisen käsityksen naisista rock-genressä: rockin historiasta, sukupuolittuneisuudesta, seksismistä, suomalaisten naislaulajien menestyksestä. Työn aineisto on koottu aihepiirin kirjallisuudesta ja alalla toimiville naislaulajille teetettyjen kyselyiden tuloksista. Lisäksi avaan omia kokemuksiani ja ajatuksiani, jotta näkökulma naisista rock-genressä tulisi esille mahdollisimman monipuolisesti. Ajatus aihees...

  15. Comparison of disposal concepts for rock salt and hard rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papp, R.

    1998-01-01

    The study was carried out in the period 1994-1996. The goals were to prepare a draft on spent fuel disposal in hard rock and additionally a comparison with existing disposal concepts for rock salt. A cask for direct disposal of spent fuel and a repository for hard rock including a safeguards concept were conceptually designed. The results of the study confirm, that the early German decision to employ rock salt was reasonable. (orig.)

  16. Elastic Rock Heterogeneity Controls Brittle Rock Failure during Hydraulic Fracturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langenbruch, C.; Shapiro, S. A.

    2014-12-01

    For interpretation and inversion of microseismic data it is important to understand, which properties of the reservoir rock control the occurrence probability of brittle rock failure and associated seismicity during hydraulic stimulation. This is especially important, when inverting for key properties like permeability and fracture conductivity. Although it became accepted that seismic events are triggered by fluid flow and the resulting perturbation of the stress field in the reservoir rock, the magnitude of stress perturbations, capable of triggering failure in rocks, can be highly variable. The controlling physical mechanism of this variability is still under discussion. We compare the occurrence of microseismic events at the Cotton Valley gas field to elastic rock heterogeneity, obtained from measurements along the treatment wells. The heterogeneity is characterized by scale invariant fluctuations of elastic properties. We observe that the elastic heterogeneity of the rock formation controls the occurrence of brittle failure. In particular, we find that the density of events is increasing with the Brittleness Index (BI) of the rock, which is defined as a combination of Young's modulus and Poisson's ratio. We evaluate the physical meaning of the BI. By applying geomechanical investigations we characterize the influence of fluctuating elastic properties in rocks on the probability of brittle rock failure. Our analysis is based on the computation of stress fluctuations caused by elastic heterogeneity of rocks. We find that elastic rock heterogeneity causes stress fluctuations of significant magnitude. Moreover, the stress changes necessary to open and reactivate fractures in rocks are strongly related to fluctuations of elastic moduli. Our analysis gives a physical explanation to the observed relation between elastic heterogeneity of the rock formation and the occurrence of brittle failure during hydraulic reservoir stimulations. A crucial factor for understanding

  17. Range sections as rock models for intensity rock scene segmentation

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mkwelo, S

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents another approach to segmenting a scene of rocks on a conveyor belt for the purposes of measuring rock size. Rock size estimation instruments are used to monitor, optimize and control milling and crushing in the mining industry...

  18. Buoyancy and similarity of the swimming of Manta birostris(Elasmobranchii: Myliobatidae) with the flying cycle of Columba livia(Aves: Columbidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Meza Vélez, Iván

    2013-01-01

    Se analizó la física de la flotación en la mantarraya Manta birostrisy se comparó el nado con el ciclo de vuelo de la paloma doméstica Columba livia, con la finalidad de encontrar similitudes y diferencias en las locomociones y las leyes físicas que intervienen. Se demostró que uno de los dos ciclos de nado estudiados de esta especie posee tres de las cuatro fases principales del ciclo de vuelo de la paloma doméstica. También se demostró un “efecto paracaídas” en M. birostris, el cual le ...

  19. Flotabilidad y similitud del nado de Manta birostris(Elasmobranchii: Myliobatidae con el ciclo de vuelo de Columba livia(Aves: Columbidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iván Meza Vélez

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Se analizó la física de la flotación en la mantarraya Manta birostrisy se comparó el nado con el ciclo de vuelo de la paloma doméstica Columba livia, con la finalidad de encontrar similitudes y diferencias en las locomociones y las leyes físicas que intervienen. Se demostró que uno de los dos ciclos de nado estudiados de esta especie posee tres de las cuatro fases principales del ciclo de vuelo de la paloma doméstica. También se demostró un “efecto paracaídas” en M. birostris, el cual le ofrece una ventaja en su locomoción. Adicionalmente, se describió cómo el concepto físico de torque se aplica al giro de esta especie.

  20. Repair of Tibiotarsal Rotation in 7 Chukar Partridges (Alectoris chukar) and 12 Domestic Pigeons (Columba livia domestica) with Type-2 External Skeletal Fixator Intramedullary Pin Tie-in.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaya, Didar Aydin; Özsoy, Serhat

    2017-09-01

    Rotational deformities of the long bones affect various avian species. Tibiotarsal rotation may cause the leg to deviate up to 180° from the dorsoplantar axis in a matter of days, thus preventing the birds from walking freely and leading to the inability to stand. In this study, tibiotarsal rotation observed in pigeons and partridges was managed by creating a closed fracture in the tibiotarsus and then, following reduction, stabilizing it with an intramedullary tie-in Type 2 external skeletal fixation system. Functional healing was achieved in 12 pigeons (Columba livia domestica; mean healing time, 38 days) and 7 partridges (Alectoris chukar; mean healing time, 40 days). This treatment was successful. In small bird species (<1 kg), this simple and inexpensive surgical intervention may provide a highly effective method for the treatment of rotational deformities.

  1. Plasma uric acid, creatinine, and urea nitrogen concentrations after whole blood administration via the gastrointestinal tract in domestic pigeons (Columba livia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheldon, Julie; Hoover, John P; Payton, Mark E

    2007-06-01

    To determine if blood administered to pigeons by gavage tube would simulate gastrointestinal hemorrhage in a noncarnivorous avian model, be digested in the gastrointestinal tract, and subsequently alter concentrations of plasma urea nitrogen, creatinine, or uric acid, blood from common peacocks (Pavo cristatus) was administered by gavage tube to 5 healthy domestic pigeons (Columba livia) at doses of 0.5, 1.0, 2.0, 4.0, and 8.0 ml/kg. No significant difference in plasma concentrations of urea nitrogen, creatinine, or uric acid was seen 4-6 hours after gavage. The findings did not support or rule out the presence of gastrointestinal blood in pigeons as a model for hemorrhage in noncarnivorous avian species.

  2. Tinaminyssus juxtamelloi sp. n. (Acari: Dermanyssidae; Rhinonyssinae) from the nasal passages of the band-tailed pigeon, Columba fasciata, in New Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pence, D B; Canaris, A G

    1976-02-01

    Tinaminyssus juxtamelloi sp. n. is described from the nasal passages of Columba fasciata in New Mexico. The new species is most similar to Tinaminyssus melloi (Castro) 1948 and T. turturi (Fain) 1962, but differs in (1) possessing only 5 pairs of ventral opisthosomal setae, (2) presence of 3 pairs of enlarged setae on the dorsal opisthosoma at the posterolateral margin of the podosomal plate (1 pair) and at the lateral margins of the opisthosomal plate (2 pairs), (3) elongate shape and larger size of the poststigmatic plates, and (4) chaetotaxy and solenidiotaxy of the legs, especially tarsus I with a cluster of 4 solenida and 1 club-shaped solenidion on the apex of the dorsum. The relationships of this with allied species of the genus Tinaminyssus from columbiform birds are briefly discussed.

  3. Prevalence of ectoparasites in free-range backyard chickens, domestic pigeons (Columba livia domestica) and turkeys of Kermanshah province, west of Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezaei, Farid; Hashemnia, Mohammad; Chalechale, Abdolali; Seidi, Shahin; Gholizadeh, Maryam

    2016-06-01

    This study was carried out on free-range backyard chickens, domestic pigeons (Columba livia domestica) and turkeys from May 2012 to April 2013 to determine the prevalence and identify the species of ectoparasites in Kermanshah province, west of Iran. Of the total of 600 free-range backyard chickens (185 ♂ and 415 ♀), 700 domestic pigeons (278 ♂ and 422 ♀) and 150 turkeys (53 ♂ and 97 ♀), 389 (64.83 %), 608 (86.85 %) and 54 (36 %) were infected with one or more parasites respectively. Eleven ectoparasites species including five of lice (50.16 % Menacanthus stramineus, 13.66 % Menopon gallinae, 4.83 % Cuclotogaster heterographus, 5.16 % Goniocotes gallinae, 2.33 % Goniodes gigas), three of mites (26.33 % Dermanyssus gallinae, 8.5 % Ornithonyssus bursa, 7 % Cnemidocoptes mutans), one of tick (78.66 % Argas persicus) and two of flea (12.33 % Echidnophaga gallinacea, 2 % Pulex irritans) were found in the backyard chickens. The domestic pigeons were infected with six species of parasites including: Columbicola columbae (61.7 %), M. gallinae (10.43 %), M. stramineus (9 %), D. gallinae (8.28 %), Argas reflexus (74.14 %) and Pseudolynchia canariensis (27.7 %). The ectoparasites species recorded in turkeys were M. gallinae (14 %), M. stramineus (8 %), D. gallinae (12.66 %), C. mutans (6 %), A. persicus (24.66 %) and E. gallinacean (6 %). This is the first survey to determine the prevalence and identify the species of ectoparasites among free-range backyard chicken, domestic pigeons and turkeys in Kermanshah province. The high prevalence rate of ectoparasites in free-range backyard chickens and domestic pigeons indicates that parasitic infection is a common problem in this area.

  4. Osteossíntese de úmero por xenoenxerto ósseo preservado em mel em pombos domésticos (Columba livia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaiga Leandro Haczkiewicz

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Este experimento teve por objetivo avaliar clínica, histológica e radiograficamente o emprego de fíbula e tíbia canina, preservadas em mel, no tratamento de fratura transversa diafisária de úmero em pombos domésticos (Columba livia. Foram estudados 14 pombos. A indução e a manutenção da anestesia foi feita com halotano e a fratura foi realizada na diáfise do úmero direito com serra oscilatória, e, logo após, estabilizada por xenoenxerto ósseo inserido dentro do canal medular e associado a fio de aço interfragmentar. O tempo médio e o desvio padrão para restabelecimento do vôo foi de 24,81 + 3,65 dias.O tempo médio e o desvio padrão para a consolidação óssea foram de 41 + 4,74 dias. Uma ave não apresentou consolidação óssea. Ocorreu reabsorção do xenoenxerto aos 180 dias. A técnica proposta é eficiente para o tratamento de fratura de úmero em pombos domésticos (Columba livia. Os resultados obtidos nesse experimento demonstram que o mel é adequado como meio de preservação de xenoenxerto ósseo cortical.

  5. Genetic diversity of the Japanese wood pigeon, Columba janthina, endemic to islands of East Asia, estimated by newly developed microsatellite markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ando, Haruko; Kaneko, Shingo; Suzuki, Hajime; Horikoshi, Kazuo; Takano, Hajime; Ogawa, Hiroko; Isagi, Yuji

    2011-12-01

    The Japanese wood pigeon Columba janthina is endemic to islands of East Asia and is listed as Near Threatened by the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN). One subspecies, C. janthina nitens, in particular, is at the greatest risk of extinction due to its small population size. To reduce the extinction risk of C. janthina, it is important to understand the species' present genetic status and to develop an appropriate conservation plan based on genetic data. We developed seven new microsatellite markers for two subspecies of C. janthina: C. janthina janthina and C. janthina nitens. We also confirmed the cross-use of one microsatellite marker developed for Columba livia var. domestica. Seven loci were polymorphic in C. janthina janthina, while two loci were polymorphic in C. janthina nitens. Using the markers, we performed preliminary analysis of genetic diversity and genetic structure within each subspecies. The expected heterozygosity ranged from 0.00 to 0.64 in C. janthina janthina and from 0.00 to 0.08 in C. janthina nitens. Each subspecies and each population within C. janthina janthina had different allele frequencies. C. janthina nitens exhibited far lower genetic diversity than C. janthina janthina. Furthermore, C. janthina nitens appears to have experienced strong genetic drift from a common ancestral population, inferred by STRUCTURE analysis. The markers described here may be useful for investigating genetic diversity and genetic structure of C. janthina populations, and could be used to estimate appropriate evolutionary significant unit and to guide development of a captive breeding program based on genetic information.

  6. Soil/Rock Properties Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Soil/Rock Properties LaboratoryLocation: Spokane SiteThe Soil/Rock Properties Laboratory is contained in the soils bay, a 4,700 sq. ft. facility that provides space...

  7. Critical issues in soft rocks

    OpenAIRE

    Milton Assis Kanji

    2014-01-01

    This paper discusses several efforts made to study and investigate soft rocks, as well as their physico-mechanical characteristics recognized up to now, the problems in their sampling and testing, and the possibility of its reproduction through artificially made soft rocks. The problems in utilizing current and widespread classification systems to some types of weak rocks are also discussed, as well as other problems related to them. Some examples of engineering works in soft rock or in soft ...

  8. Isotope shifting capacity of rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blattner, P.; Department of Scientific and Industrial Research, Lower Hutt

    1980-01-01

    Any oxygen isotope shifted rock volume exactly defines a past throughput of water. An expression is derived that relates the throughput of an open system to the isotope shift of reservoir rock and present-day output. The small isotope shift of Ngawha reservoir rock and the small, high delta oxygen-18 output are best accounted for by a magmatic water source

  9. Rock burst governance of working face under igneous rock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Zhenxing; Yu, Yue

    2017-01-01

    As a typical failure phenomenon, rock burst occurs in many mines. It can not only cause the working face to cease production, but also cause serious damage to production equipment, and even result in casualties. To explore how to govern rock burst of working face under igneous rock, the 10416 working face in some mine is taken as engineering background. The supports damaged extensively and rock burst took place when the working face advanced. This paper establishes the mechanical model and conducts theoretical analysis and calculation to predict the fracture and migration mechanism and energy release of the thick hard igneous rock above the working face, and to obtain the advancing distance of the working face when the igneous rock fractures and critical value of the energy when rock burst occurs. Based on the specific conditions of the mine, this paper put forward three kinds of governance measures, which are borehole pressure relief, coal seam water injection and blasting pressure relief.

  10. Uranium in alkaline rocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murphy, M.; Wollenberg, H.; Strisower, B.; Bowman, H.; Flexser, S.; Carmichael, I.

    1978-04-01

    Geologic and geochemical criteria were developed for the occurrence of economic uranium deposits in alkaline igneous rocks. A literature search, a limited chemical analytical program, and visits to three prominent alkaline-rock localities (Ilimaussaq, Greenland; Pocos de Caldas, Brazil; and Powderhorn, Colorado) were made to establish criteria to determine if a site had some uranium resource potential. From the literature, four alkaline-intrusive occurrences of differing character were identified as type-localities for uranium mineralization, and the important aspects of these localities were described. These characteristics were used to categorize and evaluate U.S. occurrences. The literature search disclosed 69 U.S. sites, encompassing nepheline syenite, alkaline granite, and carbonatite. It was possible to compare two-thirds of these sites to the type localities. A ranking system identified ten of the sites as most likely to have uranium resource potential

  11. Rock solidification method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakaya, Iwao; Murakami, Tadashi; Miyake, Takafumi; Funakoshi, Toshio; Inagaki, Yuzo; Hashimoto, Yasuhide.

    1985-01-01

    Purpose: To convert radioactive wastes into the final state for storage (artificial rocks) in a short period of time. Method: Radioactive burnable wastes such as spent papers, cloths and oils and activated carbons are burnt into ashes in a burning furnace, while radioactive liquid wastes such as liquid wastes of boric acid, exhausted cleaning water and decontaminating liquid wastes are powderized in a drying furnace or calcining furnace. These powders are joined with silicates as such as white clay, silica and glass powder and a liquid alkali such as NaOH or Ca(OH) 2 and transferred to a solidifying vessel. Then, the vessel is set to a hydrothermal reactor, heated and pressurized, then taken out about 20 min after and tightly sealed. In this way, radioactive wastes are converted through the hydrothermal reactions into aqueous rock stable for a long period of time to obtain solidification products insoluble to water and with an extremely low leaching rate. (Ikeda, J.)

  12. Uranium in alkaline rocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murphy, M.; Wollenberg, H.; Strisower, B.; Bowman, H.; Flexser, S.; Carmichael, I.

    1978-04-01

    Geologic and geochemical criteria were developed for the occurrence of economic uranium deposits in alkaline igneous rocks. A literature search, a limited chemical analytical program, and visits to three prominent alkaline-rock localities (Ilimaussaq, Greenland; Pocos de Caldas, Brazil; and Powderhorn, Colorado) were made to establish criteria to determine if a site had some uranium resource potential. From the literature, four alkaline-intrusive occurrences of differing character were identified as type-localities for uranium mineralization, and the important aspects of these localities were described. These characteristics were used to categorize and evaluate U.S. occurrences. The literature search disclosed 69 U.S. sites, encompassing nepheline syenite, alkaline granite, and carbonatite. It was possible to compare two-thirds of these sites to the type localities. A ranking system identified ten of the sites as most likely to have uranium resource potential.

  13. Rock and mineral magnetism

    CERN Document Server

    O’Reilly, W

    1984-01-01

    The past two decades have witnessed a revolution in the earth sciences. The quantitative, instrument-based measurements and physical models of. geophysics, together with advances in technology, have radically transformed the way in which the Earth, and especially its crust, is described. The study of the magnetism of the rocks of the Earth's crust has played a major part in this transformation. Rocks, or more specifically their constituent magnetic minerals, can be regarded as a measuring instrument provided by nature, which can be employed in the service of the earth sciences. Thus magnetic minerals are a recording magnetometer; a goniometer or protractor, recording the directions of flows, fields and forces; a clock; a recording thermometer; a position recorder; astrain gauge; an instrument for geo­ logical surveying; a tracer in climatology and hydrology; a tool in petrology. No instrument is linear, or free from noise and systematic errors, and the performance of nature's instrument must be assessed and ...

  14. Aram Chaos Rocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    8 September 2005 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows outcrops of light-toned, sedimentary rock among darker-toned mesas in Aram Chaos. Dark, windblown megaripples -- large ripples -- are also present at this location. Location near: 3.0oN, 21.6oW Image width: width: 3 km (1.9 mi) Illumination from: lower left Season: Northern Autumn

  15. Deformations of fractured rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stephansson, O.

    1977-09-01

    Results of the DBM and FEM analysis in this study indicate that a suitable rock mass for repository of radioactive waste should be moderately jointed (about 1 joint/m 2 ) and surrounded by shear zones of the first order. This allowes for a gentle and flexible deformation under tectonic stresses and prevent the development of large cross-cutting failures in the repository area. (author)

  16. Physical modeling of rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheney, J.A.

    1981-01-01

    The problems of statisfying similarity between a physical model and the prototype in rock wherein fissures and cracks place a role in physical behavior is explored. The need for models of large physical dimensions is explained but also testing of models of the same prototype over a wide range of scales is needed to ascertain the influence of lack of similitude of particular parameters between prototype and model. A large capacity centrifuge would be useful in that respect

  17. Rock disposal problems identified

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knox, R

    1978-06-01

    Mathematical models are the only way of examining the return of radioactivity from nuclear waste to the environment over long periods of time. Work in Britain has helped identify areas where more basic data is required, but initial results look very promising for final disposal of high level waste in hard rock repositories. A report by the National Radiological Protection Board of a recent study, is examined.

  18. Rock pushing and sampling under rocks on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, H.J.; Liebes, S.; Crouch, D.S.; Clark, L.V.

    1978-01-01

    Viking Lander 2 acquired samples on Mars from beneath two rocks, where living organisms and organic molecules would be protected from ultraviolet radiation. Selection of rocks to be moved was based on scientific and engineering considerations, including rock size, rock shape, burial depth, and location in a sample field. Rock locations and topography were established using the computerized interactive video-stereophotogrammetric system and plotted on vertical profiles and in plan view. Sampler commands were developed and tested on Earth using a full-size lander and surface mock-up. The use of power by the sampler motor correlates with rock movements, which were by plowing, skidding, and rolling. Provenance of the samples was determined by measurements and interpretation of pictures and positions of the sampler arm. Analytical results demonstrate that the samples were, in fact, from beneath the rocks. Results from the Gas Chromatograph-Mass Spectrometer of the Molecular Analysis experiment and the Gas Exchange instrument of the Biology experiment indicate that more adsorbed(?) water occurs in samples under rocks than in samples exposed to the sun. This is consistent with terrestrial arid environments, where more moisture occurs in near-surface soil un- der rocks than in surrounding soil because the net heat flow is toward the soil beneath the rock and the rock cap inhibits evaporation. Inorganic analyses show that samples of soil from under the rocks have significantly less iron than soil exposed to the sun. The scientific significance of analyses of samples under the rocks is only partly evaluated, but some facts are clear. Detectable quantities of martian organic molecules were not found in the sample from under a rock by the Molecular Analysis experiment. The Biology experiments did not find definitive evidence for Earth-like living organisms in their sample. Significant amounts of adsorbed water may be present in the martian regolith. The response of the soil

  19. The Rock Characterization Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holmes, J.

    1994-01-01

    In 1989, UK Nirex began a programme of surface-based characterization of the geology and hydrogeology of a site at Sellafield to evaluate its suitability to host a deep repository for radioactive waste. The next major stage in site characterization will be the construction and operation of a Rock Characterization Facility (RCF). It will be designed to provide rock characterization information and scope for model validation to permit firmer assessment of long-term safety. It will also provide information needed to decide the detailed location, design and orientation of a repository and to inform repository construction methods. A three-phase programme is planned for the RCF. During each phase, testwork will steadily improve our geological, hydrogeological and geotechnical understanding of the site. The first phase will involve sinking two shafts. That will be preceded by the establishment of a network of monitoring boreholes to ensure that the impact of shaft sinking can be measured. This will provide valuable data for model validation. In phase two, initial galleries will be excavated, probably at a depth of 650 m below Ordnance datum, which will host a comprehensive suite of experiments. These galleries will be extended in phase three to permit access to most of the rock volume that would host the repository. (Author)

  20. Rock in Rio: forever young

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Ferreira Freitas

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to discuss the role of Rock in Rio: The Musical, as herald of megafestival Rock in Rio. Driven by the success that musicals have reached in Brazil, we believe that the design of this spectacle of music, dance and staging renews the brand of the rock festival, once it adds the force of young and healthy bodies to its concept. Moreover, the musical provides Rock in Rio with some distance from the controversal trilogy of sex, drugs and rock and roll, a strong mark of past festivals around the world. Thus, the musical expands the possibilities of growth for the brand.

  1. Development of artificial soft rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kishi, Kiyoshi

    1995-01-01

    When foundation base rocks are deeper than the level of installing structures or there exist weathered rocks and crushed rocks in a part of base rocks, often sound artificial base rocks are made by substituting the part with concrete. But in the construction of Kashiwazaki Kariwa Nuclear Power Station of Tokyo Electric Power Co., Inc., the foundation base rocks consist of mudstone, and the stiffness of concrete is large as compared with the surrounding base rocks. As the quality of the substituting material, the nearly same stiffness as that of the surrounding soft rocks and long term stability are suitable, and the excellent workability and economical efficiency are required, therefore, artificial soft rocks were developed. As the substituting material, the soil mortar that can obtain the physical property values in stable form, which are similar to those of Nishiyama mudstone, was selected. The mechanism of its hardening and the long term stability, and the manufacturing plant are reported. As for its application to the base rocks of Kashiwazaki Kariwa Nuclear Power Station, the verification test at the site and the application to the base rocks for No. 7 plant reactor building and other places are described. (K.I.)

  2. Hydrological characteristics of Japanese rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ijiri, Yuji; Sawada, Atsushi; Akahori, Kuniaki

    1999-11-01

    It is crucial to evaluate the hydrogeological characteristics of rock in Japan in order to assess the performance of geosphere. This report summarizes the hydrogeological characteristics of various rock types obtained from broad literature surveys and the fields experiments at the Kamaishi mine in northern Japan and at the Tono mine in central Japan. It is found that the hydraulic conductivity of rock mass ranges from 10 -9 m/s to 10 -8 m/s, whereas the hydraulic conductivity of fault zone ranges from 10 -9 m/s to 10 -3 m/s. It is also found that the hydraulic conductivity tends to decrease with depth. Therefore, the hydraulic conductivity of rock mass at the depth of a repository will be smaller than above values. From the investigations at outcrops and galleries throughout the country, fractures are observed as potential pathways in all rock types. All kinds of crystalline rocks and pre-Neogene sedimentary rocks are classified as fractured media where fracture flow is dominant. Among these rocks, granitic rock is considered the archetype fractured media. On the other hand, andesite, tuff and Neogene sedimentary rocks are considered as intermediate between fractured media and porous media where flow in fractures as well as in rock matrix are significant. (author)

  3. Grinding into Soft, Powdery Rock

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    This hole in a rock dubbed 'Clovis' is the deepest hole drilled so far in any rock on Mars. NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit captured this view with its microscopic imager on martian sol 217 (Aug. 12, 2004) after drilling 8.9 millimeters (0.35 inch) into the rock with its rock abrasion tool. The view is a mosaic of four frames taken by the microscopic imager. The hole is 4.5 centimeters (1.8 inches) in diameter. Clovis is key to a developing story about environmental change on Mars, not only because it is among the softest rocks encountered so far in Gusev Crater, but also because it contains mineral alterations that extend relatively deep beneath its surface. In fact, as evidenced by its fairly crumbly texture, it is possibly the most highly altered volcanic rock ever studied on Mars. Scientific analysis shows that the rock contains higher levels of the elements sulfur, chlorine, and bromine than are normally encountered in basaltic rocks, such as a rock dubbed 'Humphrey' that Spirit encountered two months after arriving on Mars. Humphrey showed elevated levels of sulfur, chlorine, and bromine only in the outermost 2 millimeters (less than 0.1 inch) of its surface. Clovis shows elevated levels of the same elements along with the associated softness of the rock within a borehole that is 4 times as deep. Scientists hope to compare Clovis to other, less-altered rocks in the vicinity to assess what sort of water-based processes altered the rock. Hypotheses include transport of sulfur, chlorine, and bromine in water vapor in volcanic gases; hydrothermal circulation (flow of volcanically heated water through rock); or saturation in a briny soup containing the same elements. In this image, very fine-grained material from the rock has clumped together by electrostatic attraction and fallen into the borehole. NASA/JPL/Cornell/USGS

  4. Rock mechanics for hard rock nuclear waste repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heuze, F.E.

    1981-09-01

    The mined geologic burial of high level nuclear waste is now the favored option for disposal. The US National Waste Terminal Storage Program designed to achieve this disposal includes an extensive rock mechanics component related to the design of the wastes repositories. The plan currently considers five candidate rock types. This paper deals with the three hard rocks among them: basalt, granite, and tuff. Their behavior is governed by geological discontinuities. Salt and shale, which exhibit behavior closer to that of a continuum, are not considered here. This paper discusses both the generic rock mechanics R and D, which are required for repository design, as well as examples of projects related to hard rock waste storage. The examples include programs in basalt (Hanford/Washington), in granitic rocks (Climax/Nevada Test Site, Idaho Springs/Colorado, Pinawa/Canada, Oracle/Arizona, and Stripa/Sweden), and in tuff

  5. Rock stress investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pahl, A.; Heusermann, St.; Braeuer, V.; Gloeggler, W.

    1989-04-01

    On the research project 'Rock Stress Mesurements' the BGR has developed and tested several methods for use in boreholes at a depth of 200 m. Indirect stress measurements using overcoring methods with BGR-probes and CSIR-triaxial cells as well as direct stress measurements using the hydraulic-fracturing method were made. To determine in-situ rock deformation behavior borehole deformation tests, using a BGR-dilatometer, were performed. Two types of the BGR-probe were applied: a four-component-probe to determine horizontal stresses and a five-component-probe to determine a quasi three-dimensional stress field. The first time a computer for data processing was installed in the borehole together with the BGR-probe. Laboratory tests on low cylinders were made to study the stress-deformation behavior. To validate and to interprete the measurement results some test methods were modelled using the finite-element method. The dilatometer-tests yielded high values of Young's modulus, whereas laboratory tests showed lower values with a distinct deformation anisotropy. Stress measurements with the BGR-probe yielded horizontal stresses being higher than the theoretical overburden pressure. These results are comparable to the results of the hydraulic fracturing tests, whereas stresses obtained with CSIR-triaxial cells are lower. The detailed geological mapping of the borehole indicated relationships between stress and geology. With regard to borehole depth different zones of rock structure joint frequency, joint orientation, and orientation of microfissures as well as stress magnitude, stress direction, and degree of deformation anisotropy could be distinguished. (author) 4 tabs., 76 figs., 31 refs

  6. A smart rock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pressel, Phil

    2014-12-01

    This project was to design and build a protective weapon for a group of associations that believed in aliens and UFO's. They collected enough contributions from societies and individuals to be able to sponsor and totally fund the design, fabrication and testing of this equipment. The location of this facility is classified. It also eventually was redesigned by the Quartus Engineering Company for use at a major amusement park as a "shoot at targets facility." The challenge of this project was to design a "smart rock," namely an infrared bullet (the size of a gallon can of paint) that could be shot from the ground to intercept a UFO or any incoming suspicious item heading towards the earth. Some of the challenges to design this weapon were to feed cryogenic helium at 5 degrees Kelvin from an inair environment through a unique rotary coupling and air-vacuum seal while spinning the bullet at 1500 rpm and maintain its dynamic stability (wobble) about its spin axis to less than 10 micro-radians (2 arc seconds) while it operated in a vacuum. Precision optics monitored the dynamic motion of the "smart rock."

  7. Rock critics as 'Mouldy Modernists'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Becky Shepherd

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Contemporary rock criticism appears to be firmly tied to the past. The specialist music press valorise rock music of the 1960s and 1970s, and new emerging artists are championed for their ‘retro’ sounding music by journalists who compare the sound of these new artists with those included in the established ‘canon’ of rock music. This article examines the narrative tropes of authenticity and nostalgia that frame the retrospective focus of this contemporary rock writing, and most significantly, the maintenance of the rock canon within contemporary popular culture. The article concludes by suggesting that while contemporary rock criticism is predominately characterised by nostalgia, this nostalgia is not simply a passive romanticism of the past. Rather, this nostalgia fuels a process of active recontextualisation within contemporary popular culture.

  8. Rock.XML - Towards a library of rock physics models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Erling Hugo; Hauge, Ragnar; Ulvmoen, Marit; Johansen, Tor Arne; Drottning, Åsmund

    2016-08-01

    Rock physics modelling provides tools for correlating physical properties of rocks and their constituents to the geophysical observations we measure on a larger scale. Many different theoretical and empirical models exist, to cover the range of different types of rocks. However, upon reviewing these, we see that they are all built around a few main concepts. Based on this observation, we propose a format for digitally storing the specifications for rock physics models which we have named Rock.XML. It does not only contain data about the various constituents, but also the theories and how they are used to combine these building blocks to make a representative model for a particular rock. The format is based on the Extensible Markup Language XML, making it flexible enough to handle complex models as well as scalable towards extending it with new theories and models. This technology has great advantages as far as documenting and exchanging models in an unambiguous way between people and between software. Rock.XML can become a platform for creating a library of rock physics models; making them more accessible to everyone.

  9. Morphological and molecular characterization of Eimeria labbeana-like (Apicomplexa:Eimeriidae) in a domestic pigeon (Columba livia domestica, Gmelin, 1789) in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Rongchang; Brice, Belinda; Elloit, Aileen; Ryan, Una

    2016-07-01

    An Eimeria species is described from a domestic pigeon (Columba livia domestica). Sporulated oocysts (n = 35) were subspherical, with a smooth bi-layered oocyst wall (1.0 μm thick). Oocysts measured 20.2 × 16.1 (22.0-18.9 × 15.7-18.9) μm, oocyst length/width (L/W) ratio, 1.38. Oocyst residuum and a polar granule were present. The micropyle was absent. Sporocysts are elongate-ovoid, 13.0 × 6.1 (14.5-12.5 × 5.5-7.0) μm, sporocyst L/W ratio, 2.13 (2.0-2.2), sporocyst residuum was present, composed of numerous granules in a spherical or ovoid mass. Each sporocyst contained 2 banana-shaped sporozoites, 12.3 × 3.5 (11.8-13.0 × 3.3-3.6) μm. A spherical-ellipsoid posterior refractile body was found in the sporozoites. A nucleus was located immediately anterior to the posterior refractile body. Molecular analysis was conducted at three loci; the 18S and 28S ribosomal RNA genes and the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase gene (COI). At the 18S locus, the new isolate shared 98.0% genetic similarity with three Isospora isolates from Japan from the domestic pigeon (Columba livia domestica). At the 28S locus, it grouped separately and shared 92.4% and 92.5% genetic similarity with Isospora anthochaerae (KF766053) from a red wattlebird (Anthochaera carunculata) from Australia and an Isospora sp. (MS-2003 - AY283845) from a Himalayan grey-headed bullfinch (Pyrrhula erythaca) respectively. At COI locus, this new isolate was in a separate clade and shared 95.6% and 90.0% similarity respectively with Eimeria tiliquae n. sp. from a shingleback skink in Australia and an Eimeria sp. from a common pheasant (Phasianus colchicus) from America. Based on the morphological data, this isolate is most similar to Eimeria labbeana. As no molecular data for E. labbeana is available and previous morphological data is incomplete, we refer to the current isolate as E. labbeana-like. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Rocks under pressure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-05-01

    Physicists have used nuclear magnetic resonance to investigate the destructive effects of the crystallization of salt. Salt-weathering is one of the main causes of rock disintegration in nature, particularly in deserts, polar regions and along coastlines. However, it is also a very widespread cause of damage to man-made constructions. Bridges, for example, are attacked by de-icing salts, and cities such as Bahrain, Abu Dhabi and Adelaide are affected by rising damp from high ground-water levels. Indeed, many examples of cultural heritage, including the Islamic sites of Bokhara and Petra in Jordan and the Sphinx in Egypt, may ultimately be destroyed due to the effects of salt-weathering. Now Lourens Rijniers and colleagues at Eindhoven University in the Netherlands have developed a way to observe the solubility of various salts inside porous materials directly (Phys. Rev. Lett. 94 075503). (U.K.)

  11. Rock the Globe

    CERN Multimedia

    Laëtitia Pedroso

    2010-01-01

    Created in 2005, the Swiss rock band "Wind of Change" is now candidate for the Eurovision Song Contest 2011 with a new song " Night & Light " with the music video filmed at CERN.   With over 20 gigs under their belt and two albums already released, the five members of the band (Alex Büchi, vocals; Arthur Spierer, drums; David Gantner, bass; Romain Mage and Yannick Gaudy, guitar) continue to excite audiences. For their latest composition "Night & Light", the group filmed their music video in the Globe of Science and Innovation. Winning the Eurovision contest would be a springboard in their artistic career for these young musicians. The selection results will be available December 11, 2010.      

  12. Electrochemistry of lunar rocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindstrom, D. J.; Haskin, L. A.

    1979-01-01

    Electrolysis of silicate melts has been shown to be an effective means of producing metals from common silicate materials. No fluxing agents need be added to the melts. From solution in melts of diopside (CaMgSi2O6) composition, the elements Si, Ti, Ni, and Fe have been reduced to their metallic states. Platinum is a satisfactory anode material, but other cathode materials are needed. Electrolysis of compositional analogs of lunar rocks initially produces iron metal at the cathode and oxygen gas at the anode. Utilizing mainly heat and electricity which are readily available from sunlight, direct electrolysis is capable of producing useful metals from common feedstocks without the need for expendable chemicals. This simple process and the products obtained from it deserve further study for use in materials processing in space.

  13. Rock Art in Kurdistan Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamal Lahafian

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Kurdistan, with great potential and prehistoric resources, has numerous petroglyphs in different areas of the province. During the last 14 years of extensive field study, more than 30 sites of rock art have been identified and introduced by the author. In this article, we summarize these rock art areas in Iranian Kurdistan.

  14. Rockin' around the Rock Cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frack, Susan; Blanchard, Scott Alan

    2005-01-01

    In this activity students will simulate how sedimentary rocks can be changed into metamorphic rocks by intense pressure. The materials needed are two small pieces of white bread, one piece of wheat bread, and one piece of a dark bread (such as pumpernickel or dark rye) per student, two pieces of waxed paper, scissors, a ruler, and heavy books.…

  15. 'Mister Badger' Pushing Mars Rock

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-01-01

    Viking's soil sampler collector arm successfully pushed a rock on the surface of Mars during the afternoon of Friday, October 8. The irregular-shaped rock was pushed several inches by the Lander's collector arm, which displaced the rock to the left of its original position, leaving it cocked slightly upward. Photographs and other information verified the successful rock push. Photo at left shows the soil sampler's collector head pushing against the rock, named 'Mister Badger' by flight controllers. Photo at right shows the displaced rock and the depression whence it came. Part of the soil displacement was caused by the collector s backhoe. A soil sample will be taken from the site Monday night, October 11. It will then be delivered to Viking s organic chemistry instrument for a series of analyses during the next few weeks. The sample is being sought from beneath a rock because scientists believe that, if there are life forms on Mars, they may seek rocks as shelter from the Sun s intense ultraviolet radiation.

  16. Rock suitability classification RSC 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McEwen, T. (ed.) [McEwen Consulting, Leicester (United Kingdom); Kapyaho, A. [Geological Survey of Finland, Espoo (Finland); Hella, P. [Saanio and Riekkola, Helsinki (Finland); Aro, S.; Kosunen, P.; Mattila, J.; Pere, T.

    2012-12-15

    This report presents Posiva's Rock Suitability Classification (RSC) system, developed for locating suitable rock volumes for repository design and construction. The RSC system comprises both the revised rock suitability criteria and the procedure for the suitability classification during the construction of the repository. The aim of the classification is to avoid such features of the host rock that may be detrimental to the favourable conditions within the repository, either initially or in the long term. This report also discusses the implications of applying the RSC system for the fulfilment of the regulatory requirements concerning the host rock as a natural barrier and the site's overall suitability for hosting a final repository of spent nuclear fuel.

  17. Rock suitability classification RSC 2012

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McEwen, T.; Kapyaho, A.; Hella, P.; Aro, S.; Kosunen, P.; Mattila, J.; Pere, T.

    2012-12-01

    This report presents Posiva's Rock Suitability Classification (RSC) system, developed for locating suitable rock volumes for repository design and construction. The RSC system comprises both the revised rock suitability criteria and the procedure for the suitability classification during the construction of the repository. The aim of the classification is to avoid such features of the host rock that may be detrimental to the favourable conditions within the repository, either initially or in the long term. This report also discusses the implications of applying the RSC system for the fulfilment of the regulatory requirements concerning the host rock as a natural barrier and the site's overall suitability for hosting a final repository of spent nuclear fuel

  18. Rock strength under explosive loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rimer, N.; Proffer, W.

    1993-01-01

    This presentation emphasizes the importance of a detailed description of the nonlinear deviatoric (strength) response of the surrounding rock in the numerical simulation of underground nuclear explosion phenomenology to the late times needed for test ban monitoring applications. We will show how numerical simulations which match ground motion measurements in volcanic tuffs and in granite use the strength values obtained from laboratory measurements on small core samples of these rocks but also require much lower strength values after the ground motion has interacted with the rock. The underlying physical mechanisms for the implied strength reduction are not yet well understood, and in fact may depend on the particular rock type. However, constitutive models for shock damage and/or effective stress have been used successfully at S-Cubed in both the Geophysics Program (primarily for DARPA) and the Containment Support Program (for DNA) to simulate late time ground motions measured at NTS in many different rock types

  19. ROCK inhibitors in ocular disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Halasz

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Rho kinases (ROCKs have a crucial role in actin-cytoskeletal reorganization and thus are involved in broad aspects of cell motility, from smooth muscle contraction to neurite outgrowth. The first marketed ROCK inhibitor, called fasudil, has been used safely for treatment of cerebral vasospasm since 1995 in Japan. During the succeeding decades ROCK inhibitors have been applied in many pathological conditions from central nervous system disorders to cardiovascular disease as potential therapeutic agents or experimental tools to help understand the underlying (pathomechanisms. In 2014, a fasudil derivate named ripasudil was accepted for clinical use in glaucoma and ocular hypertension. Since ROCK kinases are widely expressed in ocular tissues, they have been implicated in the pathology of many ocular conditions such as corneal dysfunction, glaucoma, cataract, diabetic retinopathy, age-related macular degeneration, and retinal detachment. This paper aims to provide an overview of the most recent status/application of ROCK inhibitors in the field of eye disease.

  20. Identification of a Transcriptionally Forward α Gene and Two υ Genes within the Pigeon (Columba livia) IgH Gene Locus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Tian; Wang, Xifeng; Si, Run; Chi, Hao; Han, Binyue; Han, Haitang; Cao, Gengsheng; Zhao, Yaofeng

    2018-06-01

    Compared with mammals, the bird Ig genetic system relies on gene conversion to create an Ab repertoire, with inversion of the IgA-encoding gene and very few cases of Ig subclass diversification. Although gene conversion has been studied intensively, class-switch recombination, a mechanism by which the IgH C region is exchanged, has rarely been investigated in birds. In this study, based on the published genome of pigeon ( Columba livia ) and high-throughput transcriptome sequencing of immune-related tissues, we identified a transcriptionally forward α gene and found that the pigeon IgH gene locus is arranged as μ-α-υ1-υ2. In this article, we show that both DNA deletion and inversion may result from IgA and IgY class switching, and similar junction patterns were observed for both types of class-switch recombination. We also identified two subclasses of υ genes in pigeon, which share low sequence identity. Phylogenetic analysis suggests that divergence of the two pigeon υ genes occurred during the early stage of bird evolution. The data obtained in this study provide new insight into class-switch recombination and Ig gene evolution in birds. Copyright © 2018 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  1. Free-Ranging Synanthropic Birds (Ardea alba and Columba livia domestica) as Carriers of Salmonella spp. and Diarrheagenic Escherichia coli in the Vicinity of an Urban Zoo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Mirela C V; Camargo, Beatriz Q; Cunha, Marcos P V; Saidenberg, Andre Becker; Teixeira, Rodrigo H F; Matajira, Carlos E C; Moreno, Luisa Z; Gomes, Vasco T M; Christ, Ana P G; Barbosa, Mikaela R F; Sato, Maria I Z; Moreno, Andrea M; Knöbl, Terezinha

    2018-01-01

    The presence of free-ranging urban birds is a risk factor for transmitting pathogens to captive animals and humans alike, including Salmonella spp. and diarrheagenic Escherichia coli. Cloacal swabs from 156 synanthropic Great egrets (Ardea alba) and feral pigeons (Columba livia domestica) that inhabit the surroundings of an urban zoo were processed for the identification of Salmonella spp. and diarrheagenic E. coli pathotypes. Bacterial species identification and genotypic characterization employed the matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry and PCR techniques, respectively, comparing their phylogenetic profiles through amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) analysis. A total of 11 birds were positive for Salmonella Typhimurium (7%) and 9 individuals (5.8%) for diarrheagenic E. coli (enteropathogenic E. coli/Shiga-toxin producing E. coli [EPEC/STEC]) strains. S. Typhimurium strains presented highly similar AFLP profiles (85-100%), whereas EPEC/STEC strains showed more polymorphism. The results show free-ranging birds as carriers for both microorganisms in a zoo environment in Brazil for the first time and suggest these species as possible sources of infection to other animals as well as exposing personnel and visitors to potential zoonotic microorganisms. The presence of carriers highlights the importance of a surveillance system and the need for preventive measures to avoid attracting growing number of synanthropic avian species.

  2. Ex vivo biomechanical evaluation of pigeon (Columba livia) cadaver intact humeri and ostectomized humeri stabilized with caudally applied titanium locking plate or stainless steel nonlocking plate constructs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darrow, Brett G; Biskup, Jeffrey J; Weigel, Joseph P; Jones, Michael P; Xie, Xie; Liaw, Peter K; Tharpe, Josh L; Sharma, Aashish; Penumadu, Dayakar

    2017-05-01

    OBJECTIVE To evaluate mechanical properties of pigeon (Columba livia) cadaver intact humeri versus ostectomized humeri stabilized with a locking or nonlocking plate. SAMPLE 30 humeri from pigeon cadavers. PROCEDURES Specimens were allocated into 3 groups and tested in bending and torsion. Results for intact pigeon humeri were compared with results for ostectomized humeri repaired with a titanium 1.6-mm screw locking plate or a stainless steel 1.5-mm dynamic compression plate; the ostectomized humeri mimicked a fracture in a thin cortical bone. Locking plates were secured with locking screws (2 bicortical and 4 monocortical), and nonlocking plates were secured with bicortical nonlocking screws. Constructs were cyclically tested nondestructively in 4-point bending and then tested to failure in bending. A second set of constructs were cyclically tested non-destructively and then to failure in torsion. Stiffness, strength, and strain energy of each construct were compared. RESULTS Intact specimens were stiffer and stronger than the repair groups for all testing methods, except for nonlocking constructs, which were significantly stiffer than intact specimens under cyclic bending. Intact bones had significantly higher strain energies than locking plates in both bending and torsion. Locking and nonlocking plates were of equal strength and strain energy, but not stiffness, in bending and were of equal strength, stiffness, and strain energy in torsion. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results for this study suggested that increased torsional strength may be needed before bone plate repair can be considered as the sole fixation method for avian species.

  3. Comparison of a Point-of-Care Glucometer and a Laboratory Autoanalyzer for Measurement of Blood Glucose Concentrations in Domestic Pigeons ( Columba livia domestica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohsenzadeh, Mahdieh Sadat; Zaeemi, Mahdieh; Razmyar, Jamshid; Azizzadeh, Mohammad

    2015-09-01

    Biochemical analysis is necessary for diagnosis and monitoring of diseases in birds; however, the small volume of blood that can be safely obtained from small avian species often limits laboratory diagnostic testing. Consequently, a suitable methodology requiring only a small volume of blood must be used. This study was designed to compare blood glucose concentrations in domestic pigeons ( Columba livia domestica) as measured by a commercial, handheld, human glucometer and a standard autoanalyzer. During the first phase of the study, whole blood samples obtained from 30 domestic pigeons were used to measure the blood glucose concentration with a glucometer, the packed cell volume (PCV), and the total erythrocyte count (nRBC). Plasma separated from the each sample was then used to obtain the plasma glucose concentration with the autoanalyzer. During the second phase of the study, 30 pigeons were assigned to 2 equal groups (n = 15). Hypoglycemia or hyperglycemia was induced in each group by intravenous injection of insulin or glucose, respectively. Blood was collected and processed, and glucose concentrations, PCV, and nRBC were measured as previously described. Linear-regression models demonstrated a significant relationship between results measured by the glucometer and autoanalyzer results from normoglycemic (correlation coefficient [R] = 0.43, P = .02), hypoglycemic (R = 0.95; P < .001), and hyperglycemic (R = 0.81; P < .001) birds. The results of this study suggest that we can predict the real blood-glucose concentration of pigeons by using results obtained by a glucometer.

  4. Immunohistochemical localization of cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript peptide (CARTp) in the brain of the pigeon (Columba livia) and zebra finch (Taeniopygia guttata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutierrez-Ibanez, Cristian; Iwaniuk, Andrew N; Jensen, Megan; Graham, David J; Pogány, Ákos; Mongomery, Benjamin C; Stafford, James L; Luksch, Harald; Wylie, Douglas R

    2016-12-15

    Cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript peptides (CARTp) are neuropeptides that act as neurotransmitters in the brain of vertebrates. The expression of CARTp has been characterized in teleosts, amphibians, and several mammalian species, but comparative data in reptiles and birds are nonexistent. In this study, we show the distribution of immunoreactivity against CART peptides (CARTp-ir) in the brains of two bird species: the pigeon (Columba livia) and zebra finch (Taeniopygia guttata). We found CARTp-ir cells and terminals in the brains of both, but no major differences between the two species. As in mammals, teleost fish, and amphibians, CARTp-ir terminals and cells were abundant in subpallial regions, particularly the striatum and nucleus accumbens. We also found CARTp-ir cells and terminals in the hypothalamus, and a large number of CARTp-ir terminals in the substantia nigra, ventral tegmental area, periaqueductal gray, parabrachial nucleus, and dorsal vagal complex. However, in contrast to other vertebrates, CARTp-ir was not found in the olfactory bulb. In addition there was almost no CARTp-ir in the pallium or the hippocampal formation, and little CARTp-ir in the cerebellum. The conserved expression of CARTp in the subpallium, hypothalamus, and dorsal vagal complex of birds suggests that some of the functions of CARTp, such as regulation of food intake and interactions with the social control network and mesolimbic reward system, are conserved among vertebrates. J. Comp. Neurol. 524:3747-3773, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Morphological properties of the last primaries, the tail feathers, and the alulae of Accipiter nisus, Columba livia, Falco peregrinus, and Falco tinnunculus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitz, Anke; Ponitz, Benjamin; Brücker, Christoph; Schmitz, Helmut; Herweg, Jan; Bleckmann, Horst

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the mechanical properties (Young's modulus, bending stiffness, barb separation forces) of the tenth primary of the wings, of the alulae and of the middle tail feathers of Falco peregrinus. For comparison, we also investigated the corresponding feathers in pigeons (Columba livia), kestrels (Falco tinnunculus), and sparrowhawks (Accipiter nisus). In all four species, the Young's moduli of the feathers ranged from 5.9 to 8.4 GPa. The feather shafts of F. peregrinus had the largest cross-sections and the highest specific bending stiffness. When normalized with respect to body mass, the specific bending stiffness of primary number 10 was highest in F. tinnunculus, while that of the alula was highest in A. nisus. In comparison, the specific bending stiffness, measured at the base of the tail feathers and in dorso-ventral bending direction, was much higher in F. peregrinus than in the other three species. This seems to correlate with the flight styles of the birds: F. tinnunculus hovers and its primaries might therefore withstand large mechanical forces. A. nisus has often to change its flight directions during hunting and perhaps needs its alulae for this maneuvers, and in F. peregrinus, the base of the tail feathers might need a high stiffness during breaking after diving. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Experimental infection with highly pathogenic H5N8 avian influenza viruses in the Mandarin duck (Aix galericulata) and domestic pigeon (Columba livia domestica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Jung-Hoon; Noh, Yun Kyung; Lee, Dong-Hun; Yuk, Seong-Su; Erdene-Ochir, Tseren-Ochir; Noh, Jin-Yong; Hong, Woo-Tack; Jeong, Jei-Hyun; Jeong, Sol; Gwon, Gyeong-Bin; Song, Chang-Seon; Nahm, Sang-Soep

    2017-05-01

    Wild birds play a major role in the evolution, maintenance, and dissemination of highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses (HPAIV). Sub-clinical infection with HPAI in resident wild birds could be a source of dissemination of HPAIV and continuous outbreaks. In this study, the pathogenicity and infectivity of two strains of H5N8 clade 2.3.4.4 virus were evaluated in the Mandarin duck (Aix galericulata) and domestic pigeon (Columba livia domestica). None of the birds experimentally infected with H5N8 viruses showed clinical signs or mortality. The H5N8 viruses efficiently replicated in the virus-inoculated Mandarin ducks and transmitted to co-housed Mandarin ducks. Although relatively high levels of viral shedding were noted in pigeons, viral shedding was not detected in some of the pigeons and the shedding period was relatively short. Furthermore, the infection was not transmitted to co-housed pigeons. Immunohistochemical examination revealed the presence of HPAIV in multiple organs of the infected birds. Histopathological evaluation showed the presence of inflammatory responses primarily in HPAIV-positive organs. Our results indicate that Mandarin ducks and pigeons can be infected with H5N8 HPAIV without exhibiting clinical signs; thus, they may be potential healthy reservoirs of the H5N8 HPAIV. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Plasma exogenous creatinine excretion for the assessment of renal function in avian medicine--pharmacokinetic modeling in racing pigeons (Columba livia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scope, Alexandra; Schwendenwein, Ilse; Schauberger, Günther

    2013-09-01

    The diagnostic evaluation of the glomerular filtration rate by urinary clearance has significant practical limitations in birds because urine is excreted together with feces. Thus, pharmacokinetic modeling of an exogenous plasma creatinine clearance could be useful for assessing renal creatinine excretion in birds. For this study, creatinine (50 mg/kg) was administered to 2 groups of 15 pigeons (Columba livia) each; in one group by the intravenous (IV) route and in the second by the intramuscular (IM) route. The time series of the plasma creatinine concentrations were analyzed by pharmacokinetic models. Body mass-specific creatinine excretion was determined for IV and IM administration to be between 6.30 and 6.44 mL/min per kg, respectively. Body surface area-specific creatinine clearance, which is related to the metabolic rate, was calculated between 0.506 and 0.523 mL/min per dm2, respectively. The results showed that IV as well as IM administration can be used for assessing renal creatinine excretion in pigeons. For practical reasons, IM administration is recommended, with the use of the Bateman function to calculate creatinine elimination.

  8. Mercury, arsenic, cadmium, chromium lead, and selenium in feathers of pigeon guillemots (Cepphus columba) from Prince William Sound and the Aleutian Islands of Alaska

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burger, Joanna; Gochfeld, Michael; Sullivan, Kelsey; Irons, David

    2007-01-01

    Arsenic, cadmium, chromium, lead, manganese, mercury and selenium were analyzed in the feathers of pigeon guillemots (Cepphus columba) from breeding colonies in Prince William Sound and in the Aleutian Islands (Amchitka, Kiska) to test the null hypothesis that there were no differences in metal levels as a function of location, gender, or whether the birds were from oiled or unoiled areas in Prince William Sound. Birds from locations with oil from the Exxon Valdez Oil Spill in the environment had higher levels of cadmium and lead than those from unoiled places in Prince William Sound, but otherwise there were no differences in metal levels in feathers. The feathers of pigeon guillemots from Prince William Sound had significantly higher levels of cadmium and manganese, but significantly lower levels of mercury than those from Amchitka or Kiska in the Aleutians. Amchitka had the lowest levels of chromium, and Kiska had the highest levels of selenium. There were few gender-related differences, although females had higher levels of mercury and selenium in their feathers than did males. The levels of most metals are below the known effects levels, except for mercury and selenium, which are high enough to potentially pose a risk to pigeon guillemots and to their predators

  9. The ontogeny of nutrient transporter and digestive enzyme gene expression in domestic pigeon (Columba livia) intestine and yolk sac membrane during pre- and posthatch development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, X Y; Wang, Y M; Yuan, C; Zou, X T

    2012-08-01

    To better understand the digestive capacity in domestic pigeons (Columba livia), this study was conducted to evaluate nutrient transporters and digestive enzymes gene expression in small intestine and yolk sac membrane (YSM) during pre- and posthatch development. We investigated the oligopeptide transporter Pept1, sodium glucose transporter SGLT1, glucose transporter GLUT2, aminopeptidase-N (APN), and sucrase-isomaltase (SI). Intestine was collected at embryo d 12, 14, and 16, day of hatch, and d 1, 3, 5, 8, and 14 posthatch. The YSM was collected at embryo d 12, 14, 16, and day of hatch. The cDNA fragments for Pept1, SGLT1, GLUT2, APN, and SI were isolated and cloned using reverse-transcription PCR. The sequences data showed that these genes were highly identical to the gene of chicken. The mRNA expression of each gene was assayed using real-time PCR. Expression of intestinal nutrient transporters increased linearly (Ppigeons and establish a foundation for future research on the nutrients requirements for young pigeons.

  10. Comparison of pigeon guillemot, Cepphus columba, blood parameters from oiled and unoiled areas of Alaska eight years after the Exxon Valdez oil spill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seiser, P.E.; Duffy, L.K.; McGuire, David A.; Roby, D.D.; Golet, Gregory H.; Litzow, Michael A.

    2000-01-01

    In 1997, we compared the haematological and plasma biochemical profiles among populations of pigeon guillemots, Cepphus columba, in areas oiled and not oiled by the 1989 Exxon Valdez oil spill (EVOS) that occurred in Prince William Sound (PWS), Alaska. Pigeon guillemot populations in PWS were injured by EVOS and have not returned to pre-spill levels. If oil contamination is limiting recovery of pigeon guillemots in PWS, then we expected that blood parameters of pigeon guillemots would differ between oiled and unoiled areas and that these differences would be consistent with either toxic responses or lower fitness. We collected blood samples from chicks at approximately 20 and 30 days after hatching. Physiological changes associated with chick growth were noted in several blood parameters. We found that only calcium and mean cell volume were significantly different between the chicks in oiled and unoiled areas. Despite these differences, blood biomarkers provided little evidence of continuing oil injury to pigeon guillemot chicks, eight years after the EVOS. Preliminary data from adults indicated elevated aspartate aminotransferase activity in the adults from the oiled area, which is consistent with hepatocellular injury. Because adults have greater opportunities for exposure to residual oil than nestlings, we recommend studies that fully evaluate the health of adults residing in oiled areas. (C) 2000 Elsevier Science Ltd.

  11. Science rushes to dove's service

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marante, W.

    2003-01-01

    Sesame is a project of transfer of the BESSY-1 synchrotron from Berlin (Germany) to Jordan with the aim of starting a scientific cooperation among the researchers of the Middle-East area. The goal is to generate some scientific, technological and economical fallout in this region which has suffered the Israel-Arab conflict. This synchrotron radiation facility will find applications in various domains: medicine, mechanics, archaeology, environment etc.. (J.S.)

  12. They will rock you!

    CERN Multimedia

    Anaïs Schaeffer

    2013-01-01

    On 30 September, CERN will be the venue for one of the most prestigious events of the year: the concert for the Bosons&More event, the Organization’s celebration of the remarkable performance of the LHC and all its technical systems, as well as the recent fundamental discoveries. Topping the bill will be the Orchestre de la Suisse Romande, the CERN Choir, the Zürcher Sing-Akademie and the Alan Parsons Live Project rock group, who have joined forces to create an unforgettable evening’s entertainment.   The Orchestre de la Suisse Romande, directed by Maestro Neeme Järvi, artistic and musical director of the OSR. (Image: Grégory Maillot). >>> From the Orchestre de la Suisse Romande… Henk Swinnen, General Manager of the Orchestre de la Suisse Romande (OSR), answers some questions for the CERN Bulletin, just a few days before the event. How did this project come about? When CERN invited us to take part in the B...

  13. Rock salt constitutive modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nickell, R.E.

    1980-01-01

    The Serata model is the best operational model available today because it incorporates: (1) a yield function to demarcate between viscoelastic and viscoplastic behavior of rock salt; (2) a pressure and temperature dependence for yield stresses; and (3) a standard linear solid, which can be readily extended into the non-linear regime, to represent creep behavior. Its only deficiencies appear to be the lack of secondary creep behavior (a free dashpot) and some unsettling arbitrariness about the Poisson's ratio (ν → 0.5) argument for viscoplasticity. The Sandia/WIPP model will have good primary and secondary creep capability, but lacks the viscoplastic behavior. In some cases, estimated inelastic strains may be underpredicted. If a creep acceleration mechanism associated with brine inclusions is observed, this model may require extensive revision. Most of the other models available (SAI, RE-SPEC, etc.) are only useful for short-term calculations, because they employ temporal power law (t/sup n/) primary creep representations. These models are unsatisfactory because they cannot represent dual mechanisms with differing characteristic times. An approach based upon combined creep and plasticity is recommended in order to remove the remaining deficiency in the Serata model. DOE/Sandia/WIPP should be encouraged to move aggressively in this regard

  14. Research into basic rocks types

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-06-01

    Teollisuuden Voima Oy (TVO) has carried out research into basic rock types in Finland. The research programme has been implemented in parallel with the preliminary site investigations for radioactive waste disposal in 1991-1993. The program contained two main objectives: firstly, to study the properties of the basic rock types and compare those with the other rock types under the investigation; secondly, to carry out an inventory of rock formations consisting of basic rock types and suitable in question for final disposal. A study of environmental factors important to know regarding the final disposal was made of formations identified. In total 159 formations exceeding the size of 4 km 2 were identified in the inventory. Of these formations 97 were intrusive igneous rock types and 62 originally extrusive volcanic rock types. Deposits consisting of ore minerals, industrial minerals or building stones related to these formations were studied. Environmental factors like natural resources, protected areas or potential for restrictions in land use were also studied

  15. Modeling the Rock Glacier Cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, R. S.; Anderson, L. S.

    2016-12-01

    Rock glaciers are common in many mountain ranges in which the ELA lies above the peaks. They represent some of the most identifiable components of today's cryosphere in these settings. Their oversteepened snouts pose often-overlooked hazards to travel in alpine terrain. Rock glaciers are supported by avalanches and by rockfall from steep headwalls. The winter's avalanche cone must be sufficiently thick not to melt entirely in the summer. The spatial distribution of rock glaciers reflects this dependence on avalanche sources; they are most common on lee sides of ridges where wind-blown snow augments the avalanche source. In the absence of rockfall, this would support a short, cirque glacier. Depending on the relationship between rockfall and avalanche patterns, "talus-derived" and "glacier-derived" rock glaciers are possible. Talus-derived: If the spatial distribution of rock delivery is similar to the avalanche pattern, the rock-ice mixture will travel an englacial path that is downward through the short accumulation zone before turning upward in the ablation zone. Advected debris is then delivered to the base of a growing surface debris layer that reduces the ice melt rate. The physics is identical to the debris-covered glacier case. Glacier-derived: If on the other hand rockfall from the headwall rolls beyond the avalanche cone, it is added directly to the ablation zone of the glacier. The avalanche accumulation zone then supports a pure ice core to the rock glacier. We have developed numerical models designed to capture the full range of glacier to debris-covered glacier to rock glacier behavior. The hundreds of meter lengths, tens of meters thicknesses, and meter per year speeds of rock glaciers are well described by the models. The model can capture both "talus-derived" and "glacier-derived" rock glaciers. We explore the dependence of glacier behavior on climate histories. As climate warms, a pure ice debris-covered glacier can transform to a much shorter rock

  16. Multiverso: Rock'n'Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caballero, J. A.

    2012-05-01

    In the last few years, there have been several projects involving astronomy and classical music. But have a rock band ever appeared at a science conference or an astronomer at a rock concert? We present a project, Multiverso, in which we mix rock and astronomy, together with poetry and video art (Caballero, 2010). The project started in late 2009 and has already reached tens of thousands people in Spain through the release of an album, several concert-talks, television, radio, newspapers and the internet.

  17. Fault rocks and uranium mineralization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tong Hangshou.

    1991-01-01

    The types of fault rocks, microstructural characteristics of fault tectonite and their relationship with uranium mineralization in the uranium-productive granite area are discussed. According to the synthetic analysis on nature of stress, extent of crack and microstructural characteristics of fault rocks, they can be classified into five groups and sixteen subgroups. The author especially emphasizes the control of cataclasite group and fault breccia group over uranium mineralization in the uranium-productive granite area. It is considered that more effective study should be made on the macrostructure and microstructure of fault rocks. It is of an important practical significance in uranium exploration

  18. Test procedures for salt rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dusseault, M.B.

    1985-01-01

    Potash mining, salt mining, design of solution caverns in salt rocks, disposal of waste in salt repositories, and the use of granular halite backfill in underground salt rock mines are all mining activities which are practised or contemplated for the near future. Whatever the purpose, the need for high quality design parameters is evident. The authors have been testing salt rocks in the laboratory in a number of configurations for some time. Great care has been given to the quality of sample preparation and test methodology. This paper describes the methods, presents the elements of equipment design, and shows some typical results

  19. Fluid and rock interaction in permeable volcanic rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindley, J.I.

    1985-01-01

    Four types of interrelated changes -geochemical, mineralogic, isotopic, and physical - occur in Oligocene volcanic units of the Mogollon-Datil volcanic field, New Mexico. These changes resulted from the operation of a geothermal system that, through fluid-rock interaction, affected 5 rhyolite ash-flow tuffs and an intercalated basaltic andesite lava flow causing a potassium metasomatism type of alteration. (1) Previous studies have shown enrichment of rocks in K 2 O as much as 130% of their original values at the expense of Na 2 O and CaO with an accompanying increase in Rb and decreases in MgO and Sr. (2) X-ray diffraction results of this study show that phenocrystic plagioclase and groundmass feldspar have been replaced with pure potassium feldspar and quartz in altered rock. Phenocrystic potassium feldspar, biotite, and quartz are unaffected. Pyroxene in basaltic andesite is replaced by iron oxide. (3) delta 18 O increases for rhyolitic units from values of 8-10 permil, typical of unaltered rock, to 13-15 permil, typical of altered rock. Basaltic andesite, however, shows opposite behavior with a delta 18 of 9 permil in unaltered rock and 6 permit in altered. (4) Alteration results in a density decrease. SEM revealed that replacement of plagioclase by fine-grained quartz and potassium feldspar is not a volume for volume replacement. Secondary porosity is created in the volcanics by the chaotic arrangement of secondary crystals

  20. Beach rock from Goa Coast

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Setty, M.G.A.P.; Wagle, B.G.

    constituents of beach rock found along Goa coast is dealt with in detail. While discussing the various views on its origin, it is emphasized that the process of cementation is chiefly controlled by ground water evaporation, inorganic precipitation and optimum...

  1. The Chronology of Rock Art

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Such phases are tentatively ascribed to different archaeological cultures on the basis of the contextual availability, stylistic similarities and so on. Ethnographic analogies are also attempted in the dating of rock art .

  2. Chemical methods of rock analysis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jeffery, P. G; Hutchison, D

    1981-01-01

    A practical guide to the methods in general use for the complete analysis of silicate rock material and for the determination of all those elements present in major, minor or trace amounts in silicate...

  3. Heat production in granitic rocks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Artemieva, Irina; Thybo, Hans; Jakobsen, Kiki

    2017-01-01

    Granitic rocks play special role in the dynamics and evolution of the Earth and its thermal regime. First, their compositional variability, reflected in the distribution of concentrations of radiogenic elements, provides constraints on global differentiation processes and large scale planetary...... evolution, where emplacement of granites is considered a particularly important process for the formation of continental crust. Second, heat production by radioactive decay is among the main heat sources in the Earth. Therefore knowledge of heat production in granitic rocks is pivotal for thermal modelling...... of the continental lithosphere, given that most radiogenic elements are concentrated in granitic rocks of the upper continental crust whereas heat production in rocks of the lower crust and lithospheric mantle is negligible. We present and analyze a new global database GRANITE2017 (with about 500 entries...

  4. Defending dreamer’s rock

    OpenAIRE

    Beck, Günter U.

    2007-01-01

    Defending dreamer’s rock : Geschichte, Geschichtsbewusstsein und Geschichtskultur im Native drama der USA und Kanadas. - Trier : WVT Wiss. Verl. Trier, 2007. - 445 S. - (CDE - Studies ; 14). - Zugl.: Augsburg, Univ., Diss., 2006

  5. Predicting rock bursts in mines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spall, H.

    1979-01-01

    In terms of lives lost, rock bursts in underground mines can be as hazardous as earthquakes on the surface. So it is not surprising that fo the last 40 years the U.S Bureau of Mines has been using seismic methods for detecting areas in underground mines where there is a high differential stress which could lead to structural instability of the rock mass being excavated.

  6. Thermally induced rock stress increment and rock reinforcement response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hakala, M.; Stroem, J.; Nujiten, G.; Uotinen, L.; Siren, T.; Suikkanen, J.

    2014-07-01

    This report describes a detailed study of the effect of thermal heating by the spent nuclear fuel containers on the in situ rock stress, any potential rock failure, and associated rock reinforcement strategies for the Olkiluoto underground repository. The modelling approach and input data are presented together repository layout diagrams. The numerical codes used to establish the effects of heating on the in situ stress field are outlined, together with the rock mass parameters, in situ stress values, radiogenic temperatures and reinforcement structures. This is followed by a study of the temperature and stress evolution during the repository's operational period and the effect of the heating on the reinforcement structures. It is found that, during excavation, the maximum principal stress is concentrated at the transition areas where the profile changes and that, due to the heating from the deposition of spent nuclear fuel, the maximum principal stress rises significantly in the tunnel arch area of NW/SW oriented central tunnels. However, it is predicted that the rock's crack damage (CD, short term strength) value of 99 MPa will not be exceeded anywhere within the model. Loads onto the reinforcement structures will come from damaged and loosened rock which is assumed in the modelling as a free rock wedge - but this is very much a worst case scenario because there is no guarantee that rock cracking would form a free rock block. The structural capacity of the reinforcement structures is described and it is predicted that the current quantity of the rock reinforcement is strong enough to provide a stable tunnel opening during the peak of the long term stress state, with damage predicted on the sprayed concrete liner. However, the long term stability and safety can be improved through the implementation of the principles of the Observational Method. The effect of ventilation is also considered and an additional study of the radiogenic heating effect on the brittle

  7. Thermally induced rock stress increment and rock reinforcement response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hakala, M. [KMS Hakala Oy, Nokia (Finland); Stroem, J.; Nujiten, G.; Uotinen, L. [Rockplan, Helsinki (Finland); Siren, T.; Suikkanen, J.

    2014-07-15

    This report describes a detailed study of the effect of thermal heating by the spent nuclear fuel containers on the in situ rock stress, any potential rock failure, and associated rock reinforcement strategies for the Olkiluoto underground repository. The modelling approach and input data are presented together repository layout diagrams. The numerical codes used to establish the effects of heating on the in situ stress field are outlined, together with the rock mass parameters, in situ stress values, radiogenic temperatures and reinforcement structures. This is followed by a study of the temperature and stress evolution during the repository's operational period and the effect of the heating on the reinforcement structures. It is found that, during excavation, the maximum principal stress is concentrated at the transition areas where the profile changes and that, due to the heating from the deposition of spent nuclear fuel, the maximum principal stress rises significantly in the tunnel arch area of NW/SW oriented central tunnels. However, it is predicted that the rock's crack damage (CD, short term strength) value of 99 MPa will not be exceeded anywhere within the model. Loads onto the reinforcement structures will come from damaged and loosened rock which is assumed in the modelling as a free rock wedge - but this is very much a worst case scenario because there is no guarantee that rock cracking would form a free rock block. The structural capacity of the reinforcement structures is described and it is predicted that the current quantity of the rock reinforcement is strong enough to provide a stable tunnel opening during the peak of the long term stress state, with damage predicted on the sprayed concrete liner. However, the long term stability and safety can be improved through the implementation of the principles of the Observational Method. The effect of ventilation is also considered and an additional study of the radiogenic heating effect on the

  8. Osteossíntese de úmero em pombos domésticos (Columba livia associando-se pinos metálicos e polimetilmetacrilato intramedulares após osteotomia diafisária Humerus osteosynthesis using intramedullary pins and polymethylmethacrylate in domestic pigeons (Columba livia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.M. Alievi

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Foram utilizadas 28 aves adultas, separadas aleatoriamente em quatro grupos. Os pombos foram anestesiados com isoflurano para a realização da osteotomia diafisária transversa do úmero direito. No grupo I, a osteossíntese foi realizada associando-se dois pinos de Kirschner e polimetilmetacrilato, intramedulares; no grupo II, os pinos de Kirschner foram substituídos por pinos de Schanz; no grupo III, foram utilizados apenas dois pinos de Kirschner; e, no grupo IV, apenas dois pinos de Shanz. Os tempos médios para a consolidação óssea foram de 29±4,04 dias no grupo I; 24±5,29 dias no grupo II; 33±3,74 dias no grupo III; e 32,9±5,21 dias no grupo IV. Foi observada migração dos pinos em 42,9% dos animais do grupo I, em 0% nos do grupo II, em 85,7% nos do grupo III, e em 28,6% nos do grupo IV. Em duas aves dos grupos I, III e IV notou-se incapacidade de voar. Os resultados demonstram que a associação de dois pinos de Schanz e polimetilmetacrilato, ambos intramedulares, é um método efetivo para osteossíntese de úmero em pombos domésticos (Columba livia, proporcionando rápida consolidação óssea e mínimas complicações.Twenty-eight adult domestic pigeons (Columba livia were randomly divided into four groups of seven birds each. Anesthesia was performed with isoflurane and oxygen, and an osteotomy of the right humerus midshaft was performed with an electric cutter. On the sequence, one of the following treatments was chosen: group I, two Kirschner pins and polymethylmethacrylate intramedullary; group II, two Schanz pins and polymethylmethacrylate intramedullary; group III, two Kirschner pins only; and group IV, two Schanz pins only. The mean time ± standard deviation for fracture healing was 29±4.04 days in group I; 24±5.29 days in group II; 33±3.74 days in group III; 32.9±5.21 days in group IV. Pin migration was observed in 42.9% of the group I animals, 0% of group II, 85.7% of group III, and 28.6% of group IV. Two

  9. Evaluation of Rock Bolt Support for Polish Hard Rock Mines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skrzypkowski, Krzysztof

    2018-03-01

    The article presents different types of rock bolt support used in Polish ore mining. Individual point resin and expansion rock bolt support were characterized. The roof classes for zinc and lead and copper ore mines were presented. Furthermore, in the article laboratory tests of point resin rock bolt support in a geometric scale of 1:1 with minimal fixing length of 0.6 m were made. Static testing of point resin rock bolt support were carried out on a laboratory test facility of Department of Underground Mining which simulate mine conditions for Polish ore and hard coal mining. Laboratory tests of point resin bolts were carried out, especially for the ZGH Bolesław, zinc and lead "Olkusz - Pomorzany" mine. The primary aim of the research was to check whether at the anchoring point length of 0.6 m by means of one and a half resin cartridge, the type bolt "Olkusz - 20A" is able to overcome the load.The second purpose of the study was to obtain load - displacement characteristic with determination of the elastic and plastic range of the bolt. For the best simulation of mine conditions the station steel cylinders with an external diameter of 0.1 m and a length of 0.6 m with a core of rock from the roof of the underground excavations were used.

  10. Seismic response of rock joints and jointed rock mass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghosh, A.; Hsiung, S.M.; Chowdhury, A.H.

    1996-06-01

    Long-term stability of emplacement drifts and potential near-field fluid flow resulting from coupled effects are among the concerns for safe disposal of high-level nuclear waste (HLW). A number of factors can induce drift instability or change the near-field flow patterns. Repetitive seismic loads from earthquakes and thermal loads generated by the decay of emplaced waste are two significant factors. One of two key technical uncertainties (KTU) that can potentially pose a high risk of noncompliance with the performance objectives of 10 CFR Part 60 is the prediction of thermal-mechanical (including repetitive seismic load) effects on stability of emplacement drifts and the engineered barrier system. The second KTU of concern is the prediction of thermal-mechanical-hydrological (including repetitive seismic load) effects on the host rock surrounding the engineered barrier system. The Rock Mechanics research project being conducted at the Center for Nuclear Waste Regulatory Analyses (CNWRA) is intended to address certain specific technical issues associated with these two KTUs. This research project has two major components: (i) seismic response of rock joints and a jointed rock mass and (ii) coupled thermal-mechanical-hydrological (TMH) response of a jointed rock mass surrounding the engineered barrier system (EBS). This final report summarizes the research activities concerned with the repetitive seismic load aspect of both these KTUs

  11. 30 CFR 57.3461 - Rock bursts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Rock bursts. 57.3461 Section 57.3461 Mineral...-Underground Only § 57.3461 Rock bursts. (a) Operators of mines which have experienced a rock burst shall— (1) Within twenty four hours report to the nearest MSHA office each rock burst which: (i) Causes persons to...

  12. Redução fechada e fixação esquelética externa tipo I para tratamento de fraturas de tibiotarso em pombos domésticos (Columba livia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alievi M.M.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Estudaram-se a redução fechada e a fixação esquelética externa tipo I para o tratamento de fraturas de tibiotarso em 10 pombos domésticos (Columba livia adultos. As aves foram anestesiadas com a associação de xilazina e cetamina e em seguida foi realizada fratura do tibiotarso direito por pressão digital sobre a diáfise do membro. Quatro pinos de Kirschner, dois proximais e dois distais à linha da fratura, foram inseridos percutaneamente através de ambas as corticais ósseas e, após redução fechada da fratura, conectados externamente por uma barra de acrílico autopolimerizável na face lateral do membro. Em três aves foi observado radiograficamente desvio ósseo angular, porém, a função do membro não foi afetada. O tempo médio e o desvio-padrão para a cicatrização óssea foram 23,4± 3,0 dias. Os resultados demonstram que a redução fechada e a aplicação de fixador esquelético externo tipo I é um método efetivo para o tratamento de fraturas de tibiotarso em pombos domésticos (Columba livia.

  13. Fixação esquelética externa tipo Ia (unilateral-uniplanar para osteossíntese diafisária de úmero em pombos domésticos (Columba livia Type Ia (unilateral-uniplanar external Skeletal fixation for treatment of humeral diaphysis fracture in domestic pigeons (Columba livia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Moraes Leotte

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Das várias patologias que podem acometer as aves, são mais freqüentes as fraturas de ossos longos das asas e dos membros pélvicos. Este experimento teve como objetivo observar, por meio de exames clínicos, histológicos e radiográficos, a resposta cicatricial óssea ao uso do fixador externo tipo Ia (unilateral-uniplanar na redução aberta de fratura diafisária, de úmero em pombos domésticos (Columba livia. Foram estudados 14 pombos com peso variando entre 290 e 420 gramas. A fratura foi realizada na diáfise do úmero direito e, logo após, estabilizada com aparelho de fixação externa tipo Ia, utilizando-se, como barra de fixação, o acrílico autopolimerizável. O tempo médio para o completo desaparecimento da linha de fratura foi de 28±6,44 dias e para formação de calo ósseo, 17±3,26 dias. As aves, mesmo com o aparelho de fixação, retornaram ao vôo aos 28±1,2 dias, exceto uma que não recuperou a capacidade de vôo. A técnica de fixação externa demonstrou ser eficaz para o tratamento de fraturas diafisárias de úmero em pombos domésticos.Among the various pathologies that can inflict birds, the long bones fractures of the wings, and pelvic members are more commom. Fourteeen domestic pigeons (Columba livia weighing 290 to 420g, were submitted to open reduction of humeral diaphysis fracture with external fixator type Ia (unilateral-uniplanar in order to evaluate the clinical, histological and radiographic evolution of the bone healing. The external fixator device was stabilized with methilmetacrylate acrylic. The average time necessary to the complete disappearance of the fracture line by radiographic evaluation was 28±6.44 days. The bone callus was identified at 17±3.26 postoperative days. The birds returned to flying in 28±1.2 days yet with the fixation device and only one did not recovere the flying abillity. The external fixation technique is an efficient method to treat diaphiseal humeral fracture in domestic

  14. The change in heat shock protein expression in avermectin induced neurotoxicity of the pigeon (Columba livia) both in vivo and in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ming; Wang, Xian-Song; Xu, Feng-Ping; Liu, Shuang; Xu, Shi-Wen; Li, Shu

    2014-12-01

    The expression of heat shock proteins (Hsps) commonly increases to provide neuroprotection when brain tissues are under stress conditions. Residues of avermectins (AVMs) have neurotoxic effects on a number of non-target organisms. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of AVM exposure on the expression levels of Hsp 60, Hsp 70 and Hsp 90 for pigeon (Columba livia) neurons both in vivo and in vitro. The results showed that in general, the mRNA and protein levels of Hsps were increased in treated groups relative to control groups after AVM exposure for 30d, 60d and 90d in the cerebrum, cerebellum and optic lobe in vivo. However, AVM exposure had no significant effects on the transcription expression of Hsps for 90d in the optic lobe and decreased the translation expression of Hsps significantly for 90d in the optic lobe. In vitro, the LC50 of avermectin for King pigeon neurons is between 15μgL(-1) and 20μgL(-1). Following AVM (2.5-20μgL(-1)) exposure, the mRNA expression of the 3 Hsps was up-regulated to different degrees. Compared with the control groups, a significant decrease, a remarkable increase and a non-significant change was found in the protein expression of Hsp 60, Hsp 70 and Hsp 90 separately following AVM (2.5-20μgL(-1)) exposure. Based on these results, we conclude that AVM exposure can induce a protective stress response in pigeons by means of promoting the mRNA and protein expression of Hsps under in vivo and in vitro conditions, thus easing the neurotoxic effects of AVM to some extent. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Crop milk protein is synthesised following activation of the IRS1/Akt/TOR signalling pathway in the domestic pigeon (Columba livia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, X-C; Gao, C-Q; Wang, X-H; Yan, H-C; Chen, Z-S; Wang, X-Q

    2016-12-01

    The experiment was conducted to study whether insulin receptor substance 1 (IRS1) / Protein kinase B (Akt)/target of the rapamycin (TOR) signalling pathway activation stimulates crop milk protein synthesis in the domestic pigeon (Columba livia). Crop milk was collected from ten 1-d-old squabs and analysed for nutrient content. During the non-breeding period and the first day of lactation, blood samples were collected from 5 pairs of breeding pigeons and the levels of prolactin and insulin were determined. Crop samples were collected from 5 pairs of breeders at d 14 and 16 of the incubation period and d 1, 3 and 7 of the lactation period. Crop samples were evaluated for changes in crop weight and thickness and changes in the expression patterns of IRS1/Akt/TOR signalling pathway-related proteins. The results demonstrated that prolactin induces a gradual increase in the relative weight and thickness of the crop, with crops reaching a maximum size at the third day of lactation. Pigeon crop milk contains 64.1% crude protein and 29.7% crude fat based on dry weight. Serum prolactin and insulin levels in the lactation period were significantly higher than those in the non-breeding period. Compared with non-breeding pigeons, the expression of the phosphorylated IRS1 phosphorylated Akt, phosphorylated TOR, phosphorylated ribosomal protein S6 kinase, phosphorylated S6, phosphorylated eukaryotic initiation factor 4E binding protein 1 and eukaryotic initiation factor 4E were significantly up-regulated in the crop of pigeons in the lactation period. In conclusion, prolactin might induce changes in crop tissue and form the physiological structure for crop milk synthesis. Furthermore, the synthesis of crop milk protein is regulated by activation of the IRS1/Akt/TOR signalling pathway.

  16. Color differences among feral pigeons (Columba livia) are not attributable to sequence variation in the coding region of the melanocortin-1 receptor gene (MC1R)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Genetic variation at the melanocortin-1 receptor (MC1R) gene is correlated with melanin color variation in many birds. Feral pigeons (Columba livia) show two major melanin-based colorations: a red coloration due to pheomelanic pigment and a black coloration due to eumelanic pigment. Furthermore, within each color type, feral pigeons display continuous variation in the amount of melanin pigment present in the feathers, with individuals varying from pure white to a full dark melanic color. Coloration is highly heritable and it has been suggested that it is under natural or sexual selection, or both. Our objective was to investigate whether MC1R allelic variants are associated with plumage color in feral pigeons. Findings We sequenced 888 bp of the coding sequence of MC1R among pigeons varying both in the type, eumelanin or pheomelanin, and the amount of melanin in their feathers. We detected 10 non-synonymous substitutions and 2 synonymous substitution but none of them were associated with a plumage type. It remains possible that non-synonymous substitutions that influence coloration are present in the short MC1R fragment that we did not sequence but this seems unlikely because we analyzed the entire functionally important region of the gene. Conclusions Our results show that color differences among feral pigeons are probably not attributable to amino acid variation at the MC1R locus. Therefore, variation in regulatory regions of MC1R or variation in other genes may be responsible for the color polymorphism of feral pigeons. PMID:23915680

  17. Evaluation of Two Miniplate Systems and Figure-of-eight Bandages for Stabilization of Experimentally Induced Ulnar and Radial Fractures in Pigeons ( Columba livia ).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennert, Beatrice M; Kircher, Patrick R; Gutbrod, Andreas; Riechert, Juliane; Hatt, Jean-Michel

    2016-06-01

    Although plate fixation has advantages over other fixation methods for certain indications, it is rarely used in avian surgery, especially in birds that weigh less than 1000 g. Exceptionally small plating systems for these birds are required, which are relatively expensive and difficult to insert. To study avian fracture healing after repair using miniplates, we evaluated 2 steel miniplate systems in 27 pigeons ( Columba livia ) divided into 4 groups. In each pigeon, the left ulna and radius were transected and the ulna was repaired with a bone plate. In groups A and B, a 1.3-mm adaption plate was applied without and with a figure-of-eight bandage; in groups C and D, a 1.0-mm compression plate was applied without and with a bandage, respectively. Healing was evaluated with radiographs after 3, 14, and 28 days; flight tests were conducted after 14, 21, and 28 days; and the wing was macroscopically examined after euthanasia of birds on day 28. Fractures healed without bending or distortion of the plate in all 27 birds, and no significant differences in healing were found between treatment groups. At the end of the study, 23 pigeons (85.2%) showed good or very good flight ability. Results show the 1.3-mm adaption plate and the 1.0-mm compression plate meet the requirements for avian osteosynthesis and can be recommended for fracture repair of the ulna or other long bones in birds weighing less than 500 g. The application of a figure-of-eight bandage might be beneficial in fracture healing.

  18. On the Weak-Wind Problem in Massive Stars: X-Ray Spectra Reveal a Massive Hot Wind in mu Columbae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huenemoerder, David P.; Oskinova, Lidia M.; Ignace, Richard; Waldron, Wayne L.; Todt, Helge; Hamaguchi, Kenji; Kitamoto, Shunji

    2012-01-01

    Mu Columbae is a prototypical weak-wind O star for which we have obtained a high-resolution X-ray spectrum with the Chandra LETG/ACIS instrument and a low-resolution spectrum with Suzaku. This allows us, for the first time, to investigate the role of X-rays on the wind structure in a bona fide weak-wind system and to determine whether there actually is a massive hot wind. The X-ray emission measure indicates that the outflow is an order of magnitude greater than that derived from UV lines and is commensurate with the nominal wind-luminosity relationship for O stars. Therefore, the "weak-wind problem"--identified from cool wind UV/optical spectra--is largely resolved by accounting for the hot wind seen in X-rays. From X-ray line profiles, Doppler shifts, and relative strengths, we find that this weak-wind star is typical of other late O dwarfs. The X-ray spectra do not suggest a magnetically confined plasma-the spectrum is soft and lines are broadened; Suzaku spectra confirm the lack of emission above 2 keV. Nor do the relative line shifts and widths suggest any wind decoupling by ions. The He-like triplets indicate that the bulk of the X-ray emission is formed rather close to the star, within five stellar radii. Our results challenge the idea that some OB stars are "weak-wind" stars that deviate from the standard wind-luminosity relationship. The wind is not weak, but it is hot and its bulk is only detectable in X-rays.

  19. Transcriptomic Analysis Identifies Candidate Genes Related to Intramuscular Fat Deposition and Fatty Acid Composition in the Breast Muscle of Squabs (Columba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manhong Ye

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Despite the fact that squab is consumed throughout the world because of its high nutritional value and appreciated sensory attributes, aspects related to its characterization, and in particular genetic issues, have rarely been studied. In this study, meat traits in terms of pH, water-holding capacity, intramuscular fat content, and fatty acid profile of the breast muscle of squabs from two meat pigeon breeds were determined. Breed-specific differences were detected in fat-related traits of intramuscular fat content and fatty acid composition. RNA-Sequencing was applied to compare the transcriptomes of muscle and liver tissues between squabs of two breeds to identify candidate genes associated with the differences in the capacity of fat deposition. A total of 27 differentially expressed genes assigned to pathways of lipid metabolism were identified, of which, six genes belonged to the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor signaling pathway along with four other genes. Our results confirmed in part previous reports in livestock and provided also a number of genes which had not been related to fat deposition so far. These genes can serve as a basis for further investigations to screen markers closely associated with intramuscular fat content and fatty acid composition in squabs. The data from this study were deposited in the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI’s Sequence Read Archive under the accession numbers SRX1680021 and SRX1680022. This is the first transcriptome analysis of the muscle and liver tissue in Columba using next generation sequencing technology. Data provided here are of potential value to dissect functional genes influencing fat deposition in squabs.

  20. Evaluation of gastrointestinal tract transit times using barium-impregnated polyethylene spheres and barium sulfate suspension in a domestic pigeon (Columba livia) model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloch, Rebecca A; Cronin, Kimberly; Hoover, John P; Pechman, Robert D; Payton, Mark E

    2010-03-01

    Barium impregnated polyethylene spheres (BIPS) are used in small animal medicine as an alternative to barium sulfate for radiographic studies of the gastrointestinal tract. To determine the usefulness of BIPS as an alternative to barium suspension in measuring gastrointestinal (GI) transit time for avian species, ventrodorsal radiographs were used to follow the passage of BIPS and 30% barium sulfate suspension through the GI tracts of domestic pigeons (Columba livia). Gastrointestinal transit times of thirty 1.5-mm BIPS administered in moistened gelatin capsules and 30% barium sulfate suspension gavaged into the crop were compared in 6 pigeons. Although the barium suspension passed out of the GI tract of all pigeons within 24 hours, the 1.5-mm BIPS remained in the ventriculus for 368.0 +/- 176.8 hours and did not clear the GI tract for 424.0 +/- 204.6 hours. Although the times for passage of BIPS and 30% barium sulfate suspension from the crop into the ventriculus were not significantly different (P = .14), the times for passage of BIPS from the ventriculus into the large intestine-cloaca and for clearance from the GI tract of the pigeons were significantly longer (P barium sulfate suspension. From the results of this study, we conclude that BIPS are not useful for radiographically evaluating GI transit times in pigeons and are unlikely to be useful in other avian species that have a muscular ventriculus. BIPS may or may not be useful for evaluating GI transit times in species that lack a muscular ventriculus.

  1. Current status of crushed rock and whole rock column studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vine, E.N.; Daniels, W.R.; Rundberg, R.S.; Thompson, J.L.

    1980-01-01

    Measurements on a large number of crushed rock columns of tuff, granite, and argillite are discussed. The isotopes 85 Sr, 137 Cs, 133 Ba, 141 Ce, 152 Eu, /sup 95m/Tc, and 233 U were used. Flow rates were varied from approx. 30 to approx. 30000 m/y. Other parameters studied include isotope concentration and atmosphere. The sorption ratios calculated were compared with batch sorption ratios on the same samples. Methods of studying the movement of radionuclides through whole rock cores are described. The problems associated with sealing the cores to prevent leaking along the exterior surface and one possible solution are discussed. The strontium sorption ratio obtained by elution of one solid tuff core is compared with the batch and crushed rock column sorption ratios

  2. Rock Pore Structure as Main Reason of Rock Deterioration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ondrášik Martin

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Crashed or dimensional rocks have been used as natural construction material, decoration stone or as material for artistic sculptures. Especially old historical towns not only in Slovakia have had experiences with use of stones for construction purposes for centuries. The whole buildings were made from dimensional stone, like sandstone, limestone or rhyolite. Pavements were made especially from basalt, andesite, rhyolite or granite. Also the most common modern construction material - concrete includes large amounts of crashed rock, especially limestone, dolostone and andesite.

  3. Fracture characteristics in Japanese rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ijiri, Yuji; Sawada, Atsushi; Akahori, Kuniaki

    1999-11-01

    It is crucial for the performance assessment of geosphere to evaluate the characteristics of fractures that can be dominant radionuclide migration pathways from a repository to biosphere. This report summarizes the characteristics of fractures obtained from broad literature surveys and the fields surveys at the Kamaishi mine in northern Japan and at outcrops and galleries throughout the country. The characteristics of fractures described in this report are fracture orientation, fracture shape, fracture frequency, fracture distribution in space, transmissivity of fracture, fracture aperture, fracture fillings, alteration halo along fracture, flow-wetted surface area in fracture, and the correlation among these characteristics. Since granitic rock is considered the archetype fractured media, a large amount of fracture data is available in literature. In addition, granitic rock has been treated as a potential host rock in many overseas programs, and has JNC performed a number of field observations and experiments in granodiorite at the Kamaishi mine. Therefore, the characteristics of fractures in granitic rock are qualitatively and quantitatively clarified to some extent in this report, while the characteristics of fractures in another rock types are not clarified. (author)

  4. Hot dry rock heat mining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duchane, D.V.

    1992-01-01

    Geothermal energy utilizing fluids from natural sources is currently exploited on a commercial scale at sites around the world. A much greater geothermal resource exists, however, in the form of hot rock at depth which is essentially dry. This hot dry rock (HDR) resource is found almost everywhere, but the depth at which usefully high temperatures are reached varies from place to place. The technology to mine the thermal energy from HDR has been under development for a number of years. Using techniques adapted from the petroleum industry, water is pumped at high pressure down an injection well to a region of usefully hot rock. The pressure forces open natural joints to form a reservoir consisting of a small amount of water dispensed in a large volume of hot rock. This reservoir is tapped by second well located at some distance from the first, and the heated water is brought to the surface where its thermal energy is extracted. The same water is then recirculated to mine more heat. Economic studies have indicated that it may be possible to produce electricity at competitive prices today in regions where hot rock is found relatively close to the surface

  5. Chlamydia psittaci in feral Rosy-faced Lovebirds (Agapornis roseicollis) and other backyard birds in Maricopa County, Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dusek, Robert; Justice-Allen, Anne; Bodenstein, Barbara; Knowles, Susan N.; Grear, Daniel A.; Adams, Laura; Levy, Craig; Yaglom, Haley D.; Shearn-Bochsler, Valerie I.; Ciembor, Paula; Gregory, Christopher R.; Pesti, Denise; Ritchie, Branson W.

    2018-01-01

    In 2013, a mortality event of nonnative, feral Rosy-faced Lovebirds (Agapornis roseicollis) in residential backyards in Maricopa County, Arizona, US was attributed to infection with Chlamydia psittaci. In June 2014, additional mortality occurred in the same region. Accordingly, in August 2014 we sampled live lovebirds and sympatric bird species visiting backyard bird feeders to determine the prevalence of DNA and the seroprevalence of antibodies to C. psittaci using real-time PCR-based testing and elementary body agglutination, respectively. Chlamydia psittaci DNA was present in conjunctival-choanal or cloacal swabs in 93% (43/46) of lovebirds and 10% (14/142) of sympatric birds. Antibodies to C. psittaci were detected in 76% (31/41) of lovebirds and 7% (7/102) of sympatric birds. Among the sympatric birds, Rock Doves (Columba livia) had the highest prevalence of C. psittaci DNA (75%; 6/8) and seroprevalence (25%; 2/8). Psittacine circovirus 1 DNA was also identified, using real-time PCR-based testing, from the same swab samples in 69% (11/16) of species sampled, with a prevalence of 80% (37/46) in lovebirds and 27% (38/142) in sympatric species. The presence of either Rosy-faced Lovebirds or Rock Doves at residential bird feeders may be cause for concern for epizootic and zoonotic transmission of C. psittaci in this region.

  6. Thermal expansion of granite rocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stephansson, O.

    1978-04-01

    The thermal expansion of rocks is strongly controlled by the thermal expansion of the minerals. The theoretical thermal expansion of the Stripa Granite is gound to be 21 . 10 -6 [deg C] -1 at 25 deg C and 38 . 10 -6 [deg C] -1 at 400 deg C. The difference in expansion for the rock forming minerals causes micro cracking at heating. The expansion due to micro cracks is found to be of the same order as the mineral expansion. Most of the micro cracks will close at pressures of the order of 10 - 20 MPa. The thermal expansion of a rock mass including the effect of joints is determined in the pilot heater test in the Stripa Mine

  7. Uranium endowments in phosphate rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ulrich, Andrea E.; Schnug, Ewald; Prasser, Horst-Michael; Frossard, Emmanuel

    2014-01-01

    This study seeks to identify and specify the components that make up the prospects of U recovery from phosphate rock. A systems approach is taken. The assessment includes i) reviewing past recovery experience and lessons learned; ii) identifying factors that determine recovery; and iii) establishing a contemporary evaluation of U endowments in phosphate rock reserves, as well as the available and recoverable amounts from phosphate rock and phosphoric acid production. We find that in the past, recovery did not fulfill its potential and that the breakup of the Soviet Union worsened then-favorable recovery market conditions in the 1990s. We find that an estimated 5.7 million tU may be recoverable from phosphate rock reserves. In 2010, the recoverable tU from phosphate rock and phosphoric acid production may have been 15,000 tU and 11,000 tU, respectively. This could have filled the world U supply-demand gap for nuclear energy production. The results suggest that the U.S., Morocco, Tunisia, and Russia would be particularly well-suited to recover U, taking infrastructural considerations into account. We demonstrate future research needs, as well as sustainability orientations. We conclude that in order to promote investment and production, it seems necessary to establish long-term contracts at guaranteed prices, ensuring profitability for phosphoric acid producers. - Highlights: • We identify components that underlie the recovery of uranium from phosphate rock. • We estimate that 11,000 tU may have been recoverable from phosphoric acid in 2010. • Recovery is a resource conservation and environmental pollution control strategy. • To ensure investment in recovery technology, profitability needs to be secured

  8. Uranium deposits in granitic rocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishimori, R.K.; Ragland, P.C.; Rogers, J.J.W.; Greenberg, J.K.

    1977-01-01

    This report is a review of published data bearing on the geology and origin of uranium deposits in granitic, pegmatitic and migmatitic rocks with the aim of assisting in the development of predictive criteria for the search for similar deposits in the U.S. Efforts were concentrated on the so-called ''porphyry'' uranium deposits. Two types of uranium deposits are primarily considered: deposits in pegmatites and alaskites in gneiss terrains, and disseminations of uranium in high-level granites. In Chapter 1 of this report, the general data on the distribution of uranium in igneous and metamorphic rocks are reviewed. Chapter 2 contains some comments on the classification of uranium deposits associated with igneous rocks and a summary of the main features of the geology of uranium deposits in granites. General concepts of the behavior of uranium in granites during crustal evolution are reviewed in Chapter 3. Also included is a discussion of the relationship of uranium mineralization in granites to the general evolution of mobile belts, plus the influence of magmatic and post-magmatic processes on the distribution of uranium in igneous rocks and related ore deposits. Chapter 4 relates the results of experimental studies on the crystallization of granites to some of the geologic features of uranium deposits in pegmatites and alaskites in high-grade metamorphic terrains. Potential or favorable areas for igneous uranium deposits in the U.S.A. are delineated in Chapter 5. Data on the geology of specific uranium deposits in granitic rocks are contained in Appendix 1. A compilation of igneous rock formations containing greater than 10 ppM uranium is included in Appendix 2. Appendix 3 is a report on the results of a visit to the Roessing area. Appendix 4 is a report on a field excursion to eastern Canada

  9. Uranium endowments in phosphate rock

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ulrich, Andrea E., E-mail: andrea.ulrich@env.ethz.ch [Institute for Environmental Decisions (IED), Natural and Social Science Interface, ETH Zurich Universitässtrasse 22, 8092 Zurich (Switzerland); Institute for Agricultural Sciences, Plant Nutrition, ETH Zurich, Eschikon 33, 8315 Lindau (Switzerland); Schnug, Ewald, E-mail: e.schnug@tu-braunschweig.de [Department of Life Sciences, Technical University of Braunschweig, Pockelsstraße 14, D-38106 Braunschweig (Germany); Prasser, Horst-Michael, E-mail: prasser@lke.mavt.ethz.ch [Institute of Energy Technology, Laboratory of Nuclear Energy Systems, ETH Zurich, Sonneggstrasse 3, 8092 Zurich (Switzerland); Frossard, Emmanuel, E-mail: emmanuel.frossard@usys.ethz.ch [Institute for Agricultural Sciences, Plant Nutrition, ETH Zurich, Eschikon 33, 8315 Lindau (Switzerland)

    2014-04-01

    This study seeks to identify and specify the components that make up the prospects of U recovery from phosphate rock. A systems approach is taken. The assessment includes i) reviewing past recovery experience and lessons learned; ii) identifying factors that determine recovery; and iii) establishing a contemporary evaluation of U endowments in phosphate rock reserves, as well as the available and recoverable amounts from phosphate rock and phosphoric acid production. We find that in the past, recovery did not fulfill its potential and that the breakup of the Soviet Union worsened then-favorable recovery market conditions in the 1990s. We find that an estimated 5.7 million tU may be recoverable from phosphate rock reserves. In 2010, the recoverable tU from phosphate rock and phosphoric acid production may have been 15,000 tU and 11,000 tU, respectively. This could have filled the world U supply-demand gap for nuclear energy production. The results suggest that the U.S., Morocco, Tunisia, and Russia would be particularly well-suited to recover U, taking infrastructural considerations into account. We demonstrate future research needs, as well as sustainability orientations. We conclude that in order to promote investment and production, it seems necessary to establish long-term contracts at guaranteed prices, ensuring profitability for phosphoric acid producers. - Highlights: • We identify components that underlie the recovery of uranium from phosphate rock. • We estimate that 11,000 tU may have been recoverable from phosphoric acid in 2010. • Recovery is a resource conservation and environmental pollution control strategy. • To ensure investment in recovery technology, profitability needs to be secured.

  10. Evaluation of Rock Joint Coefficients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Audy, Ondřej; Ficker, Tomáš

    2017-10-01

    A computer method for evaluation of rock joint coefficients is described and several applications are presented. The method is based on two absolute numerical indicators that are formed by means of the Fourier replicas of rock joint profiles. The first indicator quantifies the vertical depth of profiles and the second indicator classifies wavy character of profiles. The absolute indicators have replaced the formerly used relative indicators that showed some artificial behavior in some cases. This contribution is focused on practical computations testing the functionality of the newly introduced indicators.

  11. Ultrasonically assisted drilling of rocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikhailova, N. V.; Onawumi, P. Y.; Roy, A.; Silberschmidt, V. V.

    2018-05-01

    Conventional drilling of rocks can generate significant damage in the drilled material; a material layer is often split off a back surface of a sample during drilling, negatively affecting its strength. To improve finish quality, ultrasonically assisted drilling (UAD) was employed in two rocks - sandstone and marble. Damage areas in both materials were reduced in UAD when compared to conventional drilling. Reductions in a thrust force and a torque reduction were observed only for UAD in marble; ultrasonic assistance in sandstone drilling did not result in improvements in this regard.

  12. Rock mechanics studies for SMES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haimson, B.C.

    1981-01-01

    Superconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES) systems capable of storing thousands of MWh develop tremendous magnetically induced forces when charged. To prevent rutpure of the magnets these forces must be confined. Bedrock offers a practical and relatively inexpensive magnet containment structure. This paper examines the need for rock mechanics research in connection with the construction and use of SMES rock caverns; the unique problems related to housing superconducting magnets in bedrock; site investigations of granite, quartzite and dolomite deposits in Wisconsin; and cavern design requirements to assure cavern stability and limited deformation under the expected mechanical leads. Recommendations are made for siting SMES caverns

  13. Source rock potential of middle cretaceous rocks in Southwestern Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyman, T.S.; Palacas, J.G.; Tysdal, R.G.; Perry, W.J.; Pawlewicz, M.J.

    1996-01-01

    The middle Cretaceous in southwestern Montana is composed of a marine and nonmarine succession of predominantly clastic rocks that were deposited along the western margin of the Western Interior Seaway. In places, middle Cretaceous rocks contain appreciable total organic carbon (TOC), such as 5.59% for the Mowry Shale and 8.11% for the Frontier Formation in the Madison Range. Most samples, however, exhibit less than 1.0% TOC. The genetic or hydrocarbon potential (S1+S2) of all the samples analyzed, except one, yield less than 1 mg HC/g rock, strongly indicating poor potential for generating commercial amounts of hydrocarbons. Out of 51 samples analyzed, only one (a Thermopolis Shale sample from the Snowcrest Range) showed a moderate petroleum potential of 3.1 mg HC/g rock. Most of the middle Cretaceous samples are thermally immature to marginally mature, with vitrinite reflectance ranging from about 0.4 to 0.6% Ro. Maturity is high in the Pioneer Mountains, where vitrinite reflectance averages 3.4% Ro, and at Big Sky Montana, where vitrinite reflectance averages 2.5% Ro. At both localities, high Ro values are due to local heat sources, such as the Pioneer batholith in the Pioneer Mountains.

  14. Soft Rock Yields Clues to Mars' Past

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Figure 1 This image taken by the Mars Exploration Rover Spirit shows the rock outcrop dubbed 'Clovis.' The rock was discovered to be softer than other rocks studied so far at Gusev Crater after the rover easily ground a hole into it with its rock abrasion tool. Spirit's solar panels can be seen in the foreground. This image was taken by the rover's navigation camera on sol 205 (July 31, 2004). Elemental Trio Found in 'Clovis' Figure 1 above shows that the interior of the rock dubbed 'Clovis' contains higher concentrations of sulfur, bromine and chlorine than basaltic, or volcanic, rocks studied so far at Gusev Crater. The data were taken by the Mars Exploration Rover Spirit's alpha particle X-ray spectrometer after the rover dug into Clovis with its rock abrasion tool. The findings might indicate that this rock was chemically altered, and that fluids once flowed through the rock depositing these elements.

  15. Review on the prevailing methods for the prediction of potential rock burst / rock spalling in tunnels

    OpenAIRE

    Panthi, Krishna Kanta

    2017-01-01

    Rock burst / rock spalling is among the prevailing stability challenges, which can be met while tunneling through hard rock mass. Especially, this is very relevant for the mountainous country like Norway where hard rock is dominating and many road, railway and hydropower tunnels have to be aligned deep into the mountain with steep valley slope topography. Tunnels passing beneath deep rock cover (overburden), in general, are subjected to high in-situ stresses. If the rock mass is relatively un...

  16. Simulation of rock deformation behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Я. И. Рудаев

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available A task of simulating the deformation behavior of geomaterials under compression with account of over-extreme branch has been addressed. The physical nature of rock properties variability as initially inhomogeneous material is explained by superposition of deformation and structural transformations of evolutionary type within open nonequilibrium systems. Due to this the description of deformation and failure of rock is related to hierarchy of instabilities within the system being far from thermodynamic equilibrium. It is generally recognized, that the energy function of the current stress-strain state is a superposition of potential component and disturbance, which includes the imperfection parameter accounting for defects not only existing in the initial state, but also appearing under load. The equation of state has been obtained by minimizing the energy function by the order parameter. The imperfection parameter is expressed through the strength deterioration, which is viewed as the internal parameter of state. The evolution of strength deterioration has been studied with the help of Fokker – Planck equation, which steady form corresponds to rock statical stressing. Here the diffusion coefficient is assumed to be constant, while the function reflecting internal sliding and loosening of the geomaterials is assumed as an antigradient of elementary integration catastrophe. Thus the equation of state is supplemented with a correlation establishing relationship between parameters of imperfection and strength deterioration. While deformation process is identified with the change of dissipative media, coupled with irreversible structural fluctuations. Theoretical studies are proven with experimental data obtained by subjecting certain rock specimens to compression.

  17. Los abuelos de nuestro rock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacobo Celnik

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Los Yetis. Una bomba atómica a go go. La historia de los abuelos de nuestro rock. Diego Londoño; Pulso & Letra Editores, Instituto para el Desarrollo de Antioquia, Instituto de Cultura y Patrimonio de Antioquia, 2014, 98 págs., fotografías.

  18. Gas migration in argillaceous rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alonso, E. E.; Olivella, S.

    2007-01-01

    The intrinsic gas permeability of fractured argillaceous rocks depends on the current structure of micro-cracks and fissures of the rock. They are a consequence of the initial state and the subsequent deformations induced by stress and gas pressure changes. Stresses are also coupled with fluid pressures and, therefore, gas flow and mechanical behaviour are intensely coupled. Laboratory experiments, aimed at determining intrinsic permeability, show the relevant effect of volumetric deformations induced by isotropic, as well as deviatoric stress changes. The relevance, in practice, of the flow-mechanical coupling is illustrated by means of some results obtained during the performance of the drift scale test (DST) in fractured tuff in the Yucca Mountain facility. The technique of embedding discontinuities in continuum thermo-hydro-mechanical elements is capable of reproducing observed features of gas flow migration in clayey rocks. An example is described. It is believed that the developed approach provides a powerful computational procedure to handle complex gas phenomena in clayey rocks. (author)

  19. Radioactivities (dose rates) of rocks in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuda, Hideharu; Minato, Susumu

    1995-01-01

    The radioactive distribution (radiation doses) of major rocks in Japan was monitored to clarify the factors influencing terrestrial gamma-ray absorbed dose rates. The rock samples were reduced to powder and analyzed by well-type NaI(Tl) scintillation detector and pulse height analyzer. Terrestrial gamma-ray dose rates were estimated in terms of gamma radiation dose rate 1 m above the ground. The radioactivity concentration was highest in acidic rock which contains much SiO 2 among igneous rock, followed by neutral rock, basic rock, and ultrabasic rock. The radioactive concentration was 30-40% lower in acidic and clastic rocks than those of the world average concentration. Higher radioactive concentration was observed in soils than the parent rocks of sedimentary rock and metamorphic rock. The gamma radiation dose rate was in proportion to the radioactive concentration of the rocks. To clarify the radioactive effect in the change course of rocks into soils, comparative measurement of outcrop and soil radioactive concentrations is important. (S.Y.)

  20. Neuromuscular organization of avian flight muscle: architecture of single muscle fibres in muscle units of the pectoralis (pars thoracicus) of pigeon (Columba livia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokoloff, A. J.

    1999-01-01

    The M. pectoralis (pars thoracicus) of pigeons (Columba livia) is comprised of short muscle fibres that do not extend from muscle origin to insertion but overlap 'in-series'. Individual pectoralis motor units are limited in territory to a portion of muscle length and are comprised of either fast twitch, oxidative and glycolytic fibres (FOG) or fast twitch and glycolytic fibres (FG). FOG fibres make up 88 to 90% of the total muscle population and have a mean diameter one-half of that of the relatively large FG fibres. Here we report on the organization of individual fibres identified in six muscle units depleted of glycogen, three comprised of FOG fibres and three comprised of FG fibres. For each motor unit, fibre counts revealed unequal numbers of depleted fibres in different unit cross-sections. We traced individual fibres in one unit comprised of FOG fibres and a second comprised of FG fibres. Six fibres from a FOG unit (total length 15.45 mm) ranged from 10.11 to 11.82 mm in length and averaged (± s.d.) 10.74 ± 0.79 mm. All originated bluntly (en mass) from a fascicle near the proximal end of the muscle unit and all terminated intramuscularly. Five of these ended in a taper and one ended bluntly. Fibres coursed on average for 70% of the muscle unit length. Six fibres from a FG unit (total length 34.76 mm) ranged from 8.97 to 18.38 mm in length and averaged 15.32 ± 3.75 mm. All originated bluntly and terminated intramuscularly; one of these ended in a taper and five ended bluntly. Fibres coursed on average for 44% of the muscle unit length. Because fibres of individual muscle units do not extend the whole muscle unit territory, the effective cross-sectional area changes along the motor unit length. These non-uniformities in the distribution of fibres within a muscle unit emphasize that the functional interactions within and between motor units are complex.

  1. An evaluation of the International Society for Animal Genetics recommended parentage and identification panel for the domestic pigeon (Columba livia domestica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Groot, M; van Haeringen, W A

    2017-08-01

    In this study, the International Society for Animal Genetics (ISAG) recommended panel for the identification of the domestic pigeon (Columba livia domestica) is characterized based on commonly used statistical parameters. The marker panel is based on 16 short tandem repeat (STR) loci (PIGN15, PIGN10, PIGN57, PIGN26, CliμD16, CliμD19, PIGN12, CliμD17, CliμT17, PIGN04, CliμD01, CliμD11, CliμD35, CliμT02, CliμT13, CliμT43). The alleles of the 16 loci consist of a mixture of tri-, tetra-, penta- and hexameric repeat patterns. A sex determination marker was included in the multiplex for quality control. The repeat sequence of the PIGN markers was previously unpublished and therefore sequenced to reveal the sequence pattern. In total, 1421 pigeons were genotyped on 16 STR loci to generate allele frequency data for each locus. For all 16 markers combined, a PE1 (combined non-exclusion probability, first parent) of 0.9986 and PE2 (combined non-exclusion probability, second parent) of >0.9999 was observed. Comparing the alleged father and mother, a PE value of >0.9999 was observed. Two of the markers, CliμD19 and PIGN12, were found to have relatively high Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium and F(null) values. Therefore these markers may be considered to be replaced by other STRs. Another point of discussion may be to add a gender identification marker to the recommended ISAG panel. Not only can this serve as an extra identification marker, but this can also confirm the sex of a sample, because it is challenging to determine the sex based on phenotypical characteristics, especially for chicks. In conclusion, the set of 16 STR markers can be used in routine parentage verification and the identification of individuals. © 2017 Stichting International Foundation for Animal Genetics.

  2. Growth curves and age-related changes in carcass characteristics, organs, serum parameters, and intestinal transporter gene expression in domestic pigeon (Columba livia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, C Q; Yang, J X; Chen, M X; Yan, H C; Wang, X Q

    2016-04-01

    Two experiments were conducted to fit growth curves, and determine age-related changes in carcass characteristics, organs, serum biochemical parameters, and gene expression of intestinal nutrient transporters in domestic pigeon (Columba livia). In experiment 1, body weight (BW) of 30 pigeons was respectively determined at 1, 3, 7, 14, 21, 28, and 35 days old to fit growth curves and to describe the growth of pigeons. In experiment 2, eighty-four 1-day-old squabs were grouped by weight into 7 groups. On d 1, 3, 7, 14, 21, 28, and 35, twelve birds from each group were randomly selected for slaughter and post-slaughter analysis. The results showed that BW of pigeons increased rapidly from d 1 to d 28 (a 25.7-fold increase), and then had little change until d 35. The Logistic, Gompertz, and Von Bertalanffy functions can all be well fitted with the growth curve of domestic pigeons (R2>0.90) and the Gompertz model showed the highest R2value among the models (R2=0.9997). The equation of Gompertz model was Y=507.72×e-(3.76exp(-0.17t))(Y=BW of pigeon (g); t=time (day)). In addition, breast meat yield (%) increased with age throughout the experiment, whereas the leg meat yield (%) reached to the peak on d 14. Serum total protein, albumin, globulin, and glucose concentration were increased with age, whereas serum uric acid concentration was decreased (P<0.05). Furthermore, the gene expressions of nutrient transporters (y+LAT2, LAT1, B0AT1, PepT1, and NHE2) in jejunum of pigeon were increased with age. The results of correlation analysis showed the gene expressions of B0AT1, PepT1, and NHE2 had positive correlations with BW (0.73

  3. Descrição da artéria celíaca em pombos domésticos (Columba livia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Ismar Santana

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-7925.2012v25n2p125 O presente estudo objetivou definir a origem e a distribuição da artéria celíaca e de seus ramos colaterais em 15 aves da espécie Columba livia, cedidas pelo Centro de Controle de Zoonoses de Brasília. Com a finalidade de marcar o sistema arterial dos espécimes, o tronco braquiocefálico esquerdo foi canulado e injetado com solução aquosa de látex corado. Posteriormente, procedeu-se a fixação das aves com solução aquosa de formol 10% e a dissecação com instrumentos adequados, obtendo-se os resultados a seguir. A artéria celíaca originou-se da face ventral da aorta descendente. O primeiro ramo colateral surgiu da própria artéria celíaca, constituindo a artéria esofágica. Posteriormente, artéria celíaca se bifurcou em dois ramos, denominados ramo esquerdo da artéria celíaca e ramo direito da artéria celíaca. O ramo esquerdo emitiu a artéria proventricular ventral, seguida das artérias esplênicas, da artéria proventricular dorsal e da artéria hepática esquerda. Por fim, o ramo esquerdo se bifurcou, originando as artérias gástricas ventral e esquerda. O ramo direito emitiu a artéria hepática direita, seguida da artéria ileal e da artéria gástrica direita. Por fim, o ramo direito prosseguiu como artéria pancreaticoduodenal. Os achados deste trabalho apresentaram grande similaridade com as linhagens de aves da espécie Gallus gallus, exceto pela ausência da artéria ileocecal, de ramos císticos e da artéria gástrica dorsal.

  4. Genetic characterization of 11 microsatellite loci in Egyptian pigeons (Columba livia domestica) and their cross-species amplification in other Columbidae populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramadan, Sherif; Dawod, Ahmed; El-Garhy, Osama; Nowier, Amira M; Eltanany, Marwa; Inoue-Murayama, Miho

    2018-04-01

    This study aimed to analyze the genetic diversity and relationships of 10 Egyptian pigeon populations belonging to Columba livia domestica speciesusing 11 microsatellite markers and to investigate the success of these markers amplification across another eight pigeon species. Genomic DNA was isolated from feather samples of179 pigeon samples from 10 Egyptian breeds: Asfer Weraq (n=14), Austoraly (n=20), Reehani (n=21), Messawed (n=17), Nemssawy (n=27), Otatti (n=12), Morasla (n=17), Tumbler (n=22), Halaby Asfer (n=10), and Karakandy (n=19) in addition to Japanese feral pigeons (n=30). Genotyping was done using 11 specific polymorphic microsatellite makers. Moreover, 37 samples not belonging to C. livia domestica but belonging to another eight pigeon species were genotyped. The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) products were electrophoresed on an ABI 3130xl DNA Sequencer. The basic measures of genetic diversity and phylogenetic trees were computed using bioinformatics software. Across the 10 studied Egyptian populations, the number of alleles per locus ranged from 3 to 19 and the average number of alleles observed was 9.091. The lowest value of expected heterozygosity (0.373) was obtained for the Reehani breed, and the highest value (0.706) was found for Morasla breed. The overall expected heterozygosity of Egyptian pigeons was 0.548. The F ST coefficient which indicates fixation coefficients of subpopulations within the total population for the 11 loci varied from 0.318 to 0.114 with a relatively high mean (0.226). In our study, the F IS showed a relatively high average(0.037). The pairwise Reynolds's genetic distance between the11 studied pigeon populations recorded lower values between Otatti and Austoraly (0.025) and between Morasla and Japanese feral pigeons (0.054). These results are supported by clustering pattern either by the neighbor-joining phylogenetic tree or by a Bayesian clustering of STRUCTURE with the admixture method. We confirm the applicability of

  5. Effect of egg weight on composition, embryonic growth, and expression of amino acid transporter genes in yolk sac membranes and small intestines of the domestic pigeon (Columba livia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, M X; Li, X G; Yan, H C; Wang, X Q; Gao, C Q

    2016-06-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of egg weight on the composition of the egg, the growth of the embryo, and the expression of amino acid transporter genes in the yolk sac membranes and small intestines of the domestic pigeon (Columba livia). A total of 240 fertilized eggs were collected and divided into two groups based on the weight of the eggs, light (LE) and heavy (HE). The composition of 20 eggs from each group was measured, and the remaining eggs were weighed and placed in an incubator. On embryonic days (E) 9, 11, 13, and 15 and day of hatch (DOH), 15 embryos/hatchlings from each group were measured for embryonic growth, and samples were collected. The HE had heavier yolk and albumen weights than the LE (P < 0.01). Compared with the LE, the HE had heavier yolk-free embryonic body and yolk sac weights from E13 to DOH (P < 0.05). Additionally, the HE had larger yolk sac membrane weights from E13 to E15 (P < 0.05) and had more residual yolk sac content on DOH than those of the LE (P < 0.01). The yolk absorption was greater for the HE than for the LE from E11 to E13 (P < 0.05). Furthermore, the abundance of CAT2 and PepT1 mRNA in the yolk sac membranes was greater in the HE than in the LE on E13 (P < 0.05). Compared with the LE, the gene expression of EAAT2 in the intestine on E13 was greater in the HE, whereas the expression of EAAT3 was lower in the HE (P < 0.05). Taken together, our results suggest that egg weight influenced the composition of the eggs, embryonic development, and expression of amino acid transporter genes in the yolk sac membranes and small intestines of pigeon embryos. © 2016 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  6. Genetic characterization of 11 microsatellite loci in Egyptian pigeons (Columba livia domestica) and their cross-species amplification in other Columbidae populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramadan, Sherif; Dawod, Ahmed; El-Garhy, Osama; Nowier, Amira M.; Eltanany, Marwa; Inoue-Murayama, Miho

    2018-01-01

    Aim This study aimed to analyze the genetic diversity and relationships of 10 Egyptian pigeon populations belonging to Columba livia domestica speciesusing 11 microsatellite markers and to investigate the success of these markers amplification across another eight pigeon species. Methods Genomic DNA was isolated from feather samples of179 pigeon samples from 10 Egyptian breeds: Asfer Weraq (n=14), Austoraly (n=20), Reehani (n=21), Messawed (n=17), Nemssawy (n=27), Otatti (n=12), Morasla (n=17), Tumbler (n=22), Halaby Asfer (n=10), and Karakandy (n=19) in addition to Japanese feral pigeons (n=30). Genotyping was done using 11 specific polymorphic microsatellite makers. Moreover, 37 samples not belonging to C. livia domestica but belonging to another eight pigeon species were genotyped. The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) products were electrophoresed on an ABI 3130xl DNA Sequencer. The basic measures of genetic diversity and phylogenetic trees were computed using bioinformatics software. Results Across the 10 studied Egyptian populations, the number of alleles per locus ranged from 3 to 19 and the average number of alleles observed was 9.091. The lowest value of expected heterozygosity (0.373) was obtained for the Reehani breed, and the highest value (0.706) was found for Morasla breed. The overall expected heterozygosity of Egyptian pigeons was 0.548. The FST coefficient which indicates fixation coefficients of subpopulations within the total population for the 11 loci varied from 0.318 to 0.114 with a relatively high mean (0.226). In our study, the FIS showed a relatively high average(0.037). The pairwise Reynolds’s genetic distance between the11 studied pigeon populations recorded lower values between Otatti and Austoraly (0.025) and between Morasla and Japanese feral pigeons (0.054). These results are supported by clustering pattern either by the neighbor-joining phylogenetic tree or by a Bayesian clustering of STRUCTURE with the admixture method. Conclusions

  7. Analysis of volcano rocks by Moessbauer spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sitek, J.; Dekan, J.

    2012-01-01

    In this work we have analysed the basalt rock from Mount Ba tur volcano situated on the Island of Bali in Indonesia.We compared our results with composition of basalt rocks from some other places on the Earth. (authors)

  8. Regulation of ROCK Activity in Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morgan-Fisher, Marie; Wewer, Ulla M; Yoneda, Atsuko

    2013-01-01

    , these findings demonstrate additional modes to regulate ROCK activity. This review describes the molecular mechanisms of ROCK activity regulation in cancer, with emphasis on ROCK isoform-specific regulation and interaction partners, and discusses the potential of ROCKs as therapeutic targets in cancer.......Cancer-associated changes in cellular behavior, such as modified cell-cell contact, increased migratory potential, and generation of cellular force, all require alteration of the cytoskeleton. Two homologous mammalian serine/threonine kinases, Rho-associated protein kinases (ROCK I and II), are key...... regulators of the actin cytoskeleton acting downstream of the small GTPase Rho. ROCK is associated with cancer progression, and ROCK protein expression is elevated in several types of cancer. ROCKs exist in a closed, inactive conformation under quiescent conditions, which is changed to an open, active...

  9. Rock Slope Design Criteria : Executive Summary Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    Based on the stratigraphy and the type of slope stability problems, the flat lying, Paleozoic age, sedimentary rocks of Ohio were divided into three design units: 1) competent rock design unit consisting of sandstones, limestones, and siltstones that...

  10. Rock glaciers, Central Andes, Argentina, Version 1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Primary rock glaciers are fed by avalanche chutes. At the El Salto rock glacier, surveys have been undertaken in order to determine the creep rate. Between 1981 and...

  11. Channelling of flow through fractures in rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bourke, P.J.

    1987-05-01

    A method of mapping the channelling of flow in rock fractures formed by contacts between rock faces and of measuring the effective apertures of channels has been developed. Some typical results are given. (author)

  12. Epigenetic alterations of sedimentary rocks at deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komarova, G.V.; Kondrat'eva, I.A.; Zelenova, O.I.

    1980-01-01

    Notions are explained, and technique for studying epigenetic alterations of sedimentary rocks at uranium deposits is described. Main types of epigenetic transformations and their mineralogic-geochemical characteristics are considered. Rock alterations, accompanying uranium mineralization, can be related to 2 types: oxidation and reduction. The main mineralogic-geochemical property of oxidation transformations is epigenetic limonitization. Stratal limonitization in primary grey-coloured terrigenic rocks and in epigenetically reduced (pyritized) rocks, as well as in rock, subjected to epigenetic gleying, are characterized. Reduction type of epigenetic transformations is subdivided into sulphidic and non-sulphidic (gley) subtypes. Sulphidic transformations in grey-coloured terrigenic rocks with organic substance of carbonic row, in rocks, containing organic substance of oil row, sulphide transformations of sedimentary rocks, as well as gley transformations, are considered

  13. Analysis of volcano rock from Canary islands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sitek, J.; Sedlackova, K.; Dekan, J.

    2013-01-01

    In this work we have analyzed the basalt rock from Lanzarote, which is the easternmost island of the Canary Islands lying in the Atlantic Ocean and has a volcanic origin. It was born through fiery eruptions and has solidified lava streams as well as extravagant rock formations. We compared our results with composition of basalt rocks from some other places on the Earth. Different iron oxides created on the volcanic rocks during their weathering on the Earth surface has been also analyzed. (authors)

  14. High-pressure mechanical instability in rocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byerlee, J D; Brace, W F

    1969-05-09

    At a confining pressure of a few kilobars, deformation of many sedimentary rocks, altered mafic rocks, porous volcanic rocks, and sand is ductile, in that instabilities leading to audible elastic shocks are absent. At pressures of 7 to 10 kilobars, however, unstable faulting and stick-slip in certain of these rocks was observed. This high pressure-low temperature instability might be responsible for earthquakes in deeply buried sedimentary or volcanic sequences.

  15. Rock Music's Place in the Library.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Politis, John

    1983-01-01

    Discussion of the importance of rock music as an expression of aural culture includes its history, rock music today, and the development of a rock music collection in the library (placement of collection and books which aid in developing a collection of permanent value). Three references are included. (EJS)

  16. Rock-degrading endophytic bacteria in cacti

    Science.gov (United States)

    M. Esther Puente; Ching Y. Li; Yoav Bashan

    2009-01-01

    A plant-bacterium association of the cardon cactus (Pachycereus pringlei) and endophytic bacteria promotes establishment of seedlings and growth on igneous rocks without soil. These bacteria weather several rock types and minerals, unbind significant amounts of useful minerals for plants from the rocks, fix in vitro N2. produce...

  17. Rock Art: Connecting to the Past.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knipe, Marianne

    2001-01-01

    Presents an activity for fourth-grade students in which they learn about ancient art and create their own authentic-looking rock sculptures with pictograms, or painted images. Explains how the students create their own rocks and then paint a pictograph on the rocks with brown paint. (CMK)

  18. Mechanism of Rock Burst Occurrence in Specially Thick Coal Seam with Rock Parting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jian-chao; Jiang, Fu-xing; Meng, Xiang-jun; Wang, Xu-you; Zhu, Si-tao; Feng, Yu

    2016-05-01

    Specially thick coal seam with complex construction, such as rock parting and alternative soft and hard coal, is called specially thick coal seam with rock parting (STCSRP), which easily leads to rock burst during mining. Based on the stress distribution of rock parting zone, this study investigated the mechanism, engineering discriminant conditions, prevention methods, and risk evaluation method of rock burst occurrence in STCSRP through setting up a mechanical model. The main conclusions of this study are as follows. (1) When the mining face moves closer to the rock parting zone, the original non-uniform stress of the rock parting zone and the advancing stress of the mining face are combined to intensify gradually the shearing action of coal near the mining face. When the shearing action reaches a certain degree, rock burst easily occurs near the mining face. (2) Rock burst occurrence in STCSRP is positively associated with mining depth, advancing stress concentration factor of the mining face, thickness of rock parting, bursting liability of coal, thickness ratio of rock parting to coal seam, and difference of elastic modulus between rock parting and coal, whereas negatively associated with shear strength. (3) Technologies of large-diameter drilling, coal seam water injection, and deep hole blasting can reduce advancing stress concentration factor, thickness of rock parting, and difference of elastic modulus between rock parting and coal to lower the risk of rock burst in STCSRP. (4) The research result was applied to evaluate and control the risk of rock burst occurrence in STCSRP.

  19. Kimberley rock art dating project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walsh, G.L.; Morwood, M.

    1997-01-01

    The art's additional value, unequalled by traditionally recognised artefacts, is its permanent pictorial documentation presenting a 'window' into the otherwise intangible elements of perceptions, vision and mind of pre-historic cultures. Unfortunately it's potential in establishing Kimberley archaeological 'big picture' still remains largely unrecognised. Some of findings of the Kimberley Rock Art Dating Project, using AMS and optical stimulated luminescence (OSL) dating techniques, are outlined. It is estimated that these findings will encourage involvement by a greater diversity of specialist disciplines to tie findings into levels of this art sequence as a primary reference point. The sequence represents a sound basis for selecting specific defined images for targeting detailed studies by a range of dating technique. This effectively removes the undesirable ad hoc sampling of 'apparently old paintings'; a process which must unavoidably remain the case with researchers working on most global bodies of rock art

  20. ESR dating of fault rocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Hee Kwon

    2002-03-01

    Past movement on faults can be dated by measurement of the intensity of ESR signals in quartz. These signals are reset by local lattice deformation and local frictional heating on grain contacts at the time of fault movement. The ESR signals then trow back as a result of bombardment by ionizing radiation from surrounding rocks. The age is obtained from the ratio of the equivalent dose, needed to produce the observed signal, to the dose rate. Fine grains are more completely reset during faulting, and a plot of age vs grain size shows a plateau for grains below critical size : these grains are presumed to have been completely zeroed by the last fault activity. We carried out ESR dating of fault rocks collected from the Yangsan fault system. ESR dates from the this fault system range from 870 to 240 ka. Results of this research suggest that long-term cyclic fault activity continued into the pleistocene

  1. Radionuclide fixation mechanisms in rocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakashima, S.

    1991-01-01

    In the safety evaluation of the radioactive waste disposal in geological environment, the mass balance equation for radionuclide migration is given. The sorption of radionuclides by geological formations is conventionally represented by the retardation of the radionuclides as compared with water movement. In order to quantify the sorption of radionuclides by rocks and sediments, the distribution ratio is used. In order to study quantitatively the long term behavior of waste radionuclides in geological environment, besides the distribution ratio concept in short term, slower radionuclide retention reaction involving mineral transformation should be considered. The development of microspectroscopic method for long term reaction path modeling, the behavior of iron during granite and water interaction, the reduction precipitation of radionuclides, radionuclide migration pathways, and the representative scheme of radionuclide migration and fixation in rocks are discussed. (K.I.)

  2. ESR dating of fault rocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Hee Kwon [Kangwon National Univ., Chuncheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-03-15

    Past movement on faults can be dated by measurement of the intensity of ESR signals in quartz. These signals are reset by local lattice deformation and local frictional heating on grain contacts at the time of fault movement. The ESR signals then trow back as a result of bombardment by ionizing radiation from surrounding rocks. The age is obtained from the ratio of the equivalent dose, needed to produce the observed signal, to the dose rate. Fine grains are more completely reset during faulting, and a plot of age vs grain size shows a plateau for grains below critical size : these grains are presumed to have been completely zeroed by the last fault activity. We carried out ESR dating of fault rocks collected from the Yangsan fault system. ESR dates from the this fault system range from 870 to 240 ka. Results of this research suggest that long-term cyclic fault activity continued into the pleistocene.

  3. Relative Permeability of Fractured Rock

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mark D. Habana

    2002-06-30

    Contemporary understanding of multiphase flow through fractures is limited. Different studies using synthetic fractures and various fluids have yielded different relative permeability-saturation relations. This study aimed to extend the understanding of multiphase flow by conducting nitrogen-water relative permeability experiments on a naturally-fractured rock from The Geysers geothermal field. The steady-state approach was used. However, steady state was achieved only at the endpoint saturations. Several difficulties were encountered that are attributed to phase interference and changes in fracture aperture and surface roughness, along with fracture propagation/initiation. Absolute permeabilities were determined using nitrogen and water. The permeability values obtained change with the number of load cycles. Determining the absolute permeability of a core is especially important in a fractured rock. The rock may change as asperities are destroyed and fractures propagate or st rain harden as the net stresses vary. Pressure spikes occurred in water a solute permeability experiments. Conceptual models of an elastic fracture network can explain the pressure spike behavior. At the endpoint saturations the water relative permeabilities obtained are much less than the nitrogen gas relative permeabilities. Saturations were determined by weighing and by resistivity calculations. The resistivity-saturation relationship developed for the core gave saturation values that differ by 5% from the value determined by weighing. Further work is required to complete the relative permeability curve. The steady-state experimental approach encountered difficulties due to phase interference and fracture change. Steady state may not be reached until an impractical length of time. Thus, unsteady-state methods should be pursued. In unsteady-state experiments the challenge will be in quantifying rock fracture change in addition to fluid flow changes.

  4. Mineral and rock chemistry of Mata da Corda Kamafugitic Rocks (Minas Gerais State, Brazil)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albuquerque Sgarbi, Patricia B. de; Valenca, Joel G.

    1995-01-01

    The volcanic rocks of the Mata da Corda Formation (Upper Cretaceous) in Minas Gerais, Brazil, are mafic potassic to ultra potassic rocks of kamafugitic affinity containing essentially clinopyroxenes, perovskite, magnetite and occasionally olivine, phlogopite, melilite pseudomorphs and apatite. The felsic phases are kalsilite and/or leucite pseudomorphs. The rocks are classified as mafitites, leucitites and kalsilitites. The analysis of the available data of the rocks studied, based on the relevant aspects of the main proposals for the classification of alkaline mafic to ultramafic potassic rocks leads to the conclusion that Sahama's (1974) proposal to divide potassium rich alkaline rocks in two large families is the one to which the Mata da Corda rocks adapt best. According to this and the data in the literature on the mineralogy and mineral and rock chemistries of the other similar occurrences, these rocks may be interpreted as alkaline potassic to ultra potassic rocks of hamafugitic affinity. 11 figs., 5 tabs

  5. ESR dating of fault rocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Hee Kwon

    2003-02-01

    Past movement on faults can be dated by measurement of the intensity of ESR signals in quartz. These signals are reset by local lattice deformation and local frictional heating on grain contacts at the time of fault movement. The ESR signals then grow back as a result of bombardment by ionizing radiation from surrounding rocks. The age is obtained from the ratio of the equivalent dose, needed to produce the observed signal, to the dose rate. Fine grains are more completely reset during faulting, and a plot of age vs. grain size shows a plateau for grains below critical size; these grains are presumed to have been completely zeroed by the last fault activity. We carried out ESR dating of fault rocks collected near the Gori nuclear reactor. Most of the ESR signals of fault rocks collected from the basement are saturated. This indicates that the last movement of the faults had occurred before the Quaternary period. However, ESR dates from the Oyong fault zone range from 370 to 310 ka. Results of this research suggest that long-term cyclic fault activity of the Oyong fault zone continued into the Pleistocene

  6. ESR dating of fault rocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Hee Kwon [Kangwon National Univ., Chuncheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-02-15

    Past movement on faults can be dated by measurement of the intensity of ESR signals in quartz. These signals are reset by local lattice deformation and local frictional heating on grain contacts at the time of fault movement. The ESR signals then grow back as a result of bombardment by ionizing radiation from surrounding rocks. The age is obtained from the ratio of the equivalent dose, needed to produce the observed signal, to the dose rate. Fine grains are more completely reset during faulting, and a plot of age vs. grain size shows a plateau for grains below critical size; these grains are presumed to have been completely zeroed by the last fault activity. We carried out ESR dating of fault rocks collected near the Gori nuclear reactor. Most of the ESR signals of fault rocks collected from the basement are saturated. This indicates that the last movement of the faults had occurred before the Quaternary period. However, ESR dates from the Oyong fault zone range from 370 to 310 ka. Results of this research suggest that long-term cyclic fault activity of the Oyong fault zone continued into the Pleistocene.

  7. Source rock hydrocarbons. Present status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vially, R.; Maisonnier, G.; Rouaud, T.

    2013-01-01

    This report first presents the characteristics of conventional oil and gas system, and the classification of liquid and gaseous non conventional hydrocarbons, with the peculiar case of coal-bed methane. The authors then describe how source rock hydrocarbons are produced: production of shale oils and gases (horizontal drilling, hydraulic fracturing, exploitation) and of coal-bed methane and coal mine methane. In the next part, they address and discuss the environmental impact of source rock hydrocarbon production: installation footprint, water resource management, drilling fluids, fracturing fluids composition, toxicity and recycling, air pollution, induced seismicity, pollutions from other exploitation and production activities. They propose an overview of the exploitation and production of source rock gas, coal-bed gas and other non conventional gases in the world. They describe the current development and discuss their economic impacts: world oil context and trends in the USA, in Canada and other countries, impacts on the North American market, on the world oil industry, on refining industries, on the world oil balance. They analyse the economic impacts of non conventional gases: development potential, stakes for the world gas trade, consequence for gas prices, development opportunities for oil companies and for the transport sector, impact on CO 2 emissions, macro-economic impact in the case of the USA

  8. A Review on the British Rock Music

    OpenAIRE

    Hutapea, Alfian Hadi Pranata

    2011-01-01

    Music has an important role in people’s life. In people’s daily, music is often hearing of course and in people’s customs and traditions music is also be used. Music has many genres, one of them is rock music. Many people like rock music especially youngman because rock music has given a message in a song through enthusiasm expression. Rock music has many subgenres and each of subgenres have a distinctive feature. The developing of rock music is very wide in the world, especially in Great Bri...

  9. The physical principles of rock magnetism

    CERN Document Server

    Stacey, Frank

    1974-01-01

    Developments in Solid Earth Geophysics 5: The Physical Principles of Rock Magnetism explores the physical principles of rock magnetism, with emphasis on the properties of finely divided magnetic materials. It discusses the origin and stability of rock magnetizations, the role of remanent magnetism in interpreting magnetic surveys, magnetic anisotropy as an indicator of rock fabric, and the relationship between piezomagnetic changes and seismic activity. Organized into 13 chapters, this volume discusses the properties of solids, magnetite and hematite grains, and rocks with magnetite grains

  10. Effects of explosions in hard rocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heuze, F.E.; Walton, O.R.; Maddix, D.M.; Shaffer, R.J.; Butkovich, T.R.

    1993-01-01

    This work relates to explosions in hard rocks (ex: basalt, granite, limestone...). Hard rock masses typically have a blocky structure created by the existence of geologic discontinuities such as bedding contacts, faults, and joints. At very high pressure - hundreds of kilobars and above - these discontinuities do not act separately, and the rock appears to be an equivalent continuous medium. At stress of a few tens of kilobars and below, the geologic discontinuities control the kinematics of the rock masses. Hence, the simulation of rock dynamics, anywhere but in the very-near source region, should account for those kinematics

  11. Lead isotope analyses of standard rock samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koide, Yoshiyuki; Nakamura, Eizo

    1990-01-01

    New results on lead isotope compositions of standard rock samples and their analytical procedures are reported. Bromide form anion exchange chromatography technique was adopted for the chemical separation lead from rock samples. The lead contamination during whole analytical procedure was low enough to determine lead isotope composition of common natural rocks. Silica-gel activator method was applied for emission of lead ions in the mass spectrometer. Using the data reduction of 'unfractionated ratios', we obtained good reproducibility, precision and accuracy on lead isotope compositions of NBS SRM. Here we present new reliable lead isotope compositions of GSJ standard rock samples and USGS standard rock, BCR-1. (author)

  12. Diffusion in the matrix of granitic rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birgersson, L.; Neretnieks, I.

    1982-07-01

    A migration experiment in the rock matrix is presented. The experiment has been carried out in undisturbed rock, that is rock under its natural stress environment. Since the experiment was performed at the 360 m-level (in the Stripa mine), the rock had nearly the same conditions as the rock surrounding a nuclear waste storage. The results show that all three tracers (Uranine, Cr-EDTA and I - ) have passed the disturbed zone from the injection hole and migrated into undisturbed rock. At the distance of 11 cm from the injection hole 5-10 percent of the injection concentration was found. The results also indicate that the tracer have passed through fissure filling material. These results indicate that it is possible for tracers (and therefore radionuclides) to migrate from a fissure, through fissure filling material, and into the undisturbed rock matrix. (Authors)

  13. Carbonate rock depositional models: A microfacies approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carozzi, A.V.

    1988-01-01

    Carbonate rocks contain more than 50% by weight carbonate minerals such as calcite, dolomite, and siderite. Understanding how these rocks form can lead to more efficient methods of petroleum exploration. Micofacies analysis techniques can be used as a method of predicting models of sedimentation for carbonate rocks. Micofacies in carbonate rocks can be seen clearly only in thin sections under a microscope. This section analysis of carbonate rocks is a tool that can be used to understand depositional environments, diagenetic evolution of carbonate rocks, and the formation of porosity and permeability in carbonate rocks. The use of micofacies analysis techniques is applied to understanding the origin and formation of carbonate ramps, carbonate platforms, and carbonate slopes and basins. This book will be of interest to students and professionals concerned with the disciplines of sedimentary petrology, sedimentology, petroleum geology, and palentology.

  14. Distribution of serotonin 5-HT1A-binding sites in the brainstem and the hypothalamus, and their roles in 5-HT-induced sleep and ingestive behaviors in rock pigeons (Columba livia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dos Santos, Tiago Souza; Krüger, Jéssica; Melleu, Fernando Falkenburger; Herold, Christina; Zilles, Karl; Poli, Anicleto; Güntürkün, Onur; Marino-Neto, José

    2015-12-15

    Serotonin 1A receptors (5-HT1ARs), which are widely distributed in the mammalian brain, participate in cognitive and emotional functions. In birds, 5-HT1ARs are expressed in prosencephalic areas involved in visual and cognitive functions. Diverse evidence supports 5-HT1AR-mediated 5-HT-induced ingestive and sleep behaviors in birds. Here, we describe the distribution of 5-HT1ARs in the hypothalamus and brainstem of birds, analyze their potential roles in sleep and ingestive behaviors, and attempt to determine the involvement of auto-/hetero-5-HT1ARs in these behaviors. In 6 pigeons, the anatomical distribution of [(3)H]8-OH-DPAT binding in the rostral brainstem and hypothalamus was examined. Ingestive/sleep behaviors were recorded (1h) in 16 pigeons pretreated with MM77 (a heterosynaptic 5-HT1AR antagonist; 23 or 69 nmol) for 20 min, followed by intracerebroventricular ICV injection of 5-HT (N:8; 150 nmol), 8-OH-DPAT (DPAT, a 5-HT1A,7R agonist, 30 nmol N:8) or vehicle. 5-HT- and DPAT-induced sleep and ingestive behaviors, brainstem 5-HT neuronal density and brain 5-HT content were examined in 12 pigeons, pretreated by ICV with the 5-HT neurotoxin 5,7-dihydroxytryptamine (5,7-DHT) or vehicle (N:6/group). The distribution of brainstem and diencephalic c-Fos immunoreactivity after ICV injection of 5-HT, DPAT or vehicle (N:5/group) into birds provided with or denied access to water is also described. 5-HT1ARs are concentrated in the brainstem 5-HTergic areas and throughout the periventricular hypothalamus, preoptic nuclei and circumventricular organs. 5-HT and DPAT produced a complex c-Fos expression pattern in the 5-HT1AR-enriched preoptic hypothalamus and the circumventricular organs, which are related to drinking and sleep regulation, but modestly affected c-Fos expression in 5-HTergic neurons. The 5-HT-induced ingestivebehaviors and the 5-HT- and DPAT-induced sleep behaviors were reduced by MM77 pretreatment. 5,7-DHT increased sleep per se, decreased tryptophan hydroxylase expression in the raphe nuclei and decreased prosencephalic 5-HT release but failed to affect 5-HT- or DPAT-induced drinking or sleep behavior. 5-HT- and DPAT-induced ingestive and sleep behaviors in pigeons appear to be mediated by heterosynaptic and/or non-somatodendritic presynaptic 5-HT1ARs localized to periventricular diencephalic circuits. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Hot Dry Rock; Geothermal Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1990-01-01

    The commercial utilization of geothermal energy forms the basis of the largest renewable energy industry in the world. More than 5000 Mw of electrical power are currently in production from approximately 210 plants and 10 000 Mw thermal are used in direct use processes. The majority of these systems are located in the well defined geothermal generally associated with crustal plate boundaries or hot spots. The essential requirements of high subsurface temperature with huge volumes of exploitable fluids, coupled to environmental and market factors, limit the choice of suitable sites significantly. The Hot Dry Rock (HDR) concept at any depth originally offered a dream of unlimited expansion for the geothermal industry by relaxing the location constraints by drilling deep enough to reach adequate temperatures. Now, after 20 years intensive work by international teams and expenditures of more than $250 million, it is vital to review the position of HDR in relation to the established geothermal industry. The HDR resource is merely a body of rock at elevated temperatures with insufficient fluids in place to enable the heat to be extracted without the need for injection wells. All of the major field experiments in HDR have shown that the natural fracture systems form the heat transfer surfaces and that it is these fractures that must be for geothermal systems producing from naturally fractured formations provide a basis for directing the forthcoming but, equally, they require accepting significant location constraints on HDR for the time being. This paper presents a model HDR system designed for commercial operations in the UK and uses production data from hydrothermal systems in Japan and the USA to demonstrate the reservoir performance requirements for viable operations. It is shown that these characteristics are not likely to be achieved in host rocks without stimulation processes. However, the long term goal of artificial geothermal systems developed by systematic

  16. Hydraulic testing in crystalline rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almen, K.E.; Andersson, J.E.; Carlsson, L.; Hansson, K.; Larsson, N.A.

    1986-12-01

    Swedish Geolocical Company (SGAB) conducted and carried out single-hole hydraulic testing in borehole Fi 6 in the Finnsjoen area of central Sweden. The purpose was to make a comprehensive evaluation of different methods applicable in crystalline rocks and to recommend methods for use in current and scheduled investigations in a range of low hydraulic conductivity rocks. A total of eight different methods of testing were compared using the same equipment. This equipment was thoroughly tested as regards the elasticity of the packers and change in volume of the test section. The use of a hydraulically operated down-hole valve enabled all the tests to be conducted. Twelve different 3-m long sections were tested. The hydraulic conductivity calculated ranged from about 5x10 -14 m/s to 1x10 -6 m/s. The methods used were water injection under constant head and then at a constant rate-of-flow, each of which was followed by a pressure fall-off period. Water loss, pressure pulse, slug and drill stem tests were also performed. Interpretation was carried out using standard transient evaluation methods for flow in porous media. The methods used showed themselves to be best suited to specific conductivity ranges. Among the less time-consuming methods, water loss, slug and drill stem tests usually gave somewhat higher hydraulic conductivity values but still comparable to those obtained using the more time-consuming tests. These latter tests, however, provided supplementary information on hydraulic and physical properties and flow conditions, together with hydraulic conductivity values representing a larger volume of rock. (orig./HP)

  17. Avaliação radiográfica e de função de vôo após fixação de osteotomias distais do úmero em pombas (Columba livia, com modelo de fixador externo articulado Radiologic and flight function evaluation after fixation of distal humeral osteotomies in pigeons, with model of articulated external fixator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa C.M. Ferraz

    2008-08-01

    of the elbow joint, and, therefore keeping flight function viable, using as a model, rock pigeons (Columba lívia. The proposed method of maintenance of wing function in the dynamic wing, demonstrated being effective in maintaining the length of the bone, the amplitude of the wing as well as viability of muscles and tendons, guaranteeing flight capacity of the studied birds, being a good method for the repair of distal humeral fractures of birds, when rehabilitation and release are intended.

  18. Big Bang Day : Physics Rocks

    CERN Multimedia

    Brian Cox; John Barrowman; Eddie Izzard

    2008-01-01

    Is particle physics the new rock 'n' roll? The fundamental questions about the nature of the universe that particle physics hopes to answer have attracted the attention of some very high profile and unusual fans. Alan Alda, Ben Miller, Eddie Izzard, Dara O'Briain and John Barrowman all have interests in this branch of physics. Brian Cox - CERN physicist, and former member of 90's band D:Ream, tracks down some very well known celebrity enthusiasts and takes a light-hearted look at why this subject can appeal to all of us.

  19. ROCKS & MINERALS DETERMINATION AND ANALYSIS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    20150204 Abaydulla Alimjan(Department of Chemistry and Environmental Sciences,Kashgar Teachers College,Kashgar 844006,China);Cheng Chunying Non-Metallic Element Composition Analysis of Non-Ferrous Metal Ores from Oytagh Town,Xinjiang(Rock and Mineral Analysis,ISSN0254-5357,CN11-2131/TD,33(1),2014,p.44-50,5illus.,4tables,28refs.)Key words:nonferrous metals ore,nonmetals,chemical analysis,thermogravimetric analysis Anions in non-ferrous ore materials

  20. Rock Goes to School on Screen: A Model for Teaching Non-"Learned" Musics Derived from the Films "School of Rock" (2003) and "Rock School" (2005)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Michael

    2007-01-01

    What can be learned from two films with "rock" and "school" in their titles, about rock in school and about music and schooling more broadly? "School of Rock" (2003), a "family comedy," and "Rock School" (2005), a documentary, provoke a range of questions, ideological and otherwise, surrounding the inclusion of rock in formal instructional…

  1. Radon exhalation from granitic rocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Del Claro, Flávia; Paschuk, Sergei A.; Corrêa, Janine N.; Mazer, Wellington; Narloch, Danielle Cristine; Martin, Aline Cristina; Denyak, Valeriy

    2017-01-01

    Naturally occurring radionuclides such as radon ( 222 Rn), its decay products and other elements from the radioactive series of uranium ( 238 U and 235 U) and thorium ( 232 Th) are an important source of human exposure to natural radioactivity. The worldwide evaluation of health radiobiological effects and risks from population exposure to natural radionuclides is a growing concern. About 50% of personal radiation annual dose is related to radionuclides such as radon ( 222 Rn), thoron ( 220 Rn), radium ( 226 Ra), thorium ( 232 Th) and potassium ( 40 K), which are present in modern materials commonly used in construction of dwellings and buildings. The radioactivity of marbles and granites is of big concern since under certain conditions the radioactivity levels of these materials can be hazardous to the population and require the implementation of mitigation procedures. Present survey of the 222 Rn and 220 Rn activity concentration liberated in the air was performed using commercialized Brazilian granite rocks at national market as well as exported to other countries. The 222 Rn and 220 Rn measurements were performed using the AlphaGUARD instant monitor and RAD7 detector, respectively. This study was performed at the Applied Nuclear Physics Laboratory of the Federal University of Technology – Paraná (UTFPR). Obtained results of radon concentration activity in air exhaled studied samples of granites varied from 3±1 Bq/m 3 to 2087±19 Bq/m 3 , which shows that some samples of granitic rocks represent rather elevated health risk the population. (author)

  2. Hydraulic gradients in rock aquifers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dahlblom, P.

    1992-05-01

    This report deals with fractured rock as a host for deposits of hazardous waste. In this context the rock, with its fractures containing moving groundwater, is called the geological barrier. The desired properties of the geological barrier are low permeability to water, low hydraulic gradients and ability to retain matter dissolved in the water. The hydraulic gradient together with the permeability and the porosity determines the migration velocity. Mathematical modelling of the migration involves calculation of the water flow and the hydrodynamic dispersion of the contaminant. The porous medium approach can be used to calculate mean flow velocities and hydrodynamic dispersion of a large number of fractures are connected, which means that a large volume have to be considered. It is assumed that the porous medium approach can be applied, and a number of idealized examples are shown. It is assumed that the groundwater table is replenished by percolation at a constant rate. One-dimensional analytical calculations show that zero hydraulic gradients may exist at relatively large distance from the coast. Two-dimensional numerical calculations show that it may be possible to find areas with low hydraulic gradients and flow velocities within blocks surrounded by areas with high hydraulic conductivity. (au)

  3. Laboratory characterization of rock joints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsiung, S.M.; Kana, D.D.; Ahola, M.P.; Chowdhury, A.H.; Ghosh, A.

    1994-05-01

    A laboratory characterization of the Apache Leap tuff joints under cyclic pseudostatic and dynamic loads has been undertaken to obtain a better understanding of dynamic joint shear behavior and to generate a complete data set that can be used for validation of existing rock-joint models. Study has indicated that available methods for determining joint roughness coefficient (JRC) significantly underestimate the roughness coefficient of the Apache Leap tuff joints, that will lead to an underestimation of the joint shear strength. The results of the direct shear tests have indicated that both under cyclic pseudostatic and dynamic loadings the joint resistance upon reverse shearing is smaller than that of forward shearing and the joint dilation resulting from forward shearing recovers during reverse shearing. Within the range of variation of shearing velocity used in these tests, the shearing velocity effect on rock-joint behavior seems to be minor, and no noticeable effect on the peak joint shear strength and the joint shear strength for the reverse shearing is observed

  4. Aespoe hard rock laboratory Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    The aim of the new Aespoe hard rock laboratory is to demonstrate state of the art of technology and evaluation methods before the start of actual construction work on the planned deep repository for spent nuclear fuel. The nine country OECD/NEA project in the Stripa mine in Sweden has been an excellent example of high quality international research co-operation. In Sweden the new Aespoe hard rock laboratory will gradually take over and finalize this work. SKB very much appreciates the continued international participation in Aespoe which is of great value for the quality efficiency, and confidence in this kind of work. We have invited a number of leading experts to this first international seminar to summarize the current state of a number of key questions. The contributions show the great progress that has taken place during the years. The results show that there is a solid scientific basis for using this knowledge on site specific preparation and work on actual repositories. (au)

  5. Proceedings of the 3. Canada-US rock mechanics symposium and 20. Canadian rock mechanics symposium : rock engineering 2009 : rock engineering in difficult conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-07-01

    This conference provided a forum for geologists, mining operators and engineers to discuss the application of rock mechanics in engineering designs. Members of the scientific and engineering communities discussed challenges and interdisciplinary elements involved in rock engineering. New geological models and methods of characterizing rock masses and ground conditions in underground engineering projects were discussed along with excavation and mining methods. Papers presented at the conference discussed the role of rock mechanics in forensic engineering. Geophysics, geomechanics, and risk-based approaches to rock engineering designs were reviewed. Issues related to high pressure and high flow water conditions were discussed, and new rock physics models designed to enhance hydrocarbon recovery were presented. The conference featured 84 presentations, of which 9 have been catalogued separately for inclusion in this database. tabs., figs.

  6. Chemical buffering capacity of clay rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beaucaire, C.; Pearson, F.J.; Gautschi, A.

    2004-01-01

    The long-term performance of a nuclear waste repository is strongly dependent on the chemical properties of the host rock. The host rock establishes the chemical environment that determines such important performance attributes as radionuclide solubilities from the waste and the transport rates from the repository to the accessible environment. Clay-rich rocks are especially favourable host rocks because they provide a strong buffering capacity to resist chemical changes prompted either internally, by reactions of the waste itself and emplacement materials, or externally, by changes in the hydrologic systems surrounding the host rock. This paper will focus on three aspects of the stability of clay-rich host rocks: their ability to provide pCO 2 and redox buffering, and to resist chemical changes imposed by changes in regional hydrology and hydro-chemistry. (authors)

  7. Radiation transport in statistically inhomogeneous rocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lukhminskij, B.E.

    1975-01-01

    A study has been made of radiation transfer in statistically inhomogeneous rocks. Account has been taken of the statistical character of rock composition through randomization of density. Formulas are summarized for sigma-distribution, homogeneous density, the Simpson and Cauchy distributions. Consideration is given to the statistics of mean square ranges in a medium, simulated by the jump Markov random function. A quantitative criterion of rock heterogeneity is proposed

  8. Response of rocks to large stresses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schock, R.N.

    1976-01-01

    To predict the dimensions and characteristics of impact- and explosion-induced craters, one must know the equation of state of the rocks in which the crater is formed. Recent experimental data shed light upon inelastic processes that influence the stress/strain behavior of rocks. We examine these data with a view to developing models that could be used in predicting cratering phenomena. New data is presented on the volume behavior of two dissimilar rocks subjected to tensile stresses

  9. Rock breaking methods to replace blasting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Huisheng; Xie, Xinghua; Feng, Yuqing

    2018-03-01

    The method of breaking rock by blasting has a high efficiency and the cost is relatively low, but the associated vibration, flyrock, production of toxic gases since the 1970’s, the Western developed countries began to study the safety of breaking rock. This paper introduces different methods and their progress to safely break rock. Ideally, safe rock breaking would have little vibration, no fly stone, and no toxic gases, which can be widely used in municipal engineering, road excavation, high-risk mining, quarrying and complex environment.

  10. Hopi and Anasazi Alignments and Rock Art

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bates, Bryan C.

    The interaction of light and shadow on ancestral Puebloan rock art, or rock art demarcating sunrise/set horizon points that align with culturally significant dates, has long been assumed to be evidence of "intentional construct" for marking time or event by the native creator. However, anthropological rock art research requires the scientific control of cultural time, element orientation and placement, structure, and association with other rock art elements. The evaluation of five exemplars challenges the oft-held assumption that "if the interaction occurs, it therefore supports intentional construct" and thereby conveys meaning to the native culture.

  11. Professional users handbook for rock bolting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stillborg, B.

    1986-01-01

    The paper is a practical handbook which reviews the basic principles of rock bolting and sets out the design considerations used for most types of rockbolts in current use. It discusses the characteristics of these bolts and gives information on installation procedures and the observations and measurement of rockbolt performance. Rockbolting is considered under the following chapter headings: review of typical rockbolt systems; rockbolt installation; testing of rockbolts; design considerations; design of rock reinforcement; monitoring; cost of rock bolting; and Atlas Lopco auxillary equipment for rock bolting. 45 refs.

  12. Tunnel Design by Rock Mass Classifications

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    Engineering," revised second edition, Institution of Mining and Metallurgy, London, 1977, pp 113-115 and 150-192. 42. Selmer - Olsen , R., and Broch, E...to wall when a)/03 > 10, re- stability) ................ 10-5 0.66-0.33 0.5-2.0 duce oc and ot to L. Mild rock burst (massive 0.6 cc and 0.6 on rock ...5-2.5 0.33-0.16 5-10 where: 0 c = uncon-fined compression M. Heavy rock burst (massive strength, at = rock

  13. Igneous rocks formed by hypervelocity impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osinski, Gordon R.; Grieve, Richard A. F.; Bleacher, Jacob E.; Neish, Catherine D.; Pilles, Eric A.; Tornabene, Livio L.

    2018-03-01

    Igneous rocks are the primary building blocks of planetary crusts. Most igneous rocks originate via decompression melting and/or wet melting of protolith lithologies within planetary interiors and their classification and compositional, petrographic, and textural characteristics, are well-studied. As our exploration of the Solar System continues, so too does the inventory of intrusive and extrusive igneous rocks, settings, and processes. The results of planetary exploration have also clearly demonstrated that impact cratering is a ubiquitous geological process that has affected, and will continue to affect, all planetary objects with a solid surface, whether that be rock or ice. It is now recognized that the production of igneous rocks is a fundamental outcome of hypervelocity impact. The goal of this review is to provide an up-to-date synthesis of our knowledge and understanding of igneous rocks formed by hypervelocity impact. Following a brief overview of the basics of the impact process, we describe how and why melts are generated during impact events and how impact melting differs from endogenic igneous processes. While the process may differ, we show that the products of hypervelocity impact can share close similarities with volcanic and shallow intrusive igneous rocks of endogenic origin. Such impact melt rocks, as they are termed, can display lobate margins and cooling cracks, columnar joints and at the hand specimen and microscopic scale, such rocks can display mineral textures that are typical of volcanic rocks, such as quench crystallites, ophitic, porphyritic, as well as features such as vesicles, flow textures, and so on. Historically, these similarities led to the misidentification of some igneous rocks now known to be impact melt rocks as being of endogenic origin. This raises the question as to how to distinguish between an impact versus an endogenic origin for igneous-like rocks on other planetary bodies where fieldwork and sample analysis may not

  14. Regulation of ROCK Activity in Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan-Fisher, Marie; Wewer, Ulla M.

    2013-01-01

    Cancer-associated changes in cellular behavior, such as modified cell-cell contact, increased migratory potential, and generation of cellular force, all require alteration of the cytoskeleton. Two homologous mammalian serine/threonine kinases, Rho-associated protein kinases (ROCK I and II), are key regulators of the actin cytoskeleton acting downstream of the small GTPase Rho. ROCK is associated with cancer progression, and ROCK protein expression is elevated in several types of cancer. ROCKs exist in a closed, inactive conformation under quiescent conditions, which is changed to an open, active conformation by the direct binding of guanosine triphosphate (GTP)–loaded Rho. In recent years, a number of ROCK isoform-specific binding partners have been found to modulate the kinase activity through direct interactions with the catalytic domain or via altered cellular localization of the kinases. Thus, these findings demonstrate additional modes to regulate ROCK activity. This review describes the molecular mechanisms of ROCK activity regulation in cancer, with emphasis on ROCK isoform-specific regulation and interaction partners, and discusses the potential of ROCKs as therapeutic targets in cancer. PMID:23204112

  15. Remarks on some rock neutron parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Czubek, J.A.

    1983-01-01

    A method to calculate the thermal neutron parameters (absorption cross-section, diffusion coefficient and diffusion length) of rocks is given. It is based on a proper energy averaging of cross-sections for all rock matrix and rock saturating liquid constituents. Special emphasis is given to the presence of hydrogen. The diffusion lengths in different lithologies in the function of the variable rock porosity have been calculated. An influence of the thermal neutron spectrum on the shape of the porosity calibration curves for the dual spacing neutron method is shown. This influence has been estimated on two porosity units, on average. (author)

  16. Sorption of radionuclides on hard rocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berry, J.A.; Bourke, P.J.; Green, A.; Littleboy, A.K.

    1987-09-01

    Methods for measuring sorption on hard rocks, particularly of strontium, caesium, neptunium and americium on Darley Dale sandstone and Welsh slate have been investigated. The methods tried included batch tests with crushed rock and tests of simultaneous diffusion and convection with sorption on intact rock. High pressures (800m H 2 O) were used in the convective tests to pump water quickly through the rock samples and to measure high sorptivities in times shorter than those needed in the diffusive methods with intact samples. (author)

  17. Hydrogeomechanics for rock engineering: coupling subsurface hydrogeomechanical assessement and hydrogeotechnical mapping on fracturated rock masses

    OpenAIRE

    Meirinhos, João Miguel de Freitas

    2015-01-01

    The present work aims to achieve and further develop a hydrogeomechanical approach in Caldas da Cavaca hydromineral system rock mass (Aguiar da Beira, NW Portugal), and contribute to a better understanding of the hydrogeological conceptual site model. A collection of several data, namely geology, hydrogeology, rock and soil geotechnics, borehole hydraulics and hydrogeomechanics, was retrieved from three rock slopes (Lagoa, Amores and Cancela). To accomplish a comprehensive analysis and rock e...

  18. Abiogenic methanogenesis in crystalline rocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lollar, B.S.; Frape, S.K. (Univ. of Waterloo, Ontario (Canada)); Weise, S.M. (Institut fuer Hydrologie (G.S.F), Neuherberg (Germany)); Fritz, P. (UFZ, Umweltforschungszentrum, Leipzig-Halle (Germany)); Macko, S.A. (Univ. of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA (United States)); Welhan, J.A. (Idaho State Univ., Pacatello, ID (United States))

    1993-12-01

    Isotopically anomalous CH[sub 4]-rich gas deposits are found in mining sites on both the Canadian and Fennoscandian shields. With [delta][sup 13]C[sub CH4] values from -22.4 to -48.5% and [delta]D[sub CH4] values from -133 to -372%, these methane deposits cannot be accounted for by conventional processes for bacterial or thermogenic methanogenesis. Compositionally the gases are similar to other CH[sub 4]-rich gas occurrences found in Canadian and Fennoscandian shield rocks. However, the isotopically anomalous gases of this study are characterized by unexpectedly high concentrations of H[sub 2] gas, ranging from several volume percent up to 30 vol%. The H[sub 2] gases are consistently depleted in the heavy isotope, with [delta]D[sub H[sub 2

  19. An investigation of rock fall and pore water pressure using LIDAR in Highway 63 rock cuts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-07-01

    The purpose of this research work is compare LIDAR scanning measurements of rock fall with the natural changes in groundwater level to determining the effect of water pressures (levels) on rock fall. To collect the information of rock cut volume chan...

  20. Computational Models of Rock Failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Dave A.; Spiegelman, Marc

    2017-04-01

    Practitioners in computational geodynamics, as per many other branches of applied science, typically do not analyse the underlying PDE's being solved in order to establish the existence or uniqueness of solutions. Rather, such proofs are left to the mathematicians, and all too frequently these results lag far behind (in time) the applied research being conducted, are often unintelligible to the non-specialist, are buried in journals applied scientists simply do not read, or simply have not been proven. As practitioners, we are by definition pragmatic. Thus, rather than first analysing our PDE's, we first attempt to find approximate solutions by throwing all our computational methods and machinery at the given problem and hoping for the best. Typically this approach leads to a satisfactory outcome. Usually it is only if the numerical solutions "look odd" that we start delving deeper into the math. In this presentation I summarise our findings in relation to using pressure dependent (Drucker-Prager type) flow laws in a simplified model of continental extension in which the material is assumed to be an incompressible, highly viscous fluid. Such assumptions represent the current mainstream adopted in computational studies of mantle and lithosphere deformation within our community. In short, we conclude that for the parameter range of cohesion and friction angle relevant to studying rocks, the incompressibility constraint combined with a Drucker-Prager flow law can result in problems which have no solution. This is proven by a 1D analytic model and convincingly demonstrated by 2D numerical simulations. To date, we do not have a robust "fix" for this fundamental problem. The intent of this submission is to highlight the importance of simple analytic models, highlight some of the dangers / risks of interpreting numerical solutions without understanding the properties of the PDE we solved, and lastly to stimulate discussions to develop an improved computational model of

  1. Hydraulic conductivity of rock fractures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zimmerman, R.W.; Bodvarsson, G.S.

    1994-10-01

    Yucca Mountain, Nevada contains numerous geological units that are highly fractured. A clear understanding of the hydraulic conductivity of fractures has been identified as an important scientific problem that must be addressed during the site characterization process. The problem of the flow of a single-phase fluid through a rough-walled rock fracture is discussed within the context of rigorous fluid mechanics. The derivation of the cubic law is given as the solution to the Navier-Stokes equations for flow between smooth, parallel plates, the only fracture geometry that is amenable to exact treatment. The various geometric and kinetic conditions that are necessary in order for the Navier-Stokes equations to be replaced by the more tractable lubrication or Hele-Shaw equations are studied and quantified. Various analytical and numerical results are reviewed pertaining to the problem of relating the effective hydraulic aperture to the statistics of the aperture distribution. These studies all lead to the conclusion that the effective hydraulic aperture is always less than the mean aperture, by a factor that depends on the ratio of the mean value of the aperture to its standard deviation. The tortuosity effect caused by regions where the rock walls are in contact with each other is studied using the Hele-Shaw equations, leading to a simple correction factor that depends on the area fraction occupied by the contact regions. Finally, the predicted hydraulic apertures are compared to measured values for eight data sets from the literature for which aperture and conductivity data were available on the same fracture. It is found that reasonably accurate predictions of hydraulic conductivity can be made based solely on the first two moments of the aperture distribution function, and the proportion of contact area. 68 refs

  2. Radon exhalation from granitic rocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Del Claro, Flávia; Paschuk, Sergei A.; Corrêa, Janine N.; Mazer, Wellington; Narloch, Danielle Cristine; Martin, Aline Cristina [Universidade Tecnológica Federal do Paraná (UTFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil); Denyak, Valeriy, E-mail: flaviadelclaro@gmail.com, E-mail: spaschuk@gmail.com, E-mail: janine_nicolosi@hotmail.com, E-mail: denyak@gmail.com [Instituto de Pesquisa Pelé Pequeno Príncipe (IPPP), Curitiba, PR (Brazil)

    2017-07-01

    Naturally occurring radionuclides such as radon ({sup 222}Rn), its decay products and other elements from the radioactive series of uranium ({sup 238}U and {sup 235}U) and thorium ({sup 232}Th) are an important source of human exposure to natural radioactivity. The worldwide evaluation of health radiobiological effects and risks from population exposure to natural radionuclides is a growing concern. About 50% of personal radiation annual dose is related to radionuclides such as radon ({sup 222}Rn), thoron ({sup 220}Rn), radium ({sup 226}Ra), thorium ({sup 232}Th) and potassium ({sup 40}K), which are present in modern materials commonly used in construction of dwellings and buildings. The radioactivity of marbles and granites is of big concern since under certain conditions the radioactivity levels of these materials can be hazardous to the population and require the implementation of mitigation procedures. Present survey of the {sup 222}Rn and {sup 220}Rn activity concentration liberated in the air was performed using commercialized Brazilian granite rocks at national market as well as exported to other countries. The {sup 222}Rn and {sup 220}Rn measurements were performed using the AlphaGUARD instant monitor and RAD7 detector, respectively. This study was performed at the Applied Nuclear Physics Laboratory of the Federal University of Technology – Paraná (UTFPR). Obtained results of radon concentration activity in air exhaled studied samples of granites varied from 3±1 Bq/m{sup 3} to 2087±19 Bq/m{sup 3}, which shows that some samples of granitic rocks represent rather elevated health risk the population. (author)

  3. The History of Rock Art Research

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. The History of Rock Art Research. Rock art in South India was discovered as early as 1891.The earliest discovery of petroglyphs on the Koppagallu hill in Bellary district was made by Fred Fawcett (1892) who with the assistance of H.T.Knox and Robert Sewell ...

  4. Using Rock Music To Teach History.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Paul Dennis

    1985-01-01

    A secondary history teacher describes how he uses rock and roll music to help students study and interpret modern American history. Besides being a lot of fun to teach, a rock unit makes students realize that even contemporary music has a place in history. (RM)

  5. A guide for rock identification. 4. ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pape, H.

    1981-01-01

    The book is based on a practical course for students of geology, mineralogy, geography, and constructional engineering. It will also help interested laymen to identify rocks. Tables are presented which guide the reader in his analysis, so that he will quickly arrive at the name of a rock, the group to which it belongs, and some information on its characteristics and origin. (orig.) [de

  6. Rock Cycle. K-6 Science Curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blueford, J. R.; And Others

    Rock Cycle is one of the units of a K-6 unified science curriculum program. The unit consists of four organizing sub-themes: (1) chemistry (introducing the topics of matter, elements, compounds, and chemical bonding); (2) characteristics (presenting hands-on activities with rocks and minerals); (3) minerals (emphasizing the aesthetic and economic…

  7. Phosphine from rocks: mechanically driven phosphate reduction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glindemann, Dietmar; Edwards, Marc; Morgenstern, Peter

    2005-11-01

    Natural rock and mineral samples released trace amounts of phosphine during dissolution in mineral acid. An order of magnitude more phosphine (average 1982 ng PH3 kg rock and maximum 6673 ng PH3/kg rock) is released from pulverized rock samples (basalt, gneiss, granite, clay, quartzitic pebbles, or marble). Phosphine was correlated to hardness and mechanical pulverization energy of the rocks. The yield of PH3 ranged from 0 to 0.01% of the total P content of the dissolved rock. Strong circumstantial evidence was gathered for reduction of phosphate in the rock via mechanochemical or "tribochemical" weathering at quartz and calcite/marble inclusions. Artificial reproduction of this mechanism by rubbing quartz rods coated with apatite-phosphate to the point of visible triboluminescence, led to detection of more than 70 000 ng/kg PH3 in the apatite. This reaction pathway may be considered a mechano-chemical analogue of phosphate reduction from lightning or electrical discharges and may contribute to phosphine production via tectonic forces and processing of rocks.

  8. Cenozoic volcanic rocks of Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, R.G.; Gregory, R.T.; Brown, G.F.

    2016-01-01

    The Cenozoic volcanic rocks of Saudi Arabia cover about 90,000 km2, one of the largest areas of alkali olivine basalt in the world. These volcanic rocks are in 13 separate fields near the eastern coast of the Red Sea and in the western Arabian Peninsula highlands from Syria southward to the Yemen Arab Republic.

  9. St Columba's Hospital, Thomastown, Kilkenny.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Pin, Carmen

    2009-11-16

    Abstract Background The aging process of bacteria in stationary phase is halted if cells are subcultured and enter lag phase and it is then followed by cellular division. Network science has been applied to analyse the transcriptional response, during lag phase, of bacterial cells starved previously in stationary phase for 1 day (young cells) and 16 days (old cells). Results A genome scale network was constructed for E. coli K-12 by connecting genes with operons, transcription and sigma factors, metabolic pathways and cell functional categories. Most of the transcriptional changes were detected immediately upon entering lag phase and were maintained throughout this period. The lag period was longer for older cells and the analysis of the transcriptome revealed different intracellular activity in young and old cells. The number of genes differentially expressed was smaller in old cells (186) than in young cells (467). Relatively, few genes (62) were up- or down-regulated in both cultures. Transcription of genes related to osmotolerance, acid resistance, oxidative stress and adaptation to other stresses was down-regulated in both young and old cells. Regarding carbohydrate metabolism, genes related to the citrate cycle were up-regulated in young cells while old cells up-regulated the Entner Doudoroff and gluconate pathways and down-regulated the pentose phosphate pathway. In both old and young cells, anaerobic respiration and fermentation pathways were down-regulated, but only young cells up-regulated aerobic respiration while there was no evidence of aerobic respiration in old cells. Numerous genes related to DNA maintenance and replication, translation, ribosomal biosynthesis and RNA processing as well as biosynthesis of the cell envelope and flagellum and several components of the chemotaxis signal transduction complex were up-regulated only in young cells. The genes for several transport proteins for iron compounds were up-regulated in both young and old cells. Numerous genes encoding transporters for carbohydrates and organic alcohols and acids were down-regulated in old cells only. Conclusion Network analysis revealed very different transcriptional activities during the lag period in old and young cells. Rejuvenation seems to take place during exponential growth by replicative dilution of old cellular components.

  10. Sorption of cesium in intact rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puukko, E.

    2014-04-01

    The mass distribution coefficient K d is used in performance assessment (PA) to describe sorption of a radionuclide on rock. The R d is determined using crushed rock which causes uncertainty in converting the R d values to K d values for intact rock. This work describes a method to determine the equilibrium of sorption on intact rock. The rock types of the planned Olkiluoto waste disposal site were T-series mica gneiss (T-MGN), T-series tonalite granodiorite granite gneiss (T-TGG), P-series tonalite granodiorite granite gneiss (P-TGG) and pegmatitic granite (PGR). These rocks contain different amount of biotite which is the main sorbing mineral. The sorption of cesium on intact rock slices was studied by applying an electrical field to speed up migration of cesium into the rock. Cesium is in the solution as a noncomplex cation Cs + and it is sorbed by ion exchange. The tracer used in the experiments was 134 Cs. The experimental sorption on the intact rock is compared with values calculated using the in house cation exchange sorption model (HYRL model) in PHREEQC program. The observed sorption on T-MGN and T-TGG rocks was close to the calculated values. Two PGR samples were from a depth of 70 m and three samples were from a depth of 150 m. Cesium sorbed more than predicted on the two 70 m PGR samples. The sorption of Cs on the three 150 m PGR samples was small which was consistent with the calculations. The pegmatitic granite PGR has the smallest content of biotite of the four rock types. In the case of P-TGG rock the observed values of sorption were only half of the calculated values. Two kind of slices were cut from P-TGG drill core. The slices were against and to the direction of the foliation of the biotite rims. The sorption of cesium on P-TGG rock was same in both cases. The results indicated that there was no effect of the directions of the electric field and the foliation of biotite in the P-TGG rock. (orig.)

  11. Finding the right rocks on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hargraves, R. B.; Knudsen, J. M.; Madsen, M. B.; Bertelsen, P.

    Locating a rock on the surface of Mars that bears unambiguous evidence of the existence—prior or present—of life on that planet is, understandably, the “Holy Grail” of NASAs sample return missions. Remote recognition of such a rock on Mars will not be easy. We do know, however, that present in the Martian crust—especially in the “Southern highlands”—is rock carrying strong natural remanent magnetization (NRM). Characterization of such magnetized rock has profound implications for adding to our knowledge about the origin and early evolution of the Martian interior, lithosphere, atmosphere, and possibly even Martian life forms [Ward and Brownlee, 2000]. Moreover, it should be possible to recognize such rocks by use of a simple magnetic compass mounted on a Rover.

  12. First Grinding of a Rock on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    The round, shallow depression in this image resulted from history's first grinding of a rock on Mars. The rock abrasion tool on NASA's Spirit rover ground off the surface of a patch 45.5 millimeters (1.8 inches) in diameter on a rock called Adirondack during Spirit's 34th sol on Mars, Feb. 6, 2004. The hole is 2.65 millimeters (0.1 inch) deep, exposing fresh interior material of the rock for close inspection with the rover's microscopic imager and two spectrometers on the robotic arm. This image was taken by Spirit's panoramic camera, providing a quick visual check of the success of the grinding. The rock abrasion tools on both Mars Exploration Rovers were supplied by Honeybee Robotics, New York, N.Y.

  13. Disc cutter wear and rock texture in hard rock TBM tunneling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koizumi, Yu; Tsusaka, Kimikazu; Tanimoto, Chikaosa; Nakagawa, Shigeo; Fujita, Naoya

    2008-01-01

    Disc cutter wear in TBM tunneling is caused by initial fragmentation of a solid rock face (the primary fragmentation) and fragmentation of residual rock pieces between a cutterhead and the face (the secondary fragmentation). In two projects through sedimentary and granitic rocks, the authors investigated the relationships between the rate of cutter wear caused by the primary fragmentation, point load index and the grain size and contents of abrasive minerals. As a result, it was found that the tensile strength and the mineral contents of rocks significantly influenced the cutter wear in both projects and thus it is necessary to take into account of rock type. (author)

  14. Fragment Size Distribution of Blasted Rock Mass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jug, Jasmin; Strelec, Stjepan; Gazdek, Mario; Kavur, Boris

    2017-12-01

    Rock mass is a heterogeneous material, and the heterogeneity of rock causes sizes distribution of fragmented rocks in blasting. Prediction of blasted rock mass fragmentation has a significant role in the overall economics of opencast mines. Blasting as primary fragmentation can significantly decrease the cost of loading, transport, crushing and milling operations. Blast fragmentation chiefly depends on the specific blast design (geometry of blast holes drilling, the quantity and class of explosive, the blasting form, the timing and partition, etc.) and on the properties of the rock mass (including the uniaxial compressive strength, the rock mass elastic Young modulus, the rock discontinuity characteristics and the rock density). Prediction and processing of blasting results researchers can accomplish by a variety of existing software’s and models, one of them is the Kuz-Ram model, which is possibly the most widely used approach to estimating fragmentation from blasting. This paper shows the estimation of fragmentation using the "SB" program, which was created by the authors. Mentioned program includes the Kuz-Ram model. Models of fragmentation are confirmed and calibrated by comparing the estimated fragmentation with actual post-blast fragmentation from image processing techniques. In this study, the Kuz-Ram fragmentation model has been used for an open-pit limestone quarry in Dalmatia, southern Croatia. The resulting calibrated value of the rock factor enables the quality prognosis of fragmentation in further blasting works, with changed drilling geometry and blast design parameters. It also facilitates simulation in the program to optimize blasting works and get the desired fragmentations of the blasted rock mass.

  15. Permanganate diffusion and reaction in sedimentary rocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Qiuyuan; Dong, Hailiang; Towne, Rachael M; Fischer, Timothy B; Schaefer, Charles E

    2014-04-01

    In situ chemical oxidation using permanganate has frequently been used to treat chlorinated solvents in fractured bedrock aquifers. However, in systems where matrix back-diffusion is an important process, the ability of the oxidant to migrate and treat target contaminants within the rock matrix will likely determine the overall effectiveness of this remedial approach. In this study, a series of diffusion experiments were performed to measure the permanganate diffusion and reaction in four different types of sedimentary rocks (dark gray mudstone, light gray mudstone, red sandstone, and tan sandstone). Results showed that, within the experimental time frame (~2 months), oxidant migration into the rock was limited to distances less than 500 μm. The observed diffusivities for permanganate into the rock matrices ranged from 5.3 × 10(-13) to 1.3 × 10(-11) cm(2)/s. These values were reasonably predicted by accounting for both the rock oxidant demand and the effective diffusivity of the rock. Various Mn minerals formed as surface coatings from reduction of permanganate coupled with oxidation of total organic carbon (TOC), and the nature of the formed Mn minerals was dependent upon the rock type. Post-treatment tracer testing showed that these Mn mineral coatings had a negligible impact on diffusion through the rock. Overall, our results showed that the extent of permanganate diffusion and reaction depended on rock properties, including porosity, mineralogy, and organic carbon. These results have important implications for our understanding of long-term organic contaminant remediation in sedimentary rocks using permanganate. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Measurements of thermal properties of rocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumada, Toshiaki

    2001-02-01

    The report concerns the measurement of thermal conductivity and specific heat of supplied sedimental rock B and Funyu rock. The method of measurement of these properties was done with the method which was developed at 1997 and improved much in its accuracy by the present author et al. The porosity of sedimental rock B is 0.55, which is deduced from the density of rock (the porosity deduced from the difference between dry and water filled conditions is 0.42) and the shape and size of pores in rock are much different. Its thermal conductivity is 0.238 W/mK in dry and 1.152 W/mK in water filled conditions respectively, while the thermal conductivity of bentonite is 0.238 W/mK in dry and 1.152 W/mK in water saturated conditions. The difference of thermal conductivity between dry and water saturated conditions is little difference in sedimental rock B and bentonite at same porosity. The porosity of Funyu rock is 0.26 and the shape and size of pores in the rock are uniform. Its thermal conductivity is 0.914 W/mK in dry and 1.405 W/mK in water saturated conditions, while the thermal conductivity of bentonite is 0.606 W/mK in dry and 1.591 W/mK in water saturated conditions respectively. The correlation estimating thermal conductivity of rocks was derived based on Fricke correlation by presuming rocks as a suspension. (author)

  17. Rock stars for the day

    CERN Multimedia

    Stefania Pandolfi

    2015-01-01

    After a two-year hiatus, the CERN Hardronic Festival is back! On 8 August, ten CERN MusiClub bands will take to the stage for the popular event. As usual, the non-stop show will take place on the terrace of Restaurant 3 and will run until after midnight.   The Canettes Blues Band, part of the CERN MusiClub, performing live on the Music In The Park stage at the Montreux Jazz Festival, on 18 July 2013. A large range of musical styles will entertain the audience: from Irish folk, via 70s/80s/90s rock, to pop, blues and R&B. Alongside the music there will be activities for kids and food and drink stands. This year, the income from food sales will be donated to charity. The spirit that has characterised the festival ever since the first event in 1989 is that of a staff party. Any band who volunteers to play also helps to organise the event and set up the stage. “This is a really good thing because a festival that has been growing for many years requires a considerable amount of har...

  18. Tracer transport in fractured rocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsang, C.F.; Tsang, Y.W.; Hale, F.V.

    1988-07-01

    Recent interest in the safety of toxic waste underground disposal and nuclear waste geologic repositories has motivated many studies of tracer transport in fractured media. Fractures occur in most geologic formations and introduce a high degree of heterogeneity. Within each fracture, the aperture is not constant in value but strongly varying. Thus for such media, tracer tends to flow through preferred flowpaths or channels within the fractures. Along each of these channels, the aperture is also strongly varying. A detailed analysis is carried out on a 2D single fracture with variable apertures and the flow through channels is demonstrated. The channels defined this way are not rigidly set pathways for tracer transport, but are the preferred flow paths in the sense of stream-tubes in the potential theory. It is shown that such variable-aperture channels can be characterized by an aperture probability distribution function, and not by the exact deterministic geometric locations. We also demonstrate that the 2D tracer transport in a fracture can be calculated by a model of a system of 1D channels characterized by this distribution function only. Due to the channeling character of tracer transport in fractured rock, random point measurements of tracer breakthrough curves may give results with a wide spread in value due to statistical fluctuations. The present paper suggests that such a wide spread can probably be greatly reduced by making line/areal (or multiple) measurements covering a few spatial correlation lengths. 13 refs., 11 figs., 1 tab

  19. Rock cavern storage of spent fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Won Jin; Kim, Kyung Soo [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kwon, Sang Ki [Inha University, Incheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-12-15

    The rock cavern storage for spent fuel has been assessed to apply in Korea with reviewing the state of the art of the technologies for surface storage and rock cavern storage of spent fuel. The technical feasibility and economic aspects of the rock cavern storage of spent fuel were also analyzed. A considerable area of flat land isolated from the exterior are needed to meet the requirement for the site of the surface storage facilities. It may, however, not be easy to secure such areas in the mountainous region of Korea. Instead, the spent fuel storage facilities constructed in the rock cavern moderate their demands for the suitable site. As a result, the rock cavern storage is a promising alternative for the storage of spent fuel in the aspect of natural and social environments. The rock cavern storage of spent fuel has several advantages compared with the surface storage, and there is no significant difference on the viewpoint of economy between the two alternatives. In addition, no great technical difficulties are present to apply the rock cavern storage technologies to the storage of domestic spent fuel.

  20. Heating effects in Rio Blanco rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, R.W.; Bowen, D.W.; Rossler, P.E.

    1975-01-01

    Samples of ''sandstone'' from near the site of the upper Rio Blanco nuclear explosion were heated in the laboratory at temperatures between 600 and 900 0 C. The composition and amount of noncondensable (dry) gas released were measured and compared to the amount and composition of gas found underground following the explosion. The gas released from the rock heated in the laboratory contained approximately 80 percent CO 2 and 10 percent H 2 ; the balance was CO and CH 4 . With increasing temperature, the amounts of CO 2 , CO, and H 2 released increased. The composition of gas released by heating Rio Blanco rock in the laboratory is similar to the composition of gas found after the nuclear explosion except that it contains less natural gas (CH 4 , C 2 H 6 . . .). The amount of noncondensable gas released by heating the rock increases from approximately 0.1 mole/kg of rock at 600 0 C to 0.9 mole/kg at 900 0 C. Over 90 percent of the volatile components of the rock are released in less than 10 h at 900 0 C. A comparison of the amount of gas released by heating rock in the laboratory to the amount of gas released by the heat of the Rio Blanco nuclear explosion suggests that the explosion released the volatile material from about 0.42 mg of rock per joule of explosive energy (1700 to 1800 tonnes per kt). (auth)

  1. Discussion on the origin of sedimentary rock resistivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong Gangjian

    2012-01-01

    Conduction current way of sedimentary rock sedimentary rock is caused by the internal structure of sedimentary rock sedimentary rock pore resistance depends on the salinity of pore water and clay content and distribution. Resistivity of sedimentary rock sedimentary rock major factor in mineral composition, water resistance, oil resistance. and sedimentary structures. In practice, we should give full attention to the difference between lithology and physical properties. (author)

  2. The Usability of Rock-Like Materials for Numerical Studies on Rocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zengin, Enes; Abiddin Erguler, Zeynal

    2017-04-01

    The approaches of synthetic rock material and mass are widely used by many researchers for understanding the failure behavior of different rocks. In order to model the failure behavior of rock material, researchers take advantageous of different techniques and software. But, the majority of all these instruments are based on distinct element method (DEM). For modeling the failure behavior of rocks, and so to create a fundamental synthetic rock material model, it is required to perform related laboratory experiments for providing strength parameters. In modelling studies, model calibration processes are performed by using parameters of intact rocks such as porosity, grain size, modulus of elasticity and Poisson ratio. In some cases, it can be difficult or even impossible to acquire representative rock samples for laboratory experiments from heavily jointed rock masses and vuggy rocks. Considering this limitation, in this study, it was aimed to investigate the applicability of rock-like material (e.g. concrete) to understand and model the failure behavior of rock materials having complex inherent structures. For this purpose, concrete samples having a mixture of %65 cement dust and %35 water were utilized. Accordingly, intact concrete samples representing rocks were prepared in laboratory conditions and their physical properties such as porosity, pore size and density etc. were determined. In addition, to acquire the mechanical parameters of concrete samples, uniaxial compressive strength (UCS) tests were also performed by simultaneously measuring strain during testing. The measured physical and mechanical properties of these extracted concrete samples were used to create synthetic material and then uniaxial compressive tests were modeled and performed by using two dimensional discontinuum program known as Particle Flow Code (PFC2D). After modeling studies in PFC2D, approximately similar failure mechanism and testing results were achieved from both experimental and

  3. Look! It's Rock'n'roll!

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindelof, Anja

    2007-01-01

    , and dates. Consult your library or click here for more information on citing sources. -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Anja Mølle Lindelof. (2007). Look! it's rock'n'roll! how television participated in shaping the visual genre conventions of popular music...... to personal names, capitalization, and dates. Consult your library or click here for more information on citing sources. -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Anja Mølle Lindelof. "Look! It's Rock'n'roll! How television participated in shaping the visual genre....... Pay special attention to personal names, capitalization, and dates. Consult your library or click here for more information on citing sources. -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- TY - JOUR T1 - Look! It's Rock'n'roll! How television participated in shaping...

  4. Permeability Evolution and Rock Brittle Failure

    OpenAIRE

    Sun Qiang; Xue Lei; Zhu Shuyun

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports an experimental study of the evolution of permeability during rock brittle failure and a theoretical analysis of rock critical stress level. It is assumed that the rock is a strain-softening medium whose strength can be described by Weibull’s distribution. Based on the two-dimensional renormalization group theory, it is found that the stress level λ c (the ratio of the stress at the critical point to the peak stress) depends mainly on the homogeneity index or shape paramete...

  5. Deep fracturation of granitic rock mass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bles, J.L.; Blanchin, R.; Bonijoly, D.; Dutartre, P.; Feybesse, J.L.; Gros, Y.; Landry, J.; Martin, P.

    1986-01-01

    This documentary study realized with the financial support of the European Communities and the CEA aims at the utilization of available data for the understanding of the evolution of natural fractures in granitic rocks from the surface to deep underground, in various feasibility studies dealing with radioactive wastes disposal. The Mont Blanc road tunnel, the EDF Arc-Isere gallerie, the Auriat deep borehole and the Pyrenean rock mass of Bassies are studied. In this study are more particularly analyzed the relationship between small fractures and large faults, evolution with depth of fracture density and direction, consequences of rock decompression and relationship between fracturation and groundwater [fr

  6. Radon and rock bursts in deep mines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bulashevich, Yu.P.; Utkin, V.I.; Yurkov, A.K.; Nikolaev, V.V.

    1996-01-01

    Variation fields of radon concentration in time to ascertain stress-strain state of the North Ural bauxite mines have been studied. It is shown that dynamic changes in the stress-strain state of the rocks prior to the rock burst bring about variations in radon concentration in the observation wells. Depending on mutual positioning of the observation points and the rock burst epicenter, the above-mentioned variations differ in principle, reduction of radon concentration in the near zone and its increase in the far zone are observed [ru

  7. Laboratory measurements of rock thermal properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bording, Thue Sylvester; Balling, N.; Nielsen, S.B.

    The thermal properties of rocks are key elements in understanding and modelling the temperature field of the subsurface. Thermal conductivity and thermal diffusivity can be measured in the laboratory if rock samples can be provided. We have introduced improvements to the divided bar and needle...... probe methods to be able to measure both thermal conductivity and thermal diffusivity. The improvements we implement include, for both methods, a combination of fast numerical finite element forward modelling and a Markov Chain Monte Carlo inversion scheme for estimating rock thermal parameters...

  8. Acoustics in rock and pop music halls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Niels Werner; Thompson, Eric Robert; Gade, Anders Christian

    2007-01-01

    The existing body of literature regarding the acoustic design of concert halls has focused almost exclusively on classical music, although there are many more performances of rhythmic music, including rock and pop. Objective measurements were made of the acoustics of twenty rock music venues...... in Denmark and a questionnaire was used in a subjective assessment of those venues with professional rock musicians and sound engineers. Correlations between the objective and subjective results lead, among others, to a recommendation for reverberation time as a function of hall volume. Since the bass...

  9. Lead isotopes in archaean plutonic rocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oversby, V.M.

    1978-01-01

    Archaean intrusive rocks have initial Pb isotopic compositions which show a varied and complex history for the source regions of the rocks. Even the oldest rocks from Greenland indicate heterogenous U and Pb distribution prior to 3800 m.y. ago. Source regions with μ values less than 7 must have played a significant role in the early history of the earth. By late Archaean time U/Pb ratios of source regions had increased substantially. Data from Australia and North America show distinct regional differences, both within and between continents. (Auth.)

  10. Heat production / host rock compatibility; Waermeentwicklung / Gesteinsvertraeglichkeit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meleshyn, A.; Weyand, T.; Bracke, G.; Kull, H.; Wieczorek, K.

    2016-05-15

    For the final high-level radioactive waste repository potential host rock formations are either rock salt or clays (Kristallin). Heat generating waste (decay heat of the radioactive materials) can be absorbed by the host rock. The effect of temperature increase on the thermal conductivity, the thermal expansion and the mechanical properties of salt, Kristallin, clays and argilliferous geotechnical barriers are described. Further issues of the report are the mineralogical behavior, phase transformations, hydrochemistry, microbial processes, gas formation, thermochemical processes and gas ingress. Recommendations for further research are summarized.

  11. Rapid formation of rock armour for soil - rock fragment mixture during simulated rainfall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poultney, E.; McGrath, G. S.; Hinz, C.

    2009-04-01

    Preventing erosion is an important issue in disturbed semi-arid and arid landscapes. This is in particular of highest importance for mining companies while undertaking land rehabilitation. An onsite investigation of the impact of surface rock fragments on erosion was conducted at Telfer goldmine in the Great Sandy Desert, Western Australia. The study site is a waste rock dump designed to mimic the concave slope of a natural mesa to both discourage erosion and blend in with its natural surroundings. Four treatments were used to construct the slope: two are topsoil mixed with rock fragments, and two are unmixed topsoil. A field study investigating erosion rills, particle size distribution, rock fragment coverage surface roughness and vegetation was carried out to determine changes down and across slope. The treatments constructed by mixing topsoil and rock fragments are more stable and show rock fragment distributions that more closely resemble patterns found on natural mesas surrounding Telfer. A controlled study using trays of topsoil mixed with rock fragment volumes of 50%, 60%, 70% and 80% were used to investigate how varying mixtures of rock fragments and topsoil erode using rainfall intensities between 20 and 100 mm h-1. Two runs of 25 minutes each were used to assess the temporal evolution of rock armouring. Surface coverage results converged for the 50%, 60% and 70% mixtures after the first run to coverage of about 90%, suggesting that fine sediment proportion does not affect rate and degree of rock armouring.

  12. Sliding rocks on Racetrack Playa, Death Valley National Park: first observation of rocks in motion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard D Norris

    Full Text Available The engraved trails of rocks on the nearly flat, dry mud surface of Racetrack Playa, Death Valley National Park, have excited speculation about the movement mechanism since the 1940s. Rock movement has been variously attributed to high winds, liquid water, ice, or ice flotation, but has not been previously observed in action. We recorded the first direct scientific observation of rock movements using GPS-instrumented rocks and photography, in conjunction with a weather station and time-lapse cameras. The largest observed rock movement involved > 60 rocks on December 20, 2013 and some instrumented rocks moved up to 224 m between December 2013 and January 2014 in multiple move events. In contrast with previous hypotheses of powerful winds or thick ice floating rocks off the playa surface, the process of rock movement that we have observed occurs when the thin, 3 to 6 mm, "windowpane" ice sheet covering the playa pool begins to melt in late morning sun and breaks up under light winds of -4-5 m/s. Floating ice panels 10 s of meters in size push multiple rocks at low speeds of 2-5 m/min. along trajectories determined by the direction and velocity of the wind as well as that of the water flowing under the ice.

  13. Effects of confinement on rock mass modulus: A synthetic rock mass modelling (SRM study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Vazaios

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this paper is to examine the influence of the applied confining stress on the rock mass modulus of moderately jointed rocks (well interlocked undisturbed rock mass with blocks formed by three or less intersecting joints. A synthetic rock mass modelling (SRM approach is employed to determine the mechanical properties of the rock mass. In this approach, the intact body of rock is represented by the discrete element method (DEM-Voronoi grains with the ability of simulating the initiation and propagation of microcracks within the intact part of the model. The geometry of the pre-existing joints is generated by employing discrete fracture network (DFN modelling based on field joint data collected from the Brockville Tunnel using LiDAR scanning. The geometrical characteristics of the simulated joints at a representative sample size are first validated against the field data, and then used to measure the rock quality designation (RQD, joint spacing, areal fracture intensity (P21, and block volumes. These geometrical quantities are used to quantitatively determine a representative range of the geological strength index (GSI. The results show that estimating the GSI using the RQD tends to make a closer estimate of the degree of blockiness that leads to GSI values corresponding to those obtained from direct visual observations of the rock mass conditions in the field. The use of joint spacing and block volume in order to quantify the GSI value range for the studied rock mass suggests a lower range compared to that evaluated in situ. Based on numerical modelling results and laboratory data of rock testing reported in the literature, a semi-empirical equation is proposed that relates the rock mass modulus to confinement as a function of the areal fracture intensity and joint stiffness. Keywords: Synthetic rock mass modelling (SRM, Discrete fracture network (DFN, Rock mass modulus, Geological strength index (GSI, Confinement

  14. A comparative analysis of the categorization of multidimensional stimuli: I. Unidimensional classification does not necessarily imply analytic processing; evidence from pigeons (Columba livia), squirrels (Sciurus carolinensis), and humans (Homo sapiens).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wills, A J; Lea, Stephen E G; Leaver, Lisa A; Osthaus, Britta; Ryan, Catriona M E; Suret, Mark B; Bryant, Catherine M L; Chapman, Sue J A; Millar, Louise

    2009-11-01

    Pigeons (Columba livia), gray squirrels (Sciurus carolinensis), and undergraduates (Homo sapiens) learned discrimination tasks involving multiple mutually redundant dimensions. First, pigeons and undergraduates learned conditional discriminations between stimuli composed of three spatially separated dimensions, after first learning to discriminate the individual elements of the stimuli. When subsequently tested with stimuli in which one of the dimensions took an anomalous value, the majority of both species categorized test stimuli by their overall similarity to training stimuli. However some individuals of both species categorized them according to a single dimension. In a second set of experiments, squirrels, pigeons, and undergraduates learned go/no-go discriminations using multiple simultaneous presentations of stimuli composed of three spatially integrated, highly salient dimensions. The tendency to categorize test stimuli including anomalous dimension values unidimensionally was higher than in the first set of experiments and did not differ significantly between species. The authors conclude that unidimensional categorization of multidimensional stimuli is not diagnostic for analytic cognitive processing, and that any differences between human's and pigeons' behavior in such tasks are not due to special features of avian visual cognition.

  15. Estima de la abundancia de Palomas (Columba livia var. de la ciudad de Barcelona y valoración de la efectividad del control por eliminación de individuos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Senar, J. C.

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Estimate of the abundance of pigeons (Columba livia var. in the city of Barcelona and evaluation of effectiveness of elimination measures Culling is one of the most commonly used methods to control urban pigeon populations. The Barcelona Public Health Agency (ASPB eliminated a total of 227,479 pigeons using this technique between 1991 and 2006. We compared the estimate of abundance of pigeons in Barcelona city in 1991 (183.667 ± 14.914 with that in 2006 ( 256.663 ± 26.210 (CI 95%. While pigeon density did not increase in the city centre during this period, density in a ring around the city increased significantly, leading to a general increase in the urban population of these birds. The number of complaints regarding pigeons received per district did not correlate with abundance. ASPB culling per district correlated with abundance and not with numbers of complaints received, indicating interventions generally followed a technical protocol. Pigeon density per district correlated significantly with the human population density but not with the total number of inhabitants. Findings indicate the effectiveness of culling is low in this setting and suggest greater emphasis should be placed on control measures centered on limiting factors, particularly reduction of food availability and nest removal.

  16. Testing of an oral dosing technique for double-crested cormorants, Phalacocorax auritus, laughing gulls, Leucophaeus atricilla, homing pigeons, Columba livia, and western sandpipers, Calidris mauri, with artificially weather MC252 oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, K M; Cacela, D; Carney, M W; Cunningham, F L; Ellis, C; Gerson, A R; Guglielmo, C G; Hanson-Dorr, K C; Harr, K E; Healy, K A; Horak, K E; Isanhart, J P; Kennedy, L V; Link, J E; Lipton, I; McFadden, A K; Moye, J K; Perez, C R; Pritsos, C A; Pritsos, K L; Muthumalage, T; Shriner, S A; Bursian, S J

    2017-12-01

    Scoping studies were designed to determine if double-crested cormorants (Phalacocorax auritus), laughing gulls (Leucophaues atricilla), homing pigeons (Columba livia) and western sandpipers (Calidris mauri) that were gavaged with a mixture of artificially weathered MC252 oil and food for either a single day or 4-5 consecutive days showed signs of oil toxicity. Where volume allowed, samples were collected for hematology, plasma protein electrophoresis, clinical chemistry and electrolytes, oxidative stress and organ weigh changes. Double-crested cormorants, laughing gulls and western sandpipers all excreted oil within 30min of dose, while pigeons regurgitated within less than one hour of dosing. There were species differences in the effectiveness of the dosing technique, with double-crested cormorants having the greatest number of responsive endpoints at the completion of the trial. Statistically significant changes in packed cell volume, white cell counts, alkaline phosphatase, alanine aminotransferase, creatine phosphokinase, gamma glutamyl transferase, uric acid, chloride, sodium, potassium, calcium, total glutathione, glutathione disulfide, reduced glutathione, spleen and liver weights were measured in double-crested cormorants. Homing pigeons had statistically significant changes in creatine phosphokinase, total glutathione, glutathione disulfide, reduced glutathione and Trolox equivalents. Laughing gulls exhibited statistically significant decreases in spleen and kidney weight, and no changes were observed in any measurement endpoints tested in western sandpipers. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Biogenic Cracks in Porous Rock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemmerle, A.; Hartung, J.; Hallatschek, O.; Goehring, L.; Herminghaus, S.

    2014-12-01

    Microorganisms growing on and inside porous rock may fracture it by various processes. Some of the mechanisms of biofouling and bioweathering are today identified and partially understood but most emphasis is on chemical weathering, while mechanical contributions have been neglected. However, as demonstrated by the perseverance of a seed germinating and cracking up a concrete block, the turgor pressure of living organisms can be very significant. Here, we present results of a systematic study of the effects of the mechanical forces of growing microbial populations on the weathering of porous media. We designed a model porous medium made of glass beads held together by polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS), a curable polymer. The rheological properties of the porous medium, whose shape and size are tunable, can be controlled by the ratio of crosslinker to base used in the PDMS (see Fig. 1). Glass and PDMS being inert to most chemicals, we are able to focus on the mechanical processes of biodeterioration, excluding any chemical weathering. Inspired by recent measurements of the high pressure (~0.5 Mpa) exerted by a growing population of yeasts trapped in a microfluidic device, we show that yeast cells can be cultured homogeneously within porous medium until saturation of the porous space. We investigate then the effects of such an inner pressure on the mechanical properties of the sample. Using the same model system, we study also the complex interplay between biofilms and porous media. We focus in particular on the effects of pore size on the penetration of the biofilm within the porous sample, and on the resulting deformations of the matrix, opening new perspectives into the understanding of life in complex geometry. Figure 1. Left : cell culture growing in a model porous medium. The white spheres represent the grains, bonds are displayed in grey, and microbes in green. Right: microscopy picture of glass beads linked by PDMS bridges, scale bar: 100 μm.

  18. Wing rock suppression using forebody vortex control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, T. T.; Ong, L. Y.; Suarez, C. J.; Malcolm, G. N.

    1991-01-01

    Static and free-to-roll tests were conducted in a water tunnel with a configuration that consisted of a highly-slender forebody and 78-deg sweep delta wings. Flow visualization was performed and the roll angle histories were obtained. The fluid mechanisms governing the wing rock of this configuration were identified. Different means of suppressing wing rock by controlling the forebody vortices using small blowing jets were also explored. Steady blowing was found to be capable of suppressing wing rock, but significant vortex asymmetries had to be induced at the same time. On the other hand, alternating pulsed blowing on the left and right sides of the forebody was demonstrated to be potentially an effective means of suppressing wing rock and eliminating large asymmetric moments at high angles of attack.

  19. RELIABILITY OF TRANSPORTATION SYSTEMS OF ROCK HAPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Stepanov

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The ways of increasing of exploitation reliability of dump trucks with the aim of increasing of effectiveness of exploitation of transportation systems of rock heaps at coal mines.

  20. Rock bed heat accumulators. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riaz, M.

    1977-12-01

    The principal objectives of the research program on rock bed heat accumulators (or RBHA) are: (1) to investigate the technical and economic feasibility of storing large amounts of thermal energy (in the tens of MWt range) at high temperature (up to 500/sup 0/C) over extended periods of time (up to 6 months) using native earth or rock materials; (2) to conduct studies to establish the performance characteristics of large rock bed heat accumulators at various power and temperature levels compatible with thermal conversion systems; and (3) to assess the materials and environmental problems associated with the operation of such large heat accumulators. Results of the study indicate that rock bed heat accumulators for seasonal storage are both technically and economically feasible, and hence could be exploited in various applications in which storage plays an essential role such as solar power and total energy systems, district and cogeneration heating systems.

  1. Cretaceous rocks of the Western Interior basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molenaar, C.M.; Rice, D.D.

    1988-01-01

    The Cretaceous rocks of the conterminous United States are discussed in this chapter. Depositional facies and lithology are reviewed along with economic resources. The economic resources include coal, hydrocarbons, and uranium

  2. Mechanical dispersion in fractured crystalline rock systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lafleur, D.W.; Raven, K.G.

    1986-12-01

    This report compiles and evaluates the hydrogeologic parameters describing the flow of groundwater and transport of solutes in fractured crystalline rocks. This report describes the processes of mechanical dispersion in fractured crystalline rocks, and compiles and evaluates the dispersion parameters determined from both laboratory and field tracer experiments. The compiled data show that extrapolation of the reliable test results performed over intermediate scales (10's of m and 10's to 100's of hours) to larger spatial and temporal scales required for performance assessment of a nuclear waste repository in crystalline rock is not justified. The reliable measures of longitudinal dispersivity of fractured crystalline rock are found to range between 0.4 and 7.8 m

  3. Dating oxalate minerals in rock surface deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watchman, A.

    2001-01-01

    Oxalate minerals are found associated with rocks, mineral coatings, micro-organisms, plants and animals. They are important in archaeology because they have been found intimately associated with organic binders in prehistoric paints. Oxalate minerals also accumulate in the coatings on rock shelter walls and fallen ceiling slabs where they form the natural backing supports for painting and opaque laminates covering engravings. Though the relationship between anthropogenic activity in a rock shelter and oxalate formation is often uncertain, the radiocarbon age of the oxalate may provide the only means for determining the antiquity of a rock painting or engraving. This paper examines the history of dating oxalate minerals at archaeological sites and provides insights into achieving reliable age estimates. (author). 37 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs

  4. ROCK GLACIERS IN THE KOLYMA HIGHLAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Galanin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on remote mapping and field studies inGrand Rapids, Tumansky,Hasynsky,Del-Urechen Ridges as well as Dukchinsky and Kilgansky Mountain Massifs there were identified about 1160 landforms which morphologically are similar to the rock glaciers or they develop in close association with them. Besides tongue-shaped cirque rock glaciers originated due to ablation, a large number of lobate-shaped slope-associated rock glaciers were recognized. Significant quantity of such forms are developing within the active neotectonic areas, in zones of seismic-tectonic badland and in association with active earthquakes-controlling faults. Multiplication of regional data on volcanic-ash-chronology, lichenometry, Schmidt Hammer Test, pollen spectra and single radiocarbon data, most of the active rock glaciers were preliminary attributed to the Late Holocene.

  5. Rock glaciers, Prealps, Vaud, Switzerland, Version 1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The investigated area forms part of the western lobe of the Prealps (Swiss Prealps). The 25 identified fossil rock glaciers are found mainly in the Prealpes medianes...

  6. Mechanical properties of rock at high temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kinoshita, Naoto; Abe, Tohru; Wakabayashi, Naruki; Ishida, Tsuyoshi.

    1997-01-01

    The laboratory tests have been performed in order to investigate the effects of temperature up to 300degC and pressure up to 30 MPa on the mechanical properties of three types of rocks, Inada granite, Sanjoume andesite and Oya tuff. The experimental results indicated that the significant differences in temperature dependence of mechanical properties exist between the three rocks, because of the difference of the factors which determine the mechanical properties of the rocks. The effect of temperature on the mechanical properties for the rocks is lower than that of pressure and water content. Temperature dependence of the mechanical properties is reduced by increase in pressure in the range of pressure and temperature investigated in this paper. (author)

  7. Pore-scale analysis of electrical properties in thinly bedded rock using digital rock physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Jianmeng; Zhao, Jianpeng; Liu, Xuefeng; Chen, Hui; Jiang, LiMing; Zhang, JinYan

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the electrical properties of laminated rock consist of macro-porous layers and micro-porous layers based on digital rock technology. Due to the bedding effect and anisotropy, traditional Archie equations cannot well describe the electrical behavior of laminated rock. The RI-Sw curve of laminated rock shows a nonlinear relationship. The RI-Sw curve can be divided into two linear segments with different saturation exponent. Laminated sand-shale sequences and laminated sands of different porosity or grain size will yield macroscopic electrical anisotropy. Numerical simulation and theoretical analysis lead to the conclusion that electrical anisotropy coefficient of laminated rock is a strong function of water saturation. The function curve can be divided into three segments by the turning point. Therefore, the electrical behavior of laminated rock should be considered in oil exploration and development. (paper)

  8. Evaluation of dynamic characteristics of hard rock based on numerical simulations of in situ rock tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamagami, Yuya; Ikusada, Koji; Jiang, Yujing

    2009-01-01

    In situ rock tests of hard rock of conglomerate in which discontinuities in high angle are dominant were conducted. In this study, in order to confirm the validity of the test results and the test condition, and in order to elucidate the deformation behaviour and the mechanism of shear strength of the rock mass, the numerical simulations of the in situ rock tests by using distinct element method were performed. As a result, it was clarified that the behaviour of the rock mass strongly depends on both geometrical distribution of discontinuities and those mechanical properties. It is thought that a series of evaluation processes showed in this study contribute to improve the reliability of the dynamic characteristic evaluation of the rock mass. (author)

  9. ONKALO rock mechanics model (RMM). Version 2.3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haekkinen, T.; Merjama, S.; Moenkkoenen, H. [WSP Finland, Helsinki (Finland)

    2014-07-15

    The Rock Mechanics Model of the ONKALO rock volume includes the most important rock mechanics features and parameters at the Olkiluoto site. The main objective of the model is to be a tool to predict rock properties, rock quality and hence provide an estimate for the rock stability of the potential repository at Olkiluoto. The model includes a database of rock mechanics raw data and a block model in which the rock mechanics parameters are estimated through block volumes based on spatial rock mechanics raw data. In this version 2.3, special emphasis was placed on refining the estimation of the block model. The model was divided into rock mechanics domains which were used as constraints during the block model estimation. During the modelling process, a display profile and toolbar were developed for the GEOVIA Surpac software to improve visualisation and access to the rock mechanics data for the Olkiluoto area. (orig.)

  10. Relating rock avalanche morphology to emplacement processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dufresne, Anja; Prager, Christoph; Bösmeier, Annette

    2015-04-01

    The morphology, structure and sedimentological characteristics of rock avalanche deposits reflect both internal emplacement processes and external influences, such as runout path characteristics. The latter is mainly predisposed by topography, substrate types, and hydrogeological conditions. Additionally, the geological setting at the source slope controls, e.g. the spatial distribution of accumulated lithologies and hence material property-related changes in morphology, or the maximum clast size and amount of fines of different lithological units. The Holocene Tschirgant rock avalanche (Tyrol, Austria) resulted from failure of an intensely deformed carbonate rock mass on the southeast face of a 2,370-m-high mountain ridge. The initially sliding rock mass rapidly fragmented as it moved towards the floor of the Inn River valley. Part of the 200-250 x 106 m3 (Patzelt 2012) rock avalanche debris collided with and moved around an opposing bedrock ridge and flowed into the Ötz valley, reaching up to 6.3 km from source. Where the Tschirgant rock avalanche spread freely it formed longitudinal ridges aligned along motion direction as well as smaller hummocks. Encountering high topography, it left runup ridges, fallback patterns (i.e. secondary collapse), and compressional morphology (successively elevated, transverse ridges). Further evidence for the mechanical landslide behaviour is given by large volumes of mobilized valley-fill sediments (polymict gravels and sands). These sediments indicate both shearing and compressional faulting within the rock avalanche mass (forming their own morphological units through, e.g. in situ bulldozing or as distinctly different hummocky terrain), but also indicate extension of the spreading landslide mass (i.e. intercalated/injected gravels encountered mainly in morphological depressions between hummocks). Further influences on its morphology are given by the different lithological units. E.g. the transition from massive dolomite

  11. Remarks on some rock neutron parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Czubek, J.A.

    1984-01-01

    A method to calculate the thermal neutron parameters of rocks is given in the paper. It is based on a proper energy averaging of cross-sections for all rock matrix and rock saturating liquid constituents. The diffusion lengths in different lithologies in function of the variable rock porosity have been calculated. An influence of the thermal neutron spectrum on the shape of the porosity calibration curves for the dual spacing neutron method is shown. Magmatic rocks as a possible source of geothermal energy are now becoming a target of neutron loggings for the porosity determination. Here the knowledge of the slowing-down lengths is of great importance in the problem of the estimation of the calibration curves. A semi-analytical approach to get this parameter is given in the paper. It was found, as far as concerns the slowing-down of fast neutrons, that all magmatic rocks behave as sandstone with, however, different content of bound water in the rock matrix and different rock matrix density. Some neutron methods are based on the detection of epithermal neutrons. For theoretical considerations it is important to know the physical meaning of the registered signal. From the discussion of experimental data reported in the literature it seems that it is the slowing-down density that is the physical quantity being measured. This conclusion has a very important practical implication - the porosity calibration curves depend upon the slowing-down length alone and are independent of the slowing-down cross-section for epithermal neutrons

  12. Digital Rock Studies of Tight Porous Media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silin, Dmitriy [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2012-08-07

    This technical report summarizes some recently developed approaches to studies of rock properties at a pore scale. Digital rock approach is complementary to laboratory and field studies. It can be especially helpful in situations where experimental data are uncertain, or are difficult or impossible to obtain. Digitized binary images of the pore geometries of natural rocks obtained by different imaging techniques are the input data. Computer-generated models of natural rocks can be used instead of images in a case where microtomography data are unavailable, or the resolution of the tools is insufficient to adequately characterize the features of interest. Simulations of creeping viscous flow in pores produce estimates of Darcy permeability. Maximal Inscribed Spheres calculations estimate two-phase fluid distribution in capillary equilibrium. A combination of both produce relative permeability curves. Computer-generated rock models were employed to study two-phase properties of fractured rocks, or tight sands with slit-like pores, too narrow to be characterized with micro-tomography. Various scenarios can simulate different fluid displacement mechanisms, from piston-like drainage to liquid dropout at the dew point. A finite differences discretization of Stokes equation is developed to simulate flow in the pore space of natural rocks. The numerical schemes are capable to handle both no-slip and slippage flows. An upscaling procedure estimates the permeability by subsampling a large data set. Capillary equilibrium and capillary pressure curves are efficiently estimated with the method of maximal inscribed spheres both an arbitrary contact angle. The algorithms can handle gigobytes of data on a desktop workstation. Customized QuickHull algorithms model natural rocks. Capillary pressure curves evaluated from computer-generated images mimic those obtained for microtomography data.

  13. Rock excavation by pulsed electron beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avery, R.T.; Keefe, D.; Brekke, T.L.; Finnie, I.

    1976-03-01

    If an intense short pulse of megavolt electrons is deposited in a brittle solid, dynamic spalling can be made to occur with removal of material. Experiments were made on several types of hard rock; results are reproducible and well-described theoretically. An accelerator with a rapidly-pulsed scanning electron beam was designed that could tunnel in hard rock about ten times faster than conventional drill/blast methods

  14. Rock excavation by pulsed electron beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avery, R.T.; Keefe, D.; Brekke, T.L.; Finnie, I.

    1976-01-01

    If an intense short pulse of megavolt electrons is deposited in a brittle solid, dynamic spalling can be made to occur with removal of material. Experiments have been made on several types of hard rock; results are reproducible and well-described theoretically. An accelerator with a rapid-pulsed scanning electron-beam has been designed that could tunnel in hard rock about ten times faster than conventional drill/blast methods. (author)

  15. The Dalradian rocks of Scotland: an introduction

    OpenAIRE

    Stephenson, David; Mendum, John R.; Fettes, Douglas J.; Leslie, A. Graham

    2013-01-01

    The Dalradian Supergroup and its basement rocks, together with younger plutons, underpin most of the Grampian Highlands and the islands of the Inner Hebrides between the Highland Boundary and Great Glen faults. The Dalradian is a mid-Neoproterozoic to early-Ordovician sequence of largely clastic metasedimentary rocks, with some volcanic units, which were deformed and metamorphosed to varying degrees during the Early Palaeozoic Caledonian Orogeny. Sedimentation of the lower parts of the Da...

  16. Developing a Virtual Rock Deformation Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, W.; Ougier-simonin, A.; Lisabeth, H. P.; Banker, J. S.

    2012-12-01

    Experimental rock physics plays an important role in advancing earthquake research. Despite its importance in geophysics, reservoir engineering, waste deposits and energy resources, most geology departments in U.S. universities don't have rock deformation facilities. A virtual deformation laboratory can serve as an efficient tool to help geology students naturally and internationally learn about rock deformation. Working with computer science engineers, we built a virtual deformation laboratory that aims at fostering user interaction to facilitate classroom and outreach teaching and learning. The virtual lab is built to center around a triaxial deformation apparatus in which laboratory measurements of mechanical and transport properties such as stress, axial and radial strains, acoustic emission activities, wave velocities, and permeability are demonstrated. A student user can create her avatar to enter the virtual lab. In the virtual lab, the avatar can browse and choose among various rock samples, determine the testing conditions (pressure, temperature, strain rate, loading paths), then operate the virtual deformation machine to observe how deformation changes physical properties of rocks. Actual experimental results on the mechanical, frictional, sonic, acoustic and transport properties of different rocks at different conditions are compiled. The data acquisition system in the virtual lab is linked to the complied experimental data. Structural and microstructural images of deformed rocks are up-loaded and linked to different deformation tests. The integration of the microstructural image and the deformation data allows the student to visualize how forces reshape the structure of the rock and change the physical properties. The virtual lab is built using the Game Engine. The geological background, outstanding questions related to the geological environment, and physical and mechanical concepts associated with the problem will be illustrated on the web portal. In

  17. Rock Moved by Mars Lander Arm

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    The robotic arm on NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander slid a rock out of the way during the mission's 117th Martian day (Sept. 22, 2008) to gain access to soil that had been underneath the rock.The lander's Surface Stereo Imager took the two images for this stereo view later the same day, showing the rock, called 'Headless,' after the arm pushed it about 40 centimeters (16 inches) from its previous location. 'The rock ended up exactly where we intended it to,' said Matt Robinson of NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, robotic arm flight software lead for the Phoenix team. The arm had enlarged the trench near Headless two days earlier in preparation for sliding the rock into the trench. The trench was dug to about 3 centimeters (1.2 inches) deep. The ground surface between the rock's prior position and the lip of the trench had a slope of about 3 degrees downward toward the trench. Headless is about the size and shape of a VHS videotape. The Phoenix science team sought to move the rock in order to study the soil and the depth to subsurface ice underneath where the rock had been. This image was taken at about 12:30 p.m., local solar time on Mars. The view is to the north northeast of the lander. The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by JPL, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development was by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  18. Preliminary rock mechanics laboratory: Investigation plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oschman, K.P.; Hummeldorf, R.G.; Hume, H.R.; Karakouzian, M.; Vakili, J.E.

    1987-01-01

    This document presents the rationale for rock mechanics laboratory testing (including the supporting analysis and numerical modeling) planned for the site characterization of a nuclear waste repository in salt. This plan first identifies what information is required for regulatory and design purposes, and then presents the rationale for the testing that satisfies the required information needs. A preliminary estimate of the minimum sampling requirements for rock laboratory testing during site characterization is also presented. Periodic revision of this document is planned

  19. Nuclear power in rock. Principal report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-06-01

    In September 1975 the Swedish Government directed the Swedish State Power Board to study the question of rock-siting nuclear power plants. The study accounted for in this report aims at clarifying the advantages and disadvantages of siting a nuclear power plant in rock, compared to siting on ground level, considering reactor safety, war protection and sabotage. The need for nuclear power production during war situations and the closing down of nuclear power plants after terminated operation are also dealt with. (author)

  20. Underground large scale test facility for rocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sundaram, P.N.

    1981-01-01

    This brief note discusses two advantages of locating the facility for testing rock specimens of large dimensions in an underground space. Such an environment can be made to contribute part of the enormous axial load and stiffness requirements needed to get complete stress-strain behavior. The high pressure vessel may also be located below the floor level since the lateral confinement afforded by the rock mass may help to reduce the thickness of the vessel

  1. Method of degassifying a massive of rock

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levin, M M; Krivosheev, V O; Preobrazhenskaia, E I; Talapkerov, A Sh; Taushkin, G T

    1979-05-30

    This invention concerns the mining industry, chiefly the coal industry, and can be used for the degasification of coal layers and interfering rock. The method of preliminary extraction of gas with underground development of burning minerals, including the pumping of gas through a collector, carried in the plane of the degasifying layer, discharged from rock pressure by means of extracting the lower lying layer, is known. However, the given method does not make it possible to degasify the interfering rock. Another method, consisting of the fact that from the mining development in the lateral rock, chambers are made, from which a group of wells are bored, and the latter are united with the gas removing system, is well known. This method has the inadequacy that the well of each chamber is connected to the gas removing system of the pipelines, and this leads to an increase in the price of the method. A new system is presented for the degasification of the massive of rock which is presented in an illustration...... The advantage of the suggested method consists of the fact that material outlays are reduced for the unification of each chamber with the gas removing pipeline, and besides this, the wells, connecting the chambers are drains for the surrounding rock, which increases the effectiveness of the degasification.

  2. The Rock that Hit New York

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meade, Roger Allen [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Keksis, August Lawrence [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-10-03

    On January 12, 1975, a rock seemed to fall from the sky over New York State’s Schoharie County hitting the tractor of a local farmer, who was “preparing his fields for spring planting.” As the farmer later described the event to a reporter from the UFO INVESTIGATOR, the object glanced off the tractor, fell to the ground, and melted its way through a patch of ice that was two and one half inches thick. The farmer, Leonard Tillapaugh, called the county sheriff, Harvey Stoddard, who recovered the rock, noting that it “was still warm.” Why and how a sample of the rock came to Los Alamos is not known. However, it captivated a wide Laboratory audience, was subjected to rigorous testing and evaluation. Los Alamos used the scientific method in the manner promoted by Hynek. Did Los Alamos solve the mystery of the rock’s origin? Not definitively. Although the exact origin could not be determined, it was shown conclusively that the rock was not from outer space. With that said, the saga of Rock that hit New York came to an end. Nothing more was said or written about it. The principals involved have long since passed from the scene. The NICAP ceased operations in 1980. And, the rock, itself, has disappeared.

  3. Investigation of the porosity of rocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hellmuth, K.H.; Siitari-Kauppi, M.

    1990-06-01

    Methods for characterizing the nature of rock porosity in conjunction with diffusion experiments, are amongst the primary tools used in repository-site selection investigations. At this time no experimental method, alone, is capable of giving an unambiguous picture of the narrow-aperture pore space in crystalline rock. Methods giving information on overall properties must be complemented by those having high spatial resolution; then the lateral distribution of porosity within the matrix and its association with particular mineral phases or features, such as microfissures, fissure fillings, weathered or altered mineral phases etc, and the identification of diffusion pathways in inhomogeneous rock matrices can be determined. Nonsorbing, nonelectrolytic tracers should be used when one wants to determine rock-typical properties of the internal porosity without interference of interactions with surfaces. Preliminary information on a new method fulfilling these criteria is given. Impregnating rock samples with methylmethacrylate labeled with carbon-14 which, after impregnation, was polymerized by gamma radiation, gave specimens that made preparation of sections suitable for quantification by autoradiographic methods easy. Diffusion experiments can be conducted so that labeled MMA diffuses out of rock specimens into inactive free, MMA. Additional information may be gained by leaching PMMA fractions of lower molecular weight from the matrix

  4. Rock burst prevention at steep seam mining

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Efremov, G D

    1988-09-01

    At steep shield longwalls one method of preventing rock bursts is to avoid sharp angles during working. Stress in coal and rock body that appears when steep seams are worked where rock bursts occur at corners of set-up entries is discussed. The dynamic interaction between gas and rock pressure is assessed. Maintains that in order to avoid rock bursts at these places it is necessary to turn the protruding coal wall by 20-30 degrees towards the coal body to divert the action of shift forces. At the same time the face should also be inclined (by 10-15 degrees) to move the zones of increased stress away from the corner into the coal and rock body. Stress at workings with round cross-sections is 3-4 times lower than at square cross-sections. Recommendations are given that concern shearer loader operation (semi-spherical shape of the face), borehole drilling and water injection. Initial distance of 10-15 m between boreholes is suggested. 3 refs.

  5. Radionuclide migration in crystalline rock fractures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoelttae, P.

    2002-01-01

    Crystalline rock has been considered as a host medium for the repository of high radioactive spent nuclear fuel in Finland. The geosphere will act as an ultimate barrier retarding the migration of radionuclides to the biosphere if they are released through the technical barriers. Radionuclide transport is assumed to take place along watercarrying fractures, and retardation will occur both in the fracture and within the rock matrix. To be able to predict the transport and retardation of radionuclides in rock fractures and rock matrices, it is essential to understand the different phenomena involved. Matrix diffusion has been indicated to be an important mechanism, which will retard the transport of radionuclides in rock fractures. Both dispersion and matrix diffusion are processes, which can have similar influences on solute breakthrough curves in fractured crystalline rock. In this work, the migration of radionuclides in crystalline rock fractures was studied by means of laboratory scale column methods. The purpose of the research was to gain a better understanding of various phenomena - particularly matrix diffusion - affecting the transport and retardation behaviour of radionuclides in fracture flow. Interaction between radionuclides and the rock matrix was measured in order to test the compatibility of experimental retardation parameters and transport models used in assessing the safety of underground repositories for spent nuclear fuel. Rock samples of mica gneiss and of unaltered, moderately altered and strongly altered tonalite represented different rock features and porosities offering the possibility to determine experimental boundary limit values for parameters describing both the transport and retardation of radionuclides and rock matrix properties. The dominant matrix diffusion behaviour was demonstrated in porous ceramic column and gas diffusion experiments. Demonstration of the effects of matrix diffusion in crystalline rock fracture succeeded for the

  6. Rock Physical Interpretation of the Relationship between Dynamic and Static Young's Moduli of Sedimentary Rocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, T.

    2017-12-01

    The static Young's modulus (deformability) of a rock is indispensable for designing and constructing tunnels, dams and underground caverns in civil engineering. Static Young's modulus which is an elastic modulus at large strain level is usually obtained with the laboratory tests of rock cores sampled in boreholes drilled in a rock mass. A deformability model of the entire rock mass is then built by extrapolating the measurements based on a rock mass classification obtained in geological site characterization. However, model-building using data obtained from a limited number of boreholes in the rock mass, especially a complex rock mass, may cause problems in the accuracy and reliability of the model. On the other hand, dynamic Young's modulus which is the modulus at small strain level can be obtained from seismic velocity. If dynamic Young's modulus can be rationally converted to static one, a seismic velocity model by the seismic method can be effectively used to build a deformability model of the rock mass. In this study, we have, therefore, developed a rock physics model (Mavko et al., 2009) to estimate static Young's modulus from dynamic one for sedimentary rocks. The rock physics model has been generally applied to seismic properties at small strain level. In the proposed model, however, the sandy shale model, one of rock physics models, is extended for modeling the static Young's modulus at large strain level by incorporating the mixture of frictional and frictionless grain contacts into the Hertz-Mindlin model. The proposed model is verified through its application to the dynamic Young's moduli derived from well log velocities and static Young's moduli measured in the tri-axial compression tests of rock cores sampled in the same borehole as the logs were acquired. This application proves that the proposed rock physics model can be possibly used to estimate static Young's modulus (deformability) which is required in many types of civil engineering applications

  7. Dynamic elastic moduli of rocks under pressure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schock, R N [Lawrence Radiation Laboratory, University of California, Livermore, CA (United States)

    1970-05-01

    Elastic moduli are determined as a function of confining pressure to 10 kb on rocks in which Plowshare shots are to be fired. Numerical simulation codes require accurate information on the mechanical response of the rock medium to various stress levels in order to predict cavity dimensions. The theoretical treatment of small strains in an elastic medium relates the propagation velocity of compressional and shear waves to the elastic moduli. Velocity measurements can provide, as unique code input data, the rigidity modulus, Poisson' ratio and the shear wave velocity, as well as providing checks on independent determinations of the other moduli. Velocities are determined using pulsed electro-mechanical transducers and measuring the time-of-flight in the rock specimen. A resonant frequency of 1 MHz is used to insure that the wavelength exceeds the average grain dimension and is subject to bulk rock properties. Data obtained on a variety of rock types are presented and analyzed. These data are discussed in terms of their relationship to moduli measured by static methods as well as the effect of anisotropy, porosity, and fractures. In general, fractured rocks with incipient cracks show large increases in velocity and moduli in the first 1 to 2 kb of compression as a result of the closing of these voids. After this, the velocities increase much more slowly. Dynamic moduli for these rocks are often 10% higher than corresponding static moduli at low pressure, but this difference decreases as the voids are closed until the moduli agree within experimental error. The discrepancy at low pressure is a result of the elastic energy in the wave pulse being propagated around cracks, with little effect on propagation velocity averaged over the entire specimen. (author)

  8. Compact rock material gas permeability properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Huanling, E-mail: whl_hm@163.com [Key Laboratory of Coastal Disaster and Defence, Ministry of Education, Hohai University, Nanjing 210098 (China); LML, University of Lille, Cite Scientifique, 59655 Villeneuve d’Ascq (France); Xu, Weiya; Zuo, Jing [Institutes of Geotechnical Engineering, Hohai University, Nanjing 210098 (China)

    2014-09-15

    Natural compact rocks, such as sandstone, granite, and rock salt, are the main materials and geological environment for storing underground oil, gas, CO{sub 2,} shale gas, and radioactive waste because they have extremely low permeabilities and high mechanical strengths. Using the inert gas argon as the fluid medium, the stress-dependent permeability and porosity of monzonitic granite and granite gneiss from an underground oil storage depot were measured using a permeability and porosity measurement system. Based on the test results, models for describing the relationships among the permeability, porosity, and confining pressure of rock specimens were analyzed and are discussed. A power law is suggested to describe the relationship between the stress-dependent porosity and permeability; for the monzonitic granite and granite gneiss (for monzonitic granite (A-2), the initial porosity is approximately 4.05%, and the permeability is approximately 10{sup −19} m{sup 2}; for the granite gneiss (B-2), the initial porosity is approximately 7.09%, the permeability is approximately 10{sup −17} m{sup 2}; and the porosity-sensitivity exponents that link porosity and permeability are 0.98 and 3.11, respectively). Compared with moderate-porosity and high-porosity rocks, for which φ > 15%, low-porosity rock permeability has a relatively lower sensitivity to stress, but the porosity is more sensitive to stress, and different types of rocks show similar trends. From the test results, it can be inferred that the test rock specimens’ permeability evolution is related to the relative particle movements and microcrack closure.

  9. Measurement of diffusive properties of intact rock

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harvey, K B

    1996-12-01

    In the Postclosure Assessment of a Reference System for the Disposal of Canada`s Nuclear Fuel Waste (Goodwin et al. 1994) the disposal vault is assumed to be surrounded by a zone of intact rock, referred to as the `exclusion zone.` A sensitivity analysis of the relative effectiveness of the several engineered and natural barriers that contribute to the safety of the reference disposal system has shown that this zone of intact rock is the most effective of these barriers to the movement of radionuclides through the reference system. Peer review of the geosphere model used in the case study for the EIS (Environmental Impact Statement) of the Canadian Nuclear Fuel Waste Management Program has identified the need to quantify the properties of the intact rock surrounding the disposal vault that would control the transport of radionuclides by diffusion. The Postclosure Assessment also identified the need for appropriate values of the free water diffusion coefficient (D{sub o}) for {sup 129}1 and {sup 14}C. The measurement of rock resistivity allows the calculation of the Formation Factor for a rock This review describes the Formation Factor, diffusivity, permeability, and porosity, and how these properties might be measured or inferred for insitu rock under the conditions that apply to the intact rock surrounding a potential disposal vault. The importance of measuring the intrinsic diffusion coefficient (D{sup i}) of diffusing species under solution salinities simulating those of groundwaters is emphasised, and a method of measurement is described that is independent of the diffusing medium, and which would be appropriate for measurements made in chemically complex media such as groundwaters. (author). 95 refs., 4 tabs., 39 figs.

  10. Dynamic elastic moduli of rocks under pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schock, R.N.

    1970-01-01

    Elastic moduli are determined as a function of confining pressure to 10 kb on rocks in which Plowshare shots are to be fired. Numerical simulation codes require accurate information on the mechanical response of the rock medium to various stress levels in order to predict cavity dimensions. The theoretical treatment of small strains in an elastic medium relates the propagation velocity of compressional and shear waves to the elastic moduli. Velocity measurements can provide, as unique code input data, the rigidity modulus, Poisson' ratio and the shear wave velocity, as well as providing checks on independent determinations of the other moduli. Velocities are determined using pulsed electro-mechanical transducers and measuring the time-of-flight in the rock specimen. A resonant frequency of 1 MHz is used to insure that the wavelength exceeds the average grain dimension and is subject to bulk rock properties. Data obtained on a variety of rock types are presented and analyzed. These data are discussed in terms of their relationship to moduli measured by static methods as well as the effect of anisotropy, porosity, and fractures. In general, fractured rocks with incipient cracks show large increases in velocity and moduli in the first 1 to 2 kb of compression as a result of the closing of these voids. After this, the velocities increase much more slowly. Dynamic moduli for these rocks are often 10% higher than corresponding static moduli at low pressure, but this difference decreases as the voids are closed until the moduli agree within experimental error. The discrepancy at low pressure is a result of the elastic energy in the wave pulse being propagated around cracks, with little effect on propagation velocity averaged over the entire specimen. (author)

  11. Measurement of diffusive properties of intact rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harvey, K.B.

    1996-12-01

    In the Postclosure Assessment of a Reference System for the Disposal of Canada's Nuclear Fuel Waste (Goodwin et al. 1994) the disposal vault is assumed to be surrounded by a zone of intact rock, referred to as the 'exclusion zone.' A sensitivity analysis of the relative effectiveness of the several engineered and natural barriers that contribute to the safety of the reference disposal system has shown that this zone of intact rock is the most effective of these barriers to the movement of radionuclides through the reference system. Peer review of the geosphere model used in the case study for the EIS (Environmental Impact Statement) of the Canadian Nuclear Fuel Waste Management Program has identified the need to quantify the properties of the intact rock surrounding the disposal vault that would control the transport of radionuclides by diffusion. The Postclosure Assessment also identified the need for appropriate values of the free water diffusion coefficient (D o ) for 129 1 and 14 C. The measurement of rock resistivity allows the calculation of the Formation Factor for a rock This review describes the Formation Factor, diffusivity, permeability, and porosity, and how these properties might be measured or inferred for insitu rock under the conditions that apply to the intact rock surrounding a potential disposal vault. The importance of measuring the intrinsic diffusion coefficient (D i ) of diffusing species under solution salinities simulating those of groundwaters is emphasised, and a method of measurement is described that is independent of the diffusing medium, and which would be appropriate for measurements made in chemically complex media such as groundwaters. (author). 95 refs., 4 tabs., 39 figs

  12. Abraded Target on Rock 'Champagne' in Gusev Crater

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit took this microscopic image of a target called 'Bubbles' on a rock called 'Champagne' after using its rock abrasion tool to grind a hole through the rock's outer surface. The circular area where the rock's interior is exposed is about 5 centimeters (2 inches) across. This rock is different from rocks out on the plains of Gusev Crater but is similar to other rocks in this area of the 'Columbia Hills' in that it rich in phosphorus. Plagioclase, a mineral commonly found in igneous rocks, is also present in these rocks, according to analysis with Spirit's miniature thermal emission spectrometer. By using the rover's alpha particle X-ray spectrometer to collect data for multiple martian days, or sols, scientists are also beginning to get measurements of trace elements in the rocks. Spirit took the images that are combined into this mosaic on sol 358 (Jan. 3, 2005).

  13. Composizione e improvvisazione: dove sta la differenza?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Goldoni

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Improvisation is often conceived as making music without reading a score. This interpretation derives from the Western identification of composition with written music. But “improvisation” too is a form of composition – and not just in “real time” – with aims and criteria that differ from those of written music. Today the interest in improvisation is growing –and even changing with respect to the postwar years – in connection with changes in music, sound and social relationships, reflecting new media developments.

  14. Underground Research Laboratories for Crystalline Rock and Sedimentary Rock in Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shigeta, N.; Takeda, S.; Matsui, H.; Yamasaki, S.

    2003-02-27

    The Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute (JNC) has started two off-site (generic) underground research laboratory (URL) projects, one for crystalline rock as a fractured media and the other for sedimentary rock as a porous media. This paper introduces an overview and current status of these projects.

  15. Evaluation of the layering of rock strata and basement rock depth of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The layering of rock strata and depth to the basement rocks of a Federal University Teaching Hospital premises in Northern Nigeria was investigated in this study with the aim of providing 2D geo-electrical resistivity images of the subsurface for geotechnical development using a modern and state-of-the-art field instrument, ...

  16. Cecal bacterial communities in wild Japanese rock ptarmigans and captive Svalbard rock ptarmigans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ushida, Kazunari; Segawa, Takahiro; Tsuchida, Sayaka; Murata, Koichi

    2016-02-01

    Preservation of indigenous gastrointestinal microbiota is deemed to be critical for successful captive breeding of endangered wild animals, yet its biology is poorly understood. Here, we investigated cecal bacterial communities in wild Japanese rock ptarmigans (Lagopus muta japonica) and compared them with those in Svalbard rock ptarmigans (L. m. hyperborea) in captivity. Ultra-deep sequencing of 16S rRNA gene indicated that the community structure of cecal microbiota in wild rock ptarmigans was remarkably different from that in captive Svalbard rock ptarmigans. Fundamental differences between bacterial communities in the two groups of birds were detected at the phylum level. Firmicutes, Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes and Synergistetes were the major phyla detected in wild Japanese rock ptarmigans, whereas Firmicutes alone occupied more than 80% of abundance in captive Svalbard rock ptarmigans. Furthermore, unclassified genera of Coriobacteriaceae, Synergistaceae, Bacteroidaceae, Actinomycetaceae, Veillonellaceae and Clostridiales were the major taxa detected in wild individuals, whereas in zoo-reared birds, major genera were Ruminococcus, Blautia, Faecalibacterium and Akkermansia. Zoo-reared birds seemed to lack almost all rock ptarmigan-specific bacteria in their intestine, which may explain the relatively high rate of pathogenic infections affecting them. We show evidence that preservation and reconstitution of indigenous cecal microflora are critical for successful ex situ conservation and future re-introduction plan for the Japanese rock ptarmigan.

  17. THM-coupled modeling of selected processes in argillaceous rock relevant to rock mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Czaikowski, Oliver

    2012-01-01

    Scientific investigations in European countries other than Germany concentrate not only on granite formations (Switzerland, Sweden) but also on argillaceous rock formations (France, Switzerland, Belgium) to assess their suitability as host and barrier rock for the final storage of radioactive waste. In Germany, rock salt has been under thorough study as a host rock over the past few decades. According to a study by the German Federal Institute for Geosciences and Natural Resources, however, not only salt deposits but also argillaceous rock deposits are available at relevant depths and of extensions in space which make final storage of high-level radioactive waste basically possible in Germany. Equally qualified findings about the suitability/unsuitability of non-saline rock formations require fundamental studies to be conducted nationally because of the comparatively low level of knowledge. The article presents basic analyses of coupled mechanical and hydraulic properties of argillaceous rock formations as host rock for a repository. The interaction of various processes is explained on the basis of knowledge derived from laboratory studies, and open problems are deduced. For modeling coupled processes, a simplified analytical computation method is proposed and compared with the results of numerical simulations, and the limits to its application are outlined. (orig.)

  18. Strength Assessment of Broken Rock Postgrouting Reinforcement Based on Initial Broken Rock Quality and Grouting Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongfa Xu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available To estimate postgrouting rock mass strength growth is important for engineering design. In this paper, using self-developed indoor pressure-grouting devices, 19 groups of test cubic blocks were made of the different water cement ratio grouting into the broken rock of three kinds of particle sizes. The shear strength parameters of each group under different conditions were tested. Then this paper presents a quantitative calculation method for predicting the strength growth of grouted broken rock. Relational equations were developed to investigate the relationship between the growth rates of uniaxial compressive strength (UCS, absolute value of uniaxial tensile strength (AUTS, internal friction angle, and cohesion for post- to pregrouting broken rock based on Mohr-Coulomb strength criterion. From previous test data, the empirical equation between the growth rate of UCS and the ratio of the initial rock mass UCS to the grout concretion UCS has been determined. The equations of the growth rates of the internal friction coefficient and UCS for grouting broken rock with rock mass rating (RMR and its increment have been established. The calculated results are consistent with the experimental results. These observations are important for engineered design of grouting reinforcement for broken rock mass.

  19. Nitrogen in rock: Occurrences and biogeochemical implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holloway, J.M.; Dahlgren, R.A.

    2002-01-01

    There is a growing interest in the role of bedrock in global nitrogen cycling and potential for increased ecosystem sensitivity to human impacts in terrains with elevated background nitrogen concentrations. Nitrogen-bearing rocks are globally distributed and comprise a potentially large pool of nitrogen in nutrient cycling that is frequently neglected because of a lack of routine analytical methods for quantification. Nitrogen in rock originates as organically bound nitrogen associated with sediment, or in thermal waters representing a mixture of sedimentary, mantle, and meteoric sources of nitrogen. Rock nitrogen concentrations range from trace levels (>200 mg N kg -1) in granites to ecologically significant concentrations exceeding 1000 mg N kg -1 in some sedimentary and metasedimentary rocks. Nitrate deposits accumulated in arid and semi-arid regions are also a large potential pool. Nitrogen in rock has a potentially significant impact on localized nitrogen cycles. Elevated nitrogen concentrations in water and soil have been attributed to weathering of bedrock nitrogen. In some environments, nitrogen released from bedrock may contribute to nitrogen saturation of terrestrial ecosystems (more nitrogen available than required by biota). Nitrogen saturation results in leaching of nitrate to surface and groundwaters, and, where soils are formed from ammonium-rich bedrock, the oxidation of ammonium to nitrate may result in soil acidification, inhibiting revegetation in certain ecosystems. Collectively, studies presented in this article reveal that geologic nitrogen may be a large and reactive pool with potential for amplification of human impacts on nitrogen cycling in terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems.

  20. Rock Directed Breaking Under the Impulse Load

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khomeriki, Sergo; Mataradze, Edgar; Chikhradze, Nikoloz; Losaberidze, Marine; Khomeriki, Davit; Shatberashvili, Grigol

    2016-10-01

    In the work the problem of directed chipping of facing stone material by means of managing of explosion process is considered. The technology of the mining of decorative stone by the use of explosion energy means the very rapid transfer of potential energy of elastic deformations to kinetic energy. As a result, the explosion impulse, in the expanse of the inertia of rock massive, does not cause the increase of existing cracks. In the course of explosion, the shock wave is propagated by ultrasonic velocity and in this case the medium parameters (pressure, density, temperature, velocity) increase in spurts. In spite of this fact the all three conservation laws of mechanics remain valid on basis of three laws the equations are derived by which the parameters of shock wave may be defined by means of the rock physical-mechanical properties. The load on the body volume at breaking under explosion acts over very small period of the time. Therefore, stressed-deformed state of the rock was studied when the impulse load acts on the boundary. It was considered that the mining of the blocks of facing stone is performed from the hard rocks. This means that the breaking proceeds in the zone of elastic deformation. In the conditions of mentioned assumptions, the expression of the stress tensor and displacement of vector components initiated by stressed-deformed state in the rock are written.