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Sample records for rock correlation technique

  1. Oil(Gas) - source rock correlation technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-01

    The overview of bio-marker parameters which are applicable to hydrocarbon exploration has been illustrated. Experimental analysis of saturated hydrocarbon and bio-markers of the Pohang E and F core samples has been carried out. Samples were extracted by stirring in dichloromethane at 40-50 degree for 10 hours. The saturated, aromatic and resin fractions of the extract were obtained using thin layer chromatograms. The relative abundance of normal alkane fraction of the samples is low except lowest interval, which is probably due to the biodegradation. The bio-marker assemblage of hopanoids and steranes has been characterized. According to the analysis of saturated hydrocarbons and bio-markers, the sedimentary environment of the Pohang core samples is marine and transitional zone except the terrestrial environment of the lowest samples such as 610.5 m from E core and 667.2 m from F core. The thermal maturity through the studied interval did not reach oil window even though slight increase in thermal maturity with depth, which coincide with Rock Eval pyrolysis data. In order to check the validation of analysis of the bio-markers, same samples were analyzed by the University of Louis Pasteur, France. The distribution and relative peak area of the bio-markers were identical with those by laboratory of KIGAM. For the 2 nd stage of the research, analysis of bio-markers other than hopanoids and steranes should be continued. (author). 29 figs., 7 tabs.

  2. Correlation between Rock mass rating, Q-system and Rock mass index based on field data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soufi Amine

    2018-01-01

    The proposed regression models reveal strong correlations between RMR, Q and RMi indexes with high values of accuracy coefficients so that they can be used to estimate the “CPB3” underground rock mass quality for the range of RMR between 30% and 80%. The developed mathematical formulations of the geomechanicalindexes will certainly offer an effective tool to geologist and geotechnical professionals in the decision-making process, preliminary design phase, stability problems and suggestions of the required supporting system and techniques without the expense of more resources or time.

  3. Some techniques of correlation experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allas, R.G.

    1976-01-01

    Some general remarks concerning correlation techniques are made. Most of the remarks are limited to correlated pairs of charged particles. The relatively simple system 3 He + 3 H → A + B + C, where all possible charged particle pairs A,B are detected and particle C is left undetected either charged or neutral, is considered. (G.T.H.)

  4. Strongly correlated systems experimental techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Mancini, Ferdinando

    2015-01-01

    The continuous evolution and development of experimental techniques is at the basis of any fundamental achievement in modern physics. Strongly correlated systems (SCS), more than any other, need to be investigated through the greatest variety of experimental techniques in order to unveil and crosscheck the numerous and puzzling anomalous behaviors characterizing them. The study of SCS fostered the improvement of many old experimental techniques, but also the advent of many new ones just invented in order to analyze the complex behaviors of these systems. Many novel materials, with functional properties emerging from macroscopic quantum behaviors at the frontier of modern research in physics, chemistry and materials science, belong to this class of systems. The volume presents a representative collection of the modern experimental techniques specifically tailored for the analysis of strongly correlated systems. Any technique is presented in great detail by its own inventor or by one of the world-wide recognize...

  5. Determination of rock depth using artificial intelligence techniques

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    R. Viswanathan; Pijush Samui

    2016-01-01

    This article adopts three artificial intelligence techniques, Gaussian Process Regression (GPR), Least Square Support Vector Machine (LSSVM) and Extreme Learning Machine (ELM), for prediction of rock depth (d) at any point in Chennai. GPR, ELM and LSSVM have been used as regression techniques. Latitude and longitude are also adopted as inputs of the GPR, ELM and LSSVM models. The performance of the ELM, GPR and LSSVM models has been compared. The developed ELM, GPR and LSSVM models produce spatial variability of rock depth and offer robust models for the prediction of rock depth.

  6. Localized damage in soft rock: experiments with field measurement techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen, T.L.

    2011-01-01

    The research presented in this thesis concerns, firstly, an experimental study on the process of fracture in uniaxial compression of rock samples containing narrow, rectilinear notches inclined with respect to the axis of loading. Secondly, we study the evolution of shear strain localisation towards fracturing and failure in specimens of the same materials with a particular geometry, involving two rounded notches. This geometry, inspired by the work of Meuwissen et al. (1998) for tension tests on metals, promotes the localisation of shear strain in simple compression before fracture. Two different materials were studied: a natural rock of volcanic origin (Neapolitan Tuff) and an artificial 'roc' (CPIR09). In the studies presented, three full-field measurement techniques have been employed in combination: (i) the Digital Image Correlation (DIC), for measurement of kinematic fields at a sample's surface; (ii)acoustic Emission measurements (AE) and AE source location, to follow the evolution of damage in samples during loading; (iii) X-ray tomography (pre-and post-mortem studies), to characterise preexisting defects and discontinuities in the specimens and to better understand the fracturing in 3D. (author)

  7. Determination of rock fragmentation based on a photographic technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dehgan Banadaki, M.M.; Majdi, A.; Raessi Gahrooei, D.

    2002-01-01

    The paper represents a physical blasting model in laboratory scale along with a photographic approach to describe the distribution of blasted rock materials. For this purpose, based on wobble probability distribution function, eight samples each weighted 100 kg,were obtained. Four pictures from four different section of each sample were taken. Then, pictures were converted into graphic files with characterizing boundary of each piece of rocks in the samples. Error caused due to perspective were eliminated. Volume of each piece of the blasted rock materials and hence the required sieve size, each piece of rock to pass through, were calculated. Finally, original blasted rock size distribution was compared with that obtained from the photographic method. The paper concludes with presenting an approach to convert the results of photographic technique into size distribution obtained by seine analysis with sufficient verification

  8. Failure Mechanism of Rock Bridge Based on Acoustic Emission Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guoqing Chen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Acoustic emission (AE technique is widely used in various fields as a reliable nondestructive examination technology. Two experimental tests were carried out in a rock mechanics laboratory, which include (1 small scale direct shear tests of rock bridge with different lengths and (2 large scale landslide model with locked section. The relationship of AE event count and record time was analyzed during the tests. The AE source location technology and comparative analysis with its actual failure model were done. It can be found that whether it is small scale test or large scale landslide model test, AE technique accurately located the AE source point, which reflected the failure generation and expansion of internal cracks in rock samples. Large scale landslide model with locked section test showed that rock bridge in rocky slope has typical brittle failure behavior. The two tests based on AE technique well revealed the rock failure mechanism in rocky slope and clarified the cause of high speed and long distance sliding of rocky slope.

  9. Modelling Technique for Demonstrating Gravity Collapse Structures in Jointed Rock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stimpson, B.

    1979-01-01

    Described is a base-friction modeling technique for studying the development of collapse structures in jointed rocks. A moving belt beneath weak material is designed to simulate gravity. A description is given of the model frame construction. (Author/SA)

  10. A review of numerical techniques approaching microstructures of crystalline rocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yahui; Wong, Louis Ngai Yuen

    2018-06-01

    The macro-mechanical behavior of crystalline rocks including strength, deformability and failure pattern are dominantly influenced by their grain-scale structures. Numerical technique is commonly used to assist understanding the complicated mechanisms from a microscopic perspective. Each numerical method has its respective strengths and limitations. This review paper elucidates how numerical techniques take geometrical aspects of the grain into consideration. Four categories of numerical methods are examined: particle-based methods, block-based methods, grain-based methods, and node-based methods. Focusing on the grain-scale characters, specific relevant issues including increasing complexity of micro-structure, deformation and breakage of model elements, fracturing and fragmentation process are described in more detail. Therefore, the intrinsic capabilities and limitations of different numerical approaches in terms of accounting for the micro-mechanics of crystalline rocks and their phenomenal mechanical behavior are explicitly presented.

  11. Correlated microtiming deviations in jazz and rock music.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathias Sogorski

    Full Text Available Musical rhythms performed by humans typically show temporal fluctuations. While they have been characterized in simple rhythmic tasks, it is an open question what is the nature of temporal fluctuations, when several musicians perform music jointly in all its natural complexity. To study such fluctuations in over 100 original jazz and rock/pop recordings played with and without metronome we developed a semi-automated workflow allowing the extraction of cymbal beat onsets with millisecond precision. Analyzing the inter-beat interval (IBI time series revealed evidence for two long-range correlated processes characterized by power laws in the IBI power spectral densities. One process dominates on short timescales (t < 8 beats and reflects microtiming variability in the generation of single beats. The other dominates on longer timescales and reflects slow tempo variations. Whereas the latter did not show differences between musical genres (jazz vs. rock/pop, the process on short timescales showed higher variability for jazz recordings, indicating that jazz makes stronger use of microtiming fluctuations within a measure than rock/pop. Our results elucidate principles of rhythmic performance and can inspire algorithms for artificial music generation. By studying microtiming fluctuations in original music recordings, we bridge the gap between minimalistic tapping paradigms and expressive rhythmic performances.

  12. Correlated microtiming deviations in jazz and rock music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sogorski, Mathias; Geisel, Theo; Priesemann, Viola

    2018-01-01

    Musical rhythms performed by humans typically show temporal fluctuations. While they have been characterized in simple rhythmic tasks, it is an open question what is the nature of temporal fluctuations, when several musicians perform music jointly in all its natural complexity. To study such fluctuations in over 100 original jazz and rock/pop recordings played with and without metronome we developed a semi-automated workflow allowing the extraction of cymbal beat onsets with millisecond precision. Analyzing the inter-beat interval (IBI) time series revealed evidence for two long-range correlated processes characterized by power laws in the IBI power spectral densities. One process dominates on short timescales (t jazz vs. rock/pop), the process on short timescales showed higher variability for jazz recordings, indicating that jazz makes stronger use of microtiming fluctuations within a measure than rock/pop. Our results elucidate principles of rhythmic performance and can inspire algorithms for artificial music generation. By studying microtiming fluctuations in original music recordings, we bridge the gap between minimalistic tapping paradigms and expressive rhythmic performances.

  13. Correlations fo Sc, rare earths and other elements in selected rock samples from Arrua-i

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Facetti, J F; Prats, M [Asuncion Nacional Univ. (Paraguay). Inst. de Ciencias

    1972-01-01

    The Sc and Eu contents in selected rocks samples from the stock of Arrua-i have been determined and correlations established with other elements and with the relative amount of some rare earths. These correlations suggest metasomatic phenomena for the formation of the rock samples.

  14. Correlations fo Sc, rare earths and other elements in selected rock samples from Arrua-i

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Facetti, J.F.; Prats, M.

    1972-01-01

    The Sc and Eu contents in selected rocks samples from the stock of Arrua-i have been determined and correlations established with other elements and with the relative amount of some rare earths. These correlations suggest metasomatic phenomena for the formation of the rock samples

  15. Implementation of isotope correlation technique for safeguards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Persiani, P.J.; Bucher, R.G.

    1989-01-01

    The isotopic correlation technique (ICT) is based on the fundamental physics principle that the isotopic compositions of nuclear material in the fuel cycle systems contain information regarding the design and history of nuclear material flow from fuel fabrication, reactor operation, and through input to the reprocessing plant. Isotopic Correlation in conjunction with the gravimetric (or Pu/U) method for mass determination can be developed to provide an independent in-field verification of the reprocessing input accountancy at the dissolver and/or accountancy stage of the reprocessing plant. The Argonne National Laboratory program in isotope correlation techniques is based on three-dimensional reactor physics calculations of characteristic geometries/composition in each reactor class. 10 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs

  16. Application of nuclear techniques for analysis of Vietnamese coal and embedding rocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vo Dac Bang; Pham Van Duong; Nguyen Thanh Binh; Le Tien Quan; Nguyen Manh Hung; Nguyen Thi Hong; Vu Hoang Lam

    1995-01-01

    In the paper the result of elemental analysis by Nuclear Techniques of Coal and Embedded rocks samples from Vietnamese Quang Ninh and Thai Nguyen basins were presented. Methods used were: Neutron activation Analysis at Dalat Reactor, low counting with HP-Ge and NaJ detectors and X-ray fluorescent analysis with planar Si (Si) detector. Mean concentrations of 19 elements in coal and 9 in rocks were determined. Correlation between concentrations of elements were found. It appears that the correlation between ash content and U, K, Th, concentrations was poor for Quang Ninh antracitecoal. Correlation coefficient was found to be 0,63 for ash range 0-40%. Content of Th in anthracite Quang Ninh coal was much higher than reported in literature for subbituminous, bituminous and lignite coals, while Thai Nguyen fat coal contains considerable amount of Cu, Pb, Zn. Obtained data were useful for evaluation of potential hazard for environment from using coal as fuel for coal fired power plants, for estimation of possibility of using nuclear technique in coal industry in Vietnam. They could be used also for geochemical investigations. The simple of-line coal ash gauge basing on attenuation of soft gamma radiation from Fe-55 was also described. (author). 6 refs, 3 figs, 8 tabs

  17. Correlations between ultrasonic pulse wave velocities and rock properties of quartz-mica schist

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bharti Chawre

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Physico-mechanical properties are critically important parameters for rocks. This study aims to examine some of the rock properties of quartz-mica schist (QMS rocks in a cost-effective manner by establishing correlations between non-destructive and destructive tests. Using simple regression analysis, good correlations were obtained between the pulse wave velocities and the properties of QMS rocks. The results were further improved by using multiple regression analysis as compared to those obtained by the simple linear regression analysis. The results were also compared to the ones obtained by other empirical equations available. The general equations encompassing all types of rocks did not give reliable results of rock properties and showed large relative errors, ranging from 23% to 1146%. It is suggested that empirical correlations must be investigated separately for different types of rocks. The general empirical equations should not be used for the design and planning purposes before they are verified at least on one rock sample from the project site, as they may contain large unacceptable errors. Keywords: Pulse wave velocity, Physico-mechanical properties, Quartz-mica schist (QMS rocks, Non-destructive methods, Static elastic constants, Dynamic elastic constants

  18. Analysis of compressive fracture in rock using statistical techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blair, S.C.

    1994-12-01

    Fracture of rock in compression is analyzed using a field-theory model, and the processes of crack coalescence and fracture formation and the effect of grain-scale heterogeneities on macroscopic behavior of rock are studied. The model is based on observations of fracture in laboratory compression tests, and incorporates assumptions developed using fracture mechanics analysis of rock fracture. The model represents grains as discrete sites, and uses superposition of continuum and crack-interaction stresses to create cracks at these sites. The sites are also used to introduce local heterogeneity. Clusters of cracked sites can be analyzed using percolation theory. Stress-strain curves for simulated uniaxial tests were analyzed by studying the location of cracked sites, and partitioning of strain energy for selected intervals. Results show that the model implicitly predicts both development of shear-type fracture surfaces and a strength-vs-size relation that are similar to those observed for real rocks. Results of a parameter-sensitivity analysis indicate that heterogeneity in the local stresses, attributed to the shape and loading of individual grains, has a first-order effect on strength, and that increasing local stress heterogeneity lowers compressive strength following an inverse power law. Peak strength decreased with increasing lattice size and decreasing mean site strength, and was independent of site-strength distribution. A model for rock fracture based on a nearest-neighbor algorithm for stress redistribution is also presented and used to simulate laboratory compression tests, with promising results.

  19. Logging technique for assaying for uranium in rocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Givens, W.W.

    1973-01-01

    A uranium exploration technique is described for determining the uranium content of a formation traversed by borehole. A delayed fission neutron assay log is obtained by irradiating the formation with repetitive bursts of fast neutrons and detecting delayed neutrons resulting from neutron fission of uranium at time intervals between the fast neutron bursts and after dissipation of the neutrons originating in the bursts. In addition, a response log is obtained by irradiating the formation with a source of fast neutrons whereby the neutrons from this source are moderated in the formation to lower energy levels and are subject to absorption. Secondary radiation attendant to these lower energy neutrons is recorded in order to obtain a log representative of the response of the formation to moderation and absorption of the neutrons. The two logs thus obtained are correlated in order to determine a corrected value of uranium content of the formation. (author)

  20. Methods in rock magnetism and palaeomagnetism techniques and instrumentation

    CERN Document Server

    Collinson, D W

    1983-01-01

    During the last 30 years the study of the magnetic properties of rocks and minerals has substantially contributed to several fields of science. Perhaps the best known and most significant advances have resulted from the study of palaeomagnetism, which led to quantitative confirmation of continental drift and polar wandering through interpretation of the direction of remanent magnetism observed in rocks of different ages from different continents. Palaeomagnetism has also, through observations of reversals of magnetiz­ ation, ancient secular variation and ancient field intensities provided data relevant to the origin of the geomagnetic field, and other investigations have contributed significantly to large-scale and local geological studies, the dating of archaeological events and artefacts and more recently to lunar and meteoritic studies. Rock and mineral magnetism has proved to be an interesting study in its own right through the complex magnetic properties and interactions observed in the iron-titanium ox...

  1. Correlations of soil and rock properties in geotechnical engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Ameratunga, Jay; Das, Braja M

    2016-01-01

    This book presents a one-stop reference to the empirical correlations used extensively in geotechnical engineering. Empirical correlations play a key role in geotechnical engineering designs and analysis. Laboratory and in situ testing of soils can add significant cost to a civil engineering project. By using appropriate empirical correlations, it is possible to derive many design parameters, thus limiting our reliance on these soil tests. The authors have decades of experience in geotechnical engineering, as professional engineers or researchers. The objective of this book is to present a critical evaluation of a wide range of empirical correlations reported in the literature, along with typical values of soil parameters, in the light of their experience and knowledge. This book will be a one-stop-shop for the practising professionals, geotechnical researchers and academics looking for specific correlations for estimating certain geotechnical parameters. The empirical correlations in the forms of equations a...

  2. Geomechanical characterization of volcanic rocks using empirical systems and data mining techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Miranda

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper tries to characterize volcanic rocks through the development and application of an empirical geomechanical system. Geotechnical information was collected from the samples from several Atlantic Ocean islands including Madeira, Azores and Canarias archipelagos. An empirical rock classification system termed as the volcanic rock system (VRS is developed and presented in detail. Results using the VRS are compared with those obtained using the traditional rock mass rating (RMR system. Data mining (DM techniques are applied to a database of volcanic rock geomechanical information from the islands. Different algorithms were developed and consequently approaches were followed for predicting rock mass classes using the VRS and RMR classification systems. Finally, some conclusions are drawn with emphasis on the fact that a better performance was achieved using attributes from VRS.

  3. Correlation of electromagnetic radiation emitted from coal or rock to supporting resistance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jia, Hui-lin; Wang, En-yuan; Song, Xiao-yan; Zhang, Hong-jie; Li, Zhong-hui [China University of Mining & Technology, Xuzhou (China). School of Safety Engineering

    2009-05-15

    More accurate forecasting of rock burst might be possible from observations of electromagnetic radiation emitted in the mine. We analyzed experimental observations and field data from the Muchengjian coal mine to study the relationship between electromagnetic radiation signal intensity and stress during the fracturing of coal, or rock, and samples under load. The results show that the signal intensity is positively correlated with stress. In addition, we investigated the change in the electromagnetic radiation intensity, the supporting resistance in a real coal mine environment, and the coal or rock stress in the mining area. The data analysis indicates that: (1) electromagnetic radiation intensity can accurately reflect the distribution of stress in the mining area; and, (2) there is a correlation between electromagnetic radiation intensity and supporting resistance. The research has some practical guiding significance for rock burst forecasting and for the prevention of accidents in coal mines. 9 refs., 6 figs.

  4. Analysis of rocks involving the x-ray diffraction, infrared and thermal gravimetric techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikram, M.; Rauf, M.A.; Munir, N.

    1998-01-01

    Chemical analysis of rocks and minerals are usually obtained by a number of analytical techniques. The purpose of present work is to investigate the chemical composition of the rock samples and also to find that how far the results obtained by different instrumental methods are closely related. Chemical tests wee performed before using the instrumental techniques in order to determined the nature of these rocks. The chemical analysis indicated mainly the presence of carbonate and hence the carbonate nature of these rocks. The x-ray diffraction, infrared spectroscopy and thermal gravimetric analysis techniques were used for the determination of chemical composition of these samples. The results obtained by using these techniques have shown a great deal of similarities. (author)

  5. Correlating P-wave Velocity with the Physico-Mechanical Properties of Different Rocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khandelwal, Manoj

    2013-04-01

    In mining and civil engineering projects, physico-mechanical properties of the rock affect both the project design and the construction operation. Determination of various physico-mechanical properties of rocks is expensive and time consuming, and sometimes it is very difficult to get cores to perform direct tests to evaluate the rock mass. The purpose of this work is to investigate the relationships between the different physico-mechanical properties of the various rock types with the P-wave velocity. Measurement of P-wave velocity is relatively cheap, non-destructive and easy to carry out. In this study, representative rock mass samples of igneous, sedimentary, and metamorphic rocks were collected from the different locations of India to obtain an empirical relation between P-wave velocity and uniaxial compressive strength, tensile strength, punch shear, density, slake durability index, Young's modulus, Poisson's ratio, impact strength index and Schmidt hammer rebound number. A very strong correlation was found between the P-wave velocity and different physico-mechanical properties of various rock types with very high coefficients of determination. To check the sensitivity of the empirical equations, Students t test was also performed, which confirmed the validity of the proposed correlations.

  6. Correlation of the Canol Formation source rock with oil from Norman Wells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Snowdon, L.R.; Brooks, P.W.; Williams, G.K.; Goodarzi, F.

    1987-01-01

    The source of the oil at Norman Wells has long been assumed to have been the Canol Formation and/or the Bluefish Member of the Hare Indian Formation. These two units are stratigraphically above and below the Kee Scarp Formation reservoir unit respectively, and are both bituminous shales. A wide range of analytical techniques including Rock-Eval pyrolysis, solvent extraction and fractionation, capillary gas chromatography, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, and white light and fluorescence microscopy has been used to characterize core samples of these two units and two samples of crude oil from the Norman Wells field. Most of the analytical techniques were insufficiently refined to either differentiate the extracts from each other or to make a definitive oil/source rock correlation. Collision activated decomposition coupled with multiple ion detection mass spectrometry (GC-MS-MS) did provide sufficient chemical compositional detail of the oils and the two potential sources to demonstrate that the Canol Formation has been the effective source of the Normal Wells oil whereas the Bluefish Member has not. The level of thermal maturity of the core samples ranges from immature to moderately mature in the vicinity of the Norman Wells field to overmature for the samples obtained to the west and north of the field. The level of thermal maturity of the oil was observed to be somewhat higher than that of the samples of the source formation directly above the field. It was thus inferred that some lateral migration from more mature areas has occurred but the extent of this migration was not necessarily more than a few to tens of kilometers.

  7. Isotope techniques in the study of the hydrology of fractured and fissured rocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    It is generally agreed that the hydrology of fractured rocks refers to the occurrence and movement of groundwater in rocks whose porosity is due to cracks, fissures and fractures in compact rocks. Until recently, crystalline rocks were considered to be impervious (the role of karst reservoirs for groundwater storage is already known). Thus, although fractured rocks cover approximately one-third of the Earth's surface, knowledge of groundwater flow dynamics still needs to be substantively improved. The Proceedings include the papers presented at the Advisory Group Meeting on the Application of Isotope Techniques in the Study of the Hydrology of Fractured and Fissured Rocks, which took place in Vienna from 17 to 21 November 1986. The meeting was attended by 21 scientists from 10 Member States. The Group agreed that the following topics should be given the highest priority: (1) Protection of groundwater resources should be incorporated into all future activities. This implies that recharge areas have to be delineated, not only using nuclear techniques but also other hydrogeological and geochemical methods. Research efforts in this direction should be intensified. (2) The Group was aware that new isotope techniques are being developed in hydrogeology and agreed that their application in fractured and fissured rocks showed promise. It was therefore suggested that information on new isotopes such as 36 Cl and 129 I should be gathered, either in the form of the various techniques currently being used by different laboratories or through the various activities that are being undertaken. Ways of co-ordinating the work being done and exchanging information at the international level should be encouraged. The Proceedings should be of interest to scientists responsible for the evaluation of water resources in crystalline rocks. It is hoped that hydrologists and hydrogeologists working in such terrains who are not familiar with the use of isotope techniques will find ideas and

  8. Investigations of some rock stress measuring techniques and the stress field in Norway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanssen, Tor Harald

    1997-12-31

    Rock stresses are important to the safe construction and operation of all man-made structures in rock, whether In mining, civil or petroleum engineering. The crucial issue is their relative magnitude and orientation. This thesis develops equipment and methods for further rock stress assessment and reevaluates existing overcoring rock stress measurements, and relates this information to the present geological setting. Both laboratory work and field work are involved. In the field, rock stresses are measured by the overcoring and the hydraulic fracturing technique. An observation technique for assessing likely high stresses is developed. The field data refer to several hydropower projects and to some offshore hydrocarbon fields. The principal sections are: (1) Tectonic setting in the western Fennoscandia, (2) Triaxial rock stress measurements by overcoring using the NTH cell (a strain gauge cell developed at the Norwegian technical university in Trondheim and based on the CSIR cell of the South African Council for Scientific and Industrial Research), (3) Laboratory testing of the NTH cell, (4) Quality ranking of stresses measured by the NTH cell, (4) Recalculated rock stresses and implications to the regional stress field, (5) Hydraulic fracturing stress measurements. 113 refs., 98 figs., 62 tabs.

  9. Investigations of some rock stress measuring techniques and the stress field in Norway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanssen, Tor Harald

    1998-12-31

    Rock stresses are important to the safe construction and operation of all man-made structures in rock, whether In mining, civil or petroleum engineering. The crucial issue is their relative magnitude and orientation. This thesis develops equipment and methods for further rock stress assessment and reevaluates existing overcoring rock stress measurements, and relates this information to the present geological setting. Both laboratory work and field work are involved. In the field, rock stresses are measured by the overcoring and the hydraulic fracturing technique. An observation technique for assessing likely high stresses is developed. The field data refer to several hydropower projects and to some offshore hydrocarbon fields. The principal sections are: (1) Tectonic setting in the western Fennoscandia, (2) Triaxial rock stress measurements by overcoring using the NTH cell (a strain gauge cell developed at the Norwegian technical university in Trondheim and based on the CSIR cell of the South African Council for Scientific and Industrial Research), (3) Laboratory testing of the NTH cell, (4) Quality ranking of stresses measured by the NTH cell, (4) Recalculated rock stresses and implications to the regional stress field, (5) Hydraulic fracturing stress measurements. 113 refs., 98 figs., 62 tabs.

  10. The Leeb Hardness Test for Rock: An Updated Methodology and UCS Correlation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corkum, A. G.; Asiri, Y.; El Naggar, H.; Kinakin, D.

    2018-03-01

    The Leeb hardness test (LHT with test value of L D ) is a rebound hardness test, originally developed for metals, that has been correlated with the Unconfined Compressive Strength (test value of σ c ) of rock by several authors. The tests can be carried out rapidly, conveniently and nondestructively on core and block samples or on rock outcrops. This makes the relatively small LHT device convenient for field tests. The present study compiles test data from literature sources and presents new laboratory testing carried out by the authors to develop a substantially expanded database with wide-ranging rock types. In addition, the number of impacts that should be averaged to comprise a "test result" was revisited along with the issue of test specimen size. Correlation for L D and σ c for various rock types is provided along with recommended testing methodology. The accuracy of correlated σ c estimates was assessed and reasonable correlations were observed between L D and σ c . The study findings show that LHT can be useful particularly for field estimation of σ c and offers a significant improvement over the conventional field estimation methods outlined by the ISRM (e.g., hammer blows). This test is rapid and simple, with relatively low equipment costs, and provides a reasonably accurate estimate of σ c .

  11. Correlation of the Rock Mass Rating (RMR) System with the Unified Soil Classification System (USCS): Introduction of the Weak Rock Mass Rating System (W-RMR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Sean N.; Kallu, Raj R.; Barnard, Chase K.

    2016-11-01

    Underground gold mines in Nevada are exploiting increasingly deeper ore bodies comprised of weak to very weak rock masses. The Rock Mass Rating (RMR) classification system is widely used at underground gold mines in Nevada and is applicable in fair to good-quality rock masses, but is difficult to apply and loses reliability in very weak rock mass to soil-like material. Because very weak rock masses are transition materials that border engineering rock mass and soil classification systems, soil classification may sometimes be easier and more appropriate to provide insight into material behavior and properties. The Unified Soil Classification System (USCS) is the most likely choice for the classification of very weak rock mass to soil-like material because of its accepted use in tunnel engineering projects and its ability to predict soil-like material behavior underground. A correlation between the RMR and USCS systems was developed by comparing underground geotechnical RMR mapping to laboratory testing of bulk samples from the same locations, thereby assigning a numeric RMR value to the USCS classification that can be used in spreadsheet calculations and geostatistical analyses. The geotechnical classification system presented in this paper including a USCS-RMR correlation, RMR rating equations, and the Geo-Pick Strike Index is collectively introduced as the Weak Rock Mass Rating System (W-RMR). It is the authors' hope that this system will aid in the classification of weak rock masses and more usable design tools based on the RMR system. More broadly, the RMR-USCS correlation and the W-RMR system help define the transition between engineering soil and rock mass classification systems and may provide insight for geotechnical design in very weak rock masses.

  12. Utilization of Integrated Geophysical Techniques to Delineate the Extraction of Mining Bench of Ornamental Rocks (Marble

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julián Martínez

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Low yields in ornamental rock mining remain one of the most important problems in this industry. This fact is usually associated with the presence of anisotropies in the rock, which makes it difficult to extract the blocks. An optimised planning of the exploitation, together with an improved geological understanding of the deposit, could increase these yields. In this work, marble mining in Macael (Spain was studied to test the capacity of non-destructive geophysical prospecting methods (GPR and ERI as tools to characterize the geology of the deposit. It is well-known that the ERI method provides a greater penetration depth. By using this technique, it is possible to distinguish the boundaries between the marble and the underlying micaschists, the morphology of the unit to be exploited, and even fracture zones to be identified. Therefore, this technique could be used in the early stages of research, to estimate the reserves of the deposit. The GPR methodology, with a lower penetration depth, is able to offer more detailed information. Specifically, it detects lateral and vertical changes of the facies inside the marble unit, as well as the anisotropies of the rock (fractures or holes. This technique would be suitable for use in a second stage of research. On the one hand, it is very useful for characterization of the texture and fabric of the rock, which allows us to determine in advance its properties, and therefore, the quality for ornamental use. On the other hand, the localization of anisotropy using the GPR technique will make it possible to improve the planning of the rock exploitation in order to increase yields. Both integrated geophysical techniques are effective for assessing the quality of ornamental rock and thus can serve as useful tools in mine planning to improve yields and costs.

  13. Study of capillary absorption kinetics by X-ray CT imaging techniques: a survey on sedimentary rocks of Sicily

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiziano Schillaci

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Sedimentary rocks are natural porous materials with a great percent of microscopic interconnected pores: they contain fluids, permitting their movement on macroscopic scale. Generally, these rocks present porosity higher then metamorphic rocks. Under certain points of view, this feature represents an advantage; on the other hand, this can constitute an obstacle for cultural heritage applications, because the porosity grade can lead to a deterioration of the lapideous monument for water capillary absorption. In this paper, CT (Computerized Tomography image techniques are applied to capillary absorption kinetics in sedimentary rocks utilized for the Greek temples as well as baroc monuments, respectively located in western and southeastern Sicily. Rocks were sampled near the archaeological areas of Agrigento, Segesta, Selinunte and Val di Noto. CT images were acquired at different times, before and after the water contact, using image elaboration techniques during the acquisition as well as the post-processing phases. Water distribution into porous spaces has been evaluated on the basis of the Hounsfield number, estimated for the 3-D voxel structure of samples. For most of the considered samples, assumptions based on Handy model permit to correlate the average height of the wetting front to the square root of time. Stochastic equations were introduced in order to describe the percolative water behavior in heterogeneous samples, as the Agrigento one. Before the CT acquisition, an estimate of the capillary absorption kinetics has been carried out by the gravimetric method. A petrographical characterization of samples has been performed by stereomicroscope observations, while porosity and morphology of porous have been surveyed by SEM (Scanning Electron Microscope images. Furthermore, the proposed methods have also permitted to define penetration depth as well as distribution uniformity of materials used for restoration and conservation of historical

  14. Forensic Excavation of Rock Masses: A Technique to Investigate Discontinuity Persistence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, J.; Hencher, S. R.; West, L. J.; Handley, K.

    2017-11-01

    True persistence of rock discontinuities (areas with insignificant tensile strength) is an important factor controlling the engineering behaviour of fractured rock masses, but is extremely difficult to quantify using current geological survey methodologies, even where there is good rock exposure. Trace length as measured in the field or using remote measurement devices is actually only broadly indicative of persistence for rock engineering practice and numerical modelling. Visible traces of discontinuities are treated as if they were open fractures within rock mass classifications, despite many such traces being non-persistent and actually retaining considerable strength. The common assumption of 100% persistence, based on trace length, is generally extremely conservative in terms of strength and stiffness, but not always so and may lead to a wrong prediction of failure mechanism or of excavatability. Assuming full persistence would give hopelessly incorrect predictions of hydraulic conductivity. A new technique termed forensic excavation of rock masses is introduced, as a procedure for directly investigating discontinuity persistence. This technique involves non-explosive excavation of rock masses by injecting an expansive chemical splitter along incipient discontinuities. On expansion, the splitter causes the incipient traces to open as true joints. Experiments are described in which near-planar rock discontinuities, through siltstone and sandstone, were opened up by injecting the splitter into holes drilled along the lines of visible traces of the discontinuities in the laboratory and in the field. Once exposed the surfaces were examined to investigate the pre-existing persistence characteristics of the incipient discontinuities. One conclusion from this study is that visible trace length of a discontinuity can be a poor indicator of true persistence (defined for a fracture area with negligible tensile strength). An observation from this series of experiments

  15. Estimation of Correlation Functions by the Random Decrement Technique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brincker, Rune; Krenk, Steen; Jensen, Jakob Laigaard

    responses simulated by two SDOF ARMA models loaded by the same bandlimited white noise. The speed and the accuracy of the RDD technique is compared to the Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) technique. The RDD technique does not involve multiplications, but only additions. Therefore, the technique is very fast......The Random Decrement (RDD) Technique is a versatile technique for characterization of random signals in the time domain. In this paper a short review of the theoretical basis is given, and the technique is illustrated by estimating auto-correlation functions and cross-correlation functions on modal...

  16. Estimation of Correlation Functions by the Random Decrement Technique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brincker, Rune; Krenk, Steen; Jensen, Jacob Laigaard

    1991-01-01

    responses simulated by two SDOF ARMA models loaded by the same band-limited white noise. The speed and the accuracy of the RDD technique is compared to the Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) technique. The RDD technique does not involve multiplications, but only additions. Therefore, the technique is very fast......The Random Decrement (RDD) Technique is a versatile technique for characterization of random signals in the time domain. In this paper a short review of the theoretical basis is given, and the technique is illustrated by estimating auto-correlation functions and cross-correlation functions on modal...

  17. Estimation of Correlation Functions by the Random Decrement Technique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brincker, Rune; Krenk, Steen; Jensen, Jakob Laigaard

    1992-01-01

    responses simulated by two SDOF ARMA models loaded by the same bandlimited white noise. The speed and the accuracy of the RDD technique is compared to the Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) technique. The RDD technique does not involve multiplications, but only additions. Therefore, the technique is very fast......The Random Decrement (RDD) Technique is a versatile technique for characterization of random signals in the time domain. In this paper a short review of the theoretical basis is given, and the technique is illustrated by estimating auto-correlation functions and cross-correlation functions on modal...

  18. Combined rock-physical modelling and seismic inversion techniques for characterisation of stacked sandstone reservoir

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Justiniano, A.; Jaya, Y.; Diephuis, G.; Veenhof, R.; Pringle, T.

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the study is to characterise the Triassic massive stacked sandstone deposits of the Main Buntsandstein Subgroup at Block Q16 located in the West Netherlands Basin. The characterisation was carried out through combining rock-physics modelling and seismic inversion techniques. The

  19. The correlation between exhalation from rocks and indoor concentration of 222Rn in the Sydney area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MCKenzie, D.R.; Lenzen, M.; Solomon, S.B.

    2001-01-01

    The results of a survey of indoor 222 Rn concentrations of 350 dwellings in the Sydney area are combined with measurements of 222 Rn exhalation rates of principal rock types in the survey area. A linear regression is predicted which yields a positive regression coefficient of b=2.4±0.3, a constant of a=3.4±0.5, and a correlation coefficient of R 2 =0.15. This correlation was found to be highly significant by using three different statistical tests. The ratio of the indoor 222 Rn concentrations in dwellings built on the two dominant rock types, the Wianamatta Shale and the Hawkesbury Sandstone, was found to be about 1.6. Copyright (2001) Australasian Radiation Protection Society Inc

  20. Carbonate rocks of the Seward Peninsula, Alaska: Their correlation and paleogeographic significance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumoulin, Julie A.; Harris, Alta; Repetski, John E.

    2014-01-01

    Paleozoic carbonate strata deposited in shallow platform to off-platform settings occur across the Seward Peninsula and range from unmetamorphosed Ordovician–Devonian(?) rocks of the York succession in the west to highly deformed and metamorphosed Cambrian–Devonian units of the Nome Complex in the east. Faunal and lithologic correlations indicate that early Paleozoic strata in the two areas formed as part of a single carbonate platform. The York succession makes up part of the York terrane and consists of Ordovician, lesser Silurian, and limited, possibly Devonian rocks. Shallow-water facies predominate, but subordinate graptolitic shale and calcareous turbidites accumulated in deeper water, intraplatform basin environments, chiefly during the Middle Ordovician. Lower Ordovician strata are mainly lime mudstone and peloid-intraclast grainstone deposited in a deepening upward regime; noncarbonate detritus is abundant in lower parts of the section. Upper Ordovician and Silurian rocks include carbonate mudstone, skeletal wackestone, and coral-stromatoporoid biostromes that are commonly dolomitic and accumulated in warm, shallow to very shallow settings with locally restricted circulation. The rest of the York terrane is mainly Ordovician and older, variously deformed and metamorphosed carbonate and siliciclastic rocks intruded by early Cambrian (and younger?) metagabbros. Older (Neoproterozoic–Cambrian) parts of these units are chiefly turbidites and may have been basement for the carbonate platform facies of the York succession; younger, shallow- and deep-water strata likely represent previously unrecognized parts of the York succession and its offshore equivalents. Intensely deformed and altered Mississippian carbonate strata crop out in a small area at the western edge of the terrane. Metacarbonate rocks form all or part of several units within the blueschist- and greenschist-facies Nome Complex. The Layered sequence includes mafic meta¬igneous rocks and

  1. Geo-Mechanical Characterization of Carbonate Rock Masses by Means of Laser Scanner Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palma, Biagio; Parise, Mario; Ruocco, Anna

    2017-12-01

    Knowledge of the geometrical and structural setting of rock masses is crucial to evaluate the stability and to design the most suitable stabilization works. In this work we use the Terrestrial Laser Scanning (TLS) at the site of the Grave of the Castellana Caves, a famous show cave in southern Italy. The Grave is the natural access to the cave system, produced by collapse of the vault, due to upward progression of instabilities in the carbonate rock masses. It is about 55-m high, bell-shaped, with maximum width of 120 m. Aim of the work is the characterization of carbonate rock masses from the structural and geo-mechanical standpoints through the use of innovative survey techniques. TLS survey provides a product consisting of millions of geo-referenced points, to be managed in space, to become a suitable database for the morphological and geological-structural analysis. Studying by means of TLS a rock face, partly inaccessible or located in very complex environments, allows to investigate slopes in their overall areal extent, thus offering advantages both as regards safety of the workers and time needed for the survey. In addition to TLS, the traditional approach was also followed by performing scanlines surveys along the rims of the Grave, following the ISRM recommendations for characterization of discontinuity in rock masses. A quantitative comparison among the data obtained by TLS technique and those deriving from the classical geo-mechanical survey is eventually presented, to discuss potentiality of drawbacks of the different techniques used for surveying the rock masses.

  2. Correlation techniques in nuclear power plant monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bastl, W.

    1976-01-01

    Ever increasing effects are recently being made to monitor the mechanical behaviour of the nuclear power plants during operation. For technical as well as economical reasons one is forced to make do with the smallest number of sensors. In order to still obtain efficient control systems, an attempt is made on the one hand to make use of the already existing operational instrumentation, on the other hand to obtain a maximum of information by specific use of few additional sensors. In both cases, correlation analysis plays a large role because an optimum positioning of the sensor is seldom possible and thus, as a rule, the interesting information must be separated from very noisy signals. (orig./LH) [de

  3. Estimation of the Coefficient of Restitution of Rocking Systems by the Random Decrement Technique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brincker, Rune; Demosthenous, Milton; Manos, George C.

    1994-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to investigate the possibility of estimating an average damping parameter for a rocking system due to impact, the so-called coefficient of restitution, from the random response, i.e. when the loads are random and unknown, and the response is measured. The objective...... is to obtain an estimate of the free rocking response from the measured random response using the Random Decrement (RDD) Technique, and then estimate the coefficient of restitution from this free response estimate. In the paper this approach is investigated by simulating the response of a single degree...

  4. Research on Relationship Between Parameters Correlation of Acoustic Emission and Rock Failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duan Dong

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Analyzes that granite AE signal parameters under uniaxial loading by that way of Pearson linear correlation, research that correlation of characterization parameters within that separate group with various characteristics, and analyzes that relationship between each parameter and destruction. This study shows that: impact, events and ringing are mainly used to describe the damage degree of rock, amplitude characteristics, time characteristics and frequency characteristics are mainly used for acoustic emission source properties, and energy characteristics can not only be used to describe the damage degree of rock, but also be used to analyze the acoustic emission source. That ringing counts are highly interrelated with energy, intensity, duration, RMS and ASL have high correlation, a high correlation is in the three parameters of the energy characteristics, and there is a higher correlation between the two parameters of the timing characteristics. The correlation between the parameters of frequency is very low, and the acoustic emission parameters can't be replaced for each other in analysis, which need separate analysis. Characteristics of ringing and energy can be a very good description of failure, but failure precursors can't be quantized. However, the amplitude, RMS, ASL, can quantify characterization of that precursor of failure, such as the effective voltage value 0.7 V as the precursor of destruction, the emergence of amplitude exceeding 95 dB as that destructive precursor. The relationship between the timing characteristics and damage is not obvious, so you can't use those parameters analysis that fracture of rocks. But those parameters can be used to describe AE source characteristics. The peak frequency, inverse frequency and the center frequency can't reflect AE source characteristics, and that average frequency and initial frequency can reflect AE source characteristics.

  5. Utilization of advanced calibration techniques in stochastic rock fall analysis of quarry slopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preh, Alexander; Ahmadabadi, Morteza; Kolenprat, Bernd

    2016-04-01

    In order to study rock fall dynamics, a research project was conducted by the Vienna University of Technology and the Austrian Central Labour Inspectorate (Federal Ministry of Labour, Social Affairs and Consumer Protection). A part of this project included 277 full-scale drop tests at three different quarries in Austria and recording key parameters of the rock fall trajectories. The tests involved a total of 277 boulders ranging from 0.18 to 1.8 m in diameter and from 0.009 to 8.1 Mg in mass. The geology of these sites included strong rock belonging to igneous, metamorphic and volcanic types. In this paper the results of the tests are used for calibration and validation a new stochastic computer model. It is demonstrated that the error of the model (i.e. the difference between observed and simulated results) has a lognormal distribution. Selecting two parameters, advanced calibration techniques including Markov Chain Monte Carlo Technique, Maximum Likelihood and Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) are utilized to minimize the error. Validation of the model based on the cross validation technique reveals that in general, reasonable stochastic approximations of the rock fall trajectories are obtained in all dimensions, including runout, bounce heights and velocities. The approximations are compared to the measured data in terms of median, 95% and maximum values. The results of the comparisons indicate that approximate first-order predictions, using a single set of input parameters, are possible and can be used to aid practical hazard and risk assessment.

  6. Acceleration Characteristics of a Rock Slide Using the Particle Image Velocimetry Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guoqing Chen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV technique with high precision and spatial resolution is a suitable sensor for flow field experiments. In this paper, the PIV technology was used to monitor the development of a displacement field, velocity field and acceleration field of a rock slide. It was found that the peak acceleration of the sliding surface appeared earlier than the peak acceleration of the sliding body. The characteristics of the rock slide including the short failure time, high velocities, and large accelerations indicate that the sliding forces and energy release rate of the slope are high. The deformation field showed that the sliding body was sliding outwards along the sliding surface while the sliding bed moved in an opposite direction. Moving upwards at the top of the sliding bed can be one of the warning signs for rock slide failure.

  7. Characterization and differentiation of rock varnish types from different environments by microanalytical techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macholdt, D. S. [Max Planck Society, Mainz (Germany). Max Planck Inst. for Chemistry; Jochum, K. P. [Max Planck Society, Mainz (Germany). Max Planck Inst. for Chemistry; Pöhlker, C. [Max Planck Society, Mainz (Germany). Max Planck Inst. for Chemistry; Arangio, A. [Max Planck Society, Mainz (Germany). Max Planck Inst. for Chemistry; Förster, J. -D. [Max Planck Society, Mainz (Germany). Max Planck Inst. for Chemistry; Stoll, B. [Max Planck Society, Mainz (Germany). Max Planck Inst. for Chemistry; Weis, U. [Max Planck Society, Mainz (Germany). Max Planck Inst. for Chemistry; Weber, B. [Max Planck Society, Mainz (Germany). Max Planck Inst. for Chemistry; Müller, M. [Max Planck Inst. for Polymer Research, Mainz (Germany); Kappl, M. [Max Planck Inst. for Polymer Research, Mainz (Germany); Shiraiwa, M. [Max Planck Society, Mainz (Germany). Max Planck Inst. for Chemistry; Kilcoyne, A. L. D. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Weigand, M. [Max Planck Inst. for Intelligent Systems, Stuttgart (Germany); Scholz, D. [Johannes Gutenberg Univ., Mainz (Germany); Haug, G. H. [Max Planck Society, Mainz (Germany). Max Planck Inst. for Chemistry; Al-Amri, A. [King Saud Univ., Riyadh (Saudi Arabia); Andreae, M. O. [Max Planck Society, Mainz (Germany). Max Planck Inst. for Chemistry; King Saud Univ., Riyadh (Saudi Arabia)

    2017-04-13

    We investigated rock varnishes collected from several locations and environments worldwide by a wide range of microanalytical techniques. These techniques were selected to address the challenges posed by the chemical and structural complexity within the micrometer- to nanometer-sized structures in these geological materials. Femtosecond laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (fs LA-ICP-MS), scanning transmission X-ray microscopy-near edge X-ray adsorption fine structure spectroscopy (STXM-NEXAFS) in combination with scanning electron microscopy (SEM) of focused ion beam (FIB) ultra-thin (100–200 nm) sections, conventional and polarization microscopy, as well as electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) measurements were used to obtain information about these rock varnishes. Rock varnishes from different environments, which cannot readily be distinguished based on their macroscopic appearance, differ significantly in their constituent elemental mass fractions, e.g., of Mn, Fe, Ni, Co, Ba, and Pb, and their rare earth element (REE) patterns. Structural characteristics such as the particle sizes of embedded dust grains, internal structures such as layers of Mn-, Fe-, and Ca -rich material, and structures such as cavities varied between varnishes from different environments and regions in the world. The EPR spectra were consistent with aged biogenic Mn oxides in all samples, but showed subtle differences between samples of different origin. Our observations allow us to separate rock varnishes into different types, with differences that might be indicators of distinct geneses. Five different types of rock varnish could be distinguished, Type I–V, of which only Type I might be used as potential paleoclimate archive. Each varnish type has specific characteristics in terms of their elemental composition, element distribution, and structures. The combination of element ratios (Mn/Ba, Al/Ni, Mn/REY, Mn/Ce, Mn/Pb, La N /Yb N , and Ce/Ce*), total REE

  8. Plutonic rocks of the Median Batholith in southwest Fiordland, New Zealand : field relations, geochemistry, and correlation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allibone, A.H.; Turnbull, I.M.; Tulloch, A.J.; Cooper, A.F.

    2007-01-01

    This paper provides a first description of all major plutonic rock units between Resolution Island and Lake Poteriteri in southwest Fiordland. Plutonic rocks, of which c. 95% are granitoids, comprise c. 60% of the basement in southwest Fiordland. Approximately 50% of the plutonic rocks were emplaced between c. 355 and 348 Ma, 5% at c. 164 Ma, 25% between c. 140 and 125 Ma, and 20% between c. 125 and 110 Ma. These episodes of plutonism occurred in response to terrane amalgamation, continental thickening, and subduction along the convergent margin of Gondwana. Correlatives of Devonian plutonic rocks which occur in Nelson are absent from the area described here. A wide variety of plutonic rocks were emplaced at c. 355-348 Ma. These include relatively small plutons of K- and Rb-rich gabbro-diorite and members of at least three distinct suites of granitoids. Plutons of two-mica ± garnet granodiorite, granite, and minor tonalite share affinities with the S-type Ridge Suite and are the most widespread c. 355-348 Ma old granitoids in southern Fiordland. Plutons rich in Ca, Fe and Zr, depleted in K and Na, and containing quartz diorite, tonalite, and minor granodiorite with the unusual assemblage red-brown biotite, garnet ± hornblende ± clinopyroxene also occur widely in southern Fiordland. These plutons are similar to peraluminous A-type granitoids, indicating A as well as I and S-type plutonism occurred in the Western Province at this time. The Newton River and Mt Evans Plutons have no correlatives amongst c. 355-348 Ma granitoids in southern Fiordland, but their chemistry is similar to that of the older Karamea Suite. Three regional-scale metasedimentary units - locally fossiliferous Fanny Bay Group Buller Terrane rocks in southern Fiordland, Edgecumbe and Cameron Group Takaka Terrane rocks in south-central Fiordland, and undifferentiated Deep Cove Gneiss high-grade metasedimentary rocks of western Fiordland - are all stitched by c. 355-348 Ma old plutons, indicating

  9. Smart Rocks for Bridge Scour Monitoring: Design and Localization Using Electromagnetic Techniques and Embedded Orientation Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radchenko, Andro

    River bridge scour is an erosion process in which flowing water removes sediment materials (such as sand, rocks) from a bridge foundation, river beds and banks. As a result, the level of the river bed near a bridge pier is lowering such that the bridge foundation stability can be compromised, and the bridge can collapse. The scour is a dynamic process, which can accelerate rapidly during a flood event. Thus, regular monitoring of the scour progress is necessary to be performed at most river bridges. Present techniques are usually expensive, require large man/hour efforts, and often lack the real-time monitoring capabilities. In this dissertation a new method--'Smart Rocks Network for bridge scour monitoring' is introduced. The method is based on distributed wireless sensors embedded in ground underwater nearby the bridge pillars. The sensor nodes are unconstrained in movement, are equipped with years-lasting batteries and intelligent custom designed electronics, which minimizes power consumption during operation and communication. The electronic part consists of a microcontroller, communication interfaces, orientation and environment sensors (such as are accelerometer, magnetometer, temperature and pressure sensors), supporting power supplies and circuitries. Embedded in the soil nearby a bridge pillar the Smart Rocks can move/drift together with the sediments, and act as the free agent probes transmitting the unique signature signals to the base-station monitors. Individual movement of a Smart Rock can be remotely detected processing the orientation sensors reading. This can give an indication of the on-going scour progress, and set a flag for the on-site inspection. The map of the deployed Smart Rocks Network can be obtained utilizing the custom developed in-network communication protocol with signals intensity (RSSI) analysis. Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) is applied for map reconstruction. Analysis of the map can provide detailed insight into the scour

  10. Gaseous isotope correlation technique for safeguards at reprocessing facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohkubo, Michiaki.

    1988-03-01

    The isotope correlation technique based on gaseous stable fission products can be used as a means of verifying the input measurement to fuel reprocessing plants. This paper reviews the theoretical background of the gaseous fission product isotope correlation technique. The correlations considered are those between burnup and various isotopic ratios of Kr and Xe nuclides. The feasibility of gaseous ICT application to Pu input accountancy of reprocessing facilities is also discussed. The technique offers the possibility of in situ measurement verification by the inspector. (author). 16 refs, 7 figs

  11. A new sampling technique for surface exposure dating using a portable electric rock cutter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusuke Suganuma

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Surface exposure dating using in situ cosmogenic nuclides has contributed to our understanding of Earth-surface processes. The precision of the ages estimated by this method is affected by the sample geometry; therefore, high accuracy measurements of the thickness and shape of the rock sample (thickness and shape is crucial. However, it is sometimes diffi cult to meet these requirements by conventional sampling methods with a hammer and chisel. Here, we propose a new sampling technique using a portable electric rock cutter. This sampling technique is faster, produces more precisely shaped samples, and allows for a more precise age interpretation. A simple theoretical modeldemonstrates that the age error due to defective sample geometry increases as the total sample thickness increases, indicating the importance of precise sampling for surface exposure dating.

  12. Measurement of hydrogeologic parameters of Indian volcanic rocks by sub-surface hydronuclear techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bardhan, M.

    1977-01-01

    Sub-surface hydronuclear techniques namely neutron-neutron, gamma-gamma and tracer dilution logging and single and double well tracer methods were adopted to investigate the hitherto inadequately studied hydrophysical properties of the Deccan lava flows which constitute the principal Indian volcanic suit of rocks. The hydrogeologic parameters measured in the field pertain to hydrostratigraphy, hydrostorage properties and geohydraulic characteristics of these layered hard formations. Results of the studies are presented and discussed briefly. (author)

  13. The USANS technique for the investigation of structure from hydrated gels to porous rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crompton, Kylie; Forsythe, John; Bertram, Willem; Knott, R.B.; Barker, John

    2005-01-01

    Full text: The Ultra Small Angle Neutron Scattering (USANS) technique extends the range of the Small Angle Neutron Scattering (SANS) technique into the tens of micron size range. This is extremely useful for many systems particularly those where sample preparation for optical or electron microscopy can cause major changes to the microstructure under investigation. Two examples will be presented to highlight different aspects of the technique. Firstly, the structure was investigated of a full hydrated polymer scaffold for stem cells constructed from chitosan. Stem cells interact with the scaffold on the micron scale however information on the nanoscale (i e individual chitosan polymer chains) is also required in order the tailor the scaffold structure. The soft, hydrated gel is unsuitable for optical or electron microscopy. Secondly, the structure was investigated of natural oil-bearing and synthetic rock. The scattering data from different thickness of rock was analysed using a Fourier Transform method to remove multiple scattering effects and to simulate scattering from a thin rock. In this case bulk properties such as porosity are of interest. (authors)

  14. Determination of trace quantities of uranium in rocks mass spectrometric isotope dilution technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kakazu, Mauricio Hiromitu

    1980-01-01

    A detailed experimental investigation on the thermionic emission of uranium deposited on a single flat type rhenium filament has been carried out. The study was aimed at determining the influence of various forms of deposition on the emission sensitivity and thermal stability of U + , UO + and UO 2 + ions. Based on these investigations, a technique, involving an addition of a small quantity of colloidal suspension of graphite on top of the uranyl nitrate sample deposited, was chosen because of its higher, emission sensitivity for uranium metal ions. The experimental parameters of the technique were optimised and the technique was employed in the determination of trace quantities of uranium in rock samples using mass spectrometric isotope dilution method. For the mass spectrometric isotope dilution analysis National Bureau of Standards uranium isotopic standard NBS-U 970 was employed as a tracer, where as the mass discrimination effect in the uranium isotope analysis was corrected using the uranium isotopic standard NBS-U500. Uranium was determined in each of the seven granite samples from Wyoming, USA and two USGS standard rocks. The precision of the analysis was found to be ±1% . The uranium values obtained on the rock samples were compared with the analyses of other investigators. Influence of the sample splitting on the uranium analysis was discussed in the light of the analytical results obtained.(author)

  15. Investigation of Rock Failure Pattern in Creep by Digital Speckle Correlation Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunliang Tan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to study the mechanical characteristics from creep deformation to failure of rock, the tests of uniaxial compression and pushing steel-plate anchored in rock were performed, by using RLJW-2000 servo test synchronizing with Digital Speckle Correlation Method (DSCM. The investigations showed that for a uniaxial compressive specimen, when load arrived at 0.5σc, displacement clusters orderly formed, which was ahead of the macrocreep strain occurring in a slight jump mode when load arrived at 0.7σc. When the load level arrived at 0.8σc, displacement clusters gathered to be a narrow band. After that, the specimen abruptly fractured in a shear mode. In the creep pushing steel-plate test, when pushing force arrived at 25 kN, crack began to occur, the horizontal displacement field as well as shear strain field concentrated continuously along the interface between steel-plate and rock, and a new narrow concentrating band gathered in the upper layer. When pushing force arrived at 27.5 kN, another new narrow shear deformation band formed in the lower layer. Then, the steel-plate was pushed out quickly accompanying strong creep deformation.

  16. Constraining the age of rock art by dating a rockfall event using sediment and rock-surface luminescence dating techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chapot, Melissa; Sohbati, Reza; Murray, A.S.

    2012-01-01

    Optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) is used to determine the age of a rockfall event that removed part of the pictograph figures at the Great Gallery rock art panel in Canyonlands National Park, Utah, USA. Analyses from the outer millimeter of the buried surface of a rockfall boulder and quartz...... rock art with a controversial and unknown origin....

  17. Agronomic behavior of phosphoric rock from Bahia Inglesa using isotopic techniques. 1. Field trial with concentrated and non concentrated rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pino N, I.; Casa G, L.

    1989-01-01

    With the aim to assess the agronomic behaviour of the phosphoric rock from Bahia Inglesa, a field trial was carried out with concentrated and non concentrated 100 mesh sieved rock. The method of isotopic dilution was used with TSP labeled P32 (TSP-P32) as standard fertilizer. Total dry matter, total P by colorimetry and P32 by liquid scintillation using the Cerenkov effect were measured. Both agronomic and isotope parameters were analyzed. The concentrated phosphoric rock was 3.7 times better than the same non concentrated rock. These also was a positive effect from non concentrated at 400 kg P205/ha dose. This effect was attributed to a higher saturation in the points of P sorption. The TSP showed a better behaviour than the phosphoric rock under study. (author)

  18. Isotope correlation and mass spectrometry techniques for irradiated fuel assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deron, S.

    1985-01-01

    This paper outlines the methods used to account for fissionable materials in irradiated nuclear fuel elements entering reprocessing plants. Verification is accomplished at three mass balance stations in the plant. Techniques employed fall into two categories: isotopic and isotope dilution analyses by mass spectometry and isotope correlation techniques. These methods are discussed in some detail

  19. 238U And 232Th Concentration In Rock Samples using Alpha Autoradiography and Gamma Spectroscopy Techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hafez, A.F.; El-Farrash, A.H.; Yousef, H.A.

    2009-01-01

    The activity concentrations of uranium and thorium were measured for some rock samples selected from Dahab region in the south tip of Sinai. In order to detect any harmful radiation that would affect on the tourists and is becoming economic resource because Dahab have open fields of tourism in Egypt. The activity concentration of uranium and thorium in rocks samples was measured using two techniques. The first is .-autoradiography technique with LR-115 and CR-39 detectors and the second is gamma spectroscopic technique with NaI(Tl) detector. It was found that the average activity concentrations of uranium and thorium using .-autoradiography technique ranged from 6.41-49.31 Bqkg-1, 4.86- 40.87 Bqkg-1 respectively and by gamma detector are ranged from 6.70- 49.50 Bqkg-1, 4.47- 42.33 Bqkg-1 respectively. From the obtained data we can conclude that there is no radioactive healthy hazard for human and living beings in the area under investigation. It was found that there are no big differences between the calculated thorium to uranium ratios in both techniques

  20. Correlation of basement rocks from Waka Nui-1 and Awhitu-1, and the Jurassic regional geology of Zealandia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mortimer, N.; Raine, J.I.; Cook, R.A.

    2009-01-01

    Core and cuttings of sandstone and mudstone from Waka Nui-1, an offshore oil exploration well west of Northland, and from Awhitu-1, a water bore in western Auckland, add to the growing number of samples retrieved from otherwise inaccessible basement of the Zealandia continent. On the basis of pollen and spores, the sedimentary rocks at the bottom of Waka Nui-1 are dated as Early-Middle Jurassic, and rocks from Awhitu-1 are Late Jurassic. On the basis of age, sandstone petrology, and geographic position, a correlation of rocks in both wells with Murihiku Terrane is probable. In New Zealand, Jurassic sedimentary rocks have usually been interpreted in a tectonostratigraphic terrane context. An alternative way to look at the New Zealand Late Jurassic to Early Cretaceous sedimentary rocks is as potentially interconnected forearc, intra-arc, back-arc, and intracontinental basins that evolved adjacent to an active margin. (author). 47 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs

  1. Correlation between Bieniawski’s RMR index and Barton’s Q index in fine-grained sedimentary rock formations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. D. Fernández-Gutiérrez

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available From the XX century, various rock mass classification systems have been proposed. Among them, the Bieniawski’s RMR system and Barton’s Q system have emerged as the most used rock mass classification worldwide. Correlations between both indices have been proposed, usually with a wide scattering of the data used in deriving the equations. However, it has been observed that correlations established for a specific geological unit fit better. The aim of this paper is to propose a correlation between RMR and Q indices for fine-grained sedimentary rock formations, normally found in the area of Bilbao (Spain, by means of the collected data during the excavation of the tunnel Etxebarri-Casco Viejo of the line 3 of the Metropolitan Railway of Bilbao. Obtained equation shows a high correlation coefficient and a unique relationship between the two classification systems has been proposed, not depending on the choice of the independent variable.

  2. Rock fragmentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, W.S.; Green, S.J.; Hakala, W.W.; Hustrulid, W.A.; Maurer, W.C. (eds.)

    1976-01-01

    Experts in rock mechanics, mining, excavation, drilling, tunneling and use of underground space met to discuss the relative merits of a wide variety of rock fragmentation schemes. Information is presented on novel rock fracturing techniques; tunneling using electron beams, thermocorer, electric spark drills, water jets, and diamond drills; and rock fracturing research needs for mining and underground construction. (LCL)

  3. Monitoring of civil engineering structures using Digital Image Correlation technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malesa, M.; Szczepanek, D.; Kujawińska, M.; Świercz, A.; Kołakowski, P.

    2010-06-01

    The Digital Image Correlation (DIC) technique enables full field, noncontact measurements of displacements and strains of a wide variety of objects. An adaptation of the DIC technique for monitoring of civil-engineering structures is presented in the paper. A general concept of the complex, automatic monitoring system, in which the DIC sensor plays an important role is described. Some new software features, which aim to facilitate outdoor measurements and speed up the correlation analysis, is also introduced. As an example of application, measurements of a railway bridge in Nieporet (Poland) are presented. The experimental results are compared with displacements of a FEM model of the bridge.

  4. Correlation between parent and daughter element concentrations as a means of valuing isochrons of igneous rocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wetzel, K.

    1989-01-01

    The question whether a series of samples from an igneous rock can be attributed to an isochron for radiogeochronological dating or for determining the initial isotope ratio of the daughter element of the radioactive decay can be valued by investigating the correlation between the concentrations 1 c and 2 c of mother ( 1 c) and daughter element ( 2 c). The slope of the regression line in a lg 1 c to lg 2 c diagram is given by 1 D - 1/ 2 D - 1 or 1 D - 1/ 2 D - 1 · 2 D/ 1 D, where 1 D and 2 D are the solid-liquid distribution coefficients of parent and daughter element, if the concentration patterns are ruled by fractional crystallization or by partial melting, respectively. The agreement between experimentally found slopes and those calculated from distribution coefficients thus gives additional evidence whether or not the isochron reflects a magma solidification or magma generation age, respectively. The method is discussed for the Rb-Sr-, Sm-Nd-, La-Ce-, La-Ba- and K-Ca-geochronometers, using distribution coefficients calculated on the basis of a global model of the generation of the most abundant continental igneous rocks. The application on Rb-Sr-isochrons of a series of various granites of the Erzgebirge and the Saxonian Granulite Massif in the Southern Part of the GDR reveals new evidence of postmagmatic autosomatosis having altered the chemical composition of the Younger granites of the Western Ore Mountains (Erzgebirge). (author)

  5. Applying squeezing technique to clay-rocks: lessons learned from ten years experiments at Mont Terri

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez, A. M.; Melon, A.; Sanchez-Ledesma, D.M.; Tournassat, C.; Gaucher, E.; Astudillo, J.; Vinsot, A.

    2012-01-01

    Document available in extended abstract form only. Argillaceous formations of low permeability are considered in several countries as potential host rocks for the disposal of high level radioactive wastes (HLRW). In order to determine their suitability for waste disposal, evaluations of the hydro-geochemistry and transport mechanisms from such geologic formations to the biosphere must be undertaken. The migration of radionuclides through the geosphere will occur predominantly in the aqueous phase, and hence the pore water chemistry plays an important role in determining ion diffusion characteristics in argillaceous formations. Consequently, a great effort has been made to characterise the pore water chemistry in clay-rocks formations. In the last 10 years various techniques were developed for determining pore water composition of clay-rocks including both direct and indirect methods: 1) In situ pore water sampling (water and gas) from sealed boreholes (Pearson et al., 2003; Vinsot et al. 2008); 2) Laboratory pore water sampling from unaltered core samples by the squeezing technique at high pressures (Fernandez et al., 2009); and 3) Characterization of the water chemistry by geochemical modelling (Gaucher et al. 2009). Pore water chemistry in clay-rocks and extraction techniques were documented and reviewed in different studies (Sacchi et al., 2001). Recovering pristine pore water from low permeable and low water content systems is very difficult and sometimes impossible. Besides, uncertainties are associated to each method used for the pore water characterization. In this paper, a review about the high pressure squeezing technique applied to indurate clay-rocks was performed. For this purpose, the experimental work on Opalinus Clay at the Mont Terri Research Laboratory during the last ten years was evaluated. A complete discussion was made about different issues such as: a) why is necessary to obtain the pore water by squeezing in the context of radioactive waste

  6. Nuclear material safeguards surveillance and accountancy by isotope correlation techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Persiani, P.J.; Goleb, J.A.

    1981-01-01

    This paper presents the initial phase of the US study program and involves the computation of isotopic correlations for the LMFBR fuel cycle. The LWR fuel cycle phase of the study is currently in progress. The selection of the more safeguards effective functionals will depend not only on the level of reliability of isotope correlation technique (ICT) for verification, but also on the capability and difficulty of developing measurement methods. Performance characteristics of existing and proposed isotopic measurement techniques cover the general areas including assay and isotopic wet chemistry and NDA: (1) simultaneous multicomponent analysis techniques, (2) mass spectrometry, (3) x-ray fluorescence or densitometry with high flux monochromatic x-ray sources and high dispersion spectrometers, (4) passive and active neutron interrogation, (5) high level gamma-ray spectroscopy, (6) coulometry, and (7) potentiometry. The measurement capabilities and inherent limitations of these systems are to be evaluated in terms of total systems, operational mode, sample preparation requirements and consequent effect on dissolver solution representation, accuracy and precision estimates (if available), development status of the technique, and development requirements. The isotopic correlation technique shows considerable promise for use in verifying the initial isotopic composition and burnup of discharged assemblies based on the measured ratios of several key isotopes, obtained probably at the dissolver stage in reprocessing. This technique should, for example, easily be capable of indicating the exchange of a blanket assembly for a fuel assembly

  7. Weak value amplification via second-order correlated technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cui Ting; Huang Jing-Zheng; Zeng Gui-Hua; Liu Xiang

    2016-01-01

    We propose a new framework combining weak measurement and second-order correlated technique. The theoretical analysis shows that weak value amplification (WVA) experiment can also be implemented by a second-order correlated system. We then build two-dimensional second-order correlated function patterns for achieving higher amplification factor and discuss the signal-to-noise ratio influence. Several advantages can be obtained by our proposal. For instance, detectors with high resolution are not necessary. Moreover, detectors with low saturation intensity are available in WVA setup. Finally, type-one technical noise can be effectively suppressed. (paper)

  8. Uniaxial experimental study of the acoustic emission and deformation behavior of composite rock based on 3D digital image correlation (DIC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Jian-Long; Yang, Sheng-Qi; Chen, Kui; Ma, Dan; Li, Feng-Yuan; Wang, Li-Ming

    2017-12-01

    In this paper, uniaxial compression tests were carried out on a series of composite rock specimens with different dip angles, which were made from two types of rock-like material with different strength. The acoustic emission technique was used to monitor the acoustic signal characteristics of composite rock specimens during the entire loading process. At the same time, an optical non-contact 3D digital image correlation technique was used to study the evolution of axial strain field and the maximal strain field before and after the peak strength at different stress levels during the loading process. The effect of bedding plane inclination on the deformation and strength during uniaxial loading was analyzed. The methods of solving the elastic constants of hard and weak rock were described. The damage evolution process, deformation and failure mechanism, and failure mode during uniaxial loading were fully determined. The experimental results show that the θ = 0{°}-45{°} specimens had obvious plastic deformation during loading, and the brittleness of the θ = 60{°}-90{°} specimens gradually increased during the loading process. When the anisotropic angle θ increased from 0{°} to 90{°}, the peak strength, peak strain, and apparent elastic modulus all decreased initially and then increased. The failure mode of the composite rock specimen during uniaxial loading can be divided into three categories: tensile fracture across the discontinuities (θ = 0{°}-30{°}), sliding failure along the discontinuities (θ = 45{°}-75{°}), and tensile-split along the discontinuities (θ = 90{°}). The axial strain of the weak and hard rock layers in the composite rock specimen during the loading process was significantly different from that of the θ = 0{°}-45{°} specimens and was almost the same as that of the θ = 60{°}-90{°} specimens. As for the strain localization highlighted in the maximum principal strain field, the θ = 0{°}-30{°} specimens appeared in the rock

  9. Microscale and nanoscale strain mapping techniques applied to creep of rocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintanilla-Terminel, Alejandra; Zimmerman, Mark E.; Evans, Brian; Kohlstedt, David L.

    2017-07-01

    Usually several deformation mechanisms interact to accommodate plastic deformation. Quantifying the contribution of each to the total strain is necessary to bridge the gaps from observations of microstructures, to geomechanical descriptions, to extrapolating from laboratory data to field observations. Here, we describe the experimental and computational techniques involved in microscale strain mapping (MSSM), which allows strain produced during high-pressure, high-temperature deformation experiments to be tracked with high resolution. MSSM relies on the analysis of the relative displacement of initially regularly spaced markers after deformation. We present two lithography techniques used to pattern rock substrates at different scales: photolithography and electron-beam lithography. Further, we discuss the challenges of applying the MSSM technique to samples used in high-temperature and high-pressure experiments. We applied the MSSM technique to a study of strain partitioning during creep of Carrara marble and grain boundary sliding in San Carlos olivine, synthetic forsterite, and Solnhofen limestone at a confining pressure, Pc, of 300 MPa and homologous temperatures, T/Tm, of 0.3 to 0.6. The MSSM technique works very well up to temperatures of 700 °C. The experimental developments described here show promising results for higher-temperature applications.

  10. Use of radioactive 32P technique to study phosphate rock dissolution in acid soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahisarakul, J.; Mullins, G.L.; Chien, S.H.

    2002-01-01

    A laboratory experiment was conducted to evaluate the dissolution of six sources of phosphate rock in two acid soils (Ultisols): a sandy soil and a red clay soil. Labile P was determined using the radioactive 32 P technique for Pi extractable P and resin extractable P. Incubations were conducted for 0, 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 weeks for 32 P exchangeable technique, 0 and 5 weeks for Pi technique and 5 weeks for resin technique. Rates of PR were 0 and 400 mgP/ha. The results showed that labile P in the sandy soil decreased from 0-1 weeks for all the PRs except Hahotoe PR and Hazara PR's. Between 1 and 5 weeks labile P remained relatively constant. The ranking of labile P from PRs was: North Carolina = Kouribga > Matam > Hahotoe = Hazara> Patos de Minas. In the red soil, labile P from all PRs appeared to be relatively unchanged during the 0-5 week incubation. Pi extractable P in sandy soil showed no significant differences due to incubation time. In the red clay soil, there was a significant decrease in Pi-P extracted from soil mixtures with PRs after 5 weeks as compared to 0 weeks. Results of the Resin-extractable P in both sandy and red soils were in agreement with labile P as measured by 32 P exchange technique. (author)

  11. Measurement of spatial correlation functions using image processing techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berryman, J.G.

    1985-01-01

    A procedure for using digital image processing techniques to measure the spatial correlation functions of composite heterogeneous materials is presented. Methods for eliminating undesirable biases and warping in digitized photographs are discussed. Fourier transform methods and array processor techniques for calculating the spatial correlation functions are treated. By introducing a minimal set of lattice-commensurate triangles, a method of sorting and storing the values of three-point correlation functions in a compact one-dimensional array is developed. Examples are presented at each stage of the analysis using synthetic photographs of cross sections of a model random material (the penetrable sphere model) for which the analytical form of the spatial correlations functions is known. Although results depend somewhat on magnification and on relative volume fraction, it is found that photographs digitized with 512 x 512 pixels generally have sufficiently good statistics for most practical purposes. To illustrate the use of the correlation functions, bounds on conductivity for the penetrable sphere model are calculated with a general numerical scheme developed for treating the singular three-dimensional integrals which must be evaluated

  12. Applying Squeezing Technique to Clayrocks: Lessons Learned from Experiments at Mont Terri Rock Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez, A. M.; Sanchez-Ledesma, D. M.; Tournassat, C.; Melon, A.; Gaucher, E.; Astudillo, E.; Vinsot, A.

    2013-01-01

    Knowledge of the pore water chemistry in clay rock formations plays an important role in determining radionuclide migration in the context of nuclear waste disposal. Among the different in situ and ex-situ techniques for pore water sampling in clay sediments and soils, squeezing technique dates back 115 years. Although different studies have been performed about the reliability and representativeness of squeezed pore waters, more of them were achieved on high porosity, high water content and unconsolidated clay sediments. A very few of them tackled the analysis of squeezed pore water from low-porosity, low water content and highly consolidated clay rocks. In this work, a specially designed and fabricated one-dimensional compression cell two directional fluid flow was used to extract and analyse the pore water composition of Opalinus Clay core samples from Mont Terri (Switzerland). The reproducibility of the technique is good and no ionic ultrafiltration, chemical fractionation or anion exclusion was found in the range of pressures analysed: 70-200 MPa. Pore waters extracted in this range of pressures do not decrease in concentration, which would indicate a dilution of water by mixing of the free pore water and the outer layers of double layer water (Donnan water). A threshold (safety) squeezing pressure of 175 MPa was established for avoiding membrane effects (ion filtering, anion exclusion, etc.) from clay particles induced by increasing pressures. Besides, the pore waters extracted at these pressures are representative of the Opalinus Clay formation from a direct comparison against in situ collected borehole waters. (Author)

  13. Applying Squeezing Technique to Clayrocks: Lessons Learned from Experiments at Mont Terri Rock Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez, A. M.; Sanchez-Ledesma, D. M.; Tournassat, C.; Melon, A.; Gaucher, E.; Astudillo, E.; Vinsot, A.

    2013-07-01

    Knowledge of the pore water chemistry in clay rock formations plays an important role in determining radionuclide migration in the context of nuclear waste disposal. Among the different in situ and ex-situ techniques for pore water sampling in clay sediments and soils, squeezing technique dates back 115 years. Although different studies have been performed about the reliability and representativeness of squeezed pore waters, more of them were achieved on high porosity, high water content and unconsolidated clay sediments. A very few of them tackled the analysis of squeezed pore water from low-porosity, low water content and highly consolidated clay rocks. In this work, a specially designed and fabricated one-dimensional compression cell two directional fluid flow was used to extract and analyse the pore water composition of Opalinus Clay core samples from Mont Terri (Switzerland). The reproducibility of the technique is good and no ionic ultrafiltration, chemical fractionation or anion exclusion was found in the range of pressures analysed: 70-200 MPa. Pore waters extracted in this range of pressures do not decrease in concentration, which would indicate a dilution of water by mixing of the free pore water and the outer layers of double layer water (Donnan water). A threshold (safety) squeezing pressure of 175 MPa was established for avoiding membrane effects (ion filtering, anion exclusion, etc.) from clay particles induced by increasing pressures. Besides, the pore waters extracted at these pressures are representative of the Opalinus Clay formation from a direct comparison against in situ collected borehole waters. (Author)

  14. Correlation of pre-earthquake electromagnetic signals with laboratory and field rock experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Bleier

    2010-09-01

    rock stressing results and the 30 October 2007 M5.4 Alum Rock earthquake field data.

    The second part of this paper examined other California earthquakes, prior to the Alum Rock earthquake, to see if magnetic pulsations were also present prior to those events. A search for field examples of medium earthquakes was performed to identify earthquakes where functioning magnetometers were present within 20 km, the expected detection range of the magnetometers. Two earthquakes identified in the search included the 12 August 1998 M5.1 San Juan Bautista (Hollister Ca. earthquake and the 28 September 2004 M6.0 Parkfield Ca. earthquake. Both of these data sets were recorded using EMI Corp. Model BF4 induction magnetometers, installed in equipment owned and operated by UC Berkeley. Unfortunately, no air conductivity or IR data were available for these earthquake examples. This new analysis of old data used the raw time series data (40 samples per s, and examined the data for short duration pulsations that exceeded the normal background noise levels at each site, similar to the technique used at Alum Rock. Analysis of Hollister magnetometer, positioned 2 km from the epicenter, showed a significant increase in magnetic pulsations above quiescient threshold levels several weeks prior, and especially 2 days prior to the quake. The pattern of positive and negative pulsations observed at Hollister, were similar, but not identical to Alum Rock in that the pattern of pulsations were interspersed with Pc 1 pulsation trains, and did not start 2 weeks prior to the quake, but rather 2 days prior. The Parkfield data (magnetometer positioned 19 km from the epicenter showed much smaller pre-earthquake pulsations, but the area had significantly higher conductivity (which attenuates the signals. More interesting was the fact that significant pulsations occurred between the aftershock sequences of quakes as the crustal stress patterns were migrating.

    Comparing

  15. A technique for plasma velocity-space cross-correlation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattingly, Sean; Skiff, Fred

    2018-05-01

    An advance in experimental plasma diagnostics is presented and used to make the first measurement of a plasma velocity-space cross-correlation matrix. The velocity space correlation function can detect collective fluctuations of plasmas through a localized measurement. An empirical decomposition, singular value decomposition, is applied to this Hermitian matrix in order to obtain the plasma fluctuation eigenmode structure on the ion distribution function. A basic theory is introduced and compared to the modes obtained by the experiment. A full characterization of these modes is left for future work, but an outline of this endeavor is provided. Finally, the requirements for this experimental technique in other plasma regimes are discussed.

  16. Integrated techniques to evaluate the features of sedimentary rocks of archaeological areas of Sicily

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Brai

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available Sicily includes a great variety of lithologies, giving a high complexity to the geologic landscape. Their prevalent lithology is sedimentary. It is well known that rocks of sedimentary origin, compared with metamorphic and volcanic deposits, can be relatively soft and hence fairly easy to model. Nevertheless, this workability advantage is a drawback for Cultural Heritage applications. In fact, these materials show a high porosity, with pore-size distributions that lead to deterioration through absorption of water. In this paper, several sedimentary rocks used in historical Cultural Heritage items of Sicily, from "Magna Graecia" to nowadays, are classified for mineralogical features, chemical composition, and for porosity. Particularly, some samples collected in quarries relevant to the archaeological sites of 41 Agrigento, Segesta and Selinunte will be considered and characterized using integrated techniques (XRD, XRF, NMR and CT. Data on samples obtained in laboratory will be compared with the relevant values measured in situ on monuments of historical-cultural interest of the quoted archaeological places.

  17. Low-activity spectrometric gamma-ray logging technique for delineation of coal/rock interfaces in dry blast holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asfahani, J.; Borsaru, M.

    2007-01-01

    A low-activity spectrometric gamma-ray logging technique is proposed in this paper as a sensitive tool for the delineation of coal/rock interfaces in dry blast holes. The advantages and superiority of this technique over traditional micro-density non-spectrometric gamma-ray tools are demonstrated

  18. On discriminant analysis techniques and correlation structures in high dimensions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clemmensen, Line Katrine Harder

    This paper compares several recently proposed techniques for performing discriminant analysis in high dimensions, and illustrates that the various sparse methods dier in prediction abilities depending on their underlying assumptions about the correlation structures in the data. The techniques...... the methods in two: Those who assume independence between the variables and thus use a diagonal estimate of the within-class covariance matrix, and those who assume dependence between the variables and thus use an estimate of the within-class covariance matrix, which also estimates the correlations between...... variables. The two groups of methods are compared and the pros and cons are exemplied using dierent cases of simulated data. The results illustrate that the estimate of the covariance matrix is an important factor with respect to choice of method, and the choice of method should thus be driven by the nature...

  19. Analysis of Cell Phone Usage Using Correlation Techniques

    OpenAIRE

    T S R MURTHY; D. SIVA RAMA KRISHNA

    2011-01-01

    The present paper is a sample survey analysis, examined based on correlation techniques. The usage ofmobile phones is clearly almost un-avoidable these days and as such the authors have made a systematicsurvey through a well prepared questionnaire on making use of mobile phones to the maximum extent.These samples are various economical groups across a population of over one-lakh people. The resultsare scientifically categorized and interpreted to match the ground reality.

  20. R20 programme: Development of rock grouting design, techniques and procedures for ONKALO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sievaenen, U.

    2009-02-01

    Posiva Oy constructs an underground research facility ONKALO at Olkiluoto in Eurajoki. ONKALO is planned to be a part of the deep repository for the high level nuclear waste. Posiva Oy set up R20-programme for the years 2006-2008, with the target of having an acceptable grouting methodology in ONKALO. The programme was divided into three projects and the work and results of Technique-project is presented in this report. The implementation of the results (grouting design and execution) was outlined from the project. That work is under the responsibility of construction of the ONKALO-project. The Grouting Technique -project (INKE) studied the grouting experiences obtained from the first 2 km of the ONKALO access tunnel, searched for suitable grouting design approaches, carried out two grouting tests and one pilot grouting test with colloidal silica in ONKALO, analysed the expected grouting conditions in deep rock from the grouting point of view, studied the feasibility of so called optimal design solution in the expected grouting conditions. Based on these studies recommendations concerning the grouting design, design solutions for different rock conditions, grouting procedures, grouting stop criteria, the characterisation methods for grouting purposes, grouting materials and grouting work performance are presented. Swedish Time Stop Grouting, also named Grouting Time-Method was selected to be studied and used in this project and it was further developed. This work compiles the outcome of the project subtasks and presents the recommendations for developing the grouting in ONKALO. The key conclusion of this work are: (1) Grouting Time-method (time stop grouting) alone is not enough to be used as a grouting stop criterion due to the uncertainties related to the source parameters (fracture characteristics, rheological properties of grouts); these cause too high uncertainties when proving the sealing result via the grouting time, (2) due to the uncertainties related to

  1. High-speed technique based on a parallel projection correlation procedure for digital image correlation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaripov, D. I.; Renfu, Li

    2018-05-01

    The implementation of high-efficiency digital image correlation methods based on a zero-normalized cross-correlation (ZNCC) procedure for high-speed, time-resolved measurements using a high-resolution digital camera is associated with big data processing and is often time consuming. In order to speed-up ZNCC computation, a high-speed technique based on a parallel projection correlation procedure is proposed. The proposed technique involves the use of interrogation window projections instead of its two-dimensional field of luminous intensity. This simplification allows acceleration of ZNCC computation up to 28.8 times compared to ZNCC calculated directly, depending on the size of interrogation window and region of interest. The results of three synthetic test cases, such as a one-dimensional uniform flow, a linear shear flow and a turbulent boundary-layer flow, are discussed in terms of accuracy. In the latter case, the proposed technique is implemented together with an iterative window-deformation technique. On the basis of the results of the present work, the proposed technique is recommended to be used for initial velocity field calculation, with further correction using more accurate techniques.

  2. Evaluation of geologic and geophysical techniques for surface-to-subsurface projections of geologic characteristics in crystalline rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-07-01

    Granitic and gneissic rock complexes are being considered for their potential to contain and permanently isolate high-level nuclear waste in a deep geologic repository. The use of surface geologic and geophysical techniques has several advantages over drilling and testing methods for geologic site characterization in that the techniques are typically less costly, provide data over a wider area, and do not jeopardize the physical integrity of a potential repository. For this reason, an extensive literature review was conducted to identify appropriate surface geologic and geophysical techniques that can be used to characterize geologic conditions in crystalline rock at proposed repository depths of 460 to 1,220 m. Characterization parameters such as rock quality; fracture orientation, spacing; and aperture; depths to anomalies; degree of saturation; rock body dimensions; and petrology are considered to be of primary importance. Techniques reviewed include remote sensing, geologic mapping, petrographic analysis, structural analysis, gravity and magnetic methods, electrical methods, and seismic methods. Each technique was reviewed with regard to its theoretical basis and field application; geologic parameters that can be evaluated; advantages and limitations, and, where available, case history applications in crystalline rock. Available information indicates that individual techniques provide reliable information on characteristics at the surface, but have limited success in projections to depths greater that approximately 100 m. A combination of integrated techniques combines with data from a limited number of boreholes would significantly improve the reliability and confidence of early characterization studies to provide qualitative rock body characteristics for region-to-area and area-to-site selection evaluations. 458 refs., 32 figs., 14 tabs

  3. Geomechanical characterization of volcanic rocks using empirical systems and data mining techniques

    OpenAIRE

    T. Miranda; L.R. Sousa; A.T. Gomes; J. Tinoco; C. Ferreira

    2018-01-01

    This paper tries to characterize volcanic rocks through the development and application of an empirical geomechanical system. Geotechnical information was collected from the samples from several Atlantic Ocean islands including Madeira, Azores and Canarias archipelagos. An empirical rock classification system termed as the volcanic rock system (VRS) is developed and presented in detail. Results using the VRS are compared with those obtained using the traditional rock mass rating (RMR) system....

  4. Comparison of correlation analysis techniques for irregularly sampled time series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Rehfeld

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Geoscientific measurements often provide time series with irregular time sampling, requiring either data reconstruction (interpolation or sophisticated methods to handle irregular sampling. We compare the linear interpolation technique and different approaches for analyzing the correlation functions and persistence of irregularly sampled time series, as Lomb-Scargle Fourier transformation and kernel-based methods. In a thorough benchmark test we investigate the performance of these techniques.

    All methods have comparable root mean square errors (RMSEs for low skewness of the inter-observation time distribution. For high skewness, very irregular data, interpolation bias and RMSE increase strongly. We find a 40 % lower RMSE for the lag-1 autocorrelation function (ACF for the Gaussian kernel method vs. the linear interpolation scheme,in the analysis of highly irregular time series. For the cross correlation function (CCF the RMSE is then lower by 60 %. The application of the Lomb-Scargle technique gave results comparable to the kernel methods for the univariate, but poorer results in the bivariate case. Especially the high-frequency components of the signal, where classical methods show a strong bias in ACF and CCF magnitude, are preserved when using the kernel methods.

    We illustrate the performances of interpolation vs. Gaussian kernel method by applying both to paleo-data from four locations, reflecting late Holocene Asian monsoon variability as derived from speleothem δ18O measurements. Cross correlation results are similar for both methods, which we attribute to the long time scales of the common variability. The persistence time (memory is strongly overestimated when using the standard, interpolation-based, approach. Hence, the Gaussian kernel is a reliable and more robust estimator with significant advantages compared to other techniques and suitable for large scale application to paleo-data.

  5. 3D laser scanning techniques applying to tunnel documentation and geological mapping at Aespoe hard rock laboratory, Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng, Q.; Wang, G.; Roeshoff, K.

    2008-01-01

    3D terrestrial laser scanning is nowadays one of the most attractive methods to applying for 3D mapping and documentation of rock faces and tunnels, and shows the most potential to improve the data quality and provide some good solutions in rock engineering projects. In this paper, the state-of-the-art methods are described for different possibility to tunnel documentation and geological mapping based on 3D laser scanning data. Some results are presented from the case study performed at the Hard Rock Laboratory, Aespoe run by SKB, Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co. Comparing to traditional methods, 3D laser scanning techniques can not only provide us with a rapid and 3D digital way for tunnel documentation, but also create a potential chance to achieve high quality data, which might be beneficial to different rock engineering project procedures, including field data acquisition, data processing, data retrieving and management, and also modeling and design. (authors)

  6. Fuel reprocessing data validation using the isotope correlation technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Persiani, P.J.; Bucher, R.G.; Pond, R.B.; Cornella, R.J.

    1990-01-01

    The Isotope Correlation Technique (ICT), in conjunction with the gravimetric (Pu/U ratio) method for mass determination, provides an independent verification of the input accountancy at the dissolver or accountancy stage of the reprocessing plant. The Isotope Correlation Technique has been applied to many classes of domestic and international reactor systems (light-water, heavy-water, and graphite reactors) operating in a variety of modes (power, research, and production reactors), and for a variety of reprocessing fuel cycle management strategies. Analysis of reprocessing operations data based on isotopic correlations derived for assemblies in a PWR environment and fuel management scheme, yielded differences between the measurement-derived and ICT-derived plutonium mass determinations of (- 0.02 ± 0.23)% for the measured U-235 and (+ 0.50 ± 0.31)% for the measured Pu-239, for a core campaign. The ICT analyses has been implemented for the plutonium isotopics in a depleted uranium assembly in a heavy-water, enriched uranium system and for the uranium isotopes in the fuel assemblies in light-water, highly-enriched systems

  7. Binary joint transform correlation using error-diffusion techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inbar, Hanni; Marom, Emanuel; Konforti, Naim

    1993-08-01

    Optical pattern recognition techniques based on the optical joint transform correlator (JTC) scheme are attractive due to their simplicity. Recent improvements in spatial light modulators (SLM) increased the popularity of the JTC, providing means for real time operation. Using a binary SLM for the display of the Fourier spectrum, first requires binarization of the joint power spectrum distribution. Although hard-clipping is the simplest and most common binarization method used, we suggest to apply error-diffusion as an improved binarization technique. The performance of a binary JTC, whose input image is considered to contain additive zero-mean white Gaussian noise, is investigated. Various ways for nonlinearly modifying the joint power spectrum prior to the binarization step, which is based on either error-diffusion or hard-clipping techniques, are discussed. These nonlinear modifications aim at increasing the contrast of the interference fringes at the joint power spectrum plane, leading to better definition of the correlation signal. Mathematical analysis, computer simulations and experimental results are presented.

  8. Fracture detection in crystalline rock using ultrasonic reflection techniques: Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palmer, S.P.

    1982-11-01

    This research was initiated to investigate using ultrasonic seismic reflection techniques to detect fracture discontinuities in a granitic rock. Initial compressional (P) and shear (SH) wave experiments were performed on a 0.9 x 0.9 x 0.3 meter granite slab in an attempt to detect seismic energy reflected from the opposite face of the slab. It was found that processing techniques such as deconvolution and array synthesis could improve the standout of the reflection event. During the summers of 1979 and 1980 SH reflection experiments were performed at a granite quarry near Knowles, California. The purpose of this study was to use SH reflection methods to detect an in situ fracture located one to three meters behind the quarry face. These SH data were later analyzed using methods similar to those applied in the laboratory. Interpretation of the later-arriving events observed in the SH field data as reflections from a steeply-dipping fracture was inconclusive. 41 refs., 43 figs., 7 tabs

  9. 1. The application of PIE techniques to the study of the corrosion of spent oxide fuel in deep-rock groundwaters. 2. Spent fuel degradation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forsyth, R.S.

    1991-01-01

    During the autumn of 1990, papers summarizing work performed at Studsvik as part of the SKB research programme designed to study the corrosion behaviour of spent nuclear fuel in deep-rock groundwater were presented at two scientific meetings: The first paper presents results and observations of the study of the corrosion of spent oxide fuel in deep-rock ground-waters. The PIE techniques were applied to the detailed study of spent fuel both before and after water contact. The second paper represents an up-dated reporting of results obtained in the Swedish programme relevant to preferential dissolution effects, including interim results from recently stored experiments specifically designed to study possible correlations between corrosion behaviour and fuel properties conditioned by burnup and/or local power variations. Recent observations during the search for corrosion sites in fuel exposed to corrosion for about 4 years are also presented. (KAE)

  10. Correlations between silicic volcanic rocks of the St Mary's Islands (southwestern India) and eastern Madagascar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Melluso, Leone; Sheth, Hetu C.; Mahoney, John J.

    2009-01-01

    The St Mary's, Islands (southwestern India) expose silicic volcanic and sub-volcanic rocks (rhyolites and granophyric dacites) emplaced contemporaneously with the Cretaceous igneous province of Madagascar, roughly 88-90 Ma ago. I he St Mary's Islands rocks have phenocrysts of plagioclase...... and isotopic Compositions very close to those of rhyolites exposed between Vatomandry Ilaka and Mananjary in eastern Madagascar, and are distinctly different from rhyolites front other sectors of the Madagascan province. We therefore postulate that the St Mary's and the Vatomandry-Ilaka Mananjary silicic rock...

  11. New Techniques for Monitoring and Analyzing the Stability of Steep Cliffs against Rock Falls

    OpenAIRE

    Fujii, Yoshiaki; Maeda, S; Sugawara, T; Kodama, N; Miyashita, N

    2016-01-01

    Mechanisms of joint opening leading to the formation of unstable rock blocks, such as thermal deformation, water-mineral reaction, pore pressure, freeze-thaw cycle, intrusion of wood roots etc. have been more or less clarified; however, the triggering mechanisms of rock falls remain to be elucidated. The problems which prevent the understanding of the mechanisms are (1) difficulty in installation of sensors to very unstable rock blocks, (2) thermoelastic deformation of sensors and attachments...

  12. Nuclear material safeguards surveillance and accountancy by isotope correlation techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Persiani, P.J.; Goleb, J.A.; Kroc, T.K.

    1981-11-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the applicability of isotope correlation techniques (ICT) to the Light Water Reactor (LWR) and the Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactor (LMFBR) fuel cycles for nuclear material accountancy and safeguards surveillance. The isotopic measurement of the inventory input to the reprocessing phase of the fuel cycle is the primary direct determination that an anomaly may exist in the fuel management of nuclear material. The nuclear materials accountancy gap which exists between the fabrication plant output and the input to the reprocessing plant can be minimized by using ICT at the dissolver stage of the reprocessing plant. The ICT allows a level of verification of the fabricator's fuel content specifications, the irradiation history, the fuel and blanket assemblies management and scheduling within the reactor, and the subsequent spent fuel assembly flows to the reprocessing plant. The investigation indicates that there exist relationships between isotopic concentration which have predictable, functional behavior over a range of burnup. Several cross-correlations serve to establish the initial core assembly-averaged composition. The selection of the more effective functionals will depend not only on the level of reliability of ICT for verification, but also on the capability, accuracy and difficulty of developing measurement methods. The propagation of measurement errors on the correlation functions and respective sensitivities to isotopic compositional changes have been examined and found to be consistent with current measurement methods

  13. Hard-rock GMPEs versus Vs30-Kappa Host-to-Target Adjustment Techniques : Why so Large Differences in High Frequency Hard-Rock Motion ?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bard, P. Y.; Laurendeau, A.; Hollender, F.; Perron, V.; Hernandez, B.; Foundotos, L.

    2016-12-01

    Assessment of local seismic hazard on hard rock sites (1000 processing of the Japanese KiK-net recordings from stiff sites (500 deep, within-motion to outcropping motion, or on a deconvolution of surface recordings using the velocity profile and 1D simulation, which has been performed both in the response spectrum and Fourier domains. Each of these virtual "outcropping hard-rock motion" data sets has then been used to derive GMPEs with simple functional forms, using as site condition proxy the S-wave velocity at depth (VSDH), ranging from 1000 to 3000 m/s. Both sets provide very similar predictions, which are much smaller at high frequencies (f > 10 Hz) than those estimated with the traditional HTTA technique - by a factor up to 3-4,. These differences decrease for decreasing frequency, and become negligible at low frequency (f shallow, moderate velocity layers. Not only this resonant amplification is not correctly accounted for by the quarter-wavelength approach used in the traditional HTTA adjustment techniques, but it may also significantly impact and bias the κ measurements, and the (VS30- κ0) relationships implicitly used in HTTA techniques.

  14. The correlations between natural elements (K, U, Th) concentrations and thermal neutron absorption cross-section value (Σa) for rock samples of Carpatia area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swakon, J.; Cywicka-Jakiel, T.; Drozdowicz, E.; Gabanska, B.; Loskiewicz, J.; Woznicka, U.

    1991-01-01

    The paper presents a study of correlations between concentrations of potassium, uranium and thorium and thermal neutron absorption cross section in rock samples. This knowledge of correlation should help in recognizing the expansion ways and accumulation places of the elements responsible of high thermal neutron absorption cross section in some geological environments. The correlations show the existence of connections between the thermal neutron absorption cross section value and natural radioactivity elements concentration in rocks. The results confirm the existence of correlations between natural radioactive elements concentrations (particularly thorium) and thermal neutron absorption cross - section value in some rocks. (author). 12 refs, 23 figs, 6 tabs

  15. A Pixel Correlation Technique for Smaller Telescopes to Measure Doubles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiley, E. O.

    2013-04-01

    Pixel correlation uses the same reduction techniques as speckle imaging but relies on autocorrelation among captured pixel hits rather than true speckles. A video camera operating at speeds (8-66 milliseconds) similar to lucky imaging to capture 400-1,000 video frames. The AVI files are converted to bitmap images and analyzed using the interferometric algorithms in REDUC using all frames. This results in a series of corellograms from which theta and rho can be measured. Results using a 20 cm (8") Dall-Kirkham working at f22.5 are presented for doubles with separations between 1" to 5.7" under average seeing conditions. I conclude that this form of visualizing and analyzing visual double stars is a viable alternative to lucky imaging that can be employed by telescopes that are too small in aperture to capture a sufficient number of speckles for true speckle interferometry.

  16. Male Rock Sparrow (Petronia petronia) Nest Defence Correlates with Female Ornament Size

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Griggio, Matteo; Matessi, Giuliano; Pilastro, Andrea

    2003-01-01

    We investigated the relationship between male nest defence and female breast patch size in an alpine population of rock sparrow (Petronia petronia) in northern Italy. We presented a mounted weasel (Mustela nivalis), a common nest predator, to 28 pairs breeding in nest boxes, with 12-13-d-old nest......We investigated the relationship between male nest defence and female breast patch size in an alpine population of rock sparrow (Petronia petronia) in northern Italy. We presented a mounted weasel (Mustela nivalis), a common nest predator, to 28 pairs breeding in nest boxes, with 12-13-d...... defence factor was significantly related only to female breast patch size. We argue that male rock sparrows apparently make parental investment decisions according to their mate's quality, and examine possible alternative hypotheses....

  17. Experimental study on deformation field evolution in rock sample with en echelon faults using digital speckle correlation method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, S.; Ma, J.; Liu, L.; Liu, P.

    2007-12-01

    Digital speckle correlation method (DSCM) is one kind of photomechanical deformation measurement method. DSCM could obtain continuous deformation field contactlessly by just capturing speckle images from specimen surface. Therefore, it is suitable to observe high spatial resolution deformation field in tectonophysical experiment. However, in the general DSCM experiment, the inspected surface of specimen needs to be painted to bear speckle grains in order to obtain the high quality speckle image. This also affects the realization of other measurement techniques. In this study, an improved DSCM system is developed and utilized to measure deformation field of rock specimen without surface painting. The granodiorite with high contrast nature grains is chosen to manufacture the specimen, and a specially designed DSCM algorithm is developed to analyze this kind of nature speckle images. Verification and calibration experiments show that the system could inspect a continuous (about 15Hz) high resolution displacement field (with resolution of 5μm) and strain field (with resolution of 50μɛ), dispensing with any preparation on rock specimen. Therefore, it could be conveniently utilized to study the failure of rock structure. Samples with compressive en echelon faults and extensional en echelon faults are studied on a two-direction servo-control test machine. The failure process of the samples is discussed based on the DSCM results. Experiment results show that: 1) The contours of displacement field could clearly indicate the activities of faults and new cracks. The displacement gradient adjacent to active faults and cracks is much greater than other areas. 2) Before failure of the samples, the mean strain of the jog area is largest for the compressive en echelon fault, while that is smallest for the extensional en echelon fault. This consists with the understanding that the jog area of compressive fault subjects to compression and that of extensional fault subjects to

  18. Stantardization problems in radioisotopic techniques for measuring rock density and humidity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golubin, O.V.; Pavlov, L.S.

    1977-01-01

    A description of the main technical characteristics is given of radioisotope densimeters and hydrometers taken as a base for the State Standard design for field radioisotope instruments for measuring density and moisture of the soil and rocks

  19. Regression-Correlation of Petrophysical Inter-Parameter of Igneous Rocks and Limestone from Kulonprogo Mountain Region, Yogyakarta Special Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sigit Maryanto

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available DOI: 10.17014/ijog.v6i4.127Laboratory test of complete petrophysic parameters encompasing water absorption, compressive strength, Los Angeles abrasive strength, Rudellof abrasive strength, and wear resistance with Na2SO4 has been carried out for igneous and carbonate rocks taken from Kulonprogo Mountains region. Statistical verification of the data exhibits variation of correlation coefficients among parameters ranging from medium to very high value. The values of petrophysic test results are determined by the rock types. The result of this study is useful to estimate the accuracy of values of each parameter test result in Geological Survey Institute Laboratory using regression formula representing each relationship.

  20. Applications of some non destructive testing techniques to the characterization of calcareous rocks: ultrasounds, X and gamma-ray radiography, tomography, neutron radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sicardy, O.

    1986-02-01

    NUCLEART Laboratory has been developping various techniques of conservation of art objects made of wood or stone. It has, among others, achieved a technique of strengthening porous stone objects, by resin impregnation followed by polymerization under gamma rays. The good conduct of such operations implies the existence of characterization means, before and after treatment of the objects. Two means of rocks characterization have been studied: - ultrasound techniques, - radiography techniques. The first part consists in a general description of the calcareous rocks morphology and a presentation of the studied specimens. The second part deals with the application of ultrasound techniques to rocks. Experimentally, one pays particular attention to the specific aspects of ultrasounds propagation inside materials like porous rocks, and especially diffusion phenomena. Results were interpreted in terms of propagation medium structure. Practical interest for rocks control through such techniques has been underligned. The third part concerns the application of radiographic techniques to calcareous rocks. Experimental work consists in establishing exposure curves for a wide range of energy, and the images quality determination. Through a statistics approach, and using digitalization techniques, one has done an exhaustive study of the radiographic noise. Moreover two techniques close to conventional radiography were explored: neutron radiography and X-ray tomography. Their specificity and interest in the case of calcareous rocks have been shown [fr

  1. A Study of the Large Deformation Mechanism and Control Techniques for Deep Soft Rock Roadways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaojie Yang

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Large deformation control of deep soft rock roadways has been a major problem in mining activities worldwide. This paper considers the supporting problem related to large deformation of a deep soft rock roadway in Chao’hua coal mine. The discrete element simulation method (UDEC software is adopted to simulate a tailgate of panel 31041 in Chao’hua coal mine. The failure patterns of unsupported and primary supported roadway are simulated, and these reveal the characteristics of deformation, stress and crack propagation. The excavation of roadway leads to high deviator stress, which exceeds the peak strength of shallow surrounding rock and causes it to enter the post-failure stage. Tensile failures then initiate and develop around the roadway, which causes the fragmentation, dilation and separation of shallow surrounding rock. The compressive capacity of the primary support system is low, which results in serious contraction in the full section of the roadway. An improved control scheme is put forward for the support of a tailgate. The underground test results confirm that the improved support system effectively controlled large deformation of the surrounding rocks, which can provide references for support in the design of roadways excavated in deep soft stratum.

  2. Estimation of Correlation Functions by the Random DEC Technique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brincker, Rune; Krenk, Steen; Jensen, Jakob Laigaard

    The Random Dec Technique is a versatile technique for characterization of random signals in the time domain. In this paper a short review of the most important properties of the technique is given. The review is mainly based on recently achieved results that are still unpublished, or that has just...

  3. Application of the mass spectrometry-isotope dilution technique for the determination of uranium contents in rocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kakazu, M.H.; Iyer, S.S.

    1980-01-01

    Application of the spectrometric isotope dilution technique for the accurate determination of parts per million range of uranium in rock samples is described. The various aspects of the method like sample dissolution, ion exchange separation, mass spectrometric procedures are discussed. A single filament ionization source was employed for the isotope analysis. A carbon reduction method was used to reduce uranium oxide ions to uranium metal ions. The tracer solution for isotope dilution was prepared from National Bureau of Standards uranium isotopic Standard NBS U-970. Uranium contents are meassured for nine rock samples and the values obtained are compared with the uranium values measured by others workers. Errors caused in the uranium determination due to sample splitting problems as well as the incomplete acid digestion of the samples are discussed. (Author) [pt

  4. Preliminary state-of-the-art survey: mining techniques for salt and other rock types

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1976-12-01

    This is a systematic review of the state-of-the-art of underground mining and excavation technology in the U.S. as applied to salt, limestone, shale, and granite. Chapter 2 covers the basic characteristics of these rock types, the most frequently used underground mining methods, shaft and slope entry construction, equipment, and safety and productivity data. Chapters 3 and 4 summarize underground salt and limestone mining in the U.S. Chapter 5 shows that large amounts of thick shale exist in the U.S., but little is mined. Chapter 6 discusses underground excavations into granite-type rocks. Suggestions are given in the last chapter for further study. (DLC)

  5. CORRELATIONS ON THE MINING WORKINGS DRIVE BY BLASTING UNDER THE IMPACT OF ROCK BURSTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Abramović

    1989-12-01

    Full Text Available Comprehensive testing blastings on ihe development faces in the areas with bursts have been performed in the coal mine of Labin. The obtained results prove d isti ne t relations in exp!osive consumption (kg/m3 and in the dimension of faces' cross-section (m2, The impact of the work face structure (coal: stone bas been distinguished for each blasting, too. Chaoges depending on the brand of esplosive as well as those ones considering the advance of mining activitv have also been observed. It has been proved in the pro-duction process of the mine, that the results with increased work productivity are obtained in spite of the fact that miners are exposed to danger of rock bursts (the paper is published in Croatian.

  6. A physico-chemical characterisation technique for determining the pore-water chemistry in argillaceous rocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baeyens, B.; Bradbury, M.H.

    1991-09-01

    A prerequisite for carrying out credible sorption studies is the definition of an aqueous phase composition which is in equilibrium with the solid phase. Experimental methods and data analysis procedures are described which enable an equilibrium water composition to be produced for argillaceous rocks which is not dependent on liquid to solid (L:S) ratios. Since a Valanginian marl formation is under consideration by Nagra as a potential rock for the disposal of low and short-lived medium level radioactive waste in Switzerland, samples of this material were chosen for this investigation. Aqueous phase and nickel ethylenediamine extraction experiments were carried out at different L:S ratios under controlled atmosphere conditions (P CO 2 =10 -2 bar, O 2 ≤ 5 ppm ). The results from these tests and petrographical examinations were combined to define the system in terms of the physico-chemical characteristics of the clay mineral component (CEC and cation occupancies) and the identities of highly soluble and solubility limited phases in the marl. The geochemical code PHREEQE was used in conjunction with the Gapon equations to calculate the pore water composition. This work clearly showed that pore water chemistries obtained from aqueous extracts alone may lead to an arbitrary water chemistry in argillaceous rock systems, particularly with respect to ionic composition and ionic strength, which may have important consequences for radionuclide speciation and sorption studies. (author) 11 figs., 12 tabs., 25 refs

  7. Hard rock excavation at the CSM/OCRD test site using Swedish blast design techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holmberg, R.

    1983-09-01

    This report is the third in a series describing research conducted by the Colorado School of Mines for the Office of Crystalline Repository Development (OCRD) to determine the extent of blast damage in rock surrounding an underground opening. A special room, called the CSM/OCRD room, was excavated at the CSM experimental mine for the purpose of assessing blast damage in the rock around the room. Even though this mine is not proposed as a nuclear waste repository site, the instrumentation and methods of blast damage assessment developed in this project are applicable to proposed repository sites. This report describes the application of Swedish blasting technology for the excavation of the test room. The design of the blasting patterns including the selection of explosives, hole sizes and location, explosive loading densities, and delay intervals is based upon the theories of Langefors and Kihlstrom in combination with methods used at the Swedish Detonic Research Foundation for minimizing unwanted rock damage. The practical application of the design procedures to seven rounds and the achieved results is discussed

  8. The role of post-failure brittleness of soft rocks in the assessment of stability of intact masses: FDEM technique applications to ideal problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lollino, Piernicola; Andriani, Gioacchino Francesco; Fazio, Nunzio Luciano; Perrotti, Michele

    2016-04-01

    Strain-softening under low confinement stress, i.e. the drop of strength that occurs in the post-failure stage, represents a key factor of the stress-strain behavior of rocks. However, this feature of the rock behavior is generally underestimated or even neglected in the assessment of boundary value problems of intact soft rock masses. This is typically the case when the stability of intact rock masses is treated by means of limit equilibrium or finite element analyses, for which rigid-plastic or elastic perfectly-plastic constitutive models, generally implementing peak strength conditions of the rock, are respectively used. In fact, the aforementioned numerical techniques are characterized by intrinsic limitations that do not allow to account for material brittleness, either for the method assumptions or due to numerical stability problems, as for the case of the finite element method, unless sophisticated regularization techniques are implemented. However, for those problems that concern the stability of intact soft rock masses at low stress levels, as for example the stability of shallow underground caves or that of rock slopes, the brittle stress-strain response of rock in the post-failure stage cannot be disregarded due to the risk of overestimation of the stability factor. This work is aimed at highlighting the role of post-peak brittleness of soft rocks in the analysis of specific ideal problems by means of the use of a hybrid finite-discrete element technique (FDEM) that allows for the simulation of the rock stress-strain brittle behavior in a proper way. In particular, the stability of two ideal cases, represented by a shallow underground rectangular cave and a vertical cliff, has been analyzed by implementing a post-peak brittle behavior of the rock and the comparison with a non-brittle response of the rock mass is also explored. To this purpose, the mechanical behavior of a soft calcarenite belonging to the Calcarenite di Gravina formation, extensively

  9. Technique for large-scale structural mapping at uranium deposits i in non-metamorphosed sedimentary cover rocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kochkin, B.T.

    1985-01-01

    The technique for large-scale construction (1:1000 - 1:10000), reflecting small amplitude fracture plicate structures, is given for uranium deposits in non-metamorphozed sedimentary cover rocks. Structure drill log sections, as well as a set of maps with the results of area analysis of hidden disturbances, structural analysis of iso-pachous lines and facies of platform mantle horizons serve as sour ce materials for structural mapplotting. The steps of structural map construction are considered: 1) structural carcass construction; 2) reconstruction of structure contour; 3) time determination of structure initiation; 4) plotting of an additional geologic load

  10. Study of uranium mineralization in rock samples from marwat range bannu basin by fission track analysis technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qureshi, A.Z.; Ullah, K.; Ullah, N.; Akram, M.

    2004-07-01

    The Geophysics Division, Atomic Energy Minerals Centre (AEMC), Lahore has planned a uranium exploration program in Marwat Range, Bannu Basin. In this connection 30 thin sections of rock samples, collected from four areas; namely, Darra Tang, Simukili, Karkanwal and Sheikhillah from Marwat Range, and one from Salt Range were provided to Nuclear Geology Group of Physics Research Division, PINSTECH for the study of nature and mechanism of uranium mineralization These studies are aimed to help in designing uranium exploration strategy by providing the loci of uranium sources in the Marwat and Salt Ranges. The samples have been studied using fission track analysis technique. (author)

  11. Origin of a Tertiary oil from El Mahafir wildcat & geochemical correlation to some Muglad source rocks, Muglad basin, Sudan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fadul Abul Gebbayin, Omer. I. M.; Zhong, Ningning; Ali Ibrahim, Gulfan; Ali Alzain, Mohamed

    2018-01-01

    Source rock screening analysis was performed on four stratigraphic units from the Muglad basin namely; Abu Gabra, Zarqa, Ghazal, and Baraka formations using pyrolysis and Vitrinite Reflectance (Ro). Results, integrated with the chromatographic and isotopic data from these rocks extracts and a Tertiary oil from El Mahafir-1 wild cat, were used to determine the origin of the oil. A good organic source within the Middle Abu Gabra Formation is observed in wells El Toor-6 and Neem Deep-1 (TOC, 1.0-2.0% & S2 5.0-10.0 mg C/g rock), with mixed kerogens I, II, & III, and thermally mature (% Ro = 0.74-0.94). The Campanian-Early Maastrichtian sequence, i.e. Zarqa and Ghazal formations are generally poor (TOC, diversity, both in space and time and is characterized by dominant algal input at some areas and or stratigraphic intervals [Elevated tricyclics, higher C29/C30 hopanes (0.5-1.14), and relatively low Gammacerane indices (4.6-14.4)], while mixed with abundant terrigenous material at others. A direct correlation between El Mahafir oil and the Abu Gabra extracts is thus inferred based on: its mixed organic source nature, oxic to sub-oxic depositional environment (Pr/Ph 1.22), relatively low C29/C30 hopanes (0.54), low C28 steranes (29%), and a high gammacerane index (20.5). This is largely supported by the maturity modeling results which suggest generation is only from the Abu Gabra at this location.

  12. Estimation of the Coefficient of Restitution of Rocking Systems by the Random Decrement Technique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brincker, Rune; Demosthenous, M.; Manos, G. C.

    The aim of this paper is to investigate the possibility of estimating an average damping parameter for a rocking system due to impact, the so-called coefficient of restitution, from the random response, i.e. when the loads are random and unknown, and the response is measured. The objective is to ...... of freedom system loaded by white noise, estimating the coefficient of restitution as explained, and comparing the estimates with the value used in the simulations. Several estimates for the coefficient of restitution are considered, and reasonable results are achieved....

  13. Bolt-Grout Interactions in Elastoplastic Rock Mass Using Coupled FEM-FDM Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debasis Deb

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Numerical procedure based on finite element method (FEM and finite difference method (FDM for the analysis of bolt-grout interactions are introduced in this paper. The finite element procedure incorporates elasto-plastic concepts with Hoek and Brown yield criterion and has been applied for rock mass. Bolt-grout interactions are evaluated based on finite difference method and are embedded in the elasto-plastic procedures of FEM. The experimental validation of the proposed FEM-FDM procedures and numerical examples of a bolted tunnel are provided to demonstrate the efficacy of the proposed method for practical applications.

  14. The sewing technique and correlation functions on arbitrary Riemann surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Di Vecchia, P.

    1989-01-01

    We describe in the case of free bosonic and fermionic theories the sewing procedure, that is a very convenient way for constructing correlation functions of these theories on an arbitrary Riemann surface from their knowledge on the sphere. The fundamental object that results from this construction is the N-point g-loop vertex. It summarizes the information of all correlation functions of the theory on an arbitrary Riemann surface. We then check explicitly the bosonization rules and derive some useful formulas. (orig.)

  15. Revised stratigraphic nomenclature and correlation of early proterozoic rocks of the Darwin - Katherine region, Northern Territory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Needham, R.S.; Stuart-Smith, P.G.

    1984-01-01

    New stratigraphic names and correlations are given for parts of the Early Proterozoic Pine Creek Geosyncline metasedimentary sequence and overlying felsic volcanics of the Darwin-Katherine region. They have significant implications for the stratigraphic distribution of uranium mineralisation in the Rum Jungle, Alligator Rivers and South Alligator Valley uranium fields

  16. Application of digital-image-correlation techniques in analysing ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Basis theory of strain analysis using the digital image correlation method .... Type 304N Stainless Steel (Modulus of Elasticity = 193 MPa, Tensile Yield .... also proves the accuracy of the qualitative analyses by using the DIC ... We thank the National Science Council of Taiwan for supporting this research through grant. No.

  17. A correlation-based pulse detection technique for gamma-ray/neutron detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faisal, Muhammad; Schiffer, Randolph T.; Flaska, Marek; Pozzi, Sara A.; Wentzloff, David D.

    2011-01-01

    We present a correlation-based detection technique that significantly improves the probability of detection for low energy pulses. We propose performing a normalized cross-correlation of the incoming pulse data to a predefined pulse template, and using a threshold correlation value to trigger the detection of a pulse. This technique improves the detector sensitivity by amplifying the signal component of incoming pulse data and rejecting noise. Simulation results for various different templates are presented. Finally, the performance of the correlation-based detection technique is compared to the current state-of-the-art techniques.

  18. Study of water flowrate using time transient and cross-correlation techniques with 82Br radiotracer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salgado, William L.; Brandao, Luiz E.B.

    2013-01-01

    This paper aims to determinate the water flowrate using Time Transient and Cross-Correlation techniques. The detection system uses two NaI (T1) detectors adequately positioned on the outside of pipe and a gamma-ray source ( 82 Br radiotracer). The water flowrate measurements using Time Transient and Cross-Correlation techniques were compared to invasive conventional measurements of the flowrate previously installed in pipeline. Discrepancies between Time Transient and Cross-Correlation techniques flowmeter previously installed in pipeline. Discrepancies between Time Transient and Cross-Correlation techniques flowrate values were found to be less than 3% in relation to conventional ones. (author)

  19. Information collection regarding geoscientific monitoring techniques during closure of underground facility in crystalline rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hosoya, Shinichi; Yamashita, Tadashi; Iwatsuki, Teruki; Saegusa, Hiromitsu; Onoe, Hironori; Ishibashi, Masayuki

    2016-01-01

    The Mizunami Underground Research Laboratory (MIU) project is being pursued by the Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) to enhance the reliability of geological disposal technologies through investigations of the deep geological environment in the crystalline host rock (granite) at Mizunami City in Gifu Prefecture, central Japan. On the occasion of the reform of the entire JAEA organization in 2014, JAEA identified the critical issues on the geoscientific research program: “Development of modelling technologies for mass transport”, “Development of drift backfilling technologies” and “Development of technologies for reducing groundwater inflow”, based on the latest results of the synthesizing R and D. The purposes of the “Development of drift backfilling technologies” are to develop closure methodology and technology, and long-term monitoring technology, and to evaluate resilience of geological environment. In order to achieve the purposes, previous information from the case example of underground facility constructed in crystalline rock in Europe has been collected in this study. In particular, the boundary conditions for the closure, geological characteristics, technical specifications, and method of monitoring have been focused. The information on the international project regarding drift closure test and development of monitoring technologies has also been collected. In addition, interviews were conducted to Finnish and Swedish specialists who have experiences involving planning, construction management, monitoring, and safety assessment for the closure to obtain the technical knowledge. Based on the collected information, concept and point of attention, which are regarding drift closure testing, and planning, execution management and monitoring on the closure of MIU, have been specified. (author)

  20. Generation of Quasi-Gaussian Pulses Based on Correlation Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    POHOATA, S.

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The Gaussian pulses have been mostly used within communications, where some applications can be emphasized: mobile telephony (GSM, where GMSK signals are used, as well as the UWB communications, where short-period pulses based on Gaussian waveform are generated. Since the Gaussian function signifies a theoretical concept, which cannot be accomplished from the physical point of view, this should be expressed by using various functions, able to determine physical implementations. New techniques of generating the Gaussian pulse responses of good precision are approached, proposed and researched in this paper. The second and third order derivatives with regard to the Gaussian pulse response are accurately generated. The third order derivates is composed of four individual rectangular pulses of fixed amplitudes, being easily to be generated by standard techniques. In order to generate pulses able to satisfy the spectral mask requirements, an adequate filter is necessary to be applied. This paper emphasizes a comparative analysis based on the relative error and the energy spectra of the proposed pulses.

  1. Measurement of the thermal neutron macroscopic absorption cross-section on small rock samples. Part of coord. prog. F2 10 05: Nuclear techniques in exploration and exploitation of natural resources: Nuclear bore-hole logging techniques for the determination of rock characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woznicka, U.

    1989-01-01

    The research in the classification of special techniques needed in the method of absorption cross section measurements applied for rocks of different lithology and the theoretical approach to the application lower than that for typical rock material are presented. The conclusions also contain the proposal of the research for the next year. 13 refs., 7 figs., 8 tabs. (author)

  2. A passive technique using SSNTDs for Estimation of thorium to uranium ratios in rocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kenawy, M.A.; Sayyah, T.A.; Said, A.F.; Hafez, A.F.

    2005-01-01

    A passive technique using plastic nuclear track detectors (CR-39 and LR-115) is presented to estimate Th/U ratios and consequently the thorium and uranium content in granites taken from uranium exploration mines in Egyptian desert. The registration sensitivities of both CR-39 and LR-115 detector for close contact alpha-radiography uranium and thorium concentrations in ppm were computed

  3. Non-steady homogeneous deformations: Computational techniques using Lie theory, and application to ellipsoidal markers in naturally deformed rocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Joshua R.; Titus, Sarah J.; Horsman, Eric

    2013-11-01

    The dynamic theory of deformable ellipsoidal inclusions in slow viscous flows was worked out by J.D. Eshelby in the 1950s, and further developed and applied by various authors. We describe three approaches to computing Eshelby's ellipsoid dynamics and other homogeneous deformations. The most sophisticated of our methods uses differential-geometric techniques on Lie groups. This Lie group method is faster and more precise than earlier methods, and perfectly preserves certain geometric properties of the ellipsoids, including volume. We apply our method to the analysis of naturally deformed clasts from the Gem Lake shear zone in the Sierra Nevada mountains of California, USA. This application demonstrates how, given three-dimensional strain data, we can solve simultaneously for best-fit bulk kinematics of the shear zone, as well as relative viscosities of clasts and matrix rocks.

  4. Realization of a collection of reference minerals to develop a technique for in situ dating of the Martian rocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cattani, F.; Gillot, P. Y.; Hildenbrand, A.; Quidelleur, X.; Courtade, F.; Boukari, C.; Lefevre, J. C.

    2017-12-01

    Absolute dating within ± 20% is needed to check and to calibrate the relative Martian chronology presently available. For that purpose, a K-Ar dating system has been developed to experiment the feasibility of such dating in future landing planetary missions. It consists in a laser ablation-based system built to vaporize a reproducible volume of rock. Potassium content is measured by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) and argon by quadrupole mass spectrometry (QMS). Improvements of LIBS acquisition (optimization of optics part and normalization by total intensity spectrum) and QMS calibration (by reproducible known amount of argon) have been achieved. In addition, we have test the determination of ablated mass from volume measurement performed by profilometry technique. Instrument calibration for Martian analyses requires terrestrial analogues to determine the most suitable analytical conditions. For that purpose, total chemistry, electron microprobe analyses, flame absorption spectrometry and mass spectrometry have been performed in order to qualify stoichiometry, mineralogy, K concentration and Ar content from a collection of old terrestrial rocks. These analyses coupled with those published have helped to select 14 mineral phases (e.g. feldspars) showing a large range of K content (0.15 - 11%). The objective is to calibrate the LIBS on different geological material with Mars-like %K values ( 0.4%), and assess the detection limit of the LIBS with extreme %K values. All these mineral phases display a K-Ar age older than 260 Ma. Hence, the content of radiogenic Ar atoms per gram is within the range of Martian samples (on the order of 1 Ga for 0.4 %K). Furthermore, the ablated mass is estimated by measurement of Ar extracted from an analogue mineral of known amount of radiogenic Ar content per gram. This quantification is then compared with the mass estimated from the volume measured by profilometry technique. Finally, it provides a well

  5. Correlation techniques for the improvement of signal-to-noise ratio in measurements with stochastic processes

    CERN Document Server

    Reddy, V R; Reddy, T G; Reddy, P Y; Reddy, K R

    2003-01-01

    An AC modulation technique is described to convert stochastic signal variations into an amplitude variation and its retrieval through Fourier analysis. It is shown that this AC detection of signals of stochastic processes when processed through auto- and cross-correlation techniques improve the signal-to-noise ratio; the correlation techniques serve a similar purpose of frequency and phase filtering as that of phase-sensitive detection. A few model calculations applied to nuclear spectroscopy measurements such as Angular Correlations, Mossbauer spectroscopy and Pulse Height Analysis reveal considerable improvement in the sensitivity of signal detection. Experimental implementation of the technique is presented in terms of amplitude variations of harmonics representing the derivatives of normal spectra. Improved detection sensitivity to spectral variations is shown to be significant. These correlation techniques are general and can be made applicable to all the fields of particle counting where measurements ar...

  6. Combined geophysical techniques for detailed groundwater flow investigation in tectonically deformed fractured rocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Alexopoulos

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present a combination of several near surface geophysical investigation techniques with high resolution remote sensing image interpretations, in order to define the groundwater flow paths and whether they can be affected by future seismic events. A seasonal spring (Amvrakia located at the foot of Meteora pillars near the village of Kastraki (Greece was chosen as a test site. The Meteora conglomeratic formations crop out throughout the study area and are characterized by large discontinuities caused by post Miocene till present tectonic deformation [Ferriere et al. 2011, Royden and Papanikolaou 2011]. A network of groundwater pathways has been developed above the impermeable marls underlying the conglomeratic strata. Our research aims to define these water pathways in order to investigate and understand the exact mechanism of the spring by mapping the exposed discontinuity network with classic field mapping and remote sensing image interpretation and define their underground continuity with the contribution of near surface geophysical techniques. Five Very Low Frequency (VLF profiles were conducted with different directions around the spring aiming to detect possible conductive zones in the conglomeratic formations that the study area consists of. Moreover, two Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT sections of a total length of 140m were carried out parallel to the VLF profiles for cross-checking and verifying the geophysical information. Both techniques revealed important conductive zones (<200 Ohm m within the conglomerate strata, which we interpret as discontinuities filled with water supplying the spring, which are quite vulnerable to displacements as the hydraulic connections between them might be easily disturbed after a future seismic event.

  7. A multi-packer technique for investigating resistance to flow through fractured rock and illustrative results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bourke, P.J.; Rae, J.

    1981-01-01

    A multi-packer technique was used to locate twelve discrete fractures in the lower half of a 200 m deep drill hole in Cornish granite. The resistances to water flows into these fractures both singly and together were measured. Geological explanations of the results obtained were sought by examination of core from the hole. Analysis of the results and the further data needed and now being sought to determine resistance to flow over long distances through the pattern of interconnected fractures are discussed. This information is required for the assessment of the safety of burial of radioactive wastes

  8. The use of nuclear and related techniques for evaluating the agronomic effectiveness of phosphate fertilizers, in particular rock phosphate, in Venezuela: I. phosphorus uptake, utilization and agronomic effectiveness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casanova, E.; Salas, A.M.; Toro, M.

    2002-01-01

    Field experiments were conducted to evaluate the efficiency of natural and modified rock phosphate using conventional and isotopic techniques in an acid soil from El Pao, Cojedes state, Venezuela, using maize and sorghum with the application of different phosphate fertilizers to measure dry matter production, P accumulated in plant, efficiency parameters using isotopic techniques or yield. Finally, commercial plots were established with the application of soluble P fertilizers and rock phosphate products to validate the results obtained in the field experiments. The results showed highly significant differences between partially acidulated rock phosphate, natural rock phosphate, and the check plot in dry matter production, and P accumulation in plant and grain yield. When the efficiency parameters were evaluated in microplots with 32 P-TSP at 60 days of plant growth, it confirmed results obtained in semi commercial plots where the P in the plant derived from the fertilizer was 46% with partially acidulated rock phosphate (PAR) and 14% with natural Riecito rock phosphate (RR). Utilization coefficients of P by the plants were 34.2 and 8.8% for both treatments, respectively. The Substitution relation parameter showed that just 0.8 kg of P of PAR or 3.1 kg P of RR was required to produce the same yield as 1 kg P of TSP. These results were further validated in 5 ha commercial plots using corn and sorghum. (author)

  9. Technique for estimating the sound power level radiated by pneumatic rock drills and the evaluation of a CSIR prototype rock drill with engineering noise controls

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Kovalchik, PG

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available and the radiation patterns in octave and 1/3 octave bands. Overall sound power level is also determined. This paper also reports the results obtained by using this procedure to evaluate a SECO S215 standard production drill and a CSIR Miningtek prototype rock drill...

  10. Measurement of in-situ stress in salt and rock using NQR techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schempp, E.; Hirschfeld, T.; Klainer, S.

    1980-01-01

    A discussion of how stress and strain affect the quantities which can be measured in an NQR experiment shows that, for stresses of the magnitude to be expected at depths up to about 10,000 feet, quadrupole coupling constants will fall in the range of 1 to 10 kHz for both the sodium and chloride ions in NaCl. The most promising system involves pulsed nuclear double resonance detection; and alterative is to observe the quadrupolar splitting of the NMR signal. Choices to be made in the measurement and mapping techniques are discussed. The well-known perturbation of the homogenous stress field in the neighborhood of a borehole is shown to be advantageous from the point of view of obtaining directional information on the stress. Construction and operation of a borehole stress sensor are considered. The NQR technique seems feasible for measuring the magnitude and direction of underground stress with a resolution of about 25 psi, or 2.5% at 1000 psi. Downhole instrumentation suitable for in-situ determinations of stress appears within the state of the art. Additional tasks required on the project are identified

  11. Microarea dating of mineral and rock. The application of technique by combining 40Ar/39Ar mass spectrometer with laser probe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu Shiling; Dai Tongmo; Pu Zhiping

    1998-01-01

    The 40 Ar/ 39 Ar dating of probe technique by the continuous laser is successfully applied to determine the ages of microarea samples for mineral and whole rock, including the standard samples from internal and abroad, volcanical rock from westsouthern Antarctica and Green Pissolites of Guizhou. Isochron ages for volcanical rock to be excess or lost argon are accomplished by the whole fused, and for 'green Pisolites' not only by the whole fused, but also by the steps heat. All of which shows the significant geological ages. It would be exhibited the obvious advantage for dating some special samples to make the microarea 40 Ar/ 39 Ar dating technique by laser probe as compare with conventional K-Ar and 40 Ar/ 39 Ar methods

  12. Applications of isotope techniques for the assessment of soil phosphorus status and evaluation of rock phosphates as phosphorus sources for plants in subtropical China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiong, L.M.; Zhou, Z.G.; Feng, G.L.; Lu, R.K.; Fardeau, J.C.

    2002-01-01

    In an attempt to assess current soil phosphorus status and evaluate the effectiveness of local rock phosphates in subtropical China, nearly 40 representative soil samples from this region were collected and characterized by using 32 P isotope and chemical extraction techniques. Pot experiments, incubation studies and field trials were conducted to investigate the interaction of rock phosphates and water-soluble phosphates as well as the effects of rock phosphate on soil chemical properties in selected soils. Results indicated that these soils were generally low in available phosphorus and high in P-fixing capacity. The soil characteristics dictated that the employed isotope kinetic model was less successful in predicting plant P uptake than the chemical procedures tested. A new chemical extraction method consisting of sodium bicarbonate and ammonium fluoride was proposed to evaluate available P in these Solis. Data on available P generated with the proposed method gave the best prediction of plant uptake amongst all methods compared. In a pot experiment, the combined application of soluble P fertilizer with local rock phosphate significantly enhanced plant growth and increased P uptake. This positive interaction was attributed to the improved soil chemical properties due to the application of low-grade rock phosphates, as demonstrated in incubation studies. These results suggest that rock phosphate-based fertilizers should be good alternative fertilizers for plants in similar acidic soils in southern China. (author)

  13. Comparison between correlated sampling and the perturbation technique of MCNP5 for fixed-source problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Tao; Su Bingjing

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → The performance of the MCNP differential operator perturbation technique is compared with that of the MCNP correlated sampling method for three types of fixed-source problems. → In terms of precision, the MCNP perturbation technique outperforms correlated sampling for one type of problem but performs comparably with or even under-performs correlated sampling for the other two types of problems. → In terms of accuracy, the MCNP perturbation calculations may predict inaccurate results for some of the test problems. However, the accuracy can be improved if the midpoint correction technique is used. - Abstract: Correlated sampling and the differential operator perturbation technique are two methods that enable MCNP (Monte Carlo N-Particle) to simulate small response change between an original system and a perturbed system. In this work the performance of the MCNP differential operator perturbation technique is compared with that of the MCNP correlated sampling method for three types of fixed-source problems. In terms of precision of predicted response changes, the MCNP perturbation technique outperforms correlated sampling for the problem involving variation of nuclide concentrations in the same direction but performs comparably with or even underperforms correlated sampling for the other two types of problems that involve void or variation of nuclide concentrations in opposite directions. In terms of accuracy, the MCNP differential operator perturbation calculations may predict inaccurate results that deviate from the benchmarks well beyond their uncertainty ranges for some of the test problems. However, the accuracy of the MCNP differential operator perturbation can be improved if the midpoint correction technique is used.

  14. Cardiac-driven Pulsatile Motion of Intracranial Cerebrospinal Fluid Visualized Based on a Correlation Mapping Technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yatsushiro, Satoshi; Sunohara, Saeko; Hayashi, Naokazu; Hirayama, Akihiro; Matsumae, Mitsunori; Atsumi, Hideki; Kuroda, Kagayaki

    2018-04-10

    A correlation mapping technique delineating delay time and maximum correlation for characterizing pulsatile cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) propagation was proposed. After proofing its technical concept, this technique was applied to healthy volunteers and idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (iNPH) patients. A time-resolved three dimensional-phase contrast (3D-PC) sampled the cardiac-driven CSF velocity at 32 temporal points per cardiac period at each spatial location using retrospective cardiac gating. The proposed technique visualized distributions of propagation delay and correlation coefficient of the PC-based CSF velocity waveform with reference to a waveform at a particular point in the CSF space. The delay time was obtained as the amount of time-shift, giving the maximum correlation for the velocity waveform at an arbitrary location with that at the reference location. The validity and accuracy of the technique were confirmed in a flow phantom equipped with a cardiovascular pump. The technique was then applied to evaluate the intracranial CSF motions in young, healthy (N = 13), and elderly, healthy (N = 13) volunteers and iNPH patients (N = 13). The phantom study demonstrated that root mean square error of the delay time was 2.27%, which was less than the temporal resolution of PC measurement used in this study (3.13% of a cardiac cycle). The human studies showed a significant difference (P correlation coefficient between the young, healthy group and the other two groups. A significant difference (P correlation coefficients in intracranial CSF space among all groups. The result suggests that the CSF space compliance of iNPH patients was lower than that of healthy volunteers. The correlation mapping technique allowed us to visualize pulsatile CSF velocity wave propagations as still images. The technique may help to classify diseases related to CSF dynamics, such as iNPH.

  15. Comparison of hot hydroxylamine hydrochloride and oxalic acid leaching of stream sediment and coated rock samples as anomaly enhancement techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filipek, L.H.; Chao, T.T.; Theobald, P.K.

    1982-01-01

    A hot hydroxylamine hydrochloride (H-Hxl) extraction in 25% acetic acid is compared with the commonly used oxalic acid extraction as a method of anomaly enhancement for Cu and Zn in samples from two very different metal deposits and climatic environments. Results obtained on minus-80-mesh stream sediments from an area near the Magruder massive sulfide deposit in Lincoln County, Georgia, where the climate is humid subtropical, indicate that H-Hxl enhances the anomaly for Cu by a factor of 2 and for Zn by a factor of 1.5, compared to the oxalic method. Analyses of Fe oxide-coated rock samples from outcrops overlying the North Silver Bell porphyry copper deposit near Tucson, Arizona, where the climate is semi-arid to arid, indicate that both techniques effectively outline the zones of hydrothermal alteration. The H-Hxl extraction can also perform well in high-carbonate or high-clay environments, where other workers have suggested that oxalic acid is not very effective. Therefore, the H-Hxl method is recommended for general exploration use. ?? 1982.

  16. Cretaceous and Eocene Adakites in the Sikhote-Alin area (Russian Far East) and their correlation with adakitic rocks in the East Asia continental margin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, T. J.; Jahn, B. M.

    2017-12-01

    Adakitic rocks of the Sikhote-Alin area were emplaced during two main periods: the Cretaceous (132-98 Ma) and Eocene (46-39 Ma). These rocks primarily occur in the Khanka Block and, less commonly, in the Sikhote-Alin Orogenic Belt. The adakitic rocks record the following chemical compositions: SiO2 = 57-74%, Al2O3 = 15-18%, Na2O = 3.5-6.1%, K2O = 0.7-3.2%, Na2O/K2O = 1.1-3.9, Sr/Y = 33-145, and (La/Yb)N = 11-53. The HREE and HFSE in these rocks are remarkably depleted. The Early Cretaceous adakites record ɛNd(T) = -1.0 to +3.2 and ISr = 0.7040-0.7090, and the Eocene adakitic rocks record Nd(T) = -2.0 to +2.2 and ISr = 0.7042-0.7058. Adakitic features suggest different modes of magma generation; a comparison of the Sr/Y and La/Yb ratios and geochemical data on Harker diagrams between the two periods of adakitic rocks reveals differences in their petrogenesis. The Cretaceous adakites may have been generated by the partial melting of meta-basic rocks in a subduction zone, accompanied by the emplacement of volcanic arc granitoids. Therefore, the subduction of the Paleo-Pacific Plate beneath the Sikhote-Alin was probably initiated during this time. The Eocene rocks, which record increasing adakitic features with increasing silica content, are most likely the product of andesite that underwent fractionation of mineral assemblage including clinopyoxene, orthopyroxene, garnet and amphibole. These rocks and associated basalts and rhyolite were formed after Cretaceous arc magmatism in the Sikhote-Alin area and were most likely generated by rollback of the subducting Pacific Plate after the Eocene. Abundant adakitic granitoids of Early Cretaceous and Eocene age occur in the Kitakami and Abukuma Mountains of NE Japan. Consequently, it is highly probable that a geological correlation existed between Sikhote-Alin and North Japan, particularly before the opening of the Japan Sea.

  17. Determining the diet of larvae of western rock lobster (Panulirus cygnus using high-throughput DNA sequencing techniques.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard O'Rorke

    Full Text Available The Western Australian rock lobster fishery has been both a highly productive and sustainable fishery. However, a recent dramatic and unexplained decline in post-larval recruitment threatens this sustainability. Our lack of knowledge of key processes in lobster larval ecology, such as their position in the food web, limits our ability to determine what underpins this decline. The present study uses a high-throughput amplicon sequencing approach on DNA obtained from the hepatopancreas of larvae to discover significant prey items. Two short regions of the 18S rRNA gene were amplified under the presence of lobster specific PNA to prevent lobster amplification and to improve prey amplification. In the resulting sequences either little prey was recovered, indicating that the larval gut was empty, or there was a high number of reads originating from multiple zooplankton taxa. The most abundant reads included colonial Radiolaria, Thaliacea, Actinopterygii, Hydrozoa and Sagittoidea, which supports the hypothesis that the larvae feed on multiple groups of mostly transparent gelatinous zooplankton. This hypothesis has prevailed as it has been tentatively inferred from the physiology of larvae, captive feeding trials and co-occurrence in situ. However, these prey have not been observed in the larval gut as traditional microscopic techniques cannot discern between transparent and gelatinous prey items in the gut. High-throughput amplicon sequencing of gut DNA has enabled us to classify these otherwise undetectable prey. The dominance of the colonial radiolarians among the gut contents is intriguing in that this group has been historically difficult to quantify in the water column, which may explain why they have not been connected to larval diet previously. Our results indicate that a PCR based technique is a very successful approach to identify the most abundant taxa in the natural diet of lobster larvae.

  18. Agronomic behavior of phosphoric rock from Bahia Inglesa using isotopic techniques. 2. Greenhouse experiment in three volcanic ash soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pino N, I.; Casas G, L.

    1989-01-01

    With the aim to evaluate the behaviour of phosphoric rock in regard to the sorption capacity from three volcanic ash soils, a greenhouse trial was carried out. The isotopic dilution method with triple superphosphate labeled P32 (TSP-32) was used. Total dry matter, P total was determined by colorimetry and the liquid scintillation method for P32 was used. The evaluation of the rock was measured through different isotopical parameters such as A value and P derived from the rock. The behaviour of this material was affected by the different properties of the soils mainly on account of the diverse sorption capacity of them giving an inverse relation among sorption and effectiveness of the rock. The results showed a higher efficiency of TSP for the three soils compared with the phosphoric rock either concentrated or not. (author)

  19. The role of nitrogen and sulphur bearing compounds in the wettability of oil reservoir rocks: an approach with nuclear microanalysis and other related surface techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mercier, F.; Toulhoat, N.; Potocek, V.; Trocellier, P.

    1999-01-01

    Oil recovery is strongly influenced by the wettability of the reservoir rock. Some constituents of the crude oil (polar compounds and heavy fractions such as asphaltenes with heteroatoms) are believed to react with the reservoir rock and to condition the local wettability. Therefore, it is important to obtain as much knowledge as possible about the characteristics of the organic matter/mineral interactions. This study is devoted to the description at the microscopic scale of the distribution of some heavy fractions of crude oil (asphaltenes) and nitrogen molecules (pyridine and pyrrole) on model minerals of sandstone reservoir rocks such as silica and clays. Nuclear microanalysis, X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy and other related microscopic imaging techniques allow to study the distribution and thickness of the organic films. The respective influences of the nature of the mineral substrate and the organic matter are studied. The important role played by the nitrogen compounds in the adsorption of organic matter is emphasized

  20. A study of accumulation of trace metals in coffee plants grown on ultisols fertilized with rock phosphates by energy dispersive x-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joseph, Daisy; Lal, Madan; D'Souza, T.J.

    1995-01-01

    Trace elements in soil and leaves of coffee plants have been analysed by a non-destructive Energy Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence (EDXRF) technique to study their accumulation due to repeated rock phosphate fertilization. Analysis of standard reference materials of soil and leaves through EDXRF yielded values within 5% error of the certified values. This method was therefore used to determine the trace metals (Fe, Cu, Zn, Rb, Sr, Nb, Zr and Y) concentrations of soils, rock phosphates and leaves of coffee grown in experimental ultisols. Results indicate that rock phosphate fertilization over a period of 10 years did not contribute significantly to high trace metal concentration in plants. (author). 6 refs., 5 tabs., 5 figs

  1. Effective porosity and density of carbonate rocks (Maynardville Limestone and Copper Ridge Dolomite) within Bear Creek Valley on the Oak Ridge Reservation based on modern petrophysical techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dorsch, J.

    1997-02-01

    The purpose of this study is to provide quantitative data on effective porosity of carbonate rock from the Maynardville Limestone and Copper Ridge Dolomite within Bear Creek Valley based on modern petrophysical techniques. The data will be useful for groundwater-flow and contaminant-flow modeling in the vicinity of the Y-12 Plant on the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR). Furthermore, the data provides needed information on the amount of interconnected pore space potentially available for operation of matrix diffusion as a transport process within the fractured carbonate rock. A second aspect of this study is to compare effective porosity data based on modern petrophysical techniques to effective porosity data determined earlier by Goldstrand et al. (1995) with a different technique. An added bonus of the study is quantitative data on the bulk density and grain density of dolostone and limestone of the Maynardville Limestone and Copper Ridge Dolomite which might find use for geophysical modeling on the ORR

  2. Develop a more reliable means of assessing safety risk due to rock bursts and rock falls as a managerial decision support technique

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Chichowicz, A

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available The project was initiated to create techniques for processing falls of ground (FOG) data. Those techniques were tested with data from east rand proprietary mines (ERPM). The first part of this report concerns seismic events that caused falls...

  3. Fiber Strain Measurement for Wide Region Quasidistributed Sensing by Optical Correlation Sensor with Region Separation Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xunjian Xu

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The useful application of optical pulse correlation sensor for wide region quasidistributed fiber strain measurement is investigated. Using region separation techniques of wavelength multiplexing with FBGs and time multiplexing with intensity partial reflectors, the sensor measures the correlations between reference pulses and monitoring pulses from several cascadable selected sensing regions. This novel sensing system can select the regions and obtain the distributed strain information in any desired sensing region.

  4. A study of trapped ion dynamics by photon-correlation and pulse-probe techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rink, J.; Dholakia, K.; Zs, G.; Horvath, K.; Hernandez-Pozos, J. L.; Power, W.; Segal, D. M.; Thompson, R. C.; Walker, T.

    1995-01-01

    We demonstrate non-evasive methods for observing ion and ion cloud oscillation frequencies in a quadrupole ion trap. These trap resonances are measured for small clouds using a photon correlation technique. For large clouds the rotation frequency can be detected with the help of an additional pulsed probe laser. We show applications of the photon correlation method such as estimating the dynamic properties of a combined trap and detecting ion crystals

  5. The Application of Spectral Analysis of Surface Wave (SASW) Method as a New Rock Mass Classification Technique in Engineering Geology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdul Rahim Samsuddin; Abdul Ghani Rafek; Umar Hamzah; Suharsono; Khairul Anuar Mohd Nayan

    2008-01-01

    Spectral analysis of surface waves (SASW) is a seismic method that uses the dispersive characteristics of Rayleigh waves propagating through layered material to evaluate S-wave velocity profile. The SASW is an in situ non intrusive method for geotechnical site characterization which is cost effective as compared to the conventional drilling method. In this study, a total of 20 stations from 13 sites were selected. A software (WINSASW 2.0) was used for the inversion process to produce S-wave velocity versus depth profiles. These profiles were then separately analyzed in relation to several engineering rock mass geological parameters such as stiffness, rock quality designation (RQD), anisotropy and the excavability properties. The analysis of the SASW data was based on the assumption that the rock mass is an isotropic homogeneous material with various intensity of discontinuity which influenced the velocity of surface wave propagation within the rock mass. Measurement of dynamic soil properties was carried out employing the shear wave velocities and the N values of the Standard Penetration Test (N SPT ) from borehole data. A new linear equation V s = 4.44 N SPT + 213.84 which relates S-wave and N SPT was deduced. An empirical equation is also proposed to calculate Rock Quality Designation (RQD) values based on S-wave velocity derived from SASW and that of ultrasonic tests. The result of this equation was found to be less than 10% in comparison to the RQD obtained from actual borehole data. An isotropic analysis of the rock mass was carried out using S-wave velocities derived from SASW measurements in four directions. The plots of S-wave - ultrasonic velocity ratio versus ultrasonic velocity were used to evaluate the excavability properties of rock mass. Five classes of rock mass excavability curves were finally proposed in relation to easy digging, easy ripping, hard ripping, hydraulic breaking and blasting. (author)

  6. Accumulated energy determination in salts rocks irradiated by means of thermoluminescence techniques: application to the high level radioactive wastes repositories analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dies, J.; Ortega. J.; Tarrasa. F.; Cuevas, C.

    1995-01-01

    The report summarizes the study carried out to develop the radiation effects on salt rocks in order to repository the high level radioactive wastes. The study is structured into 3 main aspects: 1.- Analysis of irradiation experiences in Haw project of Pet ten reactor. 2.- Irradiation of salt sample of CESAR industrial irradiator. 3.- Correlation study between the accumulated energy, termoluminescence answer and the defect concentration

  7. Positronium in metal-oxide powders studied with age. The age-momentum correlation technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waeyenberge, B. van; Dauve, Ch.

    2001-01-01

    For the first time positronium is investigated in the fine powders of MgO and Al 2 O 3 using age-momentum correlation technique based on a relativistic positron beam. The application of this technique for investigating the interaction of positronium with the grain surfaces is discussed and compared with other techniques. The previously reported interaction of the positronium with paramagnetic centers is further studied. A qualitative interpretation of the spectra is given. In the Al 2 O 3 samples we found some unexpected behaviour of the conversion quenching of ortho-positronium at irradiation induced paramagnetic surface defect. (author)

  8. Source rock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abubakr F. Makky

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available West Beni Suef Concession is located at the western part of Beni Suef Basin which is a relatively under-explored basin and lies about 150 km south of Cairo. The major goal of this study is to evaluate the source rock by using different techniques as Rock-Eval pyrolysis, Vitrinite reflectance (%Ro, and well log data of some Cretaceous sequences including Abu Roash (E, F and G members, Kharita and Betty formations. The BasinMod 1D program is used in this study to construct the burial history and calculate the levels of thermal maturity of the Fayoum-1X well based on calibration of measured %Ro and Tmax against calculated %Ro model. The calculated Total Organic Carbon (TOC content from well log data compared with the measured TOC from the Rock-Eval pyrolysis in Fayoum-1X well is shown to match against the shale source rock but gives high values against the limestone source rock. For that, a new model is derived from well log data to calculate accurately the TOC content against the limestone source rock in the study area. The organic matter existing in Abu Roash (F member is fair to excellent and capable of generating a significant amount of hydrocarbons (oil prone produced from (mixed type I/II kerogen. The generation potential of kerogen in Abu Roash (E and G members and Betty formations is ranging from poor to fair, and generating hydrocarbons of oil and gas prone (mixed type II/III kerogen. Eventually, kerogen (type III of Kharita Formation has poor to very good generation potential and mainly produces gas. Thermal maturation of the measured %Ro, calculated %Ro model, Tmax and Production index (PI indicates that Abu Roash (F member exciting in the onset of oil generation, whereas Abu Roash (E and G members, Kharita and Betty formations entered the peak of oil generation.

  9. Study of Sedimentary Outcrop of Semanggol Formation with the Correlation of Geology, Geotechnical and Geophysics Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordiana, A. N.; Nordiana, M. M.; Jia, Teoh Ying; Hisham, Hazrul; Sulaiman, Nabila; Maslinda, Umi; Taqiuddin, Z. M.; Nur Amalina, M. K. A.; Afiq Saharudin, Muhamad

    2017-04-01

    The study location was at Bukit Kukus, Kuala Ketil, Kedah, Malaysia where the geological outcrop of this Semanggol Formation comprises of chert, mudstone, and volcanic tuff. The study was conducted using two geophysical methods, which are 2-D Resistivity and Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR). The objectives of the study are to correlate both of the geophysical methods through the value of conductivity and to identify the physical properties of rocks through the value of porosity and permeability. The data acquisition for both methods was conducted on the same line. For 2-D Resistivity method, the length of the line is 60 m with 1.5 m electrode spacing and the array used was Wenner-Schlumberger. For GPR method, the survey line was on top of the resistivity line, and the frequency of the antenna used is 250 MHz. A good correlation exists between both of the GPR signature and contour maps for resistivity from the surfer 10 software with the outcrop feature. Conductivity value from both GPR and Resistivity method was compared and the range value of conductivity obtained from GPR method almost equivalent with Resistivity method based on derivation and calculation for the sedimentary rocks, which are 0.037 to 0.574 miliSiemens per metre (mS/m) for chert and 0.186 to 10.142 miliSiemens per metre (mS/m) for mudstone. Two types of rock samples were taken, and several geotechnical tests were conducted, but only the value of permeability, K and porosity, ɸ of chert can be calculated, which are 1.95E-22 m2 (original condition) and 2.27E-22 m2 (dry condition) and 3 percent respectively as the sample of mudstone was damaged. The parameter of the 2-D resistivity method derived from Archie’s law was used to calculate the porosity, ɸf value using the Formation Factor equation. The range values of porosity, ɸf for chert mostly in the range of 5 to 25 percent, which is 6.26 to 13.36 percent but slightly out of range for mudstone, which is 14.12 to 36.02 percent.

  10. Correlation between near infrared spectroscopy and electrical techniques in measuring skin moisture content

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohamad, M; Sabbri, A R M; Jafri, M Z Mat; Omar, A F

    2014-01-01

    Near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy technique serves as an important tool for the measurement of moisture content of skin owing to the advantages it has over the other techniques. The purpose of the study is to develop a correlation between NIR spectrometer with electrical conventional techniques for skin moisture measurement. A non-invasive measurement of moisture content of skin was performed on different part of human face and hand under control environment (temperature 21 ± 1 °C, relative humidity 45 ± 5 %). Ten healthy volunteers age between 21-25 (male and female) participated in this study. The moisture content of skin was measured using DermaLab ® USB Moisture Module, Scalar Moisture Checker and NIR spectroscopy (NIRQuest). Higher correlation was observed between NIRQuest and Dermalab moisture probe with a coefficient of determination (R 2 ) above 70 % for all the subjects. However, the value of R 2 between NIRQuest and Moisture Checker was observed to be lower with the R 2 values ranges from 51.6 to 94.4 %. The correlation of NIR spectroscopy technique successfully developed for measuring moisture content of the skin. The analysis of this correlation can help to establish novel instruments based on an optical system in clinical used especially in the dermatology field

  11. Multiple-output all-optical header processing technique based on two-pulse correlation principle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Calabretta, N.; Liu, Y.; Waardt, de H.; Hill, M.T.; Khoe, G.D.; Dorren, H.J.S.

    2001-01-01

    A serial all-optical header processing technique based on a two-pulse correlation principle in a semiconductor laser amplifier in a loop mirror (SLALOM) configuration that can have a large number of output ports is presented. The operation is demonstrated experimentally at a 10Gbit/s Manchester

  12. Isotope correlation techniques for verifying input accountability measurements at a reprocessing plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Umezawa, H.; Nakahara, Y.

    1983-01-01

    Isotope correlation techniques were studied to verify input accountability measurements at a reprocessing plant. On the basis of a historical data bank, correlation between plutonium-to-uranium ratio and isotopic variables was derived as a function of burnup. The burnup was determined from the isotopic ratios of uranium and plutonium, too. Data treatment was therefore made in an iterative manner. The isotopic variables were defined to cover a wide spectrum of isotopes of uranium and plutonium. The isotope correlation techniques evaluated important parameters such as the fuel burnup, the most probable ratio of plutonium to uranium, and the amounts of uranium and plutonium in reprocessing batches in connection with fresh fuel fabrication data. In addition, the most probable values of isotope abundance of plutonium and uranium could be estimated from the plutonium-to-uranium ratio determined, being compared with the reported data for verification. A pocket-computer-based system was developed to enable inspectors to collect and evaluate data in a timely fashion at the input accountability measurement point by the isotope correlation techniques. The device is supported by battery power and completely independent of the operator's system. The software of the system was written in BASIC. The data input can be stored in a cassette tape and transferred into a higher level computer. The correlations used for the analysis were given as a form of analytical function. Coefficients for the function were provided relevant to the type of reactor and the initial enrichment of fuel. (author)

  13. Field transients of coherent terahertz synchrotron radiation accessed via time-resolving and correlation techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pohl, A.; Hübers, H.-W. [Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, Institute of Physics, Newtonstraße 15, 12489 Berlin (Germany); Institute of Optical Sensor Systems, German Aerospace Center (DLR), Rutherfordstrasse 29, 12489 Berlin (Germany); Semenov, A. [Institute of Optical Sensor Systems, German Aerospace Center (DLR), Rutherfordstrasse 29, 12489 Berlin (Germany); Hoehl, A.; Ulm, G. [Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB), Abbestraße 2-12, 10587 Berlin (Germany); Ries, M.; Wüstefeld, G. [Helmholz-Zentrum Berlin, Albert-Einstein-Str. 15, 12489 Berlin (Germany); Ilin, K.; Thoma, P.; Siegel, M. [Institute of Micro- and Nanoelectronic Systems, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Hertzstrasse 16, 76187 Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2016-03-21

    Decaying oscillations of the electric field in repetitive pulses of coherent synchrotron radiation in the terahertz frequency range was evaluated by means of time-resolving and correlation techniques. Comparative analysis of real-time voltage transients of the electrical response and interferograms, which were obtained with an ultrafast zero-bias Schottky diode detector and a Martin-Puplett interferometer, delivers close values of the pulse duration. Consistent results were obtained via the correlation technique with a pair of Golay Cell detectors and a pair of resonant polarisation-sensitive superconducting detectors integrated on one chip. The duration of terahertz synchrotron pulses does not closely correlate with the duration of single-cycle electric field expected for the varying size of electron bunches. We largely attribute the difference to the charge density oscillations in electron bunches and to the low-frequency spectral cut-off imposed by both the synchrotron beamline and the coupling optics of our detectors.

  14. Correlation between thermal gradient and flexure-type deformation as a potential trigger for exfoliation-related rock falls (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, B. D.; Stock, G. M.

    2010-12-01

    Stress-induced exfoliation of granitic rocks is an important means by which cliffs deform and subsequently erode. During exfoliation, fractures are formed, and when exposed in cliff faces, are susceptible to subsequent rock falls. This is the case in Yosemite National Park, California, where exfoliation continues to play a primary role in cliff evolution. In Yosemite, numerous mechanisms are inferred to trigger rock falls; nevertheless, many rock falls have no recognized triggers. As a result, several potential, but as yet unquantified, triggering mechanisms have been proposed. One of these, thermally induced flexure, wherein solar radiation and temperature variation drives cumulative deformation of partially detached rock flakes, has the potential to explain several recent rock falls in Yosemite. We explore this potential mechanism by quantifying the deformation, temperature, and solar radiation exposure of a near-vertical rock flake in Yosemite Valley. The flake, 14 m tall, 4 m wide and 12 cm thick, receives direct sunlight during most of the day. Whereas the flake is attached to the cliff face at its bottom and top, the sides are detached from the cliff by a 10 cm wide crack on one side, tapering to a 1 cm wide crack on the opposite side. Instrumentation consists of three custom-designed crackmeters placed between the flake and the adjacent cliff face, three air temperature sensors located behind the flake, and three dual air temperature-light sensors located on the outside surface of the flake. Nearby relative humidity and barometric pressure sensors complete the instrumentation. Five-minute interval data from spring - fall 2010 indicate the flake undergoes maximum deformation at mid-span between attachment points and that it deforms from both diurnal and climatic temperature fluctuations. Recorded maximum deformations, measured perpendicular to crack orientation, are 1 cm diurnally and nearly 1.5 cm (including diurnal effect) over a 5-day period of cooler

  15. Correlation Analysis of the Ultrasonic Emission from Loaded Rock Samples – the Study of Interaction of Microcracking Nucleation Centres

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vilhelm, J.; Rudajev, Vladimír; Lokajíček, Tomáš; Veverka, Ján

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 41, č. 5 (2008), s. 695-714 ISSN 0723-2632 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA205/04/0088; GA ČR GA205/06/0906 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30130516; CEZ:AV0Z30460519 Keywords : rock sample * ultrasonic emission * cracks nucleation * autocorrelation analysis * laboratory loading Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy Impact factor: 0.589, year: 2008

  16. Correlation between occurrence of manganese nodules and rocks in a part of the Central Indian Ocean Basin

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Iyer, S.D.; Sharma, R.

    be corre- lated with the distribution of the nodules. Materials and methods Hand specimens were selected from Preussag free-fall grabs and from locally designed box dredges. Fresh samples of rocks as well as those which form substrates... counterweight) and nodule coverage and abun- dance. Coverage was calculated using the PHDIG digitisation software (Ramprasad and Sharma, 1989) and abundance was established using Handa and Tsurusaki's (1981) method. MANGANESE NODULES IN THE INDIAN OCEAN 129...

  17. Age of Barrier Canyon-style rock art constrained by cross-cutting relations and luminescence dating techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pederson, Joel L.; Chapot, Melissa S.; Simms, Steven R.

    2014-01-01

    Rock art compels interest from both researchers and a broader public, inspiring many hypotheses about its cultural origin and meaning, but it is notoriously difficult to date numerically. Barrier Canyon-style (BCS) pictographs of the Colorado Plateau are among the most debated examples; hypotheses......, the type section of BCS art in Canyon-lands National Park, southeastern Utah. Alluvial chronostratigraphy constrains the burial and exhumation of the alcove containing the panel, and limits are also set by our related research dating both a rockfall that removed some figures and the rock's exposure...... duration before that time. Results provide a maximum possible age, a minimum age, and an exposure time window for the creation of the Great Gallery panel, respectively. The only prior hypothesis not disproven is a late Archaic origin for BCS rock art, although our age result of A. D. similar to 1...

  18. The correlated k-distribution technique as applied to the AVHRR channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kratz, David P.

    1995-01-01

    Correlated k-distributions have been created to account for the molecular absorption found in the spectral ranges of the five Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) satellite channels. The production of the k-distributions was based upon an exponential-sum fitting of transmissions (ESFT) technique which was applied to reference line-by-line absorptance calculations. To account for the overlap of spectral features from different molecular species, the present routines made use of the multiplication transmissivity property which allows for considerable flexibility, especially when altering relative mixing ratios of the various molecular species. To determine the accuracy of the correlated k-distribution technique as compared to the line-by-line procedure, atmospheric flux and heating rate calculations were run for a wide variety of atmospheric conditions. For the atmospheric conditions taken into consideration, the correlated k-distribution technique has yielded results within about 0.5% for both the cases where the satellite spectral response functions were applied and where they were not. The correlated k-distribution's principal advantages is that it can be incorporated directly into multiple scattering routines that consider scattering as well as absorption by clouds and aerosol particles.

  19. Age of Barrier Canyon-style rock art constrained by cross-cutting relations and luminescence dating techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pederson, Joel L; Chapot, Melissa S; Simms, Steven R; Sohbati, Reza; Rittenour, Tammy M; Murray, Andrew S; Cox, Gary

    2014-09-09

    Rock art compels interest from both researchers and a broader public, inspiring many hypotheses about its cultural origin and meaning, but it is notoriously difficult to date numerically. Barrier Canyon-style (BCS) pictographs of the Colorado Plateau are among the most debated examples; hypotheses about its age span the entire Holocene epoch and previous attempts at direct radiocarbon dating have failed. We provide multiple age constraints through the use of cross-cutting relations and new and broadly applicable approaches in optically stimulated luminescence dating at the Great Gallery panel, the type section of BCS art in Canyonlands National Park, southeastern Utah. Alluvial chronostratigraphy constrains the burial and exhumation of the alcove containing the panel, and limits are also set by our related research dating both a rockfall that removed some figures and the rock's exposure duration before that time. Results provide a maximum possible age, a minimum age, and an exposure time window for the creation of the Great Gallery panel, respectively. The only prior hypothesis not disproven is a late Archaic origin for BCS rock art, although our age result of A.D. ∼ 1-1100 coincides better with the transition to and rise of the subsequent Fremont culture. This chronology is for the type locality only, and variability in the age of other sites is likely. Nevertheless, results suggest that BCS rock art represents an artistic tradition that spanned cultures and the transition from foraging to farming in the region.

  20. Influence of various excavation techniques on the structure and physical properties of 'near-field' rock around large boreholes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pusch, R.

    1989-12-01

    The procedure employed in the excavation of canister deposition holes affects the structure and physical properties of the 'near-field' rock. Except for smooth blasting, the generated damage appears to be less important than the increase in 'axial' hydraulic conductivity that is caused by stress release effects, but both combine to yield significant local flow passages. This is particularly obvious where the rock structure yield steep wedges, which is frequently occurring in granite. Percussion drilling is concluded to cause rich fine-fissuring to a distance of up to one centimeter from the borehole wall, and 'discing'. Richer fissuring and some generation of new fractures and growth of preexisting ones are produced within several decimeters from the borehole wall by full-face drilling. Core drilling has the least effect on the rock structure. Smooth blasting produces a particular form of regular fractures which appear to be determinants of the hydraulic conductivity of the near-field rock. Theoretically, its conductivity in the axial direction of blasted big holes or tunnels should be in the range of 10 -8 - 10 -6 m/s, which is in agreement with measurements in the Stripa mine. (orig.)

  1. Two-detector cross-correlation noise technique and its application in measuring reactor kinetic parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Guiping; Peng Feng; Yi Jieyi

    1988-01-01

    The two-detector cross-correlation noise technique is a new method of measuring reactor kinetic parameters developed in the sixties. It has the advantages of non-perturbation in core, high signal to noise ratio, low space dependent effect, and simple and reliable in measurement. A special set of cross-correlation analyzer has been prepared for measuring kinetic parameters of several reactor assemblies, such as the High Flux Engineering Test Reactor, its zero power mock up facility and a low enriched uranium light water lattice zero power facility

  2. Deciphering shallow paleomagnetic inclinations: 1. Implications from correlation of Albian volcanic rocks along the Insular/Intermontane Superterrane boundary in the southern Canadian Cordillera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haskin, M. L.; Enkin, R. J.; Mahoney, J. B.; Mustard, P. S.; Baker, J.

    2003-04-01

    Geologic and paleomagnetic data lead to two contradictory hypotheses regarding the paleoposition of the Insular and Intermontane Superterranes that presently constitute the western Canadian Cordillera. Paleomagnetic data from the Insular and Intermontane superterranes suggest a southerly origin coinciding with the latitude of Mexico and the northwest United States, respectively, during the mid-Cretaceous. Geologic evidence points to a northerly origin for these same tectonic entities during this period; both models cannot be correct. Geologic and paleomagnetic data from the Empire Valley-Churn Creek area in south central British Columbia (51.5°N, 122.5°W) are critical to resolving these contradictory hypotheses. Late Cretaceous rocks correlated to the Insular Superterrane with large paleomagnetic displacements unconformably overlie mid-Cretaceous rocks correlative to the Spences Bridge Group of the Intermontane Superterrane. We provide paleomagnetic evidence of this correlation based on similar magnetic properties, opaque mineral assemblages, demagnetization behavior, fold test results, mean inclinations, clockwise vertical axes rotations, and statistically indistinguishable paleomagnetic poles and displacement estimates. This correlation and the observed geologic relationships in the Empire Valley-Churn Creek area indicate that the Insular and Intermontane Superterranes were linked by the mid-Cretaceous. Sites from the two previous Spences Bridge Group studies are combined with their correlatives in the Empire Valley-Churn Creek area to give 81 sites that yield a paleomagnetic pole of 60.5°N, 304.5°E, dp = 3.7°, dm = 5.5° which corresponds to 1050 ± 450 km of displacement from the south. This new displacement estimate suggests that the Spences Bridge arc formed at the latitude of southern Oregon during the mid-Cretaceous.

  3. Relationships among the slopes of lines derived from various data analysis techniques and the associated correlation coefficient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, S. C.

    1980-01-01

    A technique for fitting a straight line to a collection of data points is given. The relationships between the slopes and correlation coefficients, and between the corresponding standard deviations and correlation coefficient are given.

  4. Quantum correlated imaging is a promising new technique in medical imaging

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nan Zhang; Zhaohua Yang

    2017-01-01

    Cardio-cerebral vascular diseases are common and frequently occurring serious diseases that threaten humans. In recent years, Digital Subtraction Angiography (DSA) has played a vital role in the diagnosis and treatment of cardio-cerebral vascular diseases. However, DSA is not able to visualize intravascular structures in real time, and it is especially difficult to evaluate each layer of the vascular wall and the composition of atherosclerotic plaques with DSA. Quantum correlated imaging is a new technique that can be used to perform real-time online imaging of intravascular flow, vascular wall structure, and atherosclerotic plaque composition. Quantum correlated imaging is a promising new technique that will soon be used in the diagnosis and treatment of cardio-cerebral vascular diseases.

  5. The crystalline basement of Estonia: rock complexes of the Palaeoproterozoic Orosirian and Statherian and Mesoproterozoic Calymmian periods, and regional correlations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirs, Juho

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available New data on the Fennoscandian Shield and the Baltic area suggest a need for reinterpretation of the stratigraphy of Estonian Precambrian rock complexes. The rocks of the Tallinn Zone formed in the framework of the Fennian orogeny at the margin of the Bergslagen microcontinent 1.90–1.88 Ga ago. The precise age of the Alutaguse Zone is not known. It may have formed either during the 1.93–1.91 Ga Lapland–Savo orogeny or as a rifted eastern part of the Tallinn Zone in the Fennian orogeny. The granulites of western and southern Estonia belong to the volcanic arcs inside the 1.84–1.80 Ga Svecobaltic orogenic belt and show peak metamorphic conditions of 1.78 Ga. Small shoshonitic plutons formed 1.83–1.63 Ga, the small granitic plutons of the Wiborg Rapakivi Subprovince 1.67–1.62 Ga, and the Riga pluton 1.59–1.54 Ga ago.

  6. Optical Measurement Techniques for Rocket Engine Testing and Component Applications: Digital Image Correlation and Dynamic Photogrammetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gradl, Paul

    2016-01-01

    NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) has been advancing dynamic optical measurement systems, primarily Digital Image Correlation, for extreme environment rocket engine test applications. The Digital Image Correlation (DIC) technology is used to track local and full field deformations, displacement vectors and local and global strain measurements. This technology has been evaluated at MSFC through lab testing to full scale hotfire engine testing of the J-2X Upper Stage engine at Stennis Space Center. It has been shown to provide reliable measurement data and has replaced many traditional measurement techniques for NASA applications. NASA and AMRDEC have recently signed agreements for NASA to train and transition the technology to applications for missile and helicopter testing. This presentation will provide an overview and progression of the technology, various testing applications at NASA MSFC, overview of Army-NASA test collaborations and application lessons learned about Digital Image Correlation.

  7. How Equalization Techniques Affect the TCP Performance of MC-CDMA Systems in Correlated Fading Channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giacomo Leonardi

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the impact of several equalization techniques for multicarrier code division multiple access systems on the performance at both lower and upper layers (i.e., physical and TCP layers. Classical techniques such as maximal ratio combining, equal gain combining, orthogonality restoring combining, minimum mean square error, as well as a partial equalization (PE are investigated in time- and frequency-correlated fading channels with various numbers of interferers. Their impact on the performance at upper level is then studied. The results are obtained through an integrated simulation platform carefully reproducing all main aspects affecting the quality of service perceived by the final user, allowing an investigation of the real gain produced by signal processing techniques at TCP level.

  8. [Correlation and conversion of plasma cholinesterase activity values using three techniques].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmona-Fonseca, Jaime

    2007-07-01

    To determine mathematical correlations of three quantitative techniques to measure plasma cholinesterase, using reference values already established for two populations in the department of Antioquia, Colombia. In this descriptive, cross-sectional, prospective study, two independent, representative samples of working adults (18 to 65 years old) were examined. In both samples the adults worked for businesses associated with Colombia's Social Security system. Adults in the two samples had not been exposed to cholinesterase-inhibiting pesticides. The samples were from two neighboring regions of the department of Antioquia: one sample (415 adults) was from the Aburrá Valley, and the other (412 adults) was from Oriente Antioqueño (Eastern Antioquia). Plasma cholinesterase (EC 3.1.1.8) was measured using three quantitative methods: Michel, EQM, and Monotest. Linear regression equations were developed to correlate results of these three techniques. Six simple linear regression equations were defined to show the relationship of three measurement techniques for plasma cholinesterase. There was a moderate correlation of the three techniques (r = 0.686 to 0.771), but it increased (r = 0.744 to 0.811) when 12 (1.5%) outliers were eliminated. Associations among the three techniques were highly significant (P EQM (U/mL) = 0.40773 + 1.8757 (Michel [delta pH/h]); Michel (delta pH/h) = 0.25799 + 0.33871 (EQM [U/mL]); Monotest (U/L) = 462.0 + 4 565.0 (Michel [delta pH/h]); Michel (delta pH/h) = 0.42956 + 0.00012125 (Monotest [U/L]); EQM (U/mL) = 0.75333 + 0.00031056 (Monotest [U/L]); and Monotest (U/L) = 262.0 + 2 118.0 (EQM [U/mL]). The proposed mathematical models allow conversion of cholinesterase activity values using the Michel, EQM, and Monotest techniques. These models can be of assistance in Colombia and other countries where a variety of measurement techniques are used, and where it becomes difficult to compare the results of different studies. Having mathematical models

  9. Evaluating agronomic effectiveness of phosphate rocks using nuclear and related techniques: Results from an FAO/IAEA co-ordinated research project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zapata, F.

    2000-01-01

    An FAO/IAEA Co-ordinated Research Project, 'The use of nuclear and related techniques for evaluating the agronomic effectiveness of phosphatic fertilisers, in particular rock phosphates', was in operation during the period 1993-98. The research network comprised twenty-three scientists, of whom seventeen were in developing countries, with six in industrialized nations. Conventional and 32 P-isotope techniques were utilized to assess the bioavailability of P in soils amended with phosphate rock (PR) and water-soluble fertilisers, and to evaluate the agronomic effectiveness of PR products. No single chemical extraction method was found to be suitable for all soils and fertilisers. The Pi strip method showed promising results, but more testing is needed with tropical acid soils. The 32 P-phosphate-exchange kinetics method allowed a complete characterization of P dynamics, and provided basic information for estimating the kinetic pools of soil P. The agronomic effectiveness (AE) of PRs depends on their solubility (reactivity), which is related to the degree of carbonate substitution for phosphate in the apatite structure. Rock phosphates of low reactivity were unsuitable for direct application to annual crops. Research in Venezuela, China, Cuba, Brazil, and Thailand demonstrated that AE can be increased by partial acidulation, or by mixing with organic materials or a water-soluble source. The AE can be enhanced also through inoculation with mycorrhizal fungi and rhizobacteria. The AE, which depends on species, is particularly high in crops such as canola and lupin that exude organic acids from the roots. Agronomic effectiveness of PR is higher on soils with low pH, low available P, low exchangeable Ca, high cation exchange capacity and high organic-matter content. The 32 P-techniques are powerful tools for studying the factors that affect AE. Information from field trials was used to create a database for validating a model for providing recommendations for PR

  10. Evaluating agronomic effectiveness of phosphate rocks using nuclear and related techniques: Results from an FAO/IAEA co-ordinated research project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zapata, F [International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria)

    2000-06-01

    An FAO/IAEA Co-ordinated Research Project, 'The use of nuclear and related techniques for evaluating the agronomic effectiveness of phosphatic fertilisers, in particular rock phosphates', was in operation during the period 1993-98. The research network comprised twenty-three scientists, of whom seventeen were in developing countries, with six in industrialized nations. Conventional and {sup 32}P-isotope techniques were utilized to assess the bioavailability of P in soils amended with phosphate rock (PR) and water-soluble fertilisers, and to evaluate the agronomic effectiveness of PR products. No single chemical extraction method was found to be suitable for all soils and fertilisers. The Pi strip method showed promising results, but more testing is needed with tropical acid soils. The {sup 32}P-phosphate-exchange kinetics method allowed a complete characterization of P dynamics, and provided basic information for estimating the kinetic pools of soil P. The agronomic effectiveness (AE) of PRs depends on their solubility (reactivity), which is related to the degree of carbonate substitution for phosphate in the apatite structure. Rock phosphates of low reactivity were unsuitable for direct application to annual crops. Research in Venezuela, China, Cuba, Brazil, and Thailand demonstrated that AE can be increased by partial acidulation, or by mixing with organic materials or a water-soluble source. The AE can be enhanced also through inoculation with mycorrhizal fungi and rhizobacteria. The AE, which depends on species, is particularly high in crops such as canola and lupin that exude organic acids from the roots. Agronomic effectiveness of PR is higher on soils with low pH, low available P, low exchangeable Ca, high cation exchange capacity and high organic-matter content. The {sup 32}P-techniques are powerful tools for studying the factors that affect AE. Information from field trials was used to create a database for validating a model for providing recommendations

  11. Coordination analysis of players' distribution in football using cross-correlation and vector coding techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moura, Felipe Arruda; van Emmerik, Richard E A; Santana, Juliana Exel; Martins, Luiz Eduardo Barreto; Barros, Ricardo Machado Leite de; Cunha, Sergio Augusto

    2016-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the coordination between teams spread during football matches using cross-correlation and vector coding techniques. Using a video-based tracking system, we obtained the trajectories of 257 players during 10 matches. Team spread was calculated as functions of time. For a general coordination description, we calculated the cross-correlation between the signals. Vector coding was used to identify the coordination patterns between teams during offensive sequences that ended in shots on goal or defensive tackles. Cross-correlation showed that opponent teams have a tendency to present in-phase coordination, with a short time lag. During offensive sequences, vector coding results showed that, although in-phase coordination dominated, other patterns were observed. We verified that during the early stages, offensive sequences ending in shots on goal present greater anti-phase and attacking team phase periods, compared to sequences ending in tackles. Results suggest that the attacking team may seek to present a contrary behaviour of its opponent (or may lead the adversary behaviour) in the beginning of the attacking play, regarding to the distribution strategy, to increase the chances of a shot on goal. The techniques allowed detecting the coordination patterns between teams, providing additional information about football dynamics and players' interaction.

  12. Geochronology and correlation of Tertiary volcanic and intrusive rocks in part of the southern Toquima Range, Nye County, Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shawe, Daniel R.; Snee, Lawrence W.; Byers, Frank M.; du Bray, Edward A.

    2014-01-01

    Extensive volcanic and intrusive igneous activity, partly localized along regional structural zones, characterized the southern Toquima Range, Nevada, in the late Eocene, Oligocene, and Miocene. The general chronology of igneous activity has been defined previously. This major episode of Tertiary magmatism began with emplacement of a variety of intrusive rocks, followed by formation of nine major calderas and associated with voluminous extrusive and additional intrusive activity. Emplacement of volcanic eruptive and collapse megabreccias accompanied formation of some calderas. Penecontemporaneous volcanism in central Nevada resulted in deposition of distally derived outflow facies ash-flow tuff units that are interleaved in the Toquima Range with proximally derived ash-flow tuffs. Eruption of the Northumberland Tuff in the north part of the southern Toquima Range and collapse of the Northumberland caldera occurred about 32.3 million years ago. The poorly defined Corcoran Canyon caldera farther to the southeast formed following eruption of the tuff of Corcoran Canyon about 27.2 million years ago. The Big Ten Peak caldera in the south part of the southern Toquima Range Tertiary volcanic complex formed about 27 million years ago during eruption of the tuff of Big Ten Peak and associated air-fall tuffs. The inferred Ryecroft Canyon caldera formed in the south end of the Monitor Valley adjacent to the southern Toquima Range and just north of the Big Ten Peak caldera in response to eruption of the tuff of Ryecroft Canyon about 27 million years ago, and the Moores Creek caldera just south of the Northumberland caldera developed at about the same time. Eruption of the tuff of Mount Jefferson about 26.8 million years ago was accompanied by collapse of the Mount Jefferson caldera in the central part of the southern Toquima Range. An inferred caldera, mostly buried beneath alluvium of Big Smoky Valley southwest of the Mount Jefferson caldera, formed about 26.5 million years

  13. Research on isotope geology. Assessment of heat production potential of granitic rocks and development of geothermal exploration techniques using radioactive/stable isotopes and fission track 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Seong Cheon; Chi, Se Jung [Korea Inst. of Geology Mining and Materials, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-12-01

    Radioelements and heat production rates of granitic rocks and stable isotopes of groundwaters were analyzed to investigate the geothermal potential of Wolchulsan granite complex in the southern Yeongam area. Wolchulsan granite complex is composed mainly by Cretaceous pink alkali-feldspar granite and partly Jurassic biotite granite. The main target for the geothermal exploration is the alkali-feldspar granite that is known in general to be favorable geothermal reservoir(e.g., Shap granite in UK). To develop exploration techniques for geothermal anomalies, all geochemical data were compared to those from the Jeonju granite complex. Heat production rates(HPR) of the alkali-feldspar granite is 1.8 - 10.6 {mu}Wm{sup -3}. High radio-thermal anomalies were revealed from the central western and northern parts of the granite body. These are relatively higher than the Caledonian hot dry granites in the UK. The integrated assessment of Wolchulsan granite complex suggests potential of the Cretaceous alkali-feldspar granite as a geothermal targets. Groundwater geochemistry of the Yeongam area reflects simple evaporation process and higher oxidation environment. Stable isotope data of groundwaters are plotted on or close to the Meteoric Water Line(MWL). These isotopic data indicate a significant meteoric water dominance and do not show oxygen isotope fractionation between groundwater and wall rocks. In despite of high HPR values of the Yeongam alkali-feldspar granite, groundwater samples do not show the same geochemical properties as a thermal water in the Jeonju area. This reason can be well explained by the comparison with geological settings of the Jeonju area. The Yeongam alkali-feldspar granite does not possess any adjacent heat source rocks despite its high radio-thermal HPR. While the Jeonju granite batholith has later heat source intrusive and suitable deep fracture system for water circulation with sedimentary cap rocks. (Abstract Truncated)

  14. Correlation between histological outcome and surgical cartilage repair technique in the knee: A meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiBartola, Alex C; Everhart, Joshua S; Magnussen, Robert A; Carey, James L; Brophy, Robert H; Schmitt, Laura C; Flanigan, David C

    2016-06-01

    Compare histological outcomes after microfracture (MF), autologous chondrocyte implantation (ACI), and osteochondral autograft transfer (OATS). Literature review using PubMed MEDLINE, SCOPUS, Cumulative Index for Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), and Cochrane Collaboration Library. Inclusion criteria limited to English language studies International Cartilage Repair Society (ICRS) grading criteria for cartilage analysis after ACI (autologous chondrocyte implantation), MF (microfracture), or OATS (osteochondral autografting) repair techniques. Thirty-three studies investigating 1511 patients were identified. Thirty evaluated ACI or one of its subtypes, six evaluated MF, and seven evaluated OATS. There was no evidence of publication bias (Begg's p=0.48). No statistically significant correlation was found between percent change in clinical outcome and percent biopsies showing ICRS Excellent scores (R(2)=0.05, p=0.38). Percent change in clinical outcome and percent of biopsies showing only hyaline cartilage were significantly associated (R(2)=0.24, p=0.024). Mean lesion size and histological outcome were not correlated based either on percent ICRS Excellent (R(2)=0.03, p=0.50) or percent hyaline cartilage only (R(2)=0.01, p=0.67). Most common lesion location and histological outcome were not correlated based either on percent ICRS Excellent (R(2)=0.03, p=0.50) or percent hyaline cartilage only (R(2)=0.01, p=0.67). Microfracture has poorer histologic outcomes than other cartilage repair techniques. OATS repairs primarily are comprised of hyaline cartilage, followed closely by cell-based techniques, but no significant difference was found cartilage quality using ICRS grading criteria among OATS, ACI-C, MACI, and ACI-P. IV, meta-analysis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Automatic detection and classification of damage zone(s) for incorporating in digital image correlation technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharjee, Sudipta; Deb, Debasis

    2016-07-01

    Digital image correlation (DIC) is a technique developed for monitoring surface deformation/displacement of an object under loading conditions. This method is further refined to make it capable of handling discontinuities on the surface of the sample. A damage zone is referred to a surface area fractured and opened in due course of loading. In this study, an algorithm is presented to automatically detect multiple damage zones in deformed image. The algorithm identifies the pixels located inside these zones and eliminate them from FEM-DIC processes. The proposed algorithm is successfully implemented on several damaged samples to estimate displacement fields of an object under loading conditions. This study shows that displacement fields represent the damage conditions reasonably well as compared to regular FEM-DIC technique without considering the damage zones.

  16. Auto-correlation based intelligent technique for complex waveform presentation and measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rana, K P S; Singh, R; Sayann, K S

    2009-01-01

    Waveform acquisition and presentation forms the heart of many measurement systems. Particularly, data acquisition and presentation of repeating complex signals like sine sweep and frequency-modulated signals introduces the challenge of waveform time period estimation and live waveform presentation. This paper presents an intelligent technique, for waveform period estimation of both the complex and simple waveforms, based on the normalized auto-correlation method. The proposed technique is demonstrated using LabVIEW based intensive simulations on several simple and complex waveforms. Implementation of the technique is successfully demonstrated using LabVIEW based virtual instrumentation. Sine sweep vibration waveforms are successfully presented and measured for electrodynamic shaker system generated vibrations. The proposed method is also suitable for digital storage oscilloscope (DSO) triggering, for complex signals acquisition and presentation. This intelligence can be embodied into the DSO, making it an intelligent measurement system, catering wide varieties of the waveforms. The proposed technique, simulation results, robustness study and implementation results are presented in this paper.

  17. P contribution derived from phosphate solubilizing microorganism activity, rock phosphate and SP-36 determination by isotope "3"2P technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anggi Nico Flatian; Iswandi Anas; Atang Sutandi; Ishak

    2016-01-01

    The "3"2P isotope technique has been used to trace P nutrients in the soil and soil-plant systems. The use of the isotope "3"2P has made it possible to differentiate the P contribution derived from phosphate solubilizing microorganism activity and the fertilizer P in the soil. The aims of the study were to obtain the quantitative data of P contribution derived from phosphate-solubilizing microorganism activity (Aspergillus niger and Burkholderia cepacia), rock phosphate and SP-36 through P uptake by the plants using isotope "3"2P technique and also to study the effects on growth and production of corn plants. The results were showed that phosphate-solubilizing microorganism, rock phosphate and SP-36 was produced specific activity ("3"2P) lower than control. The results were indicated that all treatments could contribute P for the plants. The lower specific activity was caused by supply P from rock phosphate and SP-36, and also was caused by solubilized of unavailable "3"1P from PSM activity, which decreased specific activity on labeled soil. The combination of phosphate-solubilizing microorganism and SP-36 treatments produced the highest P contribution, significantly higher than control and SP-36 only. Phosphate derived from combination of microorganism and SP-36 treatments ranging from 56.06% - 68.54% after 50 days planting, after 35 days planting, 51.96% - 59.65% on stover, 46.33% - 47.70% on grain and 53.02% - 59.87% on corn cob. In addition, the treatments could significantly support the plant growth and yield. It is expressed by increased number of leave at 35 days after planting, dry weight of leave at 35 days after planting and dry weight of grain. (author)

  18. Rock mechanical conditions at the Aespoe HRL. A study of the correlation between geology, tunnel maintenance and tunnel shape

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersson, Christer; Soederhaell, Joergen

    2001-12-01

    Maintenance records including scaling, shotcreting and bolting have been kept since the excavation start of Aespoe HRL 1990 together with records of groundwater flow and all other activities taking place in the tunnels. When the facility was constructed one objective was to limit the rock support as much as possible. The reason for this was that it should be possible to go back and easily study the exposed rock surface. Support during the operational phase has only been carried out where and when necessary. This type of maintenance and its location is documented in the digital database each time. The maintenance records have been compiled and areas requiring more maintenance than average noted. An interview has also been held with one of the miners conducting scaling and bolting in the tunnel. His experiences together with the study of the database maintenance records led to the selection of certain areas in the tunnel to be studied by numerical modelling. The probable reason for the need of additional maintenance in all areas, not only these numerically modelled, has been investigated. Almost all maintenance in the main tunnel both during construction and the operational phase has been located in the widened curves of the access tunnel. The maintenance is also located in areas containing veins or intrusions of Smaaland granite or fine-grained granite. These areas are often located in fracture zones of different sizes or show an increasing fracture frequency. The areas numerically modelled indicate stress concentrations or unloaded stress conditions. The stress concentrations are created by the geometry of the niches and side-tunnels in relation to the in situ stress field. The angle between the tunnel and the major principal stress has an impact on the need for maintenance. The areas with the largest angles towards the principal stress direction need more maintenance than the areas almost parallel to the major principal stress direction. The maintenance work in

  19. Real-time detection of dielectric anisotropy or isotropy in unconventional oil-gas reservoir rocks supported by the oblique-incidence reflectivity difference technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, Honglei; Wang, Jin; Zhao, Kun; Lű, Huibin; Jin, Kuijuan; He, Liping; Yang, Guozhen; Xiao, Lizhi

    2016-12-15

    Current geological extraction theory and techniques are very limited to adequately characterize the unconventional oil-gas reservoirs because of the considerable complexity of the geological structures. Optical measurement has the advantages of non-interference with the earth magnetic fields, and is often useful in detecting various physical properties. One key parameter that can be detected using optical methods is the dielectric permittivity, which reflects the mineral and organic properties. Here we reported an oblique-incidence reflectivity difference (OIRD) technique that is sensitive to the dielectric and surface properties and can be applied to characterization of reservoir rocks, such as shale and sandstone core samples extracted from subsurface. The layered distribution of the dielectric properties in shales and the uniform distribution in sandstones are clearly identified using the OIRD signals. In shales, the micro-cracks and particle orientation result in directional changes of the dielectric and surface properties, and thus, the isotropy and anisotropy of the rock can be characterized by OIRD. As the dielectric and surface properties are closely related to the hydrocarbon-bearing features in oil-gas reservoirs, we believe that the precise measurement carried with OIRD can help in improving the recovery efficiency in well-drilling process.

  20. Three-dimensional shape analysis of coarse aggregates: New techniques for and preliminary results on several different coarse aggregates and reference rocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erdogan, S.T.; Quiroga, P.N.; Fowler, D.W.; Saleh, H.A.; Livingston, R.A.; Garboczi, E.J.; Ketcham, P.M.; Hagedorn, J.G.; Satterfield, S.G.

    2006-01-01

    The shape of aggregates used in concrete is an important parameter that helps determine many concrete properties, especially the rheology of fresh concrete and early-age mechanical properties. This paper discusses the sample preparation and image analysis techniques necessary for obtaining an aggregate particle image in 3-D, using X-ray computed tomography, which is then suitable for spherical harmonic analysis. The shapes of three reference rocks are analyzed for uncertainty determination via direct comparison to the geometry of their reconstructed images. A Virtual Reality Modeling Language technique is demonstrated that can give quick and accurate 3-D views of aggregates. Shape data on several different kinds of coarse aggregates are compared and used to illustrate potential mathematical shape analyses made possible by the spherical harmonic information

  1. Spectroscopic techniques for assessing the possible use of phosphate rock by-products for the removal of trace elements in soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Sanchez, M. J.; Perez-Sirvent, C.; Garcia-Lorenzo, M. L.; Bech, J.; Hernandez-Cordoba, M.

    2012-04-01

    The production of fertilizers from apatite results in the obtention of considerable amounts of phosphate rock byproducts, representing a serious environmental problem. In addition, soil contamination with heavy metals due to mining or metallurgical activities is a severe environmental problem, increased when soil use is changed to agricultural or urban uses. The aim of this work was to study the possibility of using phosphate rock byproducts for the in situ treatment of soils polluted by heavy metals, allowing to revalorise phosphate rock residues and at the same time, providing a low-cost solution for the contaminated soil. The following methodologies were applied in order to characterise minerals phases present in phosphate rock residues: Wavelength Dispersive X-Ray Spectrometry (WDXRF), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Energy Dispersive X-Ray Spectrometry (EDS), thermogravimetry (TG) and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR). The results obtained showed that the samples studied had a fine texture, showing average contents of 71%, 24% of sand and 5% for silt, sand and clay, respectivaly. In addition, these materials showed basic-neutral pH values (7.5-9) and a cationic interchange capacity of 20.4 meq/100g. Studied samples showed a 22% of carbonates and a 13% of apatite in their composition and all of them showed 4 bands at 1.100, 1.044, 674 y 576 cm-1, corresponding to P-O vibrations in PO4 groups. OH band vibrations appeared at 3.700-3.550 cm-1, and detected band at 3.400 cm-1 and 633 cm-1 could correspond to occluded water. On the other hand, detected bands at 1.460-1.430, 874 cm-1 suggested the presence of CaCO3 and carbonates in the apatite. After sample characterization, the performance of these residues to adsorb trace element ions (Cd+2 and Pb+2) from acidic aqueous solutions (simulating acidic mine drainage) was studied. The use of spectroscopic techniques after mixing soils and phosphate rock products demonstrate that these residues could be

  2. The performance of various palaeointensity techniques as a function of rock magnetic behaviour - A case study for La Palma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monster, Marilyn W. L.; de Groot, Lennart V.; Biggin, Andrew J.; Dekkers, Mark J.

    2015-05-01

    Three different palaeointensity methods were applied to six historical and three carbon-dated flows from the island of La Palma (Spain); in total fifteen sites were processed. The two 20th-century flows were sampled at multiple locations as their obtained directions and intensities can be compared directly to those from the International Geomagnetic Reference Field (IGRF). After determination of the declinations and inclinations of the natural remanent magnetisation (NRM) by thermal and alternating-field demagnetisation, the samples were subjected to standard rock magnetic analyses to determine their Curie and alteration temperatures. Based on these characteristics, the sites were allocated to one of four rock magnetic groups labelled L∗, L, C, and H, a division primarily based on the temperature-dependent behaviour of the low-field susceptibility that has been used in studies of other volcanic edifices. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) observations revealed little oxidation and exsolution (oxidation classes I to III). Palaeointensities were determined using the classic Thellier-Thellier method (Aitken and IZZI protocols), the microwave method and the domain-state-corrected multispecimen method. Thellier-Thellier and microwave results were analysed using the ThellierTool A and B sets of selection criteria as modified by Paterson et al. (2014). Their combined success rate was around 40%. Of the eight IGRF sites, two yielded average intensities within 10% of the IGRF value. For the microwave method, three sites reproduced the IGRF intensity within 10%. In the domain-state-corrected multispecimen protocol, just one site (site 9, 1971) passed the 'ARM-test' (applied in retrospect) and showed less than 3% progressive alteration. Its multispecimen result reproduced the palaeofield within error. The other IGRF sites over- or underestimated the palaeofield by up to 50%. The seven older sites produced plausible palaeointensities, generally within a few μT of model data

  3. Lithographically fabricated silicon microreactor for in situ characterization of heterogeneous catalysts—Enabling correlative characterization techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baier, S.; Rochet, A.; Hofmann, G. [Institute for Chemical Technology and Polymer Chemistry, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, D-76131 Karlsruhe (Germany); Kraut, M. [Institute for Micro Process Engineering, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, D-76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Grunwaldt, J.-D., E-mail: grunwaldt@kit.edu [Institute for Chemical Technology and Polymer Chemistry, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, D-76131 Karlsruhe (Germany); Institute of Catalysis Research and Technology, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, D-76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany)

    2015-06-15

    We report on a new modular setup on a silicon-based microreactor designed for correlative spectroscopic, scattering, and analytic on-line gas investigations for in situ studies of heterogeneous catalysts. The silicon microreactor allows a combination of synchrotron radiation based techniques (e.g., X-ray diffraction and X-ray absorption spectroscopy) as well as infrared thermography and Raman spectroscopy. Catalytic performance can be determined simultaneously by on-line product analysis using mass spectrometry. We present the design of the reactor, the experimental setup, and as a first example for an in situ study, the catalytic partial oxidation of methane showing the applicability of this reactor for in situ studies.

  4. Digital Image Correlation Techniques Applied to Large Scale Rocket Engine Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gradl, Paul R.

    2016-01-01

    Rocket engine hot-fire ground testing is necessary to understand component performance, reliability and engine system interactions during development. The J-2X upper stage engine completed a series of developmental hot-fire tests that derived performance of the engine and components, validated analytical models and provided the necessary data to identify where design changes, process improvements and technology development were needed. The J-2X development engines were heavily instrumented to provide the data necessary to support these activities which enabled the team to investigate any anomalies experienced during the test program. This paper describes the development of an optical digital image correlation technique to augment the data provided by traditional strain gauges which are prone to debonding at elevated temperatures and limited to localized measurements. The feasibility of this optical measurement system was demonstrated during full scale hot-fire testing of J-2X, during which a digital image correlation system, incorporating a pair of high speed cameras to measure three-dimensional, real-time displacements and strains was installed and operated under the extreme environments present on the test stand. The camera and facility setup, pre-test calibrations, data collection, hot-fire test data collection and post-test analysis and results are presented in this paper.

  5. On the Decay Ratio Determination in BWR Stability Analysis by Auto-Correlation Function Techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Behringer, K.; Hennig, D.

    2002-11-01

    A novel auto-correlation function (ACF) method has been investigated for determining the oscillation frequency and the decay ratio in BWR stability analyses. The neutron signals are band-pass filtered to separate the oscillation peak in the power spectral density (PSD) from background. Two linear second-order oscillation models are considered. These models, corrected for signal filtering and including a background term under the peak in the PSD, are then least-squares fitted to the ACF of the previously filtered neutron signal, in order to determine the oscillation frequency and the decay ratio. Our method uses fast Fourier transform techniques with signal segmentation for filtering and ACF estimation. Gliding 'short-term' ACF estimates on a record allow the evaluation of uncertainties. Numerical results are given which have been obtained from neutron data of the recent Forsmark I and Forsmark II NEA benchmark project. Our results are compared with those obtained by other participants in the benchmark project. The present PSI report is an extended version of the publication K. Behringer, D. Hennig 'A novel auto-correlation function method for the determination of the decay ratio in BWR stability studies' (Behringer, Hennig, 2002)

  6. Identification of multiple detrital sources for Otway Supergroup sedimentary rocks: implications for basin models and chronostratigraphic correlations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitchell, M.M.

    1997-01-01

    Correlation of apatite chlorine content (wt%) with apatite fission track age (Ma) from Lower Cretaceous Otway Supergroup sediments at present-day low temperatures, allows identification of two characteristic detrital source regions. Apatites from eroded Palaeozoic basement terrains yield low Cl content (generally 0.5 wt%) and syndepositional fission track ages. Where post-depositional thermal annealing ( > 70 degree C) has significantly reduced the fission track age, provenance information is preserved in the apatite Cl composition alone. In the Otway Supergroup, evidence for contemporaneous volcanism was found in both the Eumeralla Formation (Albian-Aptian), and Crayfish Group (Aptian-Berriasian) in samples located towards the central rift, where less sandy facies dominate. Results suggest that Crayfish Group sediments deposited along the northern margin of the basin were predominantly derived from eroding basement material, while the section located towards the central rift contains a greater proportion of volcanogenic detritus. Evidence from this study suggests that volcanogenic detritus was a distal sediment source throughout the entire early rift phase, prior to the main influx of arc-related volcanogenic material during deposition of the Eumeralla Formation. As diagenesis of volcanogenic sediments significantly reduces porosity and permeability of the sandstones, reservoir quality and petroleum potential may be significantly reduced in the Crayfish Group in deeper parts of the basin where a greater proportion of volcanogenic detritus is suggested. The results presented here provide important information regarding Lower Cretaceous Otway Basin stratigraphy and clearly indicate that this methodology may have wider application. (authors)

  7. Automation of a McBain-Bakr-type thermogravimetric analyzer using a digital image correlation technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trexler, M.D.; Sanders, T.H. Jr.; Singh, P.M.

    2006-01-01

    Thermogravimetric analysis was used to obtain corrosion kinetics data for several materials in high-temperature environments. A thermogravimetric analyzer has been developed that uses a McBain-Bakr quartz spring balance in conjunction with a digital image acquisition and analysis package to accurately characterize materials through image correlation. This provides a new method for automatically measuring mass changes continuously with a variable resolution depending on the spring component. The decomposition of calcium oxalate was used to verify the validity of the technique. The results show two reactions, whose reaction temperatures were determined by the intercept method, upon heating to 650 deg. C. The mass loss at the first reaction temperature, 200 deg. C, was 20% and a 30% loss was observed at 500 deg. C. Comparison of the experimentally obtained results with those of other researchers who used commercial instruments suggests that the method of using digital image analysis in conjunction with a spring to monitor mass change is a viable and accurate replacement for automatic electrobalances and cathetometers for thermal analysis of materials. Additional comparison between corrosion tests performed on SA210 steel in H 2 S using both a commercial thermobalance and the developed technique confirmed that high-temperature corrosion can be monitored accurately with the proposed method

  8. Study of leakages at dam sites in fractured rocks with the aid of the borehole dilution technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozbek, E.

    1978-02-01

    The connection between springs which occurred after the impoundment of Keban Lake and the lake was proved by tritium measurements. By additional application of single borehole techniques using radioisotopes as tracers it was possible to localize solution channels in the karstic aquifer as preferential paths for the water movement

  9. Rock Art

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henn, Cynthia A.

    2004-01-01

    There are many interpretations for the symbols that are seen in rock art, but no decoding key has ever been discovered. This article describes one classroom's experiences with a lesson on rock art--making their rock art and developing their own personal symbols. This lesson allowed for creativity, while giving an opportunity for integration…

  10. Correlations between forced oscillation technique parameters and pulmonary densitovolumetry values in patients with acromegaly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.B. Camilo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this study were to evaluate the forced oscillation technique (FOT and pulmonary densitovolumetry in acromegalic patients and to examine the correlations between these findings. In this cross-sectional study, 29 non-smoking acromegalic patients and 17 paired controls were subjected to the FOT and quantification of lung volume using multidetector computed tomography (Q-MDCT. Compared with the controls, the acromegalic patients had a higher value for resonance frequency [15.3 (10.9-19.7 vs 11.4 (9.05-17.6 Hz, P=0.023] and a lower value for mean reactance [0.32 (0.21-0.64 vs 0.49 (0.34-0.96 cm H2O/L/s2, P=0.005]. In inspiratory Q-MDCT, the acromegalic patients had higher percentages of total lung volume (TLV for nonaerated and poorly aerated areas [0.42% (0.30-0.51% vs 0.25% (0.20-0.32%, P=0.039 and 3.25% (2.48-3.46% vs 1.70% (1.45-2.15%, P=0.001, respectively]. Furthermore, the acromegalic patients had higher values for total lung mass in both inspiratory and expiratory Q-MDCT [821 (635-923 vs 696 (599-769 g, P=0.021 and 844 (650-945 vs 637 (536-736 g, P=0.009, respectively]. In inspiratory Q-MDCT, TLV showed significant correlations with all FOT parameters. The TLV of hyperaerated areas showed significant correlations with intercept resistance (rs=−0.602, P<0.001 and mean resistance (rs=−0.580, P<0.001. These data showed that acromegalic patients have increased amounts of lung tissue as well as nonaerated and poorly aerated areas. Functionally, there was a loss of homogeneity of the respiratory system. Moreover, there were correlations between the structural and functional findings of the respiratory system, consistent with the pathophysiology of the disease.

  11. Rock engineering in Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1986-01-01

    Contains a large collection of short articles concerned with tunnels and underground caverns and their construction and use. The articles are grouped under the following headings: use of the subsurface space; water supply; waste water services; energy management (includes articles on power stations, district heating and oil storage and an article on coal storage); multipurpose tunnels; waste disposal; transport; shelters; sporting and recreational amenities located in rock caverns; storage facilities; industrial, laboratory, and service facilities; rock foundations; tourism and culture; utilization of rock masses; research on the disposal of nuclear waste; training and research in the field of rock engineering; site investigation techniques; design of structures in rock; construction; the environment and occupational safety; modern equipment technology; underground space in Helsinki.

  12. Design and development of correlation techniques to maintain a space surveillance system catalogue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olmedo, E.; Sánchez Ortiz, Noelia; Lerate, Mercedes; Belló-Mora, Miguel; Klinkrad, H.

    2009-10-01

    A growing interest exists in a future, autonomous European Space Surveillance System (ESSS). Currently, most of the knowledge about Earth-orbiting space objects is based on information provided by the USASPACECOM. This paper presents the required initial orbit determination (IOD) and correlation techniques to process optical measurements. Former studies were focused on the handling of radar measurements, which are summarised with the aim of describing a global procedure for processing hybrid measurement types (combination of radar and optic data for catalogue maintenance). The introduction of manoeuvres are presented due to their importance in the space object catalogue maintenance. The detection of uncatalogued objects and the successful correlation of already catalogued objects involve two different tasks for telescopes: survey and tasking. Assumptions for both strategies are developed on the basis of the previous work developed at the University of Berne (see [T. Flohrer, T. Schildknecht, R. Musci, E. Stöveken, Performance estimation for GEO space surveillance, Advances in Space Research 35 (2005). [1]; T. Flohrer, T. Schildknecht, R. Musci, Proposed strategies for optical observations in a future European Space Surveillance Network, presented in the 36th COSPAR Scientific Assembly (2006). [2]; R. Musci, T. Schildknecht, M. Ploner, Orbit improvement for GEO objects using follow-up observations, Advances in Space Research 34 (2004). [3]; R. Musci, T. Schildknecht, M. Ploner, G. Beutler, Orbit improvement for GTO objects using follow-up observations, Advances in Space Research 35 (2005). [4]; R. Musci, T. Schildknecht, T. Flohrer, G. Beutler, Concept for a catalogue of space debris in GEO, Proceedings of the Fourth European Conference on Space Debris, (ESA SP-587, 2005). [5

  13. Nuclear spectroscopic study of the 117In and 77Se using angular correlation technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zamboni, C.B.

    1981-01-01

    The integral pertubed angular correlation technique has been used to measure the g-factor of the 587 KeV(3/2 - ) state in 117 In. The measurements were made in an external magnetic field of 26 Kg. The 1303-273 KeV gamma cascade in 117 In populated from the beta decay of 117 Cd was utilized for the measurement. The result is g(587 KeV) = -0.233+-0.057. The present result shows the 587 KeV state may not be a simple P 3/2 proton hole state but rather a complex admixture of different configurations. The g-factor of the 249 KeV state in 77 Se has also been measured by the time differential pertubed angular correlation (TDPAC) method in an external magnetic field of 25 Kg. The 755-249 KeV gamma cascade in 77 Se populated from the electron capture decay of 57h 77 Br utilized for the measurement. The g-factor is determined to be g(249 KeV) = 0.486 +- 0.009. In addition the half life of the 249 KeV state in 77 Se has also been measured by the delayed gamma-gamma coincidence method utilizing the gamma cascades 572-249 KeV and 750-249 KeV in 77 Se. The resulting value of the half life is T 1/2 (249 KeV) = (9.56 +- 0.10)ns. The experimental results are discussed in terms of nuclear models applicable for nuclei in this mass region. (author) [pt

  14. Rock index properties for geoengineering in the Paradox Basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Rourke, J.E.; Rey, P.H.; Alviti, E.; Capps, C.C.

    1986-02-01

    Previous researchers have investigated the use of a number of rapid index tests that can be used on core samples, or in situ, to determine rock properties needed for geoengineering design, or to predict construction performance in these rock types. Selected research is reviewed, and the correlations of index tests with laboratory tests of rock properties found by the earlier investigators are discussed. The selection and testing of rock core samples from the Gibson Dome No. 1 borehole in Paradox Basin are described. The samples consist primarily of non-salt rock above salt cycle 6, but include some samples of anhydrite and salt cycle 6. The index tests included the point load test, Schmidt hammer rebound test, and abrasion hardness test. Statistical methods were used to analyze the correlations of index test data with laboratory test data of rock properties for the same core. Complete statistical results and computer-generated graphics are presented; these results are discussed in relation to the work of earlier investigations for index testing of similar rock types. Generally, fair to good correlations were obtained for predicting unconfined compressive strength and Young's modulus for sandstone and siltstone, while poorer correlations were found for limestone. This may be due to the large variability of limestone properties compared to the small number of samples. Overall, the use of index tests to assess rock properties at Paradox Basin appears to be practial for some conceptual and preliminary design needs, and the technique should prove useful at any salt repository site. However, it is likely that specific correlations should be demonstrated separately for each site, and the data base for establishing the correlations should probably include at least several hundred data points for each type

  15. A novel acoustic method for gas flow measurement using correlation techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knuuttila, M. [VTT Chemical Technology, Espoo (Finland). Industrial Physics

    1997-12-31

    The study demonstrates a new kind of acoustic method for gas flow measurement. The method uses upstream and downstream propagating low frequency plane wave and correlation techniques for volume flow rate determination. The theory of propagating low frequency plane waves in the pipe is introduced and is proved empirically to be applicable for flow measurement. The flow profile dependence of the method is verified and found to be negligible at least in the region of moderate perturbations. The physical principles of the method were applied in practice in the form of a flowmeter with new design concepts. The developed prototype meters were verified against the reference standard of NMI (Nederlands Meetinstituut), which showed that a wide dynamic range of 1:80 is achievable with total expanded uncertainty below 0.3 %. Also the requirements used for turbine meters of linearity, weighted mean error and stability were shown to be well fulfilled. A brief comparison with other flowmeter types shows the new flowmeter to be competitive. The advantages it offers are a small pressure drop over the meter, no blockage of flow in possible malfunction, no pulsation to flow, essentially no moving parts, and the possibility for bidirectional measurements. The introduced flowmeter is also capable of using the telephone network or a radio-modem to read the consumption of gas and report its operation to the user. (orig.) 51 refs.

  16. Thermal behaviour of hafnium diethylenetriaminepentaacetate studied using the perturbed angular correlation technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chain, Cecilia Y. [Universidad Nacional de La Plata (Argentina). Dept. de Fisica; Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnicas (CONICET), La Plata (Argentina). IFLP-CCT; Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnicas, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Rivas, Patricia [Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnicas (CONICET), La Plata (Argentina). IFLP-CCT; Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnicas, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Universidad Nacional de La Plata (Argentina). Facultad de Ciencias Agrarias y Forestales; Pasquevich, Alberto F. [Universidad Nacional de La Plata (Argentina). Dept. de Fisica; Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnicas (CONICET), La Plata (Argentina). IFLP-CCT; Comision de Investigaciones Cientificas de la Provincia de Buenos Aires (CIC-PBA) (Argentina)

    2014-07-01

    Polyaminecarboxilic ligands like diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid form stable complexes with many heavy metal ions, excelling as cation chelants especially in the field of radiopharmacy. The aim of this work is to characterize, by using the Time Differential Perturbed Angular Correlations (TDPAC) technique, the hyperfine interactions at hafnium sites in hafnium diethylenetriaminepentaacetate and to investigate their evolution as temperature increases. TDPAC results for KHfDTPA.3H{sub 2}O obtained by chemical synthesis yield a well defined and highly asymmetric interaction of quadrupole frequency ω{sub Q} = 141 Mrad/s, which is consistent with the existence of a unique site for the metal in the crystal lattice. The thermal behaviour of the chelate is investigated by means of differential scanning calorimetry and thermogravimetrical analyses revealing that an endothermic dehydration of KHfDTPA.3H{sub 2}O takes place in one step between 80 C and 180 C. The anhydrous KHfDTPA thus arising is characterized by a fully asymmetric and well defined interaction of quadrupole frequency ω{sub Q} = 168 Mrad/s. (orig.)

  17. Passive and active correlation techniques for the detection of nuclear materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deyglun, Clement; Carasco, Cedric; Perot, Bertrand; Eleon, Cyrille; Sannie, Guillaume; Boudergui, Karim; Corre, Gwenole; Konzdrasovs, Vladimir; Pras, Philippe

    2013-06-01

    In the frame of the French trans-governmental R and D program against CBRN-E threats, CEA (French Alternative Energies and Atomic Energy Commission) is studying the detection of Special Nuclear Materials (SNM) by neutron interrogation with the Associated Particle Technique (APT). Coincidences including at least 3 fission neutrons or gamma rays induced by tagged neutrons are used to detect and distinguish SNM from benign materials in which lower multiplicity events of 1 or 2 particles are produced by (n, 2n) or (n, n'γ) reactions. Coincidence are detected by fast plastic scintillators and correlated with tagged neutrons to improve the signal-to-noise ratio. Dedicated data acquisition electronics (DAQ) has been developed with independent FPGA cards associated to each detector, so that the acquisition window can be opened by any of the plastic scintillators. DAQ tests in passive mode are presented, in which acquisition is triggered by the sum signal of all detectors. The system time and energy calibration and resolution are reported, as well as the qualification of numerical simulations thanks to experimental data acquired with simple setups using a 252 Cf source. Numerical studies for the design and performance of cargo container inspection are also performed with the MCNP-PoliMi computer code and the ROOT data analysis package. SNM detection in iron cargo is quite straightforward but in organic matrix, data processing will need to combine more information to evidence SNM. (authors)

  18. Thermal behaviour of hafnium diethylenetriaminepentaacetate studied using the perturbed angular correlation technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chain, Cecilia Y.; Rivas, Patricia

    2014-01-01

    Polyaminecarboxilic ligands like diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid form stable complexes with many heavy metal ions, excelling as cation chelants especially in the field of radiopharmacy. The aim of this work is to characterize, by using the Time Differential Perturbed Angular Correlations (TDPAC) technique, the hyperfine interactions at hafnium sites in hafnium diethylenetriaminepentaacetate and to investigate their evolution as temperature increases. TDPAC results for KHfDTPA.3H 2 O obtained by chemical synthesis yield a well defined and highly asymmetric interaction of quadrupole frequency ω Q = 141 Mrad/s, which is consistent with the existence of a unique site for the metal in the crystal lattice. The thermal behaviour of the chelate is investigated by means of differential scanning calorimetry and thermogravimetrical analyses revealing that an endothermic dehydration of KHfDTPA.3H 2 O takes place in one step between 80 C and 180 C. The anhydrous KHfDTPA thus arising is characterized by a fully asymmetric and well defined interaction of quadrupole frequency ω Q = 168 Mrad/s. (orig.)

  19. 'Escher' Rock

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Chemical Changes in 'Endurance' Rocks [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Figure 1 This false-color image taken by NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity shows a rock dubbed 'Escher' on the southwestern slopes of 'Endurance Crater.' Scientists believe the rock's fractures, which divide the surface into polygons, may have been formed by one of several processes. They may have been caused by the impact that created Endurance Crater, or they might have arisen when water leftover from the rock's formation dried up. A third possibility is that much later, after the rock was formed, and after the crater was created, the rock became wet once again, then dried up and developed cracks. Opportunity has spent the last 14 sols investigating Escher, specifically the target dubbed 'Kirchner,' and other similar rocks with its scientific instruments. This image was taken on sol 208 (Aug. 24, 2004) by the rover's panoramic camera, using the 750-, 530- and 430-nanometer filters. The graph above shows that rocks located deeper into 'Endurance Crater' are chemically altered to a greater degree than rocks located higher up. This chemical alteration is believed to result from exposure to water. Specifically, the graph compares ratios of chemicals between the deep rock dubbed 'Escher,' and the more shallow rock called 'Virginia,' before (red and blue lines) and after (green line) the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity drilled into the rocks. As the red and blue lines indicate, Escher's levels of chlorine relative to Virginia's went up, and sulfur down, before the rover dug a hole into the rocks. This implies that the surface of Escher has been chemically altered to a greater extent than the surface of Virginia. Scientists are still investigating the role water played in influencing this trend. These data were taken by the rover's alpha particle X-ray spectrometer.

  20. Elastic and nonlinear behaviour of argillaceous rocks under combined moisture and mechanical loads investigated by means of multiscale full-field strain measurement techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, D.S.; Nguyen Minh, D.; Chanchole, S.; Gharbi, H.; Valli, P.; Bornert, M.

    2010-01-01

    Document available in extended abstract form only. The construction of underground nuclear waste repositories will strongly disturb the initial thermo-hydro-chemo-mechanical equilibrium of the site. In addition to direct mechanical perturbations during excavation, which induce redistribution of the stresses and possible damage of the surrounding rock mass, the ventilation of the galleries will also modify the moisture content of the rock, resulting in shrinking or swelling, and more generally modifying the physical-chemical properties of the material. Safety concerns about preservation of confining properties of rock mass at short and long time scales require a deep understanding of the hydro-mechanical behavior of the host rock. In particular the dependence of elastic, possibly anisotropic, moduli and nonlinear properties (plasticity, damage, creep...) as a function of the moisture level, need to be quantified. In addition, in order to construct physically based micromechanical models of these dependencies, the various micro-mechanisms at their origin and their characteristic scales need to be identified. Various independent studies agree on the decrease of overall rigidity and failure stress of argillite with increasing humidity. A recent study making use of optical full-field strain measurement techniques on centi-metric samples under uniaxial compression suggests that this apparent decrease of elastic properties on wet samples can be essentially explained by the presence of a millimetric network of 'meso-cracks', induced by the preliminary unconfined hydration process. Indeed, thanks to the full-field measurement technique, it was possible to show that the mechanical response of undamaged areas, in-between cracks, was very similar at all moisture contents, both in terms of average strains and strain fluctuations at the micrometric scale of the composite structure of the rock (matrix clay + other mineral inclusions). The preliminary hydro

  1. Correlation analysis of energy indicators for sustainable development using multivariate statistical techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carneiro, Alvaro Luiz Guimaraes; Santos, Francisco Carlos Barbosa dos

    2007-01-01

    Energy is an essential input for social development and economic growth. The production and use of energy cause environmental degradation at all levels, being local, regional and global such as, combustion of fossil fuels causing air pollution; hydropower often causes environmental damage due to the submergence of large areas of land; and global climate change associated with the increasing concentration of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. As mentioned in chapter 9 of Agenda 21, the Energy is essential to economic and social development and improved quality of life. Much of the world's energy, however, is currently produced and consumed in ways that could not be sustained if technologies were remain constant and if overall quantities were to increase substantially. All energy sources will need to be used in ways that respect the atmosphere, human health, and the environment as a whole. The energy in the context of sustainable development needs a set of quantifiable parameters, called indicators, to measure and monitor important changes and significant progress towards the achievement of the objectives of sustainable development policies. The indicators are divided into four dimensions: social, economic, environmental and institutional. This paper shows a methodology of analysis using Multivariate Statistical Technique that provide the ability to analyse complex sets of data. The main goal of this study is to explore the correlation analysis among the indicators. The data used on this research work, is an excerpt of IBGE (Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatistica) data census. The core indicators used in this study follows The IAEA (International Atomic Energy Agency) framework: Energy Indicators for Sustainable Development. (author)

  2. Recreating Rocks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Posth, Nicole R

    2008-01-01

    Nicole Posth and colleagues spent a month touring South African rock formations in their quest to understand the origin of ancient iron and silicate layers.......Nicole Posth and colleagues spent a month touring South African rock formations in their quest to understand the origin of ancient iron and silicate layers....

  3. Atmospheric Transmission Measurements Using IR Lasers, Fourier Transform Spectroscopy, and Gas-Filter Correlation Techniques

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dowling, J

    1977-01-01

    ... and a gas filter correlation spectrometer. Results obtained from three concurrent experiments used to generate a data base appropriate to high resolution transmission model validation are displayed...

  4. Fast patient-specific Monte Carlo brachytherapy dose calculations via the correlated sampling variance reduction technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sampson, Andrew; Le Yi; Williamson, Jeffrey F. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, Virginia 23298 (United States)

    2012-02-15

    Purpose: To demonstrate potential of correlated sampling Monte Carlo (CMC) simulation to improve the calculation efficiency for permanent seed brachytherapy (PSB) implants without loss of accuracy. Methods: CMC was implemented within an in-house MC code family (PTRAN) and used to compute 3D dose distributions for two patient cases: a clinical PSB postimplant prostate CT imaging study and a simulated post lumpectomy breast PSB implant planned on a screening dedicated breast cone-beam CT patient exam. CMC tallies the dose difference, {Delta}D, between highly correlated histories in homogeneous and heterogeneous geometries. The heterogeneous geometry histories were derived from photon collisions sampled in a geometrically identical but purely homogeneous medium geometry, by altering their particle weights to correct for bias. The prostate case consisted of 78 Model-6711 {sup 125}I seeds. The breast case consisted of 87 Model-200 {sup 103}Pd seeds embedded around a simulated lumpectomy cavity. Systematic and random errors in CMC were unfolded using low-uncertainty uncorrelated MC (UMC) as the benchmark. CMC efficiency gains, relative to UMC, were computed for all voxels, and the mean was classified in regions that received minimum doses greater than 20%, 50%, and 90% of D{sub 90}, as well as for various anatomical regions. Results: Systematic errors in CMC relative to UMC were less than 0.6% for 99% of the voxels and 0.04% for 100% of the voxels for the prostate and breast cases, respectively. For a 1 x 1 x 1 mm{sup 3} dose grid, efficiency gains were realized in all structures with 38.1- and 59.8-fold average gains within the prostate and breast clinical target volumes (CTVs), respectively. Greater than 99% of the voxels within the prostate and breast CTVs experienced an efficiency gain. Additionally, it was shown that efficiency losses were confined to low dose regions while the largest gains were located where little difference exists between the homogeneous and

  5. Why 1D electrical resistivity techniques can result in inaccurate siting of boreholes in hard rock aquifers and why electrical resistivity tomography must be preferred: the example of Benin, West Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alle, Iboukoun Christian; Descloitres, Marc; Vouillamoz, Jean-Michel; Yalo, Nicaise; Lawson, Fabrice Messan Amen; Adihou, Akonfa Consolas

    2018-03-01

    Hard rock aquifers are of particular importance for supplying people with drinking water in Africa and in the world. Although the common use of one-dimensional (1D) electrical resistivity techniques to locate drilling site, the failure rate of boreholes is usually high. For instance, about 40% of boreholes drilled in hard rock aquifers in Benin are unsuccessful. This study investigates why the current use of 1D techniques (e.g. electrical profiling and electrical sounding) can result in inaccurate siting of boreholes, and checks the interest and the limitations of the use of two-dimensional (2D) Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT). Geophysical numerical modeling and comprehensive 1D and 2D resistivity surveys were carried out in hard rock aquifers in Benin. The experiments carried out at 7 sites located in different hard rock groups confirmed the results of the numerical modeling: the current use of 1D techniques can frequently leads to inaccurate siting, and ERT better reveals hydrogeological targets such as thick weathered zone (e.g. stratiform fractured layer and preferential weathering associated with subvertical fractured zone). Moreover, a cost analysis demonstrates that the use of ERT can save money at the scale of a drilling programme if ERT improves the success rate by only 5% as compared to the success rate obtained with 1D techniques. Finally, this study demonstrates, using the example of Benin, that the use of electrical resistivity profiling and sounding for siting boreholes in weathered hard rocks of western Africa should be discarded and replaced by the use of ERT technique, more efficient.

  6. Novel Techniques for Quantification of Correlation Between Primary Liquid Jet Breakup and Downstream Spray Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-05

    of the combustion products , swirl is important for enhancing mixing, controlling combustion instability and also, promoting disintegration of the...calculated correlations was obtained and normalized with the product of the respective rms of fluctuations of droplets to obtain the final correlation

  7. Field assessment of the relative agronomic effectiveness of phosphate rock materials in a soybean - Maize crop rotation using 32P isotope techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahisarakul, J.; Siripaibool, C.; Claimon, J.; Pakkong, P.

    2002-01-01

    Field experiments were conducted at Phrabudhabart Field Crop Research Station, Lopbur Province during the period 1995-1997 to determine the relative agronomic effectiveness (RAE) in a soybean- maize crop rotation using 32 P isotope techniques. The soil of the experimental site was the Pakchong soil series (Oxic Paleustults). Four PRs were applied at 120 kg P ha -1 , namely Algerian PR (ARPR), North Carolina PR from USA (NCPR), Petchaburi PR from Thailand (PBPR) and Ratchaburi PR from Thailand (RBPR) and TSP was added at three rates (40, 60, 120 kg P ha -1 ). For the first year harvest, soybeans absorbed more P from TSP fertilizer (% FPU) applied at 40 kg P ha -1 than maize, but there was no yield response. Among four PRs, North Carolina phosphate rock (NCPR) gave the highest % Pdff as well as the highest RAE. Maize was planted after soybean to study the residual effect of TSP and PRs. The results were the same as in soybean. In the second year (1996) the grain yield of soybean was higher than in the first year (1995), and there was significant response to P from TSP. The RAE of NCPR was very high. Maize showed the opposite results. In this case Algerian PR (ARPR) had the highest RAE. In 1997, TSP and six PRs (same four used in 1995 and 1996, Morocco PR (MCPR), and Lumphun PR (LPPR)) were applied at 60 kg P ha -1 . Phosphate rocks were applied either alone or in combination with TSP (50:50). Application of TSP resulted in high yields of soybean. In terms of RAE the P sources ranked as follows: LPPR+TSP>ARPR>LPPR> MCPR>NCPR+TSP>NCPR. The residual effect of P on the following maize crop resulted in a high RAE for MCPR and LPPR. It was concluded that TSP should be applied to every crop. The reactivity of PRs in the first and the second year experiments were: ARPR>NCPR>RBPR>PBPR. Morocco PR and LPPR were also reactive PRs in the third experiment. The combination of PR and TSP resulted in better P uptake (%Pdff). (author)

  8. Art Rocks with Rock Art!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bickett, Marianne

    2011-01-01

    This article discusses rock art which was the very first "art." Rock art, such as the images created on the stone surfaces of the caves of Lascaux and Altimira, is the true origin of the canvas, paintbrush, and painting media. For there, within caverns deep in the earth, the first artists mixed animal fat, urine, and saliva with powdered minerals…

  9. Multivariate correlation analysis technique based on euclidean distance map for network traffic characterization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tan, Zhiyuan; Jamdagni, Aruna; He, Xiangjian; Nanda, Priyadarsi; Liu, Ren Ping; Qing, Sihan; Susilo, Willy; Wang, Guilin; Liu, Dongmei

    2011-01-01

    The quality of feature has significant impact on the performance of detection techniques used for Denial-of-Service (DoS) attack. The features that fail to provide accurate characterization for network traffic records make the techniques suffer from low accuracy in detection. Although researches

  10. Rock Physics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fabricius, Ida Lykke

    2017-01-01

    Rock physics is the discipline linking petrophysical properties as derived from borehole data to surface based geophysical exploration data. It can involve interpretation of both elastic wave propagation and electrical conductivity, but in this chapter focus is on elasticity. Rock physics is based...... on continuum mechanics, and the theory of elasticity developed for statics becomes the key to petrophysical interpretation of velocity of elastic waves. In practice, rock physics involves interpretation of well logs including vertical seismic profiling (VSP) and analysis of core samples. The results...

  11. A new correlation based alignment technique for use in electron tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, S.D.; Härting, M.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we present a new correlation based method for the alignment of a single axis tilt series. Rather than performing the pairwise correlation procedure with the central image as the starting point, the method presented here calculates the optimal starting position within the tilt series and proceeds towards both ends. The starting position is determined by maximisation of a viability function, J, which rewards cumulative series correlation and penalises both cumulative series shift and distance from the centre of the image series. - Highlights: • Pairwise correlation based alignment is investigated as a function of seed position. • It is shown that the convention of using the central image as the seed is not optimal. • A function is proposed which improves alignment by finding the optimal seed position. • The method is found to produce alignment with lower residual scores with the phantom data. • Superior alignment is produced vs the standard method with the experimental data

  12. The perturbed angular correlation method - a modern technique in studying solids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Unterricker, S.; Hunger, H.J.

    1979-01-01

    Starting from theoretical fundamentals the differential perturbed angular correlation method has been explained. By using the probe nucleus 111 Cd the magnetic dipole interaction in Fesub(x)Alsub(1-x) alloys and the electric quadrupole interaction in Cd have been measured. The perturbed angular correlation method is a modern nuclear measuring method and can be applied in studying ordering processes, phase transformations and radiation damages in metals, semiconductors and insulators

  13. Dynamic rock tests using split Hopkinson (Kolsky bar system – A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaiwen Xia

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Dynamic properties of rocks are important in a variety of rock mechanics and rock engineering problems. Due to the transient nature of the loading, dynamic tests of rock materials are very different from and much more challenging than their static counterparts. Dynamic tests are usually conducted using the split Hopkinson bar or Kolsky bar systems, which include both split Hopkinson pressure bar (SHPB and split Hopkinson tension bar (SHTB systems. Significant progress has been made on the quantification of various rock dynamic properties, owing to the advances in the experimental techniques of SHPB system. This review aims to fully describe and critically assess the detailed procedures and principles of techniques for dynamic rock tests using split Hopkinson bars. The history and principles of SHPB are outlined, followed by the key loading techniques that are useful for dynamic rock tests with SHPB (i.e. pulse shaping, momentum-trap and multi-axial loading techniques. Various measurement techniques for rock tests in SHPB (i.e. X-ray micro computed tomography (CT, laser gap gauge (LGG, digital image correlation (DIC, Moiré method, caustics method, photoelastic coating method, dynamic infrared thermography are then discussed. As the main objective of the review, various dynamic measurement techniques for rocks using SHPB are described, including dynamic rock strength measurements (i.e. dynamic compression, tension, bending and shear tests, dynamic fracture measurements (i.e. dynamic imitation and propagation fracture toughness, dynamic fracture energy and fracture velocity, and dynamic techniques for studying the influences of temperature and pore water.

  14. On the computation of molecular surface correlations for protein docking using fourier techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakk, Eric

    2007-08-01

    The computation of surface correlations using a variety of molecular models has been applied to the unbound protein docking problem. Because of the computational complexity involved in examining all possible molecular orientations, the fast Fourier transform (FFT) (a fast numerical implementation of the discrete Fourier transform (DFT)) is generally applied to minimize the number of calculations. This approach is rooted in the convolution theorem which allows one to inverse transform the product of two DFTs in order to perform the correlation calculation. However, such a DFT calculation results in a cyclic or "circular" correlation which, in general, does not lead to the same result as the linear correlation desired for the docking problem. In this work, we provide computational bounds for constructing molecular models used in the molecular surface correlation problem. The derived bounds are then shown to be consistent with various intuitive guidelines previously reported in the protein docking literature. Finally, these bounds are applied to different molecular models in order to investigate their effect on the correlation calculation.

  15. Rocking pneumonia

    OpenAIRE

    Rijkers, Ger T.; Rodriguez Gomez, Maria

    2017-01-01

    Ever since Chuck Berry coined the term “rocking pneumonia” in his 1956 song “Roll over Beethoven”, pneumonia has been mentioned frequently in modern blues and rock songs. We analyzed the lyrics of these songs to examine how various elements of pneumonia have been represented in popular music, specifically the cause of pneumonia, the risk groups, comorbidity (such as the boogie woogie flu), the clinical symptoms, and treatment and outcome. Up to this day, songwriters suggest that pneumonia is ...

  16. Determination of Seric E immuno-globulins. Comparison of two techniques, radioimmunological and immuno enzymatic. Clinical correlations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lafosse-Marin, Sylvie.

    1977-09-01

    Because of the very low seric IgE concentrations their research and analysis are difficult and many techniques of a more or less sophisticated kind have been proposed for this reason. Our aim was to compare two total seric IgE determination methods: one recent, the enzymmuno-Plaque-Pasteur (EPP); the other, most commonly used at present, the Radio-Immuno-Sorbent-Test (RIST). For this we measured total seric IgE in a hundred and one children by the EPP technique and compared our results with those supplied from the same samples by a laboratory using the RIST technique; the results were then correlated with clinical evidence. The technique proposed by the Pasteur Institute to determine total seric IgE is based on radial immunodiffusion sensitized by the use of antibodies labelled with glucose oxydase. This simple technique, easy to use, requires no expensive materials but has two disadvantages: it takes rather a long time and can only measure IgE concentrations of 50 UI/ml or more. The RIST technique is based on competitive fixation, onto anti-IgE-coated Sephadex particles of the IgE under analysis and of a fixed dose of radio-labelled IgE. This second technique, though faster, has the major disadvantage of being practicable in few laboratories because of the heavy equipment needed and the radioactivity used. This study has shown on the whole an equivalence (correlation coefficient 0.95) between the results given by the two techniques: EPP and RIST (the comparison was made between the IgE contents and not their logarithm) [fr

  17. Determination of some main elements and traces by x-ray fluorescence analysis in silicate rocks: a comparative study of two analytical techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrade, M.D. de.

    1977-01-01

    The determinations of silicon, magnesium, iron, potassium, calcium, titanium, manganese, barium, strontium, rubidium, zirconium and scandium in felsic and mafic rocks, by X ray fluorescence analysis are presented. (author)

  18. Correlation Study of PVDF Membrane Morphology with Protein Adsorption: Quantitative Analysis by FTIR/ATR Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ideris, N.; Ahmad, A. L.; Ooi, B. S.; Low, S. C.

    2018-05-01

    Microporous PVDF membranes were used as protein capture matrices in immunoassays. Because the most common labels in immunoassays were detected based on the colour change, an understanding of how protein concentration varies on different PVDF surfaces was needed. Herein, the correlation between the membrane pore size and protein adsorption was systematically investigated. Five different PVDF membrane morphologies were prepared and FTIR/ATR was employed to accurately quantify the surface protein concentration on membranes with small pore sizes. SigmaPlot® was used to find a suitable curve fit for protein adsorption and membrane pore size, with a high correlation coefficient, R2, of 0.9971.

  19. First experience from in-core sensor validation based on correlation and neuro-fuzzy techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Figedy, S.

    2011-01-01

    In this work new types of nuclear reactor in-core sensor validation methods are outlined. The first one is based on combination of correlation coefficients and mutual information indices, which reflect the correlation of signals in linear and nonlinear regions. The method may be supplemented by wavelet transform based signal features extraction and pattern recognition by artificial neural networks and also fuzzy logic based decision making. The second one is based on neuro-fuzzy modeling of residuals between experimental values and their theoretical counterparts obtained from the reactor core simulator calculations. The first experience with this approach is described and further improvements to enhance the outcome reliability are proposed (Author)

  20. Earthquake induced rock shear through a deposition hole. Modelling of three model tests scaled 1:10. Verification of the bentonite material model and the calculation technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boergesson, Lennart (Clay Technology AB, Lund (Sweden)); Hernelind, Jan (5T Engineering AB, Vaesteraas (Sweden))

    2010-11-15

    Three model shear tests of very high quality simulating a horizontal rock shear through a deposition hole in the centre of a canister were performed 1986. The tests and the results are described by /Boergesson 1986/. The tests simulated a deposition hole in the scale 1:10 with reference density of the buffer, very stiff confinement simulating the rock, and a solid bar of copper simulating the canister. The three tests were almost identical with exception of the rate of shear, which was varied between 0.031 and 160 mm/s, i.e. with a factor of more than 5,000 and the density of the bentonite, which differed slightly. The tests were very well documented. Shear force, shear rate, total stress in the bentonite, strain in the copper and the movement of the top of the simulated canister were measured continuously during the shear. After finished shear the equipment was dismantled and careful sampling of the bentonite with measurement of water ratio and density were made. The deformed copper 'canister' was also carefully measured after the test. The tests have been modelled with the finite element code Abaqus with the same models and techniques that were used for the full scale scenarios in SR-Site. The results have been compared with the measured results, which has yielded very valuable information about the relevancy of the material models and the modelling technique. An elastic-plastic material model was used for the bentonite where the stress-strain relations have been derived from laboratory tests. The material model is made a function of both the density and the strain rate at shear. Since the shear is fast and takes place under undrained conditions, the density is not changed during the tests. However, strain rate varies largely with both the location of the elements and time. This can be taken into account in Abaqus by making the material model a function of the strain rate for each element. A similar model, based on tensile tests on the copper used in

  1. A Rock Retrospective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Grady, Terence J.

    1979-01-01

    The author offers an analysis of musical techniques found in the major rock trends of the 1960s. An annotated list of selected readings and a subject-indexed list of selected recordings are appended. This article is part of a theme issue on popular music. (Editor/SJL)

  2. Smart Rocking Armour Units

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofland, B.; Arefin, Syed Shamsil; van der Lem, Cock; van gent, Marcel

    2018-01-01

    This paper describes a method to measure the rocking motion of lab-scale armour units. Sensors as found in mobile phones are used. These sensors, data-storage and battery are all embedded in the model units, such that they can be applied without wires attached to them. The technique is applied to

  3. Rock pushing and sampling under rocks on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, H.J.; Liebes, S.; Crouch, D.S.; Clark, L.V.

    1978-01-01

    Viking Lander 2 acquired samples on Mars from beneath two rocks, where living organisms and organic molecules would be protected from ultraviolet radiation. Selection of rocks to be moved was based on scientific and engineering considerations, including rock size, rock shape, burial depth, and location in a sample field. Rock locations and topography were established using the computerized interactive video-stereophotogrammetric system and plotted on vertical profiles and in plan view. Sampler commands were developed and tested on Earth using a full-size lander and surface mock-up. The use of power by the sampler motor correlates with rock movements, which were by plowing, skidding, and rolling. Provenance of the samples was determined by measurements and interpretation of pictures and positions of the sampler arm. Analytical results demonstrate that the samples were, in fact, from beneath the rocks. Results from the Gas Chromatograph-Mass Spectrometer of the Molecular Analysis experiment and the Gas Exchange instrument of the Biology experiment indicate that more adsorbed(?) water occurs in samples under rocks than in samples exposed to the sun. This is consistent with terrestrial arid environments, where more moisture occurs in near-surface soil un- der rocks than in surrounding soil because the net heat flow is toward the soil beneath the rock and the rock cap inhibits evaporation. Inorganic analyses show that samples of soil from under the rocks have significantly less iron than soil exposed to the sun. The scientific significance of analyses of samples under the rocks is only partly evaluated, but some facts are clear. Detectable quantities of martian organic molecules were not found in the sample from under a rock by the Molecular Analysis experiment. The Biology experiments did not find definitive evidence for Earth-like living organisms in their sample. Significant amounts of adsorbed water may be present in the martian regolith. The response of the soil

  4. Correlation of breast tissue histology and optical signatures to improve margin assessment techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Stephanie; Caldwell, Matthew; Bydlon, Torre; Mulvey, Christine; Mueller, Jenna; Wilke, Lee; Barry, William; Ramanujam, Nimmi; Geradts, Joseph

    2016-06-01

    Optical spectroscopy is sensitive to morphological composition and has potential applications in intraoperative margin assessment. Here, we evaluate ex vivo breast tissue and corresponding quantified hematoxylin & eosin images to correlate optical scattering signatures to tissue composition stratified by patient characteristics. Adipose sites (213) were characterized by their cell area and density. All other benign and malignant sites (181) were quantified using a grid method to determine composition. The relationships between mean reduced scattering coefficient (), and % adipose, % collagen, % glands, adipocyte cell area, and adipocyte density were investigated. These relationships were further stratified by age, menopausal status, body mass index (BMI), and breast density. We identified a positive correlation between and % collagen and a negative correlation between and age and BMI. Increased collagen corresponded to increased variability. In postmenopausal women, was similar regardless of fibroglandular content. Contributions from collagen and glands to were independent and equivalent in benign sites; glands showed a stronger positive correlation than collagen to in malignant sites. Our data suggest that scattering could differentiate highly scattering malignant from benign tissues in postmenopausal women. The relationship between scattering and tissue composition will support improved scattering models and technologies to enhance intraoperative optical margin assessment.

  5. Advanced driver assistance system: Road sign identification using VIAPIX system and a correlation technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouerhani, Y.; Alfalou, A.; Desthieux, M.; Brosseau, C.

    2017-02-01

    We present a three-step approach based on the commercial VIAPIX® module for road traffic sign recognition and identification. Firstly, detection in a scene of all objects having characteristics of traffic signs is performed. This is followed by a first-level recognition based on correlation which consists in making a comparison between each detected object with a set of reference images of a database. Finally, a second level of identification allows us to confirm or correct the previous identification. In this study, we perform a correlation-based analysis by combining and adapting the Vander Lugt correlator with the nonlinear joint transformation correlator (JTC). Of particular significance, this approach permits to make a reliable decision on road traffic sign identification. We further discuss a robust scheme allowing us to track a detected road traffic sign in a video sequence for the purpose of increasing the decision performance of our system. This approach can have broad practical applications in the maintenance and rehabilitation of transportation infrastructure, or for drive assistance.

  6. Correlation between ICDAS and histology: Differences between stereomicroscopy and microradiography with contrast solution as histological techniques.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samara de Azevedo Gomes Campos

    Full Text Available Detection of occlusal caries with visual examination using ICDAS correlates strongly with histology under stereomicroscopy (SM, but dentin aspects under SM are ambiguous regarding mineral content. Thus, our aim was to test two null hypotheses: SM and microradiography result in similar correlations between ICDAS and histology; SM and microradiography result in similar positive (PPV and negative predictive values (NPV of ICDAS cut-off 1-2 (scores 0-2 as sound with histological threshold D3 (demineralization in the inner third of dentin. Occlusal surfaces of extracted permanent teeth (n = 115 were scored using ICDAS. Undemineralized ground sections were histologically scored using both SM without contrast solution and microradiography after immersion in Thoulet's solution 1.47 for 24 h (MRC. Correlation between ICDAS and histology differed from SM (0.782 to MRC (0.511 (p = 0.0002, with a large effect size "q" of 0.49 (95% CI: 0.638/0.338. For ICDAS cut-off 1-2 and D3, PPV from MRC (0.56 was higher than that from SM (0.28 (p< 0.00001; effect size h = 0.81, and NPV from MRC (0.72 was lower than that from SM (1,00 (p < 0.00001; effect size h = 1.58. In conclusion, SM overestimated the correlation between ICDAS and lesion depth, and underestimated the number of occlusal surfaces with ICDAS cut-off 1-2 and deep dentin demineralization.

  7. Investigation of electromagnetic properties of BiFeO3 by Time Differential Perturbed Angular Correlation (TDPAC) technique at ISOLDE

    CERN Document Server

    Efe, Ipek

    2017-01-01

    Time differential perturbed angular correlation (TDPAC) technique is one of the most sensitive techniques to study about the electric and magnetic fields at the individual lattice points. It benefits from the hyperfine interactions between the probe atom and its neighborhood. Multiferroic materials have been intensively studied to promote and understand the possibility of controlling magnetic properties by electric fields instead of magnetic fields which opens the path to faster, smaller, and more energy-efficient spintronic devices, such as memory elements, high-frequency magnetic devices, and micro-electro-mechanical systems, for data-storage technologies. BiFeO3 is one of the famous and important multiferroic materials since it shows both antiferromagnetic and ferroelectric behavior at room temperature. In this study, we report on the first time-differential perturbed angular correlation (TDPAC) measurements carried out on polycrystalline BiFeO3 samples using the nuclear probe 181Hf(181Ta) after implantati...

  8. Correlation of the activity of the 238 U in soil and 222 Rn in domiciles, with the rocks of cities of the Estado de Chihuahua

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colmenero S, L.; Villalba, L.; Montero C, M.E.

    2004-01-01

    The state of Chihuahua has numerous locations of uranium, being Pena Blanca the great and more important location of the country. Diverse rock types with important quantities of uranium are distributed by the whole state. The igneous extrusive acid rocks are those that have bigger quantity of uranium, like they are the rhyolites and dacites and these rocks are located in enough proportion by the whole state. Some of the main cities of the state are near to locations or uraniferous rocks, as Aldama, Nuevo Casas Grandes, Chihuahua, Jimenez and Bocoyna, other important cities are not near important locations. It was determined specific activity by gamma spectroscopy of the series of the 238 U in soils and determination of the radon concentration in domiciles of the main cities of the state. They were found high specific activity values in soil in eight of the thirteen analyzed cities and important radon concentrations in three cities. It was found relationship among the specific activity in soil in near cities to uraniferous locations. (Author)

  9. Improvements in the chronology, geochemistry and correlation techniques of tephra in Antarctic ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iverson, N. A.; Dunbar, N. W.; McIntosh, W. C.; Pearce, N. J.; Kyle, P. R.

    2013-12-01

    Visible and crypto tephra layers found in West Antarctic ice provide an excellent record of Antarctic volcanism over the past 100ka. Tephra layers are deposited almost instantaneously across wide areas creating horizons that, if found in several locations, provide 'pinning points' to adjust ice time scales that may otherwise be lacking detailed chronology. Individual tephra layers can have distinct chemical fingerprints allowing them to correlate over great distances. Advances in sample preparation, geochemical analyses (major and trace elements) of fine grained tephra and higher precision 40Ar/39Ar dating of young (typically too small to be directly dated by 40Ar/39Ar method, making it very important to geochemically correlate these layers to proximal deposits where more and larger feldspar can be sampled. The correlation of WDC06A-2767.117 to the coarse, proximal BIT-152 provides one such link. The New Mexico Geochronology Research Lab (NMGRL) has two new multi-collector ARGUS VI mass spectrometers that can provide single crystal laser fusion ages that are approximately an order of magnitude more precise than the previous determinations. With these advancements in analytical technology, we hope to improve precision on 'pinning points' in the deep ice cores where annual layer counting becomes less precise.

  10. Smart Rocking Armour Units

    OpenAIRE

    Hofland, B.; Arefin, Syed Shamsil; van der Lem, Cock; van gent, Marcel

    2018-01-01

    This paper describes a method to measure the rocking motion of lab-scale armour units. Sensors as found in mobile phones are used. These sensors, data-storage and battery are all embedded in the model units, such that they can be applied without wires attached to them. The technique is applied to double-layer units in order to compare the results to the existing knowledge for this type of armour layers. In contrast to previous research, the gyroscope reading is used to determine the (rocking)...

  11. Final report of the FAO/IAEA co-ordinated research project on the use of nuclear and related techniques for evaluating the agronomic effectiveness of phosphate fertilisers, in particular rock phosphates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zapata, F.

    1999-02-01

    Soils in developing countries are often deficient in available P, and therefore require inputs of P fertiliser for optimum plant growth and production of food and fibre. Due to economic considerations, the cost of applying imported or locally produced water-soluble P fertilisers is often more expensive than utilising indigenous phosphate rock. Phosphate rocks show large differences in their suitability for direct application and several factors influence their capability to supply phosphorus to crops. Therefore, quantifying the P availability of soils amended with phosphate rocks in a variety of crop management and environmental conditions in developing countries is imperative for making recommendations on the best type and rate of P fertiliser sources for maximum agronomic and economic benefits. P-32 isotope techniques are very useful for such studies. The background situation of phosphate research and the topics to be investigated using isotope techniques were critically examined in a Consultants Meeting held at the IAEA Headquarters, Vienna, Austria, from 10 to 12 May 1993. For detailed information please refer to IAEA Report CT-1112. Based on the recommendations of this Consultants' Meeting, the Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture with the generous support of the French Government decided to implement the Co-ordinated Research Project (CRP) on 'The Use of Nuclear and Related Techniques for Evaluating the Agronomic Effectiveness of Phosphate Fertilisers, in particular Rock Phosphates'. This final report describes the Fourth and Final RCM of the CRP which was held in Vienna, 16-20 November 1998. It also contains a full description of the project and the conclusions and recommendations of the CRP. The programme of the meeting, list of participants, summaries submitted by the participants and list of publications are included as annexes

  12. Final report of the FAO/IAEA co-ordinated research project on the use of nuclear and related techniques for evaluating the agronomic effectiveness of phosphate fertilisers, in particular rock phosphates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zapata, F

    1999-02-01

    Soils in developing countries are often deficient in available P, and therefore require inputs of P fertiliser for optimum plant growth and production of food and fibre. Due to economic considerations, the cost of applying imported or locally produced water-soluble P fertilisers is often more expensive than utilising indigenous phosphate rock. Phosphate rocks show large differences in their suitability for direct application and several factors influence their capability to supply phosphorus to crops. Therefore, quantifying the P availability of soils amended with phosphate rocks in a variety of crop management and environmental conditions in developing countries is imperative for making recommendations on the best type and rate of P fertiliser sources for maximum agronomic and economic benefits. P-32 isotope techniques are very useful for such studies. The background situation of phosphate research and the topics to be investigated using isotope techniques were critically examined in a Consultants Meeting held at the IAEA Headquarters, Vienna, Austria, from 10 to 12 May 1993. For detailed information please refer to IAEA Report CT-1112. Based on the recommendations of this Consultants' Meeting, the Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture with the generous support of the French Government decided to implement the Co-ordinated Research Project (CRP) on 'The Use of Nuclear and Related Techniques for Evaluating the Agronomic Effectiveness of Phosphate Fertilisers, in particular Rock Phosphates'. This final report describes the Fourth and Final RCM of the CRP which was held in Vienna, 16-20 November 1998. It also contains a full description of the project and the conclusions and recommendations of the CRP. The programme of the meeting, list of participants, summaries submitted by the participants and list of publications are included as annexes.

  13. Pre-analysis techniques applied to area-based correlation aiming Digital Terrain Model generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurício Galo

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Area-based matching is an useful procedure in some photogrammetric processes and its results are of crucial importance in applications such as relative orientation, phototriangulation and Digital Terrain Model generation. The successful determination of correspondence depends on radiometric and geometric factors. Considering these aspects, the use of procedures that previously estimate the quality of the parameters to be computed is a relevant issue. This paper describes these procedures and it is shown that the quality prediction can be computed before performing matching by correlation, trough the analysis of the reference window. This procedure can be incorporated in the correspondence process for Digital Terrain Model generation and Phototriangulation. The proposed approach comprises the estimation of the variance matrix of the translations from the gray levels in the reference window and the reduction of the search space using the knowledge of the epipolar geometry. As a consequence, the correlation process becomes more reliable, avoiding the application of matching procedures in doubtful areas. Some experiments with simulated and real data are presented, evidencing the efficiency of the studied strategy.

  14. Nuclear spectroscopy study of the 117 Sn by the angular correlation technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borges, Joao Baptista

    1977-01-01

    The directional correlation of gamma cascade (553-159) keV populated in 117 Sn through the β - decay of 117 In has been measured. An automatic gamma spectrometer utilizing Ge(Li) and NaI (Tl) detectors was used to measure the angular correlation. The results are analysed in terms of the multipole mixing ratio for the 159 keV transition in 117 Sn. The results are: A 22 = -0 064±0.005, A 44 = 0.005±0.007 with δ(E2/M1) 159keV = 0.036+0.021. The life time of the 159 keV state has also been determined by using the plastic scintillator detectors, and utilizing the delayed gamma-gamma coincidence method the resulting value of the life time is T 1/2 = 275±15 psec. Further measurements have been carried out to determine the nuclear g-factor of the 159 keV state utilizing the NaI(Tl) detectors and an external magnetic field of 25.5 k Gauss. The method of 'integral rotation with reverse field and constant angle' was utilized for the determination of the g-factor with the resulting value of g(159 keV) = +0.47±0.10. The experimental results are discussed in terms of single particle model and the pairing plus quadrupole model of Kisslinger and Sorensen. (author)

  15. In situ characterization of organic matter in two primitive chondrites through correlated microanalytical techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wende, A. M.; Nittler, L.; Steele, A.; Herd, C. D.

    2009-12-01

    Primitive meteorites contain up to 2 wt % C, much of it in the form of insoluble organic matter (IOM). Bulk analyses have revealed the IOM to be marked by large D and 15N enrichments relative to terrestrial values. Isotopic imaging studies have revealed the presence of `hotspots’, sub-μm to μm-sized regions of IOM exhibiting extreme isotope enrichments. An interesting subpopulation of organic grains, ’nanoglobules’, which have hollow, spherical morphologies, is known to account for a portion of these hot spots. Previous work has suggested that nanoglobules can be identified in situ by native UV fluorescence. The isotopic enrichments are believed to point to low-T chemical fractionations either in the interstellar medium (ISM) or the outer regions of the early Solar System. As part of a larger study investigating the origin and evolution of IOM in the Solar System, a correlated, in situ, microanalytical approach was employed to characterize local isotopic and morphological heterogeneities in IOM in the highly primitive chondrites QUE 99177 (CR3) and Tagish Lake (C-ung). Previous NanoSIMS ion imaging of a QUE 99177 section revealed the spatial and isotopic distribution of C in the matrix with a spatial resolution of 200 nm. Manual definition of >3300 C-rich regions in the NanoSIMS images indicates that grains smaller than 1 μm across, which account for 80% of the IOM area, have a size distribution that is similar to estimates of the size distribution of carbonaceous dust in the diffuse ISM, supporting an interstellar origin for the IOM. Micro-Raman spectroscopy, which is highly sensitive to the degree of disorder in carbonaceous materials, was attempted on the same regions analyzed by NanoSIMS in QUE 99177. Unfortunately, surface damage due to both the prior SIMS analyses and removal of a prior C coat precluded acquisition of useful Raman spectra. Consequently, future correlated work will entail performing Raman analyses on uncoated samples prior to SIMS

  16. Residual stresses measurement by using ring-core method and 3D digital image correlation technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, Zhenxing; Xie, Huimin; Zhu, Jianguo; Wang, Huaixi; Lu, Jian

    2013-01-01

    Ring-core method/three-dimensional digital image correlation (3D DIC) residual stresses measurement is proposed. Ring-core cutting is a mechanical stress relief method, and combining with 3D DIC system the deformation of the specimen surface can be measured. An optimization iteration method is proposed to obtain the residual stress and rigid-body motion. The method has the ability to cut an annular trench at a different location out of the field of view. A compression test is carried out to demonstrate how residual stress is determined by using 3D DIC system and outfield measurement. The results determined by the approach are in good agreement with the theoretical value. Ring-core/3D DIC has shown its robustness to determine residual stress and can be extended to application in the engineering field. (paper)

  17. Correlation between Fe–V–C alloys surface hardness and plasma temperature via LIBS technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Messaoud Aberkane, S., E-mail: smessaoud@cdta.dz [Centre de Développement des Technologies Avancées, Baba Hassen, Alger (Algeria); Bendib, A. [Université des Sciences et de Technologie Houari Boumediene, Bab-Ezzouar, Alger (Algeria); Yahiaoui, K.; Boudjemai, S.; Abdelli-Messaci, S.; Kerdja, T. [Centre de Développement des Technologies Avancées, Baba Hassen, Alger (Algeria); Amara, S.E. [Université des Sciences et de Technologie Houari Boumediene, Bab-Ezzouar, Alger (Algeria); Harith, M.A. [National Institute of Laser Enhanced Science, Cairo University (Egypt)

    2014-05-01

    Highlights: • New application of LIBS in industry. • Hardness of metallic alloys estimation using LIBS calibration curves. • Linear correlation between the plasma temperature and the hardness of metallic alloys. • The shock wave is fast when the material is hard. - Abstract: Surface hardness is a very important characteristic of metals. Its monitoring plays a key role in industry. In the present paper, using laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS), Fe–V{sub 18%}–C{sub 1%} alloys with different heat treatments have been used for making the correlation between surface hardness and laser-induced plasma temperatures. All investigated samples were characterized by the same ferrite phase with different Vickers surface hardnesses. The differences in hardness values were attributed to the crystallite size changes. A linear relationship has been obtained between the Vickers surface hardness and the laser induced plasma temperature. For comparison the relation between surface hardness and the ratio of the vanadium ionic to atomic spectral lines intensities (VII/VI) provided good linear results too. However, adopting the proposed approach of using the plasma temperature, instead, is more reliable in view of the difficulties that could be encountered in choosing the proper ionic and atomic spectral lines. To validate this approach we have investigated the shock wave speed induced by laser interaction with the used samples. It was found that harder is the material faster is the shock wave. The determination of the surface hardness via measuring T{sub e} shows the feasibility of using LIBS as an easy and reliable method for in situ industrial application for production control.

  18. Intellektuaalne rock

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2007-01-01

    Briti laulja-helilooja ja näitleja Toyah Willcox ning Bill Rieflin ansamblist R.E.M. ja Pat Mastelotto King Krimsonist esinevad koos ansamblitega The Humans ja Tuner 25. okt. Tallinnas Rock Cafés ja 27. okt Tartu Jaani kirikus

  19. Establishing structure-property correlations and classification of base oils using statistical techniques and artificial neural networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kapur, G.S.; Sastry, M.I.S.; Jaiswal, A.K.; Sarpal, A.S.

    2004-01-01

    The present paper describes various classification techniques like cluster analysis, principal component (PC)/factor analysis to classify different types of base stocks. The API classification of base oils (Group I-III) has been compared to a more detailed NMR derived chemical compositional and molecular structural parameters based classification in order to point out the similarities of the base oils in the same group and the differences between the oils placed in different groups. The detailed compositional parameters have been generated using 1 H and 13 C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopic methods. Further, oxidation stability, measured in terms of rotating bomb oxidation test (RBOT) life, of non-conventional base stocks and their blends with conventional base stocks, has been quantitatively correlated with their 1 H NMR and elemental (sulphur and nitrogen) data with the help of multiple linear regression (MLR) and artificial neural networks (ANN) techniques. The MLR based model developed using NMR and elemental data showed a high correlation between the 'measured' and 'estimated' RBOT values for both training (R=0.859) and validation (R=0.880) data sets. The ANN based model, developed using fewer number of input variables (only 1 H NMR data) also showed high correlation between the 'measured' and 'estimated' RBOT values for training (R=0.881), validation (R=0.860) and test (R=0.955) data sets

  20. Prevalent urinary incontinence as a correlate of pregnancy, vaginal childbirth and obstetric techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foldspang, Anders; Mommsen, Søren; Djurhuus, Jens Christian

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study examined the association between pregnancy, vaginal childbirth and obstetric techniques, and the prevalence of urinary incontinence among adult women aged 20 to 59 years. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey enrolled a random sample of 6240 women aged 20 to 59 years who were...... mailed a self-administered questionnaire focusing on urinary incontinence and other health variables. More than 75% of the women responded. The present analysis includes 4345 women who were not pregnant and did not experience a vaginal childbirth during 1994. RESULTS: Multivariate prevalence odds ratios...... showed increases in relation to urinary incontinence during pregnancy, urinary incontinence immediately after a vaginal childbirth, and age of 30 years or more at the second vaginal childbirth. No multivariate associations were found for forceps delivery or vacuum extraction delivery, episiotomy...

  1. The application of correlation techniques to the angular spectrum of scattered radiation from tokamak plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nazikian, R.

    1990-07-01

    In the limit of the first Born approximation for a partially coherent secondary source, consisting of a spatially random plasma illuminated by a coherent plane wave, it is shown that the spectral coherence of the scattered radiation as measured on an arbitrary plane beyond the scatterer conveys information on the three dimensional intensity distribution of the random source. By defining a new two point statistical measure of the random field, closely related to the cross spectral density, we show that the fluctuation amplitude of the random source along the direction of the incident plane wave may by recovered from the measurement of the scattered radiation. The application of cross spectral techniques to fluctuation studies on tokamaks is considered. 7 refs

  2. Igneous Rocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doe, Bruce R.

    “Igneous Rocks was written for undergraduate geology majors who have had a year of college-level chemistry and a course in mineralogy … and for beginning graduate students. Geologists working in industry, government, or academia should find this text useful as a guide to the technical literature up to 1981 and as an overview of topics with which they have not worked but which may have unanticipated pertinence to their own projects.” So starts the preface to this textbook.As one who works part time in research on igneous rocks, especially as they relate to mineral deposits, I have been looking for such a book with this avowed purpose in a field that has a choking richness of evolving terminology and a bewildering volume of interdisciplinary literature. In addition to the standard topics of igneous petrology, the book contains a chapter on the role of igneous activity in the genesis of mineral deposits, its value to geothermal energy, and the potential of igneous rocks as an environment for nuclear waste disposal. These topics are presented rather apologetically in the preface, but the author is to be applauded for including this chapter. The apology shows just how new these interests are to petrology. Recognition is finally coming that, for example, mineral deposits are not “sports of nature,” a view held even by many economic geologists as recently as the early 1960's; instead they are perfectly ordinary geochemical features formed by perfectly ordinary geologic processes. In fact, the mineral deposits and their attendant alteration zones probably have as much to tell us about igneous rocks as the igneous rocks have to tell us about mineral deposits.

  3. Studies of continuum states in {sup 16}Ne using three-body correlation techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marganiec, J. [Technische Universitaet Darmstadt, Institut fuer Kernphysik, Darmstadt (Germany); GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung GmbH, Darmstadt (Germany); Research Division GSI, ExtreMe Matter Institute EMMI, Darmstadt (Germany); Wamers, F. [Technische Universitaet Darmstadt, Institut fuer Kernphysik, Darmstadt (Germany); GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung GmbH, Darmstadt (Germany); Research Division GSI, ExtreMe Matter Institute EMMI, Darmstadt (Germany); Frankfurt Institute for Advanced Studies FIAS, Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Aksouh, F.; Aksyutina, Yu.; Boretzky, K.; Chatillon, A.; Emling, H.; Geissel, H.; Heil, M.; Hoffmann, J.; Karagiannis, C.; Kiselev, O.A.; Kurz, N.; Litvinov, Yu.A.; Muentz, C.; Nociforo, C.; Ott, W.; Rossi, D.; Simon, H.; Suemmerer, K.; Weick, H. [GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung GmbH, Darmstadt (Germany); Alvarez-Pol, H.; Beceiro-Novo, S.; Cortina-Gil, D.; Rodriguez-Tajes, C. [Universidade de Santiago de Compostela, Grupo de Fisica Nuclear, Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Aumann, T.; Panin, V. [Technische Universitaet Darmstadt, Institut fuer Kernphysik, Darmstadt (Germany); GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung GmbH, Darmstadt (Germany); Borge, M.J.G. [CERN, ISOLDE-EP, Geneva (Switzerland); CSIC, Instituto de Estructura de la Materia, Madrid (Spain); Chartier, M. [University of Liverpool, Department of Physics, Liverpool (United Kingdom); Chulkov, L.V. [GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung GmbH, Darmstadt (Germany); Kurchatov Institute, Moscow (Russian Federation); Ershova, O.; Langer, C.; Plag, R.; Reifarth, R.; Wimmer, C. [GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung GmbH, Darmstadt (Germany); Goethe Universitaet, Institut fuer Angewandte Physik, Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Fraile, L.M. [Universidad Complutense de Madrid, CEI Moncloa, Grupo de Fisica Nuclear, FAMN, Madrid (Spain); Fynbo, H.O.U.; Riisager, K. [University of Aarhus, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Aarhus (Denmark); Galaviz, D.; Perea, A.; Tengblad, O. [CSIC, Instituto de Estructura de la Materia, Madrid (Spain); Hoffmann, D.H.H.; Richter, A.; Schrieder, G. [Technische Universitaet Darmstadt, Institut fuer Kernphysik, Darmstadt (Germany); Johansson, H.T.; Jonson, B.; Nilsson, T.; Nyman, G.; Zhukov, M.V. [Chalmers Tekniska Hoegskola, Fundamental Fysik, Goeteborg (Sweden); Kratz, J.V. [Johannes Gutenberg-Universitaet Mainz, Institut fuer Kernchemie, Mainz (Germany); Kulessa, R. [Uniwersytet Jagellonski, Instytut Fizyki, Krakov (Poland); Lantz, M. [Uppsala Universitet, Institutionen foer fysik och astronomi, Uppsala (Sweden); Le Bleis, T. [GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung GmbH, Darmstadt (Germany); Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Physik-Department E12, Garching (Germany); Lemmon, R. [STFC Daresbury Lab, Warrington, Nuclear Physics Group, Cheshire (United Kingdom); Mahata, K. [GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung GmbH, Darmstadt (Germany); Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Nuclear Physics Division, Trombay (India); Paschalis, S. [Technische Universitaet Darmstadt, Institut fuer Kernphysik, Darmstadt (Germany); University of Liverpool, Department of Physics, Liverpool (United Kingdom); Savran, D. [Research Division GSI, ExtreMe Matter Institute EMMI, Darmstadt (Germany); Frankfurt Institute for Advanced Studies FIAS, Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Stroth, J. [Goethe Universitaet, Institut fuer Angewandte Physik, Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Wiescher, M. [University of Notre Dame, JINA, Notre Dame, IN (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Two-proton decay of the unbound T{sub z} =-2 nucleus {sup 16}Ne, produced in one-neutron knockout from a 500 MeV/u {sup 17}Ne beam, has been studied at GSI. The ground state, at a resonance energy 1.388(15) MeV, (Γ = 0.082(15) MeV) above the {sup 14}O+p+p threshold, and two narrow resonances at E{sub r} = 3.220(46) MeV and 7.57(6) MeV have been investigated. A comparison of the energy difference between the first excited 2{sup +} state and the 0{sup +} ground state in {sup 16}Ne with its mirror nucleus {sup 16}C reveals a small Thomas-Ehrman shift (TES) of +70(46) keV. A trend of the TES for the T = 2 quintet is obtained by completing the known data with a prediction for {sup 16}F obtained from an IMME analysis. The decay mechanisms of the observed three resonances were revealed from an analysis of the energy and angular correlations of the {sup 14}O+p+p decay products. The ground state decay can be considered as a genuine three-body (democratic) mode and the excited states decay sequentially via states in the intermediate nucleus {sup 15}F, the 3.22 MeV state predominantly via the {sup 15}F ground-state resonance, while the 7.57 MeV state decays via the 5/2{sup +} resonance in {sup 15}F at 2.8 MeV above the {sup 14}O+p+p threshold. Further, from an analysis of angular correlations, the spin-parity of the 7.57 MeV state has been determined as I{sup π} = 2{sup +} and assigned as the third 2{sup +} state in {sup 16}Ne based on a comparison with {sup 16}C. (orig.)

  4. Comparison of infrared and 3D digital image correlation techniques applied for mechanical testing of materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krstulović-Opara, Lovre; Surjak, Martin; Vesenjak, Matej; Tonković, Zdenko; Kodvanj, Janoš; Domazet, Željko

    2015-11-01

    To investigate the applicability of infrared thermography as a tool for acquiring dynamic yielding in metals, a comparison of infrared thermography with three dimensional digital image correlation has been made. Dynamical tension tests and three point bending tests of aluminum alloys have been performed to evaluate results obtained by IR thermography in order to detect capabilities and limits for these two methods. Both approaches detect pastification zone migrations during the yielding process. The results of the tension test and three point bending test proved the validity of the IR approach as a method for evaluating the dynamic yielding process when used on complex structures such as cellular porous materials. The stability of the yielding process in the three point bending test, as contrary to the fluctuation of the plastification front in the tension test, is of great importance for the validation of numerical constitutive models. The research proved strong performance, robustness and reliability of the IR approach when used to evaluate yielding during dynamic loading processes, while the 3D DIC method proved to be superior in the low velocity loading regimes. This research based on two basic tests, proved the conclusions and suggestions presented in our previous research on porous materials where middle wave infrared thermography was applied.

  5. Developing Dynamic Digital Image Correlation Technique to Monitor Structural Damage of Old Buildings under External Excitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Hsiang Shih

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The capacity of buildings to resist external excitation is an important factor to consider for the structural design of buildings. When subject to external excitation, a building may suffer a certain degree of damages, and its residual capacity to resist external excitation cannot be evaluated. In this research, dynamic digital image correlation method combined with parameter evaluation available in system identification is used to evaluate the structural capacity to resist external excitation. The results reveal possible building latent safety problems so that timely structural reinforcement or dismantling of the building can be initiated to alleviate further damages. The results of experiments using the proposed method conform to the results obtained using the conventional method, but this method is more convenient and rapid than the latter in the subsequent procedure of data processing. If only the frequency change is used, the damages suffered by the building can be detected, but the damage location is not revealed. The interstory drift mode shape (IDMS based on the characteristic of story drift has higher sensitivity than the approximate story damage index (ADSI method based on modal frequency and vibration type; however, both indices can be used to determine the degree and location of building damages.

  6. Evaluation of digital image correlation techniques using realistic ground truth speckle images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cofaru, C; Philips, W; Van Paepegem, W

    2010-01-01

    Digital image correlation (DIC) has been acknowledged and widely used in recent years in the field of experimental mechanics as a contactless method for determining full field displacements and strains. Even though several sub-pixel motion estimation algorithms have been proposed in the literature, little is known about their accuracy and limitations in reproducing complex underlying motion fields occurring in real mechanical tests. This paper presents a new method for evaluating sub-pixel motion estimation algorithms using ground truth speckle images that are realistically warped using artificial motion fields that were obtained following two distinct approaches: in the first, the horizontal and vertical displacement fields are created according to theoretical formulas for the given type of experiment while the second approach constructs the displacements through radial basis function interpolation starting from real DIC results. The method is applied in the evaluation of five DIC algorithms with results indicating that the gradient-based DIC methods generally have a quality advantage when using small sized blocks and are a better choice for calculating very small displacements and strains. The Newton–Raphson is the overall best performing method with a notable quality advantage when large block sizes are employed and in experiments where large strain fields are of interest

  7. Studies of continuum states in${16}$ Ne using three-body correlation techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Marganiec, J; Aksouh, F; Aksyutina, Yu; Alvarez-Pol, H; Aumann, T; Beceiro-Novo, S; Boretzky, K; Borge, M J G; Chartier, M; Chatillon, A; Chulkov, L V; Cortina-Gil, D; Emling, H; Ershova, O; Fraile, L M; Fynbo, H O U; Galaviz, D; Geissel, H; Heil, M; Hoffmann, D H H; Hoffmann, J; Johansson, H T; Jonson, B; Karagiannis, C; Kiselev, O A; Kratz, J V; Kulessa, R; Kurz, N; Langer, C; Lantz, M; Le Bleis, T; Lemmon, R; Litvinov, Yu A; Mahata, K; Müntz, C; Nilsson, T; Nociforo, C; Nyman, G; Ott, W; Panin, V; Paschalis, S; Perea, A; Plag, R; Reifarth, R; Richter, A; Rodriguez-Tajes, C; Rossi, D; Riisager, K; Savran, D; Schrieder, G; Simon, H; Stroth, J; Sümmerer, K; Tengblad, O; Weick, H; Wiescher, M; Wimmer, C; Zhukov, M V

    2015-01-01

    Two-proton decay of the unbound $ T_{z} =-2$ nucleus$^{16}$Ne , produced in one-neutron knockout from a 500 MeV/u$^{17}$Ne beam, has been studied at GSI. The ground state, at a resonance energy 1.388(15) MeV, ( $ \\Gamma =0.082(15)$ MeV) above the$^{14}$O +p+p threshold, and two narrow resonances at $ E_{r} =3.220(46)$ MeV and 7.57(6) MeV have been investigated. A comparison of the energy difference between the first excited 2$^{+}$ state and the 0$^{+}$ ground state in$^{16}$Ne with its mirror nucleus$^{16}$C reveals a small Thomas-Ehrman shift (TES) of $ +70(46)$ keV. A trend of the TES for the T = 2 quintet is obtained by completing the known data with a prediction for$^{16}$F obtained from an IMME analysis. The decay mechanisms of the observed three resonances were revealed from an analysis of the energy and angular correlations of the$^{14}$O +p+p decay products. The ground state decay can be considered as a genuine three-body (democratic) mode and the excited states decay sequentially via states in the i...

  8. The state of stress in British rocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klein, R.J.; Brown, E.T.

    1983-03-01

    When designing underground works, it is necessary to take account of not only the vertical stresses arising predictably from the weight of the rock overhead, but also horizontal stresses which may vary from one direction to another as a result of past tectonic action. This report discussed the techniques that have been used to measure such stresses. Few determinations have been made in Great Britain, so it has been necessary to augment what little is known by reference to fault systems, relying on correlations between the measured magnitude and direction of maximum horizontal stress with local tectonic history. This has enabled general conclusions to be reached for Great Britain. (author)

  9. Correlation of open cell-attached and excised patch clamp techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filipovic, D; Hayslett, J P

    1995-11-01

    The excised patch clamp configuration provides a unique technique for some types of single channel analyses, but maintenance of stable, long-lasting preparations may be confounded by rundown and/or rapid loss of seal. Studies were performed on the amiloride-sensitive Na+ channel, located on the apical surface of A6 cells, to determine whether the nystatin-induced open cell-attached patch could serve as an alternative configuration. Compared to excised inside-out patches, stable preparations were achieved more readily with the open cell-attached patch (9% vs. 56% of attempts). In both preparations, the current voltage (I-V) relation was linear, current amplitudes were equal at opposite equivalent clamped voltages, and Erev was zero in symmetrical Na+ solutions, indicating similar Na+ activities on the cytosolic and external surfaces of the patch. Moreover, there was no evidence that nystatin altered channel activity in the patch because slope conductance (3-4pS) and Erev (75 mV), when the bath was perfused with a high K:low Na solution (ENa = 80 mV), were nearly equal in both patch configurations. Our results therefore indicate that the nystatin-induced open cell-attached patch can serve as an alternative approach to the excised inside-out patch when experiments require modulation of univalent ions in the cytosol.

  10. Synthesis of dynamic phase profile by the correlation technique for spatial control of optical beams in multiplexing and switching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bugaychuk, Svitlana A.; Gnatovskyy, Vladimir O.; Sidorenko, Andrey V.; Pryadko, Igor I.; Negriyko, Anatoliy M.

    2015-11-01

    New approach for the correlation technique, which is based on multiple periodic structures to create a controllable angular spectrum, is proposed and investigated both theoretically and experimentally. The transformation of an initial laser beam occurs due to the actions of consecutive phase periodic structures, which may differ by their parameters. Then, after the Fourier transformation of a complex diffraction field, the output diffraction orders will be changed both by their intensities and by their spatial position. The controllable change of output angular spectrum is carried out by a simple control of the parameters of the periodic structures. We investigate several simple examples of such management.

  11. Correlations Between Life-Detection Techniques and Implications for Sampling Site Selection in Planetary Analog Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentry, Diana M.; Amador, Elena S.; Cable, Morgan L.; Chaudry, Nosheen; Cullen, Thomas; Jacobsen, Malene B.; Murukesan, Gayathri; Schwieterman, Edward W.; Stevens, Adam H.; Stockton, Amanda; Tan, George; Yin, Chang; Cullen, David C.; Geppert, Wolf

    2017-10-01

    We conducted an analog sampling expedition under simulated mission constraints to areas dominated by basaltic tephra of the Eldfell and Fimmvörðuháls lava fields (Iceland). Sites were selected to be "homogeneous" at a coarse remote sensing resolution (10-100 m) in apparent color, morphology, moisture, and grain size, with best-effort realism in numbers of locations and replicates. Three different biomarker assays (counting of nucleic-acid-stained cells via fluorescent microscopy, a luciferin/luciferase assay for adenosine triphosphate, and quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) to detect DNA associated with bacteria, archaea, and fungi) were characterized at four nested spatial scales (1 m, 10 m, 100 m, and >1 km) by using five common metrics for sample site representativeness (sample mean variance, group F tests, pairwise t tests, and the distribution-free rank sum H and u tests). Correlations between all assays were characterized with Spearman's rank test. The bioluminescence assay showed the most variance across the sites, followed by qPCR for bacterial and archaeal DNA; these results could not be considered representative at the finest resolution tested (1 m). Cell concentration and fungal DNA also had significant local variation, but they were homogeneous over scales of >1 km. These results show that the selection of life detection assays and the number, distribution, and location of sampling sites in a low biomass environment with limited a priori characterization can yield both contrasting and complementary results, and that their interdependence must be given due consideration to maximize science return in future biomarker sampling expeditions.

  12. Investigation of a Cross-Correlation Based Optical Strain Measurement Technique for Detecting radial Growth on a Rotating Disk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clem, Michelle M.; Woike, Mark R.

    2013-01-01

    The Aeronautical Sciences Project under NASA`s Fundamental Aeronautics Program is extremely interested in the development of novel measurement technologies, such as optical surface measurements in the internal parts of a flow path, for in situ health monitoring of gas turbine engines. In situ health monitoring has the potential to detect flaws, i.e. cracks in key components, such as engine turbine disks, before the flaws lead to catastrophic failure. In the present study, a cross-correlation imaging technique is investigated in a proof-of-concept study as a possible optical technique to measure the radial growth and strain field on an already cracked sub-scale turbine engine disk under loaded conditions in the NASA Glenn Research Center`s High Precision Rotordynamics Laboratory. The optical strain measurement technique under investigation offers potential fault detection using an applied high-contrast random speckle pattern and imaging the pattern under unloaded and loaded conditions with a CCD camera. Spinning the cracked disk at high speeds induces an external load, resulting in a radial growth of the disk of approximately 50.0-im in the flawed region and hence, a localized strain field. When imaging the cracked disk under static conditions, the disk will be undistorted; however, during rotation the cracked region will grow radially, thus causing the applied particle pattern to be .shifted`. The resulting particle displacements between the two images will then be measured using the two-dimensional cross-correlation algorithms implemented in standard Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) software to track the disk growth, which facilitates calculation of the localized strain field. In order to develop and validate this optical strain measurement technique an initial proof-of-concept experiment is carried out in a controlled environment. Using PIV optimization principles and guidelines, three potential speckle patterns, for future use on the rotating disk, are developed

  13. Trace elemental correlation study in malignant and normal breast tissue by PIXE technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raju, G.J. Naga; Sarita, P.; Kumar, M. Ravi; Murty, G.A.V. Ramana; Reddy, B. Seetharami; Lakshminarayana, S.; Vijayan, V.; Lakshmi, P.V.B. Rama; Gavarasana, Satyanarayana; Reddy, S. Bhuloka

    2006-01-01

    Particle induced X-ray emission technique was used to study the variations in trace elemental concentrations between normal and malignant human breast tissue specimens and to understand the effects of altered homeostasis of these elements in the etiology of breast cancer. A 3 MeV proton beam was used to excite the biological samples of normal and malignant breast tissues. The elements Cl, K, Ca, Ti, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Se, Br, Rb and Sr were identified and their relative concentrations were estimated. Almost all the elements were found to be elevated (p < 0.05, Wilcoxon signed-ranks test) in the cancerous tissues when compared with normal tissues. The excess levels of trace elements observed in the cancerous breast tissues could either be a cause or a consequence of breast cancer. Regarding their role in the initiation or promotion of breast cancer, one possible interpretation is that the elevated levels of Cu, Fe and Cr could have led to the formation of free radicals or other reactive oxygen species (ROS) that adversely affect DNA thereby causing breast cancer, which is mainly attributed to genetic abnormalities. Moreover, since Cu and Fe are required for angiogenesis, elevated concentrations of these elements are likely to promote breast cancer by increasing the blood supply for tumor growth. On the other hand elevated concentrations of elements in breast cancer tissues might also be a consequence of the cancer. This can be understood in terms of the biochemical and histological differences between normal and cancerous breast tissues. Tumors, characterized by unregulated multiplication of cells, need an ever-increasing supply of essential nutrients including trace elements. This probably results in an increased vascularity of malignant tissues, which in turn leads to enhancement of elemental concentrations in tumors

  14. White Rock

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    (Released 19 April 2002) The Science 'White Rock' is the unofficial name for this unusual landform which was first observed during the Mariner 9 mission in the early 1970's. As later analysis of additional data sets would show, White Rock is neither white nor dense rock. Its apparent brightness arises from the fact that the material surrounding it is so dark. Images from the Mars Global Surveyor MOC camera revealed dark sand dunes surrounding White Rock and on the floor of the troughs within it. Some of these dunes are just apparent in the THEMIS image. Although there was speculation that the material composing White Rock could be salts from an ancient dry lakebed, spectral data from the MGS TES instrument did not support this claim. Instead, the White Rock deposit may be the erosional remnant of a previously more continuous occurrence of air fall sediments, either volcanic ash or windblown dust. The THEMIS image offers new evidence for the idea that the original deposit covered a larger area. Approximately 10 kilometers to the southeast of the main deposit are some tiny knobs of similarly bright material preserved on the floor of a small crater. Given that the eolian erosion of the main White Rock deposit has produced isolated knobs at its edges, it is reasonable to suspect that the more distant outliers are the remnants of a once continuous deposit that stretched at least to this location. The fact that so little remains of the larger deposit suggests that the material is very easily eroded and simply blows away. The Story Fingers of hard, white rock seem to jut out like icy daggers across a moody Martian surface, but appearances can be deceiving. These bright, jagged features are neither white, nor icy, nor even hard and rocky! So what are they, and why are they so different from the surrounding terrain? Scientists know that you can't always trust what your eyes see alone. You have to use other kinds of science instruments to measure things that our eyes can

  15. [Correlation and interconversion between erythrocyte cholinesterase values obtained by the Michel and the EQM techniques].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmona-Fonseca, Jaime

    2006-12-01

    Several techniques are available to measure red cell cholinesterase; therefore, evaluations with several methods provide a measure of concordance. An equation was formulated to transform native data of reference values to reference units of cholinesterase activity as measured by Michel and EQM tests. The experimental design was descriptive, transversal and prospective. The group sampled was a representative adult working population, aged 18-75, without previous exposure to cholinesterase inhibitors pesticides. The individuals were affiliated to the Social Security System and resided in Valle de Aburrá and Cercano Oriente Antioqueño (Antioquia Province, northwestern Colombia). Of 827 individuals, quantitative erythrocytes (Michel y EQM) tests exhibited "r" coefficients between 0.67 and R2 coefficient of 44%.,This indicated that one test explained the results in other test in 44% of the cases. The corelation was higher in Aburrá than in Oriente. The linear model for the 827 individuals was as follows: EQM U/g oxy-hemoglobin = 9.575 U/ g oxy-hemoglobin + 29.791 (Michel delta pH/hour). Michel delta pH/hr = 0.3312 delta pH/hour + 0.0149 (EQM U/g oxy-hemoglobin), where EQM was expressed in U/g oxy-hemoglobin and Michel pH change/hr. Inter-sections (coefficient a) and inclines (coefficient b) were significant in this model. In the adjusted equations, after exclusion of 12 extreme data (1.5% of 827), the r coefficient increased from 0.67 to 0.72 The adjusted equations were as follows: EQM U/g oxy-hemoglobin = 8.1884 U/g oxy-hemoglobin + 31.3920 (Michel delta pH/hour); Michel delta pH/hr = 0.2925 delta pH/hr + 0.0161 (EQM U/g oxy-hemoglobin). This system of linear equations permitted the transformation of Michel (delta PH/ hr) units to EQM (U/g oxy-hemoglobin) units and vice versa. This will facilitate data comparisons by clinicians and epidemiologists who are using these methods of cholinesterase measurement.

  16. Rock.XML - Towards a library of rock physics models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Erling Hugo; Hauge, Ragnar; Ulvmoen, Marit; Johansen, Tor Arne; Drottning, Åsmund

    2016-08-01

    Rock physics modelling provides tools for correlating physical properties of rocks and their constituents to the geophysical observations we measure on a larger scale. Many different theoretical and empirical models exist, to cover the range of different types of rocks. However, upon reviewing these, we see that they are all built around a few main concepts. Based on this observation, we propose a format for digitally storing the specifications for rock physics models which we have named Rock.XML. It does not only contain data about the various constituents, but also the theories and how they are used to combine these building blocks to make a representative model for a particular rock. The format is based on the Extensible Markup Language XML, making it flexible enough to handle complex models as well as scalable towards extending it with new theories and models. This technology has great advantages as far as documenting and exchanging models in an unambiguous way between people and between software. Rock.XML can become a platform for creating a library of rock physics models; making them more accessible to everyone.

  17. Carotid plaque signal differences among four kinds of T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging techniques: A histopathological correlation study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saito, Ayumi; Narumi, Shinsuke; Ohba, Hideki; Yamaguchi, Mao; Terayama, Yasuo [Iwate Medical University, Department of Neurology and Gerontology, Morioka (Japan); Sasaki, Makoto; Kudo, Kohsuke [Iwate Medical University, Institute for Biomedical Sciences, Morioka (Japan); Ogasawara, Kuniaki; Kobayashi, Masakazu [Iwate Medical University, Department of Neurosurgery, Morioka (Japan); Hitomi, Jiro [Iwate Medical University, Department of Anatomy, Morioka (Japan)

    2012-11-15

    Several magnetic resonance (MR) imaging techniques are used to examine atherosclerotic plaque of carotid arteries; however, the best technique for visualizing intraplaque characteristics has yet to be determined. Here, we directly compared four kinds of T1-weighted (T1W) imaging techniques with pathological findings in patients with carotid stenosis. A total of 31 patients who were candidates for carotid endarterectomy were prospectively examined using a 1.5-T MRI scanner, which produced four kinds of T1W images, including non-gated spin echo (SE), cardiac-gated black-blood (BB) fast-SE (FSE), magnetization-prepared rapid acquisition with gradient echo (MPRAGE), and source image of three-dimensional time-of-flight MR angiography (SI-MRA). The signal intensity of the carotid plaque was manually measured, and the contrast ratio (CR) against the adjacent muscle was calculated. CRs from the four imaging techniques were compared to each other and correlated with histopathological specimens. CRs of the carotid plaques mainly containing fibrous tissue, lipid/necrosis, and hemorrhage were significantly different with little overlaps (range: 0.92-1.15, 1.22-1.52, and 1.55-2.30, respectively) on non-gated SE. However, BB-FSE showed remarkable overlaps among the three groups (0.89-1.10, 1.07-1.23, and 1.01-1.42, respectively). MPRAGE could discriminate fibrous plaques from hemorrhagic plaques but not from lipid/necrosis-rich plaques: (0.77-1.07, 1.45-2.43, and 0.85-1.42, respectively). SI-MRA showed the same tendencies (1.01-1.39, 1.45-2.57, and 1.12-1.39, respectively). Among T1W MR imaging techniques, non-gated SE images can more accurately characterize intraplaque components in patients who underwent CEA when compared with cardiac-gated BB-FSE, MPRAGE, and SI-MRA images. (orig.)

  18. Assessment of resectability of pancreatic cancer with dynamic contrast-enhanced MR imaging: technique, surgical correlation and patient outcome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spencer, J.A.; Ward, J.; Guthrie, J.A.; Robinson, P.J.A.; Guillou, P.J.

    1998-01-01

    The aim of our work was to investigate the use of a dynamic contrast-enhanced MR (DCEMR) technique for staging apparently localised pancreatic cancer, and to determine the patterns of tumour and vascular enhancement with this technique. Thirty-five consecutive patients were examined. The MR findings were correlated with surgical findings in 13 patients and with clinical outcome in 22 patients. Breath-hold gradient-echo fast low angle shot (TR = 100, TE = 4, flip angle 80 ) acquisitions were obtained at 10 and 40 s (right anterior coronal oblique plane) and at 90 s (axial plane) following intravenous gadolinium. Mean contrast-to-noise ratio was higher on the first than the second acquisition (p < 0.001) and higher on the second acquisition than the third (p < 0.005). Tumour conspicuity was greatest and arterial anatomy was best demonstrated on the first acquisition and the portal venous anatomy on the second. Small tumours were isointense by the third acquisition. Maximal intensity projections were helpful. The MR findings correctly predicted the surgical findings in 11 of 13 cases (85 %) and the clinical course in the other 22 patients. The DCEMR imaging technique is valuable in the staging of patients with pancreatic cancer. Capillary and portal venous phase images are both required for complete local staging. (orig.)

  19. Texture evolution and microstructural changes during solid-state dewetting: A correlative study by complementary in situ TEM techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niekiel, Florian; Kraschewski, Simon M.; Schweizer, Peter; Butz, Benjamin; Spiecker, Erdmann

    2016-01-01

    The transition of a thin film into an energetically favorable set of particles at temperatures below the melting point of the bulk material is known as solid-state dewetting. In this work the dewetting behavior of 16 nm thick discontinuous Au thin films on amorphous silicon nitride membranes is quantitatively studied by complementary in situ transmission electron microscopy techniques taking advantage of the unique capabilities of a chip-based heating system. The combination of dedicated imaging and diffraction techniques is used to investigate the interplay of grain growth and texture evolution with the process of dewetting. The results show an initial coarsening of the microstructure preceding the other processes. Texture evolution is highly correlated to material retraction and agglomeration during the following dewetting process. In-plane grain rotation has been observed, acting as an additional mechanism for orientation changes. From a methodological perspective this work demonstrates the capabilities of today’s transmission electron microscopy in combination with state-of-the-art in situ instrumentation. In particular the combination of complementary information from different dedicated techniques in one and the same setup is demonstrated to be highly beneficial.

  20. Rock stresses (Grimsel rock laboratory)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pahl, A.; Heusermann, S.; Braeuer, V.; Gloeggler, W.

    1989-01-01

    On the research and development project 'Rock Stress Measurements' the BGR has developed and tested several test devices and methods at GTS for use in boreholes at a depth of 200 m and has carried out rock mechanical and engineering geological investigations for the evaluation and interpretation of the stress measurements. The first time a computer for data processing was installed in the borehole together with the BGR-probe. Laboratory tests on hollow cylinders were made to study the stress-deformation behavior. To validate and to interprete the measurement results some test methods were modelled using the finite-element method. The dilatometer-tests yielded high values of Young's modulus, whereas laboratory tests showed lower values with a distinct deformation anisotropy. Stress measurements with the BGR-probe yielded horizontal stresses being higher than the theoretical overburden pressure and vertical stresses which agree well with the theoretical overburden pressure. These results are comparable to the results of the hydraulic fracturing tests, whereas stresses obtained with CSIR-triaxial cells are generally lower. The detailed geological mapping of the borehole indicated relationships between stress and geology. With regard to borehole depth different zones of rock structure joint frequency, joint orientation, and orientation of microfissures as well as stress magnitude, stress direction, and degree of deformation anisotropy could be distinguished. (orig./HP) [de

  1. Evaluation of the distribution of rare earths elements in fluvial sediments, rocks and wastes correlated to the Caldas Ore Treatment Unit (UTM-Caldas), Minas Gerais State, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Possas, Clara R.; Moura, Rodrigo R. de; Carvalho Filho, Carlos A. de; Menezes, Maria Ângela de B.C.

    2017-01-01

    The Caldas Ore Treatment Unit (UTM-Caldas), located at the municipality of Caldas (Minas Gerais-Brazil), was a site for the exploration and treatment of uranium between 1982 and 1995. The area is located in the Alcalino Complex of Poços de Caldas, a geologically peculiar region, composed of alkaline igneous rocks with exotic minerals, some rich in rare earth elements (REE). The UTM-Caldas uranium deposit was defined as a U, Th, Zr, Mo and REE mineralization. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the distribution of REEs in river sediments adjacent to UTM-Caldas and to verify if effluents from the mine are interfering in the concentration of REEs in these sediments. To develop the research, five samples were collected in 2011, including sediments from the Soberbo river, the waste dam and the tank of radio precipitation. The samples were prepared in the Sedimentology Laboratory of the Center for the Development of Nuclear Technology (CDTN), where the rocks and tailings were crushed, ground and pulverized while the sediments were sieved and an aliquot of the silt-clay fraction was separated for analysis at the CDTN. The analytical method employed was Neutron Activation Analysis (ANA), method k 0 . The samples were irradiated in the TRIGA MARK I IPR-R1 research reactor, and the REEs identified by gamma-spectrometry in the Neutron Activation Laboratory (LAN-CDTN). The results showed a distribution model of the REEs in the study area, which may be useful in evaluating of the environmental impacts of effluents from UTM-Caldas, now in the process of decommissioning

  2. Epigenetic alterations of sedimentary rocks at deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komarova, G.V.; Kondrat'eva, I.A.; Zelenova, O.I.

    1980-01-01

    Notions are explained, and technique for studying epigenetic alterations of sedimentary rocks at uranium deposits is described. Main types of epigenetic transformations and their mineralogic-geochemical characteristics are considered. Rock alterations, accompanying uranium mineralization, can be related to 2 types: oxidation and reduction. The main mineralogic-geochemical property of oxidation transformations is epigenetic limonitization. Stratal limonitization in primary grey-coloured terrigenic rocks and in epigenetically reduced (pyritized) rocks, as well as in rock, subjected to epigenetic gleying, are characterized. Reduction type of epigenetic transformations is subdivided into sulphidic and non-sulphidic (gley) subtypes. Sulphidic transformations in grey-coloured terrigenic rocks with organic substance of carbonic row, in rocks, containing organic substance of oil row, sulphide transformations of sedimentary rocks, as well as gley transformations, are considered

  3. Strategy for a Rock Mechanics Site Descriptive Model. A test case based on data from the Aespoe HRL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hudson, John A

    2002-06-01

    In anticipation of the SKB Site Investigations for radioactive waste disposal, an approach has been developed for the Rock Mechanics Site Descriptive Model. This approach was tested by predicting the rock mechanics properties of a 600 m x 180 m x 120 m rock volume at the Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory (HRL) using limited borehole data of the type typically obtained during a site investigation. These predicted properties were then compared with 'best estimate' properties obtained from a study of the test rock volume using additional information, mainly tunnel data. The exercise was known as the Test Case, and is the subject of this Report. Three modelling techniques were used to predict the rock properties: the 'empirical approach' - the rock properties were estimated using rock mass classification schemes and empirical correlation formulae; the 'theoretical approach' - the rock properties were estimated using numerical modelling techniques; and the 'stress approach' - the rock stress state was estimated using primary data and numerical modelling. These approaches are described separately and respectively. Following an explanation of the context for the Test Case within the strategy for developing the Rock Mechanics Site Descriptive Model, conditions at the Aespoe HRL are described in Chapter 2. The Test Case organization and the suite of nine Protocols used to ensure that the work was appropriately guided and co-ordinated are described in Chapter 3. The methods for predicting the rock properties and the rock stress, and comparisons with the 'best estimate' properties of the actual conditions, are presented in Chapters 4 and 5. Finally, the conclusions from this Test Case exercise are given in Chapter 6. General recommendations for the management of this type of Test Case are also included

  4. Strategy for a Rock Mechanics Site Descriptive Model. A test case based on data from the Aespoe HRL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hudson, John A (ed.) [Rock Engineering Consultants, Welwyn Garden City (United Kingdom)

    2002-06-01

    In anticipation of the SKB Site Investigations for radioactive waste disposal, an approach has been developed for the Rock Mechanics Site Descriptive Model. This approach was tested by predicting the rock mechanics properties of a 600 m x 180 m x 120 m rock volume at the Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory (HRL) using limited borehole data of the type typically obtained during a site investigation. These predicted properties were then compared with 'best estimate' properties obtained from a study of the test rock volume using additional information, mainly tunnel data. The exercise was known as the Test Case, and is the subject of this Report. Three modelling techniques were used to predict the rock properties: the 'empirical approach' - the rock properties were estimated using rock mass classification schemes and empirical correlation formulae; the 'theoretical approach' - the rock properties were estimated using numerical modelling techniques; and the 'stress approach' - the rock stress state was estimated using primary data and numerical modelling. These approaches are described separately and respectively. Following an explanation of the context for the Test Case within the strategy for developing the Rock Mechanics Site Descriptive Model, conditions at the Aespoe HRL are described in Chapter 2. The Test Case organization and the suite of nine Protocols used to ensure that the work was appropriately guided and co-ordinated are described in Chapter 3. The methods for predicting the rock properties and the rock stress, and comparisons with the 'best estimate' properties of the actual conditions, are presented in Chapters 4 and 5. Finally, the conclusions from this Test Case exercise are given in Chapter 6. General recommendations for the management of this type of Test Case are also included.

  5. Carbonate rock depositional models: A microfacies approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carozzi, A.V.

    1988-01-01

    Carbonate rocks contain more than 50% by weight carbonate minerals such as calcite, dolomite, and siderite. Understanding how these rocks form can lead to more efficient methods of petroleum exploration. Micofacies analysis techniques can be used as a method of predicting models of sedimentation for carbonate rocks. Micofacies in carbonate rocks can be seen clearly only in thin sections under a microscope. This section analysis of carbonate rocks is a tool that can be used to understand depositional environments, diagenetic evolution of carbonate rocks, and the formation of porosity and permeability in carbonate rocks. The use of micofacies analysis techniques is applied to understanding the origin and formation of carbonate ramps, carbonate platforms, and carbonate slopes and basins. This book will be of interest to students and professionals concerned with the disciplines of sedimentary petrology, sedimentology, petroleum geology, and palentology.

  6. Thermal Inertia of Rocks and Rock Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golombek, M. P.; Jakosky, B. M.; Mellon, M. T.

    2001-01-01

    The effective thermal inertia of rock populations on Mars and Earth is derived from a model of effective inertia versus rock diameter. Results allow a parameterization of the effective rock inertia versus rock abundance and bulk and fine component inertia. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  7. Progress of a Cross-Correlation Based Optical Strain Measurement Technique for Detecting Radial Growth on a Rotating Disk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clem, Michelle M.; Abdul-Aziz, Ali; Woike, Mark R.; Fralick, Gustave C.

    2015-01-01

    The modern turbine engine operates in a harsh environment at high speeds and is repeatedly exposed to combined high mechanical and thermal loads. The cumulative effects of these external forces lead to high stresses and strains on the engine components, such as the rotating turbine disks, which may eventually lead to a catastrophic failure if left undetected. The operating environment makes it difficult to use conventional strain gauges, therefore, non-contact strain measurement techniques is of interest to NASA and the turbine engine community. This presentation describes one such approach; the use of cross correlation analysis to measure strain experienced by the engine turbine disk with the goal of assessing potential faults and damage.

  8. Lead isotope analyses of standard rock samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koide, Yoshiyuki; Nakamura, Eizo

    1990-01-01

    New results on lead isotope compositions of standard rock samples and their analytical procedures are reported. Bromide form anion exchange chromatography technique was adopted for the chemical separation lead from rock samples. The lead contamination during whole analytical procedure was low enough to determine lead isotope composition of common natural rocks. Silica-gel activator method was applied for emission of lead ions in the mass spectrometer. Using the data reduction of 'unfractionated ratios', we obtained good reproducibility, precision and accuracy on lead isotope compositions of NBS SRM. Here we present new reliable lead isotope compositions of GSJ standard rock samples and USGS standard rock, BCR-1. (author)

  9. DIGITAL IMAGE CORRELATION FROM COMMERCIAL TO FOS SOFTWARE: A MATURE TECHNIQUE FOR FULL-FIELD DISPLACEMENT MEASUREMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Belloni

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available In the last few decades, there has been a growing interest in studying non-contact methods for full-field displacement and strain measurement. Among such techniques, Digital Image Correlation (DIC has received particular attention, thanks to its ability to provide these information by comparing digital images of a sample surface before and after deformation. The method is now commonly adopted in the field of civil, mechanical and aerospace engineering and different companies and some research groups implemented 2D and 3D DIC software. In this work a review on DIC software status is given at first. Moreover, a free and open source 2D DIC software is presented, named py2DIC and developed in Python at the Geodesy and Geomatics Division of DICEA of the University of Rome “La Sapienza”; its potentialities were evaluated by processing the images captured during tensile tests performed in the Structural Engineering Lab of the University of Rome “La Sapienza” and comparing them to those obtained using the commercial software Vic-2D developed by Correlated Solutions Inc, USA. The agreement of these results at one hundredth of millimetre level demonstrate the possibility to use this open source software as a valuable 2D DIC tool to measure full-field displacements on the investigated sample surface.

  10. Nuclear techniques and cross-correlation methods for spectral analysis in two-phase flow measurements in mineral pipelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brandao, Luis E.B.; Salgado, Cesar M., E-mail: brandaos@ien.gov.br, E-mail: otero@ien.gov.br [Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (IEN/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Divisao de Radiofarmacos; Sicilliano, Umberto C.C.S., E-mail: umberto.cassara@poli.ufrj.br [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Metalurgia

    2013-07-01

    In mineral industry is common to use water to transport pellets inside pipes. In these units, the correct measurement of flow (both solid and liquid phase) is important to guarantee a safe operation. Cross correlation flow meters are devices specially suited to be used in dual-phase flow and they are based on measure the transit time due the disturbances registered between two points, in our case gamma attenuation from radioactive sources. The emphasis of this work is the application of gamma transmission and scattering technique associated with spectral analysis methods to measure the flow of solid phase in a liquid fluid in side the pipe. The detectors and the sources are out side of the tube and are positioned 10.0 cm distant one from the other. The photons of transmission/scattering gamma radiation were registered, and across-correlation method was applied to measure the flow and spectral analysis was used to study the flow profile inside the pipe. (author)

  11. Summary of the Effort to Use Active-induced Time Correlation Techniques to Measure the Enrichment of HEU

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McConchie, Seth M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Crye, Jason Michael [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Pena, Kirsten [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Sword, Eric [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Mihalczo, John T. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2015-09-30

    This document summarizes the effort to use active-induced time correlation techniques to measure the enrichment of bulk quantities of enriched uranium. In summary, these techniques use an external source to initiate fission chains, and the time distribution of the detected fission chain neutrons is sensitive to the fissile material enrichment. The number of neutrons emitted from a chain is driven by the multiplication of the item, and the enrichment is closely coupled to the multiplication of the item. As the enrichment increases (decreases), the multiplication increases (decreases) if the geometry is held constant. The time distribution of fission chain neutrons is a complex function of the enrichment and material configuration. The enrichment contributes to the probability of a subsequent fission in a chain via the likelihood of fissioning on an even-numbered isotope versus an odd-numbered isotope. The material configuration contributes to the same probability via solid angle effects for neutrons inducing subsequent fissions and the presence of any moderating material. To simplify the ability to accurately measure the enrichment, an associated particle imaging (API) D-T neutron generator and an array of plastic scintillators are used to simultaneously image the item and detect the fission chain neutrons. The image is used to significantly limit the space of enrichment and material configuration and enable the enrichment to be determined unambiguously.

  12. Progress of a Cross-Correlation Based Optical Strain Measurement Technique for Detecting Radial Growth on a Rotating Disk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clem, Michelle M.; Woike, Mark R.; Abdul-Aziz, Ali

    2014-01-01

    The Aeronautical Sciences Project under NASA's Fundamental Aeronautics Program is interested in the development of novel measurement technologies, such as optical surface measurements for the in situ health monitoring of critical constituents of the internal flow path. In situ health monitoring has the potential to detect flaws, i.e. cracks in key components, such as engine turbine disks, before the flaws lead to catastrophic failure. The present study, aims to further validate and develop an optical strain measurement technique to measure the radial growth and strain field of an already cracked disk, mimicking the geometry of a sub-scale turbine engine disk, under loaded conditions in the NASA Glenn Research Center's High Precision Rotordynamics Laboratory. The technique offers potential fault detection by imaging an applied high-contrast random speckle pattern under unloaded and loaded conditions with a CCD camera. Spinning the cracked disk at high speeds (loaded conditions) induces an external load, resulting in a radial growth of the disk of approximately 50.0-µm in the flawed region and hence, a localized strain field. When imaging the cracked disk under static conditions, the disk will be undistorted; however, during rotation the cracked region will grow radially, thus causing the applied particle pattern to be 'shifted'. The resulting particle displacements between the two images is measured using the two-dimensional cross-correlation algorithms implemented in standard Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) software to track the disk growth, which facilitates calculation of the localized strain field. A random particle distribution is adhered onto the surface of the cracked disk and two bench top experiments are carried out to evaluate the technique's ability to measure the induced particle displacements. The disk is shifted manually using a translation stage equipped with a fine micrometer and a hotplate is used to induce thermal growth of the disk, causing the

  13. Water - rock interaction in different rock environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lamminen, S.

    1995-01-01

    The study assesses the groundwater geochemistry and geological environment of 44 study sites for radioactive waste disposal. Initially, the study sites were divided by rock type into 5 groups: (1) acid - intermediate rocks, (2) mafic - ultramafic rocks, (3) gabbros, amphibolites and gneisses that contain calc-silicate (skarn) rocks, (4) carbonates and (5) sandstones. Separate assessments are made of acid - intermediate plutonic rocks and of a subgroup that comprises migmatites, granite and mica gneiss. These all belong to the group of acid - intermediate rocks. Within the mafic -ultramafic rock group, a subgroup that comprises mafic - ultramafic plutonic rocks, serpentinites, mafic - ultramafic volcanic rocks and volcanic - sedimentary schists is also evaluated separately. Bedrock groundwaters are classified by their concentration of total dissolved solids as fresh, brackish, saline, strongly saline and brine-class groundwaters. (75 refs., 24 figs., 3 tabs.)

  14. Phosphorus fertility recapitalization of nutrient-depleted tropical acid soils with reactive phosphate rock: An assessment using the isotopic exchange technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fardeau, J.-C.; Zapata, F.

    2002-01-01

    A 'soil P fertility recapitalization' initiative utilizing large rates of phosphate rocks (PRs) was proposed to improve the soil P status and increase the sustainable food production in acid and P-deficient tropical soils. Two series of experiments were carried out using five tropical acid soils treated with heavy applications of Gafsa phosphate rock (GPR). In the first series, the soils were mixed with GPR at the following application rates: 0, 500, 1000 and 2000 mg P·kg -1 , and incubated for one month in moist conditions. In another series, 1000 mg P kg -1 applied as GPR was added to three soils and incubated for 1.5 month; thereafter 50 mg P kg -1 as triple superphosphate (TSP) were added. The 32 P isotopic exchange method was utilized to assess the contribution of GPR to the available soil P. Changes in amounts, E, of P transferred with time as phosphate ions from the soil particles to the soil solution as well as changes in pH, calcium and phosphate concentrations in soil suspensions were determined. It was found that: (i) the contribution of P from GPR to recapitalization of soil P fertility was mainly assessed by E pool size, pH, calcium and phosphate concentrations; other variables were not significant at the 0.1 level; (ii) heavy applications of GPR did not saturate all the P sorption sites, P freshly applied as water-soluble P was still sorbed; (iii) recapitalization of soil P fertility using GPR was partly obtained in some acid tropical soils; (iv) Upon dissolution, GPR provided calcium ions to crops and to soils, thus reducing Al toxicity, but its liming effect was limited. To explain these effects with heavy application rates of GPR, it was postulated that a coating of Al and Fe compounds is formed around PR particles with time, thus reducing further dissolution. (author)

  15. Detrital zircon and igneous protolith ages of high-grade metamorphic rocks in the Highland and Wanni Complexes, Sri Lanka: Their geochronological correlation with southern India and East Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitano, Ippei; Osanai, Yasuhito; Nakano, Nobuhiko; Adachi, Tatsuro; Fitzsimons, Ian C. W.

    2018-05-01

    The high-grade metamorphic rocks of Sri Lanka place valuable constraints on the assembly of central parts of the Gondwana supercontinent. They are subdivided into the Wanni Complex (WC), Highland Complex (HC) and Vijayan Complex (VC), but their correlation with neighbouring Gondwana terranes is hindered by a poor understanding of the contact between the HC and WC. Laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) U-Pb dating of remnant zircon cores from 45 high-grade metamorphic rocks in Sri Lanka reveals two domains with different age characteristics that correlate with the HC and WC and which help constrain the location of the boundary between them. The HC is dominated by detrital zircon ages of ca. 3500-1500 Ma from garnet-biotite gneiss, garnet-cordierite-biotite gneiss, some samples of garnet-orthopyroxene-biotite gneiss and siliceous gneiss (interpreted as paragneisses) and igneous protolith ages of ca. 2000-1800 Ma from garnet-hornblende-biotite gneiss, other samples of garnet-orthopyroxene-biotite gneiss, garnet-two-pyroxene granulite, two-pyroxene granulite and charnockite (interpreted as orthogneisses). In contrast, the WC is dominated by detrital zircon ages of ca. 1100-700 Ma from paragneisses and igneous protolith ages of ca. 1100-800 Ma from orthogneisses. This clearly suggests the HC and WC have different origins, but some of our results and previous data indicate their spatial distribution does not correspond exactly to the unit boundary proposed in earlier studies using Nd model ages. Detrital zircon and igneous protolith ages in the HC suggest that sedimentary protoliths were eroded from local 2000-1800 Ma igneous rocks and an older Paleoproterozoic to Archean craton. In contrast, the WC sedimentary protoliths were mainly eroded from local late Mesoproterozoic to Neoproterozoic igneous rocks with very minor components from an older 2500-1500 Ma craton, and in the case of the WC precursor sediments there was possibly

  16. Visualization and Analysis of Wireless Sensor Network Data for Smart Civil Structure Applications Based On Spatial Correlation Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhry, Bhawani Shankar; White, Neil M.; Jeswani, Jai Kumar; Dayo, Khalil; Rathi, Manorma

    2009-07-01

    Disasters affecting infrastructure, such as the 2001 earthquakes in India, 2005 in Pakistan, 2008 in China and the 2004 tsunami in Asia, provide a common need for intelligent buildings and smart civil structures. Now, imagine massive reductions in time to get the infrastructure working again, realtime information on damage to buildings, massive reductions in cost and time to certify that structures are undamaged and can still be operated, reductions in the number of structures to be rebuilt (if they are known not to be damaged). Achieving these ideas would lead to huge, quantifiable, long-term savings to government and industry. Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) can be deployed in buildings to make any civil structure both smart and intelligent. WSNs have recently gained much attention in both public and research communities because they are expected to bring a new paradigm to the interaction between humans, environment, and machines. This paper presents the deployment of WSN nodes in the Top Quality Centralized Instrumentation Centre (TQCIC). We created an ad hoc networking application to collect real-time data sensed from the nodes that were randomly distributed throughout the building. If the sensors are relocated, then the application automatically reconfigures itself in the light of the new routing topology. WSNs are event-based systems that rely on the collective effort of several micro-sensor nodes, which are continuously observing a physical phenomenon. WSN applications require spatially dense sensor deployment in order to achieve satisfactory coverage. The degree of spatial correlation increases with the decreasing inter-node separation. Energy consumption is reduced dramatically by having only those sensor nodes with unique readings transmit their data. We report on an algorithm based on a spatial correlation technique that assures high QoS (in terms of SNR) of the network as well as proper utilization of energy, by suppressing redundant data transmission

  17. Empirical correlation among the dynamic elastic constants and the waves P and S velocities in rocks; Correlaciones empiricas entre las constantes elasticas dinamicas y las velocidades de las ondas P y S de las rocas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Contreras Lopez, Enrique [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1995-12-31

    Departing from the analysis of a data base on the velocities of the compression waves (V{sub p}) and the transverse waves (V{sub s}) in a group of 97 specimens of sedimentary, igneous and metamorphic rocks, the existence of four types of empirical correlation very well entailed between the dynamic elastic constants and the velocities V{sub p} and V{sub s}. These correlation allow the estimation with a very close approximation the elastic dynamic constants without the need of having available of the complete set of data (V{sub p}, V{sub s} and total density) that is normally required for its determination. The identified correlation is mathematically expressed by means of adjustment equations that reproduce in all of the cases the experimental values with a standard error of estimation within 10%, for the universe of rocks studied and with much less error for different specific lithological groups. The application methodologies of the correlation found for different cases of practical interest, are described. [Espanol] A partir del analisis de una base de datos experimentales sobre la velocidad de las ondas compresionales (V{sub p}) y de las ondas transversales (V{sub s}) de un conjunto de 97 especimenes de rocas sedimentarias, igneas y metamorficas, se identifica la existencia de cuatro tipos de correlaciones empiricas muy bien comportadas entre las constantes elasticas dinamicas y las velocidades V{sub p} y V{sub s}. Estas correlaciones permiten estimar con muy buena aproximacion las constantes elasticas dinamicas de las rocas sin tener que disponer del conjunto completo de datos (V{sub p}, V{sub s} y densidad total) que normalmente se requieren para su determinacion. Las correlaciones identificadas se expresan matematicamente mediante ecuaciones de ajuste que reproducen en todos los casos los valores experimentales con un error estandar de estimacion dentro de 10% para el universo de las rocas estudiadas, y con mucho menor error para diferentes grupos litologicos

  18. Empirical correlation among the dynamic elastic constants and the waves P and S velocities in rocks; Correlaciones empiricas entre las constantes elasticas dinamicas y las velocidades de las ondas P y S de las rocas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Contreras Lopez, Enrique [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1996-12-31

    Departing from the analysis of a data base on the velocities of the compression waves (V{sub p}) and the transverse waves (V{sub s}) in a group of 97 specimens of sedimentary, igneous and metamorphic rocks, the existence of four types of empirical correlation very well entailed between the dynamic elastic constants and the velocities V{sub p} and V{sub s}. These correlation allow the estimation with a very close approximation the elastic dynamic constants without the need of having available of the complete set of data (V{sub p}, V{sub s} and total density) that is normally required for its determination. The identified correlation is mathematically expressed by means of adjustment equations that reproduce in all of the cases the experimental values with a standard error of estimation within 10%, for the universe of rocks studied and with much less error for different specific lithological groups. The application methodologies of the correlation found for different cases of practical interest, are described. [Espanol] A partir del analisis de una base de datos experimentales sobre la velocidad de las ondas compresionales (V{sub p}) y de las ondas transversales (V{sub s}) de un conjunto de 97 especimenes de rocas sedimentarias, igneas y metamorficas, se identifica la existencia de cuatro tipos de correlaciones empiricas muy bien comportadas entre las constantes elasticas dinamicas y las velocidades V{sub p} y V{sub s}. Estas correlaciones permiten estimar con muy buena aproximacion las constantes elasticas dinamicas de las rocas sin tener que disponer del conjunto completo de datos (V{sub p}, V{sub s} y densidad total) que normalmente se requieren para su determinacion. Las correlaciones identificadas se expresan matematicamente mediante ecuaciones de ajuste que reproducen en todos los casos los valores experimentales con un error estandar de estimacion dentro de 10% para el universo de las rocas estudiadas, y con mucho menor error para diferentes grupos litologicos

  19. CERN Rocks

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    The 15th CERN Hardronic Festival took place on 17 July on the terrace of Rest 3 (Prévessin). Over 1000 people, from CERN and other International Organizations, came to enjoy the warm summer night, and to watch the best of the World's High Energy music. Jazz, rock, pop, country, metal, blues, funk and punk blasted out from 9 bands from the CERN Musiclub and Jazz club, alternating on two stages in a non-stop show.  The night reached its hottest point when The Canettes Blues Band got everybody dancing to sixties R&B tunes (pictured). Meanwhile, the bars and food vans were working at full capacity, under the expert management of the CERN Softball club, who were at the same time running a Softball tournament in the adjacent "Higgs Field". The Hardronic Festival is the main yearly CERN music event, and it is organized with the support of the Staff Association and the CERN Administration.

  20. Interferenceless coded aperture correlation holography-a new technique for recording incoherent digital holograms without two-wave interference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijayakumar, A; Rosen, Joseph

    2017-06-12

    Recording digital holograms without wave interference simplifies the optical systems, increases their power efficiency and avoids complicated aligning procedures. We propose and demonstrate a new technique of digital hologram acquisition without two-wave interference. Incoherent light emitted from an object propagates through a random-like coded phase mask and recorded directly without interference by a digital camera. In the training stage of the system, a point spread hologram (PSH) is first recorded by modulating the light diffracted from a point object by the coded phase masks. At least two different masks should be used to record two different intensity distributions at all possible axial locations. The various recorded patterns at every axial location are superposed in the computer to obtain a complex valued PSH library cataloged to its axial location. Following the training stage, an object is placed within the axial boundaries of the PSH library and the light diffracted from the object is once again modulated by the same phase masks. The intensity patterns are recorded and superposed exactly as the PSH to yield a complex hologram of the object. The object information at any particular plane is reconstructed by a cross-correlation between the complex valued hologram and the appropriate element of the PSH library. The characteristics and the performance of the proposed system were compared with an equivalent regular imaging system.

  1. Rock glaciers in the Pyrenees, Spain and France, Version 1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This study and inventory of active rock glaciers was carried out by means of the usual techniques used in the study of alpine permafrost. First, the rock glaciers...

  2. Evaluation of the availability of phosphorus from decalcium phosphate and rock phosphates from Patos de Minas, Tapira and Finos de Tapira for sheep, by the isotope dilution technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vitti, D.M.S.S.

    1989-01-01

    'In vitro' and 'in vivo' assays were carried out to determine the phosphorus availability from dicalcium phosphate and rock phosphates from Patos de Minas, Tapira and Finos de Tapira. Twenty four male sheep, with 40 kg live weight, were assigned to three groups of eight animals each. The animals were housed individually in metabolism cages and received a diet containing cassava meal, urea, molasses, soybean meal and mineral mixture. Phosphate sources were added to give 4 g of phosphorus per animal per day. After two weeks on the experimental diet each sheep was injected intravenously with 200 μCi of 32 P (Na 2 HPO 4 ). Blood samples were collected from the jugular vein at 24 hs intervals for 8 days. The daily fecal outputs were collected for 8 days and sampled. The specific activities of plasma and feces were determined and the fecal endogenous loss and true phosphorus absorption were calculated. For 'in vitro' assay, rumen samples were collected from a fistulated steer and aliquots were incubated with 0.1 μCi 32 P (Na 2 HPO 4 ) in a medium containing the phosphorus sources. After centrifugation microorganisms were separated and phosphorus incorporation determined. The true absorption values were 58.92; 50.85; 47.99 and 42.72% for dicalcium phosphate, Finos de Tapira, Tapira and Patos, respectively. Dicalcium phosphate showed higher availability (P [pt

  3. A new technique for quantifying symmetry and opening angles in quartz c-axis pole figures: Implications for interpreting the kinematic and thermal properties of rocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, N. J. R.; Weinberg, R. F.; Wilson, C. J. L.; Law, R. D.

    2018-07-01

    Variations in flow kinematics influence the type of crystallographic preferred orientations (CPOs) in plastically deformed quartz, yet we currently lack a robust means of quantifying the diagnostic symmetries that develop in the c-axis (0001) pole figure. In this contribution, we demonstrate how the symmetry of common c-axis topologies may be quantified by analysing the intensity distribution across a line transect of the pole figure margin. A symmetry value (S) measures the relative difference in intensities between marginal girdle maxima in the pole figure, and thus the degree to which the pole figure defines orthorhombic or monoclinic end member symmetries. This provides a semi-quantitative depiction of whether the rocks underwent coaxial or non-coaxial flow, respectively, and may subsequently be used to quantify other topological properties, such as the opening angle of girdle maxima. The open source Matlab® toolbox MTEX is used to quantify pole figure symmetries in quartzite samples from the Main Central Thrust (NW Himalaya) and the Moine Thrust (NW Scotland).

  4. Geogas transport in fractured hard rockCorrelations with mining seismicity at 3.54 km depth, TauTona gold mine, South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lippmann-Pipke, Johanna; Erzinger, Jörg; Zimmer, Martin; Kujawa, Christian; Boettcher, Margaret; Heerden, Esta Van; Bester, Armand; Moller, Hannes; Stroncik, Nicole A.; Reches, Zeev

    2011-01-01

    An on-site gas monitoring study has been conducted in the framework of an earthquake laboratory (The International NELSAM–DAFGAS projects) at the TauTona gold mine, South Africa. Five boreholes up to 60 m long were drilled at 3.54 km depth into the highly fractured Pretorius Fault Zone and instruments for chemical and seismic monitoring installed therein. Over the span of 4 years sensitive gas monitoring devices were continuously improved to enable the direct observation of geogas concentration variations in the DAFGAS borehole. The major gas concentrations are constant and air-like with about 78% N 2 , 21% O 2 , 1% Ar. The geogas components CO 2 , CH 4 , He and H 2 show the most interesting trends and variations on the minute-by-minute basis and significantly correlate with seismic data, while the 222 Rn activity remains constant. Time series and cross correlation analysis allow the identification of different gas components (geogas and tunnel air) and the identification of two processes influencing the borehole gas composition: (1) pumping-induced tunnel air breakthrough through networks of initially water-saturated fault fractures; and (2) seismicity induced permeability enhancement of fault fractures to above ∼5 × 10 -10 m 2 . The current set-up of the gas monitoring system is sensitive enough to quantify the resulting geogas transport during periods of intense blasting activities (including recorded blasts with seismic moment ⩽1 × 10 9 Nm, located within 1000 m of the cubby) and, it is suggested, also during induced earthquakes, a final goal of the project.

  5. Strategy for a Rock Mechanics Site Descriptive Model. Development and testing of the empirical approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roeshoff, Kennert; Lanaro, Flavio; Lanru Jing

    2002-05-01

    This report presents the results of one part of a wide project for the determination of a methodology for the determination of the rock mechanics properties of the rock mass for the so-called Aespoe Test Case. The Project consists of three major parts: the empirical part dealing with the characterisation of the rock mass by applying empirical methods, a part determining the rock mechanics properties of the rock mass through numerical modelling, and a third part carrying out numerical modelling for the determination of the stress state at Aespoe. All Project's parts were performed based on a limited amount of data about the geology and mechanical tests on samples selected from the Aespoe Database. This Report only considers the empirical approach. The purpose of the project is the development of a descriptive rock mechanics model for SKBs rock mass investigations for a final repository site. The empirical characterisation of the rock mass provides correlations with some of the rock mechanics properties of the rock mass such as the deformation modulus, the friction angle and cohesion for a certain stress interval and the uniaxial compressive strength. For the characterisation of the rock mass, several empirical methods were analysed and reviewed. Among those methods, some were chosen because robust, applicable and widespread in modern rock mechanics. Major weight was given to the well-known Tunnel Quality Index (Q) and Rock Mass Rating (RMR) but also the Rock Mass Index (RMi), the Geological Strength Index (GSI) and Ramamurthy's Criterion were applied for comparison with the two classical methods. The process of: i) sorting the geometrical/geological/rock mechanics data, ii) identifying homogeneous rock volumes, iii) determining the input parameters for the empirical ratings for rock mass characterisation; iv) evaluating the mechanical properties by using empirical relations with the rock mass ratings; was considered. By comparing the methodologies involved by the

  6. Strategy for a Rock Mechanics Site Descriptive Model. Development and testing of the empirical approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roeshoff, Kennert; Lanaro, Flavio [Berg Bygg Konsult AB, Stockholm (Sweden); Lanru Jing [Royal Inst. of Techn., Stockholm (Sweden). Div. of Engineering Geology

    2002-05-01

    This report presents the results of one part of a wide project for the determination of a methodology for the determination of the rock mechanics properties of the rock mass for the so-called Aespoe Test Case. The Project consists of three major parts: the empirical part dealing with the characterisation of the rock mass by applying empirical methods, a part determining the rock mechanics properties of the rock mass through numerical modelling, and a third part carrying out numerical modelling for the determination of the stress state at Aespoe. All Project's parts were performed based on a limited amount of data about the geology and mechanical tests on samples selected from the Aespoe Database. This Report only considers the empirical approach. The purpose of the project is the development of a descriptive rock mechanics model for SKBs rock mass investigations for a final repository site. The empirical characterisation of the rock mass provides correlations with some of the rock mechanics properties of the rock mass such as the deformation modulus, the friction angle and cohesion for a certain stress interval and the uniaxial compressive strength. For the characterisation of the rock mass, several empirical methods were analysed and reviewed. Among those methods, some were chosen because robust, applicable and widespread in modern rock mechanics. Major weight was given to the well-known Tunnel Quality Index (Q) and Rock Mass Rating (RMR) but also the Rock Mass Index (RMi), the Geological Strength Index (GSI) and Ramamurthy's Criterion were applied for comparison with the two classical methods. The process of: i) sorting the geometrical/geological/rock mechanics data, ii) identifying homogeneous rock volumes, iii) determining the input parameters for the empirical ratings for rock mass characterisation; iv) evaluating the mechanical properties by using empirical relations with the rock mass ratings; was considered. By comparing the methodologies involved

  7. Davisson-Germer Prize in Atomic or Surface Physics: The COLTRIMS multi-particle imaging technique-new Insight into the World of Correlation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt-Bocking, Horst

    2008-05-01

    The correlated many-particle dynamics in Coulombic systems, which is one of the unsolved fundamental problems in AMO-physics, can now be experimentally approached with so far unprecedented completeness and precision. The recent development of the COLTRIMS technique (COLd Target Recoil Ion Momentum Spectroscopy) provides a coincident multi-fragment imaging technique for eV and sub-eV fragment detection. In its completeness it is as powerful as the bubble chamber in high energy physics. In recent benchmark experiments quasi snapshots (duration as short as an atto-sec) of the correlated dynamics between electrons and nuclei has been made for atomic and molecular objects. This new imaging technique has opened a powerful observation window into the hidden world of many-particle dynamics. Recent multiple-ionization studies will be presented and the observation of correlated electron pairs will be discussed.

  8. Rollerjaw Rock Crusher

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Gregory; Brown, Kyle; Fuerstenau, Stephen

    2009-01-01

    The rollerjaw rock crusher melds the concepts of jaw crushing and roll crushing long employed in the mining and rock-crushing industries. Rollerjaw rock crushers have been proposed for inclusion in geological exploration missions on Mars, where they would be used to pulverize rock samples into powders in the tens of micrometer particle size range required for analysis by scientific instruments.

  9. Overview of frequency bandwidth determination techniques of useful signal in case of leaks detection by correlation method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faerman, V A; Avramchuk, V S; Luneva, E E

    2014-01-01

    In this paper an overview of useful signal detection methods on the background of intense noise and limits determination methods of useful signal is presented. The following features are considered: peculiarities of usage of correlation analysis, cross-amplitude spectrum, coherence function, cross-phase spectrum, time-frequency correlation function in case of frequency limits determination as well as leaks detection in pipelines. The possibility of using time-frequency correlation function for solving above named issues is described. Time- frequency correlation function provides information about the signals correlation for each of the investigated frequency bands. Data about location of peaks on the surface plot of a time- frequency correlation function allows making an assumption about the spectral composition of useful signal and its frequency boundaries

  10. Fast-GPU-PCC: A GPU-Based Technique to Compute Pairwise Pearson's Correlation Coefficients for Time Series Data-fMRI Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eslami, Taban; Saeed, Fahad

    2018-04-20

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is a non-invasive brain imaging technique, which has been regularly used for studying brain’s functional activities in the past few years. A very well-used measure for capturing functional associations in brain is Pearson’s correlation coefficient. Pearson’s correlation is widely used for constructing functional network and studying dynamic functional connectivity of the brain. These are useful measures for understanding the effects of brain disorders on connectivities among brain regions. The fMRI scanners produce huge number of voxels and using traditional central processing unit (CPU)-based techniques for computing pairwise correlations is very time consuming especially when large number of subjects are being studied. In this paper, we propose a graphics processing unit (GPU)-based algorithm called Fast-GPU-PCC for computing pairwise Pearson’s correlation coefficient. Based on the symmetric property of Pearson’s correlation, this approach returns N ( N − 1 ) / 2 correlation coefficients located at strictly upper triangle part of the correlation matrix. Storing correlations in a one-dimensional array with the order as proposed in this paper is useful for further usage. Our experiments on real and synthetic fMRI data for different number of voxels and varying length of time series show that the proposed approach outperformed state of the art GPU-based techniques as well as the sequential CPU-based versions. We show that Fast-GPU-PCC runs 62 times faster than CPU-based version and about 2 to 3 times faster than two other state of the art GPU-based methods.

  11. Fracture characteristics in Japanese rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ijiri, Yuji; Sawada, Atsushi; Akahori, Kuniaki

    1999-11-01

    It is crucial for the performance assessment of geosphere to evaluate the characteristics of fractures that can be dominant radionuclide migration pathways from a repository to biosphere. This report summarizes the characteristics of fractures obtained from broad literature surveys and the fields surveys at the Kamaishi mine in northern Japan and at outcrops and galleries throughout the country. The characteristics of fractures described in this report are fracture orientation, fracture shape, fracture frequency, fracture distribution in space, transmissivity of fracture, fracture aperture, fracture fillings, alteration halo along fracture, flow-wetted surface area in fracture, and the correlation among these characteristics. Since granitic rock is considered the archetype fractured media, a large amount of fracture data is available in literature. In addition, granitic rock has been treated as a potential host rock in many overseas programs, and has JNC performed a number of field observations and experiments in granodiorite at the Kamaishi mine. Therefore, the characteristics of fractures in granitic rock are qualitatively and quantitatively clarified to some extent in this report, while the characteristics of fractures in another rock types are not clarified. (author)

  12. The use of 32P radioisotope techniques for evaluating the relative agronomic effectiveness of phosphate rock materials in a soybean-maize crop rotation in acid soils of Thailand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahisarakul, J.; Pakkong, P.

    2002-01-01

    A series of greenhouse experiments was conducted over three years to evaluate the relative agronomic effectiveness (RAE) of phosphate rock materials in a soybean - maize crop sequence, using 32 P isotope dilution techniques. For the first two years, the crops were grown in a pot experiment in four acid soils of Thailand. In the first year, four increasing rates of TSP and one rate of four phosphate rocks (PRs) were used. The PRs used were Algerian PR, North Carolina PR, Petchaburi PR, and Ratchaburi PR. Soybean did not respond to P application from TSP, while there was good response in maize which was planted after soybean (1st residual effect). The percent P derived from TSP or PR fertilizer (%Pdff) had the following order: Warin soil > Mae Tang soil > Rangsit soil > Pakchong soil for soybean and Warin soil > Pakchong soil > Rangsit soil > Mae Tang soil for maize. In the second year, the soybean - maize rotation was replanted to study the residual effect of TSP and PRs, both applied at 180 mg P kg -1 . No significant response of soybean and maize to TSP was found in terms of dry matter yield. In terms of %Pdff and %RAE the soils ranked as follows: Rangsit soil > Pakchong soil Mae Tang soil > Warin soil for soybean and Warin soil > Rangsit soil > Mae Tang > Pakchong soil for maize. Both crops absorbed more P from TSP than from PRs. The %RAE in the 2nd year experiment was higher than %RAE in the 1st year In the third year, TSP and two PRs were applied at one P rate to Pakchong and Warin soils. The applied PRs were North Carolina PR (NCPR) and Lamphun phosphate rock (LPPR). PRs were applied either alone or in combination with TSP (50:50). Soybean was planted first, followed by maize. The P-response in terms of dry matter yield and %Pdff was highly significant in both soils. The RAE ranked as follows: TSP > NCPR + TSP > LPPR + TSP > NCPR > LPPR. Maize showed the same trend in RAE as soybean in both soils. The RAE for both crops was highest in Warin soil. (author)

  13. The use of 32P dilution techniques to evaluate the effect of mycorrhizal inoculation on plant uptake of P from products of fermentation mixtures including agrowastes, Aspergillus niger and rock phosphate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vassilev, N.; Vassileva, M.; Azcon, R.; Barea, J.-M.

    2002-01-01

    Some microorganisms, such as filamentous fungi, are capable of solubilizing rock phosphate products, which are a less costly alternative to conventional P fertilizers used so far in agriculture. However, metabolizable C compounds must be supplied to the microbes to solubilize rock phosphate (RP). On another hand, huge quantities of organic materials are produced by cultivated plants every year and their residues became agrowastes, which may often pose significant environmental problems. An attractive approach to solubilize RP would therefore, be the application of microorganisms possessing a high acid-producing activity in fermentation processes based on agrowastes. In this context, Aspergillus niger was successfully cultivated on sugar beet (SB) waste material supplemented with 3.0 g/l RP acidifying the medium by releasing citric acid and thus decreasing the pH to 3.0-3.5. At the end of the solid-state fermentation process, the product contained mineralized (69%) organic matter, RP solubilized to 224 μg/ml and fungal mycelium. A series of microcosms greenhouse experiments were then carried out aimed at evaluating the effectiveness of such product, added at a rate of 5% (v/v), to a neutral, calcareous, P-deficient soil. Clover (Trifolium repens) inoculated or not with an arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus, was the test plant. It was shown that the product improved plant growth and P acquisition. Mycorrhizal inoculation further enhanced the effectiveness of the fermentation product. The use of the isotopic 32 P dilution technique showed a lowering of the specific activity of the treated plants, thus indicating that plants benefited from P solublilized from RP by the microbial treatments applied in this experiment. The reported biotechnological approach offers a potential application for sustainability purposes. (author)

  14. Rb/Sr dating of rock samples from Antarctica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, A.; Awan, M.A.; Mehjabeen, A.; Jabeen, N.; Majid, C.A.

    1996-01-01

    Soon after the discovery of radioactivity in 1896 by Becquerel, the phenomenon was applied to geochronology. From 1902 onwards, rapid advances were made in this field of science. Using radiometric techniques of Rb/Sr the whole rock granitic pegmatite samples from two localities in the North Eastern Antarctica have been dated. The rock samples have yielded Rb/Sr ages around 200 nd 173 million year. The ages around 200 million year have been correlated to the orogenic/epeirogenic activities associated with the breaking up of the Pangaea which led to the dispersion of the continents to form Gondwanaland and Laurasia which subsequently gave rise to the present day configuration of the globe. The younger age of 173 million year corresponds to Jurassic dole rites from Western queens Maud Land and other areas of Antarctica. (author)

  15. Hot dry rock heat mining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duchane, D.V.

    1992-01-01

    Geothermal energy utilizing fluids from natural sources is currently exploited on a commercial scale at sites around the world. A much greater geothermal resource exists, however, in the form of hot rock at depth which is essentially dry. This hot dry rock (HDR) resource is found almost everywhere, but the depth at which usefully high temperatures are reached varies from place to place. The technology to mine the thermal energy from HDR has been under development for a number of years. Using techniques adapted from the petroleum industry, water is pumped at high pressure down an injection well to a region of usefully hot rock. The pressure forces open natural joints to form a reservoir consisting of a small amount of water dispensed in a large volume of hot rock. This reservoir is tapped by second well located at some distance from the first, and the heated water is brought to the surface where its thermal energy is extracted. The same water is then recirculated to mine more heat. Economic studies have indicated that it may be possible to produce electricity at competitive prices today in regions where hot rock is found relatively close to the surface

  16. Rocks Can Wow? Yes, Rocks Can Wow!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardman, Sally; Luke, Sue

    2016-01-01

    Rocks and fossils appear in the National Curriculum of England science programmes of study for children in year 3 (ages 7-8). A frequently asked question is "How do you make the classification of rocks engaging?" In response to this request from a school, a set of interactive activities was designed and organised by tutors and students…

  17. The use of isotopic correlation technique for determination of sup(241)Am and sup(243)Am concentration in nuclear irradiated fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza Sarkis, J.E. de.

    1990-01-01

    In the last years the isotopic correlation technique is emerging as a powerful tool for the determination of concentration and isotopic composition of heavy nuclides in the nuclear fuel cycle. Accordingly, this technique has gained significant importance for the safeguard of the nuclear materials as well as for the accounting and build up of actinides elements in the irradiated nuclear fuels. In this work 42 isotopic correlations between the nuclides sup(241)Am and sup(243)Am and post irradiation isotopic data of 7 samples from fuel element BE-124 and 1 sample from fuel element BE-120 from the Obrigheim pressurized water nuclear power reactor, Federal Republic of Germany, were proposed. These isotopic correlations allowed to estimate the isotopic concentrations of sup(241)Am and sup(243)Am with an average deviation, relative to the experimental data obtained from isotopic dilution mass spectrometry technique, of 10%. These results are more precise than those found using the computer code ORIGEN 2 demonstrating the great potential of this technique for the determination of isotopic concentration and build up of those nuclides in irradiated nuclear fuels. The analytical and other experimental aspects of the post irradiation isotopic analysis of nuclear fuels are also discussed. (author)

  18. Rock slope design guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-01

    This Manual is intended to provide guidance for the design of rock cut slopes, rockfall catchment, and : rockfall controls. Recommendations presented in this manual are based on research presented in Shakoor : and Admassu (2010) entitled Rock Slop...

  19. Rock Slope Design Criteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    Based on the stratigraphy and the type of slope stability problems, the flat lying, Paleozoic age, sedimentary : rocks of Ohio were divided into three design units: 1) competent rock design unit consisting of sandstones, limestones, : and siltstones ...

  20. The Rock Cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Raman J.; Bushee, Jonathan

    1977-01-01

    Presents a rock cycle diagram suitable for use at the secondary or introductory college levels which separates rocks formed on and below the surface, includes organic materials, and separates products from processes. (SL)

  1. Determination of fluorine by proton induced gamma ray emission (PIGE) spectrometry in igneous and metamorphic charnockitic rocks from Rogaland (S.W. Norway)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roelandts, I.; Robaye, G.; Weber, G.; Delbrouck, J.M.; Duchesne, J.C.

    1986-01-01

    More than 200 specimens from different occurrences of the Rogaland igneous complex and surrounding granulite facies metamorphic rocks (S.W. Norway) have been analysed by a direct non-destructive proton induced gamma ray emission (PIGE) technique. The fluorine contents vary from < 25 ppm to 3500 ppm. There is a good correlation between the concentration of fluorine and that of phosphorus for igneous rocks, suggesting a control of apatite on the F content. In metamorphic rocks, amphibole and biotite besides apatite are the principal concentrations of fluorine indicating that fluorine in the system is controlled by granulite facies metamorphism conditions. (author)

  2. Integration of rock typing methods for carbonate reservoir characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aliakbardoust, E; Rahimpour-Bonab, H

    2013-01-01

    Reservoir rock typing is the most important part of all reservoir modelling. For integrated reservoir rock typing, static and dynamic properties need to be combined, but sometimes these two are incompatible. The failure is due to the misunderstanding of the crucial parameters that control the dynamic behaviour of the reservoir rock and thus selecting inappropriate methods for defining static rock types. In this study, rock types were defined by combining the SCAL data with the rock properties, particularly rock fabric and pore types. First, air-displacing-water capillary pressure curues were classified because they are representative of fluid saturation and behaviour under capillary forces. Next the most important rock properties which control the fluid flow and saturation behaviour (rock fabric and pore types) were combined with defined classes. Corresponding petrophysical properties were also attributed to reservoir rock types and eventually, defined rock types were compared with relative permeability curves. This study focused on representing the importance of the pore system, specifically pore types in fluid saturation and entrapment in the reservoir rock. The most common tests in static rock typing, such as electrofacies analysis and porosity–permeability correlation, were carried out and the results indicate that these are not appropriate approaches for reservoir rock typing in carbonate reservoirs with a complicated pore system. (paper)

  3. Kimberley rock art dating project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walsh, G.L.; Morwood, M.

    1997-01-01

    The art's additional value, unequalled by traditionally recognised artefacts, is its permanent pictorial documentation presenting a 'window' into the otherwise intangible elements of perceptions, vision and mind of pre-historic cultures. Unfortunately it's potential in establishing Kimberley archaeological 'big picture' still remains largely unrecognised. Some of findings of the Kimberley Rock Art Dating Project, using AMS and optical stimulated luminescence (OSL) dating techniques, are outlined. It is estimated that these findings will encourage involvement by a greater diversity of specialist disciplines to tie findings into levels of this art sequence as a primary reference point. The sequence represents a sound basis for selecting specific defined images for targeting detailed studies by a range of dating technique. This effectively removes the undesirable ad hoc sampling of 'apparently old paintings'; a process which must unavoidably remain the case with researchers working on most global bodies of rock art

  4. Measurements of thermal properties of rocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumada, Toshiaki

    2001-02-01

    The report concerns the measurement of thermal conductivity and specific heat of supplied sedimental rock B and Funyu rock. The method of measurement of these properties was done with the method which was developed at 1997 and improved much in its accuracy by the present author et al. The porosity of sedimental rock B is 0.55, which is deduced from the density of rock (the porosity deduced from the difference between dry and water filled conditions is 0.42) and the shape and size of pores in rock are much different. Its thermal conductivity is 0.238 W/mK in dry and 1.152 W/mK in water filled conditions respectively, while the thermal conductivity of bentonite is 0.238 W/mK in dry and 1.152 W/mK in water saturated conditions. The difference of thermal conductivity between dry and water saturated conditions is little difference in sedimental rock B and bentonite at same porosity. The porosity of Funyu rock is 0.26 and the shape and size of pores in the rock are uniform. Its thermal conductivity is 0.914 W/mK in dry and 1.405 W/mK in water saturated conditions, while the thermal conductivity of bentonite is 0.606 W/mK in dry and 1.591 W/mK in water saturated conditions respectively. The correlation estimating thermal conductivity of rocks was derived based on Fricke correlation by presuming rocks as a suspension. (author)

  5. Correlation of Self Potential and Ground Magnetic Survey Techniques to Investigate Fluid Seepage in Archaeological site, Sungai Batu, Lembah Bujang, Kedah, Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Tajudeen O. Adeeko; Nordiana M. Muztaza; Taqiuddin M. Zakaria; Nurina Ismail

    2018-01-01

    One of the substantial of geophysics is to investigate the subsurface condition of the earth (groundwater) using appropriate geophysical techniques. In this research the correlation of self potential (SP) and ground magnetic methods was used to investigate fluid seepage in Archaeological site, Sungai Batu, Lembah Bujang, Kedah, Malaysia. Self-potential method was used to determine flow of water, and Ground magnetic method was used to find object that can influence the result of self potential...

  6. Rock History and Culture

    OpenAIRE

    Gonzalez, Éric

    2013-01-01

    Two ambitious works written by French-speaking scholars tackle rock music as a research object, from different but complementary perspectives. Both are a definite must-read for anyone interested in the contextualisation of rock music in western popular culture. In Une histoire musicale du rock (i.e. A Musical History of Rock), rock music is approached from the point of view of the people – musicians and industry – behind the music. Christophe Pirenne endeavours to examine that field from a m...

  7. Wettability of Oil-Producing Reservoir Rocks as Determined from X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toledo; Araujo; Leon

    1996-11-10

    Wettability has a dominant effect in oil recovery by waterflooding and in many other processes of industrial and environmental interest. Recently, the suggestion has been made that surface science analytical techniques (SSAT) could be used to rapidly determine the wettability of reservoir materials. Here, we bring the capability of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) to bear on the wettability evaluation of producing reservoir rocks. For a suite of freshly exposed fracture surfaces of rocks we investigate the relationship between wettability and surface composition as determined from XPS. The classical wettability index as measured with the Amott-Harvey test is used here as an indicator of the wettability of natural sandstones. The XPS spectra of oil-wet surfaces of rocks reveal the existence of organic carbon and also of an "organic" silicon species, of the kind Si-CH relevant to silanes, having a well-defined binding energy which differs from that of the Si-O species of mineral grains. We provide quantifiable evidence that chemisorbed organic material on the pore surfaces defines the oil-wetting character of various reservoir sandstones studied here which on a mineralogic basis are expected to be water-wet. This view is supported by a strong correlation between C content of pore surfaces and rock wettability. The results also suggest a correlation between organic silicon content on the pore surfaces and rock hydrophobicity.

  8. Development of comprehensive image processing technique for differential diagnosis of liver disease by using multi-modality images. Pixel-based cross-correlation method using a profile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inoue, Akira; Okura, Yasuhiko; Akiyama, Mitoshi; Ishida, Takayuki; Kawashita, Ikuo; Ito, Katsuyoshi; Matsunaga, Naofumi; Sanada, Taizo

    2009-01-01

    Imaging techniques such as high magnetic field imaging and multidetector-row CT have been markedly improved recently. The final image-reading systems easily produce more than a thousand diagnostic images per patient. Therefore, we developed a comprehensive cross-correlation processing technique using multi-modality images, in order to decrease the considerable time and effort involved in the interpretation of a radiogram (multi-formatted display and/or stack display method, etc). In this scheme, the criteria of an attending radiologist for the differential diagnosis of liver cyst, hemangioma of liver, hepatocellular carcinoma, and metastatic liver cancer on magnetic resonance images with various sequences and CT images with and without contrast enhancement employ a cross-correlation coefficient. Using a one-dimensional cross-correlation method, comprehensive image processing could be also adapted for various artifacts (some depending on modality imaging, and some on patients), which may be encountered at the clinical scene. This comprehensive image-processing technique could assist radiologists in the differential diagnosis of liver diseases. (author)

  9. Binary phase masks on self-developing photopolymers: the technique for formation and testing in an optical correlator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yezhov, P V; Il'in, O A; Smirnova, T N; Tikhonov, E A

    2003-01-01

    Binary phase masks (PMs) of size 256x256 cells with a random distribution of elements, formed on the self-developing FPK-488 photopolymer, are studied. The masks were prepared by the projection method using amplitude transparencies. The phase shift between the mask elements corresponding to the regions of the amplitude transparency with the optical density D = 0 and 2 was (0.85±0.05)π at the wavelength of 0.633 μm. Holographic matched filters were recorded for PMs obtained. The diffraction efficiency of holographic matched PM filters was 40 %. The signal-to-noise ratio for recognition signals for PMs in the Vander Lugt correlator was 20 dB. The normalised power density of the recognition signal is studied as a function of the rotation angle of a PM in the input plane of the Vander Lugt correlator. (laser applications and other topics in quantum electronics)

  10. Volumetric measurement of rock movement using photogrammetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benton, Donovan J.; Iverson, Stephen R.; Martin, Lewis A.; Johnson, Jeffrey C.; Raffaldi, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    NIOSH ground control safety research program at Spokane, Washington, is exploring applications of photogrammetry to rock mass and support monitoring. This paper describes two ways photogrammetric techniques are being used. First, photogrammetric data of laboratory testing is being used to correlate energy input and support deformation. This information can be used to infer remaining support toughness after ground deformation events. This technique is also demonstrated in a field application. Second, field photogrammetric data is compared to crackmeter data from a deep underground mine. Accuracies were found to average 8 mm, but have produced results within 0.2 mm of true displacement, as measured by crackmeters. Application of these techniques consists of monitoring overall fault activity by monitoring multiple points around the crackmeter. A case study is provided in which a crackmeter is clearly shown to have provided insufficient information regarding overall fault ground deformation. Photogrammetry is proving to be a useful ground monitoring tool due to its unobtrusiveness and ease of use. PMID:27110429

  11. Acoustics in rock and pop music halls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Niels Werner; Thompson, Eric Robert; Gade, Anders Christian

    2007-01-01

    The existing body of literature regarding the acoustic design of concert halls has focused almost exclusively on classical music, although there are many more performances of rhythmic music, including rock and pop. Objective measurements were made of the acoustics of twenty rock music venues...... in Denmark and a questionnaire was used in a subjective assessment of those venues with professional rock musicians and sound engineers. Correlations between the objective and subjective results lead, among others, to a recommendation for reverberation time as a function of hall volume. Since the bass...

  12. Phosphine from rocks: mechanically driven phosphate reduction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glindemann, Dietmar; Edwards, Marc; Morgenstern, Peter

    2005-11-01

    Natural rock and mineral samples released trace amounts of phosphine during dissolution in mineral acid. An order of magnitude more phosphine (average 1982 ng PH3 kg rock and maximum 6673 ng PH3/kg rock) is released from pulverized rock samples (basalt, gneiss, granite, clay, quartzitic pebbles, or marble). Phosphine was correlated to hardness and mechanical pulverization energy of the rocks. The yield of PH3 ranged from 0 to 0.01% of the total P content of the dissolved rock. Strong circumstantial evidence was gathered for reduction of phosphate in the rock via mechanochemical or "tribochemical" weathering at quartz and calcite/marble inclusions. Artificial reproduction of this mechanism by rubbing quartz rods coated with apatite-phosphate to the point of visible triboluminescence, led to detection of more than 70 000 ng/kg PH3 in the apatite. This reaction pathway may be considered a mechano-chemical analogue of phosphate reduction from lightning or electrical discharges and may contribute to phosphine production via tectonic forces and processing of rocks.

  13. Simulation of rock deformation behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Я. И. Рудаев

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available A task of simulating the deformation behavior of geomaterials under compression with account of over-extreme branch has been addressed. The physical nature of rock properties variability as initially inhomogeneous material is explained by superposition of deformation and structural transformations of evolutionary type within open nonequilibrium systems. Due to this the description of deformation and failure of rock is related to hierarchy of instabilities within the system being far from thermodynamic equilibrium. It is generally recognized, that the energy function of the current stress-strain state is a superposition of potential component and disturbance, which includes the imperfection parameter accounting for defects not only existing in the initial state, but also appearing under load. The equation of state has been obtained by minimizing the energy function by the order parameter. The imperfection parameter is expressed through the strength deterioration, which is viewed as the internal parameter of state. The evolution of strength deterioration has been studied with the help of Fokker – Planck equation, which steady form corresponds to rock statical stressing. Here the diffusion coefficient is assumed to be constant, while the function reflecting internal sliding and loosening of the geomaterials is assumed as an antigradient of elementary integration catastrophe. Thus the equation of state is supplemented with a correlation establishing relationship between parameters of imperfection and strength deterioration. While deformation process is identified with the change of dissipative media, coupled with irreversible structural fluctuations. Theoretical studies are proven with experimental data obtained by subjecting certain rock specimens to compression.

  14. Uranium exploration techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nichols, C.E.

    1984-01-01

    The subject is discussed under the headings: introduction (genetic description of some uranium deposits; typical concentrations of uranium in the natural environment); sedimentary host rocks (sandstones; tabular deposits; roll-front deposits; black shales); metamorphic host rocks (exploration techniques); geologic techniques (alteration features in sandstones; favourable features in metamorphic rocks); geophysical techniques (radiometric surveys; surface vehicle methods; airborne methods; input surveys); geochemical techniques (hydrogeochemistry; petrogeochemistry; stream sediment geochemistry; pedogeochemistry; emanometry; biogeochemistry); geochemical model for roll-front deposits; geologic model for vein-like deposits. (U.K.)

  15. Lesion size detection in geographic atrophy by polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography and correlation to conventional imaging techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schütze, Christopher; Bolz, Matthias; Sayegh, Ramzi; Baumann, Bernhard; Pircher, Michael; Götzinger, Erich; Hitzenberger, Christoph K; Schmidt-Erfurth, Ursula

    2013-01-28

    To investigate the reproducibility of automated lesion size detection in patients with geographic atrophy (GA) using polarization-sensitive spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (PS-OCT) and to compare findings with scanning laser ophthalmoscopy (SLO), fundus autofluorescence (FAF), and intensity-based spectral-domain OCT (SD-OCT). Twenty-nine eyes of 22 patients with GA were examined by PS-OCT, selectively identifying the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE). A novel segmentation algorithm was applied, automatically detecting and quantifying areas of RPE atrophy. The reproducibility of the algorithm was assessed, and lesion sizes were correlated with manually delineated SLO, FAF, and intensity-based SD-OCT images to validate the clinical applicability of PS-OCT in GA evaluation. Mean GA lesion size of all patients was 5.28 mm(2) (SD: 4.92) in PS-OCT. Mean variability of individual repeatability measurements was 0.83 mm(2) (minimum: 0.05; maximum: 3.65). Mean coefficient of variation was 0.07 (min: 0.01; max: 0.19). Mean GA area in SLO (Spectralis OCT) was 5.15 mm(2) (SD: 4.72) and 2.5% smaller than in PS-OCT (P = 0.9, Pearson correlation coefficient = 0.98, P < 0.01). Mean GA area in intensity-based SD-OCT pseudo-SLO images (Cirrus OCT) was 5.14 mm(2) (SD: 4.67) and 2.7% smaller than in PS-OCT (P = 0.9, Pearson correlation coefficient = 0.98, P < 0.01). Mean GA area of all eyes measured 5.41 mm(2) (SD: 4.75) in FAF, deviating by 2.4% from PS-OCT results (P = 0.89, Pearson correlation coefficient = 0.99, P < 0.01). PS-OCT demonstrated high reproducibility of GA lesion size determination. Results correlated well with SLO, FAF, and intensity-based SD-OCT fundus imaging. PS-OCT may therefore be a valuable and specific imaging modality for automated GA lesion size determination in scientific studies and clinical practice.

  16. Gas migration in argillaceous rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alonso, E. E.; Olivella, S.

    2007-01-01

    The intrinsic gas permeability of fractured argillaceous rocks depends on the current structure of micro-cracks and fissures of the rock. They are a consequence of the initial state and the subsequent deformations induced by stress and gas pressure changes. Stresses are also coupled with fluid pressures and, therefore, gas flow and mechanical behaviour are intensely coupled. Laboratory experiments, aimed at determining intrinsic permeability, show the relevant effect of volumetric deformations induced by isotropic, as well as deviatoric stress changes. The relevance, in practice, of the flow-mechanical coupling is illustrated by means of some results obtained during the performance of the drift scale test (DST) in fractured tuff in the Yucca Mountain facility. The technique of embedding discontinuities in continuum thermo-hydro-mechanical elements is capable of reproducing observed features of gas flow migration in clayey rocks. An example is described. It is believed that the developed approach provides a powerful computational procedure to handle complex gas phenomena in clayey rocks. (author)

  17. Analysis of rock stress and rock stress measurements with application to Aespoe HRL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lundholm, Beatrice

    2000-11-01

    The process of choosing a site for a nuclear waste repository means that many aspects have to be taken into consideration. One of these is that the repository has to be mechanically stable for a long time. The mechanical stability of the rock is very difficult to determine. One of several factors, which determine the mechanical stability, is the virgin state of stress. The thesis project consists of two parts. In the first part the state of stress at Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory had to be defined. This was done based on earlier rock stress measurements conducted during the years 1988 to 1997. Two different measurement techniques have been used, hydraulic fracturing and overcoring. During the overcoring two types of cells have been used, CSIRO HI-cell and a cell developed by the Swedish State Power Board (SSPB). In the second part of the project, investigation of the correlation between the stress and geological structures are made using numerical modelling tools such as FLAC, UDEC and 3DEC. The rock stress measurements using the hydraulic fracturing gave orientations of the horizontal stress that coincide with earlier hydraulic fracturing measurements conducted in Scandinavia. The magnitudes of rock stresses are slightly lower than the earlier reported stress magnitudes for the Scandinavian part of the earth crust. The rock stresses obtained from the overcoring resulted in higher stresses than what was predicted by the hydraulic fracturing measurements. However, the orientation of the maximum horizontal stresses coincides well between the two techniques. The orientation is also more or less constant with respect to increasing depth. The state of stress at Aespoe is defined by using the results from the hydraulic fracturing and the measurements conducted by SSPB-cell. The measurements from the SSPB-cell are used since these have a Poisson's ratio that corresponds well with the uniaxial tests of rock samples and since the measurements have been done at a distance from

  18. Correlating electronic and geometric structures of organic films and interfaces by means of synchrotron radiation based techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamane, Hiroyuki

    2013-01-01

    The electronic structure of organic thin films and interfaces plays a crucial role in the performance of optoelectronic devices using organic semiconductors, and is seriously dominated by the geometric film/interface structure due to the anisotropic spatial distribution of molecular orbitals. This paper briefly reviews the recent progress of the examination of correlating electronic structure and geometric structure of archetypal organic semiconductor thin films and interfaces by using spectroscopic experiments with synchrotron radiation such as angle-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy, x-ray absorption spectroscopy, and x-ray standing wave. (author)

  19. The Usability of Rock-Like Materials for Numerical Studies on Rocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zengin, Enes; Abiddin Erguler, Zeynal

    2017-04-01

    The approaches of synthetic rock material and mass are widely used by many researchers for understanding the failure behavior of different rocks. In order to model the failure behavior of rock material, researchers take advantageous of different techniques and software. But, the majority of all these instruments are based on distinct element method (DEM). For modeling the failure behavior of rocks, and so to create a fundamental synthetic rock material model, it is required to perform related laboratory experiments for providing strength parameters. In modelling studies, model calibration processes are performed by using parameters of intact rocks such as porosity, grain size, modulus of elasticity and Poisson ratio. In some cases, it can be difficult or even impossible to acquire representative rock samples for laboratory experiments from heavily jointed rock masses and vuggy rocks. Considering this limitation, in this study, it was aimed to investigate the applicability of rock-like material (e.g. concrete) to understand and model the failure behavior of rock materials having complex inherent structures. For this purpose, concrete samples having a mixture of %65 cement dust and %35 water were utilized. Accordingly, intact concrete samples representing rocks were prepared in laboratory conditions and their physical properties such as porosity, pore size and density etc. were determined. In addition, to acquire the mechanical parameters of concrete samples, uniaxial compressive strength (UCS) tests were also performed by simultaneously measuring strain during testing. The measured physical and mechanical properties of these extracted concrete samples were used to create synthetic material and then uniaxial compressive tests were modeled and performed by using two dimensional discontinuum program known as Particle Flow Code (PFC2D). After modeling studies in PFC2D, approximately similar failure mechanism and testing results were achieved from both experimental and

  20. Benthic O-2 uptake of two cold-water coral communities estimated with the non-invasive eddy correlation technique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rovelli, Lorenzo; Attard, Karl M.; Bryant, Lee D.

    2015-01-01

    , was a channel-like sound in Northern Norway at a depth of 220 m. Both sites were characterized by the presence of live mounds of the reef framework-forming scleractinian Lophelia pertusa and reef-associated fauna such as sponges, crustaceans and other corals. The measured O-2 uptake at the 2 sites varied...... times higher than the global mean for soft sediment communities at comparable depths. The measurements document the importance of CWC communities for local and regional carbon cycling and demonstrate that the EC technique is a valuable tool for assessing rates of benthic O2 uptake in such complex...

  1. Transport and accumulation of PVP-Hypericin in cancer and normal cells characterized by image correlation spectroscopy techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penjweini, Rozhin; Smisdom, Nick; Deville, Sarah; Ameloot, Marcel

    2014-05-01

    PVP-Hypericin (PVP: polyvinylpyrrolidone) is a potent anti-cancer photosensitizer for photodynamic diagnosis (PDD) and therapy (PDT). However, cellular targets and mechanisms involved in the cancer-selectivity of the photosensitizer are not yet fully understood. This paper gives new insights into the differential transport and localization of PVP-Hypericin in cancer and normal cells which are essential to unravel the mechanisms of action and cancer-selectivity. Temporal (TICS) and spatiotemporal (STICS) image correlation spectroscopy are used for the assessment of PVP-Hypericin diffusion and/or velocity in the case of concerted flow in human cervical epithelial HeLa and human lung carcinoma A549 cells, as well as in human primary dendritic cells (DC) and human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). Spatiotemporal image cross-correlation spectroscopy (STICCS) based on organelle specific fluorescent labeling is employed to study the accumulation of the photosensitizer in nucleus, mitochondria, early-endosomes and lysosomes of the cells and to assess the dynamics of co-migrating molecules. Whereas STICS and TICS did not show a remarkable difference between the dynamics of PVP-Hypericin in HeLa, A549 and DC cells, a significantly different diffusion rate of the photosensitizer was measured in PBMC. STICCS detected a stationary accumulation of PVP-Hypericin within the nucleus, mitochondria, early endosomes and lysosomes of HeLa and A549 cells. However, significant flow due to the directed motion of the organelles was detected. In contrast, no accumulation in the nucleus and mitochondria of DC and PBMC could be monitored. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Search for magnetic minerals in Martian rocks: Overview of the Rock Abrasion Tool (RAT) magnet investigation on Spirit and Opportunity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goetz, W.; Leer, K.; Gunnlaugsson, H.P.

    2008-01-01

    The Rock Abrasion Tool (RAT) on board the Mars Exploration Rovers (MER) is a grinding tool designed to remove dust coatings and/or weathering rinds from rocks and expose fresh rock material. Four magnets of different strengths that are built into the structure of the RAT have been attracting...... is interpreted as magnetite. The amount of abraded rock material adhering to the magnets varied strongly during the mission and is correlated in a consistent way to the amount of magnetite inferred from Mossbauer spectra for the corresponding rock. The RAT magnet experiment as performed on Opportunity also...

  3. Fragment Size Distribution of Blasted Rock Mass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jug, Jasmin; Strelec, Stjepan; Gazdek, Mario; Kavur, Boris

    2017-12-01

    Rock mass is a heterogeneous material, and the heterogeneity of rock causes sizes distribution of fragmented rocks in blasting. Prediction of blasted rock mass fragmentation has a significant role in the overall economics of opencast mines. Blasting as primary fragmentation can significantly decrease the cost of loading, transport, crushing and milling operations. Blast fragmentation chiefly depends on the specific blast design (geometry of blast holes drilling, the quantity and class of explosive, the blasting form, the timing and partition, etc.) and on the properties of the rock mass (including the uniaxial compressive strength, the rock mass elastic Young modulus, the rock discontinuity characteristics and the rock density). Prediction and processing of blasting results researchers can accomplish by a variety of existing software’s and models, one of them is the Kuz-Ram model, which is possibly the most widely used approach to estimating fragmentation from blasting. This paper shows the estimation of fragmentation using the "SB" program, which was created by the authors. Mentioned program includes the Kuz-Ram model. Models of fragmentation are confirmed and calibrated by comparing the estimated fragmentation with actual post-blast fragmentation from image processing techniques. In this study, the Kuz-Ram fragmentation model has been used for an open-pit limestone quarry in Dalmatia, southern Croatia. The resulting calibrated value of the rock factor enables the quality prognosis of fragmentation in further blasting works, with changed drilling geometry and blast design parameters. It also facilitates simulation in the program to optimize blasting works and get the desired fragmentations of the blasted rock mass.

  4. Evaluation of a scatter correlation technique for single photon transmission measurements in PET by means of Monte Carlo simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wegmann, K.; Brix, G.

    2000-01-01

    Purpose: Single photon transmission (SPT) measurements offer a new approach for the determination of attenuation correction factors (ACF) in PET. It was the aim of the present work, to evaluate a scatter correction alogrithm proposed by C. Watson by means of Monte Carlo simulations. Methods: SPT measurements with a Cs-137 point source were simulated for a whole-body PET scanner (ECAT EXACT HR + ) in both the 2D and 3D mode. To examine the scatter fraction (SF) in the transmission data, the detected photons were classified as unscattered or scattered. The simulated data were used to determine (i) the spatial distribution of the SFs, (ii) an ACF sinogram from all detected events (ACF tot ) and (iii) from the unscattered events only (ACF unscattered ), and (iv) an ACF cor =(ACF tot ) 1+Κ sinogram corrected according to the Watson algorithm. In addition, density images were reconstructed in order to quantitatively evaluate linear attenuation coefficients. Results: A high correlation was found between the SF and the ACF tot sinograms. For the cylinder and the EEC phantom, similar correction factors Κ were estimated. The determined values resulted in an accurate scatter correction in both the 2D and 3D mode. (orig.) [de

  5. Perturbative triples correction for local pair natural orbital based explicitly correlated CCSD(F12*) using Laplace transformation techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitz, Gunnar; Hättig, Christof

    2016-12-21

    We present an implementation of pair natural orbital coupled cluster singles and doubles with perturbative triples, PNO-CCSD(T), which avoids the quasi-canonical triples approximation (T0) where couplings due to off-diagonal Fock matrix elements are neglected. A numerical Laplace transformation of the canonical expression for the perturbative (T) triples correction is used to avoid an I/O and storage bottleneck for the triples amplitudes. Results for a test set of reaction energies show that only very few Laplace grid points are needed to obtain converged energy differences and that PNO-CCSD(T) is a more robust approximation than PNO-CCSD(T0) with a reduced mean absolute deviation from canonical CCSD(T) results. We combine the PNO-based (T) triples correction with the explicitly correlated PNO-CCSD(F12*) method and investigate the use of specialized F12-PNOs in the conventional triples correction. We find that no significant additional errors are introduced and that PNO-CCSD(F12*)(T) can be applied in a black box manner.

  6. Optimisation of sea surface current retrieval using a maximum cross correlation technique on modelled sea surface temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heuzé, Céline; Eriksson, Leif; Carvajal, Gisela

    2017-04-01

    Using sea surface temperature from satellite images to retrieve sea surface currents is not a new idea, but so far its operational near-real time implementation has not been possible. Validation studies are too region-specific or uncertain, due to the errors induced by the images themselves. Moreover, the sensitivity of the most common retrieval method, the maximum cross correlation, to the three parameters that have to be set is unknown. Using model outputs instead of satellite images, biases induced by this method are assessed here, for four different seas of Western Europe, and the best of nine settings and eight temporal resolutions are determined. For all regions, tracking a small 5 km pattern from the first image over a large 30 km region around its original location on a second image, separated from the first image by 6 to 9 hours returned the most accurate results. Moreover, for all regions, the problem is not inaccurate results but missing results, where the velocity is too low to be picked by the retrieval. The results are consistent both with limitations caused by ocean surface current dynamics and with the available satellite technology, indicating that automated sea surface current retrieval from sea surface temperature images is feasible now, for search and rescue operations, pollution confinement or even for more energy efficient and comfortable ship navigation.

  7. Surface fluxes of CO{sub 2}, O{sub 3} and H{sub 2}O measured by the eddy correlation technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aurela, M.; Laurila, T. [Finnish Meteorological Inst., Helsinki (Finland). Air Quality Dept.

    1995-12-31

    Air pollution by ozone has been recognized as a regional problem of the first priority. The acute effects on plants have been documented across Europe, and experimental evidence for chronic and subtle effects is growing. To protect crops and trees UN-ECE has defined the concept of critical levels for ozone. The concept is, however, still developing, and new research findings are needed to improve its scientific basis. O{sub 3} and CO{sub 2} are both important greenhouse gases and their exchange between the biosphere and the atmosphere is therefore a subject of growing interest. The eddy correlation technique is a new micrometeorological method to measure fluxes on the ecosystem scale. In this method the high-frequency fluctuating components of the vertical wind velocity and, for example, the concentration, are measured and correlated to give a direct measurement of the flux F{sub c} = w{sup `}c{sup `}, where the primes denote deviations from mean values. Perhaps the most difficult requirement in flux measurements with the eddy correlation technique is the need for fast-response sensors. The sampling should be done at a frequency no lower than 5 Hz. In addition general micro- meteorological requirements exist regarding statistical stationarity and horizontal homogeneity. Eddy correlation measurements can be used to study ozone deposition velocities and the net carbon balance within the related physiological processes of the ecosystem. In this study the turbulent fluxes of these gases were measured in Finland by this direct method above a forest for the first time. Fluxes were studied in a boreal Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) forest

  8. Surface fluxes of CO{sub 2}, O{sub 3} and H{sub 2}O measured by the eddy correlation technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aurela, M; Laurila, T [Finnish Meteorological Inst., Helsinki (Finland). Air Quality Dept.

    1996-12-31

    Air pollution by ozone has been recognized as a regional problem of the first priority. The acute effects on plants have been documented across Europe, and experimental evidence for chronic and subtle effects is growing. To protect crops and trees UN-ECE has defined the concept of critical levels for ozone. The concept is, however, still developing, and new research findings are needed to improve its scientific basis. O{sub 3} and CO{sub 2} are both important greenhouse gases and their exchange between the biosphere and the atmosphere is therefore a subject of growing interest. The eddy correlation technique is a new micrometeorological method to measure fluxes on the ecosystem scale. In this method the high-frequency fluctuating components of the vertical wind velocity and, for example, the concentration, are measured and correlated to give a direct measurement of the flux F{sub c} = w{sup `}c{sup `}, where the primes denote deviations from mean values. Perhaps the most difficult requirement in flux measurements with the eddy correlation technique is the need for fast-response sensors. The sampling should be done at a frequency no lower than 5 Hz. In addition general micro- meteorological requirements exist regarding statistical stationarity and horizontal homogeneity. Eddy correlation measurements can be used to study ozone deposition velocities and the net carbon balance within the related physiological processes of the ecosystem. In this study the turbulent fluxes of these gases were measured in Finland by this direct method above a forest for the first time. Fluxes were studied in a boreal Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) forest

  9. Analysis of thermal fluctuations in the semiscale tests to determine flow transit delay times using a transfer function cross-correlation technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raptis, A.C.; Popper, G.F.

    1977-08-01

    On April 14, 1976, EG and G performed the Semiscale Blowdown 29-1 experiment to try to establish the feasibility of using a transit time flowmeter (TTF) to measure transient blowdown two-phase flow rates. The recorded signals from that experiment were made available to and analyzed by the Argonne National Laboratory using the transfer function cross-correlation technique. The theoretical background for the transfer function method of analysis and the results of the data analysis are presented. Histograms of transit time during the blowdown are shown and topics for further investigation are identified

  10. Deciphering fluid inclusions in high-grade rocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfons van den Kerkhof

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The study of fluid inclusions in high-grade rocks is especially challenging as the host minerals have been normally subjected to deformation, recrystallization and fluid-rock interaction so that primary inclusions, formed at the peak of metamorphism are rare. The larger part of the fluid inclusions found in metamorphic minerals is typically modified during uplift. These late processes may strongly disguise the characteristics of the “original” peak metamorphic fluid. A detailed microstructural analysis of the host minerals, notably quartz, is therefore indispensable for a proper interpretation of fluid inclusions. Cathodoluminescence (CL techniques combined with trace element analysis of quartz (EPMA, LA-ICPMS have shown to be very helpful in deciphering the rock-fluid evolution. Whereas high-grade metamorphic quartz may have relatively high contents of trace elements like Ti and Al, low-temperature re-equilibrated quartz typically shows reduced trace element concentrations. The resulting microstructures in CL can be basically distinguished in diffusion patterns (along microfractures and grain boundaries, and secondary quartz formed by dissolution-reprecipitation. Most of these textures are formed during retrograde fluid-controlled processes between ca. 220 and 500 °C, i.e. the range of semi-brittle deformation (greenschist-facies and can be correlated with the fluid inclusions. In this way modified and re-trapped fluids can be identified, even when there are no optical features observed under the microscope.

  11. Regional cerebral blood flow (RCBF) measurements by SPECT analysis of Xenon-133 transit: Validation of technique and clinical correlation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rezai, K.; Kirchner, P.; Armstrong, C.; Ehrhardt, J.; Damasio, H.; Adams, H.; Damasio, A.

    1984-01-01

    The SPECT system (Tomomatic-64) developed by a previous study for rCBF measurements with Xe-133 was validated with phantom simulations and clinical studies. A bi-compartmental flow phantom was developed consisting of a Xenon-133 pump connected in series to head and lung compartments. Flow rates between 0.2 and 1.4 brain volumes/min (20-140 cc/100ml/min) were tested against Tomomatic measurements by linear regression. Correlation was excellent (r=1.0) in the range of 0.2-1.2 (20-120 cc/100ml/min), representing flow rates which are most likely to be encountered in clinical studies. Flow rates above 1.2 (120 cc/100 ml/min) were significantly underestimated. 32 studies on 20 volunteers gave a mean normal flow of 72 (SD=12) cc/ 100g/min. Mean regional flow ranged from 62 in frontal lobes to 75 in central gray matter. Right-to-left variation was less than 5%. The lowest regional flow in a normal subject was 45 cc/100g/min. 68 studies were performed on 30 stroke patients. In 27 rCBF was less than 45 in affected brain areas for a sensitivity of 90% which improved to 97% when comparisons with contralateral brain were included. Initial CT scans were normal or non-diagnostic in 10, but showed CVA's in regions of reduced rCBF in 17 patients. rCBF abnormalities involved greater portions of brain than CT changes, often (8/17) including distant regions, unpredicted by CT or clinical studies but known to be strongly interconnected to the area of structural damage. SPECT estimates of rCBF appear to be a sensitive research and diagnostic tool and complement the structural information provided by CT

  12. Rock Cycle Roulette.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Stan M.; Palmer, Courtney

    2000-01-01

    Introduces an activity on the rock cycle. Sets 11 stages representing the transitions of an earth material in the rock cycle. Builds six-sided die for each station, and students move to the stations depending on the rolling side of the die. Evaluates students by discussing several questions in the classroom. Provides instructional information for…

  13. The Correlation of Cardiac and Hepatic Hemosiderosis as Measured by T2*MRI Technique with Ferritin Levels and Hemochromatosis Gene Mutations in Iranian Patients with Beta Thalassemia Major

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Soleiman Soltanpour

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Organ-specific hemosiderosis and iron overload complications are more serious and more frequent in some patients with beta thalassemia major (BTM compared with others. We investigated whether coinheritance of HFE H63D or C282Y gene mutations in patients with BTM contributes to the phenotypic variation of iron overload complications and assessed the correlation of cardiac and hepatic hemosiderosis with plasma ferritin levels. Methods: We studied 60 patients with BTM with a mean age of 17.5±9.1 years from the Northwest of Iran. HFE gene mutations were analyzed using the polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism method. Cardiac and hepatic hemosiderosis was assessed using T2*magnetic resonance imaging (MRI. Ferritin levels were measured using the enzyme immunoassay method. Results: Ferritin levels showed a strong inverse correlation with hepatic T2*MRI values (r = -0.631, p = 0.001 but a poor correlation with cardiac T2*MRI values (r = -0.297, p = 0.044. The correlation between cardiac T2*MRI values and hepatic T2*MRI values was poor and insignificant (r = 0.287, p = 0.058. Genotype and allele distribution of HFE H63D and C282Y mutation did not differ significantly between patients with and without hepatic or cardiac hemosiderosis (p > 0.050. However, carriers of HFE 63D allele had significantly higher ferritin levels compared with non-carriers (1 903±993 vs. 992±683, p < 0.001. Conclusions: Cardiac T2*MRI values showed a poor correlation with hepatic T2*MRI values and ferritin levels. Accurate assessment of cardiac iron overload in patients with BTM can only be done using the T2*MRI technique. Additionally, HFE H63D is a significant determinant factor for elevated ferritin levels in BTM patients.

  14. Correlation chart of Pennsylvanian rocks in Alabama, Tennessee, Kentucky, Virginia, West Virginia, Ohio, Maryland, and Pennsylvania showing approximate position of coal beds, coal zones, and key stratigraphic units: Chapter D.2 in Coal and petroleum resources in the Appalachian basin: distribution, geologic framework, and geochemical character

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruppert, Leslie F.; Trippi, Michael H.; Slucher, Ernie R.; Ruppert, Leslie F.; Ryder, Robert T.

    2014-01-01

    The Appalachian basin, one of the largest Pennsylvanian bituminous coal-producing regions in the world, currently contains nearly one-half of the top 15 coal-producing States in the United States (Energy Information Agency, 2006). Anthracite of Pennsylvanian age occurs in synclinal basins in eastern Pennsylvania, but production is minimal. A simplified correlation chart was compiled from published and unpublished sources as a means of visualizing currently accepted stratigraphic relations between the rock formations, coal beds, coal zones, and key stratigraphic units in Alabama, Tennessee, Kentucky, Virginia, West Virginia, Ohio, Maryland, and Pennsylvania. The thickness of each column is based on chronostratigraphic divisions (Lower, Middle, and Upper Pennsylvanian), not the thickness of strata. Researchers of Pennsylvanian strata in the Appalachian basin also use biostratigraphic markers and other relative and absolute geologic age associations between the rocks to better understand the spatial relations of the strata. Thus, the stratigraphic correlation data in this chart should be considered provisional and will be updated as coal-bearing rocks within the Appalachian coal regions continue to be evaluated.

  15. Validation of diffuse correlation spectroscopy sensitivity to nicotinamide-induced blood flow elevation in the murine hindlimb using the fluorescent microsphere technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proctor, Ashley R.; Ramirez, Gabriel A.; Han, Songfeng; Liu, Ziping; Bubel, Tracy M.; Choe, Regine

    2018-03-01

    Nicotinamide has been shown to affect blood flow in both tumor and normal tissues, including skeletal muscle. Intraperitoneal injection of nicotinamide was used as a simple intervention to test the sensitivity of noninvasive diffuse correlation spectroscopy (DCS) to changes in blood flow in the murine left quadriceps femoris skeletal muscle. DCS was then compared with the gold-standard fluorescent microsphere (FM) technique for validation. The nicotinamide dose-response experiment showed that relative blood flow measured by DCS increased following treatment with 500- and 1000-mg / kg nicotinamide. The DCS and FM technique comparison showed that blood flow index measured by DCS was correlated with FM counts quantified by image analysis. The results of this study show that DCS is sensitive to nicotinamide-induced blood flow elevation in the murine left quadriceps femoris. Additionally, the results of the comparison were consistent with similar studies in higher-order animal models, suggesting that mouse models can be effectively employed to investigate the utility of DCS for various blood flow measurement applications.

  16. Comparison of optical beam smoothing techniques for inertial confinement fusion and improvement of smoothing by the use of zero-correlation masks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lehmberg, R. H.; Rothenberg, J. E.

    2000-01-01

    We present analytic theory and numerical simulations comparing the optical beam smoothing capabilities of the smoothing by spectral dispersion (SSD) technique using random temporal phase modulation, with that of the induced spatial incoherence technique. The analytic theory provides a simple formula for the SSD mode spectrum in the usual case where the phase mask at the focusing lens is random, and its asymptotic limit quantitatively relates the long wavelength mode smoothing to the width of the angular dispersion. With parameters and phase aberration relevant to the National Ignition Facility beams, the SSD simulations show that the large long wavelength components, which are also found in earlier simulations, can be significantly reduced by replacing the independent random phase masks in each pair of adjacent beams by a conjugate pair of zero-correlation masks. These simulations suggest that one can combine zero-correlation masks with random temporal phase modulation and multiple color cycles to achieve SSD smoothing approaching the optical bandwidth limit at all spatial frequencies, without using large angular dispersions. (c) 2000 American Institute of Physics

  17. Lumbar epidural depth using transverse ultrasound scan and its correlation with loss of resistance technique: A prospective observational study in Indian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauhan, Amit Kumar; Bhatia, Rohan; Agrawal, Sanjay

    2018-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate the skin-epidural space distance as assessed by ultrasonography and conventional loss of resistance (LOR) technique and to find the correlation of epidural depth with body mass index (BMI). Ninety-eight patients of either sex, American Society of Anesthesiology I/II, BMI transverse plane at L3-L4 intervertebral space. Thereafter, the epidural depth from skin was assessed with conventional LOR method while performing the epidural. The needle depth (ND) was measured using a sterile linear scale, and any change in the needle direction or intervertebral space was noted. The patients were demographically similar. Depth of epidural space measured by US depth (UD) was 3.96 ± 0.44 cm (range 3.18-5.44 cm) and by ND was 4.04 ± 0.52 cm (range 2.7-5.7 cm). The Pearson's correlation coefficient (r) between UD and ND was 0.935 (95% confidence interval: 0.72-0.92, r 2 = 0.874, P study demonstrates a good correlation between UD and ND and shows that the preprocedural US scan in transverse plane provides accurate needle entry site with a high success rate in single attempt for lumbar epidurals in patients with a BMI <30 kg/m 2 .

  18. Weathering behavior of mine tailings and waste rock: A surface investigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Domvile, S.J.; Li, M.G.; Sollner, D.D.; Nesbitt, W.

    1994-01-01

    A study focusing on the ion movement in the near surface of sulfide minerals was conducted to better understand the weathering mechanisms of mine waste materials. Tailings and waste rock samples from Canadian mines were subjected to controlled weathering studies using various chemical leachants. Leachates were analyzed for various parameters, and petrographic analyses were conducted on the solid residues. Laboratory oxidation studies of pure pyrrhotite and arsenopyrite were carried out using the surface techniques X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and auger electron spectroscopy (AES). The data derived from the weathering study and the surface techniques were correlated to determine mechanisms of oxidation. Several results were observed during the project: ferric iron constitutes one third of the iron present in pyrrhotite, sulfide oxidation is initiated when rock is blasted, sulfide sulfur is oxidized to di- and poly-sulfides prior to forming sulfates, and significantly more sulfate is produced upon exposure to aqueous environments than to air alone

  19. Rock Burst Monitoring by Integrated Microseismic and Electromagnetic Radiation Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xuelong; Wang, Enyuan; Li, Zhonghui; Liu, Zhentang; Song, Dazhao; Qiu, Liming

    2016-11-01

    For this study, microseismic (MS) and electromagnetic radiation (EMR) monitoring systems were installed in a coal mine to monitor rock bursts. The MS system monitors coal or rock mass ruptures in the whole mine, whereas the EMR equipment monitors the coal or rock stress in a small area. By analysing the MS energy, number of MS events, and EMR intensity with respect to rock bursts, it has been shown that the energy and number of MS events present a "quiet period" 1-3 days before the rock burst. The data also show that the EMR intensity reaches a peak before the rock burst and this EMR intensity peak generally corresponds to the MS "quiet period". There is a positive correlation between stress and EMR intensity. Buckling failure of coal or rock depends on the rheological properties and occurs after the peak stress in the high-stress concentration areas in deep mines. The MS "quiet period" before the rock burst is caused by the heterogeneity of the coal and rock structures, the transfer of high stress into internal areas, locked patches, and self-organized criticality near the stress peak. This study increases our understanding of coal and rock instability in deep mines. Combining MS and EMR to monitor rock burst could improve prediction accuracy.

  20. Eos Chaos Rocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    11 January 2006 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows light-toned, layered rock outcrops in Eos Chaos, located near the east end of the Valles Marineris trough system. The outcrops occur in the form of a distinct, circular butte (upper half of image) and a high slope (lower half of image). The rocks might be sedimentary rocks, similar to those found elsewhere exposed in the Valles Marineris system and the chaotic terrain to the east of the region. Location near: 12.9oS, 49.5oW Image width: 3 km (1.9 mi) Illumination from: lower left Season: Southern Summer

  1. A new method for real-time monitoring of grout spread through fractured rocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henderson, A. E.; Robertson, I. A.; Whitfield, J. M.; Garrard, G. F. G.; Swannell, N. G.; Fisch, H.

    2008-01-01

    Reducing water ingress into the Shaft at Dounreay is essential for the success of future intermediate level waste (ILW) recovery using the dry retrieval method. The reduction is being realised by forming an engineered barrier of ultrafine cementitious grout injected into the fractured rock surrounding the Shaft. Grout penetration of 6 m in <50μm fractures is being reliably achieved, with a pattern of repeated injections ultimately reducing rock mass permeability by up to three orders of magnitude. An extensive field trials period, involving over 200 grout mix designs and the construction of a full scale demonstration barrier, has yielded several new field techniques that improve the quality and reliability of cementitious grout injection for engineered barriers. In particular, a new method has been developed for tracking in real-time the spread of ultrafine cementitious grout through fractured rock and relating the injection characteristics to barrier design. Fieldwork by the multi-disciplinary international team included developing the injection and real-time monitoring techniques, pre- and post injection hydro-geological testing to quantify the magnitude and extent of changes in rock mass permeability, and correlation of grout spread with injection parameters to inform the main works grouting programme. (authors)

  2. Evaluation of rock classifications at B. C. Rail tumbler ridge tunnels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiser, Peter K.; Mackay, C.; Gale, A. D.

    1986-10-01

    Construction of four single track railway tunnels through sedimentary rocks in central British Columbia, Canada, provided an excellent opportunity to compare various rock mass classification systems and to evaluate their applicability to the local geology. The tunnels were excavated by conventional drilling and blasting techniques and supported primarily with rock bolts and shotcrete, and with steel sets in some sections. After a brief project description including tunnel construction techniques, local geology and groundwater conditions, the data collection and filed mapping procedure is reviewed. Four rock mass classification systems ( RQD, RSR, RMR, Q) for empirical tunnel design are reviewed and relevant factors for the data interpretation are discussed. In comparing and evaluating the performance of these classification systems three aspects received special attention. The tunnel support predicted by the various systems was compared to the support installed, a unique correlation between the two most useful and most frequently applied classifications, the RMR and Q systems, was established and assessed, and finally, the non-support limit and size effect were evaluated. It is concluded that the Q-system best predicted the required tunnel support and that the RMR was only adequate after adjustment for the influence of opening size. Correction equations for opening size effects are presented for the RMR system. The RSR and RQD systems are not recommended for empirical tunnel design.

  3. An experimental and theoretical study to relate uncommon rock/fluid properties to oil recovery. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watson, R.

    1995-07-01

    Waterflooding is the most commonly used secondary oil recovery technique. One of the requirements for understanding waterflood performance is a good knowledge of the basic properties of the reservoir rocks. This study is aimed at correlating rock-pore characteristics to oil recovery from various reservoir rock types and incorporating these properties into empirical models for Predicting oil recovery. For that reason, this report deals with the analyses and interpretation of experimental data collected from core floods and correlated against measurements of absolute permeability, porosity. wettability index, mercury porosimetry properties and irreducible water saturation. The results of the radial-core the radial-core and linear-core flow investigations and the other associated experimental analyses are presented and incorporated into empirical models to improve the predictions of oil recovery resulting from waterflooding, for sandstone and limestone reservoirs. For the radial-core case, the standardized regression model selected, based on a subset of the variables, predicted oil recovery by waterflooding with a standard deviation of 7%. For the linear-core case, separate models are developed using common, uncommon and combination of both types of rock properties. It was observed that residual oil saturation and oil recovery are better predicted with the inclusion of both common and uncommon rock/fluid properties into the predictive models.

  4. Experimental investigations on bubble turbulent diffusion in a vertical large diameter pipe by means of wire-mesh sensors and correlation techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Annalisa Manera; Horst-Michael Prasser; Dirk Lucas

    2005-01-01

    correction consists in deconvolutioning the spatial cross-correlation obtained with the technique described above with the auto-correlation of the gas-fraction distribution measured by the first sensor. It is found that for a given liquid superficial velocity a sudden increase of the diffusion coefficient takes place when the superficial gas velocity is increased above a certain value. For superficial liquid velocities higher than 0.6 m/s the abrupt increase of the diffusion coefficient occurs in correspondence of the transition between wall-peak and center-peak gas-fraction profiles. The experimental diffusion coefficients are compared with the prediction of the Sato's model (experimental gas-fraction profiles and bubble size distributions are given as input). Even if this model has been developed for bubbly flow, satisfactory agreement with the experimental data is found also in the churn-turbulent regime. A detailed discussion on the comparison between experiments and Sato's model is given in the paper. (authors)

  5. Rock properties data base

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jackson, R.; Gorski, B.; Gyenge, M.

    1991-03-01

    As mining companies proceed deeper and into areas whose stability is threatened by high and complex stress fields, the science of rock mechanics becomes invaluable in designing underground mine strata control programs. CANMET's Mining Research Laboratories division has compiled a summary of pre- and post-failure mechanical properties of rock types which were tested to provide design data. The 'Rock Properties Data Base' presents the results of these tests, and includes many rock types typical of Canadian mine environments. The data base also contains 'm' and 's' values determined using Hoek and Brown's failure criteria for both pre- and post-failure conditions. 7 refs., 3 tabs., 9 figs., 1 append.

  6. Eclogite facies rocks

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Carswell, D. A

    1990-01-01

    ... of eclogite evolution and genesis. The authors present a thorough treatment of the stability relations and geochemistry of these rocks, their intimate association with continental plate collision zones and suture zones...

  7. Rock kinoekraanil / Katrin Rajasaare

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Rajasaare, Katrin

    2008-01-01

    7.-11. juulini kinos Sõprus toimuval filminädalal "Rock On Screen" ekraanile jõudvatest rockmuusikuid portreteerivatest filmidest "Lou Reed's Berlin", "The Future Is Unwritten: Joe Strummer", "Control: Joy Division", "Hurriganes", "Shlaager"

  8. Eclogite facies rocks

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Carswell, D. A

    1990-01-01

    .... This is the first volume to provide a coherent and comprehensive review of the conditions necessary for the formation of eclogites and eclogite facies rocks and assemblages, and a detailed account...

  9. Solid as a rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pincus, H.J.

    1984-01-01

    Recent technologic developments have required a more comprehensive approach to the behavior of rock mass or rock substance plus discontinuities than was adequate previously. This work considers the inherent problems in such operations as the storage of hot or cold fluids in caverns and aquifers, underground storage of nuclear waste, underground recovery of heat from hydrocarbon fuels, tertiary recovery of oil by thermal methods, rapid excavation of large openings at shallow to great depths and in hostile environments, and retrofitting of large structures built on or in rock. The standardization of methods for determining rock properties is essential to all of the activities described, for use not only in design and construction but also in site selection and post-construction monitoring. Development of such standards is seen as a multidisciplinary effort

  10. Rock Equity Holdings, LLC

    Science.gov (United States)

    The EPA is providing notice of an Administrative Penalty Assessment in the form of an Expedited Storm Water Settlement Agreement against Rock Equity Holdings, LLC, for alleged violations at The Cove at Kettlestone/98th Street Reconstruction located at 3015

  11. Pop & rock / Berk Vaher

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Vaher, Berk, 1975-

    2001-01-01

    Uute heliplaatide Redman "Malpractice", Brian Eno & Peter Schwalm "Popstars", Clawfinger "A Whole Lot of Nothing", Dario G "In Full Color", MLTR e. Michael Learns To Rock "Blue Night" lühitutvustused

  12. Basic rocks in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piirainen, T.; Gehoer, S.; Iljina, M.; Kaerki, A.; Paakkola, J.; Vuollo, J.

    1992-10-01

    Basic igneous rocks, containing less than 52% SiO 2 , constitute an important part of the Finnish Archaean and Proterozoic crust. In the Archaean crust exist two units which contain the majority of the basic rocks. The Arcaean basic rocks are metavolcanics and situated in the Greenstone Belts of Eastern Finland. They are divided into two units. The greenstones of the lower one are tholeiites, komatiites and basaltic komatiites. The upper consists of bimodal series of volcanics and the basic rocks of which are Fe-tholeiites, basaltic komatiites and komatiites. Proterozoic basic rocks are divided into seven groups according to their ages. The Proterozoic igneous activity started by the volominous basic magmatism 2.44 Ga ago. During this stage formed the layered intrusions and related dykes in the Northern Finland. 2.2 Ga old basic rocks are situated at the margins of Karelian formations. 2.1 Ga aged Fe-tholeiitic magmatic activity is widespread in Eastern and Northern Finland. The basic rocks of 1.97 Ga age group are met within the Karelian Schist Belts as obducted ophiolite complexes but they occur also as tholeiitic diabase dykes cutting the Karelian schists and Archean basement. The intrusions and the volcanics of the 1.9 Ga old basic igneous activity are mostly encountered around the Granitoid Complex of Central Finland. Subjotnian, 1.6 Ga aged tholeiitic diabases are situated around the Rapakivi massifs of Southern Finland, and postjotnian, 1.2 Ga diabases in Western Finland where they form dykes cutting Svecofennian rocks

  13. Revolutionary introduction of RIA/IRMA methodology in medical diagnostics: a study employing the technique for hyperprolactinemia and its correlation with hypothyroidism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tasneem, A.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the incidence of hyperprolactinemia, its underlying causes and consequences, and to study its correlation with hypothyroidism. The study was carried out on 1365 male and female subjects referred to Centre for Nuclear Medicine Lahore for hormonal estimation. Serum Prolactin and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) levels were measured using IRMA kits. Prevalence of hyperprolactinemia turned out to be 4.90%. Menstrual irregularity appeared as a major consequence. The incidence rate was the highest in the age range of 21-27 years. Hypothyroidism in hyperprolactinemic subjects was observed to be 22.7%. i) Immunoradiometric assay is a micro analytical technique which can measure very minute amount of the antigens in the serum. II) Prevalence of hypothyroidism in hyperprolactinemic subjects in our population is promising enough to estimate thyroid hormone levels in hyperprolactinemic patients. (author)

  14. Weathering of rock 'Ginger'

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    One of the more unusual rocks at the site is Ginger, located southeast of the lander. Parts of it have the reddest color of any material in view, whereas its rounded lobes are gray and relatively unweathered. These color differences are brought out in the inset, enhanced at the upper right. In the false color image at the lower right, the shape of the visible-wavelength spectrum (related to the abundance of weathered ferric iron minerals) is indicated by the hue of the rocks. Blue indicates relatively unweathered rocks. Typical soils and drift, which are heavily weathered, are shown in green and flesh tones. The very red color in the creases in the rock surface correspond to a crust of ferric minerals. The origin of the rock is uncertain; the ferric crust may have grown underneath the rock, or it may cement pebbles together into a conglomerate. Ginger will be a target of future super-resolution studies to better constrain its origin.Mars Pathfinder is the second in NASA's Discovery program of low-cost spacecraft with highly focused science goals. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, developed and manages the Mars Pathfinder mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) was developed by the University of Arizona Lunar and Planetary Laboratory under contract to JPL. Peter Smith is the Principal Investigator. JPL is an operating division of the California Institute of Technology (Caltech).

  15. Making mock-FNA smears from fresh surgical pathology specimens to improve smear preparation technique and to create cytohistological correlation series.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tibor Mezei

    Full Text Available Fine needle aspiration (FNA cytology is a well-established diagnostic method based on the microscopic interpretation of often scant cytological material; therefore, experience, good technique and smear quality are equally important in obtaining satisfactory results.We studied the use of fresh surgical pathology specimens for making so-called mock-FNA smears with the potential of cytohistological correlation. Additionally, we studied how this process aids the improvement of preparation technique and smear quality.Cytological aspirates from 32 fresh biopsy specimens from various sites: lung (20, lymph nodes (6, and breast (6 were obtained, all with a clinical diagnosis of tumor. Aspiration was performed from grossly palpable tumors. 25 G needle and Cameco-type syringe holder was used with minimal or no suction.Unfixed surgical specimens provided sufficient cytological material that resulted in good quality smears. After standard processing of specimens into microscopic sections from paraffin embedded tissues, cytohistological case-series were created. No significant alteration was reported in tissue architecture on hematoxylin-eosin stained sections after the aspiration procedure. A gradual, but steady improvement was observed in smear quality just after a few preparations.Our study proved that surgical specimens may be used as a source of cytological material to create cytohistological correlation studies and also to improve FNA cytology skills. The use of very fine gauge needle (25 G, 0,6 mm diameter during the sampling process does not alter tissue architecture therefore the final histopathological diagnosis is not compromised. We conclude that by using fresh surgical specimens useful cytohistological collections can be created both as a teaching resource and as improving experience.

  16. Some geological and geophysical aspects in electric rock breaking

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Henry, G

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available an important role in any rock-breaking techniques using electrical power. The research done at the CSIR's Centre for Mining Innovation is towards understanding the science behind electric rock breaking. This understanding would lead to a practical method...

  17. Monte carlo feasibility study of an active neutron assay technique for full-volume UF{sub 6} cylinder assay using a correlated interrogation source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, Karen A., E-mail: kamiller@lanl.gov [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, P.O. Box 1663 MS E540, NM 87545 (United States); Menlove, Howard O.; Swinhoe, Martyn T.; Marlow, Johnna B. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, P.O. Box 1663 MS E540, NM 87545 (United States)

    2013-03-01

    Uranium cylinder assay plays an important role in the nuclear material accounting at gas centrifuge enrichment plants. The Passive Neutron Enrichment Meter (PNEM) was designed to determine uranium mass and enrichment in 30B and 48Y cylinders using total neutron and coincidence counting in the passive mode. 30B and 48Y cylinders are used to hold bulk UF{sub 6} feed, product, and tails at enrichment plants. In this paper, we report the results of a Monte-Carlo-based feasibility study for an active uranium cylinder assay system based on the PNEM design. There are many advantages of the active technique such as a shortened count time and a more direct measure of {sup 235}U content. The active system is based on a modified PNEM design and uses a {sup 252}Cf source as the correlated, active interrogation source. We show through comparison with a random AmLi source of equal strength how the use of a correlated driver significantly boosts the active signal and reduces the statistical uncertainty. We also discuss ways in which an active uranium cylinder assay system can be optimized to minimize background from {sup 238}U fast-neutron induced fission and direct counts from the interrogation source.

  18. Analysis of two-phase flow velocity measurements by cross-correlation techniques and the applicability of the drift flux model for their interpretation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Analytis, G.Th.; Luebbesmeyer, D.

    1982-11-01

    An extensive and detailed investigation of two-phase flow velocity measurements by cross-correlating noise signals of information carriers (neutrons, gammas, visible light) modulated by the two-phase flow and registered by two axially placed detectors outside the flow is pursued. To this end, a detailed analysis of velocity measurements in experimental loops and a large number of velocity measurements in a commercial BWR is undertaken, and the applicability and limitations of the drift flux model for their interpretation is investigated. On the basis of this extensive analysis, the authors propose a physically plausible explanation for the deviations in the upper part of the core, expound on why the drift flux model is, to a great extent, not suitable for interpreting two-phase flow velocity measurements by cross-correlation techniques reported in the present work, and conclude that due to the large number of uncertainties and the lack of detailed knowledge about the kind of microstructures of the flow which the detectors prefer to ''sample'', one can safely assume that at least in the lower half of the core the velocity measured can be well approximated by the velocity of the centre of volume, from which the mass fluxes can readily be computed. (Auth.)

  19. Fragmentation of the C60 molecule in collision with light ions studied by a multi-correlation technique. Cross-sections, electron spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rentenier, A.

    2004-04-01

    A quantitative study of the C60 fullerenes fragmentation in collision with light ions (H n + with n=1,2,3, He q+ with q=1,2) in the velocity range 0,1 - 2,3 u.a.) is presented. The multi-correlation technique, developed between fragment ions and electrons with well defined energy, has enlightened some of the dependences and properties of fragmentation mechanisms (cross sections, electron spectroscopy, size distributions, kinetic energy of fragment ions, Campi's scatter plot, activation energies). The deposited energy hence appeared as an important parameter. Cross sections have been measured, for the first time, for all the collisional processes. Ionisation and capture only depends on the collision velocity. On the other hand, scaling laws with the deposited energy have been observed for the cross sections of multifragmentation, which depends on the collision energy and the nature of the projectile. The deposited energy has also been found as an essential parameter to understand the evolution of the charged fragment size distributions. The electron spectroscopy, achieved at an emission angle of 35 degrees, showed spectra peaked at important energies (from 5 to 20 eV). The spectra shape depends on the collision velocity. A first theoretical analysis points out the link between the observed energy distribution and the presence of a centrifugal potential barrier. Finally, correlation experiments between produced ions and electron energy reveal that electron energy increases with internal energy. (author)

  20. Hot-dry-rock geothermal resource 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heiken, G.; Goff, F.; Cremer, G. (ed.)

    1982-04-01

    The work performed on hot dry rock (HDR) geothermal resource evaluation, site characterization, and geophysical exploration techniques is summarized. The work was done by region (Far West, Pacific Northwest, Southwest, Rocky Mountain States, Midcontinent, and Eastern) and limited to the conterminous US.

  1. Radiocarbon dating of ancient rock paintings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ilger, W.A.; Hyman, M.; Rowe, M.W. [Texas A and M Univ., College Station, TX (United States). Dept. of Chemistry; Southon, J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

    1995-06-20

    This report presents progress made on a technique for {sup 14}C dating pictographs. A low-temperature oxygen plasma is used coupled with high-vacuum technologies to selectively remove C-containing material in the paints without contamination from inorganic carbon from rock substrates or accretions.

  2. Radiocarbon dating of ancient rock paintings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ilger, W.A.; Hyman, M.; Rowe, M.W.

    1995-01-01

    This report presents progress made on a technique for 14 C dating pictographs. A low-temperature oxygen plasma is used coupled with high-vacuum technologies to selectively remove C-containing material in the paints without contamination from inorganic carbon from rock substrates or accretions

  3. Correlation of Self Potential and Ground Magnetic Survey Techniques to Investigate Fluid Seepage in Archaeological site, Sungai Batu, Lembah Bujang, Kedah, Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tajudeen O. Adeeko

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available One of the substantial of geophysics is to investigate the subsurface condition of the earth (groundwater using appropriate geophysical techniques. In this research the correlation of self potential (SP and ground magnetic methods was used to investigate fluid seepage in Archaeological site, Sungai Batu, Lembah Bujang, Kedah, Malaysia. Self-potential method was used to determine flow of water, and Ground magnetic method was used to find object that can influence the result of self potential measurement and the aquifer depth, the lines were spread 0m ≤ x ≤ 9m, 0m ≤ y ≤ 30m with a trace intervals of 1.5m and 0.75m per electrode spacing respectively. The result display by Self Potential signals gives a clear understand that water flow from higher value (central towards the lower value which is mostly at the southwest part than other areas and distinct level of feasible flow at different part ranges from -30mV to +35mV,which are very related to seepage flow patterns, negative SP anomalies were related with subsurface seepage flow paths (recharge zone and positive SP anomalies were related with areas of seepage outflow (discharge zone; and Ground Magnetic signals shows good details of the buried materials with high magnetic values which was interpreted as baked clay bricks and low magnetic values indicate groundwater seepage with depth of 5m. Therefore, the two results have correlation significant at 0.8 which show good correlation in groundwater investigation in this study, which validates the results.

  4. Digital Rock Studies of Tight Porous Media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silin, Dmitriy [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2012-08-07

    This technical report summarizes some recently developed approaches to studies of rock properties at a pore scale. Digital rock approach is complementary to laboratory and field studies. It can be especially helpful in situations where experimental data are uncertain, or are difficult or impossible to obtain. Digitized binary images of the pore geometries of natural rocks obtained by different imaging techniques are the input data. Computer-generated models of natural rocks can be used instead of images in a case where microtomography data are unavailable, or the resolution of the tools is insufficient to adequately characterize the features of interest. Simulations of creeping viscous flow in pores produce estimates of Darcy permeability. Maximal Inscribed Spheres calculations estimate two-phase fluid distribution in capillary equilibrium. A combination of both produce relative permeability curves. Computer-generated rock models were employed to study two-phase properties of fractured rocks, or tight sands with slit-like pores, too narrow to be characterized with micro-tomography. Various scenarios can simulate different fluid displacement mechanisms, from piston-like drainage to liquid dropout at the dew point. A finite differences discretization of Stokes equation is developed to simulate flow in the pore space of natural rocks. The numerical schemes are capable to handle both no-slip and slippage flows. An upscaling procedure estimates the permeability by subsampling a large data set. Capillary equilibrium and capillary pressure curves are efficiently estimated with the method of maximal inscribed spheres both an arbitrary contact angle. The algorithms can handle gigobytes of data on a desktop workstation. Customized QuickHull algorithms model natural rocks. Capillary pressure curves evaluated from computer-generated images mimic those obtained for microtomography data.

  5. Applicability of geomechanical classifications for estimation of strength properties in Brazilian rock masses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Tatiana B; Lana, Milene S; Santos, Allan E M; Silveira, Larissa R C

    2017-01-01

    Many authors have been proposed several correlation equations between geomechanical classifications and strength parameters. However, these correlation equations have been based in rock masses with different characteristics when compared to Brazilian rock masses. This paper aims to study the applicability of the geomechanical classifications to obtain strength parameters of three Brazilian rock masses. Four classification systems have been used; the Rock Mass Rating (RMR), the Rock Mass Quality (Q), the Geological Strength Index (GSI) and the Rock Mass Index (RMi). A strong rock mass and two soft rock masses with different degrees of weathering located in the cities of Ouro Preto and Mariana, Brazil; were selected for the study. Correlation equations were used to estimate the strength properties of these rock masses. However, such correlations do not always provide compatible results with the rock mass behavior. For the calibration of the strength values obtained through the use of classification systems, ​​stability analyses of failures in these rock masses have been done. After calibration of these parameters, the applicability of the various correlation equations found in the literature have been discussed. According to the results presented in this paper, some of these equations are not suitable for the studied rock masses.

  6. Interpretation of quasi-static and dynamic tensile behavior by digital image correlation technique in TWinning Induced Plasticity (TWIP) and low-carbon steel sheets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Minju; Park, Jaeyeong; Sohn, Seok Su; Kim, Hyoung Seop [Center for Advanced Aerospace Materials, Pohang University of Science and Technology, Pohang 790-784 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Nack J. [Graduate Institute of Ferrous Technology, Pohang University of Science and Technology, Pohang 790-784 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Sunghak, E-mail: shlee@postech.ac.kr [Center for Advanced Aerospace Materials, Pohang University of Science and Technology, Pohang 790-784 (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-05-02

    In this study, dynamic tensile tests were conducted on TWinning Induced Plasticity (TWIP) and low-carbon (LC) steel sheets at a strain rate of 1500–2000/s by using a split Hopkinson tensile bar, and deformation mechanisms related with improvement of dynamic tensile properties were investigated by a digital image correlation (DIC) technique. The dynamic tensile strength was higher than the quasi-static tensile strength in both TWIP and LC sheets, while the dynamic elongation was same to the quasi-static elongation in the TWIP sheet and was much lower than the quasi-static elongation in the LC sheet. According to the DIC results of the dynamically tensioned TWIP sheet, the homogeneous deformation occurred before the necking at the strain of 47.4%. This indicated that the dynamic deformation processes were almost similar to the quasi-static ones as the TWIP sheet was homogeneously deformed in the initial and intermediate deformation stages. This could be explained by deformation mechanisms including twinning, in consideration of favorable effect of increased twinning on tensile properties under the dynamic loading. On the other hand, the dynamically tensioned LC sheet was rapidly deformed and fractured as the necking was intensified in a narrow strain-concentrated region. The present DIC technique is an outstanding method for detailed dynamic deformation analyses, and provides an important idea for practical safety analyses of automotive steel sheets.

  7. Mapping of the surface rupture induced by the M 7.3 Kumamoto Earthquake along the Eastern segment of Futagawa fault using image correlation techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekhtari, N.; Glennie, C. L.; Fielding, E. J.; Liang, C.

    2016-12-01

    Near field surface deformation is vital to understanding the shallow fault physics of earthquakes but near-field deformation measurements are often sparse or not reliable. In this study, we use the Co-seismic Image Correlation (COSI-Corr) technique to map the near-field surface deformation caused by the M 7.3 April 16, 2016 Kumamoto Earthquake, Kyushu, Japan. The surface rupture around the Eastern segment of Futagawa fault is mapped using a pair of panchromatic 1.5 meter resolution SPOT 7 images. These images were acquired on January 16 and April 29, 2016 (3 months before and 13 days after the earthquake respectively) with close to nadir (less than 1.5 degree off nadir) viewing angle. The two images are ortho-rectified using SRTM Digital Elevation Model and further co-registered using tie points far away from the rupture field. Then the COSI-Corr technique is utilized to produce an estimated surface displacement map, and a horizontal displacement vector field is calculated which supplies a seamless estimate of near field displacement measurements along the Eastern segment of the Futagawa fault. The COSI-Corr estimated displacements are then compared to other existing displacement observations from InSAR, GPS and field observations.

  8. The feasibility and prospect of uranium-gas in black rock series of joint exploration and development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Guochang; Zhang Dehua; Zhang Hongjian

    2014-01-01

    By the analysis and contrast of existing form of gas-uranium, correlation between gas-uranium and organic matter, distribution characteristics and control factors of mineralization (bosom) in the sedimentary formation of shale gas and black uranium bearing rock series, the authors come to the conclusion that: in the carbonate-siliceous-pelitic of black rock series the uranium and gas (oil) is essentially equipped coenosarc of the same homology, syngenetic, reservoir. They are ore source beds of carbonate-siliceous-pelitic rock uranium deposit, and also the hydrocarbon source beds in which the shale gas form. In black shales, uranium largely exist in the form of the ion adsorption (acetyl ion/uranyl ion). Under fracturing conditions, we can realize desorption mode of chemical solvents of adding acid or alkali, and extract uranium by concentrating liquid (the same as in-situ mimng technology). Therefore, the fracturing technology (clear water fracturing techniques, repeat fracturing techniques, synchronization fracturing techniques, multistage fracturing techniques, network fracturing techniques and so on) of shale gas exploitation lay a foundation for black shale uranium-gas joint development. The mature and corollary use of fracturing techniques and in-situ mining technology of low grade uranium will undoubtedly further increase the industrial resource extent of uranium and gas, improve guaranteeing degree of resource, reform of promote energy production structure and provide a large number of economical and effective clean energy. (authors)

  9. The Usability of Noise Level from Rock Cutting for the Prediction of Physico-Mechanical Properties of Rocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delibalta, M. S.; Kahraman, S.; Comakli, R.

    2015-11-01

    Because the indirect tests are easier and cheaper than the direct tests, the prediction of rock properties from the indirect testing methods is important especially for the preliminary investigations. In this study, the predictability of the physico-mechanical rock properties from the noise level measured during cutting rock with diamond saw was investigated. Noise measurement test, uniaxial compressive strength (UCS) test, Brazilian tensile strength (BTS) test, point load strength (Is) test, density test, and porosity test were carried out on 54 different rock types in the laboratory. The results were statistically analyzed to derive estimation equations. Strong correlations between the noise level and the mechanical rock properties were found. The relations follow power functions. Increasing rock strength increases the noise level. Density and porosity also correlated strongly with the noise level. The relations follow linear functions. Increasing density increases the noise level while increasing porosity decreases the noise level. The developed equations are valid for the rocks with a compressive strength below 150 MPa. Concluding remark is that the physico-mechanical rock properties can reliably be estimated from the noise level measured during cutting the rock with diamond saw.

  10. Sangkulirang Mangkalihat: The Earliest Prehistoric Rock-Art in the World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imam Gozali Sumantri, Dirga; Soeria Atmadja, Dicky A. S.; Setiawan, Pindi

    2018-05-01

    Borneo island, a part of Sundaland - a great mainland in South East Asia thousands of years ago - is the largest island in Indonesian Archipelago. In the middle-eastern of East Borneo, lies a peninsula karst region named Sangkulirang Mangkalihat. The region's biodiversity contains many species of flora and fauna which are part of karst ecosystem. Surprisingly, thousands prehistoric rock art paintings and engraving were found here, spread over 48 inland caves in seven different karst mountain areas. The rock arts are painted on the ceiling, wall, and hollow of the cave depends on the meaning. They illustrate forms such as spiritual images (zoomorphic and antropomorphic) for sacred spiritual meaning, and social phenomenon images (tools and weapons) for description of daily life. From all those rock-arts, hand paintings are the most common elements appeared. Compared to other paintings, these are the only negative images using different techniques. Radiocarbon dating indicated that the rock-arts at Tewet Cave in Sangkulirang Mangkalihat is 40,000 BP. It is much earlier compared to Lascaux Cave (35,400 BP) and Chauvet Cave (32,000) in France which were previously known as the earliest one in the world. Rock arts and some archeological findings also indicate the migration of Austronesian People. During the migration, Borneo's climate and land cover were changing from time to time. Continental climate occurred when all Sundaland was still dry (40,000-21,000 BP), followed by tropical savanna climate and archipelagic climate (12,000-7.000 BP), and then Tropical Rainforest consecutively (1,000 BP). Correlatively, geological interpretations from such areas indicate land cover changes. These changes effected Austronesian ways of living, e.g. from hunting to fishing, and were depicted clearly on their paintings. Today, - as observed from time series satellite images - industrial activities such as karst exploitation for cement production and land clearing for palm

  11. Geophysical testing of rock and its relationships to physical properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-01

    Testing techniques were designed to characterize spatial variability in geotechnical engineering physical parameters of : rock formations. Standard methods using seismic waves, which are routinely used for shallow subsurface : investigation, have lim...

  12. Transporting radioactive rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pearce, G.

    1990-01-01

    The case is made for exempting geological specimens from the IAEA Regulations for Safer Transport of Radioactive Materials. It is pointed out that many mineral collectors in Devon and Cornwall may be unwittingly infringing these regulations by taking naturally radioactive rocks and specimens containing uranium ores. Even if these collectors are aware that these rocks are radioactive, and many are not, few have the necessary equipment to monitor the activity levels. If the transport regulations were to be enforced alarm could be generated and the regulations devalued in case of an accident. The danger from a spill of rock specimens is negligible compared with an accident involving industrial or medical radioactive substances yet would require similar special treatment. (UK)

  13. Retrieval of nitrogen dioxide stratospheric profiles from ground-based zenith-sky UV-visible observations: validation of the technique through correlative comparisons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Hendrick

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available A retrieval algorithm based on the Optimal Estimation Method (OEM has been developed in order to provide vertical distributions of NO2 in the stratosphere from ground-based (GB zenith-sky UV-visible observations. It has been applied to observational data sets from the NDSC (Network for Detection of Stratospheric Change stations of Harestua (60° N, 10° E and Andøya (69° N, 16° E in Norway. The information content and retrieval errors have been analyzed following a formalism used for characterizing ozone profiles retrieved from solar infrared absorption spectra. In order to validate the technique, the retrieved NO2 vertical profiles and columns have been compared to correlative balloon and satellite observations. Such extensive validation of the profile and column retrievals was not reported in previously published work on the profiling from GB UV-visible measurements. A good agreement - generally better than 25% - has been found with the SAOZ (Système d'Analyse par Observations Zénithales and DOAS (Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy balloons. A similar agreement has been reached with correlative satellite data from the HALogen Occultation Experiment (HALOE and Polar Ozone and Aerosol Measurement (POAM III instruments above 25km of altitude. Below 25km, a systematic underestimation - by up to 40% in some cases - of both HALOE and POAM III profiles by our GB profile retrievals has been observed, pointing out more likely a limitation of both satellite instruments at these altitudes. We have concluded that our study strengthens our confidence in the reliability of the retrieval of vertical distribution information from GB UV-visible observations and offers new perspectives in the use of GB UV-visible network data for validation purposes.

  14. Quantitative Discomanometry: Correlation of Intradiscal Pressure Values to Pain Reduction in Patients With Intervertebral Disc Herniation Treated With Percutaneous, Minimally Invasive, Image-Guided Techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Filippiadis, Dimitrios K., E-mail: dfilippiadis@yahoo.gr; Mazioti, A., E-mail: argyromazioti@yahoo.gr; Papakonstantinou, O., E-mail: sogofianol@gmail.com; Brountzos, E., E-mail: ebrountz@med.uoa.gr [University General Hospital ' Attikon' , Second Radiology Department (Greece); Gouliamos, A., E-mail: agouliam@med.uoa.gr [University General Hospital ' Areteion' , First Radiology Department (Greece); Kelekis, N., E-mail: kelnik@med.uoa.gr; Kelekis, A., E-mail: akelekis@med.uoa.gr [University General Hospital ' Attikon' , Second Radiology Department (Greece)

    2012-10-15

    Purpose: To illustrate quantitative discomanometry's (QD) diagnostic efficacy and predictive value in discogenic-pain evaluation in a prospective study correlating intradiscal pressure values with pain reduction after percutaneous image-guided technique (i.e., percutaneous decompression, PD). Materials and Methods: During the last 3 years, 36 patients [21 male and 15 female (mean age 36 {+-} 5.8 years)] with intervertebral disc hernia underwent QD before PD. Under absolute sterilization and fluoroscopy, a mixture of contrast medium and normal saline (3:1 ratio) was injected. A discmonitor performed a constant rate injection and recorded pressure and volume values, thus producing the relative pressure-volume curve. PD was then performed. Pain reduction and improved mobility were recorded at 3, 12, and 24 months after PD using clinical evaluation and a numeric visual scale (NVS; 0 to 10 units). Results: Mean pain values of 7.5 {+-} 1.9 (range 4 to 8) NVS units were recorded before PD; these decreased to 2.9 {+-} 2.44 at 3 months, 1.0 {+-} 1.9 at 12 months, and 1.0 {+-} 1.9 NVS units at 24 months after PD. Recorded correlations (pressure, volume, significant pain-reduction values) with bilateral statistical significance included a maximum injected volume of 2.4 ml (p = 0.045), P{sub o} < 14 psi [initial pressure required to inject 0.1 ml of the mixture inside the disc (p = 0.05)], P{sub max} {<=} 65 psi [greatest pressure value on the curve (p = 0.018)], and P{sub max} - P{sub o} {<=} 47 psi (p = 0.038). Patients meeting these pressure or volume cut-off points, either independently or as a total, had significant pain reduction (>4 NVS units) after PD. No complications were noted. Conclusions: QD is an efficient technique that may have predictive value for discogenic pain evaluation. It might serve as a useful tool for patient selection for intervertebral disc therapies.

  15. Comparison of several measure-correlate-predict models using support vector regression techniques to estimate wind power densities. A case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Díaz, Santiago; Carta, José A.; Matías, José M.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Eight measure-correlate-predict (MCP) models used to estimate the wind power densities (WPDs) at a target site are compared. • Support vector regressions are used as the main prediction techniques in the proposed MCPs. • The most precise MCP uses two sub-models which predict wind speed and air density in an unlinked manner. • The most precise model allows to construct a bivariable (wind speed and air density) WPD probability density function. • MCP models trained to minimise wind speed prediction error do not minimise WPD prediction error. - Abstract: The long-term annual mean wind power density (WPD) is an important indicator of wind as a power source which is usually included in regional wind resource maps as useful prior information to identify potentially attractive sites for the installation of wind projects. In this paper, a comparison is made of eight proposed Measure-Correlate-Predict (MCP) models to estimate the WPDs at a target site. Seven of these models use the Support Vector Regression (SVR) and the eighth the Multiple Linear Regression (MLR) technique, which serves as a basis to compare the performance of the other models. In addition, a wrapper technique with 10-fold cross-validation has been used to select the optimal set of input features for the SVR and MLR models. Some of the eight models were trained to directly estimate the mean hourly WPDs at a target site. Others, however, were firstly trained to estimate the parameters on which the WPD depends (i.e. wind speed and air density) and then, using these parameters, the target site mean hourly WPDs. The explanatory features considered are different combinations of the mean hourly wind speeds, wind directions and air densities recorded in 2014 at ten weather stations in the Canary Archipelago (Spain). The conclusions that can be drawn from the study undertaken include the argument that the most accurate method for the long-term estimation of WPDs requires the execution of a

  16. Geotechnical properties of rock

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jackson, R.; Gorski, B.; Gyenge, M.

    1995-12-31

    The manual is a compilation of the geotechnical properties of many types of rock that are typical of Canadian mining environments. Included are values for density, porosity, compressive and shear wave velocity, uniaxial compressive strength, Young`s modulus, and Poisson`s ratio. The data base contains material constants that were determined using the Hoek and Brown failure criteria for both before and after failure conditions. 76 data sheets of rock properties in Canadian mines are included. 7 refs., 85 figs., 3 tabs.

  17. Rock engineering applications, 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franklin, J.A.; Dusseault, M.B.

    1991-01-01

    This book demonstrates how to apply the theories and principles of rock engineering to actual engineering and construction tasks. It features insights on geology for mining and tunnelling applications. It is practical resource that focuses on the latest technological innovation and examines up-to-date procedures used by engineers for coping with complex rock conditions. The authors also discuss question related to underground space, from design approaches to underground housing and storage. And they cover the monitoring of storage caverns for liquid and gaseous products or toxic and radioactive wastes

  18. Rock Hellsinki, Marketing Research

    OpenAIRE

    Todd, Roosa; Jalkanen, Katariina

    2013-01-01

    This paper is a qualitative research about rock and heavy metal music tourism in the capital city of Finland, Helsinki. As Helsinki can be considered the city of contrasts, the silent nature city mixed with urban activities, it is important to also use the potential of the loud rock and heavy metal music contrasting the silence. Finland is known abroad for bands such as HIM, Nightwish, Korpiklaani and Children of Bodom so it would make sense to utilize these in the tourism sector as well. The...

  19. Correlated analysis of 2 MeV proton-induced radiation damage in CdZnTe crystals using photoluminescence and thermally stimulated current techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gu, Yaxu [State Key Laboratory of Solidification Processing, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi’an 710072 (China); Key Laboratory of Radiation Detection Materials and Devices of Ministry of Industry and Information Technology, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi’an 710072 (China); Jie, Wanqi, E-mail: jwq@nwpu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Solidification Processing, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi’an 710072 (China); Key Laboratory of Radiation Detection Materials and Devices of Ministry of Industry and Information Technology, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi’an 710072 (China); Rong, Caicai [Institute of Modern Physics, Applied Ion Beam Physics Laboratory, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Wang, Yuhan; Xu, Lingyan; Xu, Yadong [State Key Laboratory of Solidification Processing, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi’an 710072 (China); Key Laboratory of Radiation Detection Materials and Devices of Ministry of Industry and Information Technology, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi’an 710072 (China); Lv, Haoyan; Shen, Hao [Institute of Modern Physics, Applied Ion Beam Physics Laboratory, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Du, Guanghua [Materials Research Center, Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Fu, Xu [State Key Laboratory of Solidification Processing, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi’an 710072 (China); Key Laboratory of Radiation Detection Materials and Devices of Ministry of Industry and Information Technology, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi’an 710072 (China); and others

    2016-11-01

    Highlights: • 2 MeV proton-induced radiation damage in CdZnTe crystals is investigated by PL and TSC techniques. • The influence of radiation damage on the luminescent and electrical properties of CdZnTe crystals is studied. • Intensity of PL spectrum is found to decrease significantly in irradiated regions, suggesting the increase of non-radiative recombination centers. • A correlated analysis of PL and TSC spectra suggests that the density of dislocations and A-centers increase after proton irradiation. - Abstract: Radiation damage induced by 2 MeV protons in CdZnTe crystals has been studied by means of photoluminescence (PL) and thermally stimulated current (TSC) techniques. A notable quenching of PL intensity is observed in the regions irradiated with a fluence of 6 × 10{sup 13} p/cm{sup 2}, suggesting the increase of non-radiative recombination centers. Moreover, the intensity of emission peak D{sub complex} centered at 1.48 eV dominates in the PL spectrum obtained from irradiated regions, ascribed to the increase of interstitial dislocation loops and A centers. The intensity of TSC spectra in irradiated regions decreases compared to the virgin regions, resulting from the charge collection inefficiency caused by proton-induced recombination centers. By comparing the intensity of identified traps obtained from numerical fitting using simultaneous multiple peak analysis (SIMPA) method, it suggests that proton irradiation under such dose can introduce high density of dislocation and A-centers in CdZnTe crystals, consistent with PL results.

  20. Radionuclide migration in crystalline rock fractures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoelttae, P.

    2002-01-01

    first time in a series of experiments where the experimental arrangements enabled very low water flow rates. FTRANS, a modified numerical code that can simulate both groundwater flow and the transport of radionuclides in porous or fractured medium, was tested in order to interpret laboratory scale migration experiments. The code was able to interpret in-diffusion of calcium into altered tonalites. The elution curves of calcium for the altered tonalite fracture columns were explained adequately by the code when using parameters obtained from in-diffusion calculations. The K d -values for intact rock obtained on the basis of the fracture column experiments were one order of magnitude lower than the K d -values for crushed rock, indicating that batch experiments overestimate the retardation of sorbing radionuclides onto the rock matrices owing to the larger surface areas that are available. The greater sorption on altered tonalites was explained by the composition of the sorptive alteration minerals and the large specific surface areas. In this research, sodium, calcium and strontium were used as tracers in order to compare various experimental techniques. Experiments with relevant nuclear waste nuclides are needed to enable more detailed discussion of the differences in K d -values and the implication for performance assessment calculations. Data obtained from transport experiments conducted in well-defined laboratory conditions is the basis for the block scale and field experiments that are necessary to validate the radionuclide transport concept and to test the transferability of laboratory data to field conditions.(orig.)

  1. Microseismicity of an Unstable Rock Mass: From Field Monitoring to Laboratory Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colombero, C.; Comina, C.; Vinciguerra, S.; Benson, P. M.

    2018-02-01

    The field-scale microseismic (MS) activity of an unstable rock mass is known to be an important tool to assess damage and cracking processes eventually leading to macroscopic failures. However, MS-event rates alone may not be enough for a complete understanding of the trigger mechanisms of mechanical instabilities. Acoustic Emission (AE) techniques at the laboratory scale can be used to provide complementary information. In this study, we report a MS/AE comparison to assess the stability of a granitic rock mass in the northwestern Italian Alps (Madonna del Sasso). An attempt to bridge the gap between the two different scales of observation, and the different site and laboratory conditions, is undertaken to gain insights on the rock mass behavior as a function of external governing factors. Time- and frequency-domain parameters of the MS/AE waveforms are compared and discussed with this aim. At the field scale, special attention is devoted to the correlation of the MS-event rate with meteorological parameters (air temperature and rainfalls). At the laboratory scale, AE rates, waveforms, and spectral content, recorded under controlled temperature and fluid conditions, are analyzed in order to better constrain the physical mechanisms responsible for the observed field patterns. The factors potentially governing the mechanical instability at the site were retrieved from the integration of the results. Abrupt thermal variations were identified as the main cause of the site microsesimicity, without highlighting irreversible acceleration in the MS-event rate potentially anticipating the rock mass collapse.

  2. Rock mass mechanical property estimations for the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, M.; Hardy, M.P.; Bauer, S.J.

    1993-06-01

    Rock mass mechanical properties are important in the design of drifts and ramps. These properties are used in evaluations of the impacts of thermomechanical loading of potential host rock within the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project. Representative intact rock and joint mechanical properties were selected for welded and nonwelded tuffs from the currently available data sources. Rock mass qualities were then estimated using both the Norwegian Geotechnical Institute (Q) and Geomechanics Rating (RMR) systems. Rock mass mechanical properties were developed based on estimates of rock mass quality, the current knowledge of intact properties, and fracture/joint characteristics. Empirical relationships developed to correlate the rock mass quality indices and the rock mass mechanical properties were then used to estimate the range of rock mass mechanical properties

  3. Hydrocarbons in mother rock in France. Initial report and complementary report (further to the law of the 13 July 2011 creating the national commission for orientation, follow-up and assessment of techniques of exploration and exploitation of liquid and gaseous hydrocarbons)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leteurtrois, Jean-Pierre; Durville, Jean-Louis; Pillet, Didier; Gazeau, Jean-Claude; Bellec, Gilles; Catoire, Serge

    2012-02-01

    These reports aimed at studying the opportunities of development of mother-rock hydrocarbons as well as the associated economic opportunities and geopolitical challenges, exploitation techniques (efficiency, capacity of the French industry, impacts, costs, perspectives), their social and environmental challenges (notably with respect to such a development in France), and legal, regulatory and tax framework. These issues are addressed in the first report whereas the complementary report gives an overview of the evolution of the energy context, of hydrocarbon resources and technologies, of the main actors in the world, and of experiments in France

  4. A report on the IAEA co-ordinated research programme on the Application of Isotopic Correlation Techniques to international safeguards 1975-1982

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanatani, S.

    1983-01-01

    A co-ordinated research programme on the Application of Isotopic Correlation Techniques (ICT) to International Safeguards has just ended in the Agency. During the continuation of the programme, scientists from Belgium, Japan, France, United Kingdom, United States and Euratom, engaged in the development of ICT, met periodically to discuss the results obtained by them from both theoretical and experimental investigations. The paper describes the main features of the alternative approaches developed at participating laboratories as well as procedures developed at the IAEA. At the conclusion of the programme, there was an unanimous recommendation from the participants that ICT is a useful tool for verification of input analysis at a chemical reprocessing plant. After the closure of the co-ordinated research programme, the IAEA is now applying data evaluation procedures developed at the Agency and keeping in contact with the progress of work on ICT carried on in laboratories such as JAERI (Japan), CEA (France) and Euratom, through support programmes and through participation in the ESARDA working group dealing with ICT

  5. Combined Synchrotron X-ray Diffraction and Digital Image Correlation Technique for Measurement of Austenite Transformation with Strain in TRIP-assisted Steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poling, Whitney A.; Savic, Vesna; Hector, Louis G.; Sachdev, Anil K.; Hu, Xiaohua; Devaraj, Arun; Abu-Farha, Fadi

    2016-04-05

    The strain-induced, diffusionless shear transformation of retained austenite to martensite during straining of transformation induced plasticity (TRIP) assisted steels increases strain hardening and delays necking and fracture leading to exceptional ductility and strength, which are attractive for automotive applications. A novel technique that provides the retained austenite volume fraction variation with strain in TRIP-assisted steels with improved precision is presented. Digital images of the gauge section of tensile specimens were first recorded up to selected plastic strains with a stereo digital image correlation (DIC) system. The austenite volume fraction was measured by synchrotron X-ray diffraction from small squares cut from the gage section. Strain fields in the squares were then computed by localizing the strain measurement to the corresponding region of a given square during DIC post-processing of the images recorded during tensile testing. Results obtained for a QP980 steel are used to study the influence of initial volume fraction of austenite and the austenite transformation with strain on tensile mechanical behavior.

  6. Multi-dimensional modeling of two-phase flow in rod bundles and interpretation of velocities measured in BWRs by the cross-correlation technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Analytis, G.Th.; Luebbesmeyer, D.

    1984-04-01

    The authors present an as precise as possible interpretation of velocity measurements in BWRs by the cross-correlation technique, which is based on the radially non-uniform quality and velocity distribution in BWR type bundles, as well as on our knowledge about the spatial 'field of view' of the in-core neutron detectors. After formulating the three-dimensional two-fluid model volume/time averaged equations and pointing out some problems associated with averaging, they expound a little on the turbulence mixing and void drift effects, as well as on the way they are modelled in advanced subchannel analysis codes like THERMIT or COBRA-TF. Subsequently, some comparisons are made between axial velocities measured in a commercial BWR by neutron noise analysis, and the steam velocities of the four subchannels nearest to the instrument tube of one of the four bundles as predicted by COBRA-III and by THERMIT. Although as expected, for well-known reasons, COBRA-III predicts subchannel steam velocities which are close to each other, THERMIT correctly predicts in the upper half of the core three largely different steam velocities in the three different types of BW0 subchannels (corner, edge and interior). (Auth.)

  7. Investigation of hyperfine interactions in ZnO and Zn(1-X)Co(X)O by means of perturbed angular γ - γ Correlation technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mercurio, Marcio Eduardo

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this work was the development of high-purity ZnO and Zn (1-X) Co (X) O sample preparation methodology based on sol-gel chemical process, as well as the analysis of these samples by means of Perturbed Angular γ - γ Correlation technique (PAC). Also, X-ray Diffraction and Scanning Electron Microscopy were used to characterize the samples produced. In addition, Zn (1-X) Co (X) O samples were produced in an attempt to observe ferromagnetic behavior at room temperature, through the variation of Co concentration, with different atmospheres and annealing temperatures. The PAC measurements were performed in a BaF 2 four-detector γ spectrometer, which allows simultaneous acquisition of 12 γ - γ delayed coincidence spectra. 111 In → 111 Cd nuclear probe was used for these measurements, which has γ cascade of 172 - 245 keV populated in the decay of 111 In by electron capture. The hyperfine fields were measured from the intermediate energy level of 245 keV in 111 Cd with spin I = 5/2 and T 1/2 = 85 ns. The results show that the developed methodology is suitable for the production of these samples, which is evidenced by the agreement with values reported on literature. (author)

  8. Study of trace element correlations with drought tolerance in different sorghum genotypes using Energy Dispersive X-Rays Fluorescence (EDXRF) technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abu Assar, A.H.; Joseph, Daisy; Choudhury, R.K.; Saxena, A.; Suprasanna, P.; Bapat, V.A.

    2000-01-01

    Drought tolerant and susceptible genotypes of sorghum plants were analysed by Energy Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescence (EDXRF) technique to study the correlation of trace elements with drought tolerance capacities for sorghum plants. Samples prepared from mature seeds, young seedlings and old plants were analyzed using 109 Cd radioisotope source and a Si(Li) semiconductor detector of resolution 170 eV for 5.9 keV Mn K α X-ray. The elements such as K, Fe, Cu, Zn, Rb and Sr and Y were seen to be present in varying concentrations in different samples. The trace element profile in the seeds of 11 genotypes and in seedlings (young and old) of four sorghum genotypes that were studied exhibited considerable variation in their concentrations. Some seed genotypes showed the presence of Hg in small amounts. It was observed that in most of the genotypes (seeds), K and Fe concentrations were more in the tolerant genotype as compared to the susceptible type. Concentration of Fe decreased with maturity in the tolerant group while it increased with maturity in the susceptible group. The genotype Arfa Gadamak (AG) showed a distinct abnormality in its young seedling with high level of Zn. (author)

  9. Rock-hard coatings

    OpenAIRE

    Muller, M.

    2007-01-01

    Aircraft jet engines have to be able to withstand infernal conditions. Extreme heat and bitter cold tax coatings to the limit. Materials expert Dr Ir. Wim Sloof fits atoms together to develop rock-hard coatings. The latest invention in this field is known as ceramic matrix composites. Sloof has signed an agreement with a number of parties to investigate this material further.

  10. Fluids in metamorphic rocks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Touret, J.L.R.

    2001-01-01

    Basic principles for the study of fluid inclusions in metamorphic rocks are reviewed and illustrated. A major problem relates to the number of inclusions, possibly formed on a wide range of P-T conditions, having also suffered, in most cases, extensive changes after initial trapping. The

  11. Rock-hard coatings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muller, M.

    2007-01-01

    Aircraft jet engines have to be able to withstand infernal conditions. Extreme heat and bitter cold tax coatings to the limit. Materials expert Dr Ir. Wim Sloof fits atoms together to develop rock-hard coatings. The latest invention in this field is known as ceramic matrix composites. Sloof has

  12. Northeast Church Rock Mine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Northeast Church Rock Mine, a former uranium mine 17 miles northeast of Gallup, NM in the Pinedale Chapter of the Navajo Nation. EPA is working with NNEPA to oversee cleanup work by United Nuclear Corporation, a company owned by General Electric (GE).

  13. Teaching the Rock Cycle with Ease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bereki, Debra

    2000-01-01

    Describes a hands-on lesson for teaching high school students the concept of the rock cycle using sedimentary, metamorphic, and igneous rocks. Students use a rock cycle diagram to identify pairs of rocks. From the rock cycle, students explain on paper how their first rock became the second rock and vice versa. (PVD)

  14. For Those About to Rock : Naislaulajat rock-genressä

    OpenAIRE

    Herranen, Linda

    2015-01-01

    For those about to rock – naislaulajat rock-genressä antaa lukijalleen kokonaisvaltaisen käsityksen naisista rock-genressä: rockin historiasta, sukupuolittuneisuudesta, seksismistä, suomalaisten naislaulajien menestyksestä. Työn aineisto on koottu aihepiirin kirjallisuudesta ja alalla toimiville naislaulajille teetettyjen kyselyiden tuloksista. Lisäksi avaan omia kokemuksiani ja ajatuksiani, jotta näkökulma naisista rock-genressä tulisi esille mahdollisimman monipuolisesti. Ajatus aihees...

  15. Comparison of disposal concepts for rock salt and hard rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papp, R.

    1998-01-01

    The study was carried out in the period 1994-1996. The goals were to prepare a draft on spent fuel disposal in hard rock and additionally a comparison with existing disposal concepts for rock salt. A cask for direct disposal of spent fuel and a repository for hard rock including a safeguards concept were conceptually designed. The results of the study confirm, that the early German decision to employ rock salt was reasonable. (orig.)

  16. Elastic Rock Heterogeneity Controls Brittle Rock Failure during Hydraulic Fracturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langenbruch, C.; Shapiro, S. A.

    2014-12-01

    For interpretation and inversion of microseismic data it is important to understand, which properties of the reservoir rock control the occurrence probability of brittle rock failure and associated seismicity during hydraulic stimulation. This is especially important, when inverting for key properties like permeability and fracture conductivity. Although it became accepted that seismic events are triggered by fluid flow and the resulting perturbation of the stress field in the reservoir rock, the magnitude of stress perturbations, capable of triggering failure in rocks, can be highly variable. The controlling physical mechanism of this variability is still under discussion. We compare the occurrence of microseismic events at the Cotton Valley gas field to elastic rock heterogeneity, obtained from measurements along the treatment wells. The heterogeneity is characterized by scale invariant fluctuations of elastic properties. We observe that the elastic heterogeneity of the rock formation controls the occurrence of brittle failure. In particular, we find that the density of events is increasing with the Brittleness Index (BI) of the rock, which is defined as a combination of Young's modulus and Poisson's ratio. We evaluate the physical meaning of the BI. By applying geomechanical investigations we characterize the influence of fluctuating elastic properties in rocks on the probability of brittle rock failure. Our analysis is based on the computation of stress fluctuations caused by elastic heterogeneity of rocks. We find that elastic rock heterogeneity causes stress fluctuations of significant magnitude. Moreover, the stress changes necessary to open and reactivate fractures in rocks are strongly related to fluctuations of elastic moduli. Our analysis gives a physical explanation to the observed relation between elastic heterogeneity of the rock formation and the occurrence of brittle failure during hydraulic reservoir stimulations. A crucial factor for understanding

  17. Fluid-Rock Characterization and Interactions in NMR Well Logging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    George J. Hirasaki; Kishore K. Mohanty

    2005-09-05

    The objective of this report is to characterize the fluid properties and fluid-rock interactions that are needed for formation evaluation by NMR well logging. The advances made in the understanding of NMR fluid properties are summarized in a chapter written for an AAPG book on NMR well logging. This includes live oils, viscous oils, natural gas mixtures, and the relation between relaxation time and diffusivity. Oil based drilling fluids can have an adverse effect on NMR well logging if it alters the wettability of the formation. The effect of various surfactants on wettability and surface relaxivity are evaluated for silica sand. The relation between the relaxation time and diffusivity distinguishes the response of brine, oil, and gas in a NMR well log. A new NMR pulse sequence in the presence of a field gradient and a new inversion technique enables the T{sub 2} and diffusivity distributions to be displayed as a two-dimensional map. The objectives of pore morphology and rock characterization are to identify vug connectivity by using X-ray CT scan, and to improve NMR permeability correlation. Improved estimation of permeability from NMR response is possible by using estimated tortuosity as a parameter to interpolate between two existing permeability models.

  18. EDZ and permeability in clayey rocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levasseur, Severine; Collin, Frederic; Charlier, Robert; Besuelle, Pierre; Chambon, Rene; Viggiani, Cino

    2010-01-01

    Document available in extended abstract form only. Deep geological layers are being considered as potential host rocks for the high level radioactivity waste disposals. During drilling in host rocks, an excavated damaged zone - EDZ is created. The fluid transmissivity may be modified in this damaged zone. This paper deals with the permeability evolution in relation with diffuse and/or localized crack propagation in the material. We mainly focus on argillaceous rocks and on some underground laboratories: Mol URL in Boom clay, Bure URL in Callovo-Oxfordian clay and Mont-Terri URL in Opalinus clay. First, observations of damage around galleries are summarized. Structure of damage in localized zone or in fracture has been observed at underground gallery scale within the excavation damaged zone (EDZ). The first challenge for a correct understanding of all the processes occurring within the EDZ is the characterization at the laboratory scale of the damage and localization processes. The observation of the initiation and propagation of the localized zones needs for advanced techniques. X-ray tomography is a non-destructive imaging technique that allows quantification of internal features of an object in 3D. If mechanical loading of a specimen is applied inside a X-ray CT apparatus, successive 3D images at different loading steps show the evolution of the specimen. However, in general volumetric strain in a shear band is small compared to the shear strain and, unfortunately, in tomographic images grey level is mainly sensitive to the local mass density field. Such a limitation has been recently overcome by complementing X-ray tomography with 3D Volumetric Digital Image Correlation (V-DIC) which allows the determination of the full strain tensor field. Then it is possible to further explore the progression of localized deformation in the specimen. The second challenge is the robust modelling of the strain localized process. In fact, modelling the damage process with finite

  19. Range sections as rock models for intensity rock scene segmentation

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mkwelo, S

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents another approach to segmenting a scene of rocks on a conveyor belt for the purposes of measuring rock size. Rock size estimation instruments are used to monitor, optimize and control milling and crushing in the mining industry...

  20. Groundwater characteristics and problems in volcanic rock terrains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Custodio, E.

    1989-01-01

    Volcanic rock formations, each with their own particular hydrogeological characteristics, occur in circumstances that cover a multiplicity of situations. These range from permeable porous rock formations to permeable fissured formations and include all types of intermediate situation between the two. The type of volcanism, distance from the source of emission, age, alteration processes and tectonics are all factors which determine their behaviour. Volcanic formations usually constitute a single aquifer system, even though this may be very heterogeneous and may locally be separated into clearly defined subunits. At times, formations may be hundreds of metres thick and are fairly permeable almost throughout. As a rule, volcanic material does not yield directly soluble salts to the water that flows through it. Mineralization of the water is due to the concentration of rainfall and the hydrolysis of silicates as a result of CO 2 being absorbed from the atmosphere and the ground, or as a result of volcanism itself. Cationic grouping is usually closely correlated to that of the rock formation in which the chemical composition is formed. Most environmental isotope and radioisotope techniques may be used, and at times are of unquestionable value. However, the existence of evaporation in the soil with possible isotopic fractionation, the effects of marked relief, the dilution of dissolved carbon by volcanic carbon and isotopic exchange brought about by volcanic carbon, etc., should be taken into account before valid conclusions are drawn. The paper uses examples taken from existing studies, mainly those being carried out in the Canary Islands (Spain). (author). 98 refs, 18 figs, 4 tabs

  1. The Study of the Elemental Concentrations in the Some Rocks and Cements in Myanmar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khin Mar Kyu; Yi Yi Myint; San Yee

    2006-06-01

    X-ray fluorescence (XRF) spectrometry is an analytical technique widely used for elemental analysis in both industrial and research laboratories. In this paper, energy dispersive x-ray technique was used in nine rock samples and five cement samples to measure the elemental concentrations. By using EDX-700, silicon was found as major element containedin one rock sample, chorine was found as major element contained in four rock samples, calcium was found as major element contained in two rock samples and iron was found as major element contained in two rock samples. In all cement samples, calcium was found as major element

  2. Study of optoelectronic properties of thin film solar cell materials Cu2ZnSn(S,Se)4 using multiple correlative spatially-resolved spectroscopy techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Qiong

    Containing only earth abundant and environmental friendly elements, quaternary compounds Cu2ZnSnS4 (CZTS) and Cu2ZnSnSe 4 (CZTSe) are considered as promising absorber materials for thin film solar cells. The best record efficiency for this type of thin film solar cell is now 12.6%. As a promising photovoltaic (PV) material, the electrical and optical properties of CZTS(Se) have not been well studied. In this work, an effort has been made to understand the optoelectronic and structural properties, in particular the spatial variations, of CZTS(Se) materials and devices by correlating multiple spatially resolved characterization techniques with sub-micron resolution. Micro-Raman (micro-Raman) spectroscopy was used to analyze the chemistry compositions in CZTS(Se) film; Micro-Photoluminescence (micro-PL) was used to determine the band gap and possible defects. Micro-Laser-Beam-Induced-Current (micro-LBIC) was used to examine the photo-response of CZTS(Se) solar cell in different illumination conditions. Micro-reflectance was used to estimate the reflectance loss. And Micro-I-V measurement was used to compare important electrical parameters from CZTS(Se) solar cells with different device structure or absorber compositions. Scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy were used to characterize the surface morphology. Successfully integrating and correlating these techniques was first demonstrated during the course of this work in our laboratory, and this level of integration and correlation has been rare in the field of PV research. This effort is significant not only for this particular project and also for a wide range of research topics. Applying this approach, in conjunction with high-temperature and high-excitation-power optical spectroscopy, we have been able to reveal the microscopic scale variations among samples and devices that appeared to be very similar from macroscopic material and device characterizations, and thus serve as a very powerful tool

  3. Transmission Electron Microscopy of Minerals and Rocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaren, Alex C.

    1991-04-01

    Of the many techniques that have been applied to the study of crystal defects, none has contributed more to our understanding of their nature and influence on the physical and chemical properties of crystalline materials than transmission electron microscopy (TEM). TEM is now used extensively by an increasing number of earth scientists for direct observation of defect microstructures in minerals and rocks. Transmission Electron Microscopy of Rocks and Minerals is an introduction to the principles of the technique and is the only book to date on the subject written specifically for geologists and mineralogists. The first part of the book deals with the essential physics of the transmission electron microscope and presents the basic theoretical background required for the interpretation of images and electron diffraction patterns. The final chapters are concerned with specific applications of TEM in mineralogy and deal with such topics as planar defects, intergrowths, radiation-induced defects, dislocations and deformation-induced microstructures. The examples cover a wide range of rock-forming minerals from crustal rocks to those in the lower mantle, and also take into account the role of defects in important mineralogical and geological processes.

  4. Soil/Rock Properties Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Soil/Rock Properties LaboratoryLocation: Spokane SiteThe Soil/Rock Properties Laboratory is contained in the soils bay, a 4,700 sq. ft. facility that provides space...

  5. Superadditive correlation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giraud, B.G.; Heumann, J.M.; Lapedes, A.S.

    1999-01-01

    The fact that correlation does not imply causation is well known. Correlation between variables at two sites does not imply that the two sites directly interact, because, e.g., correlation between distant sites may be induced by chaining of correlation between a set of intervening, directly interacting sites. Such 'noncausal correlation' is well understood in statistical physics: an example is long-range order in spin systems, where spins which have only short-range direct interactions, e.g., the Ising model, display correlation at a distance. It is less well recognized that such long-range 'noncausal' correlations can in fact be stronger than the magnitude of any causal correlation induced by direct interactions. We call this phenomenon superadditive correlation (SAC). We demonstrate this counterintuitive phenomenon by explicit examples in (i) a model spin system and (ii) a model continuous variable system, where both models are such that two variables have multiple intervening pathways of indirect interaction. We apply the technique known as decimation to explain SAC as an additive, constructive interference phenomenon between the multiple pathways of indirect interaction. We also explain the effect using a definition of the collective mode describing the intervening spin variables. Finally, we show that the SAC effect is mirrored in information theory, and is true for mutual information measures in addition to correlation measures. Generic complex systems typically exhibit multiple pathways of indirect interaction, making SAC a potentially widespread phenomenon. This affects, e.g., attempts to deduce interactions by examination of correlations, as well as, e.g., hierarchical approximation methods for multivariate probability distributions, which introduce parameters based on successive orders of correlation. copyright 1999 The American Physical Society

  6. Critical issues in soft rocks

    OpenAIRE

    Milton Assis Kanji

    2014-01-01

    This paper discusses several efforts made to study and investigate soft rocks, as well as their physico-mechanical characteristics recognized up to now, the problems in their sampling and testing, and the possibility of its reproduction through artificially made soft rocks. The problems in utilizing current and widespread classification systems to some types of weak rocks are also discussed, as well as other problems related to them. Some examples of engineering works in soft rock or in soft ...

  7. Pore Type Classification on Carbonate Reservoir in Offshore Sarawak using Rock Physics Model and Rock Digital Images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lubis, L A; Harith, Z Z T

    2014-01-01

    It has been recognized that carbonate reservoirs are one of the biggest sources of hydrocarbon. Clearly, the evaluation of these reservoirs is important and critical. For rigorous reservoir characterization and performance prediction from geophysical measurements, the exact interpretation of geophysical response of different carbonate pore types is crucial. Yet, the characterization of carbonate reservoir rocks is difficult due to their complex pore systems. The significant diagenesis process and complex depositional environment makes pore systems in carbonates far more complicated than in clastics. Therefore, it is difficult to establish rock physics model for carbonate rock type. In this paper, we evaluate the possible rock physics model of 20 core plugs of a Miocene carbonate platform in Central Luconia, Sarawak. The published laboratory data of this area were used as an input to create the carbonate rock physics models. The elastic properties were analyzed to examine the validity of an existing analytical carbonate rock physics model. We integrate the Xu-Payne Differential Effective Medium (DEM) Model and the elastic modulus which was simulated from a digital carbonate rock image using Finite Element Modeling. The results of this integration matched well for the separation of carbonate pore types and sonic P-wave velocity obtained from laboratory measurement. Thus, the results of this study show that the integration of rock digital image and theoretical rock physics might improve the elastic properties prediction and useful for more advance geophysical techniques (e.g. Seismic Inversion) of carbonate reservoir in Sarawak

  8. Isotope shifting capacity of rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blattner, P.; Department of Scientific and Industrial Research, Lower Hutt

    1980-01-01

    Any oxygen isotope shifted rock volume exactly defines a past throughput of water. An expression is derived that relates the throughput of an open system to the isotope shift of reservoir rock and present-day output. The small isotope shift of Ngawha reservoir rock and the small, high delta oxygen-18 output are best accounted for by a magmatic water source

  9. Improved RMR Rock Mass Classification Using Artificial Intelligence Algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gholami, Raoof; Rasouli, Vamegh; Alimoradi, Andisheh

    2013-09-01

    Rock mass classification systems such as rock mass rating (RMR) are very reliable means to provide information about the quality of rocks surrounding a structure as well as to propose suitable support systems for unstable regions. Many correlations have been proposed to relate measured quantities such as wave velocity to rock mass classification systems to limit the associated time and cost of conducting the sampling and mechanical tests conventionally used to calculate RMR values. However, these empirical correlations have been found to be unreliable, as they usually overestimate or underestimate the RMR value. The aim of this paper is to compare the results of RMR classification obtained from the use of empirical correlations versus machine-learning methodologies based on artificial intelligence algorithms. The proposed methods were verified based on two case studies located in northern Iran. Relevance vector regression (RVR) and support vector regression (SVR), as two robust machine-learning methodologies, were used to predict the RMR for tunnel host rocks. RMR values already obtained by sampling and site investigation at one tunnel were taken into account as the output of the artificial networks during training and testing phases. The results reveal that use of empirical correlations overestimates the predicted RMR values. RVR and SVR, however, showed more reliable results, and are therefore suggested for use in RMR classification for design purposes of rock structures.

  10. Xenon NMR measurements of permeability and tortuosity in reservoir rocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ruopeng; Pavlin, Tina; Rosen, Matthew Scott; Mair, Ross William; Cory, David G; Walsworth, Ronald Lee

    2005-02-01

    In this work we present measurements of permeability, effective porosity and tortuosity on a variety of rock samples using NMR/MRI of thermal and laser-polarized gas. Permeability and effective porosity are measured simultaneously using MRI to monitor the inflow of laser-polarized xenon into the rock core. Tortuosity is determined from measurements of the time-dependent diffusion coefficient using thermal xenon in sealed samples. The initial results from a limited number of rocks indicate inverse correlations between tortuosity and both effective porosity and permeability. Further studies to widen the number of types of rocks studied may eventually aid in explaining the poorly understood connection between permeability and tortuosity of rock cores.

  11. ROCK1 as a novel prognostic marker in vulvar cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Akagi, Erica M; Lavorato-Rocha, André M; Maia, Beatriz de Melo

    2014-01-01

    infection, but most cases develop in women aged over 50 years through poorly understood genetic mechanisms. Rho-associated coiled-coil-containing protein kinase 1 (ROCK1) has been implicated in many cellular processes, but its function in vulvar cancer has never been examined. In this study, we aimed...... to determine the prognostic value of ROCK1 gene and protein analysis in vulvar squamous cell carcinoma (VSCC). METHODS: ROCK1 expression levels were measured in 16 vulvar tumour samples and adjacent normal tissue by qRT-PCR. Further, 96 VSCC samples were examined by immunohistochemistry (IHC) to confirm...... the involvement of ROCK1 in the disease. The molecular and pathological results were correlated with the clinical data of the patients. Sixteen fresh VSCC samples were analyzed by array-based comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH). RESULTS: In each pair of samples, ROCK1 levels were higher by qRT-PCR in normal...

  12. Mechanical behaviour and rupture in clayey rocks studied by x-ray micro tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lenoir, N.

    2006-03-01

    Within the framework of feasibility studies of underground repositories for radioactive waste, the study of permeability evolution with damage of the host layer is crucial. The goals of this work were: (i) to characterize experimentally the damage of two clayey rocks (BEAUCAIRE MARL and EAST SHALE) with x-ray micro tomography, (ii) to develop a high pressure triaxial set-up adapted to permeability measurement on very low permeability rocks.A number of original triaxial devices have been realised to characterize damage of clayey rocks, under deviatoric loading, with x-ray micro tomography on a synchrotron beamline at the ESRF (Grenoble). Localized damage and its evolution have been characterized at a fine scale (of order of ten microns). Digital image correlation techniques, extended to 3d images, have been used to measure incremental strain fields from tomographic images. we demonstrated that these techniques are very useful in the study of the localized damage of geo-materials and especially for the initiation. A high pressure triaxial device has been realised to measure permeability evolution of the east shale as a function of applied stress (isotropic and deviatoric). The particularity of this set-up is the small size of the test specimen (cylinder of 10 mm in diameter and 20 mm in height) which allows significant reduction of test duration. (author)

  13. Rock burst governance of working face under igneous rock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Zhenxing; Yu, Yue

    2017-01-01

    As a typical failure phenomenon, rock burst occurs in many mines. It can not only cause the working face to cease production, but also cause serious damage to production equipment, and even result in casualties. To explore how to govern rock burst of working face under igneous rock, the 10416 working face in some mine is taken as engineering background. The supports damaged extensively and rock burst took place when the working face advanced. This paper establishes the mechanical model and conducts theoretical analysis and calculation to predict the fracture and migration mechanism and energy release of the thick hard igneous rock above the working face, and to obtain the advancing distance of the working face when the igneous rock fractures and critical value of the energy when rock burst occurs. Based on the specific conditions of the mine, this paper put forward three kinds of governance measures, which are borehole pressure relief, coal seam water injection and blasting pressure relief.

  14. Uranium in alkaline rocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murphy, M.; Wollenberg, H.; Strisower, B.; Bowman, H.; Flexser, S.; Carmichael, I.

    1978-04-01

    Geologic and geochemical criteria were developed for the occurrence of economic uranium deposits in alkaline igneous rocks. A literature search, a limited chemical analytical program, and visits to three prominent alkaline-rock localities (Ilimaussaq, Greenland; Pocos de Caldas, Brazil; and Powderhorn, Colorado) were made to establish criteria to determine if a site had some uranium resource potential. From the literature, four alkaline-intrusive occurrences of differing character were identified as type-localities for uranium mineralization, and the important aspects of these localities were described. These characteristics were used to categorize and evaluate U.S. occurrences. The literature search disclosed 69 U.S. sites, encompassing nepheline syenite, alkaline granite, and carbonatite. It was possible to compare two-thirds of these sites to the type localities. A ranking system identified ten of the sites as most likely to have uranium resource potential

  15. Rock solidification method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakaya, Iwao; Murakami, Tadashi; Miyake, Takafumi; Funakoshi, Toshio; Inagaki, Yuzo; Hashimoto, Yasuhide.

    1985-01-01

    Purpose: To convert radioactive wastes into the final state for storage (artificial rocks) in a short period of time. Method: Radioactive burnable wastes such as spent papers, cloths and oils and activated carbons are burnt into ashes in a burning furnace, while radioactive liquid wastes such as liquid wastes of boric acid, exhausted cleaning water and decontaminating liquid wastes are powderized in a drying furnace or calcining furnace. These powders are joined with silicates as such as white clay, silica and glass powder and a liquid alkali such as NaOH or Ca(OH) 2 and transferred to a solidifying vessel. Then, the vessel is set to a hydrothermal reactor, heated and pressurized, then taken out about 20 min after and tightly sealed. In this way, radioactive wastes are converted through the hydrothermal reactions into aqueous rock stable for a long period of time to obtain solidification products insoluble to water and with an extremely low leaching rate. (Ikeda, J.)

  16. Uranium in alkaline rocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murphy, M.; Wollenberg, H.; Strisower, B.; Bowman, H.; Flexser, S.; Carmichael, I.

    1978-04-01

    Geologic and geochemical criteria were developed for the occurrence of economic uranium deposits in alkaline igneous rocks. A literature search, a limited chemical analytical program, and visits to three prominent alkaline-rock localities (Ilimaussaq, Greenland; Pocos de Caldas, Brazil; and Powderhorn, Colorado) were made to establish criteria to determine if a site had some uranium resource potential. From the literature, four alkaline-intrusive occurrences of differing character were identified as type-localities for uranium mineralization, and the important aspects of these localities were described. These characteristics were used to categorize and evaluate U.S. occurrences. The literature search disclosed 69 U.S. sites, encompassing nepheline syenite, alkaline granite, and carbonatite. It was possible to compare two-thirds of these sites to the type localities. A ranking system identified ten of the sites as most likely to have uranium resource potential.

  17. Rock and mineral magnetism

    CERN Document Server

    O’Reilly, W

    1984-01-01

    The past two decades have witnessed a revolution in the earth sciences. The quantitative, instrument-based measurements and physical models of. geophysics, together with advances in technology, have radically transformed the way in which the Earth, and especially its crust, is described. The study of the magnetism of the rocks of the Earth's crust has played a major part in this transformation. Rocks, or more specifically their constituent magnetic minerals, can be regarded as a measuring instrument provided by nature, which can be employed in the service of the earth sciences. Thus magnetic minerals are a recording magnetometer; a goniometer or protractor, recording the directions of flows, fields and forces; a clock; a recording thermometer; a position recorder; astrain gauge; an instrument for geo­ logical surveying; a tracer in climatology and hydrology; a tool in petrology. No instrument is linear, or free from noise and systematic errors, and the performance of nature's instrument must be assessed and ...

  18. Aram Chaos Rocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    8 September 2005 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows outcrops of light-toned, sedimentary rock among darker-toned mesas in Aram Chaos. Dark, windblown megaripples -- large ripples -- are also present at this location. Location near: 3.0oN, 21.6oW Image width: width: 3 km (1.9 mi) Illumination from: lower left Season: Northern Autumn

  19. Deformations of fractured rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stephansson, O.

    1977-09-01

    Results of the DBM and FEM analysis in this study indicate that a suitable rock mass for repository of radioactive waste should be moderately jointed (about 1 joint/m 2 ) and surrounded by shear zones of the first order. This allowes for a gentle and flexible deformation under tectonic stresses and prevent the development of large cross-cutting failures in the repository area. (author)

  20. Physical modeling of rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheney, J.A.

    1981-01-01

    The problems of statisfying similarity between a physical model and the prototype in rock wherein fissures and cracks place a role in physical behavior is explored. The need for models of large physical dimensions is explained but also testing of models of the same prototype over a wide range of scales is needed to ascertain the influence of lack of similitude of particular parameters between prototype and model. A large capacity centrifuge would be useful in that respect

  1. Rock disposal problems identified

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knox, R

    1978-06-01

    Mathematical models are the only way of examining the return of radioactivity from nuclear waste to the environment over long periods of time. Work in Britain has helped identify areas where more basic data is required, but initial results look very promising for final disposal of high level waste in hard rock repositories. A report by the National Radiological Protection Board of a recent study, is examined.

  2. Application of rock mechanics in opencast mining

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Desurmont, M; Feuga, B

    1979-07-01

    The significance of opencast mining in the world today is mentioned. With the exception of coal, opencast workings provide approximately 80% of output. The importance of opencast has continued to increase over the last ten years. Access to the mineral usually necessitates the removal of large quantities of rock. The aim is to reduce the quantity of the latter as much as possible in order to minimize the dirt/mineral ratio. For this purpose use has been made of the operating techniques of rock mechanics in order to determine the optimum dimensions of the access trench compatible with safety requirements. The author illustrates this technique by means of three examples: the Luzenac talc workings, the Mont-Roc fluorine workings and the Big Hole at Kimberley.

  3. The Rock Characterization Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holmes, J.

    1994-01-01

    In 1989, UK Nirex began a programme of surface-based characterization of the geology and hydrogeology of a site at Sellafield to evaluate its suitability to host a deep repository for radioactive waste. The next major stage in site characterization will be the construction and operation of a Rock Characterization Facility (RCF). It will be designed to provide rock characterization information and scope for model validation to permit firmer assessment of long-term safety. It will also provide information needed to decide the detailed location, design and orientation of a repository and to inform repository construction methods. A three-phase programme is planned for the RCF. During each phase, testwork will steadily improve our geological, hydrogeological and geotechnical understanding of the site. The first phase will involve sinking two shafts. That will be preceded by the establishment of a network of monitoring boreholes to ensure that the impact of shaft sinking can be measured. This will provide valuable data for model validation. In phase two, initial galleries will be excavated, probably at a depth of 650 m below Ordnance datum, which will host a comprehensive suite of experiments. These galleries will be extended in phase three to permit access to most of the rock volume that would host the repository. (Author)

  4. Small-scale bentonite injection test on rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pusch, R.

    1978-03-01

    When radiactive waste is disposed a sealing of the rock is very valuable since it reduces the rate of water percolation and diffusion. In an earlier report injection of bentonite gels by means of over-pressure and subsequent electrophoresis has been suggested. The present report describes a rock test series where bentonite injection was applied. For the test an approximately cubical block of about 1 m 3 was selected. The rock type was diorite with a fairly high frequency of quartz denses. The block was kept in a basin during the test in order to maintain the water saturation. Holes were bored in the block. A bentonite slurry with 1000 percent water content was injected. It was shown that the bentonite had a sealing effect but the depth of extrusion into rock joints was not large because of gelation. Electro-Kinetic injection of montmorillonite was found to be a more promising technique for rock lightening

  5. Rock in Rio: forever young

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Ferreira Freitas

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to discuss the role of Rock in Rio: The Musical, as herald of megafestival Rock in Rio. Driven by the success that musicals have reached in Brazil, we believe that the design of this spectacle of music, dance and staging renews the brand of the rock festival, once it adds the force of young and healthy bodies to its concept. Moreover, the musical provides Rock in Rio with some distance from the controversal trilogy of sex, drugs and rock and roll, a strong mark of past festivals around the world. Thus, the musical expands the possibilities of growth for the brand.

  6. 2008 Gordon Research Conference on Rock Deformation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirth, James G.; Gray, Nancy Ryan

    2009-09-21

    The GRC on Rock Deformation highlights the latest research in brittle and ductile rock mechanics from experimental, field and theoretical perspectives. The conference promotes a multi-disciplinary forum for assessing our understanding of rock strength and related physical properties in the Earth. The theme for the 2008 conference is 'Real-time Rheology'. Using ever-improving geophysical techniques, our ability to constrain the rheological behavior during earthquakes and post-seismic creep has improved significantly. Such data are used to investigate the frictional behavior of faults, processes responsible for strain localization, the viscosity of the lower crust, and viscous coupling between the crust and mantle. Seismological data also provide information on the rheology of the lower crust and mantle through analysis of seismic attenuation and anisotropy. Geologists are improving our understanding of rheology by combining novel analyses of microstructures in naturally deformed rocks with petrologic data. This conference will bring together experts and students in these research areas with experimentalists and theoreticians studying the same processes. We will discuss and assess where agreement exists on rheological constraints derived at different length/time scales using different techniques - and where new insight is required. To encompass the elements of these topics, speakers and discussion leaders with backgrounds in geodesy, experimental rock deformation, structural geology, earthquake seismology, geodynamics, glaciology, materials science, and mineral physics will be invited to the conference. Thematic sessions will be organized on the dynamics of earthquake rupture, the rheology of the lower crust and coupling with the upper mantle, the measurement and interpretation of seismic attenuation and anisotropy, the dynamics of ice sheets and the coupling of reactive porous flow and brittle deformation for understanding geothermal and chemical

  7. Geomechanical analysis of excavation-induced rock mass behavior of faulted Opalinus clay at the Mont Terri underground rock laboratory (Switzerland)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thoeny, R.

    2014-01-01

    Clay rock formations are potential host rocks for deep geological disposal of nuclear waste. However, they exhibit relatively low strength and brittle failure behaviour. Construction of underground openings in clay rocks may lead to the formation of an excavation damage zone (EDZ) in the near-field area of the tunnel. This has to be taken into account during risk assessment for waste-disposal facilities. To investigate the geomechanical processes associated with the rock mass response of faulted Opalinus Clay during tunnelling, a full-scale ‘mine-by’ experiment was carried out at the Mont Terri Underground Rock Laboratory (URL) in Switzerland. In the ‘mine-by’ experiment, fracture network characteristics within the experimental section were characterized prior to and after excavation by integrating structural data from geological mapping of the excavation surfaces and from four pre- and post-excavation boreholes.The displacements and deformations in the surrounding rock mass were measured using geo-technical instrumentation including borehole inclinometers, extensometers and deflectometers, together with high-resolution geodetic displacement measurements and laser scanning measurements on the excavation surfaces. Complementary data was gathered from structural and geophysical characterization of the surrounding rock mass. Geological and geophysical techniques were used to analyse the structural and kinematic relationships between the natural and excavation-induced fracture network surrounding the ‘mine-by’ experiment. Integrating the results from seismic refraction tomography, borehole logging, and tunnel surface mapping revealed that spatial variations in fault frequency along the tunnel axis alter the rock mass deformability and strength. Failure mechanisms, orientation and frequency of excavation-induced fractures are significantly influenced by tectonic faults. On the side walls, extensional fracturing tangential to the tunnel circumference was the

  8. Geomechanical analysis of excavation-induced rock mass behavior of faulted Opalinus clay at the Mont Terri underground rock laboratory (Switzerland)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thoeny, R.

    2014-07-01

    Clay rock formations are potential host rocks for deep geological disposal of nuclear waste. However, they exhibit relatively low strength and brittle failure behaviour. Construction of underground openings in clay rocks may lead to the formation of an excavation damage zone (EDZ) in the near-field area of the tunnel. This has to be taken into account during risk assessment for waste-disposal facilities. To investigate the geomechanical processes associated with the rock mass response of faulted Opalinus Clay during tunnelling, a full-scale ‘mine-by’ experiment was carried out at the Mont Terri Underground Rock Laboratory (URL) in Switzerland. In the ‘mine-by’ experiment, fracture network characteristics within the experimental section were characterized prior to and after excavation by integrating structural data from geological mapping of the excavation surfaces and from four pre- and post-excavation boreholes.The displacements and deformations in the surrounding rock mass were measured using geo-technical instrumentation including borehole inclinometers, extensometers and deflectometers, together with high-resolution geodetic displacement measurements and laser scanning measurements on the excavation surfaces. Complementary data was gathered from structural and geophysical characterization of the surrounding rock mass. Geological and geophysical techniques were used to analyse the structural and kinematic relationships between the natural and excavation-induced fracture network surrounding the ‘mine-by’ experiment. Integrating the results from seismic refraction tomography, borehole logging, and tunnel surface mapping revealed that spatial variations in fault frequency along the tunnel axis alter the rock mass deformability and strength. Failure mechanisms, orientation and frequency of excavation-induced fractures are significantly influenced by tectonic faults. On the side walls, extensional fracturing tangential to the tunnel circumference was the

  9. Development of artificial soft rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kishi, Kiyoshi

    1995-01-01

    When foundation base rocks are deeper than the level of installing structures or there exist weathered rocks and crushed rocks in a part of base rocks, often sound artificial base rocks are made by substituting the part with concrete. But in the construction of Kashiwazaki Kariwa Nuclear Power Station of Tokyo Electric Power Co., Inc., the foundation base rocks consist of mudstone, and the stiffness of concrete is large as compared with the surrounding base rocks. As the quality of the substituting material, the nearly same stiffness as that of the surrounding soft rocks and long term stability are suitable, and the excellent workability and economical efficiency are required, therefore, artificial soft rocks were developed. As the substituting material, the soil mortar that can obtain the physical property values in stable form, which are similar to those of Nishiyama mudstone, was selected. The mechanism of its hardening and the long term stability, and the manufacturing plant are reported. As for its application to the base rocks of Kashiwazaki Kariwa Nuclear Power Station, the verification test at the site and the application to the base rocks for No. 7 plant reactor building and other places are described. (K.I.)

  10. Hydrological characteristics of Japanese rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ijiri, Yuji; Sawada, Atsushi; Akahori, Kuniaki

    1999-11-01

    It is crucial to evaluate the hydrogeological characteristics of rock in Japan in order to assess the performance of geosphere. This report summarizes the hydrogeological characteristics of various rock types obtained from broad literature surveys and the fields experiments at the Kamaishi mine in northern Japan and at the Tono mine in central Japan. It is found that the hydraulic conductivity of rock mass ranges from 10 -9 m/s to 10 -8 m/s, whereas the hydraulic conductivity of fault zone ranges from 10 -9 m/s to 10 -3 m/s. It is also found that the hydraulic conductivity tends to decrease with depth. Therefore, the hydraulic conductivity of rock mass at the depth of a repository will be smaller than above values. From the investigations at outcrops and galleries throughout the country, fractures are observed as potential pathways in all rock types. All kinds of crystalline rocks and pre-Neogene sedimentary rocks are classified as fractured media where fracture flow is dominant. Among these rocks, granitic rock is considered the archetype fractured media. On the other hand, andesite, tuff and Neogene sedimentary rocks are considered as intermediate between fractured media and porous media where flow in fractures as well as in rock matrix are significant. (author)

  11. Use of stratigraphic models as soft information to constrain stochastic modeling of rock properties: Development of the GSLIB-Lynx integration module

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cromer, M.V.; Rautman, C.A.

    1995-10-01

    Rock properties in volcanic units at Yucca Mountain are controlled largely by relatively deterministic geologic processes related to the emplacement, cooling, and alteration history of the tuffaceous lithologic sequence. Differences in the lithologic character of the rocks have been used to subdivide the rock sequence into stratigraphic units, and the deterministic nature of the processes responsible for the character of the different units can be used to infer the rock material properties likely to exist in unsampled regions. This report proposes a quantitative, theoretically justified method of integrating interpretive geometric models, showing the three-dimensional distribution of different stratigraphic units, with numerical stochastic simulation techniques drawn from geostatistics. This integration of soft, constraining geologic information with hard, quantitative measurements of various material properties can produce geologically reasonable, spatially correlated models of rock properties that are free from stochastic artifacts for use in subsequent physical-process modeling, such as the numerical representation of ground-water flow and radionuclide transport. Prototype modeling conducted using the GSLIB-Lynx Integration Module computer program, known as GLINTMOD, has successfully demonstrated the proposed integration technique. The method involves the selection of stratigraphic-unit-specific material-property expected values that are then used to constrain the probability function from which a material property of interest at an unsampled location is simulated

  12. Normal dynamic deformation characteristics of non-consecutive jointed rock masses under impact loads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Sheng; Jiang, Bowei; Sun, Bing

    2017-08-01

    In order to study deformation characteristics of non-consecutive single jointed rock masses under impact loads, we used the cement mortar materials to make simulative jointed rock mass samples, and tested the samples under impact loads by the drop hammer. Through analyzing the time-history signal of the force and the displacement, first we find that the dynamic compression displacement of the jointed rock mass is significantly larger than that of the intact jointless rock mass, the compression displacement is positively correlated with the joint length and the impact height. Secondly, the vertical compressive displacement of the jointed rock mass is mainly due to the closure of opening joints under small impact loads. Finally, the peak intensity of the intact rock mass is larger than that of the non-consecutive jointed rock mass and negatively correlated with the joint length under the same impact energy.

  13. Grinding into Soft, Powdery Rock

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    This hole in a rock dubbed 'Clovis' is the deepest hole drilled so far in any rock on Mars. NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit captured this view with its microscopic imager on martian sol 217 (Aug. 12, 2004) after drilling 8.9 millimeters (0.35 inch) into the rock with its rock abrasion tool. The view is a mosaic of four frames taken by the microscopic imager. The hole is 4.5 centimeters (1.8 inches) in diameter. Clovis is key to a developing story about environmental change on Mars, not only because it is among the softest rocks encountered so far in Gusev Crater, but also because it contains mineral alterations that extend relatively deep beneath its surface. In fact, as evidenced by its fairly crumbly texture, it is possibly the most highly altered volcanic rock ever studied on Mars. Scientific analysis shows that the rock contains higher levels of the elements sulfur, chlorine, and bromine than are normally encountered in basaltic rocks, such as a rock dubbed 'Humphrey' that Spirit encountered two months after arriving on Mars. Humphrey showed elevated levels of sulfur, chlorine, and bromine only in the outermost 2 millimeters (less than 0.1 inch) of its surface. Clovis shows elevated levels of the same elements along with the associated softness of the rock within a borehole that is 4 times as deep. Scientists hope to compare Clovis to other, less-altered rocks in the vicinity to assess what sort of water-based processes altered the rock. Hypotheses include transport of sulfur, chlorine, and bromine in water vapor in volcanic gases; hydrothermal circulation (flow of volcanically heated water through rock); or saturation in a briny soup containing the same elements. In this image, very fine-grained material from the rock has clumped together by electrostatic attraction and fallen into the borehole. NASA/JPL/Cornell/USGS

  14. Recent advances in analysis and prediction of Rock Falls, Rock Slides, and Rock Avalanches using 3D point clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abellan, A.; Carrea, D.; Jaboyedoff, M.; Riquelme, A.; Tomas, R.; Royan, M. J.; Vilaplana, J. M.; Gauvin, N.

    2014-12-01

    The acquisition of dense terrain information using well-established 3D techniques (e.g. LiDAR, photogrammetry) and the use of new mobile platforms (e.g. Unmanned Aerial Vehicles) together with the increasingly efficient post-processing workflows for image treatment (e.g. Structure From Motion) are opening up new possibilities for analysing, modeling and predicting rock slope failures. Examples of applications at different scales ranging from the monitoring of small changes at unprecedented level of detail (e.g. sub millimeter-scale deformation under lab-scale conditions) to the detection of slope deformation at regional scale. In this communication we will show the main accomplishments of the Swiss National Foundation project "Characterizing and analysing 3D temporal slope evolution" carried out at Risk Analysis group (Univ. of Lausanne) in close collaboration with the RISKNAT and INTERES groups (Univ. of Barcelona and Univ. of Alicante, respectively). We have recently developed a series of innovative approaches for rock slope analysis using 3D point clouds, some examples include: the development of semi-automatic methodologies for the identification and extraction of rock-slope features such as discontinuities, type of material, rockfalls occurrence and deformation. Moreover, we have been improving our knowledge in progressive rupture characterization thanks to several algorithms, some examples include the computing of 3D deformation, the use of filtering techniques on permanently based TLS, the use of rock slope failure analogies at different scales (laboratory simulations, monitoring at glacier's front, etc.), the modelling of the influence of external forces such as precipitation on the acceleration of the deformation rate, etc. We have also been interested on the analysis of rock slope deformation prior to the occurrence of fragmental rockfalls and the interaction of this deformation with the spatial location of future events. In spite of these recent advances

  15. Controlled sample program publication No. 1: characterization of rock samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ames, L.L.

    1978-10-01

    A description is presented of the methodology used and the geologic parameters measured on several rocks which are being used in round-robin laboratory and nuclide adsorption methodology experiments. Presently investigators from various laboratories are determining nuclide distribution coefficients utilizing numerous experimental techniques. Unfortunately, it appears that often the resultant data are dependent not only on the type of groundwater and rock utilized, but also on the experimentor or method used. The Controlled Sample Program is a WISAP (Waste Isolation Safety Assessment Program) attempt to resolve the apparent method and dependencies and to identify individual experimenter's bias. The rock samples characterized in an interlaboratory Kd methodology comparison program include Westerly granite, Argillaceous shale, Oolitic limestone, Sentinel Gap basalt, Conasauga shale, Climax Stock granite, anhydrite, Magenta dolomite and Culebra dolomite. Techniques used in the characterization include whole rock chemical analysis, X-ray diffraction, optical examination, electron microprobe elemental mapping, and chemical analysis of specific mineral phases. Surface areas were determined by the B.E.T. and ethylene glycol sorption methods. Cation exchange capacities were determined with 85 Sr, but were of questionable value for the high calcium rocks. A quantitative mineralogy was also estimated for each rock. Characteristics which have the potential of strongly affecting radionuclide Kd values such as the presence of sulfides, water-soluble, pH-buffering carbonates, glass, and ferrous iron were listed for each rock sample

  16. Dynamic stability and failure modes of slopes in discontinuous rock mass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimizu, Yasuhiro; Aydan, O.; Ichikawa, Yasuaki; Kawamoto, Toshikazu.

    1988-01-01

    The stability of rock slopes during earthquakes are of great concern in rock engineering works such as highway, dam, and nuclear power station constructions. As rock mass in nature is usually discontinuous, the stability of rock slopes will be geverned by the spatial distribution of discontinuities in relation with the geometry of slope and their mechanical properties rather than the rock element. The authors have carried out some model tests on discontinuous rock slopes using three different model tests techniques in order to investigate the dynamic behaviour and failure modes of the slopes in discontinuous rock mass. This paper describes the findings and observations made on model rock slopes with various discontinuity patterns and slope geometry. In addition some stability criterions are developed and the calculated results are compared with those of experiments. (author)

  17. Rock mechanics for hard rock nuclear waste repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heuze, F.E.

    1981-09-01

    The mined geologic burial of high level nuclear waste is now the favored option for disposal. The US National Waste Terminal Storage Program designed to achieve this disposal includes an extensive rock mechanics component related to the design of the wastes repositories. The plan currently considers five candidate rock types. This paper deals with the three hard rocks among them: basalt, granite, and tuff. Their behavior is governed by geological discontinuities. Salt and shale, which exhibit behavior closer to that of a continuum, are not considered here. This paper discusses both the generic rock mechanics R and D, which are required for repository design, as well as examples of projects related to hard rock waste storage. The examples include programs in basalt (Hanford/Washington), in granitic rocks (Climax/Nevada Test Site, Idaho Springs/Colorado, Pinawa/Canada, Oracle/Arizona, and Stripa/Sweden), and in tuff

  18. Seismic activity and environment protection in rock burst areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Travnicek, L.; Holecko, J.; Knotek, S.

    1993-01-01

    The significance is pointed out of seismic activity caused by mining activities in rock burst areas of the Ostrava-Karvinna district. The need is emphasized of the monitoring of the seismic activity at the Czech-Poland border as needed by the Two-party international committee for exploitation of coal supplies on the common border. The adverse effect of rock burst on the surface is documented by examples provided by the Polish party. The technique is described of investigating the DPB seismic polygon, allowing to evaluate the adverse impact of rock burst on the environment. (author) 1 fig., 8 refs

  19. Rock stress investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pahl, A.; Heusermann, St.; Braeuer, V.; Gloeggler, W.

    1989-04-01

    On the research project 'Rock Stress Mesurements' the BGR has developed and tested several methods for use in boreholes at a depth of 200 m. Indirect stress measurements using overcoring methods with BGR-probes and CSIR-triaxial cells as well as direct stress measurements using the hydraulic-fracturing method were made. To determine in-situ rock deformation behavior borehole deformation tests, using a BGR-dilatometer, were performed. Two types of the BGR-probe were applied: a four-component-probe to determine horizontal stresses and a five-component-probe to determine a quasi three-dimensional stress field. The first time a computer for data processing was installed in the borehole together with the BGR-probe. Laboratory tests on low cylinders were made to study the stress-deformation behavior. To validate and to interprete the measurement results some test methods were modelled using the finite-element method. The dilatometer-tests yielded high values of Young's modulus, whereas laboratory tests showed lower values with a distinct deformation anisotropy. Stress measurements with the BGR-probe yielded horizontal stresses being higher than the theoretical overburden pressure. These results are comparable to the results of the hydraulic fracturing tests, whereas stresses obtained with CSIR-triaxial cells are lower. The detailed geological mapping of the borehole indicated relationships between stress and geology. With regard to borehole depth different zones of rock structure joint frequency, joint orientation, and orientation of microfissures as well as stress magnitude, stress direction, and degree of deformation anisotropy could be distinguished. (author) 4 tabs., 76 figs., 31 refs

  20. Numerical modelling of fluid-rock interactions: Lessons learnt from carbonate rocks diagenesis studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nader, Fadi; Bachaud, Pierre; Michel, Anthony

    2015-04-01

    Quantitative assessment of fluid-rock interactions and their impact on carbonate host-rocks has recently become a very attractive research topic within academic and industrial realms. Today, a common operational workflow that aims at predicting the relevant diagenetic processes on the host rocks (i.e. fluid-rock interactions) consists of three main stages: i) constructing a conceptual diagenesis model including inferred preferential fluids pathways; ii) quantifying the resulted diagenetic phases (e.g. depositing cements, dissolved and recrystallized minerals); and iii) numerical modelling of diagenetic processes. Most of the concepts of diagenetic processes operate at the larger, basin-scale, however, the description of the diagenetic phases (products of such processes) and their association with the overall petrophysical evolution of sedimentary rocks remain at reservoir (and even outcrop/ well core) scale. Conceptual models of diagenetic processes are thereafter constructed based on studying surface-exposed rocks and well cores (e.g. petrography, geochemistry, fluid inclusions). We are able to quantify the diagenetic products with various evolving techniques and on varying scales (e.g. point-counting, 2D and 3D image analysis, XRD, micro-CT and pore network models). Geochemical modelling makes use of thermodynamic and kinetic rules as well as data-bases to simulate chemical reactions and fluid-rock interactions. This can be through a 0D model, whereby a certain process is tested (e.g. the likelihood of a certain chemical reaction to operate under specific conditions). Results relate to the fluids and mineral phases involved in the chemical reactions. They could be used as arguments to support or refute proposed outcomes of fluid-rock interactions. Coupling geochemical modelling with transport (reactive transport model; 1D, 2D and 3D) is another possibility, attractive as it provides forward simulations of diagenetic processes and resulting phases. This

  1. Rock slope instabilities in Norway: First systematic hazard and risk classification of 22 unstable rock slopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böhme, Martina; Hermanns, Reginald L.; Oppikofer, Thierry; Penna, Ivanna

    2016-04-01

    Unstable rock slopes that can cause large failures of the rock-avalanche type have been mapped in Norway for almost two decades. Four sites have earlier been characterized as high-risk objects based on expertise of few researchers. This resulted in installing continuous monitoring systems and set-up of an early-warning system for those four sites. Other unstable rock slopes have not been ranked related to their hazard or risk. There are ca. 300 other sites known of which 70 sites were installed for periodic deformation measurements using multiple techniques (Global Navigation Satellite Systems, extensometers, measurement bolts, and others). In 2012 a systematic hazard and risk classification system for unstable rock slopes was established in Norway and the mapping approach adapted to that in 2013. Now, the first 22 sites were classified for hazard, consequences and risk using this classification system. The selection of the first group of sites to be classified was based on an assumed high hazard or risk and importance given to the sites by Norwegian media and the public. Nine of the classified 22 unstable rock slopes are large sites that deform inhomogeneously or are strongly broken up in individual blocks. This suggests that different failure scenarios are possible that need to be analyzed individually. A total of 35 failure scenarios for those nine unstable rock slopes were considered. The hazard analyses were based on 9 geological parameters defined in the classification system. The classification system will be presented based on the Gamanjunni unstable rock slope. This slope has a well developed back scarp that exposes 150 m preceding displacement. The lateral limits of the unstable slope are clearly visible in the morphology and InSAR displacement data. There have been no single structures observed that allow sliding kinematically. The lower extend of the displacing rock mass is clearly defined in InSAR data and by a zone of higher rock fall activity. Yearly

  2. Field assessment of the use of borehole pressure transients to measure the permeability of fractured rock masses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forster, C.B.; Gale, J.E.

    1981-06-01

    A field experiment to evaluate the transient pressure pulse technique as a method of determining the in-situ hydraulic conductivity of low permeability fractured rock was made. The experiment attempted to define: the radius of influence of a pressure pulse-test in fractured rock and the correlation between pressure-pulse tests and steady-state flow tests performed in five boreholes drilled in fractured granite. Twenty-five test intervals, 2 to 3 m in length, were isolated in the boreholes, using air-inflated packers. During pressure pulse and steady-state tests, pressures were monitored in both the test and observation cavities. Rock-mass conductivities were calculated from steady-state test results and were found to range from less than 10 - 11 to 10 - 7 cm/sec. However, there was no consistent correlation between the steady-state conductivity and the pressure pulse decay characteristics of individual intervals. These conflicting test results can be attributed to the following factors: differences in volumes of rock affected by the test techniques; effects of equipment configuration and compliance; and complexity of the fracture network. Although the steady-state flow tests indicate that hydraulic connections exist between most of the test cavities, no pressure responses were noted in the observation cavities (located at least 0.3 m from the test cavities) during the pulse tests. This does not mean, however, that the pressure-pulse radius of influence is <0.3 m, because the observation cavities were too large (about 7 liters). The lack of correlation between steady-state conductivities and the corresponding pressure pulse decay times does not permit use of existing single-fracture type curves to analyze pulse tests performed in multiple-fracture intervals. Subsequent work should focus on the detailed interpretation of field results with particular reference to the effects of the fracture system at the test site

  3. Acquisition and preparation of specimens of rock for large-scale testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watkins, D.J.

    1981-01-01

    The techniques used for acquisition and preparation of large specimens of rock for laboratory testing depend upon the location of the specimen, the type of rock and the equipment available at the sampling site. Examples are presented to illustrate sampling and preparation techniques used for two large cylindrical samples of granitic material, one pervasively fractured and one containing a single fracture

  4. Centennial- to millennial-scale hard rock erosion rates deduced from luminescence-depth profiles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sohbati, Reza; Liu, Jinfeng; Jain, Mayank

    2018-01-01

    to quantify hard rock erosion rates at centennial to millennial timescales. Here we propose a novel technique, based on the solar bleaching of luminescence signals with depth into rock surfaces, to bridge this analytical gap. We apply our technique to glacial and landslide boulders in the Eastern Pamirs...

  5. Characterization of the rock joint surface. A contribution to DECOVALEX II Task 3 'Constitutive relationships of rock joints'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vuopio, J.; Poellae, J.

    1997-12-01

    In order to understand the effects of spent fuel on the hydraulical behaviour of the rock mass it is necessary to have knowledge about the relationship between the stresses and hydraulical properties of the fractures. The roughness of a fracture surface governs the dilatation of the fracture and the displacement of the fracture surface under shear stress. The peak shear strength and hydraulic flow properties of fractures depend very much on the surface roughness. This report describes different methods and techniques used in the characterization of rock joint surfaces and their applications in rock mechanics

  6. A smart rock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pressel, Phil

    2014-12-01

    This project was to design and build a protective weapon for a group of associations that believed in aliens and UFO's. They collected enough contributions from societies and individuals to be able to sponsor and totally fund the design, fabrication and testing of this equipment. The location of this facility is classified. It also eventually was redesigned by the Quartus Engineering Company for use at a major amusement park as a "shoot at targets facility." The challenge of this project was to design a "smart rock," namely an infrared bullet (the size of a gallon can of paint) that could be shot from the ground to intercept a UFO or any incoming suspicious item heading towards the earth. Some of the challenges to design this weapon were to feed cryogenic helium at 5 degrees Kelvin from an inair environment through a unique rotary coupling and air-vacuum seal while spinning the bullet at 1500 rpm and maintain its dynamic stability (wobble) about its spin axis to less than 10 micro-radians (2 arc seconds) while it operated in a vacuum. Precision optics monitored the dynamic motion of the "smart rock."

  7. Rock critics as 'Mouldy Modernists'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Becky Shepherd

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Contemporary rock criticism appears to be firmly tied to the past. The specialist music press valorise rock music of the 1960s and 1970s, and new emerging artists are championed for their ‘retro’ sounding music by journalists who compare the sound of these new artists with those included in the established ‘canon’ of rock music. This article examines the narrative tropes of authenticity and nostalgia that frame the retrospective focus of this contemporary rock writing, and most significantly, the maintenance of the rock canon within contemporary popular culture. The article concludes by suggesting that while contemporary rock criticism is predominately characterised by nostalgia, this nostalgia is not simply a passive romanticism of the past. Rather, this nostalgia fuels a process of active recontextualisation within contemporary popular culture.

  8. Reservoir rock permeability prediction using support vector regression in an Iranian oil field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saffarzadeh, Sadegh; Shadizadeh, Seyed Reza

    2012-01-01

    Reservoir permeability is a critical parameter for the evaluation of hydrocarbon reservoirs. It is often measured in the laboratory from reservoir core samples or evaluated from well test data. The prediction of reservoir rock permeability utilizing well log data is important because the core analysis and well test data are usually only available from a few wells in a field and have high coring and laboratory analysis costs. Since most wells are logged, the common practice is to estimate permeability from logs using correlation equations developed from limited core data; however, these correlation formulae are not universally applicable. Recently, support vector machines (SVMs) have been proposed as a new intelligence technique for both regression and classification tasks. The theory has a strong mathematical foundation for dependence estimation and predictive learning from finite data sets. The ultimate test for any technique that bears the claim of permeability prediction from well log data is the accurate and verifiable prediction of permeability for wells where only the well log data are available. The main goal of this paper is to develop the SVM method to obtain reservoir rock permeability based on well log data. (paper)

  9. Diffusivity database (DDB) for major rocks. Database for the second progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sato, Haruo

    1999-10-01

    De data for 6 elements have been reported for basalt, andesite and schist. For sedimentary rock (argillaceous/tuffaceous rock), totally, 54 De data for 8 elements have been reported for mudstone, politic schist and tuff, and for sedimentary rock (psammitic rock/sandy stone), 11 De data for 1 element have been reported for siliceous sedimentary rock. As is clear, much De data are found in granitic rocks. Whilst, De data for psammitic rocks are short comparing to those for the other kinds of rocks. Correlativities have been approximately found between De values and rock porosities for all kinds of the rocks, but significant porosity dependencies have not been found for Da values. In addition, correlations between various parameters such as that between formation factors and rock porosities, that between geometric factors and rock porosities, that between De values and ionic charge, that between De values and Do values, and that between De values and element, were also discussed. (author)

  10. Example of fracture characterization in granitic rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thorpe, R.K.

    1981-03-01

    A detailed study of geologic discontinuities for an underground heater test in highly fractured granitic rock is reported. Several prominent shear fractures were delineated within a 6 x 30 x 15 m rock mass by correlating surface mapping and borehole fracture logs. Oblique-reverse faulting is suspected on at least one of the surfaces, and its inferred borehole intercepts appear to be collinear in the direction of slickensiding observed in the field. Four distinct joint sets were identified, one of which coincides with the shear fractures. Another lies nearly horizontal, and two others are steeply inclined and orthogonal. Fracture lengths and spacings for the four joint sets are represented by lognormal probability distributions

  11. Couple stresses and the fracture of rock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkinson, Colin; Coman, Ciprian D; Aldazabal, Javier

    2015-03-28

    An assessment is made here of the role played by the micropolar continuum theory on the cracked Brazilian disc test used for determining rock fracture toughness. By analytically solving the corresponding mixed boundary-value problems and employing singular-perturbation arguments, we provide closed-form expressions for the energy release rate and the corresponding stress-intensity factors for both mode I and mode II loading. These theoretical results are augmented by a set of fracture toughness experiments on both sandstone and marble rocks. It is further shown that the morphology of the fracturing process in our centrally pre-cracked circular samples correlates very well with discrete element simulations. © 2015 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  12. The application of isotopic (32P and 15N) dilution techniques to evaluate the interactive effect of phosphate-solubilizing rhizobacteria, mycorrhizal fungi and Rhizobium to improve the agronomic efficiency of rock phosphate for legume crops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barea, J.M.; Toro, M.; Azcon, R.; Orozco, M.O.; Campos, E.; Azcon, R.

    2002-01-01

    A pot experiment was designed to evaluate the interactive effects of multifunctional microbial inoculation treatments and rock phosphate (RP) application on N and P uptake by alfalfa through the use of 15 N and 32 P isotopic dilution approaches. The microbial inocula consisted of a wild type (WT) Rhizobium meliloti strain, the arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungus Glomus mosseae (Nicol. and Gerd.) Gerd. and Trappe, and a phosphate solubilizing rhizobacterium (Enterobacter sp.). Inoculated microorganisms were established in the root tissues and/or in the rhizosphere soil of alfalfa plants (Medicago sativa L.). Improvements in N and P accumulation in alfalfa corroborate beneficial effects of Rhizobium and AM interactions. Inoculation with selected rhizobacteria improved the AM effect on N or P accumulation in both the RP-added soil and in the non RP-amended controls. Measurements of the 15 N/ 14 N ratio in plant shoots indicate an enhancement of the N 2 fixation rates in Rhizobium-inoculated AM-plants, over that achieved by Rhizobium in non-mycorrhizal plants. Whether or not RP was added, AM-inoculated plants showed a lower specific activity ( 32 P/ 31 P) than did their comparable non-mycorrhizal controls, suggesting that the plant was using otherwise unavailable P sources. The phosphate-solubilizing, AM-associated, microbiota could in fact release phosphate ions, either from the added RP or from the indigenous 'less-available' soil phosphate. A low Ca concentrations in the test soil may have benefited P solubilization. Under field conditions, the inoculation with AM fungi significantly increased plant biomass and N and P accumulation in plant tissues. Phosphate-solubilizing rhizobacteria improved mycorrhizal responses in soil dually receiving RP and organic matter amendments. Organic matter addition favoured RP solubilization. This, together with a tailored microbial inoculation, increased the agronomic efficiency of RP in the test soil that was Ca deficient at neutral

  13. The application of isotopic ({sup 32}P and {sup 15}N) dilution techniques to evaluate the interactive effect of phosphate-solubilizing rhizobacteria, mycorrhizal fungi and Rhizobium to improve the agronomic efficiency of rock phosphate for legume crops

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barea, J.M. [Departamento de Microbiologia del Suelo y Sistemas Simbioticos (Spain)]. E-mail: jmbarea@eez.csic.es; Toro, M.; Azcon, R. [Departamento de Microbiologia del Suelo y Sistemas Simbioticos (Spain); Orozco, M.O. [Instituto de Sistematica y Ecologia, Academia Cubana de Ciencias, Habana (Cuba); Campos, E. [Departamento de Ciencias de la Tierra y Quimica Ambiental Estacion Experimental del Zaidin (CSIC), Granada (Spain); Azcon, R. [Departamento de Microbiologia del Suelo y Sistemas Simbioticos (Spain)

    2002-05-15

    A pot experiment was designed to evaluate the interactive effects of multifunctional microbial inoculation treatments and rock phosphate (RP) application on N and P uptake by alfalfa through the use of {sup 15}N and {sup 32}P isotopic dilution approaches. The microbial inocula consisted of a wild type (WT) Rhizobium meliloti strain, the arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungus Glomus mosseae (Nicol. and Gerd.) Gerd. and Trappe, and a phosphate solubilizing rhizobacterium (Enterobacter sp.). Inoculated microorganisms were established in the root tissues and/or in the rhizosphere soil of alfalfa plants (Medicago sativa L.). Improvements in N and P accumulation in alfalfa corroborate beneficial effects of Rhizobium and AM interactions. Inoculation with selected rhizobacteria improved the AM effect on N or P accumulation in both the RP-added soil and in the non RP-amended controls. Measurements of the {sup 15}N/{sup 14}N ratio in plant shoots indicate an enhancement of the N{sub 2} fixation rates in Rhizobium-inoculated AM-plants, over that achieved by Rhizobium in non-mycorrhizal plants. Whether or not RP was added, AM-inoculated plants showed a lower specific activity ({sup 32}P/{sup 31}P) than did their comparable non-mycorrhizal controls, suggesting that the plant was using otherwise unavailable P sources. The phosphate-solubilizing, AM-associated, microbiota could in fact release phosphate ions, either from the added RP or from the indigenous 'less-available' soil phosphate. A low Ca concentrations in the test soil may have benefited P solubilization. Under field conditions, the inoculation with AM fungi significantly increased plant biomass and N and P accumulation in plant tissues. Phosphate-solubilizing rhizobacteria improved mycorrhizal responses in soil dually receiving RP and organic matter amendments. Organic matter addition favoured RP solubilization. This, together with a tailored microbial inoculation, increased the agronomic efficiency of RP in the

  14. Influence of Fissure Number on the Mechanical Properties of Layer-Crack Rock Models under Uniaxial Compression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun-liang Tan

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Many case studies have revealed that rock bursts generally occur in the high stress concentration area where layer-crack structures often exist, especially for brittle coal or rock masses. Understanding the mechanical properties of layer-crack rock models is beneficial for rational design and stability analysis of rock engineering project and rock burst prevention. This study experimentally investigated the influence of fissure number on the mechanical properties of layer-crack rock models through uniaxial compression tests. The digital speckle correlation method (DSCM and acoustic emission (AE techniques were applied to record and analyze the information of deformation and failure processes. Test results show the following: the bearing capacity of layer-crack specimen decreases compared with intact specimen, but their failure modes are similar, which are the splitting failure accompanied with local shear failure; the nonuniform deformation phenomenon begins to appear at the elastic deformation stage for layer-crack specimens; the AE behavior of intact specimens consists of three stages, that is, active stage, quiet stage, and major active stage, but for layer-crack specimens, it is characteristic by three peaks without quiet stage. In addition, as the fissure number of layer-crack specimens increases, the bearing capacity of specimens decreases, the appearing time of nonuniform deformation phenomenon in the specimen surface decreases, the AE events are denser and denser in each peak stage, and the risk of dynamic instability of layer-crack structure increases. At last, the failure mechanism of layer-crack structure and the related mitigation advices were discussed based on the test results. In general, the novelty is that this paper focuses on the failure mechanism of layer-crack structure directly.

  15. Sorption of actinides in granitic rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allard, B

    1982-11-01

    The sorption of americium (III), neptunium(V) and plutonium on geologic media under oxic conditions has been measured by a batch technique. The aqueous phase was a synthetic groundwater or 4M NaCl solution. The solid phase was a pure mineral, representative of igneous rocks, or granite. Altogether 40 different minerals and rocks were used. The effects of pH and the ionic strength of the aqueous phase as well as of the cation exchange capacity and the surface/mass ratio of the solid sorbent are discussed. Empirical equations giving the distribution coefficient as a function of pH in the environmental pH-range 7-9 are suggested. Some observations and conclusions concerning sorption mechanisms are given. (author)

  16. A Phased Array Approach to Rock Blasting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leslie Gertsch; Jason Baird

    2006-07-01

    A series of laboratory-scale simultaneous two-hole shots was performed in a rock simulant (mortar) to record the shock wave interference patterns produced in the material. The purpose of the project as a whole was to evaluate the usefulness of phased array techniques of blast design, using new high-precision delay technology. Despite high-speed photography, however, we were unable to detect the passage of the shock waves through the samples to determine how well they matched the expected interaction geometry. The follow-up mine-scale tests were therefore not conducted. Nevertheless, pattern analysis of the vectors that would be formed by positive interference of the shockwaves from multiple charges in an ideal continuous, homogeneous, isotropic medium indicate the potential for powerful control of blast design, given precise characterization of the target rock mass.

  17. Tracer transport in fractured rocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsang, C.F.; Tsang, Y.W.; Hale, F.V.

    1988-07-01

    Recent interest in the safety of toxic waste underground disposal and nuclear waste geologic repositories has motivated many studies of tracer transport in fractured media. Fractures occur in most geologic formations and introduce a high degree of heterogeneity. Within each fracture, the aperture is not constant in value but strongly varying. Thus for such media, tracer tends to flow through preferred flowpaths or channels within the fractures. Along each of these channels, the aperture is also strongly varying. A detailed analysis is carried out on a 2D single fracture with variable apertures and the flow through channels is demonstrated. The channels defined this way are not rigidly set pathways for tracer transport, but are the preferred flow paths in the sense of stream-tubes in the potential theory. It is shown that such variable-aperture channels can be characterized by an aperture probability distribution function, and not by the exact deterministic geometric locations. We also demonstrate that the 2D tracer transport in a fracture can be calculated by a model of a system of 1D channels characterized by this distribution function only. Due to the channeling character of tracer transport in fractured rock, random point measurements of tracer breakthrough curves may give results with a wide spread in value due to statistical fluctuations. The present paper suggests that such a wide spread can probably be greatly reduced by making line/areal (or multiple) measurements covering a few spatial correlation lengths. 13 refs., 11 figs., 1 tab

  18. Detection of Cracking Levels in Brittle Rocks by Parametric Analysis of the Acoustic Emission Signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moradian, Zabihallah; Einstein, Herbert H.; Ballivy, Gerard

    2016-03-01

    Determination of the cracking levels during the crack propagation is one of the key challenges in the field of fracture mechanics of rocks. Acoustic emission (AE) is a technique that has been used to detect cracks as they occur across the specimen. Parametric analysis of AE signals and correlating these parameters (e.g., hits and energy) to stress-strain plots of rocks let us detect cracking levels properly. The number of AE hits is related to the number of cracks, and the AE energy is related to magnitude of the cracking event. For a full understanding of the fracture process in brittle rocks, prismatic specimens of granite containing pre-existing flaws have been tested in uniaxial compression tests, and their cracking process was monitored with both AE and high-speed video imaging. In this paper, the characteristics of the AE parameters and the evolution of cracking sequences are analyzed for every cracking level. Based on micro- and macro-crack damage, a classification of cracking levels is introduced. This classification contains eight stages (1) crack closure, (2) linear elastic deformation, (3) micro-crack initiation (white patch initiation), (4) micro-crack growth (stable crack growth), (5) micro-crack coalescence (macro-crack initiation), (6) macro-crack growth (unstable crack growth), (7) macro-crack coalescence and (8) failure.

  19. Rocks under pressure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-05-01

    Physicists have used nuclear magnetic resonance to investigate the destructive effects of the crystallization of salt. Salt-weathering is one of the main causes of rock disintegration in nature, particularly in deserts, polar regions and along coastlines. However, it is also a very widespread cause of damage to man-made constructions. Bridges, for example, are attacked by de-icing salts, and cities such as Bahrain, Abu Dhabi and Adelaide are affected by rising damp from high ground-water levels. Indeed, many examples of cultural heritage, including the Islamic sites of Bokhara and Petra in Jordan and the Sphinx in Egypt, may ultimately be destroyed due to the effects of salt-weathering. Now Lourens Rijniers and colleagues at Eindhoven University in the Netherlands have developed a way to observe the solubility of various salts inside porous materials directly (Phys. Rev. Lett. 94 075503). (U.K.)

  20. Rock the Globe

    CERN Multimedia

    Laëtitia Pedroso

    2010-01-01

    Created in 2005, the Swiss rock band "Wind of Change" is now candidate for the Eurovision Song Contest 2011 with a new song " Night & Light " with the music video filmed at CERN.   With over 20 gigs under their belt and two albums already released, the five members of the band (Alex Büchi, vocals; Arthur Spierer, drums; David Gantner, bass; Romain Mage and Yannick Gaudy, guitar) continue to excite audiences. For their latest composition "Night & Light", the group filmed their music video in the Globe of Science and Innovation. Winning the Eurovision contest would be a springboard in their artistic career for these young musicians. The selection results will be available December 11, 2010.      

  1. Electrochemistry of lunar rocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindstrom, D. J.; Haskin, L. A.

    1979-01-01

    Electrolysis of silicate melts has been shown to be an effective means of producing metals from common silicate materials. No fluxing agents need be added to the melts. From solution in melts of diopside (CaMgSi2O6) composition, the elements Si, Ti, Ni, and Fe have been reduced to their metallic states. Platinum is a satisfactory anode material, but other cathode materials are needed. Electrolysis of compositional analogs of lunar rocks initially produces iron metal at the cathode and oxygen gas at the anode. Utilizing mainly heat and electricity which are readily available from sunlight, direct electrolysis is capable of producing useful metals from common feedstocks without the need for expendable chemicals. This simple process and the products obtained from it deserve further study for use in materials processing in space.

  2. Rock discontinuity surface roughness variation with scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bitenc, Maja; Kieffer, D. Scott; Khoshelham, Kourosh

    2017-04-01

    ABSTRACT: Rock discontinuity surface roughness refers to local departures of the discontinuity surface from planarity and is an important factor influencing the shear resistance. In practice, the Joint Roughness Coefficient (JRC) roughness parameter is commonly relied upon and input to a shear strength criterion such as developed by Barton and Choubey [1977]. The estimation of roughness by JRC is hindered firstly by the subjective nature of visually comparing the joint profile to the ten standard profiles. Secondly, when correlating the standard JRC values and other objective measures of roughness, the roughness idealization is limited to a 2D profile of 10 cm length. With the advance of measuring technologies that provide accurate and high resolution 3D data of surface topography on different scales, new 3D roughness parameters have been developed. A desirable parameter is one that describes rock surface geometry as well as the direction and scale dependency of roughness. In this research a 3D roughness parameter developed by Grasselli [2001] and adapted by Tatone and Grasselli [2009] is adopted. It characterizes surface topography as the cumulative distribution of local apparent inclination of asperities with respect to the shear strength (analysis) direction. Thus, the 3D roughness parameter describes the roughness amplitude and anisotropy (direction dependency), but does not capture the scale properties. In different studies the roughness scale-dependency has been attributed to data resolution or size of the surface joint (see a summary of researches in [Tatone and Grasselli, 2012]). Clearly, the lower resolution results in lower roughness. On the other hand, have the investigations of surface size effect produced conflicting results. While some studies have shown a decrease in roughness with increasing discontinuity size (negative scale effect), others have shown the existence of positive scale effects, or both positive and negative scale effects. We

  3. Uniaxial Compressive Strengths of Rocks Drilled at Gale Crater, Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, G. H.; Carey, E. M.; Anderson, R. C.; Abbey, W. J.; Kinnett, R.; Watkins, J. A.; Schemel, M.; Lashore, M. O.; Chasek, M. D.; Green, W.; Beegle, L. W.; Vasavada, A. R.

    2018-01-01

    Measuring the physical properties of geological materials is important for understanding geologic history. Yet there has never been an instrument with the purpose of measuring mechanical properties of rocks sent to another planet. The Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) rover employs the Powder Acquisition Drill System (PADS), which provides direct mechanical interaction with Martian outcrops. While the objective of the drill system is not to make scientific measurements, the drill's performance is directly influenced by the mechanical properties of the rocks it drills into. We have developed a methodology that uses the drill to indicate the uniaxial compressive strengths of rocks through comparison with performance of an identically assembled drill system in terrestrial samples of comparable sedimentary class. During this investigation, we utilize engineering data collected on Mars to calculate the percussive energy needed to maintain a prescribed rate of penetration and correlate that to rock strength.

  4. Rock Art in Kurdistan Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamal Lahafian

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Kurdistan, with great potential and prehistoric resources, has numerous petroglyphs in different areas of the province. During the last 14 years of extensive field study, more than 30 sites of rock art have been identified and introduced by the author. In this article, we summarize these rock art areas in Iranian Kurdistan.

  5. Rockin' around the Rock Cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frack, Susan; Blanchard, Scott Alan

    2005-01-01

    In this activity students will simulate how sedimentary rocks can be changed into metamorphic rocks by intense pressure. The materials needed are two small pieces of white bread, one piece of wheat bread, and one piece of a dark bread (such as pumpernickel or dark rye) per student, two pieces of waxed paper, scissors, a ruler, and heavy books.…

  6. 'Mister Badger' Pushing Mars Rock

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-01-01

    Viking's soil sampler collector arm successfully pushed a rock on the surface of Mars during the afternoon of Friday, October 8. The irregular-shaped rock was pushed several inches by the Lander's collector arm, which displaced the rock to the left of its original position, leaving it cocked slightly upward. Photographs and other information verified the successful rock push. Photo at left shows the soil sampler's collector head pushing against the rock, named 'Mister Badger' by flight controllers. Photo at right shows the displaced rock and the depression whence it came. Part of the soil displacement was caused by the collector s backhoe. A soil sample will be taken from the site Monday night, October 11. It will then be delivered to Viking s organic chemistry instrument for a series of analyses during the next few weeks. The sample is being sought from beneath a rock because scientists believe that, if there are life forms on Mars, they may seek rocks as shelter from the Sun s intense ultraviolet radiation.

  7. Reducing rock fall injuries in underground US coal mines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robertson, S.B.; Molinda, G.M.; Pappas, D.M. [Pittsburgh Research Laboratory, Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    2005-07-01

    A continuing risk to underground US coal miners is rock falling from the mine roof. Almost 99% of injuries caused by rock falls are not from a major roof collapse, but from smaller rock that fall from between roof bolts. Installing roof screen provides excellent overhead roof coverage and dramatically reduces the potential for rock fall injuries, especially to roof bolted operators. The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) has explored different installation techniques and roof screening options along with machine design innovations that make roof screening easier and safer. Applying ergonomic principles to roof screening will offer insight and direction for better material handling. Other techniques for controlling rock falls and roof falls for long-term stability include the application of surface support liners and polyurethane (PUR) injection. An ongoing study at the NIOSH Lake Lynn Laboratory of various types of spray-on liner and shotcrete materials is providing a unique opportunity to evaluate the long-term behaviour of liners in an underground environment. In-mine studies of PUR have involved pre- and post-injection core drilling and video borecole logging. The results have provided insights into how PUR penetrates and reinforces weak and highly fractured rock. 11 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

  8. Phosphorus release from phosphate rock and iron phosphate by low-molecular-weight organic acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Ren-kou; Zhu, Yong-guan; Chittleborough, David

    2004-01-01

    Low-molecular-weight(LMW) organic acids widely exist in soils, particularly in the rhizosphere. A series of batch experiments were carried out to investigate the phosphorus release from rock phosphate and iron phosphate by low-molecular-weight organic acids. Results showed that citric acid had the highest capacity to solubilize P from both rock and iron phosphate. P solubilization from rock phosphate and iron phosphate resulted in net proton consumption. P release from rock phosphate was positively correlated with the pKa values. P release from iron phosphate was positively correlated with Fe-organic acid stability constants except for aromatic acids, but was notcorrelated with pKa. Increase in the concentrations of organic acids enhanced P solubilization from both rock and iron phosphate almost linearly. Addition of phenolic compounds further increased the P release from iron phosphate. Initial solution pH had much more substantial effect on P release from rock phosphate than from iron phosphate.

  9. Rock suitability classification RSC 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McEwen, T. (ed.) [McEwen Consulting, Leicester (United Kingdom); Kapyaho, A. [Geological Survey of Finland, Espoo (Finland); Hella, P. [Saanio and Riekkola, Helsinki (Finland); Aro, S.; Kosunen, P.; Mattila, J.; Pere, T.

    2012-12-15

    This report presents Posiva's Rock Suitability Classification (RSC) system, developed for locating suitable rock volumes for repository design and construction. The RSC system comprises both the revised rock suitability criteria and the procedure for the suitability classification during the construction of the repository. The aim of the classification is to avoid such features of the host rock that may be detrimental to the favourable conditions within the repository, either initially or in the long term. This report also discusses the implications of applying the RSC system for the fulfilment of the regulatory requirements concerning the host rock as a natural barrier and the site's overall suitability for hosting a final repository of spent nuclear fuel.

  10. Rock suitability classification RSC 2012

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McEwen, T.; Kapyaho, A.; Hella, P.; Aro, S.; Kosunen, P.; Mattila, J.; Pere, T.

    2012-12-01

    This report presents Posiva's Rock Suitability Classification (RSC) system, developed for locating suitable rock volumes for repository design and construction. The RSC system comprises both the revised rock suitability criteria and the procedure for the suitability classification during the construction of the repository. The aim of the classification is to avoid such features of the host rock that may be detrimental to the favourable conditions within the repository, either initially or in the long term. This report also discusses the implications of applying the RSC system for the fulfilment of the regulatory requirements concerning the host rock as a natural barrier and the site's overall suitability for hosting a final repository of spent nuclear fuel

  11. Rock strength under explosive loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rimer, N.; Proffer, W.

    1993-01-01

    This presentation emphasizes the importance of a detailed description of the nonlinear deviatoric (strength) response of the surrounding rock in the numerical simulation of underground nuclear explosion phenomenology to the late times needed for test ban monitoring applications. We will show how numerical simulations which match ground motion measurements in volcanic tuffs and in granite use the strength values obtained from laboratory measurements on small core samples of these rocks but also require much lower strength values after the ground motion has interacted with the rock. The underlying physical mechanisms for the implied strength reduction are not yet well understood, and in fact may depend on the particular rock type. However, constitutive models for shock damage and/or effective stress have been used successfully at S-Cubed in both the Geophysics Program (primarily for DARPA) and the Containment Support Program (for DNA) to simulate late time ground motions measured at NTS in many different rock types

  12. ROCK inhibitors in ocular disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Halasz

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Rho kinases (ROCKs have a crucial role in actin-cytoskeletal reorganization and thus are involved in broad aspects of cell motility, from smooth muscle contraction to neurite outgrowth. The first marketed ROCK inhibitor, called fasudil, has been used safely for treatment of cerebral vasospasm since 1995 in Japan. During the succeeding decades ROCK inhibitors have been applied in many pathological conditions from central nervous system disorders to cardiovascular disease as potential therapeutic agents or experimental tools to help understand the underlying (pathomechanisms. In 2014, a fasudil derivate named ripasudil was accepted for clinical use in glaucoma and ocular hypertension. Since ROCK kinases are widely expressed in ocular tissues, they have been implicated in the pathology of many ocular conditions such as corneal dysfunction, glaucoma, cataract, diabetic retinopathy, age-related macular degeneration, and retinal detachment. This paper aims to provide an overview of the most recent status/application of ROCK inhibitors in the field of eye disease.

  13. Rock sealing - interim report on the rock seealing project (stage 1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pusch, R.; Boergesson, L.; Fredrikson, A.; Markstroem, I.; Erlstroem, M.; Ramqvist, G.; Gray, M.; Coons, B.

    1988-09-01

    The objective of the Sealing Project is to find ways of sealing finely fractured rock by grouting. This requires development of new injection technique as well as to identify materials which are sufficiently fluid to be groutable and acceptably low-previous and physically and chemically stable. The present report describes the results of the first two years of investigation (stage 1), which gave very positive results as concluded from a large field-scale test. (orig.)

  14. Imaging techniques in clay sciences: a key tool to go a step further

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinet, J.C.; Michau, N.; Schaefer, T.

    2012-01-01

    the need to study microstructure of clay-rocks and clay based materials from multi-scale techniques and multiple scientific disciplines. Nevertheless at the end of the 90's, several scientific and/or technological bottlenecks, like the imaging the clays in 3D, limited our capacity to bridge small scale processes to macro-scale behaviors and properties. Over the last decade, R and D programs on nuclear waste disposal have tackled many issues to go further in our understanding of clays. Through different results and current studies, we have reviewed various developments and improvements on imaging techniques and their applications on clay-rocks and clay based materials currently under investigations. The presentation will address successively the different questions asked at each step, from the acquisition to the use of the data: - improvement and development of sampling and microstructure preservation methods to image undisturbed samples, - emergence of 3D techniques (X-ray microtomography, FIB/SEM...) and their application to clay based materials and clay rocks, - improvement of image acquisition and treatment of 2D/3D images, - development of multi-scale methodologies, - cross-cutting between imaging and analytical techniques to get quantitative information on pore and mineral spatial distribution, - imaging in 2D/3D the microstructure of clay materials under THMC conditions and environmental conditions, - extraction of quantitative information from image analysis using statistical approaches or cross-correlation to quantitative techniques, - correlation between microstructure characteristic parameters and macroscopic properties, - modeling of multi-scale THMC processes using data extracted from images. Conclusions drawn up from this review show up that imaging techniques have progressively turned into an essential tool to support THMC experimental or numerical studies in a sense that they have gradually evolved from a qualitative observation mean to a quantitative

  15. Competition on the rocks: community growth and tessellation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Espen Jettestuen

    Full Text Available Crustose lichen communities on rocks exhibit fascinating spatial mosaics resembling political maps of nations or municipalities. Although the establishment and development of biological populations are important themes in ecology, our understanding of the formation of such patterns on the rocks is still in its infancy. Here, we present a novel model of the concurrent growth, establishment and interaction of lichens. We introduce an inverse technique based on Monte Carlo simulations to test our model on field samples of lichen communities. We derive an expression for the time needed for a community to cover a surface and predict the historical spatial dynamics of field samples. Lichens are frequently used for dating the time of exposure of rocks in glacial deposits, lake retreats or rock falls. We suggest our method as a way to improve the dating.

  16. X-ray microtomography application in pore space reservoir rock

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, M.F.S.; Lima, I. [Nuclear Instrumentation Laboratory, COPPE/UFRJ, P.O. Box 68509, 21.941-972, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Borghi, L. [Geology Department, Geosciences Institute, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. (Brazil); Lopes, R.T., E-mail: ricardo@lin.ufrj.br [Nuclear Instrumentation Laboratory, COPPE/UFRJ, P.O. Box 68509, 21.941-972, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)

    2012-07-15

    Characterization of porosity in carbonate rocks is important in the oil and gas industry since a major hydrocarbons field is formed by this lithology and they have a complex media porous. In this context, this research presents a study of the pore space in limestones rocks by x-ray microtomography. Total porosity, type of porosity and pore size distribution were evaluated from 3D high resolution images. Results show that carbonate rocks has a complex pore space system with different pores types at the same facies. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This study is about porosity parameter in carbonate rocks by 3D X-Ray Microtomography. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This study has become useful as data input for modeling reservoir characterization. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This technique was able to provide pores, grains and mineralogical differences among the samples.

  17. Long-term migration of iodine in sedimentary rocks based on iodine speciation and 129I/127I ratio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Togo, Y.; Takahashi, Y.; Amano, Y.; Matsuzaki, H.; Suzuki, Y.; Muramatsu, Y.; Iwatsuki, T.

    2012-12-01

    [Introduction] 129I is one of the available indexes of long-term migration of groundwater solutes, because of its long half-life (15.7 million years) and low sorption characteristics. The Horonobe underground research center (Japan Atomic Energy Agency), at which are conducted research and development of fundamental techniques on geological disposal of high-level radioactive waste, is an appropriate site for natural analogue studies, because iodine concentration in groundwater is high in this area. To predict iodine behavior in natural systems, speciation of iodine is essential because of different mobility among each species. In this study, we determined iodine speciation and129I/127I isotope ratios of rock and groundwater samples to investigate long term migration of iodine. [Methods] All rock and groundwater samples were collected at Horonobe underground research center. The region is underlain mainly by Neogene to Quaternary marine sedimentary rocks, the Wakkanai Formation (Wk Fm, siliceous mudstones), and the overlying Koetoi Formation (Kt Fm, diatomaceous mudstones). Iodine species in rock samples were determined by iodine K-edge X-ray absorption near edge structure (SPring-8 BL01B1). Thin sections of rock samples were prepared, and iodine mapping were obtained by micro-XRF analysis (SPring-8 BL37XU). Iodine species (IO3-, I-, and organic I) in groundwater were separately detected by high performance liquid chromatography connected to ICP-MS. The 129I/127I ratios in groundwater and rock samples were measured by accelerator mass spectrometry (MALT, Univ. of Tokyo). Iodine in rock samples were separated by pyrohydrolysis and water extraction. [Results and discussion] Concentration of iodine in groundwater varied widely and was much higher than that of seawater showing a high correlation with that of chlorine (R2 = 0.90). Species of iodine in groundwater was mainly I-. Iodine in rock samples decreased near the boundary between Wk and Kt Fms. Iodine K-edge XANES

  18. Correlation of iron deposition and change of gliocyte metabolism in the basal ganglia region evaluated using magnetic resonance imaging techniques: an in vivo study

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Haodi; Wang, Xiaoming

    2016-01-01

    Introduction We assessed the correlation between iron deposition and the change of gliocyte metabolism in healthy subjects? basal ganglia region, by using 3D-enhanced susceptibility weighted angiography (ESWAN) and proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS). Material and methods Seventy-seven healthy volunteers (39 female and 38 male subjects; age range: 24?82 years old) were enrolled in the experiment including ESWAN and proton MRS sequences, consent for which was provided by themselves...

  19. Prevention and forecasting of rock burst hazards in coal mines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin-ming Dou; Cai-ping Lu; Zong-long Mu; Ming-shi Gao [China University of Mining & Technology, Xuzhou (China). State Key Laboratory for Coal Resource and Mine Safety

    2009-09-15

    Rock bursts signify extreme behavior in coal mine strata and severely threaten the safety of the lives of miners, as well as the effectiveness and productivity of miners. In our study, an elastic-plastic-brittle model for the deformation and failure of coal/rock was established through theoretical analyses, laboratory experiments and field testing, simulation and other means, which perfectly predict sudden and delayed rock bursts. Based on electromagnetic emission (EME), acoustic emission (AE) and microseismic (MS) effects in the process from deformation until impact rupture of coal-rock combination samples, a multi-parameter identification of premonitory technology was formed, largely depending on these three forms of emission. Thus a system of classification for forecasting rock bursts in space and time was established. We have presented the intensity weakening theory for rock bursts and a strong-soft-strong (3S) structural model for controlling the impact on rock surrounding roadways, with the objective of laying a theoretical foundation and establishing references for parameters for the weakening control of rock bursts. For the purpose of prevention, key technical parameters of directional hydraulic fracturing are revealed. Based on these results, as well as those from deep-hole controlled blasting in coal seams and rock, integrated control techniques were established and anti-impact hydraulic props, suitable for roadways subject to hazards from rockbursts have also been developed. These technologies have been widely used in most coal mines in China, subject to these hazards and have achieved remarkable economic and social benefits. 28 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.

  20. Segmentation-less Digital Rock Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tisato, N.; Ikeda, K.; Goldfarb, E. J.; Spikes, K. T.

    2017-12-01

    In the last decade, Digital Rock Physics (DRP) has become an avenue to investigate physical and mechanical properties of geomaterials. DRP offers the advantage of simulating laboratory experiments on numerical samples that are obtained from analytical methods. Potentially, DRP could allow sparing part of the time and resources that are allocated to perform complicated laboratory tests. Like classic laboratory tests, the goal of DRP is to estimate accurately physical properties of rocks like hydraulic permeability or elastic moduli. Nevertheless, the physical properties of samples imaged using micro-computed tomography (μCT) are estimated through segmentation of the μCT dataset. Segmentation proves to be a challenging and arbitrary procedure that typically leads to inaccurate estimates of physical properties. Here we present a novel technique to extract physical properties from a μCT dataset without the use of segmentation. We show examples in which we use segmentation-less method to simulate elastic wave propagation and pressure wave diffusion to estimate elastic properties and permeability, respectively. The proposed method takes advantage of effective medium theories and uses the density and the porosity that are measured in the laboratory to constrain the results. We discuss the results and highlight that segmentation-less DRP is more accurate than segmentation based DRP approaches and theoretical modeling for the studied rock. In conclusion, the segmentation-less approach here presented seems to be a promising method to improve accuracy and to ease the overall workflow of DRP.

  1. Rock index properties for geoengineering in underground development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Rourke, J.E.

    1989-01-01

    This paper describes the use of index testing to obtain rock properties that are useful in the design and construction planning of an underground development for civil engineering or mining projects. The index properties discussed include: point load; Schmidt hammer hardness; abrasion hardness; and total hardness. The first two index properties correlate to uniaxial compressive strength (UCS) and Young's modulus. Discussions are given on empirical, normalized relationships of UCS to rock mass properties and the integrated use with semi-empirical, geotechnical design methods. The hardness property indices correlate to construction performance parameters and some relevant experience is cited. Examples of data are presented from an index testing program carried out primarily on siltstone, sandstone and limestone rock core samples retrieved from depths up to 1005 m (3300 ft) in a borehole drilled in the Paradox Basin in eastern Utah. The borehole coring was done for a nuclear waste repository site investigation

  2. They will rock you!

    CERN Multimedia

    Anaïs Schaeffer

    2013-01-01

    On 30 September, CERN will be the venue for one of the most prestigious events of the year: the concert for the Bosons&More event, the Organization’s celebration of the remarkable performance of the LHC and all its technical systems, as well as the recent fundamental discoveries. Topping the bill will be the Orchestre de la Suisse Romande, the CERN Choir, the Zürcher Sing-Akademie and the Alan Parsons Live Project rock group, who have joined forces to create an unforgettable evening’s entertainment.   The Orchestre de la Suisse Romande, directed by Maestro Neeme Järvi, artistic and musical director of the OSR. (Image: Grégory Maillot). >>> From the Orchestre de la Suisse Romande… Henk Swinnen, General Manager of the Orchestre de la Suisse Romande (OSR), answers some questions for the CERN Bulletin, just a few days before the event. How did this project come about? When CERN invited us to take part in the B...

  3. Rock salt constitutive modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nickell, R.E.

    1980-01-01

    The Serata model is the best operational model available today because it incorporates: (1) a yield function to demarcate between viscoelastic and viscoplastic behavior of rock salt; (2) a pressure and temperature dependence for yield stresses; and (3) a standard linear solid, which can be readily extended into the non-linear regime, to represent creep behavior. Its only deficiencies appear to be the lack of secondary creep behavior (a free dashpot) and some unsettling arbitrariness about the Poisson's ratio (ν → 0.5) argument for viscoplasticity. The Sandia/WIPP model will have good primary and secondary creep capability, but lacks the viscoplastic behavior. In some cases, estimated inelastic strains may be underpredicted. If a creep acceleration mechanism associated with brine inclusions is observed, this model may require extensive revision. Most of the other models available (SAI, RE-SPEC, etc.) are only useful for short-term calculations, because they employ temporal power law (t/sup n/) primary creep representations. These models are unsatisfactory because they cannot represent dual mechanisms with differing characteristic times. An approach based upon combined creep and plasticity is recommended in order to remove the remaining deficiency in the Serata model. DOE/Sandia/WIPP should be encouraged to move aggressively in this regard

  4. 40Ar/39Ar studies of deep sea igneous rocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seidemann, D.

    1978-01-01

    An attempt to date deep-sea igneous rocks reliably was made using the 40 Ar/ 39 Ar dating technique. It was determined that the 40 Ar/ 39 Ar incremental release technique could not be used to eliminate the effects of excess radiogenic 40 Ar in deep-sea basalts. Excess 40 Ar is released throughout the extraction temperature range and cannot be distinguished from 40 Ar generated by in situ 40 K decay. The problem of the reduction of K-Ar dates associated with sea water alteration of deep-sea igneous rocks could not be resolved using the 40 Ar/ 39 Ar technique. Irradiation induced 39 Ar loss and/or redistribution in fine-grained and altered igneous rocks results in age spectra that are artifacts of the experimental procedure and only partly reflect the geologic history of the sample. Therefore, caution must be used in attributing significance to age spectra of fine grained and altered deep-sea igneous rocks. Effects of 39 Ar recoil are not important for either medium-grained (or coarser) deep-sea rocks or glasses because only a small fraction of the 39 Ar recoils to channels of easy diffusion, such as intergranular boundaries or cracks, during the irradiation. (author)

  5. Research into basic rocks types

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-06-01

    Teollisuuden Voima Oy (TVO) has carried out research into basic rock types in Finland. The research programme has been implemented in parallel with the preliminary site investigations for radioactive waste disposal in 1991-1993. The program contained two main objectives: firstly, to study the properties of the basic rock types and compare those with the other rock types under the investigation; secondly, to carry out an inventory of rock formations consisting of basic rock types and suitable in question for final disposal. A study of environmental factors important to know regarding the final disposal was made of formations identified. In total 159 formations exceeding the size of 4 km 2 were identified in the inventory. Of these formations 97 were intrusive igneous rock types and 62 originally extrusive volcanic rock types. Deposits consisting of ore minerals, industrial minerals or building stones related to these formations were studied. Environmental factors like natural resources, protected areas or potential for restrictions in land use were also studied

  6. Correlation spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinclair, Michael B [Albuquerque, NM; Pfeifer, Kent B [Los Lunas, NM; Flemming, Jeb H [Albuquerque, NM; Jones, Gary D [Tijeras, NM; Tigges, Chris P [Albuquerque, NM

    2010-04-13

    A correlation spectrometer can detect a large number of gaseous compounds, or chemical species, with a species-specific mask wheel. In this mode, the spectrometer is optimized for the direct measurement of individual target compounds. Additionally, the spectrometer can measure the transmission spectrum from a given sample of gas. In this mode, infrared light is passed through a gas sample and the infrared transmission signature of the gasses present is recorded and measured using Hadamard encoding techniques. The spectrometer can detect the transmission or emission spectra in any system where multiple species are present in a generally known volume.

  7. Hard rock tunneling using pulsed electron beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avery, R.T.; Brekke, T.L.; Finnie, I.

    1974-01-01

    Intense submicrosecond bursts of energetic electrons cause significant pulverization and surface spalling of a variety of rock types, the spall debris generally consisting of sand, dust, and small flakes. If carried out at rapid repetition rate this can lead to a promising technique for increasing the speed and reducing the cost of underground excavation of tunnels, mines, and storage spaces. The conceptual design features of a Pulsed Electron Tunnel Excavator capable of tunneling approximately ten times faster than conventional drill/blast methods were studied. (auth)

  8. Photon correlation holography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naik, Dinesh N; Singh, Rakesh Kumar; Ezawa, Takahiro; Miyamoto, Yoko; Takeda, Mitsuo

    2011-01-17

    Unconventional holography called photon correlation holography is proposed and experimentally demonstrated. Using photon correlation, i.e. intensity correlation or fourth order correlation of optical field, a 3-D image of the object recorded in a hologram is reconstructed stochastically with illumination through a random phase screen. Two different schemes for realizing photon correlation holography are examined by numerical simulations, and the experiment was performed for one of the reconstruction schemes suitable for the experimental proof of the principle. The technique of photon correlation holography provides a new insight into how the information is embedded in the spatial as well as temporal correlation of photons in the stochastic pseudo thermal light.

  9. Modeling the Rock Glacier Cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, R. S.; Anderson, L. S.

    2016-12-01

    Rock glaciers are common in many mountain ranges in which the ELA lies above the peaks. They represent some of the most identifiable components of today's cryosphere in these settings. Their oversteepened snouts pose often-overlooked hazards to travel in alpine terrain. Rock glaciers are supported by avalanches and by rockfall from steep headwalls. The winter's avalanche cone must be sufficiently thick not to melt entirely in the summer. The spatial distribution of rock glaciers reflects this dependence on avalanche sources; they are most common on lee sides of ridges where wind-blown snow augments the avalanche source. In the absence of rockfall, this would support a short, cirque glacier. Depending on the relationship between rockfall and avalanche patterns, "talus-derived" and "glacier-derived" rock glaciers are possible. Talus-derived: If the spatial distribution of rock delivery is similar to the avalanche pattern, the rock-ice mixture will travel an englacial path that is downward through the short accumulation zone before turning upward in the ablation zone. Advected debris is then delivered to the base of a growing surface debris layer that reduces the ice melt rate. The physics is identical to the debris-covered glacier case. Glacier-derived: If on the other hand rockfall from the headwall rolls beyond the avalanche cone, it is added directly to the ablation zone of the glacier. The avalanche accumulation zone then supports a pure ice core to the rock glacier. We have developed numerical models designed to capture the full range of glacier to debris-covered glacier to rock glacier behavior. The hundreds of meter lengths, tens of meters thicknesses, and meter per year speeds of rock glaciers are well described by the models. The model can capture both "talus-derived" and "glacier-derived" rock glaciers. We explore the dependence of glacier behavior on climate histories. As climate warms, a pure ice debris-covered glacier can transform to a much shorter rock

  10. Multiverso: Rock'n'Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caballero, J. A.

    2012-05-01

    In the last few years, there have been several projects involving astronomy and classical music. But have a rock band ever appeared at a science conference or an astronomer at a rock concert? We present a project, Multiverso, in which we mix rock and astronomy, together with poetry and video art (Caballero, 2010). The project started in late 2009 and has already reached tens of thousands people in Spain through the release of an album, several concert-talks, television, radio, newspapers and the internet.

  11. Fault rocks and uranium mineralization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tong Hangshou.

    1991-01-01

    The types of fault rocks, microstructural characteristics of fault tectonite and their relationship with uranium mineralization in the uranium-productive granite area are discussed. According to the synthetic analysis on nature of stress, extent of crack and microstructural characteristics of fault rocks, they can be classified into five groups and sixteen subgroups. The author especially emphasizes the control of cataclasite group and fault breccia group over uranium mineralization in the uranium-productive granite area. It is considered that more effective study should be made on the macrostructure and microstructure of fault rocks. It is of an important practical significance in uranium exploration

  12. Test procedures for salt rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dusseault, M.B.

    1985-01-01

    Potash mining, salt mining, design of solution caverns in salt rocks, disposal of waste in salt repositories, and the use of granular halite backfill in underground salt rock mines are all mining activities which are practised or contemplated for the near future. Whatever the purpose, the need for high quality design parameters is evident. The authors have been testing salt rocks in the laboratory in a number of configurations for some time. Great care has been given to the quality of sample preparation and test methodology. This paper describes the methods, presents the elements of equipment design, and shows some typical results

  13. Study on electron fluxes with Esub(e)=40-500 keV in quiet periods of solar activity by means of correlation and spectral analysis technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zel'dovich, M.A.; Trebukhovskaya, G.A.

    1982-01-01

    Background fluxes of low-energy electrons (Esub(e)=40-500 keV), observed in the interplanetary space in the absence of solar cosmic ray flares using the ''Prognoz-3'' artificial satellite during 1973-1974, are under study. Fluctuation power spectra and correlation functions of simultaneous series of fluxes of above electrons, galactic cosmic rays are calculated along with some parameters characterizing solar activity and interplanetary medium state. The mentioned analysis points to possible solar origin of background low-energy electron fluxes

  14. Large scale rock slope release planes imaged by differential ground based InSAR at Randa, Switzerland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gischig, V.; Loew, S.; Kos, A.; Raetzo, H.

    2009-04-01

    In April and May of 1991 a steep rock slope above the village of Randa (Valais, Switzerland) failed in two events, releasing a total rock volume of 30 million m3. The rock mass behind the back scarp contains several million cubic meters of unstable gneisses and schists which are moving with a maximum rate of about 2 cm/yr. Different geodetic, geotechnical and geophysical techniques were applied to monitor this new instability and to determine its spatial extent. However, the boundaries of the instability could only be roughly estimated so far. For this reason five ground based differential InSAR surveys (GB-DInSAR) were carried out between 2005 and 2007 from the opposite valley flank at a distance to target of 1.3 to 1.9 km. These surveys provide displacements maps of four different time intervals with a spatial resolution of 2 to 6 m and an accuracy of less than 1 mm. These datasets reveal interesting new insights into the spatial distribution of displacements and significantly contribute to the kinematic interpretation of the ongoing movements. We found that the lower boundary of the instability is a narrow rupture plane which coincides with a primary lithological boundary on the slope. The intersection line between this basal rupture plane and the steep rock cliff extents over at least 200 m meters. It is possible to identify this structure on helicopter-based high resolution images and a LiDAR DTM of the failure surface. The eastern boundary of the instability also presents itself as a sharp line separating stable bedrock from a strongly fractured rock mass moving about 1 cm/yr along the line of sight. This lateral release plane is formed by a steeply east dipping tectonic fault plane, with subhorizontal striations and an exposed surface area of about 10'000 square meters. In the north-east of the instability the lateral boundaries crop out on surfaces that have an acute angle to the line of sight or lie in the shadow of the radar. Here the boundaries of the

  15. Fluid and rock interaction in permeable volcanic rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindley, J.I.

    1985-01-01

    Four types of interrelated changes -geochemical, mineralogic, isotopic, and physical - occur in Oligocene volcanic units of the Mogollon-Datil volcanic field, New Mexico. These changes resulted from the operation of a geothermal system that, through fluid-rock interaction, affected 5 rhyolite ash-flow tuffs and an intercalated basaltic andesite lava flow causing a potassium metasomatism type of alteration. (1) Previous studies have shown enrichment of rocks in K 2 O as much as 130% of their original values at the expense of Na 2 O and CaO with an accompanying increase in Rb and decreases in MgO and Sr. (2) X-ray diffraction results of this study show that phenocrystic plagioclase and groundmass feldspar have been replaced with pure potassium feldspar and quartz in altered rock. Phenocrystic potassium feldspar, biotite, and quartz are unaffected. Pyroxene in basaltic andesite is replaced by iron oxide. (3) delta 18 O increases for rhyolitic units from values of 8-10 permil, typical of unaltered rock, to 13-15 permil, typical of altered rock. Basaltic andesite, however, shows opposite behavior with a delta 18 of 9 permil in unaltered rock and 6 permit in altered. (4) Alteration results in a density decrease. SEM revealed that replacement of plagioclase by fine-grained quartz and potassium feldspar is not a volume for volume replacement. Secondary porosity is created in the volcanics by the chaotic arrangement of secondary crystals

  16. Interference Cancellation Technique Based on Discovery of Spreading Codes of Interference Signals and Maximum Correlation Detection for DS-CDMA System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hettiarachchi, Ranga; Yokoyama, Mitsuo; Uehara, Hideyuki

    This paper presents a novel interference cancellation (IC) scheme for both synchronous and asynchronous direct-sequence code-division multiple-access (DS-CDMA) wireless channels. In the DS-CDMA system, the multiple access interference (MAI) and the near-far problem (NFP) are the two factors which reduce the capacity of the system. In this paper, we propose a new algorithm that is able to detect all interference signals as an individual MAI signal by maximum correlation detection. It is based on the discovery of all the unknowing spreading codes of the interference signals. Then, all possible MAI patterns so called replicas are generated as a summation of interference signals. And the true MAI pattern is found by taking correlation between the received signal and the replicas. Moreover, the receiver executes MAI cancellation in a successive manner, removing all interference signals by single-stage. Numerical results will show that the proposed IC strategy, which alleviates the detrimental effect of the MAI and the near-far problem, can significantly improve the system performance. Especially, we can obtain almost the same receiving characteristics as in the absense of interference for asynchrnous system when received powers are equal. Also, the same performances can be seen under any received power state for synchronous system.

  17. Local image variance of 7 Tesla SWI is a new technique for preoperative characterization of diffusely infiltrating gliomas: correlation with tumour grade and IDH1 mutational status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabner, Günther; Kiesel, Barbara; Wöhrer, Adelheid; Millesi, Matthias; Wurzer, Aygül; Göd, Sabine; Mallouhi, Ammar; Knosp, Engelbert; Marosi, Christine; Trattnig, Siegfried; Wolfsberger, Stefan; Preusser, Matthias; Widhalm, Georg

    2017-04-01

    To investigate the value of local image variance (LIV) as a new technique for quantification of hypointense microvascular susceptibility-weighted imaging (SWI) structures at 7 Tesla for preoperative glioma characterization. Adult patients with neuroradiologically suspected diffusely infiltrating gliomas were prospectively recruited and 7 Tesla SWI was performed in addition to standard imaging. After tumour segmentation, quantification of intratumoural SWI hypointensities was conducted by the SWI-LIV technique. Following surgery, the histopathological tumour grade and isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 (IDH1)-R132H mutational status was determined and SWI-LIV values were compared between low-grade gliomas (LGG) and high-grade gliomas (HGG), IDH1-R132H negative and positive tumours, as well as gliomas with significant and non-significant contrast-enhancement (CE) on MRI. In 30 patients, 9 LGG and 21 HGG were diagnosed. The calculation of SWI-LIV values was feasible in all tumours. Significantly higher mean SWI-LIV values were found in HGG compared to LGG (92.7 versus 30.8; p Tesla SWI-LIV might improve preoperative characterization of diffusely infiltrating gliomas and thus optimize patient management by quantification of hypointense microvascular structures. • 7 Tesla local image variance helps to quantify hypointense susceptibility-weighted imaging structures. • SWI-LIV is significantly increased in high-grade and IDH1-R132H negative gliomas. • SWI-LIV is a promising technique for improved preoperative glioma characterization. • Preoperative management of diffusely infiltrating gliomas will be optimized.

  18. A sampling study on rock properties affecting drilling rate index (DRI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yenice, Hayati; Özdoğan, Mehmet V.; Özfırat, M. Kemal

    2018-05-01

    Drilling rate index (DRI) developed in Norway is a very useful index in determining the drillability of rocks and even in performance prediction of hard rock TBMs and it requires special laboratory test equipment. Drillability is one of the most important subjects in rock excavation. However, determining drillability index from physical and mechanical properties of rocks is very important for practicing engineers such as underground excavation, drilling operations in open pit mining, underground mining and natural stone production. That is why many researchers have studied concerned with drillability to find the correlations between drilling rate index (DRI) and penetration rate, influence of geological properties on drillability prediction in tunneling, correlations between rock properties and drillability. In this study, the relationships between drilling rate index (DRI) and some physico-mechanical properties (Density, Shore hardness, uniaxial compressive strength (UCS, σc), Indirect tensile strength (ITS, σt)) of three different rock groups including magmatic, sedimentary and metamorphic were evaluated using both simple and multiple regression analysis. This study reveals the effects of rock properties on DRI according to different types of rocks. In simple regression, quite high correlations were foun