DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Faber, Michael Havbro; Vrouwenvelder, A.C.W.M.; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard
2011-01-01
In 2005, the Joint Committee on Structural Safety (JCSS) together with Working Commission (WC) 1 of the International Association of Bridge and Structural Engineering (IABSE) organized a workshop on robustness of structures. Two important decisions resulted from this workshop, namely...... ‘COST TU0601: Robustness of Structures’ was initiated in February 2007, aiming to provide a platform for exchanging and promoting research in the area of structural robustness and to provide a basic framework, together with methods, strategies and guidelines enhancing robustness of structures...... the development of a joint European project on structural robustness under the COST (European Cooperation in Science and Technology) programme and the decision to develop a more elaborate document on structural robustness in collaboration between experts from the JCSS and the IABSE. Accordingly, a project titled...
Robustness of Structural Systems
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Canisius, T.D.G.; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard; Baker, J.W.
2007-01-01
The importance of robustness as a property of structural systems has been recognised following several structural failures, such as that at Ronan Point in 1968,where the consequenceswere deemed unacceptable relative to the initiating damage. A variety of research efforts in the past decades have...... attempted to quantify aspects of robustness such as redundancy and identify design principles that can improve robustness. This paper outlines the progress of recent work by the Joint Committee on Structural Safety (JCSS) to develop comprehensive guidance on assessing and providing robustness in structural...... systems. Guidance is provided regarding the assessment of robustness in a framework that considers potential hazards to the system, vulnerability of system components, and failure consequences. Several proposed methods for quantifying robustness are reviewed, and guidelines for robust design...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Vrouwenvelder, T.; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard
2009-01-01
After the collapse of the World Trade Centre towers in 2001 and a number of collapses of structural systems in the beginning of the century, robustness of structural systems has gained renewed interest. Despite many significant theoretical, methodical and technological advances, structural...... of robustness for structural design such requirements are not substantiated in more detail, nor have the engineering profession been able to agree on an interpretation of robustness which facilitates for its uantification. A European COST action TU 601 on ‘Robustness of structures' has started in 2007...... by a group of members of the CSS. This paper describes the ongoing work in this action, with emphasis on the development of a theoretical and risk based quantification and optimization procedure on the one side and a practical pre-normative guideline on the other....
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Sørensen, John Dalsgaard
2008-01-01
This paper describes the background of the robustness requirements implemented in the Danish Code of Practice for Safety of Structures and in the Danish National Annex to the Eurocode 0, see (DS-INF 146, 2003), (DS 409, 2006), (EN 1990 DK NA, 2007) and (Sørensen and Christensen, 2006). More...... frequent use of advanced types of structures with limited redundancy and serious consequences in case of failure combined with increased requirements to efficiency in design and execution followed by increased risk of human errors has made the need of requirements to robustness of new structures essential....... According to Danish design rules robustness shall be documented for all structures in high consequence class. The design procedure to document sufficient robustness consists of: 1) Review of loads and possible failure modes / scenarios and determination of acceptable collapse extent; 2) Review...
Robustness Analyses of Timber Structures
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kirkegaard, Poul Henning; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard; Hald, Frederik
2013-01-01
The robustness of structural systems has obtained a renewed interest arising from a much more frequent use of advanced types of structures with limited redundancy and serious consequences in case of failure. In order to minimise the likelihood of such disproportionate structural failures, many mo...... with respect to robustness of timber structures and will discuss the consequences of such robustness issues related to the future development of timber structures.......The robustness of structural systems has obtained a renewed interest arising from a much more frequent use of advanced types of structures with limited redundancy and serious consequences in case of failure. In order to minimise the likelihood of such disproportionate structural failures, many...... modern building codes consider the need for the robustness of structures and provide strategies and methods to obtain robustness. Therefore, a structural engineer may take necessary steps to design robust structures that are insensitive to accidental circumstances. The present paper summaries issues...
Robustness Evaluation of Timber Structures
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kirkegaard, Poul Henning; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard
2009-01-01
Robustness of structural systems has obtained a renewed interest due to a much more frequent use of advanced types of structures with limited redundancy and serious consequences in case of failure.......Robustness of structural systems has obtained a renewed interest due to a much more frequent use of advanced types of structures with limited redundancy and serious consequences in case of failure....
Frisch, Amos; Colombo, Roberto; Michaelovsky, Elena; Karpati, Mazal; Goldman, Boleslaw; Peleg, Leah
2004-03-01
The 1278insTATC is the most prevalent beta-hexosaminidase A ( HEXA) gene mutation causing Tay-Sachs disease (TSD), one of the four lysosomal storage diseases (LSDs) occurring at elevated frequencies among Ashkenazi Jews (AJs). To investigate the genetic history of this mutation in the AJ population, a conserved haplotype (D15S981:175-D15S131:240-D15S1050:284-D15S197:144-D15S188:418) was identified in 1278insTATC chromosomes from 55 unrelated AJ individuals (15 homozygotes and 40 heterozygotes for the TSD mutation), suggesting the occurrence of a common founder. When two methods were used for analysis of linkage disequilibrium (LD) between flanking polymorphic markers and the disease locus and for the study of the decay of LD over time, the estimated age of the insertion was found to be 40+/-12 generations (95% confidence interval: 30-50 generations), so that the most recent common ancestor of the mutation-bearing chromosomes would date to the 8th-9th century. This corresponds with the demographic expansion of AJs in central Europe, following the founding of the Ashkenaz settlement in the early Middle Ages. The results are consistent with the geographic distribution of the main TSD mutation, 1278insTATC being more common in central Europe, and with the coalescent times of mutations causing two other LSDs, Gaucher disease and mucolipidosis type IV. Evidence for the absence of a determinant positive selection (heterozygote advantage) over the mutation is provided by a comparison between the estimated age of 1278insTATC and the probability of the current AJ frequency of the mutant allele as a function of its age, calculated by use of a branching-process model. Therefore, the founder effect in a rapidly expanding population arising from a bottleneck provides a robust parsimonious hypothesis explaining the spread of 1278insTATC-linked TSD in AJ individuals.
Robustness Evaluation of Timber Structures
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kirkegaard, Poul Henning; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard; čizmar, D.
2010-01-01
The present paper outlines results from working group 3 (WG3) in the EU COST Action E55 – ‘Modelling of the performance of timber structures’. The objectives of the project are related to the three main research activities: the identification and modelling of relevant load and environmental...... exposure scenarios, the improvement of knowledge concerning the behaviour of timber structural elements and the development of a generic framework for the assessment of the life-cycle vulnerability and robustness of timber structures....
Maximum Parsimony on Phylogenetic networks
2012-01-01
Background Phylogenetic networks are generalizations of phylogenetic trees, that are used to model evolutionary events in various contexts. Several different methods and criteria have been introduced for reconstructing phylogenetic trees. Maximum Parsimony is a character-based approach that infers a phylogenetic tree by minimizing the total number of evolutionary steps required to explain a given set of data assigned on the leaves. Exact solutions for optimizing parsimony scores on phylogenetic trees have been introduced in the past. Results In this paper, we define the parsimony score on networks as the sum of the substitution costs along all the edges of the network; and show that certain well-known algorithms that calculate the optimum parsimony score on trees, such as Sankoff and Fitch algorithms extend naturally for networks, barring conflicting assignments at the reticulate vertices. We provide heuristics for finding the optimum parsimony scores on networks. Our algorithms can be applied for any cost matrix that may contain unequal substitution costs of transforming between different characters along different edges of the network. We analyzed this for experimental data on 10 leaves or fewer with at most 2 reticulations and found that for almost all networks, the bounds returned by the heuristics matched with the exhaustively determined optimum parsimony scores. Conclusion The parsimony score we define here does not directly reflect the cost of the best tree in the network that displays the evolution of the character. However, when searching for the most parsimonious network that describes a collection of characters, it becomes necessary to add additional cost considerations to prefer simpler structures, such as trees over networks. The parsimony score on a network that we describe here takes into account the substitution costs along the additional edges incident on each reticulate vertex, in addition to the substitution costs along the other edges which are
Robustness Assessment of Spatial Timber Structures
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kirkegaard, Poul Henning
2012-01-01
Robustness of structural systems has obtained a renewed interest due to a much more frequent use of advanced types of structures with limited redundancy and serious consequences in case of failure. In order to minimise the likelihood of such disproportionate structural failures many modern buildi...... to robustness of spatial timber structures and will discuss the consequences of such robustness issues related to the future development of timber structures.......Robustness of structural systems has obtained a renewed interest due to a much more frequent use of advanced types of structures with limited redundancy and serious consequences in case of failure. In order to minimise the likelihood of such disproportionate structural failures many modern building...... codes consider the need for robustness of structures and provide strategies and methods to obtain robustness. Therefore a structural engineer may take necessary steps to design robust structures that are insensitive to accidental circumstances. The present paper summaries issues with respect...
Robustness Analysis of Timber Truss Structure
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Rajčić, Vlatka; Čizmar, Dean; Kirkegaard, Poul Henning
2010-01-01
The present paper discusses robustness of structures in general and the robustness requirements given in the codes. Robustness of timber structures is also an issues as this is closely related to Working group 3 (Robustness of systems) of the COST E55 project. Finally, an example of a robustness...... evaluation of a widespan timber truss structure is presented. This structure was built few years ago near Zagreb and has a span of 45m. Reliability analysis of the main members and the system is conducted and based on this a robustness analysis is preformed....
Robustness of Long Span Reciprocal Timber Structures
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Balfroid, Nathalie; Kirkegaard, Poul Henning
2011-01-01
engineer may take necessary steps to design robust structures that are insensitive to accidental circumstances. The present paper makes a discussion of such robustness issues related to the future development of reciprocal timber structures. The paper concludes that these kind of structures can have...... a potential as long span timber structures in real projects if they are carefully designed with respect to the overall robustness strategies.......Robustness of structural systems has obtained a renewed interest due to a much more frequent use of advanced types of structures with limited redundancy and serious consequences in case of failure. The interest has also been facilitated due to recently severe structural failures...
Elrod, Terry; Haubl, Gerald; Tipps, Steven W.
2012-01-01
Recent research reflects a growing awareness of the value of using structural equation models to analyze repeated measures data. However, such data, particularly in the presence of covariates, often lead to models that either fit the data poorly, are exceedingly general and hard to interpret, or are specified in a manner that is highly data…
Meij, E.; Weerkamp, W.; Balog, K.; de Rijke, M.; Myang, S.-H.; Oard, D.W.; Sebastiani, F.; Chua, T.-S.; Leong, M.-K.
2008-01-01
We describe a method for applying parsimonious language models to re-estimate the term probabilities assigned by relevance models. We apply our method to six topic sets from test collections in five different genres. Our parsimonious relevance models (i) improve retrieval effectiveness in terms of
Framework for Robustness Assessment of Timber Structures
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Sørensen, John Dalsgaard
2011-01-01
This paper presents a theoretical framework for the design and analysis of robustness of timber structures. This is actualized by a more4 frequent use of advanced types of timber structures with limited redundancy and serious consequences in the case of failure. Combined with increased requirements...... to efficiency in design and execution followed by increased risk of human errors has made the need of requirements to robustness of new structures essential. Further, the collapse of the Ballerup Super Arena, the bad Reichenhall Ice-Arena and a number of other structural systems during the last 10 years has...... increased the interest in robustness. Typically, modern structural design codes require that ‘the consequence of damages to structures should not be disproportional to the causes of the damages’. However, although the importance of robustness for structural design is widely recognized, the code requirements...
Danish Requirements for Robustness of Structures
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Sørensen, John Dalsgaard; Christensen, H. H.
2006-01-01
. This paper describes the background of the revised robustness requirements implemented in the Danish Code of Practice for Safety of Structures in 2003 [1, 2, 3]. According to the Danish design rules robustness shall be documented for all structures where consequences of failure are serious. This paper...... describes the background of the design procedure in the Danish codes, which shall be followed in order to document sufficient robustness in the following steps: Step 1: review of loads and possible failure modes/scenarios and determination of acceptable collapse extent. Step 2: review of the structural...
Structural Robustness Evaluation of Offshore Wind Turbines
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Giuliani, Luisa; Bontempi, Franco
2010-01-01
in the framework of a safe design: it depends on different factors, like exposure, vulnerability and robustness. Particularly, the requirement of structural vulnerability and robustness are discussed in this paper and a numerical application is presented, in order to evaluate the effects of a ship collision...
Robustness Analysis of Kinetic Structures
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kirkegaard, Poul Henning; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard
2009-01-01
Kinetic structures in architecture follows a new trend which is emerging in responsive architecture coined by Nicholas Negroponte when he proposed that architecture may benefit from the integration of computing power into built spaces and structures, and that better performing, more rational...
The structural robustness of multiprocessor computing system
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
N. Andronaty
1996-03-01
Full Text Available The model of the multiprocessor computing system on the base of transputers which permits to resolve the question of valuation of a structural robustness (viability, survivability is described.
Robust Structured Control Design via LMI Optimization
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Adegas, Fabiano Daher; Stoustrup, Jakob
2011-01-01
This paper presents a new procedure for discrete-time robust structured control design. Parameter-dependent nonconvex conditions for stabilizable and induced L2-norm performance controllers are solved by an iterative linear matrix inequalities (LMI) optimization. A wide class of controller...... structures including decentralized of any order, ﬁxed-order dynamic output feedback, static output feedback can be designed robust to polytopic uncertainties. Stability is proven by a parameter-dependent Lyapunov function. Numerical examples on robust stability margins shows that the proposed procedure can...
Robust mixed conducting membrane structure
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
2010-01-01
circuited. The present invention further provides a method of producing the above membrane structure, comprising the steps of : providing a ionically conducting layer; applying at least one layer of electronically conducting material on each side of said ionically conducting layer; sintering the multilayer...
Robustness and structure of complex networks
Shao, Shuai
This dissertation covers the two major parts of my PhD research on statistical physics and complex networks: i) modeling a new type of attack -- localized attack, and investigating robustness of complex networks under this type of attack; ii) discovering the clustering structure in complex networks and its influence on the robustness of coupled networks. Complex networks appear in every aspect of our daily life and are widely studied in Physics, Mathematics, Biology, and Computer Science. One important property of complex networks is their robustness under attacks, which depends crucially on the nature of attacks and the structure of the networks themselves. Previous studies have focused on two types of attack: random attack and targeted attack, which, however, are insufficient to describe many real-world damages. Here we propose a new type of attack -- localized attack, and study the robustness of complex networks under this type of attack, both analytically and via simulation. On the other hand, we also study the clustering structure in the network, and its influence on the robustness of a complex network system. In the first part, we propose a theoretical framework to study the robustness of complex networks under localized attack based on percolation theory and generating function method. We investigate the percolation properties, including the critical threshold of the phase transition pc and the size of the giant component Pinfinity. We compare localized attack with random attack and find that while random regular (RR) networks are more robust against localized attack, Erdoḧs-Renyi (ER) networks are equally robust under both types of attacks. As for scale-free (SF) networks, their robustness depends crucially on the degree exponent lambda. The simulation results show perfect agreement with theoretical predictions. We also test our model on two real-world networks: a peer-to-peer computer network and an airline network, and find that the real-world networks
Parsimonious Surface Wave Interferometry
Li, Jing
2017-10-24
To decrease the recording time of a 2D seismic survey from a few days to one hour or less, we present a parsimonious surface-wave interferometry method. Interferometry allows for the creation of a large number of virtual shot gathers from just two reciprocal shot gathers by crosscoherence of trace pairs, where the virtual surface waves can be inverted for the S-wave velocity model by wave-equation dispersion inversion (WD). Synthetic and field data tests suggest that parsimonious wave-equation dispersion inversion (PWD) gives S-velocity tomograms that are comparable to those obtained from a full survey with a shot at each receiver. The limitation of PWD is that the virtual data lose some information so that the resolution of the S-velocity tomogram can be modestly lower than that of the S-velocity tomogram inverted from a conventional survey.
Parsimonious Surface Wave Interferometry
Li, Jing; Hanafy, Sherif; Schuster, Gerard T.
2017-01-01
To decrease the recording time of a 2D seismic survey from a few days to one hour or less, we present a parsimonious surface-wave interferometry method. Interferometry allows for the creation of a large number of virtual shot gathers from just two reciprocal shot gathers by crosscoherence of trace pairs, where the virtual surface waves can be inverted for the S-wave velocity model by wave-equation dispersion inversion (WD). Synthetic and field data tests suggest that parsimonious wave-equation dispersion inversion (PWD) gives S-velocity tomograms that are comparable to those obtained from a full survey with a shot at each receiver. The limitation of PWD is that the virtual data lose some information so that the resolution of the S-velocity tomogram can be modestly lower than that of the S-velocity tomogram inverted from a conventional survey.
Reliability and Robustness Evaluation of Timber Structures
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Cizmar, Dean; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard; Kirkegaard, Poul Henning
In the last few decades there have been intensely research concerning reliability of timber structures. This is primarily because there is an increased focus on society on sustainability and environmental aspects. Modern timber as a building material is also being competitive compared to concrete...... and steel. However, reliability models applied to timber were always related to individual components but not the systems. as any real structure is a complex system, system behaviour must be of a particular interest. In the chapter 1 of this document an overview of stochastic models for strength and loads...... (deterministic, probabilistic and risk based approaches) of the robustness are given. Chapter 3 deals more detailed with the robustness of timber structures....
Keller, Alexander; Förster, Frank; Müller, Tobias; Dandekar, Thomas; Schultz, Jörg; Wolf, Matthias
2010-01-15
In several studies, secondary structures of ribosomal genes have been used to improve the quality of phylogenetic reconstructions. An extensive evaluation of the benefits of secondary structure, however, is lacking. This is the first study to counter this deficiency. We inspected the accuracy and robustness of phylogenetics with individual secondary structures by simulation experiments for artificial tree topologies with up to 18 taxa and for divergency levels in the range of typical phylogenetic studies. We chose the internal transcribed spacer 2 of the ribosomal cistron as an exemplary marker region. Simulation integrated the coevolution process of sequences with secondary structures. Additionally, the phylogenetic power of marker size duplication was investigated and compared with sequence and sequence-structure reconstruction methods. The results clearly show that accuracy and robustness of Neighbor Joining trees are largely improved by structural information in contrast to sequence only data, whereas a doubled marker size only accounts for robustness. Individual secondary structures of ribosomal RNA sequences provide a valuable gain of information content that is useful for phylogenetics. Thus, the usage of ITS2 sequence together with secondary structure for taxonomic inferences is recommended. Other reconstruction methods as maximum likelihood, bayesian inference or maximum parsimony may equally profit from secondary structure inclusion. This article was reviewed by Shamil Sunyaev, Andrea Tanzer (nominated by Frank Eisenhaber) and Eugene V. Koonin. Reviewed by Shamil Sunyaev, Andrea Tanzer (nominated by Frank Eisenhaber) and Eugene V. Koonin. For the full reviews, please go to the Reviewers' comments section.
Robustness and modular structure in networks
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bagrow, James P.; Lehmann, Sune; Ahn, Yong-Yeol
2015-01-01
-12]. Many complex systems, from power grids and the Internet to the brain and society [13-15], can be modeled using modular networks comprised of small, densely connected groups of nodes [16, 17]. These modules often overlap, with network elements belonging to multiple modules [18, 19]. Yet existing work...... on robustness has not considered the role of overlapping, modular structure. Here we study the robustness of these systems to the failure of elements. We show analytically and empirically that it is possible for the modules themselves to become uncoupled or non-overlapping well before the network disintegrates....... If overlapping modular organization plays a role in overall functionality, networks may be far more vulnerable than predicted by conventional percolation theory....
Robust photometric stereo using structural light sources
Han, Tian-Qi; Cheng, Yue; Shen, Hui-Liang; Du, Xin
2014-05-01
We propose a robust photometric stereo method by using structural arrangement of light sources. In the arrangement, light sources are positioned on a planar grid and form a set of collinear combinations. The shadow pixels are detected by adaptive thresholding. The specular highlight and diffuse pixels are distinguished according to their intensity deviations of the collinear combinations, thanks to the special arrangement of light sources. The highlight detection problem is cast as a pattern classification problem and is solved using support vector machine classifiers. Considering the possible misclassification of highlight pixels, the ℓ1 regularization is further employed in normal map estimation. Experimental results on both synthetic and real-world scenes verify that the proposed method can robustly recover the surface normal maps in the case of heavy specular reflection and outperforms the state-of-the-art techniques.
Parsimonious refraction interferometry
Hanafy, Sherif
2016-09-06
We present parsimonious refraction interferometry where a densely populated refraction data set can be obtained from just two shot gathers. The assumptions are that the first arrivals are comprised of head waves and direct waves, and a pair of reciprocal shot gathers is recorded over the line of interest. The refraction traveltimes from these reciprocal shot gathers can be picked and decomposed into O(N2) refraction traveltimes generated by N virtual sources, where N is the number of geophones in the 2D survey. This enormous increase in the number of virtual traveltime picks and associated rays, compared to the 2N traveltimes from the two reciprocal shot gathers, allows for increased model resolution and better condition numbers in the normal equations. Also, a reciprocal survey is far less time consuming than a standard refraction survey with a dense distribution of sources.
Parsimonious refraction interferometry
Hanafy, Sherif; Schuster, Gerard T.
2016-01-01
We present parsimonious refraction interferometry where a densely populated refraction data set can be obtained from just two shot gathers. The assumptions are that the first arrivals are comprised of head waves and direct waves, and a pair of reciprocal shot gathers is recorded over the line of interest. The refraction traveltimes from these reciprocal shot gathers can be picked and decomposed into O(N2) refraction traveltimes generated by N virtual sources, where N is the number of geophones in the 2D survey. This enormous increase in the number of virtual traveltime picks and associated rays, compared to the 2N traveltimes from the two reciprocal shot gathers, allows for increased model resolution and better condition numbers in the normal equations. Also, a reciprocal survey is far less time consuming than a standard refraction survey with a dense distribution of sources.
Jansen, Elena; Williams, Kate E; Mallan, Kimberley M; Nicholson, Jan M; Daniels, Lynne A
2016-05-01
Prospective studies and intervention evaluations that examine change over time assume that measurement tools measure the same construct at each occasion. In the area of parent-child feeding practices, longitudinal measurement properties of the questionnaires used are rarely verified. To ascertain that measured change in feeding practices reflects true change rather than change in the assessment, structure, or conceptualisation of the constructs over time, this study examined longitudinal measurement invariance of the Feeding Practices and Structure Questionnaire (FPSQ) subscales (9 constructs; 40 items) across 3 time points. Mothers participating in the NOURISH trial reported their feeding practices when children were aged 2, 3.7, and 5 years (N = 404). Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) within a structural equation modelling framework was used. Comparisons of initial cross-sectional models followed by longitudinal modelling of subscales, resulted in the removal of 12 items, including two redundant or poorly performing subscales. The resulting 28-item FPSQ-28 comprised 7 multi-item subscales: Reward for Behaviour, Reward for Eating, Persuasive Feeding, Overt Restriction, Covert Restriction, Structured Meal Setting and Structured Meal Timing. All subscales showed good fit over 3 time points and each displayed at least partial scalar (thresholds equal) longitudinal measurement invariance. We recommend the use of a separate single item indicator to assess the family meal setting. This is the first study to examine longitudinal measurement invariance in a feeding practices questionnaire. Invariance was established, indicating that the subscales of the shortened FPSQ-28 can be used with mothers to validly assess change in 7 feeding constructs in samples of children aged 2-5 years of age. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
A Robust Controller Structure for Pico-Satellite Applications
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kragelund, Martin Nygaard; Green, Martin; Kristensen, Mads
This paper describes the development of a robust controller structure for use in pico-satellite missions. The structure relies on unknown disturbance estimation and use of robust control theory to implement a system that is robust to both unmodeled disturbances and parameter uncertainties. As one...
Robustness Analysis of Typologies of Reciprocal Timber Structures
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kirkegaard, Poul Henning; Parigi, Dario
2013-01-01
to the future development of typologies of reciprocal timber structures. The paper concludes that these kinds of structures can have a potential as long span timber structures in real projects if they are carefully designed with respect to the overall robustness strategies.......Robustness of structural systems has obtained a renewed interest due to a much more frequent use of advanced types of structures with limited redundancy and serious consequences in case of failure. In order to minimise the likelihood of such disproportionate structural failures many modern building...... codes consider the need for robustness in structures and provides strategies and methods to obtain robustness. Therefore a structural engineer may take necessary steps to design robust structures that are insensitive to accidental circumstances. The present paper outlines robustness issues related...
Parsimonious Refraction Interferometry and Tomography
Hanafy, Sherif; Schuster, Gerard T.
2017-01-01
We present parsimonious refraction interferometry and tomography where a densely populated refraction data set can be obtained from two reciprocal and several infill shot gathers. The assumptions are that the refraction arrivals are head waves
Robustness Evaluation of Timber Structures with Ductile Behaviour
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kirkegaard, Poul Henning; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard; Cizmar, D.
2009-01-01
Robustness of structural systems has received a renewed interest resulting from the more frequent use of advanced types of structures with limited redundancy and serious consequences in the case of failure.......Robustness of structural systems has received a renewed interest resulting from the more frequent use of advanced types of structures with limited redundancy and serious consequences in the case of failure....
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Dandekar Thomas
2010-01-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background In several studies, secondary structures of ribosomal genes have been used to improve the quality of phylogenetic reconstructions. An extensive evaluation of the benefits of secondary structure, however, is lacking. Results This is the first study to counter this deficiency. We inspected the accuracy and robustness of phylogenetics with individual secondary structures by simulation experiments for artificial tree topologies with up to 18 taxa and for divergency levels in the range of typical phylogenetic studies. We chose the internal transcribed spacer 2 of the ribosomal cistron as an exemplary marker region. Simulation integrated the coevolution process of sequences with secondary structures. Additionally, the phylogenetic power of marker size duplication was investigated and compared with sequence and sequence-structure reconstruction methods. The results clearly show that accuracy and robustness of Neighbor Joining trees are largely improved by structural information in contrast to sequence only data, whereas a doubled marker size only accounts for robustness. Conclusions Individual secondary structures of ribosomal RNA sequences provide a valuable gain of information content that is useful for phylogenetics. Thus, the usage of ITS2 sequence together with secondary structure for taxonomic inferences is recommended. Other reconstruction methods as maximum likelihood, bayesian inference or maximum parsimony may equally profit from secondary structure inclusion. Reviewers This article was reviewed by Shamil Sunyaev, Andrea Tanzer (nominated by Frank Eisenhaber and Eugene V. Koonin. Open peer review Reviewed by Shamil Sunyaev, Andrea Tanzer (nominated by Frank Eisenhaber and Eugene V. Koonin. For the full reviews, please go to the Reviewers' comments section.
A unifying model of genome evolution under parsimony.
Paten, Benedict; Zerbino, Daniel R; Hickey, Glenn; Haussler, David
2014-06-19
Parsimony and maximum likelihood methods of phylogenetic tree estimation and parsimony methods for genome rearrangements are central to the study of genome evolution yet to date they have largely been pursued in isolation. We present a data structure called a history graph that offers a practical basis for the analysis of genome evolution. It conceptually simplifies the study of parsimonious evolutionary histories by representing both substitutions and double cut and join (DCJ) rearrangements in the presence of duplications. The problem of constructing parsimonious history graphs thus subsumes related maximum parsimony problems in the fields of phylogenetic reconstruction and genome rearrangement. We show that tractable functions can be used to define upper and lower bounds on the minimum number of substitutions and DCJ rearrangements needed to explain any history graph. These bounds become tight for a special type of unambiguous history graph called an ancestral variation graph (AVG), which constrains in its combinatorial structure the number of operations required. We finally demonstrate that for a given history graph G, a finite set of AVGs describe all parsimonious interpretations of G, and this set can be explored with a few sampling moves. This theoretical study describes a model in which the inference of genome rearrangements and phylogeny can be unified under parsimony.
Robustness Issues for Design of Innovative Timber Structures
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hald, Frederik; Kirkegaard, Poul Henning; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard
2013-01-01
Robustness of structural systems has obtained a renewed interest due to a much more frequent use of advanced types of structures with limited redundancy and serious conse-quences in case of failure. The present paper summaries issues with respect to robustness of timber structures. Two different...... large span timber structures are analyzed and based on these analyses the paper presents guidelines for the future development of innovative timber struc-tures which are robust with respect to design and execution errors, unforeseen degradation and other potential hazards....
PTree: pattern-based, stochastic search for maximum parsimony phylogenies
Gregor, Ivan; Steinbr?ck, Lars; McHardy, Alice C.
2013-01-01
Phylogenetic reconstruction is vital to analyzing the evolutionary relationship of genes within and across populations of different species. Nowadays, with next generation sequencing technologies producing sets comprising thousands of sequences, robust identification of the tree topology, which is optimal according to standard criteria such as maximum parsimony, maximum likelihood or posterior probability, with phylogenetic inference methods is a computationally very demanding task. Here, we ...
Robust structural identification via polyhedral template matching
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Larsen, Peter Mahler; Schmidt, Søren; Schiøtz, Jakob
2016-01-01
Successful scientific applications of large-scale molecular dynamics often rely on automated methods for identifying the local crystalline structure of condensed phases. Many existing methods for structural identification, such as common neighbour analysis, rely on interatomic distances (or thres...... is made available under a Free and Open Source Software license....
Parsimonious Language Models for Information Retrieval
Hiemstra, Djoerd; Robertson, Stephen; Zaragoza, Hugo
We systematically investigate a new approach to estimating the parameters of language models for information retrieval, called parsimonious language models. Parsimonious language models explicitly address the relation between levels of language models that are typically used for smoothing. As such,
A Probabilistic Approach for Robustness Evaluation of Timber Structures
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kirkegaard, Poul Henning; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard
of Structures and a probabilistic modelling of the timber material proposed in the Probabilistic Model Code (PMC) of the Joint Committee on Structural Safety (JCSS). Due to the framework in the Danish Code the timber structure has to be evaluated with respect to the following criteria where at least one shall...... to criteria a) and b) the timber frame structure has one column with a reliability index a bit lower than an assumed target level. By removal three columns one by one no significant extensive failure of the entire structure or significant parts of it are obatined. Therefore the structure can be considered......A probabilistic based robustness analysis has been performed for a glulam frame structure supporting the roof over the main court in a Norwegian sports centre. The robustness analysis is based on the framework for robustness analysis introduced in the Danish Code of Practice for the Safety...
Robustness of structures- A report on a joint European project
Faber, M.H.; Vrouwenvelder, A.C.W.M.; Sørensen, J.D.; Chryssanthopoulos, M.K.; Narasimhan, H.
2011-01-01
In 2005, the Joint Committee on Structural Safety (JCSS) together with Working Commission (WC) 1 of the International Association of Bridge and Structural Engineering (IABSE) organized a workshop on robustness of structures. Two important decisions resulted from this workshop, namely the development
Enabling Rapid and Robust Structural Analysis During Conceptual Design
Eldred, Lloyd B.; Padula, Sharon L.; Li, Wu
2015-01-01
This paper describes a multi-year effort to add a structural analysis subprocess to a supersonic aircraft conceptual design process. The desired capabilities include parametric geometry, automatic finite element mesh generation, static and aeroelastic analysis, and structural sizing. The paper discusses implementation details of the new subprocess, captures lessons learned, and suggests future improvements. The subprocess quickly compares concepts and robustly handles large changes in wing or fuselage geometry. The subprocess can rank concepts with regard to their structural feasibility and can identify promising regions of the design space. The automated structural analysis subprocess is deemed robust and rapid enough to be included in multidisciplinary conceptual design and optimization studies.
Robust structural optimization using Gauss-type quadrature formula
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lee, Sang Hoon; Seo, Ki Seog; Chen, Shikui; Chen, Wei
2009-01-01
In robust design, the mean and variance of design performance are frequently used to measure the design performance and its robustness under uncertainties. In this paper, we present the Gauss-type quadrature formula as a rigorous method for mean and variance estimation involving arbitrary input distributions and further extend its use to robust design optimization. One dimensional Gauss-type quadrature formula are constructed from the input probability distributions and utilized in the construction of multidimensional quadrature formula such as the Tensor Product Quadrature (TPQ) formula and the Univariate Dimension Reduction (UDR) method. To improve the efficiency of using it for robust design optimization, a semi-analytic design sensitivity analysis with respect to the statistical moments is proposed. The proposed approach is applied to a simple bench mark problems and robust topology optimization of structures considering various types of uncertainty.
Robust structural optimization using Gauss-type quadrature formula
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lee, Sang Hoon; Seo, Ki Seog [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Chen, Shikui; Chen, Wei [Northwestern University, Illinois (United States)
2009-07-01
In robust design, the mean and variance of design performance are frequently used to measure the design performance and its robustness under uncertainties. In this paper, we present the Gauss-type quadrature formula as a rigorous method for mean and variance estimation involving arbitrary input distributions and further extend its use to robust design optimization. One dimensional Gauss-type quadrature formula are constructed from the input probability distributions and utilized in the construction of multidimensional quadrature formula such as the Tensor Product Quadrature (TPQ) formula and the Univariate Dimension Reduction (UDR) method. To improve the efficiency of using it for robust design optimization, a semi-analytic design sensitivity analysis with respect to the statistical moments is proposed. The proposed approach is applied to a simple bench mark problems and robust topology optimization of structures considering various types of uncertainty.
Robust Structural Optimization Using Gauss-type Quadrature Formula
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lee, Sang Hoon; Seo, Ki Seog; Chen, Shikui; Chen, Wei [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)
2009-08-15
In robust design, the mean and variance of design performance are frequently used to measure the design performance and its robustness under uncertainties. In this paper, we present the Gauss-type quadrature formula as a rigorous method for mean and variance estimation involving arbitrary input distributions and further extend its use to robust design optimization. One dimensional Gauss-type quadrature formula are constructed from the input probability distributions and utilized in the construction of multidimensional quadrature formula such as the tensor product quadrature (TPQ) formula and the univariate dimension reduction (UDR) method. To improve the efficiency of using it for robust design optimization, a semi-analytic design sensitivity analysis with respect to the statistical moments is proposed. The proposed approach is applied to a simple bench mark problems and robust topology optimization of structures considering various types of uncertainty.
Robust Structural Optimization Using Gauss-type Quadrature Formula
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lee, Sang Hoon; Seo, Ki Seog; Chen, Shikui; Chen, Wei
2009-01-01
In robust design, the mean and variance of design performance are frequently used to measure the design performance and its robustness under uncertainties. In this paper, we present the Gauss-type quadrature formula as a rigorous method for mean and variance estimation involving arbitrary input distributions and further extend its use to robust design optimization. One dimensional Gauss-type quadrature formula are constructed from the input probability distributions and utilized in the construction of multidimensional quadrature formula such as the tensor product quadrature (TPQ) formula and the univariate dimension reduction (UDR) method. To improve the efficiency of using it for robust design optimization, a semi-analytic design sensitivity analysis with respect to the statistical moments is proposed. The proposed approach is applied to a simple bench mark problems and robust topology optimization of structures considering various types of uncertainty
Structural Break Tests Robust to Regression Misspecification
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Alaa Abi Morshed
2018-05-01
Full Text Available Structural break tests for regression models are sensitive to model misspecification. We show—analytically and through simulations—that the sup Wald test for breaks in the conditional mean and variance of a time series process exhibits severe size distortions when the conditional mean dynamics are misspecified. We also show that the sup Wald test for breaks in the unconditional mean and variance does not have the same size distortions, yet benefits from similar power to its conditional counterpart in correctly specified models. Hence, we propose using it as an alternative and complementary test for breaks. We apply the unconditional and conditional mean and variance tests to three US series: unemployment, industrial production growth and interest rates. Both the unconditional and the conditional mean tests detect a break in the mean of interest rates. However, for the other two series, the unconditional mean test does not detect a break, while the conditional mean tests based on dynamic regression models occasionally detect a break, with the implied break-point estimator varying across different dynamic specifications. For all series, the unconditional variance does not detect a break while most tests for the conditional variance do detect a break which also varies across specifications.
Reliability based Robustness of Timber Structures through NDT Data Updating
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Sousa, Hélder S.; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard; Kirkegaard, Poul Henning
2011-01-01
This work presents a framework for reliability-based assessment of timber structures / members using data gathered from non-destructive test results. These results are used for modeling an update of the mechanical characteristics of timber, using Bayesian methods. Results gathered from ultrasound...... of the structure, thus, being possible to evaluate reliability based in time dependent factors, as well to categorize that structure in terms of robustness. For exemplification of the underlined concepts, three different types of structures are studied....
Parsimonious Refraction Interferometry and Tomography
Hanafy, Sherif
2017-02-04
We present parsimonious refraction interferometry and tomography where a densely populated refraction data set can be obtained from two reciprocal and several infill shot gathers. The assumptions are that the refraction arrivals are head waves, and a pair of reciprocal shot gathers and several infill shot gathers are recorded over the line of interest. Refraction traveltimes from these shot gathers are picked and spawned into O(N2) virtual refraction traveltimes generated by N virtual sources, where N is the number of geophones in the 2D survey. The virtual traveltimes can be inverted to give the velocity tomogram. This enormous increase in the number of traveltime picks and associated rays, compared to the many fewer traveltimes from the reciprocal and infill shot gathers, allows for increased model resolution and a better condition number with the system of normal equations. A significant benefit is that the parsimonious survey and the associated traveltime picking is far less time consuming than that for a standard refraction survey with a dense distribution of sources.
Robustness Analysis of a Timber Structure with Ductile Behaviour in Compression
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Čizmar, Dean; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard; Kirkegaard, Poul Henning
2011-01-01
This paper presents a probabilistic approach for structural robustness assessment for a timber structure built a few years ago. The robustness analysis is based on a structural reliability based framework for robustness assessment. The complex timber structure with a large number of failure modes...... material ductility of timber is taken into account. The robustness is expressed and evaluated by a robustness index....
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
2017-01-01
‘Robust – Reflections on Resilient Architecture’, is a scientific publication following the conference of the same name in November of 2017. Researches and PhD-Fellows, associated with the Masters programme: Cultural Heritage, Transformation and Restoration (Transformation), at The Royal Danish...
Dirichlet Process Parsimonious Mixtures for clustering
Chamroukhi, Faicel; Bartcus, Marius; Glotin, Hervé
2015-01-01
The parsimonious Gaussian mixture models, which exploit an eigenvalue decomposition of the group covariance matrices of the Gaussian mixture, have shown their success in particular in cluster analysis. Their estimation is in general performed by maximum likelihood estimation and has also been considered from a parametric Bayesian prospective. We propose new Dirichlet Process Parsimonious mixtures (DPPM) which represent a Bayesian nonparametric formulation of these parsimonious Gaussian mixtur...
Robustness Analysis of Big Span Glulam Truss Structure
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Rajčié, V.; čizmar, D.; Kirkegaard, Poul Henning
2010-01-01
(Eurocode 0 &1, Probabilistic model code etc.) Based on a project of big span glulam truss structure, build in Croatia few years ago, a probabilistic model is made with four failure elements. Reliability analysis of components is conducted and based on this a robustness analysis is preformed. It can...
Guaranteeing robustness of structural condition monitoring to environmental variability
Van Buren, Kendra; Reilly, Jack; Neal, Kyle; Edwards, Harry; Hemez, François
2017-01-01
Advances in sensor deployment and computational modeling have allowed significant strides to be recently made in the field of Structural Health Monitoring (SHM). One widely used SHM strategy is to perform a vibration analysis where a model of the structure's pristine (undamaged) condition is compared with vibration response data collected from the physical structure. Discrepancies between model predictions and monitoring data can be interpreted as structural damage. Unfortunately, multiple sources of uncertainty must also be considered in the analysis, including environmental variability, unknown model functional forms, and unknown values of model parameters. Not accounting for these sources of uncertainty can lead to false-positives or false-negatives in the structural condition assessment. To manage the uncertainty, we propose a robust SHM methodology that combines three technologies. A time series algorithm is trained using "baseline" data to predict the vibration response, compare predictions to actual measurements collected on a potentially damaged structure, and calculate a user-defined damage indicator. The second technology handles the uncertainty present in the problem. An analysis of robustness is performed to propagate this uncertainty through the time series algorithm and obtain the corresponding bounds of variation of the damage indicator. The uncertainty description and robustness analysis are both inspired by the theory of info-gap decision-making. Lastly, an appropriate "size" of the uncertainty space is determined through physical experiments performed in laboratory conditions. Our hypothesis is that examining how the uncertainty space changes throughout time might lead to superior diagnostics of structural damage as compared to only monitoring the damage indicator. This methodology is applied to a portal frame structure to assess if the strategy holds promise for robust SHM. (Publication approved for unlimited, public release on October-28
Robust structural design against self-excited vibrations
Spelsberg-Korspeter, Gottfried
2013-01-01
This book studies methods for a robust design of rotors against self-excited vibrations. The occurrence of self-excited vibrations in engineering applications if often unwanted and in many cases difficult to model. Thinking of complex systems such as machines with many components and mechanical contacts, it is important to have guidelines for design so that the functionality is robust against small imperfections. This book discusses the question on how to design a structure such that unwanted self-excited vibrations do not occur. It shows theoretically and practically that the old design rule to avoid multiple eigenvalues points toward the right direction and have optimized structures accordingly. This extends results for the well-known flutter problem in which equations of motion with constant coefficients occur to the case of a linear conservative system with arbitrary time periodic perturbations.
Robust Learning of Fixed-Structure Bayesian Networks
Diakonikolas, Ilias; Kane, Daniel; Stewart, Alistair
2016-01-01
We investigate the problem of learning Bayesian networks in an agnostic model where an $\\epsilon$-fraction of the samples are adversarially corrupted. Our agnostic learning model is similar to -- in fact, stronger than -- Huber's contamination model in robust statistics. In this work, we study the fully observable Bernoulli case where the structure of the network is given. Even in this basic setting, previous learning algorithms either run in exponential time or lose dimension-dependent facto...
Hiding the weakness: structural robustness using origami design
Liu, Bin; Santangelo, Christian; Cohen, Itai
2015-03-01
A non-deformable structure is typically associated with infinitely stiff materials that resist distortion. In this work, we designed a structure with a region that will not deform even though it is made of arbitrarily compliant materials. More specifically, we show that a foldable sheet with a circular hole in the middle can be deformed externally with the internal geometry of the hole unaffected. Instead of strengthening the local stiffness, we fine tune the crease patterns so that all the soft modes that can potentially deform the internal geometry are not accessible through strain on the external boundary. The inner structure is thus protected by the topological mechanics, based on the detailed geometry of how the vertices in the foldable sheet are connected. In this way, we isolate the structural robustness from the mechanical properties of the materials, which introduces an extra degree of freedom for structural design.
Robust pattern decoding in shape-coded structured light
Tang, Suming; Zhang, Xu; Song, Zhan; Song, Lifang; Zeng, Hai
2017-09-01
Decoding is a challenging and complex problem in a coded structured light system. In this paper, a robust pattern decoding method is proposed for the shape-coded structured light in which the pattern is designed as grid shape with embedded geometrical shapes. In our decoding method, advancements are made at three steps. First, a multi-template feature detection algorithm is introduced to detect the feature point which is the intersection of each two orthogonal grid-lines. Second, pattern element identification is modelled as a supervised classification problem and the deep neural network technique is applied for the accurate classification of pattern elements. Before that, a training dataset is established, which contains a mass of pattern elements with various blurring and distortions. Third, an error correction mechanism based on epipolar constraint, coplanarity constraint and topological constraint is presented to reduce the false matches. In the experiments, several complex objects including human hand are chosen to test the accuracy and robustness of the proposed method. The experimental results show that our decoding method not only has high decoding accuracy, but also owns strong robustness to surface color and complex textures.
Improved Maximum Parsimony Models for Phylogenetic Networks.
Van Iersel, Leo; Jones, Mark; Scornavacca, Celine
2018-05-01
Phylogenetic networks are well suited to represent evolutionary histories comprising reticulate evolution. Several methods aiming at reconstructing explicit phylogenetic networks have been developed in the last two decades. In this article, we propose a new definition of maximum parsimony for phylogenetic networks that permits to model biological scenarios that cannot be modeled by the definitions currently present in the literature (namely, the "hardwired" and "softwired" parsimony). Building on this new definition, we provide several algorithmic results that lay the foundations for new parsimony-based methods for phylogenetic network reconstruction.
Structural and robustness properties of smart-city transportation networks
Zhang, Zhen-Gang; Ding, Zhuo; Fan, Jing-Fang; Meng, Jun; Ding, Yi-Min; Ye, Fang-Fu; Chen, Xiao-Song
2015-09-01
The concept of smart city gives an excellent resolution to construct and develop modern cities, and also demands infrastructure construction. How to build a safe, stable, and highly efficient public transportation system becomes an important topic in the process of city construction. In this work, we study the structural and robustness properties of transportation networks and their sub-networks. We introduce a complementary network model to study the relevance and complementarity between bus network and subway network. Our numerical results show that the mutual supplement of networks can improve the network robustness. This conclusion provides a theoretical basis for the construction of public traffic networks, and it also supports reasonable operation of managing smart cities. Project supported by the Major Projects of the China National Social Science Fund (Grant No. 11 & ZD154).
Structural and robustness properties of smart-city transportation networks
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhang Zhen-Gang; Ding Zhuo; Fan Jing-Fang; Chen Xiao-Song; Meng Jun; Ye Fang-Fu; Ding Yi-Min
2015-01-01
The concept of smart city gives an excellent resolution to construct and develop modern cities, and also demands infrastructure construction. How to build a safe, stable, and highly efficient public transportation system becomes an important topic in the process of city construction. In this work, we study the structural and robustness properties of transportation networks and their sub-networks. We introduce a complementary network model to study the relevance and complementarity between bus network and subway network. Our numerical results show that the mutual supplement of networks can improve the network robustness. This conclusion provides a theoretical basis for the construction of public traffic networks, and it also supports reasonable operation of managing smart cities. (rapid communication)
Reconstructing phylogenetic networks using maximum parsimony.
Nakhleh, Luay; Jin, Guohua; Zhao, Fengmei; Mellor-Crummey, John
2005-01-01
Phylogenies - the evolutionary histories of groups of organisms - are one of the most widely used tools throughout the life sciences, as well as objects of research within systematics, evolutionary biology, epidemiology, etc. Almost every tool devised to date to reconstruct phylogenies produces trees; yet it is widely understood and accepted that trees oversimplify the evolutionary histories of many groups of organims, most prominently bacteria (because of horizontal gene transfer) and plants (because of hybrid speciation). Various methods and criteria have been introduced for phylogenetic tree reconstruction. Parsimony is one of the most widely used and studied criteria, and various accurate and efficient heuristics for reconstructing trees based on parsimony have been devised. Jotun Hein suggested a straightforward extension of the parsimony criterion to phylogenetic networks. In this paper we formalize this concept, and provide the first experimental study of the quality of parsimony as a criterion for constructing and evaluating phylogenetic networks. Our results show that, when extended to phylogenetic networks, the parsimony criterion produces promising results. In a great majority of the cases in our experiments, the parsimony criterion accurately predicts the numbers and placements of non-tree events.
Robust biomimetic-structural superhydrophobic surface on aluminum alloy.
Li, Lingjie; Huang, Tao; Lei, Jinglei; He, Jianxin; Qu, Linfeng; Huang, Peiling; Zhou, Wei; Li, Nianbing; Pan, Fusheng
2015-01-28
The following facile approach has been developed to prepare a biomimetic-structural superhydrophobic surface with high stabilities and strong resistances on 2024 Al alloy that are robust to harsh environments. First, a simple hydrothermal treatment in a La(NO3)3 aqueous solution was used to fabricate ginkgo-leaf like nanostructures, resulting in a superhydrophilic surface on 2024 Al. Then a low-surface-energy compound, dodecafluoroheptyl-propyl-trimethoxylsilane (Actyflon-G502), was used to modify the superhydrophilic 2024 Al, changing the surface character from superhydrophilicity to superhydrophobicity. The water contact angle (WCA) of such a superhydrophobic surface reaches up to 160°, demonstrating excellent superhydrophobicity. Moreover, the as-prepared superhydrophobic surface shows high stabilities in air-storage, chemical and thermal environments, and has strong resistances to UV irradiation, corrosion, and abrasion. The WCAs of such a surface almost remain unchanged (160°) after storage in air for 80 days, exposure in 250 °C atmosphere for 24 h, and being exposed under UV irradiation for 24 h, are more than 144° whether in acidic or alkali medium, and are more than 150° after 48 h corrosion and after abrasion under 0.98 kPa for 1000 mm length. The remarkable durability of the as-prepared superhydrophobic surface can be attributed to its stable structure and composition, which are due to the existence of lanthanum (hydr)oxides in surface layer. The robustness of the as-prepared superhydrophobic surface to harsh environments will open their much wider applications. The fabricating approach for such robust superhydrophobic surface can be easily extended to other metals and alloys.
Quality Assurance Based on Descriptive and Parsimonious Appearance Models
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nielsen, Jannik Boll; Eiríksson, Eyþór Rúnar; Kristensen, Rasmus Lyngby
2015-01-01
In this positional paper, we discuss the potential benefits of using appearance models in additive manufacturing, metal casting, wind turbine blade production, and 3D content acquisition. Current state of the art in acquisition and rendering of appearance cannot easily be used for quality assurance...... in these areas. The common denominator is the need for descriptive and parsimonious appearance models. By ‘parsimonious’ we mean with few parameters so that a model is useful both for fast acquisition, robust fitting, and fast rendering of appearance. The word ‘descriptive’ refers to the fact that a model should...
Developing a robust wireless sensor network structure for environmental sensing
Zhang, Z.; Oroza, C.; Glaser, S. D.; Bales, R. C.; Conklin, M. H.
2013-12-01
The American River Hydrologic Observatory is being strategically deployed as a real-time ground-based measurement network that delivers accurate and timely information on snow conditions and other hydrologic attributes with a previously unheard of granularity of time and space. The basin-scale network involves 18 sub-networks set out at physiographically representative locations spanning the seasonally snow-covered half of the 5000 km2 American river basin. Each sub-network, covering about a 1-km2 area, consists of 10 wirelessly networked sensing nodes that continuously measure and telemeter temperature, and snow depth; plus selected locations are equipped with sensors for relative humidity, solar radiation, and soil moisture at several depths. The sensor locations were chosen to maximize the variance sampled for snow depth within the basin. Network design and deployment involves an iterative but efficient process. After sensor-station locations are determined, a robust network of interlinking sensor stations and signal repeaters must be constructed to route sensor data to a central base station with a two-way communicable data uplink. Data can then be uploaded from site to remote servers in real time through satellite and cell modems. Signal repeaters are placed for robustness of a self-healing network with redundant signal paths to the base station. Manual, trial-and-error heuristic approaches for node placement are inefficient and labor intensive. In that approach field personnel must restructure the network in real time and wait for new network statistics to be calculated at the base station before finalizing a placement, acting without knowledge of the global topography or overall network structure. We show how digital elevation plus high-definition aerial photographs to give foliage coverage can optimize planning of signal repeater placements and guarantee a robust network structure prior to the physical deployment. We can also 'stress test' the final network
Robust simulation of buckled structures using reduced order modeling
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wiebe, R.; Perez, R.A.; Spottswood, S.M.
2016-01-01
Lightweight metallic structures are a mainstay in aerospace engineering. For these structures, stability, rather than strength, is often the critical limit state in design. For example, buckling of panels and stiffeners may occur during emergency high-g maneuvers, while in supersonic and hypersonic aircraft, it may be induced by thermal stresses. The longstanding solution to such challenges was to increase the sizing of the structural members, which is counter to the ever present need to minimize weight for reasons of efficiency and performance. In this work we present some recent results in the area of reduced order modeling of post- buckled thin beams. A thorough parametric study of the response of a beam to changing harmonic loading parameters, which is useful in exposing complex phenomena and exercising numerical models, is presented. Two error metrics that use but require no time stepping of a (computationally expensive) truth model are also introduced. The error metrics are applied to several interesting forcing parameter cases identified from the parametric study and are shown to yield useful information about the quality of a candidate reduced order model. Parametric studies, especially when considering forcing and structural geometry parameters, coupled environments, and uncertainties would be computationally intractable with finite element models. The goal is to make rapid simulation of complex nonlinear dynamic behavior possible for distributed systems via fast and accurate reduced order models. This ability is crucial in allowing designers to rigorously probe the robustness of their designs to account for variations in loading, structural imperfections, and other uncertainties. (paper)
Robust simulation of buckled structures using reduced order modeling
Wiebe, R.; Perez, R. A.; Spottswood, S. M.
2016-09-01
Lightweight metallic structures are a mainstay in aerospace engineering. For these structures, stability, rather than strength, is often the critical limit state in design. For example, buckling of panels and stiffeners may occur during emergency high-g maneuvers, while in supersonic and hypersonic aircraft, it may be induced by thermal stresses. The longstanding solution to such challenges was to increase the sizing of the structural members, which is counter to the ever present need to minimize weight for reasons of efficiency and performance. In this work we present some recent results in the area of reduced order modeling of post- buckled thin beams. A thorough parametric study of the response of a beam to changing harmonic loading parameters, which is useful in exposing complex phenomena and exercising numerical models, is presented. Two error metrics that use but require no time stepping of a (computationally expensive) truth model are also introduced. The error metrics are applied to several interesting forcing parameter cases identified from the parametric study and are shown to yield useful information about the quality of a candidate reduced order model. Parametric studies, especially when considering forcing and structural geometry parameters, coupled environments, and uncertainties would be computationally intractable with finite element models. The goal is to make rapid simulation of complex nonlinear dynamic behavior possible for distributed systems via fast and accurate reduced order models. This ability is crucial in allowing designers to rigorously probe the robustness of their designs to account for variations in loading, structural imperfections, and other uncertainties.
Robust Performance of Systems with Structured Uncertainties in State Space
Zhou, K.; Khargonekar, P.P.; Stoustrup, Jakob; Niemann, H.H.
1995-01-01
This paper considers robust performance analysis and state feedback design for systems with time-varying parameter uncertainties. The notion of a strongly robust % performance criterion is introduced, and its applications in robust performance analysis and synthesis for nominally linear systems with time-varying uncertainties are discussed and compared with the constant scaled small gain criterion. It is shown that most robust performance analysis and synthesisproblems under this strongly rob...
Parsimonious Wavelet Kernel Extreme Learning Machine
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Wang Qin
2015-11-01
Full Text Available In this study, a parsimonious scheme for wavelet kernel extreme learning machine (named PWKELM was introduced by combining wavelet theory and a parsimonious algorithm into kernel extreme learning machine (KELM. In the wavelet analysis, bases that were localized in time and frequency to represent various signals effectively were used. Wavelet kernel extreme learning machine (WELM maximized its capability to capture the essential features in “frequency-rich” signals. The proposed parsimonious algorithm also incorporated significant wavelet kernel functions via iteration in virtue of Householder matrix, thus producing a sparse solution that eased the computational burden and improved numerical stability. The experimental results achieved from the synthetic dataset and a gas furnace instance demonstrated that the proposed PWKELM is efficient and feasible in terms of improving generalization accuracy and real time performance.
Robust Performance of Systems with Structured Uncertainties in State Space
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Zhou, Kemin; Khargonekar, Pramod P.; Stoustrup, Jakob
1995-01-01
This paper considers robust performance analysis and state feedback design for systems with time-varying parameter uncertainties. The notion of a strongly robust % performance criterion is introduced, and its applications in robust performance analysis and synthesis for nominally linear systems...... with time-varying uncertainties are discussed and compared with the constant scaled small gain criterion. It is shown that most robust performance analysis and synthesis problems under this strongly robust % performance criterion can be transformed into linear matrix inequality problems, and can be solved...
Robustness Analysis of a Wide-Span Timber Structure with Ductile Behaviour
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kirkegaard, Poul Henning; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard; Cizmar, D.
2010-01-01
This paper considers robustness evaluation of a wide span timber truss structure where the ductile behavior is taken into account. The robustness analysis is based on a structural reliability framework used on a simplified mechanical system modelling a timber truss system. A measure of ductile...... behaviour is introduced and for different values of this measure the robustness indices are estimated. The results indicate that the robustness of a timber truss system can be increased by taking the ductile behavior into....
Structural damage detection robust against time synchronization errors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yan, Guirong; Dyke, Shirley J
2010-01-01
Structural damage detection based on wireless sensor networks can be affected significantly by time synchronization errors among sensors. Precise time synchronization of sensor nodes has been viewed as crucial for addressing this issue. However, precise time synchronization over a long period of time is often impractical in large wireless sensor networks due to two inherent challenges. First, time synchronization needs to be performed periodically, requiring frequent wireless communication among sensors at significant energy cost. Second, significant time synchronization errors may result from node failures which are likely to occur during long-term deployment over civil infrastructures. In this paper, a damage detection approach is proposed that is robust against time synchronization errors in wireless sensor networks. The paper first examines the ways in which time synchronization errors distort identified mode shapes, and then proposes a strategy for reducing distortion in the identified mode shapes. Modified values for these identified mode shapes are then used in conjunction with flexibility-based damage detection methods to localize damage. This alternative approach relaxes the need for frequent sensor synchronization and can tolerate significant time synchronization errors caused by node failures. The proposed approach is successfully demonstrated through numerical simulations and experimental tests in a lab
Efficient and robust cell detection: A structured regression approach.
Xie, Yuanpu; Xing, Fuyong; Shi, Xiaoshuang; Kong, Xiangfei; Su, Hai; Yang, Lin
2018-02-01
Efficient and robust cell detection serves as a critical prerequisite for many subsequent biomedical image analysis methods and computer-aided diagnosis (CAD). It remains a challenging task due to touching cells, inhomogeneous background noise, and large variations in cell sizes and shapes. In addition, the ever-increasing amount of available datasets and the high resolution of whole-slice scanned images pose a further demand for efficient processing algorithms. In this paper, we present a novel structured regression model based on a proposed fully residual convolutional neural network for efficient cell detection. For each testing image, our model learns to produce a dense proximity map that exhibits higher responses at locations near cell centers. Our method only requires a few training images with weak annotations (just one dot indicating the cell centroids). We have extensively evaluated our method using four different datasets, covering different microscopy staining methods (e.g., H & E or Ki-67 staining) or image acquisition techniques (e.g., bright-filed image or phase contrast). Experimental results demonstrate the superiority of our method over existing state of the art methods in terms of both detection accuracy and running time. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.
PTree: pattern-based, stochastic search for maximum parsimony phylogenies
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ivan Gregor
2013-06-01
Full Text Available Phylogenetic reconstruction is vital to analyzing the evolutionary relationship of genes within and across populations of different species. Nowadays, with next generation sequencing technologies producing sets comprising thousands of sequences, robust identification of the tree topology, which is optimal according to standard criteria such as maximum parsimony, maximum likelihood or posterior probability, with phylogenetic inference methods is a computationally very demanding task. Here, we describe a stochastic search method for a maximum parsimony tree, implemented in a software package we named PTree. Our method is based on a new pattern-based technique that enables us to infer intermediate sequences efficiently where the incorporation of these sequences in the current tree topology yields a phylogenetic tree with a lower cost. Evaluation across multiple datasets showed that our method is comparable to the algorithms implemented in PAUP* or TNT, which are widely used by the bioinformatics community, in terms of topological accuracy and runtime. We show that our method can process large-scale datasets of 1,000–8,000 sequences. We believe that our novel pattern-based method enriches the current set of tools and methods for phylogenetic tree inference. The software is available under: http://algbio.cs.uni-duesseldorf.de/webapps/wa-download/.
PTree: pattern-based, stochastic search for maximum parsimony phylogenies.
Gregor, Ivan; Steinbrück, Lars; McHardy, Alice C
2013-01-01
Phylogenetic reconstruction is vital to analyzing the evolutionary relationship of genes within and across populations of different species. Nowadays, with next generation sequencing technologies producing sets comprising thousands of sequences, robust identification of the tree topology, which is optimal according to standard criteria such as maximum parsimony, maximum likelihood or posterior probability, with phylogenetic inference methods is a computationally very demanding task. Here, we describe a stochastic search method for a maximum parsimony tree, implemented in a software package we named PTree. Our method is based on a new pattern-based technique that enables us to infer intermediate sequences efficiently where the incorporation of these sequences in the current tree topology yields a phylogenetic tree with a lower cost. Evaluation across multiple datasets showed that our method is comparable to the algorithms implemented in PAUP* or TNT, which are widely used by the bioinformatics community, in terms of topological accuracy and runtime. We show that our method can process large-scale datasets of 1,000-8,000 sequences. We believe that our novel pattern-based method enriches the current set of tools and methods for phylogenetic tree inference. The software is available under: http://algbio.cs.uni-duesseldorf.de/webapps/wa-download/.
Robustness of Topological Superconductivity in Solid State Hybrid Structures
Sitthison, Piyapong
The non-Abelian statistics of Majorana fermions (MFs) makes them an ideal platform for implementing topological quantum computation. In addition to the fascinating fundamental physics underlying the emergence of MFs, this potential for applications makes the study of these quasiparticles an extremely popular subject in condensed matter physics. The commonly called `Majorana fermions' are zero-energy bound states that emerge near boundaries and defects in topological superconducting phases, which can be engineered, for example, by proximity coupling strong spin-orbit coupling semiconductor nanowires and ordinary s-wave superconductors. The stability of these bound states is determined by the stability of the underlying topological superconducting phase. Hence, understanding their stability (which is critical for quantum computation), involves studying the robustness of the engineered topological superconductors. This work addresses this important problem in the context of two types of hybrid structures that have been proposed for realizing topological superconductivity: topological insulator - superconductor (TI-SC) and semiconductor - superconductor (SM-SC) nanostructures. In both structures, electrostatic effects due to applied external potentials and interface-induced potentials are significant. This work focuses on developing a theoretical framework for understanding these effects, to facilitate the optimization of the nanostructures studied in the laboratory. The approach presented in this thesis is based on describing the low-energy physics of the hybrid structure using effective tight-binding models that explicitly incorporate the proximity effects emerging at interfaces. Generically, as a result of the proximity coupling to the superconductor, an induced gap emerges in the semiconductor (topological insulator) sub-system. The strength of the proximity-induced gap is determined by the transparency of the interface and by the amplitude of the low- energy SM
Maximum parsimony on subsets of taxa.
Fischer, Mareike; Thatte, Bhalchandra D
2009-09-21
In this paper we investigate mathematical questions concerning the reliability (reconstruction accuracy) of Fitch's maximum parsimony algorithm for reconstructing the ancestral state given a phylogenetic tree and a character. In particular, we consider the question whether the maximum parsimony method applied to a subset of taxa can reconstruct the ancestral state of the root more accurately than when applied to all taxa, and we give an example showing that this indeed is possible. A surprising feature of our example is that ignoring a taxon closer to the root improves the reliability of the method. On the other hand, in the case of the two-state symmetric substitution model, we answer affirmatively a conjecture of Li, Steel and Zhang which states that under a molecular clock the probability that the state at a single taxon is a correct guess of the ancestral state is a lower bound on the reconstruction accuracy of Fitch's method applied to all taxa.
The worst case complexity of maximum parsimony.
Carmel, Amir; Musa-Lempel, Noa; Tsur, Dekel; Ziv-Ukelson, Michal
2014-11-01
One of the core classical problems in computational biology is that of constructing the most parsimonious phylogenetic tree interpreting an input set of sequences from the genomes of evolutionarily related organisms. We reexamine the classical maximum parsimony (MP) optimization problem for the general (asymmetric) scoring matrix case, where rooted phylogenies are implied, and analyze the worst case bounds of three approaches to MP: The approach of Cavalli-Sforza and Edwards, the approach of Hendy and Penny, and a new agglomerative, "bottom-up" approach we present in this article. We show that the second and third approaches are faster than the first one by a factor of Θ(√n) and Θ(n), respectively, where n is the number of species.
A Practical pedestrian approach to parsimonious regression with inaccurate inputs
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Seppo Karrila
2014-04-01
Full Text Available A measurement result often dictates an interval containing the correct value. Interval data is also created by roundoff, truncation, and binning. We focus on such common interval uncertainty in data. Inaccuracy in model inputs is typically ignored on model fitting. We provide a practical approach for regression with inaccurate data: the mathematics is easy, and the linear programming formulations simple to use even in a spreadsheet. This self-contained elementary presentation introduces interval linear systems and requires only basic knowledge of algebra. Feature selection is automatic; but can be controlled to find only a few most relevant inputs; and joint feature selection is enabled for multiple modeled outputs. With more features than cases, a novel connection to compressed sensing emerges: robustness against interval errors-in-variables implies model parsimony, and the input inaccuracies determine the regularization term. A small numerical example highlights counterintuitive results and a dramatic difference to total least squares.
Approximate maximum parsimony and ancestral maximum likelihood.
Alon, Noga; Chor, Benny; Pardi, Fabio; Rapoport, Anat
2010-01-01
We explore the maximum parsimony (MP) and ancestral maximum likelihood (AML) criteria in phylogenetic tree reconstruction. Both problems are NP-hard, so we seek approximate solutions. We formulate the two problems as Steiner tree problems under appropriate distances. The gist of our approach is the succinct characterization of Steiner trees for a small number of leaves for the two distances. This enables the use of known Steiner tree approximation algorithms. The approach leads to a 16/9 approximation ratio for AML and asymptotically to a 1.55 approximation ratio for MP.
Ancestral sequence reconstruction with Maximum Parsimony
Herbst, Lina; Fischer, Mareike
2017-01-01
One of the main aims in phylogenetics is the estimation of ancestral sequences based on present-day data like, for instance, DNA alignments. One way to estimate the data of the last common ancestor of a given set of species is to first reconstruct a phylogenetic tree with some tree inference method and then to use some method of ancestral state inference based on that tree. One of the best-known methods both for tree inference as well as for ancestral sequence inference is Maximum Parsimony (...
Structural robustness with suboptimal responses for linear state space model
Keel, L. H.; Lim, Kyong B.; Juang, Jer-Nan
1989-01-01
A relationship between the closed-loop eigenvalues and the amount of perturbations in the open-loop matrix is addressed in the context of performance robustness. If the allowable perturbation ranges of elements of the open-loop matrix A and the desired tolerance of the closed-loop eigenvalues are given such that max(j) of the absolute value of Delta-lambda(j) (A+BF) should be less than some prescribed value, what is a state feedback controller F which satisfies the closed-loop eigenvalue perturbation-tolerance requirement for a class of given perturbation in A? The paper gives an algorithm to design such a controller. Numerical examples are included for illustration.
Principle of Parsimony, Fake Science, and Scales
Yeh, T. C. J.; Wan, L.; Wang, X. S.
2017-12-01
Considering difficulties in predicting exact motions of water molecules, and the scale of our interests (bulk behaviors of many molecules), Fick's law (diffusion concept) has been created to predict solute diffusion process in space and time. G.I. Taylor (1921) demonstrated that random motion of the molecules reach the Fickian regime in less a second if our sampling scale is large enough to reach ergodic condition. Fick's law is widely accepted for describing molecular diffusion as such. This fits the definition of the parsimony principle at the scale of our concern. Similarly, advection-dispersion or convection-dispersion equation (ADE or CDE) has been found quite satisfactory for analysis of concentration breakthroughs of solute transport in uniformly packed soil columns. This is attributed to the solute is often released over the entire cross-section of the column, which has sampled many pore-scale heterogeneities and met the ergodicity assumption. Further, the uniformly packed column contains a large number of stationary pore-size heterogeneity. The solute thus reaches the Fickian regime after traveling a short distance along the column. Moreover, breakthrough curves are concentrations integrated over the column cross-section (the scale of our interest), and they meet the ergodicity assumption embedded in the ADE and CDE. To the contrary, scales of heterogeneity in most groundwater pollution problems evolve as contaminants travel. They are much larger than the scale of our observations and our interests so that the ergodic and the Fickian conditions are difficult. Upscaling the Fick's law for solution dispersion, and deriving universal rules of the dispersion to the field- or basin-scale pollution migrations are merely misuse of the parsimony principle and lead to a fake science ( i.e., the development of theories for predicting processes that can not be observed.) The appropriate principle of parsimony for these situations dictates mapping of large
Phylogenetic analysis using parsimony and likelihood methods.
Yang, Z
1996-02-01
The assumptions underlying the maximum-parsimony (MP) method of phylogenetic tree reconstruction were intuitively examined by studying the way the method works. Computer simulations were performed to corroborate the intuitive examination. Parsimony appears to involve very stringent assumptions concerning the process of sequence evolution, such as constancy of substitution rates between nucleotides, constancy of rates across nucleotide sites, and equal branch lengths in the tree. For practical data analysis, the requirement of equal branch lengths means similar substitution rates among lineages (the existence of an approximate molecular clock), relatively long interior branches, and also few species in the data. However, a small amount of evolution is neither a necessary nor a sufficient requirement of the method. The difficulties involved in the application of current statistical estimation theory to tree reconstruction were discussed, and it was suggested that the approach proposed by Felsenstein (1981, J. Mol. Evol. 17: 368-376) for topology estimation, as well as its many variations and extensions, differs fundamentally from the maximum likelihood estimation of a conventional statistical parameter. Evidence was presented showing that the Felsenstein approach does not share the asymptotic efficiency of the maximum likelihood estimator of a statistical parameter. Computer simulations were performed to study the probability that MP recovers the true tree under a hierarchy of models of nucleotide substitution; its performance relative to the likelihood method was especially noted. The results appeared to support the intuitive examination of the assumptions underlying MP. When a simple model of nucleotide substitution was assumed to generate data, the probability that MP recovers the true topology could be as high as, or even higher than, that for the likelihood method. When the assumed model became more complex and realistic, e.g., when substitution rates were
Robust visual tracking via structured multi-task sparse learning
Zhang, Tianzhu; Ghanem, Bernard; Liu, Si; Ahuja, Narendra
2012-01-01
In this paper, we formulate object tracking in a particle filter framework as a structured multi-task sparse learning problem, which we denote as Structured Multi-Task Tracking (S-MTT). Since we model particles as linear combinations of dictionary
Occlusion detection via structured sparse learning for robust object tracking
Zhang, Tianzhu; Ghanem, Bernard; Xu, Changsheng; Ahuja, Narendra
2014-01-01
occlusion through structured sparse learning. We test our tracker on challenging benchmark sequences, such as sports videos, which involve heavy occlusion, drastic illumination changes, and large pose variations. Extensive experimental results show that our
Generalized belief propagation on tree robust structured region graphs
Gelfand, A.E.; Welling, M.; Murphy, K.; de Freitas, N.
2012-01-01
This paper provides some new guidance in the construction of region graphs for Generalized Belief Propagation (GBP). We connect the problem of choosing the outer regions of a LoopStructured Region Graph (SRG) to that of finding a fundamental cycle basis of the corresponding Markov network. We also
Robustness of Modal Parameter Estimation Methods Applied to Lightweight Structures
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Dickow, Kristoffer Ahrens; Kirkegaard, Poul Henning; Andersen, Lars Vabbersgaard
2013-01-01
On-going research is concerned with the losses that occur at junctions in lightweight building structures. Recently the authors have investigated the underlying uncertainties related to both measurement, material and craftsmanship of timber junctions by means of repeated modal testing on a number...
Robust visual tracking via structured multi-task sparse learning
Zhang, Tianzhu
2012-11-09
In this paper, we formulate object tracking in a particle filter framework as a structured multi-task sparse learning problem, which we denote as Structured Multi-Task Tracking (S-MTT). Since we model particles as linear combinations of dictionary templates that are updated dynamically, learning the representation of each particle is considered a single task in Multi-Task Tracking (MTT). By employing popular sparsity-inducing lp,q mixed norms (specifically p∈2,∞ and q=1), we regularize the representation problem to enforce joint sparsity and learn the particle representations together. As compared to previous methods that handle particles independently, our results demonstrate that mining the interdependencies between particles improves tracking performance and overall computational complexity. Interestingly, we show that the popular L1 tracker (Mei and Ling, IEEE Trans Pattern Anal Mach Intel 33(11):2259-2272, 2011) is a special case of our MTT formulation (denoted as the L11 tracker) when p=q=1. Under the MTT framework, some of the tasks (particle representations) are often more closely related and more likely to share common relevant covariates than other tasks. Therefore, we extend the MTT framework to take into account pairwise structural correlations between particles (e.g. spatial smoothness of representation) and denote the novel framework as S-MTT. The problem of learning the regularized sparse representation in MTT and S-MTT can be solved efficiently using an Accelerated Proximal Gradient (APG) method that yields a sequence of closed form updates. As such, S-MTT and MTT are computationally attractive. We test our proposed approach on challenging sequences involving heavy occlusion, drastic illumination changes, and large pose variations. Experimental results show that S-MTT is much better than MTT, and both methods consistently outperform state-of-the-art trackers. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media New York.
Occlusion detection via structured sparse learning for robust object tracking
Zhang, Tianzhu
2014-01-01
Sparse representation based methods have recently drawn much attention in visual tracking due to good performance against illumination variation and occlusion. They assume the errors caused by image variations can be modeled as pixel-wise sparse. However, in many practical scenarios, these errors are not truly pixel-wise sparse but rather sparsely distributed in a structured way. In fact, pixels in error constitute contiguous regions within the object’s track. This is the case when significant occlusion occurs. To accommodate for nonsparse occlusion in a given frame, we assume that occlusion detected in previous frames can be propagated to the current one. This propagated information determines which pixels will contribute to the sparse representation of the current track. In other words, pixels that were detected as part of an occlusion in the previous frame will be removed from the target representation process. As such, this paper proposes a novel tracking algorithm that models and detects occlusion through structured sparse learning. We test our tracker on challenging benchmark sequences, such as sports videos, which involve heavy occlusion, drastic illumination changes, and large pose variations. Extensive experimental results show that our proposed tracker consistently outperforms the state-of-the-art trackers.
Gervais, Matthew M; Fessler, Daniel M T
2017-01-01
The target article argues that contempt is a sentiment, and that sentiments are the deep structure of social affect. The 26 commentaries meet these claims with a range of exciting extensions and applications, as well as critiques. Most significantly, we reply that construction and emergence are necessary for, not incompatible with, evolved design, while parsimony requires explanatory adequacy and predictive accuracy, not mere simplicity.
SEAPODYM-LTL: a parsimonious zooplankton dynamic biomass model
Conchon, Anna; Lehodey, Patrick; Gehlen, Marion; Titaud, Olivier; Senina, Inna; Séférian, Roland
2017-04-01
Mesozooplankton organisms are of critical importance for the understanding of early life history of most fish stocks, as well as the nutrient cycles in the ocean. Ongoing climate change and the need for improved approaches to the management of living marine resources has driven recent advances in zooplankton modelling. The classical modeling approach tends to describe the whole biogeochemical and plankton cycle with increasing complexity. We propose here a different and parsimonious zooplankton dynamic biomass model (SEAPODYM-LTL) that is cost efficient and can be advantageously coupled with primary production estimated either from satellite derived ocean color data or biogeochemical models. In addition, the adjoint code of the model is developed allowing a robust optimization approach for estimating the few parameters of the model. In this study, we run the first optimization experiments using a global database of climatological zooplankton biomass data and we make a comparative analysis to assess the importance of resolution and primary production inputs on model fit to observations. We also compare SEAPODYM-LTL outputs to those produced by a more complex biogeochemical model (PISCES) but sharing the same physical forcings.
Parsimonious Ways to Use Vision for Navigation
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Paul Graham
2012-05-01
Full Text Available The use of visual information for navigation appears to be a universal strategy for sighted animals, amongst which, one particular group of expert navigators are the ants. The broad interest in studies of ant navigation is in part due to their small brains, thus biomimetic engineers expect to be impressed by elegant control solutions, and psychologists might hope for a description of the minimal cognitive requirements for complex spatial behaviours. In this spirit, we have been taking an interdisciplinary approach to the visual guided navigation of ants in their natural habitat. Behavioural experiments and natural image statistics show that visual navigation need not depend on the remembering or recognition of objects. Further modelling work suggests how simple behavioural routines might enable navigation using familiarity detection rather than explicit recall, and we present a proof of concept that visual navigation using familiarity can be achieved without specifying when or what to learn, nor separating routes into sequences of waypoints. We suggest that our current model represents the only detailed and complete model of insect route guidance to date. What's more, we believe the suggested mechanisms represent useful parsimonious hypotheses for the visually guided navigation in larger-brain animals.
Ancestral Sequence Reconstruction with Maximum Parsimony.
Herbst, Lina; Fischer, Mareike
2017-12-01
One of the main aims in phylogenetics is the estimation of ancestral sequences based on present-day data like, for instance, DNA alignments. One way to estimate the data of the last common ancestor of a given set of species is to first reconstruct a phylogenetic tree with some tree inference method and then to use some method of ancestral state inference based on that tree. One of the best-known methods both for tree inference and for ancestral sequence inference is Maximum Parsimony (MP). In this manuscript, we focus on this method and on ancestral state inference for fully bifurcating trees. In particular, we investigate a conjecture published by Charleston and Steel in 1995 concerning the number of species which need to have a particular state, say a, at a particular site in order for MP to unambiguously return a as an estimate for the state of the last common ancestor. We prove the conjecture for all even numbers of character states, which is the most relevant case in biology. We also show that the conjecture does not hold in general for odd numbers of character states, but also present some positive results for this case.
Robustness studies in covariance structure modeling - An overview and a meta-analysis
Hoogland, Jeffrey J.; Boomsma, A
In covariance structure modeling, several estimation methods are available. The robustness of an estimator against specific violations of assumptions can be determined empirically by means of a Monte Carlo study. Many such studies in covariance structure analysis have been published, but the
Robust stability analysis of large power systems using the structured singular value theory
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Castellanos, R.; Sarmiento, H. [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico); Messina, A.R. [Cinvestav, Graduate Program in Electrical Engineering, Guadalajara, Jalisco (Mexico)
2005-07-01
This paper examines the application of structured singular value (SSV) theory to analyse robust stability of complex power systems with respect to a set of structured uncertainties. Based on SSV theory and the frequency sweep method, techniques for robust analysis of large-scale power systems are developed. The main interest is focused on determining robust stability for varying operating conditions and uncertainties in the structure of the power system. The applicability of the proposed techniques is verified through simulation studies on a large-scale power system. In particular, results for the system are considered for a wide range of uncertainties of operating conditions. Specifically, the developed technique is used to estimate the effect of variations in the parameters of a major system inter-tie on the nominal stability of a critical inter-area mode. (Author)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Shujuan Wang
2015-01-01
Full Text Available This paper investigates the structural design optimization to cover both the reliability and robustness under uncertainty in design variables. The main objective is to improve the efficiency of the optimization process. To address this problem, a hybrid reliability-based robust design optimization (RRDO method is proposed. Prior to the design optimization, the Sobol sensitivity analysis is used for selecting key design variables and providing response variance as well, resulting in significantly reduced computational complexity. The single-loop algorithm is employed to guarantee the structural reliability, allowing fast optimization process. In the case of robust design, the weighting factor balances the response performance and variance with respect to the uncertainty in design variables. The main contribution of this paper is that the proposed method applies the RRDO strategy with the usage of global approximation and the Sobol sensitivity analysis, leading to the reduced computational cost. A structural example is given to illustrate the performance of the proposed method.
Zhang, Langwen; Xie, Wei; Wang, Jingcheng
2017-11-01
In this work, synthesis of robust distributed model predictive control (MPC) is presented for a class of linear systems subject to structured time-varying uncertainties. By decomposing a global system into smaller dimensional subsystems, a set of distributed MPC controllers, instead of a centralised controller, are designed. To ensure the robust stability of the closed-loop system with respect to model uncertainties, distributed state feedback laws are obtained by solving a min-max optimisation problem. The design of robust distributed MPC is then transformed into solving a minimisation optimisation problem with linear matrix inequality constraints. An iterative online algorithm with adjustable maximum iteration is proposed to coordinate the distributed controllers to achieve a global performance. The simulation results show the effectiveness of the proposed robust distributed MPC algorithm.
Quality Quandaries- Time Series Model Selection and Parsimony
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bisgaard, Søren; Kulahci, Murat
2009-01-01
Some of the issues involved in selecting adequate models for time series data are discussed using an example concerning the number of users of an Internet server. The process of selecting an appropriate model is subjective and requires experience and judgment. The authors believe an important...... consideration in model selection should be parameter parsimony. They favor the use of parsimonious mixed ARMA models, noting that research has shown that a model building strategy that considers only autoregressive representations will lead to non-parsimonious models and to loss of forecasting accuracy....
Robust T1-weighted structural brain imaging and morphometry at 7T using MP2RAGE.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Kieran R O'Brien
Full Text Available PURPOSE: To suppress the noise, by sacrificing some of the signal homogeneity for numerical stability, in uniform T1 weighted (T1w images obtained with the magnetization prepared 2 rapid gradient echoes sequence (MP2RAGE and to compare the clinical utility of these robust T1w images against the uniform T1w images. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 8 healthy subjects (29.0 ± 4.1 years; 6 Male, who provided written consent, underwent two scan sessions within a 24 hour period on a 7T head-only scanner. The uniform and robust T1w image volumes were calculated inline on the scanner. Two experienced radiologists qualitatively rated the images for: general image quality; 7T specific artefacts; and, local structure definition. Voxel-based and volume-based morphometry packages were used to compare the segmentation quality between the uniform and robust images. Statistical differences were evaluated by using a positive sided Wilcoxon rank test. RESULTS: The robust image suppresses background noise inside and outside the skull. The inhomogeneity introduced was ranked as mild. The robust image was significantly ranked higher than the uniform image for both observers (observer 1/2, p-value = 0.0006/0.0004. In particular, an improved delineation of the pituitary gland, cerebellar lobes was observed in the robust versus uniform T1w image. The reproducibility of the segmentation results between repeat scans improved (p-value = 0.0004 from an average volumetric difference across structures of ≈ 6.6% to ≈ 2.4% for the uniform image and robust T1w image respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The robust T1w image enables MP2RAGE to produce, clinically familiar T1w images, in addition to T1 maps, which can be readily used in uniform morphometry packages.
A simplified parsimonious higher order multivariate Markov chain model
Wang, Chao; Yang, Chuan-sheng
2017-09-01
In this paper, a simplified parsimonious higher-order multivariate Markov chain model (SPHOMMCM) is presented. Moreover, parameter estimation method of TPHOMMCM is give. Numerical experiments shows the effectiveness of TPHOMMCM.
A tridiagonal parsimonious higher order multivariate Markov chain model
Wang, Chao; Yang, Chuan-sheng
2017-09-01
In this paper, we present a tridiagonal parsimonious higher-order multivariate Markov chain model (TPHOMMCM). Moreover, estimation method of the parameters in TPHOMMCM is give. Numerical experiments illustrate the effectiveness of TPHOMMCM.
Direct maximum parsimony phylogeny reconstruction from genotype data
Sridhar, Srinath; Lam, Fumei; Blelloch, Guy E; Ravi, R; Schwartz, Russell
2007-01-01
Abstract Background Maximum parsimony phylogenetic tree reconstruction from genetic variation data is a fundamental problem in computational genetics with many practical applications in population genetics, whole genome analysis, and the search for genetic predictors of disease. Efficient methods are available for reconstruction of maximum parsimony trees from haplotype data, but such data are difficult to determine directly for autosomal DNA. Data more commonly is available in the form of ge...
A Robust Bayesian Approach for Structural Equation Models with Missing Data
Lee, Sik-Yum; Xia, Ye-Mao
2008-01-01
In this paper, normal/independent distributions, including but not limited to the multivariate t distribution, the multivariate contaminated distribution, and the multivariate slash distribution, are used to develop a robust Bayesian approach for analyzing structural equation models with complete or missing data. In the context of a nonlinear…
Time-Dependent-Asymmetric-Linear-Parsimonious Ancestral State Reconstruction.
Didier, Gilles
2017-10-01
The time-dependent-asymmetric-linear parsimony is an ancestral state reconstruction method which extends the standard linear parsimony (a.k.a. Wagner parsimony) approach by taking into account both branch lengths and asymmetric evolutionary costs for reconstructing quantitative characters (asymmetric costs amount to assuming an evolutionary trend toward the direction with the lowest cost). A formal study of the influence of the asymmetry parameter shows that the time-dependent-asymmetric-linear parsimony infers states which are all taken among the known states, except for some degenerate cases corresponding to special values of the asymmetry parameter. This remarkable property holds in particular for the Wagner parsimony. This study leads to a polynomial algorithm which determines, and provides a compact representation of, the parametric reconstruction of a phylogenetic tree, that is for all the unknown nodes, the set of all the possible reconstructed states associated with the asymmetry parameters leading to them. The time-dependent-asymmetric-linear parsimony is finally illustrated with the parametric reconstruction of the body size of cetaceans.
Senkel, Luise
2016-01-01
This edited book aims at presenting current research activities in the field of robust variable-structure systems. The scope equally comprises highlighting novel methodological aspects as well as presenting the use of variable-structure techniques in industrial applications including their efficient implementation on hardware for real-time control. The target audience primarily comprises research experts in the field of control theory and nonlinear dynamics but the book may also be beneficial for graduate students.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Jo, HangJin; Kim, Jin Man [Division of Advanced Nuclear Engineering, POSTECH, Pohang 790-784, Gyungbuk (Korea, Republic of); Yeom, Hwasung [Department of Nuclear Engineering and Engineering physics, UW-Madison, Madison, WI 53706, Unities States (United States); Lee, Gi Cheol [Department of Mechanical Engineering, POSTECH, Pohang 790-784, Gyungbuk (Korea, Republic of); Park, Hyun Sun, E-mail: hejsunny@postech.ac.kr [Division of Advanced Nuclear Engineering, POSTECH, Pohang 790-784, Gyungbuk (Korea, Republic of); Kiyofumi, Moriyama; Kim, Moo Hwan [Division of Advanced Nuclear Engineering, POSTECH, Pohang 790-784, Gyungbuk (Korea, Republic of); Sridharan, Kumar; Corradini, Michael [Department of Nuclear Engineering and Engineering physics, UW-Madison, Madison, WI 53706, Unities States (United States)
2015-09-15
Highlights: • We improved boiling performance and material robustness using surface modification. • We combined micro/millimeter post structures and nanoparticles with heat treatments. • Compactly-arranged micrometer posts had improved boiling performance. • CHF increased significantly due to capillary pumping by the deposited NP layers. • Sintering procedure increased mechanical strength of the NP coating surface. - Abstract: By regulating the geometrical characteristics of multi-scale structures and by adopting heat treatment for protective layer of nanoparticles (NPs), we improved critical heat flux (CHF), boiling heat transfer (BHT), and mechanical robustness of the modified surface. We fabricated 1-mm and 100-μm post structures and deposited NPs on the structured surface as a nano-scale structured layer and protective layer at the same time, then evaluated the CHF and BHT and material robustness of the modified surfaces. On the structured surfaces without NPs, the surface with compactly-arranged micrometer posts had improved CHF (118%) and BHT (41%). On the surface with structures on which NPs had been deposited, CHF increased significantly (172%) due to capillary pumping by the deposited NP layers. The heat treatment improved robustness of coating layer in comparison to the one of before heat treatment. In particular, low-temperature sintering increased the hardness of the modified surface by 140%. The increased mechanical strength of the NP coating is attributed to reduction in coating porosity during sintering. The combination of micrometer posts structures and sintered NP coating can increase the safety, efficiency and reliability of advanced nuclear fuel cladding.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jo, HangJin; Kim, Jin Man; Yeom, Hwasung; Lee, Gi Cheol; Park, Hyun Sun; Kiyofumi, Moriyama; Kim, Moo Hwan; Sridharan, Kumar; Corradini, Michael
2015-01-01
Highlights: • We improved boiling performance and material robustness using surface modification. • We combined micro/millimeter post structures and nanoparticles with heat treatments. • Compactly-arranged micrometer posts had improved boiling performance. • CHF increased significantly due to capillary pumping by the deposited NP layers. • Sintering procedure increased mechanical strength of the NP coating surface. - Abstract: By regulating the geometrical characteristics of multi-scale structures and by adopting heat treatment for protective layer of nanoparticles (NPs), we improved critical heat flux (CHF), boiling heat transfer (BHT), and mechanical robustness of the modified surface. We fabricated 1-mm and 100-μm post structures and deposited NPs on the structured surface as a nano-scale structured layer and protective layer at the same time, then evaluated the CHF and BHT and material robustness of the modified surfaces. On the structured surfaces without NPs, the surface with compactly-arranged micrometer posts had improved CHF (118%) and BHT (41%). On the surface with structures on which NPs had been deposited, CHF increased significantly (172%) due to capillary pumping by the deposited NP layers. The heat treatment improved robustness of coating layer in comparison to the one of before heat treatment. In particular, low-temperature sintering increased the hardness of the modified surface by 140%. The increased mechanical strength of the NP coating is attributed to reduction in coating porosity during sintering. The combination of micrometer posts structures and sintered NP coating can increase the safety, efficiency and reliability of advanced nuclear fuel cladding
FPGA Hardware Acceleration of a Phylogenetic Tree Reconstruction with Maximum Parsimony Algorithm
BLOCK, Henry; MARUYAMA, Tsutomu
2017-01-01
In this paper, we present an FPGA hardware implementation for a phylogenetic tree reconstruction with a maximum parsimony algorithm. We base our approach on a particular stochastic local search algorithm that uses the Progressive Neighborhood and the Indirect Calculation of Tree Lengths method. This method is widely used for the acceleration of the phylogenetic tree reconstruction algorithm in software. In our implementation, we define a tree structure and accelerate the search by parallel an...
Dynamic Programming Used to Align Protein Structures with a Spectrum Is Robust
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Allen Holder
2013-11-01
Full Text Available Several efficient algorithms to conduct pairwise comparisons among large databases of protein structures have emerged in the recent literature. The central theme is the design of a measure between the Cα atoms of two protein chains, from which dynamic programming is used to compute an alignment. The efficiency and efficacy of these algorithms allows large-scale computational studies that would have been previously impractical. The computational study herein shows that the structural alignment algorithm eigen-decomposition alignment with the spectrum (EIGAs is robust against both parametric and structural variation.
From Static Output Feedback to Structured Robust Static Output Feedback: A Survey
Sadabadi , Mahdieh ,; Peaucelle , Dimitri
2016-01-01
This paper reviews the vast literature on static output feedback design for linear time-invariant systems including classical results and recent developments. In particular, we focus on static output feedback synthesis with performance specifications, structured static output feedback, and robustness. The paper provides a comprehensive review on existing design approaches including iterative linear matrix inequalities heuristics, linear matrix inequalities with rank constraints, methods with ...
Bao, Yihai; Main, Joseph A; Noh, Sam-Young
2017-08-01
A computational methodology is presented for evaluating structural robustness against column loss. The methodology is illustrated through application to reinforced concrete (RC) frame buildings, using a reduced-order modeling approach for three-dimensional RC framing systems that includes the floor slabs. Comparisons with high-fidelity finite-element model results are presented to verify the approach. Pushdown analyses of prototype buildings under column loss scenarios are performed using the reduced-order modeling approach, and an energy-based procedure is employed to account for the dynamic effects associated with sudden column loss. Results obtained using the energy-based approach are found to be in good agreement with results from direct dynamic analysis of sudden column loss. A metric for structural robustness is proposed, calculated by normalizing the ultimate capacities of the structural system under sudden column loss by the applicable service-level gravity loading and by evaluating the minimum value of this normalized ultimate capacity over all column removal scenarios. The procedure is applied to two prototype 10-story RC buildings, one employing intermediate moment frames (IMFs) and the other employing special moment frames (SMFs). The SMF building, with its more stringent seismic design and detailing, is found to have greater robustness.
A fast and robust iterative algorithm for prediction of RNA pseudoknotted secondary structures
2014-01-01
Background Improving accuracy and efficiency of computational methods that predict pseudoknotted RNA secondary structures is an ongoing challenge. Existing methods based on free energy minimization tend to be very slow and are limited in the types of pseudoknots that they can predict. Incorporating known structural information can improve prediction accuracy; however, there are not many methods for prediction of pseudoknotted structures that can incorporate structural information as input. There is even less understanding of the relative robustness of these methods with respect to partial information. Results We present a new method, Iterative HFold, for pseudoknotted RNA secondary structure prediction. Iterative HFold takes as input a pseudoknot-free structure, and produces a possibly pseudoknotted structure whose energy is at least as low as that of any (density-2) pseudoknotted structure containing the input structure. Iterative HFold leverages strengths of earlier methods, namely the fast running time of HFold, a method that is based on the hierarchical folding hypothesis, and the energy parameters of HotKnots V2.0. Our experimental evaluation on a large data set shows that Iterative HFold is robust with respect to partial information, with average accuracy on pseudoknotted structures steadily increasing from roughly 54% to 79% as the user provides up to 40% of the input structure. Iterative HFold is much faster than HotKnots V2.0, while having comparable accuracy. Iterative HFold also has significantly better accuracy than IPknot on our HK-PK and IP-pk168 data sets. Conclusions Iterative HFold is a robust method for prediction of pseudoknotted RNA secondary structures, whose accuracy with more than 5% information about true pseudoknot-free structures is better than that of IPknot, and with about 35% information about true pseudoknot-free structures compares well with that of HotKnots V2.0 while being significantly faster. Iterative HFold and all data used in
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wang Shengjun; Zhou Changsong
2012-01-01
One of the most prominent architecture properties of neural networks in the brain is the hierarchical modular structure. How does the structure property constrain or improve brain function? It is thought that operating near criticality can be beneficial for brain function. Here, we find that networks with modular structure can extend the parameter region of coupling strength over which critical states are reached compared to non-modular networks. Moreover, we find that one aspect of network function—dynamical range—is highest for the same parameter region. Thus, hierarchical modularity enhances robustness of criticality as well as function. However, too much modularity constrains function by preventing the neural networks from reaching critical states, because the modular structure limits the spreading of avalanches. Our results suggest that the brain may take advantage of the hierarchical modular structure to attain criticality and enhanced function. (paper)
Robust emergence of small-world structure in networks of spiking neurons.
Kwok, Hoi Fei; Jurica, Peter; Raffone, Antonino; van Leeuwen, Cees
2007-03-01
Spontaneous activity in biological neural networks shows patterns of dynamic synchronization. We propose that these patterns support the formation of a small-world structure-network connectivity optimal for distributed information processing. We present numerical simulations with connected Hindmarsh-Rose neurons in which, starting from random connection distributions, small-world networks evolve as a result of applying an adaptive rewiring rule. The rule connects pairs of neurons that tend fire in synchrony, and disconnects ones that fail to synchronize. Repeated application of the rule leads to small-world structures. This mechanism is robustly observed for bursting and irregular firing regimes.
Seeking parsimony in hydrology and water resources technology
Koutsoyiannis, D.
2009-04-01
The principle of parsimony, also known as the principle of simplicity, the principle of economy and Ockham's razor, advises scientists to prefer the simplest theory among those that fit the data equally well. In this, it is an epistemic principle but reflects an ontological characterization that the universe is ultimately parsimonious. Is this principle useful and can it really be reconciled with, and implemented to, our modelling approaches of complex hydrological systems, whose elements and events are extraordinarily numerous, different and unique? The answer underlying the mainstream hydrological research of the last two decades seems to be negative. Hopes were invested to the power of computers that would enable faithful and detailed representation of the diverse system elements and the hydrological processes, based on merely "first principles" and resulting in "physically-based" models that tend to approach in complexity the real world systems. Today the account of such research endeavour seems not positive, as it did not improve model predictive capacity and processes comprehension. A return to parsimonious modelling seems to be again the promising route. The experience from recent research and from comparisons of parsimonious and complicated models indicates that the former can facilitate insight and comprehension, improve accuracy and predictive capacity, and increase efficiency. In addition - and despite aspiration that "physically based" models will have lower data requirements and, even, they ultimately become "data-free" - parsimonious models require fewer data to achieve the same accuracy with more complicated models. Naturally, the concepts that reconcile the simplicity of parsimonious models with the complexity of hydrological systems are probability theory and statistics. Probability theory provides the theoretical basis for moving from a microscopic to a macroscopic view of phenomena, by mapping sets of diverse elements and events of hydrological
The missing part of seed dispersal networks: structure and robustness of bat-fruit interactions.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Marco Aurelio Ribeiro Mello
2011-02-01
Full Text Available Mutualistic networks are crucial to the maintenance of ecosystem services. Unfortunately, what we know about seed dispersal networks is based only on bird-fruit interactions. Therefore, we aimed at filling part of this gap by investigating bat-fruit networks. It is known from population studies that: (i some bat species depend more on fruits than others, and (ii that some specialized frugivorous bats prefer particular plant genera. We tested whether those preferences affected the structure and robustness of the whole network and the functional roles of species. Nine bat-fruit datasets from the literature were analyzed and all networks showed lower complementary specialization (H(2' = 0.37±0.10, mean ± SD and similar nestedness (NODF = 0.56±0.12 than pollination networks. All networks were modular (M = 0.32±0.07, and had on average four cohesive subgroups (modules of tightly connected bats and plants. The composition of those modules followed the genus-genus associations observed at population level (Artibeus-Ficus, Carollia-Piper, and Sturnira-Solanum, although a few of those plant genera were dispersed also by other bats. Bat-fruit networks showed high robustness to simulated cumulative removals of both bats (R = 0.55±0.10 and plants (R = 0.68±0.09. Primary frugivores interacted with a larger proportion of the plants available and also occupied more central positions; furthermore, their extinction caused larger changes in network structure. We conclude that bat-fruit networks are highly cohesive and robust mutualistic systems, in which redundancy is high within modules, although modules are complementary to each other. Dietary specialization seems to be an important structuring factor that affects the topology, the guild structure and functional roles in bat-fruit networks.
Spirally Structured Conductive Composites for Highly Stretchable, Robust Conductors and Sensors.
Wu, Xiaodong; Han, Yangyang; Zhang, Xinxing; Lu, Canhui
2017-07-12
Flexible and stretchable electronics are highly desirable for next generation devices. However, stretchability and conductivity are fundamentally difficult to combine for conventional conductive composites, which restricts their widespread applications especially as stretchable electronics. Here, we innovatively develop a new class of highly stretchable and robust conductive composites via a simple and scalable structural approach. Briefly, carbon nanotubes are spray-coated onto a self-adhesive rubber film, followed by rolling up the film completely to create a spirally layered structure within the composites. This unique spirally layered structure breaks the typical trade-off between stretchability and conductivity of traditional conductive composites and, more importantly, restrains the generation and propagation of mechanical microcracks in the conductive layer under strain. Benefiting from such structure-induced advantages, the spirally layered composites exhibit high stretchability and flexibility, good conductive stability, and excellent robustness, enabling the composites to serve as highly stretchable conductors (up to 300% strain), versatile sensors for monitoring both subtle and large human activities, and functional threads for wearable electronics. This novel and efficient methodology provides a new design philosophy for manufacturing not only stretchable conductors and sensors but also other stretchable electronics, such as transistors, generators, artificial muscles, etc.
Direct maximum parsimony phylogeny reconstruction from genotype data.
Sridhar, Srinath; Lam, Fumei; Blelloch, Guy E; Ravi, R; Schwartz, Russell
2007-12-05
Maximum parsimony phylogenetic tree reconstruction from genetic variation data is a fundamental problem in computational genetics with many practical applications in population genetics, whole genome analysis, and the search for genetic predictors of disease. Efficient methods are available for reconstruction of maximum parsimony trees from haplotype data, but such data are difficult to determine directly for autosomal DNA. Data more commonly is available in the form of genotypes, which consist of conflated combinations of pairs of haplotypes from homologous chromosomes. Currently, there are no general algorithms for the direct reconstruction of maximum parsimony phylogenies from genotype data. Hence phylogenetic applications for autosomal data must therefore rely on other methods for first computationally inferring haplotypes from genotypes. In this work, we develop the first practical method for computing maximum parsimony phylogenies directly from genotype data. We show that the standard practice of first inferring haplotypes from genotypes and then reconstructing a phylogeny on the haplotypes often substantially overestimates phylogeny size. As an immediate application, our method can be used to determine the minimum number of mutations required to explain a given set of observed genotypes. Phylogeny reconstruction directly from unphased data is computationally feasible for moderate-sized problem instances and can lead to substantially more accurate tree size inferences than the standard practice of treating phasing and phylogeny construction as two separate analysis stages. The difference between the approaches is particularly important for downstream applications that require a lower-bound on the number of mutations that the genetic region has undergone.
MPBoot: fast phylogenetic maximum parsimony tree inference and bootstrap approximation.
Hoang, Diep Thi; Vinh, Le Sy; Flouri, Tomáš; Stamatakis, Alexandros; von Haeseler, Arndt; Minh, Bui Quang
2018-02-02
The nonparametric bootstrap is widely used to measure the branch support of phylogenetic trees. However, bootstrapping is computationally expensive and remains a bottleneck in phylogenetic analyses. Recently, an ultrafast bootstrap approximation (UFBoot) approach was proposed for maximum likelihood analyses. However, such an approach is still missing for maximum parsimony. To close this gap we present MPBoot, an adaptation and extension of UFBoot to compute branch supports under the maximum parsimony principle. MPBoot works for both uniform and non-uniform cost matrices. Our analyses on biological DNA and protein showed that under uniform cost matrices, MPBoot runs on average 4.7 (DNA) to 7 times (protein data) (range: 1.2-20.7) faster than the standard parsimony bootstrap implemented in PAUP*; but 1.6 (DNA) to 4.1 times (protein data) slower than the standard bootstrap with a fast search routine in TNT (fast-TNT). However, for non-uniform cost matrices MPBoot is 5 (DNA) to 13 times (protein data) (range:0.3-63.9) faster than fast-TNT. We note that MPBoot achieves better scores more frequently than PAUP* and fast-TNT. However, this effect is less pronounced if an intensive but slower search in TNT is invoked. Moreover, experiments on large-scale simulated data show that while both PAUP* and TNT bootstrap estimates are too conservative, MPBoot bootstrap estimates appear more unbiased. MPBoot provides an efficient alternative to the standard maximum parsimony bootstrap procedure. It shows favorable performance in terms of run time, the capability of finding a maximum parsimony tree, and high bootstrap accuracy on simulated as well as empirical data sets. MPBoot is easy-to-use, open-source and available at http://www.cibiv.at/software/mpboot .
Connection behaviour and the robustness of steel-framed structures in fire
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Burgess Ian
2018-01-01
Full Text Available The full-scale fire tests at Cardington in the 1990s, and the collapse of at least one of the WTC buildings in 2001, illustrated that connections are potentially the most vulnerable parts of a structure in fire. Fracture of connections causes structural discontinuities and reduces the robustness provided by alternative load paths. An understanding of connection performance is essential to the assessment of structural robustness, and so to structural design against progressive collapse. The forces and deformations to which connectionscan be subjected during a fire differ significantly from those assumed in general design. The internal forces i generally start with moment and shear at ambient temperature, then superposing compression in the initial stages of a fire, which finally changes to catenary tension at high temperatures. If a connection does not have sufficient resistance or ductility to accommodate simultaneous large rotations and normal forces, then connections may fracture, leading to extensive damage or progressive collapse of the structure. Practical assessment of the robustness of steel connections in fire will inevitably rely largely on numerical modelling, but this is unlikely to include general-purpose finite element modelling, because of the complexity of such models. The most promising alternative is the component method, a practical approach which can be included within global three-dimensional frame analysis. The connection is represented by an assembly of individual components with known mechanical properties. Component characterization must include high-deflection elevated-temperature behaviour, and represent it up to fracture.In reality a connection may either be able to regain its stability after the initial fracture of one (or a few components, or the first failure may trigger a cascade of failures of other components, leading to complete detachment of the supported member. Numerical modelling must be capable of
Yin, Hui; Yu, Dejie; Yin, Shengwen; Xia, Baizhan
2018-03-01
The conventional engineering optimization problems considering uncertainties are based on the probabilistic model. However, the probabilistic model may be unavailable because of the lack of sufficient objective information to construct the precise probability distribution of uncertainties. This paper proposes a possibility-based robust design optimization (PBRDO) framework for the uncertain structural-acoustic system based on the fuzzy set model, which can be constructed by expert opinions. The objective of robust design is to optimize the expectation and variability of system performance with respect to uncertainties simultaneously. In the proposed PBRDO, the entropy of the fuzzy system response is used as the variability index; the weighted sum of the entropy and expectation of the fuzzy response is used as the objective function, and the constraints are established in the possibility context. The computations for the constraints and objective function of PBRDO are a triple-loop and a double-loop nested problem, respectively, whose computational costs are considerable. To improve the computational efficiency, the target performance approach is introduced to transform the calculation of the constraints into a double-loop nested problem. To further improve the computational efficiency, a Chebyshev fuzzy method (CFM) based on the Chebyshev polynomials is proposed to estimate the objective function, and the Chebyshev interval method (CIM) is introduced to estimate the constraints, thereby the optimization problem is transformed into a single-loop one. Numerical results on a shell structural-acoustic system verify the effectiveness and feasibility of the proposed methods.
Whorton, M. S.
1998-01-01
Many spacecraft systems have ambitious objectives that place stringent requirements on control systems. Achievable performance is often limited because of difficulty of obtaining accurate models for flexible space structures. To achieve sufficiently high performance to accomplish mission objectives may require the ability to refine the control design model based on closed-loop test data and tune the controller based on the refined model. A control system design procedure is developed based on mixed H2/H(infinity) optimization to synthesize a set of controllers explicitly trading between nominal performance and robust stability. A homotopy algorithm is presented which generates a trajectory of gains that may be implemented to determine maximum achievable performance for a given model error bound. Examples show that a better balance between robustness and performance is obtained using the mixed H2/H(infinity) design method than either H2 or mu-synthesis control design. A second contribution is a new procedure for closed-loop system identification which refines parameters of a control design model in a canonical realization. Examples demonstrate convergence of the parameter estimation and improved performance realized by using the refined model for controller redesign. These developments result in an effective mechanism for achieving high-performance control of flexible space structures.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jiang, Jian-ping; Li, Dong-xu
2010-01-01
The decentralized robust vibration control with collocated piezoelectric actuator and strain sensor pairs is considered in this paper for spacecraft solar panel structures. Each actuator is driven individually by the output of the corresponding sensor so that only local feedback control is implemented, with each actuator, sensor and controller operating independently. Firstly, an optimal placement method for the location of the collocated piezoelectric actuator and strain gauge sensor pairs is developed based on the degree of observability and controllability indices for solar panel structures. Secondly, a decentralized robust H ∞ controller is designed to suppress the vibration induced by external disturbance. Finally, a numerical comparison between centralized and decentralized control systems is performed in order to investigate their effectiveness to suppress vibration of the smart solar panel. The simulation results show that the vibration can be significantly suppressed with permitted actuator voltages by the controllers. The decentralized control system almost has the same disturbance attenuation level as the centralized control system with a bit higher control voltages. More importantly, the decentralized controller composed of four three-order systems is a better practical implementation than a high-order centralized controller is
Marami, Bahram; Mohseni Salehi, Seyed Sadegh; Afacan, Onur; Scherrer, Benoit; Rollins, Caitlin K; Yang, Edward; Estroff, Judy A; Warfield, Simon K; Gholipour, Ali
2017-08-01
Diffusion weighted magnetic resonance imaging, or DWI, is one of the most promising tools for the analysis of neural microstructure and the structural connectome of the human brain. The application of DWI to map early development of the human connectome in-utero, however, is challenged by intermittent fetal and maternal motion that disrupts the spatial correspondence of data acquired in the relatively long DWI acquisitions. Fetuses move continuously during DWI scans. Reliable and accurate analysis of the fetal brain structural connectome requires careful compensation of motion effects and robust reconstruction to avoid introducing bias based on the degree of fetal motion. In this paper we introduce a novel robust algorithm to reconstruct in-vivo diffusion-tensor MRI (DTI) of the moving fetal brain and show its effect on structural connectivity analysis. The proposed algorithm involves multiple steps of image registration incorporating a dynamic registration-based motion tracking algorithm to restore the spatial correspondence of DWI data at the slice level and reconstruct DTI of the fetal brain in the standard (atlas) coordinate space. A weighted linear least squares approach is adapted to remove the effect of intra-slice motion and reconstruct DTI from motion-corrected data. The proposed algorithm was tested on data obtained from 21 healthy fetuses scanned in-utero at 22-38 weeks gestation. Significantly higher fractional anisotropy values in fiber-rich regions, and the analysis of whole-brain tractography and group structural connectivity, showed the efficacy of the proposed method compared to the analyses based on original data and previously proposed methods. The results of this study show that slice-level motion correction and robust reconstruction is necessary for reliable in-vivo structural connectivity analysis of the fetal brain. Connectivity analysis based on graph theoretic measures show high degree of modularity and clustering, and short average
Robust determination of the superconducting gap sign structure via quasiparticle interference
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Altenfeld, Dustin [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik III, Ruhr-Universitaet Bochum, D-44801 Bochum (Germany); Hirschfeld, Peter [Department of Physics, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32611 (United States); Eremin, Ilya [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik III, Ruhr-Universitaet Bochum, D-44801 Bochum (Germany); Kazan Federal University, Kazan 420008 (Russian Federation); Mazin, Igor [Naval Research Laboratory, Code 6393, Washington, DC 20375 (United States)
2016-07-01
Using an electronic theory, we present a qualitative description to identify sign changes of the superconducting order parameter via quasiparticle interference (QPI) measurement in Fe-based superconductors (FeSc). In particular, we point out that the temperature dependence of the momentum-integrated QPI data can be used to differentiate between s{sub +-} and s{sub ++} states in a system with typical iron pnictide Fermi surface. We show that the signed symmetrized and antisymmetrized QPI maps are useful to obtain a characteristic signature of a gap sign change or lack thereof, starting from two-band model up to ab initio based band structure calculation. We further suggest this method as a robust way of the determination of the superconducting gap sign structure in experiment and discuss its application to the LiFeAs compounds.
On Robust Stability of Differential-Algebraic Equations with Structured Uncertainty
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
A. Kononov
2018-03-01
Full Text Available We consider a linear time-invariant system of differential-algebraic equations (DAE, which can be written as a system of ordinary differential equations with non-invertible coefficients matrices. An important characteristic of DAE is the unsolvability index, which reflects the complexity of the internal structure of the system. The question of the asymptotic stability of DAE containing the uncertainty given by the matrix norm is investigated. We consider a perturbation in the structured uncertainty case. It is assumed that the initial nominal system is asymptotically stable. For the analysis, the original equation is reduced to the structural form, in which the differential and algebraic subsystems are separated. This structural form is equivalent to the input system in the sense of coincidence of sets of solutions, and the operator transforming the DAE into the structural form possesses the inverse operator. The conversion to structural form does not use a change of variables. Regularity of matrix pencil of the source equation is the necessary and sufficient condition of structural form existence. Sufficient conditions have been obtained that perturbations do not break the internal structure of the nominal system. Under these conditions robust stability of the DAE with structured uncertainty is investigated. Estimates for the stability radius of the perturbed DAE system are obtained. The text of the article is from the simpler case, in which the perturbation is present only for an unknown function, to a more complex one, under which the perturbation is also present in the derivative of the unknown function. We used values of the real and the complex stability radii of explicit ordinary differential equations for obtaining the results. We consider the example illustrating the obtained results.
Live phylogeny with polytomies: Finding the most compact parsimonious trees.
Papamichail, D; Huang, A; Kennedy, E; Ott, J-L; Miller, A; Papamichail, G
2017-08-01
Construction of phylogenetic trees has traditionally focused on binary trees where all species appear on leaves, a problem for which numerous efficient solutions have been developed. Certain application domains though, such as viral evolution and transmission, paleontology, linguistics, and phylogenetic stemmatics, often require phylogeny inference that involves placing input species on ancestral tree nodes (live phylogeny), and polytomies. These requirements, despite their prevalence, lead to computationally harder algorithmic solutions and have been sparsely examined in the literature to date. In this article we prove some unique properties of most parsimonious live phylogenetic trees with polytomies, and their mapping to traditional binary phylogenetic trees. We show that our problem reduces to finding the most compact parsimonious tree for n species, and describe a novel efficient algorithm to find such trees without resorting to exhaustive enumeration of all possible tree topologies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Halim, Dunant; Cheng, Li; Su, Zhongqing
2011-03-01
The work was aimed to develop a robust virtual sensing design methodology for sensing and active control applications of vibro-acoustic systems. The proposed virtual sensor was designed to estimate a broadband acoustic interior sound pressure using structural sensors, with robustness against certain dynamic uncertainties occurring in an acoustic-structural coupled enclosure. A convex combination of Kalman sub-filters was used during the design, accommodating different sets of perturbed dynamic model of the vibro-acoustic enclosure. A minimax optimization problem was set up to determine an optimal convex combination of Kalman sub-filters, ensuring an optimal worst-case virtual sensing performance. The virtual sensing and active noise control performance was numerically investigated on a rectangular panel-cavity system. It was demonstrated that the proposed virtual sensor could accurately estimate the interior sound pressure, particularly the one dominated by cavity-controlled modes, by using a structural sensor. With such a virtual sensing technique, effective active noise control performance was also obtained even for the worst-case dynamics. © 2011 Acoustical Society of America
Direct maximum parsimony phylogeny reconstruction from genotype data
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ravi R
2007-12-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background Maximum parsimony phylogenetic tree reconstruction from genetic variation data is a fundamental problem in computational genetics with many practical applications in population genetics, whole genome analysis, and the search for genetic predictors of disease. Efficient methods are available for reconstruction of maximum parsimony trees from haplotype data, but such data are difficult to determine directly for autosomal DNA. Data more commonly is available in the form of genotypes, which consist of conflated combinations of pairs of haplotypes from homologous chromosomes. Currently, there are no general algorithms for the direct reconstruction of maximum parsimony phylogenies from genotype data. Hence phylogenetic applications for autosomal data must therefore rely on other methods for first computationally inferring haplotypes from genotypes. Results In this work, we develop the first practical method for computing maximum parsimony phylogenies directly from genotype data. We show that the standard practice of first inferring haplotypes from genotypes and then reconstructing a phylogeny on the haplotypes often substantially overestimates phylogeny size. As an immediate application, our method can be used to determine the minimum number of mutations required to explain a given set of observed genotypes. Conclusion Phylogeny reconstruction directly from unphased data is computationally feasible for moderate-sized problem instances and can lead to substantially more accurate tree size inferences than the standard practice of treating phasing and phylogeny construction as two separate analysis stages. The difference between the approaches is particularly important for downstream applications that require a lower-bound on the number of mutations that the genetic region has undergone.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Poulsen, Per Rugaard; Fledelius, Walther; Keall, Paul J.; Weiss, Elisabeth; Lu Jun; Brackbill, Emily; Hugo, Geoffrey D.
2011-01-01
Purpose: Implanted markers are commonly used in radiotherapy for x-ray based target localization. The projected marker position in a series of cone-beam CT (CBCT) projections can be used to estimate the three dimensional (3D) target trajectory during the CBCT acquisition. This has important applications in tumor motion management such as motion inclusive, gating, and tumor tracking strategies. However, for irregularly shaped markers, reliable segmentation is challenged by large variations in the marker shape with projection angle. The purpose of this study was to develop a semiautomated method for robust and reliable segmentation of arbitrarily shaped radiopaque markers in CBCT projections. Methods: The segmentation method involved the following three steps: (1) Threshold based segmentation of the marker in three to six selected projections with large angular separation, good marker contrast, and uniform background; (2) construction of a 3D marker model by coalignment and backprojection of the threshold-based segmentations; and (3) construction of marker templates at all imaging angles by projection of the 3D model and use of these templates for template-based segmentation. The versatility of the segmentation method was demonstrated by segmentation of the following structures in the projections from two clinical CBCT scans: (1) Three linear fiducial markers (Visicoil) implanted in or near a lung tumor and (2) an artificial cardiac valve in a lung cancer patient. Results: Automatic marker segmentation was obtained in more than 99.9% of the cases. The segmentation failed in a few cases where the marker was either close to a structure of similar appearance or hidden behind a dense structure (data cable). Conclusions: A robust template-based method for segmentation of arbitrarily shaped radiopaque markers in CBCT projections was developed.
Experimentally reducing species abundance indirectly affects food web structure and robustness.
Barbosa, Milton; Fernandes, G Wilson; Lewis, Owen T; Morris, Rebecca J
2017-03-01
Studies on the robustness of ecological communities suggest that the loss or reduction in abundance of individual species can lead to secondary and cascading extinctions. However, most such studies have been simulation-based analyses of the effect of primary extinction on food web structure. In a field experiment we tested the direct and indirect effects of reducing the abundance of a common species, focusing on the diverse and self-contained assemblage of arthropods associated with an abundant Brazilian shrub, Baccharis dracunculifolia D.C. (Asteraceae). Over a 5-month period we experimentally reduced the abundance of Baccharopelma dracunculifoliae (Sternorrhyncha: Psyllidae), the commonest galling species associated with B. dracunculifolia, in 15 replicate plots paired with 15 control plots. We investigated direct effects of the manipulation on parasitoids attacking B. dracunculifoliae, as well as indirect effects (mediated via a third species or through the environment) on 10 other galler species and 50 associated parasitoid species. The experimental manipulation significantly increased parasitism on B. dracunculifoliae in the treatment plots, but did not significantly alter either the species richness or abundance of other galler species. Compared to control plots, food webs in manipulated plots had significantly lower values of weighted connectance, interaction evenness and robustness (measured as simulated tolerance to secondary extinction), even when B. dracunculifoliae was excluded from calculations. Parasitoid species were almost entirely specialized to individual galler species, so the observed effects of the manipulation on food web structure could not have propagated via the documented trophic links. Instead, they must have spread either through trophic links not included in the webs (e.g. shared predators) or non-trophically (e.g. through changes in habitat availability). Our results highlight that the inclusion of both trophic and non
Bootstrap-based Support of HGT Inferred by Maximum Parsimony
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Nakhleh Luay
2010-05-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background Maximum parsimony is one of the most commonly used criteria for reconstructing phylogenetic trees. Recently, Nakhleh and co-workers extended this criterion to enable reconstruction of phylogenetic networks, and demonstrated its application to detecting reticulate evolutionary relationships. However, one of the major problems with this extension has been that it favors more complex evolutionary relationships over simpler ones, thus having the potential for overestimating the amount of reticulation in the data. An ad hoc solution to this problem that has been used entails inspecting the improvement in the parsimony length as more reticulation events are added to the model, and stopping when the improvement is below a certain threshold. Results In this paper, we address this problem in a more systematic way, by proposing a nonparametric bootstrap-based measure of support of inferred reticulation events, and using it to determine the number of those events, as well as their placements. A number of samples is generated from the given sequence alignment, and reticulation events are inferred based on each sample. Finally, the support of each reticulation event is quantified based on the inferences made over all samples. Conclusions We have implemented our method in the NEPAL software tool (available publicly at http://bioinfo.cs.rice.edu/, and studied its performance on both biological and simulated data sets. While our studies show very promising results, they also highlight issues that are inherently challenging when applying the maximum parsimony criterion to detect reticulate evolution.
Bootstrap-based support of HGT inferred by maximum parsimony.
Park, Hyun Jung; Jin, Guohua; Nakhleh, Luay
2010-05-05
Maximum parsimony is one of the most commonly used criteria for reconstructing phylogenetic trees. Recently, Nakhleh and co-workers extended this criterion to enable reconstruction of phylogenetic networks, and demonstrated its application to detecting reticulate evolutionary relationships. However, one of the major problems with this extension has been that it favors more complex evolutionary relationships over simpler ones, thus having the potential for overestimating the amount of reticulation in the data. An ad hoc solution to this problem that has been used entails inspecting the improvement in the parsimony length as more reticulation events are added to the model, and stopping when the improvement is below a certain threshold. In this paper, we address this problem in a more systematic way, by proposing a nonparametric bootstrap-based measure of support of inferred reticulation events, and using it to determine the number of those events, as well as their placements. A number of samples is generated from the given sequence alignment, and reticulation events are inferred based on each sample. Finally, the support of each reticulation event is quantified based on the inferences made over all samples. We have implemented our method in the NEPAL software tool (available publicly at http://bioinfo.cs.rice.edu/), and studied its performance on both biological and simulated data sets. While our studies show very promising results, they also highlight issues that are inherently challenging when applying the maximum parsimony criterion to detect reticulate evolution.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Henrichsen, Søren Randrup; Lindgaard, Esben; Lund, Erik
2015-01-01
Robust buckling optimal design of laminated composite structures is conducted in this work. Optimal designs are obtained by considering geometric imperfections in the optimization procedure. Discrete Material Optimization is applied to obtain optimal laminate designs. The optimal geometric...... imperfection is represented by the “worst” shape imperfection. The two optimization problems are combined through the recurrence optimization. Hereby the imperfection sensitivity of the considered structures can be studied. The recurrence optimization is demonstrated through a U-profile and a cylindrical panel...... example. The imperfection sensitivity of the optimized structure decreases during the recurrence optimization for both examples, hence robust buckling optimal structures are designed....
Sprofera, Joseph D.; Clark, Robert L.; Cabell, Randolph H.; Gibbs, Gary P.
2005-05-01
Turbulent boundary layer (TBL) noise is considered a primary contribution to the interior noise present in commercial airliners. There are numerous investigations of interior noise control devoted to aircraft panels; however, practical realization is a potential challenge since physical boundary conditions are uncertain at best. In most prior studies, pinned or clamped boundary conditions were assumed; however, realistic panels likely display a range of boundary conditions between these two limits. Uncertainty in boundary conditions is a challenge for control system designers, both in terms of the compensator implemented and the location of transducers required to achieve the desired control. The impact of model uncertainties, specifically uncertain boundaries, on the selection of transducer locations for structural acoustic control is considered herein. The final goal of this work is the design of an aircraft panel structure that can reduce TBL noise transmission through the use of a completely adaptive, single-input, single-output control system. The feasibility of this goal is demonstrated through the creation of a detailed analytical solution, followed by the implementation of a test model in a transmission loss apparatus. Successfully realizing a control system robust to variations in boundary conditions can lead to the design and implementation of practical adaptive structures that could be used to control the transmission of sound to the interior of aircraft. Results from this research effort indicate it is possible to optimize the design of actuator and sensor location and aperture, minimizing the impact of boundary conditions on the desired structural acoustic control.
Wang, Li; Yang, Xiaonan; Wang, Quandai; Yang, Zhiqiang; Duan, Hui; Lu, Bingheng
2017-07-01
The construction of stable hydrophobic surfaces has increasingly gained attention owing to its wide range of potential applications. However, these surfaces may become wet and lose their slip effect owing to insufficient hydrophobic stability. Pillars with a mushroom-shaped tip are believed to enhance hydrophobicity stability. This work presents a facile method of manufacturing mushroom-shaped structures, where, compared with the previously used method, the modulation of the cap thickness, cap diameter, and stem height of the structures is more convenient. The effects of the development time on the cap diameter and overhanging angle are investigated and well-defined mushroom-shaped structures are demonstrated. The effect of the microstructure geometry on the contact state of a droplet is predicted by taking an energy minimization approach and is experimentally validated with nonvolatile ultraviolet-curable polymer with a low surface tension by inspecting the profiles of liquid-vapor interface deformation and tracking the trace of the receding contact line after exposure to ultraviolet light. Theoretical and experimental results show that, compared with regular pillar arrays having a vertical sidewall, the mushroom-like structures can effectively enhance hydrophobic stability. The proposed manufacturing method will be useful for fabricating robust hydrophobic surfaces in a cost-effective and convenient manner.
A robust algorithm for optimizing protein structures with NMR chemical shifts
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Berjanskii, Mark; Arndt, David; Liang, Yongjie; Wishart, David S., E-mail: david.wishart@ualberta.ca [University of Alberta, Department of Computing Science (Canada)
2015-11-15
Over the past decade, a number of methods have been developed to determine the approximate structure of proteins using minimal NMR experimental information such as chemical shifts alone, sparse NOEs alone or a combination of comparative modeling data and chemical shifts. However, there have been relatively few methods that allow these approximate models to be substantively refined or improved using the available NMR chemical shift data. Here, we present a novel method, called Chemical Shift driven Genetic Algorithm for biased Molecular Dynamics (CS-GAMDy), for the robust optimization of protein structures using experimental NMR chemical shifts. The method incorporates knowledge-based scoring functions and structural information derived from NMR chemical shifts via a unique combination of multi-objective MD biasing, a genetic algorithm, and the widely used XPLOR molecular modelling language. Using this approach, we demonstrate that CS-GAMDy is able to refine and/or fold models that are as much as 10 Å (RMSD) away from the correct structure using only NMR chemical shift data. CS-GAMDy is also able to refine of a wide range of approximate or mildly erroneous protein structures to more closely match the known/correct structure and the known/correct chemical shifts. We believe CS-GAMDy will allow protein models generated by sparse restraint or chemical-shift-only methods to achieve sufficiently high quality to be considered fully refined and “PDB worthy”. The CS-GAMDy algorithm is explained in detail and its performance is compared over a range of refinement scenarios with several commonly used protein structure refinement protocols. The program has been designed to be easily installed and easily used and is available at http://www.gamdy.ca http://www.gamdy.ca.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Rasmussen, Bjarne D.; Jakobsen, Arne
1999-01-01
Mathematical models of refrigeration systems are often based on a coupling of component models forming a “closed loop” type of system model. In these models the coupling structure of the component models represents the actual flow path of refrigerant in the system. Very often numerical...... instabilities prevent the practical use of such a system model for more than one input/output combination and for other magnitudes of refrigerating capacities.A higher numerical robustness of system models can be achieved by making a model for the refrigeration cycle the core of the system model and by using...... variables with narrow definition intervals for the exchange of information between the cycle model and the component models.The advantages of the cycle-oriented method are illustrated by an example showing the refrigeration cycle similarities between two very different refrigeration systems....
Martowicz, Adam; Uhl, Tadeusz
2012-10-01
The paper discusses the applicability of a reliability- and performance-based multi-criteria robust design optimization technique for micro-electromechanical systems, considering their technological uncertainties. Nowadays, micro-devices are commonly applied systems, especially in the automotive industry, taking advantage of utilizing both the mechanical structure and electronic control circuit on one board. Their frequent use motivates the elaboration of virtual prototyping tools that can be applied in design optimization with the introduction of technological uncertainties and reliability. The authors present a procedure for the optimization of micro-devices, which is based on the theory of reliability-based robust design optimization. This takes into consideration the performance of a micro-device and its reliability assessed by means of uncertainty analysis. The procedure assumes that, for each checked design configuration, the assessment of uncertainty propagation is performed with the meta-modeling technique. The described procedure is illustrated with an example of the optimization carried out for a finite element model of a micro-mirror. The multi-physics approach allowed the introduction of several physical phenomena to correctly model the electrostatic actuation and the squeezing effect present between electrodes. The optimization was preceded by sensitivity analysis to establish the design and uncertain domains. The genetic algorithms fulfilled the defined optimization task effectively. The best discovered individuals are characterized by a minimized value of the multi-criteria objective function, simultaneously satisfying the constraint on material strength. The restriction of the maximum equivalent stresses was introduced with the conditionally formulated objective function with a penalty component. The yielded results were successfully verified with a global uniform search through the input design domain.
Robust Online Multi-Task Learning with Correlative and Personalized Structures
Yang, Peng
2017-06-29
Multi-Task Learning (MTL) can enhance a classifier\\'s generalization performance by learning multiple related tasks simultaneously. Conventional MTL works under the offline setting and suffers from expensive training cost and poor scalability. To address such issues, online learning techniques have been applied to solve MTL problems. However, most existing algorithms of online MTL constrain task relatedness into a presumed structure via a single weight matrix, which is a strict restriction that does not always hold in practice. In this paper, we propose a robust online MTL framework that overcomes this restriction by decomposing the weight matrix into two components: the first one captures the low-rank common structure among tasks via a nuclear norm; the second one identifies the personalized patterns of outlier tasks via a group lasso. Theoretical analysis shows the proposed algorithm can achieve a sub-linear regret with respect to the best linear model in hindsight. However, the nuclear norm that simply adds all nonzero singular values together may not be a good low-rank approximation. To improve the results, we use a log-determinant function as a non-convex rank approximation. Experimental results on a number of real-world applications also verify the efficacy of our approaches.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Abednico Montshiwa
2016-02-01
Full Text Available This paper presents an optimized diamond structured automobile supply chain network towards a robust Business Continuity Management model. The model is necessitated by the nature of the automobile supply chain. Companies in tier two are centralized and numerically limited and have to supply multiple tier one companies with goods and services. The challenge with this supply chain structure is the inherent risks in the supply chain. Once supply chain disruption takes place at tier 2 level, the whole supply chain network suffers huge loses. To address this challenge, the paper replaces Risk Analysis with Risk Ranking and it introduces Supply Chain Cooperation (SCC to the traditional Business Continuity Plan (BCP concept. The paper employed three statistical analysis techniques (correlation analysis, regression analysis and Smart PLS 3.0 calculations. In this study, correlation and regression analysis results on risk rankings, SCC and Business Impact Analysis were significant, ascertaining the value of the model. The multivariate data analysis calculations demonstrated that SCC has a positive total significant effect on risk rankings and BCM while BIA has strongest positive effects on all BCP factors. Finally, sensitivity analysis demonstrated that company size plays a role in BCM.
Robust Online Multi-Task Learning with Correlative and Personalized Structures
Yang, Peng; Zhao, Peilin; Gao, Xin
2017-01-01
Multi-Task Learning (MTL) can enhance a classifier's generalization performance by learning multiple related tasks simultaneously. Conventional MTL works under the offline setting and suffers from expensive training cost and poor scalability. To address such issues, online learning techniques have been applied to solve MTL problems. However, most existing algorithms of online MTL constrain task relatedness into a presumed structure via a single weight matrix, which is a strict restriction that does not always hold in practice. In this paper, we propose a robust online MTL framework that overcomes this restriction by decomposing the weight matrix into two components: the first one captures the low-rank common structure among tasks via a nuclear norm; the second one identifies the personalized patterns of outlier tasks via a group lasso. Theoretical analysis shows the proposed algorithm can achieve a sub-linear regret with respect to the best linear model in hindsight. However, the nuclear norm that simply adds all nonzero singular values together may not be a good low-rank approximation. To improve the results, we use a log-determinant function as a non-convex rank approximation. Experimental results on a number of real-world applications also verify the efficacy of our approaches.
Efficient parsimony-based methods for phylogenetic network reconstruction.
Jin, Guohua; Nakhleh, Luay; Snir, Sagi; Tuller, Tamir
2007-01-15
Phylogenies--the evolutionary histories of groups of organisms-play a major role in representing relationships among biological entities. Although many biological processes can be effectively modeled as tree-like relationships, others, such as hybrid speciation and horizontal gene transfer (HGT), result in networks, rather than trees, of relationships. Hybrid speciation is a significant evolutionary mechanism in plants, fish and other groups of species. HGT plays a major role in bacterial genome diversification and is a significant mechanism by which bacteria develop resistance to antibiotics. Maximum parsimony is one of the most commonly used criteria for phylogenetic tree inference. Roughly speaking, inference based on this criterion seeks the tree that minimizes the amount of evolution. In 1990, Jotun Hein proposed using this criterion for inferring the evolution of sequences subject to recombination. Preliminary results on small synthetic datasets. Nakhleh et al. (2005) demonstrated the criterion's application to phylogenetic network reconstruction in general and HGT detection in particular. However, the naive algorithms used by the authors are inapplicable to large datasets due to their demanding computational requirements. Further, no rigorous theoretical analysis of computing the criterion was given, nor was it tested on biological data. In the present work we prove that the problem of scoring the parsimony of a phylogenetic network is NP-hard and provide an improved fixed parameter tractable algorithm for it. Further, we devise efficient heuristics for parsimony-based reconstruction of phylogenetic networks. We test our methods on both synthetic and biological data (rbcL gene in bacteria) and obtain very promising results.
Wie, Bong; Liu, Qiang
1992-01-01
Both feedback and feedforward control approaches for uncertain dynamical systems (in particular, with uncertainty in structural mode frequency) are investigated. The control objective is to achieve a fast settling time (high performance) and robustness (insensitivity) to plant uncertainty. Preshaping of an ideal, time optimal control input using a tapped-delay filter is shown to provide a fast settling time with robust performance. A robust, non-minimum-phase feedback controller is synthesized with particular emphasis on its proper implementation for a non-zero set-point control problem. It is shown that a properly designed, feedback controller performs well, as compared with a time optimal open loop controller with special preshaping for performance robustness. Also included are two separate papers by the same authors on this subject.
A Parsimonious Bootstrap Method to Model Natural Inflow Energy Series
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Fernando Luiz Cyrino Oliveira
2014-01-01
Full Text Available The Brazilian energy generation and transmission system is quite peculiar in its dimension and characteristics. As such, it can be considered unique in the world. It is a high dimension hydrothermal system with huge participation of hydro plants. Such strong dependency on hydrological regimes implies uncertainties related to the energetic planning, requiring adequate modeling of the hydrological time series. This is carried out via stochastic simulations of monthly inflow series using the family of Periodic Autoregressive models, PAR(p, one for each period (month of the year. In this paper it is shown the problems in fitting these models by the current system, particularly the identification of the autoregressive order “p” and the corresponding parameter estimation. It is followed by a proposal of a new approach to set both the model order and the parameters estimation of the PAR(p models, using a nonparametric computational technique, known as Bootstrap. This technique allows the estimation of reliable confidence intervals for the model parameters. The obtained results using the Parsimonious Bootstrap Method of Moments (PBMOM produced not only more parsimonious model orders but also adherent stochastic scenarios and, in the long range, lead to a better use of water resources in the energy operation planning.
Mixed integer linear programming for maximum-parsimony phylogeny inference.
Sridhar, Srinath; Lam, Fumei; Blelloch, Guy E; Ravi, R; Schwartz, Russell
2008-01-01
Reconstruction of phylogenetic trees is a fundamental problem in computational biology. While excellent heuristic methods are available for many variants of this problem, new advances in phylogeny inference will be required if we are to be able to continue to make effective use of the rapidly growing stores of variation data now being gathered. In this paper, we present two integer linear programming (ILP) formulations to find the most parsimonious phylogenetic tree from a set of binary variation data. One method uses a flow-based formulation that can produce exponential numbers of variables and constraints in the worst case. The method has, however, proven extremely efficient in practice on datasets that are well beyond the reach of the available provably efficient methods, solving several large mtDNA and Y-chromosome instances within a few seconds and giving provably optimal results in times competitive with fast heuristics than cannot guarantee optimality. An alternative formulation establishes that the problem can be solved with a polynomial-sized ILP. We further present a web server developed based on the exponential-sized ILP that performs fast maximum parsimony inferences and serves as a front end to a database of precomputed phylogenies spanning the human genome.
Phase and gain control policies for robust active vibration control of flexible structures
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhang, K; Ichchou, M N; Scorletti, G; Mieyeville, F
2013-01-01
The interest of this paper is to develop a general and systematic robust control methodology for active vibration control of flexible structures. For this purpose, first phase and gain control policies are proposed to impose qualitative frequency-dependent requirements on the controller to consider a complete set of control objectives. Then the proposed control methodology is developed by employing phase and gain control policies in the dynamic output feedback H ∞ control: according to the set of control objectives, phase and gain control policies incorporate necessary weighting functions and determine them in a rational and systematic way; on the other hand, with the appropriate weighting functions efficient H ∞ control algorithms can automatically realize phase and gain control policies and generate a satisfactory H ∞ controller. The proposed control methodology can be used for both SISO and MIMO systems with collocated or non-collocated sensors and actuators. In this paper, it is validated on a non-collocated piezoelectric cantilever beam. Both numerical simulations and experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed control methodology. (paper)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Weerakkody, Sean [Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Liu, Xiaofei [Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Sinopoli, Bruno [Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)
2017-12-12
We consider the design and analysis of robust distributed control systems (DCSs) to ensure the detection of integrity attacks. DCSs are often managed by independent agents and are implemented using a diverse set of sensors and controllers. However, the heterogeneous nature of DCSs along with their scale leave such systems vulnerable to adversarial behavior. To mitigate this reality, we provide tools that allow operators to prevent zero dynamics attacks when as many as p agents and sensors are corrupted. Such a design ensures attack detectability in deterministic systems while removing the threat of a class of stealthy attacks in stochastic systems. To achieve this goal, we use graph theory to obtain necessary and sufficient conditions for the presence of zero dynamics attacks in terms of the structural interactions between agents and sensors. We then formulate and solve optimization problems which minimize communication networks while also ensuring a resource limited adversary cannot perform a zero dynamics attacks. Polynomial time algorithms for design and analysis are provided.
Wang, Pengwei; Zhao, Tianyi; Bian, Ruixin; Wang, Guangyan; Liu, Huan
2017-12-26
Superhydrophobic carbon nanotube (CNT) films have demonstrated many fascinating performances in versatile applications, especially for those involving solid/liquid interfacial processes, because of their ability to affect the material/energy transfer at interfaces. Thus, developing superhydrophobic CNTs has attracted extensive research interests in the past decades, and it could be achieved either by surface coating of low-free energy materials or by constructing micro/nanohierarchical structures via various complicated processes. So far, developing a simple approach to fabricate stable superhydrophobic CNTs remains a challenge because the capillary force induced coalescence frequently happens when interacting with liquid. Herein, drawing inspirations from the lotus leaf, we proposed a simple one-step chemical vapor deposition approach with programmable controlled gas flow to directly fabricate a CNT film with rather stable superhydrophobicity, which can effectively prevent even small water droplets from permeating into the film. The robust superhydrophobicity was attributable to typical lotus-leaf-like micro/nanoscale hierarchical surface structures of the CNT film, where many microscale clusters composed of entangled nanotubes randomly protrude out of the under-layer aligned nanotubes. Consequently, dual-scale air pockets were trapped within each microscale CNT cluster and between, which could largely reduce the liquid/solid interface, leading to a Cassie state. Moreover, the superhydrophobicity of the CNT film showed excellent durability after long time exposure to air and even to corrosive liquids with a wide range of pH values. We envision that the approach developed is advantageous for versatile physicochemical interfacial processes, such as drag reduction, electrochemical catalysis, anti-icing, and biosensors.
Zhou, T.; Popescu, S. C.; Krause, K.; Sheridan, R.; Ku, N. W.
2014-12-01
Increasing attention has been paid in the remote sensing community to the next generation Light Detection and Ranging (lidar) waveform data systems for extracting information on topography and the vertical structure of vegetation. However, processing waveform lidar data raises some challenges compared to analyzing discrete return data. The overall goal of this study was to present a robust de-convolution algorithm- Gold algorithm used to de-convolve waveforms in a lidar dataset acquired within a 60 x 60m study area located in the Harvard Forest in Massachusetts. The waveform lidar data was collected by the National Ecological Observatory Network (NEON). Specific objectives were to: (1) explore advantages and limitations of various waveform processing techniques to derive topography and canopy height information; (2) develop and implement a novel de-convolution algorithm, the Gold algorithm, to extract elevation and canopy metrics; and (3) compare results and assess accuracy. We modeled lidar waveforms with a mixture of Gaussian functions using the Non-least squares (NLS) algorithm implemented in R and derived a Digital Terrain Model (DTM) and canopy height. We compared our waveform-derived topography and canopy height measurements using the Gold de-convolution algorithm to results using the Richardson-Lucy algorithm. Our findings show that the Gold algorithm performed better than the Richardson-Lucy algorithm in terms of recovering the hidden echoes and detecting false echoes for generating a DTM, which indicates that the Gold algorithm could potentially be applied to processing of waveform lidar data to derive information on terrain elevation and canopy characteristics.
A large version of the small parsimony problem
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Fredslund, Jakob; Hein, Jotun; Scharling, Tejs
2003-01-01
the most parsimonious assignment of nucleotides. The gaps of the alignment are represented in a so-called gap graph, and through theoretically sound preprocessing the graph is reduced to pave the way for a running time which in all but the most pathological examples is far better than the exponential worst......Given a multiple alignment over $k$ sequences, an evolutionary tree relating the sequences, and a subadditive gap penalty function (e.g. an affine function), we reconstruct the internal nodes of the tree optimally: we find the optimal explanation in terms of indels of the observed gaps and find...... case time. E.g. for a tree with nine leaves and a random alignment of length 10.000 with 60% gaps, the running time is on average around 45 seconds. For a real alignment of length 9868 of nine HIV-1 sequences, the running time is less than one second....
Things fall apart: biological species form unconnected parsimony networks.
Hart, Michael W; Sunday, Jennifer
2007-10-22
The generality of operational species definitions is limited by problematic definitions of between-species divergence. A recent phylogenetic species concept based on a simple objective measure of statistically significant genetic differentiation uses between-species application of statistical parsimony networks that are typically used for population genetic analysis within species. Here we review recent phylogeographic studies and reanalyse several mtDNA barcoding studies using this method. We found that (i) alignments of DNA sequences typically fall apart into a separate subnetwork for each Linnean species (but with a higher rate of true positives for mtDNA data) and (ii) DNA sequences from single species typically stick together in a single haplotype network. Departures from these patterns are usually consistent with hybridization or cryptic species diversity.
A parsimonious dynamic model for river water quality assessment.
Mannina, Giorgio; Viviani, Gaspare
2010-01-01
Water quality modelling is of crucial importance for the assessment of physical, chemical, and biological changes in water bodies. Mathematical approaches to water modelling have become more prevalent over recent years. Different model types ranging from detailed physical models to simplified conceptual models are available. Actually, a possible middle ground between detailed and simplified models may be parsimonious models that represent the simplest approach that fits the application. The appropriate modelling approach depends on the research goal as well as on data available for correct model application. When there is inadequate data, it is mandatory to focus on a simple river water quality model rather than detailed ones. The study presents a parsimonious river water quality model to evaluate the propagation of pollutants in natural rivers. The model is made up of two sub-models: a quantity one and a quality one. The model employs a river schematisation that considers different stretches according to the geometric characteristics and to the gradient of the river bed. Each stretch is represented with a conceptual model of a series of linear channels and reservoirs. The channels determine the delay in the pollution wave and the reservoirs cause its dispersion. To assess the river water quality, the model employs four state variables: DO, BOD, NH(4), and NO. The model was applied to the Savena River (Italy), which is the focus of a European-financed project in which quantity and quality data were gathered. A sensitivity analysis of the model output to the model input or parameters was done based on the Generalised Likelihood Uncertainty Estimation methodology. The results demonstrate the suitability of such a model as a tool for river water quality management.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Orbovic, Neb; Blahoainu, Andrei; Sagals, Genadis; Tarallo, Francois; Rambach, Jean-Mathieu; Huerta, Alejandro; White, Andrew; Nevander, Olli; ); Riera, Jorge Daniel; Krauthammer, Ted; Krutzik, Norbert; Arros, Jorma; Rouqand, Alain; Stangenberg, Friedhelm; Schwer, Leonard E.
2014-01-01
This report documents the results and conclusions of the second phase of the Integrity and Ageing of Components and Structures Working Group (WGIAGE) activity 'Improving Robustness assessment of structures Impacted by missiles', called IRIS-2012. The objective of the activity was to conduct a post-test benchmark study to improve models and evaluation techniques used in IRIS-2010. The benchmark was open to the new participants and some of IRIS-2010 participants did not take part of IRIS-2012. For this reason the team numbers in two benchmarks are different and to make direct comparisons it is necessary to have both lists. For IRIS-2010 benchmark a series of repeated test was performed: two bending rupture tests and three punching rupture tests. For IRIS-2012 and based on recommendation from IRIS-2010, tri-axial tests and Brazilian tensile test were additionally performed in order to calibrate constitutive models. The benchmark was officially launched in February 2012 with the participation of twenty six teams from twenty different institutions (Safety Authorities, TSOs, Utilities, Vendors, Research Institutes and Consulting Companies), from ten different countries from Europe, North America and Asia (plus 1 international organisation). A three day workshop was convened in October 2012 in Ottawa, Ontario, Canada where each participating team presented and discussed their results and performed simulations. Based on IRIS-2010 results and recommendations, OECD/NEA members recognized that there was a need to continue the work on understanding and improving simulation of structural impact. The goal of the new IRIS-2012 benchmark was to: 1) Update and improve existing FE models, for teams that participated in IRIS-2010, or to create new models for new participants. In order to improve FE models it was requested to: Simulate uni-axial unconfined concrete test and tri-axial concrete tests, using the results provided by IRSN, as well as the Brazilian test (concrete tensile
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ngamroo, Issarachai
2011-01-01
Even the superconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES) is the smart stabilizing device in electric power systems, the installation cost of SMES is very high. Especially, the superconducting magnetic coil size which is the critical part of SMES, must be well designed. On the contrary, various system operating conditions result in system uncertainties. The power controller of SMES designed without taking such uncertainties into account, may fail to stabilize the system. By considering both coil size and system uncertainties, this paper copes with the optimization of robust SMES controller. No need of exact mathematic equations, the normalized coprime factorization is applied to model system uncertainties. Based on the normalized integral square error index of inter-area rotor angle difference and specified structured H ∞ loop shaping optimization, the robust SMES controller with the smallest coil size, can be achieved by the genetic algorithm. The robustness of the proposed SMES with the smallest coil size can be confirmed by simulation study.
Robustness of numerical TIG welding simulation of 3D structures in stainless steel 316L
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
El-Ahmar, W.
2007-04-01
The numerical welding simulation is considered to be one of those mechanical problems that have the great level of nonlinearity and which requires a good knowledge in various scientific fields. The 'Robustness Analysis' is a suitable tool to control the quality and guarantee the reliability of numerical welding results. The robustness of a numerical simulation of welding is related to the sensitivity of the modelling assumptions on the input parameters. A simulation is known as robust if the result that it produces is not very sensitive to uncertainties of the input data. The term 'Robust' was coined in statistics by G.E.P. Box in 1953. Various definitions of greater or lesser mathematical rigor are possible for the term, but in general, referring to a statistical estimator, it means 'insensitive to small deviation from the idealized assumptions for which the estimator is optimized. In order to evaluate the robustness of numerical welding simulation, sensitivity analyses on thermomechanical models and parameters have been conducted. At the first step, we research a reference solution which gives the best agreement with the thermal and mechanical experimental results. The second step consists in determining through numerical simulations which parameters have the largest influence on residual stresses induced by the welding process. The residual stresses were predicted using finite element method performed with Code-Aster of EDF and SYSWELD of ESI-GROUP. An analysis of robustness can prove to be heavy and expensive making it an unjustifiable route. However, only with development such tool of analysis can predictive methods become a useful tool for industry. (author)
On the quirks of maximum parsimony and likelihood on phylogenetic networks.
Bryant, Christopher; Fischer, Mareike; Linz, Simone; Semple, Charles
2017-03-21
Maximum parsimony is one of the most frequently-discussed tree reconstruction methods in phylogenetic estimation. However, in recent years it has become more and more apparent that phylogenetic trees are often not sufficient to describe evolution accurately. For instance, processes like hybridization or lateral gene transfer that are commonplace in many groups of organisms and result in mosaic patterns of relationships cannot be represented by a single phylogenetic tree. This is why phylogenetic networks, which can display such events, are becoming of more and more interest in phylogenetic research. It is therefore necessary to extend concepts like maximum parsimony from phylogenetic trees to networks. Several suggestions for possible extensions can be found in recent literature, for instance the softwired and the hardwired parsimony concepts. In this paper, we analyze the so-called big parsimony problem under these two concepts, i.e. we investigate maximum parsimonious networks and analyze their properties. In particular, we show that finding a softwired maximum parsimony network is possible in polynomial time. We also show that the set of maximum parsimony networks for the hardwired definition always contains at least one phylogenetic tree. Lastly, we investigate some parallels of parsimony to different likelihood concepts on phylogenetic networks. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Karna Wijaya
2002-03-01
Full Text Available The compound was prepared by dissolving 2-(phenylaminopyridine (0.52 g ; 3.0 mmol and di(methanesulfonylamine (0.51 g; 3.0 mmol in 5 mL methanol. Slow partial evaporation of the solvent at low tempertaure (-30 oC gave a yield of 0.66 g (64% and crystals suitable for X-ray study (m.p. 150-152 oC. The single crystal X-ray result showed that the crystal system was trikline with space group P. The crystal structure of the title compound 2-(phenylaminopyridinium-di(methane-sulfonylamidate forms a robust antidromic ring motif type. The structure testifies to the persistence of the in question, which was previously detected as a robust supramolecular synthon in 2-aminopyridinium di(benzenesulfonylamidate and in a series of onium di(methane-sulfonylamidates. Keywords: supramolecule, hydrogen-bond
An objective and parsimonious approach for classifying natural flow regimes at a continental scale
Archfield, S. A.; Kennen, J.; Carlisle, D.; Wolock, D.
2013-12-01
Hydroecological stream classification--the process of grouping streams by similar hydrologic responses and, thereby, similar aquatic habitat--has been widely accepted and is often one of the first steps towards developing ecological flow targets. Despite its importance, the last national classification of streamgauges was completed about 20 years ago. A new classification of 1,534 streamgauges in the contiguous United States is presented using a novel and parsimonious approach to understand similarity in ecological streamflow response. This new classification approach uses seven fundamental daily streamflow statistics (FDSS) rather than winnowing down an uncorrelated subset from 200 or more ecologically relevant streamflow statistics (ERSS) commonly used in hydroecological classification studies. The results of this investigation demonstrate that the distributions of 33 tested ERSS are consistently different among the classes derived from the seven FDSS. It is further shown that classification based solely on the 33 ERSS generally does a poorer job in grouping similar streamgauges than the classification based on the seven FDSS. This new classification approach has the additional advantages of overcoming some of the subjectivity associated with the selection of the classification variables and provides a set of robust continental-scale classes of US streamgauges.
A new mathematical modeling for pure parsimony haplotyping problem.
Feizabadi, R; Bagherian, M; Vaziri, H R; Salahi, M
2016-11-01
Pure parsimony haplotyping (PPH) problem is important in bioinformatics because rational haplotyping inference plays important roles in analysis of genetic data, mapping complex genetic diseases such as Alzheimer's disease, heart disorders and etc. Haplotypes and genotypes are m-length sequences. Although several integer programing models have already been presented for PPH problem, its NP-hardness characteristic resulted in ineffectiveness of those models facing the real instances especially instances with many heterozygous sites. In this paper, we assign a corresponding number to each haplotype and genotype and based on those numbers, we set a mixed integer programing model. Using numbers, instead of sequences, would lead to less complexity of the new model in comparison with previous models in a way that there are neither constraints nor variables corresponding to heterozygous nucleotide sites in it. Experimental results approve the efficiency of the new model in producing better solution in comparison to two state-of-the art haplotyping approaches. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Pengintegrasian Model Leadership Menuju Model yang Lebih Komprhensip dan Parsimoni
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Miswanto Miswanti
2016-06-01
Full Text Available ABTSRACT Through leadership models offered by Locke et. al (1991 we can say that whether good or not the vision of leaders in the organization is highly dependent on whether good or not the motives and traits, knowledge, skill, and abilities owned leaders. Then, good or not the implementation of the vision by the leader depends on whether good or not the motives and traits, knowledge, skills, abilities, and the vision of the leaders. Strategic Leadership written by Davies (1991 states that the implementation of the vision by using strategic leadership, the meaning is much more complete than what has been written by Locke et. al. in the fourth stage of leadership. Thus, aspects of the implementation of the vision by Locke et al (1991 it is not complete implementation of the vision according to Davies (1991. With the considerations mentioned above, this article attempts to combine the leadership model of the Locke et. al and strategic leadership of the Davies. With this modification is expected to be an improvement model of leadership is more comprehensive and parsimony.
Maximum parsimony, substitution model, and probability phylogenetic trees.
Weng, J F; Thomas, D A; Mareels, I
2011-01-01
The problem of inferring phylogenies (phylogenetic trees) is one of the main problems in computational biology. There are three main methods for inferring phylogenies-Maximum Parsimony (MP), Distance Matrix (DM) and Maximum Likelihood (ML), of which the MP method is the most well-studied and popular method. In the MP method the optimization criterion is the number of substitutions of the nucleotides computed by the differences in the investigated nucleotide sequences. However, the MP method is often criticized as it only counts the substitutions observable at the current time and all the unobservable substitutions that really occur in the evolutionary history are omitted. In order to take into account the unobservable substitutions, some substitution models have been established and they are now widely used in the DM and ML methods but these substitution models cannot be used within the classical MP method. Recently the authors proposed a probability representation model for phylogenetic trees and the reconstructed trees in this model are called probability phylogenetic trees. One of the advantages of the probability representation model is that it can include a substitution model to infer phylogenetic trees based on the MP principle. In this paper we explain how to use a substitution model in the reconstruction of probability phylogenetic trees and show the advantage of this approach with examples.
Inferring phylogenetic networks by the maximum parsimony criterion: a case study.
Jin, Guohua; Nakhleh, Luay; Snir, Sagi; Tuller, Tamir
2007-01-01
Horizontal gene transfer (HGT) may result in genes whose evolutionary histories disagree with each other, as well as with the species tree. In this case, reconciling the species and gene trees results in a network of relationships, known as the "phylogenetic network" of the set of species. A phylogenetic network that incorporates HGT consists of an underlying species tree that captures vertical inheritance and a set of edges which model the "horizontal" transfer of genetic material. In a series of papers, Nakhleh and colleagues have recently formulated a maximum parsimony (MP) criterion for phylogenetic networks, provided an array of computationally efficient algorithms and heuristics for computing it, and demonstrated its plausibility on simulated data. In this article, we study the performance and robustness of this criterion on biological data. Our findings indicate that MP is very promising when its application is extended to the domain of phylogenetic network reconstruction and HGT detection. In all cases we investigated, the MP criterion detected the correct number of HGT events required to map the evolutionary history of a gene data set onto the species phylogeny. Furthermore, our results indicate that the criterion is robust with respect to both incomplete taxon sampling and the use of different site substitution matrices. Finally, our results show that the MP criterion is very promising in detecting HGT in chimeric genes, whose evolutionary histories are a mix of vertical and horizontal evolution. Besides the performance analysis of MP, our findings offer new insights into the evolution of 4 biological data sets and new possible explanations of HGT scenarios in their evolutionary history.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Guerry, Paul; Duong, Viet Dung; Herrmann, Torsten
2015-01-01
UNIO is a comprehensive software suite for protein NMR structure determination that enables full automation of all NMR data analysis steps involved—including signal identification in NMR spectra, sequence-specific backbone and side-chain resonance assignment, NOE assignment and structure calculation. Within the framework of the second round of the community-wide stringent blind NMR structure determination challenge (CASD-NMR 2), we participated in two categories of CASD-NMR 2, namely using either raw NMR spectra or unrefined NOE peak lists as input. A total of 15 resulting NMR structure bundles were submitted for 9 out of 10 blind protein targets. All submitted UNIO structures accurately coincided with the corresponding blind targets as documented by an average backbone root mean-square deviation to the reference proteins of only 1.2 Å. Also, the precision of the UNIO structure bundles was virtually identical to the ensemble of reference structures. By assessing the quality of all UNIO structures submitted to the two categories, we find throughout that only the UNIO–ATNOS/CANDID approach using raw NMR spectra consistently yielded structure bundles of high quality for direct deposition in the Protein Data Bank. In conclusion, the results obtained in CASD-NMR 2 are another vital proof for robust, accurate and unsupervised NMR data analysis by UNIO for real-world applications
Robust Comparison of the Linear Model Structures in Self-tuning Adaptive Control
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Zhou, Jianjun; Conrad, Finn
1989-01-01
The Generalized Predictive Controller (GPC) is extended to the systems with a generalized linear model structure which contains a number of choices of linear model structures. The Recursive Prediction Error Method (RPEM) is used to estimate the unknown parameters of the linear model structures...... to constitute a GPC self-tuner. Different linear model structures commonly used are compared and evaluated by applying them to the extended GPC self-tuner as well as to the special cases of the GPC, the GMV and MV self-tuners. The simulation results show how the choice of model structure affects the input......-output behaviour of self-tuning controllers....
Robust, high-throughput solution structural analyses by small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hura, Greg L.; Menon, Angeli L.; Hammel, Michal; Rambo, Robert P.; Poole II, Farris L.; Tsutakawa, Susan E.; Jenney Jr, Francis E.; Classen, Scott; Frankel, Kenneth A.; Hopkins, Robert C.; Yang, Sungjae; Scott, Joseph W.; Dillard, Bret D.; Adams, Michael W. W.; Tainer, John A.
2009-07-20
We present an efficient pipeline enabling high-throughput analysis of protein structure in solution with small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS). Our SAXS pipeline combines automated sample handling of microliter volumes, temperature and anaerobic control, rapid data collection and data analysis, and couples structural analysis with automated archiving. We subjected 50 representative proteins, mostly from Pyrococcus furiosus, to this pipeline and found that 30 were multimeric structures in solution. SAXS analysis allowed us to distinguish aggregated and unfolded proteins, define global structural parameters and oligomeric states for most samples, identify shapes and similar structures for 25 unknown structures, and determine envelopes for 41 proteins. We believe that high-throughput SAXS is an enabling technology that may change the way that structural genomics research is done.
Electronic structure robustness and design rules for 2D colloidal heterostructures
Chu, Audrey; Livache, Clément; Ithurria, Sandrine; Lhuillier, Emmanuel
2018-01-01
Among the colloidal quantum dots, 2D nanoplatelets present exceptionally narrow optical features. Rationalizing the design of heterostructures of these objects is of utmost interest; however, very little work has been focused on the investigation of their electronic properties. This work is organized into two main parts. In the first part, we use 1D solving of the Schrödinger equation to extract the effective masses for nanoplatelets (NPLs) of CdSe, CdS, and CdTe and the valence band offset for NPL core/shell of CdSe/CdS. In the second part, using the determined parameters, we quantize how the spectra of the CdSe/CdS heterostructure get affected by (i) the application of an electric field and (ii) by the presence of a dull interface. We also propose design strategies to make the heterostructure even more robust.
High-Performance Flexible Force and Temperature Sensing Array with a Robust Structure
Kim, Min-Seok; Song, Han-Wook; Park, Yon-Kyu
We have developed a flexible tactile sensor array capable of sensing physical quantities, e.g. force and temperature with high-performances and high spatial resolution. The fabricated tactile sensor consists of 8 × 8 force measuring array with 1 mm spacing and a thin metal (copper) temperature sensor. The flexible force sensing array consists of sub-millimetre-size bar-shaped semi-conductor strain gage array attached to a thin and flexible printed circuit board covered by stretchable elastomeric material on both sides. This design incorporates benefits of both materials; the semi-conductor's high performance and the polymer's mechanical flexibility and robustness, while overcoming their drawbacks of those two materials. Special fabrication processes, so called “dry-transfer technique” have been used to fabricate the tactile sensor along with standard micro-fabrication processes.
Schaefer, Christian
2010-01-16
MOTIVATION: The mutation of amino acids often impacts protein function and structure. Mutations without negative effect sustain evolutionary pressure. We study a particular aspect of structural robustness with respect to mutations: regular protein secondary structure and natively unstructured (intrinsically disordered) regions. Is the formation of regular secondary structure an intrinsic feature of amino acid sequences, or is it a feature that is lost upon mutation and is maintained by evolution against the odds? Similarly, is disorder an intrinsic sequence feature or is it difficult to maintain? To tackle these questions, we in silico mutated native protein sequences into random sequence-like ensembles and monitored the change in predicted secondary structure and disorder. RESULTS: We established that by our coarse-grained measures for change, predictions and observations were similar, suggesting that our results were not biased by prediction mistakes. Changes in secondary structure and disorder predictions were linearly proportional to the change in sequence. Surprisingly, neither the content nor the length distribution for the predicted secondary structure changed substantially. Regions with long disorder behaved differently in that significantly fewer such regions were predicted after a few mutation steps. Our findings suggest that the formation of regular secondary structure is an intrinsic feature of random amino acid sequences, while the formation of long-disordered regions is not an intrinsic feature of proteins with disordered regions. Put differently, helices and strands appear to be maintained easily by evolution, whereas maintaining disordered regions appears difficult. Neutral mutations with respect to disorder are therefore very unlikely.
Schaefer, Christian; Schlessinger, Avner; Rost, Burkhard
2010-01-01
MOTIVATION: The mutation of amino acids often impacts protein function and structure. Mutations without negative effect sustain evolutionary pressure. We study a particular aspect of structural robustness with respect to mutations: regular protein secondary structure and natively unstructured (intrinsically disordered) regions. Is the formation of regular secondary structure an intrinsic feature of amino acid sequences, or is it a feature that is lost upon mutation and is maintained by evolution against the odds? Similarly, is disorder an intrinsic sequence feature or is it difficult to maintain? To tackle these questions, we in silico mutated native protein sequences into random sequence-like ensembles and monitored the change in predicted secondary structure and disorder. RESULTS: We established that by our coarse-grained measures for change, predictions and observations were similar, suggesting that our results were not biased by prediction mistakes. Changes in secondary structure and disorder predictions were linearly proportional to the change in sequence. Surprisingly, neither the content nor the length distribution for the predicted secondary structure changed substantially. Regions with long disorder behaved differently in that significantly fewer such regions were predicted after a few mutation steps. Our findings suggest that the formation of regular secondary structure is an intrinsic feature of random amino acid sequences, while the formation of long-disordered regions is not an intrinsic feature of proteins with disordered regions. Put differently, helices and strands appear to be maintained easily by evolution, whereas maintaining disordered regions appears difficult. Neutral mutations with respect to disorder are therefore very unlikely.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Park, Moon Ghu; Cho, Nam Zin
1993-01-01
A Nonlinear model-based Hybrid Controller (NHC) is developed which consists of the adaptive proportional-integral-feedforward (PIF) gains and variable structure controller. The controller has the robustness against modeling uncertainty and is applied to the trajectory tracking control of single-input, single-output nonlinear systems. The essence of the scheme is to divide the control into four different terms. Namely, the adaptive P-I-F gains and variable structure controller are used to accomplish the specific control actions by each terms. The robustness of the controller is guaranteed by the feedback of estimated uncertainty and the performance specification given by the adaptation of PIF gains using the second method of Lyapunov. The variable structure controller is incorporated to regulate the initial peak of the tracking error during the parameter adaptation is not settled yet. The newly developed NHC method is applied to the power tracking control of a nuclear reactor and the simulation results show great improvement in tracking performance compared with the conventional model-based control methods. (Author)
Robust Analysis and Prediction for Integrated Design of Structures (RAPIDS), Phase I
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Commercially available software suites such as the Automate Structural Optimization System (ASTROS) and MSC/NASTRAN represent the current industry standard in...
Robust Numerical Methods for Nonlinear Wave-Structure Interaction in a Moving Frame of Reference
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kontos, Stavros; Lindberg, Ole
This project is focused on improving the state of the art for predicting the interaction between nonlinear ocean waves and marine structures. To achieve this goal, a flexible order finite difference potential flow solver has been extended to calculate for fully nonlinear wave-structure interaction...
Robust and Elastic Lunar and Martian Structures from 3D-Printed Regolith Inks
Jakus, Adam E.; Koube, Katie D.; Geisendorfer, Nicholas R.; Shah, Ramille N.
2017-03-01
Here, we present a comprehensive approach for creating robust, elastic, designer Lunar and Martian regolith simulant (LRS and MRS, respectively) architectures using ambient condition, extrusion-based 3D-printing of regolith simulant inks. The LRS and MRS powders are characterized by distinct, highly inhomogeneous morphologies and sizes, where LRS powder particles are highly irregular and jagged and MRS powder particles are rough, but primarily rounded. The inks are synthesized via simple mixing of evaporant, surfactant, and plasticizer solvents, polylactic-co-glycolic acid (30% by solids volume), and regolith simulant powders (70% by solids volume). Both LRS and MRS inks exhibit similar rheological and 3D-printing characteristics, and can be 3D-printed at linear deposition rates of 1-150 mm/s using 300 μm to 1.4 cm-diameter nozzles. The resulting LRS and MRS 3D-printed materials exhibit similar, but distinct internal and external microstructures and material porosity (~20-40%). These microstructures contribute to the rubber-like quasi-static and cyclic mechanical properties of both materials, with young’s moduli ranging from 1.8 to 13.2 MPa and extension to failure exceeding 250% over a range of strain rates (10-1-102 min-1). Finally, we discuss the potential for LRS and MRS ink components to be reclaimed and recycled, as well as be synthesized in resource-limited, extraterrestrial environments.
Robust inverse scattering full waveform seismic tomography for imaging complex structure
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nurhandoko, Bagus Endar B.; Sukmana, Indriani; Wibowo, Satryo; Deny, Agus; Kurniadi, Rizal; Widowati, Sri; Mubarok, Syahrul; Susilowati; Kaswandhi
2012-01-01
Seismic tomography becomes important tool recently for imaging complex subsurface. It is well known that imaging complex rich fault zone is difficult. In this paper, The application of time domain inverse scattering wave tomography to image the complex fault zone would be shown on this paper, especially an efficient time domain inverse scattering tomography and their run in cluster parallel computer which has been developed. This algorithm is purely based on scattering theory through solving Lippmann Schwienger integral by using Born's approximation. In this paper, it is shown the robustness of this algorithm especially in avoiding the inversion trapped in local minimum to reach global minimum. A large data are solved by windowing and blocking technique of memory as well as computation. Parameter of windowing computation is based on shot gather's aperture. This windowing technique reduces memory as well as computation significantly. This parallel algorithm is done by means cluster system of 120 processors from 20 nodes of AMD Phenom II. Benchmarking of this algorithm is done by means Marmoussi model which can be representative of complex rich fault area. It is shown that the proposed method can image clearly the rich fault and complex zone in Marmoussi model even though the initial model is quite far from the true model. Therefore, this method can be as one of solution to image the very complex mode.
Robust inverse scattering full waveform seismic tomography for imaging complex structure
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Nurhandoko, Bagus Endar B.; Sukmana, Indriani; Wibowo, Satryo; Deny, Agus; Kurniadi, Rizal; Widowati, Sri; Mubarok, Syahrul; Susilowati; Kaswandhi [Wave Inversion and Subsurface Fluid Imaging Research (WISFIR) Lab., Complex System Research Division, Physics Department, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Institut Teknologi Bandung. and Rock Fluid Imaging Lab., Rock Physics and Cluster C (Indonesia); Rock Fluid Imaging Lab., Rock Physics and Cluster Computing Center, Bandung (Indonesia); Physics Department of Institut Teknologi Bandung (Indonesia); Rock Fluid Imaging Lab., Rock Physics and Cluster Computing Center, Bandung, Indonesia and Institut Teknologi Telkom, Bandung (Indonesia); Rock Fluid Imaging Lab., Rock Physics and Cluster Computing Center, Bandung (Indonesia)
2012-06-20
Seismic tomography becomes important tool recently for imaging complex subsurface. It is well known that imaging complex rich fault zone is difficult. In this paper, The application of time domain inverse scattering wave tomography to image the complex fault zone would be shown on this paper, especially an efficient time domain inverse scattering tomography and their run in cluster parallel computer which has been developed. This algorithm is purely based on scattering theory through solving Lippmann Schwienger integral by using Born's approximation. In this paper, it is shown the robustness of this algorithm especially in avoiding the inversion trapped in local minimum to reach global minimum. A large data are solved by windowing and blocking technique of memory as well as computation. Parameter of windowing computation is based on shot gather's aperture. This windowing technique reduces memory as well as computation significantly. This parallel algorithm is done by means cluster system of 120 processors from 20 nodes of AMD Phenom II. Benchmarking of this algorithm is done by means Marmoussi model which can be representative of complex rich fault area. It is shown that the proposed method can image clearly the rich fault and complex zone in Marmoussi model even though the initial model is quite far from the true model. Therefore, this method can be as one of solution to image the very complex mode.
CSIR Research Space (South Africa)
Bogaers, Alfred EJ
2015-01-01
Full Text Available In this paper we introduce the idea of combining artificial compressibility (AC) with quasi-Newton (QN) methods to solve strongly coupled, fully/quasi-enclosed fluid-structure interaction (FSI) problems. Partitioned, incompressible, FSI based...
Chen, Qiang; Gorb, Stanislav; Kovalev, Alexander; Li, Zhiyong; Pugno, Nicola
2016-10-01
Feathers can fulfill their aerodynamic function only if the pennaceous vane forms an airfoil stabilized by robust interlocking between barbules. Thus, revealing the robustness of the interlocking mechanical behavior of the barbules is very important to understand the function and long-term resilience of bird feathers. This paper, basing on the small- and large-beam deflection solutions, presents a hierarchical mechanical model for deriving the critical delamination conditions of the interlocking barbules between two adjacent barbs in bird feathers. The results indicate a high robustness and flaw-tolerant design of the structure. This work contributes to the understanding of the mechanical behavior of the robust interlocking barb-barbule structure of the bird feather, and provides a basis for design of feather-inspired materials with robust interlocking mechanism, such as advanced bio-inspired micro-zipping devices.
Tewari, Sumit; Bastiaans, Koen M; Allan, Milan P; van Ruitenbeek, Jan M
2017-01-01
Scanning tunneling microscopes (STM) are used extensively for studying and manipulating matter at the atomic scale. In spite of the critical role of the STM tip, procedures for controlling the atomic-scale shape of STM tips have not been rigorously justified. Here, we present a method for preparing tips in situ while ensuring the crystalline structure and a reproducibly prepared tip structure up to the second atomic layer. We demonstrate a controlled evolution of such tips starting from undefined tip shapes.
Khan, Haseeb A; Arif, Ibrahim A; Bahkali, Ali H; Al Farhan, Ahmad H; Al Homaidan, Ali A
2008-10-06
This investigation was aimed to compare the inference of antelope phylogenies resulting from the 16S rRNA, cytochrome-b (cyt-b) and d-loop segments of mitochondrial DNA using three different computational models including Bayesian (BA), maximum parsimony (MP) and unweighted pair group method with arithmetic mean (UPGMA). The respective nucleotide sequences of three Oryx species (Oryx leucoryx, Oryx dammah and Oryx gazella) and an out-group (Addax nasomaculatus) were aligned and subjected to BA, MP and UPGMA models for comparing the topologies of respective phylogenetic trees. The 16S rRNA region possessed the highest frequency of conserved sequences (97.65%) followed by cyt-b (94.22%) and d-loop (87.29%). There were few transitions (2.35%) and none transversions in 16S rRNA as compared to cyt-b (5.61% transitions and 0.17% transversions) and d-loop (11.57% transitions and 1.14% transversions) while comparing the four taxa. All the three mitochondrial segments clearly differentiated the genus Addax from Oryx using the BA or UPGMA models. The topologies of all the gamma-corrected Bayesian trees were identical irrespective of the marker type. The UPGMA trees resulting from 16S rRNA and d-loop sequences were also identical (Oryx dammah grouped with Oryx leucoryx) to Bayesian trees except that the UPGMA tree based on cyt-b showed a slightly different phylogeny (Oryx dammah grouped with Oryx gazella) with a low bootstrap support. However, the MP model failed to differentiate the genus Addax from Oryx. These findings demonstrate the efficiency and robustness of BA and UPGMA methods for phylogenetic analysis of antelopes using mitochondrial markers.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sumit Tewari
2017-11-01
Full Text Available Scanning tunneling microscopes (STM are used extensively for studying and manipulating matter at the atomic scale. In spite of the critical role of the STM tip, procedures for controlling the atomic-scale shape of STM tips have not been rigorously justified. Here, we present a method for preparing tips in situ while ensuring the crystalline structure and a reproducibly prepared tip structure up to the second atomic layer. We demonstrate a controlled evolution of such tips starting from undefined tip shapes.
Gu, Jiatai; Gu, Haihong; Cao, Jin; Chen, Shaojie; Li, Ni; Xiong, Jie
2018-05-01
In this work, novel nanofibrous membranes with waterproof and breathable (W&B) performance were successfully fabricated by the combination of electrospinning and surface modification technology. This fibrous membranes consisted of polyurethane (PU), NaCl, and fluoroalkylsilane (FAS). Firstly, The fibrous construction and porous structure of fibrous membranes were regulated by tuning the NaCl concentrations in PU solutions. Then, the obtained PU/NaCl fibrous membranes were further modified with fluoroalkylsilane (FAS) to improve hydrophobic property. The synergistic effect of porous structure and hydrophobicity on waterproof and breathable performance was investigated. Furthermore, the mechanical property of fibrous membranes was deeply analysed on the basis of macromolecule orientation and adhesive structure. Benefiting from the optimized porous structure and hydrophobic modification, the resultant fibrous membranes exhibited excellent waterproof (hydrostatic pressure of 1261 Mbar), breathable (water vapor transmission (WVT) rate of 9.06 kg m-2 d-1 and air permeability of 4.8 mm s-1) performance, as well as high tensile strength (breakage stress of 10.4 MPa), suggesting a promising candidate for various applications, especially in protective clothing.
Parsimonious Hydrologic and Nitrate Response Models For Silver Springs, Florida
Klammler, Harald; Yaquian-Luna, Jose Antonio; Jawitz, James W.; Annable, Michael D.; Hatfield, Kirk
2014-05-01
Silver Springs with an approximate discharge of 25 m3/sec is one of Florida's first magnitude springs and among the largest springs worldwide. Its 2500-km2 springshed overlies the mostly unconfined Upper Floridan Aquifer. The aquifer is approximately 100 m thick and predominantly consists of porous, fractured and cavernous limestone, which leads to excellent surface drainage properties (no major stream network other than Silver Springs run) and complex groundwater flow patterns through both rock matrix and fast conduits. Over the past few decades, discharge from Silver Springs has been observed to slowly but continuously decline, while nitrate concentrations in the spring water have enormously increased from a background level of 0.05 mg/l to over 1 mg/l. In combination with concurrent increases in algae growth and turbidity, for example, and despite an otherwise relatively stable water quality, this has given rise to concerns about the ecological equilibrium in and near the spring run as well as possible impacts on tourism. The purpose of the present work is to elaborate parsimonious lumped parameter models that may be used by resource managers for evaluating the springshed's hydrologic and nitrate transport responses. Instead of attempting to explicitly consider the complex hydrogeologic features of the aquifer in a typically numerical and / or stochastic approach, we use a transfer function approach wherein input signals (i.e., time series of groundwater recharge and nitrate loading) are transformed into output signals (i.e., time series of spring discharge and spring nitrate concentrations) by some linear and time-invariant law. The dynamic response types and parameters are inferred from comparing input and output time series in frequency domain (e.g., after Fourier transformation). Results are converted into impulse (or step) response functions, which describe at what time and to what magnitude a unitary change in input manifests at the output. For the
A Robust Distributed Multipoint Fiber Optic Gas Sensor System Based on AGC Amplifier Structure.
Zhu, Cunguang; Wang, Rende; Tao, Xuechen; Wang, Guangwei; Wang, Pengpeng
2016-07-28
A harsh environment-oriented distributed multipoint fiber optic gas sensor system realized by automatic gain control (AGC) technology is proposed. To improve the photoelectric signal reliability, the electronic variable gain can be modified in real time by an AGC closed-loop feedback structure to compensate for optical transmission loss which is caused by the fiber bend loss or other reasons. The deviation of the system based on AGC structure is below 4.02% when photoelectric signal decays due to fiber bending loss for bending radius of 5 mm, which is 20 times lower than the ordinary differential system. In addition, the AGC circuit with the same electric parameters can keep the baseline intensity of signals in different channels of the distributed multipoint sensor system at the same level. This avoids repetitive calibrations and streamlines the installation process.
A robust and general Schrödinger and Dirac solver for atomic structure calculations
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Čertík, O.; Pask, J.E.; Vackář, Jiří
2013-01-01
Roč. 184, č. 7 (2013), s. 1777-1791 ISSN 0010-4655 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LC06040; GA ČR GA101/09/1630 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : atom * electronic structure * Dirac equation * density-functional theory Subject RIV: BE - Theoretical Physics Impact factor: 2.407, year: 2013 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0010465513000714
Peng, Shan; Tian, Dong; Miao, Xinrui; Yang, Xiaojun; Deng, Wenli
2013-11-01
Hierarchical alumina surfaces with different morphologies were fabricated by a simple one-step anodization method. These alumina films were fabricated by a new raw material: silica gel plate (aluminum foil with a low purity of 97.17%). The modulation of anodizing time enabled the formation of nanowires-on-nanopores hybrid nanostructures having controllable nanowires topographies through a self-assembly process. The resultant structures were demonstrated to be able to achieve superhydrophobicity without any hydrophobic coating layer. More interestingly, it is found that the as-prepared superhydrophobic alumina surfaces exhibited high contrast water adhesion. Hierarchical alumina film with nanowire bunches-on-nanopores (WBOP) morphology presents extremely slippery property which can obtain a sliding angle (SA) as low as 1°, nanowire pyramids-on-nanopores (WPOP) structure shows strongly sticky water adhesion with the adhesive ability to support 15 μL inverted water droplet at most. The obtained superhydrophobic alumina surfaces show remarkable mechanical durability even treated by crimping or pressing without impact on the water-repellent performance. Moreover, the created surfaces also show excellent resistivity to ice water, boiling water, high temperature, organic solvent and oil contamination, which could expand their usefulness and efficacy in harsh conditions. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Relan, Rishi; Tiels, Koen; Marconato, Anna; Dreesen, Philippe; Schoukens, Johan
2018-05-01
Many real world systems exhibit a quasi linear or weakly nonlinear behavior during normal operation, and a hard saturation effect for high peaks of the input signal. In this paper, a methodology to identify a parsimonious discrete-time nonlinear state space model (NLSS) for the nonlinear dynamical system with relatively short data record is proposed. The capability of the NLSS model structure is demonstrated by introducing two different initialisation schemes, one of them using multivariate polynomials. In addition, a method using first-order information of the multivariate polynomials and tensor decomposition is employed to obtain the parsimonious decoupled representation of the set of multivariate real polynomials estimated during the identification of NLSS model. Finally, the experimental verification of the model structure is done on the cascaded water-benchmark identification problem.
Conceptual distortions of hand structure are robust to changes in stimulus information.
Ambroziak, Klaudia B; Tamè, Luigi; Longo, Matthew R
2018-05-01
Previous studies showed stereotyped distortions in hand representations. People judge their knuckles as farther forward in the hand than they actually are. The cause of this bias remains unclear. We tested whether both visual and tactile information contribute to the bias. In Experiment 1, participants judged the location of their knuckles by pointing to the location on their palm with: (1) a metal baton (using vision and touch), (2) a metal baton while blindfolded (using touch), or (3) a laser pointer (using vision). Distal mislocalisations were found in all conditions. In Experiment 2, we investigated whether judgments are influenced by visual landmarks such as creases. Participants localized their knuckles on either a photograph of their palm or a silhouette. Distal mislocalisations were apparent in both conditions. These results show that distal biases are resistant to changes in stimulus information, suggesting that such mislocalisations reflect a conceptual mis-representation of hand structure. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Local appearance features for robust MRI brain structure segmentation across scanning protocols
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Achterberg, H.C.; Poot, Dirk H. J.; van der Lijn, Fedde
2013-01-01
Segmentation of brain structures in magnetic resonance images is an important task in neuro image analysis. Several papers on this topic have shown the benefit of supervised classification based on local appearance features, often combined with atlas-based approaches. These methods require...... a representative annotated training set and therefore often do not perform well if the target image is acquired on a different scanner or with a different acquisition protocol than the training images. Assuming that the appearance of the brain is determined by the underlying brain tissue distribution...... with substantially different imaging protocols and on different scanners. While a combination of conventional appearance features trained on data from a different scanner with multiatlas segmentation performed poorly with an average Dice overlap of 0.698, the local appearance model based on the new acquisition...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
C. Hahn
2013-10-01
Full Text Available Eutrophication of surface waters due to diffuse phosphorus (P losses continues to be a severe water quality problem worldwide, causing the loss of ecosystem functions of the respective water bodies. Phosphorus in runoff often originates from a small fraction of a catchment only. Targeting mitigation measures to these critical source areas (CSAs is expected to be most efficient and cost-effective, but requires suitable tools. Here we investigated the capability of the parsimonious Rainfall-Runoff-Phosphorus (RRP model to identify CSAs in grassland-dominated catchments based on readily available soil and topographic data. After simultaneous calibration on runoff data from four small hilly catchments on the Swiss Plateau, the model was validated on a different catchment in the same region without further calibration. The RRP model adequately simulated the discharge and dissolved reactive P (DRP export from the validation catchment. Sensitivity analysis showed that the model predictions were robust with respect to the classification of soils into "poorly drained" and "well drained", based on the available soil map. Comparing spatial hydrological model predictions with field data from the validation catchment provided further evidence that the assumptions underlying the model are valid and that the model adequately accounts for the dominant P export processes in the target region. Thus, the parsimonious RRP model is a valuable tool that can be used to determine CSAs. Despite the considerable predictive uncertainty regarding the spatial extent of CSAs, the RRP can provide guidance for the implementation of mitigation measures. The model helps to identify those parts of a catchment where high DRP losses are expected or can be excluded with high confidence. Legacy P was predicted to be the dominant source for DRP losses and thus, in combination with hydrologic active areas, a high risk for water quality.
Comanns, Philipp; Winands, Kai; Pothen, Mario; Bott, Raya A.; Wagner, Hermann; Baumgartner, Werner
2016-04-01
Moisture-harvesting lizards, such as the Texas horned lizard Phrynosoma cornutum, have remarkable adaptations for inhabiting arid regions. Special skin structures, in particular capillary channels in between imbricate overlapping scales, enable the lizard to collect water by capillarity and to transport it to the snout for ingestion. This fluid transport is passive and directional towards the lizard's snout. The directionality is based on geometric principles, namely on a periodic pattern of interconnected half-open capillary channels that narrow and widen. Following a biomimetic approach, these principles were transferred to technical prototype design and manufacturing. Capillary structures, 50 μm to 300 μm wide and approx. 70 μm deep, were realized by use of a pulsed picosecond laser in hot working tool steel, hardened to 52 HRC. In order to achieve highest functionality, strategies were developed to minimize potential structural inaccuracies, which can occur at the bottom of the capillary structures caused by the laser process. Such inaccuracies are in the range of 10 μm to 15 μm and form sub-capillary structures with greater capillary forces than the main channels. Hence, an Acceleration Compensation Algorithm was developed for the laser process to minimize or even avoid these inaccuracies. The capillary design was also identified to have substantial influence; by a hexagonal capillary network of non-parallel capillaries potential influences of sub-capillaries on the functionality were reduced to realize a robust passive directional capillary transport. Such smart surface structures can lead to improvements of technical systems by decreasing energy consumption and increasing the resource efficiency.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Piacentino, Antonio; Cardona, Ennio
2010-01-01
This paper represents the Part II of a paper in two parts. In Part I the fundamentals of Scope Oriented Thermoeconomics have been introduced, showing a scarce potential for the cost accounting of existing plants; in this Part II the same concepts are applied to the optimization of a small set of design variables for a vapour compression chiller. The method overcomes the limit of most conventional optimization techniques, which are usually based on hermetic algorithms not enabling the energy analyst to recognize all the margins for improvement. The Scope Oriented Thermoeconomic optimization allows us to disassemble the optimization process, thus recognizing the Formation Structure of Optimality, i.e. the specific influence of any thermodynamic and economic parameter in the path toward the optimal design. Finally, the potential applications of such an in-depth understanding of the inner driving forces of the optimization are discussed in the paper, with a particular focus on the sensitivity analysis to the variation of energy and capital costs and on the actual operation-oriented design.
Bishop , Matt; Elliott , Chip
2011-01-01
Part 2: WISE 7; International audience; Robust programming lies at the heart of the type of coding called “secure programming”. Yet it is rarely taught in academia. More commonly, the focus is on how to avoid creating well-known vulnerabilities. While important, that misses the point: a well-structured, robust program should anticipate where problems might arise and compensate for them. This paper discusses one view of robust programming and gives an example of how it may be taught.
Adhikari, Nilanjan; Amin, Sk. Abdul; Saha, Achintya; Jha, Tarun
2018-03-01
Matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) is a promising pharmacological target for designing potential anticancer drugs. MMP-2 plays critical functions in apoptosis by cleaving the DNA repair enzyme namely poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP). Moreover, MMP-2 expression triggers the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) having a positive influence on tumor size, invasion, and angiogenesis. Therefore, it is an urgent need to develop potential MMP-2 inhibitors without any toxicity but better pharmacokinetic property. In this article, robust validated multi-quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) modeling approaches were attempted on a dataset of 222 MMP-2 inhibitors to explore the important structural and pharmacophoric requirements for higher MMP-2 inhibition. Different validated regression and classification-based QSARs, pharmacophore mapping and 3D-QSAR techniques were performed. These results were challenged and subjected to further validation to explain 24 in house MMP-2 inhibitors to judge the reliability of these models further. All these models were individually validated internally as well as externally and were supported and validated by each other. These results were further justified by molecular docking analysis. Modeling techniques adopted here not only helps to explore the necessary structural and pharmacophoric requirements but also for the overall validation and refinement techniques for designing potential MMP-2 inhibitors.
Robust, Brillouin Active Embedded Fiber-Is-The-Sensor System in Smart Composite Structures
Yu, Chung
1996-01-01
Extensive review of our proposed sensing scheme, based mainly on the forward Guided Acoustic Wave Brillouin Scattering (GAWBS) with backward stimulated Brillouin scattering (sBs) as an auxiliary scheme for system fault tolerance has been completed during this project period. This preliminary study is conducted for a number of reasons. The most significant reasons lie in the essential capability of the system to measure temperature and pressure. These two measurands have been proposed to be sensed by sBs in our proposal. Temperature and pressure/strain are important measurands in structural monitoring, so that the effectiveness of sensing by sBs needs to be further examined. It has been pointed out initially that sBs shift will be dependent on temperature and pressure/strain simultaneously. The shift versus temperature or strain is linear. Now, the question is how can these two measurands be separated when sBs is used to sense an environment, in which both temperature and strain are changing simultaneously. Typical sBs shift plotted versus strain and varying temperature is shown in Fig. 1. As is clear, a fiber initially stressed will relax with rising temperature. This is verified by a displacement to the right with rising temperature of the sBs shift vs strain curves in the figure. A way to circumvent this ambiguity is by employing two fibers, one pre-stressed and the other is a free fiber. The latter will measure temperature and subtracting data in the latter fiber from those of the former will give us net strain readings. This is a laborious approach, since it involves the use of two identical fibers, and this is hard to accomplish, especially when many sensors are needed. Additional multiplexing of the data stream for data subtraction becomes a necessity.
Conomos, Matthew P.; Miller, Mike; Thornton, Timothy
2016-01-01
Population structure inference with genetic data has been motivated by a variety of applications in population genetics and genetic association studies. Several approaches have been proposed for the identification of genetic ancestry differences in samples where study participants are assumed to be unrelated, including principal components analysis (PCA), multi-dimensional scaling (MDS), and model-based methods for proportional ancestry estimation. Many genetic studies, however, include individuals with some degree of relatedness, and existing methods for inferring genetic ancestry fail in related samples. We present a method, PC-AiR, for robust population structure inference in the presence of known or cryptic relatedness. PC-AiR utilizes genome-screen data and an efficient algorithm to identify a diverse subset of unrelated individuals that is representative of all ancestries in the sample. The PC-AiR method directly performs PCA on the identified ancestry representative subset and then predicts components of variation for all remaining individuals based on genetic similarities. In simulation studies and in applications to real data from Phase III of the HapMap Project, we demonstrate that PC-AiR provides a substantial improvement over existing approaches for population structure inference in related samples. We also demonstrate significant efficiency gains, where a single axis of variation from PC-AiR provides better prediction of ancestry in a variety of structure settings than using ten (or more) components of variation from widely used PCA and MDS approaches. Finally, we illustrate that PC-AiR can provide improved population stratification correction over existing methods in genetic association studies with population structure and relatedness. PMID:25810074
Fast Construction of Near Parsimonious Hybridization Networks for Multiple Phylogenetic Trees.
Mirzaei, Sajad; Wu, Yufeng
2016-01-01
Hybridization networks represent plausible evolutionary histories of species that are affected by reticulate evolutionary processes. An established computational problem on hybridization networks is constructing the most parsimonious hybridization network such that each of the given phylogenetic trees (called gene trees) is "displayed" in the network. There have been several previous approaches, including an exact method and several heuristics, for this NP-hard problem. However, the exact method is only applicable to a limited range of data, and heuristic methods can be less accurate and also slow sometimes. In this paper, we develop a new algorithm for constructing near parsimonious networks for multiple binary gene trees. This method is more efficient for large numbers of gene trees than previous heuristics. This new method also produces more parsimonious results on many simulated datasets as well as a real biological dataset than a previous method. We also show that our method produces topologically more accurate networks for many datasets.
Pakdel, Amirreza; Fialkov, Jeffrey; Whyne, Cari M
2016-06-14
Accurate finite element (FE) modeling of complex skeletal anatomy requires high resolution in both meshing and the heterogeneous mapping of material properties onto the generated mesh. This study introduces Node-based elastic Modulus Assignment with Partial-volume correction (NMAP) as a new approach for FE material property assignment to thin bone structures. The NMAP approach incorporates point spread function based deblurring of CT images, partial-volume correction of CT image voxel intensities and anisotropic interpolation and mapping of CT intensity assignment to FE mesh nodes. The NMAP procedure combined with a derived craniomaxillo-facial skeleton (CMFS) specific density-isotropic elastic modulus relationship was applied to produce specimen-specific FE models of 6 cadaveric heads. The NMAP procedure successfully generated models of the complex thin bone structures with surface elastic moduli reflective of cortical bone material properties. The specimen-specific CMFS FE models were able to accurately predict experimental strains measured under in vitro temporalis and masseter muscle loading (r=0.93, slope=1.01, n=5). The strength of this correlation represents a robust validation for CMFS FE modeling that can be used to better understand load transfer in this complex musculoskeletal system. The developed methodology offers a systematic process-flow able to address the complexity of the CMFS that can be further applied to create high-fidelity models of any musculoskeletal anatomy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Maria Luisa eGuerriero
2014-10-01
Full Text Available Rhythmic behavior is essential for plants; for example, daily (circadian rhythms control photosynthesis and seasonal rhythms regulate their life cycle. The core of the circadian clock is a genetic network that coordinates the expression of specific clock genes in a circadian rhythm reflecting the 24-hour day/night cycle.Circadian clocks exhibit stochastic noise due to the low copy numbers of clock genes and the consequent cell-to-cell variation: this intrinsic noise plays a major role in circadian clocks by inducing more robust oscillatory behavior. Another source of noise is the environment, which causes variation in temperature and light intensity: this extrinsic noise is part of the requirement for the structural complexity of clock networks.Advances in experimental techniques now permit single-cell measurements and the development of single-cell models. Here we present some modeling studies showing the importance of considering both types of noise in understanding how plants adapt to regular and irregular light variations. Stochastic models have proven useful for understanding the effect of regular variations. By contrast, the impact of irregular variations and the interaction of different noise sources are less studied.
Consequence Valuing as Operation and Process: A Parsimonious Analysis of Motivation
Whelan, Robert; Barnes-Holmes, Dermot
2010-01-01
The concept of the motivating operation (MO) has been subject to 3 criticisms: (a) the terms and concepts employed do not always overlap with traditional behavior-analytic verbal practices; (b) the dual nature of the MO is unclear; and (c) there is a lack of adequate contact with empirical data. We offer a more parsimonious approach to motivation,…
Peltier, James W.; Cummins, Shannon; Pomirleanu, Nadia; Cross, James; Simon, Rob
2014-01-01
Students' desire and intention to pursue a career in sales continue to lag behind industry demand for sales professionals. This article develops and validates a reliable and parsimonious scale for measuring and predicting student intention to pursue a selling career. The instrument advances previous scales in three ways. The instrument is…
Wang, Chao; Yang, Chuan-sheng
2017-09-01
In this paper, we present a simplified parsimonious higher-order multivariate Markov chain model with new convergence condition. (TPHOMMCM-NCC). Moreover, estimation method of the parameters in TPHOMMCM-NCC is give. Numerical experiments illustrate the effectiveness of TPHOMMCM-NCC.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Callot, Laurent; Kristensen, Johannes Tang
the monetary policy response to inflation and business cycle fluctuations in the US by estimating a parsimoniously time varying parameter Taylor rule.We document substantial changes in the policy response of the Fed in the 1970s and 1980s, and since 2007, but also document the stability of this response...
Time-Lapse Monitoring of Subsurface Fluid Flow using Parsimonious Seismic Interferometry
Hanafy, Sherif; Li, Jing; Schuster, Gerard T.
2017-01-01
of parsimonious seismic interferometry with the time-lapse mentoring idea with field examples, where we were able to record 30 different data sets within a 2-hour period. The recorded data are then processed to generate 30 snapshots that shows the spread of water
Parsimonious wave-equation travel-time inversion for refraction waves
Fu, Lei; Hanafy, Sherif M.; Schuster, Gerard T.
2017-01-01
We present a parsimonious wave-equation travel-time inversion technique for refraction waves. A dense virtual refraction dataset can be generated from just two reciprocal shot gathers for the sources at the endpoints of the survey line, with N
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yongchang Wei
2015-01-01
uncertain environment. The impact of network structure and collaboration on the dynamics and robustness of supply chain network, however, remains to be explored. In this paper, a unified state space model for a two-layer supply chain network composed of multiple distributors and multiple retailers is developed. A robust control algorithm is advocated to reduce both order and demand fluctuations for unknown demand. Numerical simulations demonstrate that the robust control approach has the advantage to reduce both inventory and order fluctuations. In the simulation experiment, it is interesting to notice that complex network structure and collaborations might contribute to the reduction of inventory and order oscillations. This paper yields new insights into the overestimated bullwhip effect problem and helps us understand the complexities of supply chain networks.
O'Reilly, Joseph E; Puttick, Mark N; Parry, Luke; Tanner, Alastair R; Tarver, James E; Fleming, James; Pisani, Davide; Donoghue, Philip C J
2016-04-01
Different analytical methods can yield competing interpretations of evolutionary history and, currently, there is no definitive method for phylogenetic reconstruction using morphological data. Parsimony has been the primary method for analysing morphological data, but there has been a resurgence of interest in the likelihood-based Mk-model. Here, we test the performance of the Bayesian implementation of the Mk-model relative to both equal and implied-weight implementations of parsimony. Using simulated morphological data, we demonstrate that the Mk-model outperforms equal-weights parsimony in terms of topological accuracy, and implied-weights performs the most poorly. However, the Mk-model produces phylogenies that have less resolution than parsimony methods. This difference in the accuracy and precision of parsimony and Bayesian approaches to topology estimation needs to be considered when selecting a method for phylogeny reconstruction. © 2016 The Authors.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Gorm Hansen, Birgitte
their core i nterests, 2) developing a selfsupply of industry interests by becoming entrepreneurs and thus creating their own compliant industry partner and 3) balancing resources within a larger collective of researchers, thus countering changes in the influx of funding caused by shifts in political...... knowledge", Danish research policy seems to have helped develop politically and economically "robust scientists". Scientific robustness is acquired by way of three strategies: 1) tasting and discriminating between resources so as to avoid funding that erodes academic profiles and push scientists away from...
Robustness - theoretical framework
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Sørensen, John Dalsgaard; Rizzuto, Enrico; Faber, Michael H.
2010-01-01
More frequent use of advanced types of structures with limited redundancy and serious consequences in case of failure combined with increased requirements to efficiency in design and execution followed by increased risk of human errors has made the need of requirements to robustness of new struct...... of this fact sheet is to describe a theoretical and risk based framework to form the basis for quantification of robustness and for pre-normative guidelines....
DupTree: a program for large-scale phylogenetic analyses using gene tree parsimony.
Wehe, André; Bansal, Mukul S; Burleigh, J Gordon; Eulenstein, Oliver
2008-07-01
DupTree is a new software program for inferring rooted species trees from collections of gene trees using the gene tree parsimony approach. The program implements a novel algorithm that significantly improves upon the run time of standard search heuristics for gene tree parsimony, and enables the first truly genome-scale phylogenetic analyses. In addition, DupTree allows users to examine alternate rootings and to weight the reconciliation costs for gene trees. DupTree is an open source project written in C++. DupTree for Mac OS X, Windows, and Linux along with a sample dataset and an on-line manual are available at http://genome.cs.iastate.edu/CBL/DupTree
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kristensen, Jakob Baek; Albrechtsen, Thomas; Dahl-Nielsen, Emil
2017-01-01
This study shows how liking politicians’ public Facebook posts can be used as an accurate measure for predicting present-day voter intention in a multiparty system. We highlight that a few, but selective digital traces produce prediction accuracies that are on par or even greater than most curren...
Kuss, DJ; Shorter, GW; Van Rooij, AJ; Griffiths, MD; Schoenmakers, T
2014-01-01
Internet usage has grown exponentially over the last decade. Research indicates that excessive Internet use can lead to symptoms associated with addiction. To date, assessment of potential Internet addiction has varied regarding populations studied and instruments used, making reliable prevalence estimations difficult. To overcome the present problems a preliminary study was conducted testing a parsimonious Internet addiction components model based on Griffiths’ addiction components (2005), i...
Kuss, D.J.; Shorter, G.W.; Rooij, A.J. van; Griffiths, M.D.; Schoenmakers, T.M.
2014-01-01
Internet usage has grown exponentially over the last decade. Research indicates that excessive Internet use can lead to symptoms associated with addiction. To date, assessment of potential Internet addiction has varied regarding populations studied and instruments used, making reliable prevalence estimations difficult. To overcome the present problems a preliminary study was conducted testing a parsimonious Internet addiction components model based on Griffiths’ addiction components (Journal ...
Khan, Haseeb A.; Arif, Ibrahim A.; Bahkali, Ali H.; Al Farhan, Ahmad H.; Al Homaidan, Ali A.
2008-01-01
This investigation was aimed to compare the inference of antelope phylogenies resulting from the 16S rRNA, cytochrome-b (cyt-b) and d-loop segments of mitochondrial DNA using three different computational models including Bayesian (BA), maximum parsimony (MP) and unweighted pair group method with arithmetic mean (UPGMA). The respective nucleotide sequences of three Oryx species (Oryx leucoryx, Oryx dammah and Oryx gazella) and an out-group (Addax nasomaculatus) were aligned and subjected to B...
On the Quirks of Maximum Parsimony and Likelihood on Phylogenetic Networks
Bryant, Christopher; Fischer, Mareike; Linz, Simone; Semple, Charles
2015-01-01
Maximum parsimony is one of the most frequently-discussed tree reconstruction methods in phylogenetic estimation. However, in recent years it has become more and more apparent that phylogenetic trees are often not sufficient to describe evolution accurately. For instance, processes like hybridization or lateral gene transfer that are commonplace in many groups of organisms and result in mosaic patterns of relationships cannot be represented by a single phylogenetic tree. This is why phylogene...
A class representative model for Pure Parsimony Haplotyping under uncertain data.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Daniele Catanzaro
Full Text Available The Pure Parsimony Haplotyping (PPH problem is a NP-hard combinatorial optimization problem that consists of finding the minimum number of haplotypes necessary to explain a given set of genotypes. PPH has attracted more and more attention in recent years due to its importance in analysis of many fine-scale genetic data. Its application fields range from mapping complex disease genes to inferring population histories, passing through designing drugs, functional genomics and pharmacogenetics. In this article we investigate, for the first time, a recent version of PPH called the Pure Parsimony Haplotype problem under Uncertain Data (PPH-UD. This version mainly arises when the input genotypes are not accurate, i.e., when some single nucleotide polymorphisms are missing or affected by errors. We propose an exact approach to solution of PPH-UD based on an extended version of Catanzaro et al.[1] class representative model for PPH, currently the state-of-the-art integer programming model for PPH. The model is efficient, accurate, compact, polynomial-sized, easy to implement, solvable with any solver for mixed integer programming, and usable in all those cases for which the parsimony criterion is well suited for haplotype estimation.
The plunge in German electricity futures prices – Analysis using a parsimonious fundamental model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kallabis, Thomas; Pape, Christian; Weber, Christoph
2016-01-01
The German market has seen a plunge in wholesale electricity prices from 2007 until 2014, with base futures prices dropping by more than 40%. This is frequently attributed to the unexpected high increase in renewable power generation. Using a parsimonious fundamental model, we determine the respective impact of supply and demand shocks on electricity futures prices. The used methodology is based on a piecewise linear approximation of the supply stack and time-varying price-inelastic demand. This parsimonious model is able to replicate electricity futures prices and discover non-linear dependencies in futures price formation. We show that emission prices have a higher impact on power prices than renewable penetration. Changes in renewables, demand and installed capacities turn out to be similarly important for explaining the decrease in operation margins of conventional power plants. We thus argue for the establishment of an independent authority to stabilize emission prices. - Highlights: •We build a parsimonious fundamental model based on a piecewise linear bid stack. •We use the model to investigate impact factors for the plunge in German futures prices. •Largest impact by CO_2 price developments followed by demand and renewable feed-in. •Power plant operating profits strongly affected by demand and renewables. •We argue that stabilizing CO_2 emission prices could provide better market signals.
Urban micro-scale flood risk estimation with parsimonious hydraulic modelling and census data
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
C. Arrighi
2013-05-01
Full Text Available The adoption of 2007/60/EC Directive requires European countries to implement flood hazard and flood risk maps by the end of 2013. Flood risk is the product of flood hazard, vulnerability and exposure, all three to be estimated with comparable level of accuracy. The route to flood risk assessment is consequently much more than hydraulic modelling of inundation, that is hazard mapping. While hazard maps have already been implemented in many countries, quantitative damage and risk maps are still at a preliminary level. A parsimonious quasi-2-D hydraulic model is here adopted, having many advantages in terms of easy set-up. It is here evaluated as being accurate in flood depth estimation in urban areas with a high-resolution and up-to-date Digital Surface Model (DSM. The accuracy, estimated by comparison with marble-plate records of a historic flood in the city of Florence, is characterized in the downtown's most flooded area by a bias of a very few centimetres and a determination coefficient of 0.73. The average risk is found to be about 14 € m−2 yr−1, corresponding to about 8.3% of residents' income. The spatial distribution of estimated risk highlights a complex interaction between the flood pattern and the building characteristics. As a final example application, the estimated risk values have been used to compare different retrofitting measures. Proceeding through the risk estimation steps, a new micro-scale potential damage assessment method is proposed. This is based on the georeferenced census system as the optimal compromise between spatial detail and open availability of socio-economic data. The results of flood risk assessment at the census section scale resolve most of the risk spatial variability, and they can be easily aggregated to whatever upper scale is needed given that they are geographically defined as contiguous polygons. Damage is calculated through stage–damage curves, starting from census data on building type and
Adaptive Robust Online Constructive Fuzzy Control of a Complex Surface Vehicle System.
Wang, Ning; Er, Meng Joo; Sun, Jing-Chao; Liu, Yan-Cheng
2016-07-01
In this paper, a novel adaptive robust online constructive fuzzy control (AR-OCFC) scheme, employing an online constructive fuzzy approximator (OCFA), to deal with tracking surface vehicles with uncertainties and unknown disturbances is proposed. Significant contributions of this paper are as follows: 1) unlike previous self-organizing fuzzy neural networks, the OCFA employs decoupled distance measure to dynamically allocate discriminable and sparse fuzzy sets in each dimension and is able to parsimoniously self-construct high interpretable T-S fuzzy rules; 2) an OCFA-based dominant adaptive controller (DAC) is designed by employing the improved projection-based adaptive laws derived from the Lyapunov synthesis which can guarantee reasonable fuzzy partitions; 3) closed-loop system stability and robustness are ensured by stable cancelation and decoupled adaptive compensation, respectively, thereby contributing to an auxiliary robust controller (ARC); and 4) global asymptotic closed-loop system can be guaranteed by AR-OCFC consisting of DAC and ARC and all signals are bounded. Simulation studies and comprehensive comparisons with state-of-the-arts fixed- and dynamic-structure adaptive control schemes demonstrate superior performance of the AR-OCFC in terms of tracking and approximation accuracy.
Schwartz, Carolyn E; Patrick, Donald L
2014-07-01
When planning a comparative effectiveness study comparing disease-modifying treatments, competing demands influence choice of outcomes. Current practice emphasizes parsimony, although understanding multidimensional treatment impact can help to personalize medical decision-making. We discuss both sides of this 'tug of war'. We discuss the assumptions, advantages and drawbacks of composite scores and multidimensional outcomes. We describe possible solutions to the multiple comparison problem, including conceptual hierarchy distinctions, statistical approaches, 'real-world' benchmarks of effectiveness and subgroup analysis. We conclude that comparative effectiveness research should consider multiple outcome dimensions and compare different approaches that fit the individual context of study objectives.
Theoretical Framework for Robustness Evaluation
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Sørensen, John Dalsgaard
2011-01-01
This paper presents a theoretical framework for evaluation of robustness of structural systems, incl. bridges and buildings. Typically modern structural design codes require that ‘the consequence of damages to structures should not be disproportional to the causes of the damages’. However, although...... the importance of robustness for structural design is widely recognized the code requirements are not specified in detail, which makes the practical use difficult. This paper describes a theoretical and risk based framework to form the basis for quantification of robustness and for pre-normative guidelines...
Parsimonious wave-equation travel-time inversion for refraction waves
Fu, Lei
2017-02-14
We present a parsimonious wave-equation travel-time inversion technique for refraction waves. A dense virtual refraction dataset can be generated from just two reciprocal shot gathers for the sources at the endpoints of the survey line, with N geophones evenly deployed along the line. These two reciprocal shots contain approximately 2N refraction travel times, which can be spawned into O(N2) refraction travel times by an interferometric transformation. Then, these virtual refraction travel times are used with a source wavelet to create N virtual refraction shot gathers, which are the input data for wave-equation travel-time inversion. Numerical results show that the parsimonious wave-equation travel-time tomogram has about the same accuracy as the tomogram computed by standard wave-equation travel-time inversion. The most significant benefit is that a reciprocal survey is far less time consuming than the standard refraction survey where a source is excited at each geophone location.
Beyond technology acceptance to effective technology use: a parsimonious and actionable model.
Holahan, Patricia J; Lesselroth, Blake J; Adams, Kathleen; Wang, Kai; Church, Victoria
2015-05-01
To develop and test a parsimonious and actionable model of effective technology use (ETU). Cross-sectional survey of primary care providers (n = 53) in a large integrated health care organization that recently implemented new medication reconciliation technology. Surveys assessed 5 technology-related perceptions (compatibility with work values, implementation climate, compatibility with work processes, perceived usefulness, and ease of use) and 1 outcome variable, ETU. ETU was measured as both consistency and quality of technology use. Compatibility with work values and implementation climate were found to have differential effects on consistency and quality of use. When implementation climate was strong, consistency of technology use was high. However, quality of technology use was high only when implementation climate was strong and values compatibility was high. This is an important finding and highlights the importance of users' workplace values as a key determinant of quality of use. To extend our effectiveness in implementing new health care information technology, we need parsimonious models that include actionable determinants of ETU and account for the differential effects of these determinants on the multiple dimensions of ETU. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the American Medical Informatics Association. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.
The scenario on the origin of translation in the RNA world: in principle of replication parsimony
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ma Wentao
2010-11-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background It is now believed that in the origin of life, proteins should have been "invented" in an RNA world. However, due to the complexity of a possible RNA-based proto-translation system, this evolving process seems quite complicated and the associated scenario remains very blurry. Considering that RNA can bind amino acids with specificity, it has been reasonably supposed that initial peptides might have been synthesized on "RNA templates" containing multiple amino acid binding sites. This "Direct RNA Template (DRT" mechanism is attractive because it should be the simplest mechanism for RNA to synthesize peptides, thus very likely to have been adopted initially in the RNA world. Then, how this mechanism could develop into a proto-translation system mechanism is an interesting problem. Presentation of the hypothesis Here an explanation to this problem is shown considering the principle of "replication parsimony" --- genetic information tends to be utilized in a parsimonious way under selection pressure, due to its replication cost (e.g., in the RNA world, nucleotides and ribozymes for RNA replication. Because a DRT would be quite long even for a short peptide, its replication cost would be great. Thus the diversity and the length of functional peptides synthesized by the DRT mechanism would be seriously limited. Adaptors (proto-tRNAs would arise to allow a DRT's complementary strand (called "C-DRT" here to direct the synthesis of the same peptide synthesized by the DRT itself. Because the C-DRT is a necessary part in the DRT's replication, fewer turns of the DRT's replication would be needed to synthesize definite copies of the functional peptide, thus saving the replication cost. Acting through adaptors, C-DRTs could transform into much shorter templates (called "proto-mRNAs" here and substitute the role of DRTs, thus significantly saving the replication cost. A proto-rRNA corresponding to the small subunit rRNA would then emerge
Wu, Jason H.; Hoy, Wayne K.; Tarter, C. John
2013-01-01
Purpose: The purpose of this research is twofold: to test a theory of academic optimism in Taiwan elementary schools and to expand the theory by adding new variables, collective responsibility and enabling school structure, to the model. Design/methodology/approach: Structural equation modeling was used to test, refine, and expand an…
de Queiroz, K; Poe, S
2001-06-01
Advocates of cladistic parsimony methods have invoked the philosophy of Karl Popper in an attempt to argue for the superiority of those methods over phylogenetic methods based on Ronald Fisher's statistical principle of likelihood. We argue that the concept of likelihood in general, and its application to problems of phylogenetic inference in particular, are highly compatible with Popper's philosophy. Examination of Popper's writings reveals that his concept of corroboration is, in fact, based on likelihood. Moreover, because probabilistic assumptions are necessary for calculating the probabilities that define Popper's corroboration, likelihood methods of phylogenetic inference--with their explicit probabilistic basis--are easily reconciled with his concept. In contrast, cladistic parsimony methods, at least as described by certain advocates of those methods, are less easily reconciled with Popper's concept of corroboration. If those methods are interpreted as lacking probabilistic assumptions, then they are incompatible with corroboration. Conversely, if parsimony methods are to be considered compatible with corroboration, then they must be interpreted as carrying implicit probabilistic assumptions. Thus, the non-probabilistic interpretation of cladistic parsimony favored by some advocates of those methods is contradicted by an attempt by the same authors to justify parsimony methods in terms of Popper's concept of corroboration. In addition to being compatible with Popperian corroboration, the likelihood approach to phylogenetic inference permits researchers to test the assumptions of their analytical methods (models) in a way that is consistent with Popper's ideas about the provisional nature of background knowledge.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Aanæs, Henrik; Fisker, Rune; Åström, Kalle
2002-01-01
Factorization algorithms for recovering structure and motion from an image stream have many advantages, but they usually require a set of well-tracked features. Such a set is in generally not available in practical applications. There is thus a need for making factorization algorithms deal effect...
Collins, Emmanuel G., Jr.; Phillips, Douglas; Hyland, David C.
1990-01-01
An experiment was conducted to design controllers that would provide substantial reduction of line-of-sight control errors. The satisfaction of this objective required the controllers to attenuate the beam vibration significantly. Particular emphasis was placed on controller simplicity (i.e., reduced-order and decentralized controller architectures). Complexity reduction in control law implementation is of paramount interest due to stringent limitations on throughput of even state-of-the-art space qualified processors. The results of this experiment successfully demonstrate active vibrator control for a flexible structure. The testbed is the ACES structure at the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center. The ACES structure is dynamically traceable to future space systems and especially allows the study of line-of-sight control issues.
More quality measures versus measuring what matters: a call for balance and parsimony.
Meyer, Gregg S; Nelson, Eugene C; Pryor, David B; James, Brent; Swensen, Stephen J; Kaplan, Gary S; Weissberg, Jed I; Bisognano, Maureen; Yates, Gary R; Hunt, Gordon C
2012-11-01
External groups requiring measures now include public and private payers, regulators, accreditors and others that certify performance levels for consumers, patients and payers. Although benefits have accrued from the growth in quality measurement, the recent explosion in the number of measures threatens to shift resources from improving quality to cover a plethora of quality-performance metrics that may have a limited impact on the things that patients and payers want and need (ie, better outcomes, better care, and lower per capita costs). Here we propose a policy that quality measurement should be: balanced to meet the need of end users to judge quality and cost performance and the need of providers to continuously improve the quality, outcomes and costs of their services; and parsimonious to measure quality, outcomes and costs with appropriate metrics that are selected based on end-user needs.
Time-Lapse Monitoring of Subsurface Fluid Flow using Parsimonious Seismic Interferometry
Hanafy, Sherif
2017-04-21
A typical small-scale seismic survey (such as 240 shot gathers) takes at least 16 working hours to be completed, which is a major obstacle in case of time-lapse monitoring experiments. This is especially true if the subject that needs to be monitored is rapidly changing. In this work, we will discuss how to decrease the recording time from 16 working hours to less than one hour of recording. Here, the virtual data has the same accuracy as the conventional data. We validate the efficacy of parsimonious seismic interferometry with the time-lapse mentoring idea with field examples, where we were able to record 30 different data sets within a 2-hour period. The recorded data are then processed to generate 30 snapshots that shows the spread of water from the ground surface down to a few meters.
Singular Spectrum Analysis for Astronomical Time Series: Constructing a Parsimonious Hypothesis Test
Greco, G.; Kondrashov, D.; Kobayashi, S.; Ghil, M.; Branchesi, M.; Guidorzi, C.; Stratta, G.; Ciszak, M.; Marino, F.; Ortolan, A.
We present a data-adaptive spectral method - Monte Carlo Singular Spectrum Analysis (MC-SSA) - and its modification to tackle astrophysical problems. Through numerical simulations we show the ability of the MC-SSA in dealing with 1/f β power-law noise affected by photon counting statistics. Such noise process is simulated by a first-order autoregressive, AR(1) process corrupted by intrinsic Poisson noise. In doing so, we statistically estimate a basic stochastic variation of the source and the corresponding fluctuations due to the quantum nature of light. In addition, MC-SSA test retains its effectiveness even when a significant percentage of the signal falls below a certain level of detection, e.g., caused by the instrument sensitivity. The parsimonious approach presented here may be broadly applied, from the search for extrasolar planets to the extraction of low-intensity coherent phenomena probably hidden in high energy transients.
On the Accuracy of Ancestral Sequence Reconstruction for Ultrametric Trees with Parsimony.
Herbst, Lina; Fischer, Mareike
2018-04-01
We examine a mathematical question concerning the reconstruction accuracy of the Fitch algorithm for reconstructing the ancestral sequence of the most recent common ancestor given a phylogenetic tree and sequence data for all taxa under consideration. In particular, for the symmetric four-state substitution model which is also known as Jukes-Cantor model, we answer affirmatively a conjecture of Li, Steel and Zhang which states that for any ultrametric phylogenetic tree and a symmetric model, the Fitch parsimony method using all terminal taxa is more accurate, or at least as accurate, for ancestral state reconstruction than using any particular terminal taxon or any particular pair of taxa. This conjecture had so far only been answered for two-state data by Fischer and Thatte. Here, we focus on answering the biologically more relevant case with four states, which corresponds to ancestral sequence reconstruction from DNA or RNA data.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bibet, Ph.; Litaudon, X.; Moreau, D.
1994-01-01
Up to now, lower hybrid current drive launchers have been made of waveguide arrays. To extrapolate present techniques despite the thermal power load and the mechanical stress, it is necessary to develop an advanced launcher concept which is simpler and more robust. To simplify the antennas between RF vacuum windows and plasma, studies have been carried, for example, the hyperguide for JET, the toroidal oversized waveguide for JT-60U and the poloidal mode converter for Tore Supra. For plasma-facing components, it has been proposed to use diffraction through rod arrays although this suffers from bad coupling per pass. Here a new concept is given which seems to be robust, and should leave enough space for efficient water cooling. The front part near plasma can be easily replaced by remote handling. Its principle is explained, and the description is made. The coupling properties of the proposed structure have been studied by using the SWAN code, and good agreement between the SWAN calculation and the coupling measurement performed at Tore Supra has been reported previously. (K.I.)
Wang, Hongkang; Yang, Xuming; Wu, Qizhen; Zhang, Qiaobao; Chen, Huixin; Jing, Hongmei; Wang, Jinkai; Mi, Shao-Bo; Rogach, Andrey L; Niu, Chunming
2018-04-24
To address the volume-change-induced pulverization problems of electrode materials, we propose a "silica reinforcement" concept, following which silica-reinforced carbon nanofibers with encapsulated Sb nanoparticles (denoted as SiO 2 /Sb@CNFs) are fabricated via an electrospinning method. In this composite structure, insulating silica fillers not only reinforce the overall structure but also contribute to additional lithium storage capacity; encapsulation of Sb nanoparticles into the carbon-silica matrices efficiently buffers the volume changes during Li-Sb alloying-dealloying processes upon cycling and alleviates the mechanical stress; the porous carbon nanofiber framework allows for fast charge transfer and electrolyte diffusion. These advantageous characteristics synergistically contribute to the superior lithium storage performance of SiO 2 /Sb@CNF electrodes, which demonstrate excellent cycling stability and rate capability, delivering reversible discharge capacities of 700 mA h/g at 200 mA/g, 572 mA h/g at 500 mA/g, and 468 mA h/g at 1000 mA/g each after 400 cycles. Ex situ as well as in situ TEM measurements confirm that the structural integrity of silica-reinforced Sb@CNF electrodes can efficiently withstand the mechanical stress induced by the volume changes. Notably, the SiO 2 /Sb@CNF//LiCoO 2 full cell delivers high reversible capacities of ∼400 mA h/g after 800 cycles at 500 mA/g and ∼336 mA h/g after 500 cycles at 1000 mA/g.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Razi, Pejman; Esmaeel, Ramadan A; Taheri, Farid
2011-01-01
This paper presents the application of a novel vibration-based technique for detecting fatigue cracks in structures. The method utilizes the empirical mode decomposition method (EMD) to establish an effective energy-based damage index. To investigate the feasibility of the method, fatigue cracks of different sizes were introduced in an aluminum beam subjected to a cyclic load under a three-point bending configuration. The vibration signals corresponding to the healthy and the damaged states of the beam were acquired via piezoceramic sensors. The signals were then processed by the proposed methodology to obtain the damage indices. In addition, for the sake of comparison, the frequency and damping analysis were performed on the test specimen. The results of this study concluded with two major observations. Firstly, the method was highly successful in not only predicting the presence of the fatigue crack, but also in quantifying its progression. Secondly, the proposed energy-based damage index was proved to be superior to the frequency-based methods in terms of sensitivity to the damage detection and quantification. As a result, this technique could be regarded as an efficient non-destructive tool, since it is simple, cost-effective and does not rely on analytical modeling of structures. In addition, the capability of the finite element method (FEM) in mimicking the experiments, and hence for consideration as an effective tool for conducting future parametric studies, was also investigated
Theoretical Framework for Robustness Evaluation
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Sørensen, John Dalsgaard
2011-01-01
This paper presents a theoretical framework for evaluation of robustness of structural systems, incl. bridges and buildings. Typically modern structural design codes require that ‘the consequence of damages to structures should not be disproportional to the causes of the damages’. However, althou...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
محمد أحمد حسن الأفندي
2018-04-01
Full Text Available There is a rich literature about the analysis of consumption behavior from the perspective of Islamic economy. The focus of such literature has been on the incorporation of the effect of moral values on individuals’ consumption behavior. However, studies on consumption did not pay enough heed to the analysis of the ultimate effect of faith values on the track of consumption behavior over time. This desired track of consumption involves showing certain hypotheses and probabilities. This study suggests a normative statement which includes the gradual disappearance of parsimony and improvidence over time. This disappearance would correct the deviation of actual consumption of society members from the desired moderate consumption level, so as to make households’ consumption behavior at the desired level which is consistent with Islamic Sharia. The study emphasizes the need to develop analysis and research in two integrated directions: i conducting more empirical studies to examine the consistency of the normative statement with evidence from real situations, and ii conducting more analysis to develop a specific measure for the desired consumption levels as well as the limits of parsimony and improvidence. Keywords: Disappearance of improvidence and parsimony limits, Desired moderate consumption level, Actual consumption, Improvidence and parsimony consumption levels, Track of households’ consumption behavior.
Safdernejad, Morteza S.; Karpenko, Oleksii; Ye, Chaofeng; Udpa, Lalita; Udpa, Satish
2016-02-01
The advent of Giant Magneto-Resistive (GMR) technology permits development of novel highly sensitive array probes for Eddy Current (EC) inspection of multi-layer riveted structures. Multi-frequency GMR measurements with different EC pene-tration depths show promise for detection of bottom layer notches at fastener sites. However, the distortion of the induced magnetic field due to flaws is dominated by the strong fastener signal, which makes defect detection and classification a challenging prob-lem. This issue is more pronounced for ferromagnetic fasteners that concentrate most of the magnetic flux. In the present work, a novel multi-frequency mixing algorithm is proposed to suppress rivet signal response and enhance defect detection capability of the GMR array probe. The algorithm is baseline-free and does not require any assumptions about the sample geometry being inspected. Fastener signal suppression is based upon the random sample consensus (RANSAC) method, which iteratively estimates parameters of a mathematical model from a set of observed data with outliers. Bottom layer defects at fastener site are simulated as EDM notches of different length. Performance of the proposed multi-frequency mixing approach is evaluated on finite element data and experimental GMR measurements obtained with unidirectional planar current excitation. Initial results are promising demonstrating the feasibility of the approach.
Maiuri, Margherita; Ostroumov, Evgeny E.; Saer, Rafael G.; Blankenship, Robert E.; Scholes, Gregory D.
2018-02-01
Femtosecond pulsed excitation of light-harvesting complexes creates oscillatory features in their response. This phenomenon has inspired a large body of work aimed at uncovering the origin of the coherent beatings and possible implications for function. Here we exploit site-directed mutagenesis to change the excitonic level structure in Fenna-Matthews-Olson (FMO) complexes and compare the coherences using broadband pump-probe spectroscopy. Our experiments detect two oscillation frequencies with dephasing on a picosecond timescale—both at 77 K and at room temperature. By studying these coherences with selective excitation pump-probe experiments, where pump excitation is in resonance only with the lowest excitonic state, we show that the key contributions to these oscillations stem from ground-state vibrational wavepackets. These experiments explicitly show that the coherences—although in the ground electronic state—can be probed at the absorption resonances of other bacteriochlorophyll molecules because of delocalization of the electronic excitation over several chromophores.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Müller Kai F
2005-10-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background For parsimony analyses, the most common way to estimate confidence is by resampling plans (nonparametric bootstrap, jackknife, and Bremer support (Decay indices. The recent literature reveals that parameter settings that are quite commonly employed are not those that are recommended by theoretical considerations and by previous empirical studies. The optimal search strategy to be applied during resampling was previously addressed solely via standard search strategies available in PAUP*. The question of a compromise between search extensiveness and improved support accuracy for Bremer support received even less attention. A set of experiments was conducted on different datasets to find an empirical cut-off point at which increased search extensiveness does not significantly change Bremer support and jackknife or bootstrap proportions any more. Results For the number of replicates needed for accurate estimates of support in resampling plans, a diagram is provided that helps to address the question whether apparently different support values really differ significantly. It is shown that the use of random addition cycles and parsimony ratchet iterations during bootstrapping does not translate into higher support, nor does any extension of the search extensiveness beyond the rather moderate effort of TBR (tree bisection and reconnection branch swapping plus saving one tree per replicate. Instead, in case of very large matrices, saving more than one shortest tree per iteration and using a strict consensus tree of these yields decreased support compared to saving only one tree. This can be interpreted as a small risk of overestimating support but should be more than compensated by other factors that counteract an enhanced type I error. With regard to Bremer support, a rule of thumb can be derived stating that not much is gained relative to the surplus computational effort when searches are extended beyond 20 ratchet iterations per
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Marek Hicar
2004-01-01
Full Text Available The article is about a control design for complete structure of the crane: crab, bridge and crane uplift.The most important unknown parameters for simulations are burden weight and length of hanging rope. We will use robustcontrol for crab and bridge control to ensure adaptivity for burden weight and rope length. Robust control will be designed for current control of the crab and bridge, necessary is to know the range of unknown parameters. Whole robust will be splitto subintervals and after correct identification of unknown parameters the most suitable robust controllers will be chosen.The most important condition at the crab and bridge motion is avoiding from burden swinging in the final position. Crab and bridge drive is designed by asynchronous motor fed from frequency converter. We will use crane uplift with burden weightobserver in combination for uplift, crab and bridge drive with cooperation of their parameters: burden weight, rope length and crab and bridge position. Controllers are designed by state control method. We will use preferably a disturbance observerwhich will identify burden weight as a disturbance. The system will be working in both modes at empty hook as well asat maximum load: burden uplifting and dropping down.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zhang, Wenyan, E-mail: wiseyanyan@jit.edu.cn [College of Material Engineering, Jinling Institute of technology, Nanjing (China); Chen, Jiahua [College of Material Engineering, Jinling Institute of technology, Nanjing (China); Wang, Wei [Jiangsu Collaborative Innovation Center for Advanced Inorganic Function Composites, Nanjing Tech University, Nanjing (China); School of Physics and Optoelectronic Engineering, Nanjing University of Information Science & Technology, Nanjing (China); Lu, GongXuan [State Key Laboratory for Oxo Synthesis and Selective Oxidation, Lanzhou Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Science, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Hao, Lingyun [College of Material Engineering, Jinling Institute of technology, Nanjing (China); Ni, Yaru; Lu, Chunhua; Xu, Zhongzi [Jiangsu Collaborative Innovation Center for Advanced Inorganic Function Composites, Nanjing Tech University, Nanjing (China); State Key Laboratory of Materials-Oriented Chemical Engineering, College of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanjing Tech University, Nanjing (China)
2017-03-15
Super-paramagnetic core-shell microspheres were synthesized by ultrasonic assisted routine under low ultrasonic irradiation powers. Compared with conventional routine, ultrasonic effect could not only improve the uniformity of the core-shell structure of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}@SiO{sub 2}, but shorten the synthesis time in large scale. Owing to their hydrophilicity and high surface charge, the Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}@SiO{sub 2} microspheres could be dispersed well in distilled water to form homogeneous colloidal suspension. The suspensions have favorable magneto-chromatic ability that they sensitively exhibit brilliant colorful ribbons by magnetic attraction. The colorful ribbons, which distributed along the magnetic lines, make morphology of the magnetic fields become “visible” to naked eyed. Those colorful ribbons originate from strong magnetic interaction between the microspheres and magnetic fields. Furthermore, the magneto-chromatic performance is reversible as the colorful ribbons vanished rapidly with the removing of magnetic fields. The silica layer effectively enhanced the acid resistance and surface-oxidation resistance of theFe{sub 3}O{sub 4}@SiO{sub 2} microspheres, so they could exhibit stable magnetic nature and robust magneto-chromatic property in acid environment. - Graphical abstract: The Graphical abstract shows the sensitive magneto-chromatic ability, the acid resistance ability as well as the magneto-chromatic mechanism of the Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} and Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}@SiO{sub 2} suspension. - Highlights: • Sensitive and reversible robust magneto-chromatic property under magnetic attraction. • Morphology of magnetic field “visible” to naked eyes. • Enhance acid resistance and surface-oxidation resistance. • Ultrasonic effect largely shorten the synthesis time of high uniform microspheres.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhang, Wenyan; Chen, Jiahua; Wang, Wei; Lu, GongXuan; Hao, Lingyun; Ni, Yaru; Lu, Chunhua; Xu, Zhongzi
2017-01-01
Super-paramagnetic core-shell microspheres were synthesized by ultrasonic assisted routine under low ultrasonic irradiation powers. Compared with conventional routine, ultrasonic effect could not only improve the uniformity of the core-shell structure of Fe_3O_4@SiO_2, but shorten the synthesis time in large scale. Owing to their hydrophilicity and high surface charge, the Fe_3O_4@SiO_2 microspheres could be dispersed well in distilled water to form homogeneous colloidal suspension. The suspensions have favorable magneto-chromatic ability that they sensitively exhibit brilliant colorful ribbons by magnetic attraction. The colorful ribbons, which distributed along the magnetic lines, make morphology of the magnetic fields become “visible” to naked eyed. Those colorful ribbons originate from strong magnetic interaction between the microspheres and magnetic fields. Furthermore, the magneto-chromatic performance is reversible as the colorful ribbons vanished rapidly with the removing of magnetic fields. The silica layer effectively enhanced the acid resistance and surface-oxidation resistance of theFe_3O_4@SiO_2 microspheres, so they could exhibit stable magnetic nature and robust magneto-chromatic property in acid environment. - Graphical abstract: The Graphical abstract shows the sensitive magneto-chromatic ability, the acid resistance ability as well as the magneto-chromatic mechanism of the Fe_3O_4 and Fe_3O_4@SiO_2 suspension. - Highlights: • Sensitive and reversible robust magneto-chromatic property under magnetic attraction. • Morphology of magnetic field “visible” to naked eyes. • Enhance acid resistance and surface-oxidation resistance. • Ultrasonic effect largely shorten the synthesis time of high uniform microspheres.
Komatitsch, Dimitri
2016-06-13
We introduce a technique to compute exact anelastic sensitivity kernels in the time domain using parsimonious disk storage. The method is based on a reordering of the time loop of time-domain forward/adjoint wave propagation solvers combined with the use of a memory buffer. It avoids instabilities that occur when time-reversing dissipative wave propagation simulations. The total number of required time steps is unchanged compared to usual acoustic or elastic approaches. The cost is reduced by a factor of 4/3 compared to the case in which anelasticity is partially accounted for by accommodating the effects of physical dispersion. We validate our technique by performing a test in which we compare the Kα sensitivity kernel to the exact kernel obtained by saving the entire forward calculation. This benchmark confirms that our approach is also exact. We illustrate the importance of including full attenuation in the calculation of sensitivity kernels by showing significant differences with physical-dispersion-only kernels.
Parsimonious data: How a single Facebook like predicts voting behavior in multiparty systems.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jakob Bæk Kristensen
Full Text Available This study shows how liking politicians' public Facebook posts can be used as an accurate measure for predicting present-day voter intention in a multiparty system. We highlight that a few, but selective digital traces produce prediction accuracies that are on par or even greater than most current approaches based upon bigger and broader datasets. Combining the online and offline, we connect a subsample of surveyed respondents to their public Facebook activity and apply machine learning classifiers to explore the link between their political liking behaviour and actual voting intention. Through this work, we show that even a single selective Facebook like can reveal as much about political voter intention as hundreds of heterogeneous likes. Further, by including the entire political like history of the respondents, our model reaches prediction accuracies above previous multiparty studies (60-70%. The main contribution of this paper is to show how public like-activity on Facebook allows political profiling of individual users in a multiparty system with accuracies above previous studies. Beside increased accuracies, the paper shows how such parsimonious measures allows us to generalize our findings to the entire population of a country and even across national borders, to other political multiparty systems. The approach in this study relies on data that are publicly available, and the simple setup we propose can with some limitations, be generalized to millions of users in other multiparty systems.
An integer programming formulation of the parsimonious loss of heterozygosity problem.
Catanzaro, Daniele; Labbé, Martine; Halldórsson, Bjarni V
2013-01-01
A loss of heterozygosity (LOH) event occurs when, by the laws of Mendelian inheritance, an individual should be heterozygote at a given site but, due to a deletion polymorphism, is not. Deletions play an important role in human disease and their detection could provide fundamental insights for the development of new diagnostics and treatments. In this paper, we investigate the parsimonious loss of heterozygosity problem (PLOHP), i.e., the problem of partitioning suspected polymorphisms from a set of individuals into a minimum number of deletion areas. Specifically, we generalize Halldórsson et al.'s work by providing a more general formulation of the PLOHP and by showing how one can incorporate different recombination rates and prior knowledge about the locations of deletions. Moreover, we show that the PLOHP can be formulated as a specific version of the clique partition problem in a particular class of graphs called undirected catch-point interval graphs and we prove its general $({\\cal NP})$-hardness. Finally, we provide a state-of-the-art integer programming (IP) formulation and strengthening valid inequalities to exactly solve real instances of the PLOHP containing up to 9,000 individuals and 3,000 SNPs. Our results give perspectives on the mathematics of the PLOHP and suggest new directions on the development of future efficient exact solution approaches.
Komatitsch, Dimitri; Xie, Zhinan; Bozdağ, Ebru; de Andrade, Elliott Sales; Peter, Daniel; Liu, Qinya; Tromp, Jeroen
2016-01-01
We introduce a technique to compute exact anelastic sensitivity kernels in the time domain using parsimonious disk storage. The method is based on a reordering of the time loop of time-domain forward/adjoint wave propagation solvers combined with the use of a memory buffer. It avoids instabilities that occur when time-reversing dissipative wave propagation simulations. The total number of required time steps is unchanged compared to usual acoustic or elastic approaches. The cost is reduced by a factor of 4/3 compared to the case in which anelasticity is partially accounted for by accommodating the effects of physical dispersion. We validate our technique by performing a test in which we compare the Kα sensitivity kernel to the exact kernel obtained by saving the entire forward calculation. This benchmark confirms that our approach is also exact. We illustrate the importance of including full attenuation in the calculation of sensitivity kernels by showing significant differences with physical-dispersion-only kernels.
Cowden, Joshua R.; Watkins, David W., Jr.; Mihelcic, James R.
2008-10-01
SummarySeveral parsimonious stochastic rainfall models are developed and compared for application to domestic rainwater harvesting (DRWH) assessment in West Africa. Worldwide, improved water access rates are lowest for Sub-Saharan Africa, including the West African region, and these low rates have important implications on the health and economy of the region. Domestic rainwater harvesting (DRWH) is proposed as a potential mechanism for water supply enhancement, especially for the poor urban households in the region, which is essential for development planning and poverty alleviation initiatives. The stochastic rainfall models examined are Markov models and LARS-WG, selected due to availability and ease of use for water planners in the developing world. A first-order Markov occurrence model with a mixed exponential amount model is selected as the best option for unconditioned Markov models. However, there is no clear advantage in selecting Markov models over the LARS-WG model for DRWH in West Africa, with each model having distinct strengths and weaknesses. A multi-model approach is used in assessing DRWH in the region to illustrate the variability associated with the rainfall models. It is clear DRWH can be successfully used as a water enhancement mechanism in West Africa for certain times of the year. A 200 L drum storage capacity could potentially optimize these simple, small roof area systems for many locations in the region.
Komatitsch, Dimitri; Xie, Zhinan; Bozdaǧ, Ebru; Sales de Andrade, Elliott; Peter, Daniel; Liu, Qinya; Tromp, Jeroen
2016-09-01
We introduce a technique to compute exact anelastic sensitivity kernels in the time domain using parsimonious disk storage. The method is based on a reordering of the time loop of time-domain forward/adjoint wave propagation solvers combined with the use of a memory buffer. It avoids instabilities that occur when time-reversing dissipative wave propagation simulations. The total number of required time steps is unchanged compared to usual acoustic or elastic approaches. The cost is reduced by a factor of 4/3 compared to the case in which anelasticity is partially accounted for by accommodating the effects of physical dispersion. We validate our technique by performing a test in which we compare the Kα sensitivity kernel to the exact kernel obtained by saving the entire forward calculation. This benchmark confirms that our approach is also exact. We illustrate the importance of including full attenuation in the calculation of sensitivity kernels by showing significant differences with physical-dispersion-only kernels.
de Queiroz, Kevin; Poe, Steven
2003-06-01
Kluge's (2001, Syst. Biol. 50:322-330) continued arguments that phylogenetic methods based on the statistical principle of likelihood are incompatible with the philosophy of science described by Karl Popper are based on false premises related to Kluge's misrepresentations of Popper's philosophy. Contrary to Kluge's conjectures, likelihood methods are not inherently verificationist; they do not treat every instance of a hypothesis as confirmation of that hypothesis. The historical nature of phylogeny does not preclude phylogenetic hypotheses from being evaluated using the probability of evidence. The low absolute probabilities of hypotheses are irrelevant to the correct interpretation of Popper's concept termed degree of corroboration, which is defined entirely in terms of relative probabilities. Popper did not advocate minimizing background knowledge; in any case, the background knowledge of both parsimony and likelihood methods consists of the general assumption of descent with modification and additional assumptions that are deterministic, concerning which tree is considered most highly corroborated. Although parsimony methods do not assume (in the sense of entailing) that homoplasy is rare, they do assume (in the sense of requiring to obtain a correct phylogenetic inference) certain things about patterns of homoplasy. Both parsimony and likelihood methods assume (in the sense of implying by the manner in which they operate) various things about evolutionary processes, although violation of those assumptions does not always cause the methods to yield incorrect phylogenetic inferences. Test severity is increased by sampling additional relevant characters rather than by character reanalysis, although either interpretation is compatible with the use of phylogenetic likelihood methods. Neither parsimony nor likelihood methods assess test severity (critical evidence) when used to identify a most highly corroborated tree(s) based on a single method or model and a
Methods for robustness programming
Olieman, N.J.
2008-01-01
Robustness of an object is defined as the probability that an object will have properties as required. Robustness Programming (RP) is a mathematical approach for Robustness estimation and Robustness optimisation. An example in the context of designing a food product, is finding the best composition
Star, L.
2008-01-01
The aim of the project ‘The genetics of robustness in laying hens’ was to investigate nature and regulation of robustness in laying hens under sub-optimal conditions and the possibility to increase robustness by using animal breeding without loss of production. At the start of the project, a robust
Bellaïche, Yohanns; Bosveld, Floris; Graner, François; Mikula, Karol; Remesíková, Mariana; Smísek, Michal
2011-01-01
In this paper, we present a novel algorithm for tracking cells in time lapse confocal microscopy movie of a Drosophila epithelial tissue during pupal morphogenesis. We consider a 2D + time video as a 3D static image, where frames are stacked atop each other, and using a spatio-temporal segmentation algorithm we obtain information about spatio-temporal 3D tubes representing evolutions of cells. The main idea for tracking is the usage of two distance functions--first one from the cells in the initial frame and second one from segmented boundaries. We track the cells backwards in time. The first distance function attracts the subsequently constructed cell trajectories to the cells in the initial frame and the second one forces them to be close to centerlines of the segmented tubular structures. This makes our tracking algorithm robust against noise and missing spatio-temporal boundaries. This approach can be generalized to a 3D + time video analysis, where spatio-temporal tubes are 4D objects.
Ala-Aho, Pertti; Tetzlaff, Doerthe; McNamara, James P; Laudon, Hjalmar; Kormos, Patrick; Soulsby, Chris
2017-07-01
Use of stable water isotopes has become increasingly popular in quantifying water flow paths and travel times in hydrological systems using tracer-aided modeling. In snow-influenced catchments, snowmelt produces a traceable isotopic signal, which differs from original snowfall isotopic composition because of isotopic fractionation in the snowpack. These fractionation processes in snow are relatively well understood, but representing their spatiotemporal variability in tracer-aided studies remains a challenge. We present a novel, parsimonious modeling method to account for the snowpack isotope fractionation and estimate isotope ratios in snowmelt water in a fully spatially distributed manner. Our model introduces two calibration parameters that alone account for the isotopic fractionation caused by sublimation from interception and ground snow storage, and snowmelt fractionation progressively enriching the snowmelt runoff. The isotope routines are linked to a generic process-based snow interception-accumulation-melt model facilitating simulation of spatially distributed snowmelt runoff. We use a synthetic modeling experiment to demonstrate the functionality of the model algorithms in different landscape locations and under different canopy characteristics. We also provide a proof-of-concept model test and successfully reproduce isotopic ratios in snowmelt runoff sampled with snowmelt lysimeters in two long-term experimental catchment with contrasting winter conditions. To our knowledge, the method is the first such tool to allow estimation of the spatially distributed nature of isotopic fractionation in snowpacks and the resulting isotope ratios in snowmelt runoff. The method can thus provide a useful tool for tracer-aided modeling to better understand the integrated nature of flow, mixing, and transport processes in snow-influenced catchments.
Using genes as characters and a parsimony analysis to explore the phylogenetic position of turtles.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Bin Lu
Full Text Available The phylogenetic position of turtles within the vertebrate tree of life remains controversial. Conflicting conclusions from different studies are likely a consequence of systematic error in the tree construction process, rather than random error from small amounts of data. Using genomic data, we evaluate the phylogenetic position of turtles with both conventional concatenated data analysis and a "genes as characters" approach. Two datasets were constructed, one with seven species (human, opossum, zebra finch, chicken, green anole, Chinese pond turtle, and western clawed frog and 4584 orthologous genes, and the second with four additional species (soft-shelled turtle, Nile crocodile, royal python, and tuatara but only 1638 genes. Our concatenated data analysis strongly supported turtle as the sister-group to archosaurs (the archosaur hypothesis, similar to several recent genomic data based studies using similar methods. When using genes as characters and gene trees as character-state trees with equal weighting for each gene, however, our parsimony analysis suggested that turtles are possibly sister-group to diapsids, archosaurs, or lepidosaurs. None of these resolutions were strongly supported by bootstraps. Furthermore, our incongruence analysis clearly demonstrated that there is a large amount of inconsistency among genes and most of the conflict relates to the placement of turtles. We conclude that the uncertain placement of turtles is a reflection of the true state of nature. Concatenated data analysis of large and heterogeneous datasets likely suffers from systematic error and over-estimates of confidence as a consequence of a large number of characters. Using genes as characters offers an alternative for phylogenomic analysis. It has potential to reduce systematic error, such as data heterogeneity and long-branch attraction, and it can also avoid problems associated with computation time and model selection. Finally, treating genes as
Parsimonious model for blood glucose level monitoring in type 2 diabetes patients.
Zhao, Fang; Ma, Yan Fen; Wen, Jing Xiao; DU, Yan Fang; Li, Chun Lin; Li, Guang Wei
2014-07-01
To establish the parsimonious model for blood glucose monitoring in patients with type 2 diabetes receiving oral hypoglycemic agent treatment. One hundred and fifty-nine adult Chinese type 2 diabetes patients were randomized to receive rapid-acting or sustained-release gliclazide therapy for 12 weeks. Their blood glucose levels were measured at 10 time points in a 24 h period before and after treatment, and the 24 h mean blood glucose levels were measured. Contribution of blood glucose levels to the mean blood glucose level and HbA1c was assessed by multiple regression analysis. The correlation coefficients of blood glucose level measured at 10 time points to the daily MBG were 0.58-0.74 and 0.59-0.79, respectively, before and after treatment (Pblood glucose levels measured at 6 of the 10 time points could explain 95% and 97% of the changes in MBG before and after treatment. The three blood glucose levels, which were measured at fasting, 2 h after breakfast and before dinner, of the 10 time points could explain 84% and 86% of the changes in MBG before and after treatment, but could only explain 36% and 26% of the changes in HbA1c before and after treatment, and they had a poorer correlation with the HbA1c than with the 24 h MBG. The blood glucose levels measured at fasting, 2 h after breakfast and before dinner truly reflected the change 24 h blood glucose level, suggesting that they are appropriate for the self-monitoring of blood glucose levels in diabetes patients receiving oral anti-diabetes therapy. Copyright © 2014 The Editorial Board of Biomedical and Environmental Sciences. Published by China CDC. All rights reserved.
Using Genes as Characters and a Parsimony Analysis to Explore the Phylogenetic Position of Turtles
Lu, Bin; Yang, Weizhao; Dai, Qiang; Fu, Jinzhong
2013-01-01
The phylogenetic position of turtles within the vertebrate tree of life remains controversial. Conflicting conclusions from different studies are likely a consequence of systematic error in the tree construction process, rather than random error from small amounts of data. Using genomic data, we evaluate the phylogenetic position of turtles with both conventional concatenated data analysis and a “genes as characters” approach. Two datasets were constructed, one with seven species (human, opossum, zebra finch, chicken, green anole, Chinese pond turtle, and western clawed frog) and 4584 orthologous genes, and the second with four additional species (soft-shelled turtle, Nile crocodile, royal python, and tuatara) but only 1638 genes. Our concatenated data analysis strongly supported turtle as the sister-group to archosaurs (the archosaur hypothesis), similar to several recent genomic data based studies using similar methods. When using genes as characters and gene trees as character-state trees with equal weighting for each gene, however, our parsimony analysis suggested that turtles are possibly sister-group to diapsids, archosaurs, or lepidosaurs. None of these resolutions were strongly supported by bootstraps. Furthermore, our incongruence analysis clearly demonstrated that there is a large amount of inconsistency among genes and most of the conflict relates to the placement of turtles. We conclude that the uncertain placement of turtles is a reflection of the true state of nature. Concatenated data analysis of large and heterogeneous datasets likely suffers from systematic error and over-estimates of confidence as a consequence of a large number of characters. Using genes as characters offers an alternative for phylogenomic analysis. It has potential to reduce systematic error, such as data heterogeneity and long-branch attraction, and it can also avoid problems associated with computation time and model selection. Finally, treating genes as characters
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Pedersen, Søren Nygaard
The research presented in this PhD thesis has focused on a perceptual approach to robust design. The results of the research and the original contribution to knowledge is a preliminary framework for understanding, positioning, and applying perceptual robust design. Product quality is a topic...... been presented. Therefore, this study set out to contribute to the understanding and application of perceptual robust design. To achieve this, a state-of-the-art and current practice review was performed. From the review two main research problems were identified. Firstly, a lack of tools...... for perceptual robustness was found to overlap with the optimum for functional robustness and at most approximately 2.2% out of the 14.74% could be ascribed solely to the perceptual robustness optimisation. In conclusion, the thesis have offered a new perspective on robust design by merging robust design...
J Olive, David
2017-01-01
This text presents methods that are robust to the assumption of a multivariate normal distribution or methods that are robust to certain types of outliers. Instead of using exact theory based on the multivariate normal distribution, the simpler and more applicable large sample theory is given. The text develops among the first practical robust regression and robust multivariate location and dispersion estimators backed by theory. The robust techniques are illustrated for methods such as principal component analysis, canonical correlation analysis, and factor analysis. A simple way to bootstrap confidence regions is also provided. Much of the research on robust multivariate analysis in this book is being published for the first time. The text is suitable for a first course in Multivariate Statistical Analysis or a first course in Robust Statistics. This graduate text is also useful for people who are familiar with the traditional multivariate topics, but want to know more about handling data sets with...
Jackson-Blake, L. A.; Sample, J. E.; Wade, A. J.; Helliwell, R. C.; Skeffington, R. A.
2017-07-01
Catchment-scale water quality models are increasingly popular tools for exploring the potential effects of land management, land use change and climate change on water quality. However, the dynamic, catchment-scale nutrient models in common usage are complex, with many uncertain parameters requiring calibration, limiting their usability and robustness. A key question is whether this complexity is justified. To explore this, we developed a parsimonious phosphorus model, SimplyP, incorporating a rainfall-runoff model and a biogeochemical model able to simulate daily streamflow, suspended sediment, and particulate and dissolved phosphorus dynamics. The model's complexity was compared to one popular nutrient model, INCA-P, and the performance of the two models was compared in a small rural catchment in northeast Scotland. For three land use classes, less than six SimplyP parameters must be determined through calibration, the rest may be based on measurements, while INCA-P has around 40 unmeasurable parameters. Despite substantially simpler process-representation, SimplyP performed comparably to INCA-P in both calibration and validation and produced similar long-term projections in response to changes in land management. Results support the hypothesis that INCA-P is overly complex for the study catchment. We hope our findings will help prompt wider model comparison exercises, as well as debate among the water quality modeling community as to whether today's models are fit for purpose. Simpler models such as SimplyP have the potential to be useful management and research tools, building blocks for future model development (prototype code is freely available), or benchmarks against which more complex models could be evaluated.
Multimodel Robust Control for Hydraulic Turbine
Osuský, Jakub; Števo, Stanislav
2014-01-01
The paper deals with the multimodel and robust control system design and their combination based on M-Δ structure. Controller design will be done in the frequency domain with nominal performance specified by phase margin. Hydraulic turbine model is analyzed as system with unstructured uncertainty, and robust stability condition is included in controller design. Multimodel and robust control approaches are presented in detail on hydraulic turbine model. Control design approaches are compared a...
Doppelhofer, Gernot; Weeks, Melvyn
2011-01-01
This paper investigates the robustness of determinants of economic growth in the presence of model uncertainty, parameter heterogeneity and outliers. The robust model averaging approach introduced in the paper uses a flexible and parsi- monious mixture modeling that allows for fat-tailed errors compared to the normal benchmark case. Applying robust model averaging to growth determinants, the paper finds that eight out of eighteen variables found to be significantly related to economic growth ...
Voss, Clifford I.; Soliman, Safaa M.
2014-03-01
Parsimonious groundwater modeling provides insight into hydrogeologic functioning of the Nubian Aquifer System (NAS), the world's largest non-renewable groundwater system (belonging to Chad, Egypt, Libya, and Sudan). Classical groundwater-resource issues exist (magnitude and lateral extent of drawdown near pumping centers) with joint international management questions regarding transboundary drawdown. Much of NAS is thick, containing a large volume of high-quality groundwater, but receives insignificant recharge, so water-resource availability is time-limited. Informative aquifer data are lacking regarding large-scale response, providing only local-scale information near pumps. Proxy data provide primary underpinning for understanding regional response: Holocene water-table decline from the previous pluvial period, after thousands of years, results in current oasis/sabkha locations where the water table still intersects the ground. Depletion is found to be controlled by two regional parameters, hydraulic diffusivity and vertical anisotropy of permeability. Secondary data that provide insight are drawdowns near pumps and isotope-groundwater ages (million-year-old groundwaters in Egypt). The resultant strong simply structured three-dimensional model representation captures the essence of NAS regional groundwater-flow behavior. Model forecasts inform resource management that transboundary drawdown will likely be minimal—a nonissue—whereas drawdown within pumping centers may become excessive, requiring alternative extraction schemes; correspondingly, significant water-table drawdown may occur in pumping centers co-located with oases, causing oasis loss and environmental impacts.
Ma, Shuai; Wu, Qi; Hu, Yibo; Wei, Fuwen
2018-05-20
The explosive growth in genomic data has provided novel insights into the conflicting signals hidden in phylogenetic trees. Although some studies have explored the effects of the GC content and parsimony informative sites (PIS) on the phylogenetic tree, the effect of the heterogeneity of the GC content at the first/second/third codon position on parsimony informative sites (GC1/2/3 PIS ) among different species and the effect of PIS on phylogenetic tree construction remain largely unexplored. Here, we used two different mammal genomic datasets to explore the patterns of GC1/2/3 PIS heterogeneity and the effect of PIS on the phylogenetic tree of genes: (i) all GC1/2/3 PIS have obvious heterogeneity between different mammals, and the levels of heterogeneity are GC3 PIS > GC2 PIS > GC1 PIS ; (ii) the number of PIS is positively correlated with the metrics of "good" gene tree topologies, and excluding the third codon position (C3) decreases the quality of gene trees by removing too many PIS. These results provide novel insights into the heterogeneity pattern of GC1/2/3 PIS in mammals and the relationship between GC3/PIS and gene trees. Additionally, it is necessary to carefully consider whether to exclude C3 to improve the quality of gene trees, especially in the super-tree method. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Mirus, Benjamin B.; Nimmo, J.R.
2013-01-01
The impact of preferential flow on recharge and contaminant transport poses a considerable challenge to water-resources management. Typical hydrologic models require extensive site characterization, but can underestimate fluxes when preferential flow is significant. A recently developed source-responsive model incorporates film-flow theory with conservation of mass to estimate unsaturated-zone preferential fluxes with readily available data. The term source-responsive describes the sensitivity of preferential flow in response to water availability at the source of input. We present the first rigorous tests of a parsimonious formulation for simulating water table fluctuations using two case studies, both in arid regions with thick unsaturated zones of fractured volcanic rock. Diffuse flow theory cannot adequately capture the observed water table responses at both sites; the source-responsive model is a viable alternative. We treat the active area fraction of preferential flow paths as a scaled function of water inputs at the land surface then calibrate the macropore density to fit observed water table rises. Unlike previous applications, we allow the characteristic film-flow velocity to vary, reflecting the lag time between source and deep water table responses. Analysis of model performance and parameter sensitivity for the two case studies underscores the importance of identifying thresholds for initiation of film flow in unsaturated rocks, and suggests that this parsimonious approach is potentially of great practical value.
Robust procedures in chemometrics
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kotwa, Ewelina
properties of the analysed data. The broad theoretical background of robust procedures was given as a very useful supplement to the classical methods, and a new tool, based on robust PCA, aiming at identifying Rayleigh and Raman scatters in excitation-mission (EEM) data was developed. The results show...
2013-01-01
Background Phylogeny estimation from aligned haplotype sequences has attracted more and more attention in the recent years due to its importance in analysis of many fine-scale genetic data. Its application fields range from medical research, to drug discovery, to epidemiology, to population dynamics. The literature on molecular phylogenetics proposes a number of criteria for selecting a phylogeny from among plausible alternatives. Usually, such criteria can be expressed by means of objective functions, and the phylogenies that optimize them are referred to as optimal. One of the most important estimation criteria is the parsimony which states that the optimal phylogeny T∗for a set H of n haplotype sequences over a common set of variable loci is the one that satisfies the following requirements: (i) it has the shortest length and (ii) it is such that, for each pair of distinct haplotypes hi,hj∈H, the sum of the edge weights belonging to the path from hi to hj in T∗ is not smaller than the observed number of changes between hi and hj. Finding the most parsimonious phylogeny for H involves solving an optimization problem, called the Most Parsimonious Phylogeny Estimation Problem (MPPEP), which is NP-hard in many of its versions. Results In this article we investigate a recent version of the MPPEP that arises when input data consist of single nucleotide polymorphism haplotypes extracted from a population of individuals on a common genomic region. Specifically, we explore the prospects for improving on the implicit enumeration strategy of implicit enumeration strategy used in previous work using a novel problem formulation and a series of strengthening valid inequalities and preliminary symmetry breaking constraints to more precisely bound the solution space and accelerate implicit enumeration of possible optimal phylogenies. We present the basic formulation and then introduce a series of provable valid constraints to reduce the solution space. We then prove
Robustness Beamforming Algorithms
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sajad Dehghani
2014-04-01
Full Text Available Adaptive beamforming methods are known to degrade in the presence of steering vector and covariance matrix uncertinity. In this paper, a new approach is presented to robust adaptive minimum variance distortionless response beamforming make robust against both uncertainties in steering vector and covariance matrix. This method minimize a optimization problem that contains a quadratic objective function and a quadratic constraint. The optimization problem is nonconvex but is converted to a convex optimization problem in this paper. It is solved by the interior-point method and optimum weight vector to robust beamforming is achieved.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Demirhan Erdal
2015-01-01
Full Text Available This paper aims to investigate the effect of exchange-rate stability on real export volume in Turkey, using monthly data for the period February 2001 to January 2010. The Johansen multivariate cointegration method and the parsimonious error-correction model are applied to determine long-run and short-run relationships between real export volume and its determinants. In this study, the conditional variance of the GARCH (1, 1 model is taken as a proxy for exchange-rate stability, and generalized impulse-response functions and variance-decomposition analyses are applied to analyze the dynamic effects of variables on real export volume. The empirical findings suggest that exchangerate stability has a significant positive effect on real export volume, both in the short and the long run.
Robustness Metrics: Consolidating the multiple approaches to quantify Robustness
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Göhler, Simon Moritz; Eifler, Tobias; Howard, Thomas J.
2016-01-01
robustness metrics; 3) Functional expectancy and dispersion robustness metrics; and 4) Probability of conformance robustness metrics. The goal was to give a comprehensive overview of robustness metrics and guidance to scholars and practitioners to understand the different types of robustness metrics...
Tarasov, Sergei; Génier, François
2015-01-01
Scarabaeine dung beetles are the dominant dung feeding group of insects and are widely used as model organisms in conservation, ecology and developmental biology. Due to the conflicts among 13 recently published phylogenies dealing with the higher-level relationships of dung beetles, the phylogeny of this lineage remains largely unresolved. In this study, we conduct rigorous phylogenetic analyses of dung beetles, based on an unprecedented taxon sample (110 taxa) and detailed investigation of morphology (205 characters). We provide the description of morphology and thoroughly illustrate the used characters. Along with parsimony, traditionally used in the analysis of morphological data, we also apply the Bayesian method with a novel approach that uses anatomy ontology for matrix partitioning. This approach allows for heterogeneity in evolutionary rates among characters from different anatomical regions. Anatomy ontology generates a number of parameter-partition schemes which we compare using Bayes factor. We also test the effect of inclusion of autapomorphies in the morphological analysis, which hitherto has not been examined. Generally, schemes with more parameters were favored in the Bayesian comparison suggesting that characters located on different body regions evolve at different rates and that partitioning of the data matrix using anatomy ontology is reasonable; however, trees from the parsimony and all the Bayesian analyses were quite consistent. The hypothesized phylogeny reveals many novel clades and provides additional support for some clades recovered in previous analyses. Our results provide a solid basis for a new classification of dung beetles, in which the taxonomic limits of the tribes Dichotomiini, Deltochilini and Coprini are restricted and many new tribes must be described. Based on the consistency of the phylogeny with biogeography, we speculate that dung beetles may have originated in the Mesozoic contrary to the traditional view pointing to a
Robust Approaches to Forecasting
Jennifer Castle; David Hendry; Michael P. Clements
2014-01-01
We investigate alternative robust approaches to forecasting, using a new class of robust devices, contrasted with equilibrium correction models. Their forecasting properties are derived facing a range of likely empirical problems at the forecast origin, including measurement errors, implulses, omitted variables, unanticipated location shifts and incorrectly included variables that experience a shift. We derive the resulting forecast biases and error variances, and indicate when the methods ar...
Qualitative Robustness in Estimation
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mohammed Nasser
2012-07-01
Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman","serif";} Qualitative robustness, influence function, and breakdown point are three main concepts to judge an estimator from the viewpoint of robust estimation. It is important as well as interesting to study relation among them. This article attempts to present the concept of qualitative robustness as forwarded by first proponents and its later development. It illustrates intricacies of qualitative robustness and its relation with consistency, and also tries to remove commonly believed misunderstandings about relation between influence function and qualitative robustness citing some examples from literature and providing a new counter-example. At the end it places a useful finite and a simulated version of qualitative robustness index (QRI. In order to assess the performance of the proposed measures, we have compared fifteen estimators of correlation coefficient using simulated as well as real data sets.
Effects of methodology and analysis strategy on robustness of pestivirus phylogeny.
Liu, Lihong; Xia, Hongyan; Baule, Claudia; Belák, Sándor; Wahlberg, Niklas
2010-01-01
Phylogenetic analysis of pestiviruses is a useful tool for classifying novel pestiviruses and for revealing their phylogenetic relationships. In this study, robustness of pestivirus phylogenies has been compared by analyses of the 5'UTR, and complete N(pro) and E2 gene regions separately and combined, performed by four methods: neighbour-joining (NJ), maximum parsimony (MP), maximum likelihood (ML), and Bayesian inference (BI). The strategy of analysing the combined sequence dataset by BI, ML, and MP methods resulted in a single, well-supported tree topology, indicating a reliable and robust pestivirus phylogeny. By contrast, the single-gene analysis strategy resulted in 12 trees of different topologies, revealing different relationships among pestiviruses. These results indicate that the strategies and methodologies are two vital aspects affecting the robustness of the pestivirus phylogeny. The strategy and methodologies outlined in this paper may have a broader application in inferring phylogeny of other RNA viruses.
Robust estimation of the correlation matrix of longitudinal data
Maadooliat, Mehdi
2011-09-23
We propose a double-robust procedure for modeling the correlation matrix of a longitudinal dataset. It is based on an alternative Cholesky decomposition of the form Σ=DLL⊤D where D is a diagonal matrix proportional to the square roots of the diagonal entries of Σ and L is a unit lower-triangular matrix determining solely the correlation matrix. The first robustness is with respect to model misspecification for the innovation variances in D, and the second is robustness to outliers in the data. The latter is handled using heavy-tailed multivariate t-distributions with unknown degrees of freedom. We develop a Fisher scoring algorithm for computing the maximum likelihood estimator of the parameters when the nonredundant and unconstrained entries of (L,D) are modeled parsimoniously using covariates. We compare our results with those based on the modified Cholesky decomposition of the form LD2L⊤ using simulations and a real dataset. © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.
Hydrologic behaviour of the Lake of Monate (Italy): a parsimonious modelling strategy
Tomesani, Giulia; Soligno, Irene; Castellarin, Attilio; Baratti, Emanuele; Cervi, Federico; Montanari, Alberto
2016-04-01
the second year as validation data and we compared two calibration strategies which maximize two different objective functions: (1) Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency of simulated daily water-level fluctuations, NSE, and (2) linear correlation coefficient between daily series of simulated groundwater inflow and observed water table elevation multiplied by NSE. The validation exercise seems to point out the value of incorporating groundwater measurements for improving the reliability and robustness of the conceptual model.
A physically-based parsimonious hydrological model for flash floods in Mediterranean catchments
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
H. Roux
2011-09-01
Full Text Available A spatially distributed hydrological model, dedicated to flood simulation, is developed on the basis of physical process representation (infiltration, overland flow, channel routing. Estimation of model parameters requires data concerning topography, soil properties, vegetation and land use. Four parameters are calibrated for the entire catchment using one flood event. Model sensitivity to individual parameters is assessed using Monte-Carlo simulations. Results of this sensitivity analysis with a criterion based on the Nash efficiency coefficient and the error of peak time and runoff are used to calibrate the model. This procedure is tested on the Gardon d'Anduze catchment, located in the Mediterranean zone of southern France. A first validation is conducted using three flood events with different hydrometeorological characteristics. This sensitivity analysis along with validation tests illustrates the predictive capability of the model and points out the possible improvements on the model's structure and parameterization for flash flood forecasting, especially in ungauged basins. Concerning the model structure, results show that water transfer through the subsurface zone also contributes to the hydrograph response to an extreme event, especially during the recession period. Maps of soil saturation emphasize the impact of rainfall and soil properties variability on these dynamics. Adding a subsurface flow component in the simulation also greatly impacts the spatial distribution of soil saturation and shows the importance of the drainage network. Measures of such distributed variables would help discriminating between different possible model structures.
Reliability-Based Robustness Analysis for a Croatian Sports Hall
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Čizmar, Dean; Kirkegaard, Poul Henning; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard
2011-01-01
This paper presents a probabilistic approach for structural robustness assessment for a timber structure built a few years ago. The robustness analysis is based on a structural reliability based framework for robustness and a simplified mechanical system modelling of a timber truss system....... A complex timber structure with a large number of failure modes is modelled with only a few dominant failure modes. First, a component based robustness analysis is performed based on the reliability indices of the remaining elements after the removal of selected critical elements. The robustness...... is expressed and evaluated by a robustness index. Next, the robustness is assessed using system reliability indices where the probabilistic failure model is modelled by a series system of parallel systems....
Sriboonchitta, Songsak; Huynh, Van-Nam
2017-01-01
This book presents recent research on robustness in econometrics. Robust data processing techniques – i.e., techniques that yield results minimally affected by outliers – and their applications to real-life economic and financial situations are the main focus of this book. The book also discusses applications of more traditional statistical techniques to econometric problems. Econometrics is a branch of economics that uses mathematical (especially statistical) methods to analyze economic systems, to forecast economic and financial dynamics, and to develop strategies for achieving desirable economic performance. In day-by-day data, we often encounter outliers that do not reflect the long-term economic trends, e.g., unexpected and abrupt fluctuations. As such, it is important to develop robust data processing techniques that can accommodate these fluctuations.
2013-01-01
This contributed volume collects research papers, presented at the CIRP Sponsored Conference Robust Manufacturing Control: Innovative and Interdisciplinary Approaches for Global Networks (RoMaC 2012, Jacobs University, Bremen, Germany, June 18th-20th 2012). These research papers present the latest developments and new ideas focusing on robust manufacturing control for global networks. Today, Global Production Networks (i.e. the nexus of interconnected material and information flows through which products and services are manufactured, assembled and distributed) are confronted with and expected to adapt to: sudden and unpredictable large-scale changes of important parameters which are occurring more and more frequently, event propagation in networks with high degree of interconnectivity which leads to unforeseen fluctuations, and non-equilibrium states which increasingly characterize daily business. These multi-scale changes deeply influence logistic target achievement and call for robust planning and control ...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kostiučenko, Oksana; Fiutowski, Jacek; Tamulevicius, Tomas
2014-01-01
Robustness is a key issue for the applications of plasmonic substrates such as tip-enhanced Raman spectroscopy, surface-enhanced spectroscopies, enhanced optical biosensing, optical and optoelectronic plasmonic nanosensors and others. A novel approach for the fabrication of robust plasmonic...... substrates is presented, which relies on the coverage of gold nanostructures with diamond-like carbon (DLC) thin films of thicknesses 25, 55 and 105 nm. DLC thin films were grown by direct hydrocarbon ion beam deposition. In order to find the optimum balance between optical and mechanical properties...
Robust Self Tuning Controllers
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Poulsen, Niels Kjølstad
1985-01-01
The present thesis concerns robustness properties of adaptive controllers. It is addressed to methods for robustifying self tuning controllers with respect to abrupt changes in the plant parameters. In the thesis an algorithm for estimating abruptly changing parameters is presented. The estimator...... has several operation modes and a detector for controlling the mode. A special self tuning controller has been developed to regulate plant with changing time delay.......The present thesis concerns robustness properties of adaptive controllers. It is addressed to methods for robustifying self tuning controllers with respect to abrupt changes in the plant parameters. In the thesis an algorithm for estimating abruptly changing parameters is presented. The estimator...
Robust control synthesis for uncertain dynamical systems
Byun, Kuk-Whan; Wie, Bong; Sunkel, John
1989-01-01
This paper presents robust control synthesis techniques for uncertain dynamical systems subject to structured parameter perturbation. Both QFT (quantitative feedback theory) and H-infinity control synthesis techniques are investigated. Although most H-infinity-related control techniques are not concerned with the structured parameter perturbation, a new way of incorporating the parameter uncertainty in the robust H-infinity control design is presented. A generic model of uncertain dynamical systems is used to illustrate the design methodologies investigated in this paper. It is shown that, for a certain noncolocated structural control problem, use of both techniques results in nonminimum phase compensation.
Hans, Elias W.; Wullink, Gerhard; van Houdenhoven, Mark; Kazemier, Geert
2008-01-01
We consider the robust surgery loading problem for a hospital’s operating theatre department, which concerns assigning surgeries and sufficient planned slack to operating room days. The objective is to maximize capacity utilization and minimize the risk of overtime, and thus cancelled patients. This
Robustness Envelopes of Networks
Trajanovski, S.; Martín-Hernández, J.; Winterbach, W.; Van Mieghem, P.
2013-01-01
We study the robustness of networks under node removal, considering random node failure, as well as targeted node attacks based on network centrality measures. Whilst both of these have been studied in the literature, existing approaches tend to study random failure in terms of average-case
Robust predictions of the interacting boson model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Casten, R.F.; Koeln Univ.
1994-01-01
While most recognized for its symmetries and algebraic structure, the IBA model has other less-well-known but equally intrinsic properties which give unavoidable, parameter-free predictions. These predictions concern central aspects of low-energy nuclear collective structure. This paper outlines these ''robust'' predictions and compares them with the data
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kuszewski, John J.; Thottungal, Robin Augustine [National Institutes of Health, Imaging Sciences Laboratory, Center for Information Technology (United States); Clore, G. Marius [National Institutes of Health, Laboratory of Chemical Physics, National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (United States)], E-mail: mariusc@mail.nih.gov; Schwieters, Charles D. [National Institutes of Health, Imaging Sciences Laboratory, Center for Information Technology (United States)], E-mail: Charles.Schwieters@nih.gov
2008-08-15
We report substantial improvements to the previously introduced automated NOE assignment and structure determination protocol known as PASD (Kuszewski et al. (2004) J Am Chem Soc 26:6258-6273). The improved protocol includes extensive analysis of input spectral data to create a low-resolution contact map of residues expected to be close in space. This map is used to obtain reasonable initial guesses of NOE assignment likelihoods which are refined during subsequent structure calculations. Information in the contact map about which residues are predicted to not be close in space is applied via conservative repulsive distance restraints which are used in early phases of the structure calculations. In comparison with the previous protocol, the new protocol requires significantly less computation time. We show results of running the new PASD protocol on six proteins and demonstrate that useful assignment and structural information is extracted on proteins of more than 220 residues. We show that useful assignment information can be obtained even in the case in which a unique structure cannot be determined.
Gomez-Velez, J. D.; Harvey, J. W.
2014-12-01
Hyporheic exchange has been hypothesized to have basin-scale consequences; however, predictions throughout river networks are limited by available geomorphic and hydrogeologic data as well as models that can analyze and aggregate hyporheic exchange flows across large spatial scales. We developed a parsimonious but physically-based model of hyporheic flow for application in large river basins: Networks with EXchange and Subsurface Storage (NEXSS). At the core of NEXSS is a characterization of the channel geometry, geomorphic features, and related hydraulic drivers based on scaling equations from the literature and readily accessible information such as river discharge, bankfull width, median grain size, sinuosity, channel slope, and regional groundwater gradients. Multi-scale hyporheic flow is computed based on combining simple but powerful analytical and numerical expressions that have been previously published. We applied NEXSS across a broad range of geomorphic diversity in river reaches and synthetic river networks. NEXSS demonstrates that vertical exchange beneath submerged bedforms dominates hyporheic fluxes and turnover rates along the river corridor. Moreover, the hyporheic zone's potential for biogeochemical transformations is comparable across stream orders, but the abundance of lower-order channels results in a considerably higher cumulative effect for low-order streams. Thus, vertical exchange beneath submerged bedforms has more potential for biogeochemical transformations than lateral exchange beneath banks, although lateral exchange through meanders may be important in large rivers. These results have implications for predicting outcomes of river and basin management practices.
Parametric uncertainty modeling for robust control
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Rasmussen, K.H.; Jørgensen, Sten Bay
1999-01-01
The dynamic behaviour of a non-linear process can often be approximated with a time-varying linear model. In the presented methodology the dynamics is modeled non-conservatively as parametric uncertainty in linear lime invariant models. The obtained uncertainty description makes it possible...... to perform robustness analysis on a control system using the structured singular value. The idea behind the proposed method is to fit a rational function to the parameter variation. The parameter variation can then be expressed as a linear fractional transformation (LFT), It is discussed how the proposed...... point changes. It is shown that a diagonal PI control structure provides robust performance towards variations in feed flow rate or feed concentrations. However including both liquid and vapor flow delays robust performance specifications cannot be satisfied with this simple diagonal control structure...
Kutzner, Florian; Vogel, Tobias; Freytag, Peter; Fiedler, Klaus
2011-01-01
In the present research, we argue for the robustness of illusory correlations (ICs, Hamilton & Gifford, 1976) regarding two boundary conditions suggested in previous research. First, we argue that ICs are maintained under extended experience. Using simulations, we derive conflicting predictions. Whereas noise-based accounts predict ICs to be maintained (Fielder, 2000; Smith, 1991), a prominent account based on discrepancy-reducing feedback learning predicts ICs to disappear (Van Rooy et al., 2003). An experiment involving 320 observations with majority and minority members supports the claim that ICs are maintained. Second, we show that actively using the stereotype to make predictions that are met with reward and punishment does not eliminate the bias. In addition, participants' operant reactions afford a novel online measure of ICs. In sum, our findings highlight the robustness of ICs that can be explained as a result of unbiased but noisy learning.
Eggenberg, Niklaus; Salani, Matteo; Bierlaire, Michel
2010-01-01
Due to economic pressure industries, when planning, tend to focus on optimizing the expected profit or the yield. The consequence of highly optimized solutions is an increased sensitivity to uncertainty. This generates additional "operational" costs, incurred by possible modifications of the original plan to be performed when reality does not reflect what was expected in the planning phase. The modern research trend focuses on "robustness" of solutions instead of yield or profit. Although ro...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Carlo Giovanni Ferro
2017-06-01
Full Text Available Anti-ice systems assure a vital on-board function in most aircraft: ice prevention or de-icing is mandatory for all aerodynamic surfaces to preserve their performance, and for all the movable surfaces to allow the proper control of the plane. In this work, a novel multi-functional panel concept which integrates anti-icing directly inside the primary structure is presented. In fact, constructing the core of the sandwich with trabecular non-stochastic cells allows the presence of a heat exchanger directly inside the structure with a savings in weight and an improvement in thermal efficiency. This solution can be realized easily in a single-piece component using Additive Manufacturing (AM technology without the need for joints, gluing, or welding. The objective of this study is to preliminarily investigate the mechanical properties of the core constructed with Selective Laser Melting (SLM; through the Design of Experiment (DOE, different design parameters were varied to understand how they affect the compression behaviour.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Ballert, Carolina S; Stucki, Gerold; Biering-Sørensen, Fin
2014-01-01
OBJECTIVE: To determine the most robust dimensional structure of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) categories relevant to spinal cord injury (SCI) across subgroups of lesion level, health care context, sex, age, and resources of the country. DESIGN......: A multidimensional between-item response Rasch model was used. The choice of the dimensions was conceptually driven using the ICF components from the functioning chapters and splits of the activity and participation component described in the ICF. SETTING: Secondary analysis of data from an international, cross....... The model fit improvement from the unidimensional to the 2-dimensional and from the 2-dimensional to the 3-dimensional model was significant in all groups (P
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sato, Masayuki; Muraoka, Koji; Hozumi, Koki; Sanada, Yukihisa; Yamada, Tsutomu; Torii, Tatsuo
2015-01-01
Due to the tragic accident of radioactive contaminant spread from Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant, the necessity of unmanned systems for radiation monitoring has been increasing. This paper concerns the flight controller design of an unmanned airplane which has been developed for radiation monitoring around the power plant. The flight controller consists of conventional control elements, i.e. Stability/Control Augmentation System (S/CAS) with PI controllers and guidance loops with PID controllers. The gains in these controllers are designed by minimizing appropriately defined cost functions for several possible models and disturbances to produce structured robust flight controllers. (This method is called as 'multiple model approach'.) Control performance of our flight controller was evaluated through flight tests and a primitive flight of radiation monitoring in Namie-machi in Fukushima prefecture was conducted in Jan. 2014. Flight results are included in this paper. (author)
Iqbal, Abdullah; Valous, Nektarios A; Sun, Da-Wen; Allen, Paul
2011-02-01
Lacunarity is about quantifying the degree of spatial heterogeneity in the visual texture of imagery through the identification of the relationships between patterns and their spatial configurations in a two-dimensional setting. The computed lacunarity data can designate a mathematical index of spatial heterogeneity, therefore the corresponding feature vectors should possess the necessary inter-class statistical properties that would enable them to be used for pattern recognition purposes. The objectives of this study is to construct a supervised parsimonious classification model of binary lacunarity data-computed by Valous et al. (2009)-from pork ham slice surface images, with the aid of kernel principal component analysis (KPCA) and artificial neural networks (ANNs), using a portion of informative salient features. At first, the dimension of the initial space (510 features) was reduced by 90% in order to avoid any noise effects in the subsequent classification. Then, using KPCA, the first nineteen kernel principal components (99.04% of total variance) were extracted from the reduced feature space, and were used as input in the ANN. An adaptive feedforward multilayer perceptron (MLP) classifier was employed to obtain a suitable mapping from the input dataset. The correct classification percentages for the training, test and validation sets were 86.7%, 86.7%, and 85.0%, respectively. The results confirm that the classification performance was satisfactory. The binary lacunarity spatial metric captured relevant information that provided a good level of differentiation among pork ham slice images. Copyright © 2010 The American Meat Science Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Gray, Richard A; Pathmanathan, Pras
2016-10-01
Elucidating the underlying mechanisms of fatal cardiac arrhythmias requires a tight integration of electrophysiological experiments, models, and theory. Existing models of transmembrane action potential (AP) are complex (resulting in over parameterization) and varied (leading to dissimilar predictions). Thus, simpler models are needed to elucidate the "minimal physiological requirements" to reproduce significant observable phenomena using as few parameters as possible. Moreover, models have been derived from experimental studies from a variety of species under a range of environmental conditions (for example, all existing rabbit AP models incorporate a formulation of the rapid sodium current, INa, based on 30 year old data from chick embryo cell aggregates). Here we develop a simple "parsimonious" rabbit AP model that is mathematically identifiable (i.e., not over parameterized) by combining a novel Hodgkin-Huxley formulation of INa with a phenomenological model of repolarization similar to the voltage dependent, time-independent rectifying outward potassium current (IK). The model was calibrated using the following experimental data sets measured from the same species (rabbit) under physiological conditions: dynamic current-voltage (I-V) relationships during the AP upstroke; rapid recovery of AP excitability during the relative refractory period; and steady-state INa inactivation via voltage clamp. Simulations reproduced several important "emergent" phenomena including cellular alternans at rates > 250 bpm as observed in rabbit myocytes, reentrant spiral waves as observed on the surface of the rabbit heart, and spiral wave breakup. Model variants were studied which elucidated the minimal requirements for alternans and spiral wave break up, namely the kinetics of INa inactivation and the non-linear rectification of IK.The simplicity of the model, and the fact that its parameters have physiological meaning, make it ideal for engendering generalizable mechanistic
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Kimberly J Van Meter
Full Text Available Nutrient legacies in anthropogenic landscapes, accumulated over decades of fertilizer application, lead to time lags between implementation of conservation measures and improvements in water quality. Quantification of such time lags has remained difficult, however, due to an incomplete understanding of controls on nutrient depletion trajectories after changes in land-use or management practices. In this study, we have developed a parsimonious watershed model for quantifying catchment-scale time lags based on both soil nutrient accumulations (biogeochemical legacy and groundwater travel time distributions (hydrologic legacy. The model accurately predicted the time lags observed in an Iowa watershed that had undergone a 41% conversion of area from row crop to native prairie. We explored the time scales of change for stream nutrient concentrations as a function of both natural and anthropogenic controls, from topography to spatial patterns of land-use change. Our results demonstrate that the existence of biogeochemical nutrient legacies increases time lags beyond those due to hydrologic legacy alone. In addition, we show that the maximum concentration reduction benefits vary according to the spatial pattern of intervention, with preferential conversion of land parcels having the shortest catchment-scale travel times providing proportionally greater concentration reductions as well as faster response times. In contrast, a random pattern of conversion results in a 1:1 relationship between percent land conversion and percent concentration reduction, irrespective of denitrification rates within the landscape. Our modeling framework allows for the quantification of tradeoffs between costs associated with implementation of conservation measures and the time needed to see the desired concentration reductions, making it of great value to decision makers regarding optimal implementation of watershed conservation measures.
Pedersen, Niklas; Holyoak, David T; Newton, Angela E
2007-06-01
The Bryaceae are a large cosmopolitan moss family including genera of significant morphological and taxonomic complexity. Phylogenetic relationships within the Bryaceae were reconstructed based on DNA sequence data from all three genomic compartments. In addition, maximum parsimony and Bayesian inference were employed to reconstruct ancestral character states of 38 morphological plus four habitat characters and eight insertion/deletion events. The recovered phylogenetic patterns are generally in accord with previous phylogenies based on chloroplast DNA sequence data and three major clades are identified. The first clade comprises Bryum bornholmense, B. rubens, B. caespiticium, and Plagiobryum. This corroborates the hypothesis suggested by previous studies that several Bryum species are more closely related to Plagiobryum than to the core Bryum species. The second clade includes Acidodontium, Anomobryum, and Haplodontium, while the third clade contains the core Bryum species plus Imbribryum. Within the latter clade, B. subapiculatum and B. tenuisetum form the sister clade to Imbribryum. Reconstructions of ancestral character states under maximum parsimony and Bayesian inference suggest fourteen morphological synapomorphies for the ingroup and synapomorphies are detected for most clades within the ingroup. Maximum parsimony and Bayesian reconstructions of ancestral character states are mostly congruent although Bayesian inference shows that the posterior probability of ancestral character states may decrease dramatically when node support is taken into account. Bayesian inference also indicates that reconstructions may be ambiguous at internal nodes for highly polymorphic characters.
Robust efficient video fingerprinting
Puri, Manika; Lubin, Jeffrey
2009-02-01
We have developed a video fingerprinting system with robustness and efficiency as the primary and secondary design criteria. In extensive testing, the system has shown robustness to cropping, letter-boxing, sub-titling, blur, drastic compression, frame rate changes, size changes and color changes, as well as to the geometric distortions often associated with camcorder capture in cinema settings. Efficiency is afforded by a novel two-stage detection process in which a fast matching process first computes a number of likely candidates, which are then passed to a second slower process that computes the overall best match with minimal false alarm probability. One key component of the algorithm is a maximally stable volume computation - a three-dimensional generalization of maximally stable extremal regions - that provides a content-centric coordinate system for subsequent hash function computation, independent of any affine transformation or extensive cropping. Other key features include an efficient bin-based polling strategy for initial candidate selection, and a final SIFT feature-based computation for final verification. We describe the algorithm and its performance, and then discuss additional modifications that can provide further improvement to efficiency and accuracy.
Thakur, Manoj; Kumar, Mohan B J; Muniyappa, K
2016-10-18
Much is known about the Escherichia coli nucleotide excision repair (NER) pathway; however, very little is understood about the proteins involved and the molecular mechanism of NER in mycobacteria. In this study, we show that Mycobacterium tuberculosis UvrB (MtUvrB), which exists in solution as a monomer, binds to DNA in a structure-dependent manner. A systematic examination of MtUvrB substrate specificity reveals that it associates preferentially with single-stranded DNA, duplexes with 3' or 5' overhangs, and linear duplex DNA with splayed arms. Whereas E. coli UvrB (EcUvrB) binds weakly to undamaged DNA and has no ATPase activity, MtUvrB possesses intrinsic ATPase activity that is greatly stimulated by both single- and double-stranded DNA. Strikingly, we found that MtUvrB, but not EcUvrB, possesses the DNA unwinding activity characteristic of an ATP-dependent DNA helicase. The helicase activity of MtUvrB proceeds in the 3' to 5' direction and is strongly modulated by a nontranslocating 5' single-stranded tail, indicating that in addition to the translocating strand it also interacts with the 5' end of the substrate. The fraction of DNA unwound by MtUvrB decreases significantly as the length of the duplex increases: it fails to unwind duplexes longer than 70 bp. These results, on one hand, reveal significant mechanistic differences between MtUvrB and EcUvrB and, on the other, support an alternative role for UvrB in the processing of key DNA replication intermediates. Altogether, our findings provide insights into the catalytic functions of UvrB and lay the foundation for further understanding of the NER pathway in M. tuberculosis.
Information theory perspective on network robustness
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schieber, Tiago A.; Carpi, Laura; Frery, Alejandro C.; Rosso, Osvaldo A.; Pardalos, Panos M.; Ravetti, Martín G.
2016-01-01
A crucial challenge in network theory is the study of the robustness of a network when facing a sequence of failures. In this work, we propose a dynamical definition of network robustness based on Information Theory, that considers measurements of the structural changes caused by failures of the network's components. Failures are defined here as a temporal process defined in a sequence. Robustness is then evaluated by measuring dissimilarities between topologies after each time step of the sequence, providing a dynamical information about the topological damage. We thoroughly analyze the efficiency of the method in capturing small perturbations by considering different probability distributions on networks. In particular, we find that distributions based on distances are more consistent in capturing network structural deviations, as better reflect the consequences of the failures. Theoretical examples and real networks are used to study the performance of this methodology. - Highlights: • A novel methodology to measure the robustness of a network to component failure or targeted attacks is proposed. • The use of the network's distance PDF allows a precise analysis. • The method provides a dynamic robustness profile showing the response of the topology to each failure event. • The measure is capable to detect network's critical elements.
Goloboff, Pablo A
2014-10-01
Three different types of data sets, for which the uniquely most parsimonious tree can be known exactly but is hard to find with heuristic tree search methods, are studied. Tree searches are complicated more by the shape of the tree landscape (i.e. the distribution of homoplasy on different trees) than by the sheer abundance of homoplasy or character conflict. Data sets of Type 1 are those constructed by Radel et al. (2013). Data sets of Type 2 present a very rugged landscape, with narrow peaks and valleys, but relatively low amounts of homoplasy. For such a tree landscape, subjecting the trees to TBR and saving suboptimal trees produces much better results when the sequence of clipping for the tree branches is randomized instead of fixed. An unexpected finding for data sets of Types 1 and 2 is that starting a search from a random tree instead of a random addition sequence Wagner tree may increase the probability that the search finds the most parsimonious tree; a small artificial example where these probabilities can be calculated exactly is presented. Data sets of Type 3, the most difficult data sets studied here, comprise only congruent characters, and a single island with only one most parsimonious tree. Even if there is a single island, missing entries create a very flat landscape which is difficult to traverse with tree search algorithms because the number of equally parsimonious trees that need to be saved and swapped to effectively move around the plateaus is too large. Minor modifications of the parameters of tree drifting, ratchet, and sectorial searches allow travelling around these plateaus much more efficiently than saving and swapping large numbers of equally parsimonious trees with TBR. For these data sets, two new related criteria for selecting taxon addition sequences in Wagner trees (the "selected" and "informative" addition sequences) produce much better results than the standard random or closest addition sequences. These new methods for Wagner
Robust control charts in statistical process control
Nazir, H.Z.
2014-01-01
The presence of outliers and contaminations in the output of the process highly affects the performance of the design structures of commonly used control charts and hence makes them of less practical use. One of the solutions to deal with this problem is to use control charts which are robust
Robust Refinement as Implemented in TOPAS
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Stone, K.; Stephens, P
2010-01-01
A robust refinement procedure is implemented in the program TOPAS through an iterative reweighting of the data. Examples are given of the procedure as applied to fitting partially overlapped peaks by full and partial models and also of the structures of ibuprofen and acetaminophen in the presence of unmodeled impurity contributions
Robust automated knowledge capture.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Stevens-Adams, Susan Marie; Abbott, Robert G.; Forsythe, James Chris; Trumbo, Michael Christopher Stefan; Haass, Michael Joseph; Hendrickson, Stacey M. Langfitt
2011-10-01
This report summarizes research conducted through the Sandia National Laboratories Robust Automated Knowledge Capture Laboratory Directed Research and Development project. The objective of this project was to advance scientific understanding of the influence of individual cognitive attributes on decision making. The project has developed a quantitative model known as RumRunner that has proven effective in predicting the propensity of an individual to shift strategies on the basis of task and experience related parameters. Three separate studies are described which have validated the basic RumRunner model. This work provides a basis for better understanding human decision making in high consequent national security applications, and in particular, the individual characteristics that underlie adaptive thinking.
Passion, Robustness and Perseverance
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Lim, Miguel Antonio; Lund, Rebecca
2016-01-01
Evaluation and merit in the measured university are increasingly based on taken-for-granted assumptions about the “ideal academic”. We suggest that the scholar now needs to show that she is passionate about her work and that she gains pleasure from pursuing her craft. We suggest that passion...... and pleasure achieve an exalted status as something compulsory. The scholar ought to feel passionate about her work and signal that she takes pleasure also in the difficult moments. Passion has become a signal of robustness and perseverance in a job market characterised by funding shortages, increased pressure...... way to demonstrate their potential and, crucially, their passion for their work. Drawing on the literature on technologies of governance, we reflect on what is captured and what is left out by these two evaluation instruments. We suggest that bibliometric analysis at the individual level is deeply...
Robust Optical Flow Estimation
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Javier Sánchez Pérez
2013-10-01
Full Text Available n this work, we describe an implementation of the variational method proposed by Brox etal. in 2004, which yields accurate optical flows with low running times. It has several benefitswith respect to the method of Horn and Schunck: it is more robust to the presence of outliers,produces piecewise-smooth flow fields and can cope with constant brightness changes. Thismethod relies on the brightness and gradient constancy assumptions, using the information ofthe image intensities and the image gradients to find correspondences. It also generalizes theuse of continuous L1 functionals, which help mitigate the effect of outliers and create a TotalVariation (TV regularization. Additionally, it introduces a simple temporal regularizationscheme that enforces a continuous temporal coherence of the flow fields.
Robust Multimodal Dictionary Learning
Cao, Tian; Jojic, Vladimir; Modla, Shannon; Powell, Debbie; Czymmek, Kirk; Niethammer, Marc
2014-01-01
We propose a robust multimodal dictionary learning method for multimodal images. Joint dictionary learning for both modalities may be impaired by lack of correspondence between image modalities in training data, for example due to areas of low quality in one of the modalities. Dictionaries learned with such non-corresponding data will induce uncertainty about image representation. In this paper, we propose a probabilistic model that accounts for image areas that are poorly corresponding between the image modalities. We cast the problem of learning a dictionary in presence of problematic image patches as a likelihood maximization problem and solve it with a variant of the EM algorithm. Our algorithm iterates identification of poorly corresponding patches and re-finements of the dictionary. We tested our method on synthetic and real data. We show improvements in image prediction quality and alignment accuracy when using the method for multimodal image registration. PMID:24505674
Robust snapshot interferometric spectropolarimetry.
Kim, Daesuk; Seo, Yoonho; Yoon, Yonghee; Dembele, Vamara; Yoon, Jae Woong; Lee, Kyu Jin; Magnusson, Robert
2016-05-15
This Letter describes a Stokes vector measurement method based on a snapshot interferometric common-path spectropolarimeter. The proposed scheme, which employs an interferometric polarization-modulation module, can extract the spectral polarimetric parameters Ψ(k) and Δ(k) of a transmissive anisotropic object by which an accurate Stokes vector can be calculated in the spectral domain. It is inherently strongly robust to the object 3D pose variation, since it is designed distinctly so that the measured object can be placed outside of the interferometric module. Experiments are conducted to verify the feasibility of the proposed system. The proposed snapshot scheme enables us to extract the spectral Stokes vector of a transmissive anisotropic object within tens of msec with high accuracy.
International Conference on Robust Statistics
Filzmoser, Peter; Gather, Ursula; Rousseeuw, Peter
2003-01-01
Aspects of Robust Statistics are important in many areas. Based on the International Conference on Robust Statistics 2001 (ICORS 2001) in Vorau, Austria, this volume discusses future directions of the discipline, bringing together leading scientists, experienced researchers and practitioners, as well as younger researchers. The papers cover a multitude of different aspects of Robust Statistics. For instance, the fundamental problem of data summary (weights of evidence) is considered and its robustness properties are studied. Further theoretical subjects include e.g.: robust methods for skewness, time series, longitudinal data, multivariate methods, and tests. Some papers deal with computational aspects and algorithms. Finally, the aspects of application and programming tools complete the volume.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M. Coustau
2012-04-01
Full Text Available Rainfall-runoff models are crucial tools for the statistical prediction of flash floods and real-time forecasting. This paper focuses on a karstic basin in the South of France and proposes a distributed parsimonious event-based rainfall-runoff model, coherent with the poor knowledge of both evaporative and underground fluxes. The model combines a SCS runoff model and a Lag and Route routing model for each cell of a regular grid mesh. The efficiency of the model is discussed not only to satisfactorily simulate floods but also to get powerful relationships between the initial condition of the model and various predictors of the initial wetness state of the basin, such as the base flow, the Hu2 index from the Meteo-France SIM model and the piezometric levels of the aquifer. The advantage of using meteorological radar rainfall in flood modelling is also assessed. Model calibration proved to be satisfactory by using an hourly time step with Nash criterion values, ranging between 0.66 and 0.94 for eighteen of the twenty-one selected events. The radar rainfall inputs significantly improved the simulations or the assessment of the initial condition of the model for 5 events at the beginning of autumn, mostly in September–October (mean improvement of Nash is 0.09; correction in the initial condition ranges from −205 to 124 mm, but were less efficient for the events at the end of autumn. In this period, the weak vertical extension of the precipitation system and the low altitude of the 0 °C isotherm could affect the efficiency of radar measurements due to the distance between the basin and the radar (~60 km. The model initial condition S is correlated with the three tested predictors (R^{2} > 0.6. The interpretation of the model suggests that groundwater does not affect the first peaks of the flood, but can strongly impact subsequent peaks in the case of a multi-storm event. Because this kind of model is based on a limited
Criteria for robustness of heteroclinic cycles in neural microcircuits
2011-01-01
We introduce a test for robustness of heteroclinic cycles that appear in neural microcircuits modeled as coupled dynamical cells. Robust heteroclinic cycles (RHCs) can appear as robust attractors in Lotka-Volterra-type winnerless competition (WLC) models as well as in more general coupled and/or symmetric systems. It has been previously suggested that RHCs may be relevant to a range of neural activities, from encoding and binding to spatio-temporal sequence generation. The robustness or otherwise of such cycles depends both on the coupling structure and the internal structure of the neurons. We verify that robust heteroclinic cycles can appear in systems of three identical cells, but only if we require perturbations to preserve some invariant subspaces for the individual cells. On the other hand, heteroclinic attractors can appear robustly in systems of four or more identical cells for some symmetric coupling patterns, without restriction on the internal dynamics of the cells. PMID:22656192
Robust Object Tracking Using Valid Fragments Selection.
Zheng, Jin; Li, Bo; Tian, Peng; Luo, Gang
Local features are widely used in visual tracking to improve robustness in cases of partial occlusion, deformation and rotation. This paper proposes a local fragment-based object tracking algorithm. Unlike many existing fragment-based algorithms that allocate the weights to each fragment, this method firstly defines discrimination and uniqueness for local fragment, and builds an automatic pre-selection of useful fragments for tracking. Then, a Harris-SIFT filter is used to choose the current valid fragments, excluding occluded or highly deformed fragments. Based on those valid fragments, fragment-based color histogram provides a structured and effective description for the object. Finally, the object is tracked using a valid fragment template combining the displacement constraint and similarity of each valid fragment. The object template is updated by fusing feature similarity and valid fragments, which is scale-adaptive and robust to partial occlusion. The experimental results show that the proposed algorithm is accurate and robust in challenging scenarios.
A Novel Evolutionary Algorithm for Designing Robust Analog Filters
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Shaobo Li
2018-03-01
Full Text Available Designing robust circuits that withstand environmental perturbation and device degradation is critical for many applications. Traditional robust circuit design is mainly done by tuning parameters to improve system robustness. However, the topological structure of a system may set a limit on the robustness achievable through parameter tuning. This paper proposes a new evolutionary algorithm for robust design that exploits the open-ended topological search capability of genetic programming (GP coupled with bond graph modeling. We applied our GP-based robust design (GPRD algorithm to evolve robust lowpass and highpass analog filters. Compared with a traditional robust design approach based on a state-of-the-art real-parameter genetic algorithm (GA, our GPRD algorithm with a fitness criterion rewarding robustness, with respect to parameter perturbations, can evolve more robust filters than what was achieved through parameter tuning alone. We also find that inappropriate GA tuning may mislead the search process and that multiple-simulation and perturbed fitness evaluation methods for evolving robustness have complementary behaviors with no absolute advantage of one over the other.
Dynamics robustness of cascading systems.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jonathan T Young
2017-03-01
Full Text Available A most important property of biochemical systems is robustness. Static robustness, e.g., homeostasis, is the insensitivity of a state against perturbations, whereas dynamics robustness, e.g., homeorhesis, is the insensitivity of a dynamic process. In contrast to the extensively studied static robustness, dynamics robustness, i.e., how a system creates an invariant temporal profile against perturbations, is little explored despite transient dynamics being crucial for cellular fates and are reported to be robust experimentally. For example, the duration of a stimulus elicits different phenotypic responses, and signaling networks process and encode temporal information. Hence, robustness in time courses will be necessary for functional biochemical networks. Based on dynamical systems theory, we uncovered a general mechanism to achieve dynamics robustness. Using a three-stage linear signaling cascade as an example, we found that the temporal profiles and response duration post-stimulus is robust to perturbations against certain parameters. Then analyzing the linearized model, we elucidated the criteria of when signaling cascades will display dynamics robustness. We found that changes in the upstream modules are masked in the cascade, and that the response duration is mainly controlled by the rate-limiting module and organization of the cascade's kinetics. Specifically, we found two necessary conditions for dynamics robustness in signaling cascades: 1 Constraint on the rate-limiting process: The phosphatase activity in the perturbed module is not the slowest. 2 Constraints on the initial conditions: The kinase activity needs to be fast enough such that each module is saturated even with fast phosphatase activity and upstream changes are attenuated. We discussed the relevance of such robustness to several biological examples and the validity of the above conditions therein. Given the applicability of dynamics robustness to a variety of systems, it
Shah, Sohil Atul; Koltun, Vladlen
2017-09-12
Clustering is a fundamental procedure in the analysis of scientific data. It is used ubiquitously across the sciences. Despite decades of research, existing clustering algorithms have limited effectiveness in high dimensions and often require tuning parameters for different domains and datasets. We present a clustering algorithm that achieves high accuracy across multiple domains and scales efficiently to high dimensions and large datasets. The presented algorithm optimizes a smooth continuous objective, which is based on robust statistics and allows heavily mixed clusters to be untangled. The continuous nature of the objective also allows clustering to be integrated as a module in end-to-end feature learning pipelines. We demonstrate this by extending the algorithm to perform joint clustering and dimensionality reduction by efficiently optimizing a continuous global objective. The presented approach is evaluated on large datasets of faces, hand-written digits, objects, newswire articles, sensor readings from the Space Shuttle, and protein expression levels. Our method achieves high accuracy across all datasets, outperforming the best prior algorithm by a factor of 3 in average rank.
Robust Trust in Expert Testimony
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Christian Dahlman
2015-05-01
Full Text Available The standard of proof in criminal trials should require that the evidence presented by the prosecution is robust. This requirement of robustness says that it must be unlikely that additional information would change the probability that the defendant is guilty. Robustness is difficult for a judge to estimate, as it requires the judge to assess the possible effect of information that the he or she does not have. This article is concerned with expert witnesses and proposes a method for reviewing the robustness of expert testimony. According to the proposed method, the robustness of expert testimony is estimated with regard to competence, motivation, external strength, internal strength and relevance. The danger of trusting non-robust expert testimony is illustrated with an analysis of the Thomas Quick Case, a Swedish legal scandal where a patient at a mental institution was wrongfully convicted for eight murders.
Measure of robustness for complex networks
Youssef, Mina Nabil
Critical infrastructures are repeatedly attacked by external triggers causing tremendous amount of damages. Any infrastructure can be studied using the powerful theory of complex networks. A complex network is composed of extremely large number of different elements that exchange commodities providing significant services. The main functions of complex networks can be damaged by different types of attacks and failures that degrade the network performance. These attacks and failures are considered as disturbing dynamics, such as the spread of viruses in computer networks, the spread of epidemics in social networks, and the cascading failures in power grids. Depending on the network structure and the attack strength, every network differently suffers damages and performance degradation. Hence, quantifying the robustness of complex networks becomes an essential task. In this dissertation, new metrics are introduced to measure the robustness of technological and social networks with respect to the spread of epidemics, and the robustness of power grids with respect to cascading failures. First, we introduce a new metric called the Viral Conductance (VCSIS ) to assess the robustness of networks with respect to the spread of epidemics that are modeled through the susceptible/infected/susceptible (SIS) epidemic approach. In contrast to assessing the robustness of networks based on a classical metric, the epidemic threshold, the new metric integrates the fraction of infected nodes at steady state for all possible effective infection strengths. Through examples, VCSIS provides more insights about the robustness of networks than the epidemic threshold. In addition, both the paradoxical robustness of Barabasi-Albert preferential attachment networks and the effect of the topology on the steady state infection are studied, to show the importance of quantifying the robustness of networks. Second, a new metric VCSIR is introduced to assess the robustness of networks with respect
Robust H2 performance for sampled-data systems
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Rank, Mike Lind
1997-01-01
Robust H2 performance conditions under structured uncertainty, analogous to well known methods for H∞ performance, have recently emerged in both discrete and continuous-time. This paper considers the extension into uncertain sampled-data systems, taking into account inter-sample behavior. Convex...... conditions for robust H2 performance are derived for different uncertainty sets...
A 150-year conundrum: cranial robusticity and its bearing on the origin of aboriginal australians.
Curnoe, Darren
2011-01-20
The origin of Aboriginal Australians has been a central question of palaeoanthropology since its inception during the 19th Century. Moreover, the idea that Australians could trace their ancestry to a non-modern Pleistocene population such as Homo erectus in Southeast Asia have existed for more than 100 years, being explicitly linked to cranial robusticity. It is argued here that in order to resolve this issue a new program of research should be embraced, one aiming to test the full range of alternative explanations for robust morphology. Recent developments in the morphological sciences, especially relating to the ontogeny of the cranium indicate that character atomisation, an approach underpinning phylogenetic reconstruction, is fraught with difficulties. This leads to the conclusion that phylogenetic-based explanations for robusticity should be reconsidered and a more parsimonious approach to explaining Aboriginal Australian origins taken. One that takes proper account of the complex processes involved in the growth of the human cranium rather than just assuming natural selection to explain every subtle variation seen in past populations. In doing so, the null hypothesis that robusticity might result from phenotypic plasticity alone cannot be rejected, a position at odds with both reticulate and deep-time continuity models of Australian origins.
Nonlinear robust hierarchical control for nonlinear uncertain systems
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Leonessa Alexander
1999-01-01
Full Text Available A nonlinear robust control-system design framework predicated on a hierarchical switching controller architecture parameterized over a set of moving nominal system equilibria is developed. Specifically, using equilibria-dependent Lyapunov functions, a hierarchical nonlinear robust control strategy is developed that robustly stabilizes a given nonlinear system over a prescribed range of system uncertainty by robustly stabilizing a collection of nonlinear controlled uncertain subsystems. The robust switching nonlinear controller architecture is designed based on a generalized (lower semicontinuous Lyapunov function obtained by minimizing a potential function over a given switching set induced by the parameterized nominal system equilibria. The proposed framework robustly stabilizes a compact positively invariant set of a given nonlinear uncertain dynamical system with structured parametric uncertainty. Finally, the efficacy of the proposed approach is demonstrated on a jet engine propulsion control problem with uncertain pressure-flow map data.
Robust and distributed hypothesis testing
Gül, Gökhan
2017-01-01
This book generalizes and extends the available theory in robust and decentralized hypothesis testing. In particular, it presents a robust test for modeling errors which is independent from the assumptions that a sufficiently large number of samples is available, and that the distance is the KL-divergence. Here, the distance can be chosen from a much general model, which includes the KL-divergence as a very special case. This is then extended by various means. A minimax robust test that is robust against both outliers as well as modeling errors is presented. Minimax robustness properties of the given tests are also explicitly proven for fixed sample size and sequential probability ratio tests. The theory of robust detection is extended to robust estimation and the theory of robust distributed detection is extended to classes of distributions, which are not necessarily stochastically bounded. It is shown that the quantization functions for the decision rules can also be chosen as non-monotone. Finally, the boo...
Robustness of IPTV business models
Bouwman, H.; Zhengjia, M.; Duin, P. van der; Limonard, S.
2008-01-01
The final stage in the STOF method is an evaluation of the robustness of the design, for which the method provides some guidelines. For many innovative services, the future holds numerous uncertainties, which makes evaluating the robustness of a business model a difficult task. In this chapter, we
Robust statistical methods with R
Jureckova, Jana
2005-01-01
Robust statistical methods were developed to supplement the classical procedures when the data violate classical assumptions. They are ideally suited to applied research across a broad spectrum of study, yet most books on the subject are narrowly focused, overly theoretical, or simply outdated. Robust Statistical Methods with R provides a systematic treatment of robust procedures with an emphasis on practical application.The authors work from underlying mathematical tools to implementation, paying special attention to the computational aspects. They cover the whole range of robust methods, including differentiable statistical functions, distance of measures, influence functions, and asymptotic distributions, in a rigorous yet approachable manner. Highlighting hands-on problem solving, many examples and computational algorithms using the R software supplement the discussion. The book examines the characteristics of robustness, estimators of real parameter, large sample properties, and goodness-of-fit tests. It...
Lyapunov stability robust analysis and robustness design for linear continuous-time systems
Luo, J.S.; Johnson, A.; Bosch, van den P.P.J.
1995-01-01
The linear continuous-time systems to be discussed are described by state space models with structured time-varying uncertainties. First, the explicit maximal perturbation bound for maintaining quadratic Lyapunov stability of the closed-loop systems is presented. Then, a robust design method is
Engineering Robust Nanocomposite Networks
2014-12-16
information if it does not display a currently valid OMB control number. PLEASE DO NOT RETURN YOUR FORM TO THE ABOVE ADDRESS. 1. REPORT DATE (DD-MM-YYYY) 12...mucous secreted by the marine worm Chaetopterus sp. behaves rheologically as a yield stress gel. 15. SUBJECT TERMS 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF...measurements of the early-‐stage aggregation process were modeled by collision driven growth of porous structures
Robust loss functions for boosting.
Kanamori, Takafumi; Takenouchi, Takashi; Eguchi, Shinto; Murata, Noboru
2007-08-01
Boosting is known as a gradient descent algorithm over loss functions. It is often pointed out that the typical boosting algorithm, Adaboost, is highly affected by outliers. In this letter, loss functions for robust boosting are studied. Based on the concept of robust statistics, we propose a transformation of loss functions that makes boosting algorithms robust against extreme outliers. Next, the truncation of loss functions is applied to contamination models that describe the occurrence of mislabels near decision boundaries. Numerical experiments illustrate that the proposed loss functions derived from the contamination models are useful for handling highly noisy data in comparison with other loss functions.
Robustness of airline route networks
Lordan, Oriol; Sallan, Jose M.; Escorihuela, Nuria; Gonzalez-Prieto, David
2016-03-01
Airlines shape their route network by defining their routes through supply and demand considerations, paying little attention to network performance indicators, such as network robustness. However, the collapse of an airline network can produce high financial costs for the airline and all its geographical area of influence. The aim of this study is to analyze the topology and robustness of the network route of airlines following Low Cost Carriers (LCCs) and Full Service Carriers (FSCs) business models. Results show that FSC hubs are more central than LCC bases in their route network. As a result, LCC route networks are more robust than FSC networks.
Prosodic structure as a parallel to musical structure
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Christopher Cullen Heffner
2015-12-01
Full Text Available What structural properties do language and music share? Although early speculation identified a wide variety of possibilities, the literature has largely focused on the parallels between musical structure and syntactic structure. Here, we argue that parallels between musical structure and prosodic structure deserve more attention. We review the evidence for a link between musical and prosodic structure and find it to be strong. In fact, certain elements of prosodic structure may provide a parsimonious comparison with musical structure without sacrificing empirical findings related to the parallels between language and music. We then develop several predictions related to such a hypothesis.
Robustness of weighted networks
Bellingeri, Michele; Cassi, Davide
2018-01-01
Complex network response to node loss is a central question in different fields of network science because node failure can cause the fragmentation of the network, thus compromising the system functioning. Previous studies considered binary networks where the intensity (weight) of the links is not accounted for, i.e. a link is either present or absent. However, in real-world networks the weights of connections, and thus their importance for network functioning, can be widely different. Here, we analyzed the response of real-world and model networks to node loss accounting for link intensity and the weighted structure of the network. We used both classic binary node properties and network functioning measure, introduced a weighted rank for node importance (node strength), and used a measure for network functioning that accounts for the weight of the links (weighted efficiency). We find that: (i) the efficiency of the attack strategies changed using binary or weighted network functioning measures, both for real-world or model networks; (ii) in some cases, removing nodes according to weighted rank produced the highest damage when functioning was measured by the weighted efficiency; (iii) adopting weighted measure for the network damage changed the efficacy of the attack strategy with respect the binary analyses. Our results show that if the weighted structure of complex networks is not taken into account, this may produce misleading models to forecast the system response to node failure, i.e. consider binary links may not unveil the real damage induced in the system. Last, once weighted measures are introduced, in order to discover the best attack strategy, it is important to analyze the network response to node loss using nodes rank accounting the intensity of the links to the node.
Robust Portfolio Optimization Using Pseudodistances.
Toma, Aida; Leoni-Aubin, Samuela
2015-01-01
The presence of outliers in financial asset returns is a frequently occurring phenomenon which may lead to unreliable mean-variance optimized portfolios. This fact is due to the unbounded influence that outliers can have on the mean returns and covariance estimators that are inputs in the optimization procedure. In this paper we present robust estimators of mean and covariance matrix obtained by minimizing an empirical version of a pseudodistance between the assumed model and the true model underlying the data. We prove and discuss theoretical properties of these estimators, such as affine equivariance, B-robustness, asymptotic normality and asymptotic relative efficiency. These estimators can be easily used in place of the classical estimators, thereby providing robust optimized portfolios. A Monte Carlo simulation study and applications to real data show the advantages of the proposed approach. We study both in-sample and out-of-sample performance of the proposed robust portfolios comparing them with some other portfolios known in literature.
Robust methods for data reduction
Farcomeni, Alessio
2015-01-01
Robust Methods for Data Reduction gives a non-technical overview of robust data reduction techniques, encouraging the use of these important and useful methods in practical applications. The main areas covered include principal components analysis, sparse principal component analysis, canonical correlation analysis, factor analysis, clustering, double clustering, and discriminant analysis.The first part of the book illustrates how dimension reduction techniques synthesize available information by reducing the dimensionality of the data. The second part focuses on cluster and discriminant analy
A robust nonlinear filter for image restoration.
Koivunen, V
1995-01-01
A class of nonlinear regression filters based on robust estimation theory is introduced. The goal of the filtering is to recover a high-quality image from degraded observations. Models for desired image structures and contaminating processes are employed, but deviations from strict assumptions are allowed since the assumptions on signal and noise are typically only approximately true. The robustness of filters is usually addressed only in a distributional sense, i.e., the actual error distribution deviates from the nominal one. In this paper, the robustness is considered in a broad sense since the outliers may also be due to inappropriate signal model, or there may be more than one statistical population present in the processing window, causing biased estimates. Two filtering algorithms minimizing a least trimmed squares criterion are provided. The design of the filters is simple since no scale parameters or context-dependent threshold values are required. Experimental results using both real and simulated data are presented. The filters effectively attenuate both impulsive and nonimpulsive noise while recovering the signal structure and preserving interesting details.
Jansen, Elena; Mallan, Kimberley M; Nicholson, Jan M; Daniels, Lynne A
2014-01-01
Background Early feeding practices lay the foundation for children’s eating habits and weight gain. Questionnaires are available to assess parental feeding but overlapping and inconsistent items, subscales and terminology limit conceptual clarity and between study comparisons. Our aim was to consolidate a range of existing items into a parsimonious and conceptually robust questionnaire for assessing feeding practices with very young children (
Robust estimation of the correlation matrix of longitudinal data
Maadooliat, Mehdi; Pourahmadi, Mohsen; Huang, Jianhua Z.
2011-01-01
,D) are modeled parsimoniously using covariates. We compare our results with those based on the modified Cholesky decomposition of the form LD2L⊤ using simulations and a real dataset. © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.
Automatic Mode Transition Enabled Robust Triboelectric Nanogenerators.
Chen, Jun; Yang, Jin; Guo, Hengyu; Li, Zhaoling; Zheng, Li; Su, Yuanjie; Wen, Zhen; Fan, Xing; Wang, Zhong Lin
2015-12-22
Although the triboelectric nanogenerator (TENG) has been proven to be a renewable and effective route for ambient energy harvesting, its robustness remains a great challenge due to the requirement of surface friction for a decent output, especially for the in-plane sliding mode TENG. Here, we present a rationally designed TENG for achieving a high output performance without compromising the device robustness by, first, converting the in-plane sliding electrification into a contact separation working mode and, second, creating an automatic transition between a contact working state and a noncontact working state. The magnet-assisted automatic transition triboelectric nanogenerator (AT-TENG) was demonstrated to effectively harness various ambient rotational motions to generate electricity with greatly improved device robustness. At a wind speed of 6.5 m/s or a water flow rate of 5.5 L/min, the harvested energy was capable of lighting up 24 spot lights (0.6 W each) simultaneously and charging a capacitor to greater than 120 V in 60 s. Furthermore, due to the rational structural design and unique output characteristics, the AT-TENG was not only capable of harvesting energy from natural bicycling and car motion but also acting as a self-powered speedometer with ultrahigh accuracy. Given such features as structural simplicity, easy fabrication, low cost, wide applicability even in a harsh environment, and high output performance with superior device robustness, the AT-TENG renders an effective and practical approach for ambient mechanical energy harvesting as well as self-powered active sensing.
Bukhari, Hassan J.
2017-12-01
In this paper a framework for robust optimization of mechanical design problems and process systems that have parametric uncertainty is presented using three different approaches. Robust optimization problems are formulated so that the optimal solution is robust which means it is minimally sensitive to any perturbations in parameters. The first method uses the price of robustness approach which assumes the uncertain parameters to be symmetric and bounded. The robustness for the design can be controlled by limiting the parameters that can perturb.The second method uses the robust least squares method to determine the optimal parameters when data itself is subjected to perturbations instead of the parameters. The last method manages uncertainty by restricting the perturbation on parameters to improve sensitivity similar to Tikhonov regularization. The methods are implemented on two sets of problems; one linear and the other non-linear. This methodology will be compared with a prior method using multiple Monte Carlo simulation runs which shows that the approach being presented in this paper results in better performance.
Robust on-off pulse control of flexible space vehicles
Wie, Bong; Sinha, Ravi
1993-01-01
The on-off reaction jet control system is often used for attitude and orbital maneuvering of various spacecraft. Future space vehicles such as the orbital transfer vehicles, orbital maneuvering vehicles, and space station will extensively use reaction jets for orbital maneuvering and attitude stabilization. The proposed robust fuel- and time-optimal control algorithm is used for a three-mass spacing model of flexible spacecraft. A fuel-efficient on-off control logic is developed for robust rest-to-rest maneuver of a flexible vehicle with minimum excitation of structural modes. The first part of this report is concerned with the problem of selecting a proper pair of jets for practical trade-offs among the maneuvering time, fuel consumption, structural mode excitation, and performance robustness. A time-optimal control problem subject to parameter robustness constraints is formulated and solved. The second part of this report deals with obtaining parameter insensitive fuel- and time- optimal control inputs by solving a constrained optimization problem subject to robustness constraints. It is shown that sensitivity to modeling errors can be significantly reduced by the proposed, robustified open-loop control approach. The final part of this report deals with sliding mode control design for uncertain flexible structures. The benchmark problem of a flexible structure is used as an example for the feedback sliding mode controller design with bounded control inputs and robustness to parameter variations is investigated.
Designing Phononic Crystals with Wide and Robust Band Gaps
Jia, Zian; Chen, Yanyu; Yang, Haoxiang; Wang, Lifeng
2018-04-01
Phononic crystals (PnCs) engineered to manipulate and control the propagation of mechanical waves have enabled the design of a range of novel devices, such as waveguides, frequency modulators, and acoustic cloaks, for which wide and robust phononic band gaps are highly preferable. While numerous PnCs have been designed in recent decades, to the best of our knowledge, PnCs that possess simultaneous wide and robust band gaps (to randomness and deformations) have not yet been reported. Here, we demonstrate that by combining the band-gap formation mechanisms of Bragg scattering and local resonances (the latter one is dominating), PnCs with wide and robust phononic band gaps can be established. The robustness of the phononic band gaps are then discussed from two aspects: robustness to geometric randomness (manufacture defects) and robustness to deformations (mechanical stimuli). Analytical formulations further predict the optimal design parameters, and an uncertainty analysis quantifies the randomness effect of each designing parameter. Moreover, we show that the deformation robustness originates from a local resonance-dominant mechanism together with the suppression of structural instability. Importantly, the proposed PnCs require only a small number of layers of elements (three unit cells) to obtain broad, robust, and strong attenuation bands, which offer great potential in designing flexible and deformable phononic devices.
Designing Phononic Crystals with Wide and Robust Band Gaps
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chen, Yanyu [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Jia, Zian [State University of New York at Stony Brook; Yang, Haoxiang [State University of New York at Stony Brook; Wang, Lifeng [State University of New York at Stony Brook
2018-04-16
Phononic crystals (PnCs) engineered to manipulate and control the propagation of mechanical waves have enabled the design of a range of novel devices, such as waveguides, frequency modulators, and acoustic cloaks, for which wide and robust phononic band gaps are highly preferable. While numerous PnCs have been designed in recent decades, to the best of our knowledge, PnCs that possess simultaneous wide and robust band gaps (to randomness and deformations) have not yet been reported. Here, we demonstrate that by combining the band-gap formation mechanisms of Bragg scattering and local resonances (the latter one is dominating), PnCs with wide and robust phononic band gaps can be established. The robustness of the phononic band gaps are then discussed from two aspects: robustness to geometric randomness (manufacture defects) and robustness to deformations (mechanical stimuli). Analytical formulations further predict the optimal design parameters, and an uncertainty analysis quantifies the randomness effect of each designing parameter. Moreover, we show that the deformation robustness originates from a local resonance-dominant mechanism together with the suppression of structural instability. Importantly, the proposed PnCs require only a small number of layers of elements (three unit cells) to obtain broad, robust, and strong attenuation bands, which offer great potential in designing flexible and deformable phononic devices.
Advances in robust fractional control
Padula, Fabrizio
2015-01-01
This monograph presents design methodologies for (robust) fractional control systems. It shows the reader how to take advantage of the superior flexibility of fractional control systems compared with integer-order systems in achieving more challenging control requirements. There is a high degree of current interest in fractional systems and fractional control arising from both academia and industry and readers from both milieux are catered to in the text. Different design approaches having in common a trade-off between robustness and performance of the control system are considered explicitly. The text generalizes methodologies, techniques and theoretical results that have been successfully applied in classical (integer) control to the fractional case. The first part of Advances in Robust Fractional Control is the more industrially-oriented. It focuses on the design of fractional controllers for integer processes. In particular, it considers fractional-order proportional-integral-derivative controllers, becau...
Robustness of digital artist authentication
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jacobsen, Robert; Nielsen, Morten
In many cases it is possible to determine the authenticity of a painting from digital reproductions of the paintings; this has been demonstrated for a variety of artists and with different approaches. Common to all these methods in digital artist authentication is that the potential of the method...... is in focus, while the robustness has not been considered, i.e. the degree to which the data collection process influences the decision of the method. However, in order for an authentication method to be successful in practice, it needs to be robust to plausible error sources from the data collection....... In this paper we investigate the robustness of the newly proposed authenticity method introduced by the authors based on second generation multiresolution analysis. This is done by modelling a number of realistic factors that can occur in the data collection....
Attractive ellipsoids in robust control
Poznyak, Alexander; Azhmyakov, Vadim
2014-01-01
This monograph introduces a newly developed robust-control design technique for a wide class of continuous-time dynamical systems called the “attractive ellipsoid method.” Along with a coherent introduction to the proposed control design and related topics, the monograph studies nonlinear affine control systems in the presence of uncertainty and presents a constructive and easily implementable control strategy that guarantees certain stability properties. The authors discuss linear-style feedback control synthesis in the context of the above-mentioned systems. The development and physical implementation of high-performance robust-feedback controllers that work in the absence of complete information is addressed, with numerous examples to illustrate how to apply the attractive ellipsoid method to mechanical and electromechanical systems. While theorems are proved systematically, the emphasis is on understanding and applying the theory to real-world situations. Attractive Ellipsoids in Robust Control will a...
Robustness of holonomic quantum gates
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Solinas, P.; Zanardi, P.; Zanghi, N.
2005-01-01
Full text: If the driving field fluctuates during the quantum evolution this produces errors in the applied operator. The holonomic (and geometrical) quantum gates are believed to be robust against some kind of noise. Because of the geometrical dependence of the holonomic operators can be robust against this kind of noise; in fact if the fluctuations are fast enough they cancel out leaving the final operator unchanged. I present the numerical studies of holonomic quantum gates subject to this parametric noise, the fidelity of the noise and ideal evolution is calculated for different noise correlation times. The holonomic quantum gates seem robust not only for fast fluctuating fields but also for slow fluctuating fields. These results can be explained as due to the geometrical feature of the holonomic operator: for fast fluctuating fields the fluctuations are canceled out, for slow fluctuating fields the fluctuations do not perturb the loop in the parameter space. (author)
Robust estimation and hypothesis testing
Tiku, Moti L
2004-01-01
In statistical theory and practice, a certain distribution is usually assumed and then optimal solutions sought. Since deviations from an assumed distribution are very common, one cannot feel comfortable with assuming a particular distribution and believing it to be exactly correct. That brings the robustness issue in focus. In this book, we have given statistical procedures which are robust to plausible deviations from an assumed mode. The method of modified maximum likelihood estimation is used in formulating these procedures. The modified maximum likelihood estimators are explicit functions of sample observations and are easy to compute. They are asymptotically fully efficient and are as efficient as the maximum likelihood estimators for small sample sizes. The maximum likelihood estimators have computational problems and are, therefore, elusive. A broad range of topics are covered in this book. Solutions are given which are easy to implement and are efficient. The solutions are also robust to data anomali...
Robustness in Railway Operations (RobustRailS)
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jensen, Jens Parbo; Nielsen, Otto Anker
This study considers the problem of enhancing railway timetable robustness without adding slack time, hence increasing the travel time. The approach integrates a transit assignment model to assess how passengers adapt their behaviour whenever operations are changed. First, the approach considers...
A Robust Design Applicability Model
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Ebro, Martin; Lars, Krogstie; Howard, Thomas J.
2015-01-01
to be applicable in organisations assigning a high importance to one or more factors that are known to be impacted by RD, while also experiencing a high level of occurrence of this factor. The RDAM supplements existing maturity models and metrics to provide a comprehensive set of data to support management......This paper introduces a model for assessing the applicability of Robust Design (RD) in a project or organisation. The intention of the Robust Design Applicability Model (RDAM) is to provide support for decisions by engineering management considering the relevant level of RD activities...
Srivastava, Amit Kumar; Kapoor, Kalpesh
2017-01-01
Let Q be the set of primitive words over a finite alphabet with at least two symbols. We characterize a class of primitive words, Q_I, referred to as ins-robust primitive words, which remain primitive on insertion of any letter from the alphabet and present some properties that characterizes words in the set Q_I. It is shown that the language Q_I is dense. We prove that the language of primitive words that are not ins-robust is not context-free. We also present a linear time algorithm to reco...
Distributed redundancy and robustness in complex systems
Randles, Martin
2011-03-01
The uptake and increasing prevalence of Web 2.0 applications, promoting new large-scale and complex systems such as Cloud computing and the emerging Internet of Services/Things, requires tools and techniques to analyse and model methods to ensure the robustness of these new systems. This paper reports on assessing and improving complex system resilience using distributed redundancy, termed degeneracy in biological systems, to endow large-scale complicated computer systems with the same robustness that emerges in complex biological and natural systems. However, in order to promote an evolutionary approach, through emergent self-organisation, it is necessary to specify the systems in an \\'open-ended\\' manner where not all states of the system are prescribed at design-time. In particular an observer system is used to select robust topologies, within system components, based on a measurement of the first non-zero Eigen value in the Laplacian spectrum of the components\\' network graphs; also known as the algebraic connectivity. It is shown, through experimentation on a simulation, that increasing the average algebraic connectivity across the components, in a network, leads to an increase in the variety of individual components termed distributed redundancy; the capacity for structurally distinct components to perform an identical function in a particular context. The results are applied to a specific application where active clustering of like services is used to aid load balancing in a highly distributed network. Using the described procedure is shown to improve performance and distribute redundancy. © 2010 Elsevier Inc.
Mutational robustness of gene regulatory networks.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Aalt D J van Dijk
Full Text Available Mutational robustness of gene regulatory networks refers to their ability to generate constant biological output upon mutations that change network structure. Such networks contain regulatory interactions (transcription factor-target gene interactions but often also protein-protein interactions between transcription factors. Using computational modeling, we study factors that influence robustness and we infer several network properties governing it. These include the type of mutation, i.e. whether a regulatory interaction or a protein-protein interaction is mutated, and in the case of mutation of a regulatory interaction, the sign of the interaction (activating vs. repressive. In addition, we analyze the effect of combinations of mutations and we compare networks containing monomeric with those containing dimeric transcription factors. Our results are consistent with available data on biological networks, for example based on evolutionary conservation of network features. As a novel and remarkable property, we predict that networks are more robust against mutations in monomer than in dimer transcription factors, a prediction for which analysis of conservation of DNA binding residues in monomeric vs. dimeric transcription factors provides indirect evidence.
Revisiting Robustness and Evolvability: Evolution in Weighted Genotype Spaces
Partha, Raghavendran; Raman, Karthik
2014-01-01
Robustness and evolvability are highly intertwined properties of biological systems. The relationship between these properties determines how biological systems are able to withstand mutations and show variation in response to them. Computational studies have explored the relationship between these two properties using neutral networks of RNA sequences (genotype) and their secondary structures (phenotype) as a model system. However, these studies have assumed every mutation to a sequence to be equally likely; the differences in the likelihood of the occurrence of various mutations, and the consequence of probabilistic nature of the mutations in such a system have previously been ignored. Associating probabilities to mutations essentially results in the weighting of genotype space. We here perform a comparative analysis of weighted and unweighted neutral networks of RNA sequences, and subsequently explore the relationship between robustness and evolvability. We show that assuming an equal likelihood for all mutations (as in an unweighted network), underestimates robustness and overestimates evolvability of a system. In spite of discarding this assumption, we observe that a negative correlation between sequence (genotype) robustness and sequence evolvability persists, and also that structure (phenotype) robustness promotes structure evolvability, as observed in earlier studies using unweighted networks. We also study the effects of base composition bias on robustness and evolvability. Particularly, we explore the association between robustness and evolvability in a sequence space that is AU-rich – sequences with an AU content of 80% or higher, compared to a normal (unbiased) sequence space. We find that evolvability of both sequences and structures in an AU-rich space is lesser compared to the normal space, and robustness higher. We also observe that AU-rich populations evolving on neutral networks of phenotypes, can access less phenotypic variation compared to
Robust topology optimization accounting for geometric imperfections
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Schevenels, M.; Jansen, M.; Lombaert, Geert
2013-01-01
performance. As a consequence, the actual structure may be far from optimal. In this paper, a robust approach to topology optimization is presented, taking into account two types of geometric imperfections: variations of (1) the crosssections and (2) the locations of structural elements. The first type...... is modeled by means of a scalar non-Gaussian random field, which is represented as a translation process. The underlying Gaussian field is simulated by means of the EOLE method. The second type of imperfections is modeled as a Gaussian vector-valued random field, which is simulated directly by means...... of the EOLE method. In each iteration of the optimization process, the relevant statistics of the structural response are evaluated by means of a Monte Carlo simulation. The proposed methodology is successfully applied to a test problem involving the design of a compliant mechanism (for the first type...
Attack robustness and centrality of complex networks.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Swami Iyer
Full Text Available Many complex systems can be described by networks, in which the constituent components are represented by vertices and the connections between the components are represented by edges between the corresponding vertices. A fundamental issue concerning complex networked systems is the robustness of the overall system to the failure of its constituent parts. Since the degree to which a networked system continues to function, as its component parts are degraded, typically depends on the integrity of the underlying network, the question of system robustness can be addressed by analyzing how the network structure changes as vertices are removed. Previous work has considered how the structure of complex networks change as vertices are removed uniformly at random, in decreasing order of their degree, or in decreasing order of their betweenness centrality. Here we extend these studies by investigating the effect on network structure of targeting vertices for removal based on a wider range of non-local measures of potential importance than simply degree or betweenness. We consider the effect of such targeted vertex removal on model networks with different degree distributions, clustering coefficients and assortativity coefficients, and for a variety of empirical networks.
Tensor voting for robust color edge detection
Moreno, Rodrigo; García, Miguel Ángel; Puig, Domenec
2014-01-01
The final publication is available at Springer via http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-94-007-7584-8_9 This chapter proposes two robust color edge detection methods based on tensor voting. The first method is a direct adaptation of the classical tensor voting to color images where tensors are initialized with either the gradient or the local color structure tensor. The second method is based on an extension of tensor voting in which the encoding and voting processes are specifically tailored to ...
A Robust Geometric Model for Argument Classification
Giannone, Cristina; Croce, Danilo; Basili, Roberto; de Cao, Diego
Argument classification is the task of assigning semantic roles to syntactic structures in natural language sentences. Supervised learning techniques for frame semantics have been recently shown to benefit from rich sets of syntactic features. However argument classification is also highly dependent on the semantics of the involved lexicals. Empirical studies have shown that domain dependence of lexical information causes large performance drops in outside domain tests. In this paper a distributional approach is proposed to improve the robustness of the learning model against out-of-domain lexical phenomena.
Essays on robust asset pricing
Horváth, Ferenc
2017-01-01
The central concept of this doctoral dissertation is robustness. I analyze how model and parameter uncertainty affect financial decisions of investors and fund managers, and what their equilibrium consequences are. Chapter 1 gives an overview of the most important concepts and methodologies used in
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fournel, Thierry; Coltuc, Daniela
2010-01-01
Designed to maximize information transmission in the presence of noise, independent component analysis (ICA) could appear in certain circumstances as a statistics-based tool for robust visual hashing. Several ICA-based scenarios can attempt to reach this goal. A first one is here considered.
Robustness of raw quantum tomography
Asorey, M.; Facchi, P.; Florio, G.; Man'ko, V. I.; Marmo, G.; Pascazio, S.; Sudarshan, E. C. G.
2011-01-01
We scrutinize the effects of non-ideal data acquisition on the tomograms of quantum states. The presence of a weight function, schematizing the effects of a finite window or equivalently noise, only affects the state reconstruction procedure by a normalization constant. The results are extended to a discrete mesh and show that quantum tomography is robust under incomplete and approximate knowledge of tomograms.
Robustness of raw quantum tomography
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Asorey, M. [Departamento de Fisica Teorica, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Zaragoza, 50009 Zaragoza (Spain); Facchi, P. [Dipartimento di Matematica, Universita di Bari, I-70125 Bari (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Bari, I-70126 Bari (Italy); MECENAS, Universita Federico II di Napoli and Universita di Bari (Italy); Florio, G. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Bari, I-70126 Bari (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Bari, I-70126 Bari (Italy); MECENAS, Universita Federico II di Napoli and Universita di Bari (Italy); Man' ko, V.I., E-mail: manko@lebedev.r [P.N. Lebedev Physical Institute, Leninskii Prospect 53, Moscow 119991 (Russian Federation); Marmo, G. [Dipartimento di Scienze Fisiche, Universita di Napoli ' Federico II' , I-80126 Napoli (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Napoli, I-80126 Napoli (Italy); MECENAS, Universita Federico II di Napoli and Universita di Bari (Italy); Pascazio, S. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Bari, I-70126 Bari (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Bari, I-70126 Bari (Italy); MECENAS, Universita Federico II di Napoli and Universita di Bari (Italy); Sudarshan, E.C.G. [Department of Physics, University of Texas, Austin, TX 78712 (United States)
2011-01-31
We scrutinize the effects of non-ideal data acquisition on the tomograms of quantum states. The presence of a weight function, schematizing the effects of a finite window or equivalently noise, only affects the state reconstruction procedure by a normalization constant. The results are extended to a discrete mesh and show that quantum tomography is robust under incomplete and approximate knowledge of tomograms.
Aspects of robust linear regression
Davies, P.L.
1993-01-01
Section 1 of the paper contains a general discussion of robustness. In Section 2 the influence function of the Hampel-Rousseeuw least median of squares estimator is derived. Linearly invariant weak metrics are constructed in Section 3. It is shown in Section 4 that $S$-estimators satisfy an exact
Manipulation Robustness of Collaborative Filtering
Benjamin Van Roy; Xiang Yan
2010-01-01
A collaborative filtering system recommends to users products that similar users like. Collaborative filtering systems influence purchase decisions and hence have become targets of manipulation by unscrupulous vendors. We demonstrate that nearest neighbors algorithms, which are widely used in commercial systems, are highly susceptible to manipulation and introduce new collaborative filtering algorithms that are relatively robust.
Robustness Regions for Dichotomous Decisions.
Vijn, Pieter; Molenaar, Ivo W.
1981-01-01
In the case of dichotomous decisions, the total set of all assumptions/specifications for which the decision would have been the same is the robustness region. Inspection of this (data-dependent) region is a form of sensitivity analysis which may lead to improved decision making. (Author/BW)
Robust control design with MATLAB
Gu, Da-Wei; Konstantinov, Mihail M
2013-01-01
Robust Control Design with MATLAB® (second edition) helps the student to learn how to use well-developed advanced robust control design methods in practical cases. To this end, several realistic control design examples from teaching-laboratory experiments, such as a two-wheeled, self-balancing robot, to complex systems like a flexible-link manipulator are given detailed presentation. All of these exercises are conducted using MATLAB® Robust Control Toolbox 3, Control System Toolbox and Simulink®. By sharing their experiences in industrial cases with minimum recourse to complicated theories and formulae, the authors convey essential ideas and useful insights into robust industrial control systems design using major H-infinity optimization and related methods allowing readers quickly to move on with their own challenges. The hands-on tutorial style of this text rests on an abundance of examples and features for the second edition: · rewritten and simplified presentation of theoretical and meth...
Robust Portfolio Optimization Using Pseudodistances
2015-01-01
The presence of outliers in financial asset returns is a frequently occurring phenomenon which may lead to unreliable mean-variance optimized portfolios. This fact is due to the unbounded influence that outliers can have on the mean returns and covariance estimators that are inputs in the optimization procedure. In this paper we present robust estimators of mean and covariance matrix obtained by minimizing an empirical version of a pseudodistance between the assumed model and the true model underlying the data. We prove and discuss theoretical properties of these estimators, such as affine equivariance, B-robustness, asymptotic normality and asymptotic relative efficiency. These estimators can be easily used in place of the classical estimators, thereby providing robust optimized portfolios. A Monte Carlo simulation study and applications to real data show the advantages of the proposed approach. We study both in-sample and out-of-sample performance of the proposed robust portfolios comparing them with some other portfolios known in literature. PMID:26468948
Facial Symmetry in Robust Anthropometrics
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Kalina, Jan
2012-01-01
Roč. 57, č. 3 (2012), s. 691-698 ISSN 0022-1198 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 1M06014 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : forensic science * anthropology * robust image analysis * correlation analysis * multivariate data * classification Subject RIV: BB - Applied Statistics, Operational Research Impact factor: 1.244, year: 2012
Sparse and Robust Factor Modelling
C. Croux (Christophe); P. Exterkate (Peter)
2011-01-01
textabstractFactor construction methods are widely used to summarize a large panel of variables by means of a relatively small number of representative factors. We propose a novel factor construction procedure that enjoys the properties of robustness to outliers and of sparsity; that is, having
Robust distributed cognitive relay beamforming
Pandarakkottilil, Ubaidulla; Aissa, Sonia
2012-01-01
design takes into account a parameter of the error in the channel state information (CSI) to render the performance of the beamformer robust in the presence of imperfect CSI. Though the original problem is non-convex, we show that the proposed design can
Approximability of Robust Network Design
Olver, N.K.; Shepherd, F.B.
2014-01-01
We consider robust (undirected) network design (RND) problems where the set of feasible demands may be given by an arbitrary convex body. This model, introduced by Ben-Ameur and Kerivin [Ben-Ameur W, Kerivin H (2003) New economical virtual private networks. Comm. ACM 46(6):69-73], generalizes the
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Galperin Michael Y
2003-01-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background Comparative analysis of sequenced genomes reveals numerous instances of apparent horizontal gene transfer (HGT, at least in prokaryotes, and indicates that lineage-specific gene loss might have been even more common in evolution. This complicates the notion of a species tree, which needs to be re-interpreted as a prevailing evolutionary trend, rather than the full depiction of evolution, and makes reconstruction of ancestral genomes a non-trivial task. Results We addressed the problem of constructing parsimonious scenarios for individual sets of orthologous genes given a species tree. The orthologous sets were taken from the database of Clusters of Orthologous Groups of proteins (COGs. We show that the phyletic patterns (patterns of presence-absence in completely sequenced genomes of almost 90% of the COGs are inconsistent with the hypothetical species tree. Algorithms were developed to reconcile the phyletic patterns with the species tree by postulating gene loss, COG emergence and HGT (the latter two classes of events were collectively treated as gene gains. We prove that each of these algorithms produces a parsimonious evolutionary scenario, which can be represented as mapping of loss and gain events on the species tree. The distribution of the evolutionary events among the tree nodes substantially depends on the underlying assumptions of the reconciliation algorithm, e.g. whether or not independent gene gains (gain after loss after gain are permitted. Biological considerations suggest that, on average, gene loss might be a more likely event than gene gain. Therefore different gain penalties were used and the resulting series of reconstructed gene sets for the last universal common ancestor (LUCA of the extant life forms were analysed. The number of genes in the reconstructed LUCA gene sets grows as the gain penalty increases. However, qualitative examination of the LUCA versions reconstructed with different gain penalties
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kemmler, S.; Eifler, Tobias; Bertsche, B.
2015-01-01
products are and vice versa. For a comprehensive understanding and to use existing synergies between both domains, this paper discusses the basic principles of Reliability- and Robust Design theory. The development of a comprehensive model will enable an integrated consideration of both domains...
Design optimization for cost and quality: The robust design approach
Unal, Resit
1990-01-01
Designing reliable, low cost, and operable space systems has become the key to future space operations. Designing high quality space systems at low cost is an economic and technological challenge to the designer. A systematic and efficient way to meet this challenge is a new method of design optimization for performance, quality, and cost, called Robust Design. Robust Design is an approach for design optimization. It consists of: making system performance insensitive to material and subsystem variation, thus allowing the use of less costly materials and components; making designs less sensitive to the variations in the operating environment, thus improving reliability and reducing operating costs; and using a new structured development process so that engineering time is used most productively. The objective in Robust Design is to select the best combination of controllable design parameters so that the system is most robust to uncontrollable noise factors. The robust design methodology uses a mathematical tool called an orthogonal array, from design of experiments theory, to study a large number of decision variables with a significantly small number of experiments. Robust design also uses a statistical measure of performance, called a signal-to-noise ratio, from electrical control theory, to evaluate the level of performance and the effect of noise factors. The purpose is to investigate the Robust Design methodology for improving quality and cost, demonstrate its application by the use of an example, and suggest its use as an integral part of space system design process.
Borths, Matthew R; Holroyd, Patricia A; Seiffert, Erik R
2016-01-01
recovered from each phylogenetic method, we reconstructed the biogeographic history of Hyaenodonta using parsimony optimization (PO), likelihood optimization (LO), and Bayesian Binary Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) to examine support for the Afro-Arabian origin of Hyaenodonta. Across all analyses, we found that Hyaenodonta most likely originated in Europe, rather than Afro-Arabia. The clade is estimated by tip-dating analysis to have undergone a rapid radiation in the Late Cretaceous and Paleocene; a radiation currently not documented by fossil evidence. During the Paleocene, lineages are reconstructed as dispersing to Asia, Afro-Arabia, and North America. The place of origin of Hyainailouroidea is likely Afro-Arabia according to the Bayesian topologies but it is ambiguous using parsimony. All topologies support the constituent clades-Hyainailourinae, Apterodontinae, and Teratodontinae-as Afro-Arabian and tip-dating estimates that each clade is established in Afro-Arabia by the middle Eocene.
Robust Watermarking of Video Streams
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
T. Polyák
2006-01-01
Full Text Available In the past few years there has been an explosion in the use of digital video data. Many people have personal computers at home, and with the help of the Internet users can easily share video files on their computer. This makes possible the unauthorized use of digital media, and without adequate protection systems the authors and distributors have no means to prevent it.Digital watermarking techniques can help these systems to be more effective by embedding secret data right into the video stream. This makes minor changes in the frames of the video, but these changes are almost imperceptible to the human visual system. The embedded information can involve copyright data, access control etc. A robust watermark is resistant to various distortions of the video, so it cannot be removed without affecting the quality of the host medium. In this paper I propose a video watermarking scheme that fulfills the requirements of a robust watermark.
Robust Decentralized Formation Flight Control
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Zhao Weihua
2011-01-01
Full Text Available Motivated by the idea of multiplexed model predictive control (MMPC, this paper introduces a new framework for unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs formation flight and coordination. Formulated using MMPC approach, the whole centralized formation flight system is considered as a linear periodic system with control inputs of each UAV subsystem as its periodic inputs. Divided into decentralized subsystems, the whole formation flight system is guaranteed stable if proper terminal cost and terminal constraints are added to each decentralized MPC formulation of the UAV subsystem. The decentralized robust MPC formulation for each UAV subsystem with bounded input disturbances and model uncertainties is also presented. Furthermore, an obstacle avoidance control scheme for any shape and size of obstacles, including the nonapriorily known ones, is integrated under the unified MPC framework. The results from simulations demonstrate that the proposed framework can successfully achieve robust collision-free formation flights.
Inefficient but robust public leadership.
Matsumura, Toshihiro; Ogawa, Akira
2014-01-01
We investigate endogenous timing in a mixed duopoly in a differentiated product market. We find that private leadership is better than public leadership from a social welfare perspective if the private firm is domestic, regardless of the degree of product differentiation. Nevertheless, the public leadership equilibrium is risk-dominant, and it is thus robust if the degree of product differentiation is high. We also find that regardless of the degree of product differentiation, the public lead...
Testing Heteroscedasticity in Robust Regression
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Kalina, Jan
2011-01-01
Roč. 1, č. 4 (2011), s. 25-28 ISSN 2045-3345 Grant - others:GA ČR(CZ) GA402/09/0557 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : robust regression * heteroscedasticity * regression quantiles * diagnostics Subject RIV: BB - Applied Statistics , Operational Research http://www.researchjournals.co.uk/documents/Vol4/06%20Kalina.pdf
Robust power system frequency control
Bevrani, Hassan
2014-01-01
This updated edition of the industry standard reference on power system frequency control provides practical, systematic and flexible algorithms for regulating load frequency, offering new solutions to the technical challenges introduced by the escalating role of distributed generation and renewable energy sources in smart electric grids. The author emphasizes the physical constraints and practical engineering issues related to frequency in a deregulated environment, while fostering a conceptual understanding of frequency regulation and robust control techniques. The resulting control strategi
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Nicola Magnavita
2012-01-01
Full Text Available Purpose. To perform a parsimonious measurement of workplace psychosocial stress in routine occupational health surveillance, this study tests the psychometric properties of a short version of the original Italian effort-reward imbalance (ERI questionnaire. Methods. 1,803 employees (63 percent women from 19 service companies in the Italian region of Latium participated in a cross-sectional survey containing the short version of the ERI questionnaire (16 items and questions related to self-reported health, musculoskeletal complaints and job satisfaction. Exploratory factor analysis, internal consistency of scales and criterion validity were utilized. Results. The internal consistency of scales was satisfactory. Principal component analysis enabled to identify the model’s main factors. Significant associations with health and job satisfaction in the majority of cases support the notion of criterion validity. A high score on the effort-reward ratio was associated with an elevated odds ratio (OR = 2.71; 95% CI 1.86–3.95 of musculoskeletal complaints in the upper arm. Conclusions. The short form of the Italian ERI questionnaire provides a psychometrically useful tool for routine occupational health surveillance, although further validation is recommended.
Robust transient dynamics and brain functions
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mikhail I Rabinovich
2011-06-01
Full Text Available In the last few decades several concepts of Dynamical Systems Theory (DST have guided psychologists, cognitive scientists, and neuroscientists to rethink about sensory motor behavior and embodied cognition. A critical step in the progress of DST application to the brain (supported by modern methods of brain imaging and multi-electrode recording techniques has been the transfer of its initial success in motor behavior to mental function, i.e., perception, emotion, and cognition. Open questions from research in genetics, ecology, brain sciences, etc. have changed DST itself and lead to the discovery of a new dynamical phenomenon, i.e., reproducible and robust transients that are at the same time sensitive to informational signals. The goal of this review is to describe a new mathematical framework -heteroclinic sequential dynamics- to understand self-organized activity in the brain that can explain certain aspects of robust itinerant behavior. Specifically, we discuss a hierarchy of coarse-grain models of mental dynamics in the form of kinetic equations of modes. These modes compete for resources at three levels: (i within the same modality, (ii among different modalities from the same family (like perception, and (iii among modalities from different families (like emotion and cognition. The analysis of the conditions for robustness, i.e., the structural stability of transient (sequential dynamics, give us the possibility to explain phenomena like the finite capacity of our sequential working memory -a vital cognitive function-, and to find specific dynamical signatures -different kinds of instabilities- of several brain functions and mental diseases.
Robustness of muscle synergies during visuomotor adaptation
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Reinhard eGentner
2013-09-01
Full Text Available During visuomotor adaptation a novel mapping between visual targets and motor commands is gradually acquired. How muscle activation patterns are affected by this process is an open question. We tested whether the structure of muscle synergies is preserved during adaptation to a visuomotor rotation. Eight subjects applied targeted isometric forces on a handle instrumented with a force transducer while electromyographic (EMG activity was recorded from 13 shoulder and elbow muscles. The recorded forces were mapped into horizontal displacements of a virtual sphere with simulated mass, elasticity, and damping. The task consisted of moving the sphere to a target at one of eight equally spaced directions. Subjects performed three baseline blocks of 32 trials, followed by six blocks with a 45° CW rotation applied to the planar force, and finally three wash-out blocks without the perturbation. The sphere position at 100 ms after movement onset revealed significant directional error at the beginning of the rotation, a gradual learning in subsequent blocks, and aftereffects at the beginning of the wash-out. The change in initial force direction was closely related to the change in directional tuning of the initial EMG activity of most muscles. Throughout the experiment muscle synergies extracted using a non-negative matrix factorization algorithm from the muscle patterns recorded during the baseline blocks could reconstruct the muscle patterns of all other blocks with an accuracy significantly higher than chance indicating structural robustness. In addition, the synergies extracted from individual blocks remained similar to the baseline synergies throughout the experiment. Thus synergy structure is robust during visuomotor adaptation suggesting that changes in muscle patterns are obtained by rotating the directional tuning of the synergy recruitment.
Reconstruction of ancestral RNA sequences under multiple structural constraints
Tremblay-Savard, Olivier; Reinharz, Vladimir; Waldisp?hl, J?r?me
2016-01-01
Background Secondary structures form the scaffold of multiple sequence alignment of non-coding RNA (ncRNA) families. An accurate reconstruction of ancestral ncRNAs must use this structural signal. However, the inference of ancestors of a single ncRNA family with a single consensus structure may bias the results towards sequences with high affinity to this structure, which are far from the true ancestors. Methods In this paper, we introduce achARNement, a maximum parsimony approach that, given...
Soliton robustness in optical fibers
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Menyuk, C.R.
1993-01-01
Simulations and experiments indicate that solitons in optical fibers are robust in the presence of Hamiltonian deformations such as higher-order dispersion and birefringence but are destroyed in the presence of non-Hamiltonian deformations such as attenuation and the Raman effect. Two hypotheses are introduced that generalize these observations and give a recipe for when deformations will be Hamiltonian. Concepts from nonlinear dynamics are used to make these two hypotheses plausible. Soliton stabilization with frequency filtering is also briefly discussed from this point of view
Robust and Sparse Factor Modelling
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Croux, Christophe; Exterkate, Peter
Factor construction methods are widely used to summarize a large panel of variables by means of a relatively small number of representative factors. We propose a novel factor construction procedure that enjoys the properties of robustness to outliers and of sparsity; that is, having relatively few...... nonzero factor loadings. Compared to the traditional factor construction method, we find that this procedure leads to a favorable forecasting performance in the presence of outliers and to better interpretable factors. We investigate the performance of the method in a Monte Carlo experiment...
Sustainable Resilient, Robust & Resplendent Enterprises
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Edgeman, Rick
to their impact. Resplendent enterprises are introduced with resplendence referring not to some sort of public or private façade, but instead refers to organizations marked by dual brilliance and nobility of strategy, governance and comportment that yields superior and sustainable triple bottom line performance....... Herein resilience, robustness, and resplendence (R3) are integrated with sustainable enterprise excellence (Edgeman and Eskildsen, 2013) or SEE and social-ecological innovation (Eskildsen and Edgeman, 2012) to aid progress of a firm toward producing continuously relevant performance that proceed from...
Robust methods and asymptotic theory in nonlinear econometrics
Bierens, Herman J
1981-01-01
This Lecture Note deals with asymptotic properties, i.e. weak and strong consistency and asymptotic normality, of parameter estimators of nonlinear regression models and nonlinear structural equations under various assumptions on the distribution of the data. The estimation methods involved are nonlinear least squares estimation (NLLSE), nonlinear robust M-estimation (NLRME) and non linear weighted robust M-estimation (NLWRME) for the regression case and nonlinear two-stage least squares estimation (NL2SLSE) and a new method called minimum information estimation (MIE) for the case of structural equations. The asymptotic properties of the NLLSE and the two robust M-estimation methods are derived from further elaborations of results of Jennrich. Special attention is payed to the comparison of the asymptotic efficiency of NLLSE and NLRME. It is shown that if the tails of the error distribution are fatter than those of the normal distribution NLRME is more efficient than NLLSE. The NLWRME method is appropriate ...
Robust Instrumentation[Water treatment for power plant]; Robust Instrumentering
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wik, Anders [Vattenfall Utveckling AB, Stockholm (Sweden)
2003-08-01
Cementa Slite Power Station is a heat recovery steam generator (HRSG) with moderate steam data; 3.0 MPa and 420 deg C. The heat is recovered from Cementa, a cement industry, without any usage of auxiliary fuel. The Power station commenced operation in 2001. The layout of the plant is unusual, there are no similar in Sweden and very few world-wide, so the operational experiences are limited. In connection with the commissioning of the power plant a R and D project was identified with the objective to minimise the manpower needed for chemistry management of the plant. The lean chemistry management is based on robust instrumentation and chemical-free water treatment plant. The concept with robust instrumentation consists of the following components; choice of on-line instrumentation with a minimum of O and M and a chemical-free water treatment. The parameters are specific conductivity, cation conductivity, oxygen and pH. In addition to that, two fairly new on-line instruments were included; corrosion monitors and differential pH calculated from specific and cation conductivity. The chemical-free water treatment plant consists of softening, reverse osmosis and electro-deionisation. The operational experience shows that the cycle chemistry is not within the guidelines due to major problems with the operation of the power plant. These problems have made it impossible to reach steady state and thereby not viable to fully verify and validate the concept with robust instrumentation. From readings on the panel of the online analysers some conclusions may be drawn, e.g. the differential pH measurements have fulfilled the expectations. The other on-line analysers have been working satisfactorily apart from contamination with turbine oil, which has been noticed at least twice. The corrosion monitors seem to be working but the lack of trend curves from the mainframe computer system makes it hard to draw any clear conclusions. The chemical-free water treatment has met all
Copyright Protection of Color Imaging Using Robust-Encoded Watermarking
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M. Cedillo-Hernandez
2015-04-01
Full Text Available In this paper we present a robust-encoded watermarking method applied to color images for copyright protection, which presents robustness against several geometric and signal processing distortions. Trade-off between payload, robustness and imperceptibility is a very important aspect which has to be considered when a watermark algorithm is designed. In our proposed scheme, previously to be embedded into the image, the watermark signal is encoded using a convolutional encoder, which can perform forward error correction achieving better robustness performance. Then, the embedding process is carried out through the discrete cosine transform domain (DCT of an image using the image normalization technique to accomplish robustness against geometric and signal processing distortions. The embedded watermark coded bits are extracted and decoded using the Viterbi algorithm. In order to determine the presence or absence of the watermark into the image we compute the bit error rate (BER between the recovered and the original watermark data sequence. The quality of the watermarked image is measured using the well-known indices: Peak Signal to Noise Ratio (PSNR, Visual Information Fidelity (VIF and Structural Similarity Index (SSIM. The color difference between the watermarked and original images is obtained by using the Normalized Color Difference (NCD measure. The experimental results show that the proposed method provides good performance in terms of imperceptibility and robustness. The comparison among the proposed and previously reported methods based on different techniques is also provided.
Perspective: Evolution and detection of genetic robustness
Visser, de J.A.G.M.; Hermisson, J.; Wagner, G.P.; Ancel Meyers, L.; Bagheri-Chaichian, H.; Blanchard, J.L.; Chao, L.; Cheverud, J.M.; Elena, S.F.; Fontana, W.; Gibson, G.; Hansen, T.F.; Krakauer, D.; Lewontin, R.C.; Ofria, C.; Rice, S.H.; Dassow, von G.; Wagner, A.; Whitlock, M.C.
2003-01-01
Robustness is the invariance of phenotypes in the face of perturbation. The robustness of phenotypes appears at various levels of biological organization, including gene expression, protein folding, metabolic flux, physiological homeostasis, development, and even organismal fitness. The mechanisms
Robust lyapunov controller for uncertain systems
Laleg-Kirati, Taous-Meriem; Elmetennani, Shahrazed
2017-01-01
Various examples of systems and methods are provided for Lyapunov control for uncertain systems. In one example, a system includes a process plant and a robust Lyapunov controller configured to control an input of the process plant. The robust
Robust distributed cognitive relay beamforming
Pandarakkottilil, Ubaidulla
2012-05-01
In this paper, we present a distributed relay beamformer design for a cognitive radio network in which a cognitive (or secondary) transmit node communicates with a secondary receive node assisted by a set of cognitive non-regenerative relays. The secondary nodes share the spectrum with a licensed primary user (PU) node, and each node is assumed to be equipped with a single transmit/receive antenna. The interference to the PU resulting from the transmission from the cognitive nodes is kept below a specified limit. The proposed robust cognitive relay beamformer design seeks to minimize the total relay transmit power while ensuring that the transceiver signal-to-interference- plus-noise ratio and PU interference constraints are satisfied. The proposed design takes into account a parameter of the error in the channel state information (CSI) to render the performance of the beamformer robust in the presence of imperfect CSI. Though the original problem is non-convex, we show that the proposed design can be reformulated as a tractable convex optimization problem that can be solved efficiently. Numerical results are provided and illustrate the performance of the proposed designs for different network operating conditions and parameters. © 2012 IEEE.
Robust canonical correlations: A comparative study
Branco, JA; Croux, Christophe; Filzmoser, P; Oliveira, MR
2005-01-01
Several approaches for robust canonical correlation analysis will be presented and discussed. A first method is based on the definition of canonical correlation analysis as looking for linear combinations of two sets of variables having maximal (robust) correlation. A second method is based on alternating robust regressions. These methods axe discussed in detail and compared with the more traditional approach to robust canonical correlation via covariance matrix estimates. A simulation study ...
Robust adaptive synchronization of general dynamical networks ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Home; Journals; Pramana – Journal of Physics; Volume 86; Issue 6. Robust ... A robust adaptive synchronization scheme for these general complex networks with multiple delays and uncertainties is established and raised by employing the robust adaptive control principle and the Lyapunov stability theory. We choose ...
Robust portfolio selection under norm uncertainty
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Lei Wang
2016-06-01
Full Text Available Abstract In this paper, we consider the robust portfolio selection problem which has a data uncertainty described by the ( p , w $(p,w$ -norm in the objective function. We show that the robust formulation of this problem is equivalent to a linear optimization problem. Moreover, we present some numerical results concerning our robust portfolio selection problem.
A robust standard deviation control chart
Schoonhoven, M.; Does, R.J.M.M.
2012-01-01
This article studies the robustness of Phase I estimators for the standard deviation control chart. A Phase I estimator should be efficient in the absence of contaminations and resistant to disturbances. Most of the robust estimators proposed in the literature are robust against either diffuse
Methodology in robust and nonparametric statistics
Jurecková, Jana; Picek, Jan
2012-01-01
Introduction and SynopsisIntroductionSynopsisPreliminariesIntroductionInference in Linear ModelsRobustness ConceptsRobust and Minimax Estimation of LocationClippings from Probability and Asymptotic TheoryProblemsRobust Estimation of Location and RegressionIntroductionM-EstimatorsL-EstimatorsR-EstimatorsMinimum Distance and Pitman EstimatorsDifferentiable Statistical FunctionsProblemsAsymptotic Representations for L-Estimators
Robust high temperature oxygen sensor electrodes
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Lund, Anders
Platinum is the most widely used material in high temperature oxygen sensor electrodes. However, platinum is expensive and the platinum electrode may, under certain conditions, suffer from poisoning, which is detrimental for an oxygen sensor. The objective of this thesis is to evaluate electrode...... materials as candidates for robust oxygen sensor electrodes. The present work focuses on characterising the electrochemical properties of a few electrode materials to understand which oxygen electrode processes are limiting for the response time of the sensor electrode. Three types of porous platinum......-Dansensor. The electrochemical properties of the electrodes were characterised by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), and the structures were characterised by x-ray diffraction and electron microscopy. At an oxygen partial pressures of 0.2 bar, the response time of the sensor electrode was determined by oxygen...
Jansen, Elena; Mallan, Kimberley M; Nicholson, Jan M; Daniels, Lynne A
2014-06-04
Early feeding practices lay the foundation for children's eating habits and weight gain. Questionnaires are available to assess parental feeding but overlapping and inconsistent items, subscales and terminology limit conceptual clarity and between study comparisons. Our aim was to consolidate a range of existing items into a parsimonious and conceptually robust questionnaire for assessing feeding practices with very young children (review 10 factors were specified. Of these, 9 factors (40 items) showed acceptable model fit and internal reliability (Cronbach's α: 0.61-0.89). Four factors reflected non-responsive feeding practices: 'Distrust in Appetite', 'Reward for Behaviour', 'Reward for Eating', and 'Persuasive Feeding'. Five factors reflected structure of the meal environment and limits: 'Structured Meal Setting', 'Structured Meal Timing', 'Family Meal Setting', 'Overt Restriction' and 'Covert Restriction'. Feeding practices generally showed the expected pattern of associations with child eating behaviours but none with weight. The Feeding Practices and Structure Questionnaire (FPSQ) provides a new reliable and valid measure of parental feeding practices, specifically maternal responsiveness to children's hunger/satiety signals facilitated by routine and structure in feeding. Further validation in more diverse samples is required.
A Robust Mathematical Model On Infectious Diseases | Omorogbe ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
The paper presents a robust epidemiological compartment model on infectious diseases. The model obviates the limitations of the classical epidemiological model by accommodating different levels of vulnerability and susceptibility to infections within different social class and spatial structures. Unlike the classical model ...
Modelling Project Feasibility Robustness by Use of Scenarios
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Moshøj, Claus Rehfeld; Leleur, Steen
1998-01-01
, SEAM secures a consistent inclusion of actual scenario elements in the quantitative impact modelling and facilitates a transparent project feasibility robustness analysis. SEAM is implemented as part of a decision support system with a toolbox structure applicable to different types of transport...
On robust parameter estimation in brain-computer interfacing
Samek, Wojciech; Nakajima, Shinichi; Kawanabe, Motoaki; Müller, Klaus-Robert
2017-12-01
Objective. The reliable estimation of parameters such as mean or covariance matrix from noisy and high-dimensional observations is a prerequisite for successful application of signal processing and machine learning algorithms in brain-computer interfacing (BCI). This challenging task becomes significantly more difficult if the data set contains outliers, e.g. due to subject movements, eye blinks or loose electrodes, as they may heavily bias the estimation and the subsequent statistical analysis. Although various robust estimators have been developed to tackle the outlier problem, they ignore important structural information in the data and thus may not be optimal. Typical structural elements in BCI data are the trials consisting of a few hundred EEG samples and indicating the start and end of a task. Approach. This work discusses the parameter estimation problem in BCI and introduces a novel hierarchical view on robustness which naturally comprises different types of outlierness occurring in structured data. Furthermore, the class of minimum divergence estimators is reviewed and a robust mean and covariance estimator for structured data is derived and evaluated with simulations and on a benchmark data set. Main results. The results show that state-of-the-art BCI algorithms benefit from robustly estimated parameters. Significance. Since parameter estimation is an integral part of various machine learning algorithms, the presented techniques are applicable to many problems beyond BCI.
Robust Parametric Fault Estimation in a Hopper System
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Soltani, Mohsen; Izadi-Zamanabadi, Roozbeh; Wisniewski, Rafal
2012-01-01
The ability of diagnosis of the possible faults is a necessity for satellite launch vehicles during their mission. In this paper, a structural analysis method is employed to divide the complex propulsion system into simpler subsystems for fault diagnosis filter design. A robust fault diagnosis me...
Container Materials, Fabrication And Robustness
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dunn, K.; Louthan, M.; Rawls, G.; Sindelar, R.; Zapp, P.; Mcclard, J.
2009-01-01
The multi-barrier 3013 container used to package plutonium-bearing materials is robust and thereby highly resistant to identified degradation modes that might cause failure. The only viable degradation mechanisms identified by a panel of technical experts were pressurization within and corrosion of the containers. Evaluations of the container materials and the fabrication processes and resulting residual stresses suggest that the multi-layered containers will mitigate the potential for degradation of the outer container and prevent the release of the container contents to the environment. Additionally, the ongoing surveillance programs and laboratory studies should detect any incipient degradation of containers in the 3013 storage inventory before an outer container is compromised.
Robust matching for voice recognition
Higgins, Alan; Bahler, L.; Porter, J.; Blais, P.
1994-10-01
This paper describes an automated method of comparing a voice sample of an unknown individual with samples from known speakers in order to establish or verify the individual's identity. The method is based on a statistical pattern matching approach that employs a simple training procedure, requires no human intervention (transcription, work or phonetic marketing, etc.), and makes no assumptions regarding the expected form of the statistical distributions of the observations. The content of the speech material (vocabulary, grammar, etc.) is not assumed to be constrained in any way. An algorithm is described which incorporates frame pruning and channel equalization processes designed to achieve robust performance with reasonable computational resources. An experimental implementation demonstrating the feasibility of the concept is described.
A DNA-based nanomechanical device with three robust states
Chakraborty, Banani; Sha, Ruojie; Seeman, Nadrian C.
2008-01-01
DNA has been used to build a variety of devices, ranging from those that are controlled by DNA structural transitions to those that are controlled by the addition of specific DNA strands. These sequence-dependent devices fulfill the promise of DNA in nanotechnology because a variety of devices in the same physical environment can be controlled individually. Many such devices have been reported, but most of them contain one or two structurally robust end states, in addition to a floppy interme...
Centrality Robustness and Link Prediction in Complex Social Networks
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Davidsen, Søren Atmakuri; Ortiz-Arroyo, Daniel
2012-01-01
. Secondly, we present a method to predict edges in dynamic social networks. Our experimental results indicate that the robustness of the centrality measures applied to more realistic social networks follows a predictable pattern and that the use of temporal statistics could improve the accuracy achieved......This chapter addresses two important issues in social network analysis that involve uncertainty. Firstly, we present am analysis on the robustness of centrality measures that extend the work presented in Borgati et al. using three types of complex network structures and one real social network...
An Evolutionary Approach for Robust Layout Synthesis of MEMS
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Fan, Zhun; Wang, Jiachuan; Goodman, Erik
2005-01-01
The paper introduces a robust design method for layout synthesis of MEM resonators subject to inherent geometric uncertainties such as the fabrication error on the sidewall of the structure. The robust design problem is formulated as a multi-objective constrained optimisation problem after certain...... assumptions and treated with multiobjective genetic algorithm (MOGA), a special type of evolutionary computing approaches. Case study based on layout synthesis of a comb-driven MEM resonator shows that the approach proposed in this paper can lead to design results that meet the target performance and are less...
Robust portfolio choice with ambiguity and learning about return predictability
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Larsen, Linda Sandris; Branger, Nicole; Munk, Claus
2013-01-01
We analyze the optimal stock-bond portfolio under both learning and ambiguity aversion. Stock returns are predictable by an observable and an unobservable predictor, and the investor has to learn about the latter. Furthermore, the investor is ambiguity-averse and has a preference for investment...... strategies that are robust to model misspecifications. We derive a closed-form solution for the optimal robust investment strategy. We find that both learning and ambiguity aversion impact the level and structure of the optimal stock investment. Suboptimal strategies resulting either from not learning...... or from not considering ambiguity can lead to economically significant losses....
Synthesis of fixed-architecture, robust H 2 and H ∞ controllers
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Collins Jr. Emmanuel G.
2000-01-01
Full Text Available This paper discusses and compares the synthesis of fixed-architecture controllers that guarantee either robust H 2 or H ∞ performance. The synthesis is accomplished by solving a Riccati equation feasibility problem resulting from mixed structured singular value theory with Popov multipliers. Whereas the algorithm for robust H 2 performance had been previously implemented, a major contribution described in this paper is the implementation of the much more complex algorithm for robust H ∞ performance. Both robust H 2 and H ∞ , controllers are designed for a benchmark problem and a comparison is made between the resulting controllers and control algorithms. It is found that the numerical algorithm for robust H ∞ performance is much more computationally intensive than that for robust H 2 performance. Both controllers are found to have smaller bandwidth, lower control authority and to be less conservative than controllers obtained using complex structured singular value synthesis
Synthesis of fixed-architecture, robust H2 and H∞ controllers
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Emmanuel G. Collins
2000-01-01
Full Text Available This paper discusses and compares the synthesis of fixed-architecture controllers that guarantee either robust H2 or H∞ performance. The synthesis is accomplished by solving a Riccati equation feasibility problem resulting from mixed structured singular value theory with Popov multipliers. Whereas the algorithm for robust H2 performance had been previously implemented, a major contribution described in this paper is the implementation of the much more complex algorithm for robust H∞ performance. Both robust H2 and H∞, controllers are designed for a benchmark problem and a comparison is made between the resulting controllers and control algorithms. It is found that the numerical algorithm for robust H∞ performance is much more computationally intensive than that for robust H2 performance. Both controllers are found to have smaller bandwidth, lower control authority and to be less conservative than controllers obtained using complex structured singular value synthesis.
Robust Parameter and Signal Estimation in Induction Motors
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Børsting, H.
This thesis deals with theories and methods for robust parameter and signal estimation in induction motors. The project originates in industrial interests concerning sensor-less control of electrical drives. During the work, some general problems concerning estimation of signals and parameters...... in nonlinear systems, have been exposed. The main objectives of this project are: - analysis and application of theories and methods for robust estimation of parameters in a model structure, obtained from knowledge of the physics of the induction motor. - analysis and application of theories and methods...... for robust estimation of the rotor speed and driving torque of the induction motor based only on measurements of stator voltages and currents. Only contimuous-time models have been used, which means that physical related signals and parameters are estimated directly and not indirectly by some discrete...
On the Probabilistic Characterization of Robustness and Resilience
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Faber, Michael Havbro; Qin, J.; Miraglia, Simona
2017-01-01
Over the last decade significant research efforts have been devoted to the probabilistic modeling and analysis of system characteristics. Especially performance characteristics of systems subjected to random disturbances, such as robustness and resilience have been in the focus of these efforts...... in the modeling of robustness and resilience in the research areas of natural disaster risk management, socio-ecological systems and social systems and we propose a generic decision analysis framework for the modeling and analysis of systems across application areas. The proposed framework extends the concept...... of direct and indirect consequences and associated risks in probabilistic systems modeling formulated by the Joint Committee on Structural Safety (JCSS) to facilitate the modeling and analysis of resilience in addition to robustness and vulnerability. Moreover, based on recent insights in the modeling...
Robust Model Predictive Control of a Wind Turbine
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Mirzaei, Mahmood; Poulsen, Niels Kjølstad; Niemann, Hans Henrik
2012-01-01
In this work the problem of robust model predictive control (robust MPC) of a wind turbine in the full load region is considered. A minimax robust MPC approach is used to tackle the problem. Nonlinear dynamics of the wind turbine are derived by combining blade element momentum (BEM) theory...... of the uncertain system is employed and a norm-bounded uncertainty model is used to formulate a minimax model predictive control. The resulting optimization problem is simplified by semidefinite relaxation and the controller obtained is applied on a full complexity, high fidelity wind turbine model. Finally...... and first principle modeling of the turbine flexible structure. Thereafter the nonlinear model is linearized using Taylor series expansion around system operating points. Operating points are determined by effective wind speed and an extended Kalman filter (EKF) is employed to estimate this. In addition...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Callot, Laurent; Kristensen, Johannes Tang
This paper shows that the parsimoniously time-varying methodology of Callot and Kristensen (2015) can be applied to factor models.We apply this method to study macroeconomic instability in the US from 1959:1 to 2006:4 with a particular focus on the Great Moderation. Models with parsimoniously time...... that the parameters of both models exhibit a higher degree of instability in the period from 1970:1 to 1984:4 relative to the following 15 years. In our setting the Great Moderation appears as the gradual ending of a period of high structural instability that took place in the 1970s and early 1980s....
Optimization of robustness of interdependent network controllability by redundant design.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Zenghu Zhang
Full Text Available Controllability of complex networks has been a hot topic in recent years. Real networks regarded as interdependent networks are always coupled together by multiple networks. The cascading process of interdependent networks including interdependent failure and overload failure will destroy the robustness of controllability for the whole network. Therefore, the optimization of the robustness of interdependent network controllability is of great importance in the research area of complex networks. In this paper, based on the model of interdependent networks constructed first, we determine the cascading process under different proportions of node attacks. Then, the structural controllability of interdependent networks is measured by the minimum driver nodes. Furthermore, we propose a parameter which can be obtained by the structure and minimum driver set of interdependent networks under different proportions of node attacks and analyze the robustness for interdependent network controllability. Finally, we optimize the robustness of interdependent network controllability by redundant design including node backup and redundancy edge backup and improve the redundant design by proposing different strategies according to their cost. Comparative strategies of redundant design are conducted to find the best strategy. Results shows that node backup and redundancy edge backup can indeed decrease those nodes suffering from failure and improve the robustness of controllability. Considering the cost of redundant design, we should choose BBS (betweenness-based strategy or DBS (degree based strategy for node backup and HDF(high degree first for redundancy edge backup. Above all, our proposed strategies are feasible and effective at improving the robustness of interdependent network controllability.
Robust holographic storage system design.
Watanabe, Takahiro; Watanabe, Minoru
2011-11-21
Demand is increasing daily for large data storage systems that are useful for applications in spacecraft, space satellites, and space robots, which are all exposed to radiation-rich space environment. As candidates for use in space embedded systems, holographic storage systems are promising because they can easily provided the demanded large-storage capability. Particularly, holographic storage systems, which have no rotation mechanism, are demanded because they are virtually maintenance-free. Although a holographic memory itself is an extremely robust device even in a space radiation environment, its associated lasers and drive circuit devices are vulnerable. Such vulnerabilities sometimes engendered severe problems that prevent reading of all contents of the holographic memory, which is a turn-off failure mode of a laser array. This paper therefore presents a proposal for a recovery method for the turn-off failure mode of a laser array on a holographic storage system, and describes results of an experimental demonstration. © 2011 Optical Society of America
Efficient robust conditional random fields.
Song, Dongjin; Liu, Wei; Zhou, Tianyi; Tao, Dacheng; Meyer, David A
2015-10-01
Conditional random fields (CRFs) are a flexible yet powerful probabilistic approach and have shown advantages for popular applications in various areas, including text analysis, bioinformatics, and computer vision. Traditional CRF models, however, are incapable of selecting relevant features as well as suppressing noise from noisy original features. Moreover, conventional optimization methods often converge slowly in solving the training procedure of CRFs, and will degrade significantly for tasks with a large number of samples and features. In this paper, we propose robust CRFs (RCRFs) to simultaneously select relevant features. An optimal gradient method (OGM) is further designed to train RCRFs efficiently. Specifically, the proposed RCRFs employ the l1 norm of the model parameters to regularize the objective used by traditional CRFs, therefore enabling discovery of the relevant unary features and pairwise features of CRFs. In each iteration of OGM, the gradient direction is determined jointly by the current gradient together with the historical gradients, and the Lipschitz constant is leveraged to specify the proper step size. We show that an OGM can tackle the RCRF model training very efficiently, achieving the optimal convergence rate [Formula: see text] (where k is the number of iterations). This convergence rate is theoretically superior to the convergence rate O(1/k) of previous first-order optimization methods. Extensive experiments performed on three practical image segmentation tasks demonstrate the efficacy of OGM in training our proposed RCRFs.
Robust boosting via convex optimization
Rätsch, Gunnar
2001-12-01
In this work we consider statistical learning problems. A learning machine aims to extract information from a set of training examples such that it is able to predict the associated label on unseen examples. We consider the case where the resulting classification or regression rule is a combination of simple rules - also called base hypotheses. The so-called boosting algorithms iteratively find a weighted linear combination of base hypotheses that predict well on unseen data. We address the following issues: o The statistical learning theory framework for analyzing boosting methods. We study learning theoretic guarantees on the prediction performance on unseen examples. Recently, large margin classification techniques emerged as a practical result of the theory of generalization, in particular Boosting and Support Vector Machines. A large margin implies a good generalization performance. Hence, we analyze how large the margins in boosting are and find an improved algorithm that is able to generate the maximum margin solution. o How can boosting methods be related to mathematical optimization techniques? To analyze the properties of the resulting classification or regression rule, it is of high importance to understand whether and under which conditions boosting converges. We show that boosting can be used to solve large scale constrained optimization problems, whose solutions are well characterizable. To show this, we relate boosting methods to methods known from mathematical optimization, and derive convergence guarantees for a quite general family of boosting algorithms. o How to make Boosting noise robust? One of the problems of current boosting techniques is that they are sensitive to noise in the training sample. In order to make boosting robust, we transfer the soft margin idea from support vector learning to boosting. We develop theoretically motivated regularized algorithms that exhibit a high noise robustness. o How to adapt boosting to regression problems
A kriging metamodel-assisted robust optimization method based on a reverse model
Zhou, Hui; Zhou, Qi; Liu, Congwei; Zhou, Taotao
2018-02-01
The goal of robust optimization methods is to obtain a solution that is both optimum and relatively insensitive to uncertainty factors. Most existing robust optimization approaches use outer-inner nested optimization structures where a large amount of computational effort is required because the robustness of each candidate solution delivered from the outer level should be evaluated in the inner level. In this article, a kriging metamodel-assisted robust optimization method based on a reverse model (K-RMRO) is first proposed, in which the nested optimization structure is reduced into a single-loop optimization structure to ease the computational burden. Ignoring the interpolation uncertainties from kriging, K-RMRO may yield non-robust optima. Hence, an improved kriging-assisted robust optimization method based on a reverse model (IK-RMRO) is presented to take the interpolation uncertainty of kriging metamodel into consideration. In IK-RMRO, an objective switching criterion is introduced to determine whether the inner level robust optimization or the kriging metamodel replacement should be used to evaluate the robustness of design alternatives. The proposed criterion is developed according to whether or not the robust status of the individual can be changed because of the interpolation uncertainties from the kriging metamodel. Numerical and engineering cases are used to demonstrate the applicability and efficiency of the proposed approach.
Robust AIC with High Breakdown Scale Estimate
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Shokrya Saleh
2014-01-01
Full Text Available Akaike Information Criterion (AIC based on least squares (LS regression minimizes the sum of the squared residuals; LS is sensitive to outlier observations. Alternative criterion, which is less sensitive to outlying observation, has been proposed; examples are robust AIC (RAIC, robust Mallows Cp (RCp, and robust Bayesian information criterion (RBIC. In this paper, we propose a robust AIC by replacing the scale estimate with a high breakdown point estimate of scale. The robustness of the proposed methods is studied through its influence function. We show that, the proposed robust AIC is effective in selecting accurate models in the presence of outliers and high leverage points, through simulated and real data examples.
Forecasting exchange rates: a robust regression approach
Preminger, Arie; Franck, Raphael
2005-01-01
The least squares estimation method as well as other ordinary estimation method for regression models can be severely affected by a small number of outliers, thus providing poor out-of-sample forecasts. This paper suggests a robust regression approach, based on the S-estimation method, to construct forecasting models that are less sensitive to data contamination by outliers. A robust linear autoregressive (RAR) and a robust neural network (RNN) models are estimated to study the predictabil...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Rahmann Sven
2004-06-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background In phylogenetic analysis we face the problem that several subclade topologies are known or easily inferred and well supported by bootstrap analysis, but basal branching patterns cannot be unambiguously estimated by the usual methods (maximum parsimony (MP, neighbor-joining (NJ, or maximum likelihood (ML, nor are they well supported. We represent each subclade by a sequence profile and estimate evolutionary distances between profiles to obtain a matrix of distances between subclades. Results Our estimator of profile distances generalizes the maximum likelihood estimator of sequence distances. The basal branching pattern can be estimated by any distance-based method, such as neighbor-joining. Our method (profile neighbor-joining, PNJ then inherits the accuracy and robustness of profiles and the time efficiency of neighbor-joining. Conclusions Phylogenetic analysis of Chlorophyceae with traditional methods (MP, NJ, ML and MrBayes reveals seven well supported subclades, but the methods disagree on the basal branching pattern. The tree reconstructed by our method is better supported and can be confirmed by known morphological characters. Moreover the accuracy is significantly improved as shown by parametric bootstrap.
Robustness: confronting lessons from physics and biology.
Lesne, Annick
2008-11-01
The term robustness is encountered in very different scientific fields, from engineering and control theory to dynamical systems to biology. The main question addressed herein is whether the notion of robustness and its correlates (stability, resilience, self-organisation) developed in physics are relevant to biology, or whether specific extensions and novel frameworks are required to account for the robustness properties of living systems. To clarify this issue, the different meanings covered by this unique term are discussed; it is argued that they crucially depend on the kind of perturbations that a robust system should by definition withstand. Possible mechanisms underlying robust behaviours are examined, either encountered in all natural systems (symmetries, conservation laws, dynamic stability) or specific to biological systems (feedbacks and regulatory networks). Special attention is devoted to the (sometimes counterintuitive) interrelations between robustness and noise. A distinction between dynamic selection and natural selection in the establishment of a robust behaviour is underlined. It is finally argued that nested notions of robustness, relevant to different time scales and different levels of organisation, allow one to reconcile the seemingly contradictory requirements for robustness and adaptability in living systems.
Robust Layout Synthesis of a MEM Crab-Leg Resonator Using a Constrained Genetic Algorithm
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Fan, Zhun; Achiche, Sofiane
2007-01-01
The research work carried out in this paper introduces a robust design method for layout synthesis of MEM resonator subject to inherent geometric uncertainties such as the fabrication error on the sidewall of the structure. The robust design problem is formulated as a multi-objective constrained...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Christiansen, Rasmus E.; Lazarov, Boyan S.; Jensen, Jakob S.
2015-01-01
Resonance and wave-propagation problems are known to be highly sensitive towards parameter variations. This paper discusses topology optimization formulations for creating designs that perform robustly under spatial variations for acoustic cavity problems. For several structural problems, robust...... and limitations are discussed. In addition, a known explicit penalization approach is considered for comparison. For near-uniform spatial variations it is shown that highly robust designs can be obtained using the double filter approach. It is finally demonstrated that taking non-uniform variations into account...... further improves the robustness of the designs....
Robust topology optimization accounting for spatially varying manufacturing errors
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Schevenels, M.; Lazarov, Boyan Stefanov; Sigmund, Ole
2011-01-01
This paper presents a robust approach for the design of macro-, micro-, or nano-structures by means of topology optimization, accounting for spatially varying manufacturing errors. The focus is on structures produced by milling or etching; in this case over- or under-etching may cause parts...... optimization problem is formulated in a probabilistic way: the objective function is defined as a weighted sum of the mean value and the standard deviation of the structural performance. The optimization problem is solved by means of a Monte Carlo method: in each iteration of the optimization scheme, a Monte...
Robustness Analysis of Dynamic Watermarks
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ivan V. Nechta
2017-06-01
Full Text Available In this paper we consider previously known scheme of dynamic watermarks embedding (Ra- dix-n that is used for preventing illegal use of software. According to the scheme a watermark is dynamic linked data structure (graph, which is created in memory during program execution. Hidden data, such as information about author, can be represented in a different type of graph structure. This data can be extracted and demonstrated in judicial proceedings. This paper declared that the above mentioned scheme was previously one of the most reliable, has a number of features that allows an attacker to detect a stage of watermark construction in the program, and therefore it can be corrupted or deleted. The author of this article shows the weakness of Radix-N scheme, which consists in the fact that we can reveal dynamic data structures of a program by using information received from some API-functions hooker which catches function calls of dynamic memory allocation. One of these data structures is the watermark. Pointers on dynamically created objects (arrays, variables, class items, etc. of a program can be detected by content analysis of computer's RAM. Different dynamic objects in memory interconnected by pointers form dynamic data structures of a program such as lists, stacks, trees and other graphs (including the watermark. Our experiment shows that in the vast majority of cases the amount of data structure in programs is small, which increases probability of a successful attack. Also we present an algorithm for finding connected components of a graph with linear time-consuming in cases where the number of nodes is about 106. On the basis of the experimental findings the new watermarking scheme has been presented, which is resistant to the proposed attack. It is offered to use different graph structure representation of a watermark, where edges are implemented using unique signatures. Our scheme uses content encrypting of graph nodes (except signature
Effect of interaction strength on robustness of controlling edge dynamics in complex networks
Pang, Shao-Peng; Hao, Fei
2018-05-01
Robustness plays a critical role in the controllability of complex networks to withstand failures and perturbations. Recent advances in the edge controllability show that the interaction strength among edges plays a more important role than network structure. Therefore, we focus on the effect of interaction strength on the robustness of edge controllability. Using three categories of all edges to quantify the robustness, we develop a universal framework to evaluate and analyze the robustness in complex networks with arbitrary structures and interaction strengths. Applying our framework to a large number of model and real-world networks, we find that the interaction strength is a dominant factor for the robustness in undirected networks. Meanwhile, the strongest robustness and the optimal edge controllability in undirected networks can be achieved simultaneously. Different from the case of undirected networks, the robustness in directed networks is determined jointly by the interaction strength and the network's degree distribution. Moreover, a stronger robustness is usually associated with a larger number of driver nodes required to maintain full control in directed networks. This prompts us to provide an optimization method by adjusting the interaction strength to optimize the robustness of edge controllability.
Robust linear registration of CT images using random regression forests
Konukoglu, Ender; Criminisi, Antonio; Pathak, Sayan; Robertson, Duncan; White, Steve; Haynor, David; Siddiqui, Khan
2011-03-01
Global linear registration is a necessary first step for many different tasks in medical image analysis. Comparing longitudinal studies1, cross-modality fusion2, and many other applications depend heavily on the success of the automatic registration. The robustness and efficiency of this step is crucial as it affects all subsequent operations. Most common techniques cast the linear registration problem as the minimization of a global energy function based on the image intensities. Although these algorithms have proved useful, their robustness in fully automated scenarios is still an open question. In fact, the optimization step often gets caught in local minima yielding unsatisfactory results. Recent algorithms constrain the space of registration parameters by exploiting implicit or explicit organ segmentations, thus increasing robustness4,5. In this work we propose a novel robust algorithm for automatic global linear image registration. Our method uses random regression forests to estimate posterior probability distributions for the locations of anatomical structures - represented as axis aligned bounding boxes6. These posterior distributions are later integrated in a global linear registration algorithm. The biggest advantage of our algorithm is that it does not require pre-defined segmentations or regions. Yet it yields robust registration results. We compare the robustness of our algorithm with that of the state of the art Elastix toolbox7. Validation is performed via 1464 pair-wise registrations in a database of very diverse 3D CT images. We show that our method decreases the "failure" rate of the global linear registration from 12.5% (Elastix) to only 1.9%.
Implicitly Weighted Methods in Robust Image Analysis
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Kalina, Jan
2012-01-01
Roč. 44, č. 3 (2012), s. 449-462 ISSN 0924-9907 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 1M06014 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : robustness * high breakdown point * outlier detection * robust correlation analysis * template matching * face recognition Subject RIV: BB - Applied Statistics, Operational Research Impact factor: 1.767, year: 2012
What is it to be sturdy (robust)?
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nielsen, Niss Skov; Zwisler, Lars Pagter; Bojsen, Ann Kristina Mikkelsen
Purpose: This paper intends to give a first insight into the concept of being "sturdy/robust"; To develop and test a Danish model of how to measure sturdi-ness/robustness; To test the scale's ability to identify people in emergency situa-tions who have high risk of developing psychological illness....
In Silico Design of Robust Bolalipid Membranes
Bulacu, Monica; Periole, Xavier; Marrink, Siewert J.; Périole, Xavier
The robustness of microorganisms used in industrial fermentations is essential for the efficiency and yield of the production process. A viable tool to increase the robustness is through engineering of the cell membrane and especially by incorporating lipids from species that survive under harsh
Assessment of Process Robustness for Mass Customization
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nielsen, Kjeld; Brunø, Thomas Ditlev
2013-01-01
robustness and their capability to develop it. Through literature study and analysis of robust process design characteristics a number of metrics are described which can be used for assessment. The metrics are evaluated and analyzed to be applied as KPI’s to help MC companies prioritize efforts in business...
Applying Robust Design in an Industrial Context
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Christensen, Martin Ebro
mechanical architectures. Furthermore a set of 15 robust design principles for reducing the variation in functional performance is compiled in a format directly supporting the work of the design engineer. With these foundational methods in place, the existing tools, methods and KPIs of Robust Design...
The importance of robust design methodology
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Eifler, Tobias; Howard, Thomas J.
2018-01-01
infamous recalls in automotive history, that of the GM ignition switch, from the perspective of Robust Design. It is investigated if available Robust Design methods such as sensitivity analysis, tolerance stack-ups, design clarity, etc. would have been suitable to account for the performance variation...
Robust Control Charts for Time Series Data
Croux, C.; Gelper, S.; Mahieu, K.
2010-01-01
This article presents a control chart for time series data, based on the one-step- ahead forecast errors of the Holt-Winters forecasting method. We use robust techniques to prevent that outliers affect the estimation of the control limits of the chart. Moreover, robustness is important to maintain
Efficient reanalysis techniques for robust topology optimization
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Amir, Oded; Sigmund, Ole; Lazarov, Boyan Stefanov
2012-01-01
efficient robust topology optimization procedures based on reanalysis techniques. The approach is demonstrated on two compliant mechanism design problems where robust design is achieved by employing either a worst case formulation or a stochastic formulation. It is shown that the time spent on finite...
Extending the Scope of Robust Quadratic Optimization
Marandi, Ahmadreza; Ben-Tal, A.; den Hertog, Dick; Melenberg, Bertrand
In this paper, we derive tractable reformulations of the robust counterparts of convex quadratic and conic quadratic constraints with concave uncertainties for a broad range of uncertainty sets. For quadratic constraints with convex uncertainty, it is well-known that the robust counterpart is, in
Security and robustness for collaborative monitors
Testerink, Bas; Bulling, Nils; Dastani, Mehdi
2016-01-01
Decentralized monitors can be subject to robustness and security risks. Robustness risks include attacks on the monitor’s infrastructure in order to disable parts of its functionality. Security risks include attacks that try to extract information from the monitor and thereby possibly leak sensitive
How Robust is Your System Resilience?
Homayounfar, M.; Muneepeerakul, R.
2017-12-01
Robustness and resilience are concepts in system thinking that have grown in importance and popularity. For many complex social-ecological systems, however, robustness and resilience are difficult to quantify and the connections and trade-offs between them difficult to study. Most studies have either focused on qualitative approaches to discuss their connections or considered only one of them under particular classes of disturbances. In this study, we present an analytical framework to address the linkage between robustness and resilience more systematically. Our analysis is based on a stylized dynamical model that operationalizes a widely used concept framework for social-ecological systems. The model enables us to rigorously define robustness and resilience and consequently investigate their connections. The results reveal the tradeoffs among performance, robustness, and resilience. They also show how the nature of the such tradeoffs varies with the choices of certain policies (e.g., taxation and investment in public infrastructure), internal stresses and external disturbances.
A Survey on Robustness in Railway Planning
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Lusby, Richard Martin; Larsen, Jesper; Bull, Simon Henry
2018-01-01
Planning problems in passenger railway range from long term strategic decision making to the detailed planning of operations.Operations research methods have played an increasing role in this planning process. However, recently more attention has been given to considerations of robustness...... in the quality of solutions to individual planning problems, and of operations in general. Robustness in general is the capacity for some system to absorb or resist changes. In the context of railway robustness it is often taken to be the capacity for operations to continue at some level when faced...... with a disruption such as delay or failure. This has resulted in more attention given to the inclusion of robustness measures and objectives in individual planning problems, and to the providing of tools to ensure operations continue under disrupted situations. In this paper we survey the literature on robustness...
International Conference on Robust Statistics 2015
Basu, Ayanendranath; Filzmoser, Peter; Mukherjee, Diganta
2016-01-01
This book offers a collection of recent contributions and emerging ideas in the areas of robust statistics presented at the International Conference on Robust Statistics 2015 (ICORS 2015) held in Kolkata during 12–16 January, 2015. The book explores the applicability of robust methods in other non-traditional areas which includes the use of new techniques such as skew and mixture of skew distributions, scaled Bregman divergences, and multilevel functional data methods; application areas being circular data models and prediction of mortality and life expectancy. The contributions are of both theoretical as well as applied in nature. Robust statistics is a relatively young branch of statistical sciences that is rapidly emerging as the bedrock of statistical analysis in the 21st century due to its flexible nature and wide scope. Robust statistics supports the application of parametric and other inference techniques over a broader domain than the strictly interpreted model scenarios employed in classical statis...
Robust permanence for ecological equations with internal and external feedbacks.
Patel, Swati; Schreiber, Sebastian J
2018-07-01
Species experience both internal feedbacks with endogenous factors such as trait evolution and external feedbacks with exogenous factors such as weather. These feedbacks can play an important role in determining whether populations persist or communities of species coexist. To provide a general mathematical framework for studying these effects, we develop a theorem for coexistence for ecological models accounting for internal and external feedbacks. Specifically, we use average Lyapunov functions and Morse decompositions to develop sufficient and necessary conditions for robust permanence, a form of coexistence robust to large perturbations of the population densities and small structural perturbations of the models. We illustrate how our results can be applied to verify permanence in non-autonomous models, structured population models, including those with frequency-dependent feedbacks, and models of eco-evolutionary dynamics. In these applications, we discuss how our results relate to previous results for models with particular types of feedbacks.
Robust stability bounds for multi-delay networked control systems
Seitz, Timothy; Yedavalli, Rama K.; Behbahani, Alireza
2018-04-01
In this paper, the robust stability of a perturbed linear continuous-time system is examined when controlled using a sampled-data networked control system (NCS) framework. Three new robust stability bounds on the time-invariant perturbations to the original continuous-time plant matrix are presented guaranteeing stability for the corresponding discrete closed-loop augmented delay-free system (ADFS) with multiple time-varying sensor and actuator delays. The bounds are differentiated from previous work by accounting for the sampled-data nature of the NCS and for separate communication delays for each sensor and actuator, not a single delay. Therefore, this paper expands the knowledge base in multiple inputs multiple outputs (MIMO) sampled-data time delay systems. Bounds are presented for unstructured, semi-structured, and structured perturbations.
Analysis of robustness of urban bus network
Tao, Ren; Yi-Fan, Wang; Miao-Miao, Liu; Yan-Jie, Xu
2016-02-01
In this paper, the invulnerability and cascade failures are discussed for the urban bus network. Firstly, three static models(bus stop network, bus transfer network, and bus line network) are used to analyse the structure and invulnerability of urban bus network in order to understand the features of bus network comprehensively. Secondly, a new way is proposed to study the invulnerability of urban bus network by modelling two layered networks, i.e., the bus stop-line network and the bus line-transfer network and then the interactions between different models are analysed. Finally, by modelling a new layered network which can reflect the dynamic passenger flows, the cascade failures are discussed. Then a new load redistribution method is proposed to study the robustness of dynamic traffic. In this paper, the bus network of Shenyang City which is one of the biggest cities in China, is taken as a simulation example. In addition, some suggestions are given to improve the urban bus network and provide emergency strategies when traffic congestion occurs according to the numerical simulation results. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 61473073, 61374178, 61104074, and 61203329), the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities (Grant Nos. N130417006, L1517004), and the Program for Liaoning Excellent Talents in University (Grant No. LJQ2014028).
Robust non-local median filter
Matsuoka, Jyohei; Koga, Takanori; Suetake, Noriaki; Uchino, Eiji
2017-04-01
This paper describes a novel image filter with superior performance on detail-preserving removal of random-valued impulse noise superimposed on natural gray-scale images. The non-local means filter is in the limelight as a way of Gaussian noise removal with superior performance on detail preservation. By referring the fundamental concept of the non-local means, we had proposed a non-local median filter as a specialized way for random-valued impulse noise removal so far. In the non-local processing, the output of a filter is calculated from pixels in blocks which are similar to the block centered at a pixel of interest. As a result, aggressive noise removal is conducted without destroying the detailed structures in an original image. However, the performance of non-local processing decreases enormously in the case of high noise occurrence probability. A cause of this problem is that the superimposed noise disturbs accurate calculation of the similarity between the blocks. To cope with this problem, we propose an improved non-local median filter which is robust to the high level of corruption by introducing a new similarity measure considering possibility of being the original signal. The effectiveness and validity of the proposed method are verified in a series of experiments using natural gray-scale images.
QFT Framework for Robust Tuning of Power System Stabilizers
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Alavi, Seyyed Mohammad Mahdi; Izadi-Zamanabadi, Roozbeh
2005-01-01
This paper discusses the use of conventional quantitative feedback design for Power System Stabilizer (PSS). An appropriate control structure of the PSS that is directly applicable to PSS, is described. Two desired performances are also proposed in order to achieve an overall improvement in damping...... and robustness. The efficiency of the proposed method is demonstrated on Single Machine Infinite Bus (SMIB) power system with level of uncertainty....
Linear Quantum Systems: Non-Classical States and Robust Stability
2016-06-29
modulation and entanglement in a compound gradient echo memory, Physical Review A 93(2) 023809 2016. We present a theoretical model for a Kerr...Carvalho, M. Hedges and M R James, Analysis of the operation of gradient echo memories using a quantum input-output model, New Journal of Physics , 15...new structured uncertainty methods that ensure robust stability of quantum systems based on nominal linear models, and (v) physical realizability
ARTICLE Robust Diagnosis of Mechatronics System by Bond Graph Approach
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Abderrahmene Sellami
2018-03-01
Full Text Available This article presents design of a robust diagnostic system based on bond graph model for a mechatronic system. Mechatronics is the synergistic and systemic combination of mechanics, electronics and computer science. The design of a mechatronic system modeled by the bond graph model becomes easier and more generous. The bond graph tool is a unified graphical language for all areas of engineering sciences and confirmed as a structured approach to modeling and simulation of multidisciplinary systems.
Robust Preamble-Based Timing Synchronization for OFDM Systems
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yun Liu
2017-01-01
Full Text Available This study presents a novel preamble-based timing offset estimation method for orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM systems. The proposed method is robust, immune to the carrier frequency offset (CFO, and independent of the structure of the preamble. The performance of the new method is demonstrated in terms of mean square error (MSE obtained by simulation in multipath fading channels. The results indicate that the new method significantly improves timing performance in comparison with existing methods.
Robust and Air-Stable Sandwiched Organo-Lead Halide Perovskites for Photodetector Applications
Mohammed, Omar F.; Banavoth, Murali; Saidaminov, Makhsud I.; Abdelhady, Ahmed L.; Pan, Jun; Liu, Jiakai; Peng, Wei; Bakr, Osman
2016-01-01
We report the simplest possible method to date for fabricating robust, air-stable, sandwiched perovskite photodetectors. Our proposed sandwiched structure is devoid of electron or hole transporting layers and also the expensive electrodes
Robust Adaptable Video Copy Detection
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Assent, Ira; Kremer, Hardy
2009-01-01
in contrast). Our query processing combines filtering and indexing structures for efficient multistep computation of video copies under this model. We show that our model successfully identifies altered video copies and does so more reliably than existing models.......Video copy detection should be capable of identifying video copies subject to alterations e.g. in video contrast or frame rates. We propose a video copy detection scheme that allows for adaptable detection of videos that are altered temporally (e.g. frame rate change) and/or visually (e.g. change...
Defining robustness protocols: a method to include and evaluate robustness in clinical plans
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
McGowan, S E; Albertini, F; Lomax, A J; Thomas, S J
2015-01-01
We aim to define a site-specific robustness protocol to be used during the clinical plan evaluation process. Plan robustness of 16 skull base IMPT plans to systematic range and random set-up errors have been retrospectively and systematically analysed. This was determined by calculating the error-bar dose distribution (ebDD) for all the plans and by defining some metrics used to define protocols aiding the plan assessment. Additionally, an example of how to clinically use the defined robustness database is given whereby a plan with sub-optimal brainstem robustness was identified. The advantage of using different beam arrangements to improve the plan robustness was analysed. Using the ebDD it was found range errors had a smaller effect on dose distribution than the corresponding set-up error in a single fraction, and that organs at risk were most robust to the range errors, whereas the target was more robust to set-up errors. A database was created to aid planners in terms of plan robustness aims in these volumes. This resulted in the definition of site-specific robustness protocols. The use of robustness constraints allowed for the identification of a specific patient that may have benefited from a treatment of greater individuality. A new beam arrangement showed to be preferential when balancing conformality and robustness for this case. The ebDD and error-bar volume histogram proved effective in analysing plan robustness. The process of retrospective analysis could be used to establish site-specific robustness planning protocols in proton therapy. These protocols allow the planner to determine plans that, although delivering a dosimetrically adequate dose distribution, have resulted in sub-optimal robustness to these uncertainties. For these cases the use of different beam start conditions may improve the plan robustness to set-up and range uncertainties. (paper)
Defining robustness protocols: a method to include and evaluate robustness in clinical plans
McGowan, S. E.; Albertini, F.; Thomas, S. J.; Lomax, A. J.
2015-04-01
We aim to define a site-specific robustness protocol to be used during the clinical plan evaluation process. Plan robustness of 16 skull base IMPT plans to systematic range and random set-up errors have been retrospectively and systematically analysed. This was determined by calculating the error-bar dose distribution (ebDD) for all the plans and by defining some metrics used to define protocols aiding the plan assessment. Additionally, an example of how to clinically use the defined robustness database is given whereby a plan with sub-optimal brainstem robustness was identified. The advantage of using different beam arrangements to improve the plan robustness was analysed. Using the ebDD it was found range errors had a smaller effect on dose distribution than the corresponding set-up error in a single fraction, and that organs at risk were most robust to the range errors, whereas the target was more robust to set-up errors. A database was created to aid planners in terms of plan robustness aims in these volumes. This resulted in the definition of site-specific robustness protocols. The use of robustness constraints allowed for the identification of a specific patient that may have benefited from a treatment of greater individuality. A new beam arrangement showed to be preferential when balancing conformality and robustness for this case. The ebDD and error-bar volume histogram proved effective in analysing plan robustness. The process of retrospective analysis could be used to establish site-specific robustness planning protocols in proton therapy. These protocols allow the planner to determine plans that, although delivering a dosimetrically adequate dose distribution, have resulted in sub-optimal robustness to these uncertainties. For these cases the use of different beam start conditions may improve the plan robustness to set-up and range uncertainties.
Robust Optimization Model for Production Planning Problem under Uncertainty
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Pembe GÜÇLÜ
2017-01-01
Full Text Available Conditions of businesses change very quickly. To take into account the uncertainty engendered by changes has become almost a rule while planning. Robust optimization techniques that are methods of handling uncertainty ensure to produce less sensitive results to changing conditions. Production planning, is to decide from which product, when and how much will be produced, with a most basic definition. Modeling and solution of the Production planning problems changes depending on structure of the production processes, parameters and variables. In this paper, it is aimed to generate and apply scenario based robust optimization model for capacitated two-stage multi-product production planning problem under parameter and demand uncertainty. With this purpose, production planning problem of a textile company that operate in İzmir has been modeled and solved, then deterministic scenarios’ and robust method’s results have been compared. Robust method has provided a production plan that has higher cost but, will result close to feasible and optimal for most of the different scenarios in the future.
Lehermeier, Christina; Schön, Chris-Carolin; de Los Campos, Gustavo
2015-09-01
Plant breeding populations exhibit varying levels of structure and admixture; these features are likely to induce heterogeneity of marker effects across subpopulations. Traditionally, structure has been dealt with as a potential confounder, and various methods exist to "correct" for population stratification. However, these methods induce a mean correction that does not account for heterogeneity of marker effects. The animal breeding literature offers a few recent studies that consider modeling genetic heterogeneity in multibreed data, using multivariate models. However, these methods have received little attention in plant breeding where population structure can have different forms. In this article we address the problem of analyzing data from heterogeneous plant breeding populations, using three approaches: (a) a model that ignores population structure [A-genome-based best linear unbiased prediction (A-GBLUP)], (b) a stratified (i.e., within-group) analysis (W-GBLUP), and (c) a multivariate approach that uses multigroup data and accounts for heterogeneity (MG-GBLUP). The performance of the three models was assessed on three different data sets: a diversity panel of rice (Oryza sativa), a maize (Zea mays L.) half-sib panel, and a wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) data set that originated from plant breeding programs. The estimated genomic correlations between subpopulations varied from null to moderate, depending on the genetic distance between subpopulations and traits. Our assessment of prediction accuracy features cases where ignoring population structure leads to a parsimonious more powerful model as well as others where the multivariate and stratified approaches have higher predictive power. In general, the multivariate approach appeared slightly more robust than either the A- or the W-GBLUP. Copyright © 2015 by the Genetics Society of America.
Robust Transceiver with Tomlinson-Harashima Precoding for Amplify-and-Forward MIMO Relaying Systems
Xing, Chengwen; Xia, Minghua; Gao, Feifei; Wu, Yik-Chung
2012-01-01
forwarding matrices at relays and linear equalizer at destination is proposed. With novel applications of elegant characteristics of multiplicative convexity and matrix-monotone functions, the optimal structure of the nonlinear transceiver is first derived. Based on the derived structure, the transceiver design problem reduces to a much simpler one with only scalar variables which can be efficiently solved. Finally, the performance advantage of the proposed robust design over non-robust design is demonstrated by simulation results.
Robust recognition via information theoretic learning
He, Ran; Yuan, Xiaotong; Wang, Liang
2014-01-01
This Springer Brief represents a comprehensive review of information theoretic methods for robust recognition. A variety of information theoretic methods have been proffered in the past decade, in a large variety of computer vision applications; this work brings them together, attempts to impart the theory, optimization and usage of information entropy.The?authors?resort to a new information theoretic concept, correntropy, as a robust measure and apply it to solve robust face recognition and object recognition problems. For computational efficiency,?the brief?introduces the additive and multip
Robust statistics and geochemical data analysis
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Di, Z.
1987-01-01
Advantages of robust procedures over ordinary least-squares procedures in geochemical data analysis is demonstrated using NURE data from the Hot Springs Quadrangle, South Dakota, USA. Robust principal components analysis with 5% multivariate trimming successfully guarded the analysis against perturbations by outliers and increased the number of interpretable factors. Regression with SINE estimates significantly increased the goodness-of-fit of the regression and improved the correspondence of delineated anomalies with known uranium prospects. Because of the ubiquitous existence of outliers in geochemical data, robust statistical procedures are suggested as routine procedures to replace ordinary least-squares procedures
Design Robust Controller for Rotary Kiln
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Omar D. Hernández-Arboleda
2013-11-01
Full Text Available This paper presents the design of a robust controller for a rotary kiln. The designed controller is a combination of a fractional PID and linear quadratic regulator (LQR, these are not used to control the kiln until now, in addition robustness criteria are evaluated (gain margin, phase margin, strength gain, rejecting high frequency noise and sensitivity applied to the entire model (controller-plant, obtaining good results with a frequency range of 0.020 to 90 rad/s, which contributes to the robustness of the system.
Towards distortion-free robust image authentication
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Coltuc, D
2007-01-01
This paper investigates a general framework for distortion-free robust image authentication by multiple marking. First, by robust watermarking a subsampled version of image edges is embedded. Then, by reversible watermarking the information needed to recover the original image is inserted, too. The hiding capacity of the reversible watermarking is the essential requirement for this approach. Thus in case of no attacks not only image is authenticated but also the original is exactly recovered. In case of attacks, reversibility is lost, but image can still be authenticated. Preliminary results providing very good robustness against JPEG compression are presented
An Overview of the Adaptive Robust DFT
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Djurović Igor
2010-01-01
Full Text Available Abstract This paper overviews basic principles and applications of the robust DFT (RDFT approach, which is used for robust processing of frequency-modulated (FM signals embedded in non-Gaussian heavy-tailed noise. In particular, we concentrate on the spectral analysis and filtering of signals corrupted by impulsive distortions using adaptive and nonadaptive robust estimators. Several adaptive estimators of location parameter are considered, and it is shown that their application is preferable with respect to non-adaptive counterparts. This fact is demonstrated by efficiency comparison of adaptive and nonadaptive RDFT methods for different noise environments.
A robust interpretation of duration calculus
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Franzle, M.; Hansen, Michael Reichhardt
2005-01-01
We transfer the concept of robust interpretation from arithmetic first-order theories to metric-time temporal logics. The idea is that the interpretation of a formula is robust iff its truth value does not change under small variation of the constants in the formula. Exemplifying this on Duration...... Calculus (DC), our findings are that the robust interpretation of DC is equivalent to a multi-valued interpretation that uses the real numbers as semantic domain and assigns Lipschitz-continuous interpretations to all operators of DC. Furthermore, this continuity permits approximation between discrete...
REINA at CLEF 2007 Robust Task
Zazo Rodríguez, Ángel Francisco; Figuerola, Carlos G.; Alonso Berrocal, José Luis
2007-01-01
This paper describes our work at CLEF 2007 Robust Task. We have participated in the monolingual (English, French and Portuguese) and the bilingual (English to French) subtask. At CLEF 2006 our research group obtained very good results applying local query expansion using windows of terms in the robust task. This year we have used the same expansion technique, but taking into account some criteria of robustness: MAP, GMAP, MMR, GS@10, P@10, number of failed topics, number of topics bellow 0.1 ...
REINA at CLEF 2007 Robust Track (2007)
Zazo, Ángel F.; G.-Figuerola, Carlos; Alonso-Berrocal, José-Luis
2007-01-01
This paper describes our work at CLEF 2007 Robust Task. We have participated in the monolingual (English, French and Portuguese) and the bilingual (English to French) subtask. At CLEF 2006 our research group obtained very good results applying local query expansion using windows of terms in the robust task. This year we have used the same expansion technique, but taking into account some criteria of robustness: MAP, GMAP, MMR, GS@10, P@10, number of failed topics, number of topics bellow 0.1 ...
Robustness-related issues in speaker recognition
Zheng, Thomas Fang
2017-01-01
This book presents an overview of speaker recognition technologies with an emphasis on dealing with robustness issues. Firstly, the book gives an overview of speaker recognition, such as the basic system framework, categories under different criteria, performance evaluation and its development history. Secondly, with regard to robustness issues, the book presents three categories, including environment-related issues, speaker-related issues and application-oriented issues. For each category, the book describes the current hot topics, existing technologies, and potential research focuses in the future. The book is a useful reference book and self-learning guide for early researchers working in the field of robust speech recognition.
System Identification and Robust Control
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Tøffner-Clausen, S.
a thorough introduction to the m framework. A central results is that if performance is measured in terms of the inifity-norm and model uncertainty is bounded in the same manner, then, using m it is possible to pose one necessary and sufficient condition for block-structured norm-bounded perturbations which...... permitted by m is definitely much more flexible than those used in H inifity. Unfortunately m synthesis is a very difficult mathematical problem which is only well developed for purely complex perturbation sets. In order to develop our main result we will unfortunately need to synthesize m controllers....... The given examples thus represent a major part of the work behind this thesis. They consequently serve not just as illustrations but introduce many new ideas and should be interesting in their own right....
Piaget, Jean
Provided is an overview of the analytical method known as structuralism. The first chapter discusses the three key components of the concept of a structure: the view of a system as a whole instead of so many parts; the study of the transformations in the system; and the fact that these transformations never lead beyond the system but always…
Richardson, Joshua B.; Uppendahl, Locke D.; Traficante, Maria K.; Levy, Sasha F.; Siegal, Mark L.
2013-01-01
Biological systems produce phenotypes that appear to be robust to perturbation by mutations and environmental variation. Prior studies identified genes that, when impaired, reveal previously cryptic genetic variation. This result is typically interpreted as evidence that the disrupted gene normally increases robustness to mutations, as such robustness would allow cryptic variants to accumulate. However, revelation of cryptic genetic variation is not necessarily evidence that a mutationally robust state has been made less robust. Demonstrating a difference in robustness requires comparing the ability of each state (with the gene perturbed or intact) to suppress the effects of new mutations. Previous studies used strains in which the existing genetic variation had been filtered by selection. Here, we use mutation accumulation (MA) lines that have experienced minimal selection, to test the ability of histone H2A.Z (HTZ1) to increase robustness to mutations in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. HTZ1, a regulator of chromatin structure and gene expression, represents a class of genes implicated in mutational robustness. It had previously been shown to increase robustness of yeast cell morphology to fluctuations in the external or internal microenvironment. We measured morphological variation within and among 79 MA lines with and without HTZ1. Analysis of within-line variation confirms that HTZ1 increases microenvironmental robustness. Analysis of between-line variation shows the morphological effects of eliminating HTZ1 to be highly dependent on the line, which implies that HTZ1 interacts with mutations that have accumulated in the lines. However, lines without HTZ1 are, as a group, not more phenotypically diverse than lines with HTZ1 present. The presence of HTZ1, therefore, does not confer greater robustness to mutations than its absence. Our results provide experimental evidence that revelation of cryptic genetic variation cannot be assumed to be caused by loss of
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Joshua B Richardson
Full Text Available Biological systems produce phenotypes that appear to be robust to perturbation by mutations and environmental variation. Prior studies identified genes that, when impaired, reveal previously cryptic genetic variation. This result is typically interpreted as evidence that the disrupted gene normally increases robustness to mutations, as such robustness would allow cryptic variants to accumulate. However, revelation of cryptic genetic variation is not necessarily evidence that a mutationally robust state has been made less robust. Demonstrating a difference in robustness requires comparing the ability of each state (with the gene perturbed or intact to suppress the effects of new mutations. Previous studies used strains in which the existing genetic variation had been filtered by selection. Here, we use mutation accumulation (MA lines that have experienced minimal selection, to test the ability of histone H2A.Z (HTZ1 to increase robustness to mutations in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. HTZ1, a regulator of chromatin structure and gene expression, represents a class of genes implicated in mutational robustness. It had previously been shown to increase robustness of yeast cell morphology to fluctuations in the external or internal microenvironment. We measured morphological variation within and among 79 MA lines with and without HTZ1. Analysis of within-line variation confirms that HTZ1 increases microenvironmental robustness. Analysis of between-line variation shows the morphological effects of eliminating HTZ1 to be highly dependent on the line, which implies that HTZ1 interacts with mutations that have accumulated in the lines. However, lines without HTZ1 are, as a group, not more phenotypically diverse than lines with HTZ1 present. The presence of HTZ1, therefore, does not confer greater robustness to mutations than its absence. Our results provide experimental evidence that revelation of cryptic genetic variation cannot be assumed to be
Robust synthesis for real-time systems
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Larsen, Kim Guldstrand; Legay, Axel; Traonouez, Luois-Marie
2014-01-01
Specification theories for real-time systems allow reasoning about interfaces and their implementation models, using a set of operators that includes satisfaction, refinement, logical and parallel composition. To make such theories applicable throughout the entire design process from an abstract...... of introducing small perturbations into formal models. We address this problem of robust implementations in timed specification theories. We first consider a fixed perturbation and study the robustness of timed specifications with respect to the operators of the theory. To this end we synthesize robust...... specification to an implementation, we need to reason about the possibility to effectively implement the theoretical specifications on physical systems, despite their limited precision. In the literature, this implementation problem has been linked to the robustness problem that analyzes the consequences...
Robust adaptive synchronization of general dynamical networks ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Robust adaptive synchronization; dynamical network; multiple delays; multiple uncertainties. ... Networks such as neural networks, communication transmission networks, social rela- tionship networks etc. ..... a very good effect. Pramana – J.
Technical Challenges Hindering Development of Robust Wireless ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
PROF. OLIVER OSUAGWA
2015-12-01
Dec 1, 2015 ... challenges remain to be resolved, in designing robust wireless networks that can deliver the performance ... demonstrated the first radio transmission from the Isle of ... distances with better quality, less power, and smaller ...
Multifidelity Robust Aeroelastic Design, Phase I
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Nielsen Engineering & Research (NEAR) proposes a new method to generate mathematical models of wind-tunnel models and flight vehicles for robust aeroelastic...
Design principles for robust oscillatory behavior.
Castillo-Hair, Sebastian M; Villota, Elizabeth R; Coronado, Alberto M
2015-09-01
Oscillatory responses are ubiquitous in regulatory networks of living organisms, a fact that has led to extensive efforts to study and replicate the circuits involved. However, to date, design principles that underlie the robustness of natural oscillators are not completely known. Here we study a three-component enzymatic network model in order to determine the topological requirements for robust oscillation. First, by simulating every possible topological arrangement and varying their parameter values, we demonstrate that robust oscillators can be obtained by augmenting the number of both negative feedback loops and positive autoregulations while maintaining an appropriate balance of positive and negative interactions. We then identify network motifs, whose presence in more complex topologies is a necessary condition for obtaining oscillatory responses. Finally, we pinpoint a series of simple architectural patterns that progressively render more robust oscillators. Together, these findings can help in the design of more reliable synthetic biomolecular networks and may also have implications in the understanding of other oscillatory systems.
Robust and Efficient Parametric Face Alignment
Tzimiropoulos, Georgios; Zafeiriou, Stefanos; Pantic, Maja
2011-01-01
We propose a correlation-based approach to parametric object alignment particularly suitable for face analysis applications which require efficiency and robustness against occlusions and illumination changes. Our algorithm registers two images by iteratively maximizing their correlation coefficient
Robust Analysis and Design of Multivariable Systems
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Tannenbaum, Allen
1998-01-01
In this Final Report, we will describe the work we have performed in robust control theory and nonlinear control, and the utilization of techniques in image processing and computer vision for problems in visual tracking...
Robust Tracking Control for a Piezoelectric Actuator
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Salah, M; McIntyre, M; Dawson, D; Wagner, J
2006-01-01
In this paper, a hysteresis model-based nonlinear robust controller is developed for a piezoelectric actuator, utilizing a Lyapunov-based stability analysis, which ensures that a desired displacement...
Robustness studies on coal gasification process variables
African Journals Online (AJOL)
coal before feeding to the gasification process [1]. .... to-control variables will make up the terms in the response surface model for the ... Montgomery (1999) explained that all the Taguchi engineering objectives for a robust ..... software [3].
Antecedents and Dimensions of Supply Chain Robustness
Durach, Christian F.; Wieland, Andreas; Machuca, Jose A.D.
2015-01-01
Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to provide groundwork for an emerging theory of supply chain robustness – which has been conceptualized as a dimension of supply chain resilience – through reviewing and synthesizing related yet disconnected studies. The paper develops a formal definition of supply chain robustness to build a framework that captures the dimensions, antecedents and moderators of the construct as discussed in the literature. Design/methodology/approach – The...
Chen, Bor-Sen; Lin, Ying-Po
2013-01-01
Robust stabilization and environmental disturbance attenuation are ubiquitous systematic properties that are observed in biological systems at many different levels. The underlying principles for robust stabilization and environmental disturbance attenuation are universal to both complex biological systems and sophisticated engineering systems. In many biological networks, network robustness should be large enough to confer: intrinsic robustness for tolerating intrinsic parameter fluctuations; genetic robustness for buffering genetic variations; and environmental robustness for resisting environmental disturbances. Network robustness is needed so phenotype stability of biological network can be maintained, guaranteeing phenotype robustness. Synthetic biology is foreseen to have important applications in biotechnology and medicine; it is expected to contribute significantly to a better understanding of functioning of complex biological systems. This paper presents a unifying mathematical framework for investigating the principles of both robust stabilization and environmental disturbance attenuation for synthetic gene networks in synthetic biology. Further, from the unifying mathematical framework, we found that the phenotype robustness criterion for synthetic gene networks is the following: if intrinsic robustness + genetic robustness + environmental robustness ≦ network robustness, then the phenotype robustness can be maintained in spite of intrinsic parameter fluctuations, genetic variations, and environmental disturbances. Therefore, the trade-offs between intrinsic robustness, genetic robustness, environmental robustness, and network robustness in synthetic biology can also be investigated through corresponding phenotype robustness criteria from the systematic point of view. Finally, a robust synthetic design that involves network evolution algorithms with desired behavior under intrinsic parameter fluctuations, genetic variations, and environmental
Adaptive Critic Nonlinear Robust Control: A Survey.
Wang, Ding; He, Haibo; Liu, Derong
2017-10-01
Adaptive dynamic programming (ADP) and reinforcement learning are quite relevant to each other when performing intelligent optimization. They are both regarded as promising methods involving important components of evaluation and improvement, at the background of information technology, such as artificial intelligence, big data, and deep learning. Although great progresses have been achieved and surveyed when addressing nonlinear optimal control problems, the research on robustness of ADP-based control strategies under uncertain environment has not been fully summarized. Hence, this survey reviews the recent main results of adaptive-critic-based robust control design of continuous-time nonlinear systems. The ADP-based nonlinear optimal regulation is reviewed, followed by robust stabilization of nonlinear systems with matched uncertainties, guaranteed cost control design of unmatched plants, and decentralized stabilization of interconnected systems. Additionally, further comprehensive discussions are presented, including event-based robust control design, improvement of the critic learning rule, nonlinear H ∞ control design, and several notes on future perspectives. By applying the ADP-based optimal and robust control methods to a practical power system and an overhead crane plant, two typical examples are provided to verify the effectiveness of theoretical results. Overall, this survey is beneficial to promote the development of adaptive critic control methods with robustness guarantee and the construction of higher level intelligent systems.
Sequence robust association test for familial data.
Dai, Wei; Yang, Ming; Wang, Chaolong; Cai, Tianxi
2017-09-01
Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) and next generation sequencing studies (NGSS) are often performed in family studies to improve power in identifying genetic variants that are associated with clinical phenotypes. Efficient analysis of genome-wide studies with familial data is challenging due to the difficulty in modeling shared but unmeasured genetic and/or environmental factors that cause dependencies among family members. Existing genetic association testing procedures for family studies largely rely on generalized estimating equations (GEE) or linear mixed-effects (LME) models. These procedures may fail to properly control for type I errors when the imposed model assumptions fail. In this article, we propose the Sequence Robust Association Test (SRAT), a fully rank-based, flexible approach that tests for association between a set of genetic variants and an outcome, while accounting for within-family correlation and adjusting for covariates. Comparing to existing methods, SRAT has the advantages of allowing for unknown correlation structures and weaker assumptions about the outcome distribution. We provide theoretical justifications for SRAT and show that SRAT includes the well-known Wilcoxon rank sum test as a special case. Extensive simulation studies suggest that SRAT provides better protection against type I error rate inflation, and could be much more powerful for settings with skewed outcome distribution than existing methods. For illustration, we also apply SRAT to the familial data from the Framingham Heart Study and Offspring Study to examine the association between an inflammatory marker and a few sets of genetic variants. © 2017, The International Biometric Society.
Reduced conservatism in stability robustness bounds by state transformation
Yedavalli, R. K.; Liang, Z.
1986-01-01
This note addresses the issue of 'conservatism' in the time domain stability robustness bounds obtained by the Liapunov approach. A state transformation is employed to improve the upper bounds on the linear time-varying perturbation of an asymptotically stable linear time-invariant system for robust stability. This improvement is due to the variance of the conservatism of the Liapunov approach with respect to the basis of the vector space in which the Liapunov function is constructed. Improved bounds are obtained, using a transformation, on elemental and vector norms of perturbations (i.e., structured perturbations) as well as on a matrix norm of perturbations (i.e., unstructured perturbations). For the case of a diagonal transformation, an algorithm is proposed to find the 'optimal' transformation. Several examples are presented to illustrate the proposed analysis.
Stochastic simulation and robust design optimization of integrated photonic filters
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Weng Tsui-Wei
2016-07-01
Full Text Available Manufacturing variations are becoming an unavoidable issue in modern fabrication processes; therefore, it is crucial to be able to include stochastic uncertainties in the design phase. In this paper, integrated photonic coupled ring resonator filters are considered as an example of significant interest. The sparsity structure in photonic circuits is exploited to construct a sparse combined generalized polynomial chaos model, which is then used to analyze related statistics and perform robust design optimization. Simulation results show that the optimized circuits are more robust to fabrication process variations and achieve a reduction of 11%–35% in the mean square errors of the 3 dB bandwidth compared to unoptimized nominal designs.
Robustness from flexibility in the fungal circadian clock
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Akman Ozgur E
2010-06-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background Robustness is a central property of living systems, enabling function to be maintained against environmental perturbations. A key challenge is to identify the structures in biological circuits that confer system-level properties such as robustness. Circadian clocks allow organisms to adapt to the predictable changes of the 24-hour day/night cycle by generating endogenous rhythms that can be entrained to the external cycle. In all organisms, the clock circuits typically comprise multiple interlocked feedback loops controlling the rhythmic expression of key genes. Previously, we showed that such architectures increase the flexibility of the clock's rhythmic behaviour. We now test the relationship between flexibility and robustness, using a mathematical model of the circuit controlling conidiation in the fungus Neurospora crassa. Results The circuit modelled in this work consists of a central negative feedback loop, in which the frequency (frq gene inhibits its transcriptional activator white collar-1 (wc-1, interlocked with a positive feedback loop in which FRQ protein upregulates WC-1 production. Importantly, our model reproduces the observed entrainment of this circuit under light/dark cycles with varying photoperiod and cycle duration. Our simulations show that whilst the level of frq mRNA is driven directly by the light input, the falling phase of FRQ protein, a molecular correlate of conidiation, maintains a constant phase that is uncoupled from the times of dawn and dusk. The model predicts the behaviour of mutants that uncouple WC-1 production from FRQ's positive feedback, and shows that the positive loop enhances the buffering of conidiation phase against seasonal photoperiod changes. This property is quantified using Kitano's measure for the overall robustness of a regulated system output. Further analysis demonstrates that this functional robustness is a consequence of the greater evolutionary flexibility conferred on
Newton-Gauss Algorithm of Robust Weighted Total Least Squares Model
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
WANG Bin
2015-06-01
Full Text Available Based on the Newton-Gauss iterative algorithm of weighted total least squares (WTLS, a robust WTLS (RWTLS model is presented. The model utilizes the standardized residuals to construct the weight factor function and the square root of the variance component estimator with robustness is obtained by introducing the median method. Therefore, the robustness in both the observation and structure spaces can be simultaneously achieved. To obtain standardized residuals, the linearly approximate cofactor propagation law is employed to derive the expression of the cofactor matrix of WTLS residuals. The iterative calculation steps for RWTLS are also described. The experiment indicates that the model proposed in this paper exhibits satisfactory robustness for gross errors handling problem of WTLS, the obtained parameters have no significant difference with the results of WTLS without gross errors. Therefore, it is superior to the robust weighted total least squares model directly constructed with residuals.
Robust digital controllers for uncertain chaotic systems: A digital redesign approach
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ababneh, Mohammad [Department of Controls, FMC Kongsberg Subsea, FMC Energy Systems, Houston, TX 77067 (United States); Barajas-Ramirez, Juan-Gonzalo [CICESE, Depto. De Electronica y Telecomunicaciones, Ensenada, BC, 22860 (Mexico); Chen Guanrong [Centre for Chaos Control and Synchronization, Department of Electronic Engineering, City University of Hong Kong (China); Shieh, Leang S. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Houston, Houston, TX 77204-4005 (United States)
2007-03-15
In this paper, a new and systematic method for designing robust digital controllers for uncertain nonlinear systems with structured uncertainties is presented. In the proposed method, a controller is designed in terms of the optimal linear model representation of the nominal system around each operating point of the trajectory, while the uncertainties are decomposed such that the uncertain nonlinear system can be rewritten as a set of local linear models with disturbed inputs. Applying conventional robust control techniques, continuous-time robust controllers are first designed to eliminate the effects of the uncertainties on the underlying system. Then, a robust digital controller is obtained as the result of a digital redesign of the designed continuous-time robust controller using the state-matching technique. The effectiveness of the proposed controller design method is illustrated through some numerical examples on complex nonlinear systems--chaotic systems.
Li, Zukui; Ding, Ran; Floudas, Christodoulos A.
2011-01-01
Robust counterpart optimization techniques for linear optimization and mixed integer linear optimization problems are studied in this paper. Different uncertainty sets, including those studied in literature (i.e., interval set; combined interval and ellipsoidal set; combined interval and polyhedral set) and new ones (i.e., adjustable box; pure ellipsoidal; pure polyhedral; combined interval, ellipsoidal, and polyhedral set) are studied in this work and their geometric relationship is discussed. For uncertainty in the left hand side, right hand side, and objective function of the optimization problems, robust counterpart optimization formulations induced by those different uncertainty sets are derived. Numerical studies are performed to compare the solutions of the robust counterpart optimization models and applications in refinery production planning and batch process scheduling problem are presented. PMID:21935263
A DNA-based nanomechanical device with three robust states.
Chakraborty, Banani; Sha, Ruojie; Seeman, Nadrian C
2008-11-11
DNA has been used to build a variety of devices, ranging from those that are controlled by DNA structural transitions to those that are controlled by the addition of specific DNA strands. These sequence-dependent devices fulfill the promise of DNA in nanotechnology because a variety of devices in the same physical environment can be controlled individually. Many such devices have been reported, but most of them contain one or two structurally robust end states, in addition to a floppy intermediate or even a floppy end state. We describe a system in which three different structurally robust end states can be obtained, all resulting from the addition of different set strands to a single floppy intermediate. This system is an extension of the PX-JX(2) DNA device. The three states are related to each other by three different motions, a twofold rotation, a translation of approximately 2.1-2.5 nm, and a twofold screw rotation, which combines these two motions. We demonstrate the transitions by gel electrophoresis, by fluorescence resonance energy transfer, and by atomic force microscopy. The control of this system by DNA strands opens the door to trinary logic and to systems containing N devices that are able to attain 3(N) structural states.
Robustness analysis of chiller sequencing control
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Liao, Yundan; Sun, Yongjun; Huang, Gongsheng
2015-01-01
Highlights: • Uncertainties with chiller sequencing control were systematically quantified. • Robustness of chiller sequencing control was systematically analyzed. • Different sequencing control strategies were sensitive to different uncertainties. • A numerical method was developed for easy selection of chiller sequencing control. - Abstract: Multiple-chiller plant is commonly employed in the heating, ventilating and air-conditioning system to increase operational feasibility and energy-efficiency under part load condition. In a multiple-chiller plant, chiller sequencing control plays a key role in achieving overall energy efficiency while not sacrifices the cooling sufficiency for indoor thermal comfort. Various sequencing control strategies have been developed and implemented in practice. Based on the observation that (i) uncertainty, which cannot be avoided in chiller sequencing control, has a significant impact on the control performance and may cause the control fail to achieve the expected control and/or energy performance; and (ii) in current literature few studies have systematically addressed this issue, this paper therefore presents a study on robustness analysis of chiller sequencing control in order to understand the robustness of various chiller sequencing control strategies under different types of uncertainty. Based on the robustness analysis, a simple and applicable method is developed to select the most robust control strategy for a given chiller plant in the presence of uncertainties, which will be verified using case studies
On the robustness of Herlihy's hierarchy
Jayanti, Prasad
1993-01-01
A wait-free hierarchy maps object types to levels in Z(+) U (infinity) and has the following property: if a type T is at level N, and T' is an arbitrary type, then there is a wait-free implementation of an object of type T', for N processes, using only registers and objects of type T. The infinite hierarchy defined by Herlihy is an example of a wait-free hierarchy. A wait-free hierarchy is robust if it has the following property: if T is at level N, and S is a finite set of types belonging to levels N - 1 or lower, then there is no wait-free implementation of an object of type T, for N processes, using any number and any combination of objects belonging to the types in S. Robustness implies that there are no clever ways of combining weak shared objects to obtain stronger ones. Contrary to what many researchers believe, we prove that Herlihy's hierarchy is not robust. We then define some natural variants of Herlihy's hierarchy, which are also infinite wait-free hierarchies. With the exception of one, which is still open, these are not robust either. We conclude with the open question of whether non-trivial robust wait-free hierarchies exist.
Replication and robustness in developmental research.
Duncan, Greg J; Engel, Mimi; Claessens, Amy; Dowsett, Chantelle J
2014-11-01
Replications and robustness checks are key elements of the scientific method and a staple in many disciplines. However, leading journals in developmental psychology rarely include explicit replications of prior research conducted by different investigators, and few require authors to establish in their articles or online appendices that their key results are robust across estimation methods, data sets, and demographic subgroups. This article makes the case for prioritizing both explicit replications and, especially, within-study robustness checks in developmental psychology. It provides evidence on variation in effect sizes in developmental studies and documents strikingly different replication and robustness-checking practices in a sample of journals in developmental psychology and a sister behavioral science-applied economics. Our goal is not to show that any one behavioral science has a monopoly on best practices, but rather to show how journals from a related discipline address vital concerns of replication and generalizability shared by all social and behavioral sciences. We provide recommendations for promoting graduate training in replication and robustness-checking methods and for editorial policies that encourage these practices. Although some of our recommendations may shift the form and substance of developmental research articles, we argue that they would generate considerable scientific benefits for the field. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).
Emergence of robustness in networks of networks
Roth, Kevin; Morone, Flaviano; Min, Byungjoon; Makse, Hernán A.
2017-06-01
A model of interdependent networks of networks (NONs) was introduced recently [Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. (USA) 114, 3849 (2017), 10.1073/pnas.1620808114] in the context of brain activation to identify the neural collective influencers in the brain NON. Here we investigate the emergence of robustness in such a model, and we develop an approach to derive an exact expression for the random percolation transition in Erdös-Rényi NONs of this kind. Analytical calculations are in agreement with numerical simulations, and highlight the robustness of the NON against random node failures, which thus presents a new robust universality class of NONs. The key aspect of this robust NON model is that a node can be activated even if it does not belong to the giant mutually connected component, thus allowing the NON to be built from below the percolation threshold, which is not possible in previous models of interdependent networks. Interestingly, the phase diagram of the model unveils particular patterns of interconnectivity for which the NON is most vulnerable, thereby marking the boundary above which the robustness of the system improves with increasing dependency connections.
Primal and dual approaches to adjustable robust optimization
de Ruiter, Frans
2018-01-01
Robust optimization has become an important paradigm to deal with optimization under uncertainty. Adjustable robust optimization is an extension that deals with multistage problems. This thesis starts with a short but comprehensive introduction to adjustable robust optimization. Then the two
Ensemble Modeling for Robustness Analysis in engineering non-native metabolic pathways.
Lee, Yun; Lafontaine Rivera, Jimmy G; Liao, James C
2014-09-01
Metabolic pathways in cells must be sufficiently robust to tolerate fluctuations in expression levels and changes in environmental conditions. Perturbations in expression levels may lead to system failure due to the disappearance of a stable steady state. Increasing evidence has suggested that biological networks have evolved such that they are intrinsically robust in their network structure. In this article, we presented Ensemble Modeling for Robustness Analysis (EMRA), which combines a continuation method with the Ensemble Modeling approach, for investigating the robustness issue of non-native pathways. EMRA investigates a large ensemble of reference models with different parameters, and determines the effects of parameter drifting until a bifurcation point, beyond which a stable steady state disappears and system failure occurs. A pathway is considered to have high bifurcational robustness if the probability of system failure is low in the ensemble. To demonstrate the utility of EMRA, we investigate the bifurcational robustness of two synthetic central metabolic pathways that achieve carbon conservation: non-oxidative glycolysis and reverse glyoxylate cycle. With EMRA, we determined the probability of system failure of each design and demonstrated that alternative designs of these pathways indeed display varying degrees of bifurcational robustness. Furthermore, we demonstrated that target selection for flux improvement should consider the trade-offs between robustness and performance. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Occupant behaviour and robustness of building design
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Buso, Tiziana; Fabi, Valentina; Andersen, Rune Korsholm
2015-01-01
in a dynamic building energy simulation tool (IDA ICE). The analysis was carried out by simulating 15 building envelope designs in different thermal zones of an Office Reference Building in 3 climates: Stockholm, Frankfurt and Athens.In general, robustness towards changes in occupants' behaviour increased......Occupant behaviour can cause major discrepancies between the designed and the real total energy use in buildings. A possible solution to reduce the differences between predictions and actual performances is designing robust buildings, i.e. buildings whose performances show little variations...... with alternating occupant behaviour patterns. The aim of this work was to investigate how alternating occupant behaviour patterns impact the performance of different envelope design solutions in terms of building robustness. Probabilistic models of occupants' window opening and use of shading were implemented...
Robust Mediation Analysis Based on Median Regression
Yuan, Ying; MacKinnon, David P.
2014-01-01
Mediation analysis has many applications in psychology and the social sciences. The most prevalent methods typically assume that the error distribution is normal and homoscedastic. However, this assumption may rarely be met in practice, which can affect the validity of the mediation analysis. To address this problem, we propose robust mediation analysis based on median regression. Our approach is robust to various departures from the assumption of homoscedasticity and normality, including heavy-tailed, skewed, contaminated, and heteroscedastic distributions. Simulation studies show that under these circumstances, the proposed method is more efficient and powerful than standard mediation analysis. We further extend the proposed robust method to multilevel mediation analysis, and demonstrate through simulation studies that the new approach outperforms the standard multilevel mediation analysis. We illustrate the proposed method using data from a program designed to increase reemployment and enhance mental health of job seekers. PMID:24079925