Sample records for robust numerical simulation

  1. Non-robust numerical simulations of analogue extension experiments

    Naliboff, John; Buiter, Susanne


    Numerical and analogue models of lithospheric deformation provide significant insight into the tectonic processes that lead to specific structural and geophysical observations. As these two types of models contain distinct assumptions and tradeoffs, investigations drawing conclusions from both can reveal robust links between first-order processes and observations. Recent studies have focused on detailed comparisons between numerical and analogue experiments in both compressional and extensional tectonics, sometimes involving multiple lithospheric deformation codes and analogue setups. While such comparisons often show good agreement on first-order deformation styles, results frequently diverge on second-order structures, such as shear zone dip angles or spacing, and in certain cases even on first-order structures. Here, we present finite-element experiments that are designed to directly reproduce analogue "sandbox" extension experiments at the cm-scale. We use material properties and boundary conditions that are directly taken from analogue experiments and use a Drucker-Prager failure model to simulate shear zone formation in sand. We find that our numerical experiments are highly sensitive to numerous numerical parameters. For example, changes to the numerical resolution, velocity convergence parameters and elemental viscosity averaging commonly produce significant changes in first- and second-order structures accommodating deformation. The sensitivity of the numerical simulations to small parameter changes likely reflects a number of factors, including, but not limited to, high angles of internal friction assigned to sand, complex, unknown interactions between the brittle sand (used as an upper crust equivalent) and viscous silicone (lower crust), highly non-linear strain weakening processes and poor constraints on the cohesion of sand. Our numerical-analogue comparison is hampered by (a) an incomplete knowledge of the fine details of sand failure and sand

  2. WATSFAR: numerical simulation of soil WATer and Solute fluxes using a FAst and Robust method

    Crevoisier, David; Voltz, Marc


    To simulate the evolution of hydro- and agro-systems, numerous spatialised models are based on a multi-local approach and improvement of simulation accuracy by data-assimilation techniques are now used in many application field. The latest acquisition techniques provide a large amount of experimental data, which increase the efficiency of parameters estimation and inverse modelling approaches. In turn simulations are often run on large temporal and spatial domains which requires a large number of model runs. Eventually, despite the regular increase in computing capacities, the development of fast and robust methods describing the evolution of saturated-unsaturated soil water and solute fluxes is still a challenge. Ross (2003, Agron J; 95:1352-1361) proposed a method, solving 1D Richards' and convection-diffusion equation, that fulfil these characteristics. The method is based on a non iterative approach which reduces the numerical divergence risks and allows the use of coarser spatial and temporal discretisations, while assuring a satisfying accuracy of the results. Crevoisier et al. (2009, Adv Wat Res; 32:936-947) proposed some technical improvements and validated this method on a wider range of agro- pedo- climatic situations. In this poster, we present the simulation code WATSFAR which generalises the Ross method to other mathematical representations of soil water retention curve (i.e. standard and modified van Genuchten model) and includes a dual permeability context (preferential fluxes) for both water and solute transfers. The situations tested are those known to be the less favourable when using standard numerical methods: fine textured and extremely dry soils, intense rainfall and solute fluxes, soils near saturation, ... The results of WATSFAR have been compared with the standard finite element model Hydrus. The analysis of these comparisons highlights two main advantages for WATSFAR, i) robustness: even on fine textured soil or high water and solute

  3. Multilevel techniques lead to accurate numerical upscaling and scalable robust solvers for reservoir simulation

    Christensen, Max la Cour; Villa, Umberto; Vassilevski, Panayot


    This paper demonstrates an application of element-based Algebraic Multigrid (AMGe) technique developed at LLNL (19) to the numerical upscaling and preconditioning of subsurface porous media flow problems. The upscaling results presented here are further extension of our recent work in 3. The AMGe...... be used both as an upscaling tool and as a robust and scalable solver. The methods employed in the present paper have provable O(N) scaling and are particularly well suited for modern multicore architectures, because the construction of the coarse spaces by solving many small local problems offers a high...... level of concurrency in the computations. Numerical experiments demonstrate the accuracy of using AMGe as an upscaling tool and comparisons are made to more traditional flow-based upscaling techniques. The efficient solution of both the original and upscaled problem is also addressed, and a specialized...

  4. Simulation model structure numerically robust to changes in magnitude and combination of input and output variables

    Rasmussen, Bjarne D.; Jakobsen, Arne


    instabilities prevent the practical use of such a system model for more than one input/output combination and for other magnitudes of refrigerating capacities.A higher numerical robustness of system models can be achieved by making a model for the refrigeration cycle the core of the system model and by using...... variables with narrow definition intervals for the exchange of information between the cycle model and the component models.The advantages of the cycle-oriented method are illustrated by an example showing the refrigeration cycle similarities between two very different refrigeration systems.......Mathematical models of refrigeration systems are often based on a coupling of component models forming a “closed loop” type of system model. In these models the coupling structure of the component models represents the actual flow path of refrigerant in the system. Very often numerical...

  5. Robust numerical simulation of porosity evolution in chemical vapor infiltration III: three space dimension

    Jin Shi


    Chemical vapor infiltration (CVI) process is an important technology to fabricate ceramic matrix composites (CMC's). In this paper, a three-dimension numerical model is presented to describe pore microstructure evolution during the CVI process. We extend the two-dimension model proposed in [S. Jin, X.L. Wang, T.L. Starr, J. Mater. Res. 14 (1999) 3829; S. Jin. X.L. Wang, T.L. Starr, X.F. Chen, J. Comp. Phys. 162 (2000) 467], where the fiber surface is modeled as an evolving interface, to the three space dimension. The 3D method keeps all the virtue of the 2D model: robust numerical capturing of topological changes of the interface such as the merging, and fast detection of the inaccessible pores. For models in the kinetic limit, where the moving speed of the interface is constant, some numerical examples are presented to show that this three-dimension model will effectively track the change of porosity, close-off time, location and shape of all pores.

  6. Robust and adaptive techniques for numerical simulation of nonlinear partial differential equations of fractional order

    Owolabi, Kolade M.


    In this paper, some nonlinear space-fractional order reaction-diffusion equations (SFORDE) on a finite but large spatial domain x ∈ [0, L], x = x(x , y , z) and t ∈ [0, T] are considered. Also in this work, the standard reaction-diffusion system with boundary conditions is generalized by replacing the second-order spatial derivatives with Riemann-Liouville space-fractional derivatives of order α, for 0 < α < 2. Fourier spectral method is introduced as a better alternative to existing low order schemes for the integration of fractional in space reaction-diffusion problems in conjunction with an adaptive exponential time differencing method, and solve a range of one-, two- and three-components SFORDE numerically to obtain patterns in one- and two-dimensions with a straight forward extension to three spatial dimensions in a sub-diffusive (0 < α < 1) and super-diffusive (1 < α < 2) scenarios. It is observed that computer simulations of SFORDE give enough evidence that pattern formation in fractional medium at certain parameter value is practically the same as in the standard reaction-diffusion case. With application to models in biology and physics, different spatiotemporal dynamics are observed and displayed.

  7. Sequential robust optimization of a V-bending process using numerical simulations

    Wiebenga, J.H.; Boogaard, van den A.H.; Klaseboer, G.


    The coupling of finite element simulations to mathematical optimization techniques has contributed significantly to product improvements and cost reductions in the metal forming industries. The next challenge is to bridge the gap between deterministic optimization techniques and the industrial need

  8. Spectral methods for the uncertainties propagation in numerical simulation; Methodes spectrales robustes pour la propagation d'incertitudes en simulation numerique

    Crestaux, Th. [CEA Saclay, Dept. Modelisation de Systemes et Structures (DEN/DANS/DM2S/SFME), 91 - Gif sur Yvette (France)


    The context of this thesis is the development of the numerical simulation in industrial processes. It aims to study and develop methods allowing a decrease of the numerical cost of calculi of Chaos Polynomials development. The implementing concerns problems of high stochastic dimension and more particularly the transport model of radionuclides in radioactive wastes disposal. (A.L.B.)

  9. Robustness of numerical TIG welding simulation of 3D structures in stainless steel 316L; Robustesse de la simulation numerique du soudage TIG de structures 3D en acier 316L

    El-Ahmar, W


    The numerical welding simulation is considered to be one of those mechanical problems that have the great level of nonlinearity and which requires a good knowledge in various scientific fields. The 'Robustness Analysis' is a suitable tool to control the quality and guarantee the reliability of numerical welding results. The robustness of a numerical simulation of welding is related to the sensitivity of the modelling assumptions on the input parameters. A simulation is known as robust if the result that it produces is not very sensitive to uncertainties of the input data. The term 'Robust' was coined in statistics by G.E.P. Box in 1953. Various definitions of greater or lesser mathematical rigor are possible for the term, but in general, referring to a statistical estimator, it means 'insensitive to small deviation from the idealized assumptions for which the estimator is optimized. In order to evaluate the robustness of numerical welding simulation, sensitivity analyses on thermomechanical models and parameters have been conducted. At the first step, we research a reference solution which gives the best agreement with the thermal and mechanical experimental results. The second step consists in determining through numerical simulations which parameters have the largest influence on residual stresses induced by the welding process. The residual stresses were predicted using finite element method performed with Code-Aster of EDF and SYSWELD of ESI-GROUP. An analysis of robustness can prove to be heavy and expensive making it an unjustifiable route. However, only with development such tool of analysis can predictive methods become a useful tool for industry. (author)

  10. Robust Simulations and Significant Separations

    Fortnow, Lance


    We define and study a new notion of "robust simulations" between complexity classes which is intermediate between the traditional notions of infinitely-often and almost-everywhere, as well as a corresponding notion of "significant separations". A language L has a robust simulation in a complexity class C if there is a language in C which agrees with L on arbitrarily large polynomial stretches of input lengths. There is a significant separation of L from C if there is no robust simulation of L in C. The new notion of simulation is a cleaner and more natural notion of simulation than the infinitely-often notion. We show that various implications in complexity theory such as the collapse of PH if NP = P and the Karp-Lipton theorem have analogues for robust simulations. We then use these results to prove that most known separations in complexity theory, such as hierarchy theorems, fixed polynomial circuit lower bounds, time-space tradeoffs, and the theorems of Allender and Williams, can be strengthened to signifi...

  11. Numerical Propulsion System Simulation

    Naiman, Cynthia


    The NASA Glenn Research Center, in partnership with the aerospace industry, other government agencies, and academia, is leading the effort to develop an advanced multidisciplinary analysis environment for aerospace propulsion systems called the Numerical Propulsion System Simulation (NPSS). NPSS is a framework for performing analysis of complex systems. The initial development of NPSS focused on the analysis and design of airbreathing aircraft engines, but the resulting NPSS framework may be applied to any system, for example: aerospace, rockets, hypersonics, power and propulsion, fuel cells, ground based power, and even human system modeling. NPSS provides increased flexibility for the user, which reduces the total development time and cost. It is currently being extended to support the NASA Aeronautics Research Mission Directorate Fundamental Aeronautics Program and the Advanced Virtual Engine Test Cell (AVETeC). NPSS focuses on the integration of multiple disciplines such as aerodynamics, structure, and heat transfer with numerical zooming on component codes. Zooming is the coupling of analyses at various levels of detail. NPSS development includes capabilities to facilitate collaborative engineering. The NPSS will provide improved tools to develop custom components and to use capability for zooming to higher fidelity codes, coupling to multidiscipline codes, transmitting secure data, and distributing simulations across different platforms. These powerful capabilities extend NPSS from a zero-dimensional simulation tool to a multi-fidelity, multidiscipline system-level simulation tool for the full development life cycle.

  12. Confidence in Numerical Simulations

    Hemez, Francois M. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)


    This PowerPoint presentation offers a high-level discussion of uncertainty, confidence and credibility in scientific Modeling and Simulation (M&S). It begins by briefly evoking M&S trends in computational physics and engineering. The first thrust of the discussion is to emphasize that the role of M&S in decision-making is either to support reasoning by similarity or to “forecast,” that is, make predictions about the future or extrapolate to settings or environments that cannot be tested experimentally. The second thrust is to explain that M&S-aided decision-making is an exercise in uncertainty management. The three broad classes of uncertainty in computational physics and engineering are variability and randomness, numerical uncertainty and model-form uncertainty. The last part of the discussion addresses how scientists “think.” This thought process parallels the scientific method where by a hypothesis is formulated, often accompanied by simplifying assumptions, then, physical experiments and numerical simulations are performed to confirm or reject the hypothesis. “Confidence” derives, not just from the levels of training and experience of analysts, but also from the rigor with which these assessments are performed, documented and peer-reviewed.

  13. Numerical Simulations of a Vibrating Elasticum

    Sinclair, Robert


    Two robust numerical algorithms for simulating the dynamics of a clamped, massless, incompressibleelasticum with a unit point mass at the free end are presented, along with some first results concerning various modes of oscillation, and further data with some relevance to the question of whether...

  14. Numerical simulation of dusty plasmas

    Winske, D.


    The numerical simulation of physical processes in dusty plasmas is reviewed, with emphasis on recent results and unresolved issues. Three areas of research are discussed: grain charging, weak dust-plasma interactions, and strong dust-plasma interactions. For each area, we review the basic concepts that are tested by simulations, present some appropriate examples, and examine numerical issues associated with extending present work.

  15. Numerical simulation of welding

    Hansen, Jan Langkjær; Thorborg, Jesper

    Aim of project:To analyse and model the transient thermal field from arc welding (SMAW, V-shaped buttweld in 15mm plate) and to some extend the mechanical response due to the thermal field. - To implement this model in a general purpose finite element program such as ABAQUS.The simulation...... is limited to 2D and as regards the thermal model we assume plain cross section when comparing with experiments and analytical solutions.Stresses and deformations based on the thermal model is mainly described qualitatively in relation to the mechanical model in ABAQUS. As regards the mechanical model, plain...... stress is also taken into account.Work carried out:With few means it is possible to define a thermal model which describes the thermal field from the welding process in reasonable agreement with reality. Identical results are found with ABAQUS and Rosenthal’s analytical solution of the governing heat...

  16. Numerical simulation of welding

    Hansen, Jan Langkjær; Thorborg, Jesper

    Aim of project:To analyse and model the transient thermal field from arc welding (SMAW, V-shaped buttweld in 15mm plate) and to some extend the mechanical response due to the thermal field. - To implement this model in a general purpose finite element program such as ABAQUS.The simulation...... stress is also taken into account.Work carried out:With few means it is possible to define a thermal model which describes the thermal field from the welding process in reasonable agreement with reality. Identical results are found with ABAQUS and Rosenthal’s analytical solution of the governing heat...... transfer equation under same conditions. It is relative easy tointroduce boundary conditions such as convection and radiation where not surprisingly the radiation has the greatest influence especially from the high temperature regions in the weld pool and the heat affected zone.Due to the large temperature...

  17. Numerical Evidence for Robustness of Environment-Assisted Quantum Transport

    Shabani, A; Rabitz., H; Lloyd, S


    Recent theoretical studies show that decoherence process can enhance transport efficiency in quantum systems. This effect is known as environment-assisted quantum transport (ENAQT). The role of ENAQT in optimal quantum transport is well investigated, however, it is less known how robust ENAQT is with respect to variations in the system or its environment characteristic. Toward answering this question, we simulated excitonic energy transfer in Fenna-Matthews-Olson (FMO) photosynthetic complex. We found that ENAQT is robust with respect to many relevant parameters of environmental interactions and Frenkel-exciton Hamiltonian including reorganization energy, bath frequency cutoff, temperature, and initial excitations, dissipation rate, trapping rate, disorders, and dipole moments orientations. Our study suggests that the ENAQT phenomenon can be exploited in robust design of highly efficient quantum transport systems.

  18. Numerical evidence for robustness of environment-assisted quantum transport.

    Shabani, A; Mohseni, M; Rabitz, H; Lloyd, S


    Recent theoretical studies show that decoherence process can enhance transport efficiency in quantum systems. This effect is known as environment-assisted quantum transport (ENAQT). The role of ENAQT in optimal quantum transport is well investigated; however, it is less known how robust ENAQT is with respect to variations in the system or its environment characteristic. Toward answering this question, we simulated excitonic energy transfer in Fenna-Matthews-Olson photosynthetic complex. We found that ENAQT is robust with respect to many relevant parameters of environmental interactions and Frenkel-exciton Hamiltonians, including reorganization energy, bath-frequency cutoff, temperature, initial excitations, dissipation rate, trapping rate, disorders, and dipole moments orientations. Our study suggests that the ENAQT phenomenon can be exploited in robust design of highly efficient quantum transport systems.

  19. Numerical simulation of gas explosions

    Van den Berg, A.C.; Van Wingerden, J.M.; Verhagen, T.L.


    Recent developments in numerical fluid dynamics and computer technology enable detailed simulation of gas explosions. Prins Maurits Laboratory TNO of the Netherlands Organization for Applied Scientific Research developed the necessary software. This software is a useful tool to develop and evaluate explosion safe installations. One of the possible applications is the design of save offshore rigs. (f.i. to prevent Piper Alpha disasters). The two-dimensional blast model is described and an example is given. 4 figs., 6 refs.

  20. Numerical Simulation of Protoplanetary Vortices


    UNCLASSIFIED Center for Turbulence Research 81 Annual Research Briefs 2003 Numerical simulation of protoplanetary vortices By H. Lin, J.A. Barranco t AND P.S...planetesimals and planets. In earlier works ( Barranco & Marcus 2000; Barranco et al. 2000; Lin et al. 2000) we have briefly described the possible physical...transport. In particular, Barranco et al. (2000) provided a general mathe- matical framework that is suitable for the asymptotic regime of the disk

  1. Numerical Propulsion System Simulation Architecture

    Naiman, Cynthia G.


    The Numerical Propulsion System Simulation (NPSS) is a framework for performing analysis of complex systems. Because the NPSS was developed using the object-oriented paradigm, the resulting architecture is an extensible and flexible framework that is currently being used by a diverse set of participants in government, academia, and the aerospace industry. NPSS is being used by over 15 different institutions to support rockets, hypersonics, power and propulsion, fuel cells, ground based power, and aerospace. Full system-level simulations as well as subsystems may be modeled using NPSS. The NPSS architecture enables the coupling of analyses at various levels of detail, which is called numerical zooming. The middleware used to enable zooming and distributed simulations is the Common Object Request Broker Architecture (CORBA). The NPSS Developer's Kit offers tools for the developer to generate CORBA-based components and wrap codes. The Developer's Kit enables distributed multi-fidelity and multi-discipline simulations, preserves proprietary and legacy codes, and facilitates addition of customized codes. The platforms supported are PC, Linux, HP, Sun, and SGI.


    CHENG Mu-lin; MIAO Wen-bo; ZHONG Chang-sheng


    In the non-inertial coordinates attached to the model wing, the two-dimensional unsteady flow field triggered by the motion of the model wing, similar to the flapping of the insect wings, was numerically simulated. One of the advantages of our method is that it has avoided the difficulty related to the moving-boundary problem. Another advantage is that the model has three degrees of freedom and can be used to simulate arbitrary motions of a two-dimensional wing in plane only if the motion is known. Such flexibility allows us to study how insects control their flying. Our results show that there are two parameters that are possibly utilized by insects to control their flight: the phase difference between the wing translation and rotation, and the lateral amplitude of flapping along the direction perpendicular to the average flapping plane.

  3. About the numerical robustness of biomedical benchmark cases: Interlaboratory FDA's idealized medical device.

    Zmijanovic, Vladeta; Mendez, Simon; Moureau, Vincent; Nicoud, Franck


    The need for reliable approaches in numerical simulations stands out as a critical issue for the development and optimization of cardiovascular biomedical devices. This led the US Food and Drug Administration to undertake a programme of validation of computational fluid dynamics methods for transitional and turbulent flows. In the current investigation, large-eddy simulation is used to simulate the flow in the first benchmark medical device, and results are confronted to the existing laboratory experiments. This idealized medical device has the particularity to feature transition to turbulence after a sudden expansion. The effects of numerical parameters and low-level inlet perturbations are investigated. Results indicate a considerable impact of numerical aspects on the prediction of the location of the transition to turbulence. The study also demonstrates that injecting small perturbations at the inflow greatly improves the streamwise velocity estimation in the transition region and substantially contributes to the robustness of the flow statistical data. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Dense magnetized plasma numerical simulations

    Bilbao, L [INFIP-CONICET, and Physics Department (FCEN-UBA), Ciudad Universitaria, Pab. I, 1428 Buenos Aires (Argentina); Bernal, L, E-mail: bilbao@df.uba.a [Physics Department (FCEYN-UNMDP), Complejo Universitario, Funes y Pena, 7600 Mar del Plata (Argentina)


    The scope for developing the present numerical method was to perform parametric studies for optimization of several configurations in magnetized plasmas. Nowadays there exist several efficient numerical codes in the subject. However, the construction of one's own computational codes brings the following important advantages: (a) to get a deeper knowledge of the physical processes involved and the numerical methods used to simulate them and (b) more flexibility to adapt the code to particular situations in a more efficient way than would be possible for a closed general code. The code includes ion viscosity, thermal conduction (electrons and ions), magnetic diffusion, thermonuclear or chemical reaction, Bremsstrahlung radiation, and equation of state (from the ideal gas to the degenerate electron gas). After each calculation cycle, mesh vertices are moved arbitrarily over the fluid. The adaptive method consists of shifting mesh vertices over the fluid in order to keep a reasonable mesh structure and increase the spatial resolution where the physical solution demands. The code was a valuable tool for parametric study of different physical problems, mainly optimization of plasma focus machine, detonation and propagation of thermonuclear reactions and Kelvin-Helmholtz instabilities in the boundary layer of the terrestrial magnetopause.

  5. Numerical recipes for mold filling simulation

    Kothe, D.; Juric, D.; Lam, K.; Lally, B.


    Has the ability to simulate the filling of a mold progressed to a point where an appropriate numerical recipe achieves the desired results? If results are defined to be topological robustness, computational efficiency, quantitative accuracy, and predictability, all within a computational domain that faithfully represents complex three-dimensional foundry molds, then the answer unfortunately remains no. Significant interfacial flow algorithm developments have occurred over the last decade, however, that could bring this answer closer to maybe. These developments have been both evolutionary and revolutionary, will continue to transpire for the near future. Might they become useful numerical recipes for mold filling simulations? Quite possibly. Recent progress in algorithms for interface kinematics and dynamics, linear solution methods, computer science issues such as parallelization and object-oriented programming, high resolution Navier-Stokes (NS) solution methods, and unstructured mesh techniques, must all be pursued as possible paths toward higher fidelity mold filling simulations. A detailed exposition of these algorithmic developments is beyond the scope of this paper, hence the authors choose to focus here exclusively on algorithms for interface kinematics. These interface tracking algorithms are designed to model the movement of interfaces relative to a reference frame such as a fixed mesh. Current interface tracking algorithm choices are numerous, so is any one best suited for mold filling simulation? Although a clear winner is not (yet) apparent, pros and cons are given in the following brief, critical review. Highlighted are those outstanding interface tracking algorithm issues the authors feel can hamper the reliable modeling of today`s foundry mold filling processes.

  6. Numerical Simulation on New Perforator

    姚志华; 王志军; 李德战; 付盟


    To study a new shaped charge of perforator, the jet formation and penetration processes in concrete targets are simulated numerically by using LS-DYNA finite element analysis software. The results show that the cylindrical liner can form jet and most materials on top of liner form the tip of jet, while the others form the tail of jet. The jet has a better continuity, and the ratio of cumulative jet length to the liner diameter can reach to 7.56. Furthermore, the ratio of bore diameter to the liner diameter is from 0. 36 and 1, and the ratio of penetration depth to the liner diameter can be up to 5.5.

  7. Relativistic Positioning Systems: Numerical Simulations

    Puchades, Neus


    The motion of satellite constellations similar to GPS and Galileo is numerically simulated and, then, the region where bifurcation (double positioning) occurs is appropriately represented. In the cases of double positioning, the true location may be found using additional information (angles or times). The zone where the Jacobian, J, of the transformation from inertial to emission coordinates vanishes is also represented and interpreted. It is shown that the uncertainties in the satellite world lines produce positioning errors, which depend on the value of |J|. The smaller this quantity the greater the expected positioning errors. Among all the available 4-tuples of satellites, the most appropriate one -for a given location- should minimize positioning errors (large enough |J| values) avoiding bifurcation. Our study is particularly important to locate objects which are far away from Earth, e.g., satellites.

  8. Direct numerical simulation of axisymmetric turbulence

    Qu, Bo; Bos, Wouter J. T.; Naso, Aurore


    The dynamics of decaying, strictly axisymmetric, incompressible turbulence is investigated using direct numerical simulations. It is found that the angular momentum is a robust invariant of the system. It is further shown that long-lived coherent structures are generated by the flow. These structures can be associated with stationary solutions of the Euler equations. The structures obey relations in agreement with predictions from selective decay principles, compatible with the decay laws of the system. Two different types of decay scenarios are highlighted. The first case results in a quasi-two-dimensional flow with a dynamical behavior in the poloidal plane similar to freely decaying two-dimensional turbulence. In a second regime, the long-time dynamics is dominated by a single three-dimensional mode.

  9. Evaluation of robustness indicators using railway operation simulation

    Jensen, Lars Wittrup; Landex, Alex; Nielsen, Otto Anker


    The classical way of evaluating the robustness of railway timetables is the use of microscopic simulation. This is precise and offers a high level of detail, but it also requires a high amount of work. The alternative is to use robustness indicators that directly or indirectly indicate the robust......The classical way of evaluating the robustness of railway timetables is the use of microscopic simulation. This is precise and offers a high level of detail, but it also requires a high amount of work. The alternative is to use robustness indicators that directly or indirectly indicate...... the robustness of a railway system. However, the semantics of these are mainly unknown and indicators are therefore best for comparison of alternatives. The paper therefore reviews and evaluates different robustness indicators against a microscopic simulation. This evaluation show that the indicators compare...

  10. Numerical Simulations of Granular Processes

    Richardson, Derek C.; Michel, Patrick; Schwartz, Stephen R.; Ballouz, Ronald-Louis; Yu, Yang; Matsumura, Soko


    Spacecraft images and indirect observations including thermal inertia measurements indicate most small bodies have surface regolith. Evidence of granular flow is also apparent in the images. This material motion occurs in very low gravity, therefore in a completely different gravitational environment than on the Earth. Understanding and modeling these motions can aid in the interpretation of imaged surface features that may exhibit signatures of constituent material properties. Also, upcoming sample-return missions to small bodies, and possible future manned missions, will involve interaction with the surface regolith, so it is important to develop tools to predict the surface response. We have added new capabilities to the parallelized N-body gravity tree code pkdgrav [1,2] that permit the simulation of granular dynamics, including multi-contact physics and friction forces, using the soft-sphere discrete-element method [3]. The numerical approach has been validated through comparison with laboratory experiments (e.g., [3,4]). Ongoing and recently completed projects include: impacts into granular materials using different projectile shapes [5]; possible tidal resurfacing of asteroid Apophis during its 2029 encounter [6]; the Brazil-nut effect in low gravity [7]; and avalanche modeling.Acknowledgements: DCR acknowledges NASA (grants NNX08AM39G, NNX10AQ01G, NNX12AG29G) and NSF (AST1009579). PM acknowledges the French agency CNES. SRS works on the NEOShield Project funded under the European Commission’s FP7 program agreement No. 282703. SM acknowledges support from the Center for Theory and Computation at U Maryland and the Dundee Fellowship at U Dundee. Most simulations were performed using the YORP cluster in the Dept. of Astronomy at U Maryland and on the Deepthought High-Performance Computing Cluster at U Maryland.References: [1] Richardson, D.C. et al. 2000, Icarus 143, 45; [2] Stadel, J. 2001, Ph.D. Thesis, U Washington; [3] Schwartz, S.R. et al. 2012, Gran

  11. Numerical simulation package for speckle metrology

    Kornis, Janos; Bokor, Nandor; Nemeth, Attila


    A computer program package for numerical simulation of speckle phenomena has been developed. It is suitable for simulating both objective and subjective speckle effects in various optical setups. Several simulation results are presented in this paper. The simulations was made in UNIX and Windows NT environment.

  12. A numerical investigation for robust stability of fractional-order uncertain systems.

    Senol, Bilal; Ates, Abdullah; Alagoz, B Baykant; Yeroglu, Celaleddin


    This study presents numerical methods for robust stability analysis of closed loop control systems with parameter uncertainty. Methods are based on scan sampling of interval characteristic polynomials from the hypercube of parameter space. Exposed-edge polynomial sampling is used to reduce the computational complexity of robust stability analysis. Computer experiments are used for demonstration of the proposed robust stability test procedures.

  13. Numerical simulation of the RAMAC benchmark test

    Leblanc, J.E.; Sugihara, M.; Fujiwara, T. [Nagoya Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Aerospace Engineering; Nusca, M. [Nagoya Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Aerospace Engineering; U.S. Army Research Lab., Ballistics and Weapons Concepts Div., AMSRL-WM-BE, Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD (United States); Wang, X. [Nagoya Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Aerospace Engineering; School of Mechanical and Production Engineering, Nanyang Technological Univ. (Singapore); Seiler, F. [Nagoya Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Aerospace Engineering; French-German Research Inst. of Saint-Louis, ISL, Saint-Louis (France)


    Numerical simulations of the same ramac geometry and boundary conditions by different numerical and physical models highlight the variety of solutions possible and the strong effect of the chemical kinetics model on the solution. The benchmark test was defined and announced within the community of ramac researchers. Three laboratories undertook the project. The numerical simulations include Navier-Stokes and Euler simulations with various levels of physical models and equations of state. The non-reactive part of the simulation produced similar steady state results in the three simulations. The chemically reactive part of the simulation produced widely different outcomes. The original experimental data and experimental conditions are presented. A description of each computer code and the resulting flowfield is included. A comparison between codes and results is achieved. The most critical choice for the simulation was the chemical kinetics model. (orig.)

  14. Robust Optimization in Simulation : Taguchi and Response Surface Methodology

    Dellino, G.; Kleijnen, J.P.C.; Meloni, C.


    Optimization of simulated systems is tackled by many methods, but most methods assume known environments. This article, however, develops a 'robust' methodology for uncertain environments. This methodology uses Taguchi's view of the uncertain world, but replaces his statistical techniques by

  15. Numerical simulation of muzzle blast

    Tyler-Street, M.


    Structural design methods for naval ships include environmental, operational and military load cases. One of the operational loads acting on a typical naval vessel is the muzzle blast from a gun. Simulating the muzzle blast load acting on a ship structure with CFD and ALE methods leads to large nume

  16. Numerical Simulations of HH 555

    Kajdic, Primoz


    We present 3D gasdynamic simulations of the Herbig Haro object HH 555. HH 555 is a bipolar jet emerging from the tip of an elephant trunk entering the Pelican Nebula from the adjacent molecular cloud. Both beams of HH 555 are curved away from the center of the H II region. This indicates that they are being deflected by a side-wind probably coming from a star located inside the nebula or by the expansion of the nebula itself. HH 555 is most likely an irradiated jet emerging from a highly embedded protostar, which has not yet been detected. In our simulations we vary the incident photon flux, which in one of our models is equal to the flux coming from a star 1 pc away emitting 5x10^48 ionizing (i. e., with energies above the H Lyman limit) photons per second. An external, plane-parallel flow (a ``side-wind'') is coming from the same direction as the photoionizing flux. We have made four simulations, decreasing the photon flux by a factor of 10 in each simulation. We discuss the properties of the flow and we co...

  17. Design and numerical simulation of novel DBRs

    Wei Su (苏伟); Jingchang Zhong (钟景昌); Wenli Liu (刘文莉); Yan-Kuin Su (苏炎坤); Shoou-Jinn Chang (张守进); Hsin-Chieh Yu (龙信介); Liangwen Ji (姬梁文); Lin Li (李林); Yingjie Zhao (赵英杰)


    In this paper, a numerical simulation of the traditional graded distributed Bragg reflector (DBR) and a design of the novel DBR with short period superlattices (SPSs DBR) used by vertical cavity surface emitting laser (VCSEL) are reported. First, the optical characteristic matrix of the graded DBRs is derived using the theories of thin film optics. Second, its reflective spectrum is numerical simulated and it is found that the simulative results are similar with the experimental data. The difference of the cavity mode position between the experimental and simulative data is discussed. Finally, based on the simulative results of graded DBR, a novel DBR with 4.5-pair GaAs/AlAs SPSs is designed, and its reflective spectrum is numerical simulated and analyzed.

  18. Numerical Simulations of Bouncing Jets

    Bonito, Andrea; Lee, Sanghyun


    Bouncing jets are fascinating phenomenons occurring under certain conditions when a jet impinges on a free surface. This effect is observed when the fluid is Newtonian and the jet falls in a bath undergoing a solid motion. It occurs also for non-Newtonian fluids when the jets falls in a vessel at rest containing the same fluid. We investigate numerically the impact of the experimental setting and the rheological properties of the fluid on the onset of the bouncing phenomenon. Our investigations show that the occurrence of a thin lubricating layer of air separating the jet and the rest of the liquid is a key factor for the bouncing of the jet to happen. The numerical technique that is used consists of a projection method for the Navier-Stokes system coupled with a level set formulation for the representation of the interface. The space approximation is done with adaptive finite elements. Adaptive refinement is shown to be very important to capture the thin layer of air that is responsible for the bouncing.

  19. Numerical simulations of quasar absorbers

    Theuns, T


    The physical state of the intergalactic medium can be probed in great detail with the intervening absorption systems seen in quasar spectra. The properties of the Hydrogen absorbers depend on many cosmological parameters, such as the matter-power spectrum, reionisation history, ionising background and the nature of the dark matter. The spectra also contain metal lines, which can be used to constrain the star formation history and the feedback processes acting in large and small galaxies. Simulations have been instrumental in investigating to what extent these parameters can be unambiguously constrained with current and future data. This paper is meant as an introduction to this subject, and reviews techniques and methods for simulating the intergalactic medium.


    Wu Lei


    A new model, which involves viscous and multi-phase effects, was given to study cavitating flows. A local compressible model was established by introducing a density-pressure function to account for the two-phase flow of water/vapor and the transition from one phase to the other. An algorithm for calculating variable-density N-S equations of cavitating flow problem was put forward. The present method yields reasonable results for both steady and unsteady cavitating flows in 2D and 3D cases. The numerical results of unsteady character of cavitating flows around hydrofoils coincide well with experimental data. It indicates the feasibility to apply this method to a variety of cavitating flows of practical problems.

  1. Numerical methods in simulation of resistance welding

    Nielsen, Chris Valentin; Martins, Paulo A.F.; Zhang, Wenqi


    Finite element simulation of resistance welding requires coupling betweenmechanical, thermal and electrical models. This paper presents the numerical models and theircouplings that are utilized in the computer program SORPAS. A mechanical model based onthe irreducible flow formulation is utilized...... a resistance welding point of view, the most essential coupling between the above mentioned models is the heat generation by electrical current due to Joule heating. The interaction between multiple objects is anothercritical feature of the numerical simulation of resistance welding because it influences...

  2. Numerical simulations of rotating axisymmetric sunspots

    Botha, G. J. J.; Busse, F.H.; Hurlburt, N. E.; Rucklidge, A.M.


    A numerical model of axisymmetric convection in the presence of a vertical magnetic flux bundle and rotation about the axis is presented. The model contains a compressible plasma described by the nonlinear MHD equations, with density and temperature gradients simulating the upper layer of the sun's convection zone. The solutions exhibit a central magnetic flux tube in a cylindrical numerical domain, with convection cells forming collar flows around the tube. When the numerical domain is rotat...

  3. Numerical simulations of rotating axisymmetric sunspots

    Botha, Gert; Busse, F.H.; Hurlburt, Neal; Rucklidge, Alistair


    A numerical model of axisymmetric convection in the presence of a vertical magnetic flux bundle and rotation about the axis is presented. The model contains a compressible plasma described by the non-linear MHD equations, with density and temperature gradients simulating the upper layer of the Sun’s convection zone. The solutions exhibit a central magnetic flux tube in a cylindrical numerical domain, with convection cells forming collar flows around the tube. When the numerical domain is rota...

  4. Numerical simulation of mechatronic sensors and actuators

    Kaltenbacher, Manfred


    Focuses on the physical modeling of mechatronic sensors and actuators and their precise numerical simulation using the Finite Element Method (FEM). This book discusses the physical modeling as well as numerical computation. It also gives a comprehensive introduction to finite elements, including their computer implementation.

  5. Numerical simulations of pendant droplets

    Pena, Carlos; Kahouadji, Lyes; Matar, Omar; Chergui, Jalel; Juric, Damir; Shin, Seungwon


    We simulate the evolution of a three-dimensional pendant droplet through pinch-off using a new parallel two-phase flow solver called BLUE. The parallelization of the code is based on the technique of algebraic domain decomposition where the velocity field is solved by a parallel GMRes method for the viscous terms and the pressure by a parallel multigrid/GMRes method. Communication is handled by MPI message passing procedures. The method for the treatment of the fluid interfaces uses a hybrid Front Tracking/Level Set technique which defines the interface both by a discontinuous density field as well as by a local triangular Lagrangian mesh. This structure allows the interface to undergo large deformations including the rupture and coalescence of fluid interfaces. EPSRC Programme Grant, MEMPHIS, EP/K0039761/1.

  6. Robust large-scale parallel nonlinear solvers for simulations.

    Bader, Brett William; Pawlowski, Roger Patrick; Kolda, Tamara Gibson (Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA)


    This report documents research to develop robust and efficient solution techniques for solving large-scale systems of nonlinear equations. The most widely used method for solving systems of nonlinear equations is Newton's method. While much research has been devoted to augmenting Newton-based solvers (usually with globalization techniques), little has been devoted to exploring the application of different models. Our research has been directed at evaluating techniques using different models than Newton's method: a lower order model, Broyden's method, and a higher order model, the tensor method. We have developed large-scale versions of each of these models and have demonstrated their use in important applications at Sandia. Broyden's method replaces the Jacobian with an approximation, allowing codes that cannot evaluate a Jacobian or have an inaccurate Jacobian to converge to a solution. Limited-memory methods, which have been successful in optimization, allow us to extend this approach to large-scale problems. We compare the robustness and efficiency of Newton's method, modified Newton's method, Jacobian-free Newton-Krylov method, and our limited-memory Broyden method. Comparisons are carried out for large-scale applications of fluid flow simulations and electronic circuit simulations. Results show that, in cases where the Jacobian was inaccurate or could not be computed, Broyden's method converged in some cases where Newton's method failed to converge. We identify conditions where Broyden's method can be more efficient than Newton's method. We also present modifications to a large-scale tensor method, originally proposed by Bouaricha, for greater efficiency, better robustness, and wider applicability. Tensor methods are an alternative to Newton-based methods and are based on computing a step based on a local quadratic model rather than a linear model. The advantage of Bouaricha's method is that it can use any


    Zhang Yifeng; Jia Chengwei; Wang Xuechen; Wang Kai; Pei Wenjiang


    In this paper,three robust zero-watermark algorithms named Direct Current coefficient RElationship (DC-RE),CUmulant combined Singular Value Decomposition (CU-SVD),and CUmulant combined Singular Value Decomposition RElationship (CU-SVD-RE) are proposed.The algorithm DC-RE gets the feature vector from the relationship of DC coefficients between adjacent blocks,CU-SVD gets the feature vector from the singular value of third-order cumulants,while CU-SVD-RE combines the essence of the first two algorithms.Specially,CU-SVD-RE gets the feature vector from the relationship between singular values of third-order cumulants.Being a cross-over studying field of watermarking and cryptography,the zero-watermark algorithms are robust without modifying the carrier.Numerical simulation obviously shows that,under geometric attacks,the performance of CU-SVD-RE and DC-RE algorithm are better and all three proposed algorithms are robust to various attacks,such as median filter,salt and pepper noise,and Gaussian low-pass filter attacks.

  8. Numerical simulations of the solar atmosphere

    Leenaarts, J.


    In this thesis several aspects of the solar atmosphere are investigated using numerical simulations. Simulations and observations of reversed solar granulation are compared. It is concluded that reversed granulation is a hydrodynamical process and is a consequence of convection reversal. Images are

  9. Numerical Simulation of Nanostructure Growth

    Hwang, Helen H.; Bose, Deepak; Govindan, T. R.; Meyyappan, M.


    Nanoscale structures, such as nanowires and carbon nanotubes (CNTs), are often grown in gaseous or plasma environments. Successful growth of these structures is defined by achieving a specified crystallinity or chirality, size or diameter, alignment, etc., which in turn depend on gas mixture ratios. pressure, flow rate, substrate temperature, and other operating conditions. To date, there has not been a rigorous growth model that addresses the specific concerns of crystalline nanowire growth, while demonstrating the correct trends of the processing conditions on growth rates. Most crystal growth models are based on the Burton, Cabrera, and Frank (BCF) method, where adatoms are incorporated into a growing crystal at surface steps or spirals. When the supersaturation of the vapor is high, islands nucleate to form steps, and these steps subsequently spread (grow). The overall bulk growth rate is determined by solving for the evolving motion of the steps. Our approach is to use a phase field model to simulate the growth of finite sized nanowire crystals, linking the free energy equation with the diffusion equation of the adatoms. The phase field method solves for an order parameter that defines the evolving steps in a concentration field. This eliminates the need for explicit front tracking/location, or complicated shadowing routines, both of which can be computationally expensive, particularly in higher dimensions. We will present results demonstrating the effect of process conditions, such as substrate temperature, vapor supersaturation, etc. on the evolving morphologies and overall growth rates of the nanostructures.

  10. Multistage Turbomachinery Flows Simulated Numerically

    Hathaway, Michael D.; Adamczyk, John J.; Shabbir, Aamir; Wellborn, Steven R.


    At the NASA Lewis Research Center, a comprehensive assessment was made of the predictive capability of the average passage flow model as applied to multistage axial-flow compressors. This model, which describes the time-averaged flow field within a typical passage of a blade row embedded in a multistage configuration, is being widely used throughout U.S. aircraft industry as an integral part of their design systems. Rotor flow-angle deviation. In this work, detailed data taken within a four and one-half stage large low-speed compressor were used to assess the weaknesses and strengths of the predictive capabilities of the average passage flow model. The low-speed compressor blading is of modern design and employs stator end-bends. Measurements were made with slow- and high response instrumentation. The high-response measurements revealed the velocity components of both the rotor and stator wakes. From the measured wake profiles, we found that the flow exiting the rotors deviated from the rotor exit metal angle to a lesser degree than was predicted by the average passage flow model. This was found to be due to blade boundary layer transition, which recently has been shown to exist on multistage axial compressor rotor and stator blades, but was not accounted for in the average passage model. Consequently, a model that mimics the effects of blade boundary layer transition, Shih k-epsilon model, was incorporated into the average passage model. Simulations that incorporated this transition model showed a dramatic improvement in agreement with data. The altered model thus improved predictive capability for multistage axial-flow compressors, and this was verified by detailed experimental measurement.

  11. On the numerical simulation of machining processes

    Vaz Jr.,M.


    Numerical simulation of machining processes can be traced back to the early seventies when finite element models for continuous chip formation were proposed. The advent of fast computers and development of new techniques to model large plastic deformations have favoured machining simulation. Relevant aspects of finite element simulation of machining processes are discussed in this paper, such as solution methods, material models, thermo-mechanical coupling, friction models, chip separation an...

  12. Micro-simulation based analysis of railway lines robustness

    Cerreto, Fabrizio


    Railway Undertakers and Railway Infrastructure Managers have a variety of parameters to measure robustness of timetables: this paper examines empirical data collected from Nederlandse Spoorwegen on the heavily occupied railway line between The Hague and Rotterdam in The Netherlands. The results...... show that the robustness indicator examined are affected by infrastructure changes in different ways. A micro-simulation of the line is used to determine the robustness of different railway infrastructure scenarios measuring the capacity consumption, as well as the share of trains affected by amount...

  13. Boundary acquisition for setup of numerical simulation

    Diegert, C. [Sandia National Lab., Albuquerque, NM (United States)


    The author presents a work flow diagram that includes a path that begins with taking experimental measurements, and ends with obtaining insight from results produced by numerical simulation. Two examples illustrate this path: (1) Three-dimensional imaging measurement at micron scale, using X-ray tomography, provides information on the boundaries of irregularly-shaped alumina oxide particles held in an epoxy matrix. A subsequent numerical simulation predicts the electrical field concentrations that would occur in the observed particle configurations. (2) Three-dimensional imaging measurement at meter scale, again using X-ray tomography, provides information on the boundaries fossilized bone fragments in a Parasaurolophus crest recently discovered in New Mexico. A subsequent numerical simulation predicts acoustic response of the elaborate internal structure of nasal passageways defined by the fossil record. The author must both add value, and must change the format of the three-dimensional imaging measurements before the define the geometric boundary initial conditions for the automatic mesh generation, and subsequent numerical simulation. The author applies a variety of filters and statistical classification algorithms to estimate the extents of the structures relevant to the subsequent numerical simulation, and capture these extents as faceted geometries. The author will describe the particular combination of manual and automatic methods used in the above two examples.

  14. Robust simulation of buckled structures using reduced order modeling

    Wiebe, R.; Perez, R. A.; Spottswood, S. M.


    Lightweight metallic structures are a mainstay in aerospace engineering. For these structures, stability, rather than strength, is often the critical limit state in design. For example, buckling of panels and stiffeners may occur during emergency high-g maneuvers, while in supersonic and hypersonic aircraft, it may be induced by thermal stresses. The longstanding solution to such challenges was to increase the sizing of the structural members, which is counter to the ever present need to minimize weight for reasons of efficiency and performance. In this work we present some recent results in the area of reduced order modeling of post- buckled thin beams. A thorough parametric study of the response of a beam to changing harmonic loading parameters, which is useful in exposing complex phenomena and exercising numerical models, is presented. Two error metrics that use but require no time stepping of a (computationally expensive) truth model are also introduced. The error metrics are applied to several interesting forcing parameter cases identified from the parametric study and are shown to yield useful information about the quality of a candidate reduced order model. Parametric studies, especially when considering forcing and structural geometry parameters, coupled environments, and uncertainties would be computationally intractable with finite element models. The goal is to make rapid simulation of complex nonlinear dynamic behavior possible for distributed systems via fast and accurate reduced order models. This ability is crucial in allowing designers to rigorously probe the robustness of their designs to account for variations in loading, structural imperfections, and other uncertainties.

  15. Numerical Simulation of a Hypersonic Air Intake

    Soumyajit Saha


    Full Text Available Numerical simulations were carried out to study the unsteady flow in an intake of hypersonic air-breathing vehicle. Unsteady RANS simulations were performed to examine started flow of the intake when cowl surface is parallel to the ramp surface. Though started, the flow was unsteady due to flow separation bubbles inside intake. Intake with larger cowl opening at which intake unstarted was also simulated. Simulations indicated unstarted flow, with large pressure oscillations. The numerically simulation results match reasonably well with experimental data. Calculated unstarting Mach number was found to be 3.0-3.2 in comparison of wind tunnel data of 3.6 for the same cowl opening angle.Defence Science Journal, Vol. 65, No. 3, May 2015, pp.189-195, DOI:

  16. Numerical Simulation of Underwater Explosion Loads

    XIN Chunliang; XU Gengguang; LIU Kezhong


    Numerical simulation of TNT underwater explosion was carried out with AUTODYN software.Influences of artificial viscosity and mesh density on simulation results were discussed.Detonation waves in explosive and shock wave in water during early time of explosion are high frequency waves.Fine meshes (less than 1 mm) in explosive and water nearby,and small linear viscosity coefficients and quadratic viscosity coefficients (0.02 and 0.1 respectively,1/10 of default values) are needed in numerical simulation model.According to these rules,numerical computing pressure profiles can match well with those calculated by Zamyshlyayev empirical formula.Otherwise peak pressure would be smeared off and upstream relative errors would be cumulated downstream to make downstream peak pressure lower.

  17. Numerical simulation of "An American Haboob"

    Vukovic, A; M. Vujadinovic; Pejanovic, G.; J. Andric; Kumjian, M. R.; V. Djurdjevic; M. Dacic; Prasad, A. K.; H. M. El-Askary; B. C. Paris; S. Petkovic; S. Nickovic; Sprigg, W. A.


    A dust storm of fearful proportions hit Phoenix in the early evening hours of 5 July 2011. This storm, an American haboob, was predicted hours in advance because numerical, land-atmosphere modeling, computing power and remote sensing of dust events have improved greatly over the past decade. High resolution numerical models are required for accurate simulation of the small-scales of the haboob process, with high velocity surface winds produced by strong convection and severe downbursts...

  18. Study of Cardiac Defibrillation Through Numerical Simulations

    Bragard, J.; Marin, S.; Cherry, E. M.; Fenton, F. H.

    Three-dimensional numerical simulations of the defibrillation problem are presented. In particular, in this study we use the rabbit ventricular geometry as a realistic model system for evaluating the efficacy of defibrillatory shocks. Statistical data obtained from the simulations were analyzed in term of a dose-response curve. Good quantitative agreement between our numerical results and clinically relevant values is obtained. An electric field strength of about 6.6 V/cm indicates a fifty percent probability of successful defibrillation for a 12-ms monophasic shock. Our validated model will be useful for optimizing defibrillation protocols.



    A numerical model was developed to simulate flow around non-submeged groyne in two dimensions, which was based on N-S equations with Smagorinsky's subgrid-scale turbulence model. Flow phenomenon and results measured practically agree with the calculation results very well, and this model could be used to simulate the characteristics of the eddies of upper and down reaches around spur-dikes successfully.

  20. Numerical simulation of polariton Bose gas thermalization

    Kartsev, P. F.; Kuznetsov, I. O.


    In this work, we present the numerical simulation of the process a Bose gas thermalization and the formation of the condensate. Our approach is based on kinetic equations and “Fermi's golden rule” in the incoherent approximation. Direct summation of terms is performed using GPGPU OpenCL parallel code using AMD Radeon HD 7970.

  1. Spectral Methods in Numerical Plasma Simulation

    Coutsias, E.A.; Hansen, F.R.; Huld, T.;


    An introduction is given to the use of spectral methods in numerical plasma simulation. As examples of the use of spectral methods, solutions to the two-dimensional Euler equations in both a simple, doubly periodic region, and on an annulus will be shown. In the first case, the solution is expanded...

  2. Robust Optimization in Simulation : Taguchi and Response Surface Methodology

    Dellino, G.; Kleijnen, J.P.C.; Meloni, C.


    Optimization of simulated systems is tackled by many methods, but most methods assume known environments. This article, however, develops a 'robust' methodology for uncertain environments. This methodology uses Taguchi's view of the uncertain world, but replaces his statistical techniques by Respons

  3. Robust Optimization in Simulation : Taguchi and Krige Combined

    Dellino, G.; Kleijnen, Jack P.C.; Meloni, C.


    Optimization of simulated systems is the goal of many methods, but most methods as- sume known environments. We, however, develop a `robust' methodology that accounts for uncertain environments. Our methodology uses Taguchi's view of the uncertain world, but replaces his statistical techniques by Kr

  4. Database application platform for earthquake numerical simulation

    LUO Yan; ZHENG Yue-jun; CHEN Lian-wang; LU Yuan-zhong; HUANG Zhong-xian


    @@ Introduction In recent years, all kinds of observation networks of seismology have been established, which have been continuously producing numerous digital information. In addition, there are many study results about 3D velocity structure model and tectonic model of crust (Huang and Zhao, 2006; Huang et al, 2003; Li and Mooney, 1998),which are valuable for studying the inner structure of the earth and earthquake preparation process. It is badly needed to combine the observed data, experimental study and theoretical analyses results by the way of numerical simulation and develop a database and a corresponding application platform to be used by numerical simulation,and is also a significant way to promote earthquake prediction.

  5. A Numerical Study for Robust Active Portfolio Management with Worst-Case Downside Risk Measure

    Aifan Ling


    Full Text Available Recently, active portfolio management problems are paid close attention by many researchers due to the explosion of fund industries. We consider a numerical study of a robust active portfolio selection model with downside risk and multiple weights constraints in this paper. We compare the numerical performance of solutions with the classical mean-variance tracking error model and the naive 1/N portfolio strategy by real market data from China market and other markets. We find from the numerical results that the tested active models are more attractive and robust than the compared models.

  6. Numerical Simulation of Asynchronous Simulated Moving Bed Chromatography



    Asynchronous simulated moving bed chromatography (ASMBC), known also as the "VARICOL" process, is more efficient and flexible than the well-known and traditional simulated moving bed chromatography (SMBC). A detailed model of ASMBC, taking account of non-linear competitive isotherms, mass transfer parameters, and complex port switching schedule parameters, was developed to simulate the complex dynamics of ASMBC.The simulated performance is in close agreement with the experimental data of chiral separation reported in the literature. The simulation results show that ASMBC can achieve the performance similar to SMBC with fewer columns and can achieve better performance than SMBC with the same total column number. All design and operation parameters can be chosen correctly by numerical simulation. This detailed ASMBC model and the numerical technique are useful for design, operation, optimization and scale-up of ASMBC.

  7. Fluid dynamics theory, computation, and numerical simulation

    Pozrikidis, C


    Fluid Dynamics Theory, Computation, and Numerical Simulation is the only available book that extends the classical field of fluid dynamics into the realm of scientific computing in a way that is both comprehensive and accessible to the beginner The theory of fluid dynamics, and the implementation of solution procedures into numerical algorithms, are discussed hand-in-hand and with reference to computer programming This book is an accessible introduction to theoretical and computational fluid dynamics (CFD), written from a modern perspective that unifies theory and numerical practice There are several additions and subject expansions in the Second Edition of Fluid Dynamics, including new Matlab and FORTRAN codes Two distinguishing features of the discourse are solution procedures and algorithms are developed immediately after problem formulations are presented, and numerical methods are introduced on a need-to-know basis and in increasing order of difficulty Matlab codes are presented and discussed for a broad...

  8. Fluid Dynamics Theory, Computation, and Numerical Simulation

    Pozrikidis, Constantine


    Fluid Dynamics: Theory, Computation, and Numerical Simulation is the only available book that extends the classical field of fluid dynamics into the realm of scientific computing in a way that is both comprehensive and accessible to the beginner. The theory of fluid dynamics, and the implementation of solution procedures into numerical algorithms, are discussed hand-in-hand and with reference to computer programming. This book is an accessible introduction to theoretical and computational fluid dynamics (CFD), written from a modern perspective that unifies theory and numerical practice. There are several additions and subject expansions in the Second Edition of Fluid Dynamics, including new Matlab and FORTRAN codes. Two distinguishing features of the discourse are: solution procedures and algorithms are developed immediately after problem formulations are presented, and numerical methods are introduced on a need-to-know basis and in increasing order of difficulty. Matlab codes are presented and discussed for ...

  9. Ant Colony Algorithm and Simulation for Robust Airport Gate Assignment

    Hui Zhao


    Full Text Available Airport gate assignment is core task for airport ground operations. Due to the fact that the departure and arrival time of flights may be influenced by many random factors, the airport gate assignment scheme may encounter gate conflict and many other problems. This paper aims at finding a robust solution for airport gate assignment problem. A mixed integer model is proposed to formulate the problem, and colony algorithm is designed to solve this model. Simulation result shows that, in consideration of robustness, the ability of antidisturbance for airport gate assignment scheme has much improved.

  10. A numerical relativity scheme for cosmological simulations

    Daverio, David; Mitsou, Ermis


    Fully non-linear cosmological simulations may prove relevant in understanding relativistic/non-linear features and, therefore, in taking full advantage of the upcoming survey data. We propose a new 3+1 integration scheme which is based on the presence of a perfect fluid (hydro) field, evolves only physical states by construction and passes the robustness test on an FLRW space-time. Although we use General Relativity as an example, the idea behind that scheme is applicable to any generally-covariant modified gravity theory and/or matter content, including a N-body sector.

  11. Numerical integration methods for large-scale biophysical simulations

    Chignola, Roberto; Milotti, Edoardo


    Simulations of biophysical systems inevitably include steps that correspond to time integrations of ordinary differential equations. These equations are often related to enzyme action in the synthesis and destruction of molecular species, and in the regulation of transport of molecules into and out of the cell or cellular compartments. Enzyme action is almost invariably modeled with the quasi-steady-state Michaelis-Menten formula or its close relative, the Hill formula: this description leads to systems of equations that may be stiff and hard to integrate, and poses unusual computational challenges in simulations where a smooth evolution is interrupted by the discrete events that mark the cells' lives. This is the case of a numerical model (Virtual Biophysics Lab - VBL) that we are developing to simulate the growth of three-dimensional tumor cell aggregates (spheroids). The program must be robust and stable, and must be able to accept frequent changes in the underlying theoretical model: here we study the app...

  12. Numerical Simulation of a Tornado Generating Supercell

    Proctor, Fred H.; Ahmad, Nashat N.; LimonDuparcmeur, Fanny M.


    The development of tornadoes from a tornado generating supercell is investigated with a large eddy simulation weather model. Numerical simulations are initialized with a sounding representing the environment of a tornado producing supercell that affected North Carolina and Virginia during the Spring of 2011. The structure of the simulated storm was very similar to that of a classic supercell, and compared favorably to the storm that affected the vicinity of Raleigh, North Carolina. The presence of mid-level moisture was found to be important in determining whether a supercell would generate tornadoes. The simulations generated multiple tornadoes, including cyclonic-anticyclonic pairs. The structure and the evolution of these tornadoes are examined during their lifecycle.

  13. Numerical simulation of centrifugal casting of pipes

    Kaschnitz, E.


    A numerical simulation model for the horizontal centrifugal pipe casting process was developed with the commercial simulation package Flow3D. It considers - additionally to mass, energy and momentum conservation equations and free surface tracking - the fast radial and slower horizontal movement of the mold. The iron inflow is not steady state but time dependent. Of special importance is the friction between the liquid and the mold in connection with the viscosity and turbulence of the iron. Experiments with the mold at controlled revolution speeds were carried out using a high-speed camera. From these experiments friction coefficients for the description of the interaction between mold and melt were obtained. With the simulation model, the influence of typical process parameters (e.g. melts inflow, mold movement, melt temperature, cooling media) on the wall thickness of the pipes can be studied. The comparison to results of pipes from production shows a good agreement between simulation and reality.

  14. Issues in Numerical Simulation of Fire Suppression

    Tieszen, S.R.; Lopez, A.R.


    This paper outlines general physical and computational issues associated with performing numerical simulation of fire suppression. Fire suppression encompasses a broad range of chemistry and physics over a large range of time and length scales. The authors discuss the dominant physical/chemical processes important to fire suppression that must be captured by a fire suppression model to be of engineering usefulness. First-principles solutions are not possible due to computational limitations, even with the new generation of tera-flop computers. A basic strategy combining computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation techniques with sub-grid model approximations for processes that have length scales unresolvable by gridding is presented.

  15. Numerical simulation of semisolid continuous casting process


    A general mathematical model and boundary condition applicable to momentum and heat transfer in the semisolid continuous casting(SCC) process was established. Using the model, the numerical simulation of the momentum and heat transfer of molten metal was carried out in the SCC system. The obtained results fit well with the measured ones. Moreover, using the numerical simulating software, the effect of various factors on breakout and breakage was explored. The obtained results show that heat flow density of copper mold and the withdrawal beginning time are two major influencing factors. The larger the heat flow density of copper mold, or the shorter the withdrawal beginning time, the more stable the semisolid continuous casting process.

  16. Numerical simulations of catastrophic disruption: Recent results

    Benz, W.; Asphaug, E.; Ryan, E. V.


    Numerical simulations have been used to study high velocity two-body impacts. In this paper, a two-dimensional Largrangian finite difference hydro-code and a three-dimensional smooth particle hydro-code (SPH) are described and initial results reported. These codes can be, and have been, used to make specific predictions about particular objects in our solar system. But more significantly, they allow us to explore a broad range of collisional events. Certain parameters (size, time) can be studied only over a very restricted range within the laboratory; other parameters (initial spin, low gravity, exotic structure or composition) are difficult to study at all experimentally. The outcomes of numerical simulations lead to a more general and accurate understanding of impacts in their many forms.

  17. First Numerical Simulations of Anomalous Hydrodynamics

    Hongo, Masaru; Hirano, Tetsufumi


    Anomalous hydrodynamics is a low-energy effective theory that captures effects of quantum anomalies. We develop a numerical code of anomalous hydrodynamics and apply it to dynamics of heavy-ion collisions, where anomalous transports are expected to occur. This is the first attempt to perform fully non-linear numerical simulations of anomalous hydrodynamics. We discuss implications of the simulations for possible experimental observations of anomalous transport effects. From analyses of the charge-dependent elliptic flow parameters ($v_2^\\pm$) as a function of the net charge asymmetry $A_\\pm$, we quantitatively verify that the linear dependence of $\\Delta v_2 \\equiv v_2^- - v_2^+$ on the net charge asymmetry $A_\\pm$ cannot be regarded as a sensitive signal of anomalous transports, contrary to previous studies. We, however, find that the intercept $\\Delta v_2(A_\\pm=0)$ is sensitive to anomalous transport effects.

  18. Numerical simulation and nasal air-conditioning

    Keck, Tilman


    Full Text Available Heating and humidification of the respiratory air are the main functions of the nasal airways in addition to cleansing and olfaction. Optimal nasal air conditioning is mandatory for an ideal pulmonary gas exchange in order to avoid desiccation and adhesion of the alveolar capillary bed. The complex three-dimensional anatomical structure of the nose makes it impossible to perform detailed in vivo studies on intranasal heating and humidification within the entire nasal airways applying various technical set-ups. The main problem of in vivo temperature and humidity measurements is a poor spatial and time resolution. Therefore, in vivo measurements are feasible only to a restricted extent, solely providing single temperature values as the complete nose is not entirely accessible. Therefore, data on the overall performance of the nose are only based on one single measurement within each nasal segment. In vivo measurements within the entire nose are not feasible. These serious technical issues concerning in vivo measurements led to a large number of numerical simulation projects in the last few years providing novel information about the complex functions of the nasal airways. In general, numerical simulations merely calculate predictions in a computational model, e.g. a realistic nose model, depending on the setting of the boundary conditions. Therefore, numerical simulations achieve only approximations of a possible real situation. The aim of this review is the synopsis of the technical expertise on the field of in vivo nasal air conditioning, the novel information of numerical simulations and the current state of knowledge on the influence of nasal and sinus surgery on nasal air conditioning.

  19. Numerical simulation of axial flow compressors.

    Jesuino Takachi Tomita


    This work deals with the numerical simulation of axial flow compressors, from design to performance prediction. The stage performance prediction uses the meanline flow properties. Stage-stacking is used to analyse a multi-stage compressor. A computer program, written in FORTRAN, was developed and is able to design an axial flow compressor given air mass flow, total pressure ratio, overall efficiency and design speed. All geometrical data relevant to the compressor performance prediction is ca...

  20. Numerical Simulation on CCOS Controllable Variable

    CHENG Hao-bo; FENG Zhi-jing


    On the basis of Preston hypothesis,the motion relationship between tool and workpiece upon the tool's motion in planar model is analyzed.The effect on computer controlled optical surfacing (CCOS) caused by controllable variable is simulated except for the dwelling time,thus,some reference on theory is provided to optimize the former numerical control (NC) model,and fast manufacturing of large departure aspherics is realized.

  1. Efficient Numerical Inversion for Financial Simulations

    Derflinger, Gerhard; Hörmann, Wolfgang; Leydold, Josef; Sak, Halis


    Generating samples from generalized hyperbolic distributions and non-central chi-square distributions by inversion has become an important task for the simulation of recent models in finance in the framework of (quasi-) Monte Carlo. However, their distribution functions are quite expensive to evaluate and thus numerical methods like root finding algorithms are extremely slow. In this paper we demonstrate how our new method based on Newton interpolation and Gauss-Lobatto quadrature can be util...

  2. Numerical simulation of droplet impact on interfaces

    Kahouadji, Lyes; Che, Zhizhao; Matar, Omar; Shin, Seungwon; Chergui, Jalel; Juric, Damir


    Simulations of three-dimensional droplet impact on interfaces are carried out using BLUE, a massively-parallel code based on a hybrid Front-Tracking/Level-Set algorithm for Lagrangian tracking of arbitrarily deformable phase interfaces. High resolution numerical results show fine details and features of droplet ejection, crown formation and rim instability observed under similar experimental conditions. EPSRC Programme Grant, MEMPHIS, EP/K0039761/1.

  3. Numerical simulation of nuclear pebble bed configurations

    Shams, A., E-mail: [Nuclear Research and Consultancy Group (NRG), Petten (Netherlands); Roelofs, F., E-mail: [Nuclear Research and Consultancy Group (NRG), Petten (Netherlands); Komen, E.M.J., E-mail: [Nuclear Research and Consultancy Group (NRG), Petten (Netherlands); Baglietto, E., E-mail: emiliob@MIT.EDU [Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) (United States)


    Highlights: • Numerical simulations of a single face cubic centred pebble bed are performed. • Wide range of turbulence modelling techniques are used to perform these calculations. • The methods include 1-DNS, 1-LES, 3-Hybrid (RANS/LES) and 3-RANS models, respectively. • The obtained results are extensively compared to provide guidelines for such flow regimes. • These guidelines are used to perform reference LES for a limited sized random pebble bed. - Abstract: High Temperature Reactors (HTRs) are being considered all over the world. An HTR uses helium gas as a coolant, while the moderator function is taken up by graphite. The fuel is embedded in the graphite moderator. A particular inherent safety advantage of HTR designs is that the graphite can withstand very high temperatures, that the fuel inside will stay inside the graphite pebble and cannot escape to the surroundings even in the event of loss of cooling. Generally, the core can be designed using a graphite pebble bed. Some experimental and demonstration reactors have been operated using a pebble bed design. The test reactors have shown safe and efficient operation, however questions have been raised about possible occurrence of local hot spots in the pebble bed which may affect the pebble integrity. Analysis of the fuel integrity requires detailed evaluation of local heat transport phenomena in a pebble bed, and since such phenomena cannot easily be modelled experimentally, numerical simulations are a useful tool. As a part of a European project, named Thermal Hydraulics of Innovative Nuclear Systems (THINS), a benchmarking quasi-direct numerical simulation (q-DNS) of a well-defined pebble bed configuration has been performed. This q-DNS will serve as a reference database in order to evaluate the prediction capabilities of different turbulence modelling approaches. A wide range of numerical simulations based on different available turbulence modelling approaches are performed and compared with

  4. 2001 Numerical Propulsion System Simulation Review

    Lytle, John; Follen, Gregory; Naiman, Cynthia; Veres, Joseph; Owen, Karl; Lopez, Isaac


    The technologies necessary to enable detailed numerical simulations of complete propulsion systems are being developed at the NASA Glenn Research Center in cooperation with industry, academia and other government agencies. Large scale, detailed simulations will be of great value to the nation because they eliminate some of the costly testing required to develop and certify advanced propulsion systems. In addition, time and cost savings will be achieved by enabling design details to be evaluated early in the development process before a commitment is made to a specific design. This concept is called the Numerical Propulsion System Simulation (NPSS). NPSS consists of three main elements: (1) engineering models that enable multidisciplinary analysis of large subsystems and systems at various levels of detail, (2) a simulation environment that maximizes designer productivity, and (3) a cost-effective, high-performance computing platform. A fundamental requirement of the concept is that the simulations must be capable of overnight execution on easily accessible computing platforms. This will greatly facilitate the use of large-scale simulations in a design environment. This paper describes the current status of the NPSS with specific emphasis on the progress made over the past year on air breathing propulsion applications. Major accomplishments include the first formal release of the NPSS object-oriented architecture (NPSS Version 1) and the demonstration of a one order of magnitude reduction in computing cost-to-performance ratio using a cluster of personal computers. The paper also describes the future NPSS milestones, which include the simulation of space transportation propulsion systems in response to increased emphasis on safe, low cost access to space within NASA's Aerospace Technology Enterprise. In addition, the paper contains a summary of the feedback received from industry partners on the fiscal year 2000 effort and the actions taken over the past year to

  5. 2000 Numerical Propulsion System Simulation Review

    Lytle, John; Follen, Greg; Naiman, Cynthia; Veres, Joseph; Owen, Karl; Lopez, Isaac


    The technologies necessary to enable detailed numerical simulations of complete propulsion systems are being developed at the NASA Glenn Research Center in cooperation with industry, academia, and other government agencies. Large scale, detailed simulations will be of great value to the nation because they eliminate some of the costly testing required to develop and certify advanced propulsion systems. In addition, time and cost savings will be achieved by enabling design details to be evaluated early in the development process before a commitment is made to a specific design. This concept is called the Numerical Propulsion System Simulation (NPSS). NPSS consists of three main elements: (1) engineering models that enable multidisciplinary analysis of large subsystems and systems at various levels of detail, (2) a simulation environment that maximizes designer productivity, and (3) a cost-effective. high-performance computing platform. A fundamental requirement of the concept is that the simulations must be capable of overnight execution on easily accessible computing platforms. This will greatly facilitate the use of large-scale simulations in a design environment. This paper describes the current status of the NPSS with specific emphasis on the progress made over the past year on air breathing propulsion applications. Major accomplishments include the first formal release of the NPSS object-oriented architecture (NPSS Version 1) and the demonstration of a one order of magnitude reduction in computing cost-to-performance ratio using a cluster of personal computers. The paper also describes the future NPSS milestones, which include the simulation of space transportation propulsion systems in response to increased emphasis on safe, low cost access to space within NASA'S Aerospace Technology Enterprise. In addition, the paper contains a summary of the feedback received from industry partners on the fiscal year 1999 effort and the actions taken over the past year to


    Petr Chmátal


    Full Text Available The aim of the research was to carry out a hydraulic design of rowing/sculling and paddling simulator. Nowadays there are two main approaches in the simulator design. The first one includes a static water with no artificial movement and counts on specially cut oars to provide the same resistance in the water. The second approach, on the other hand uses pumps or similar devices to force the water to circulate but both of the designs share many problems. Such problems are affecting already built facilities and can be summarized as unrealistic feeling, unwanted turbulent flow and bad velocity profile. Therefore, the goal was to design a new rowing simulator that would provide nature-like conditions for the racers and provide an unmatched experience. In order to accomplish this challenge, it was decided to use in-depth numerical modeling to solve the hydraulic problems. The general measures for the design were taken in accordance with space availability of the simulator ́s housing. The entire research was coordinated with other stages of the construction using BIM. The detailed geometry was designed using a numerical model in Ansys Fluent and parametric auto-optimization tools which led to minimum negative hydraulic phenomena and decreased investment and operational costs due to the decreased hydraulic losses in the system.

  7. Numerical simulation of a natural circulation loop

    Verissimo, Gabriel L.; Moreira, Maria de Lourdes; Faccini, Jose Luiz H., E-mail: gabrielverissimo@poli.ufrj.b, E-mail:, E-mail: [Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (IEN/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)


    This work presents a numerical simulation of a natural circulation loop using computational fluid dynamics. The simulated loop is an experimental model in a reduced scale of 1:10 of a passive heat removal system typical of advanced PWR reactors. The loop is composed of a heating vessel containing 52 electric heaters, a vertical shell-tube heat exchanger and a column of expansion. The working fluid is distilled water. Initially it was created a tridimensional geometric model of the loop components. After that, it was generated a tridimensional mesh of finite elements in order to calculate the variables of the problem. The boundaries of the numerical simulation were the power of the electric resistances and the cooling flow in the secondary side of the heat exchanger. The initial conditions were the temperature, the pressure and the fluid velocity at the time just before the power has been switched on. The results of this simulation were compared with the experimental data, in terms of the evolution of the temperatures in different locations of the loop, and of the average natural circulation flow as a function of time for a given power. (author)

  8. Mathematical models and numerical simulation in electromagnetism

    Bermúdez, Alfredo; Salgado, Pilar


    The book represents a basic support for a master course in electromagnetism oriented to numerical simulation. The main goal of the book is that the reader knows the boundary-value problems of partial differential equations that should be solved in order to perform computer simulation of electromagnetic processes. Moreover it includes a part devoted to electric circuit theory  based on ordinary differential equations. The book is mainly oriented to electric engineering applications, going from the general to the specific, namely, from the full Maxwell’s equations to the particular cases of electrostatics, direct current, magnetostatics and eddy currents models. Apart from standard exercises related to analytical calculus, the book includes some others oriented to real-life applications solved with MaxFEM free simulation software.

  9. Optimal Numerical Schemes for Compressible Large Eddy Simulations

    Edoh, Ayaboe; Karagozian, Ann; Sankaran, Venkateswaran; Merkle, Charles


    The design of optimal numerical schemes for subgrid scale (SGS) models in LES of reactive flows remains an area of continuing challenge. It has been shown that significant differences in solution can arise due to the choice of the SGS model's numerical scheme and its inherent dissipation properties, which can be exacerbated in combustion computations. This presentation considers the individual roles of artificial dissipation, filtering, secondary conservation (Kinetic Energy Preservation), and collocated versus staggered grid arrangements with respect to the dissipation and dispersion characteristics and their overall impact on the robustness and accuracy for time-dependent simulations of relevance to reacting and non-reacting LES. We utilize von Neumann stability analysis in order to quantify these effects and to determine the relative strengths and weaknesses of the different approaches. Distribution A: Approved for public release, distribution unlimited. Supported by AFOSR (PM: Dr. F. Fahroo).

  10. Direct Numerical Simulation of Reionization in Large Cosmological Volumes I: Numerical Methods and Tests

    Norman, Michael L; So, Geoffrey C; Harkness, Robsert P


    We describe an extension of the {\\em Enzo} code to enable the direct numerical simulation of inhomogeneous reionization in large cosmological volumes. By direct we mean all dynamical, radiative, and chemical properties are solved self-consistently on the same mesh, as opposed to a postprocessing approach which coarse-grains the radiative transfer. We do, however, employ a simple subgrid model for star formation, which we calibrate to observations. The numerical method presented is a modification of an earlier method presented in Reynolds et al. Radiation transport is done in the grey flux-limited diffusion (FLD) approximation, which is solved by implicit time integration split off from the gas energy and ionization equations, which are solved separately. This results in a faster and more robust scheme for cosmological applications compared to the earlier method. The FLD equation is solved using the {\\em hypre} optimally scalable geometric multigrid solver from LLNL. By treating the ionizing radiation as a gri...

  11. A Numerical Simulation of the Density Oscilator

    Hernandez Zapata, Sergio; Lopez Sanchez, Erick Javier; Ruiz Chavarria, Gerardo


    In this work we carry out a numerical simulation for the dynamics that originates when a fluid (salty water) is located on top of another less dense fluid (pure water) in the presence of gravity. This is an unstable situation that leads to the development of intercalating lines of descending salty water and ascending pure water. Another situation is studied where the fluids are in two containers joined by a small hole. In this case a time pattern of alternating flows develops leading to an oscillator. The study of the velocity field around the hole shows than in a certain interval of time it develops intercalating lines like in the former situation. An interesting result is the fact that when a given fluid is flowing in one direction a vorticity pattern develops in the other fluid. The Navier-Stokes, continuity and salt diffusion equations, are solved numerically in cylindrical coordinates, using a finite difference scheme in the axial and radial directions and a Fourier spectral method for the angular coordinate. On the other hand, the second order Adams-Bashfort method is used for the time evolution. The results are compared to a numerical simulation of a pedestrian oscillator we developed based on the Hebling and Molnar social force model. The authors want to acknowledge support by DGAPA-UNAM (Project PAPIIT IN-115315 "Ondas y estructuras coherentes en dinámica de fluidos".

  12. Numerical simulations of heat transfer in plane channel flow

    Gharbi, Najla El; Benzaoui, Ahmed


    Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) turbulence models (such as k-{\\epsilon} models) are still widely used for engineering applications because of their relatively simplicity and robustness. In fully developed plane channel flow (i.e. the flow between two infinitely large plates), even if available models and near-wall treatments provide adequate mean flow velocities, they fail to predict suitable turbulent kinetic energy "TKE" profiles near walls. TKE is involved in determination of eddy viscosity/diffusivity and could therefore provide inaccurate concentrations and temperatures. In order to improve TKE a User Define Function "UDF" based on an analytical profile for TKE was developed and implemented in Fluent. Mean streamwise velocity and turbulent kinetic energy "TKE" profiles were compared to DNS data for friction Reynolds number $Re_{\\tau}$ = 150. Simulation results for TKE show accurate profiles. Simulation results for horizontal heated channel flows obtained with Fluent are presented. Numerical result...

  13. Numerical simulation of real-world flows

    Hayase, Toshiyuki


    Obtaining real flow information is important in various fields, but is a difficult issue because measurement data are usually limited in time and space, and computational results usually do not represent the exact state of real flows. Problems inherent in the realization of numerical simulation of real-world flows include the difficulty in representing exact initial and boundary conditions and the difficulty in representing unstable flow characteristics. This article reviews studies dealing with these problems. First, an overview of basic flow measurement methodologies and measurement data interpolation/approximation techniques is presented. Then, studies on methods of integrating numerical simulation and measurement, namely, four-dimensional variational data assimilation (4D-Var), Kalman filters (KFs), state observers, etc are discussed. The first problem is properly solved by these integration methodologies. The second problem can be partially solved with 4D-Var in which only initial and boundary conditions are control parameters. If an appropriate control parameter capable of modifying the dynamical structure of the model is included in the formulation of 4D-Var, unstable modes are properly suppressed and the second problem is solved. The state observer and KFs also solve the second problem by modifying mathematical models to stabilize the unstable modes of the original dynamical system by applying feedback signals. These integration methodologies are now applied in simulation of real-world flows in a wide variety of research fields. Examples are presented for basic fluid dynamics and applications in meteorology, aerospace, medicine, etc.

  14. Numerical simulation of real-world flows

    Hayase, Toshiyuki, E-mail: [Institute of Fluid Science, Tohoku University, 2-1-1 Katahira, Aoba-ku, Sendai, 980-8577 (Japan)


    Obtaining real flow information is important in various fields, but is a difficult issue because measurement data are usually limited in time and space, and computational results usually do not represent the exact state of real flows. Problems inherent in the realization of numerical simulation of real-world flows include the difficulty in representing exact initial and boundary conditions and the difficulty in representing unstable flow characteristics. This article reviews studies dealing with these problems. First, an overview of basic flow measurement methodologies and measurement data interpolation/approximation techniques is presented. Then, studies on methods of integrating numerical simulation and measurement, namely, four-dimensional variational data assimilation (4D-Var), Kalman filters (KFs), state observers, etc are discussed. The first problem is properly solved by these integration methodologies. The second problem can be partially solved with 4D-Var in which only initial and boundary conditions are control parameters. If an appropriate control parameter capable of modifying the dynamical structure of the model is included in the formulation of 4D-Var, unstable modes are properly suppressed and the second problem is solved. The state observer and KFs also solve the second problem by modifying mathematical models to stabilize the unstable modes of the original dynamical system by applying feedback signals. These integration methodologies are now applied in simulation of real-world flows in a wide variety of research fields. Examples are presented for basic fluid dynamics and applications in meteorology, aerospace, medicine, etc. (topical review)

  15. Numerical simulations of vibrating sessile drop

    Kahouadji, Lyes; Chergui, Jalel; Juric, Damir; Shin, Seungwon; Craster, Richard; Matar, Omar


    A vibrated drop constitutes a very rich physical system, blending both interfacial and volume phenomena. A remarkable experimental study was performed by M. Costalonga highlighting sessile drop motion subject to horizontal, vertical and oblique vibration. Several intriguing phenomena are observed such as drop walking and rapid droplet ejection. We perform three-dimensional direct numerical simulations of vibrating sessile drops where the phenomena described above are computed using the massively parallel multiphase code BLUE. EPSRC UK Programme Grant MEMPHIS (EP/K003976/1).

  16. Tornado structure interaction: a numerical simulation

    Wilson, T.


    The effects of tornadoes on buildings are examined to determine the wind forces on structures. The American National Standards Institute (ANSI) has developed guidelines for building code requirements for the minimum wind loads a building must be designed to withstand. The conservatism or nonconservatism on the ANSI approach is evaluated by simulating tornado-structure interaction numerically with a two-dimensional fluid dynamics computer code and a vortex model. Only external pressures are considered. The computer calculations yield the following percentages of the ANSI design pressures: rigid frame, 50 to 90%; individual wall panels, 75 to 200%; and wall corners, 50 to 75%.

  17. Multi-Agent Flight Simulation with Robust Situation Generation

    Johnson, Eric N.; Hansman, R. John, Jr.


    A robust situation generation architecture has been developed that generates multi-agent situations for human subjects. An implementation of this architecture was developed to support flight simulation tests of air transport cockpit systems. This system maneuvers pseudo-aircraft relative to the human subject's aircraft, generating specific situations for the subject to respond to. These pseudo-aircraft maneuver within reasonable performance constraints, interact in a realistic manner, and make pre-recorded voice radio communications. Use of this system minimizes the need for human experimenters to control the pseudo-agents and provides consistent interactions between the subject and the pseudo-agents. The achieved robustness of this system to typical variations in the subject's flight path was explored. It was found to successfully generate specific situations within the performance limitations of the subject-aircraft, pseudo-aircraft, and the script used.

  18. Stochastic simulation and robust design optimization of integrated photonic filters

    Weng Tsui-Wei


    Full Text Available Manufacturing variations are becoming an unavoidable issue in modern fabrication processes; therefore, it is crucial to be able to include stochastic uncertainties in the design phase. In this paper, integrated photonic coupled ring resonator filters are considered as an example of significant interest. The sparsity structure in photonic circuits is exploited to construct a sparse combined generalized polynomial chaos model, which is then used to analyze related statistics and perform robust design optimization. Simulation results show that the optimized circuits are more robust to fabrication process variations and achieve a reduction of 11%–35% in the mean square errors of the 3 dB bandwidth compared to unoptimized nominal designs.

  19. Numerical considerations in simulating the global magnetosphere

    A. J. Ridley


    Full Text Available Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD models of the global magnetosphere are very good research tools for investigating the topology and dynamics of the near-Earth space environment. While these models have obvious limitations in regions that are not well described by the MHD equations, they can typically be used (or are used to investigate the majority of magnetosphere. Often, a secondary consideration is overlooked by researchers when utilizing global models – the effects of solving the MHD equations on a grid, instead of analytically. Any discretization unavoidably introduces numerical artifacts that affect the solution to various degrees. This paper investigates some of the consequences of the numerical schemes and grids that are used to solve the MHD equations in the global magnetosphere. Specifically, the University of Michigan's MHD code is used to investigate the role of grid resolution, numerical schemes, limiters, inner magnetospheric density boundary conditions, and the artificial lowering of the speed of light on the strength of the ionospheric cross polar cap potential and the build up of the ring current in the inner magnetosphere. It is concluded that even with a very good solver and the highest affordable grid resolution, the inner magnetosphere is not grid converged. Artificially reducing the speed of light reduces the numerical diffusion that helps to achieve better agreement with data. It is further concluded that many numerical effects work nonlinearly to complicate the interpretation of the physics within the magnetosphere, and so simulation results should be scrutinized very carefully before a physical interpretation of the results is made. Our conclusions are not limited to the Michigan MHD code, but apply to all MHD models due to the limitations of computational resources.

  20. Numerical Simulation of Level Magnetic Field


    According to Maxwell electromagnetic field theory and magnetic vector potential integral equation, a mathematical model of LMF (Level Magnetic Field) for EMBR (Electromagnetic brake) was proposed, and the reliable software for LMF calculation was developed. The distribution of magnetic flux density given by numerical simulation shows that the magnetic flux density is greater in the magnet and magnetic leakage is observed in the gap. The magnetic flux density is uniform in horizontal plane and a peak is observed in vertical plane. Furthermore, the effects of electromagnetic and structural parameters on magnetic flux density were discussed. The relationship between magnetic flux, electromagnetic parameters and structural parameters is obtained by dimensional analysis, simulation experiment and least square method.

  1. Numerical simulation of large fabric filter

    Kovařík Petr


    Full Text Available Fabric filters are used in the wide range of industrial technologies for cleaning of incoming or exhaust gases. To achieve maximal efficiency of the discrete phase separation and long lifetime of the filter hoses, it is necessary to ensure uniform load on filter surface and to avoid impacts of heavy particles with high velocities to the filter hoses. The paper deals with numerical simulation of two phase flow field in a large fabric filter. The filter is composed of six chambers with approx. 1600 filter hoses in total. The model was simplified to one half of the filter, the filter hoses walls were substituted by porous zones. The model settings were based on experimental data, especially on the filter pressure drop. Unsteady simulations with different turbulence models were done. Flow field together with particles trajectories were analyzed. The results were compared with experimental observations.

  2. Numerical simulation of large fabric filter

    Sedláček, Jan; Kovařík, Petr


    Fabric filters are used in the wide range of industrial technologies for cleaning of incoming or exhaust gases. To achieve maximal efficiency of the discrete phase separation and long lifetime of the filter hoses, it is necessary to ensure uniform load on filter surface and to avoid impacts of heavy particles with high velocities to the filter hoses. The paper deals with numerical simulation of two phase flow field in a large fabric filter. The filter is composed of six chambers with approx. 1600 filter hoses in total. The model was simplified to one half of the filter, the filter hoses walls were substituted by porous zones. The model settings were based on experimental data, especially on the filter pressure drop. Unsteady simulations with different turbulence models were done. Flow field together with particles trajectories were analyzed. The results were compared with experimental observations.

  3. Numerical simulation of space UV spectrographs

    Yushkin, Maksim; Fatkhullin, Timur; Panchuk, Vladimir; Sachkov, Mikhail; Kanev, Evgeny


    Based on the ray tracing method, we developed algorithms for constructing numerical model of spectroscopic instrumentation. The Software is realized in C ++ using nVidia CUDA technology. The software package consists of three separate modules: the ray tracing module, a module for calculating energy efficiency and module of CCD image simulation. The main objective of this work was to obtain images of the spectra for the cross-dispersed spectrographs as well as segmented aperture Long Slit Spectrograph. The software can be potentially used by WSO-UV project. To test our algorithms and the software package we have performed simulations of the ground cross-dispersed Nasmyth Echelle Spectrometer (NES) installed on the platform of the Nasmyth focus of the Russian 6-meter BTA telescope. The comparison of model images of stellar spectra with observations on this device confirms that the software works well. The high degree of agreement between the theoretical and real spectra is shown.

  4. Numerical Simulation on Ship Bubbly Wake

    Huiping Fu; Pengcheng Wan


    Based on a volume of fluid two-phase model imbedded in the general computational fluid dynamics code FLUENT6.3.26,the viscous flow with free surface around a model-scaled KRISO container ship(KCS)was first numerically simulated.Then with a rigid-lid-free-surface method,the underwater flow field was computed based on the mixture multiphase model to simulate the bubbly wake around the KCS hull.The realizable k-ε two-equation turbulence model and Reynolds stress model were used to analyze the effects of turbulence model on the ship bubbly wake.The air entrainment model,which is relative to the normal velocity gradient of the free surface,and the solving method were verified by the qualitatively reasonable computed results.

  5. Numerical simulation of flow through orifice meters

    Barry, J. J.; Sheikholeslami, M. Z.; Patel, B. R.


    The FLUENT and FLUENT/BFC computer programs have been used to numerically model turbulent flow through orifice meters. These simulations were based on solution of the Navier-Stokes equations incorporating a k-epsilon turbulence model. For ideal installations, trends in the discharge coefficient with Reynolds number, beta ratio, and surface roughness have been reproduced, and the value of the discharge coefficient has been computed to within 2 percent. Nonideal installations have also been simulated, including the effects of expanders, reducers, valves, and bends. Detailed modeling of flow through a bend has yielded results in good agreement with experimental data. The trend in discharge coefficient shifts for orifice meters downstream of bends has been predicted reasonably well.

  6. Numerical simulations of the subsurface structure of sunspots

    Rempel, M.; Cheung, M.; Birch, A. C.; Braun, D. C.


    Knowledge of the subsurface magnetic field and flow structure of sunspots is essential for understanding the processes involved in their formation, dynamic evolution and decay. Information on the subsurface structure can be obtained by either direct numerical modeling or helioseismic inversions. Numerical simulations have reached only in recent years the point at which entire sunspots or even active regions can be modeled including all relevant physical processes such as 3D radiative transfer and a realistic equation of state. We present in this talk results from a series of different models: from simulations of individual sunspots (with and without penumbrae) in differently sized computational domains to simulations of the active region formation process (flux emergence). It is found in all models that the subsurface magnetic field fragments on an intermediate scale (larger than the scale of sunspot fine structure such as umbral dots); most of these fragmentations become visible as light bridges or flux separation events in the photosphere. The subsurface field strength is found to be in the 5-10 kG range. The simulated sunspots are surrounded by large scale flows, the most dominant and robust flow component is a deep reaching outflow with an amplitude reaching about 50% of the convective RMS velocity at the respective depth. The simulated sunspots show helioseismic signatures (frequency dependent travel time shifts) similar to those in observed sunspots. On the other hand it is clear from the simulations that these signatures originate in the upper most 2-3 Mm of the convection zone, since only there substantial perturbations of the wave speed are present. The contributions from deeper layers are insignificant, in particular a direct comparison between an 8 Mm and 16 Mm deep simulation leads to indiscernible helioseismic differences. The National Center for Atmospheric Research is sponsored by the National Science Foundation. This work is in part supported

  7. Study of numerical errors in direct numerical simulation and large eddy simulation

    YANG Xiao-long; FU Song


    By comparing the energy spectrum and total kinetic energy, the effects of numerical errors (which arise from aliasing and discretization errors), subgrid-scale (SGS) models, and their interactions on direct numerical simulation (DNS) and large eddy simulation (LES) are investigated. The decaying isotropic turbulence is chosen as the test case. To simulate complex geometries, both the spectral method and Pade compact difference schemes are studied. The truncated Navier-Stokes (TNS) equation model with Pade discrete filter is adopted as the SGS model. It is found that the discretization error plays a key role in DNS. Low order difference schemes may be unsuitable. However, for LES, it is found that the SGS model can represent the effect of small scales to large scales and dump the numerical errors. Therefore, reasonable results can also be obtained with a low order discretization scheme.

  8. Numerical Simulation of a Centrifugal Compressor



    Full Text Available In this paper, the tip clearance effects on flow field of a low speed centrifugal compressor without and with partial shroud (PS fitted on to the rotor blade tip at three values of tip clearance, viz. = 2.2%, 5.1% and 7.9% of rotor blade height at the exit at three flow coefficients, namely, = 0.18, 0.28, and 0.34, was studied. Based on the theory of computational fluid dynamics (CFD, performance curves and parameter distributions of the compressor were obtained from the 3-D numerical simulation by using ANSYS CFX 15.0. The centrifugal compressor in aerodynamic requirement is that edge velocities along the impeller channel passage surfaces like hub, shroud, pressure and suction surfaces vary smoothly without sudden decelerations, which cause flow separation leading to losses. Using the periodic boundaries and defined flow conditions at inflow / exit flow and blade rotations, the turbulent viscous flow between blade channels are computed. The efficiency related parameters using average quantities, besides flow pattern in terms of velocities, streamlines and pressure distribution on blade surfaces are graphically interpreted. An attempt is also made to study the influence of pressure loads on structural deformations in the chosen blade profile. This paper highlights aero-mechanical features of centrifugal impeller obtained from several numerical simulations, which are expected to provide a sound basis for further investigations

  9. Direct numerical simulation of dynamo transition for nonhelical MHD

    Nath, Dinesh; Verma, Mahendra K [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur, Kanpur 208016 (India); Lessinnes, Thomas; Carati, Daniele [Physique Statistique et Plasmas, Universite Libre de Bruxellers, B-1050 Bruxelles (Belgium); Sarris, Ioannis [Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, University of Thessaly, Volos (Greece)


    Pseudospectral Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS) has been performed to simulate dynamo transition for nonhelical magnetohydrodynamics turbulence. The numerical results are compared with a recent low-dimensional model [Verma et al. [13

  10. Direct numerical simulation of turbulent reacting flows

    Chen, J.H. [Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA (United States)


    The development of turbulent combustion models that reflect some of the most important characteristics of turbulent reacting flows requires knowledge about the behavior of key quantities in well defined combustion regimes. In turbulent flames, the coupling between the turbulence and the chemistry is so strong in certain regimes that is is very difficult to isolate the role played by one individual phenomenon. Direct numerical simulation (DNS) is an extremely useful tool to study in detail the turbulence-chemistry interactions in certain well defined regimes. Globally, non-premixed flames are controlled by two limiting cases: the fast chemistry limit, where the turbulent fluctuations. In between these two limits, finite-rate chemical effects are important and the turbulence interacts strongly with the chemical processes. This regime is important because industrial burners operate in regimes in which, locally the flame undergoes extinction, or is at least in some nonequilibrium condition. Furthermore, these nonequilibrium conditions strongly influence the production of pollutants. To quantify the finite-rate chemistry effect, direct numerical simulations are performed to study the interaction between an initially laminar non-premixed flame and a three-dimensional field of homogeneous isotropic decaying turbulence. Emphasis is placed on the dynamics of extinction and on transient effects on the fine scale mixing process. Differential molecular diffusion among species is also examined with this approach, both for nonreacting and reacting situations. To address the problem of large-scale mixing and to examine the effects of mean shear, efforts are underway to perform large eddy simulations of round three-dimensional jets.

  11. Direct numerical simulation of human phonation

    Saurabh, Shakti; Bodony, Daniel


    A direct numerical simulation study of the generation and propagation of the human voice in a full-body domain is conducted. A fully compressible fluid flow model, anatomically representative vocal tract geometry, finite deformation model for vocal fold (VF) motion and a fully coupled fluid-structure interaction model are employed. The dynamics of the multi-layered VF tissue with varying stiffness are solved using a quadratic finite element code. The fluid-solid domains are coupled through a boundary-fitted interface and utilize a Poisson equation-based mesh deformation method. A new inflow boundary condition, based upon a quasi-1D formulation with constant sub-glottal volume velocity, linked to the VF movement, has been adopted. Simulations for both child and adult phonation were performed. Acoustic characteristics obtained from these simulation are consistent with expected values. A sensitivity analysis based on VF stiffness variation is undertaken and sound pressure level/fundamental frequency trends are established. An evaluation of the data against the commonly-used quasi-1D equations suggest that the latter are not sufficient to model phonation. Phonation threshold pressures are measured for several VF stiffness variations and comparisons to clinical data are carried out. Supported by the National Science Foundation (CAREER Award Number 1150439).

  12. The Numerical Propulsion System Simulation: An Overview

    Lytle, John K.


    Advances in computational technology and in physics-based modeling are making large-scale, detailed simulations of complex systems possible within the design environment. For example, the integration of computing, communications, and aerodynamics has reduced the time required to analyze major propulsion system components from days and weeks to minutes and hours. This breakthrough has enabled the detailed simulation of major propulsion system components to become a routine part of designing systems, providing the designer with critical information about the components early in the design process. This paper describes the development of the numerical propulsion system simulation (NPSS), a modular and extensible framework for the integration of multicomponent and multidisciplinary analysis tools using geographically distributed resources such as computing platforms, data bases, and people. The analysis is currently focused on large-scale modeling of complete aircraft engines. This will provide the product developer with a "virtual wind tunnel" that will reduce the number of hardware builds and tests required during the development of advanced aerospace propulsion systems.

  13. Numerical Propulsion System Simulation: An Overview

    Lytle, John K.


    The cost of implementing new technology in aerospace propulsion systems is becoming prohibitively expensive and time consuming. One of the main contributors to the high cost and lengthy time is the need to perform many large-scale hardware tests and the inability to integrate all appropriate subsystems early in the design process. The NASA Glenn Research Center is developing the technologies required to enable simulations of full aerospace propulsion systems in sufficient detail to resolve critical design issues early in the design process before hardware is built. This concept, called the Numerical Propulsion System Simulation (NPSS), is focused on the integration of multiple disciplines such as aerodynamics, structures and heat transfer with computing and communication technologies to capture complex physical processes in a timely and cost-effective manner. The vision for NPSS, as illustrated, is to be a "numerical test cell" that enables full engine simulation overnight on cost-effective computing platforms. There are several key elements within NPSS that are required to achieve this capability: 1) clear data interfaces through the development and/or use of data exchange standards, 2) modular and flexible program construction through the use of object-oriented programming, 3) integrated multiple fidelity analysis (zooming) techniques that capture the appropriate physics at the appropriate fidelity for the engine systems, 4) multidisciplinary coupling techniques and finally 5) high performance parallel and distributed computing. The current state of development in these five area focuses on air breathing gas turbine engines and is reported in this paper. However, many of the technologies are generic and can be readily applied to rocket based systems and combined cycles currently being considered for low-cost access-to-space applications. Recent accomplishments include: (1) the development of an industry-standard engine cycle analysis program and plug 'n play

  14. Numerical simulations of black-hole spacetimes

    Chu, Tony

    This thesis covers various aspects of the numerical simulation of black-hole spacetimes according to Einstein's general theory of relativity, using the Spectral Einstein Code developed by the Caltech-Cornell-CITA collaboration. The first topic is improvement of binary-black-hole initial data. One such issue is the construction of binary-black-hole initial data with nearly extremal spins that remain nearly constant during the initial relaxation in an evolution. Another concern is the inclusion of physically realistic tidal deformations of the black holes to reduce the high-frequency components of the spurious gravitational radiation content, and represents a first step in incorporating post-Newtonian results in constraint-satisfying initial data. The next topic is the evolution of black-hole binaries and the gravitational waves they emit. The first spectral simulation of two inspiralling black holes through merger and ringdown is presented, in which the black holes are nonspinning and have equal masses. This work is extended to perform the first spectral simulations of two inspiralling black holes with moderate spins and equal masses, including the merger and ringdown. Two configurations are considered, in which both spins are either anti-aligned or aligned with the orbital angular momentum. Highly accurate gravitational waveforms are computed for all these cases, and are used to calibrate waveforms in the effective-one-body model. The final topic is the behavior of quasilocal black-hole horizons in highly dynamical situations. Simulations of a rotating black hole that is distort ed by a pulse of ingoing gravitational radiation are performed. Multiple marginally outer trapped surfaces are seen to appear and annihilate with each other during the evolution, and the world tubes th ey trace out are all dynamical horizons. The dynamical horizon and angular momentum flux laws are evaluated in this context, and the dynamical horizons are contrasted with the event horizon

  15. Numerical Simulation of DC Coronal Heating

    Dahlburg, Russell B.; Einaudi, G.; Taylor, Brian D.; Ugarte-Urra, Ignacio; Warren, Harry; Rappazzo, A. F.; Velli, Marco


    Recent research on observational signatures of turbulent heating of a coronal loop will be discussed. The evolution of the loop is is studied by means of numerical simulations of the fully compressible three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic equations using the HYPERION code. HYPERION calculates the full energy cycle involving footpoint convection, magnetic reconnection, nonlinear thermal conduction and optically thin radiation. The footpoints of the loop magnetic field are convected by random photospheric motions. As a consequence the magnetic field in the loop is energized and develops turbulent nonlinear dynamics characterized by the continuous formation and dissipation of field-aligned current sheets: energy is deposited at small scales where heating occurs. Dissipation is non-uniformly distributed so that only a fraction of thecoronal mass and volume gets heated at any time. Temperature and density are highly structured at scales which, in the solar corona, remain observationally unresolved: the plasma of the simulated loop is multi thermal, where highly dynamical hotter and cooler plasma strands are scattered throughout the loop at sub-observational scales. Typical simulated coronal loops are 50000 km length and have axial magnetic field intensities ranging from 0.01 to 0.04 Tesla. To connect these simulations to observations the computed number densities and temperatures are used to synthesize the intensities expected in emission lines typically observed with the Extreme ultraviolet Imaging Spectrometer (EIS) on Hinode. These intensities are then employed to compute differential emission measure distributions, which are found to be very similar to those derived from observations of solar active regions.

  16. Numerical simulations of coupled problems in engineering


    This book presents and discusses mathematical models, numerical methods and computational techniques used for solving coupled problems in science and engineering. It takes a step forward in the formulation and solution of real-life problems with a multidisciplinary vision, accounting for all of the complex couplings involved in the physical description. Simulation of multifaceted physics problems is a common task in applied research and industry. Often a suitable solver is built by connecting together several single-aspect solvers into a network. In this book, research in various fields was selected for consideration: adaptive methodology for multi-physics solvers, multi-physics phenomena and coupled-field solutions, leading to computationally intensive structural analysis. The strategies which are used to keep these problems computationally affordable are of special interest, and make this an essential book.

  17. Numerical Simulation of Solitary Kinetic Alfven Waves

    DING Jian; LI Yi; WANG Shui


    Using the two-fluid model in the case of α1 (α=β/2Q, β is the ratio of thermal pressure to magnetic pressure, and Q=m,e/m,I), we numerically investigate the interactions between two solitary kinetic Alfven waves (SKAWs) and between an SKAW and a density discontinuity. The results show that the two SKAWs would remain in their original shapes and propagate at their initiating speeds, which indicates that SKAWs behave just like standard solitons. The simulation also shows that SKAWs will reflect and refract when crossing a discontinuity and propagating into a higher density region. The transmission wave is an SKAW with increasing density, and the reverberation is a disturbance with lower amplitude.

  18. Direct numerical simulation of compressible isotropic turbulence

    LI; Xinliang(李新亮); FU; Dexun(傅德薰); MAYanwen(马延文)


    Direct numerical simulation (DNS) of decaying compressible isotropic turbulence at tur-bulence Mach numbers of Mt = 0.2-0.7 and Taylor Reynolds numbers of 72 and 153 is per-formed by using the 7th order upwind-biased difference and 8th order center difference schemes.Results show that proper upwind-biased difference schemes can release the limit of "start-up"problem to Mach numbers.Compressibility effects on the statistics of turbulent flow as well as the mechanics of shockletsin compressible turbulence are also studied, and the conclusion is drawn that high Mach numberleads to more dissipation. Scaling laws in compressible turbulence are also analyzed. Evidence isobtained that scaling laws and extended self similarity (ESS) hold in the compressible turbulentflow in spite of the presence of shocklets, and compressibility has little effect on scaling exponents.

  19. Numerical simulation of facet dendrite growth

    CHEN Zhi; CHEN Chang-le; HAO Li-mei


    Numerical simulation based on phase field method was performed to describe the solidification of silicon. The effect of anisotropy, undercooling and coupling parameter on dendrite growth shape was investigated. It is indicated that the entire facet dendrite shapes are obtained by using regularized phase field model. Steady state tip velocity of dendrite drives to a fixed value when γ≤0.13. With further increasing the anisotropy value, steady state tip velocity decreases and the size is smaller. With the increase in the undercooling and coupling parameter, crystal grows from facet to facet dendrite. In addition, with increasing coupling parameter, the facet part of facet dendrite decreases gradually, which is in good agreement with Wulff theory.

  20. Collisionless microinstabilities in stellarators II - numerical simulations

    Proll, Josefine Henriette Elise; Helander, Per


    Microinstabilities exhibit a rich variety of behavior in stellarators due to the many degrees of freedom in the magnetic geometry. It has recently been found that certain stellarators (quasi-isodynamic ones with maximum-$J$ geometry) are partly resilient to trapped-particle instabilities, because fast-bouncing particles tend to extract energy from these modes near marginal stability. In reality, stellarators are never perfectly quasi-isodynamic, and the question thus arises whether they still benefit from enhanced stability. Here the stability properties of Wendelstein 7-X and a more quasi-isodynamic configuration, QIPC, are investigated numerically and compared with the National Compact Stellarator Experiment (NCSX) and the DIII-D tokamak. In gyrokinetic simulations, performed with the gyrokinetic code GENE in the electrostatic and collisionless approximation, ion-temperature-gradient modes, trapped-electron modes and mixed-type instabilities are studied. Wendelstein 7-X and QIPC exhibit significantly reduce...

  1. Numerical simulation of transonic flows in diffusers

    Liou, M.-S.; Coakley, T. J.; Bergmann, M. Y.


    Numerical simulations were made of two-dimensional transonic flows in diffusers, including flow separation induced by a shock or adverse pressure gradient. The mass-averaged, time-dependent, compressible Navier-Stokes equations, simplified by the thin-layer approximation, were solved using MacCormack's hybrid method. The eddy-viscosity formulation was described by the Wilcox-Rubesin's two-equation, k-omega model. Detailed comparison of the computed results with measurements showed good agreement in all cases, including one with massive separation induced by a strong shock. The computation correctly predicted the details of a distinct lambda shock pattern, closely duplicating the configuration observed experimentally in spark-schlieren photographs.

  2. Numerical simulation of turbulent slurry flows

    Haghgoo, Mohammad Reza; Spiteri, Reymond J.; Bergstrom, Donlad J.


    Slurry flows, i.e., the flow of an agglomeration of liquid and particles, are widely employed in many industrial applications, such as hydro-transport systems, pharmaceutical batch crystallizers, and wastewater disposal. Although there are numerous studies available in the literature on turbulent gas-particle flows, the hydrodynamics of turbulent liquid-particle flows has received much less attention. In particular, the fluid-phase turbulence modulation due to the particle fluctuating motion is not yet well understood and remains challenging to model. This study reports the results of a numerical simulation of a vertically oriented slurry pipe flow using a two-fluid model based on the kinetic theory of granular flows. The particle stress model also includes the effects of frictional contact. Different turbulence modulation models are considered, and their capability to capture the characteristic features of the turbulent flow is assessed. The model predictions are validated against published experimental data and demonstrate the significant effect of the particles on the fluid-phase turbulence.

  3. Numerical simulations of dissipationless disk accretion

    Bogovalov, S. V.; Tronin, I. V.


    Our goal is to study the regime of disk accretion in which almost all of the angular momentum and energy is carried away by the wind outflowing from the disk in numerical experiments. For this type of accretion the kinetic energy flux in the outflowing wind can exceed considerably the bolometric luminosity of the accretion disk, what is observed in the plasma flow from galactic nuclei in a number of cases. In this paper we consider the nonrelativistic case of an outflow from a cold Keplerian disk. All of the conclusions derived previously for such a system in the self-similar approximation are shown to be correct. The numerical results agree well with the analytical predictions. The inclination angle of the magnetic field lines in the disk is less than 60°, which ensures a free wind outflow from the disk, while the energy flux per wind particle is greater than the particle rotation energy in its Keplerian orbit by several orders of magnitude, provided that the ratio r A/ r ≫ 1, where r A is the Alfvénic radius and r is the radius of the Keplerian orbit. In this case, the particle kinetic energy reaches half the maximum possible energy in the simulation region. The magnetic field collimates the outflowing wind near the rotation axis and decollimates appreciably the wind outflowing from the outer disk periphery.

  4. Numerical simulation of installation of skirt foundations

    Vangelsten, Bjoern Vidar


    Skirt foundation has been increasingly used for permanent offshore oil installations and anchors for drilling ships. Suction is commonly used in skirt foundation installing. If a large amount of suction is applied, the soil around the foundation may fail and the foundation become useless. This thesis studies failure due to high seepage gradients, aiming to provide a basis for reducing the risk of such failures. Skirt penetration model testing has shown that to solve the problem one must understand what is going on at the skirt tip during suction installation. A numerical model based on micro mechanics was developed as continuum hypothesis was seen to be unsuitable to describe the processes in the critical phases of the failure. The numerical model combines two-dimensional elliptical particles with the finite difference method for flow to model water flow in a granular material. The key idea is to formulate the permeability as a function of the porosity of the grain assembly and so obtain an interaction between the finite difference method on flow and the particle movement. A computer program, DYNELL, was developed and used to simulate: (1) weight penetration of a skirt wall, (2) combined suction and weight penetration of a skirt wall, and (3) critical gradient tests around a skirt wall to study failure mechanisms. The model calculations agree well with laboratory experiments. 16 refs., 124 figs., 21 tabs.

  5. Numerical simulation of detonation failure in nitromethane

    Kipp, M E; Nunziato, J W


    Detonation failure in the homogeneous liquid explosive nitromethane has been observed experimentally in a wide variety of confining geometries. However, numerical simulation of these failure situations with a wave propagation code has been essentially non-existent due to the large differences between the critical diameter and the length of the reaction zone - characteristic dimensions which differ by about two orders of magnitude. This inability to spatially resolve both the reaction zone and geometries of significant size has led us to propose a new numerical technique, based on the stability criterion for rate-type material models, in which only temporal resolution of the reaction zone is required. Using an improved model for nitromethane, we have carried out a series of two-dimensional calculations which illustrate the utility of the present approach in predicting a wide range of experimental observations. Of particular computational significance is the removal of the difficulty requiring spatial resolution of the reaction zone, so that problems of practical size can be analyzed with existing computer capabilities.

  6. Direct Numerical Simulation of Automobile Cavity Tones

    Kurbatskii, Konstantin; Tam, Christopher K. W.


    The Navier Stokes equation is solved computationally by the Dispersion-Relation-Preserving (DRP) scheme for the flow and acoustic fields associated with a laminar boundary layer flow over an automobile door cavity. In this work, the flow Reynolds number is restricted to R(sub delta*) < 3400; the range of Reynolds number for which laminar flow may be maintained. This investigation focuses on two aspects of the problem, namely, the effect of boundary layer thickness on the cavity tone frequency and intensity and the effect of the size of the computation domain on the accuracy of the numerical simulation. It is found that the tone frequency decreases with an increase in boundary layer thickness. When the boundary layer is thicker than a certain critical value, depending on the flow speed, no tone is emitted by the cavity. Computationally, solutions of aeroacoustics problems are known to be sensitive to the size of the computation domain. Numerical experiments indicate that the use of a small domain could result in normal mode type acoustic oscillations in the entire computation domain leading to an increase in tone frequency and intensity. When the computation domain is expanded so that the boundaries are at least one wavelength away from the noise source, the computed tone frequency and intensity are found to be computation domain size independent.

  7. Numerical simulation of friction stir welding

    Mijajlović Miroslav


    Full Text Available Friction stir welding is a solid-state welding technique that utilizes thermo-mechanical influence of the rotating welding tool on parent material resulting with monolith joint-weld. On the contact of welding tool and parent material, significant stirring and deformation of parent material appears, and during this process mechanical energy is partially transformed into heat. The paper describes the software for the numerical simulation of friction stir welding developed at Mechanical Engineering Faculty, University of Nis. Numerical solution for estimation of welding plates temperature is estimated using finite difference method-explicit scheme with adaptive grid, considering influence of temperature on material's conductivity, contact conditions between welding tool and parent material, material flow around welding tool etc. The calculated results are in good agreement with the experimental results. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR35034: The research of modern non-conventional technologies application in manufacturing companies with the aim of increase efficiency of use, product quality, reduce of costs and save energy and materials

  8. Aircraft Flutter Modal Parameter Identification Using a Numerically Robust Least-squares Estimator in Frequency Domain

    Tang Wei; Shi Zhongke; Chen Jie


    Recently, frequency-based least-squares (LS) estimators have found wide application in identifying aircraft flutter parameters. However, the frequency methods are often known to suffer from numerical difficulties when identifying a continuous-time model, espe-cially, of broader frequency or higher order. In this article, a numerically robust LS estimator based on vector orthogonal polynomial is proposed to solve the numerical problem of multivariable systems and applied to the flutter testing. The key idea of this method is to represent the frequency response function (FRF) matrix by a right matrix fraction description (RMFD) model, and expand the numerator and denominator polynomial matrices on a vector onhogonal basis. As a result, a perfect numerical condition (numerical condition equals 1) can be obtained for linear LS estimator. Finally, this method is verified by flutter test of a wing model in a wind tunnel and real flight flutter test of an aircraft. The results are compared to those with notably LMS PolyMAX, which is not troubled by the numerical problem as it is established in z domain (e.g. derived from a discrete-time model). The verification has evidenced that this method, apart from overcoming the numerical problem, yields the results comparable to those acquired with LMS PolyMAX, or even considerably better at some frequency bands.

  9. Numerical simulation of tulip flame dynamics

    Cloutman, L.D.


    A finite difference reactive flow hydrodynamics program based on the full Navier-Stokes equations was used to simulate the combustion process in a homogeneous-charge, constant-volume combustion bomb in which an oddly shaped flame, known as a ``tulip flame`` in the literature, occurred. The ``tulip flame`` was readily reproduced in the numerical simulations, producing good agreement with the experimental flame shapes and positions at various times. The calculations provide sufficient detail about the dynamics of the experiment to provide some insight into the physical mechanisms responsible for the peculiar flame shape. Several factors seem to contribute to the tulip formation. The most important process is the baroclinic production of vorticity by the flame front, and this rate of production appears to be dramatically increased by the nonaxial flow generated when the initial semicircular flame front burns out along the sides of the chamber. The vorticity produces a pair of vortices behind the flame that advects the flame into the tulip shape. Boundary layer effects contribute to the details of the flame shape next to the walls of the chamber, but are otherwise not important. 24 refs.

  10. Numerical simulation of tulip flame dynamics

    Cloutman, L.D.


    A finite difference reactive flow hydrodynamics program based on the full Navier-Stokes equations was used to simulate the combustion process in a homogeneous-charge, constant-volume combustion bomb in which an oddly shaped flame, known as a tulip flame'' in the literature, occurred. The tulip flame'' was readily reproduced in the numerical simulations, producing good agreement with the experimental flame shapes and positions at various times. The calculations provide sufficient detail about the dynamics of the experiment to provide some insight into the physical mechanisms responsible for the peculiar flame shape. Several factors seem to contribute to the tulip formation. The most important process is the baroclinic production of vorticity by the flame front, and this rate of production appears to be dramatically increased by the nonaxial flow generated when the initial semicircular flame front burns out along the sides of the chamber. The vorticity produces a pair of vortices behind the flame that advects the flame into the tulip shape. Boundary layer effects contribute to the details of the flame shape next to the walls of the chamber, but are otherwise not important. 24 refs.

  11. Numerical simulations of capillary barrier field tests

    Morris, C.E. [Univ. of Wollongong (Australia); Stormont, J.C. [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States)


    Numerical simulations of two capillary barrier systems tested in the field were conducted to determine if an unsaturated flow model could accurately represent the observed results. The field data was collected from two 7-m long, 1.2-m thick capillary barriers built on a 10% grade that were being tested to investigate their ability to laterally divert water downslope. One system had a homogeneous fine layer, while the fine soil of the second barrier was layered to increase its ability to laterally divert infiltrating moisture. The barriers were subjected first to constant infiltration while minimizing evaporative losses and then were exposed to ambient conditions. The continuous infiltration period of the field tests for the two barrier systems was modelled to determine the ability of an existing code to accurately represent capillary barrier behavior embodied in these two designs. Differences between the field test and the model data were found, but in general the simulations appeared to adequately reproduce the response of the test systems. Accounting for moisture retention hysteresis in the layered system will potentially lead to more accurate modelling results and is likely to be important when developing reasonable predictions of capillary barrier behavior.

  12. Numerical simulation for nuclear pumped laser

    Sakasai, Kaoru [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokyo (Japan)


    To apply nuclear pumped laser of {sup 3}He-Ne-Ar gas to detect neutron, the optimum gas mixture was investigated by numerical simulation. When {sup 3}He-Ne-Ar mixture gas are irradiated by neutron, proton and triton with high velocity are produced by {sup 3}He(np)T and two charge particles ionized {sup 3}He, Ne and Ar which reacted each other and attained to 3p`(1/2){sub 0}-3S`(1/2). The calculation method is constructed by defining the rate equations of each ion and exited atom and the electron energy balance equation and by time integrating the simultaneous differential equations of the above two equations and the law of conservation of charge. Penning ionization and energy transport by elastic collision of neutral atom were considered in the transport process of electron energy direct ionization by secondary charge particle. Calculation time was 1 msec. The optimum component was shown 3 atm He, 24 Torr He and 8 Torr Ar by simulation. Laser oscilation was generated under the conditions 3.3 x 10{sup 14} (N/cm{sup 2}/5) thermal neutron flux at 50 cm laser cell length and 99% coefficient of reflection of mirror. After laser oscilation, laser output was proportional to neutron flux. These results showed nuclear pumped laser of {sup 3}He-Ne-Ar was able to detect optically neutron. (S.Y)

  13. Numerical simulation of Richtmyer-Meshkov instability

    FU Dexun; MA Yanwen; ZHANG Linbo; TIAN Baolin


    The compressible Navier-Stokes equations discretized with a fourth order accurate compact finite difference scheme with group velocity control are used to simulate the Richtmyer-Meshkov (R-M) instability problem produced by cylindrical shock-cylindrical material interface with shock Mach number Ms=1.2 and density ratio 1:20 (interior density/outer density). Effect of shock refraction, reflection, interaction of the reflected shock with the material interface, and effect of initial perturbation modes on R-M instability are investigated numerically. It is noted that the shock refraction is a main physical mechanism of the initial phase changing of the material surface. The multiple interactions of the reflected shock from the origin with the interface and the R-M instability near the material interface are the reason for formation of the spike-bubble structures. Different viscosities lead to different spike-bubble structure characteristics. The vortex pairing phenomenon is found in the initial double mode simulation. The mode interaction is the main factor of small structures production near the interface.

  14. Numerical Simulations of Disk-Planet Interactions

    D'Angelo, Gennaro


    The aim of this thesis is the study the dynamical interactions occurring between a forming planet and its surrounding protostellar environment. This task is accomplished by means of both 2D and 3D numerical simulations. The first part of this work concerned global simulations in 3D. These were intended to investigate large-scale effects caused by a Jupiter-size body still in the process of accreting matter from its surroundings. Simulations show that, despite a density gap forms along the orbital path, Jupiter-mass protoplanets still accrete at a rate on the order of 0.01 Earth's masses per year when they are embedded in a minimum-mass Solar nebula. In the same conditions, the migration time scale due to gravitational torques by the disk is around 100000 years. The second part of the work was dedicated to perform 2D calculations, by employing a nested-grid technique. This method allows to carry out global simulations of planets orbiting in disks and, at the same time, to resolve in great detail the dynamics of the flow inside the Roche lobe of both massive and low-mass planets. Regardless of the planet mass, the high resolution supplied by the nested-grid technique permits an evaluation of the torques, resulting from short and very short range gravitational interactions, more reliable than the one previously estimated with the aid of numerical methods. Likewise, the mass flow onto the planet is computed in a more accurate fashion. Resulting migration time scales are in the range from 20000 years, for intermediate-mass planets, to 1000000 years, for very low-mass as well as high-mass planets. Circumplanetary disks form inside of the Roche lobe of Jupiter-size secondaries. In order to evaluate the consequences of the flat geometry on the local flow structure around planets, 3D nested-grid simulations were carried out to investigate a range of planetary masses spanning from 1.5 Earth's masses to one Jupiter's mass. Outcomes show that migration rates are relatively

  15. Numerical simulation of a semi-indirect evaporative cooler

    Martin, R. Herrero [Departamento de Ingenieria Termica y de Fluidos, Universidad Politecnica de Cartagena, C/Dr. Fleming, s/n (Campus Muralla), 30202 Cartagena, Murcia (Spain)


    This paper presents the experimental study and numerical simulation of a semi-indirect evaporative cooler (SIEC), which acts as an energy recovery device in air conditioning systems. The numerical simulation was conducted by applying the CFD software FLUENT implementing a UDF to model evaporation/condensation. The numerical model was validated by comparing the simulation results with experimental data. Experimental data and numerical results agree for the lower relative humidity series but not for higher relative humidity values. (author)

  16. Advanced numerical simulation of collapsible earth dams

    De Farias, M.M.; Cordao Neto, M.P. [Brasilia Univ., Federal District (Brazil). Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering


    This paper discussed a systematic methodology for the hydromechanical coupled numerical analysis of earth dams constructed with unsaturated collapsible soil. Every design stage was considered, including construction, reservoir filling, and advance of saturation front until the steady-state flow condition is attained. A transient analysis of safety factors applicable to 3-dimensional conditions was presented, giving consideration to unsaturated materials and the interrelation between hydraulic and mechanical phenomena by solving equilibrium and continuity conditions at the same time. The finite element method was used to formulate equilibrium and continuity conditions for both soil skeleton and pore water, which necessitated a realistic mechanical model for the stress-strain-suction relation in unsaturated porous material and adequate constitutive models related to water flow and storage, giving special consideration to imposing appropriate boundary conditions for each simulation stage. The methodology was applied to the analysis of earth dams composed of soils at optimum, dry of optimum, and mixed compaction conditions. The dry section simulated dams constructed using poorly compacted, dry material, which are prone to collapse. By strategically placing the optimum materials in the areas of the earth fill that are most stressed, the mixed section could be designed less expensively with the same or better performance as the homogenous section at optimum conditions. The coupled analysis provides a higher safety factor than uncoupled analysis and a realistic picture of end-of-construction pore pressure distribution. The simulation of reservoir filling and saturation front advance permitted clear identification of the initialization, development, and evolution of internal failure mechanisms. 21 refs., 6 tabs., 19 figs.

  17. Robustness

    Sørensen, John Dalsgaard; Rizzuto, Enrico; Narasimhan, Harikrishna


    More frequent use of advanced types of structures with limited redundancy and serious consequences in case of failure combined with increased requirements to efficiency in design and execution followed by increased risk of human errors has made the need of requirements to robustness of structures......, a theoretical and risk-based framework is presented which facilitates the quantification of robustness, and thus supports the formulation of pre-normative guidelines....

  18. A robust, coupled approach for atomistic-continuum simulation.

    Aubry, Sylvie; Webb, Edmund Blackburn, III (Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM); Wagner, Gregory John; Klein, Patrick A.; Jones, Reese E.; Zimmerman, Jonathan A.; Bammann, Douglas J.; Hoyt, Jeffrey John (Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM); Kimmer, Christopher J.


    This report is a collection of documents written by the group members of the Engineering Sciences Research Foundation (ESRF), Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project titled 'A Robust, Coupled Approach to Atomistic-Continuum Simulation'. Presented in this document is the development of a formulation for performing quasistatic, coupled, atomistic-continuum simulation that includes cross terms in the equilibrium equations that arise due to kinematic coupling and corrections used for the calculation of system potential energy to account for continuum elements that overlap regions containing atomic bonds, evaluations of thermo-mechanical continuum quantities calculated within atomistic simulations including measures of stress, temperature and heat flux, calculation used to determine the appropriate spatial and time averaging necessary to enable these atomistically-defined expressions to have the same physical meaning as their continuum counterparts, and a formulation to quantify a continuum 'temperature field', the first step towards constructing a coupled atomistic-continuum approach capable of finite temperature and dynamic analyses.

  19. Numerical simulation of "An American Haboob"

    A. Vukovic


    Full Text Available A dust storm of fearful proportions hit Phoenix in the early evening hours of 5 July 2011. This storm, an American haboob, was predicted hours in advance because numerical, land-atmosphere modeling, computing power and remote sensing of dust events have improved greatly over the past decade. High resolution numerical models are required for accurate simulation of the small-scales of the haboob process, with high velocity surface winds produced by strong convection and severe downbursts. Dust productive areas in this region consist mainly of agricultural fields, with soil surfaces disturbed by plowing and tracks of land in the high Sonoran desert laid barren by ongoing draught. Model simulation of the 5 July 2011 dust storm uses the coupled atmospheric-dust model NMME-DREAM with 3.5 km horizontal resolution. A mask of the potentially dust productive regions is obtained from the land cover and the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI data from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS. Model results are compared with radar and other satellite-based images and surface meteorological and PM10 observations. The atmospheric model successfully hindcasted the position of the front in space and time, with about 1 h late arrival in Phoenix. The dust model predicted the rapid uptake of dust and high values of dust concentration in the ensuing storm. South of Phoenix, over the closest source regions (~ 25 km, the model PM10 surface dust concentration reached ~ 2500 μg m−3, but underestimated the values measured by the PM10stations within the city. Model results are also validated by the MODIS aerosol optical depth (AOD, employing deep blue (DB algorithms for aerosol loadings. Model validation included Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observation (CALIPSO, equipped with the lidar instrument, to disclose the vertical structure of dust aerosols as well as aerosol subtypes. Promising results encourage further

  20. Numerical simulations of unsteady flows in turbomachines

    Dorney, Daniel Joseph

    The performance of axial and centrifugal turbomachines is significantly affected by the presence of unsteady and viscous flow mechanisms. Most contemporary design systems, however, use steady or linearized unsteady inviscid flow analyses to generate new blade shapes. In an effort to increase the understanding of unsteady viscous flows in turbomachinery blade rows, and to determine the limitations of linearized inviscid flow analyses, a two-part investigation was conducted. In the first portion of this investigation, a nonlinear viscous flow analysis was developed for the prediction of unsteady flows in two dimensional axial turbomachinery blade rows. The boundary conditions were formulated to allow the specification of vortical, entropic and acoustic excitations at the inlet, and acoustic excitations at exit, of a cascade. Numerical simulations were performed for flat plate and compressor exit guide vane cascades, and the predicted results were compared with solutions from classical linearized theory and linearized inviscid flow analysis. The unsteady pressure fields predicted with the current analysis showed close agreement with the linearized solutions for low to moderate temporal frequency vortical and acoustic excitations. As the temporal frequency of the excitations was increased, nonlinear effects caused discrepancies to develop between the linearized and Navier-Stokes solution sets. The inclusion of viscosity had a significant impact on the unsteady vorticity field, but only a minimal effect on the unsteady pressure field. In the second part of this investigation, a quasi-three-dimensional Navier-Stokes analysis was modified and applied to flows in centrifugal turbomachinery blade rows. Inviscid and viscous flow simulations were performed for a centrifugal impeller at three operating conditions. By comparing the predicted and experimental circumferential distributions of the relative frame velocity and flow angle downstream of the impeller, it was

  1. Numerical simulation of a self-propelled copepod during escape

    Sotiropoulos, Fotis; Borazjani, Iman; Malkiel, Edwin; Katz, Josef


    Obtaining the 3D flow field, forces, and power is essential for understanding the high accelerations of a copepod during the escap. We carry out numerical simulations to study a free swimming copepod using the sharp-interface immersed boundary, fluid-structure interaction (FSI) approach of Borazjani et al. (J Compu Phys, 2008, 227, p 7587-7620). We use our previous tethered copepod model with a realistic copepod-like body, including all the appendages with the appendages motion prescribed from high-resolution, cinematic dual digital holography. The simulations are performed in a frame of reference attached to the copepod whose velocity is calculated by considering the forces acting on the copepod. The self-propelled simulations are challenging due to the destabilizing effects of the large added mass resulting from the low copepod mass and fast acceleration during the escape. Strongly-coupled FSI with under-relaxation and the Aitken acceleration technique is used to obtain stable and robust FSI iterations. The computed results for the self-propelled model are analyzed and compared with our earlier results for the tethered model.

  2. Arctic Ocean Freshwater: How Robust are Model Simulations

    Jahn, A.; Aksenov, Y.; deCuevas, B. A.; deSteur, L.; Haekkinen, S.; Hansen, E.; Herbaut, C.; Houssais, M.-N.; Karcher, M.; Kauker, F.; Lique, C.; Nguyen, A.; Pemberton, P.; Worthen, D.; Zhang, J.


    The Arctic freshwater (FW) has been the focus of many modeling studies, due to the potential impact of Arctic FW on the deep water formation in the North Atlantic. A comparison of the hindcasts from ten ocean-sea ice models shows that the simulation of the Arctic FW budget is quite different in the investigated models. While they agree on the general sink and source terms of the Arctic FW budget, the long-term means as well as the variability of the FW export vary among models. The best model-to-model agreement is found for the interannual and seasonal variability of the solid FW export and the solid FW storage, which also agree well with observations. For the interannual and seasonal variability of the liquid FW export, the agreement among models is better for the Canadian Arctic Archipelago (CAA) than for Fram Strait. The reason for this is that models are more consistent in simulating volume flux anomalies than salinity anomalies and volume-flux anomalies dominate the liquid FW export variability in the CAA but not in Fram Strait. The seasonal cycle of the liquid FW export generally shows a better agreement among models than the interannual variability, and compared to observations the models capture the seasonality of the liquid FW export rather well. In order to improve future simulations of the Arctic FW budget, the simulation of the salinity field needs to be improved, so that model results on the variability of the liquid FW export and storage become more robust.

  3. Transonic aeroelastic numerical simulation in aeronautical engineering

    Yang, G. [Chinese Academy of Sciences, LHD of the Inst. of Mechanics, Beijing (China)]. E-mail:


    An LU-SGS (lower-upper symmetric Gauss-Seidel) subiteration scheme is constructed for time-marching of the fluid equations. The HLLEW (Harten-Lax-van Leer-Einfeldt-Wada) scheme is used for the spatial discretization. The same subiteration formulation is applied directly to the structural equations of motion in generalized coordinates. Through subiteration between the fluid and structural equations, a fully implicit aeroelastic solver is obtained for the numerical simulation of fluid/structure interaction. To improve the ability for application to complex configurations, a multiblock grid is used for the flow field calculation and Transfinite Interpolation (TFI) is employed for the adaptive moving grid deformation. The infinite plate spline (IPS) and the principal of virtual work are utilized for the data transformation between the fluid and structure. The developed code was first validated through the comparison of experimental and computational results for the AGARD 445.6 standard aeroelastic wing. Then the flutter character of a tail wing with control surface was analyzed. Finally, flutter boundaries of a complex aircraft configuration were predicted. (author)

  4. Numerical simulation of condensation on structured surfaces.

    Fu, Xiaowu; Yao, Zhaohui; Hao, Pengfei


    Condensation of liquid droplets on solid surfaces happens widely in nature and industrial processes. This phase-change phenomenon has great effect on the performance of some microfluidic devices. On the basis of micro- and nanotechnology, superhydrophobic structured surfaces can be well-fabricated. In this work, the nucleating and growth of droplets on different structured surfaces are investigated numerically. The dynamic behavior of droplets during the condensation is simulated by the multiphase lattice Boltzmann method (LBM), which has the ability to incorporate the microscopic interactions, including fluid-fluid interaction and fluid-surface interaction. The results by the LBM show that, besides the chemical properties of surfaces, the topography of structures on solid surfaces influences the condensation process. For superhydrophobic surfaces, the spacing and height of microridges have significant influence on the nucleation sites. This mechanism provides an effective way for prevention of wetting on surfaces in engineering applications. Moreover, it suggests a way to prevent ice formation on surfaces caused by the condensation of subcooled water. For hydrophilic surfaces, however, microstructures may be submerged by the liquid films adhering to the surfaces. In this case, microstructures will fail to control the condensation process. Our research provides an optimized way for designing surfaces for condensation in engineering systems.

  5. Direct Numerical Simulation of Cell Printing

    Qiao, Rui; He, Ping


    Structural cell printing, i.e., printing three dimensional (3D) structures of cells held in a tissue matrix, is gaining significant attention in the biomedical community. The key idea is to use desktop printer or similar devices to print cells into 3D patterns with a resolution comparable to the size of mammalian cells, similar to that in living organs. Achieving such a resolution in vitro can lead to breakthroughs in areas such as organ transplantation and understanding of cell-cell interactions in truly 3D spaces. Although the feasibility of cell printing has been demonstrated in the recent years, the printing resolution and cell viability remain to be improved. In this work, we investigate one of the unit operations in cell printing, namely, the impact of a cell-laden droplet into a pool of highly viscous liquids using direct numerical simulations. The dynamics of droplet impact (e.g., crater formation and droplet spreading and penetration) and the evolution of cell shape and internal stress are quantified in details.

  6. A numerical simulation method and analysis of a complete thermoacoustic-Stirling engine.

    Ling, Hong; Luo, Ercang; Dai, Wei


    Thermoacoustic prime movers can generate pressure oscillation without any moving parts on self-excited thermoacoustic effect. The details of the numerical simulation methodology for thermoacoustic engines are presented in the paper. First, a four-port network method is used to build the transcendental equation of complex frequency as a criterion to judge if temperature distribution of the whole thermoacoustic system is correct for the case with given heating power. Then, the numerical simulation of a thermoacoustic-Stirling heat engine is carried out. It is proved that the numerical simulation code can run robustly and output what one is interested in. Finally, the calculated results are compared with the experiments of the thermoacoustic-Stirling heat engine (TASHE). It shows that the numerical simulation can agrees with the experimental results with acceptable accuracy.



    The key point in the numerical simulation of breach growth and bed deformation process in a dike burst is the accurate computation of flow and sediment transport. A numerical model for horizontal 2-D non-uniform sediment was developed to simulate the bed deformation process in the dike burst. The first-order scheme was used in computation. Several simulated results were worked out to demonstrate the applicability of the numerical model.

  8. Robust simulations of viscoelastic flows at high Weissenberg numbers with the streamfunction/log-conformation formulation

    Comminal, Raphaël; Spangenberg, Jon; Hattel, Jesper Henri


    A new streamfunction/log-conformation formulation of incompressible viscoelastic flows is presented. The log-conformation representation guaranties the positive-definiteness of the conformation tensor and obviates the high Weissenberg number problem. The streamfunction is defined as a vector...... potential of the velocity field, and provides a pressureless formulation of the conservation laws, which automatically enforces the incompressibility. The resulting numerical method is free from velocity-pressure decoupling errors, and can achieve stable calculations for large Courant numbers, which improve...... the robustness and the efficiency of the solver. The two-dimensional flow of an Oldroyd-B fluid inside the lid-driven cavity is simulated for a large range of Weissenberg numbers. The numerical results demonstrate the second-order accuracy of our scheme, and our solutions are in good agreement with the available...

  9. Numerical Flow Simulation for Complete Vehicle Configurations


    DTIC TAB Surface Remapping Unannounced Surface Grid Optimization Justification .................. Robust Herm ite Transfinite By...Grid Optimization A Hermite transfinite interpolation algorithm with automatic evaluations of slopes and proper twist vectors is developed. A grid...max c.,daries. This information can then be utilized to complete Hermite transfinite interpolation on the parametric space and the surface grid points

  10. Numerical simulation of seasonal groundwater pumping

    Filimonova, Elena; Baldenkov, Mikhail


    Increasing scarcity and contamination of water recourses require innovative water management strategies such as combined water system. The combined water system is a complex technology comprising two separate wells, major catchment-zone well and compensation pumping well, located inside a single stream basin. The major well is supplied by the well's catchment zone or surface flow, thus depleting the stream flow. The pumping rate of a major well is determined by the difference between the current stream flow and the minimum permissible stream flow. The deficiency of the stream flow in dry seasons can be compensated for by the short-term pumping of groundwater. The compensation pumping rate is determined by the difference between water demand and the permissible water withdrawal of the major well. The source for the compensation well is the aquifer storage. The estimation of streamflow depletion caused by compensation pumping is major question to evaluate the efficiency of the combined water system. Short-term groundwater pumping can use aquifer storage instead of catchment-zone water until the drawdown reaches the edge of the stream. Traditionally pumping simulation calculates in two-step procedure. Natural conditions, an aquifer system is in an approximate dynamic equilibrium, describe by steady-state model. A steady-state solution provides an initial heads, a set of flows through boundaries, and used as initial state for transient solutions, when pumping is imposed on an aquifer system. The transient solutions provide the total change in flows through the boundaries. A difference between the transient and steady-state solutions estimates the capture and the streamflow depletion. Numerical modeling of cyclical compensation pumping has special features: the periodic solution, the seasonal changes through the boundaries and the importance even small drawdown of stream level. When seasonality is a modeling feature, traditional approach leads to mistaken values of

  11. Airplane numerical simulation for the rapid prototyping process

    Roysdon, Paul F.

    Airplane Numerical Simulation for the Rapid Prototyping Process is a comprehensive research investigation into the most up-to-date methods for airplane development and design. Uses of modern engineering software tools, like MatLab and Excel, are presented with examples of batch and optimization algorithms which combine the computing power of MatLab with robust aerodynamic tools like XFOIL and AVL. The resulting data is demonstrated in the development and use of a full non-linear six-degrees-of-freedom simulator. The applications for this numerical tool-box vary from un-manned aerial vehicles to first-order analysis of manned aircraft. A Blended-Wing-Body airplane is used for the analysis to demonstrate the flexibility of the code from classic wing-and-tail configurations to less common configurations like the blended-wing-body. This configuration has been shown to have superior aerodynamic performance -- in contrast to their classic wing-and-tube fuselage counterparts -- and have reduced sensitivity to aerodynamic flutter as well as potential for increased engine noise abatement. Of course without a classic tail elevator to damp the nose up pitching moment, and the vertical tail rudder to damp the yaw and possible rolling aerodynamics, the challenges in lateral roll and yaw stability, as well as pitching moment are not insignificant. This thesis work applies the tools necessary to perform the airplane development and optimization on a rapid basis, demonstrating the strength of this tool through examples and comparison of the results to similar airplane performance characteristics published in literature.

  12. Simulation-Based Probabilistic Tsunami Hazard Analysis: Empirical and Robust Hazard Predictions

    De Risi, Raffaele; Goda, Katsuichiro


    Probabilistic tsunami hazard analysis (PTHA) is the prerequisite for rigorous risk assessment and thus for decision-making regarding risk mitigation strategies. This paper proposes a new simulation-based methodology for tsunami hazard assessment for a specific site of an engineering project along the coast, or, more broadly, for a wider tsunami-prone region. The methodology incorporates numerous uncertain parameters that are related to geophysical processes by adopting new scaling relationships for tsunamigenic seismic regions. Through the proposed methodology it is possible to obtain either a tsunami hazard curve for a single location, that is the representation of a tsunami intensity measure (such as inundation depth) versus its mean annual rate of occurrence, or tsunami hazard maps, representing the expected tsunami intensity measures within a geographical area, for a specific probability of occurrence in a given time window. In addition to the conventional tsunami hazard curve that is based on an empirical statistical representation of the simulation-based PTHA results, this study presents a robust tsunami hazard curve, which is based on a Bayesian fitting methodology. The robust approach allows a significant reduction of the number of simulations and, therefore, a reduction of the computational effort. Both methods produce a central estimate of the hazard as well as a confidence interval, facilitating the rigorous quantification of the hazard uncertainties.

  13. Probing Strong Field Gravity Through Numerical Simulations

    Choptuik, Matthew W; Pretorius, Frans


    This article is an overview of the contributions numerical relativity has made to our understanding of strong field gravity, to be published in the book "General Relativity and Gravitation: A Centennial Perspective", commemorating the 100th anniversary of general relativity.

  14. Coherent Structures in Numerically Simulated Plasma Turbulence

    Kofoed-Hansen, O.; Pécseli, H.L.; Trulsen, J.


    Low level electrostatic ion acoustic turbulence generated by the ion-ion beam instability was investigated numerically. The fluctuations in potential were investigated by a conditional statistical analysis revealing propagating coherent structures having the form of negative potential wells which...

  15. A Robust Method for Handling Low Density Regions in Hybrid Simulations for Collisionless Plasmas

    Amano, Takanobu; Shirakawa, Keisuke


    A robust method to handle vacuum and near vacuum regions in hybrid simulations for space and astrophysical plasmas is presented. The conventional hybrid simulation model dealing with kinetic ions and a massless charge-neutralizing electron fluid is known to be susceptible to numerical instability due to divergence of the whistler-mode wave dispersion, as well as division-by-density operation in regions of low density. Consequently, a pure vacuum region is not allowed to exist in the simulation domain unless some ad hoc technique is used. To resolve this difficulty, an alternative way to introduce finite electron inertia effect is proposed. Contrary to the conventional method, the proposed one introduces a correction to the electric field rather than the magnetic field. It is shown that the generalized Ohm's law correctly reduces to Laplace's equation in a vacuum which therefore does not involve any numerical problems. In addition, a variable ion-to-electron mass ratio is introduced to reduce the phase velocit...

  16. A robust method for handling low density regions in hybrid simulations for collisionless plasmas

    Amano, Takanobu, E-mail:; Higashimori, Katsuaki; Shirakawa, Keisuke


    A robust method to handle vacuum and near vacuum regions in hybrid simulations for space and astrophysical plasmas is presented. The conventional hybrid simulation model dealing with kinetic ions and a massless charge-neutralizing electron fluid is known to be susceptible to numerical instability due to divergence of the whistler-mode wave dispersion, as well as division-by-density operation in regions of low density. Consequently, a pure vacuum region is not allowed to exist in the simulation domain unless some ad hoc technique is used. To resolve this difficulty, an alternative way to introduce finite electron inertia effect is proposed. Contrary to the conventional method, the proposed one introduces a correction to the electric field rather than the magnetic field. It is shown that the generalized Ohm's law correctly reduces to Laplace's equation in a vacuum which therefore does not involve any numerical problems. In addition, a variable ion-to-electron mass ratio is introduced to reduce the phase velocity of high frequency whistler waves at low density regions so that the stability condition is always satisfied. It is demonstrated that the proposed model is able to handle near vacuum regions generated as a result of nonlinear self-consistent development of the system, as well as pure vacuum regions set up at the initial condition, without losing the advantages of the standard hybrid code.

  17. Numerical Simulation of Cyclic Thermodynamic Processes

    Andersen, Stig Kildegård


    and a brief overview of the current state of the art in methods for simulating such machines is presented. It was found that different simulation approaches, which model the machines with different levels of detail, currently coexist. Methods using many simplifications can be easy to use and can provide......, and with simulation results from current state of the art software, for two Stirling machines and two pulse tube coolers. Parallelised single and multiple shooting methods were studied and were found to be reliable for finding periodic steady state solutions. Multiple shooting methods had better parallel scalability...

  18. Numerical Propulsion System Simulation for Space Transportation

    Owen, Karl


    Current system simulations are mature, difficult to modify, and poorly documented. Probabilistic life prediction techniques for space applications are in their early application stage. Many parts of the full system, variable fidelity simulation, have been demonstrated individually or technology is available from aeronautical applications. A 20% reduction in time to design with improvements in performance and risk reduction is anticipated. GRC software development will proceed with similar development efforts in aeronautical simulations. Where appropriate, parallel efforts will be encouraged/tracked in high risk areas until success is assured.

  19. Numerical simulation of the fractional Langevin equation

    Guo Peng


    Full Text Available In this paper, we study the fractional Langevin equation, whose derivative is in Caputo sense. By using the derived numerical algorithm, we obtain the displacement and the mean square displacement which describe the dynamic behaviors of the fractional Langevin equation.

  20. Numerical simulations of stellar winds: polytropic models

    Keppens, R.; Goedbloed, J. P.


    We discuss steady-state transonic outflows obtained by direct numerical solution of the hydrodynamic and magnetohydrodynamic equations. We make use of the Versatile Advection Code, a software package for solving systems of (hyperbolic) partial differential equations. We proceed stepwise from a spher

  1. Numerical simulation of tyre/road noise

    Schutte, Jan Henk


    In modern society, traffic noise has become an important issue for mental health. A significant contributor to this noise pollution is exterior tyre/road noise, which is caused by the interaction between tyre and road surface and. In order to reduce tyre/road noise at the source, accurate numerical

  2. Detailed numerical simulations of laser cooling processes

    Ramirez-Serrano, J.; Kohel, J.; Thompson, R.; Yu, N.


    We developed a detailed semiclassical numerical code of the forces applied on atoms in optical and magnetic fields to increase the understanding of the different roles that light, atomic collisions, background pressure, and number of particles play in experiments with laser cooled and trapped atoms.

  3. Numerical Simulation of a Linear Filter.


    spectral density function . The study determines to what degree this method simulates a linear filter. Also included are correlation analyses of equidistributed sequences which are used in the method. (Author)

  4. Polarization transmission at RHIC, numerical simulations

    Meot F.; Bai, M.; Liu, C.; Minty, M.; Ranjbar, V.


    Typical tracking simulations regarding the transmission of the polarization in the proton-proton collider RHIC are discussed. They participate in general studies aimed at understanding and improving polarization performances during polarized proton-proton runs.

  5. A numerical simulation of a contrail

    Levkov, L.; Boin, M.; Meinert, D. [GKSS-Forschungszentrum Geesthacht GmbH, Geesthacht (Germany)


    The formation of a contrail from an aircraft flying near the tropopause is simulated using a three-dimensional mesoscale atmospheric model including a very complex scheme of parameterized cloud microphysical processes. The model predicted ice concentrations are in very good agreement with data measured during the International Cirrus Experiment (ICE), 1989. Sensitivity simulations were run to determine humidity forcing on the life time of contrails. (author) 4 refs.

  6. Dynamic optimization of distributed biological systems using robust and efficient numerical techniques

    Vilas Carlos


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Systems biology allows the analysis of biological systems behavior under different conditions through in silico experimentation. The possibility of perturbing biological systems in different manners calls for the design of perturbations to achieve particular goals. Examples would include, the design of a chemical stimulation to maximize the amplitude of a given cellular signal or to achieve a desired pattern in pattern formation systems, etc. Such design problems can be mathematically formulated as dynamic optimization problems which are particularly challenging when the system is described by partial differential equations. This work addresses the numerical solution of such dynamic optimization problems for spatially distributed biological systems. The usual nonlinear and large scale nature of the mathematical models related to this class of systems and the presence of constraints on the optimization problems, impose a number of difficulties, such as the presence of suboptimal solutions, which call for robust and efficient numerical techniques. Results Here, the use of a control vector parameterization approach combined with efficient and robust hybrid global optimization methods and a reduced order model methodology is proposed. The capabilities of this strategy are illustrated considering the solution of a two challenging problems: bacterial chemotaxis and the FitzHugh-Nagumo model. Conclusions In the process of chemotaxis the objective was to efficiently compute the time-varying optimal concentration of chemotractant in one of the spatial boundaries in order to achieve predefined cell distribution profiles. Results are in agreement with those previously published in the literature. The FitzHugh-Nagumo problem is also efficiently solved and it illustrates very well how dynamic optimization may be used to force a system to evolve from an undesired to a desired pattern with a reduced number of actuators. The presented

  7. Numerical Simulation of the Lightning Return Stroke.

    da Frota Mattos, Marcos Andre

    Available from UMI in association with The British Library. Requires signed TDF. Several lightning return stroke models were developed in this work. Initially very simple models were developed, and subsequently many of the main features of the channel were added. The corona effect, the geometrical parameters, non-linear losses and the cloud losses are these features. To solve the RLC network model of the channel the numerical technique known as TLM was used. A numerical sensitivity study was made to analyse the influence of the filtering and the Gibbs effects on the results. A sensitivity study of the channel's parameters was also made. For the first time three of the main measured lightning channel quantities were calculated showing good agreement with observations. These quantities are the electromagnetic field, current waveshape at ground and the velocity of propagation. The surge impedence and the current rise-time were also calculated at all heights.

  8. Numerical Simulation of Oil Spill in Ocean

    Yong-Sik Cho


    Full Text Available The spreading of oil in an open ocean may cause serious damage to a marine environmental system. Thus, an accurate prediction of oil spill is very important to minimize coastal damage due to unexpected oil spill accident. The movement of oil may be represented with a numerical model that solves an advection-diffusion-reaction equation with a proper numerical scheme. In this study, the spilled oil dispersion model has been established in consideration of tide and tidal currents simultaneously. The velocity components in the advection-diffusion-reaction equation are obtained from the shallow-water equations. The accuracy of the model is verified by applying it to a simple but significant problem. The results produced by the model agree with corresponding analytical solutions and field-observed data. The model is then applied to predict the spreading of an oil spill in a real coastal environment.

  9. Numerical Simulation of Piston Ring Lubrication

    Felter, Christian Lotz


    This paper describes a numerical method that can be used to model the lubrication of piston rings. Classical lubrication theory is based on the Reynolds equation which is ap- plicable to confined geometries and open geometries where the flooding conditions are known. Lubrication of piston rings...... is extended to include also the oil film outside the piston rings. The numerical model consists of a 2D free surface code that solves the time dependent compressible Navier-Stokes equations. The equations are cast in Lagrangian form and discretized by a meshfree moving least squares method using the primitive......, however, fall outside this category of problems since the piston rings might suffer from starved running conditions. This means that the com- putational domain where Reynold equation is applicable (including a cavitation criteria) is unknown. In order to overcome this problem the computational domain...

  10. Numerical characteristics of quantum computer simulation

    Chernyavskiy, A.; Khamitov, K.; Teplov, A.; Voevodin, V.; Voevodin, Vl.


    The simulation of quantum circuits is significantly important for the implementation of quantum information technologies. The main difficulty of such modeling is the exponential growth of dimensionality, thus the usage of modern high-performance parallel computations is relevant. As it is well known, arbitrary quantum computation in circuit model can be done by only single- and two-qubit gates, and we analyze the computational structure and properties of the simulation of such gates. We investigate the fact that the unique properties of quantum nature lead to the computational properties of the considered algorithms: the quantum parallelism make the simulation of quantum gates highly parallel, and on the other hand, quantum entanglement leads to the problem of computational locality during simulation. We use the methodology of the AlgoWiki project ( to analyze the algorithm. This methodology consists of theoretical (sequential and parallel complexity, macro structure, and visual informational graph) and experimental (locality and memory access, scalability and more specific dynamic characteristics) parts. Experimental part was made by using the petascale Lomonosov supercomputer (Moscow State University, Russia). We show that the simulation of quantum gates is a good base for the research and testing of the development methods for data intense parallel software, and considered methodology of the analysis can be successfully used for the improvement of the algorithms in quantum information science.

  11. Fastening elements in concrete structures - numerical simulations

    Ozbolt, Josko; Eligehausen, Rolf


    Anchoring elements such as headed and expansion studs and grouted or undercut anchors, are often used for local transfer of loads into concrete members. In order to better understand the failure mechanism, a large number of experiments have been carried out in the past. However, due to the complicated three-dimensional load transfer a very few or no numerical studies have been performed for a number of different fastening situations i.e. influence of the embedment depth, crack-width inftuence...

  12. Numerical simulation of magmatic hydrothermal systems

    Ingebritsen, S.E.; Geiger, S.; Hurwitz, S.; Driesner, T.


    The dynamic behavior of magmatic hydrothermal systems entails coupled and nonlinear multiphase flow, heat and solute transport, and deformation in highly heterogeneous media. Thus, quantitative analysis of these systems depends mainly on numerical solution of coupled partial differential equations and complementary equations of state (EOS). The past 2 decades have seen steady growth of computational power and the development of numerical models that have eliminated or minimized the need for various simplifying assumptions. Considerable heuristic insight has been gained from process-oriented numerical modeling. Recent modeling efforts employing relatively complete EOS and accurate transport calculations have revealed dynamic behavior that was damped by linearized, less accurate models, including fluid property control of hydrothermal plume temperatures and three-dimensional geometries. Other recent modeling results have further elucidated the controlling role of permeability structure and revealed the potential for significant hydrothermally driven deformation. Key areas for future reSearch include incorporation of accurate EOS for the complete H2O-NaCl-CO2 system, more realistic treatment of material heterogeneity in space and time, realistic description of large-scale relative permeability behavior, and intercode benchmarking comparisons. Copyright 2010 by the American Geophysical Union.


    WU Chun-liang


    Sedimentation of particles in inclined and vertical vessels is numerically simulated by the Eulerian two-fluid model. The numerical results show an interesting phenomenon with two circulation vortexes in a vertical vessel but one in the inclined vessel. Sensitivity tests indicate that the boundary layer effect is the key to induce this phenomenon. A numerical method based on 2D unstructured meshes is presented to solve the hard-sphere discrete particle model. Several applications show the numerical method has a good performance to simulate dense particulate flows in irregular domains without regard to element types of the mesh.

  14. Numerical simulation of AM1 microstructure

    Rougier Luc


    Full Text Available A modelling approach is developed for the description of microstructure formation in the industrial AM1 Ni-base superalloy. Solidification and homogenization simulations are first carried out using a microsegregation model, before using the local compositions as an input for precipitation calculations, in order to characterize the influence of segregation on precipitation. First, the precipitation model was validated by comparing simulated and measured evolutions of the average precipitate radius during isothermal heat treatments at 1100 ∘C and 1210 ∘C. The chained microsegregation and precipitation simulations indicate that the global sequences of precipitation events remains are qualitatively the same at the different locations in the microstructure, but the growth and dissolution kinetics are strongly influenced by the local compositions. Local supersaturations have a larger effect on the average radius of the precipitates than certain stages of the precipitation heat treatment.

  15. Study on numerical simulation of nodular graphite iron microstructure formation


    In this paper, the mathematical and physical model was developed based on thermodynamics and solidification theory before the eutectoid transformation of nodular graphite iron occurred. The Local Element Substitute and Magnification Method was brought forward and 3-dimensional numerical simulation program based on the model and the new assistant algorithm was developed and used to calculate the samples. Results of calculation have good agreement with experimental data. To display the microstructure formation during solidification of nodular graphite iron, a 2-dimensional numerical simulation program combined with the result of the 3-dimensional numerical simulation of experimental samples was compiled.

  16. Numerical simulation of hot stamping of side impact beam

    Guo Yihui; Ma Mingtu; Fang Gang; Song Leifeng; Liu Qiang; Wang Xiaona; Zhou Dianwu


    Ls-DYNA software is adopted to conduct research of numerical simulation on hot stamping of side impact beam to calculate the temperature field distribution, stress field distribution, forming limit diagram (FLD) figure, etc. in the course of hot stamping so as to predict and analyze the formability of parts. ProCAST software is employed to conduct research of numerical simulation on solid quenching course concerning hot stamping to calculate temperature field distri- bution of tools and component of muhiple stamping cycles. The results obtained from numerical simulation can provide significant reference value to hot stamping part design, formability predication and tools cooling system design.

  17. Numerical simulations of shoaling internal solitary waves of elevation

    Xu, Chengzhu; Subich, Christopher; Stastna, Marek


    We present high-resolution, two- and three-dimensional direct numerical simulations of large amplitude internal solitary waves of elevation on the laboratory scale, shoaling onto and over a small-amplitude shelf. The three-dimensional, mapped coordinate, spectral collocation method used for the simulations allows for accurate modelling of both the shoaling waves and the bottom boundary layer. The shoaling of the waves is characterized by the formation of a quasi-trapped core which undergoes a spatially growing stratified shear instability at its edge and a lobe-cleft instability in its nose. Both of these instabilities develop and three-dimensionalize concurrently, leading to strong bottom shear stress. We explore significant regions of Schmidt and Reynolds number space and demonstrate that the formation of shear instabilities during shoaling is robust and should be readily observable in a number of standard laboratory setups. In the experiments with a corrugated bottom boundary, boundary layer separation is found inside each of the corrugations during shoaling. This more complex boundary layer phenomenology precludes the formation of the lobe-cleft instability almost completely and hence provides a different mechanism for fluid and material exchange across the bottom boundary layer. Our analyses suggest that all of these wave-induced instabilities can lead to enhanced turbulence in the water column and increased shear stress on the bottom boundary. Through the generation and evolution of these instabilities, the shoaling of internal solitary waves of elevation is likely to provide systematic mechanisms for material mixing, cross-boundary layer transport, and sediment resuspension.

  18. Numerical earthquake simulations for seismic hazard assessment

    Ismail-Zadeh, Alik; Sokolov, Vladimir; Soloviev, Alexander


    A comprehensive seismic hazard assessment can contribute to earthquake preparedness and preventive measures aimed to reduce impacts of earthquakes, especially in the view of growing population and increasing vulnerability and exposure. Realistic earthquake simulations coupled with a seismic hazard analysis can provide better assessments of potential ground shaking due to large earthquakes. We present a model of block-and-fault dynamics, which simulates earthquakes in response to lithosphere movements and allows for studying the influence of fault network properties on seismic patterns. Using case studies (e.g., the Tibet-Himalayan region and the Caucasian region), we analyse the model's performance in terms of reproduction of basic features of the observed seismicity, such as the frequency-magnitude relationship, clustering of earthquakes, occurrences of large events, fault slip rates, and earthquake mechanisms. We examine a new approach to probabilistic seismic hazard assessment, which is based on instrumentally recorded, historical and simulated earthquakes. Based on predicted and observed peak ground acceleration values, we show that the hazard level associated with large events significantly increases if the long record of simulated seismicity is considered in the hazard assessment.

  19. Pseudo-reconnection in MHD numerical simulation


    A class of pseudo-reconnections caused by a shifted mesh in magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) simulations is reported. In terms of this mesh system, some non-physical results may be obtained in certain circumstances, e.g. magnetic reconnection occurs without resistivity. After comparison, another kind of mesh is strongly recommended.

  20. Numerical simulations of nanostructured gold films

    Repän, Taavi; Frydendahl, Christian; Novikov, Sergey M.


    We present an approach to analyse near-field effects on nanostructured gold films by finite element simulations. The studied samples are formed by fabricating gold films near the percolation threshold and then applying laser damage. Resulting samples have complicated structures, which...

  1. Simulation of Wave Overtopping of Maritime Structures in a Numerical Wave Flume

    Tiago C. A. Oliveira


    Full Text Available A numerical wave flume based on the particle finite element method (PFEM is applied to simulate wave overtopping for impermeable maritime structures. An assessment of the performance and robustness of the numerical wave flume is carried out for two different cases comparing numerical results with experimental data. In the first case, a well-defined benchmark test of a simple low-crested structure overtopped by regular nonbreaking waves is presented, tested in the lab, and simulated in the numerical wave flume. In the second case, state-of-the-art physical experiments of a trapezoidal structure placed on a sloping beach overtopped by regular breaking waves are simulated in the numerical wave flume. For both cases, main overtopping events are well detected by the numerical wave flume. However, nonlinear processes controlling the tests proposed, such as nonlinear wave generation, energy losses along the wave propagation track, wave reflection, and overtopping events, are reproduced with more accuracy in the first case. Results indicate that a numerical wave flume based on the PFEM can be applied as an efficient tool to supplement physical models, semiempirical formulations, and other numerical techniques to deal with overtopping of maritime structures.



    The scour problem under spillway has received a lot of attention in the past decades. For such a complicated problem, most numerical modeling presented only dealt with the water flows in equilibrium scour pools without considering the changing topography of the riverbed. In this paper, the dynamic process is handled with moving grids, and the governing equations are solved using finite volume method with colocated variable arrangement on boundary-fitted non-orthogonal grids. The results show that the given method is efficient, with which the variation of flow parameters, such as mean velocity and mean pressure, etc., can be computed correctly.

  3. Robust numerical phase stabilization for long-range swept-source optical coherence tomography.

    Song, Shaozhen; Xu, Jingjiang; Men, Shaojie; Shen, Tueng T; Wang, Ruikang K


    A novel phase stabilization technique is demonstrated with significant improvement in the phase stability of a micro-electromechanical (MEMS) vertical cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL) based swept-source optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT) system. Without any requirements of hardware modifications, the new fully numerical phase stabilization technique features high tolerance to acquisition jitter, and significantly reduced budget in computational effort. We demonstrate that when measured with biological tissue, this technique enables a phase sensitivity of 89 mrad in highly scattering tissue, with image ranging distance of up to 12.5 mm at A-line scan rate of 100.3 kHz. We further compare the performances delivered by the phase-stabilization approach with conventional numerical approach for accuracy and computational efficiency. Imaging result of complex signal-based optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) and Doppler OCTA indicate that the proposed phase stabilization technique is robust, and efficient in improving the image contrast-to-noise ratio and extending OCTA depth range. The proposed technique can be universally applied to improve phase-stability in generic SS-OCT with different scale of scan rates without a need for special treatment. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Numerical Simulation of Rotating Vertical Bridgman Growth

    S. Nouri


    Full Text Available The present work is proposed a numerical parametric study of heat and mass transfer in a rotating vertical cylinder during the solidification of a binary metallic alloy. The aim of this paper is to present an enthalpy formulation based on the fixed grid methodology for the numerical solution of convective-diffusion during the phase change in the case of the steady crucible rotation. The extended Darcy model including the time derivative and Coriolis terms was applied as momentum equation. It was found that the buoyancy driven flow and solute distribution can be affected significantly by the rotating cylinder. The problem is governed by the Navier-Stokes equations coupled with the conservation laws of energy and solute. The resulting system was discretized by the control volume method and solved by the SIMPLER algorithm proposed by Patankar. A computer code was developed and validated by comparison with previous studies. It can be observed that the forced convection introduced by rotation, dramatically changes the flow and solute distribution at the interface (liquid-mushy zone. The effect of Reynolds number on the Nusselt number, flow and solute distribution is presented and discussed.

  5. Numerical simulation of avascular tumor growth

    Slezak, D Fernandez; Suarez, C; Soba, A; Risk, M; Marshall, G [Laboratorio de Sistemas Complejos, Departamento de Computacion, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Buenos Aires (C1428EGA) Buenos Aires (Argentina)


    A mathematical and numerical model for the description of different aspects of microtumor development is presented. The model is based in the solution of a system of partial differential equations describing an avascular tumor growth. A detailed second-order numeric algorithm for solving this system is described. Parameters are swiped to cover a range of feasible physiological values. While previous published works used a single set of parameters values, here we present a wide range of feasible solutions for tumor growth, covering a more realistic scenario. The model is validated by experimental data obtained with a multicellular spheroid model, a specific type of in vitro biological model which is at present considered to be optimum for the study of complex aspects of avascular microtumor physiology. Moreover, a dynamical analysis and local behaviour of the system is presented, showing chaotic situations for particular sets of parameter values at some fixed points. Further biological experiments related to those specific points may give potentially interesting results.

  6. Radiative Transfer in 3D Numerical Simulations

    Stein, R; Stein, Robert; Nordlund, Aake


    We simulate convection near the solar surface, where the continuum optical depth is of order unity. Hence, to determine the radiative heating and cooling in the energy conservation equation, we must solve the radiative transfer equation (instead of using the diffusion or optically thin cooling approximations). A method efficient enough to calculate the radiation for thousands of time steps is needed. We assume LTE and a non-gray opacity grouped into 4 bins according to strength. We perform a formal solution of the Feautrier equation along a vertical and four straight, slanted, rays (at four azimuthal angles which are rotated 15 deg. every time step). We present details of our method. We also give some results: comparing simulated and observed line profiles for the Sun, showing the importance of 3D transfer for the structure of the mean atmosphere and the eigenfrequencies of p-modes, illustrating Stokes profiles for micropores, and analyzing the effect of radiation on p-mode asymmetries.

  7. Numerical simulation of imaging laser radar system

    Han, Shaokun; Lu, Bo; Jiang, Ming; Liu, Xunliang


    Rational and effective design of imaging laser radar systems is the key of imaging laser radar system research. Design must fully consider the interrelationship between various parameters. According to the parameters, choose suitable laser, detector and other components. To use of mathematical modeling and computer simulation is an effective imaging laser radar system design methods. This paper based on the distance equation, using the detection statistical methods, from the laser radar range coverage, detection probability, false-alarm rate, SNR to build the laser radar system mathematical models. In the process of setting up the mathematical models to fully consider the laser, atmosphere, detector and other factors on the performance that is to make the models be able to respond accurately the real situation. Based on this using C# and Matlab designed a simulation software.

  8. Numerical simulation of the LAGEOS thermal behavior and thermal accelerations

    Andrés, J.I.; Noomen, R.; Vecellio None, S.


    The temperature distribution throughout the LAGEOS satellites is simulated numerically with the objective to determine the resulting thermal force. The different elements and materials comprising the spacecraft, with their energy transfer, have been modeled with unprecedented detail. The radiation i

  9. Fluid dynamics theory, computation, and numerical simulation

    Pozrikidis, C


    This book provides an accessible introduction to the basic theory of fluid mechanics and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) from a modern perspective that unifies theory and numerical computation. Methods of scientific computing are introduced alongside with theoretical analysis and MATLAB® codes are presented and discussed for a broad range of topics: from interfacial shapes in hydrostatics, to vortex dynamics, to viscous flow, to turbulent flow, to panel methods for flow past airfoils. The third edition includes new topics, additional examples, solved and unsolved problems, and revised images. It adds more computational algorithms and MATLAB programs. It also incorporates discussion of the latest version of the fluid dynamics software library FDLIB, which is freely available online. FDLIB offers an extensive range of computer codes that demonstrate the implementation of elementary and advanced algorithms and provide an invaluable resource for research, teaching, classroom instruction, and self-study. This ...

  10. Numerical Simulation of a Negative Impulsive Wave

    ToshiakiSETOGUCHI; ShenYU; 等


    A compression wave discharged from an open end of a tube causes positive impulsive noise,Active noise cancellation which is the cancelling of the noise by the addition of an inverse wave is a useful technique for reducing impulsive noise,The main objective of this study is to present the design for a negative impulsive wave generator utilizing unsteady mass influx.In this paper,in order to clarify the relationship between the unsteady mass influx and the negative impulsive wave,numerical and aeroacoustic analyses have been carried out using an unsteady expansion wave discharged from an open end of a shock tube.As a result,the effect of an unsteady expansion wave on a negative impulsive wave was charified.

  11. Partial Differential Equations Modeling and Numerical Simulation

    Glowinski, Roland


    This book is dedicated to Olivier Pironneau. For more than 250 years partial differential equations have been clearly the most important tool available to mankind in order to understand a large variety of phenomena, natural at first and then those originating from human activity and technological development. Mechanics, physics and their engineering applications were the first to benefit from the impact of partial differential equations on modeling and design, but a little less than a century ago the Schrödinger equation was the key opening the door to the application of partial differential equations to quantum chemistry, for small atomic and molecular systems at first, but then for systems of fast growing complexity. Mathematical modeling methods based on partial differential equations form an important part of contemporary science and are widely used in engineering and scientific applications. In this book several experts in this field present their latest results and discuss trends in the numerical analy...

  12. Numerical simulations of stellar winds polytropic models

    Keppens, R


    We discuss steady-state transonic outflows obtained by direct numerical solution of the hydrodynamic and magnetohydrodynamic equations. We make use of the Versatile Advection Code, a software package for solving systems of (hyperbolic) partial differential equations. We proceed stepwise from a spherically symmetric, isothermal, unmagnetized, non-rotating Parker wind to arrive at axisymmetric, polytropic, magnetized, rotating models. These represent 2D generalisations of the analytical 1D Weber-Davis wind solution, which we obtain in the process. Axisymmetric wind solutions containing both a `wind' and a `dead' zone are presented. Since we are solving for steady-state solutions, we efficiently exploit fully implicit time stepping. The method allows us to model thermally and/or magneto-centrifugally driven stellar outflows. We particularly emphasize the boundary conditions imposed at the stellar surface. For these axisymmetric, steady-state solutions, we can use the knowledge of the flux functions to verify the...

  13. Numerical simulation of distributed parameter processes

    Colosi, Tiberiu; Unguresan, Mihaela-Ligia; Muresan, Vlad


    The present monograph defines, interprets and uses the matrix of partial derivatives of the state vector with applications for the study of some common categories of engineering. The book covers broad categories of processes that are formed by systems of partial derivative equations (PDEs), including systems of ordinary differential equations (ODEs). The work includes numerous applications specific to Systems Theory based on Mpdx, such as parallel, serial as well as feed-back connections for the processes defined by PDEs. For similar, more complex processes based on Mpdx with PDEs and ODEs as components, we have developed control schemes with PID effects for the propagation phenomena, in continuous media (spaces) or discontinuous ones (chemistry, power system, thermo-energetic) or in electro-mechanics (railway – traction) and so on. The monograph has a purely engineering focus and is intended for a target audience working in extremely diverse fields of application (propagation phenomena, diffusion, hydrodyn...



    For the computation of the sediment quantity released from reservoirs, a vertical two-dimensional hydrodynamic model is combined with a sediment transport model. The hydrodynamic model is based on the equations of mass and momentum conservation along with a k - ε model for closure of the Reynolds stresses. The sediment transport model is based on the convection-diffusion equation of sediment concentration and the sediment continuity equation. Both the hydrodynamic and sediment transport models are developed in a boundary-fitted curvilinear co-ordinate system. Comparison of the predicted mean velocity field with laboratory results indicates that the present model captures most experimental trends with reasonable accuracy. Also good agreement is found in comparison of the sediment transport results for the numerical model and the experimental model.

  15. Numerical simulation of icing, deicing, and shedding

    Wright, W. B.; Dewitt, K. J.; Keith, T. G., Jr.


    An algorithm has been developed to numerically model the concurrent phenomena of two-dimensional transient heat transfer, ice accretion, ice shedding and ice trajectory which arise from the use of electrothermal pad. The Alternating Direction Implicit method is used to simultaneously solve the heat transfer and accretion equations occurring in the multilayered body covered with ice. In order to model the phase change between ice and water, a technique was used which assumes a phase for each node. This allows the equations to be linearized such that a direct solution is possible. This technique requires an iterative procedure to find the correct phase at each node. The computer program developed to find this solution has been integrated with the NASA-Lewis flow/trajectory code LEWICE.

  16. Vector Potential Generation for Numerical Relativity Simulations

    Silberman, Zachary; Faber, Joshua; Adams, Thomas; Etienne, Zachariah; Ruchlin, Ian


    Many different numerical codes are employed in studies of highly relativistic magnetized accretion flows around black holes. Based on the formalisms each uses, some codes evolve the magnetic field vector B, while others evolve the magnetic vector potential A, the two being related by the curl: B=curl(A). Here, we discuss how to generate vector potentials corresponding to specified magnetic fields on staggered grids, a surprisingly difficult task on finite cubic domains. The code we have developed solves this problem in two ways: a brute-force method, whose scaling is nearly linear in the number of grid cells, and a direct linear algebra approach. We discuss the success both algorithms have in generating smooth vector potential configurations and how both may be extended to more complicated cases involving multiple mesh-refinement levels. NSF ACI-1550436

  17. Numerical Simulations of a Possible Hypercomputational Quantum Algorithm

    Sicard, Andrés; Ospina, Juan; Vélez, Mario


    The hypercomputers compute functions or numbers, or more generally solve problems or carry out tasks, that cannot be computed or solved by a Turing machine. Several numerical simulations of a possible hypercomputational algorithm based on quantum computations previously constructed by the authors are presented. The hypercomputability of our algorithm is based on the fact that this algorithm could solve a classically non-computable decision problem, Hilbert's tenth problem. The numerical simul...

  18. Numerical Simulation of Physical and Chemical Processes in Fluidized Bed

    Baturin, D. A.; Gil, A. V.


    The paper presents a numerical simulation of the furnace with a circulating fluidized bed. Numerical study carried out for the bottom of the combustion chamber with the varying heights of volume filling. The results contours of particulate matter concentration and of velocities, as well as a graphical representation of changes in the concentration of particles on the bed height are shown. Simulation performed in Eulerian - Eulerian representation on a 2D model.

  19. Numerical simulations of cardiovascular diseases and global matter transport

    Simakov, S S; Evdokimov, A V; Kholodov, Y A


    Numerical model of the peripheral circulation and dynamical model of the large vessels and the heart are discussed in this paper. They combined together into the global model of blood circulation. Some results of numerical simulations concerning matter transport through the human organism and heart diseases are represented in the end.


    姚国凤; 陈光南


    Numerical simulation of thermal field was studied in laser processing. The 3 -D finite element model of transient thermal calculation is given by thermal conductive equation.The effects of phase transformation latent are considered. Numerical example is given to verify the model. Finally the real example of transient thermal field is given.

  1. Stochastic Analysis Method of Sea Environment Simulated by Numerical Models

    刘德辅; 焦桂英; 张明霞; 温书勤


    This paper proposes the stochastic analysis method of sea environment simulated by numerical models, such as wave height, current field, design sea levels and longshore sediment transport. Uncertainty and sensitivity analysis of input and output factors of numerical models, their long-term distribution and confidence intervals are described in this paper.

  2. Numerical and laboratory simulations of auroral acceleration

    Gunell, H.; De Keyser, J. [1Belgian Institute for Space Aeronomy, Avenue Circulaire 3, B-1180 Brussels (Belgium); Mann, I. [EISCAT Scientific Association, P.O. Box 812, SE-981 28 Kiruna, Sweden and Department of Physics, Umeå University, SE-901 87 Umeå (Sweden)


    The existence of parallel electric fields is an essential ingredient of auroral physics, leading to the acceleration of particles that give rise to the auroral displays. An auroral flux tube is modelled using electrostatic Vlasov simulations, and the results are compared to simulations of a proposed laboratory device that is meant for studies of the plasma physical processes that occur on auroral field lines. The hot magnetospheric plasma is represented by a gas discharge plasma source in the laboratory device, and the cold plasma mimicking the ionospheric plasma is generated by a Q-machine source. In both systems, double layers form with plasma density gradients concentrated on their high potential sides. The systems differ regarding the properties of ion acoustic waves that are heavily damped in the magnetosphere, where the ion population is hot, but weakly damped in the laboratory, where the discharge ions are cold. Ion waves are excited by the ion beam that is created by acceleration in the double layer in both systems. The efficiency of this beam-plasma interaction depends on the acceleration voltage. For voltages where the interaction is less efficient, the laboratory experiment is more space-like.

  3. Numerical simulation of ventilation in blinding heading

    CHANG De-qiang; LIU Jing-xian; CHEN Bao-zhi


    The way of ventilation in all its forms and characteristics in the blinding heading was studied. On the basis of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) the turbulence model of restrained ventilation in blinding heading was set up, and the calculation boundary condi-tions were analyzed. According to the practice application the three-dimensional flow field of ventilation in blinding heading was simulated by the computational fluid dynamics soft-ware. The characteristics of the ventilation flow field such as the temperature field zone and the flow filed zone and the rule of the flow velocity were obtained. The ventilation in blinding heading under certain circumstances was calculated and simulated for optimiza-tion. The optimal ventilation form and related parameters under given condition were ob-tained. The rule of the ventilation in blinding heading was theoretical analyzed, which pro-vided reference for the research on the process of mass transfer, the rule of hazardous substances transportation and ventilation efficiency, provided a new method for the study of reasonable and effective ventilation in blinding heading.

  4. Numerical simulation of ventilation in blinding heading

    CHANG De-qiang; LIU Jing-xian; CHEN Bao-zhi


    The way of ventilation in all its forms and characteristics in the blinding heading was studied.On the basis of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) the turbulence model of restrained ventilation in blinding heading was set up,and the calculation boundary conditions were analyzed.According to the practice application the three-dimensional flow field of ventilation in blinding heading was simulated by the computational fluid dynamics software.The characteristics of the ventilation flow field such as the temperature field zone and the flow filed zone and the rule of the flow velocity were obtained.The ventilation in blinding heading under certain circumstances was calculated and simulated for optimization.The optimal ventilation form and related parameters under given condition were obtained.The rule of the ventilation in blinding heading was theoretical analyzed,which provided reference for the research on the process of mass transfer,the rule of hazardous substances transportation and ventilation efficiency,provided a new method for the study of reasonable and effective ventilation in blinding heading.

  5. Numerical Simulations of a Flux Rope Ejection

    P. Pagano; D. H. Mackay; S. Poedts


    Coronal mass ejections (CMEs) are the most violent phenomena observed on the Sun. One of the most successful models to explain CMEs is the flux rope ejection model, where a magnetic flux rope is expelled from the solar corona after a long phase along which the flux rope stays in equilibrium while magnetic energy is being accumulated. However, still many questions are outstanding on the detailed mechanism of the ejection and observations continuously provide new data to interpret and put in the context. Currently, extreme ultraviolet (EUV) images from the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) on board the Solar Dynamic Observatory (SDO) are providing new insights into the early phase of CME evolution. In particular, observations show the ejection of magnetic flux ropes from the solar corona and how they evolve into CMEs. However, these observations are difficult to interpret in terms of basic physical mechanisms and quantities, thus, we need to compare equivalent quantities to test and improve our models. In our work, we intend to bridge the gap between models and observations with our model of flux rope ejection where we consistently describe the full life span of a flux rope from its formation to ejection. This is done by coupling the global non-linear force-free model (GNLFFF) built to describe the slow low- formation phase, with a full MHD simulation run with the software MPI-AMRVAC, suitable to describe the fast MHD evolution of the flux rope ejection that happens in a heterogeneous regime. We also explore the parameter space to identify the conditions upon which the ejection is favoured (gravity stratification and magnetic field intensity) and we produce synthesised AIA observations (171 Å and 211 Å). To carry this out, we run 3D MHD simulation in spherical coordinates where we include the role of thermal conduction and radiative losses, both of which are important for determining the temperature distribution of the solar corona during a CME. Our model of flux

  6. Numerical simulation of supersonic gap flow.

    Jing, Xu; Haiming, Huang; Guo, Huang; Song, Mo


    Various gaps in the surface of the supersonic aircraft have a significant effect on airflows. In order to predict the effects of attack angle, Mach number and width-to-depth ratio of gap on the local aerodynamic heating environment of supersonic flow, two-dimensional compressible Navier-Stokes equations are solved by the finite volume method, where convective flux of space term adopts the Roe format, and discretization of time term is achieved by 5-step Runge-Kutta algorithm. The numerical results reveal that the heat flux ratio is U-shaped distribution on the gap wall and maximum at the windward corner of the gap. The heat flux ratio decreases as the gap depth and Mach number increase, however, it increases as the attack angle increases. In addition, it is important to find that chamfer in the windward corner can effectively reduce gap effect coefficient. The study will be helpful for the design of the thermal protection system in reentry vehicles.

  7. Numerical simulation of supersonic gap flow.

    Xu Jing

    Full Text Available Various gaps in the surface of the supersonic aircraft have a significant effect on airflows. In order to predict the effects of attack angle, Mach number and width-to-depth ratio of gap on the local aerodynamic heating environment of supersonic flow, two-dimensional compressible Navier-Stokes equations are solved by the finite volume method, where convective flux of space term adopts the Roe format, and discretization of time term is achieved by 5-step Runge-Kutta algorithm. The numerical results reveal that the heat flux ratio is U-shaped distribution on the gap wall and maximum at the windward corner of the gap. The heat flux ratio decreases as the gap depth and Mach number increase, however, it increases as the attack angle increases. In addition, it is important to find that chamfer in the windward corner can effectively reduce gap effect coefficient. The study will be helpful for the design of the thermal protection system in reentry vehicles.

  8. AGN feedback in elliptical galaxies: numerical simulations

    Ciotti, L


    The importance of feedback (radiative and mechanical) from massive black holes at the centers of elliptical galaxies is not in doubt, given the well established relation among black hole mass and galaxy optical luminosity. Here, with the aid of high-resolution hydrodynamical simulations, we discuss how this feedback affects the hot ISM of isolated elliptical galaxies of different mass. The cooling and heating functions include photoionization plus Compton heating, the radiative transport equations are solved, and the mechanical feedback due to the nuclear wind is also described on a physical basis; star formation is considered. In the medium-high mass galaxies the resulting evolution is highly unsteady. At early times major accretion episodes caused by cooling flows in the recycled gas produced by stellar evolution trigger AGN flaring: relaxation instabilities occur so that duty cycles are small enough to account for the very small fraction of massive ellipticals observed to be in the QSO-phase, when the accr...

  9. Numerical simulation of the world ocean circulation

    Takano, K.; Mintz, Y.; Han, Y. J.


    A multi-level model, based on the primitive equations, is developed for simulating the temperature and velocity fields produced in the world ocean by differential heating and surface wind stress. The model ocean has constant depth, free slip at the lower boundary, and neglects momentum advection; so that there is no energy exchange between the barotropic and baroclinic components of the motion, although the former influences the latter through temperature advection. The ocean model was designed to be coupled to the UCLA atmospheric general circulation model, for the study of the dynamics of climate and climate changes. But here, the model is tested by prescribing the observed seasonally varying surface wind stress and the incident solar radiation, the surface air temperature and humidity, cloudiness and the surface wind speed, which, together with the predicted ocean surface temperature, determine the surface flux of radiant energy, sensible heat and latent heat.

  10. Numerical simulation of synthesis gas incineration

    Kazakov, A. V.; Khaustov, S. A.; Tabakaev, R. B.; Belousova, Y. A.


    The authors have analysed the expediency of the suggested low-grade fuels application method. Thermal processing of solid raw materials in the gaseous fuel, called synthesis gas, is investigated. The technical challenges concerning the applicability of the existing gas equipment developed and extensively tested exclusively for natural gas were considered. For this purpose computer simulation of three-dimensional syngas-incinerating flame dynamics was performed by means of the ANSYS Multiphysics engineering software. The subjects of studying were: a three-dimensional aerodynamic flame structure, heat-release and temperature fields, a set of combustion properties: a flare range and the concentration distribution of burnout reagents. The obtained results were presented in the form of a time-averaged pathlines with color indexing. The obtained results can be used for qualitative and quantitative evaluation of complex multicomponent gas incineration singularities.

  11. Identification of DVT diseases using numerical simulations.

    Simão, M; Ferreira, J M; Mora-Rodriguez, J; Ramos, H M


    This research provides useful insights for better diagnosis and understanding the vein blockage induced by a deep venous thrombosis and the occurrence of reverse flow in human veins, allowing a proper detection of serious diseases related to deep venous insufficiency. An arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian formulation is used in a coupled model (i.e. fluid and structure equations solved together), considering two domains, specifically the blood flow and the flexible structures (i.e. vein and valves). Computational fluid dynamics mathematical model based on finite element method, with special elements and boundary characterization, is addressed to find the best solution. This research presents a novel model to study the interaction between non-Newtonian laminar fluid flows, the blood, within nonlinear structures, the vein walls. Simulation results are validated using in vivo echo-Doppler measurements.

  12. Numerical tools for Molten salt reactor simulation

    Doligez, X.; Heuer, D.; Merle-Lucotte, E.; Allibert, M.; Ghetta, V. [LPSC-IN2P3-CNRS/Universite Joseph Fourier/Grenoble-INP, 53 Avenue des Martyrs, 38026 Grenoble Cedex (France)


    Molten salt reactors (MSR) are basically different from other reactors mainly because the fuel is liquid. It flows through the core, pipes, pumps and heat exchangers. Previous studies showed that a particular configuration of a molten salt reactor perfectly fulfils criteria chosen by the Generation 4 International Forum (GIF). This configuration, called non-moderated Thorium Molten Salt Reactor is a 1000 GW electrical thorium cycle based molten salt reactor with no moderator inside the core. Consequently, the neutron spectrum is fast. The reactor is coupled with a salt control unit, which complicates the studies. Reactors simulation is based on resolving Bateman's equations, which give the population of each nucleus inside the core at each moment. Because of MSR's fundamental characteristics, those equations have to be modified adding two terms: a fertile/fissile alimentation for the reactivity and the salt composition control, and the reprocessing associated term. Equations become: {delta}N{sub i}/{delta}t = {sigma}{sub j{ne}}{sub i} {lambda}{sub j{yields}}{sub i} N{sub j} + X{sub j} <{sigma}{sub j}{phi}> N{sub j} - {lambda}{sub i}N{sub i} - <{sigma}{sub i}{phi}> N{sub i} {lambda}{sub chem} N{sub i} + A where {lambda}{sub chem} represents the reprocessing capacities and A represents the fertile/fissile alimentation. All our studies are made with a homemade code, REM, which is a precision driven code for material evolution. Neutron flux and neutron reactions rate are calculated thanks MCNP and the temporal integration is made thanks a Runge-Kutta fourth order method. This code REM, whose calculation scheme will be described in the paper, does not allow a coupling flexible enough between the reprocessing and the core physics. Indeed, reprocessing terms in the previous equation ({lambda}{sub chem}) are set for the whole evolution that can last several hundreds of years. A new way is to drive chemical needs to keep the core critical. Therefore, we are

  13. Numerical simulations with a first order BSSN formulation of Einstein's field equations

    Brown, J David; Field, Scott E; Hesthaven, Jan S; Herrmann, Frank; Mroué, Abdul H; Schnetter, Erik; Tiglio, Manuel; Wagman, Michael


    We present a new fully first order strongly hyperbolic representation of the BSSN formulation of Einstein's equations with optional constraint damping terms. We describe the characteristic fields of the system, discuss its hyperbolicity properties, and present two numerical implementations and simulations: one using finite differences, adaptive mesh refinement and in particular binary black holes, and another one using the discontinuous Galerkin method in spherical symmetry. The results of this paper constitute a first step in an effort to combine the robustness of BSSN evolutions with very high accuracy numerical techniques, such as spectral collocation multi-domain or discontinuous Galerkin methods.



    The tip-clearance flow in a cascade was numerically simulated by solving the RANS equations of incompressible fluids. The computational model was based upon the artificial compressibility formulation proposed by Chorin. The Baldwin-Lomax turbulence model was used to make the governing equations closed. For the specific structure of tip-clearance flow, a multi-block grid structure was adopted to facilitate numerical computations. The comparison of numerical results with experimental data indicates that the present method is capable of simulating tip-clearance flows with satisfactory accuracy.

  15. Batman-cracks. Observations and numerical simulations

    Selvadurai, A. P. S.; Busschen, A. Ten; Ernst, L. J.


    To ensure mechanical strength of fiber reinforced plastics (FRP), good adhesion between fibers and the matrix is considered to be an essential requirement. An efficient test of fiber-matrix interface characterization is the fragmentation test which provides information about the interface slip mechanism. This test consists of the longitudinal loading of a single fiber which is embedded in a matrix specimen. At critical loads the fiber experiences fragmentation. This fragmentation will terminate depending upon the shear-slip strength of the fiber-matrix adhesion, which is inversely proportional to average fragment lengths. Depending upon interface strength characteristics either bond or slip matrix fracture can occur at the onset of fiber fracture. Certain particular features of matrix fracture are observed at the locations of fiber fracture in situations where there is sufficient interface bond strength. These refer to the development of fractures with a complex surface topography. The experimental procedure involved in the fragmentation tests is discussed and the boundary element technique to examine the development of multiple matrix fractures at the fiber fracture locations is examined. The mechanics of matrix fracture is examined. When bond integrity is maintained, a fiber fracture results in a matrix fracture. The matrix fracture topography in a fragmentation test is complex; however, simplified conoidal fracture patterns can be used to investigate the crack extension phenomena. Via a mixed-mode fracture criterion, the generation of a conoidal fracture pattern in the matrix is investigated. The numerical results compare favorably with observed experimental data derived from tests conducted on fragmentation test specimens consisting of a single glass fiber which is embedded in a polyester matrix.

  16. Numerical simulation of Glacial Isostatic Adjustment

    Miglio, E.


    In the Earth's crust, stress can be subdivided into tectonic background stress, overburden pressure, and pore-fluid pressure. The superposition of the first two and the variation of the third part are key factors in controlling movement along faults. Furthermore, stresses due to sedimentation and erosion contribute to the total stress field. In deglaciated regions, an additional stress must be considered: the rebound stress, which is related to rebounding of the crust and mantle after deglaciation. During the growth of a continental ice sheet, the lithosphere under the iceload is deformed and the removal of the ice load during deglaciation initiates a rebound process. The uplift is well known in formerly glaciated areas, e.g.North America and Scandinavia, and in currently deglaciating areas, e.g.Alaska, Antarctica, and Greenland. The whole process of subsiding and uplifting during the growth and melting of an iceload and all related phenomena is known as glacial isostatic adjustment. During the process of glaciation, the surface of the lithosphere is depressed underneath the ice load and compressional flexural stresses are induced in the upper lithosphere, whereas the bottom of the lithosphere experiences extensional flexural stresses; an additional vertical stress due to the ice load is present and it decreases to zero during deglaciation. During rebound, flexural stresses relax slowly. These stresses are able to change the original stress directions and regime.In this work we aim to study the effect of the GIA process in the context of petroleum engineering. The main aspect we will focus on is the mathematical and numerical modeling of the GIA including thermal effects. We plan also to include a preliminary study of the effect of the glacial erosion. All these phenomena are of paramount importance in petroleum engineering: for example some reservoir have been depleted due to tilting caused by both GIA, erosion and thermal effects.

  17. Surrogate models for identifying robust, high yield regions of parameter space for ICF implosion simulations

    Humbird, Kelli; Peterson, J. Luc; Brandon, Scott; Field, John; Nora, Ryan; Spears, Brian


    Next-generation supercomputer architecture and in-transit data analysis have been used to create a large collection of 2-D ICF capsule implosion simulations. The database includes metrics for approximately 60,000 implosions, with x-ray images and detailed physics parameters available for over 20,000 simulations. To map and explore this large database, surrogate models for numerous quantities of interest are built using supervised machine learning algorithms. Response surfaces constructed using the predictive capabilities of the surrogates allow for continuous exploration of parameter space without requiring additional simulations. High performing regions of the input space are identified to guide the design of future experiments. In particular, a model for the yield built using a random forest regression algorithm has a cross validation score of 94.3% and is consistently conservative for high yield predictions. The model is used to search for robust volumes of parameter space where high yields are expected, even given variations in other input parameters. Surrogates for additional quantities of interest relevant to ignition are used to further characterize the high yield regions. This work performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344, Lawrence Livermore National Security, LLC. LLNL-ABS-697277.

  18. Numerical simulations for terrestrial planets formation

    Ji J.


    Full Text Available We investigate the formation of terrestrial planets in the late stage of planetary formation using two-planet model. At that time, the protostar has formed for about 3 Myr and the gas disk has dissipated. In the model, the perturbations from Jupiter and Saturn are considered. We also consider variations of the mass of outer planet, and the initial eccentricities and inclinations of embryos and planetesimals. Our results show that, terrestrial planets are formed in 50 Myr, and the accretion rate is about 60%–80%. In each simulation, 3–4 terrestrial planets are formed inside “Jupiter” with masses of 0.15–3.6 M⊕. In the 0.5–4 AU, when the eccentricities of planetesimals are excited, planetesimals are able to accrete material from wide radial direction. The plenty of water material of the terrestrial planet in the Habitable Zone may be transferred from the farther places by this mechanism. Accretion may also happen a few times between two giant planets only if the outer planet has a moderate mass and the small terrestrial planet could survive at some resonances over time scale of 108 yr.

  19. Numerical Simulation of Pulse Shortening in RBWOs

    GONG Yu-bin; ZHANG Zhang; WANG Wen-xiang; MENG Fan-bao; FAN Zhi-kai; HUANG Min-zhi


    Pulse shortening hinders improvement of microwave output energy for high power microwave tubes. So far, it is also an unresolved problem in the field of high power microwave devices. In this paper, relativistic backward wave tube (RBWO) is treated as an example to study the pulse shortening phenomena. The influences of gas existing in the tube and explosive emission in inner surface of RBWO are all investigated by means of the particle-in-cell method. Through the simulation results, it can be predicted that the background gas in the tube is one but not the most important factor resulting in pulse shortening, in order to broaden the pulse width of gas-filled RBWO, the pressure of the filled gas must be controlled in a proper value. The explosive emission in the surface of slow wave structure due to intense electric field is one of the most important factors causing pulse shortening in high power microwave tube.Some methods to overcome this find of explosive emission are also given.




    Full Text Available This work consists in the simulation of the ice accretion in the leading edge of aerodynamic profiles and our proposed model encompasses: geometry generation, calculation of the potential flow around the body, boundary layer thickness computation, water droplet trajectory computation, heat and mass balances and the consequent modification of the geometry by the ice growth. The flow calculation is realized with panel methods, using only segments defined over the body contour. The viscous effects are considered using the Karman-Pohlhausen method for the laminar boundary layer. The local heat transfer coefficient is obtained by applying the Smith-Spalding method for the thermal boundary layer. The ice accretion limits and the collection efficiency are determined by computing water droplet trajectories impinging the surface. The heat transfer process is analyzed with an energy and a mass balance in each segment defining the body. Finally, the geometry is modified by the addition of the computed ice thickness to the respective panel. The process by repeating all the steps. The model validation is done using a selection of problems with experimental solution, CIRA (the CESAR project. Hereinafter, results are obtained for different aerodynamic profiles, angles of attack and meteorological parameters

  1. Numerical simulation of thermocapillary wetting suppression

    Chen, Jyh-Chen; Kuo, C.-W.; Neitzel, G. Paul


    The commercial code FIDAP, based on the finite-element method, is used to investigate a nonwetting phenomenon that occurs when a liquid drop is pressed against a solid wall held at a sufficiently lower temperature. In this situation, an interstitial gas film is induced by thermocapillary convection and separates the drop from the wall, forming a self-lubricating system. The flow in both the gas and liquid phases must be computed to simulate the non-wetting phenomenon. We explore the velocity and thermal fields of both the interstitial film and the liquid drop. A steady-state solution is discussed, with many parameters being considered, i.e., drop/wall temperature differences and relative displacement from the point of first apparent contact, as well as varying drop liquids. The results of the present study indicate that a silicone-oil drop may experience nonwetting while a water drop may not. The mechanism promoting the existence or non-existence of the nonwetting state is also discussed.

  2. Numerical simulation of fundamental trapped sausage modes

    Cécere, M; Reula, O


    Context: We integrate the 2D MHD ideal equations of a straight slab to simulate observational results associated with fundamental sausage trapped modes. Aims: Starting from a non-equilibrium state with a dense chromospheric layer, we analyse the evolution of the internal plasma dynamics of magnetic loops, subject to line-tying boundary conditions, and with the coronal parameters described in Asai et al. (2001) and Melnikov et al. (2002) to investigate the onset and damping of sausage modes. Methods: To integrate the equations we used a high resolution shock-capturing (HRSC) method specially designed to deal appropriately with flow discontinuities. Results: Due to non-linearities and inhomogeneities, pure modes are difficult to sustain and always occur coupled among them so as to satisfy, e.g., the line-tying constraint. We found that, in one case, the resonant coupling of the sausage fundamental mode with a slow one results in a non-dissipative damping of the former. Conclusions: In scenarios of thick and den...

  3. Numerical simulation of flow past circular duct

    Ze-gao YIN; Xian-wei Cao; Hong-da SHI; Jian MA


    The Renormalization Group(RNG)k-ε turbulence model and Volume of Fluid(VOF)method were employed to simulate the flow past a circular duct in order to obtain and analyze hydraulic parameters.According to various upper and bottom gap ratios,the force on the duct was calculated.When the bottom gap ratio is 0,the drag force coefficient,lift force coefficient,and composite force reach their maximum values,and the azimuth reaches its minimum.With an increase of the bottom gap ratio from 0 to 1,the drag force coefficient and composite force decrease sharply,and the lift force coefficient does not decreases so much,but the azimuth increases dramatically.With a continuous increase of the bottom gap ratio from 1 upward,the drag force coefficient,lift force coefficient,composite force,and azimuth vary little.Thus,the bottom gap ratio is the key factor influencing the force on the circular duct.When the bottom gap ratio is less than 1,the upper gap ratio has a remarkable influence on the force of the circular duct.When the bottom gap ratio is greater than 1,the variation of the upper gap ratio has little influence on the force of the circular duct.

  4. Assisted Sonication vs Conventional Transesterification Numerical Simulation and Sensitivity Study

    Janajreh, Isam; Noorul Hussain, Mohammed; El Samad, Tala


    Transeterification is known as slow reaction that can take over several hours to complete as the two immiscible liquid reactants combine to form biodiesel and the less favorable glycerol. The quest of finding the perfect catalyst, optimal operational conditions, and reactor configuration to accelerate the reaction in mere few minutes that ensures high quality biodiesel, in economically viable way is coming along with sonication. This drastic reduction is a key enabler for the development of a continuous processing that otherwise is fairly costly and low throughput using conventional method. The reaction kinetics of sonication assisted as inferred by several authors is several time faster and this work implements these rates in a high fidelity numerical simulation model. This flow model is based on Navier-Stokes equations coupled with energy equation for non-isothermal flow and the transport equations of the multiple reactive species. The model is initially validated against experimental data from previous work of the authors using an annular reactor configuration. Following the validation, comparison of the reaction rate is shown to gain more insight to the distribution of the reaction and its attained rates. The two models (conventional and sonication) then compared on the basis of their sensitivity to the methane to oil molar ratio as the most pronounced process parameter. Both the exit reactor yield and the distribution of the species are evaluated with favorable yield under sonication process. These results pave the way to build a more robust process intensified reactor having an integrated selective heterogeneous catalyst to steer the reaction. This can avoid the downstream cleaning processes, cutting reaction time, and render economic benefit to the process.

  5. Numerical simulation of transient flow in horizontal drainage systems

    Ze-yu MAO; Han XIAO; Ying LIU; Ying-jun HU


    A numerical simulation model based on the characteristic-based finite-difference method with a time-line interpolation scheme was developed for predicting transient free surface flow in horizontal drainage systems. The fundamental accuracy of the numerical model was first clarified by comparison with the experimental results for a single drainage pipe. Boundary conditions for junctions and bends, which are often encountered in drainage systems, were studied both experimentally and numerically. The numerical model was applied to an actual drainage system. Comparison with a full-scale model experiment indicates that the model can be used to accurately predict flow characteristics in actual drainage networks.

  6. Numerical simulation of photoexcited polaron states in water

    Zemlyanaya, E. V., E-mail:; Volokhova, A. V.; Amirkhanov, I. V.; Puzynin, I. V.; Puzynina, T. P.; Rikhvitskiy, V. S. [Laboratory of Information Technologies, Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna 141980 (Russian Federation); Lakhno, V. D. [Institute of Mathematical Problems of Biology, Russian Academy of Science, Pushchino 142290 (Russian Federation); Atanasova, P. Kh. [Faculty of Mathematics and Informatics, Paisii Hilendarski University of Plovdiv 4003 (Bulgaria)


    We consider the dynamic polaron model of the hydrated electron state on the basis of a system of three nonlinear partial differential equations with appropriate initial and boundary conditions. A parallel numerical algorithm for the numerical solution of this system has been developed. Its effectiveness has been tested on a few multi-processor systems. A numerical simulation of the polaron states formation in water under the action of the ultraviolet range laser irradiation has been performed. The numerical results are shown to be in a reasonable agreement with experimental data and theoretical predictions.

  7. Numerical Simulation of Hydrodynamic Behaviors of Gravity Cage in Waves

    ZHAO Yun-peng; LI Yu-cheng; DONG Guo-hai; GUI Fu-kun


    This paper aims at investigation of the dynamic properties of gravity cage exposed to waves by use of a numerical model. The numerical model is developed, based on lumped mass method to set up the equations of motion of the whole cage; meanwhile the solutions of equations are solved by the Runge-Kutta-Verner fifth-order and sixth-order method. Physical model tests have been carried out to examine the validity of the numerical model. The results by the numerical simulation agree well with the experimental data.

  8. Prediction on rock stratum stability using numerical simulation

    刘少伟; 张永庆


    Numerical simulation, which is one of the important methods for tectonic simulation, can be successfully applied into the stability analysis of rock stratum in mining engineering. With numerical simulation, the characteristics of stress-deformation field of the area study can be well discovered, the stress concentration regions can be clearly located and the mechanism and effect of the stress concentration can be analyzed. The results of these studies offer fundamental data for evaluation of the rock stability and prediction of the tunnel wall stability in the working area.

  9. Numerical Simulation of Preferential Flow of Contaminants in Soil


    A simple modeling approach was suggested to simulate preferential transport of water and contaminants in soil.After saturated hydraulic conductivity was interpolated by means of Krige interpolation method or scaling method, and then zoned,the locations where saturated hydraulic conductivity was larger represented regions where preferential flow occurred,because heterogeneity of soil,one of the mechanisms resulting in preferential flow,could be reflected through the difference in saturated hydraulic conductivity.The modeling approach was validated through numerical simulation of contaminant transport in a two-dimensional hypothetical soil profile.The results of the numerical simulation showed that the approach suggested in this study was feasible.

  10. Robust numerical methods for conservation laws using a biased averaging procedure

    Choi, Hwajeong

    In this thesis, we introduce a new biased averaging procedure (BAP) and use it in developing high resolution schemes for conservation laws. Systems of conservation laws arise in variety of physical problems, such as the Euler equation of compressible flows, magnetohydrodynamics, multicomponent flows, the blast waves and the flow of glaciers. Many modern shock capturing schemes are based on solution reconstructions by high order polynomial interpolations, and time evolution by the solutions of Riemann problems. Due to the existence of discontinuities in the solution, the interpolating polynomial has to be carefully constructed to avoid possible oscillations near discontinuities. The BAP is a more general and simpler way to approximate higher order derivatives of given data without introducing oscillations, compared to limiters and the essentially non-oscillatory interpolations. For the solution of a system of conservation laws, we present a finite volume method which employs a flux splitting and uses componentwise reconstruction of the upwind fluxes. A high order piecewise polynomial constructed by using BAP is used to approximate the component of upwind fluxes. This scheme does not require characteristic decomposition nor Riemann solver, offering easy implementation and a relatively small computational cost. More importantly, the BAP is naturally extended for unstructured grids and it will be demonstrated through a cell-centered finite volume method, along with adaptive mesh refinement. A number of numerical experiments from various applications demonstrates the robustness and the accuracy of this approach, and show the potential of this approach for other practical applications.

  11. Modane: A Design Support Tool for Numerical Simulation Codes

    Lelandais Benoît


    Full Text Available The continual increasing power of supercomputers allows numerical simulation codes to take into account more complex physical phenomena. Therefore, physicists and mathematicians have to implement complex algorithms using cutting edge technologies and integrate them in large simulators. The CEA-DAM has been studying for several years the contribution of UML/MDE technologies in its simulators development cycle. The Modane application is one of the results of this work.

  12. Numerical simulation analysis of Guixi copper flash smelting furnace


    A numerical simulation analysis for reactions of chalcopyrite and pyrite particles coupled with momentum, heat and mass transfer between the particle and gas in a flash smelting furnace is presented. In the simulation, the equations governing the gas flow are solved numerically by Eular method. The particle phase is introduced into the gas flow by the particle-source-in-cell technique (PSIC). Predictions including the fluid flow field, temperature field, concentration field of gas phase and the tracks of particles have been obtained by the numerical simulation. The visualized results show that the reaction of sulfide particles is almost completed in the upper zone of the shaft within 1.5 m far from the central jet distributor (CJD) type concentrate burner. The simulation results are in good agreement with data obtained from a series of experiments and tests in the plant and the error is less than 2%.

  13. Numerical Simulation of Barotropic Tides around Taiwan

    Chih-Kai Hu


    Full Text Available A 1/12°, 2-D barotropic tide model was used to examine the characteristics of barotropic tides and to improve the accuracy of predicting tidal sea levels and currents in the seas around Taiwan. The form ratio suggests that tides are predominantly semidiurnal in the northern reaches of the Taiwan Strait and mixed of diurnal and semidiurnal elsewhere around Taiwan. When the dominant M2 wave enters the Strait from the north, its amplitude is magnified to ~2 m in the middle, and then decreases rapidly toward the south end of the Strait. The predominance of diurnal tides along the southwest to the south coast of Taiwan is attributed to the quasi-resonance of diurnal waves in the South China Sea. The tidal range is small and tidal currents are weak off the east coast of Taiwan. Barotropic tidal energy is mostly dissipated on the shallow banks of the southwestern Strait. Results summarized from sensitivity tests on the bottom drag coefficient (CD and horizontal eddy viscosity (AM indicate that CD = 0.0015 - 0.00175 and AM = 150 m2 s-1 lead to the best model-data fit when compared to the observed tidal sea levels at ten reference tide-gauge stations around Taiwan. The averaged root-mean-squared (RMS differences of the simulated tidal sea level for the six principal constituents of O1, P1, K1, N2, M2, and S2 are significantly reduced to 1.3, 0.7, 2.0, 1.6, 5.1, and 3.1 cm, respectively, compared to that calculated from a 0.5° resolution global tide harmonic constant database, NAO.99b (Matsumoto et al. 2000. The averaged RMS differences of barotropic tidal currents (U, V for O1, K1, M2, and S2 are (0.92, 1.64, (1.17, 0.61, (3.88, 2.37, and (1.52, 1.20 cm s-1. A database of tidal sea levels and current harmonic constants, TWTIDE08, for Q1, O1, P1, K1, J1, OO1, 2N2, μ2, N2, ν2, M2, L2, T2, S2, and K2 is established with this study.

  14. Calculation of residual stresses by means of a 3D numerical weld simulation

    Nicak, Tomas; Huemmer, Matthias [AREVA NP GmbH, Postfach 1109 (Germany)


    The numerical weld simulation has developed very fast in recent years. The problem complexity has increased from simple 2D models to full 3D models, which can describe the entire welding process more realistically. As recent research projects indicate, a quantitative assessment of the residual stresses by means of a 3D analysis is possible. The structure integrity can be assessed based on the weld simulation results superimposed with the operating load. Moreover, to support the qualification of welded components parametric studies for optimization of the residual stress distribution in the weld region can be performed. In this paper a full 3D numerical weld simulation for a man-hole drainage nozzle in a steam generator will be presented. The residual stresses are calculated by means of an uncoupled transient thermal and mechanical FE analysis. The paper will present a robust procedure allowing reasonable predictions of the residual stresses for complex structures in industrial practice. (authors)

  15. Direct numerical simulation of scalar transport using unstructured finite-volume schemes

    Rossi, Riccardo


    An unstructured finite-volume method for direct and large-eddy simulations of scalar transport in complex geometries is presented and investigated. The numerical technique is based on a three-level fully implicit time advancement scheme and central spatial interpolation operators. The scalar variable at cell faces is obtained by a symmetric central interpolation scheme, which is formally first-order accurate, or by further employing a high-order correction term which leads to formal second-order accuracy irrespective of the underlying grid. In this framework, deferred-correction and slope-limiter techniques are introduced in order to avoid numerical instabilities in the resulting algebraic transport equation. The accuracy and robustness of the code are initially evaluated by means of basic numerical experiments where the flow field is assigned a priori. A direct numerical simulation of turbulent scalar transport in a channel flow is finally performed to validate the numerical technique against a numerical dataset established by a spectral method. In spite of the linear character of the scalar transport equation, the computed statistics and spectra of the scalar field are found to be significantly affected by the spectral-properties of interpolation schemes. Although the results show an improved spectral-resolution and greater spatial-accuracy for the high-order operator in the analysis of basic scalar transport problems, the low-order central scheme is found superior for high-fidelity simulations of turbulent scalar transport.



    This paper presents new weighting functions in grid generation and new discretizing scheme of momentum equations in numerical simulation of river flow. By using the new weighting functions, the curvilinear grid could be concentrated as desired near the assigned points or lines in physical plane. By using the new discretizing scheme, the difficulties caused by movable boundary and dry riverbed can be overcome. As an application, the flow in the Wuhan Section of Yangtze River is simulated. The computational results are in good agreement with the measured results. The new method is applicable to the numerical simulation of 2-D river flow with irregular region and moveable boundary.

  17. Numerical Simulation of the 12 May 1997 CME Event

    ZHOU Yu-Fen; FENG Xue-Shang; Wu S.T


    Our newly developed CESE MHD model is used to simulate sun-earth connection event with the well-studied 12 May 1997 CME event as an example.The main features and approximations of our numerical model are as follows:(1)The modified conservation element and solution element(CESE)numerical scheme in spherical geometry is implemented in our code.(2)The background solar wind is derived from a 3D time-dependent numerical MHD model by input measured photospheric magnetic fields.(3)Transient disturbances are derived from solar surface by introducing a mass flow of hot plasma.The numerical simulation has enabled us to predict the arrival of the interplanetary shock and provided us with a relatively satisfactory comparison with the WIND spacecraft observations.

  18. Simulation of Robustness against Lesions of Cortical Networks

    Kaiser, Marcus; Andras, Peter; Young, Malcolm P


    Structure entails function and thus a structural description of the brain will help to understand its function and may provide insights into many properties of brain systems, from their robustness and recovery from damage, to their dynamics and even their evolution. Advances in the analysis of complex networks provide useful new approaches to understanding structural and functional properties of brain networks. Structural properties of networks recently described allow their characterization as small-world, random (exponential) and scale-free. They complement the set of other properties that have been explored in the context of brain connectivity, such as topology, hodology, clustering, and hierarchical organization. Here we apply new network analysis methods to cortical inter-areal connectivity networks for the cat and macaque brains. We compare these corticocortical fibre networks to benchmark rewired, small-world, scale-free and random networks, using two analysis strategies, in which we measure the effect...

  19. Large-scale numerical simulation of rotationally constrained convection

    Sprague, Michael; Julien, Keith; Knobloch, Edgar; Werne, Joseph; Weiss, Jeffrey


    Using direct numerical simulation (DNS), we investigate solutions of an asymptotically reduced system of nonlinear PDEs for rotationally constrained convection. The reduced equations filter fast inertial waves and relax the need to resolve Ekman boundary layers, which allow exploration of a parameter range inaccessible with DNS of the full Boussinesq equations. The equations are applicable to ocean deep convection, which is characterized by small Rossby number and large Rayleigh number. Previous numerical studies of the reduced equations examined upright convection where the gravity vector was anti-parallel to the rotation vector. In addition to the columnar and geostrophic-turbulence regimes, simulations revealed a third regime where Taylor columns were shielded by sleeves of opposite-signed vorticity. We here extend our numerical simulations to examine both upright and tilted convection at high Rayleigh numbers.

  20. Numerical simulation of a laser-acoustic landmine detection system

    Lancranjan, Ion I.; Miclos, Sorin; Savastru, Dan; Savastru, Roxana; Opran, Constantin


    The preliminary numerical simulation results obtained in the analysis of a landmine detection system based on laser excitation of acoustic - seismic waves in the soil and observing its surface vibration above the embedded landmine are presented. The presented numerical simulations comprise three main parts: 1) Laser oscillator and laser beam propagation and absorption in soil; a laser oscillator operated in Q-switched regime is considered; different laser wavelengths are investigated. 2) Acoustic - seismic wave generation by absorption in soil of laser pulse energy; 3) Evaluation of acoustic - seismic wave generation by the buried in soil landmine; 4) Comparison of Distributed Feed- Back Fiber Laser (DFB-FL) and Laser Doppler Vibrometer (LDV) detector used for soil vibrations evaluation. The above mentioned numerical simulation is dedicated for evaluation of an integrated portable detection system.

  1. FSW Numerical Simulation of Aluminium Plates by SYSWELD - Part II

    Jančo Roland


    Full Text Available Friction Stir Welding (FSW is one of the most effective solid state joining processes and has numerous potential applications in many industries. The simulation process can provide the evolution of physicals quantities such as temperature, metallurgical phase proportions, stress and strain which can be easily measured during welding. The numerical modelling requires the modelling of the complex interaction between thermal, metallurgical and mechanical phenomena. The aim of this paper is to describe the thermal-fluid simulation of FSW using the finite element method. In the theoretical part of paper heating is provided by the material flow and contact condition between the tool and the welded material. Thermal-mechanical results from the numerical simulation using SYSWELD are also presented for aluminium alloy.

  2. FSW Numerical Simulation of Aluminium Plates by Sysweld - Part I

    Jančo Roland


    Full Text Available Friction Stir Welding (FSW is one of the most effective solid state joining processes and it has numerous potential applications in many industries. The simulation process can provide the evolution of physical quantities such as temperature, metallurgical phase proportions, stress and strain which can be easily measured during welding. The numerical modelling requires the modelling of a complex interaction between thermal, metallurgical and mechanical phenomena. The aim of this paper is to describe the thermal-fluid simulation of FSW using the finite element method. In the theoretical part of the paper heating is provided by the material flow and contact condition between the tool and the welded material. The thermal-fluid results from the numerical simulation for aluminium alloy using SYSWELD are also presented in this paper.

  3. Numerical simulation of landslide-generated impulse wave

    赵兰浩; 毛佳; 刘晓青; 李同春


    A numerical model is proposed for the simulation of impulse waves generated by landslides. The fluid-like landslide is modeled as a generalized non-Newtonian visco-plastic fluid. The conservative level set method is extended to the n-phase flow and applied to capture the interfaces of air, water and landslide. Numerical results show an excellent performance of the current model to capture the whole process of the landslide and the impulse wave generation.

  4. Numerical Simulation of Large Diameter Cylindrical Structure Slamming

    XU Jing; WANG De-yu


    The water entry of large diameter cylindrical structure is studied by applying numerical simulation method. The processes of different diameter cylindrical structures impacting water with various constant velocities are calculated numerically. Thereafter, analyzed are the distribution of slamming pressure on structure during slamming course and the influence of slamming velocity and cylindrical diameter on slamming process. Furthermore, presented herein is an equation being used to forecast the peak slamming force on a large diameter cylindrical structure.

  5. FSW Numerical Simulation of Aluminium Plates by Sysweld - Part I

    Jančo Roland; Écsi Ladislav; Élesztős Pavel


    Friction Stir Welding (FSW) is one of the most effective solid state joining processes and it has numerous potential applications in many industries. The simulation process can provide the evolution of physical quantities such as temperature, metallurgical phase proportions, stress and strain which can be easily measured during welding. The numerical modelling requires the modelling of a complex interaction between thermal, metallurgical and mechanical phenomena. The aim of this paper is to d...

  6. FSW Numerical Simulation of Aluminium Plates by SYSWELD - Part II

    Jančo Roland; Écsi Ladislav; Élesztős Pavel


    Friction Stir Welding (FSW) is one of the most effective solid state joining processes and has numerous potential applications in many industries. The simulation process can provide the evolution of physicals quantities such as temperature, metallurgical phase proportions, stress and strain which can be easily measured during welding. The numerical modelling requires the modelling of the complex interaction between thermal, metallurgical and mechanical phenomena. The aim of this paper is to d...

  7. Numerical simulation of transition in wall-bounded shear flows

    Kleiser, Leonhard; Zang, Thomas A.


    The current status of numerical simulation techniques for the transition to turbulence in incompressible channel and boundary-layer flows is surveyed, and typical results are presented graphically. The focus is on direct numerical simulations based on the full nonlinear time-dependent Navier-Stokes equations without empirical closure assumptions for prescribed initial and boundary conditions. Topics addressed include the vibrating ribbon problem, space and time discretization, initial and boundary conditions, alternative methods based on the triple-deck approximation, two-dimensional channel and boundary-layer flows, three-dimensional boundary layers, wave packets and turbulent spots, compressible flows, transition control, and transition modeling.

  8. Numerical simulation of wall-bounded turbulent shear flows

    Moin, P.


    Developments in three dimensional, time dependent numerical simulation of turbulent flows bounded by a wall are reviewed. Both direct and large eddy simulation techniques are considered within the same computational framework. The computational spatial grid requirements as dictated by the known structure of turbulent boundary layers are presented. The numerical methods currently in use are reviewed and some of the features of these algorithms, including spatial differencing and accuracy, time advancement, and data management are discussed. A selection of the results of the recent calculations of turbulent channel flow, including the effects of system rotation and transpiration on the flow are included.


    宋顺成; 高平; 才鸿年


    The numerical simulation for forming projectile of depleted uranium alloy with the SPH ( Smooth Particle Hydrodynamic ) algorithm was presented. In the computations the artificial pressures of detonation were used, i. e. , the spatial distribution and time distribution were given artificially. To describe the deformed behaviors of the depleted uranium alloy under high pressure and high strain rate, the Johnson-Cook model of materials was introduced. From the numerical simulation the formed projectile velocity,projectile geometry and the minimum of the height of detonation are obtained.

  10. Preface to advances in numerical simulation of plasmas

    Parker, Scott E.; Chacon, Luis


    This Journal of Computational Physics Special Issue, titled "Advances in Numerical Simulation of Plasmas," presents a snapshot of the international state of the art in the field of computational plasma physics. The articles herein are a subset of the topics presented as invited talks at the 24th International Conference on the Numerical Simulation of Plasmas (ICNSP), August 12-14, 2015 in Golden, Colorado. The choice of papers was highly selective. The ICNSP is held every other year and is the premier scientific meeting in the field of computational plasma physics.

  11. Numerical Simulations of a Possible Hypercomputational Quantum Algorithm

    Sicard, A; Vélez, M; Sicard, Andr\\'es; Ospina, Juan; V\\'elez, Mario


    The hypercomputers compute functions or numbers, or more generally solve problems or carry out tasks, that cannot be computed or solved by a Turing machine. Several numerical simulations of a possible hypercomputational algorithm based on quantum computations previously constructed by the authors are presented. The hypercomputability of our algorithm is based on the fact that this algorithm could solve a classically non-computable decision problem, Hilbert's tenth problem. The numerical simulations were realized for three types of Diophantine equations: with and without solutions in non-negative integers, and without solutions by way of various traditional mathematical packages.

  12. Numerical Simulation of Two-dimensional Nonlinear Sloshing Problems


    Numerical simulation of a two-dimensional nonlinearsloshing problem is preceded by the finite element method. Two theories are used. One is fully nonlinear theory; the other is time domain second order theory. A liquid sloshing in a rectangular container subjected to a horizontal excitation is simulated using these two theories. Numerical results are obtained and comparisons are made. It is found that a good agreement is obtained for the case of small amplitude oscillation. For the situation of large amplitude excitation, although the differences between using the two theories are obvious the second order solution can still exhibit typical nonlinear features of nonlinear wave.

  13. Robustness of Component Models in Energy System Simulators

    Elmegaard, Brian


    During the development of the component-based energy system simulator DNA (Dynamic Network Analysis), several obstacles to easy use of the program have been observed. Some of these have to do with the nature of the program being based on a modelling language, not a graphical user interface (GUI...


    P. V. Bulat


    Full Text Available We consider numerical simulation of shock wave refraction on plane contact discontinuity, separating two gases with different density. Discretization of Euler equations is based on finite volume method and WENO finite difference schemes, implemented on unstructured meshes. Integration over time is performed with the use of the third-order Runge–Kutta stepping procedure. The procedure of identification and classification of gas dynamic discontinuities based on conditions of dynamic consistency and image processing methods is applied to visualize and interpret the results of numerical calculations. The flow structure and its quantitative characteristics are defined. The results of numerical and experimental visualization (shadowgraphs, schlieren images, and interferograms are compared.

  15. Processing biobased polymers using plasticizers: Numerical simulations versus experiments

    Desplentere, Frederik; Cardon, Ludwig; Six, Wim; Erkoç, Mustafa


    In polymer processing, the use of biobased products shows lots of possibilities. Considering biobased materials, biodegradability is in most cases the most important issue. Next to this, bio based materials aimed at durable applications, are gaining interest. Within this research, the influence of plasticizers on the processing of the bio based material is investigated. This work is done for an extrusion grade of PLA, Natureworks PLA 2003D. Extrusion through a slit die equipped with pressure sensors is used to compare the experimental pressure values to numerical simulation results. Additional experimental data (temperature and pressure data along the extrusion screw and die are recorded) is generated on a dr. Collin Lab extruder producing a 25mm diameter tube. All these experimental data is used to indicate the appropriate functioning of the numerical simulation tool Virtual Extrusion Laboratory 6.7 for the simulation of both the industrial available extrusion grade PLA and the compound in which 15% of plasticizer is added. Adding the applied plasticizer, resulted in a 40% lower pressure drop over the extrusion die. The combination of different experiments allowed to fit the numerical simulation results closely to the experimental values. Based on this experience, it is shown that numerical simulations also can be used for modified bio based materials if appropriate material and process data are taken into account.

  16. Numerical simulations and mathematical models of flows in complex geometries

    Hernandez Garcia, Anier

    The research work of the present thesis was mainly aimed at exploiting one of the strengths of the Lattice Boltzmann methods, namely, the ability to handle complicated geometries to accurately simulate flows in complex geometries. In this thesis, we perform a very detailed theoretical analysis...... and through the Chapman-Enskog multi-scale expansion technique the dependence of the kinetic viscosity on each scheme is investigated. Seeking for optimal numerical schemes to eciently simulate a wide range of complex flows a variant of the finite element, off-lattice Boltzmann method [5], which uses...... the characteristic based integration is also implemented. Using the latter scheme, numerical simulations are conducted in flows of different complexities: flow in a (real) porous network and turbulent flows in ducts with wall irregularities. From the simulations of flows in porous media driven by pressure gradients...


    PAN Yu-cun; ZHANG Huai-xin; ZHOU Qi-dou


    The submarine Hydrodynamic coefficients are predicted by numerical simulations.Steady and unsteady Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) simulations are carried out to numerically simulate the oblique towing experiment and the Planar Motion Mechanism (PMM) experiment performed on the SUBOFF submarine model.The dynamic mesh method is adopted to simulate the maneuvering motions of pure heaving,pure swaying,pure pitching and pure yawing.The hydrodynamic forces and moments acting on the maneuvering submarine are obtained.Consequently,by analyzing these results,the hydrodynamic coefficients of the submarine maneuvering motions can be determined.The computational results are verified by comparison with experimental data,which show that this method can be used to estimate the hydrodynamic derivatives of a fully appended submarine.

  18. 3D numerical simulation of transient processes in hydraulic turbines

    Cherny, S; Chirkov, D; Lapin, V; Eshkunova, I [Institute of Computational Technologies SB RAS Acad. Lavrentjev avenue 6, Novosibirsk, 630090 (Russian Federation); Bannikov, D; Avdushenko, A [Department of Mechanics and Mathematics, Novosibirsk State University Pirogov st. 2, Novosibirsk, 630090 (Russian Federation); Skorospelov, V, E-mail: chirkov@ict.nsc.r [Institute of Mathematics SB RAS Acad. Koptug avenue 4, Novosibirsk, 630090 (Russian Federation)


    An approach for numerical simulation of 3D hydraulic turbine flows in transient operating regimes is presented. The method is based on a coupled solution of incompressible RANS equations, runner rotation equation, and water hammer equations. The issue of setting appropriate boundary conditions is considered in detail. As an illustration, the simulation results for runaway process are presented. The evolution of vortex structure and its effect on computed runaway traces are analyzed.

  19. 3D numerical simulation of transient processes in hydraulic turbines

    Cherny, S.; Chirkov, D.; Bannikov, D.; Lapin, V.; Skorospelov, V.; Eshkunova, I.; Avdushenko, A.


    An approach for numerical simulation of 3D hydraulic turbine flows in transient operating regimes is presented. The method is based on a coupled solution of incompressible RANS equations, runner rotation equation, and water hammer equations. The issue of setting appropriate boundary conditions is considered in detail. As an illustration, the simulation results for runaway process are presented. The evolution of vortex structure and its effect on computed runaway traces are analyzed.


    C. Zhu; Z. Xu; D.E. Wu


    In this paper, using computer simulation and mathematic experiment method to solve the simplified one dimensional thermal conduction equation and to obtain the temperature distribution in a metal bar when its one end was heated. According to principle of hot expansion, a holograph of temperature distribution in the bar by laser holotechnique was taken. The results of numerical simulation and experiments are in good agreement and a new method for study on thermal conduction by laser holo-technique was found.

  1. Numerical simulation of circular jet impinging on hot steel plate


    Flow structure and heat transfer characteristics of an axisymmetric circular jet impinging on a hot 1Cr18Ni9Ti medium plate have been simulated numerically using computational fluid dynamic (CFD) code. The relation between flow field of jet impingement and its heat transfer capability is analyzed, and the phenomenon that heat transfer at stagnation point is smaller than that of points directly around is discussed. The simulation result provides boundary conditions for thermalanalysis of medium plate quenching.

  2. Numerical Simulation and Experimental Validation of Guided Ditching Tests

    Siemann, Martin; Kohlgrüber, Dieter; Benítez Montañés, Luis; Iafrati, Alessandro


    The oblique water entry of structures with high horizontal speed is investigated in this work. First, the necessity of aircraft ditching analysis as well as the requirements for numerical tools to simulate aircraft ditching are described. The paper provides a brief explanation of an extensive experimental campaign of guided ditching tests carried out in the SMAES project. These tests are then simulated using a hybrid Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics - Finite Elements modeling approach. Most re...

  3. Numerical Simulation of Friction Stir Welding by Natural Element Methods

    Alfaro, I.; Fratini, L.; CUETO, Elias; Chinesta, Francisco


    International audience; In this work we address the problem of numerically simulating the Friction Stir Welding process. Due to the special characteristics of this welding method (i.e., high speed of the rotating pin, very large deformations, etc.) finite element methods (FEM) encounter several difficulties. While Lagrangian simulations suffer from mesh distortion, Eulerian or Arbitrary Lagrangian Eulerian (ALE) ones still have difficulties due to the treatment of convective terms, the treatm...

  4. Initiation Style Optimization of Aimed Warhead by Numerical Simulation

    WEI Ji-feng; LI Na; WEN Yu-quan; WANG Wen-jie


    The kill characteristics of aimed warhead were studied.Emphasis on the improvement of initiation system,experiments and three dimensional numerical investigations were carried out.Simulation results of side three initiation points fit experiments well.Optimal initiation style is obtained through further simulation.It shows that the effective fragments and the effective kill energy of the optimal scheme increase 12.8%and 10.1%respectively.

  5. Some robust numerical methods for flow and transport in porous media; Quelques methodes numeriques robustes pour l'ecoulement et le transport en milieu poreux

    Sboui, A


    The aim of this thesis is to model and develop numerical tools adapted to study underground water flow and the propagation of pollutants in a porous medium. The main motivation of this work is a benchmark from GDR Momas and ANDRA to simulate the 3-D propagation of radionuclides around a deep disposal of nuclear waste. Firstly, we construct a new mixed finite elements method suitable for general hexahedral meshes. Convergence of the method is proved and shown in numerical experiments. Secondly, we present a method of time discretization for the advection equation which allows for the use of different time steps in different sub-domains in order to take into account of strong heterogeneities. Finally a numerical method for the calculation of the transport of contaminants is proposed. The techniques above were implemented in a 3-D code and simulation results are shown on the 3-D far field benchmark from GDR Momas and ANDRA. (author)

  6. Simulation of robust resonance parameters using information theory

    Krishna Kumar, P.T. [Reactor Physics Division, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam 603102 (India)], E-mail:; Phoha, V.V. [Department of Computer Science, Louisiana Tech University, Arizona Avenue, Ruston, LA 71270 (United States)], E-mail:; Iyengar, S.S. [Department of Computer Science, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA 70803 (United States)], E-mail:


    Due to complex nature of resonance region interactions, significant effort has been devoted to quantify the resonance parameter uncertainty information through covariance matrices. Statistical uncertainties arising from measurements contribute only to the diagonal elements of the covariance matrix, but the off-diagonal contributions arise from multiple sources like systematic errors in cross-section measurement, correlation due to nuclear reaction formalism, etc. All the efforts have so far been devoted to minimize the statistical uncertainty by repeated measurements but systematic uncertainty cannot be reduced by mere repetition. The computer codes like SAMMY and KALMAN so far developed to generate resonance parameter covariance have no provision to improve upon the highly correlated experimental data and hence reduce the systematic uncertainty. We propose a new approach called entropy based information theory to reduce the systematic uncertainty in the covariance matrix element wise so that resonance parameters with minimum systematic uncertainty can be simulated. Our simulation approach will aid both the experimentalists and the evaluators to design the experimental facility with minimum systematic uncertainty and thus improve the quality of measurement and the associated instrumentation. We demonstrate, the utility of our approach in simulating the resonance parameters of Uranium-235 and Plutonium-239 with reduced systematic uncertainty.

  7. FEM and FVM compound numerical simulation of aluminum extrusion processes

    周飞; 苏丹; 彭颖红; 阮雪榆


    The finite element method (FEM) and the finite volume method (FVM) numerical simulation methods have been widely used in forging industries to improve the quality of products and reduce the costs. Because of very concentrative large deformation during the aluminum extrusion processes, it is very difficult to simulate the whole forming process only by using either FEM or FVM. In order to solve this problem, an FEM and FVM compound simulation method was proposed. The theoretical equations of the compound simulation method were given and the key techniques were studied. Then, the configuration of the compound simulation system was established. The tube extrusion process was simulated successfully so as to prove the validity of this approach for aluminum extrusion processes.

  8. Direct Numerical Simulation and Visualization of Subcooled Pool Boiling

    Tomoaki Kunugi


    Full Text Available A direct numerical simulation of the boiling phenomena is one of the promising approaches in order to clarify their heat transfer characteristics and discuss the mechanism. During these decades, many DNS procedures have been developed according to the recent high performance computers and computational technologies. In this paper, the state of the art of direct numerical simulation of the pool boiling phenomena during mostly two decades is briefly summarized at first, and then the nonempirical boiling and condensation model proposed by the authors is introduced into the MARS (MultiInterface Advection and Reconstruction Solver developed by the authors. On the other hand, in order to clarify the boiling bubble behaviors under the subcooled conditions, the subcooled pool boiling experiments are also performed by using a high speed and high spatial resolution camera with a highly magnified telescope. Resulting from the numerical simulations of the subcooled pool boiling phenomena, the numerical results obtained by the MARS are validated by being compared to the experimental ones and the existing analytical solutions. The numerical results regarding the time evolution of the boiling bubble departure process under the subcooled conditions show a very good agreement with the experimental results. In conclusion, it can be said that the proposed nonempirical boiling and condensation model combined with the MARS has been validated.

  9. Developing a numerical simulation for fading in feldspar

    Larsen, A.; Greilich, Steffen; Jain, Mayank;


    Most models describing anomalous fading in feldspars are based on analytical solutions. As an alternative approach we present an entirely numerical model based on statistical sampling that simulates stepwise the charge creation/trapping and recombination in a given phosphor. We assume the number...

  10. Experimental evaluation of numerical simulation of cavitating flow around hydrofoil

    Dular, M.; Bachert, R.; Stoffel, B. [Darmstadt Univ. of Technology, Lab. for Turbomachinery and Fluid Power (Germany); Sirok, B. [Ljubljana Univ., Lab. for Water and Turbine Machines (Slovenia)


    Cavitation in hydraulic machines causes different problems that can be related to its unsteady nature. An experimental and numerical study of developed cavitating flow was performed. Until now simulations of cavitating flow were limited to the self developed 'in house' CFD codes. The goal of the work was to experimentally evaluate the capabilities of a commercial CFD code (Fluent) for simulation of a developed cavitating flow. Two simple hydrofoils that feature some 3D effects of cavitation were used for the experiments. A relatively new technique where PIV method combined with LIF technique was used to experimentally determine the instantaneous and average velocity and void ratio fields (cavity shapes) around the hydrofoils. Distribution of static pressure on the hydrofoil surface was determined. For the numerical simulation of cavitating flow a bubble dynamics cavitation model was used to describe the generation and evaporation of vapour phase. An unsteady RANS 3D simulation was performed. Comparison between numerical and experimental results shows good correlation. The distribution and size of vapour structures and the velocity fields agree well. The distribution of pressure on the hydrofoil surface is correctly predicted. The numerically predicted shedding frequencies are in fair agreement with the experimental data. (authors)

  11. Compressible Turbulent Flow Numerical Simulations of Tip Vortex Cavitation

    Khatami, F.; Weide, van der E.T.A.; Hoeijmakers, H.W.M.


    For an elliptic Arndt’s hydrofoil numerical simulations of vortex cavitation are presented. An equilibrium cavitation model is employed. This single-fluid model assumes local thermodynamic and mechanical equilibrium in the mixture region of the flow, is employed. Furthermore, for characterizing the

  12. Seasonal cycle of Martian climate : Experimental data and numerical simulation

    Rodin, A. V.; Willson, R. J.


    The most adequate theoretical method of investigating the present-day Martian climate is numerical simulation based on a model of general circulation of the atmosphere. First and foremost, such models encounter the greatest difficulties in description of aerosols and clouds, which in turn essentiall

  13. Numerical Simulation of the Perrin-Like Experiments

    Mazur, Zygmunt; Grech, Dariusz


    A simple model of the random Brownian walk of a spherical mesoscopic particle in viscous liquids is proposed. The model can be solved analytically and simulated numerically. The analytic solution gives the known Einstein-Smoluchowski diffusion law r[superscript 2] = 2Dt, where the diffusion constant D is expressed by the mass and geometry of a…

  14. Numerical Simulation and Cold Modeling experiments on Centrifugal Casting

    Keerthiprasad, Kestur Sadashivaiah; Murali, Mysore Seetharam; Mukunda, Pudukottah Gopaliengar; Majumdar, Sekhar


    In a centrifugal casting process, the fluid flow eventually determines the quality and characteristics of the final product. It is difficult to study the fluid behavior here because of the opaque nature of melt and mold. In the current investigation, numerical simulations of the flow field and visualization experiments on cold models have been carried out for a centrifugal casting system using horizontal molds and fluids of different viscosities to study the effect of different process variables on the flow pattern. The effects of the thickness of the cylindrical fluid annulus formed inside the mold and the effects of fluid viscosity, diameter, and rotational speed of the mold on the hollow fluid cylinder formation process have been investigated. The numerical simulation results are compared with corresponding data obtained from the cold modeling experiments. The influence of rotational speed in a real-life centrifugal casting system has also been studied using an aluminum-silicon alloy. Cylinders of different thicknesses are cast at different rotational speeds, and the flow patterns observed visually in the actual castings are found to be similar to those recorded in the corresponding cold modeling experiments. Reasonable agreement is observed between the results of numerical simulation and the results of cold modeling experiments with different fluids. The visualization study on the hollow cylinders produced in an actual centrifugal casting process also confirm the conclusions arrived at from the cold modeling experiments and numerical simulation in a qualitative sense.

  15. Optimized firing. Numerical simulation of flow; Optimierte Feuerung. Numerische Stroemungssimulation

    Klasen, T. [Inpro-Consult (Germany); Floetgen, A.


    By the aid of a numerical flow simulation in the beginning of boiler design can be optimized geometrical and process details. An example is shown for a feeding stoker with combined dust firing of an existing boiler plant for biogenic fuels. (GL)

  16. Numerical Simulation of Bubble Evolution in Non-Newtonian Fluid

    唐亦农; 陈耀松; 陈文芳


    In this paper the bubble issuing from an orifice at the bottom of the boundary evolution in a finite Non-Newtonian fluid(such as Maxwell fluid,Carreu fluid)is numerically simulated The effects of the rheological behavior,physical parameters and circumstantial conditions are discussed in detail

  17. Numerical simulation of the fast dense gas Ludwieg tube experiment

    Zamfirescu, C.; Guerdone, A.; Collona, P.


    The preliminary design of a Ludwieg tube experiment for the verification of the existence of nonclassical rarefaction shock waves in dense vapors is here critically analyzed by means of real gas numerical simulations of the experimental setup. The Flexible Asymmetric Shock Tube (FAST) setup is a den

  18. Numerical simulation of airfoil trailing edge serration noise

    Zhu, Wei Jun; Shen, Wen Zhong

    In the present work, numerical simulations are carried out for a low noise airfoil with and without serrated Trailing Edge. The Ffowcs Williams-Hawkings acoustic analogy is implemented into the in-house incompressible flow solver EllipSys3D. The instantaneous hydrodynamic pressure and velocity...

  19. Numerical simulation and experimental observations of initial friction transients

    Hughes, D.A.; Weingarten, L.I.; Dawson, D.B.


    Experiments were performed to better understand the sliding frictional behavior between metals under relatively high shear and normal forces. Microstructural analyses were done to estimate local near-surface stress and strain gradients. The numerical simulation of the observed frictional behavior was based on a constitutive model that uses a state variable approach.

  20. Numerical simulation of two-phase flow in offshore environments

    Wemmenhove, Rik


    Numerical Simulation of Two-Phase Flow in Offshore Environments Rik Wemmenhove Weather conditions on full sea are often violent, leading to breaking waves and lots of spray and air bubbles. As high and steep waves may lead to severe damage on ships and offshore structures, there is a great need for

  1. Seasonal cycle of Martian climate : Experimental data and numerical simulation

    Rodin, A. V.; Willson, R. J.


    The most adequate theoretical method of investigating the present-day Martian climate is numerical simulation based on a model of general circulation of the atmosphere. First and foremost, such models encounter the greatest difficulties in description of aerosols and clouds, which in turn

  2. Seasonal cycle of Martian climate : Experimental data and numerical simulation

    Rodin, A. V.; Willson, R. J.


    The most adequate theoretical method of investigating the present-day Martian climate is numerical simulation based on a model of general circulation of the atmosphere. First and foremost, such models encounter the greatest difficulties in description of aerosols and clouds, which in turn essentiall

  3. Numerical convergence improvements for porflow unsaturated flow simulations

    Flach, Greg [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)


    Section 3.6 of SRNL (2016) discusses various PORFLOW code improvements to increase modeling efficiency, in preparation for the next E-Area Performance Assessment (WSRC 2008) revision. This memorandum documents interaction with Analytic & Computational Research, Inc. ( to improve numerical convergence efficiency using PORFLOW version 6.42 for unsaturated flow simulations.

  4. Direct Numerical Simulation Sediment Transport in Horizontal Channel

    Uhlmann, M.


    We numerically simulate turbulent flow in a horizontal plane channel over a bed of mobile particles. All scales of fluid motion are resolved without modeling and the phase interface is accurately represented. Our results indicate a possible scenario for the onset of erosion through collective motion induced by buffer-layer streaks. (Author) 27 refs.

  5. Working mechanism and numerical simulation of assembly coastal building techniques

    陈育民; 刘汉龙; 陈泽


    A new coastal technique, named as assembly coastal building, was introduced. The main concept of the technique was the assembling components which could be combined and locked together to form a large caisson. The assembly coastal building technique was used in a sea access road in Zhuanghai 4X1 well, Dagang Oilfield. The design plans and in-situ tests in the sea access road project were introduced in detail. According to the Zhuanghai project, the numerical simulation method of assembly coastal building technique was proposed. 2D numerical simulations were performed in FLAC to analyze the displacement and stability of the technique in the construction process and post-construction period. The settlement calculated is close to the in-situ results, which proves that the proposed numerical method is reasonable. Results show that the assembly coastal building technique has large safety factor under the gravity loading and wave loadings.

  6. Mathematical modeling and numerical simulation of Czochralski Crystal Growth

    Jaervinen, J.; Nieminen, R. [Center for Scientific Computing, Espoo (Finland)


    A detailed mathematical model and numerical simulation tools based on the SUPG Finite Element Method for the Czochralski crystal growth has been developed. In this presentation the mathematical modeling and numerical simulation of the melt flow and the temperature distribution in a rotationally symmetric crystal growth environment is investigated. The temperature distribution and the position of the free boundary between the solid and liquid phases are solved by using the Enthalpy method. Heat inside of the Czochralski furnace is transferred by radiation, conduction and convection. The melt flow is governed by the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations coupled with the enthalpy equation. The melt flow is numerically demonstrated and the temperature distribution in the whole Czochralski furnace. (author)

  7. Numerical simulation of cavitating flow past axisymmetric body

    Dong-Hyun Kim


    Full Text Available Cavitating flow simulation is of practical importance for many engineering systems, such as marine propellers, pump impellers, nozzles, torpedoes, etc. The present work has developed the base code to solve the cavitating flows past the axisymmetric bodies with several forebody shapes. The governing equation is the Navier-Stokes equation based on homogeneous mixture model. The momentum is in the mixture phase while the continuity equation is solved in liquid and vapor phase, separately. The solver employs an implicit preconditioning algorithm in curvilinear coordinates. The computations have been carried out for the cylinders with hemispherical, 1-caliber, and 0-caliber forebody and, then, compared with experiments and other numerical results. Fairly good agreements with experiments and numerical results have been achieved. It has been concluded that the present numerical code has successfully accounted for the cavitating flows past axisymmetric bodies. The present code has also shown the capability to simulate ventilated cavitation.

  8. Analytical and numerical simulations of a hydraulic fracturing experiment

    Zhou, M.Z.; Namiq, M.A.; Zhou, L.; Gou, Y. [Technische Univ. Clausthal, Clausthal-Zellerfeld (Germany). Inst. of Petroleum Engineering


    Based on simulations of a previously published hydraulic fracturing experiment performed by Casas et al. (2006), this paper presents the performance assessment of the famous analytical fracture 2D-models (PKN and KGD) and a 3D numerical model (FDM program FLAC3D of the ITASCA Inc.). Strain-softening models are used in the FLAC3D to describe the fracture creation and propagation as well as to present the material softening properties (permeability, tensile strength, cohesion, friction and dilation angel) as functions of the plastic strain. The results show that the numerical simulator has a much better performance and produces more reliable results than the analytical fracture models. However, numerical models have limitations and thus potential for further development. (orig.)

  9. Numeric Modified Adomian Decomposition Method for Power System Simulations

    Dimitrovski, Aleksandar D [ORNL; Simunovic, Srdjan [ORNL; Pannala, Sreekanth [ORNL


    This paper investigates the applicability of numeric Wazwaz El Sayed modified Adomian Decomposition Method (WES-ADM) for time domain simulation of power systems. WESADM is a numerical method based on a modified Adomian decomposition (ADM) technique. WES-ADM is a numerical approximation method for the solution of nonlinear ordinary differential equations. The non-linear terms in the differential equations are approximated using Adomian polynomials. In this paper WES-ADM is applied to time domain simulations of multimachine power systems. WECC 3-generator, 9-bus system and IEEE 10-generator, 39-bus system have been used to test the applicability of the approach. Several fault scenarios have been tested. It has been found that the proposed approach is faster than the trapezoidal method with comparable accuracy.

  10. Numerical simulation and experimental progress on plasma window

    Wang, S. Z.; Zhu, K.; Huang, S.; Lu, Y. R.; Shi, B. L.


    In this paper, a numerical 2D FLUENT-based magneto-hydrodynamic simulation on 3mm plasma window using argon, taken as a windowless vacuum device, was developed. The gas inlet, arc creation and developing and plasma expansion segments are all contained in this model. In the axis-symmetry cathode structure, a set of parameters including pressure, temperature, velocity and current distribution were obtained and discussed. The fluid dynamics of plasma in cavities with different shapes was researched. Corresponding experiments was carried out and the result agrees well to the numerical simulation. The validity of sealing ability of plasma window has been verified. Relevant further research upon deuteron gas as neutron production target is to be continued, considering larger diameter plasma window experimentally and numerically.

  11. Numerical Simulation on Freezing Process of Saturated Granlar Soil


    The relation between ice pressure and load as a criterion of segregated ice initiation is introduced into the rigid ice model to simulate frost heave in saturated and granular soil. The calculated results show that unfrozen water content, thermal conductivity and hydraulic conductivity change greatly in frozen fringe. In numerical simulations, the influence of load, hydraulic conductivity and property of soil containing water on the process of soil freezing are analyzed, and the simulation curves such as cumulative heave,the change of depth of frozen and the distributions of water content are similar to the observations reported elsewhere.

  12. Numerical Simulation System for Casting Process in Concurrent Engineering


    According to the implementing principle and application background of the Concurrent Engineering (CE) project, studies on the integration of numerical simulation system for casting process with CE, simulation of turbulent phenomena in filling process of casting by Algebraic Stress Model (ASM), computation efficiency of filling process and quantitative prediction of shrinkage cavity and porosity under feeding condition of several risers are discussed. After the simulation of casting process of typical magnesium-based alloy casting with complicated structure, remarkable success in assuring the quality is also presented.

  13. Numerical Simulation of Sediment Transport due to Plunging Breaking Waves

    Pedersen, Claus

    A numerical model simulating the sediment transport due to plunging breaking waves has been developed. The model is two-dimensional, assuming conditions in the long-shore direction invariable. A plunging breaker is simulated by superimposing a non-breaking wave with a jet. Based on the description...... of the sediment transport rates, a simple model describing the morphological changes has been applied to simulate the evolution of a plunge point generated vorticity included, the bottom topography from the experiments by Dette & Uliczka was not in equilibrium according to the model....

  14. Numerical Simulations of Equiaxed Dendrite Growth Using Phase Field Method


    Phase field method offers the prospect of being able to perform realistic numerical experiments on dendrite growthin a metallic system. In this paper, the equiaxed dendrite evolution during the solidification of a pure material wasnumerically simulated using the phase field model. The equiaxed dendrite growth in a two-dimensional square domainof undercooled melt (nickel) with four-fold anisotropy was simulated. The phase field model equations was solvedusing the explicit finite difference method on a uniform mesh. The formation of various equiaxed dendrite patternswas shown by a series of simulations, and the effect of anisotropy on equiaxed dendrite morphology was investigated.

  15. Understanding casing flow in Pelton turbines by numerical simulation

    Rentschler, M.; Neuhauser, M.; Marongiu, J. C.; Parkinson, E.


    For rehabilitation projects of Pelton turbines, the flow in the casing may have an important influence on the overall performance of the machine. Water sheets returning on the jets or on the runner significantly reduce efficiency, and run-away speed depends on the flow in the casing. CFD simulations can provide a detailed insight into this type of flow, but these simulations are computationally intensive. As in general the volume of water in a Pelton turbine is small compared to the complete volume of the turbine housing, a single phase simulation greatly reduces the complexity of the simulation. In the present work a numerical tool based on the SPH-ALE meshless method is used to simulate the casing flow in a Pelton turbine. Using improved order schemes reduces the numerical viscosity. This is necessary to resolve the flow in the jet and on the casing wall, where the velocity differs by two orders of magnitude. The results are compared to flow visualizations and measurement in a hydraulic laboratory. Several rehabilitation projects proved the added value of understanding the flow in the Pelton casing. The flow simulation helps designing casing insert, not only to see their influence on the flow, but also to calculate the stress in the inserts. In some projects, the casing simulation leads to the understanding of unexpected behavior of the flow. One such example is presented where the backsplash of a deflector hit the runner, creating a reversed rotation of the runner.


    ZHANG Jing-xin; LIU Hua


    Numerical simulation of sediment transport and bed evolution has become an important technique in the sediment research. In this article, a numerical model of suspended sediment transport was proposed, which was established in the vertical coordinate for fitting the free surface and bottom. In the research of the sediment transport, the predominant factors were found to be the eddy diffusion, the settling velocity, the bed condition and so on. By the aid of the model in the article, the contribution of the Rouse parameter to the vertical profile of sediment concentration was clarified, which was identical to the theoretical results. In the comparison of the numerical results with laboratory data, the agreement between experimental data and numerical results was reached except for some data. And the possible reasons for the disagreement were discussed.

  17. Simulation of Fully Nonlinear 3-D Numerical Wave Tank

    张晓兔; 滕斌; 宁德志


    A fully nonlinear numerical wave tank (NWT) has been simulated by use of a three-dimensional higher order boundary element method (HOBEM) in the time domain. Within the frame of potential flow and the adoption of simply Rankine source, the resulting boundary integral equation is repeatedly solved at each time step and the fully nonlinear free surface boundary conditions are integrated with time to update its position and boundary values. A smooth technique is also adopted in order to eliminate the possible saw-tooth numerical instabilities. The incident wave at the uptank is given as theoretical wave in this paper. The outgoing waves are absorbed inside a damping zone by spatially varying artificial damping on the free surface at the wave tank end. The numerical results show that the NWT developed by these approaches has a high accuracy and good numerical stability.

  18. Numerical simulation of the characteristics of turbulent Taylor vortex flow

    ZHOU Xiantao; PAN Jiazhen; CHEN Liqing; SHI Yan; CHEN Wenmei; CHU Liangyin


    Turbulent Taylor vortex flow,which is contained between a rotating inner cylinder and a coaxial fixed outer cylinder with fixed ends,is simulated by applying the development in Reynolds stress equations mold (RSM) of the micro-perturbation.This resulted from the truncation error between the numerical solution and exact solution of the Reynolds stress equations.Based on the numerical simulation results of the turbulent Taylor vortex flow,its characteristics such as the fluctuation of the flow field,the precipitous drop of azimuthal velocity,the jet flow of radial velocity,the periodicity of axial velocity,the wave periodicity of pressure distribution,the polarization of shear stress on the walls,and the turbulence intensity in the jet region,are discussed.Comparing the pilot results measured by previous methods,the relative error of the characteristics predicted by simulation is less than 30%.


    DONG Zhi-yong; LEE Joseph Hun-wei


    Numerical simulation of stepped channel flow was conducted using turbulence models based on the VOF technique. Stepped channel flow is a complicated air-water two-phase flow with free surface, which can be divided into three flow regimes: skimming flow, nappe flow and transition flow. The characteristics of skimming flow over mild stepped channel was investigated, including friction factors, air concentration profiles velocity field, clear-water and bulked depths, static pressure, etc. Smooth channel flow was also simulated to compare the hydraulic characteristics of the stepped channel flow with the smooth one. Comparisons between the computed and the measured were made. Furthermore, comparison of the computed air concentration with Straub and Anderson's data was also performed. The Fluent 6.1 software was employed to conduct this numerical simulation work.

  20. Visualization of a Numerical Simulation of GW 150914

    Rosato, Nicole; Healy, James; Lousto, Carlos


    We present an analysis of a simulation displaying apparent horizon curvature and radiation emitted from a binary black hole system modeling GW-150914 during merger. The simulation follows the system from seven orbits prior to merger to the resultant Kerr black hole. Horizon curvature was calculated using a mean curvature flow algorithm. Radiation data was visualized via the Ψ4 component of the Weyl scalars, which were determined using a numerical quasi-Kinnersley method. We also present a comparative study of the differences in quasi-Kinnersley and PsiKadelia tetrads to construct Ψ4. The analysis is displayed on a movie generated from these numerical results, and was done using VisIt software from Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. This simulation and analysis gives more insight into the merger of the system GW 150914.

  1. Numerical simulation of thermal behavior during laser metal deposition shaping

    LONG Ri-sheng; LIU Wei-jun; XING Fei; WANG Hua-bing


    Based on the element life and death theory of finite element analysis (FEA),a three-dimensional multi-track and multi-layer model for laser metal deposition shaping (LMDS) was developed with ANSYS parametric design language (APDL),and detailed numerical simulations of temperature and thermal stress were conducted.Among those simulations,long-edge parallel reciprocating scanning method was introduced.The distribution regularities of temperature,temperature gradient,Von Mise's effective stress,X-directional,Y-directional and Z-directional thermal stresses were studied.LMDS experiments were carried out with nickel-based superalloy using the same process parameters as those in simulation.The measured temperatures of molten pool are in accordance with the simulated results.The crack engendering and developing regularities of samples show good agreement with the simulation results.

  2. Numerical simulation and experimental verification of silicone oil flow over magnetic fluid under applied magnetic field

    Ruoyu Hong; Zhiqiang Ren; Shizhong Zhang; Jianmin Ding; Hongzhong Li


    Two-layer flow of magnetic fluid and non-magnetic silicone oil was simulated numerically. The continuity equation, momentum equations,kinematic equation, and magnetic potential equation were solved in two-dimensional Cartesian coordinate. PLIC (piecewise linear integration calculation) VOF (volume of fluid) scheme was employed to track the free interface. Surface tension was treated via a continuous surface force(CSF) model that ensures robustness and accuracy. The influences of applied magnetic field, inlet velocity profile, initial surface disturbance of interface and surface tension were analyzed. The computed interface shapes at different conditions were compared with experimental observation.

  3. Numerical simulation of landfill aeration using computational fluid dynamics.

    Fytanidis, Dimitrios K; Voudrias, Evangelos A


    The present study is an application of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) to the numerical simulation of landfill aeration systems. Specifically, the CFD algorithms provided by the commercial solver ANSYS Fluent 14.0, combined with an in-house source code developed to modify the main solver, were used. The unsaturated multiphase flow of air and liquid phases and the biochemical processes for aerobic biodegradation of the organic fraction of municipal solid waste were simulated taking into consideration their temporal and spatial evolution, as well as complex effects, such as oxygen mass transfer across phases, unsaturated flow effects (capillary suction and unsaturated hydraulic conductivity), temperature variations due to biochemical processes and environmental correction factors for the applied kinetics (Monod and 1st order kinetics). The developed model results were compared with literature experimental data. Also, pilot scale simulations and sensitivity analysis were implemented. Moreover, simulation results of a hypothetical single aeration well were shown, while its zone of influence was estimated using both the pressure and oxygen distribution. Finally, a case study was simulated for a hypothetical landfill aeration system. Both a static (steadily positive or negative relative pressure with time) and a hybrid (following a square wave pattern of positive and negative values of relative pressure with time) scenarios for the aeration wells were examined. The results showed that the present model is capable of simulating landfill aeration and the obtained results were in good agreement with corresponding previous experimental and numerical investigations.

  4. Thermal numerical simulator for laboratory evaluation of steamflood oil recovery

    Sarathi, P.


    A thermal numerical simulator running on an IBM AT compatible personal computer is described. The simulator was designed to assist laboratory design and evaluation of steamflood oil recovery. An overview of the historical evolution of numerical thermal simulation, NIPER's approach to solving these problems with a desk top computer, the derivation of equations and a description of approaches used to solve these equations, and verification of the simulator using published data sets and sensitivity analysis are presented. The developed model is a three-phase, two-dimensional multicomponent simulator capable of being run in one or two dimensions. Mass transfer among the phases and components is dictated by pressure- and temperature-dependent vapor-liquid equilibria. Gravity and capillary pressure phenomena were included. Energy is transferred by conduction, convection, vaporization and condensation. The model employs a block centered grid system with a five-point discretization scheme. Both areal and vertical cross-sectional simulations are possible. A sequential solution technique is employed to solve the finite difference equations. The study clearly indicated the importance of heat loss, injected steam quality, and injection rate to the process. Dependence of overall recovery on oil volatility and viscosity is emphasized. The process is very sensitive to relative permeability values. Time-step sensitivity runs indicted that the current version is time-step sensitive and exhibits conditional stability. 75 refs., 19 figs., 19 tabs.

  5. Numerical Propulsion System Simulation (NPSS) 1999 Industry Review

    Lytle, John; Follen, Greg; Naiman, Cynthia; Evans, Austin


    The technologies necessary to enable detailed numerical simulations of complete propulsion systems are being developed at the NASA Glenn Research Center in cooperation with industry, academia, and other government agencies. Large scale, detailed simulations will be of great value to the nation because they eliminate some of the costly testing required to develop and certify advanced propulsion systems. In addition, time and cost savings will be achieved by enabling design details to be evaluated early in the development process before a commitment is made to a specific design. This concept is called the Numerical Propulsion System Simulation (NPSS). NPSS consists of three main elements: (1) engineering models that enable multidisciplinary analysis of large subsystems and systems at various levels of detail, (2) a simulation environment that maximizes designer productivity, and (3) a cost-effective, high-performance computing platform. A fundamental requirement of the concept is that the simulations must be capable of overnight execution on easily accessible computing platforms. This will greatly facilitate the use of large-scale simulations in a design environment. This paper describes the current status of the NPSS with specific emphasis on the progress made over the past year on air breathing propulsion applications. In addition, the paper contains a summary of the feedback received from industry partners in the development effort and the actions taken over the past year to respond to that feedback. The NPSS development was supported in FY99 by the High Performance Computing and Communications Program.

  6. Graphics interfaces and numerical simulations: Mexican Virtual Solar Observatory

    Hernández, L.; González, A.; Salas, G.; Santillán, A.


    Preliminary results associated to the computational development and creation of the Mexican Virtual Solar Observatory (MVSO) are presented. Basically, the MVSO prototype consists of two parts: the first, related to observations that have been made during the past ten years at the Solar Observation Station (EOS) and at the Carl Sagan Observatory (OCS) of the Universidad de Sonora in Mexico. The second part is associated to the creation and manipulation of a database produced by numerical simulations related to solar phenomena, we are using the MHD ZEUS-3D code. The development of this prototype was made using mysql, apache, java and VSO 1.2. based GNU and `open source philosophy'. A graphic user interface (GUI) was created in order to make web-based, remote numerical simulations. For this purpose, Mono was used, because it is provides the necessary software to develop and run .NET client and server applications on Linux. Although this project is still under development, we hope to have access, by means of this portal, to other virtual solar observatories and to be able to count on a database created through numerical simulations or, given the case, perform simulations associated to solar phenomena.

  7. Image based numerical simulation of hemodynamics in a intracranial aneurysm

    Le, Trung; Ge, Liang; Sotiropoulos, Fotis; Kallmes, David; Cloft, Harry; Lewis, Debra; Dai, Daying; Ding, Yonghong; Kadirvel, Ramanathan


    Image-based numerical simulations of hemodynamics in a intracranial aneurysm are carried out. The numerical solver based on CURVIB (curvilinear grid/immersed boundary method) approach developed in Ge and Sotiropoulos, JCP 2007 is used to simulate the blood flow. A curvilinear grid system that gradually follows the curved geometry of artery wall and consists of approximately 5M grid nodes is constructed as the background grid system and the boundaries of the investigated artery and aneurysm are treated as immersed boundaries. The surface geometry of aneurysm wall is reconstructed from an angiography study of an aneurysm formed on the common carotid artery (CCA) of a rabbit and discretized with triangular meshes. At the inlet a physiological flow waveform is specified and direct numerical simulations are used to simulate the blood flow. Very rich vortical dynamics is observed within the aneurysm area, with a ring like vortex sheds from the proximal side of aneurysm, develops and impinge onto the distal side of the aneurysm as flow develops, and destructs into smaller vortices during later cardiac cycle. This work was supported in part by the University of Minnesota Supercomputing Institute.

  8. MADNESS: A Multiresolution, Adaptive Numerical Environment for Scientific Simulation

    Harrison, Robert J.; Beylkin, Gregory; Bischoff, Florian A.; Calvin, Justus A.; Fann, George I.; Fosso-Tande, Jacob; Galindo, Diego; Hammond, Jeff R.; Hartman-Baker, Rebecca; Hill, Judith C.; Jia, Jun; Kottmann, Jakob S.; Yvonne Ou, M-J.; Pei, Junchen; Ratcliff, Laura E.; Reuter, Matthew G.; Richie-Halford, Adam C.; Romero, Nichols A.; Sekino, Hideo; Shelton, William A.; Sundahl, Bryan E.; Thornton, W. Scott; Valeev, Edward F.; Vázquez-Mayagoitia, Álvaro; Vence, Nicholas; Yanai, Takeshi; Yokoi, Yukina


    MADNESS (multiresolution adaptive numerical environment for scientific simulation) is a high-level software environment for solving integral and differential equations in many dimensions that uses adaptive and fast harmonic analysis methods with guaranteed precision based on multiresolution analysis and separated representations. Underpinning the numerical capabilities is a powerful petascale parallel programming environment that aims to increase both programmer productivity and code scalability. This paper describes the features and capabilities of MADNESS and briefly discusses some current applications in chemistry and several areas of physics.

  9. Numerical simulation of multi-fluid shock-turbulence interaction

    Tian, Yifeng; Jaberi, Farhad; Livescu, Daniel; Li, Zhaorui


    Accurate numerical simulation of multi-fluid Shock-Turbulence Interaction (STI) is conducted by a hybrid monotonicity preserving-compact finite difference scheme for a detailed study of STI in variable density flows. Theoretical and numerical assessments of data confirm that all turbulence scales as well as the STI are well captured by the computational method. Comparison of multi-fluid and single-fluid data indicates that the turbulent kinetic energy is amplified more and the scalar mixing is enhanced more by the shock in flows involving two different fluids/densities when compared with those observed in single-fluid flows.

  10. Recent Advances in the Numerical Simulations of Binary Black Holes

    Marronetti, Pedro


    Since the breakthrough papers from 2005/2006, the field of numerical relativity has experienced a growth spurt that took the two-body problem in general relativity from the category of "really-hard-problems" to the realm of "things-we-know-how-to-do". Simulations of binary black holes in circular orbits, the holy grail of numerical relativity, are now tractable problems that lead to some of the most spectacular results in general relativity in recent years. We cover here some of the latest achievements and highlight the field's next challenges.


    Angelo Fabbri


    Full Text Available In agri-food engineering many complex problems arise in plant and process design. Specifically the designer has to deal with fluid dynamics, thermal or mechanical problems, often characterized by physics coupling, non-linearity, irregular geometry, anisotropy and in definitive rather high complexity. In recent years, the ever growing availability of computational power at low cost, made these problems more often approached with numerical simulation techniques. Mainly in terms of finite elements and finite volumes. In this paper the fundamentals of numerical methods are briefly recalled and a discussion about their possibility of application in the food and agricultural engineering is developed.

  12. Numerical simulation of LBGK model for high Reynolds number flow

    Zhou Xiao-Yang; Shi Bao-Chang; Wang Neng-Chao


    A principle of selecting relaxation parameter was proposed to observe the limit computational capability of the incompressible LBGK models developed by Guo ZL (Guo model) and He SY (He model) for high Reynolds number flow.To the two-dimensional driven cavity flow problem, the highest Reynolds numbers covered by Guo and He models are in the range 58000-52900 and 28000-29000, respectively, at 0.3 Mach number and 1/256 lattice space. The simulation results also show that the Guo model has stronger robustness due to its higher accuracy.

  13. High-Order Numerical-Relativity Simulations of Binary Neutron Stars

    Radice, David; Galeazzi, Filippo


    We report simulations of the inspiral and merger of binary neutron stars performed with \\texttt{WhiskyTHC}, the first of a new generation of numerical relativity codes employing higher than second-order methods for both the spacetime and the hydrodynamic evolution. We find that the use of higher-order schemes improves substantially the quality of the gravitational waveforms extracted from the simulations when compared to those computed using traditional second-order schemes. The reduced de-phasing and the faster convergence rate allow us to estimate the phase evolution of the gravitational waves emitted, as well as the magnitude of finite-resolution effects, without the need of phase- or time-alignments or rescalings of the waves, as sometimes done in other works. Furthermore, by using an additional unpublished simulation at very high resolution, we confirm the robustness of our high convergence order of $3.2$.

  14. Simulation of guided wave propagation near numerical Brillouin zones

    Kijanka, Piotr; Staszewski, Wieslaw J.; Packo, Pawel


    Attractive properties of guided waves provides very unique potential for characterization of incipient damage, particularly in plate-like structures. Among other properties, guided waves can propagate over long distances and can be used to monitor hidden structural features and components. On the other hand, guided propagation brings substantial challenges for data analysis. Signal processing techniques are frequently supported by numerical simulations in order to facilitate problem solution. When employing numerical models additional sources of errors are introduced. These can play significant role for design and development of a wave-based monitoring strategy. Hence, the paper presents an investigation of numerical models for guided waves generation, propagation and sensing. Numerical dispersion analysis, for guided waves in plates, based on the LISA approach is presented and discussed in the paper. Both dispersion and modal amplitudes characteristics are analysed. It is shown that wave propagation in a numerical model resembles propagation in a periodic medium. Consequently, Lamb wave propagation close to numerical Brillouin zone is investigated and characterized.

  15. Design and numerical simulation of thermionic electron gun

    Hosseinzadeh, M


    This paper reports the simulation of an electron gun. The effects of some parameters on the beam quality were studied and optimal choices were identified. It gives numerical beam qualities in common electrostatic triode gun, and the dependences on design parameters such as electrode geometries and bias voltages to these electrodes are shown. An electron beam of diameter 5 mm with energy of five kilo electron volt was assumed for simulation process. Some design parameters were identified as variable parameters in the presence of space charge. These parameters are the inclination angle of emission electrode, the applied voltage to focusing electrode, the gap width between the emission electrode and the focusing electrode and the diameter of the focusing electrode. The triode extraction system is designed and optimized by using CST software (for Particle Beam Simulations). The physical design of the extraction system is given in this paper. From the simulation results, it is concluded that the inclination angle ...

  16. A fast direct numerical simulation method for characterising hydraulic roughness

    Chung, Daniel; MacDonald, Michael; Hutchins, Nicholas; Ooi, Andrew


    We describe a fast direct numerical simulation (DNS) method that promises to directly characterise the hydraulic roughness of any given rough surface, from the hydraulically smooth to the fully rough regime. The method circumvents the unfavourable computational cost associated with simulating high-Reynolds-number flows by employing minimal-span channels (Jimenez & Moin 1991). Proof-of-concept simulations demonstrate that flows in minimal-span channels are sufficient for capturing the downward velocity shift, that is, the Hama roughness function, predicted by flows in full-span channels. We consider two sets of simulations, first with modelled roughness imposed by body forces, and second with explicit roughness described by roughness-conforming grids. Owing to the minimal cost, we are able to conduct DNSs with increasing roughness Reynolds numbers while maintaining a fixed blockage ratio, as is typical in full-scale applications. The present method promises a practical, fast and accurate tool for character...

  17. Numerical simulation of pulsatile flow in rough pipes

    Chin, Cheng; Monty, Jason; Ooi, Andrew; Illingworth, Simon; Marusic, Ivan; Skvortsov, Alex


    Direct numerical simulation (DNS) of pulsatile turbulent pipe flow is carried out over three-dimensional sinusoidal surfaces mimicking surface roughness. The simulations are performed at a mean Reynolds number of Reτ 540 (based on friction velocity, uτ, and pipe radii, δ) and at various roughness profiles following the study of Chan et al., where the size of the roughness (roughness semi-amplitude height h+ and wavelength λ+) is increased geometrically while maintaining the height-to-wavelength ratio of the sinusoidal roughness element. Results from the pulsatile simulations are compared with non-pulsatile simulations to investigate the effects of pulsation on the Hama roughness function, ΔU+ . Other turbulence statistics including mean turbulence intensities, Reynolds stresses and energy spectra are analysed. In addition, instantaneous phase (eg. at maximum and minimum flow velocities) and phase-averaged flow structures are presented and discussed.

  18. Direct Numerical Simulation of Multiphase Flows with Unstable Interfaces

    Schillaci, Eugenio; Lehmkuhl, Oriol; Antepara, Oscar; Oliva, Assensi


    This paper presents a numerical model that intends to simulate efficiently the surface instability that arise in multiphase flows, typically liquid-gas, both for laminar or turbulent regimes. The model is developed on the in-house computing platform TermoFluids, and operates the finite-volume, direct numerical simulation (DNS) of multiphase flows by means of a conservative level-set method for the interface-capturing. The mesh size is optimized by means of an adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) strategy, that allows the dynamic re-concentration of the mesh in the vicinity of the interfaces between fluids, in order to correctly represent the diverse structures (as ligaments and droplets) that may rise from unstable phenomena. In addition, special attention is given to the discretization of the various terms of the momentum equations, to ensure stability of the flow and correct representation of turbulent vortices. As shown, the method is capable of truthfully simulate the interface phenomena as the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability and the Plateau-Rayleigh instability, both in the case of 2-D and 3-D configurations. Therefore it is suitable for the simulation of complex phenomena such as simulation of air-blast atomization, with several important application in the field of automotive and aerospace engines. A prove is given by our preliminary study of the 3-D coaxial liquid-gas jet.

  19. Numerical simulation and experimental investigation of incremental sheet forming process

    HAN Fei; MO Jian-hua


    In order to investigate the process of incremental sheet forming (ISF) through both experimental and numerical approaches, a three-dimensional elasto-plastic finite element model (FEM) was developed to simulate the process and the simulated results were compared with those of experiment. The results of numerical simulations, such as the strain history and distribution, the stress state and distribution, sheet thickness distribution, etc, were discussed in details, and the influences of process parameters on these results were also analyzed. The simulated results of the radial strain and the thickness distribution are in good agreement with experimental results. The simulations reveal that the deformation is localized around the tool and constantly remains close to a plane strain state. With decreasing depth step, increasing tool diameter and wall inclination angle, the axial stress reduces, leading to less thinning and more homogeneous plastic strain and thickness distribution. During ISF, the plastic strain increases stepwise under the action of the tool. Each increase in plastic strain is accompanied by hydrostatic pressure, which explains why obtainable deformation using ISF exceeds the forming limits of conventional sheet forming.

  20. Numerical simulation of internal reconnection event in spherical tokamak

    Hayashi, Takaya; Mizuguchi, Naoki; Sato, Tetsuya [National Inst. for Fusion Science, Toki, Gifu (Japan)


    Three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic simulations are executed in a full toroidal geometry to clarify the physical mechanisms of the Internal Reconnection Event (IRE), which is observed in the spherical tokamak experiments. The simulation results reproduce several main properties of IRE. Comparison between the numerical results and experimental observation indicates fairly good agreements regarding nonlinear behavior, such as appearance of localized helical distortion, appearance of characteristic conical shape in the pressure profile during thermal quench, and subsequent appearance of the m=2/n=1 type helical distortion of the torus. (author)

  1. Direct numerical simulations of gas-liquid multiphase flows

    Tryggvason, Grétar; Zaleski, Stéphane


    Accurately predicting the behaviour of multiphase flows is a problem of immense industrial and scientific interest. Modern computers can now study the dynamics in great detail and these simulations yield unprecedented insight. This book provides a comprehensive introduction to direct numerical simulations of multiphase flows for researchers and graduate students. After a brief overview of the context and history the authors review the governing equations. A particular emphasis is placed on the 'one-fluid' formulation where a single set of equations is used to describe the entire flow field and

  2. Numerical Simulations and Diagnostics in Astrophysics:. a Few Magnetohydrodynamics Examples

    Peres, Giovanni; Bonito, Rosaria; Orlando, Salvatore; Reale, Fabio


    We discuss some issues related to numerical simulations in Astrophysics and, in particular, to their use both as a theoretical tool and as a diagnostic tool, to gain insight into the physical phenomena at work. We make our point presenting some examples of Magneto-hydro-dynamic (MHD) simulations of astrophysical plasmas and illustrating their use. In particular we show the need for appropriate tools to interpret, visualize and present results in an adequate form, and the importance of spectral synthesis for a direct comparison with observations.

  3. Numerical Simulation and Innovation on Magnesium Reduction Process

    Dehong XIA; Gang ZHANG; Liang GUO


    The thermal process of L.M.Pidgeon's reduction art, widely used in magnesium production, is numerically simulated. It is shown that the thermal efficiency will be highly enhanced with the increase of heat-exchange area or the intensification of heat exchange between flame and the outer surface of the reduction jars. An innovation has been made by fuel-shifting (from coal to Coal-Water Mixture), up-draft reduction furnace configuration,multi-layer jars installation and waste heat recovery. A bench scale furnace has been constructed and put into operation to identify the simulation and new design.

  4. Numerical simulation of transient operation of loop heat pipes

    Kaya, T. [Carleton University, Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, 1125 Colonel By Drive, Ottawa, Ontario, K1S 5B6 (Canada)], E-mail:; Perez, R.; Gregori, C.; Torres, A. [IberEspacio, Tecnologia Aeroespacial, Magallanes, 1, 28015 Madrid (Spain)


    A numerical model is developed to simulate the transient performance characteristics of loop heat pipes (LHP). The model satisfactorily simulates the overall dynamic behavior of an LHP unit tested under ambient and vacuum environments. The startup phase is also reproduced using the experimentally obtained incipient wall superheat. The accurate heat leak predictions at low powers remain problematic and experimental correlation is necessary. The model can be used to analyze the dynamic behavior of an LHP based thermal control system exposed to transient thermal loads.

  5. Numerical simulations of thin accretion discs with PLUTO

    Parthasarathy, Varadarajan


    Our goal is to perform global simulations of thin accretion discs around compact bodies like neutron stars with dipolar magnetic profile and black holes by exploiting the facilities provided by state-of-the-art grid-based, high resolution shock capturing (HRSC) and finite volume codes. We have used the Godunov-type code PLUTO to simulate a thin disc around a compact object prescribed with a pseudo-Newtonian potential in a purely hydrodynamical (HD) regime, with numerical viscosity as a first step towards achieving our goal as mentioned above.

  6. Numerical Simulation of Cast Distortion in Gas Turbine Engine Components

    Inozemtsev, A. A.; Dubrovskaya, A. S.; Dongauser, K. A.; Trufanov, N. A.


    In this paper the process of multiple airfoilvanes manufacturing through investment casting is considered. The mathematical model of the full contact problem is built to determine stress strain state in a cast during the process of solidification. Studies are carried out in viscoelastoplastic statement. Numerical simulation of the explored process is implemented with ProCASTsoftware package. The results of simulation are compared with the real production process. By means of computer analysis the optimization of technical process parameters is done in order to eliminate the defect of cast walls thickness variation.

  7. YBCO melt-processing development by numerical simulation

    Schmitz, G.J.; Nestler, B.; Seesselberg, M. [ACCESS e.V. Materials Sciences, Aachen (Germany)


    Numerical simulations provide a suitable tool to investigate and support the upscaling of melt growth especially of high T{sub c} superconductors. On the macroscopic scale calculations of thermal fields in the YBCO bulk during melt growth were performed. Mesoscopic simulations of the evolution of the microstructure have been made using the phase field method. These results are discussed in relation to experimental results obtained from the real YBCO system. Implications for a possible enhancement of production rates for YBCO bulk material and for tapes are outlined.

  8. Numerical simulation and mechanism analysis of freak waves


    A numerical wave model based on the modified fourth-order nonlinear Schroe dinger equation (mNLSE) in deep water was developed to simulate the formation of freak waves and a standard split-step, pseudo-spectral method was used to solve the equation. The validation of the model is firstly verified, then the simulation of freak waves was performed by changing sideband conditions, and the variation of wave energy was also analyzed in the evolution. The results indicate that Benjamin-Feir instability (sideband instability) is an important mechanism for freak wave formation.

  9. Numerical studies towards practical large-eddy simulation

    J. Boudet; J. Caro; L. Shao; E. Lévêque


    Large-eddy simulation developments and validations are presented for an improved simulation of turbulent internal flows. Numerical methods are proposed according to two competing criteria: numerical qualities (precision and spectral characteristics), and adaptability to complex configurations. First, methods are tested on academic test-cases, in order to abridge with fundamental studies. Consistent results are obtained using adaptable finite volume method, with higher order advection fluxes, implicit grid filtering and "low-cost" shear-improved Smagorinsky model. This analysis particularly focuses on mean flow, fluctuations, two-point correlations and spectra.Moreover, it is shown that exponential averaging is a promising tool for LES implementation in complex geometry with deterministic unsteadiness. Finally, adaptability of the method is demonstrated by application to a configuration representative of blade-tip clearance flow in a turbomachine.

  10. Numerical simulations of a diode laser BPH treatment system

    Esch, V; London, R A; Papademetriou, S


    Numerical simulations are presented of the laser-tissue interaction of a diode laser system for treating benign prostate hyperplasia. The numerical model includes laser light transport, heat transport, cooling due to blood perfusion, thermal tissue damage, and enthalpy of tissue damage. Comparisons of the simulation results to clinical data are given. We report that a reasonable variation from a standard set of input data produces heating times which match those measured in the clinical trials. A general trend of decreasing damage volume with increasing heating time is described. We suggest that the patient-to- patient variability seen in the data can be explained by differences in fundamental biophysical properties such as the optical coefficients. Further work is identified, including the measurement and input to the model of several specific data parameters such as optical coefficients, blood perfusion cooling rate, and coagulation rates.

  11. Numerical Relativity Simulations for Black Hole Merger Astrophysics

    Baker, John G.


    Massive black hole mergers are perhaps the most energetic astronomical events, establishing their importance as gravitational wave sources for LISA, and also possibly leading to observable influences on their local environments. Advances in numerical relativity over the last five years have fueled the development of a rich physical understanding of general relativity's predictions for these events. Z will overview the understanding of these event emerging from numerical simulation studies. These simulations elucidate the pre-merger dynamics of the black hole binaries, the consequent gravitational waveform signatures ' and the resulting state, including its kick velocity, for the final black hole produced by the merger. Scenarios are now being considered for observing each of these aspects of the merger, involving both gravitational-wave and electromagnetic astronomy.

  12. 3D numerical simulation and analysis of railgun gouging mechanism

    Jin-guo WU; Bo TANG; Qing-hua LIN; Hai-yuan LI; Bao-ming LI


    A gouging phenomenon with a hypervelocity sliding electrical contact in railgun not only shortens the rail lifetime but also affects the interior ballistic performance. In this paper, a 3-D numerical model was introduced to simulate and analyze the generation mechanism and evolution of the rail gouging phenomenon. The results show that a rail surface bulge is an important factor to induce gouging. High density and high pressure material flow on the contact surface, obliquely extruded into the rail when accelerating the armature to a high velocity, can produce gouging. Both controlling the bulge size to a certain range and selecting suitable materials for rail surface coating will suppress the formation of gouging. The numerical simulation had a good agreement with experiments, which validated the computing model and methodology are reliable.

  13. Three-dimensional numerical simulation during laser processing of CFRP

    Ohkubo, Tomomasa; Sato, Yuji; Matsunaga, Ei-ichi; Tsukamoto, Masahiro


    We performed three-dimensional numerical simulation about laser processing of carbon-fiber-reinforced plastic (CFRP) using OpenFOAM as libraries of finite volume method (FVM). Although a little theoretical or numerical studies about heat affected zone (HAZ) formation were performed, there is no research discussing how HAZ is generated considering time development about removal of each material. It is important to understand difference of removal speed of carbon fiber and resin in order to improve quality of cut surface of CFRP. We demonstrated how the carbon fiber and resin are removed by heat of ablation plume by our simulation. We found that carbon fiber is removed faster than resin at first stage because of the difference of thermal conductivity, and after that, the resin is removed faster because of its low combustion temperature. This result suggests the existence of optimal contacting time of the laser ablation and kerf of the target.

  14. Direct numerical simulation of double-diffusive gravity currents

    Penney, Jared; Stastna, Marek


    This paper presents three-dimensional direct numerical simulations of laboratory-scale double-diffusive gravity currents. Flow is governed by the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations under the Boussinesq approximation, with salinity and temperature coupled to the equations of motion using a nonlinear approximation to the UNESCO equation of state. The effects of vertical boundary conditions and current volume are examined, with focus on flow pattern development, current propagation speed, three-dimensionalization, dissipation, and stirring and mixing. It was observed that no-slip boundaries cause the gravity current head to take the standard lobe-and-cleft shape and encourage both a greater degree and an earlier onset of three-dimensionalization when compared to what occurs in the case of a free-slip boundary. Additionally, numerical simulations with no-slip boundary conditions experience greater viscous dissipation, stirring, and mixing when compared to similar configurations using free-slip conditions.

  15. Numerical simulation of interfacial reaction between titanium and zirconia

    Liu Aihui


    Full Text Available Based on the conservation laws of energy and mass, and taking into account the effect of chemical reaction between liquid titanium and zirconia ceramic mold on the concentration field and the temperature field, a comprehensive mathematical model for numerical simulation of heat and mass transfer has been established to study the interfacial reaction between liquid Ti and ZrO2 ceramic mold. With the proposed model, numerical simulations were preformed to investigate the effects of pouring temperature and holding time on the oxygen concentrations and reactive layer thickness in metal. The results showed that both the oxygen concentration and the thickness of reactive layer in metal increase with the increase of the holding time and the pouring temperature. The development of reactive layer thickness with time consists of three stages: inoculation (0-1 s, linear increase (1-5 s and parabolic increase (after 5 s.

  16. Numerical Relativity Simulations for Black Hole Merger Astrophysics

    Baker, John G.


    Massive black hole mergers are perhaps the most energetic astronomical events, establishing their importance as gravitational wave sources for LISA, and also possibly leading to observable influences on their local environments. Advances in numerical relativity over the last five years have fueled the development of a rich physical understanding of general relativity's predictions for these events. Z will overview the understanding of these event emerging from numerical simulation studies. These simulations elucidate the pre-merger dynamics of the black hole binaries, the consequent gravitational waveform signatures ' and the resulting state, including its kick velocity, for the final black hole produced by the merger. Scenarios are now being considered for observing each of these aspects of the merger, involving both gravitational-wave and electromagnetic astronomy.

  17. Numerical Simulation on Stratified Flow over an Isolated Mountain Ridge

    LI Ling; Shigeo Kimura


    The characteristics of stratified flow over an isolated mountain ridge have been investigated numerically. The two-dimensional model equations, based on the time-dependent Reynolds averaged NavierStokes equations, are solved numerically using an implicit time integration in a fitted body grid arrangement to simulate stratified flow over an isolated ideally bell-shaped mountain. The simulation results are in good agreement with the existing corresponding analytical and approximate solutions. It is shown that for atmospheric conditions where non-hydrostatic effects become dominant, the model is able to reproduce typical flow features. The dispersion characteristics of gaseous pollutants in the stratified flow have also been studied. The dispersion patterns for two typical atmospheric conditions are compared. The results show that the presence of a gravity wave causes vertical stratification of the pollutant concentration and affects the diffusive characteristics of the pollutants.

  18. Numerical Simulation for the 16 August 1999 EUV Brightenings

    SHA Xiao-ming; FAN Quan-lin


    The 16 August 1999 EUV brightenings are numerically simulated by a third-order upwind compact scheme,basing on the TRACE observation.The present simulation call give a possible explanation to its formation and evolution.The numerical results show that the initial reconnection jets at around X-point are responsible for the occurrence of EUV brightening.The strong and superposed ejections caused by the first and second coalescence of magnetic islands are possibly related to the lifted material which initially appeared as absorption features and Later EUV-emitting structures respectively.The bi-directional reconnection jets may correspond to the lifted material that either continued to move upward along the apparently open field lines or fell down to the surface.

  19. Lattice Boltzmann Numerical Simulation of a Circular Cylinder

    冯士德; 赵颖; 郜宪林; 季仲贞


    The lattice Boltzmann equation (LBE) model based on the Boltzmann equation is suitable for the numerical simulation of various flow fields. The fluid dynamics equation can be recovered from the LBE model. However,compared to the Navier-Stokes transport equation, the fluid dynamics equation derived from the LBE model is somewhat different in the viscosity transport term, which contains not only the Navier-Stokes transport equation but also nonsteady pressure and momentum flux terms. The two nonsteady terms can produce the same function as the random stirring force term introduced in the direct numerical or large-eddy vortex simulation of turbulence.Through computation of a circular cylinder, it is verified that the influence of the two nonsteady terms on flow field stability cannot be ignored, which is helpful for the study of turbulence.

  20. GPU accelerated numerical simulations of viscoelastic phase separation model.

    Yang, Keda; Su, Jiaye; Guo, Hongxia


    We introduce a complete implementation of viscoelastic model for numerical simulations of the phase separation kinetics in dynamic asymmetry systems such as polymer blends and polymer solutions on a graphics processing unit (GPU) by CUDA language and discuss algorithms and optimizations in details. From studies of a polymer solution, we show that the GPU-based implementation can predict correctly the accepted results and provide about 190 times speedup over a single central processing unit (CPU). Further accuracy analysis demonstrates that both the single and the double precision calculations on the GPU are sufficient to produce high-quality results in numerical simulations of viscoelastic model. Therefore, the GPU-based viscoelastic model is very promising for studying many phase separation processes of experimental and theoretical interests that often take place on the large length and time scales and are not easily addressed by a conventional implementation running on a single CPU.

  1. Numerical Relativity Towards Simulations of 3D Black Hole Coalescence

    Seidel, E


    I review recent developments in numerical relativity, focussing on progress made in 3D black hole evolution. Progress in development of black hole initial data, apparent horizon boundary conditions, adaptive mesh refinement, and characteristic evolution is highlighted, as well as full 3D simulations of colliding and distorted black holes. For true 3D distorted holes, with Cauchy evolution techniques, it is now possible to extract highly accurate, nonaxisymmetric waveforms from fully nonlinear simulations, which are verified by comparison to pertubration theory, and with characteristic techniques extremely long term evolutions of 3D black holes are now possible. I also discuss a new code designed for 3D numerical relativity, called Cactus, that will be made public.

  2. Numerical simulation of draft tube flow of a bulb turbine

    Coelho, J.G. [Federal University of Triangulo Mineiro, Institute of Technological and Exact Sciences, Avenida Doutor Randolfo Borges Junior, 1250 – Uberaba – MG (Brazil); Brasil, A.C.P. Jr. [University of Brasilia, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Campus Darcy Ribeiro, Brasilia – DF (Brazil)


    In this work a numerical study of draft tube of a bulb hydraulic turbine is presented, where a new geometry is proposed. This new proposal of draft tube has the unaffected ratio area, a great reduction in his length and approximately the same efficiency of the draft tube conventionally used. The numerical simulations were obtained in commercial software of calculation of flow (CFX-14), using the turbulence model SST, that allows a description of the field fluid dynamic near to the wall. The simulation strategy has an intention of identifying the stall of the boundary layer precisely limits near to the wall and recirculations in the central part, once those are the great causes of the decrease of efficiency of a draft tube. Finally, it is obtained qualitative and quantitative results about the flow in draft tubes.

  3. 3D numerical simulation and analysis of railgun gouging mechanism

    Jin-guo Wu


    Full Text Available A gouging phenomenon with a hypervelocity sliding electrical contact in railgun not only shortens the rail lifetime but also affects the interior ballistic performance. In this paper, a 3-D numerical model was introduced to simulate and analyze the generation mechanism and evolution of the rail gouging phenomenon. The results show that a rail surface bulge is an important factor to induce gouging. High density and high pressure material flow on the contact surface, obliquely extruded into the rail when accelerating the armature to a high velocity, can produce gouging. Both controlling the bulge size to a certain range and selecting suitable materials for rail surface coating will suppress the formation of gouging. The numerical simulation had a good agreement with experiments, which validated the computing model and methodology are reliable.

  4. Numerical simulation of droplet evaporation between two circular plates

    Bam, Hang Jin; Son, Gi Hun [Sogang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)


    Numerical simulation is performed for droplet evaporation between two circular plates. The flow and thermal characteristics of the droplet evaporation are numerically investigated by solving the conservation equations of mass, momentum, energy and mass fraction in the liquid and gas phases. The liquid-gas interface is tracked by a sharp-interface level-set method which is modified to include the effects of evaporation at the liquid-gas interface and contact angle hysteresis at the liquid-gas-solid contact line. An analytical model to predict the droplet evaporation is also developed by simplifying the mass and vapor fraction equations in the gas phase. The numerical results demonstrate that the 1-D analytical prediction is not applicable to the high rate evaporation process. The effects of plate gap and receding contact angle on the droplet evaporation are also quantified.

  5. Direct numerical simulation of the dynamics of sliding rough surfaces

    Dang, Viet Hung; Scheibert, Julien; Bot, Alain Le


    The noise generated by the friction of two rough surfaces under weak contact pressure is usually called roughness noise. The underlying vibration which produces the noise stems from numerous instantaneous shocks (in the microsecond range) between surface micro-asperities. The numerical simulation of this problem using classical mechanics requires a fine discretization in both space and time. This is why the finite element method takes much CPU time. In this study, we propose an alternative numerical approach which is based on a truncated modal decomposition of the vibration, a central difference integration scheme and two algorithms for contact: The penalty algorithm and the Lagrange multiplier algorithm. Not only does it reproduce the empirical laws of vibration level versus roughness and sliding speed found experimentally but it also provides the statistical properties of local events which are not accessible by experiment. The CPU time reduction is typically a factor of 10.

  6. Numerical model for learning concepts of streamflow simulation

    DeLong, L.L.; ,


    Numerical models are useful for demonstrating principles of open-channel flow. Such models can allow experimentation with cause-and-effect relations, testing concepts of physics and numerical techniques. Four PT is a numerical model written primarily as a teaching supplement for a course in one-dimensional stream-flow modeling. Four PT options particularly useful in training include selection of governing equations, boundary-value perturbation, and user-programmable constraint equations. The model can simulate non-trivial concepts such as flow in complex interconnected channel networks, meandering channels with variable effective flow lengths, hydraulic structures defined by unique three-parameter relations, and density-driven flow.The model is coded in FORTRAN 77, and data encapsulation is used extensively to simplify maintenance and modification and to enhance the use of Four PT modules by other programs and programmers.

  7. Nonlinear numerical simulation on extreme-wave kinematics

    NING Dezhi; TENG Bin; LIU Shuxue


    A fully nonlinear numerical model based on a time-domain higher-order boundary element method (HOBEM) is founded to simulate the kinematics of extreme waves. In the model, the fully nonlinear free surface boundary conditions are satisfied and a semi-mixed Euler-Lagrange method is used to track free surface; a fourth-order Runga-Kutta technique is "adopted to refresh the wave elevation and velocity potential on the free surface at each time step; an image Green function is used in the numerical wave tank so that the integrations on the lateral surfaces and bottom are excluded. The extreme waves are generated by the method of wave focusing. The physical experiments are carried out in a wave flume. On the horizontal velocity of the measured point, numerical solutions agree well with experimental results. The characteristics of the nonlinear extreme-wave kinematics and the velocity distribution are studied here.

  8. Numerical Simulation of Spectral Response for 650 nm Silicon Photodetector


    The theoretical spectral response formula of the N+-N-I-P+ silicon photodetector with high/low emission junction is given. At the same time, considering the process requirements, the optimum structure parameters of silicon photodetector are obtained by numerical calculation and simulation. Under the condition of these optimum structure parameters, the responsivity of the silicon photodetector will be 0.48A/W at 650nm.

  9. Numerical simulation of thin layer coffee drying by control volumes



    The thin layer drying model proposed by Sokhansanj and Bruce (1987) was implemented to model the drying process of parchment coffee beans. A computational model based on a control volume approach was developed to simulate the drying process of parchment coffee. A one dimensional transient analysis was implemented in the radial direction applied to a spherical coffee bean of equivalent radius. The results found that, even though the numerical value for the mass transfer coefficient is a small ...

  10. Numerical Simulations of Settlement of Jet Grouting Columns

    Juzwa Anna


    Full Text Available The paper presents the comparison of results of numerical analyses of interaction between group of jet grouting columns and subsoil. The analyses were conducted for single column and groups of three, seven and nine columns. The simulations are based on experimental research in real scale which were carried out by authors. The final goal for the research is an estimation of an influence of interaction between columns working in a group.

  11. Numerical Simulation of thePorous Structure of Biomaterials

    WANGHui-min; YANYu-hua; LIShi-pu


    Porous biomaterials are widely used as bone replacement materials because of thers high biocompatibility and osteoconductivity property. Understanding of their porous structure (i. e. geometrical and topological characteristic) and studying how to the body fluid flow through them are essential to investigate thed egradation behaviour at the surface-liquid interface. This research develops a numerical model to simulate the porous structure of biomaterials based on the stochastic approach in pore size distribution and interconnectivity.

  12. Direct Numerical Simulation of a Shocked Helium Jet

    Cloutman, L D


    We present direct numerical simulations of a shock tube experiment in which a cylindrical laminar jet of helium doped with biacetyl is injected into air and subjected to a weak shock wave. Computed species distributions in a planar cross section of the jet are compared to planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF) images produced by the experiment. The calculations are in excellent agreement with the experimental images. We find that differential diffusion of species is an important feature of this experiment.

  13. Ditching Numerical Simulations: Recent Steps in Industrial Applications

    Benítez Montañés, Luis; Climent Máñez, Héctor; Siemann, Martin; Kohlgrueber, Dieter


    Ditching is an aircraft emergency condition that ends with planned impact of the aircraft on water. The high forward velocity in fixed-wing aircraft ditching affects the aircraft dynamics and its structural response due to complex hydrodynamic effects. Therefore, analysis of ditching impact is particularly relevant to satisfy the airworthiness regulations for modern aircraft. Numerical methods for simulating ditching take advantage of the computational capacity allowing industry to deal w...



    The new flexible forming technique of sheet metal-laser bending process is numerically simulated by using finite element method of large elastic-plastic deformation. The temperature fields and stress-strain distribution in deformation area are calculated, forming process is described and relationship between bend angle and width of sheet is discussed. It is shown that the calculated values are in good accordance with the experiments.

  15. Multi-Physics Coupling Approaches for Aerospace Numerical Simulations.

    Errera, M.; Dugeai, A.; Girodroux-Lavigne, P.; Garaud, J.D.; Poinot, M.; Cerqueira, S.; Chaineray, G.


    International audience; The purpose of this paper is to present coupling strategies for aerospace numerical calculations. In the first part, the basic approach used relies on the partitioned coupling of a finite-volume Navier-Stokes solver and a finite-element solid code. These two separate and independent simulation tools carry out exchanges via a coupling library. Two different applications illustrate the capabilities of this coupling method. The main advantage of this approach is to benefi...

  16. Numerical simulation of internal flow in aerocraft engine

    Makida, Mitsumasa; 牧田 光正


    A parallel numerical simulation code for three-dimensional spray combustion in an aircraft combustor has been developed. In this code, the Euler equations are used for the droplet phase assuming a continuous fluid, and the full Navier-Stokes equations are applied for the gas phase. Both phases are connected through mass, momentum and energy exchange equations, and solved simultaneously. The droplet phase has a radius distribution, and is divided into five groups of different initial radius, a...

  17. Advances in the numerical simulation of 3D FSW processes

    Agelet de Saracibar Bosch, Carlos; Chiumenti, Michèle; Cervera Ruiz, Miguel; Dialami, Narges; Santiago, Diego de; Lombera, Guillermo


    This work deals with the computational modeling and numerical simulation of 3D Friction Stir Welding (FSW) processes. Eulerian and ALE formulations have been used to solve the quasi-static thermal transient governing equations. Mixed P2/P1/P2+SUPG and subgrid-scale stabilized P1/P1/P1 velocity/pressure/temperature elements have been implemented. Norton-Hoff and Sheppard-Wright rigid thermoplastic material models have been considered. Computational visualization techniques using tracers have b...

  18. Numerical simulations of sunspot rotation driven by magnetic flux emergence

    Sturrock, Zoe


    Magnetic flux continually emerges from the Sun, rising through the solar interior, emerging at the photosphere in the form of sunspots and expanding into the atmosphere. Observations of sunspot rotations have been reported for over a century and are often accompanied by solar eruptions and flaring activity. In this thesis, we present 3D numerical simulations of the emergence of twisted flux tubes from the uppermost layers of the solar interior, examining the rotational movements of sunspots i...


    杨洪波; 张铭


    The circulation of β-gyres in tropical cyclones is studied using numerical simulations. As shown in the result, there is clear circulation of β-gyres in the deviation flow field of the middle layer of the model,i.e. there is cyclone current west of the vortex center but anticyclone current east of it. The theory analysis shows that the circulation of β-gyres is formed by the advection of geostrophic vorticity.

  20. Numerical Simulation of a Planing Vessel at High Speed

    Yumin Su; Qingtong Chen; Hailong Shen; Wei Lu


    Planing vessels are applied widely in civil and military situations.Due to their high speed,the motion of planning vessels is complex.In order to predict the motion of planning vessels,it is important to analyze the hydrodynamic performance of planning vessels at high speeds.The computational fluid dynamic method (CFD) has been proposed to calculate hydrodynamic performance of planning vessels.However,in most traditional CFD approaches,model tests or empirical formulas are needed to obtain the running attitude of the planing vessels before calculation.This paper presents a new CFD method to calculate hydrodynamic forces of planing vessels.The numerical method was based on Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS)equations.The volume of fluid (VOF) method and the six-degrees-of-freedom equation were applied.An effective process was introduced to solve the numerical divergence problem in numerical simulation.Compared with experimental results,numerical simulation results indicate that both the running attitude and hydrodynamic performance can be predicted well at high speeds.

  1. Use of Numerical Simulations During Continuous Steel Casting

    David DITTEL


    Full Text Available This paper describes numerical modeling of round billets solidification process during continuous steel casting. Emphasis is placed not only on the mathematical nature of transmission events that affect the casting billet (heat conduction, convection and radiation, but also the methods of solving thermal problems (analytical, numerical. The numerical methods are discussed in detail the finite element method and the method of networks that form the core of the most common commercially used simulation software for modeling the temperature fields at various technological processes. In the research was compiled its own sophisticated software - Tefis - solving the problems of temperature fields by using of an explicit (numerical method of networks. The actual solution is implemented using Fourier-Kirchhoff equation in differential form of enthalpy, which includes the velocity of solidified billet. By software Tefis are carried out a series of computer simulations and sensitivity analysis method to examine the effects of different levels of steel in a mould, different casting velocities, different temperatures above the liquidus temperature of steel and different intensity in the secondary cooling zone on the overall temperature field of continuously casted billets. Thus the calculated temperature fields, of declared steel marks, are subsequently confronted with the results of experimental measurements on real operating casting machine.

  2. Comprehensive numerical methodology for direct numerical simulations of compressible Rayleigh-Taylor instability

    Reckinger, Scott J.; Livescu, Daniel; Vasilyev, Oleg V.


    An investigation of compressible Rayleigh-Taylor instability (RTI) using Direct Numerical Simulations (DNS) requires efficient numerical methods, advanced boundary conditions, and consistent initialization in order to capture the wide range of scales and vortex dynamics present in the system, while reducing the computational impact associated with acoustic wave generation and the subsequent interaction with the flow. An advanced computational framework is presented that handles the challenges introduced by considering the compressive nature of RTI systems, which include sharp interfacial density gradients on strongly stratified background states, acoustic wave generation and removal at computational boundaries, and stratification dependent vorticity production. The foundation of the numerical methodology described here is the wavelet-based grid adaptivity of the Parallel Adaptive Wavelet Collocation Method (PAWCM) that maintains symmetry in single-mode RTI systems to extreme late-times. PAWCM is combined with a consistent initialization, which reduces the generation of acoustic disturbances, and effective boundary treatments, which prevent acoustic reflections. A dynamic time integration scheme that can handle highly nonlinear and potentially stiff systems, such as compressible RTI, completes the computational framework. The numerical methodology is used to simulate two-dimensional single-mode RTI to extreme late-times for a wide range of flow compressibility and variable density effects. The results show that flow compressibility acts to reduce the growth of RTI for low Atwood numbers, as predicted from linear stability analysis.

  3. The numerical simulation based on CFD of hydraulic turbine pump

    Duan, X. H.; Kong, F. Y.; Liu, Y. Y.; Zhao, R. J.; Hu, Q. L.


    As the functions of hydraulic turbine pump including self-adjusting and compensation with each other, it is far-reaching to analyze its internal flow by the numerical simulation based on CFD, mainly including the pressure field and the velocity field in hydraulic turbine and pump.The three-dimensional models of hydraulic turbine pump are made by Pro/Engineer software;the internal flow fields in hydraulic turbine and pump are simulated numerically by CFX ANSYS software. According to the results of the numerical simulation in design condition, the pressure field and the velocity field in hydraulic turbine and pump are analyzed respectively .The findings show that the static pressure decreases systematically and the pressure gradient is obvious in flow area of hydraulic turbine; the static pressure increases gradually in pump. The flow trace is regular in suction chamber and flume without spiral trace. However, there are irregular traces in the turbine runner channels which contrary to that in flow area of impeller. Most of traces in the flow area of draft tube are spiral.

  4. Transient productivity index for numerical well test simulations

    Blanc, G.; Ding, D.Y.; Ene, A. [Institut Francais du Petrole, Pau (France)] [and others


    The most difficult aspect of numerical simulation of well tests is the treatment of the Bottom Hole Flowing (BHF) Pressure. In full field simulations, this pressure is derived from the Well-block Pressure (WBP) using a numerical productivity index which accounts for the grid size and permeability, and for the well completion. This productivity index is calculated assuming a pseudo-steady state flow regime in the vicinity of the well and is therefore constant during the well production period. Such a pseudo-steady state assumption is no longer valid for the early time of a well test simulation as long as the pressure perturbation has not reached several grid-blocks around the well. This paper offers two different solutions to this problem: (1) The first one is based on the derivation of a Numerical Transient Productivity Index (NTPI) to be applied to Cartesian grids; (2) The second one is based on the use of a Corrected Transmissibility and Accumulation Term (CTAT) in the flow equation. The representation of the pressure behavior given by both solutions is far more accurate than the conventional one as shown by several validation examples which are presented in the following pages.

  5. Numerical Homogenization of Jointed Rock Masses Using Wave Propagation Simulation

    Gasmi, Hatem; Hamdi, Essaïeb; Bouden Romdhane, Nejla


    Homogenization in fractured rock analyses is essentially based on the calculation of equivalent elastic parameters. In this paper, a new numerical homogenization method that was programmed by means of a MATLAB code, called HLA-Dissim, is presented. The developed approach simulates a discontinuity network of real rock masses based on the International Society of Rock Mechanics (ISRM) scanline field mapping methodology. Then, it evaluates a series of classic joint parameters to characterize density (RQD, specific length of discontinuities). A pulse wave, characterized by its amplitude, central frequency, and duration, is propagated from a source point to a receiver point of the simulated jointed rock mass using a complex recursive method for evaluating the transmission and reflection coefficient for each simulated discontinuity. The seismic parameters, such as delay, velocity, and attenuation, are then calculated. Finally, the equivalent medium model parameters of the rock mass are computed numerically while taking into account the natural discontinuity distribution. This methodology was applied to 17 bench fronts from six aggregate quarries located in Tunisia, Spain, Austria, and Sweden. It allowed characterizing the rock mass discontinuity network, the resulting seismic performance, and the equivalent medium stiffness. The relationship between the equivalent Young's modulus and rock discontinuity parameters was also analyzed. For these different bench fronts, the proposed numerical approach was also compared to several empirical formulas, based on RQD and fracture density values, published in previous research studies, showing its usefulness and efficiency in estimating rapidly the Young's modulus of equivalent medium for wave propagation analysis.

  6. Efficient numerical simulation of heat storage in subsurface georeservoirs

    Boockmeyer, A.; Bauer, S.


    The transition of the German energy market towards renewable energy sources, e.g. wind or solar power, requires energy storage technologies to compensate for their fluctuating production. Large amounts of energy could be stored in georeservoirs such as porous formations in the subsurface. One possibility here is to store heat with high temperatures of up to 90°C through borehole heat exchangers (BHEs) since more than 80 % of the total energy consumption in German households are used for heating and hot water supply. Within the ANGUS+ project potential environmental impacts of such heat storages are assessed and quantified. Numerical simulations are performed to predict storage capacities, storage cycle times, and induced effects. For simulation of these highly dynamic storage sites, detailed high-resolution models are required. We set up a model that accounts for all components of the BHE and verified it using experimental data. The model ensures accurate simulation results but also leads to large numerical meshes and thus high simulation times. In this work, we therefore present a numerical model for each type of BHE (single U, double U and coaxial) that reduces the number of elements and the simulation time significantly for use in larger scale simulations. The numerical model includes all BHE components and represents the temporal and spatial temperature distribution with an accuracy of less than 2% deviation from the fully discretized model. By changing the BHE geometry and using equivalent parameters, the simulation time is reduced by a factor of ~10 for single U-tube BHEs, ~20 for double U-tube BHEs and ~150 for coaxial BHEs. Results of a sensitivity study that quantify the effects of different design and storage formation parameters on temperature distribution and storage efficiency for heat storage using multiple BHEs are then shown. It is found that storage efficiency strongly depends on the number of BHEs composing the storage site, their distance and

  7. Interrogation of numerical simulation for modeling of flow induced microstructure

    Joseph, D.D. [Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States). Dept. of Aerospace Engineering and Mechanics


    This paper summarizes recent efforts using direct numerical simulations to determine microstructural properties of fluidized suspensions of a few particles. The authors have been studying the motions of a few particles in a viscous fluid by direct numerical simulation at moderate values of the Reynolds number in the 100`s. From these simulations, they find the mechanisms which give rise to lateral migration of particles and turn the broad side of long bodies perpendicular to the stream. They find that a viscous ``stagnation`` point is a point on the body where the shear stress vanishes and the pressure is nearly a maximum. They show how the migration is controlled by stagnation and separation points and go further than before in the discussion of Segre-Silberberg effects of cross-streamline migration in two dimensions. They have analyzed the lift off and steady flight of solid capsules in Poiseuille flows. They do a three-dimensional simulation of steady flow at slow speeds and show that the extensional stresses in a viscoelastic flow change the sign of the normal stress which would exist at points of stagnation in a Newtonian fluid, causing the long side of the body to line up with the stream.

  8. The Numerical Simulation of Ship Waves Using Cartesian Grid Methods with Adaptive Mesh Refinement

    Dommermuth, Douglas G; Beck, Robert F; O'Shea, Thomas T; Wyatt, Donald C; Olson, Kevin; MacNeice, Peter


    Cartesian-grid methods with Adaptive Mesh Refinement (AMR) are ideally suited for simulating the breaking of waves, the formation of spray, and the entrainment of air around ships. As a result of the cartesian-grid formulation, minimal input is required to describe the ships geometry. A surface panelization of the ship hull is used as input to automatically generate a three-dimensional model. No three-dimensional gridding is required. The AMR portion of the numerical algorithm automatically clusters grid points near the ship in regions where wave breaking, spray formation, and air entrainment occur. Away from the ship, where the flow is less turbulent, the mesh is coarser. The numerical computations are implemented using parallel algorithms. Together, the ease of input and usage, the ability to resolve complex free-surface phenomena, and the speed of the numerical algorithms provide a robust capability for simulating the free-surface disturbances near a ship. Here, numerical predictions, with and without AMR,...

  9. A Numerical Simulation of a Plunging Breaking Wave

    Adams, Paul; Stephens, Mike; Brucker, Kyle A; O'Shea, Thomas; Dommermuth, Douglas


    This article describes the fluid dynamics video, "A Numerical Simulation of a Plunging Breaking Wave", which was submitted to the gallery of fluid motion at the 2009 APS/DFD conference. The simulation was of a deep-water plunging breaking wave. It was a two-phase calculation which used a Volume of Fluid (VOF) method to simulate the interface between the two immiscible fluids. Surface tension and viscous effects were not considered. The initial wave was generated by applying a spatio-temporal pressure forcing on the free surface. The video shows the 50% isocontour of the volume fraction from several different perspectives. Significant air entrainment is observed as well as the presence of stream-wise vortex structures.

  10. Fluent-based numerical simulation of flow centrifugal fan

    LI Xian-zhang


    Testing centrifugal fan flow field by physical laboratory is difficult because the testing system is complex and the workload is heavy, and the results observed by naked-eye deviates far from the actual value. To address this problem, the computational fluid dynamics software FLUENT was applied to establish three-dimensional model of the centrifugal fan. The numeral model was verified by comparing simulation data to experimental data. The pressure centrifugal fan and the speed changes in distribution in centrifugal fan was simulated by computational fluid dynamics software FLUENT. The simulation results show that the gas flow velocity in the impeller increases with impeller radius increase. Static pressure gradually increases when gas from the fan access is imported through fan impeller leaving fans.

  11. Numerical Simulation of Electroosmotic Flow near Earthworm Surface

    Y.Q. Zu; Y.Y. Yan


    The electroosmotic flow near an earthworm surface is simulated numerically to further understand the anti soil adhesion mechanism of earthworm. A lattice Poisson method is employed to solve electric potential and charge distributions in the electric double layer along the earthworm surface. The external electric field is obtained by solving a Laplace equation. The electroosmotic flow controlled by the Navier-Stokes equations with external body force is simulated by the lattice Boltzmann method. A benchmark test shows that accurate electric potential distributions can be obtained by the LPM. The simulation shows that the moving vortices,which probably contribute to anti soil adhesion,are fonned near earthworm body surface by the nonuniform and variational electrical force.

  12. Hygrothermal Numerical Simulation Tools Applied to Building Physics

    Delgado, João M P Q; Ramos, Nuno M M; Freitas, Vasco Peixoto


    This book presents a critical review on the development and application of hygrothermal analysis methods to simulate the coupled transport processes of Heat, Air, and Moisture (HAM) transfer for one or multidimensional cases. During the past few decades there has been relevant development in this field of study and an increase in the professional use of tools that simulate some of the physical phenomena that are involved in Heat, Air and Moisture conditions in building components or elements. Although there is a significant amount of hygrothermal models referred in the literature, the vast majority of them are not easily available to the public outside the institutions where they were developed, which restricts the analysis of this book to only 14 hygrothermal modelling tools. The special features of this book are (a) a state-of-the-art of numerical simulation tools applied to building physics, (b) the boundary conditions importance, (c) the material properties, namely, experimental methods for the measuremen...

  13. Numerical Simulation of Random Close Packing with Tetrahedra

    LI Shui-Xiang; ZHAO Jian; ZHOU Xuan


    The densest packing of tetrahedra is still an unsolved problem.Numerical simulations of random close packing of tetrahedra are carried out with a sphere assembly model and improved relaxation algorithm. The packing density and average contact number obtained for random close packing of regular tetrahedra is 0.6817 and 7.21respectively,while the values of spheres are 0.6435 and 5.95.The simulation demonstrates that tetrahedra can be randomly packed denser than spheres.Random close packings of tetrahedra with a range of height are simulated as well.We find that the regular tetrahedron might be the optimal shape which gives the highest packing density of tetrahedra.

  14. Direct numerical simulations of helical dynamo action: MHD and beyond

    D. O. Gómez


    Full Text Available Magnetohydrodynamic dynamo action is often invoked to explain the existence of magnetic fields in several astronomical objects. In this work, we present direct numerical simulations of MHD helical dynamos, to study the exponential growth and saturation of magnetic fields. Simulations are made within the framework of incompressible flows and using periodic boundary conditions. The statistical properties of the flow are studied, and it is found that its helicity displays strong spatial fluctuations. Regions with large kinetic helicity are also strongly concentrated in space, forming elongated structures. In dynamo simulations using these flows, we found that the growth rate and the saturation level of magnetic energy and magnetic helicity reach an asymptotic value as the Reynolds number is increased. Finally, extensions of the MHD theory to include kinetic effects relevant in astrophysical environments are discussed.

  15. Iterative Workflows for Numerical Simulations in Subsurface Sciences

    Chase, Jared M.; Schuchardt, Karen L.; Chin, George; Daily, Jeffrey A.; Scheibe, Timothy D.


    Numerical simulators are frequently used to assess future risks, support remediation and monitoring program decisions, and assist in design of specific remedial actions with respect to groundwater contaminants. Due to the complexity of the subsurface environment and uncertainty in the models, many alternative simulations must be performed, each producing data that is typically post-processed and analyzed before deciding on the next set of simulations Though parts of the process are readily amenable to automation through scientific workflow tools, the larger”research workflow”, is not supported by current tools. We present a detailed use case for subsurface modeling, describe the use case in terms of workflow structure, briefly summarize a prototype that seeks to facilitate the overall modeling process, and discuss the many challenges for building such a comprehensive environment.

  16. Study on the numerical simulation of batch sieving process

    JIAO Hong-guang; MA Jiao; ZHAO Yue-min; CHEN Lun-jian


    Screening was widely used in many sectors of industry. However, it is rather incomplete to the cognition of the sieving process for us due to the daedal separation process involving interactions of thousands of particulates. To address this problem, two dimensional numerical simulation of batch sieving process was performed by adopting advanced discrete element method (DEM), which is one of the highly nonlinear digitized dynamic simulative methods and can be used to reveal the quantitative change from particle dimension level. DEM simulation results show that the jam phenomena of sieve-plate apertures of the "blinding particles" in the screen feed can be demonstrated vividly and results also reveal that the velocity of particle moving on the screen plate will vary along with the screen length. This conclusion will be helpful to the design and operation of screen.

  17. Numerical simulation and modeling of combustion in scramjets

    Clark, Ryan James

    In the last fifteen years the development of a viable scramjet has quickly approached the following long term goals: responsive sub-orbital space access; long-range, prompt global strike; and high-speed transportation. Nonetheless, there are significant challenges that need to be resolved. These challenges include high skin friction drag and high heat transfer rates, inherent to vehicles in sustained, hypersonic flight. Another challenge is sustaining combustion. Numerical simulation and modeling was performed to provide insight into reducing skin friction drag and sustaining combustion. Numerical simulation was used to investigate boundary layer combustion, which has been shown to reduce skin friction drag. The objective of the numerical simulations was to quantify the effect of fuel injection parameters on boundary layer combustion and ultimately on the change in the skin friction coefficient and heat transfer rate. A qualitative analysis of the results suggest that the reduction in the skin friction coefficient depends on multiple parameters and potentially an interaction between parameters. Sustained combustion can be achieved through a stabilized detonation wave. Additionally, stabilizing a detonation wave will yield rapid combustion. This will allow for a shorter and lighter-weight engine system, resulting in less required combustor cooling. A stabilized detonation wave was numerically modeled for various inlet and geometric cases. The effect of fuel concentration, inlet Mach number, and geometric configuration on the stability of a detonation wave was quantified. Correlations were established between fuel concentration, inlet speed, geometric configuration and parameters characterizing the detonation wave. A linear relationship was quantified between the fuel concentration and the parameters characterizing the detonation wave.

  18. Numerical simulation of flow separation control by oscillatory fluid injection

    Resendiz Rosas, Celerino


    In this work, numerical simulations of flow separation control are performed. The separation control technique studied is called "synthetic jet actuation". The developed code employs a cell centered finite volume scheme which handles viscous, steady and unsteady compressible turbulent flows. The pulsating zero mass jet flow is simulated by imposing a harmonically varying transpiration boundary condition on the airfoil's surface. Turbulence is modeled with the algebraic model of Baldwin and Lomax. The application of synthetic jet actuators is based in their ability to energize the boundary layer, thereby providing significant increase in the lift coefficient. This has been corroborated experimentally and it is corroborated numerically in this research. The performed numerical simulation investigates the flow over a NACA0015 airfoil. For this flow Re = 9 x 105 and the reduced frequency and momentum coefficient are F + = 1.1 and Cmu = 0.04 respectively. The oscillatory injection takes place at 12.27% chord from the leading edge. A maximum increase in the mean lift coefficient of 93% is predicted by the code. A discrepancy of approximately 10% is observed with corresponding experimental data from the literature. The general trend is, however, well captured. The discrepancy is attributed to the modeling of the injection boundary condition and to the turbulence model. A sensitivity analysis of the lift coefficient to different values of the oscillation parameters is performed. It is concluded that tangential injection, F+ ≈ O(1) and the utilized grid resolution around the site of injection are optimal. Streamline fields obtained for different angles of injection are analyzed. Flow separation and attachment as functions of the injection angle and of the velocity of injection can be observed. It is finally concluded that a reliable numerical tool has been developed which can be utilized as a support tool in the optimization of the synthetic jet operation and in the

  19. Numerical Simulation of Waves Generated by Seafloor Movements


    Waves generated by vertical seafloor movements are simulated by use of a fully nonlinear two-dimensional numerical wave tank. In the source region, the seafloor lifts to a designated height by a generation function. The numerical tests show that the linear theory is only valid for estimating the wave behaviors induced by the seafloor movements with a small amplitude, and the fully nonlinear numerical model should be adopted in the simulation of the wave generation by the large amplitude seafloor movements. Without the background surface waves, many numerical tests on the stable maximum elevations ηmax0 are carried out by both the linear theory and the fully nonlinear model. The results of two models are compared and analyzed. For the fully nonlinear model, the influences of the amplitudes and the horizontal lengths on ηmax0 are stronger than that of the characteristic duration times. Furthermore, results reveal that there are significant differences between the linear theory and the fully nonlinear model. When the influences of the background surface waves are considered, the corresponding numerical analyses reveal that with the fully nonlinear model the ηmax0 near-linearly varies with the wave amplitudes of the surface waves, and the ηmax0 has significant depndences on the wave lengths and the wave phases of the surface waves. In addition, the differences between the linear theory and the fully nonlinear model are still obvious, and these differences are significantly affected by the wave parameters of the background surface waves, such as the wave amplitude, the wave length and the wave phase.

  20. Numerical simulation and experimental verification of extended source interferometer

    Hou, Yinlong; Li, Lin; Wang, Shanshan; Wang, Xiao; Zang, Haijun; Zhu, Qiudong


    Extended source interferometer, compared with the classical point source interferometer, can suppress coherent noise of environment and system, decrease dust scattering effects and reduce high-frequency error of reference surface. Numerical simulation and experimental verification of extended source interferometer are discussed in this paper. In order to provide guidance for the experiment, the modeling of the extended source interferometer is realized by using optical design software Zemax. Matlab codes are programmed to rectify the field parameters of the optical system automatically and get a series of interferometric data conveniently. The communication technique of DDE (Dynamic Data Exchange) was used to connect Zemax and Matlab. Then the visibility of interference fringes can be calculated through adding the collected interferometric data. Combined with the simulation, the experimental platform of the extended source interferometer was established, which consists of an extended source, interference cavity and image collection system. The decrease of high-frequency error of reference surface and coherent noise of the environment is verified. The relation between the spatial coherence and the size, shape, intensity distribution of the extended source is also verified through the analysis of the visibility of interference fringes. The simulation result is in line with the result given by real extended source interferometer. Simulation result shows that the model can simulate the actual optical interference of the extended source interferometer quite well. Therefore, the simulation platform can be used to guide the experiment of interferometer which is based on various extended sources.

  1. Numerical simulation of microstructure of the GeSi alloy

    Rasin, I.


    The goal of this work is to investigate pattern formation processes on the solid-liquid interface during the crystal growth of GeSi. GeSi crystals with cellular structure have great potential for applications in -ray and neutron optics. The interface patterns induce small quasi-periodic distortions of the microstructure called mosaicity. Existence and properties of this mosaicity are important for the application of the crystals. The properties depend on many factors; this dependence, is currently not known even not qualitatively. A better understanding of the physics near the crystal surface is therefore required, in order to optimise the growth process. There are three main physical processes in this system: phase-transition, diffusion and melt flow. Every process is described by its own set of equations. Finite difference methods and lattice kinetic methods are taken for solving these governing equations. We have developed a modification of the kinetic methods for the advectiondiffusion and extended this method for simulations of non-linear reaction diffusion equations. The phase-field method was chosen as a tool for describing the phase-transition. There are numerous works applied for different metallic alloys. An attempt to apply the method directly to simulation GeSi crystal growth showed that this method is unstable. This instability has not been observed in previous works due to the much smaller scale of simulations. We introduced a modified phase-field scheme, which enables to simulate pattern formation with the scale observed in experiment. A flow in the melt was taken in to account in the numerical model. The developed numerical model allows us to investigate pattern formation in GeSi crystals. Modelling shows that the flow near the crystal surface has impact on the patterns. The obtained patterns reproduce qualitatively and in some cases quantitatively the experimental results. (orig.)

  2. Differential Diffusion Effects in Numerical Simulations on Smoke Toxicity Evaluation

    Pan Longwei


    Full Text Available With the increasing frequency of fire caused by construction materials, smoke toxicity evaluation plays a key role in related fields. Numerical simulation has become a popular method to predict the toxicity of smoke. A computational study of differential diffusion effects on smoke toxicity evaluation is proposed in this study. Further, an effective Lewis number model derived from the Reynolds-averaged form of the Navier-stokes (RANS transport equations is proposed in turbulent flames. The accuracy of the study is illustrated for a polyurethane foam fire in a 1/5 scale vertical shaft. The temperature and the concentrations of smoke composition are mainly discussed. From the comparison of the calculations with the direct numerical simulations (DNS data it is observed that the temperature and mass fractions of species agree well with the DNS data when differential diffusion effects are taken into account. On the other hand, these numerical results are overestimated if differential diffusion effects are neglected. The FED values indicate that differential diffusion has a strong influence on smoke toxicity evaluation when using N-Gas model.

  3. Progress in numerical simulation of cavitating water jets

    PENG Guoyi; SHMIZU Seiji


    This paper reviews recent progress made toward modeling of cavitation and numerical simulation of cavitating water jets.Properties of existing cavitation models are discussed and a compressible mixture flow method for the numerical simulation of highspeed water jets accompanied by intensive cavitation is introduced.Two-phase fluids media of cavitating flow are treated as a homogeneous bubbly mixture and the mean flow is computed by solving Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) equations for compressible fluid.The intensity of cavitation is evaluated by the gas volume fraction,which is governed by the compressibility of bubble-liquid mixture corresponding to the status of mean flow field.Numerical results of cavitating water jet issuing from an orifice nozzle are presented and its applicability to intensively cavitating jets is demonstrated.However,the effect of impact pressure caused by collapsing of bubbles is neglected,and effectively coupling of the present compressible mixture flow method with the dynamics of bubbles remains to be a challenge.

  4. Water and heat fluxes in desert soils: 2. Numerical simulations

    Scanlon, Bridget R.; Milly, P. C. D.


    Transient one-dimensional fluxes of soil water (liquid and vapor) and heat in response to 1 year of atmospheric forcing were simulated numerically for a site in the Chihuahuan Desert of Texas. The model was initialized and evaluated using the monitoring data presented in a companion paper (Scanlon, this issue). Soil hydraulic and thermal properties were estimated a priori from a combination of laboratory measurements, models, and other published information. In the first simulation, the main drying curves were used to describe soil water retention, and hysteresis was ignored. Remarkable consistency was found between computed and measured water potentials and temperatures. Attenuation and phase shift of the seasonal cycle of water potentials below the shallow subsurface active zone (0.0- to 0.3-m depth) were similar to those of temperatures, suggesting that water potential fluctuations were driven primarily by temperature changes. Water fluxes in the upper 0.3 m of soil were dominated by downward and upward liquid fluxes that resulted from infiltration of rain and subsequent evaporation from the surface. Upward flux was vapor dominated only in the top several millimeters of the soil during periods of evaporation. Below a depth of 0.3 m, water fluxes varied slowly and were dominated by downward thermal vapor flux that decreased with depth, causing a net accumulation of water. In a second simulation, nonhysteretic water retention was instead described by the estimated main wetting curves; the resulting differences in fluxes were attributed to lower initial water contents (given fixed initial water potential) and unsaturated hydraulic conductivities that were lower than they were in the first simulation. Below a depth of 0.3 m, the thermal vapor fluxes dominated and were similar to those in the first simulation. Two other simulations were performed, differing from the first only in the prescription of different (wetter) initial water potentials. These three simulations


    LIU Xi-ying


    Numerical simulations are carried out for sea ice with four different advection schemes to study their effects on the simulation results.The sea ice model employed here is the Sea Ice Simulator (SIS) of the Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory (GFDL) Modular Ocean Model version 4b (MOM4b) and the four advection schemes are, the upwind scheme originally used in the SIS, the Multi-Dimensional Positive Advection (MDPA) scheme, the Incremental Remapping Scheme (IRS) and the Two Step Shape Preserving (TSSP) scheme.The latter three schemes are newly introduced.To consider the interactions between sea ice and ocean, a mixed layer ocean model is introduced and coupled to the SIS.The coupled model uses a tri-polar coordinate with 120×65 grids,covering the whole earth globe, in the horizontal plane.Simulation results in the northern high latitudes are analyzed.In all simulations, the model reproduces the seasonal variation of sea ice in the northern high latitudes well.Compared with the results from the observation, the sea ice model produces some extra sea ice coverage in the Greenland Sea and Barents Sea in winter due to the exclusion of ocean current effects and the smaller simulated sea ice thickness in the Arctic basin.There are similar features among the results obtained with the introduced three advection schemes.The simulated sea ice thickness with the three newly introduced schemes are all smaller than that of the upwind scheme and the simulated sea ice velocities of movement are all smaller than that of the upwind scheme.There are more similarities shared in the results obtained with the MPDA and TSSP schemes.

  6. Optimal Taylor-Couette flow: direct numerical simulations

    Mónico, Rodolfo Ostilla; Grossman, Siegfried; Verzicco, Roberto; Lohse, Detlef


    We numerically simulate turbulent Taylor-Couette flow for independently rotating inner and outer cylinders, focusing on the analogy with turbulent Rayleigh-B\\'enard flow. Reynolds numbers of Re_i = 8\\times10^3 and Re_o =\\pm4\\times10^3 of the inner and outer cylinders, respectively, are reached, corresponding to Taylor numbers Ta up to 10^8 . Effective scaling laws for the torque and other system responses are found. Recent experiments with the Twente turbulent Taylor-Couette (T^3C) setup at very high Reynolds numbers have vealed an optimum transport at a certain non-zero rotation rate ratio a = -{\\omega}_o/{\\omega}_i that depends on Ta. For large enough Ta in the numerically accessible range we find such an optimum at non-zero counter-rotation also in the numerics. We furthermore numerically calculate the corresponding angular velocity profiles and visualize the different flow structures for the various regimes. By writing the equations in a frame co-rotating with the outer cylinder a link is found between th...

  7. High accuracy mantle convection simulation through modern numerical methods

    Kronbichler, Martin


    Numerical simulation of the processes in the Earth\\'s mantle is a key piece in understanding its dynamics, composition, history and interaction with the lithosphere and the Earth\\'s core. However, doing so presents many practical difficulties related to the numerical methods that can accurately represent these processes at relevant scales. This paper presents an overview of the state of the art in algorithms for high-Rayleigh number flows such as those in the Earth\\'s mantle, and discusses their implementation in the Open Source code Aspect (Advanced Solver for Problems in Earth\\'s ConvecTion). Specifically, we show how an interconnected set of methods for adaptive mesh refinement (AMR), higher order spatial and temporal discretizations, advection stabilization and efficient linear solvers can provide high accuracy at a numerical cost unachievable with traditional methods, and how these methods can be designed in a way so that they scale to large numbers of processors on compute clusters. Aspect relies on the numerical software packages deal.II and Trilinos, enabling us to focus on high level code and keeping our implementation compact. We present results from validation tests using widely used benchmarks for our code, as well as scaling results from parallel runs. © 2012 The Authors Geophysical Journal International © 2012 RAS.

  8. 3D Numerical Simulations of f-Mode Propagation Through Magnetic Flux Tubes

    Daiffallah, K; Bendib, A; Cameron, R; Gizon, L


    Three-dimensional numerical simulations have been used to study the scattering of a surface-gravity wave packet by vertical magnetic flux tubes, with radii from 200 km to 3 Mm, embedded in stratified polytropic atmosphere. The scattered wave was found to consist primarily of m=0 (axisymmetric) and m=1 modes. It was found that the ratio of the amplitude of these two modes is strongly dependant on the radius of the flux tube: The kink mode is the dominant mode excited in tubes with a small radius while the sausage mode is dominant for large tubes. Simulations of this type provide a simple, efficient and robust way to start understanding the seismic signature of flux tubes, which have recently began to be observed.

  9. Direct numerical simulation of bluff-body-stabilized premixed flames

    Arias, Paul G.


    To enable high fidelity simulation of combustion phenomena in realistic devices, an embedded boundary method is implemented into direct numerical simulations (DNS) of reacting flows. One of the additional numerical issues associated with reacting flows is the stable treatment of the embedded boundaries in the presence of multicomponent species and reactions. The implemented method is validated in two test con gurations: a pre-mixed hydrogen/air flame stabilized in a backward-facing step configuration, and reactive flows around a square prism. The former is of interest in practical gas turbine combustor applications in which the thermo-acoustic instabilities are a strong concern, and the latter serves as a good model problem to capture the vortex shedding behind a bluff body. In addition, a reacting flow behind the square prism serves as a model for the study of flame stabilization in a micro-channel combustor. The present study utilizes fluid-cell reconstruction methods in order to capture important flame-to-solid wall interactions that are important in confined multicomponent reacting flows. Results show that the DNS with embedded boundaries can be extended to more complex geometries without loss of accuracy and the high fidelity simulation data can be used to develop and validate turbulence and combustion models for the design of practical combustion devices.


    M I El Khazen


    Full Text Available In this paper we simulate a turbulent premixed V-shape flame stabilized on a hot wire. The device used is composed of a vertical combustion chamber where the methane-air mixture is convected upwards with a mean velocity of 4ms-1. The flow was simulated running Fluent 6.3, which numerically solved the stationary Favre-averaged mass balance; Navier-Stokes equations; combustion progress variable, and k-ε equations on a two-dimensional numerical mesh. We model gaseous mixture, ignoring Soret and Dufour effects and radiation heat transfer. The progress variable balance equation was closed using Eddy Break Up model. The results of our simulations allow us to analyze the influence of equivalence ratio and the turbulent intensity on the properties of the flame (velocity, fluctuation, progress variable and Thickness of flame.This work gives us an idea on the part which turbulence can play to decrease the risks of extinction and instabilities caused by the lean premixed combustion.

  11. Numerical simulation of microlayer formation in nucleate boiling

    Guion, Alexandre; Buongiorno, Jacopo; Afkhami, Shahriar; Zaleski, Stephane


    Numerical simulations of boiling resolve the macroscopic liquid-vapor interface of the bubble, but resort to subgrid models to account for microscale effects, such as the evaporation of the liquid microlayer underneath the bubble. Realistic time-dependent microlayer evaporation models necessitate initialization of the microlayer profile. In the recent simulations published in the literature, missing input data on initial microlayer geometry is replaced by estimated values from separate experimental measurements at similar pressure. Yet, the geometry of the initial microlayer not only depends on pressure for a given set of fluids, but also on bubble growth rate and that dependence is not known a priori. In this work, the Volume-of-Fluid (VOF) method, implemented in the open-source code Gerris (, is used to simulate, with unprecedented accuracy, the dynamics of microlayer formation underneath a growing bubble. A large numerical database is generated, yielding the microlayer thickness during the inertia controlled phase of bubble growth as a function of radial distance from the bubble root, time, contact angle, and capillary number associated with bubble growth. No significant dependence on density or viscosity ratios were found.

  12. Numerical Simulation Multicomponent Ion Beam Transport form ECR Ion Source

    MaLei; SongMingtao; ZhangZimin; CaoYun


    In order to simulate the transport of multi-components ion beam extracted from an ECR ion source, we have developed a multi-charged ion beam transport program named MCIBS 1.0. The program is dedicated to numerical simulation of the behavior of highly-charged ion beam and optimization of beam optics in transport lines and is realized on a PC with Windows user interface of Microsoft Visual Basic. Among all the ions with different charge states in the beam, the exchanges of electrons between highly charged ions and low charged ions or neutral,atoms of residual gas are taken into account by using classical Molecular Over-barrier Model and Monte Carlo method. An advanced Windows graphical interface makes it; comfortable and friendly for the user to operate in an interactive mode. The present program is used for the numerical calculation and optimization of beam optics in a transport line consisting of various magnetic elements, such as dipole magnet, quadrupole and so on. It is possible to simultaneously simulate 200,000 particles, in a transport line of 340 m at most, and show every particle orbit. Beam cross section graphics and emittance phase pictures can be also shown at any position in the transport line.

  13. Numerical simulation of nanoparticle pattern fabricated by electrostatic spray deposition

    Wei Wei; Zhaolin Gu; Sheng Wang; Takeshi Fukuda; Kiwamu Kase; Jungmyoung Ju; Yutaka Yamagata


    Electrospray deposition (ESD) as a patterning method of nanoparticles deposited on a substrate has attracted much attention due to several advantages over other methods.However,obtaining an optimum ESD processing condition for nanoparticle pattern relies much on trial experiments because of the lack of reliable numerical simulation.In this study,the deposition characteristics of nanoparticle generated by electrospray were investigated by using a three-dimensional Lagrangian model.Three important process parameters,including solution dielectric constant,applied voltage and surface charge density on mask were considered by fixing the geometrical parameters of the ESD device.Simulation result showed that under the condition of without a mask,the spray diameter increases with increasing solvent dielectric constant,and higher applied voltage makes the spray area wider.Controllability of focusing by changing surface charge density on the mask was confirmed:higher surface charge density on the mask results in more focused deposition.Validity of the numerical simulation developed in this study was verified by comparison with experimental data.

  14. Numerical simulation of superheated vapor bubble rising in stagnant liquid

    Samkhaniani, N.; Ansari, M. R.


    In present study, the rising of superheated vapor bubble in saturated liquid is simulated using volume of fluid method in OpenFOAM cfd package. The surface tension between vapor-liquid phases is considered using continuous surface force method. In order to reduce spurious current near interface, Lafaurie smoothing filter is applied to improve curvature calculation. Phase change is considered using Tanasawa mass transfer model. The variation of saturation temperature in vapor bubble with local pressure is considered with simplified Clausius-Clapeyron relation. The couple velocity-pressure equation is solved using PISO algorithm. The numerical model is validated with: (1) isothermal bubble rising and (2) one-dimensional horizontal film condensation. Then, the shape and life time history of single superheated vapor bubble are investigated. The present numerical study shows vapor bubble in saturated liquid undergoes boiling and condensation. It indicates bubble life time is nearly linear proportional with bubble size and superheat temperature.

  15. Numerical Simulation for Ventilated Supercavitation High Speed Underwater Vehicle

    YANG Wu-gang; YANG Zhen-cai; CHU Yan; DENG Qiu-xia; LI Ya-rong; ZHANG Yu-wen


    Supercavitation is a revolutionary technique to achieve high drag reduction for underwater vehicle. It can help us to break through the conventional speed barrier. This article presents a numerical algorithm for ventilated supercavitation flow field based on mixture multiphase flow model, briefs the calculation results and compares them with that tested in high-speed water tunnel and towing tank. The mathematical model, its numerical calculation method, computational region and boundary conditions are discussed in detail. Some pertinent nondimensional parameters about the ventilated supercavitation, such as geometrical configuration of supercavity, drag coefficient and ventilation rate are investigated. Reynolds number is selected to predict gas ventilation rate instead of Froude number. Finally, based on the test and simulation results, a semi-empirical formula of the ventilation rate estimation suitable for different conical angle caritators is proposed.

  16. Numerical Simulation on Damage Mode Evolution in Composite Laminate

    Jean-Luc Rebière


    Full Text Available The present work follows numerous numerical simulation on the stress field analysis in a cracked cross-ply laminate. These results lead us to elaborate an energy criterion. This criterion is based on the computation of the partial strain energy release rate associated with all the three damage types: transverse cracking, longitudinal cracking and delamination. The related criterion, linear fracture based approach, is used to predict and describe the initiation of the different damage mechanisms. With this approach the influence of the nature of the material constituent on the damage mechanism is computed. We also give an assessment of the strain energy release rates associated with each damage mode. This criterion checked on glass-epoxy and graphite-epoxy composite materials will now be used in future research on new bio-based composite in the laboratory.

  17. Numerical simulation of the formation of short pitch corrugation

    Mueller, S. [ABB Research Center, Heidelberg (Germany); Knothe, K. [Technical Univ. Berlin (Germany)


    The formation of periodic wear patterns on the running surface of the rail has been observed for more than a hundred years. These wear patterns are the reason for unwelcome effects like noise and damage to the track. A high number of publications was concerned with the problem and most rail corrugation types can be explained to date. Only the mechanism which leads to so called short pitch corrugation is not understood yet. Therefore, based on previous work a linear wheel-track model has been developed to understand the formation of short pitch corrugation on tangent track. Numerical simulations have been undertaken with this model to analyse the corrugation process. Based on numerical results it is tried to explain why the corrugation pitch observed in practice vary little with train speed and it is shown how wheel-rail parameters influence the proneness to corrugation. (orig.)

  18. Hydrodynamics of Hypersonic Jets: Experiments and Numerical Simulations

    Belan, Marco; Tordella, Daniela; Massaglia, Silvano; Ferrari, Attilio; Mignone, Andrea; Bodenschatz, Eberhard


    Stars form in regions of the galaxy that are denser and cooler than the mean interstellar medium. These regions are called Giant Molecular Clouds. At the beginning of their life, up to $10^5-10^6$ years, stars accrete matter from their rich surrounding environment and are origin of a peculiar phenomenon that is the jet emission. Jets from Young Stellar Objects (YSOs) are intensively studied by the astrophysical community by observations at different wavelengths, analytical and numerical modeling and laboratory experiments. Indications about the jet propagation and its resulting morphologies are here obtained by means of a combined study of hypersonic jets carried out both in the laboratory and by numerical simulations.

  19. Numerical simulations of seepage flow in rough single rock fractures

    Qingang Zhang


    Full Text Available To investigate the relationship between the structural characteristics and seepage flow behavior of rough single rock fractures, a set of single fracture physical models were produced using the Weierstrass–Mandelbrot functions to test the seepage flow performance. Six single fractures, with various surface roughnesses characterized by fractal dimensions, were built using COMSOL multiphysics software. The fluid flow behavior through the rough fractures and the influences of the rough surfaces on the fluid flow behavior was then monitored. The numerical simulation indicates that there is a linear relationship between the average flow velocity over the entire flow path and the fractal dimension of the rough surface. It is shown that there is good a agreement between the numerical results and the experimental data in terms of the properties of the fluid flowing through the rough single rock fractures.

  20. A numerically accurate and robust expression for bistatic scattering from a plane triangular facet

    Wendelboe, Gorm; Jacobsen, Finn; Bell, Judith


    This work is related to modeling of synthetic sonar images of naval mines or other objects. Considered here is the computation of high frequency scattering from the surface of a rigid 3D-object numerically represented by plane triangular facets. The far field scattered pressure from each facet...

  1. Robust Numerical Methods for Nonlinear Wave-Structure Interaction in a Moving Frame of Reference

    Kontos, Stavros; Lindberg, Ole

    indicator that performs as well as the tabulated versions is proposed. Explicit high-order Runge-Kutta time integration and a Lax-Friedrichs-type numerical flux complete the scheme. The solver was tested on the two-dimensional zero speed wave radiation problem and the steady forward speed problem...

  2. Cryogenic Fracturing: Laboratory Visualization Experiments and Numerical Simulations Using Peridynamics

    Martin-Short, R.; Edmiston, J. K.


    Typical hydraulic fracturing operations involve the use of a large quantity of water, which can be problematic for several reasons including possible formation (permeability) damage, disposal of waste water, and the use of precious local water resource. An alternate reservoir permeability enhancing technology not requiring water is cryogenic fracturing. This method induces controlled fracturing of rock formations by thermal shock and has potentially important applications in the geothermal and hydrocarbon industries. In this process, cryogenic fluid—such as liquid nitrogen—is injected into the subsurface, causing fracturing due to thermal gradients. These fractures may improve the formation permeability relative to that achievable by hydraulic fracturing alone. We conducted combined laboratory visualization and numerical simulations studies of thermal-shock-induced fracture initiation and propagation resulting from liquid nitrogen injection in rock and analog materials. The experiment used transparent soda-lime glass cubes to facilitate real-time visualization of fracture growth and the fracture network geometry. In this contribution, we report the effect of overall temperature difference between cryogenic fluid and solid material on the produced fracture network, by pre-heating the glass cubes to several temperatures and injecting liquid nitrogen. Temperatures are monitored at several points by thermocouple and the fracture evolution is captured visually by camera. The experiment was modeled using a customized, thermoelastic, fracture-capable numerical simulation code based on peridynamics. The performance of the numerical code was validated by the results of the laboratory experiments, and then the code was used to study the different factors affecting a cryogenic fracturing operation, including the evolution of residual stresses and constitutive relationships for material failure. In complex rock such as shale, understanding the process of cryogenic

  3. Numerical Simulation of Tangling in Jet Engine Turbines

    Cendón, David A.; Erice, Borja; Gálvez, Francisco; Sánchez-Gálvez, Vicente


    The numerical analysis of certain safety related problems presents serious difficulties, since the large number of components present leads to huge finite element models that can only be solved by using large and expensive computers or by making rough approaches to the problem. Tangling, or clashing, in the turbine of a jet engine airplane is an example of such problems. This is caused by the crash and friction between rotor and stator blades in the turbine after an eventual shaft failure. When facing the study of an event through numerical modelling, the accurate simulation of this problem would require the engineer to model all the rotor and stator blades existing in the turbine stage, using a small element size in all pieces. Given that the number of stator and rotor blades is usually around 200, such simulations would require millions of elements. This work presents a new numerical methodology, specifically developed for the accurate modelling of the tangling problem that, depending on the turbine configuration, is able to reduce the number of nodes up to an order of magnitude without losing accuracy. The methodology, which benefits from the cyclic configuration of turbines, is successfully applied to the numerical analysis of a hypothetical tangling event in a turbine, providing valuable data such as the rotating velocity decrease of the turbine, the braking torque and the damage suffered by the blades. The methodology is somewhat general and can be applied to any problem in which damage caused by the interaction between a rotating and static piece is to be analysed.

  4. Computer-based numerical simulations of adsorption in nanostructures

    Khashimova, Diana


    Zeolites are crystalline oxides with uniform, molecular-pore diameters of 3-14Å. Significant developments since 1950 made production of synthetic zeolites with high purity and controlled chemical composition possible. In powder-form, zeolites are major role-players in high-tech, industrial catalysis, adsorption, and ion exchange applications. Understanding properties of thin-film zeolites has been a focus of recent research. The ability to fine-tune desired macroscopic properties by controlled alteration at the molecular level is paramount. The relationships between macroscopic and molecular-level properties are established by experimental research. Because generating macroscopic, experimental data in a controlled laboratory can be prohibitively costly and time-consuming, reliable numerical simulations, which remove such difficulties, are an attractive alternative. Using a Configurational Biased Monte Carlo (CBMC) approach in grand canonical ensemble, numerical models for pure component and multicomponent adsorption processes were developed. Theoretical models such as ideal (IAST) and real adsorbed solution theory (RAST) to predict mixture adsorption in nanopores were used for comparison. Activity coefficients used in RAST calculations were determined from the Wilson, spreading pressure and COSMO-RS models. Investigative testing of the method on known materials, represented by all-silica zeolites such as MFI (channel type) and DDR (cage type), proved successful in replicating experimental data on adsorption of light hydrocarbons - alkanes, such as methane, ethane, propane and butane. Additionally, adsorption of binary and ternary mixtures was simulated. The given numerical approach developed can be a powerful, cost and time saving tool to predict process characteristics for different molecular-structure configurations. The approach used here for simulating adsorption properties of nanopore materials including process characteristics, may have great potential for

  5. Numerical Simulation of a Liquid Propellant Rocket Motor

    Nicolas M.C. Salvador; Marcelo M. Morales; Carlos E.S.S. Migueis; Demétrio Bastos-Netto


    This work presents a numerical simulation of the flow field in a liquid propellant rocket engine chamber and exit nozzle using techniques to allow the results to be taken as starting points for designing those propulsive systems.This was done using a Finite Volume method simulating the different flow regimes which usually take place in those systems. As the flow field has regions ranging from the low subsonic to the supersonic regimes, the numerical code used, initially developed for compressible flows only, was modified to work, proficiently in the whole velocity range. It is well known that codes have been developed in CFD, for either compressible or incompressible flows, the joint treatment of both together being complex even today, given the small number of references available in this area. Here an existing code for compressible flow was used and primitive variables,the pressure, the Cartesian components of the velocity and the temperature instead of the conserved variables were introduced in the Euler and Navier-Stokes equations. This was done to permit the treatment at any Mach number. Unstructured meshes with adaptive refinements were employed here. The convective terms were treated with upwind first and second order methods. The numerical stability was kept with artificial dissipation and in the spatial coverage one used a five stage Runge-Kutta scheme for the Fluid Mechanics and the VODE (Value of Ordinary Differential Equations) scheme along with the Chemkin II in the chemical reacting solution. During the development of this code simulating the flow in a rocket engine, comparison tests were made with several different types of internal and extemal flows, at different velocities, seeking to establish the confidence level of the techniques being used. These comparisons were done with existing theoretical results and with other codes already validated and well accepted by the CFD community.

  6. Recent Development in Numerical Simulation of Enhanced Geothermal Reservoirs

    Huilin Xing; Yan Liu; Jinfang Gao; Shaojie Chen


    This paper briefly introduces the current state in computer modelling of geothermal reservoir system and then focuses on our research efforts in high performance simulation of en-hanced geothermal reservoir system. A novel supercomputer simulation tool has been developing towards simulating the highly non-linear coupled geomechanical-fluid flow-thermal systems involv-ing heterogeneously fractured geomaterials at different spatial and temporal scales. It is applied here to simulate and visualise the enhanced geothermal system (EGS), such as (1) visualisation of the microseismic events to monitor and determine where/how the underground rupture proceeds during a hydraulic stimulation, to generate the mesh using the recorded data for determining the domain of the ruptured zone and to evaluate the material parameters (i.e., the permeability) for the further numerical analysis and evaluation of the enhanced geothermal reservoir; (2) converting the avail-able fractured rock image/fracture data as well as the reservoir geological geometry to suitable meshes/grids and further simulating the fluid flow in the complicated fractures involving the de-tailed description of fracture dimension and geometry by the lattice Boltzmann method and/or finite element method;(3) interacting fault system simulation to determine the relevant complicated rup-ture process for evaluating the geological setting and the in-situ reservoir properties; (4) coupled thermo-fluid flow analysis of a geothermal reservoir system for an optimised geothermal reservoir design and management. A few of application examples are presented to show its usefulness in simu-lating the enhanced geothermal reservoir system.

  7. Numerical simulations of astrophysical problems on massively parallel supercomputers

    Kulikov, Igor; Chernykh, Igor; Glinsky, Boris


    In this paper, we propose the last version of the numerical model for simulation of astrophysical objects dynamics, and a new realization of our AstroPhi code for Intel Xeon Phi based RSC PetaStream supercomputers. The co-design of a computational model for the description of astrophysical objects is described. The parallel implementation and scalability tests of the AstroPhi code are presented. We achieve a 73% weak scaling efficiency with using of 256x Intel Xeon Phi accelerators with 61440 threads.


    WANG Rui-jin; LIN Jian-zhong


    The diffusion-based micro flow of a T-sensor with three inlets in which various species are injected was simulated numerically. The results show that the Reynolds number is an important factor of affecting the efficiency of diffusion The smaller the channel width is, the more strongly the species diffuse. The velocity gradient across the channel width plays a key role in the diffusion of species. The conclusions are helpful to the design of micro-fluidic devices and the analysis of data collected from such devices.

  9. Numerical Simulations of Static Tested Ramjet Dump Combustor

    Javed, Afroz; Chakraborty, Debasis


    The flow field of a Liquid Fuel Ram Jet engine side dump combustor with kerosene fuel is numerically simulated using commercial CFD code CFX-11. Reynolds Averaged 3-D Navier-Stokes equations are solved alongwith SST turbulence model. Single step infinitely fast reaction is assumed for kerosene combustion. The combustion efficiency is evaluated in terms of the unburnt kerosene vapour leaving the combustor. The comparison of measured pressures with computed values show that the computation underpredicts (~5 %) pressures for non reacting cases but overpredicts (9-7 %) for reacting cases.

  10. Analysis and numerical simulation of the dynamics of bubbles

    Méndez Rodríguez, Num


    This project will consist of the following tasks: - analysis of the mathematical models for oscillating bubbles (axisymmetric and non-axisymmetric cases). - numerical simulation of different phenomena related with oscillating bubbles. Este trabajo tiene como objetivo el estudio y simulación de la diámica de burbujas. Inicialmente se introducen los modelos matemáticos de burbujas esféricas, para dar paso a la formulacón tridimensional basada en el método de los elementos de contorno. Para l...

  11. Numerical simulation of compact intracloud discharge and generated electromagnetic pulse

    Babich, L. P.; Bochkov, E. I.; Kutsyk, I. M.


    Using the concept of the relativistic runaway electron avalanche, numerical simulation of compact intracloud discharge as a generator of powerful natural electromagnetic pulses (EMPs) in the HF-UHF range was conducted. We evaluated the numbers of electrons initiating the avalanche, with which the calculated EMP characteristics are consistent with measured ones. The discharge capable of generating EMPs produces runaway electrons in numbers close to those in the source of terrestrial γ-flashes (TGF) registered in the nearest space, which may be an argument for a joint EMP and TGF source.

  12. Numerical Simulation of Chip Formation in Metal Cutting Process

    HUANG Meixia


    Full Text Available In order to study the chip formation mechanism in metal cutting process, based on finite element software ABAQUS, establish finite element model, and carry out numerical simulation on serrated chip formation of Ni-base superalloy GH4169 and ribbon chip formation of 45# steel respectively.In addition, analyze the influence law of three factors (cutting speed, feed rate, back cutting depth on cutting force and the distribution rule of cutting heat in serrated chip formation of GH4169.  

  13. Numerical Simulation Model of Laminar Hydrogen/Air Diffusion Flame

    于溯源; 吕雪峰


    A numerical simulation model is developed for a laminar hydrogen/air diffusion flame. Nineteen species and twenty chemical reactions are considered. The chemical kinetics package (CHEMKIN) subroutines are employed to calculate species thermodynamic properties and chemical reaction rate constants. The flow field is calculated by simultaneously solving a continuity equation, an axial momentum equation and an energy equation in a cylindrical coordinate system. Thermal diffusion and Brownian diffusion are considered in the radial direction while they are neglected in the axial direction. The results suggest that the main flame is buoyancy-controlled.

  14. Numerical Simulations of Magnetized Winds of Solar-Like Stars

    Vidotto, A A; Jatenco-Pereira, V; Gombosi, T I


    We investigate magnetized solar-like stellar winds by means of self-consistent three-dimensional (3D) magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) numerical simulations. We analyze winds with different magnetic field intensities and densities as to explore the dependence on the plasma-beta parameter. By solving the fully ideal 3D MHD equations, we show that the plasma-beta parameter is the crucial parameter in the configuration of the steady-state wind. Therefore, there is a group of magnetized flows that would present the same terminal velocity despite of its thermal and magnetic energy densities, as long as the plasma-beta parameter is the same.

  15. A computational model for the numerical simulation of FSW processes

    Agelet de Saracibar Bosch, Carlos; Chiumenti, Michèle; Santiago, Diego de; Cervera Ruiz, Miguel; Dialami, Narges; Lombera, Guillermo


    In this paper a computational model for the numerical simulation of Friction Stir Welding (FSW) processes is presented. FSW is a new method of welding in solid state in which a shouldered tool with a profile probe is rotated and slowly plunged into the joint line between two pieces of sheet or plate material which are butted together. Once the probe has been completely inserted, it is moved with a small tilt angle in the welding direction. Here a quasi-static, thermal transient, mixed mult...

  16. Numerical simulations of volume holographic imaging system resolution characteristics

    Sun, Yajun; Jiang, Zhuqing; Liu, Shaojie; Tao, Shiquan


    Because of the Bragg selectivity of volume holographic gratings, it helps VHI system to optically segment the object space. In this paper, properties of point-source diffraction imaging in terms of the point-spread function (PSF) are investigated, and characteristics of depth and lateral resolutions in a VHI system is numerically simulated. The results show that the observed diffracted field obviously changes with the displacement in the z direction, and is nearly unchanged with displacement in the x and y directions. The dependence of the diffracted imaging field on the z-displacement provides a way to possess 3-D image by VHI.

  17. A Numerical Simulation Approach for Reliability Evaluation of CFRP Composite

    Liu, D. S.-C.; Jenab, K.


    Due to the superior mechanical properties of carbon fiber reinforced plastic (CFRP) materials, they are vastly used in industries such as aircraft manufacturers. The aircraft manufacturers are switching metal to composite structures while studying reliability (R-value) of CFRP. In this study, a numerical simulation method to determine the reliability of Multiaxial Warp Knitted (MWK) textiles used to make CFRP composites is proposed. This method analyzes the distribution of carbon fiber angle misalignments, from a chosen 0° direction, caused by the sewing process of the textile, and finds the R-value, a value between 0 and 1. The application of this method is demonstrated by an illustrative example.

  18. Numerical simulation of laminar premixed combustion in a porous burner

    ZHAO Pinghui; CHEN Yiliang; LIU Minghou; DING Min; ZHANG Genxuan


    Premixed combustion in porous media differs substantially from combustion in free space. The interphase heat transfer between a gas mixture and a porous medium becomes dominant in the premixed combustion process. In this paper, the premixed combustion of CH4/air mixture in a porous medium is numerically simulated with a laminar combustion model. Radiative heat transfer in solids and convective heat transfer between the gas and the solid is especially studied. A smaller detailed reaction mechanism is also used and the results can show good prediction for many combustion phenomena.

  19. Diffusive mesh relaxation in ALE finite element numerical simulations

    Dube, E.I.


    The theory for a diffusive mesh relaxation algorithm is developed for use in three-dimensional Arbitary Lagrange/Eulerian (ALE) finite element simulation techniques. This mesh relaxer is derived by a variational principle for an unstructured 3D grid using finite elements, and incorporates hourglass controls in the numerical implementation. The diffusive coefficients are based on the geometric properties of the existing mesh, and are chosen so as to allow for a smooth grid that retains the general shape of the original mesh. The diffusive mesh relaxation algorithm is then applied to an ALE code system, and results from several test cases are discussed.

  20. Numerical Simulation of Plasma Antenna with FDTD Method

    LIANG Chao; XU Yue-Min; WANG Zhi-Jiang


    We adopt cylindrical-coordinate FDTD algorithm to simulate and analyse a 0.4-m-long column configuration plasma antenna. FDTD method is useful for solving electromagnetic problems, especially when wave characteristics and plasma properties are self-consistently related to each other. Focus on the frequency from 75 MHz to 400 MHz, the input impedance and radiation efficiency of plasma antennas are computed. Numerical results show that, different from copper antenna, the characteristics of plasma antenna vary simultaneously with plasma frequency and collision frequency. The property can be used to construct dynamically reconfigurable antenna.The investigation is meaningful and instructional for the optimization of plasma antenna design.

  1. Comprehensive numerical methodology for direct numerical simulations of compressible Rayleigh-Taylor instability

    Reckinger, Scott James [Montana State Univ., Bozeman, MT (United States); Livescu, Daniel [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Vasilyev, Oleg V. [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States)


    A comprehensive numerical methodology has been developed that handles the challenges introduced by considering the compressive nature of Rayleigh-Taylor instability (RTI) systems, which include sharp interfacial density gradients on strongly stratified background states, acoustic wave generation and removal at computational boundaries, and stratification-dependent vorticity production. The computational framework is used to simulate two-dimensional single-mode RTI to extreme late-times for a wide range of flow compressibility and variable density effects. The results show that flow compressibility acts to reduce the growth of RTI for low Atwood numbers, as predicted from linear stability analysis.


    Hong-Yuan LEE; Hui-Ming HSIEH


    A numerical model,which is capable of simulating scouring and deposition behaviors in a channel network,is developed in this study. The model treats suspended load and bed load separately,and hence is able to simulate the depositional behavior of the suspended sediment under a nonequilibrium process. The model solves the de Saint Venant equation,and thus can be applied to unsteady flow conditions. An internal boundary condition based on the sediment transport capacity was proposed to distribute the incoming sediment load into the downstream links. An assessment of this model's performance has been conducted through a comparison to an analytical solution. The application of this model to the Tanhsui River system in Taiwan,and several hydraulic model studies gave very convincing results.

  3. Numerical simulation of low pressure die-casting aluminum wheel

    Mi Guofa; Liu Xiangyu; Wang Kuangfei; Fu Hengzhi


    The FDM numerical simulation software, ViewCast system, was employed to simulate the low pressure die casting (LPDC) of an aluminum wheel. By analyzing the mold-filling and solidification stage of the LPDC process, the distribution of liquid fraction, temperature field and solidification pattern of castings were studied. The potential shrinkage defects were predicted to be formed at the rim/spoke junctions, which is in consistence with the X-ray detection result. The distribution pattern of the defects has also been studied. A solution towards reducing such defects has been presented. The cooling capacity of the mold was improved by installing water pipes both in the side mold and the top mold. Analysis on the shrinkage defects under forced cooling mode proved that adding the cooling system in the mold is an effective method for reduction of shrinkage defects.

  4. Numerical Simulation of Wakes in a Weakly Stratified Fluid

    Rottman, James W; Innis, George E; O'Shea, Thomas T; Novikov, Evgeny


    This paper describes some preliminary numerical studies using large eddy simulation of full-scale submarine wakes. Submarine wakes are a combination of the wake generated by a smooth slender body and a number of superimposed vortex pairs generated by various control surfaces and other body appendages. For this preliminary study, we attempt to gain some insight into the behavior of full-scale submarine wakes by computing separately the evolution the self-propelled wake of a slender body and the motion of a single vortex pair in both a non-stratified and a stratified environment. An important aspect of the simulations is the use of an iterative procedure to relax the initial turbulence field so that turbulent production and dissipation are in balance.

  5. Numerical Simulation of Reactive Flow in Hot Aquifers

    Smith, Leslie


    In recent years, there has been a significant expansion in our ability to model systems that involve the interaction of fluid flow, mass transport, heat transfer, and geochemical reaction in porous media. Such scenarios arise in studies of both fundamental science, such as the effects of thermohaline flow and heat transfer in rift basins, and in the solution of applied problems, such as the response of a geothermal reservoir to the re-injection of cool water. Numerical Simulation of Reactive Flow in Hot Aquifers presents the simulation tools that were developed by a team of researchers based in Germany. This group has a long history in analyzing geothermal systems, but the methods presented can be applied far beyond the study of geothermal reservoirs. The heart of the book is a description of the model SHEMAT. The executable code and a graphical user interface are included with the book.

  6. Numerical simulations of ultrasimple ultrashortlaser-pulse measurement.

    Liu, Xuan; Trebino, Rick; Smith, Arlee V


    We numerically simulate the performance of the ultrasimple frequency-resolved-optical-gating (FROG) technique, GRENOUILLE, for measuring ultrashort laser pulses. While simple in practice, GRENOUILLE has many theoretical subtleties because it involves the second-harmonic generation of relatively tightly focused and broadband pulses. In addition, these processes occur in a thick crystal, in which the phase-matching bandwidth is deliberately made narrow compared to the pulse bandwidth. In these simulations, we include all sum-frequency-generation processes, both collinear and noncollinear. We also include dispersion using the Sellmeier equation for the crystal BBO. Working in the frequency domain, we compute the GRENOUILLE trace for practical-and impractical- examples and show that accurate measurements are easily obtained for properly designed devices.

  7. Numerical simulation of the knotted nylon netting panel

    Li Yuwei


    Full Text Available A piece of netting, consists of the 8 8 meshes, fixed on a square frame, was simulated and the tensions and their distribution, the positions of knots and netting shape were calculated by means of MATLAB in computer. The dynamic mathematic model was developed based on lumped mass method, the netting was treated as spring-mass system, the Runge-Kutta fifth-order and sixth-order method was used to solve the differential equations for every step, then the displacement and tension of each mass point were obtained. For verify this model, the tests have been carried out in a flume tank. The results of the numerical simulation fully agreed with the experiments.

  8. Research on Numerical Simulation for Flow Field in a Jigger

    ZENG Ming; XU Zhi-qiang; XIE Hua; ZHANG Rong-zeng


    Jigger is the main equipment in coal processing industry in China, which is developed towards large-scale device. By using the homemade device LTX-35 jigger as a model employing mesh division with non-orthogonal mesh for different kinds of through-flow passage, and completing the numerical simulation with the computational fluid dynamics (CDF) software-PHOENICS, the velocity distribution in different flow fields resulting from guide plates of varied structures are obtained. The results from the simulation show that 1 ) the degree of velocity uniformity of the flow field can be improved if a flat guide plate is replaced by a curved one in the jigger; 2) the best result can be achieved by using a semicircular guide plate.



    Two-dimensional spatial developing turbulent planar jets with different velocity ratios of jet fluid to co-flow fluid at the inlet section are simulated with large eddy simulation give detailed information of transient behaviors of coherent structures in turbulent jets and depict how the velocity ratios will affect the evolution of coherent structures. The motion of small-scale structures is described by the standard Smagorinsky SGS model. Transport equation of passive scalar is also solved in order to perform numerical visualization of flow field. Transient distributions of velocity are obtained at different evolution periods of turbulent jets. Evolutions of coherent structures in flow field are also given in this paper as well as the comparison of flow patterns among three different velocity ratios.``

  10. Reliability of numerical wind tunnels for VAWT simulation

    Raciti Castelli, M.; Masi, M.; Battisti, L.; Benini, E.; Brighenti, A.; Dossena, V.; Persico, G.


    Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) based on the Unsteady Reynolds Averaged Navier Stokes (URANS) equations have long been widely used to study vertical axis wind turbines (VAWTs). Following a comprehensive experimental survey on the wakes downwind of a troposkien-shaped rotor, a campaign of bi-dimensional simulations is presented here, with the aim of assessing its reliability in reproducing the main features of the flow, also identifying areas needing additional research. Starting from both a well consolidated turbulence model (k-ω SST) and an unstructured grid typology, the main simulation settings are here manipulated in a convenient form to tackle rotating grids reproducing a VAWT operating in an open jet wind tunnel. The dependence of the numerical predictions from the selected grid spacing is investigated, thus establishing the less refined grid size that is still capable of capturing some relevant flow features such as integral quantities (rotor torque) and local ones (wake velocities).

  11. Three dimensional direct numerical simulation of complex jet flows

    Shin, Seungwon; Kahouadji, Lyes; Juric, Damir; Chergui, Jalel; Craster, Richard; Matar, Omar


    We present three-dimensional simulations of two types of very challenging jet flow configurations. The first consists of a liquid jet surrounded by a faster coaxial air flow and the second consists of a global rotational motion. These computations require a high spatial resolution and are performed with a newly developed high performance parallel code, called BLUE, for the simulation of two-phase, multi-physics and multi-scale incompressible flows, tested on up to 131072 threads with excellent scalability performance. The method for the treatment of the fluid interfaces uses a hybrid Front Tracking/Level Set technique that defines the interface both by a discontinuous density field as well as by a local triangular Lagrangian mesh. Coriolis forces are taken into account and solved via an exact time-integration method that ensures numerical accuracy and stability. EPSRC UK Programme Grant EP/K003976/1.

  12. Convective Self-Aggregation in Numerical Simulations: A Review

    Wing, Allison A.; Emanuel, Kerry; Holloway, Christopher E.; Muller, Caroline


    Organized convection in the tropics occurs across a range of spatial and temporal scales and strongly influences cloud cover and humidity. One mode of organization found is "self-aggregation," in which moist convection spontaneously organizes into one or several isolated clusters despite spatially homogeneous boundary conditions and forcing. Self-aggregation is driven by interactions between clouds, moisture, radiation, surface fluxes, and circulation, and occurs in a wide variety of idealized simulations of radiative-convective equilibrium. Here we provide a review of convective self-aggregation in numerical simulations, including its character, causes, and effects. We describe the evolution of self-aggregation including its time and length scales and the physical mechanisms leading to its triggering and maintenance, and we also discuss possible links to climate and climate change.

  13. Numerical simulations of undulatory swimming at moderate Reynolds number.

    Eldredge, Jeff D


    We perform numerical simulations of the swimming of a three-linkage articulated system in a moderately viscous regime. The computational methodology focuses on the creation, diffusion and transport of vorticity from the surface of the bodies into the fluid. The simulations are dynamically coupled, in that the motion of the three-linkage swimmer is computed simultaneously with the dynamics of the fluid. The novel coupling scheme presented in this work is the first to exploit the relationship between vorticity creation and body dynamics. The locomotion of the system, when subject to undulatory inputs of the hinges, is computed at Reynolds numbers of 200 and 1000. It is found that the forward swimming speed increases with the Reynolds number, and that in both cases the swimming is slower than in an inviscid medium. The vortex shedding is examined, and found to exhibit behavior consistent with experimental flow visualizations of fish.

  14. Numerical Simulation of Low Mach Number Fluid - Phenomena.

    Reitsma, Scott H.

    A method for the numerical simulation of low Mach number (M) fluid-acoustic phenomena is developed. This computational fluid-acoustic (CFA) methodology is based upon a set of conservation equations, termed finite-compressible, derived from the unsteady Navier-Stokes equations. The finite-compressible and more familiar pseudo-compressible equations are compared. The impact of derivation assumptions are examined theoretically and through numerical experimentation. The error associated with these simplifications is shown to be of O(M) and proportional to the amplitude of unsteady phenomena. A computer code for the solution of the finite -compressible equations is developed from an existing pseudo -compressible code. Spatial and temporal discretization issues relevant in the context of near field fluid-acoustic simulations are discussed. The finite volume code employs a MUSCL based third order upwind biased flux difference splitting algorithm for the convective terms. An explicit, three stage, second order Runge-Kutta temporal integration is employed for time accurate simulations while an implicit, approximately factored time quadrature is available for steady state convergence acceleration. The CFA methodology is tested in a series of problems which examine the appropriateness of the governing equations, the exacerbation of spatial truncation errors and the degree of temporal accuracy. Characteristic based boundary conditions employing a spatial formulation are developed. An original non-reflective boundary condition based upon the generalization and extension of existing methods is derived and tested in a series of multi-dimensional problems including those involving viscous shear flows and propagating waves. The final numerical experiment is the simulation of boundary layer receptivity to acoustic disturbances. This represents the first simulation of receptivity at a surface inhomogeneity in which the acoustic phenomena is modeled using physically appropriate

  15. Material flow data for numerical simulation of powder injection molding

    Duretek, I.; Holzer, C.


    The powder injection molding (PIM) process is a cost efficient and important net-shape manufacturing process that is not completely understood. For the application of simulation programs for the powder injection molding process, apart from suitable physical models, exact material data and in particular knowledge of the flow behavior are essential in order to get precise numerical results. The flow processes of highly filled polymers are complex. Occurring effects are very hard to separate, like shear flow with yield stress, wall slip, elastic effects, etc. Furthermore, the occurrence of phase separation due to the multi-phase composition of compounds is quite probable. In this work, the flow behavior of a 316L stainless steel feedstock for powder injection molding was investigated. Additionally, the influence of pre-shearing on the flow behavior of PIM-feedstocks under practical conditions was examined and evaluated by a special PIM injection molding machine rheometer. In order to have a better understanding of key factors of PIM during the injection step, 3D non-isothermal numerical simulations were conducted with a commercial injection molding simulation software using experimental feedstock properties. The simulation results were compared with the experimental results. The mold filling studies amply illustrate the effect of mold temperature on the filling behavior during the mold filling stage. Moreover, the rheological measurements showed that at low shear rates no zero shear viscosity was observed, but instead the viscosity further increased strongly. This flow behavior could be described with the Cross-WLF approach with Herschel-Bulkley extension very well.

  16. Real-time numerical simulation of the Carnot cycle

    Hurkala, J.; Gall, M.; Kutner, R.; Maciejczyk, M.


    We developed a highly interactive, multi-windows Java applet which made it possible to simulate and visualize within any platform and internet the Carnot cycle (or engine) in a real-time computer experiment. We extended our previous model and algorithm (Galant et al 2003 Heat Transfer, Newton's Law of Cooling and the Law of Entropy Increase Simulated by the Real-Time Computer Experiments in Java (Lecture Notes in Computer Science vol 2657) pp 45-53, Gall and Kutner 2005 Molecular mechanisms of heat transfer: Debye relaxation versus power-law Physica A 352 347-78) to simulate not only the heat flow but also the macroscopic movement of the piston. Since in reality it is impossible to construct a reversible Carnot engine, the question arises whether it is possible to simulate it at least in a numerical experiment? The positive answer to this question which we found is related to our model and algorithm which make it possible to omit the many-body problem arising when many gas particles simultaneously interact with the mobile piston. As usual, the considerations of phenomenological thermodynamics began with a study of the basic properties of heat engines, hence our approach, besides intrinsic physical significance, is also important from the educational, technological and even environmental points of view. .

  17. Numerical simulation and analysis of water flow over stepped spillways

    QIAN ZhongDong; HU XiaoQing; HUAI WenXin; AMADOR António


    Numerical simulation of water flow over the stepped spillway is conducted using Mixture multiphase flow model. Different turbulence models are chosen to enclose the controlling equations. The turbulence models investigated are realizable k-ε model, SST k-ω model, v2-f model and LES model. The computational results by the four turbulence models are compared with experimental ones in the following aspects: mean velocity, the spanwise vorticity and the growth of the turbulent boundary layer thickness in the streamwise direction. It is found from the comparison that the realizable k-ε model, in which the rotation tensor is included, shows good performance for simulation of flows involving rotation, boundary layer and recirculation. The realizable k-e model is the most efficient in simulating flow over stepped spillways. Further, the characteristics of water flow on the stepped spillway are studied in terms of the mean velocity profile normal to the pseudo-bottom and the pressure field on the steps based on the simulation results using realizable k-ε model.

  18. Numerical Simulation of Transient Gauss pulse Coupling through Small Apertures

    Jinshi Xiao


    Full Text Available Transient electromagnetic pulse (EMP can easily couple into equipments through small apertures in its shells. To study the coupling effects of transient Gauss pulse to a cubic cavity with openings, coupling course is simulated using sub-gridding finite difference in time domain (FDTD algorithm in this paper. A new grid partition approach is provided to simulate each kind of apertures with complex shapes. With this approach, the whole calculation space is modeled, and six kinds of aperture with different shapes are simulated. Coupling course is simulate in the whole time domain using sub-gridding FDTD approach. Selecting apertures with dimension of several millimeters to research, coupled electric field waveform, power density and coupling coefficient are calculated. The affect on coupling effects by varied incident angle and varied pulse width are also analyzed. The main conclusion includes interior resonance phenomenon, increase effect around rectangle aperture and several distributing rules of coupled electric field in the cavity. The correctness of these results is validated by comparing with other scholars’ results. These numerical results can help us to understand coupling mechanism of the transient Gauss pulse.

  19. Numerical simulation and analysis of water flow over stepped spillways

    AMADOR; António


    Numerical simulation of water flow over the stepped spillway is conducted using Mixture multiphase flow model. Different turbulence models are chosen to enclose the controlling equations. The turbulence models investigated are realizable k-ε model, SST k-ω model, v2-f model and LES model. The computational results by the four turbulence models are compared with experimental ones in the following aspects: mean velocity, the spanwise vorticity and the growth of the turbulent boundary layer thickness in the streamwise direction. It is found from the comparison that the realizable k-ε model, in which the rotation tensor is included, shows good performance for simulation of flows involving rotation, boundary layer and recirculation. The realizable k-ε model is the most efficient in simulating flow over stepped spillways. Further, the characteristics of water flow on the stepped spillway are studied in terms of the mean velocity profile normal to the pseudo-bottom and the pressure field on the steps based on the simulation results using realizable k-ε model.

  20. Numerical Simulation of Flow Behavior within a Venturi Scrubber

    M. M. Toledo-Melchor


    Full Text Available The present work details the three-dimensional numerical simulation of single-phase and two-phase flow (air-water in a venturi scrubber with an inlet and throat diameters of 250 and 122.5 mm, respectively. The dimensions and operating parameters correspond to industrial applications. The mass flow rate conditions were 0.483 kg/s, 0.736 kg/s, 0.861 kg/s, and 0.987 kg/s for the gas only simulation; the mass flow rate for the liquid was 0.013 kg/s and 0.038 kg/s. The gas flow was simulated in five geometries with different converging and diverging angles while the two-phase flow was only simulated for one geometry. The results obtained were validated with experimental data obtained by other researchers. The results show that the pressure drop depends significantly on the gas flow rate and that water flow rate does not have significant effects neither on the pressure drop nor on the fluid maximum velocity within the scrubber.

  1. Numerical simulation and experimental validation of aircraft ground deicing model

    Bin Chen


    Full Text Available Aircraft ground deicing plays an important role of guaranteeing the aircraft safety. In practice, most airports generally use as many deicing fluids as possible to remove the ice, which causes the waste of the deicing fluids and the pollution of the environment. Therefore, the model of aircraft ground deicing should be built to establish the foundation for the subsequent research, such as the optimization of the deicing fluid consumption. In this article, the heat balance of the deicing process is depicted, and the dynamic model of the deicing process is provided based on the analysis of the deicing mechanism. In the dynamic model, the surface temperature of the deicing fluids and the ice thickness are regarded as the state parameters, while the fluid flow rate, the initial temperature, and the injection time of the deicing fluids are treated as control parameters. Ignoring the heat exchange between the deicing fluids and the environment, the simplified model is obtained. The rationality of the simplified model is verified by the numerical simulation and the impacts of the flow rate, the initial temperature and the injection time on the deicing process are investigated. To verify the model, the semi-physical experiment system is established, consisting of the low-constant temperature test chamber, the ice simulation system, the deicing fluid heating and spraying system, the simulated wing, the test sensors, and the computer measure and control system. The actual test data verify the validity of the dynamic model and the accuracy of the simulation analysis.

  2. Numerical simulation of spark ignition engine using OpenFOAM®

    B.T. Kannan


    Full Text Available The present work is the numerical investigation of Spark Ignition (SI engines using an open source Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD tool. Investigations on the usage of OpenFOAM® CFD tool has been carried out for the simulation of SI engines using engineFoam solver. Four-valve pent roof type engine is chosen for the present simulations. The standard k–ɛ turbulence model is used along with the Reynolds Averaged Navier Stokes (RANS equations for simulating the flow field. Energy equation and transport equation for regress variable is solved along with the momentum equations. Xi model is used for the transport and Gulder's correlation is used for laminar flame speed. Unstrained model is used for calculating the laminar flame speed velocity. Two simulations are carried out one with cold flow and the other with combustion. For combustion analysis, Iso-octane fuel is used. Average cylinder pressure is tracked for different Crank Angles (CA from −180 to 60. The temperature contours are plotted on a vertical plane inside the cylinder to indicate the rise in temperature due to combustion. The results indicate that the open source CFD code can be an ideal choice for engine designers.

  3. Robustness of Recommended Farm Plans in England under Climate Change: A Monte Carlo Simulation

    Gibbons, J.M.; Ramsden, S.J. [Division of Agricultural Sciences, University of Nottingham, Sutton Bonington Campus, Loughborough, LE12 5RD (United Kingdom)


    A methodology is described for estimating robustness of recommended farm plans under climate change while maintaining a meaningful representation of the underlying farm system. Monte Carlo Simulation (MCS) of crop yield data is used in conjunction with a fully specified farm-level model and output from a field worktime model. Estimates of farm net margin, enterprise mix (choice and area of enterprises), labour, machinery, storage and animal housing under mean crop yields and field worktimes for current (2000s) and 2050s conditions are generated. MCS is used to estimate the effect of crop yield variation on farm profitability and enterprise mix for the same periods by running the farm-level model with no constraints and running it constrained to the mean data plan. Estimates of robustness, measured as the percentage difference and the probability of exceeding the mean farm net-margin, were calculated from the outputs from these runs. For three representative farm types, mean farm net margin increased; however changes in robustness as shown by percentage difference in farm net margin depended on farm type while the probability of exceeding the mean plan net-margin decreased by 2050 indicating an increase in robustness. The most robust farm type had a diversified mix of enterprises and required no additional fixed resources by the 2050s. The least robust farm type was in a marginal location and mean plan recommendations for the 2050s required additional investment in fixed resources, particularly irrigation. It is concluded that the information provided by the methodology would be particularly useful to farmers: where mean data plans are not robust, MCS results could be used with financial planning techniques to minimise the impact of variability, rather than using high cost inputs to reduce variability per se.

  4. Constitutive Modeling and Numerical Simulation of Frp Confined Concrete Specimens

    Smitha, Gopinath; Ramachandramurthy, Avadhanam; Nagesh, Ranganatha Iyer; Shahulhameed, Eduvammal Kunhimoideen


    Fiber-reinforced polymer (FRP) composites are generally used for the seismic retrofit of concrete members to enhance their strength and ductility. In the present work, the confining effect of Carbon Fiber-Reinforced Polymer (CFRP) composite layers has been investigated by numerical simulation. The numerical simulation has been carried out using nonlinear finite element analysis (FEA) to predict the response behaviour of CFRP-wrapped concrete cylinders. The nonlinear behaviour of concrete in compression and the linear elastic behaviour of CFRP has been modeled using an appropriate constitutive relationship. A cohesive model has been developed for modeling the interface between the concrete and CFRP. The interaction and damage failure criteria between the concrete to the cohesive element and the cohesive element to the CFRP has also been accounted for in the modeling. The response behaviour of the wrapped concrete specimen has been compared with the proposed interface model and with a perfectly bonded condition. The results obtained from the present study showed good agreement with the experimental load-displacement response and the failure pattern in the literature. Further, a sensitivity analysis has been carried out to study the effect of the number of layers of CFRP on the concrete specimens. It has been observed that wrapping with two layers was found to be the optimum, beyond which the response becomes flexible but with a higher load-carrying capacity


    ZHAO Wei-guo; ZHANG Ling-xin; SHAO Xue-ming


    The numerical simulation of cavitation flow on a 2D NACA0015 hydrofoil under high pressure and temperature is performed. The Singhal's cavitation model is adopted combined with an improved RNG k-ε turbulence model to study the cavitation flow. The thermal effect in the cavitation flow is taken into account by introducing the energy equation with a source term based on the latent heat transfer. The code is validated by a case of a hydrofoil under two different temperatures in a comparison between the simulation and the experiment. Computational results show that the latent heat of vaporization has a significant impact on the cavitation process in the high temperature state, and the cavity in the high temperature state is thinner and shorter than that in a normal state with the same cavitation number, due to the fact that the heat absorption in the cavitation area reduces the local temperature and the saturated vapor pressure. This numerical study provides some guidance for the design of machineries in the High Pressure and Temperature (HPT) state.

  6. Numerical simulation of a DFB - fiber laser sensor (part 1



    Full Text Available This paper presents the preliminary results obtained in developing a numerical simulationanalysis of fiber optic bending sensitivity aiming to improve the design of fiber lasers. The developednumerical simulation method relies on an analysis of both the fundamental mode propagation alongan optical fiber and of how bending of this fiber influence the optical radiation losses. The cases ofsimple, undoped and of doped with Er3+ ions optical fibers are considered. The presented results arebased on numerical simulation of eigen-modes of a laser intensity distribution by the use of finiteelement method (FEM developed in the frame of COMSOL software package. The numericalsimulations are performed by considering the cases of both normal, non-deformed optic fiber and ofsymmetrically deformed optic fiber resembling micro-bending of it. Both types of fiber optic bendinglosses are analyzed, namely: the transition loss, associated with the abrupt or rapid change incurvature at the beginning and the end of a bend, and pure bend loss is associated with the loss fromthe bend of constant curvature in between.

  7. Numerical Simulation of Oil Jet Lubrication for High Speed Gears

    Tommaso Fondelli


    Full Text Available The Geared Turbofan technology is one of the most promising engine configurations to significantly reduce the specific fuel consumption. In this architecture, a power epicyclical gearbox is interposed between the fan and the low pressure spool. Thanks to the gearbox, fan and low pressure spool can turn at different speed, leading to higher engine bypass ratio. Therefore the gearbox efficiency becomes a key parameter for such technology. Further improvement of efficiency can be achieved developing a physical understanding of fluid dynamic losses within the transmission system. These losses are mainly related to viscous effects and they are directly connected to the lubrication method. In this work, the oil injection losses have been studied by means of CFD simulations. A numerical study of a single oil jet impinging on a single high speed gear has been carried out using the VOF method. The aim of this analysis is to evaluate the resistant torque due to the oil jet lubrication, correlating the torque data with the oil-gear interaction phases. URANS calculations have been performed using an adaptive meshing approach, as a way of significantly reducing the simulation costs. A global sensitivity analysis of adopted models has been carried out and a numerical setup has been defined.

  8. Numerical simulation of tungsten alloy in powder injection molding process

    ZHENG Zhen-xing; XIA Wei; ZHOU Zhao-yao; ZHU Quan-li


    The flow behavior of feedstock for the tungsten alloy powder in the mold cavity was approximately described using Hele-Shaw flow model. The math model consisting of momentum equation, consecutive equation and thermo-conduction equation for describing the injection process was established. The equations are solved by the finite element/finite difference hybrid method that means dispersing the feedstock model with finite element method, resolving the model along the depth with finite difference methpd, and tracking the movable boundary with control volume method, then the pressure equation and energy equation can be resolved in turn. The numerical simulation of the injection process and the identification of the process parameters were realized by the Moldflow software. The results indicate that there is low temperature gradient in the cavity while the pressure and shear rate gradient are high at high flow rate. The selection of the flow rate is affected by the structure of the gate. The shear rate and the pressure near the gate can be decreased by properly widening the dimension of the gate. There is a good agreement between the process parameters obtained by the numerical simulation and the actual ones.

  9. Shock Simulation of the Optics Mirror Assembly By Numerical Method

    Mr. Brijeshkumar Patel


    Full Text Available Satellite faces many extreme types of loading throughout their life time from the harsh launch environment to the critical space environment. Launch load mainly dynamic is the main design concern for space structure. Shocks are the one of the most critical dynamic load occurs in spacecraft. Optics Mirror Assembly (OMA is used in the telescope of the satellite. The telescope performance relies on dimensional control & the geometric positioning of the mirror, pointing accuracy and controlled surface deformation of the mirror; Mirror fixation device (MFD is used for controlling all these factors. It should not distort due to launch loads mainly shocks as well as loads during operation of the telescope. In the present work an attempt has been made to perform experimental and computational analysis of the shock load on Optics Mirror Assembly. The FE modal for Shock Analysis purpose has been analysed with a specific Linear Transient Response Analysis in order to obtain the time history of acceleration in several output points. The analysis has been conducted over the time interval 0 to 62 ms and frequency band between 10 - 10 KHz. In order to verify the feasibility and reliability of the numerical (Implicit Finite Element Code, Nastran analysis, the numerical results obtained by Nastran have been compared with those obtained experimentally in the form of SRS. The overall outcome of the simulation method has proven its reliability in simulating Satellite payloads subjected to shocks.

  10. Numerical simulation of mechanical breakup of river ice-cover

    WANG Jun; HE Liang; CHEN Pang-pang; SUI Jueyi


    Ice jams and ice dams in rivers will cause significant rises of water levels.Under extreme conditions,the ice flooding during winter or early spring may occur.In this paper,by considering the fluid-solid coupling effect caused by the water and the ice cover,the mechanisms of the mechanical breakup of the river ice cover are studied.A formula is obtained for determining whether or not the mechanical breakup process would happen under the hydraulic pressure of the flow.Combined with the hydraulic model under the ice covered flow,a numerical model is built and the interaction between the discharge,the hydraulic pressure under the ice cover and the date for the mechanical breakup of the river ice cover is simulated.The simulated results of the dates for the mechanical breakup of the river ice cover agree very well with the field observations of the breakups of the river ice cover in the Hequ Reach of the Yellow River.Therefore,the numerical model might serve as a good preliminary step in studying the breakup of the river ice-cover,evidencing many important parameters that affect the ice-cover process.

  11. Numerical simulation of deep-level rockburst in Fuxin coalfield

    TANG Ju-peng; PAN Yi-shan; LI Ying-jie


    On the basis of ANSYS finite element model(FEM) software, the deep-leve lrockburst in Fuxin coalfield was simulated numerically. Based on Haizhou Mine and Wulong Mine as two typical deep-level rockburst examples in Fuxin coalfield, the rules and characteristics of the deep-level rockburst were analyzed. And the models were established. For Haizhou mine, the relationship between mining distance and rockburst was presented when 100, 300, 600 m were mined in 3313 working face. When 300 mwere mined, the rockburst began to emerge. When 600 m were mined, the rockburst was the most possible to happen and the compression stress of the working face reached to the maximum value. The effect of tectonic stress on synclinal axis is also a key factor to rockburst occurrence. This was verified by the rockburst happened when 496 m were mined. For Wulong mine, based on the 311 working face as an example,the contours of Y stress in the roof and floor were obtained when the mining distance were 100, 200, 300 and 400 m. When 100 and 400 m were mined, the high stress concentration regions occurred in the front of working face. This shows the rockburst is easy to happen. It is confirmed by the rockburst when 91m were mined in 311 working plane.The above indicates that the numerical simulation has instructive rule to study the deep-level rockburst in Fuxin coalfield.

  12. Numerical simulation of pressure fluctuation in Kaplan turbine


    As it is almost impossible to carry out the prototype hydro-turbine experiment be- fore the power plant is built up, rational prediction of pressure fluctuations in the prototype turbine is very important at the design stage. From this viewpoint, we at first treated the unsteady turbulent flow computation based on the modified RNG k-ε turbulence model through the whole flow passage to simulate the pressure fluctuation in a model turbine. Since fair agreement was recognized between the numerical results and the experimental data, this numerical method was applied to simulate the pressure fluctuations in the prototype turbine. From the comparison of them with the model turbine results, it is seen that their qualitative trend of pres- sure fluctuations are similar, but an appreciable difference is observed between the amplitudes of pressure fluctuation of the prototype turbine and that of the model turbine. Though the present findings may be explained by the effect of Reynolds number, further studies are expected for quantitative interpretation. We paid atten- tion to the interaction between the fluid and turbine structure. Adopting a weak fluid-solid coupling method, we studied the pressure fluctuation in the prototype turbine to clarify how the elastic behavior of runner blades influenced the charac- teristics of pressure fluctuation.


    陈永强; 姚振汉; 郑小平


    The analytical stress-strain relation with heterogeneous parameters is derived for the heterogeneous brittle materials under a uniaxial extensional load,in which the distributions of the elastic modulus and the failure strength are assumed to be statistically independent.This theoretical solution gives an approximate estimate of the equivalent stress-strain relations for 3-D heterogeneous materials.In one-dimensional cases it may provide comparatively accurate results.The theoretical solution can help us to explain how the heterogeneity influences the mechanical behaviors.Further,a numerical approach is developed to model the non-linear behavior of three-dimensional heterogeneous brittle materials.The lattice approach and statistical techniques are applied to simulate the initial heterogeneity of heterogeneous materials.The load increment in each loading stage is adaptively determined so that the better approximation of the failure process can be realized.When the maximum tensile principal strain exceeds the failure strain,the elements are considered to be broken,which can be carried out by replacing its Young's modulus with a very small value.A 3-D heterogeneous brittle material specimen is simulated during a full failure process.The numerical results are in good agreement with the analytical solutions and experimental data.

  14. Numerical simulation of small section rectangular tube in parallel welding


    The welding temperature field and deformation of parallel arrangement small-section rectangular tubes is calculated by using a non-contact model. After comparing the computed results with the experimentally measured results, it shows that there exist big errors when applying this model to the numerical simulation of small-section rectangular tube's welding temperature field and deformation. Based on a simple analysis of the errors, a contact model is presented. The heat transfer and stress analysis between small-section rectangular tubes and clamping fixture are simulated by using direct constraints method, and then the laws of the temperature distribution, which coincide with experiment, are obtained. A further numerical analysis of the stress and deformation are made, it shows that a "T" shaped stress-field is formed in the vicinity of the weld. As the stress-field departs from the centroid of tubes', this leads to the small rectangular tubes not only have a longitudinal deflection, but also have a transverse bending and deformation.


    ZHAO Hai-bo; ZHENG Chu-guang


    The time evolution of aerosol size distribution during precipitation, which is founded mathematically by general dynamic equation (GDE) for wet removal, describes quantitatively the process of aerosol wet scavenging. The equation depends on aerosol size distribution, raindrop size distribution and the complicated model of scavenging coefficient which is induced by taking account of the important wet removal mechanisms such as Brownian diffusion, interception and inertial impaction. Normal numerical methods can hardly solve GDE, which is a typical partially integro-differential equation. A new multi-Monte Carlo method was introduced to solve GDE for wet removal, and then was used to simulate the wet scavenging of aerosols in the real atmospheric environment. The results of numerical simulation show that, the smaller lognormal raindrop size distribution and lognormal initial aerosol size distribution, the smaller geometric mean diameter or geometric standard deviation of raindrops can help scavenge small aerosols and intermediate size aerosols better, though large aerosols are prevented from being collected in some ways.

  16. A Computational Model for the Numerical Simulation of FSW Processes

    Agelet de Saracibar, C.; Chiumenti, M.; Santiago, D.; Cervera, M.; Dialami, N.; Lombera, G.


    In this paper a computational model for the numerical simulation of Friction Stir Welding (FSW) processes is presented. FSW is a new method of welding in solid state in which a shouldered tool with a profile probe is rotated and slowly plunged into the joint line between two pieces of sheet or plate material which are butted together. Once the probe has been completely inserted, it is moved with a small tilt angle in the welding direction. Here a quasi-static, thermal transient, mixed multiscale stabilized Eulerian formulation is used. Norton-Hoff and Sheppard-Wright rigid thermo-viscoplastic material models have been considered. A staggered solution algorithm is defined such that for any time step, the mechanical problem is solved at constant temperature and then the thermal problem is solved keeping constant the mechanical variables. A pressure multiscale stabilized mixed linear velocity/linear pressure finite element interpolation formulation is used to solve the mechanical problem and a convection multiscale stabilized linear temperature interpolation formulation is used to solve the thermal problem. The model has been implemented into the in-house developed FE code COMET. Results obtained in the simulation of FSW process are compared to other numerical results or experimental results, when available.

  17. Theoretical Description and Numerical Simulation of the Hydrodynamic Coupling

    V. O. Lomakin


    Full Text Available The article’s subject is to study and describe the processes in the hydrodynamic coupling during its operation. The hydrodynamic coupling is a type of hydrodynamic transmission that provides a flexible connection between the input and output shafts, in contrast to the mechanical coupling. Currently, the fluid couplings are widely used and the theoretical description of their operation has been given long before. However, in Russia these units are not produced, the theoretical model is very simple while the experimental data are scattered and non-systematized. So the problem is relevant and requires consideration.The research objective is to complement the existing theoretical model for better describing the fluid coupling operation as well as to compare the results, based on its using, with the numerical simulation results. The main part of the article contains these sections.The mathematical model shows: the equations used for theoretical description of the fluid coupling operation, the basic hydrodynamic equations converted to solve the problem in a stationary setting, and the applied turbulence model (k-ω. The author backslides from the standard jet theory in which the calculation is performed at an average trickle in order to take into consideration the non-uniformity of the velocity distribution in the fluid coupling.The article also raised the issue on the applicability of the stationary formulation of the problem for the numerical simulation. The study revealed that the solutions obtained under stationary and non-stationary calculations practically match. The verification was conducted by three points of characteristic of the hydraulic coupling.The article gives the fluid coupling dimensions, represents an image of its threedimensional model and of the computational grid. It also shows some figures to illustrate the processes in a fluid coupling obtained by its numerical modeling.During the study it was found out that the proposed

  18. Numerical Simulation of Wind Turbine Blade-Tower Interaction

    Qiang Wang; Hu Zhou; Decheng Wan


    Numerical simulations of wind turbine blade-tower interaction by using the open source OpenFOAM tools coupled with arbitrary mesh interface (AMI) method were presented.The governing equations were the unsteady Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (PANS) which were solved by the pimpleDyMFoam solver,and the AMI method was employed to handle mesh movements.The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) phase Ⅵ wind turbine in upwind configuration was selected for numerical tests with different incoming wind speeds (5,10,15,and 25 m/s) at a fixed blade pitch and constant rotational speed.Detailed numerical results of vortex structure,time histories of thrust,and pressure distribution on the blade and tower were presented.The findings show that the wind turbine tower has little effect on the whole aerodynamic performance of an upwind wind turbine,while the rotating rotor will induce an obvious cyclic drop in the front pressure of the tower.Also,strong interaction of blade tip vortices with separation from the tower was observed.

  19. Front tracking in the numerical simulation of binary alloy solidification

    Simpson, James Edward


    A model for directional solidification in dilute binary alloys is presented. The energy equation is solved for the temperature field, while the species equation is solved for the solute distribution. Either the vorticity-vector potential formulation or the pressure-velocity formulation is used to solve the governing equations for the velocity field. The constitutive equations are solved using a fully transient scheme. A variety of fast numerical schemes for solving sparse systems are used in the solution procedure. A single domain approach is used for the solution scheme for the energy and concentration equations. The effects of phase-change (energy equation) and solute rejection at the advancing solid/liquid interface (concentration equation) are handled via the introduction of appropriate source terms. The numerical approach was validated by comparing numerical results to data from a series of experiments of the Bridgman growth of pure succinonitrile. These experiments were performed as part of this work and are explained in detail. The numerical results agree well with the experimental data in terms of interface shape, temperature and velocity data. The key contribution of this work is the investigation of the Bridgman crystal growth of bismuth-tin in support of NASA's MEPHISTO project. The simulations reported in this work are among the first fully transient simulations of the process; no simplifying steady state approximations were used. Results are obtained for Bi-Sn alloys at a variety of initial concentrations and gravity levels. For most of the work, the solid/liquid interface temperature is assumed to be constant. For the richer alloy (Bi-1.0 at.% Sn) the results indicate that a secondary convective cell, driven by solutal gradients, forms near the interface. The magnitude of the velocities in this cell increases with time, causing increasing solute segregation at the solid/liquid interface. At lower gravity levels, convection-induced segregation is

  20. Pareto-based efficient stochastic simulation-optimization for robust and reliable groundwater management

    Sreekanth, J.; Moore, Catherine; Wolf, Leif


    Simulation-optimization methods are used to develop optimal solutions for a variety of groundwater management problems. The true optimality of these solutions is often dependent on the reliability of the simulation model. Therefore, where model predictions are uncertain due to parameter uncertainty, this should be accounted for within the optimization formulation to ensure that solutions are robust and reliable. In this study, we present a stochastic multi-objective formulation of the otherwise single objective groundwater optimization problem by considering minimization of prediction uncertainty as an additional objective. The proposed method is illustrated by applying to an injection bore field design problem. The primary objective of optimization is maximization of the total volume of water injected into a confined aquifer, subject to the constraints that the resulting increases in hydraulic head in a set of control bores are below specified target levels. Both bore locations and injection rates were considered as optimization variables. Prediction uncertainty is estimated using stacks of uncertain parameters and is explicitly minimized to produce robust and reliable solutions. Reliability analysis using post-optimization Monte Carlo analysis proved that while a stochastic single objective optimization failed to provide reliable solutions with a stack size of 50, the proposed method resulted in many robust solutions with high reliability close to 1.0. Results of the comparison indicate potential gains in efficiency of the stochastic multi-objective formulation to identify robust and reliable groundwater management strategies.

  1. Roboneuron: a simple and robust real-time analog spike simulator and calibrator.

    Dickerhoff, Tyler; Yildirim, Abidin; Gawne, Timothy J


    Modern computerized spike recording systems are increasingly powerful and sophisticated. However, this increases the importance of performing validation by recording signals from a system with a known input-output relationship. We present here a simple and robust analog circuit that uses a minimum number of commonly available components to simulate two independently spiking neurons. The two neurons generate asynchronous overlapping spikes. These can be independently set to spike at either a constant rate, or at a rate set by an external control voltage. The circuit is simple enough to easily assemble by hand, however, standard files for ordering commercial printed circuit boards are also supplied. Several units were built by different people, using both hand-assembly and commercially manufactured printed circuit boards: all worked well. The circuit is robust with respect to supply voltages and component values. Existing analog circuits tend to be complex, hard to assemble, and use hard-to-find components. Digital simulators typically require specific development systems that have steep learning curves and are likely to change radically or become unavailable very quickly. This system has been optimized to be robust, simple, and use only commonly available components. When validating a system there could be an advantage to using a calibrator that is robust, whose input-output relationship is simple, and whose design is stable over time. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Numerical simulation of the hydrodynamic instability experiments and flow mixing

    BAI JingSong; WANG Tao; LI Ping; ZOU LiYong; LIU CangLi


    Based on the numerical methods of volume of fluid (VOF) and piecewise parabolic method (PPM) and parallel circumstance of Message Passing Interface (MPI), a parallel multi-viscosity-fluid hydrodynamic code MVPPM (Multi-Viscosity-Fluid Piecewise Parabolic Method) is developed and performed to study the hydrodynamic instability and flow mixing. Firstly, the MVPPM code is verified and validated by simulating three instability cases: The first one is a Riemann problem of viscous flow on the shock tube;the second one is the hydrodynamic instability and mixing of gaseous flows under re-shocks; the third one is a half height experiment of interfacial instability, which is conducted on the AWE's shock tube. By comparing the numerical results with experimental data, good agreement is achieved. Then the MVPPM code is applied to simulate the two cases of the interfacial instabilities of jelly models accelerated by explosion products of a gaseous explosive mixture (GEM), which are adopted in our experiments. The first is implosive dynamic interfacial instability of cylindrical symmetry and mixing. The evolving process of inner and outer interfaces, and the late distribution of mixing mass caused by Rayleigh-Taylor (RT) instability in the center of different radius are given. The second is jelly layer experiment which is initialized with one periodic perturbation with different amplitude and wave length. It reveals the complex processes of evolution of interface, and presents the displacement of front face of jelly layer, bubble head and top of spike relative to initial equilibrium position vs. time. The numerical results are in excellent agreement with that experimental images, and show that the amplitude of initial perturbations affects the evolvement of fluid mixing zone (FMZ) growth rate extremely, especially at late times.

  3. Numerical simulation of immiscible viscous fingering using adaptive unstructured meshes

    Adam, A.; Salinas, P.; Percival, J. R.; Pavlidis, D.; Pain, C.; Muggeridge, A. H.; Jackson, M.


    Displacement of one fluid by another in porous media occurs in various settings including hydrocarbon recovery, CO2 storage and water purification. When the invading fluid is of lower viscosity than the resident fluid, the displacement front is subject to a Saffman-Taylor instability and is unstable to transverse perturbations. These instabilities can grow, leading to fingering of the invading fluid. Numerical simulation of viscous fingering is challenging. The physics is controlled by a complex interplay of viscous and diffusive forces and it is necessary to ensure physical diffusion dominates numerical diffusion to obtain converged solutions. This typically requires the use of high mesh resolution and high order numerical methods. This is computationally expensive. We demonstrate here the use of a novel control volume - finite element (CVFE) method along with dynamic unstructured mesh adaptivity to simulate viscous fingering with higher accuracy and lower computational cost than conventional methods. Our CVFE method employs a discontinuous representation for both pressure and velocity, allowing the use of smaller control volumes (CVs). This yields higher resolution of the saturation field which is represented CV-wise. Moreover, dynamic mesh adaptivity allows high mesh resolution to be employed where it is required to resolve the fingers and lower resolution elsewhere. We use our results to re-examine the existing criteria that have been proposed to govern the onset of instability.Mesh adaptivity requires the mapping of data from one mesh to another. Conventional methods such as consistent interpolation do not readily generalise to discontinuous fields and are non-conservative. We further contribute a general framework for interpolation of CV fields by Galerkin projection. The method is conservative, higher order and yields improved results, particularly with higher order or discontinuous elements where existing approaches are often excessively diffusive.

  4. Numerical simulation of the hydrodynamic instability experiments and flow mixing


    Based on the numerical methods of volume of fluid (VOF) and piecewise parabolic method (PPM) and parallel circumstance of Message Passing Interface (MPI),a parallel multi-viscosity-fluid hydrodynamic code MVPPM (Multi-Viscosity-Fluid Piecewise Parabolic Method) is developed and performed to study the hydrodynamic instability and flow mixing. Firstly,the MVPPM code is verified and validated by simulating three instability cases:The first one is a Riemann problem of viscous flow on the shock tube; the second one is the hydrodynamic instability and mixing of gaseous flows under re-shocks; the third one is a half height experiment of interfacial instability,which is conducted on the AWE’s shock tube. By comparing the numerical results with experimental data,good agreement is achieved. Then the MVPPM code is applied to simulate the two cases of the interfacial instabilities of jelly models acceler-ated by explosion products of a gaseous explosive mixture (GEM),which are adopted in our experi-ments. The first is implosive dynamic interfacial instability of cylindrical symmetry and mixing. The evolving process of inner and outer interfaces,and the late distribution of mixing mass caused by Rayleigh-Taylor (RT) instability in the center of different radius are given. The second is jelly layer ex-periment which is initialized with one periodic perturbation with different amplitude and wave length. It reveals the complex processes of evolution of interface,and presents the displacement of front face of jelly layer,bubble head and top of spike relative to initial equilibrium position vs. time. The numerical results are in excellent agreement with that experimental images,and show that the amplitude of initial perturbations affects the evolvement of fluid mixing zone (FMZ) growth rate extremely,especially at late times.

  5. Numerical simulations of a filament in a flowing soap film

    Farnell, D. J. J.; David, T.; Barton, D. C.


    Experiments concerning the properties of soap films have recently been carried out and these systems have been proposed as experimental versions of theoretical two-dimensional liquids. A silk filament introduced into a flowing soap film, was seen to demonstrate various stable modes, and these were, namely, a mode in which the filament oscillates and one in which the filament is stationary and aligns with the flow of the liquid. The system could be forced from the oscillatory mode into the non- oscillatory mode by varying the length of the filament. In this article we use numerical and computational techniques in order to simulate the strongly coupled behaviour of the filament and the fluid. Preliminary results are presented for the specific case in which the filament is seen to oscillate continuously for the duration of our simulation. We also find that the filament oscillations are strongly suppressed when we reduce the effective length of the filament. We believe that these results are reminiscent of the different oscillatory and non-oscillatory modes observed in experiment. The numerical solutions show that, in contrast to experiment, vortices are created at the leading edge of the filament and are preferentially grown in the curvature of the filament and are eventually released from the trailing edge of the filament. In a similar manner to oscillating hydrofoils, it seems that the oscillating filaments are in a minimal energy state, extracting sufficient energy from the fluid to oscillate. In comparing numerical and experimental results it is possible that the soap film does have an effect on the fluid flow especially in the boundary layer where surface tension forces are large.

  6. Numerical comparison of robustness of some reduction methods in rough grids

    Hou, Jiangyong


    In this article, we present three nonsymmetric mixed hybrid RT 1 2 methods and compare with some recently developed reduction methods which are suitable for the single-phase Darcy flow problem with full anisotropic and highly heterogeneous permeability on general quadrilateral grids. The methods reviewed are multipoint flux approximation (MPFA), multipoint flux mixed finite element method, mixed-finite element with broken RT 1 2 method, MPFA-type mimetic finite difference method, and symmetric mixed-hybrid finite element method. The numerical experiments of these methods on different distorted meshes are compared, as well as their differences in performance of fluxes are discussed. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Robust modelling and simulation integration of SIMIO with coloured petri nets

    De La Mota, Idalia Flores; Mujica Mota, Miguel; Angel Piera, Miquel


    This book presents for the first time a methodology that combines the power of a modelling formalism such as colored petri nets with the flexibility of a discrete event program such as SIMIO. Industrial practitioners have seen the growth of simulation as a methodology for tacking problems in which variability is the common denominator. Practically all industrial systems, from manufacturing to aviation are considered stochastic systems. Different modelling techniques have been developed as well as mathematical techniques for formalizing the cause-effect relationships in industrial and complex systems. The methodology in this book illustrates how complexity in modelling can be tackled by the use of coloured petri nets, while at the same time the variability present in systems is integrated in a robust fashion. The book can be used as a concise guide for developing robust models, which are able to efficiently simulate the cause-effect relationships present in complex industrial systems without losing the simulat...

  8. Robust numerical method for integration of point-vortex trajectories in two dimensions.

    Smith, Spencer A; Boghosian, Bruce M


    The venerable two-dimensional (2D) point-vortex model plays an important role as a simplified version of many disparate physical systems, including superfluids, Bose-Einstein condensates, certain plasma configurations, and inviscid turbulence. This system is also a veritable mathematical playground, touching upon many different disciplines from topology to dynamic systems theory. Point-vortex dynamics are described by a relatively simple system of nonlinear ordinary differential equations which can easily be integrated numerically using an appropriate adaptive time stepping method. As the separation between a pair of vortices relative to all other intervortex length scales decreases, however, the computational time required diverges. Accuracy is usually the most discouraging casualty when trying to account for such vortex motion, though the varying energy of this ostensibly Hamiltonian system is a potentially more serious problem. We solve these problems by a series of coordinate transformations: We first transform to action-angle coordinates, which, to lowest order, treat the close pair as a single vortex amongst all others with an internal degree of freedom. We next, and most importantly, apply Lie transform perturbation theory to remove the higher-order correction terms in succession. The overall transformation drastically increases the numerical efficiency and ensures that the total energy remains constant to high accuracy.

  9. Ogive Nose Hard Missile Penetrating Concrete Slab Numerical Simulation Approach

    Qadir Bux


    Full Text Available Great demand exists for more efficient design to protect delicate and serious structures such as nuclear plants, Power plants, Weapon Industries, weapons storage places, water retaining structures, & etc, against impact of kinetic missiles generated both accidentally and deliberately such as dynamic loading, incident occurs in nuclear plants, terrorist attack, Natural disasters like tsunami and etc., in various impact and blast scenarios for both civilian and military activities. In many cases, projectiles can be treated as rigid bodies when their damage and erosion are not severe. Due to the intricacy of the local impact damages, investigations are generally based on experimental data. Conclusions of the experimental observations are then used to guide engineering models. Local damages studies normally fall into three categories, i.e. empirical formulae based on data fitting, idealised analytical models based on physic laws and numerical simulations based on computational mechanics and material models. In the present study, 2D asymmetrical numerical simulation have done on concrete slab against the impact of  ogive nose hard missile of 26.90mm and 76.20mm diameter with CRH ratio 2.0 and 6.0 respectively, for penetration by using Concrete Damaged Plasticity Model, and ABAQUS/Explicit dynamic analysis in ABAQUS. It is found that the strains/stresses are induced in the concrete slab and a very nicely propagation of the stresses inside the  concrete slab in the form of waves, which is a clear indication for vibrations of the concrete. The lack of failure criterion in concrete damaged plasticity model does not allow the removal of elements during the analyses. This means that spalling, scabbing, and perforation cannot be modelled with the Concrete Damage Plasticity Model. The penetration depth results shows that the deeper penetration requires higher critical impact kinetic energies, and comparison shows the simulation results are more accurate

  10. Numerical Simulation of Long-period Surface Wave in Sediments

    Li, Yiqiong; Yu, Yanxiang


    Studies have shown that the western Taiwan coastal plain is influenced by long-period ground motion from the 1999 Chi-Chi, Taiwan, earthquake, and engineering structures with natural vibration long-period are damaged by strong surface wave in the western coastal plain. The thick sediments in the western coastal plain are the main cause of the propagation of strong long-period ground motion. The thick sediments similar to in the western coastal plain also exist in northern China. It is necessary to research the effects of thick sediments to long-period ground motion in northern China. The numerical simulation of ground motion based on theoretical seismology is one of important means to study the ground motion. We will carry out the numerical simulation of long-period ground motion in northern China by using the existing tomographic imaging results of northern China to build underground medium model, and adopting finite fault source model for wave input. In the process of simulation, our previous developed structure-preserving algorithm, symplectic discrete singular convolution differentiator (SDSCD), is used to deal with seismic wave field propagation. Our purpose is to reveal the formation and propagation of long-period surface wave in thick sediments and grasp the amplification effect of long-period ground motion due to the thick sediments. It will lay the foundation on providing the reference for the value of the long-period spectrum during determining the ground motion parameters in seismic design. This work has been supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No.41204046, 42574051).

  11. Numerical Simulations of Vertical Water Redistribution in Sand

    Abhishek, A.


    Moisture redistribution process in porous media has a wide range of practical applications in petroleum industry, agriculture engineering, hydrology and carbon/CO2 sequestration. Recently, a vertical water redistribution experiment was designed. A thin column with dimensions of 50 (height) by 1.2 cm (inner diameter) was employed. Five water tensiometers were mounted along the column at distances of 1, 13, 25, 37 and 49 cm from the top. Two air tensiometers were mounted at 15 and 35 cm from the top to measure air pressure. The column was packed with saturated medium sand and was set up vertically. The bottom of the column was set open to the air to allow the sand to drain gradually under gravity. Once the flow completely ceased and equilibrium was reached, the column was reversed to let moisture in the sand redistribute. During both free drainage and redistribution processes, saturation was measured by gamma transmission method, and water and air pressure were measured by tensiometers. Numerical simulations were used to estimate saturation distribution over the whole column and the duration of experiments. We used both 1D and 2D models based on Richards equation to simulate this vertical redistribution process. Both COMSOL and HYDRUS-1D were used to solve 1D model, while COMSOL was employed to solve 2D model. In 1D simulations, equilibrium time was found to increase linearly during free drainage process, proportional to the length of the column. It was 1.4 days for the length of 50 cm, which is employed in experiments. In 2D simulations, water saturation profiles were non-uniform along the width of the domain at earlier time steps, while they become almost uniform when equilibrium was reached. The simulated results are compared with experimental results.

  12. Mean-field concept and direct numerical simulations of rotating magnetoconvection and the geodynamo

    Schrinner, M; Schmitt, D; Rheinhardt, M; Christensen, U R


    A comparison is made between mean-field models and direct numerical simulations of rotating magnetoconvection and the geodynamo. The mean-field coefficients are calculated with the fluid velocity taken from the direct numerical simulations. The magnetic fields resulting from mean-field models are then compared with the mean magnetic field from the direct numerical simulations.

  13. Accurate and robust fully-automatic QCA: method and numerical validation.

    Hernández-Vela, Antonio; Gatta, Carlo; Escalera, Sergio; Igual, Laura; Martin-Yuste, Victoria; Radeva, Petia


    The Quantitative Coronary Angiography (QCA) is a methodology used to evaluate the arterial diseases and, in particular, the degree of stenosis. In this paper we propose AQCA, a fully automatic method for vessel segmentation based on graph cut theory. Vesselness, geodesic paths and a new multi-scale edgeness map are used to compute a globally optimal artery segmentation. We evaluate the method performance in a rigorous numerical way on two datasets. The method can detect an artery with precision 92.9 +/- 5% and sensitivity 94.2 +/- 6%. The average absolute distance error between detected and ground truth centerline is 1.13 +/- 0.11 pixels (about 0.27 +/- 0.025 mm) and the absolute relative error in the vessel caliber estimation is 2.93% with almost no bias. Moreover, the method can discriminate between arteries and catheter with an accuracy of 96.4%.

  14. Numerical Simulations of Coronal Heating through Footpoint Braiding

    Hansteen, Viggo; De Pontieu, Bart; Carlsson, Mats


    Advanced 3D radiative MHD simulations now reproduce many properties of the outer solar atmosphere. When including a domain from the convection zone into the corona, a hot chromosphere and corona are self-consistently maintained. Here we study two realistic models, with different simulated area, magnetic field strength and topology, and numerical resolution. These are compared in order to characterize the heating in the 3D-MHD simulations which self-consistently maintains the structure of the atmosphere. We analyze the heating at both large and small scales and find that heating is episodic and highly structured in space, but occurs along loop shaped structures, and moves along with the magnetic field. On large scales we find that the heating per particle is maximal near the transition region and that widely distributed opposite-polarity field in the photosphere leads to a greater heating scale height in the corona. On smaller scales, heating is concentrated in current sheets, the thicknesses of which are set ...


    Zhancheng Guo; Huiqing Tang


    A computational fluid dynamic model is established for a coking process analysis of a coke oven using PHOENICS CFD package. The model simultaneously calculates the transient composition, temperatures of the gas and the solid phases, velocity of the gas phase and porosity and density of the semi-coke phase. Numerical simulation is illustrated in predicting the evolution of volatile gases, gas flow paths, profiles of density, porosity of the coke oven charge,profiles of temperatures of the coke oven gas and the semi-coke bed. On the basis of above modeling, the flow of coke oven gas (COG) blown from the bottom of the coke oven into the porous semi-coke bed is simulated to reveal whether or not and when the blown COG can uniformly flow through the porous semi-coke bed for the purpose of desulfurizing the semi-coke by recycling the COG. The simulation results show that the blown COG can uniformly flow through the semi-coke bed only after the temperature at the center of the semi-coke bed has risen to above 900 ℃.

  16. The ballistic transport instability in Saturn's rings III: numerical simulations

    Latter, Henrik; Chupeau, Marie


    Saturn's inner B-ring and its C-ring support wavetrains of contrasting amplitudes but with similar length scales, 100-1000 km. In addition, the inner B-ring is punctuated by two intriguing `flat' regions between radii 93,000 km and 98,000 km in which the waves die out, whereas the C-ring waves coexist with a forest of plateaus, narrow ringlets, and gaps. In both regions the waves are probably generated by a large-scale linear instability whose origin lies in the meteoritic bombardment of the rings: the ballistic transport instability. In this paper, the third in a series, we numerically simulate the long-term nonlinear evolution of this instability in a convenient local model. Our C-ring simulations confirm that the unstable system forms low-amplitude wavetrains possessing a preferred band of wavelengths. B-ring simulations, on the other hand, exhibit localised nonlinear wave `packets' separated by linearly stable flat zones. Wave packets travel slowly while spreading in time, a result that suggests the obser...

  17. Numerical Simulation of Density Current Evolution in a Diverging Channel

    Mitra Javan


    Full Text Available When a buoyant inflow of higher density enters a reservoir, it sinks below the ambient water and forms an underflow. Downstream of the plunge point, the flow becomes progressively diluted due to the fluid entrainment. This study seeks to explore the ability of 2D width-averaged unsteady Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS simulation approach for resolving density currents in an inclined diverging channel. 2D width-averaged unsteady RANS equations closed by a buoyancy-modified − turbulence model are integrated in time with a second-order fractional step approach coupled with a direct implicit method and discretized in space on a staggered mesh using a second-order accurate finite volume approach incorporating a high-resolution semi-Lagrangian technique for the convective terms. A series of 2D width-averaged unsteady simulations is carried out for density currents. Comparisons with the experimental measurements and the other numerical simulations show that the predictions of velocity and density field are with reasonable accuracy.

  18. Numerical Simulation of a Solar Domestic Hot Water System

    Mongibello, L.; Bianco, N.; Di Somma, M.; Graditi, G.; Naso, V.


    An innovative transient numerical model is presented for the simulation of a solar Domestic Hot Water (DHW) system. The solar collectors have been simulated by using a zerodimensional analytical model. The temperature distributions in the heat transfer fluid and in the water inside the tank have been evaluated by one-dimensional models. The reversion elimination algorithm has been used to include the effects of natural convection among the water layers at different heights in the tank on the thermal stratification. A finite difference implicit scheme has been implemented to solve the energy conservation equation in the coil heat exchanger, and the energy conservation equation in the tank has been solved by using the finite difference Euler implicit scheme. Energy conservation equations for the solar DHW components models have been coupled by means of a home-made implicit algorithm. Results of the simulation performed using as input data the experimental values of the ambient temperature and the solar irradiance in a summer day are presented and discussed.

  19. Numerical simulations of Mach stem formation via intersecting bow shocks

    Hansen, E. C.; Frank, A.; Hartigan, P.; Yirak, K.


    Hubble Space Telescope observations show bright knots of Hα emission within outflowing young stellar jets. Velocity variations in the flow create secondary bow shocks that may intersect and lead to enhanced emission. When the bow shocks intersect at or above a certain critical angle, a planar shock called a Mach stem is formed. These shocks could produce brighter Hα emission since the incoming flow to the Mach stem is parallel to the shock normal. In this paper we report first results of a study using 2-D numerical simulations designed to explore Mach stem formation at the intersection of bow shocks formed by hypersonic "bullets" or "clumps". Our 2-D simulations show how the bow shock shapes and intersection angles change as the adiabatic index γ changes. We show that the formation or lack of a Mach stem in our simulations is consistent with the steady-state Mach stem formation theory. Our ultimate goal, which is part of an ongoing research effort, is to characterize the physical and observational consequences of bow shock intersections including the formation of Mach stems.

  20. Numerical Simulation of Laminar Flow Field in a Stirred Tank

    范茏; 王卫京; 杨超; 毛在砂


    Stirred tanks are used extensively in process industry and one of the most commonly used impellers in stirred tanks is the R.ushton disk turbine. Surprisingly few data are available regarding flow and mixing in stirred-tank reactors with Rushton turbine in the laminar regime, in particular the laminar flow in baffled tanks.In this paper, the laminar flow field in a baffled tank stirred by a standard R.ushton turbine is simulated with the improved inner-outer iterative method. The non-inertial coordinate system is used for the impeller region, which is in turn used as the boundary conditions for iteration. It is found that the simulation results are in good agreement with previous experiments. In addition, the flow number and impeller power number calculated from the simulated flow field are in satisfactory agreement with experimental data. This numerical method allows prediction of flow structure requiring no experimental data as the boundary conditions and has the potential of being used to scale-up and design of related process equipment.

  1. A simplified DEM numerical simulation of vibroflotation without backfill

    Jiang, M. J.; Liu, W. W.; He, J.; Sun, Y.


    Vibroflotation is one of the deep vibratory compaction techniques for ground reinforcement. This method densities the soil and improves its mechanical properties, thus helps to protect people's lives and property from geological disasters. The macro reinforcement mechanisms of vibroflotation method have been investigated by numerical simulations, laboratory and in-situ experiments. However, little attention has been paid on its micro - mechanism, which is essential to fully understand the principle of the ground reinforcement. Discrete element method (DEM), based on discrete mechanics, is more powerful to solve large deformation and failure problems. This paper investigated the macro-micro mechanism of vibroflotation without backfill under two conditions, i.e., whether or not the ground water was considered, by incorporating inter-particle rolling resistance model in the DEM simulations. Conclusions obtained are as follows: The DEM simulations incorporating rolling resistance well replicate the mechanical response of the soil assemblages and are in line with practical observations. The void ratio of the granular soil fluctuates up and down in the process of vibroflotation, and finally reduces to a lower value. It is more efficient to densify the ground without water compared to the ground with water.

  2. Numerical Simulations of Mach Stem Formation via Intersecting Bow Shocks

    Hansen, Edward C; Hartigan, Patrick


    Hubble Space Telescope observations show bright knots of H$\\alpha$ emission within outflowing young stellar jets. Velocity variations in the flow create secondary bow shocks that may intersect and lead to enhanced emission. When the bow shocks intersect at or above a certain critical angle, a planar shock called a Mach stem is formed. These shocks could produce brighter H$\\alpha$ emission since the incoming flow to the Mach stem is parallel to the shock normal. In this paper we report first results of a study using 2-D numerical simulations designed to explore Mach stem formation at the intersection of bow shocks formed by hypersonic "bullets" or "clumps". Our 2-D simulations show how the bow shock shapes and intersection angles change as the adiabatic index $\\gamma$ changes. We show that the formation or lack of a Mach stem in our simulations is consistent with the steady-state Mach stem formation theory. Our ultimate goal, which is part of an ongoing research effort, is to characterize the physical and obse...

  3. A simulation based research on chance constrained programming in robust facility location problem

    Kaijun, Leng; Wen, Shi; Guanghua, Song; Lin, Pan


    Since facility location decisions problem include long-term character and potential parameter variations, it is important to consider uncertainty in its modeling. This paper examines robust facility location problem considering supply uncertainty, in which we assume the supply of the facility in the actual operation is not equal to the supply initially established, the supply is subject to random fluctuation. The chance constraints are introduced when formulating the robust facility location model to make sure the system operate properly with a certain probability while the supply fluctuates. The chance constraints are approximated safely by using Hoeffding's inequality and the problem is transformed to a general deterministic linear programming. Furthermore, how the facility location cost change with confidence level is investigated through a numerical example. The sensitivity analysis is conducted for important parameters of the model and we get the main factors that affect the facility location cost.

  4. Numerical simulation of wheel wear evolution for heavy haul railway

    王璞; 高亮


    The prediction of the wheel wear is a fundamental problem in heavy haul railway. A numerical methodology is introduced to simulate the wheel wear evolution of heavy haul freight car. The methodology includes the spatial coupling dynamics of vehicle and track, the three-dimensional rolling contact analysis of wheel-rail, the Specht’s material wear model, and the strategy for reproducing the actual operation conditions of railway. The freight vehicle is treated as a full 3D rigid multi-body model. Every component is built detailedly and various contact interactions between parts are accurately simulated, taking into account the real clearances. The wheel−rail rolling contact calculation is carried out based on Hertz’s theory and Kalker’s FASTSIM algorithm. The track model is built based on field measurements. The material loss due to wear is evaluated according to the Specht’s model in which the wear coefficient varies with the wear intensity. In order to exactly reproduce the actual operating conditions of railway, dynamic simulations are performed separately for all possible track conditions and running velocities in each iterative step. Dimensionless weight coefficients are introduced that determine the ratios of different cases and are obtained through site survey. For the wheel profile updating, an adaptive step strategy based on the wear depth is introduced, which can effectively improve the reliability and stability of numerical calculation. At last, the wear evolution laws are studied by the numerical model for different wheels of heavy haul freight vehicle running in curves. The results show that the wear of the front wheelset is more serious than that of the rear wheelset for one bogie, and the difference is more obvious for the outer wheels. The wear of the outer wheels is severer than that of the inner wheels. The wear of outer wheels mainly distributes near the flange and the root;while the wear of inner wheels mainly distributes around the

  5. Robust synchronization of uncertain chaotic systems

    Li Fang; Hu Ai-Hua; Xu Zheng-Yuan


    This paper investigates robust unified (lag, anticipated, and complete) synchronization of two coupled chaotic systems. By introducing the concepts of positive definite symmetrical matrix and Riccati inequality and the theory of robust stability, several criteria on robust synchronization are established. Extensive numerical simulations are also used to confirm the results.

  6. Comparison of robustness to outliers between robust poisson models and log-binomial models when estimating relative risks for common binary outcomes: a simulation study.

    Chen, Wansu; Shi, Jiaxiao; Qian, Lei; Azen, Stanley P


    To estimate relative risks or risk ratios for common binary outcomes, the most popular model-based methods are the robust (also known as modified) Poisson and the log-binomial regression. Of the two methods, it is believed that the log-binomial regression yields more efficient estimators because it is maximum likelihood based, while the robust Poisson model may be less affected by outliers. Evidence to support the robustness of robust Poisson models in comparison with log-binomial models is very limited. In this study a simulation was conducted to evaluate the performance of the two methods in several scenarios where outliers existed. The findings indicate that for data coming from a population where the relationship between the outcome and the covariate was in a simple form (e.g. log-linear), the two models yielded comparable biases and mean square errors. However, if the true relationship contained a higher order term, the robust Poisson models consistently outperformed the log-binomial models even when the level of contamination is low. The robust Poisson models are more robust (or less sensitive) to outliers compared to the log-binomial models when estimating relative risks or risk ratios for common binary outcomes. Users should be aware of the limitations when choosing appropriate models to estimate relative risks or risk ratios.

  7. Design of a single-phase PTS numerical experiment for a reference Direct Numerical Simulation

    Shams, A., E-mail:; Damiani, G.; Rosa, D.; Komen, E.M.J.


    Highlights: • A numerical experiment is designed to perform DNS for a PTS scenario. • A wide range of RANS calculations are performed to design this numerical experiment. • Mesh estimation for the targeted DNS is also performed. - Abstract: The integrity assessment of the Reactor Pressure Vessel (RPV) is considered to be an important issue for lifetime extension of nuclear reactors. A severe transient that can threaten the integrity of the RPV is the existence of a Pressurized Thermal Shock (PTS) during a Loss-of-Coolant Accident (LOCA). A PTS consists of a rapid cooling of the RPV wall under pressurized conditions that may induce the criticality of existing or postulated defects inside the vessel wall. The most severe PTS event has been identified by Emergency Core Cooling (ECC) injection during a LOCA. The traditional one-dimensional system codes fail to reliably predict the complex three-dimensional thermal mixing phenomena in the downcomer occurring during the ECC injection. Hence, CFD can bring real benefits in terms of more realistic and more predictive capabilities. However, to gain trust in the application of CFD modelling for PTS, a comprehensive validation programme is necessary. In the absence of detailed experimental data for the RPV cooling during ECC injection, high fidelity Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS) databases constitute a valid alternative and can serve as a reference. The aim of this work is to design a numerical experiment aimed to generate a high quality reference DNS database for a simplified PTS scenario. This takes into account the turbulent mixing in the downcomer and the evolution of the temperature distribution for both structures and fluid during a single-phase flow PTS scenario. In spite of simplifications, such a DNS analysis represents a very demanding application. A priori, it should be demonstrated that all the relevant turbulent scales will be fully resolved, which requires a huge computational power. A wide range of

  8. Numerical simulation of boron injection in a BWR

    Tinoco, Hernan, E-mail: htb@forsmark.vattenfall.s [Forsmarks Kraftgrupp AB, SE-742 03 Osthammar (Sweden); Buchwald, Przemyslaw [Reactor Technology, Royal Institute of Technology, SE-100 44 Stockholm (Sweden); Frid, Wiktor, E-mail: wiktor@reactor.sci.kth.s [Reactor Technology, Royal Institute of Technology, SE-100 44 Stockholm (Sweden)


    The present study constitutes a first step to understand the process of boron injection, transport and mixing in a BWR. It consists of transient CFD simulations of boron injection in a model of the downcomer of Forsmark's Unit 3 containing about 6 million elements. The two cases studied are unintentional start of boron injection under normal operation and loss of offsite power with partial ATWS leaving 10% of the core power uncontrolled. The flow conditions of the second case are defined by means of an analysis with RELAP5, assuming boron injection start directly after the first ECCS injection. Recent publications show that meaningful conservative results may be obtained for boron or thermal mixing in PWRs with grids as coarse as that utilized here, provided that higher order discretization schemes are used to minimize numerical diffusion. The obtained results indicate an apparently strong influence of the scenario in the behavior of the injection process. The normal operation simulation shows that virtually all boron solution flows down to the Main Recirculation Pump inlet located directly below the boron inlet nozzle. The loss of offsite power simulation shows initially a spread of the boron solution over the entire sectional area of the lower part of the downcomer filled with colder water. This remaining effect of the ECCS injection lasts until all this water has left the downcomer. Above this region, the boron injection jet develops in a vertical streak, eventually resembling the injection of the normal operation scenario. Due to the initial spread, this boron injection will probably cause larger temporal and spatial concentration variations in the core. In both cases, these variations may cause reactivity transients and fuel damage due to local power escalation. To settle this issue, an analysis using an extended model containing the downcomer, the MRPs and the Lower Plenum will be carried out. Also, the simulation time will be extended to a scale of

  9. Homogenization-Based Numerical Mathods, Homogenization, Asymptotic Analysis, Asymptotic Expansion, Numerical Simulation

    Frenod, Emmanuel


    In this note, a classification of Homogenization-Based Numerical Methods and (in particular) of Numerical Methods that are based on the Two-Scale Convergence is done. In this classification stand: Direct Homogenization-Based Numerical Methods; H-Measure-Based Numerical Methods; Two-Scale Numerical Methods and TSAPS: Two-Scale Asymptotic Preserving Schemes.

  10. The Numerical Simulation of Ship Waves using Cartesian Grid Methods

    Sussman, Mark


    Two different cartesian-grid methods are used to simulate the flow around the DDG 5415. The first technique uses a "coupled level-set and volume-of-fluid" (CLS) technique to model the free-surface interface. The no-flux boundary condition on the hull is imposed using a finite-volume technique. The second technique uses a level-set technique (LS) to model the free-surface interface. A body-force technique is used to impose the hull boundary condition. The predictions of both numerical techniques are compared to whisker-probe measurements of the DDG 5415. The level-set technique is also used to investigate the breakup of a two-dimensional spray sheet.

  11. Numerical simulation of the passive gas mixture flow

    Kyncl Martin


    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is the numerical solution of the equations describing the non-stationary compressible turbulent multicomponent flow in gravitational field. The mixture of perfect inert gases is assumed. We work with the RANS equations equipped with the k-omega and the EARSM turbulence models. For the simulation of the wall roughness we use the modification of the specific turbulent dissipation. The finite volume method is used, with thermodynamic constants being functions in time and space. In order to compute the fluxes through the boundary faces we use the modification of the Riemann solver, which is the original result. We present the computational results, computed with the own-developed code (C, FORTRAN, multiprocessor, unstructured meshes in general.

  12. Reinforcement Corrosion: Numerical Simulation and Service Life Prediction

    Michel, Alexander

    substances in concrete a heat and mass transport model was applied, which is based on thermodynamic principles. To incorporate the influence of temperature and chloride on the moisture sorption extensions were made using experimental results. The impact ofchlorides on the moisture sorption was accounted...... concrete specimens was demonstrated comparing experimental ingress results and numerical simulations. The corrosion model, which is coupled to the transport model, was used to describe electrochemical processes at the reinforcement surface. The corrosion model was based on generally accepted physical laws...... describing thermodynamics and kinetics of electrochemical processes. The applicabilityof the model to capture various reinforcement corrosion phenomena, such as activation, resistance, and concentration polarisation as well as the impact of temperature and relative humidity was demonstrated comparing...

  13. Two-component jet simulations: Combining analytical and numerical approaches

    Matsakos, T; Trussoni, E; Tsinganos, K; Vlahakis, N; Sauty, C; Mignone, A


    Recent observations as well as theoretical studies of YSO jets suggest the presence of two steady components: a disk wind type outflow needed to explain the observed high mass loss rates and a stellar wind type outflow probably accounting for the observed stellar spin down. In this framework, we construct numerical two-component jet models by properly mixing an analytical disk wind solution with a complementary analytically derived stellar outflow. Their combination is controlled by both spatial and temporal parameters, in order to address different physical conditions and time variable features. We study the temporal evolution and the interaction of the two jet components on both small and large scales. The simulations reach steady state configurations close to the initial solutions. Although time variability is not found to considerably affect the dynamics, flow fluctuations generate condensations, whose large scale structures have a strong resemblance to observed YSO jet knots.

  14. Simple Numerical Model to Simulate Penetration Testing in Unsaturated Soils

    Jarast S. Pegah


    Full Text Available Cone penetration test in unsaturated sand is modelled numerically using Finite Element Method. Simple elastic-perfectly plastic Mohr-Coulomb constitutive model is modified with an apparent cohesion to incorporate the effect of suction on cone resistance. The Arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian (ALE remeshing algorithm is also implemented to avoid mesh distortion problem due to the large deformation in the soil around the cone tip. The simulated models indicate that the cone resistance was increased consistently under higher suction or lower degree of saturation. Sensitivity analysis investigating the effect of input soil parameters on the cone tip resistance shows that unsaturated soil condition can be adequately modelled by incorporating the apparent cohesion concept. However, updating the soil stiffness by including a suction-dependent effective stress formula in Mohr-Coulomb material model does not influence the cone resistance significantly.

  15. Emitter Design and Numerical Simulation Based on the Extenics Theory

    Jiang Fan


    Full Text Available In order to improve the performance of emitter, the extenics theory is introduced, whose divergent thinking is used to resolve the conflict of anti-clogging and energy dissipation and a new structure is proposed. The wide triangular areas are designed to reduce the flow rate behind of the each orifice and be easy to precipitation of impurities. The orifices are set to gradually decrease water kinetic energy and the flow channel is designed to be dismantle. The numerical simulation technology is used to analyze the internal flow field of emitter, the flow field results show that the improved emitter has great effect of energy dissipation and anti-clogging. As the same time, the structure of emitter is optimized and L1 = 31 mm, L2 = 21 mm, L3 = 8 mm and L4 = 5 mm are the optimization size values.

  16. Numerical simulation of the passive gas mixture flow

    Kyncl Martin


    Full Text Available We work with the system of equations describing non-stationary compressible turbulent multicomponent flow in the gravitational field, and we focus on the numerical solution of these equations. In these computations we assume the mixture of perfect inert gases. The thermodynamic constants are functions in time and space. The finite volume method is used. In order to solve the local boundary problem at each mesh face, we use the original analysis of the exact solution of the Riemann problem. The roughness of the surface is simulated via the specific dissipation at the wall. We show the computational results obtained with the own-developed code (C,FORTRAN for the solution of the 3D compressible turbulent mixture flow. The originality of this work lies with the special handling of the boundary conditions, which shows superior behavior, and own computational code.

  17. MHD Remote Numerical Simulations: Evolution of Coronal Mass Ejections

    Hernandez-Cervantes, L; Gonzalez-Ponce, A R


    Coronal mass ejections (CMEs) are solar eruptions into interplanetary space of as much as a few billion tons of plasma, with embedded magnetic fields from the Sun's corona. These perturbations play a very important role in solar--terrestrial relations, in particular in the spaceweather. In this work we present some preliminary results of the software development at the Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico to perform Remote MHD Numerical Simulations. This is done to study the evolution of the CMEs in the interplanetary medium through a Web-based interface and the results are store into a database. The new astrophysical computational tool is called the Mexican Virtual Solar Observatory (MVSO) and is aimed to create theoretical models that may be helpful in the interpretation of observational solar data.

  18. Numerical simulation of a battlefield Nd:YAG laser

    Henriksson, Markus; Sjoqvist, Lars; Uhrwing, Thomas


    A numeric model has been developed to identify the critical components and parameters in improving the output beam quality of a flashlamp pumped Q-switched Nd:YAG laser with a folded Porro-prism resonator and polarization output coupling. The heating of the laser material and accompanying thermo-optical effects are calculated using the finite element partial differential equations package FEMLAB allowing arbitrary geometries and time distributions. The laser gain and the cavity are modeled with the physical optics simulation code GLAD including effects such as gain profile, thermal lensing and stress-induced birefringence, the Pockels cell rise-time and component aberrations. The model is intended to optimize the pumping process of an OPO providing radiation to be used for ranging, imaging or optical countermeasures.

  19. Numerical Simulation of Gas Leaking Diffusion from Storage Tank

    Zhu, Hongjun; Jing, Jiaqiang

    Over 80 percents of storage tank accidents are caused by gas leaking. Since traditional empirical calculation has great errors, present work aims to study the gas leaking diffusion under different wind conditions by numerical simulation method based on computational fluid dynamics theory. Then gas concentration distribution was obtained to determine the scope of the security zone. The results showed that gas diffused freely along the axis of leaking point without wind, giving rise to large range of hazardous area. However, wind plays the role of migrating and diluting the leaking gas. The larger is the wind speed, the smaller is the damage and the bigger is the security zone. Calculation method and results can provide some reference to establish and implement rescue program for accidents.

  20. Mathematical analysis and numerical simulation of a model of morphogenesis.

    Muñoz, Ana I; Tello, José Ignacio


    We consider a simple mathematical model of distribution of morphogens (signaling molecules responsible for the differentiation of cells and the creation of tissue patterns). The mathematical model is a particular case of the model proposed by Lander, Nie and Wan in 2006 and similar to the model presented in Lander, Nie, Vargas and Wan 2005. The model consists of a system of three equations: a PDE of parabolic type with dynamical boundary conditions modelling the distribution of free morphogens and two ODEs describing the evolution of bound and free receptors. Three biological processes are taken into account: diffusion, degradation and reversible binding. We study the stationary solutions and the evolution problem. Numerical simulations show the behavior of the solution depending on the values of the parameters.