Sample records for robust inquiry central

  1. Ethno-Experiments: Creating Robust Inquiry and Futures (United States)

    Ramsey, Caroline


    This article introduces a practice-centred inquiry method called an "ethno-experiment". The method is built on a social constructionist understanding of practice as a social performance rather than as an individual's act. Additionally, it draws on Garfinkel's early ethnomethodological work and Marshall's self-reflective inquiry to construct a…

  2. Attack robustness and centrality of complex networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swami Iyer

    Full Text Available Many complex systems can be described by networks, in which the constituent components are represented by vertices and the connections between the components are represented by edges between the corresponding vertices. A fundamental issue concerning complex networked systems is the robustness of the overall system to the failure of its constituent parts. Since the degree to which a networked system continues to function, as its component parts are degraded, typically depends on the integrity of the underlying network, the question of system robustness can be addressed by analyzing how the network structure changes as vertices are removed. Previous work has considered how the structure of complex networks change as vertices are removed uniformly at random, in decreasing order of their degree, or in decreasing order of their betweenness centrality. Here we extend these studies by investigating the effect on network structure of targeting vertices for removal based on a wider range of non-local measures of potential importance than simply degree or betweenness. We consider the effect of such targeted vertex removal on model networks with different degree distributions, clustering coefficients and assortativity coefficients, and for a variety of empirical networks.

  3. Centrality Robustness and Link Prediction in Complex Social Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davidsen, Søren Atmakuri; Ortiz-Arroyo, Daniel


    . Secondly, we present a method to predict edges in dynamic social networks. Our experimental results indicate that the robustness of the centrality measures applied to more realistic social networks follows a predictable pattern and that the use of temporal statistics could improve the accuracy achieved......This chapter addresses two important issues in social network analysis that involve uncertainty. Firstly, we present am analysis on the robustness of centrality measures that extend the work presented in Borgati et al. using three types of complex network structures and one real social network...

  4. Central hardwood forests: recent trends in a robust resource (United States)

    T. W. Birch; D. A. Gansner; W. H. McWilliams


    Re-inventories completed for each of four Central Hardwood States (Kentucky, Ohio, Pennsylvania, and West Virginia) show that forest area is increasing and stocking hit new highs; there is 27 percent more growing-stock volume than a decade ago. Large increases in volume have been recorded for all but the smallest diameter classes. Volume in trees 15 inches in diameter...

  5. Spatio-temporal networks: reachability, centrality and robustness. (United States)

    Williams, Matthew J; Musolesi, Mirco


    Recent advances in spatial and temporal networks have enabled researchers to more-accurately describe many real-world systems such as urban transport networks. In this paper, we study the response of real-world spatio-temporal networks to random error and systematic attack, taking a unified view of their spatial and temporal performance. We propose a model of spatio-temporal paths in time-varying spatially embedded networks which captures the property that, as in many real-world systems, interaction between nodes is non-instantaneous and governed by the space in which they are embedded. Through numerical experiments on three real-world urban transport systems, we study the effect of node failure on a network's topological, temporal and spatial structure. We also demonstrate the broader applicability of this framework to three other classes of network. To identify weaknesses specific to the behaviour of a spatio-temporal system, we introduce centrality measures that evaluate the importance of a node as a structural bridge and its role in supporting spatio-temporally efficient flows through the network. This exposes the complex nature of fragility in a spatio-temporal system, showing that there is a variety of failure modes when a network is subject to systematic attacks.

  6. Robust

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)


    Robust – Reflections on Resilient Architecture’, is a scientific publication following the conference of the same name in November of 2017. Researches and PhD-Fellows, associated with the Masters programme: Cultural Heritage, Transformation and Restoration (Transformation), at The Royal Danish...

  7. Metabolic Flux Analysis of Shewanella spp. Reveals Evolutionary Robustness in Central Carbon Metabolism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang, Yinjie J.; Martin, Hector Garcia; Dehal, Paramvir S.; Deutschbauer, Adam; Llora, Xavier; Meadows, Adam; Arkin, Adam; Keasling, Jay D.


    Shewanella spp. are a group of facultative anaerobic bacteria widely distributed in marine and fresh-water environments. In this study, we profiled the central metabolic fluxes of eight recently sequenced Shewanella species grown under the same condition in minimal med-ium with [3-13C] lactate. Although the tested Shewanella species had slightly different growth rates (0.23-0.29 h31) and produced different amounts of acetate and pyruvate during early exponential growth (pseudo-steady state), the relative intracellular metabolic flux distributions were remarkably similar. This result indicates that Shewanella species share similar regulation in regard to central carbon metabolic fluxes under steady growth conditions: the maintenance of metabolic robustness is not only evident in a single species under genetic perturbations (Fischer and Sauer, 2005; Nat Genet 37(6):636-640), but also observed through evolutionary related microbial species. This remarkable conservation of relative flux profiles through phylogenetic differences prompts us to introduce the concept of metabotype as an alternative scheme to classify microbial fluxomics. On the other hand, Shewanella spp. display flexibility in the relative flux profiles when switching their metabolism from consuming lactate to consuming pyruvate and acetate.

  8. Caribbean and Central American Women's Feminist Inquiry through Theater-Based Action Research (United States)

    Sánchez Ares, Rocío


    Feminist action research interrogates gendered dynamics in the development of a collective consciousness. A group of immigrant Latina women (Latinas) from the Caribbean and Central America employed community-based theater as an instrument to mobilize diverse audiences against discriminatory practices and policies. Based on their theater work, I…

  9. Robust Central Nervous System Pathology in Transgenic Mice following Peripheral Injection of α-Synuclein Fibrils. (United States)

    Ayers, Jacob I; Brooks, Mieu M; Rutherford, Nicola J; Howard, Jasie K; Sorrentino, Zachary A; Riffe, Cara J; Giasson, Benoit I


    Misfolded α-synuclein (αS) is hypothesized to spread throughout the central nervous system (CNS) by neuronal connectivity leading to widespread pathology. Increasing evidence indicates that it also has the potential to invade the CNS via peripheral nerves in a prion-like manner. On the basis of the effectiveness following peripheral routes of prion administration, we extend our previous studies of CNS neuroinvasion in M83 αS transgenic mice following hind limb muscle (intramuscular [i.m.]) injection of αS fibrils by comparing various peripheral sites of inoculations with different αS protein preparations. Following intravenous injection in the tail veins of homozygous M83 transgenic (M83 +/+ ) mice, robust αS pathology was observed in the CNS without the development of motor impairments within the time frame examined. Intraperitoneal (i.p.) injections of αS fibrils in hemizygous M83 transgenic (M83 +/- ) mice resulted in CNS αS pathology associated with paralysis. Interestingly, injection with soluble, nonaggregated αS resulted in paralysis and pathology in only a subset of mice, whereas soluble Δ71-82 αS, human βS, and keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH) control proteins induced no symptoms or pathology. Intraperitoneal injection of αS fibrils also induced CNS αS pathology in another αS transgenic mouse line (M20), albeit less robustly in these mice. In comparison, i.m. injection of αS fibrils was more efficient in inducing CNS αS pathology in M83 mice than i.p. or tail vein injections. Furthermore, i.m. injection of soluble, nonaggregated αS in M83 +/- mice also induced paralysis and CNS αS pathology, although less efficiently. These results further demonstrate the prion-like characteristics of αS and reveal its efficiency to invade the CNS via multiple routes of peripheral administration. The misfolding and accumulation of α-synuclein (αS) inclusions are found in a number of neurodegenerative disorders and is a hallmark feature of Parkinson

  10. Toward robust phase-locking in Melibe swim central pattern generator models (United States)

    Jalil, Sajiya; Allen, Dane; Youker, Joseph; Shilnikov, Andrey


    Small groups of interneurons, abbreviated by CPG for central pattern generators, are arranged into neural networks to generate a variety of core bursting rhythms with specific phase-locked states, on distinct time scales, which govern vital motor behaviors in invertebrates such as chewing and swimming. These movements in lower level animals mimic motions of organs in higher animals due to evolutionarily conserved mechanisms. Hence, various neurological diseases can be linked to abnormal movement of body parts that are regulated by a malfunctioning CPG. In this paper, we, being inspired by recent experimental studies of neuronal activity patterns recorded from a swimming motion CPG of the sea slug Melibe leonina, examine a mathematical model of a 4-cell network that can plausibly and stably underlie the observed bursting rhythm. We develop a dynamical systems framework for explaining the existence and robustness of phase-locked states in activity patterns produced by the modeled CPGs. The proposed tools can be used for identifying core components for other CPG networks with reliable bursting outcomes and specific phase relationships between the interneurons. Our findings can be employed for identifying or implementing the conditions for normal and pathological functioning of basic CPGs of animals and artificially intelligent prosthetics that can regulate various movements.

  11. Central Dog-ma Disease Detectives: A Molecular Biology Inquiry Activity for Undergraduates (United States)

    Quan, T. K.; Yuh, P.; Black, F.


    The Minority Access to Research Careers (MARC) and Minority Biomedical Research Support (MBRS) are programs at the University of California at Santa Cruz designed to support minority undergraduate students majoring in the sciences. Each summer MARC/MBRS sponsors a Summer Institute that involves week long "rotations" with different faculty mentors. In 2008, the Center for Adaptive Optics (CfAO) Professional Development Program (PDP) was responsible for overseeing one week of the Summer Institute, and designed it to be a Biomedical Short Course. As part of this short course, we designed a four-hour activity in which students collected their own data and explored relationships between the basic biomolecules DNA, RNA, and protein. The goal was to have the students use experimental data to support their explanation of the "Central Dogma" of molecular biology. Here we describe details of our activity and provide a post-teaching reflection on its success.

  12. The Windscale Inquiry: the public inquiry system on trial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garry, A.M.


    This thesis is concerned with the Windscale Inquiry of 1977 and its effect on the public inquiry system. It focusses both on the major influences of the Windscale Inquiry process, and on the participants, their aims, motivations, expectations and achievements. It provides the most detailed examination of the Inquiry to date and, as a result, uncovers aspects of the process while have not been explored previously. The central questions of the thesis are: Was the outcome of the Windscale Inquiry inevitable or could it have reached different conclusions? and did the Windscale Inquiry demonstrate that the public inquiry system could be used by a government to reach a decision which it favoured? The thesis argues that the outcome of the Windscale Inquiry was almost inevitable. In fact it was found that the Inspector had made up his mind in favour of oxide reprocessing before the Inquiry opened. However, this finding does not express fully the Inquiry's impact, because, as the thesis shows, the Inquiry became a mechanism which forced the nuclear industry and the government to explain, and substantially alter, some parts of their policies. The process of bringing the government and industry to account, did not alter the THORP decision, but it demonstrated that any subsequent inquiries could subject nuclear developments to searching criticism and investigation. Indeed it is suggested that the Windscale Inquiry made it impossible for subsequent Governments to proceed with nuclear expansion without subjecting them to the public inquiry process. Part I of the thesis examines the history and structure of the public Inquiry system and the relevant aspects of planning law. Part II describes the history of reprocessing and the themes which led to the public inquiry being established. Part III forms the most detailed part of the thesis and examines the Windscale Inquiry process focussing on the participants and the issues involved. (author)

  13. Robustness analysis of complex networks with power decentralization strategy via flow-sensitive centrality against cascading failures (United States)

    Guo, Wenzhang; Wang, Hao; Wu, Zhengping


    Most existing cascading failure mitigation strategy of power grids based on complex network ignores the impact of electrical characteristics on dynamic performance. In this paper, the robustness of the power grid under a power decentralization strategy is analysed through cascading failure simulation based on AC flow theory. The flow-sensitive (FS) centrality is introduced by integrating topological features and electrical properties to help determine the siting of the generation nodes. The simulation results of the IEEE-bus systems show that the flow-sensitive centrality method is a more stable and accurate approach and can enhance the robustness of the network remarkably. Through the study of the optimal flow-sensitive centrality selection for different networks, we find that the robustness of the network with obvious small-world effect depends more on contribution of the generation nodes detected by community structure, otherwise, contribution of the generation nodes with important influence on power flow is more critical. In addition, community structure plays a significant role in balancing the power flow distribution and further slowing the propagation of failures. These results are useful in power grid planning and cascading failure prevention.

  14. Design process robustness: A bi-partite network analysis reveals the central importance of people

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Piccolo, Sebastiano; Jørgensen, Sune Lehmann; Maier, Anja


    , reducing the risk of rework and delays. Although there has been much progress in modelling and understanding design processes, little is known about the interplay between people and the activities they perform and its influence on design process robustness. To analyse this interplay, we model a large...

  15. Robust general N user authentication scheme in a centralized quantum communication network via generalized GHZ states (United States)

    Farouk, Ahmed; Batle, J.; Elhoseny, M.; Naseri, Mosayeb; Lone, Muzaffar; Fedorov, Alex; Alkhambashi, Majid; Ahmed, Syed Hassan; Abdel-Aty, M.


    Quantum communication provides an enormous advantage over its classical counterpart: security of communications based on the very principles of quantum mechanics. Researchers have proposed several approaches for user identity authentication via entanglement. Unfortunately, these protocols fail because an attacker can capture some of the particles in a transmitted sequence and send what is left to the receiver through a quantum channel. Subsequently, the attacker can restore some of the confidential messages, giving rise to the possibility of information leakage. Here we present a new robust General N user authentication protocol based on N-particle Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger (GHZ) states, which makes eavesdropping detection more effective and secure, as compared to some current authentication protocols. The security analysis of our protocol for various kinds of attacks verifies that it is unconditionally secure, and that an attacker will not obtain any information about the transmitted key. Moreover, as the number of transferred key bits N becomes larger, while the number of users for transmitting the information is increased, the probability of effectively obtaining the transmitted authentication keys is reduced to zero.

  16. A Combination of Central Pattern Generator-based and Reflex-based Neural Networks for Dynamic, Adaptive, Robust Bipedal Locomotion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Di Canio, Giuliano; Larsen, Jørgen Christian; Wörgötter, Florentin


    Robotic systems inspired from humans have always been lightening up the curiosity of engineers and scientists. Of many challenges, human locomotion is a very difficult one where a number of different systems needs to interact in order to generate a correct and balanced pattern. To simulate...... the interaction of these systems, implementations with reflexbased or central pattern generator (CPG)-based controllers have been tested on bipedal robot systems. In this paper we will combine the two controller types, into a controller that works with both reflex and CPG signals. We use a reflex-based neural...... network to generate basic walking patterns of a dynamic bipedal walking robot (DACBOT) and then a CPG-based neural network to ensure robust walking behavior...

  17. Robustness studies of the photomultipliers reading out TileCal, the central hadron calorimeter of the ATLAS experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Di Gregorio, Giulia; The ATLAS collaboration


    The ATLAS Tile Calorimeter (TileCal) is the central section of the hadronic calorimeter of the ATLAS experiment. This sampling calorimeter uses steel plates as absorber and scintillating tiles as active medium. The light produced by the passage of charged particles is transmitted by wavelength shifting fibres to photo-multiplier tubes (PMTs), located in the outer part of the calorimeter. The readout is segmented into about 5000 cells, each one being read out by two PMTs in parallel. The detector readout geometry will not be changed for the Phase II of the High Luminosity Large Hadron Collider (HL-LHC) operation. A challenging goal is to understand whether the full sample of PMTs installed at the beginning of the ATLAS detector operation can be used until completion of the HL-LHC program or not. For this reason, a reliable study of the PMT robustness against ageing is required. Detailed studies modelling the PMT response variation as a function of the integrated anode charge were done. The PMT response evoluti...

  18. Big inquiry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wynne, B [Lancaster Univ. (UK)


    The recently published report entitled 'The Big Public Inquiry' from the Council for Science and Society and the Outer Circle Policy Unit is considered, with especial reference to any future enquiry which may take place into the first commercial fast breeder reactor. Proposals embodied in the report include stronger rights for objectors and an attempt is made to tackle the problem that participation in a public inquiry is far too late to be objective. It is felt by the author that the CSS/OCPU report is a constructive contribution to the debate about big technology inquiries but that it fails to understand the deeper currents in the economic and political structure of technology which so influence the consequences of whatever formal procedures are evolved.

  19. Windscale inquiry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lambert, C.M.


    The nuclear debate, far from being concluded by the Windscale decision, was in fact opened up and its scope widened to take into account the political, international, environmental and social issues involved. This debate continues and the selection of literature presented here aims to illustrate all aspects of the Inquiry and its implications. The material is presented in two main sections. Section A is concerned with the Inquiry itself: the proceedings, the report and the government's decision. Section B presents a selection of the literature and debate that resulted. (author)

  20. Promoting Shared Decision Making through Descriptive Inquiry (United States)

    Seher, Rachel; Traugh, Cecelia; Cheng, Alan


    This article shows how City-As-School, a progressive public school in New York City, used descriptive inquiry to deepen shared decision making, which is a central value of the school and part of a democratic way of life. Descriptive inquiry is a democratic knowledge-making process that was developed at the Prospect School in North Bennington,…

  1. Genuine Inquiry: Widely Espoused Yet Rarely Enacted (United States)

    Le Fevre, Deidre M.; Robinson, Viviane M. J.; Sinnema, Claire E. L.


    The concept of inquiry is central to contemporary discussions of teacher and leader professional learning and problem solving in interpersonal contexts. However, while few would debate its value, there has been little discussion of the significant challenges inherent in engaging in genuine inquiry. In this article, we distinguish between genuine…

  2. A Two-Stage Robust Optimization for Centralized-Optimal Dispatch of Photovoltaic Inverters in Active Distribution Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ding, Tao; Li, Cheng; Yang, Yongheng


    Optimally dispatching Photovoltaic (PV) inverters is an efficient way to avoid overvoltage in active distribution networks, which may occur in the case of PV generation surplus load demand. Typically, the dispatching optimization objective is to identify critical PV inverters that have the most...... nature of solar PV energy may affect the selection of the critical PV inverters and also the final optimal objective value. In order to address this issue, a two-stage robust optimization model is proposed in this paper to achieve a robust optimal solution to the PV inverter dispatch, which can hedge...... against any possible realization within the uncertain PV outputs. In addition, the conic relaxation-based branch flow formulation and second-order cone programming based column-and-constraint generation algorithm are employed to deal with the proposed robust optimization model. Case studies on a 33-bus...

  3. Fictional Inquiry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dindler, Christian; Iversen, Ole Sejer

    At designe i en fortællemæssig ramme giver brugere og designere mulighed for i fællesskab at udforske fremtidens it-anvendelser. Metoden hedder Fictional Inquiry, og den motiverer brugerne til at tænke ud over dagligdagens begrænsninger og sætte ord på ting i hverdagen, som ellers er svære...

  4. A Robust Function to Return the Cumulative Density of Non-Central F Distributions in Microsoft Office Excel (United States)

    Nelson, James Byron


    The manuscript presents a Visual Basic[superscript R] for Applications function that operates within Microsoft Office Excel[superscript R] to return the area below the curve for a given F within a specified non-central F distribution. The function will be of use to Excel users without programming experience wherever a non-central F distribution is…

  5. Internet Inquiry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This collection of dialogues is the only textbook of its kind. Internet Inquiry: Conversations About Method takes students into the minds of top internet researchers as they discuss how they have worked through critical challenges as they research online social environments. Editors Annette N....... Markham and Nancy K. Baym illustrate that good research choices are not random but are deliberate, studied, and internally consistent. Rather than providing single "how to" answers, this book presents distinctive and divergent viewpoints on how to think about and conduct qualitative internet studies....

  6. The central molecular clock is robust in the face of behavioural arrhythmia in a Drosophila model of Alzheimer's disease. (United States)

    Chen, Ko-Fan; Possidente, Bernard; Lomas, David A; Crowther, Damian C


    Circadian behavioural deficits, including sleep irregularity and restlessness in the evening, are a distressing early feature of Alzheimer's disease (AD). We have investigated these phenomena by studying the circadian behaviour of transgenic Drosophila expressing the amyloid beta peptide (Aβ). We find that Aβ expression results in an age-related loss of circadian behavioural rhythms despite ongoing normal molecular oscillations in the central clock neurons. Even in the absence of any behavioural correlate, the synchronised activity of the central clock remains protective, prolonging lifespan, in Aβ flies just as it does in control flies. Confocal microscopy and bioluminescence measurements point to processes downstream of the molecular clock as the main site of Aβ toxicity. In addition, there seems to be significant non-cell-autonomous Aβ toxicity resulting in morphological and probably functional signalling deficits in central clock neurons.

  7. Robustness studies of the photomultipliers reading out TileCal, the central hadron calorimeter of the ATLAS experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Di Gregorio, Giulia; The ATLAS collaboration


    TileCal, the hadron calorimeter of the ATLAS experiment in LHC, is a 10000 channel detector readout by photomultipliers (PMTs). A challenging goal is to understand whether the full sample of PMTs installed at the beginning of the ATLAS detector operation can be used until completion of the High-Luminosity Large Hadron Collider (HL-LHC) program or not. For this reason, a reliable study of the PMT robustness against ageing is required. Detailed studies modelling the PMT response variation as a function of the integrated anode charge were done.

  8. Theoretical perspectives on narrative inquiry. (United States)

    Emden, C


    Narrative inquiry is gaining momentum in the field of nursing. As a research approach it does not have any single heritage of methodology and its practitioners draw upon diverse sources of influence. Central to all narrative inquiry however, is attention to the potential of stories to give meaning to people's lives, and the treatment of data as stories. This is the first of two papers on the topic and addresses the theoretical influences upon a particular narrative inquiry into nursing scholars and scholarship. The second paper, Conducting a narrative analysis, describes the actual narrative analysis as it was conducted in this same study. Together, the papers provide sufficient detail for others wishing to pursue a similar approach to do so, or to develop the ideas and procedures according to their own way of thinking. Within this first theoretical paper, perspectives from Jerome Bruner (1987) and Wade Roof (1993) are outlined. These relate especially to the notion of stories as 'imaginative constructions' and as 'cultural narratives' and as such, highlight the profound importance of stories as being individually and culturally meaningful. As well, perspectives on narrative inquiry from nursing literature are highlighted. Narrative inquiry in this instance lies within the broader context of phenomenology.

  9. Potatoes and Trout: Maintaining Robust Agriculture and a Healthy Trout Fishery in the Central Sands of Wisconsin (United States)

    Fienen, M. N.; Bradbury, K. R.; Kniffin, M.; Barlow, P. M.; Krause, J.; Westenbroek, S.; Leaf, A.


    The well-drained sandy soil in the Wisconsin Central Sands is ideal for growing potatoes, corn, and other vegetables. A shallow sand and gravel aquifer provides abundant water for agricultural irrigation but also supplies critical base flow to cold-water trout streams. These needs compete with one another, and stakeholders from various perspectives are collaborating to seek solutions. Stakeholders were engaged in providing and verifying data to guide construction of a groundwater flow model which was used with linear and sequential linear programming to evaluate optimal tradeoffs between agricultural pumping and ecologically based minimum base flow values. The connection between individual irrigation wells as well as industrial and municipal supply and streamflow depletion can be evaluated using the model. Rather than addressing 1000s of wells individually, a variety of well management groups were established through k-means clustering. These groups are based on location, potential impact, water-use categories, depletion potential, and other factors. Through optimization, pumping rates were reduced to attain mandated minimum base flows. This formalization enables exploration of possible solutions for the stakeholders, and provides a tool which is transparent and forms a basis for discussion and negotiation.

  10. The efficacy of support vector machines (SVM) in robust determination of earthquake early warning magnitudes in central Japan (United States)

    Reddy, Ramakrushna; Nair, Rajesh R.


    This work deals with a methodology applied to seismic early warning systems which are designed to provide real-time estimation of the magnitude of an event. We will reappraise the work of Simons et al. (2006), who on the basis of wavelet approach predicted a magnitude error of ±1. We will verify and improve upon the methodology of Simons et al. (2006) by applying an SVM statistical learning machine on the time-scale wavelet decomposition methods. We used the data of 108 events in central Japan with magnitude ranging from 3 to 7.4 recorded at KiK-net network stations, for a source-receiver distance of up to 150 km during the period 1998-2011. We applied a wavelet transform on the seismogram data and calculating scale-dependent threshold wavelet coefficients. These coefficients were then classified into low magnitude and high magnitude events by constructing a maximum margin hyperplane between the two classes, which forms the essence of SVMs. Further, the classified events from both the classes were picked up and linear regressions were plotted to determine the relationship between wavelet coefficient magnitude and earthquake magnitude, which in turn helped us to estimate the earthquake magnitude of an event given its threshold wavelet coefficient. At wavelet scale number 7, we predicted the earthquake magnitude of an event within 2.7 seconds. This means that a magnitude determination is available within 2.7 s after the initial onset of the P-wave. These results shed light on the application of SVM as a way to choose the optimal regression function to estimate the magnitude from a few seconds of an incoming seismogram. This would improve the approaches from Simons et al. (2006) which use an average of the two regression functions to estimate the magnitude.

  11. Mobile Inquiry Based Learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Specht, Marcus


    Specht, M. (2012, 8 November). Mobile Inquiry Based Learning. Presentation given at the Workshop "Mobile inquiry-based learning" at the Mobile Learning Day 2012 at the Fernuniversität Hagen, Hagen, Germany.

  12. TSA Public Inquiry Data (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — All non-media public inquiries and complaints and responses to inquiries received by telephone, e-mail and fax, and handles contacts in English and Spanish. The data...

  13. Teaching Science through Inquiry (United States)

    Wilcox, Jesse; Kruse, Jerrid W.; Clough, Michael P.


    Science education efforts have long emphasized inquiry, and inquiry and scientific practices are prominent in contemporary science education reform documents (NRC 1996; NGSS Lead States 2013). However, inquiry has not become commonplace in science teaching, in part because of misunderstandings regarding what it means and entails (Demir and Abell…

  14. Personal Inquiry Manager

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Suarez, Angel; Ternier, Stefaan; Specht, Marcus


    The Personal Inquiry Manager (PIM) is an integration approach based on a mobile application, based on Android, to support the IBL process and gives users mobile access to their inquiries. Moreover it facilitates a more self-directed approach as it enables to set up their own personal inquiries. The

  15. Automated recognition of quasi-planar ignimbrite sheets and paleo-surfaces via robust segmentation of DTM - examples from the Western Cordillera of the Central Andes (United States)

    Székely, B.; Karátson, D.; Koma, Zs.; Dorninger, P.; Wörner, G.; Brandmeier, M.; Nothegger, C.


    The Western slope of the Central Andes between 22° and 17°S is characterized by large, quasi-planar landforms with tilted ignimbrite surfaces and overlying younger sedimentary deposits (e.g. Nazca, Oxaya, Huaylillas ignimbrites). These surfaces were only modified by tectonic uplift and tilting of the Western Cordillera preserving minor now fossilized drainage systems. Several deep, canyons started to form from about 5 Ma ago. Due to tectonic oversteepening in a arid region of very low erosion rates, gravitational collapses and landslides additionally modified the Andean slope and valley flanks. Large areas of fossil surfaces, however, remain. The age of these surfaces has been dated between 11 Ma and 25 Ma at elevations of 3500 m in the Precordillera and at c. 1000 m near the coast. Due to their excellent preservation, our aim is to identify, delineate, and reconstruct these original ignimbrite and sediment surfaces via a sophisticated evaluation of SRTM DEMs. The technique we use here is a robust morphological segmentation method that is insensitive to a certain amount of outliers, even if they are spatially correlated. This paves the way to identify common local planar features and combine these into larger areas of a particular surface segment. Erosional dissection and faulting, tilting and folding define subdomains, and thus the original quasi-planar surfaces are modified. Additional processes may create younger surfaces, such as sedimentary floodplains and salt pans. The procedure is tuned to provide a distinction of these features. The technique is based on the evaluation of local normal vectors (perpendicular to the actual surface) that are obtained by determination of locally fitting planes. Then, this initial set of normal vectors are gradually classified into groups with similar properties providing candidate point clouds that are quasi co-planar. The quasi co-planar sets of points are analysed further against other criteria, such as number of minimum

  16. The application of the central limit theorem and the law of large numbers to facial soft tissue depths: T-Table robustness and trends since 2008. (United States)

    Stephan, Carl N


    By pooling independent study means (x¯), the T-Tables use the central limit theorem and law of large numbers to average out study-specific sampling bias and instrument errors and, in turn, triangulate upon human population means (μ). Since their first publication in 2008, new data from >2660 adults have been collected (c.30% of the original sample) making a review of the T-Table's robustness timely. Updated grand means show that the new data have negligible impact on the previously published statistics: maximum change = 1.7 mm at gonion; and ≤1 mm at 93% of all landmarks measured. This confirms the utility of the 2008 T-Table as a proxy to soft tissue depth population means and, together with updated sample sizes (8851 individuals at pogonion), earmarks the 2013 T-Table as the premier mean facial soft tissue depth standard for craniofacial identification casework. The utility of the T-Table, in comparison with shorths and 75-shormaxes, is also discussed. © 2013 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  17. Robustness and sensitivities of central U.S. summer convection in the super-parameterized CAM: Multi-model intercomparison with a new regional EOF index (United States)

    Kooperman, Gabriel J.; Pritchard, Michael S.; Somerville, Richard C. J.


    Mesoscale convective systems (MCSs) can bring up to 60% of summer rainfall to the central United States but are not simulated by most global climate models. In this study, a new empirical orthogonal function based index is developed to isolate the MCS activity, similar to that developed by Wheeler and Hendon (2004) for the Madden-Julian Oscillation. The index is applied to compactly compare three conventional- and super-parameterized (SP) versions (3.0, 3.5, and 5.0) of the National Center for Atmospheric Research Community Atmosphere Model (CAM). Results show that nocturnal, eastward propagating convection is a robust effect of super-parameterization but is sensitive to its specific implementation. MCS composites based on the index show that in SP-CAM3.5, convective MCS anomalies are unrealistically large scale and concentrated, while surface precipitation is too weak. These aspects of the MCS signal are improved in the latest version (SP-CAM5.0), which uses high-order microphysics.

  18. The Relationship in Biology between the Nature of Science and Scientific Inquiry (United States)

    Kremer, Kerstin; Specht, Christiane; Urhahne, Detlef; Mayer, Jürgen


    Informed understandings of nature of science and scientific inquiry are generally accepted goals of biology education. This article points out central features of scientific inquiry with relation to biology and the nature of science in general terms and focuses on the relationship of students' inquiry skills in biology and their beliefs on the…

  19. Inquiries and technological assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    The authors examine six Canadian inquiries to determine their values as scientific assessments, their ability to combine scientific data with policy considerations, and their effectiveness in extending public debate on scientific issues. Among the inquiries examined are the environmental assessment hearings into the Point Lepreau nuclear generating station, the Bayda inquiry into the Cluff Lake uranium mine, and the Porter commission on electric power planning in Ontario

  20. Inquiry in Limnology Lessons (United States)

    Variano, Evan; Taylor, Karen


    Inquiry can be implemented in various ways, ranging from simple classroom discussions to longterm research projects. In this article, the authors developed a project in which high school students were introduced to the nature and process of scientific discovery through a two-week guided inquiry unit on "limnology"--the study of fresh water, which…

  1. Orchestrating Inquiry Learning (United States)

    Littleton, Karen, Ed.; Scanlon, Eileen, Ed.; Sharples, Mike, Ed.


    There is currently a rapidly growing interest in inquiry learning and an emerging consensus among researchers that, particularly when supported by technology, it can be a significant vehicle for developing higher order thinking skills. Inquiry learning methods also offer learners meaningful and productive approaches to the development of their…

  2. Robustness Envelopes of Networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trajanovski, S.; Martín-Hernández, J.; Winterbach, W.; Van Mieghem, P.


    We study the robustness of networks under node removal, considering random node failure, as well as targeted node attacks based on network centrality measures. Whilst both of these have been studied in the literature, existing approaches tend to study random failure in terms of average-case


    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duvander, Mille Themsen


    I blogindlægget gives en lille indblik i hvordan Appreciative Inquiry kan anvendes i undervisningen af pædagogstuderende på en Professionshøjskole i Danmark......I blogindlægget gives en lille indblik i hvordan Appreciative Inquiry kan anvendes i undervisningen af pædagogstuderende på en Professionshøjskole i Danmark...

  4. Participant observation, anthropology methodology and design anthropology research inquiry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gunn, Wendy; Buch Løgstrup, Louise


    of practice. They do so by combining participant observation, anthropology methodology and design anthropology research inquiry engaging with practice based explorations to understand if methods and methodologies, understood as being central to anthropological inquiry, can be taught to interaction design...... engineering students studying in an engineering faculty and engineers working in an energy company. They ask how do you generate anthropological capacities with interaction design engineering students engaged in engineering design processes and employees of an energy company setting out to reframe...... their relation with the private end user? What kind of ways can engaging within collaborative processes of designing offer opportunities for both designing and anthropological research inquiry simultaneously?...

  5. Robust Scientists

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gorm Hansen, Birgitte

    their core i nterests, 2) developing a selfsupply of industry interests by becoming entrepreneurs and thus creating their own compliant industry partner and 3) balancing resources within a larger collective of researchers, thus countering changes in the influx of funding caused by shifts in political...... knowledge", Danish research policy seems to have helped develop politically and economically "robust scientists". Scientific robustness is acquired by way of three strategies: 1) tasting and discriminating between resources so as to avoid funding that erodes academic profiles and push scientists away from...

  6. Pragmatic inquiry and creativity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gimmler, Antje

    ’Don’t block the road of inquiry” was the motto of Peirce and also Dewey situated inquiry in its ideal version in a democratic and cooperative community. Abduction became the key concept for the pragmatic and creative research process where the lonely engineer is substituted with intelligent...... collaborations of the many. Thus, inquiry is from a pragmatic understanding rather a social than a purely cognitive task. The paper will firstly give a sketch of this understanding of inquiry and creativity on the background of the theories of Peirce and Dewey and will draw some parallels to recent...... of Thevenot’s critical pragmatism this understanding might be naïve – not because this is an idealistic rather than a real-life scenario but because the idea of collaborative creativity and self-realization has actually become the driving force in a marked dominated organization of science and production...

  7. Nuclear energy inquiries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robertson, J.A.L.


    Our choice of energy sources has important consequences for the economy and the environment. Nuclear energy is a controversial energy source, subject to much public debate. Most individuals find it difficult to decide between conflicting claims and allegations in a variety of technical subjects. Under these circumstances, knowledge of various relevant inquiries can be helpful. This publication summarizes the composition and major findings of more than thirty nuclear energy inquiries. Most of the these are Canadian, but others are included where they have relevance. The survey shows that, contrary to some claims, virtually every aspect of nuclear energy has been subject to detailed scrutiny. The inquiries' reports include many recommendations on how nuclear energy can be exploited safely, but none rejects it as an acceptable energy source when needed. (Author) 38 refs

  8. Primary Sources and Inquiry Learning (United States)

    Pappas, Marjorie L.


    In this article, the author discusses inquiry learning and primary sources. Inquiry learning puts students in the active role of investigators. Questioning, authentic and active learning, and interactivity are a few of the characteristics of inquiry learning that put the teacher and library media specialist in the role of coaches while students…

  9. The 5E Instructional Model: A Learning Cycle Approach for Inquiry-Based Science Teaching (United States)

    Duran, Lena Ballone; Duran, Emilio


    The implementation of inquiry-based teaching is a major theme in national science education reform documents such as "Project 2061: Science for All Americans" (Rutherford & Alhgren, 1990) and the "National Science Education Standards" (NRC, 1996). These reports argue that inquiry needs to be a central strategy of all…

  10. "Swimming in the Swamp"--Inquiry into Accreditation, Community Development, and Social Change (United States)

    Fitzsimons, Camilla; Dorman, Peter


    Drawing from extensive experience as community educators, this paper discusses accreditation and its relationship to community development as informed by a cooperative inquiry conducted by tutors. Beginning with our rationale for undertaking the inquiry, it details our approach to community development and the centrality of education within this.…

  11. An Investigation of Teacher Impact on Student Inquiry Science Performance Using a Hierarchical Linear Model (United States)

    Liu, Ou Lydia; Lee, Hee-Sun; Linn, Marcia C.


    Teachers play a central role in inquiry science classrooms. In this study, we investigate how seven teacher variables (i.e., gender, experience, perceived importance of inquiry and traditional teaching, workshop attendance, partner teacher, use of technology) affect student knowledge integration understanding of science topics drawing on previous…

  12. An analysis of the Sizewell B inquiry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)



    The public inquiry into the Central Electricity Generating Board's application to build the first PWR reactor in the United Kingdom (at Sizewell) ranged beyond that particular issue to a more general investigation of the desirability of promoting nuclear power generally. The CEGB's case is presented briefly. The four main arguments are security of electricity supply, diversity of supply, the benefits of PWRs as opposed to AGRs and cost savings. This latter was important to justify not only the need case, but the economic case for Sizewell-B. The economic case included five computed scenarios over a range of the proposed station's capital, fuel and related operating costs, set against three 'no-nuclear', 'medium nuclear' or 'high nuclear' backgrounds. The CEGB figures are compared with those from objectors. The main arguments are outlined. Other political and technical arguments were not examined in depth by the Inquiry. (UK)

  13. On comparative inquiry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moutsios, Stavros

    of self‐reflexivity and self-questioning in the Greek polis gave also rise to the genuine interest in the institutions of the cultural ‘other’. Impartiality in the study of the others’ institutions started in Greece and it was closely associated with the signification that physis (nature) should......The paper explores the origins of comparative studies, which as it argues are located in Ancient Greece. Greece is not only the place where the school was born, but it is also there where the interest in and inquiry of the institutions of other societies, including education, emerged. The rise...... to know better their own society through comparison. Cross-cultural examination in this regard informed further the Greeks’ self-reflexivity. By going through a set of historical sources and contemporary literature, the paper will elaborate on the emergence of cross-cultural and comparative inquiry...

  14. Introducing citizen inquiry


    Herodotou, Christothea; Sharples, Mike; Scanlon, Eileen


    The term ‘citizen inquiry’ was coined to describe ways that members of the public can learn by initiating or joining shared inquiry-led scientific investigations (Sharples et al., 2013). It merges learning through scientific investigation with mass collaborative participation exemplified in citizen science activities, altering the relationship most people have with research from being passive recipients to becoming actively engaged, and the relationship between scholarship and public understa...

  15. The contribution of formative assessment and self-efficacy to inquiry learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dolin, Jens; Evans, Robert Harry


    This chapter suggests the use of formative assessment in inquiry lessons as a helpful source of positive personal capacity beliefs for both teachers and students. The challenge most commonly experienced when first using inquiry learning methods is that pupils and even teachers become uncertain...... of their abilities to use inquiry and ‘give-up’ on it. With the use of formative assessment combined with conscious efforts to increase self-efficacy among students, teachers can help provide students with the confidence and motivation to engage in inquiry methods. Such student engagement can in-turn affirm teachers......’ inquiry teaching efforts and raise the likelihood that they will continue to improve them. We see inquiry methods as the motor for changing teacher practice and formative assessment methods combined with capacity beliefs as the fuel that keeps the motor running. The central position of the chapter is how...

  16. Robustness of airline route networks (United States)

    Lordan, Oriol; Sallan, Jose M.; Escorihuela, Nuria; Gonzalez-Prieto, David


    Airlines shape their route network by defining their routes through supply and demand considerations, paying little attention to network performance indicators, such as network robustness. However, the collapse of an airline network can produce high financial costs for the airline and all its geographical area of influence. The aim of this study is to analyze the topology and robustness of the network route of airlines following Low Cost Carriers (LCCs) and Full Service Carriers (FSCs) business models. Results show that FSC hubs are more central than LCC bases in their route network. As a result, LCC route networks are more robust than FSC networks.

  17. Fully Automated Robust System to Detect Retinal Edema, Central Serous Chorioretinopathy, and Age Related Macular Degeneration from Optical Coherence Tomography Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samina Khalid


    Full Text Available Maculopathy is the excessive damage to macula that leads to blindness. It mostly occurs due to retinal edema (RE, central serous chorioretinopathy (CSCR, or age related macular degeneration (ARMD. Optical coherence tomography (OCT imaging is the latest eye testing technique that can detect these syndromes in early stages. Many researchers have used OCT images to detect retinal abnormalities. However, to the best of our knowledge, no research that presents a fully automated system to detect all of these macular syndromes is reported. This paper presents the world’s first ever decision support system to automatically detect RE, CSCR, and ARMD retinal pathologies and healthy retina from OCT images. The automated disease diagnosis in our proposed system is based on multilayered support vector machines (SVM classifier trained on 40 labeled OCT scans (10 healthy, 10 RE, 10 CSCR, and 10 ARMD. After training, SVM forms an accurate decision about the type of retinal pathology using 9 extracted features. We have tested our proposed system on 2819 OCT scans (1437 healthy, 640 RE, and 742 CSCR of 502 patients from two different datasets and our proposed system correctly diagnosed 2817/2819 subjects with the accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity ratings of 99.92%, 100%, and 99.86%, respectively.

  18. Elementary Teacher's Conceptions of Inquiry Teaching: Messages for Teacher Development (United States)

    Ireland, Joseph E.; Watters, James J.; Brownlee, Jo; Lupton, Mandy


    This study explored practicing elementary school teacher's conceptions of teaching in ways that foster inquiry-based learning in the science curriculum (inquiry teaching). The advocacy for inquiry-based learning in contemporary curricula assumes the principle that students learn in their own way by drawing on direct experience fostered by the teacher. That students should be able to discover answers themselves through active engagement with new experiences was central to the thinking of eminent educators such as Pestalozzi, Dewey and Montessori. However, even after many years of research and practice, inquiry learning as a referent for teaching still struggles to find expression in the average teachers' pedagogy. This study drew on interview data from 20 elementary teachers. A phenomenographic analysis revealed three conceptions of teaching for inquiry learning in science in the elementary years of schooling: (a) The Experience-centered conception where teachers focused on providing interesting sensory experiences to students; (b) The Problem-centered conception where teachers focused on engaging students with challenging problems; and (c) The Question-centered conception where teachers focused on helping students to ask and answer their own questions. Understanding teachers' conceptions has implications for both the enactment of inquiry teaching in the classroom as well as the uptake of new teaching behaviors during professional development, with enhanced outcomes for engaging students in Science.

  19. Learning by doing? Prospective elementary teachers' developing understandings of scientific inquiry and science teaching and learning (United States)

    Haefner, Leigh Ann; Zembal-Saul, Carla

    This study examined prospective elementary teachers' learning about scientific inquiry in the context of an innovative life science course. Research questions included: (1) What do prospective elementary teachers learn about scientific inquiry within the context of the course? and (2) In what ways do their experiences engaging in science investigations and teaching inquiry-oriented science influence prospective elementary teachers' understanding of science and science learning and teaching? Eleven prospective elementary teachers participated in this qualitative, multi-participant case study. Constant comparative analysis strategies attempted to build abstractions and explanations across participants around the constructs of the study. Findings suggest that engaging in scientific inquiry supported the development more appropriate understandings of science and scientific inquiry, and that prospective teachers became more accepting of approaches to teaching science that encourage children's questions about science phenomena. Implications include careful consideration of learning experiences crafted for prospective elementary teachers to support the development of robust subject matter knowledge.

  20. Learning mathematics through inquiry; a large scale evaluation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, Anthonius J.M.; Hendrikse, Petra; van der Meij, Hans; Jacobson, M.J.; Reiman, P.


    Mathematics education is changing from a procedure-oriented approach to one in which concepts and their relations take a central place. Inquiry environments offer students the opportunity to investigate a domain and to focus on conceptual aspects. In this chapter, we describe a learning arrangement

  1. Personal Inquiry: Orchestrating Science Investigations within and beyond the Classroom (United States)

    Sharples, Mike; Scanlon, Eileen; Ainsworth, Shaaron; Anastopoulou, Stamatina; Collins, Trevor; Crook, Charles; Jones, Ann; Kerawalla, Lucinda; Littleton, Karen; Mulholland, Paul; O'Malley, Claire


    A central challenge for science educators is to enable young people to act as scientists by gathering and assessing evidence, conducting experiments, and engaging in informed debate. We report the design of the nQuire toolkit, a system to support scripted personal inquiry learning, and a study of its use with school students ages 11-14. This…

  2. Computational Inquiry in Introductory Statistics (United States)

    Toews, Carl


    Inquiry-based pedagogies have a strong presence in proof-based undergraduate mathematics courses, but can be difficult to implement in courses that are large, procedural, or highly computational. An introductory course in statistics would thus seem an unlikely candidate for an inquiry-based approach, as these courses typically steer well clear of…

  3. Inquiry and Digital Learning Centers (United States)

    Pappas, Marjorie L.


    "Inquiry is an investigative process that engages students in answering questions, solving real world problems, confronting issues, or exploring personal interests" (Pappas and Tepe 2002, 27). Students who engage in inquiry learning need tools and resources that enable them to independently gather and use information. Scaffolding is important for…

  4. The nuclear inquiry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clement, K.J.


    Opposition to nuclear energy facilities has increased considerably in Scotland and Germany within the past two decades. The statutory institutions which exist in each country to consider formal objections to such developments have important differences, as do the licensing or planning processes of which they form an integral part. In Britain, the initiation of judicial review following public inquiries is very rare, due to the limited grounds within which this would be possible. By contrast, there has been a very high referral of nuclear power station decisions to the administrative courts in Germany, but the number is now declining as cases are invariably found in favour of the developers. The comparative examination of case studies reveals that objectors' interests may best be served, in terms of achieving policy influence, by acting outside the restrictions of the statutory planning and legal systems. The Scottish public inquiry is revealed as the more flexible institution and one which allows a much greater degree of public participation. (author)

  5. Essays on robust asset pricing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horváth, Ferenc


    The central concept of this doctoral dissertation is robustness. I analyze how model and parameter uncertainty affect financial decisions of investors and fund managers, and what their equilibrium consequences are. Chapter 1 gives an overview of the most important concepts and methodologies used in

  6. Sizewell B: the anatomy of an inquiry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Riordan, T.; Kemp, R.; Purdue, M.


    The Economic and Social Research Council has studied four major environmental public inquiries, including Sizewell-B. This report summarizes some of the observations of the Sizewell Inquiry Review Project which has been analyzing the context, content and conduct of the Sizewell-B Inquiry. Although public inquiries in Britain have an important function in building public trust in planning decisions where opinions are divided and independent advice is needed, one outcome of the Sizewell-B Inquiry may be a streamlining of the inquiry process, eg by prior examination of policy matters, leaving the Inquiry to consider specifically site-related matters only. (UK)

  7. Writing as collaborative inquiry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frølunde, Lisbeth; Pedersen, Christina Hee; Novak, Martin


    involved in collaborative knowledge production across difference (including age, professional position, life situation, nation). We tell about our experiences with how collaboration can lead toward re-invention of our research practices and methods, as well as our own subjectivities, through involvement......In our presentation we strive to disturb and unravel the romantic discourses of collaboration, dialogue and empowerment in relation to qualitative inquiry. For more than two years we (five Danish and Czech researchers) have been exploring the complex obstructions, difficulties and potentials...... in the not-yet-known. Over the years, we have shared and analyzed personal stories about our collaborative experiences in an on-going reflective learning process. We draw on writing methodologies, including memory-work (Haug, Davies) and collaborative writing such as by Wyatt, Gale, Gannon & Davies. Our...

  8. Design processes of a citizen inquiry community


    Aristeidou, Maria; Scanlon, Eileen; Sharples, Mike


    As with other online communities, it is important to design elements of citizen inquiry projects that will attract and engage members. This chapter describes the process of designing an online community for citizen inquiry. It builds on design principles of inquiry learning, citizen inquiry and other online communities. The ‘Weather-it’ citizen inquiry community is intended to engage and support people in initiating and joining sustainable citizen-led investigations. The findings indicate som...

  9. Inquiry Teaching in Clinical Periodontics. (United States)

    Heins, Paul J.; Mackenzie, Richard S.


    An adaptation of the inquiry method of teaching, which develops skills of information retrieval and reasoning through systematic questioning by the teacher, is proposed for instruction in clinical periodontics. (MSE)

  10. Infusing Authentic Inquiry into Biotechnology (United States)

    Hanegan, Nikki L.; Bigler, Amber


    Societal benefit depends on the general public's understandings of biotechnology (Betsch in World J Microbiol Biotechnol 12:439-443, 1996; Dawson and Cowan in Int J Sci Educ 25(1):57-69, 2003; Schiller in Business Review: Federal Reserve Bank of Philadelphia (Fourth Quarter), 2002; Smith and Emmeluth in Am Biol Teach 64(2):93-99, 2002). A National Science Foundation funded survey of high school biology teachers reported that hands-on biotechnology education exists in advanced high school biology in the United States, but is non-existent in mainstream biology coursework (Micklos et al. in Biotechnology labs in American high schools, 1998). The majority of pre-service teacher content preparation courses do not teach students appropriate content knowledge through the process of inquiry. A broad continuum exists when discussing inquiry-oriented student investigations (Hanegan et al. in School Sci Math J 109(2):110-134, 2009). Depending on the amount of structure in teacher lessons, inquiries can often be categorized as guided or open. The lesson can be further categorized as simple or authentic (Chinn and Malhotra in Sci Educ 86(2):175-218, 2002). Although authentic inquiries provide the best opportunities for cognitive development and scientific reasoning, guided and simple inquiries are more often employed in the classroom (Crawford in J Res Sci Teach 37(9):916-937, 2000; NRC in Inquiry and the national science education standards: a guide for teaching and learning, 2000). For the purposes of this study we defined inquiry as "authentic" if original research problems were resolved (Hanegan et al. in School Sci Math J 109(2):110-134, 2009; Chinn and Malhotra in Sci Educ 86(2):175-218, 2002; Roth in Authentic school science: knowing and learning in open-inquiry science laboratories, 1995). The research question to guide this study through naturalistic inquiry research methods was: How will participants express whether or not an authentic inquiry experience enhanced

  11. Methods for robustness programming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olieman, N.J.


    Robustness of an object is defined as the probability that an object will have properties as required. Robustness Programming (RP) is a mathematical approach for Robustness estimation and Robustness optimisation. An example in the context of designing a food product, is finding the best composition

  12. Robustness in laying hens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Star, L.


    The aim of the project ‘The genetics of robustness in laying hens’ was to investigate nature and regulation of robustness in laying hens under sub-optimal conditions and the possibility to increase robustness by using animal breeding without loss of production. At the start of the project, a robust

  13. Science Inquiry as Knowledge Transformation: Investigating Metacognitive and Self-regulation Strategies to Assist Students in Writing about Scientific Inquiry Tasks (United States)

    Collins, Timothy A.


    Science inquiry is central to the science education reform efforts that began in the early 1990's. It is both a topic of instruction and a process to be experienced. Student engagement in the process of scientific inquiry was the focus of this study. The process of scientific inquiry can be conceived as a two-part task. In the initial part of the task, students identify a question or problem to study and then carry out an investigation to address the issue. In the second part of the task, students analyze their data to propose explanations and then report their findings. Knowing that students struggle with science inquiry tasks, this study sought to investigate ways to help students become more successful with the communication demands of science inquiry tasks. The study took place in a high school chemistry class. Students in this study completed a total of three inquiry tasks over the course of one school year. Students were split into four experimental groups in order to determine the effect of goal setting, metacognitive prompts, and sentence stems on student inquiry tasks. The quality of the student written work was assessed using a scoring rubric familiar to the students. In addition, students were asked at four different times in the school year to respond to a self-efficacy survey that measured student self-efficacy for chemistry content and science inquiry processes. Student self-efficacy for the process of scientific inquiry was positive and did not change over the course of the study while student scores on the science inquiry tasks rose significantly. The metacognitive prompts and instruction in goal setting did not have any effect on student inquiry scores. Results related to the effect of the sentence stems were mixed. An analysis of student work indicated that students who received high marks on their initial inquiry task in this study were the ones that adopted the use of the sentence stems. Students who received low marks on their initial inquiry

  14. Student leadership in small group science inquiry (United States)

    Oliveira, Alandeom W.; Boz, Umit; Broadwell, George A.; Sadler, Troy D.


    Background: Science educators have sought to structure collaborative inquiry learning through the assignment of static group roles. This structural approach to student grouping oversimplifies the complexities of peer collaboration and overlooks the highly dynamic nature of group activity. Purpose: This study addresses this issue of oversimplification of group dynamics by examining the social leadership structures that emerge in small student groups during science inquiry. Sample: Two small student groups investigating the burning of a candle under a jar participated in this study. Design and method: We used a mixed-method research approach that combined computational discourse analysis (computational quantification of social aspects of small group discussions) with microethnography (qualitative, in-depth examination of group discussions). Results: While in one group social leadership was decentralized (i.e., students shared control over topics and tasks), the second group was dominated by a male student (centralized social leadership). Further, decentralized social leadership was found to be paralleled by higher levels of student cognitive engagement. Conclusions: It is argued that computational discourse analysis can provide science educators with a powerful means of developing pedagogical models of collaborative science learning that take into account the emergent nature of group structures and highly fluid nature of student collaboration.

  15. College science teachers' views of classroom inquiry (United States)

    Brown, Patrick L.; Abell, Sandra K.; Demir, Abdulkadir; Schmidt, Francis J.


    The purposes of this study were to (a) gain an understanding of the views of inquiry held by faculty members involved in undergraduate science teaching and (b) describe the challenges, constraints, and opportunities that they perceived in designing and teaching inquiry-based laboratories. Participants included 19 college professors, representing both life and physical science disciplines, from (a) 2-year community college, (b) small, private nonprofit liberal arts college, (c) public master's granting university, and (d) public doctoral/research extensive university. We collected data through semistructured interviews and applied an iterative data analysis process. College science faculty members held a full and open inquiry view, seeing classroom inquiry as time consuming, unstructured, and student directed. They believed that inquiry was more appropriate for upper level science majors than for introductory or nonscience majors. Although faculty members valued inquiry, they perceived limitations of time, class size, student motivation, and student ability. These limitations, coupled with their view of inquiry, constrained them from implementing inquiry-based laboratories. Our proposed inquiry continuum represents a broader view of inquiry that recognizes the interaction between two dimensions of inquiry: (a) the degree of inquiry and (b) the level of student directedness, and provides for a range of inquiry-based classroom activities.

  16. Curriculum Design for Inquiry: Preservice Elementary Teachers' Mobilization and Adaptation of Science Curriculum Materials (United States)

    Forbes, Cory T.; Davis, Elizabeth A.


    Curriculum materials are crucial tools with which teachers engage students in science as inquiry. In order to use curriculum materials effectively, however, teachers must develop a robust capacity for pedagogical design, or the ability to mobilize a variety of personal and curricular resources to promote student learning. The purpose of this study…

  17. An Interdisciplinary Guided Inquiry Laboratory for First Year Undergraduate Forensic Science Students (United States)

    Cresswell, Sarah L.; Loughlin, Wendy A.


    An effective guided inquiry forensic case study (a pharmacy break-in) is described for first-year students. Four robust introductory forensic chemistry and biology experiments are used to analyze potential drug samples and determine the identity of a possible suspect. Students perform presumptive tests for blood on a "point of entry…

  18. Student Inquiry in the Research Process: Part I: Inquiry Research Basics. (United States)

    Preddy, Leslie B.


    Discusses the appropriate use of inquiry among students, teachers, and library media specialists. Topics include planning for an inquiry research project; collaboration between the library media specialist and classroom teacher; national goals, standards, and best practices; teacher roles for inquiry; and evaluating inquiry research. (LRW)

  19. Inquiry-based science education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Lars Domino; Sillasen, Martin Krabbe; Hagelskjær, Jens


    Inquiry-based science education (IBSE) er en internationalt afprøvet naturfagsdidaktisk metode der har til formål at øge elevernes interesse for og udbytte af naturfag. I artiklen redegøres der for metoden, der kan betegnes som en elevstyret problem- og undersøgelsesbaseret naturfagsundervisnings......Inquiry-based science education (IBSE) er en internationalt afprøvet naturfagsdidaktisk metode der har til formål at øge elevernes interesse for og udbytte af naturfag. I artiklen redegøres der for metoden, der kan betegnes som en elevstyret problem- og undersøgelsesbaseret...

  20. Strategies of Qualitative Inquiry. Third Edition (United States)

    Denzin, Norman K., Ed.; Lincoln, Yvonna S., Ed.


    "Strategies of Qualitative Inquiry, Third Edition," the second volume in the paperback version of "The SAGE Handbook of Qualitative Research, 3rd Edition," consists of Part III of the handbook ("Strategies of Inquiry"). "Strategies of Qualitative Inquiry, Third Edition" presents the major tactics--historically, the research methods--that…

  1. Questions, Curiosity and the Inquiry Cycle (United States)

    Casey, Leo


    This article discusses the conceptual relationship between questions, curiosity and learning as inquiry elaborated in the work of Chip Bruce and others as the Inquiry Cycle. The Inquiry Cycle describes learning in terms of a continuous dynamic of ask, investigate, create, discuss and reflect. Of these elements "ask" has a privileged…

  2. Multiple Modes of Inquiry in Earth Science (United States)

    Kastens, Kim A.; Rivet, Ann


    To help teachers enrich their students' understanding of inquiry in Earth science, this article describes six modes of inquiry used by practicing geoscientists (Earth scientists). Each mode of inquiry is illustrated by using examples of seminal or pioneering research and provides pointers to investigations that enable students to experience these…

  3. Talking Science: Developing a Discourse of Inquiry (United States)

    Hackling, Mark; Smith, Pru; Murcia, Karen


    A key principle of inquiry-based science education is that the process of inquiry must include opportunities for the exploration of questions and ideas, as well as reasoning with ideas and evidence. Teaching and learning Science therefore involves teachers managing a discourse that supports inquiry and students engaging in talk that facilitates…

  4. 10 CFR 1022.6 - Public inquiries. (United States)


    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Public inquiries. 1022.6 Section 1022.6 Energy DEPARTMENT... REQUIREMENTS General § 1022.6 Public inquiries. Inquiries regarding DOE's floodplain and wetland environmental... at 1-800-472-2756, toll free. ...

  5. Dealing with the Ambiguities of Science Inquiry (United States)

    Tan, Yuen Sze Michelle; Caleon, Imelda Santos


    The current vision of science education in myriad educational contexts encourages students to learn through the process of science inquiry. Science inquiry has been used to promote conceptual learning and engage learners in an active process of meaning-making and investigation to understand the world around them. The science inquiry process…

  6. Perceptual Robust Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Søren Nygaard

    The research presented in this PhD thesis has focused on a perceptual approach to robust design. The results of the research and the original contribution to knowledge is a preliminary framework for understanding, positioning, and applying perceptual robust design. Product quality is a topic...... been presented. Therefore, this study set out to contribute to the understanding and application of perceptual robust design. To achieve this, a state-of-the-art and current practice review was performed. From the review two main research problems were identified. Firstly, a lack of tools...... for perceptual robustness was found to overlap with the optimum for functional robustness and at most approximately 2.2% out of the 14.74% could be ascribed solely to the perceptual robustness optimisation. In conclusion, the thesis have offered a new perspective on robust design by merging robust design...

  7. Exploring the meaning of practicing classroom inquiry from the perspectives of National Board Certified Science Teachers (United States)

    Karaman, Ayhan

    Inquiry has been one of the most prominent terms of the contemporary science education reform movement (Buck, Latta, & Leslie-Pelecky, 2007; Colburn, 2006; Settlage, 2007). Practicing classroom inquiry has maintained its central position in science education for several decades because science education reform documents promote classroom inquiry as the potential savior of science education from its current problems. Likewise, having the capabilities of teaching science through inquiry has been considered by National Board for Professional Teaching Standards [NBPTS] as one of the essential elements of being an accomplished science teacher. Successful completion of National Board Certification [NBC] assessment process involves presenting a clear evidence of enacting inquiry with students. Despite the high-profile of the word inquiry in the reform documents, the same is not true in schools (Crawford, 2007). Most of the science teachers do not embrace this type of approach in their everyday teaching practices of science (Johnson, 2006; Luera, Moyer, & Everett, 2005; Smolleck, Zembal-Saul, & Yoder, 2006; Trumbull, Scarano, & Bonney, 2006). And the specific meanings attributed to inquiry by science teachers do not necessarily match with the original intentions of science education reform documents (Matson & Parsons, 2006; Wheeler, 2000; Windschitl, 2003). Unveiling the various meanings held by science teachers is important in developing better strategies for the future success of science education reform efforts (Jones & Eick, 2007; Keys & Bryan, 2001). Due to the potential influences of National Board Certified Science Teachers [NBCSTs] on inexperienced science teachers as their mentors, examining inquiry conceptions of NBCSTs is called for. How do these accomplished practitioners understand and enact inquiry? The purpose of this dissertation research study was twofold. First, it investigated the role of NBC performance assessment process on the professional development

  8. How is the Inquiry Skills of Biology Preservice Teachers in Biotechnology Lecture? (United States)

    Hayat, M. S.; Rustaman, N. Y.


    This study was to investigate the inquiry skills of biology pre-service teachers in one teachers college in Central Java in biotechnology lecture. The method used is a case study of 29 biology preservice teacher. Data were collected using observation sheets, questionnaires, and interview guidelines. Research findings collected through questionnaires show that most students are accustomed to asking questions and formulating biotechnology issues; Skilled in conducting experiments; Skilled in obtaining relevant information from various sources; As well as skilled at processing, analyzing and interpreting data. Based on observation: lectures are not dominated by lecturers, students are able to solve problems encountered and conduct investigations. Based on the interview towards lecturers: students are always actively involved in questioning, investigation, inquiry, problem solving and experimenting in lectures. Why do most students show good inquiry skills? Because students are accustomed to invited inquiry in biology lectures. The impact, the students become more ready to be invited to do more advanced inquiry, such as real-world application inquiry, because the skill of inquiry is essentially trained.

  9. Investigating Teachers' Beliefs in the Implementation of Science Inquiry and Science Fair in Three Boston High Schools (United States)

    De Barros Miller, Anne Marie

    In previous decades, inquiry has been the focus of science education reform in the United States. This study sought to investigate how teachers' beliefs affect their implementation of inquiry science and science fair. It was hypothesized that science teachers' beliefs about inquiry science and science fair are predictive of their implementation of such strategies. A case study approach and semi-structured interviews were employed to collect the data, and an original thematic approach was created to analyze the data. Findings seem to suggest that science teachers who embrace science inquiry and science fair believe these practices enhance students' performance, facilitate their learning experience, and allow them to take ownership of their learning. However, results also suggest that teachers who do not fully embrace inquiry science as a central teaching strategy tend to believe that it is not aligned with standardized tests and requires higher cognitive skills from students. Overall, the study seems to indicate that when inquiry is presented as a prescribed teaching approach, this elicits strong negative feelings/attitudes amongst science teachers, leading them not only to resist inquiry as a teaching tool, but also dissuading them from participating in science fair. Additionally, the findings suggest that such feelings among teachers could place the school at risk of not implementing inquiry science and science fair. In conclusion, the study reveals that science inquiry and science fair should not be prescribed to teachers as a top-down, mandatory approach for teaching science. In addition, the findings suggest that adequate teacher training in content knowledge and pedagogy in science inquiry and science fair should be encouraged, as this could help build a culture of science inquiry and implementation amongst teachers. This should go hand-in-hand with offering mentoring to science teachers new to inquiry and science fair for 2-5 years.

  10. Portfolios: A Vehicle for Inquiry. (United States)

    McMackin, Mary C.

    By blending elements of inquiry with the components of portfolios, learning and thinking in teacher preparation courses can be extended and possible tensions between "covering content" and allowing "open-ended investigation" can be mitigated. Over the years, the author mused about how she might nudge graduate students in her…

  11. Taking on Inquiry in Iowa (United States)

    Carruthers, Cheryl; Lampe, Karen


    Over the last year, "School Library Monthly" ("SLM") has challenged school librarians to "nudge toward inquiry" through the "SLM" blog-driven submissions compiled by Kristin Fontichiaro. Iowa took up the challenge! This article describes how teacher librarians across Iowa teamed with classroom teachers to…

  12. Collaborative Inquiry-based Learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Suarez, Angel


    This thesis presents the results of the conducted research and development of applications to support collaborative inquiry-based learning, with a special focus on leveraging learners’ agency. The reported results are structured into three parts: the theoretical foundations, the design and

  13. Critical Quantitative Inquiry in Context (United States)

    Stage, Frances K.; Wells, Ryan S.


    This chapter briefly traces the development of the concept of critical quantitative inquiry, provides an expanded conceptualization of the tasks of critical quantitative research, offers theoretical explanation and justification for critical research using quantitative methods, and previews the work of quantitative criticalists presented in this…

  14. Remote file inquiry (RFI) system (United States)


    System interrogates and maintains user-definable data files from remote terminals, using English-like, free-form query language easily learned by persons not proficient in computer programming. System operates in asynchronous mode, allowing any number of inquiries within limitation of available core to be active concurrently.

  15. The Structure of Historical Inquiry (United States)

    Retz, Tyson


    History educators find themselves in the peculiar situation of wishing to introduce students to the history discipline while lacking a clear conception of the features intrinsic to historical inquiry across its various specialisations and subject matters. In affirming that no one methodological charter hangs in the corridors of academic history…

  16. Approaches to Inquiry Teaching: Elementary teacher's perspectives (United States)

    Ireland, Joseph; Watters, James J.; Lunn Brownlee, J.; Lupton, Mandy


    Learning science through the process of inquiry is advocated in curriculum documents across many jurisdictions. However, a number of studies suggest that teachers struggle to help students engage in inquiry practices. This is not surprising as many teachers of science have not engaged in scientific inquiry and possibly hold naïve ideas about what constitutes scientific inquiry. This study investigates teachers' self-reported approaches to teaching science through inquiry. Phenomenographic interviews undertaken with 20 elementary teachers revealed teachers identified six approaches to teaching for inquiry, clustered within three categories. These approaches were categorized as Free and Illustrated Inquiries as part of an Experience-centered category, Solution and Method Inquiries as part of a Problem-centered category, and Topic and Chaperoned Inquiries as part of a Question-centered category. This study contributes to our theoretical understanding of how teachers approach Inquiry Teaching and suggests fertile areas of future research into this valued and influential phenomenon broadly known as 'Inquiry Teaching'.

  17. Preservice teachers working with narrative inquiry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daugbjerg, Peer

    Application of inquiry in teacher education is gaining momentum. Inquiry is used to build connections with the local community (Nicholas, Baker-Sennett, McClanahan, & Harwood, 2012), student-centered inquiry is used as a curricular model (Oliver et al., 2015), inquiry is used to accentuate......’-module is a 6 week full-time study including a 2 weeks stay at a youth folk high school, where the teacher students are to focus on a self-determined element of the praxis. The students are to study this focus through narrative inquiry based on the North-American tradition within narrative inquiry (Clandinin....... Aarhus; Kbh.: Klim; i samarbejde med Folkehøjskolernes Forening. Salerno, A. S., & Kibler, A. K. (2015). Questions they ask: Considering teacher-inquiry questions posed by pre-service english teachers. Educational Action Research, 23(3), 399-415....

  18. Robust velocity and load control of a steam turbine in a combined cycle thermoelectric power station; Control robusto de velocidad y carga de una turbina de vapor en una central termoelectrica de ciclo combinado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reyes Archundia, Enrique


    This research work is oriented to design, develop and validate an algorithm of modern control, that allows obtaining better performances in the control of speed of a steam turbine pertaining to a combined cycle thermoelectric power station, in all the operation interval, as well as obtaining better performances in the control of the amount of generated megawatts by the same when it is connected to an electric power generator, comparing the performance with the one obtained by means of the existing conventional controller. The changes in the speed reference or load are at the request of the operator and they always occur in incline form, indicating the rapidity with which it is desired to carry out the change of value in the reference. This is the reason for why the main objective of the control to design is to make a good follow up to references of the incline type. In the subsystem of the existing steam turbine the disadvantage is that the valves that regulate the steam flow to the turbine present a connection with the bypass valve that allows to derive the steam flow towards the main condenser without going through the turbine. It is for this reason that a multi-variable control that contemplates the interaction that occurs among the valves just mentioned, departing from a single variable design. The robust control H{infinity} has the following characteristics that allow it to be applied to the steam turbine process: the design can be made to have two poles in the origin, with which a good follow up to references of incline type is obtained; it allows the uncertainty handling, with which good results in everything are expected an entire operation interval; and it allows the design of multi-variable controllers, with which the existing interaction between the valves of control and bypass is considered. It is very difficult to be able to make tests with the real process, due to the cost and risks that it implies, nevertheless, the developments achieved in the areas

  19. Robustness of Structural Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Canisius, T.D.G.; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard; Baker, J.W.


    The importance of robustness as a property of structural systems has been recognised following several structural failures, such as that at Ronan Point in 1968,where the consequenceswere deemed unacceptable relative to the initiating damage. A variety of research efforts in the past decades have...... attempted to quantify aspects of robustness such as redundancy and identify design principles that can improve robustness. This paper outlines the progress of recent work by the Joint Committee on Structural Safety (JCSS) to develop comprehensive guidance on assessing and providing robustness in structural...... systems. Guidance is provided regarding the assessment of robustness in a framework that considers potential hazards to the system, vulnerability of system components, and failure consequences. Several proposed methods for quantifying robustness are reviewed, and guidelines for robust design...

  20. Robust multivariate analysis

    CERN Document Server

    J Olive, David


    This text presents methods that are robust to the assumption of a multivariate normal distribution or methods that are robust to certain types of outliers. Instead of using exact theory based on the multivariate normal distribution, the simpler and more applicable large sample theory is given.  The text develops among the first practical robust regression and robust multivariate location and dispersion estimators backed by theory.   The robust techniques  are illustrated for methods such as principal component analysis, canonical correlation analysis, and factor analysis.  A simple way to bootstrap confidence regions is also provided. Much of the research on robust multivariate analysis in this book is being published for the first time. The text is suitable for a first course in Multivariate Statistical Analysis or a first course in Robust Statistics. This graduate text is also useful for people who are familiar with the traditional multivariate topics, but want to know more about handling data sets with...

  1. Robust Decentralized Formation Flight Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao Weihua


    Full Text Available Motivated by the idea of multiplexed model predictive control (MMPC, this paper introduces a new framework for unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs formation flight and coordination. Formulated using MMPC approach, the whole centralized formation flight system is considered as a linear periodic system with control inputs of each UAV subsystem as its periodic inputs. Divided into decentralized subsystems, the whole formation flight system is guaranteed stable if proper terminal cost and terminal constraints are added to each decentralized MPC formulation of the UAV subsystem. The decentralized robust MPC formulation for each UAV subsystem with bounded input disturbances and model uncertainties is also presented. Furthermore, an obstacle avoidance control scheme for any shape and size of obstacles, including the nonapriorily known ones, is integrated under the unified MPC framework. The results from simulations demonstrate that the proposed framework can successfully achieve robust collision-free formation flights.

  2. Supporting Collective Inquiry: A Technology Framework for Distributed Learning (United States)

    Tissenbaum, Michael

    This design-based study describes the implementation and evaluation of a technology framework to support smart classrooms and Distributed Technology Enhanced Learning (DTEL) called SAIL Smart Space (S3). S3 is an open-source technology framework designed to support students engaged in inquiry investigations as a knowledge community. To evaluate the effectiveness of S3 as a generalizable technology framework, a curriculum named PLACE (Physics Learning Across Contexts and Environments) was developed to support two grade-11 physics classes (n = 22; n = 23) engaged in a multi-context inquiry curriculum based on the Knowledge Community and Inquiry (KCI) pedagogical model. This dissertation outlines three initial design studies that established a set of design principles for DTEL curricula, and related technology infrastructures. These principles guided the development of PLACE, a twelve-week inquiry curriculum in which students drew upon their community-generated knowledge base as a source of evidence for solving ill-structured physics problems based on the physics of Hollywood movies. During the culminating smart classroom activity, the S3 framework played a central role in orchestrating student activities, including managing the flow of materials and students using real-time data mining and intelligent agents that responded to emergent class patterns. S3 supported students' construction of knowledge through the use individual, collective and collaborative scripts and technologies, including tablets and interactive large-format displays. Aggregate and real-time ambient visualizations helped the teacher act as a wondering facilitator, supporting students in their inquiry where needed. A teacher orchestration tablet gave the teacher some control over the flow of the scripted activities, and alerted him to critical moments for intervention. Analysis focuses on S3's effectiveness in supporting students' inquiry across multiple learning contexts and scales of time, and in

  3. S.I. 1987 No. 2182, The Electricity Generating Stations and Overhead Lines (Inquiries Procedure) Rules 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    These Rules, which came into force on 14 January 1988, make new provision for the procedure for any public inquiry held pursuant to Section 34 of the Electricity Act 1957 in relation to applications for consent to construct or extend a generating station (including nuclear stations). The Rules were made pursuant to Section 11 of the Tribunals and Inquiries Act 1971. They revoke the previous Electricity Generating Stations and Overhead Line (Inquiries Procedures) Rules 1981. These new Rules cover the same topics as the previous Rules but aim to shorten the potential length and thus cost of inquiries. They will apply to the Inquiry to be held into the application by the Central Electricity Generating Board to build a pressurised water reactor at Hinkley Point in Somerset. (NEA) [fr

  4. Qualitative inquiry and the debate between hermeneutics and critical theory. (United States)

    Shaw, James A; DeForge, Ryan T


    Two issues have been central to ongoing disputes about judgments of quality in qualitative inquiry: (a) the ways in which paradigmatic orientations are understood to guide procedural decisions and (b) the meaning and intelligibility of paradigmatic incommensurability. In this article, we address these two key issues through an exploration of the debates between hermeneutics and critical social theory, including the exchanges between Hans-Georg Gadamer and Jurgen Habermas, and between Richard Rorty and Thomas McCarthy. We suggest that the key epistemological issue addressed in these debates is the nature of interpretation, separating the two philosophical camps based on beliefs about whether foundational knowledge is possible to achieve. We conclude the article by discussing the implications of these different positions for beliefs about quality in qualitative inquiry, and comment on the role of judgment in assessments of the value and quality of different approaches to qualitative research. © The Author(s) 2014.

  5. Hinkley Point 'C' power station public inquiry: statement of case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    This Statement of Case contains full particulars of the case which the Central Electricity Generating Board (CEGB) proposes to put forward at the Hinkley Point ''C'' Inquiry. It relates to the planning application made by the CEGB for the construction of a 1200 MW Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) power station at Hinkley Point in the United Kingdom, adjacent to an existing nuclear power station. The inquiry will consider economic, safety, environmental and planning matters relevant to the application and the implications for agriculture and local amenities of re-aligning two power transmission lines. The Statement contains submissions on the following matters: Topic 1 The Requirement for the Station; Topic 2 Safety and Design, including Radioactive Discharges; Topic 3 The On-Site Management of Radioactive Waste and Decommissioning of the Station; Topic 4 Emergency Arrangements; Topic 5 Local and Environmental Issues. (author)

  6. Robustness of Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faber, Michael Havbro; Vrouwenvelder, A.C.W.M.; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard


    In 2005, the Joint Committee on Structural Safety (JCSS) together with Working Commission (WC) 1 of the International Association of Bridge and Structural Engineering (IABSE) organized a workshop on robustness of structures. Two important decisions resulted from this workshop, namely...... ‘COST TU0601: Robustness of Structures’ was initiated in February 2007, aiming to provide a platform for exchanging and promoting research in the area of structural robustness and to provide a basic framework, together with methods, strategies and guidelines enhancing robustness of structures...... the development of a joint European project on structural robustness under the COST (European Cooperation in Science and Technology) programme and the decision to develop a more elaborate document on structural robustness in collaboration between experts from the JCSS and the IABSE. Accordingly, a project titled...

  7. Robust Growth Determinants


    Doppelhofer, Gernot; Weeks, Melvyn


    This paper investigates the robustness of determinants of economic growth in the presence of model uncertainty, parameter heterogeneity and outliers. The robust model averaging approach introduced in the paper uses a flexible and parsi- monious mixture modeling that allows for fat-tailed errors compared to the normal benchmark case. Applying robust model averaging to growth determinants, the paper finds that eight out of eighteen variables found to be significantly related to economic growth ...

  8. Robust Programming by Example


    Bishop , Matt; Elliott , Chip


    Part 2: WISE 7; International audience; Robust programming lies at the heart of the type of coding called “secure programming”. Yet it is rarely taught in academia. More commonly, the focus is on how to avoid creating well-known vulnerabilities. While important, that misses the point: a well-structured, robust program should anticipate where problems might arise and compensate for them. This paper discusses one view of robust programming and gives an example of how it may be taught.

  9. Narrative Inquiry With Activity Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa C. Yamagata-Lynch


    Full Text Available The goal of this article is to introduce activity systems as a methodological tool in narrative inquiry to gain a holistic understanding of socially shared experiences from an examination of documents. The research question was how can qualitative researchers use activity systems as a tool for engaging in narrative inquiry of socially shared experiences to uncover new meanings by constructing a story? In this article, we share a sample analysis of our experience relying on documents and media as a form of narrative to begin to understand the socially shared human activity associated with net neutrality and its potential impact on U.S. residents. We end this article with reflections of lessons learned from our activity systems guided story construction process.

  10. Democracy and the Sizewell inquiry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armstrong, J.


    In this paper the brief summary of selected procedural aspects of the Sizewell Inquiry indicates that the way in which major and controversial planning proposals are subject to public debate is in need of urgent review. The Sizewell Inquiry fell short of public expectation, and indeed of Government promises, on two major counts; it did not provide a forum for the debate of certain questions which are clearly of utmost importance and concern to the nuclear issue, while its semi-judicial format and unbalanced funding effectively discouraged and often prevented the level of participation which many objecting parties sought. The Government's assurance of a 'full and fair' debate proved to be hollow and in some quarters this has served to increase scepticism of the stated desire for public involvement in nuclear decision-making. Of the major controversies which have been in the subject of public inquiries in recent years, nuclear power is clearly one of the most challenging. It brings together an extremely varied band of objectors which, in the light of recent radioactive leakages from Windscale, future plans for waste storage facilities and the proposed plutonium reprocessing plant at Dounreay, promises only to grow

  11. Comparing Two Inquiry Professional Development Interventions in Science on Primary Students' Questioning and Other Inquiry Behaviours (United States)

    Nichols, Kim; Burgh, Gilbert; Kennedy, Callie


    Developing students' skills to pose and respond to questions and actively engage in inquiry behaviours enables students to problem solve and critically engage with learning and society. The aim of this study was to analyse the impact of providing teachers with an intervention in inquiry pedagogy alongside inquiry science curriculum in comparison to an intervention in non-inquiry pedagogy alongside inquiry science curriculum on student questioning and other inquiry behaviours. Teacher participants in the comparison condition received training in four inquiry-based science units and in collaborative strategic reading. The experimental group, the community of inquiry (COI) condition, received training in facilitating a COI in addition to training in the same four inquiry-based science units. This study involved 227 students and 18 teachers in 9 primary schools across Brisbane, Australia. The teachers were randomly allocated by school to one of the two conditions. The study followed the students across years 6 and 7 and students' discourse during small group activities was recorded, transcribed and coded for verbal inquiry behaviours. In the second year of the study, students in the COI condition demonstrated a significantly higher frequency of procedural and substantive higher-order thinking questions and other inquiry behaviours than those in the comparison condition. Implementing a COI within an inquiry science curriculum develops students' questioning and science inquiry behaviours and allows teachers to foster inquiry skills predicated by the Australian Science Curriculum. Provision of inquiry science curriculum resources alone is not sufficient to promote the questioning and other verbal inquiry behaviours predicated by the Australian Science Curriculum.

  12. Understanding students' concepts through guided inquiry learning and free modified inquiry on static fluid material


    Sularso Sularso; Widha Sunarno; Sarwanto Sarwanto


    This study provides information on understanding students' concepts in guided inquiry learning groups and in free modified inquiry learning groups. Understanding of student concept is reviewed on the concept of static fluid case. The number of samples tested were 67 students. The sample is divided into 2 groups of students: the group is given guided inquiry learning and the group given the modified free inquiry learning. Understanding the concept of students is measured through 23 tests of it...

  13. Robust procedures in chemometrics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kotwa, Ewelina

    properties of the analysed data. The broad theoretical background of robust procedures was given as a very useful supplement to the classical methods, and a new tool, based on robust PCA, aiming at identifying Rayleigh and Raman scatters in excitation-mission (EEM) data was developed. The results show...

  14. Inquiry Practices in Malaysian Secondary Classroom and Model of Inquiry Teaching Based on Verbal Interaction (United States)

    Li, Winnie Sim Siew; Arshad, Mohammad Yusof


    Purpose: Inquiry teaching has been suggested as one of the important approaches in teaching chemistry. This study investigates the inquiry practices among chemistry teachers. Method: A combination of quantitative and qualitative study was applied in this study to provide detailed information about inquiry teaching practices. Questionnaires,…

  15. Primary teachers conducting inquiry projects : effects on attitudes towards teaching science and conducting inquiry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Aalderen-Smeets, Sandra; Walma van der Molen, Julie Henriëtte; van Hest, Erna G.W.C.M.; Poortman, Cindy Louise


    This study used an experimental, pretest-posttest control group design to investigate whether participation in a large-scale inquiry project would improve primary teachers’ attitudes towards teaching science and towards conducting inquiry. The inquiry project positively affected several elements of

  16. Primary Teachers Conducting Inquiry Projects: Effects on Attitudes towards Teaching Science and Conducting Inquiry (United States)

    van Aalderen-Smeets, Sandra I.; Walma van der Molen, Juliette H.; van Hest, Erna G. W. C. M.; Poortman, Cindy


    This study used an experimental, pretest-posttest control group design to investigate whether participation in a large-scale inquiry project would improve primary teachers' attitudes towards teaching science and towards conducting inquiry. The inquiry project positively affected several elements of teachers' attitudes. Teachers felt less anxious…

  17. Exercise in Inquiry: Critical Thinking in an Inquiry-Based Exercise Physiology Laboratory Course. (United States)

    DiPasquale, Dana M.; Mason, Cheryl L.; Kolkhorst, Fred W.


    Describes an inquiry-based teaching method implemented in an undergraduate exercise physiology laboratory course. Indicates students' strong, positive feelings about the inquiry-based teaching method and shows that inquiry-based learning results in a higher order of learning not typically observed in traditional style classes. This teaching method…

  18. Impactful Practitioner Inquiry: The Ripple Effect on Classrooms, Schools, and Teacher Professionalism. Practitioner Inquiry Series (United States)

    Nichols, Sue; Cormack, Phil


    How does practitioner inquiry impact education? Examining the experiences of practitioners who have participated in inquiry projects, the authors present ways in which this work has enabled educators to be positive change agents. They reveal the difference that practitioner inquiry has made in their professional practice, their understanding of…

  19. Using technology to support science inquiry learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P John Williams


    Full Text Available This paper presents a case study of a teacher’s experience in implementing an inquiry approach to his teaching over a period of two years with two different classes. His focus was on using a range of information technologies to support student inquiry learning. The study demonstrates the need to consider the characteristics of students when implementing an inquiry approach, and also the influence of the teachers level of understanding and related confidence in such an approach. The case also indicated that a range of technologies can be effective in supporting student inquiry learning.

  20. Contextual inquiry for medical device design

    CERN Document Server

    Privitera, Mary Beth


    Contextual Inquiry for Medical Device Design helps users understand the everyday use of medical devices and the way their usage supports the development of better products and increased market acceptance. The text explains the concept of contextual inquiry using real-life examples to illustrate its application. Case studies provide a frame of reference on how contextual inquiry is successfully used during product design, ultimately producing safer, improved medical devices. Presents the ways contextual inquiry can be used to inform the evaluation and business case of technologyHelps users

  1. Pre-service elementary teachers' understanding of scientific inquiry and its role in school science (United States)

    Macaroglu, Esra

    The purpose of this research was to explore pre-service elementary teachers' developing understanding of scientific inquiry within the context of their elementary science teaching and learning. More specifically, the study examined 24 pre-service elementary teachers' emerging understanding of (1) the nature of science and scientific inquiry; (2) the "place" of scientific inquiry in school science; and (3) the roles and responsibilities of teachers and students within an inquiry-based learning environment. Data sources consisted primarily of student-generated artifacts collected throughout the semester, including pre/post-philosophy statements and text-based materials collected from electronic dialogue journals. Individual data sources were open-coded to identify concepts and categories expressed by students. Cross-comparisons were conducted and patterns were identified. Assertions were formed with these patterns. Findings are hopeful in that they suggest pre-service teachers can develop a more contemporary view of scientific inquiry when immersed in a context that promotes this perspective. Not surprisingly, however, the prospective teachers encountered a number of barriers when attempting to translate their emerging ideas into practice. More research is needed to determine which teacher preparation experiences are most powerful in supporting pre-service teachers as they construct a framework for science teaching and learning that includes scientific inquiry as a central component.

  2. Inquiry-based science: Preparing human capital for the 21 st century and beyond (United States)

    Boyd, Yolanda F.

    High school students need to graduate with 21st century skills to be college and career ready and to be competitive in a global marketplace. A positive trend exists favoring inquiry-based instructional practices that purportedly not only increase science content knowledge, but also 21 st century skill development. A suburban school district, Areal Township (pseudonym), implemented an inquiry-based science program based on this trend; however, the degree to which the program has been meeting students' needs for science content knowledge and 21st century skills development has not been explored. If we were to understand the process by which an inquiry-based science program contributes to attainment of science content and 21st century skill development, then we might be able to improve the delivery of the program and provide a model to be adopted by other schools. Therefore, the purpose of this descriptive case study was to engage with multiple stakeholders to formatively assess the successes and obstacles for helping students to achieve science content and 21st century skills through an inquiry-based curriculum. Using constructivist theory, this study aimed to address the following central research question: How does the implementation of an inquiry-based program within the Areal Township School District (ATSD) support the acquisition of science content knowledge and the development of 21st century skills? This study found that 21st century skill development is embedded in inquiry-based instructional practices. These practices engage students in meaningful learning that spirals in content and is measured using diverse assessments. Time to do inquiry-based science and adequate time for collegial collaboration were obstacles for educators in grades K-5. Other obstacles were turnkey professional development and a lack of ongoing program monitoring, as a result of imposed extrinsic factors from state and federal mandates. Lastly, it was discovered that not all parts of

  3. Teacher Research as a Robust and Reflective Path to Professional Development (United States)

    Roberts, Sherron Killingsworth; Crawford, Patricia A.; Hickmann, Rosemary


    This article explores the role of teacher research as part of a robust program of professional development. Teacher research offers teachers at every stage of development a recursive and reflective means of bridging the gap between current practice and potential professional growth. The purpose of this dual level inquiry was to probe the concept…

  4. Robustness Beamforming Algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sajad Dehghani


    Full Text Available Adaptive beamforming methods are known to degrade in the presence of steering vector and covariance matrix uncertinity. In this paper, a new approach is presented to robust adaptive minimum variance distortionless response beamforming make robust against both uncertainties in steering vector and covariance matrix. This method minimize a optimization problem that contains a quadratic objective function and a quadratic constraint. The optimization problem is nonconvex but is converted to a convex optimization problem in this paper. It is solved by the interior-point method and optimum weight vector to robust beamforming is achieved.

  5. Robust predictions of the interacting boson model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casten, R.F.; Koeln Univ.


    While most recognized for its symmetries and algebraic structure, the IBA model has other less-well-known but equally intrinsic properties which give unavoidable, parameter-free predictions. These predictions concern central aspects of low-energy nuclear collective structure. This paper outlines these ''robust'' predictions and compares them with the data

  6. The Teaching of Anthropogenic Climate Change and Earth Science via Technology-Enabled Inquiry Education (United States)

    Bush, Drew; Sieber, Renee; Seiler, Gale; Chandler, Mark


    A gap has existed between the tools and processes of scientists working on anthropogenic global climate change (AGCC) and the technologies and curricula available to educators teaching the subject through student inquiry. Designing realistic scientific inquiry into AGCC poses a challenge because research on it relies on complex computer models, globally distributed data sets, and complex laboratory and data collection procedures. Here we examine efforts by the scientific community and educational researchers to design new curricula and technology that close this gap and impart robust AGCC and Earth Science understanding. We find technology-based teaching shows promise in promoting robust AGCC understandings if associated curricula address mitigating factors such as time constraints in incorporating technology and the need to support teachers implementing AGCC and Earth Science inquiry. We recommend the scientific community continue to collaborate with educational researchers to focus on developing those inquiry technologies and curricula that use realistic scientific processes from AGCC research and/or the methods for determining how human society should respond to global change.

  7. Enabling People Who Are Blind to Experience Science Inquiry Learning through Sound-Based Mediation (United States)

    Levy, S. T.; Lahav, O.


    This paper addresses a central need among people who are blind, access to inquiry-based science learning materials, which are addressed by few other learning environments that use assistive technologies. In this study, we investigated ways in which learning environments based on sound mediation can support science learning by blind people. We used…

  8. WISE Science: Web-based Inquiry in the Classroom. Technology, Education--Connections (United States)

    Slotta, James D.; Linn, Marcia C.


    This book shares the lessons learned by a large community of educational researchers and science teachers as they designed, developed, and investigated a new technology-enhanced learning environment known as WISE: The Web-Based Inquiry Science Environment. WISE offers a collection of free, customizable curriculum projects on topics central to the…

  9. Measurement of Solar Spectra Relating to Photosynthesis and Solar Cells: An Inquiry Lab for Secondary Science (United States)

    Ruggirello, Rachel M.; Balcerzak, Phyllis; May, Victoria L.; Blankenship, Robert E.


    The process of photosynthesis is central to science curriculum at all levels. This article describes an inquiry-based laboratory investigation developed to explore the impact of light quality on photosynthesis and to connect this process to current research on harvesting solar energy, including bioenergy, artificial photosynthesis, and solar…

  10. Response to Key Issues Raised in the Post-14 Mathematics Inquiry (United States)

    Burghes, David; Hindle, Mike


    This article is a detailed response to the issues raised by the Post-14 Mathematics Inquiry in the UK. It aims to debate some of the central issues in mathematics teaching in the UK, including recruitment and retention of mathematics teachers, the curriculum content, national assessment, teaching resources (including ICT) and national strategies…

  11. Using Collaborative Inquiry to Foster Equity within School Systems: Opportunities and Barriers (United States)

    Ainscow, Mel; Dyson, Alan; Goldrick, Sue; West, Mel


    Drawing on experiences in England over many years, this paper explores the authors' efforts to use collaborative inquiry in order to foster greater equity within schools. All of this is set within national policy contexts that emphasise increased school autonomy, competition, and accountability as central improvement strategies. It is argued that…

  12. Effect of the Level of Inquiry of Lab Experiments on General Chemistry Students' Written Reflections (United States)

    Xu, Haozhi; Talanquer, Vincente


    The central goal of this exploratory study was to characterize the effects of experiments involving different levels of inquiry on the nature of college students' written reflections about laboratory work. Data were collected in the form of individual lab reports written using a science writing heuristic template by a subset of the students…

  13. Effect of the Level of Inquiry on Student Interactions in Chemistry Laboratories (United States)

    Xu, Haozhi; Talanquer, Vicente


    The central goal of our exploratory study was to investigate differences in college chemistry students' interactions during lab experiments with different levels of inquiry. This analysis was approached from three major analytic dimensions: (i) functional analysis; (ii) cognitive processing; and (iii) social processing. According to our results,…

  14. Using a Guided Inquiry Approach in the Traditional Vertebrate Anatomy Laboratory (United States)

    Meuler, Debra


    A central theme of the "National Science Education Standards" is teaching science as an inquiry process, allowing students to explore an authentic problem using the tools and skills of the discipline. Research indicates that more active participation by the student, which usually requires higher-order thinking skills, results in deeper learning.…

  15. Robustness Metrics: Consolidating the multiple approaches to quantify Robustness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Göhler, Simon Moritz; Eifler, Tobias; Howard, Thomas J.


    robustness metrics; 3) Functional expectancy and dispersion robustness metrics; and 4) Probability of conformance robustness metrics. The goal was to give a comprehensive overview of robustness metrics and guidance to scholars and practitioners to understand the different types of robustness metrics...

  16. Robustness of Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, John Dalsgaard


    This paper describes the background of the robustness requirements implemented in the Danish Code of Practice for Safety of Structures and in the Danish National Annex to the Eurocode 0, see (DS-INF 146, 2003), (DS 409, 2006), (EN 1990 DK NA, 2007) and (Sørensen and Christensen, 2006). More...... frequent use of advanced types of structures with limited redundancy and serious consequences in case of failure combined with increased requirements to efficiency in design and execution followed by increased risk of human errors has made the need of requirements to robustness of new structures essential....... According to Danish design rules robustness shall be documented for all structures in high consequence class. The design procedure to document sufficient robustness consists of: 1) Review of loads and possible failure modes / scenarios and determination of acceptable collapse extent; 2) Review...

  17. Robustness of structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vrouwenvelder, T.; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard


    After the collapse of the World Trade Centre towers in 2001 and a number of collapses of structural systems in the beginning of the century, robustness of structural systems has gained renewed interest. Despite many significant theoretical, methodical and technological advances, structural...... of robustness for structural design such requirements are not substantiated in more detail, nor have the engineering profession been able to agree on an interpretation of robustness which facilitates for its uantification. A European COST action TU 601 on ‘Robustness of structures' has started in 2007...... by a group of members of the CSS. This paper describes the ongoing work in this action, with emphasis on the development of a theoretical and risk based quantification and optimization procedure on the one side and a practical pre-normative guideline on the other....

  18. Robust Approaches to Forecasting


    Jennifer Castle; David Hendry; Michael P. Clements


    We investigate alternative robust approaches to forecasting, using a new class of robust devices, contrasted with equilibrium correction models. Their forecasting properties are derived facing a range of likely empirical problems at the forecast origin, including measurement errors, implulses, omitted variables, unanticipated location shifts and incorrectly included variables that experience a shift. We derive the resulting forecast biases and error variances, and indicate when the methods ar...

  19. Robustness - theoretical framework

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, John Dalsgaard; Rizzuto, Enrico; Faber, Michael H.


    More frequent use of advanced types of structures with limited redundancy and serious consequences in case of failure combined with increased requirements to efficiency in design and execution followed by increased risk of human errors has made the need of requirements to robustness of new struct...... of this fact sheet is to describe a theoretical and risk based framework to form the basis for quantification of robustness and for pre-normative guidelines....

  20. 4-H Science Inquiry Video Series (United States)

    Green, Jeremy W.; Black, Lynette; Willis, Patrick


    Studies support science inquiry as a positive method and approach for 4-H professionals and volunteers to use for teaching science-based practices to youth. The development of a science inquiry video series has yielded positive results as it relates to youth development education and science. The video series highlights how to conduct science-rich…

  1. The Inquiry Approach in Dental Hygiene Education. (United States)

    Scott, Ruth Lois; And Others


    A study to assess the impact of an inquiry-oriented curriculum in a dental hygiene program is described. Two instruments, designed to measure student perception of personal and faculty inquiry and disinquiry behavior, were administered. The implications of the findings are discussed. (Author/MLW)

  2. An Inquiry-Based Linear Algebra Class (United States)

    Wang, Haohao; Posey, Lisa


    Linear algebra is a standard undergraduate mathematics course. This paper presents an overview of the design and implementation of an inquiry-based teaching material for the linear algebra course which emphasizes discovery learning, analytical thinking and individual creativity. The inquiry-based teaching material is designed to fit the needs of a…

  3. Eliciting User Requirements Using Appreciative Inquiry (United States)

    Gonzales, Carol Kernitzki


    Many software development projects fail because they do not meet the needs of users, are over-budget, and abandoned. To address this problem, the user requirements elicitation process was modified based on principles of Appreciative Inquiry. Appreciative Inquiry, commonly used in organizational development, aims to build organizations, processes,…

  4. Intelligent Tutoring Systems for Scientific Inquiry Skills. (United States)

    Shute, Valerie; Bonar, Jeffrey

    Described are the initial prototypes of several intelligent tutoring systems designed to build students' scientific inquiry skills. These inquiry skills are taught in the context of acquiring knowledge of principles from a microworld that models a specific domain. This paper discusses microworlds that have been implemented for microeconomics,…

  5. Inquiry-based Learning in Mathematics Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dreyøe, Jonas; Larsen, Dorte Moeskær; Hjelmborg, Mette Dreier

    From a grading list of 28 of the highest ranked mathematics education journals, the six highest ranked journals were chosen, and a systematic search for inquiry-based mathematics education and related keywords was conducted. This led to five important theme/issues for inquiry-based learning...

  6. 48 CFR 32.909 - Contractor inquiries. (United States)


    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contractor inquiries. 32.909 Section 32.909 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS CONTRACT FINANCING Prompt Payment 32.909 Contractor inquiries. (a) Direct questions...

  7. Connecting Mathematics in Primary Science Inquiry Projects (United States)

    So, Winnie Wing-mui


    Science as inquiry and mathematics as problem solving are conjoined fraternal twins attached by their similarities but with distinct differences. Inquiry and problem solving are promoted in contemporary science and mathematics education reforms as a critical attribute of the nature of disciplines, teaching methods, and learning outcomes involving…

  8. Learning Analytics for Communities of Inquiry (United States)

    Kovanovic, Vitomir; Gaševic, Dragan; Hatala, Marek


    This paper describes doctoral research that focuses on the development of a learning analytics framework for inquiry-based digital learning. Building on the Community of Inquiry model (CoI)--a foundation commonly used in the research and practice of digital learning and teaching--this research builds on the existing body of knowledge in two…

  9. 22 CFR 217.14 - Preemployment inquiries. (United States)


    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Preemployment inquiries. 217.14 Section 217.14 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF HANDICAP IN... inquiries. (a) Except as provided in paragraphs (b) and (c) of this section, a recipient may not conduct a...

  10. Qualitative Robustness in Estimation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Nasser


    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman","serif";} Qualitative robustness, influence function, and breakdown point are three main concepts to judge an estimator from the viewpoint of robust estimation. It is important as well as interesting to study relation among them. This article attempts to present the concept of qualitative robustness as forwarded by first proponents and its later development. It illustrates intricacies of qualitative robustness and its relation with consistency, and also tries to remove commonly believed misunderstandings about relation between influence function and qualitative robustness citing some examples from literature and providing a new counter-example. At the end it places a useful finite and a simulated version of   qualitative robustness index (QRI. In order to assess the performance of the proposed measures, we have compared fifteen estimators of correlation coefficient using simulated as well as real data sets.

  11. Naturalistic Inquiry in E-Learning Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shirley Agostinho


    Full Text Available In this article, the author explains how and why one particular qualitative research approach, the naturalistic inquiry paradigm, was implemented in an e-learning research study that investigated the use of the World Wide Web technology in higher education. A framework is presented that situates the research study within the qualitative research literature. The author then justifies how the study was compliant with naturalistic inquiry and concludes by presenting a model for judging the quality of such research. The purpose of this article is to provide an example of how naturalistic inquiry can be implemented in e-learning research that can serve as a guide for researchers undertaking this form of qualitative inquiry. As such, the focus of the article is to illustrate how methodological issues pertaining to naturalistic inquiry were addressed and justified to represent a rigorous research approach rather than presenting the results of the research study.

  12. Hinkley Point 'C' power station public inquiry: outline statement of case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    This outline statement relates to the public inquiry to be held into the planning application by the Central Electricity Generating Board (CEGB) to construct a 1200 MW Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) power station at Hinkley Point (Hinkley Point ''C'') in the United Kingdom, adjacent to an existing nuclear power station. The inquiry will consider economic, safety, environmental and planning matters relevant to the application and the implications for agriculture and local amenities of the re-aligning of two 400 kV overhead transmission lines. The outline statement contains submissions on: policy contest and approach; the requirement for Hinkley Point ''C''; design and safety; local issues. (UK)

  13. Influence of teacher-directed scientific inquiry on students' primal inquiries in two science classrooms (United States)

    Stone, Brian Andrew

    Scientific inquiry is widely used but pervasively misunderstood in elementary classrooms. The use of inquiry is often attached to direct instruction models of teaching, or is even passed as textbook readings or worksheets. Previous literature on scientific inquiry suggests a range or continuum beginning with teacher-directed inquiry on one extreme, which involves a question, process, and outcome that are predetermined by the teacher. On the other end of the continuum is an element of inquiry that is extremely personal and derived from innate curiosity without external constraints. This authentic inquiry is defined by the study as primal inquiry. If inquiry instruction is used in the elementary classroom, it is often manifested as teacher-directed inquiry, but previous research suggests the most interesting, motivating, and lasting content is owned by the individual and exists within the individual's own curiosity, questioning and processes. Therefore, the study examined the impact of teacher-directed inquiry in two elementary fourth grade classrooms on climate-related factors including interest, motivation, engagement, and student-generated inquiry involvement. The study took place at two elementary classrooms in Arizona. Both were observed for ten weeks during science instruction over the course of one semester. Field notes were written with regard for the inquiry process and ownership, along with climate indicators. Student journals were examined for evidence of primal inquiry, and twenty-two students were interviewed between the two classrooms for evidence of low climate-related factors and low inquiry involvement. Data from the three sources were triangulated. The results of this qualitative study include evidence for three propositions, which were derived from previous literature. Strong evidence was provided in support of all three propositions, which suggest an overall negative impact on climate-related factors of interest, motivation, and engagement for

  14. Influence of subject matter discipline and science content knowledge on National Board Certified science teachers' conceptions, enactment, and goals for inquiry (United States)

    Breslyn, Wayne Gene

    The present study investigated differences in the continuing development of National Board Certified Science Teachers' (NBCSTs) conceptions of inquiry across the disciplines of biology, chemistry, earth science, and physics. The central research question of the study was, "How does a NBCST's science discipline (biology, chemistry, earth science, or physics) influence their conceptions, enactment, and goals for inquiry-based teaching and learning?" A mixed methods approach was used that included an analysis of the National Board portfolio entry, Active Scientific Inquiry, for participants (n=48) achieving certification in the 2007 cohort. The portfolio entry provided detailed documentation of teachers' goals and enactment of an inquiry lesson taught in their classroom. Based on the results from portfolio analysis, participant interviews were conducted with science teachers (n=12) from the 2008 NBCST cohort who represented the science disciplines of biology, chemistry, earth science, and physics. The interviews provided a broader range of contexts to explore teachers' conceptions, enactment, and goals of inquiry. Other factors studied were disciplinary differences in NBCSTs' views of the nature of science, the relation between their science content knowledge and use of inquiry, and changes in their conceptions of inquiry as result of the NB certification process. Findings, based on a situated cognitive framework, suggested that differences exist between biology, chemistry, and earth science teachers' conceptions, enactment, and goals for inquiry. Further, individuals teaching in more than one discipline often held different conceptions of inquiry depending on the discipline in which they were teaching. Implications for the research community include being aware of disciplinary differences in studies on inquiry and exercising caution in generalizing findings across disciplines. In addition, teachers who teach in more than one discipline can highlight the contextual

  15. Inquiry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alrø, Helle; Johnsen-Høines, Marit


    in inquiring questions, and what other ways of communicating may have an inquiring function in learning conversations? The intention is to develop and frame the concept of ’inquiry’ in learning conversations, and this is the focus of analysis of an authentic classroom situation, where teacher and pupils...

  16. Robustness in econometrics

    CERN Document Server

    Sriboonchitta, Songsak; Huynh, Van-Nam


    This book presents recent research on robustness in econometrics. Robust data processing techniques – i.e., techniques that yield results minimally affected by outliers – and their applications to real-life economic and financial situations are the main focus of this book. The book also discusses applications of more traditional statistical techniques to econometric problems. Econometrics is a branch of economics that uses mathematical (especially statistical) methods to analyze economic systems, to forecast economic and financial dynamics, and to develop strategies for achieving desirable economic performance. In day-by-day data, we often encounter outliers that do not reflect the long-term economic trends, e.g., unexpected and abrupt fluctuations. As such, it is important to develop robust data processing techniques that can accommodate these fluctuations.

  17. Robust Manufacturing Control

    CERN Document Server


    This contributed volume collects research papers, presented at the CIRP Sponsored Conference Robust Manufacturing Control: Innovative and Interdisciplinary Approaches for Global Networks (RoMaC 2012, Jacobs University, Bremen, Germany, June 18th-20th 2012). These research papers present the latest developments and new ideas focusing on robust manufacturing control for global networks. Today, Global Production Networks (i.e. the nexus of interconnected material and information flows through which products and services are manufactured, assembled and distributed) are confronted with and expected to adapt to: sudden and unpredictable large-scale changes of important parameters which are occurring more and more frequently, event propagation in networks with high degree of interconnectivity which leads to unforeseen fluctuations, and non-equilibrium states which increasingly characterize daily business. These multi-scale changes deeply influence logistic target achievement and call for robust planning and control ...

  18. Dynamic Open Inquiry Performances of High-School Biology Students (United States)

    Zion, Michal; Sadeh, Irit


    In examining open inquiry projects among high-school biology students, we found dynamic inquiry performances expressed in two criteria: "changes occurring during inquiry" and "procedural understanding". Characterizing performances in a dynamic open inquiry project can shed light on both the procedural and epistemological…

  19. Collaborative Inquiry Learning: Models, tools, and challenges (United States)

    Bell, Thorsten; Urhahne, Detlef; Schanze, Sascha; Ploetzner, Rolf


    Collaborative inquiry learning is one of the most challenging and exciting ventures for today's schools. It aims at bringing a new and promising culture of teaching and learning into the classroom where students in groups engage in self-regulated learning activities supported by the teacher. It is expected that this way of learning fosters students' motivation and interest in science, that they learn to perform steps of inquiry similar to scientists and that they gain knowledge on scientific processes. Starting from general pedagogical reflections and science standards, the article reviews some prominent models of inquiry learning. This comparison results in a set of inquiry processes being the basis for cooperation in the scientific network NetCoIL. Inquiry learning is conceived in several ways with emphasis on different processes. For an illustration of the spectrum, some main conceptions of inquiry and their focuses are described. In the next step, the article describes exemplary computer tools and environments from within and outside the NetCoIL network that were designed to support processes of collaborative inquiry learning. These tools are analysed by describing their functionalities as well as effects on student learning known from the literature. The article closes with challenges for further developments elaborated by the NetCoIL network.

  20. Robust plasmonic substrates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kostiučenko, Oksana; Fiutowski, Jacek; Tamulevicius, Tomas


    Robustness is a key issue for the applications of plasmonic substrates such as tip-enhanced Raman spectroscopy, surface-enhanced spectroscopies, enhanced optical biosensing, optical and optoelectronic plasmonic nanosensors and others. A novel approach for the fabrication of robust plasmonic...... substrates is presented, which relies on the coverage of gold nanostructures with diamond-like carbon (DLC) thin films of thicknesses 25, 55 and 105 nm. DLC thin films were grown by direct hydrocarbon ion beam deposition. In order to find the optimum balance between optical and mechanical properties...

  1. Robust Self Tuning Controllers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Niels Kjølstad


    The present thesis concerns robustness properties of adaptive controllers. It is addressed to methods for robustifying self tuning controllers with respect to abrupt changes in the plant parameters. In the thesis an algorithm for estimating abruptly changing parameters is presented. The estimator...... has several operation modes and a detector for controlling the mode. A special self tuning controller has been developed to regulate plant with changing time delay.......The present thesis concerns robustness properties of adaptive controllers. It is addressed to methods for robustifying self tuning controllers with respect to abrupt changes in the plant parameters. In the thesis an algorithm for estimating abruptly changing parameters is presented. The estimator...

  2. Qualitative Improvement Methods Through Analysis of Inquiry Contents for Cancer Registration (United States)

    Boo, Yoo-Kyung; Lim, Hyun-Sook; Kim, Jung-Eun; Kim, Kyoung-Beom; Won, Young-Joo


    Background: In Korea, the national cancer database was constructed after the initiation of the national cancer registration project in 1980, and the annual national cancer registration report has been published every year since 2005. Consequently, data management must begin even at the stage of data collection in order to ensure quality. Objectives: To determine the suitability of cancer registries’ inquiry tools through the inquiry analysis of the Korea Central Cancer Registry (KCCR), and identify the needs to improve the quality of cancer registration. Methods: Results of 721 inquiries to the KCCR from 2000 to 2014 were analyzed by inquiry year, question type, and medical institution characteristics. Using Stata version 14.1, descriptive analysis was performed to identify general participant characteristics, and chi-square analysis was applied to investigate significant differences in distribution characteristics by factors affecting the quality of cancer registration data. Results: The number of inquiries increased in 2005–2009. During this period, there were various changes, including the addition of cancer registration items such as brain tumors and guideline updates. Of the inquirers, 65.3% worked at hospitals in metropolitan cities and 60.89% of hospitals had 601–1000 beds. Tertiary hospitals had the highest number of inquiries (64.91%), and the highest number of questions by type were 353 (48.96%) for histological codes, 92 (12.76%) for primary sites, and 76 (10.54%) for reportable. Conclusions: A cancer registration inquiry system is an effective method when not confident about codes during cancer registration, or when confronting cancer cases in which previous clinical knowledge or information on the cancer registration guidelines are insufficient. Creative Commons Attribution License

  3. Hinkley Point 'C' power station public inquiry: proof of evidence on safety criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, R.H.


    A public inquiry has been set up to examine the planning application made by the Central Electricity Generating Board (CEGB) for the construction of a 1200 MW Pressurized Water Reactor power station at Hinkley Point (Hinkley Point ''C'') in the United Kingdom. The policy is to replicate the Sizewell ''B'' PWR design which was accepted as safe by an earlier enquiry. In this evidence to the Inquiry, subsequent developments are examined with a view to determining whether these would reverse the Sizewell decision. They are: the possible revision of radiation risk estimates upwards; whether cases of leukaemia occur with greater frequency around nuclear sites than elsewhere; publication of the Health and Safety Executive's consultative document ''The Tolerability of Risk from Nuclear Power Stations''. The overall conclusion is that these developments do not undermine the findings of the Sizewell ''B'' inquiry or the validity of the CEGB's safety criteria. (author)

  4. Narrative journalism as complementary inquiry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jørgen Jeppesen


    Full Text Available Narrative journalism is a method to craft stories worth reading about real people. In this article, we explore the ability of that communicative power to produce insights complementary to those obtainable through traditional qualitative and quantitative research methods. With examples from a study of journalistic narrative as patient involvement in professional rehabilitation, interview data transcribed as stories are analyzed for qualities of heterogeneity, sensibility, transparency, and reflexivity. Building on sociological theories of thinking with stories, writing as inquiry, and public journalism as ethnography, we suggest that narrative journalism as a common practice might unfold dimensions of subjective otherness of the self. Aspiring to unite writing in both transparently confrontational and empathetically dialogic ways, the narrative journalistic method holds a potential to expose dynamics of power within the interview.

  5. Qualitative Inquiry in Everyday Life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brinkmann, Svend

    This book is a 'survival guide' for students and researchers who would like to conduct a qualitative study with limited resources. Brinkmann shows how everyday life materials such as books, television, the internet, the media and everyday conversations and interactions can help us to understand...... larger social issues. As living human beings in cultural worlds, we are constantly surrounded by 'data' that call for analysis, and as we cope with the different situations and episodes of our lives, we are engaged in understanding and interpreting the world as a form of qualitative inquiry. The book...... helps its reader develop a disciplined and analytic awareness informed by theory, and shows how less can be more in qualitative research. Each chapter introduces theoretical tools to think with, and demonstrates how they can be put to use in working concretely with everyday life materials....

  6. "Naturalist Inquiry" and Grounded Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barney G. Glaser


    Full Text Available The world of Qualitative Data Analysis (QDA methodology became quite taken with LINCOLN and GUBA's book "Naturalist Inquiry" (1985. I have no issue with it with respect to its application to QDA; it helped clarify and advance so many QDA issues. However, its application to Grounded Theory (GT has been a major block on GT, as originated, by its cooptation and corruption hence remodeling of GT by default. LINCOLN and GUBA have simply assumed GT is just another QDA method, which it is not. In "The Grounded Theory Perspective II" (GLASER 2002a, Chapter 9 on credibility, I have discussed "Naturalist In­quiry" (NI thought regarding how LINCOLN and GUBA's notion of "trustworthy" data (or worrisome data orientation and how their view of constant comparison can and has remodeled and eroded GT. In this paper I will consider other aspects of NI that remodel GT. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs040170

  7. Conceptualising inquiry based education in mathematics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blomhøj, Morten; Artigue, Michéle


    of inquiry as a pedagogical concept in the work of Dewey (e.g. 1916, 1938) to analyse and discuss its migration to science and mathematics education. For conceptualizing inquiry-based mathematics education (IBME) it is important to analyse how this concept resonates with already well-established theoretical...... frameworks in mathematics education. Six such frameworks are analysed from the perspective of inquiry: the problem-solving tradition, the Theory of Didactical Situations, the Realistic Mathematics Education programme, the mathematical modelling perspective, the Anthropological Theory of Didactics...

  8. Scientific Inquiry in Health Sciences Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Musaeus, Peter

    inquiry or critical thinking. Discussion: The value of this study is that it might enable educational developers to give junior faculty better guidance on teaching and specific feedback on their teaching portfolio in particular in regards to the design of learning activities that might use scientific...... in terms of a more systematic approach to higher-level thinking. Thus although participants cited one or more constructivist educational theorists, they did not express a well-articulated notion of inquiry and they provided limited concrete examples on how to design a conducive learning environment around...... inquiry as means and end in higher education....

  9. Learning from the Nimrod Inquiry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haddon-Cave, Charles


    Mr. Charles Haddon-Cave presented learning from the inquiry into the loss of the Nimrod aircraft and its crew of 13 in 2006. Mr. Haddon-Cave is the author of The Nimrod Review - an independent review into the broader issues surrounding the loss of an RAF Nimrod aircraft in Afghanistan in 2006. The full report can be accessed at: http://www.officialdocuments. Mr. Haddon-Cave opened the presentation with general remarks on the responsibilities of the regulator, and the environment within which they operate. He emphasised the need for regulators to exercise personal responsibility, accountability, integrity, and to maintain a balanced approach to regulation. The following organisational and cultural issues leading to the Nimrod accident were summarised: - Organisational complexity within the Ministry of Defence. - Management by committee and consensus. - Dilution of accountability and responsibility. - Lack of challenge, which provides a barrier to wrong decision-making. - Migration of responsibility from operators to government departments. - 'Triumph' of generalists over technical specialists. - Weak signals overlooked (small voices drowned out). - Distraction due to large numbers of organisational changes and initiatives. - Longstanding acceptance of problems. 'Can do will do' became 'Make do and muddle through'. The Nimrod inquiry identified 12 parallels between the organisational causes of the Nimrod and the Columbia accident, reinforcing the message from the first plenary presentation on common underlying themes. Mr. Haddon-Cave delivered a number of key messages for regulatory managers and leaders such as the importance of: - Recognising and reinforcing the pivotal role of the operating organisation in ensuring safety. - Questioning and challenging assumptions. - Ensuring that roles and responsibilities are clearly defined. - Exercising caution when out-sourcing to avoid 'out-sourcing your thinking'. - Focusing on

  10. Do individual differences in children's curiosity relate to their inquiry-based learning? (United States)

    van Schijndel, Tessa J. P.; Jansen, Brenda R. J.; Raijmakers, Maartje E. J.


    This study investigates how individual differences in 7- to 9-year-olds' curiosity relate to the inquiry-learning process and outcomes in environments differing in structure. The focus on curiosity as individual differences variable was motivated by the importance of curiosity in science education, and uncertainty being central to both the definition of curiosity and the inquiry-learning environment. Curiosity was assessed with the Underwater Exploration game (Jirout, J., & Klahr, D. (2012). Children's scientific curiosity: In search of an operational definition of an elusive concept. Developmental Review, 32, 125-160. doi:10.1016/j.dr.2012.04.002), and inquiry-based learning with the newly developed Scientific Discovery task, which focuses on the principle of designing informative experiments. Structure of the inquiry-learning environment was manipulated by explaining this principle or not. As intelligence relates to learning and possibly curiosity, it was taken into account. Results showed that children's curiosity was positively related to their knowledge acquisition, but not to their quality of exploration. For low intelligent children, environment structure positively affected their quality of exploration, but not their knowledge acquisition. There was no interaction between curiosity and environment structure. These results support the existence of two distinct inquiry-based learning processes - the designing of experiments, on the one hand, and the reflection on performed experiments, on the other - and link children's curiosity to the latter process.

  11. A design-based study of Citizen Inquiry for geology


    Aristeidou, Maria; Scanlon, Eileen; Sharples, Mike


    Citizen Inquiry forms a new method of informal science learning and aims to enable the engagement of citizens in online scientific investigations. Citizen Inquiry combines aspects from Citizen Science and Inquiry-based learning and is implemented through a community of practice where people having a shared interest interact and exchange knowledge and methods supported and guided by online systems and tools within a web-based inquiry environment. To explore the potential of Citizen Inquiry, a ...

  12. Robust surgery loading

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hans, Elias W.; Wullink, Gerhard; van Houdenhoven, Mark; Kazemier, Geert


    We consider the robust surgery loading problem for a hospital’s operating theatre department, which concerns assigning surgeries and sufficient planned slack to operating room days. The objective is to maximize capacity utilization and minimize the risk of overtime, and thus cancelled patients. This

  13. Enhancing Scientific Inquiry Literacy of Prospective Biology Teachers through Inquiry Lab Project in Microbiology (United States)

    Kusnadi, K.; Rustaman, N. Y.; Redjeki, S.; Aryantha, I. N. P.


    The implementation of the inquiry laboratory based project to enhance scientific inquiry literacy of prospective biology teachers in Microbiology course has been done. The inquiry lab based project was designed by three stages were debriefing of basic microbiology lab skills, guided inquiry and free inquiry respectively. The Study was quasi experimental with control group pretest-posttest design. The subjects were prospective biology teachers consists of 80 students. The scientific inquiry literacy instrument refers to ScInqLiT by Wenning. The results showed that there was significant difference of scientific inquiry literacy posttest scores between experiment and control (α 0,05) and was obtained N-gain score was 0.49 (medium) to experiment and 0.24 (low) to control. Based on formative assessment showed that development of student’s scientific attitude, research and microbiology lab skills during conducting project were increased. Student’s research skills especially in identification of variables, constructing a hypothesis, communicating and concluding were increased. During implementation of inquiry project also showed that they carried out mind and hands-on and so collaborative group investigation lab activities. Our findings may aid in reforming higher-education, particularly in microbiology laboratory activities to better promote scientific inquiry literacy, scientific attitude, research and laboratory skills.

  14. Teaching Art Criticism As Aesthetic Inquiry (United States)

    Ecker, David W.


    The teaching model in the visual arts will be derived less from the painter and more from the art critic as art education moves into aesthetic inquiry. There are implications for other arts as well. (Editor)

  15. Artful inquiry as a leadership skill

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Darsø, Lotte

    Artful Inquiry as a Leadership Skill Lotte Darsø Abstract for 8th AMO 2016: Open Stream How do leaders develop their own leadership? How do leaders get inspiration and energy for leading and how do they make decisions in complex situations with scarce information? In this paper I will argue...... that artful inquiry is an important leadership skill, both in relation for leaders to rekindle themselves and their employees. I’ll define Artful Inquiry as the skill of inquiring into something of importance through body, mind, heart and spirit. Artful Inquiry taps into the leader’s tacit knowledge...... of materials such as paper, clay, LEGO pieces, photos, cloth, materials from nature, or a combinations of these); embodying (e.g. exploring positions, developing empathy, or focused sensing into what the body knows); listening (e.g. to different music pieces or live music); or presencing (e.g. through...

  16. Bringing Inquiry Science to K-5 Classrooms (United States)

    Schachtel, Paula L.; Messina, D. L.; McDermott, L. C.


    As a science coach in the Seattle School District, I am responsible for helping other elementary teachers teach science. For several years, I have been participating in a program that consists of intensive NSF Summer Institutes and an ongoing academic-year Continuation Course. Teachers in this program work through modules in Physics by Inquiry, a research-based curriculum developed by the Physics Education Group at the University of Washington.1 I will discuss how this type of professional development has deepened my understanding of topics in physical science, helped me to teach science by inquiry to my own students, and enabled me to assist my colleagues in implementing inquiry science in their K-5 classrooms. Sponsored by Lillian C. McDermott. 1. A research-based curriculum developed by L.C. McDermott and the Physics Education Group at the University of Washington, Physics by Inquiry, New York, NY, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. (1996.)

  17. Flipped Science Inquiry@Crescent Girls' School

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peishi Goh


    Full Text Available This study shares the findings of a school-based Action Research project to explore how inquiry-based science practical lessons designed using the Flipped Science Inquiry@CGS classroom pedagogical model influence the way students learn scientific knowledge and also students' development of 21st century competencies, in particular, in the area of Knowledge Construction. Taking on a broader definition of the flipped classroom pedagogical model, the Flipped Science Inquiry@CGS framework adopts a structure that inverted the traditional science learning experience. Scientific knowledge is constructed through discussions with their peers, making use of their prior knowledge and their experiences while engaging in hands-on activities. Through the study, it is found that with the use of the Flipped Science Inquiry@CGS framework, learning experiences that are better aligned to the epistemology of science while developing 21st century competencies in students are created.

  18. A robust classic. (United States)

    Kutzner, Florian; Vogel, Tobias; Freytag, Peter; Fiedler, Klaus


    In the present research, we argue for the robustness of illusory correlations (ICs, Hamilton & Gifford, 1976) regarding two boundary conditions suggested in previous research. First, we argue that ICs are maintained under extended experience. Using simulations, we derive conflicting predictions. Whereas noise-based accounts predict ICs to be maintained (Fielder, 2000; Smith, 1991), a prominent account based on discrepancy-reducing feedback learning predicts ICs to disappear (Van Rooy et al., 2003). An experiment involving 320 observations with majority and minority members supports the claim that ICs are maintained. Second, we show that actively using the stereotype to make predictions that are met with reward and punishment does not eliminate the bias. In addition, participants' operant reactions afford a novel online measure of ICs. In sum, our findings highlight the robustness of ICs that can be explained as a result of unbiased but noisy learning.

  19. Robust Airline Schedules


    Eggenberg, Niklaus; Salani, Matteo; Bierlaire, Michel


    Due to economic pressure industries, when planning, tend to focus on optimizing the expected profit or the yield. The consequence of highly optimized solutions is an increased sensitivity to uncertainty. This generates additional "operational" costs, incurred by possible modifications of the original plan to be performed when reality does not reflect what was expected in the planning phase. The modern research trend focuses on "robustness" of solutions instead of yield or profit. Although ro...

  20. The Crane Robust Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Hicar


    Full Text Available The article is about a control design for complete structure of the crane: crab, bridge and crane uplift.The most important unknown parameters for simulations are burden weight and length of hanging rope. We will use robustcontrol for crab and bridge control to ensure adaptivity for burden weight and rope length. Robust control will be designed for current control of the crab and bridge, necessary is to know the range of unknown parameters. Whole robust will be splitto subintervals and after correct identification of unknown parameters the most suitable robust controllers will be chosen.The most important condition at the crab and bridge motion is avoiding from burden swinging in the final position. Crab and bridge drive is designed by asynchronous motor fed from frequency converter. We will use crane uplift with burden weightobserver in combination for uplift, crab and bridge drive with cooperation of their parameters: burden weight, rope length and crab and bridge position. Controllers are designed by state control method. We will use preferably a disturbance observerwhich will identify burden weight as a disturbance. The system will be working in both modes at empty hook as well asat maximum load: burden uplifting and dropping down.

  1. Inquiry-based leading and learning : Inquiry-based working by school boards, school leaders and teachers and students’ inquiry habit of mind

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luijk, E.


    Inquiry-based working is assumed to contribute to improving educational quality and to stimulate professional learning. It involves having an inquiry habit of mind, being data literate and creating a culture of inquiry in schools (based on Earl & Katz, 2006). The general aim of this study was to

  2. Collaboration Modality, Cognitive Load, and Science Inquiry Learning in Virtual Inquiry Environments (United States)

    Erlandson, Benjamin E.; Nelson, Brian C.; Savenye, Wilhelmina C.


    Educational multi-user virtual environments (MUVEs) have been shown to be effective platforms for situated science inquiry curricula. While researchers find MUVEs to be supportive of collaborative scientific inquiry processes, the complex mix of multi-modal messages present in MUVEs can lead to cognitive overload, with learners unable to…

  3. Refining Inquiry with Multi-Form Assessment: Formative and Summative Assessment Functions for Flexible Inquiry (United States)

    Zuiker, Steven; Whitaker, J. Reid


    This paper describes the 5E+I/A inquiry model and reports a case study of one curricular enactment by a US fifth-grade classroom. A literature review establishes the model's conceptual adequacy with respect to longstanding research related to both the 5E inquiry model and multiple, incremental innovations of it. As a collective line of research,…

  4. Target Inquiry: Changing Chemistry High School Teachers' Classroom Practices and Knowledge and Beliefs about Inquiry Instruction (United States)

    Herrington, Deborah G.; Yezierski, Ellen J.; Luxford, Karen M.; Luxford, Cynthia J.


    Inquiry-based instruction requires a deep, conceptual understanding of the process of science combined with a sophisticated knowledge of teaching and learning. This study examines the changes in classroom instructional practices and corresponding changes to knowledge and beliefs about inquiry instruction for eight high school chemistry teachers.…

  5. The Wisdom of Sages: Nuclear Physics Education, Knowledge-Inquiry, and Wisdom-Inquiry (United States)

    Cottey, Alan


    This article addresses the difference between knowledge-inquiry and wisdom-inquiry in nuclear physics education. In the spirit of an earlier study of 57 senior-level textbooks for first-degree physics students, this work focuses here on a remarkable use of literary quotations in one such book. "Particles and Nuclei: an introduction to the physical…

  6. Ark of Inquiry: Responsible Research and Innovation through Computer-Based Inquiry Learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Margus Pedaste; Leo Siiman; Bregje de Vries; Mirjam Burget; Tomi Jaakkola; Emanuele Bardone; Meelis Brikker; Mario Mäeots; Marianne Lind; Koen Veermans


    Ark of Inquiry is a learning platform that uses a computer-based inquiry learning approach to raise youth awareness to Responsible Research and Innovation (RRI). It is developed in the context of a large-scale European project ( and provides young European citizens

  7. Introducing the Cycle of Inquiry System: A Reflective Inquiry Practice for Early Childhood Teacher Development (United States)

    Broderick, Jane Tingle; Hong, Seong Bock


    The Cycle of Inquiry (COI) is a tool for emergent curriculum planning and for professional development of early childhood teachers and teacher education students. The COI includes a sequence of five organizational forms connecting analysis of documentation data with intentional planning for long-term emergent inquiry inspired by the Reggio Emilia…

  8. The Inquiry Matrix: A Tool for Assessing and Planning Inquiry in Biology and Beyond (United States)

    Grady, Julie


    One way to advance inquiry in the classroom is to establish a systematic strategy for reflecting on our practice and our students' readiness to engage in increasingly complex scientific reasoning. The Matrix for Assessing and Planning Scientific Inquiry (MAPSI) is a tool that promotes this valuable reflection so that we, as teachers, are better…

  9. A collaborative narrative inquiry: Two teacher educators learning about narrative inquiry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barkhuizen, Gary


    Full Text Available With its capacity to unharness the power of narrative to promote meaning-making of lived experience, narrative inquiry is developing as a credible approach to research in several areas in the field of language teaching (Johnson, 2006. This article tells the story of two narrative researchers working in language teacher education who engaged in a collaborative narrative inquiry as both participants and inquirers, in order to learn more about narrative inquiry. The ‘bounded’ nature of their inquiry design provided a feasible way for them to explore their focus of research (i.e. their learning about narrative inquiry, and led them, through an iterative and reflexive process of analysing their narrative data, to formulate what they believe are essential ingredients of principled narrative inquiry work. Four narrative inquiry variables became the scaffolding which enabled them to answer their research questions, and are offered here as a heuristic for teaching practitioners, whether they be teachers, teacher educators or researchers, to guide them in narrative inquiries into their own work.

  10. Phases of inquiry-based learning: Definitions and the inquiry cycle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pedaste, Margus; Mäeots, Mario; Siiman, Leo A.; de Jong, Anthonius J.M.; van Riesen, Siswa; Kamp, E.T.; Kamp, E.T.; Manoli, Constantinos C.; Zacharia, Zacharias C.; Tsourlidaki, Eleftheria


    Inquiry-based learning is gaining popularity in science curricula, international research and development projects as well as teaching. One of the underlying reasons is that its success can be significantly improved due to the recent technical developments that allow the inquiry process to be

  11. Appreciative inquiry in medical education. (United States)

    Sandars, John; Murdoch-Eaton, Deborah


    The practice of medicine, and also medical education, typically adopts a problem-solving approach to identify "what is going wrong" with a situation. However, an alternative is Appreciative Inquiry (AI), which adopts a positive and strengths-based approach to identify "what is going well" with a situation. The AI approach can be used for the development and enhancement of the potential of both individuals and organizations. An essential aspect of the AI approach is the generative process, in which a new situation is envisioned and both individual and collective strengths are mobilized to make changes to achieve the valued future situation. The AI approach has been widely used in the world of business and general education, but is has an exciting potential for medical education, including curriculum development, faculty development, supporting learners through academic advising and mentoring, but also for enhancing the teaching and learning of both individuals and groups. This AMEE Guide describes the core principles of AI and their practical application in medical education.

  12. Robust efficient video fingerprinting (United States)

    Puri, Manika; Lubin, Jeffrey


    We have developed a video fingerprinting system with robustness and efficiency as the primary and secondary design criteria. In extensive testing, the system has shown robustness to cropping, letter-boxing, sub-titling, blur, drastic compression, frame rate changes, size changes and color changes, as well as to the geometric distortions often associated with camcorder capture in cinema settings. Efficiency is afforded by a novel two-stage detection process in which a fast matching process first computes a number of likely candidates, which are then passed to a second slower process that computes the overall best match with minimal false alarm probability. One key component of the algorithm is a maximally stable volume computation - a three-dimensional generalization of maximally stable extremal regions - that provides a content-centric coordinate system for subsequent hash function computation, independent of any affine transformation or extensive cropping. Other key features include an efficient bin-based polling strategy for initial candidate selection, and a final SIFT feature-based computation for final verification. We describe the algorithm and its performance, and then discuss additional modifications that can provide further improvement to efficiency and accuracy.

  13. Enabling Students to Construct Theories of Collaborative Inquiry and Reflective Learning: Computer Support for Metacognitive Development


    White, Barbara Y.; Shimoda, Todd A.; Frederiksen, John R.


    Part II of the Special Issue on Authoring Systems for Intelligent Tutoring Systems (editors: Tom Murray and Stephen Blessing); To develop lifelong learning skills, we argue that students need to learn how to learn via inquiry and understand the sociocognitive and metacognitive processes that are involved. We illustrate how software could play a central role in enabling students to develop such expertise. Our hypothesis is that sociocognitive systems, such as those needed for collaborative inq...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wawan Bunawan


    Full Text Available The objective in this research to explore the relationship between ability of the knowledge essential features inquiry science and their reasons underlying sense of scientific inquiry for physics teacher candidates on content geometrical optics. The essential features of inquiry science are components that should arise during the learning process subject matter of geometrical optics reflectance of light on a flat mirror, the reflection of light on curved mirrors and refraction of light at the lens. Five of essential features inquiry science adopted from assessment system developed by the National Research Council. Content geometrical optics developed from an analysis of a college syllabus material. Based on the study of the essential features of inquiry and content develop the multiple choice diagnostic test three tier. Data were taken from the students who are taking courses in optics and wave from one the LPTK in North Sumatra totaled 38 students. Instruments showed Cronbach alpha reliability of 0.67 to test the essential features of inquiry science and 0.61 to there as on geometrical optics science inquiry.

  15. Teachers' Language on Scientific Inquiry: Methods of teaching or methods of inquiry? (United States)

    Gyllenpalm, Jakob; Wickman, Per-Olof; Holmgren, Sven-Olof


    With a focus on the use of language related to scientific inquiry, this paper explores how 12 secondary school science teachers describe instances of students' practical work in their science classes. The purpose of the study was to shed light on the culture and traditions of secondary school science teaching related to inquiry as expressed in the use of language. Data consisted of semi-structured interviews about actual inquiry units used by the teachers. These were used to situate the discussion of their teaching in a real context. The theoretical background is socio-cultural and pragmatist views on the role of language in science learning. The analysis focuses on two concepts of scientific inquiry: hypothesis and experiment. It is shown that the teachers tend to use these terms with a pedagogical function thus conflating methods of teaching with methods of inquiry as part of an emphasis on teaching the children the correct explanation. The teachers did not prioritise an understanding of scientific inquiry as a knowledge goal. It discusses how learners' possibilities to learn about the characteristics of scientific inquiry and the nature of science are affected by an unreflective use of everyday discourse.

  16. Inquiry based learning in physical education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Lars Domino


    The present project is a case study founded on the decreasing motivation and engagement in physical education. The project suggests inquiry based learning (IBL) as an educational methodology. This may help to turn the trend as IBL has shown to engage and motivate students at different educational...... levels and within different subjects. In this pilot research project performed at a physical education teacher education program, qualitative methods were chosen to investigate students’ motivation and engagement within an IBL-unit in physical education and to accentuate challenges, advantages...... and disadvantages within the IBL-methodology in relation to students’ motivation. Instructed in guided inquiry, 32 students of physical education in a teacher training college worked with inquiry based learning in physical education over a four week period. During the IBL-unit, qualitative data such as the students...

  17. Robust automated knowledge capture.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stevens-Adams, Susan Marie; Abbott, Robert G.; Forsythe, James Chris; Trumbo, Michael Christopher Stefan; Haass, Michael Joseph; Hendrickson, Stacey M. Langfitt


    This report summarizes research conducted through the Sandia National Laboratories Robust Automated Knowledge Capture Laboratory Directed Research and Development project. The objective of this project was to advance scientific understanding of the influence of individual cognitive attributes on decision making. The project has developed a quantitative model known as RumRunner that has proven effective in predicting the propensity of an individual to shift strategies on the basis of task and experience related parameters. Three separate studies are described which have validated the basic RumRunner model. This work provides a basis for better understanding human decision making in high consequent national security applications, and in particular, the individual characteristics that underlie adaptive thinking.

  18. Passion, Robustness and Perseverance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lim, Miguel Antonio; Lund, Rebecca


    Evaluation and merit in the measured university are increasingly based on taken-for-granted assumptions about the “ideal academic”. We suggest that the scholar now needs to show that she is passionate about her work and that she gains pleasure from pursuing her craft. We suggest that passion...... and pleasure achieve an exalted status as something compulsory. The scholar ought to feel passionate about her work and signal that she takes pleasure also in the difficult moments. Passion has become a signal of robustness and perseverance in a job market characterised by funding shortages, increased pressure...... way to demonstrate their potential and, crucially, their passion for their work. Drawing on the literature on technologies of governance, we reflect on what is captured and what is left out by these two evaluation instruments. We suggest that bibliometric analysis at the individual level is deeply...

  19. Robust Optical Flow Estimation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Sánchez Pérez


    Full Text Available n this work, we describe an implementation of the variational method proposed by Brox etal. in 2004, which yields accurate optical flows with low running times. It has several benefitswith respect to the method of Horn and Schunck: it is more robust to the presence of outliers,produces piecewise-smooth flow fields and can cope with constant brightness changes. Thismethod relies on the brightness and gradient constancy assumptions, using the information ofthe image intensities and the image gradients to find correspondences. It also generalizes theuse of continuous L1 functionals, which help mitigate the effect of outliers and create a TotalVariation (TV regularization. Additionally, it introduces a simple temporal regularizationscheme that enforces a continuous temporal coherence of the flow fields.

  20. Robust Multimodal Dictionary Learning (United States)

    Cao, Tian; Jojic, Vladimir; Modla, Shannon; Powell, Debbie; Czymmek, Kirk; Niethammer, Marc


    We propose a robust multimodal dictionary learning method for multimodal images. Joint dictionary learning for both modalities may be impaired by lack of correspondence between image modalities in training data, for example due to areas of low quality in one of the modalities. Dictionaries learned with such non-corresponding data will induce uncertainty about image representation. In this paper, we propose a probabilistic model that accounts for image areas that are poorly corresponding between the image modalities. We cast the problem of learning a dictionary in presence of problematic image patches as a likelihood maximization problem and solve it with a variant of the EM algorithm. Our algorithm iterates identification of poorly corresponding patches and re-finements of the dictionary. We tested our method on synthetic and real data. We show improvements in image prediction quality and alignment accuracy when using the method for multimodal image registration. PMID:24505674

  1. Robust snapshot interferometric spectropolarimetry. (United States)

    Kim, Daesuk; Seo, Yoonho; Yoon, Yonghee; Dembele, Vamara; Yoon, Jae Woong; Lee, Kyu Jin; Magnusson, Robert


    This Letter describes a Stokes vector measurement method based on a snapshot interferometric common-path spectropolarimeter. The proposed scheme, which employs an interferometric polarization-modulation module, can extract the spectral polarimetric parameters Ψ(k) and Δ(k) of a transmissive anisotropic object by which an accurate Stokes vector can be calculated in the spectral domain. It is inherently strongly robust to the object 3D pose variation, since it is designed distinctly so that the measured object can be placed outside of the interferometric module. Experiments are conducted to verify the feasibility of the proposed system. The proposed snapshot scheme enables us to extract the spectral Stokes vector of a transmissive anisotropic object within tens of msec with high accuracy.

  2. International Conference on Robust Statistics

    CERN Document Server

    Filzmoser, Peter; Gather, Ursula; Rousseeuw, Peter


    Aspects of Robust Statistics are important in many areas. Based on the International Conference on Robust Statistics 2001 (ICORS 2001) in Vorau, Austria, this volume discusses future directions of the discipline, bringing together leading scientists, experienced researchers and practitioners, as well as younger researchers. The papers cover a multitude of different aspects of Robust Statistics. For instance, the fundamental problem of data summary (weights of evidence) is considered and its robustness properties are studied. Further theoretical subjects include e.g.: robust methods for skewness, time series, longitudinal data, multivariate methods, and tests. Some papers deal with computational aspects and algorithms. Finally, the aspects of application and programming tools complete the volume.

  3. Inquiry and the normative aspect in learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wiberg, Merete

    as the interplay between intentions and life-story of the individual and culture and community. The theory of inquiry in the philosophy of Dewey offers an understanding of processes of learning as transformation from an indeterminate to a determinate situation. Furthermore, the normative aspect of learning......“Inquiry and the normative aspect of learning” In the paper it will be argued that the normative aspect of learning is to be found in the interplay between individual and world when the individual in an inquiring process tries to come to terms with the world. Normativity in learning is seen...

  4. A Return to Methodological Commitment: Reflections on Narrative Inquiry (United States)

    Caine, Vera; Estefan, Andrew; Clandinin, D. Jean


    In the 25 years since narrative inquiry emerged as a social science research methodology, it has been rapidly taken up in the social sciences. In what is sometimes called a "narrative revolution," researchers with diverse understandings have co-opted the concept of narrative inquiry and used narrative inquiry or narrative research to…

  5. 49 CFR 211.61 - Informal safety inquiries. (United States)


    ... information on selected topics relating to railroad safety. A notice of each such inquiry will be published in... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Informal safety inquiries. 211.61 Section 211.61..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RULES OF PRACTICE Miscellaneous Safety-Related Proceedings and Inquiries § 211...

  6. Experimental Comparison of Inquiry and Direct Instruction in Science (United States)

    Cobern, William W.; Schuster, David; Adams, Betty; Applegate, Brooks; Skjold, Brandy; Undreiu, Adriana; Loving, Cathleen C.; Gobert, Janice D.


    There are continuing educational and political debates about "inquiry" versus "direct" teaching of science. Traditional science instruction has been largely direct but in the US, recent national and state science education standards advocate inquiry throughout K-12 education. While inquiry-based instruction has the advantage of modelling aspects…

  7. The Benefits of Using Authentic Inquiry within Biotechnology Education (United States)

    Hanegan, Nikki; Bigler, Amber


    A broad continuum exists to describe the structure of inquiry lessons (Hanegan, Friden, & Nelson, 2009). Most teachers have heard inquiry described from a range of simple questioning to completely student-designed scientific studies (Chinn & Malhotra, 2002). Biotechnology education often uses a variety of inquiries from cookbook laboratory…

  8. Pedagogical Practices to Support Classroom Cultures of Scientific Inquiry (United States)

    Herrenkohl, Leslie Rupert; Tasker, Tammy; White, Barbara


    This article examines the pedagogical practices of two science inquiry teachers and their students using a Web-based system called Web of Inquiry (WOI). There is a need to build a collective repertoire of pedagogical practices that can assist elementary and middle school teachers as they support students to develop a complex model of inquiry based…

  9. Evaluation Inquiry in Donor Funded Programmes in Northern Ghana ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An evaluation inquiry has been noted to have a significant influence on whether the evaluation outcomes are used or not. However, only limited studies have examined evaluation inquiry and its implication on the use of evaluation in Ghana. This study therefore seeks to contribute to knowledge on evaluation inquiry and the ...

  10. Economics through Inquiry: Creating Social Businesses in Fifth Grade (United States)

    Whitlock, Annie McMahon


    The College, Career, and Civic Life (C3) Framework from the National Council for Social Studies (NCSS) features an inquiry approach to teaching K-12 social studies in which social studies standards are organized into an "inquiry arc." Inquiry in elementary economics is often underused in practice (Laney 2001). This study describes how a…

  11. Robustness Analyses of Timber Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkegaard, Poul Henning; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard; Hald, Frederik


    The robustness of structural systems has obtained a renewed interest arising from a much more frequent use of advanced types of structures with limited redundancy and serious consequences in case of failure. In order to minimise the likelihood of such disproportionate structural failures, many mo...... with respect to robustness of timber structures and will discuss the consequences of such robustness issues related to the future development of timber structures.......The robustness of structural systems has obtained a renewed interest arising from a much more frequent use of advanced types of structures with limited redundancy and serious consequences in case of failure. In order to minimise the likelihood of such disproportionate structural failures, many...... modern building codes consider the need for the robustness of structures and provide strategies and methods to obtain robustness. Therefore, a structural engineer may take necessary steps to design robust structures that are insensitive to accidental circumstances. The present paper summaries issues...

  12. Lessons from the Sizewell B inquiry: how to make major public inquiries into energy projects fair and efficient. Address to the parliamentary group for energy studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Riordan, T.; Purdue, M.; Kemp, R.


    The paper is an address to the Parliamentary Group for Energy Studies, and concerns an appraisal of the Sizewell B Inquiry. The unique nature of the Inquiry is described, and an assessment of the Inquiry is given. Based on the main criticisms of the Inquiry, proposals for the reform of future major public inquiries are put forward.

  13. The Impact of a Practice-Teaching Professional Development Model on Teachers' Inquiry Instruction and Inquiry Efficacy Beliefs (United States)

    Lotter, Christine R.; Thompson, Stephen; Dickenson, Tammiee S.; Smiley, Whitney F.; Blue, Genine; Rea, Mary


    This study examined changes in middle school teachers' beliefs about inquiry, implementation of inquiry practices, and self-efficacy to teach science through inquiry after participating in a year-long professional development program. The professional development model design was based on Bandura's (1986) social cognitive theory of learning and…

  14. Robust small area prediction for counts. (United States)

    Tzavidis, Nikos; Ranalli, M Giovanna; Salvati, Nicola; Dreassi, Emanuela; Chambers, Ray


    A new semiparametric approach to model-based small area prediction for counts is proposed and used for estimating the average number of visits to physicians for Health Districts in Central Italy. The proposed small area predictor can be viewed as an outlier robust alternative to the more commonly used empirical plug-in predictor that is based on a Poisson generalized linear mixed model with Gaussian random effects. Results from the real data application and from a simulation experiment confirm that the proposed small area predictor has good robustness properties and in some cases can be more efficient than alternative small area approaches. © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions:

  15. The Robustness of High Danish National Happiness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hussain, M. Azhar


    Denmark’s top position in various rankings of country happiness is well-documented. This study goes beyond the national average comparisons and investigates whether Denmark’s top position is also found when we disaggregate data in line with social categories often used within the social sciences....... The central measure is the empirical probability that a given population subgroup in Denmark has significantly higher happiness compared to another country’s similar subgroup in a given year. All five rounds of the European Social Survey are used but only the sixteen countries that were surveyed in each...... of the five rounds are included in this study. The results show that Denmark’s position at the top of the happiness scale is also robust when we look at population subgroups, but not in the sense that Denmark dominates all countries for all years. Instead, a modified version of robustness is necessary...

  16. Public Inquiry Data - Report on Incoming, Pending, and Completed Inquiries - FY 2015 Onward (United States)

    Social Security Administration — This dataset provides data on the number of new incoming, pending, and completed inquiries by quarter. The data source is the Electronic Management of Assignments...

  17. Dynamics robustness of cascading systems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan T Young


    Full Text Available A most important property of biochemical systems is robustness. Static robustness, e.g., homeostasis, is the insensitivity of a state against perturbations, whereas dynamics robustness, e.g., homeorhesis, is the insensitivity of a dynamic process. In contrast to the extensively studied static robustness, dynamics robustness, i.e., how a system creates an invariant temporal profile against perturbations, is little explored despite transient dynamics being crucial for cellular fates and are reported to be robust experimentally. For example, the duration of a stimulus elicits different phenotypic responses, and signaling networks process and encode temporal information. Hence, robustness in time courses will be necessary for functional biochemical networks. Based on dynamical systems theory, we uncovered a general mechanism to achieve dynamics robustness. Using a three-stage linear signaling cascade as an example, we found that the temporal profiles and response duration post-stimulus is robust to perturbations against certain parameters. Then analyzing the linearized model, we elucidated the criteria of when signaling cascades will display dynamics robustness. We found that changes in the upstream modules are masked in the cascade, and that the response duration is mainly controlled by the rate-limiting module and organization of the cascade's kinetics. Specifically, we found two necessary conditions for dynamics robustness in signaling cascades: 1 Constraint on the rate-limiting process: The phosphatase activity in the perturbed module is not the slowest. 2 Constraints on the initial conditions: The kinase activity needs to be fast enough such that each module is saturated even with fast phosphatase activity and upstream changes are attenuated. We discussed the relevance of such robustness to several biological examples and the validity of the above conditions therein. Given the applicability of dynamics robustness to a variety of systems, it

  18. A Learning Cycle Inquiry into Plant Nutrition. (United States)

    Lee, Cherin A.


    Describes an investigation on plant nutrition that was developed in the form of a guided inquiry learning cycle and can be implemented in a wide range of grade levels from middle school through college. Investigates the needs of plants to live. (Contains 17 references.) (YDS)

  19. Trust and the Community of Inquiry (United States)

    Haynes, Felicity


    This article investigates the place of trust in learning relations in the classroom, not only between teacher and student, but also between student and student. To do this, it will first examine a pedagogy called community of inquiry, espoused by John Dewey and used in most Philosophy for Children courses in Australia. It will then consider what…

  20. Teaching Inquiry with a Lens toward Curiosity (United States)

    von Renesse, Christine; Ecke, Volker


    This paper links educational psychology research about curiosity to teacher moves that are effective in an inquiry-based mathematics classroom. Three vignettes will show explicit teacher moves (staging disagreement, intriguing anecdotes, and creating a safe space) for different audiences (math majors, mathematics for liberal arts students, and…

  1. Group Inquiry Techniques for Teaching Writing. (United States)

    Hawkins, Thom

    The small size of college composition classes encourages exciting and meaningful interaction, especially when students are divided into smaller, autonomous groups for all or part of the hour. This booklet discusses the advantages of combining the inquiry method (sometimes called the discovery method) with a group approach and describes specific…

  2. Troubling Methods in Qualitative Inquiry and Beyond

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tanggaard, Lene


    This present paper troubles and literally ‘shakes’ the idea of methods as the founding ground of qualitative inquiry. It does so by addressing the real-time messiness of research and the retrospective character of research reports. While the paper is not as such opposed to methods, it does suggest...

  3. 5 CFR 1315.18 - Inquiries. (United States)


    ... Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET OMB DIRECTIVES PROMPT PAYMENT § 1315.18 Inquiries. (a..., Financial Management Service (FMS), Cash Management Policy and Planning Division, 401 14th Street, SW... Management Service (FMS) at 1-800-266-9667. This information is also available at the FMS Prompt Payment Web...

  4. Developing Web literacy in collaborative inquiry activities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuiper, E.; Volman, M.L.L.; Terwel, J.


    Although many children are technically skilled in using the Web, their competences to use it in a critical and meaningful way are usually less well developed. In this article, we report on a multiple case study focusing on the possibilities and limitations of collaborative inquiry activities as an

  5. Standing Waves and Inquiry Using Water Droplets (United States)

    Sinclair, Dina; Vondracek, Mark


    Most high school and introductory college physics classes study simple harmonic motion and various wave phenomena. With the majority of states adopting the Next Generation Science Standards and pushing students to explore the scientific process for themselves, there is a growing demand for hands-on inquiry activities that involve and develop more…

  6. Situating Teacher Inquiry: A Micropolitical Perspective (United States)

    LeChasseur, Kimberly; Mayer, Anysia; Welton, Anjale; Donaldson, Morgaen


    Professional learning communities (PLCs) have become a popular strategy in various forms (e.g., data teams, grade-level teams) and with various champions (e.g., district leaders, university researchers, teacher advocates). Although well-implemented PLCs have been shown to distribute leadership, the tension between democratic inquiry processes and…

  7. Student Leadership in Small Group Science Inquiry (United States)

    Oliveira, Alandeom W.; Boz, Umit; Broadwell, George A.; Sadler, Troy D.


    Background: Science educators have sought to structure collaborative inquiry learning through the assignment of static group roles. This structural approach to student grouping oversimplifies the complexities of peer collaboration and overlooks the highly dynamic nature of group activity. Purpose: This study addresses this issue of…

  8. Evaluating Appreciative Inquiry: a relational constructionist perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haar, D. van der; Hosking, D.M.


    Appreciative Inquiry (AI) has become increasingly popular as a social constructionist approach to organizational change and development. Many claims are made about its status and value but there are few published evaluation studies. We discuss these matters by setting out our own version of

  9. Appreciative Inquiry - anerkendende udforskning skaber mulighedsrum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mejlvig, Kirsten


    Anerkendende udforskning, den danske danske betegnelse for aktionsforskningstilgangen Appreciative Inquiry, fokuserer på at udforske og forandre forhold i det organisatoriske liv, gennem understregningen af, at det er muligt at skabe og vedligeholde en organisation, på grundlag af dens styrker- d...... og Destiny - Skæbne) i en forskningscase....

  10. Narrative experiments and imaginative inquiry | Gough | South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    I share a number of experiences of writing as a mode of educational inquiry, with particular reference to narrative experiments inspired by Gilles Deleuze and Félix Guattari's figuration of the rhizome — a process characterised as rhizosemiotic play — and demonstrate the generativity of intertextual readings of selected ...

  11. Artistic Expressions as Primary Modes of Inquiry (United States)

    McNiff, Shaun


    "Art-Based Research" (McNiff, 1998a) introduced the idea of using artistic expressions by researchers as ways of knowing and methods of inquiry as distinguished from approaching art made by subjects as data which are interpreted by discursive methods, a practice that has been widely used in various disciplines studying human behaviour.…

  12. Commentary: Toward Convergence in Creativity Inquiry (United States)

    Tan, Ai-Girl; Wong, Meng-Ee


    This commentary is about reflection in the new language of creativity and the meanings of inquiry into creative life. The authors of the commentary adopt the cultural paradigm of psychology of creativity. They praise effortful creativity of the authors who submitted the articles to this special issue. Their studies employed diverse methods of…

  13. Using Games to Engage Students in Inquiry (United States)

    Byrne, Martha


    This paper discusses the author's experiences of getting advanced undergraduate math students to engage in mathematical inquiry by using games as a vehicle for exploration. The students explored the mathematics behind SET®1, Spot it!®2, Blokus®3, and Six®4. Specifically, we present the experience of the instructor and students and how the games…

  14. Micro-Computers in Biology Inquiry. (United States)

    Barnato, Carolyn; Barrett, Kathy


    Describes the modification of computer programs (BISON and POLLUT) to accommodate species and areas indigenous to the Pacific Coast area. Suggests that these programs, suitable for PET microcomputers, may foster a long-term, ongoing, inquiry-directed approach in biology. (DS)

  15. Short-Term Intercultural Psychotherapy: Ethnographic Inquiry (United States)

    Seeley, Karen M.


    This article examines the challenges specific to short-term intercultural treatments and recently developed approaches to intercultural treatments based on notions of cultural knowledge and cultural competence. The article introduces alternative approaches to short-term intercultural treatments based on ethnographic inquiry adapted for clinical…

  16. Qualitative Case Study Research as Empirical Inquiry (United States)

    Ellinger, Andrea D.; McWhorter, Rochell


    This article introduces the concept of qualitative case study research as empirical inquiry. It defines and distinguishes what a case study is, the purposes, intentions, and types of case studies. It then describes how to determine if a qualitative case study is the preferred approach for conducting research. It overviews the essential steps in…

  17. New science teachers' descriptions of inquiry enactment (United States)

    Dreon, Oliver, Jr.

    This phenomenological study demonstrates the influence that affective factors have on beginning teachers' ability to enact instructional practices. Through narratives shared in interviews and web log postings, two beginning science teachers' emotional engagement with their instructional practices, especially that of implementing inquiry-based instruction, and the resulting impact these emotions had on professional decision-making were evidenced. Anxiety emerged as the most significant impacting emotion on instructional decision-making with the participants. Through their stories, the two participants describe how their emotions and views of self influence whether they continue using inquiry pedagogy or alter their lesson to adopt more didactic means of instruction. These emotions arise from their feelings of being comfortable teaching the content (self-efficacy), from the unpredictability of inquiry lessons (control beliefs), from how they perceive their students as viewing them (teacher identity) and from various school constraints (agency). This research also demonstrates how intertwined these aspects are, informing each other in a complex, dialectical fashion. The participants' self-efficacy and professional identity emerge from their interactions with the community (their students and colleagues) and the perceived agency afforded by their schools' curricula and administration. By providing descriptions of teachers' experiences enacting inquiry pedagogy, this study expands our understanding of factors that influence teachers' instructional practices and provides a basis for reforming science teacher preparation.

  18. Inquiry for Engagement in Teaching and Learning (United States)

    Moss, Glenda


    "Whither scholarship in the work of enhancing the quality of teaching and learning?" The question reminds the author of one Shakespeare asked, "To be or not to be?" She cannot imagine teaching and learning taking place in any classroom without inquiry. Scholarship in the practice of teaching and learning is teaching and learning. She believes that…

  19. 42 CFR 93.212 - Inquiry. (United States)



  20. Rethinking the Representation Problem in Curriculum Inquiry (United States)

    Green, Bill


    The consolidation of reconceptualism as a distinctive tradition in curriculum inquiry is commonly understood to go hand-in-hand with the decline and even eclipse of an explicit political orientation in such work. This paper offers an alternative argument, focusing on a re-assessment of what has been called the representation problem, and exploring…

  1. Appreciative Inquiry. Trends and Issues Alert. (United States)

    Kerka, Sandra

    Appreciative inquiry (AI) is based on the heliotropic principle, which has been variously described as art and science, holistic theory and practice, and practical philosophy and change process. AI engages people and organizations in discovering what gives life to human systems when they are most effective and constructive and using that knowledge…

  2. Robust continuous clustering. (United States)

    Shah, Sohil Atul; Koltun, Vladlen


    Clustering is a fundamental procedure in the analysis of scientific data. It is used ubiquitously across the sciences. Despite decades of research, existing clustering algorithms have limited effectiveness in high dimensions and often require tuning parameters for different domains and datasets. We present a clustering algorithm that achieves high accuracy across multiple domains and scales efficiently to high dimensions and large datasets. The presented algorithm optimizes a smooth continuous objective, which is based on robust statistics and allows heavily mixed clusters to be untangled. The continuous nature of the objective also allows clustering to be integrated as a module in end-to-end feature learning pipelines. We demonstrate this by extending the algorithm to perform joint clustering and dimensionality reduction by efficiently optimizing a continuous global objective. The presented approach is evaluated on large datasets of faces, hand-written digits, objects, newswire articles, sensor readings from the Space Shuttle, and protein expression levels. Our method achieves high accuracy across all datasets, outperforming the best prior algorithm by a factor of 3 in average rank.

  3. Heavy-tailed distributions and robustness in economics and finance

    CERN Document Server

    Ibragimov, Marat; Walden, Johan


    This book focuses on general frameworks for modeling heavy-tailed distributions in economics, finance, econometrics, statistics, risk management and insurance. A central theme is that of (non-)robustness, i.e., the fact that the presence of heavy tails can either reinforce or reverse the implications of a number of models in these fields, depending on the degree of heavy-tailedness. These results motivate the development and applications of robust inference approaches under heavy tails, heterogeneity and dependence in observations. Several recently developed robust inference approaches are discussed and illustrated, together with applications.

  4. The influence of an inquiry professional development program on secondary science teachers' conceptions and use of inquiry teaching (United States)

    Lotter, Christine


    This research investigated nine secondary science teachers' conceptions and use of inquiry teaching throughout a year-long professional development program. The professional development program consisted of a two-week summer inquiry institute and research experience in university scientists' laboratories, as well as three academic year workshops. Teachers' conceptions of inquiry teaching were established through both qualitative interviews and a quantitative instrument given before and after the summer institute and again at the end of the academic year. Videotapes of all nine teachers presenting inquiry lessons in their own classrooms were evaluated using an observation protocol that measured the teachers' degree of reform teaching. Three of the teachers were chosen for an in-depth case study of their classroom teaching practices. Data collected from each of the case study teachers included videotapes from classroom observations, responses to an inquiry survey, and transcripts from two additional qualitative interviews. Students' responses to their teachers' use of inquiry teaching were also investigated in the case study classrooms. Through their participation in the professional development experience, the teachers gained a deeper understanding of how to implement inquiry practices in their classrooms. The teachers gained confidence and practice with inquiry methods through developing and presenting their institute-developed inquiry lessons, through observing other teachers' lessons, and participating as students in the workshop inquiry activities. Data analysis revealed that the teachers' knowledge of inquiry was necessary but not sufficient for their implementation of inquiry teaching practices. The teachers' conceptions of science, their students, effective teaching practices, and the purpose of education were found to have a direct effect on the type and amount of inquiry instruction performed in the high school classrooms. The research findings suggest that

  5. Robust Trust in Expert Testimony

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Dahlman


    Full Text Available The standard of proof in criminal trials should require that the evidence presented by the prosecution is robust. This requirement of robustness says that it must be unlikely that additional information would change the probability that the defendant is guilty. Robustness is difficult for a judge to estimate, as it requires the judge to assess the possible effect of information that the he or she does not have. This article is concerned with expert witnesses and proposes a method for reviewing the robustness of expert testimony. According to the proposed method, the robustness of expert testimony is estimated with regard to competence, motivation, external strength, internal strength and relevance. The danger of trusting non-robust expert testimony is illustrated with an analysis of the Thomas Quick Case, a Swedish legal scandal where a patient at a mental institution was wrongfully convicted for eight murders.

  6. Hinkley Point 'C' power station public inquiry: proof of evidence on potential off-site effects of radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Western, D.J.


    A public inquiry has been set up to examine the planning application made by the Central Electricity Generating Board (CEGB) for the construction of a 1200 MW Pressurized Water Reactor power station at Hinkley Point (Hinkley Point ''C'') in the United Kingdom. This evidence to the Inquiry is concerned with the potential of the proposed Hinkely Point ''C'' PWR to increase the exposure of members of the public offsite to radiation. The policy is to replicate the design of the Sizewell ''B'' reactor. The evidence examined in great detail at the Sizewell ''B'' Public Inquiry where the Inspector concluded that the risk would be very small. The purpose of this evidence is to provide an explicit account of the potential off-site effects of radiation at the Hinkley Point site, so that it can be seen that there is nothing specific to this location that could lead to a different conclusion. (author)

  7. A well-started beginning elementary teacher's beliefs and practices in relation to reform recommendations about inquiry-based science (United States)

    Avraamidou, Lucy


    Given reform recommendations emphasizing scientific inquiry and empirical evidence pointing to the difficulties beginning teachers face in enacting inquiry-based science, this study explores a well-started beginning elementary teacher's (Sofia) beliefs about inquiry-based science and related instructional practices. In order to explore Sofia's beliefs and instructional practices, several kinds of data were collected in a period of 9 months: a self-portrait and an accompanying narrative, a personal philosophy assignment, three interviews, three journal entries, ten lesson plans, and ten videotaped classroom observations. The analysis of these data showed that Sofia's beliefs and instructional practices were reform-minded. She articulated contemporary beliefs about scientific inquiry and how children learn science and was able to translate these beliefs into practice. Central to Sofia's beliefs about science teaching were scientific inquiry and engaging students in investigations with authentic data, with a prevalent emphasis on the role of evidence in the construction of scientific claims. These findings are important to research aiming at supporting teachers, especially beginning ones, to embrace reform recommendations.

  8. Robust and distributed hypothesis testing

    CERN Document Server

    Gül, Gökhan


    This book generalizes and extends the available theory in robust and decentralized hypothesis testing. In particular, it presents a robust test for modeling errors which is independent from the assumptions that a sufficiently large number of samples is available, and that the distance is the KL-divergence. Here, the distance can be chosen from a much general model, which includes the KL-divergence as a very special case. This is then extended by various means. A minimax robust test that is robust against both outliers as well as modeling errors is presented. Minimax robustness properties of the given tests are also explicitly proven for fixed sample size and sequential probability ratio tests. The theory of robust detection is extended to robust estimation and the theory of robust distributed detection is extended to classes of distributions, which are not necessarily stochastically bounded. It is shown that the quantization functions for the decision rules can also be chosen as non-monotone. Finally, the boo...

  9. Robustness of IPTV business models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouwman, H.; Zhengjia, M.; Duin, P. van der; Limonard, S.


    The final stage in the STOF method is an evaluation of the robustness of the design, for which the method provides some guidelines. For many innovative services, the future holds numerous uncertainties, which makes evaluating the robustness of a business model a difficult task. In this chapter, we

  10. Robustness Evaluation of Timber Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkegaard, Poul Henning; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard


    Robustness of structural systems has obtained a renewed interest due to a much more frequent use of advanced types of structures with limited redundancy and serious consequences in case of failure.......Robustness of structural systems has obtained a renewed interest due to a much more frequent use of advanced types of structures with limited redundancy and serious consequences in case of failure....

  11. Hinkley Point 'C' power station public inquiry: proof of evidence on local site related issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gammon, K.M.


    A public inquiry has been set up to examine the planning application made by the Central Electricity Generating Board (CEGB) for the construction of a 1200 MW Pressurized Water Reactor power station at Hinkley Point (Hinkley Point ''C'') in the United Kingdom, adjacent to an existing nuclear power station. The CEGB evidence to the Inquiry on local site related issues begins by setting the proposed development within the context of local authority planning policies for the area. The implications of the development in terms of overall land needs, construction, access, buildings and works both temporary and permanent, are described. Environmental impacts, aesthetic and socio-economic factors are considered including possible effects on agriculture, nature conservation, water supply, transport and employment. (UK)

  12. Hinkley Point 'C' power station public inquiry: proof of evidence on agriculture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Worthington, T.R.


    A public inquiry has been set up to examine the planning application made by the Central Electricity Generating Board (CEGB) for the construction of a 1200 MW Pressurized Water Reactor power station at Hinkley Point (Hinkley Point ''C'') in the United Kingdom. Agricultural land will need to be acquired for the proposed construction both on a temporary and permanent basis. The CEGB evidence to the Inquiry identifies the land which will be permanently lost for agricultural purposes and that which could eventually be returned to agriculture. All the land required is on a single holding but should leave a viable area to be farmed. The farming business would be compensated for loss of profits. (UK)

  13. Hinkley Point 'C' power station public inquiry: proof of evidence on landscape and architecture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lisney, A.; Owen, I.D.


    A public inquiry has been set up to examine the planning application made by the Central Electricity Generating Board (CEGB) for the construction of a 1200 MW Pressurized Water Reactor power station at Hinkley Point (Hinkley Point ''C'') in the United Kingdom, adjacent to an existing nuclear power station. The CEGB evidence to the Inquiry includes an assessment of the effect, in visual terms, that the additional power station will have on the surrounding landscape and landscaping proposals for the proposed construction, including reinstatement of land used for temporary works. In addition, the architectural objectives for the new buildings are presented, primarily aiming at the best possible appearance from relatively short distances and medium and long range. (UK)

  14. Robust statistical methods with R

    CERN Document Server

    Jureckova, Jana


    Robust statistical methods were developed to supplement the classical procedures when the data violate classical assumptions. They are ideally suited to applied research across a broad spectrum of study, yet most books on the subject are narrowly focused, overly theoretical, or simply outdated. Robust Statistical Methods with R provides a systematic treatment of robust procedures with an emphasis on practical application.The authors work from underlying mathematical tools to implementation, paying special attention to the computational aspects. They cover the whole range of robust methods, including differentiable statistical functions, distance of measures, influence functions, and asymptotic distributions, in a rigorous yet approachable manner. Highlighting hands-on problem solving, many examples and computational algorithms using the R software supplement the discussion. The book examines the characteristics of robustness, estimators of real parameter, large sample properties, and goodness-of-fit tests. It...

  15. Robustness of weighted networks (United States)

    Bellingeri, Michele; Cassi, Davide


    Complex network response to node loss is a central question in different fields of network science because node failure can cause the fragmentation of the network, thus compromising the system functioning. Previous studies considered binary networks where the intensity (weight) of the links is not accounted for, i.e. a link is either present or absent. However, in real-world networks the weights of connections, and thus their importance for network functioning, can be widely different. Here, we analyzed the response of real-world and model networks to node loss accounting for link intensity and the weighted structure of the network. We used both classic binary node properties and network functioning measure, introduced a weighted rank for node importance (node strength), and used a measure for network functioning that accounts for the weight of the links (weighted efficiency). We find that: (i) the efficiency of the attack strategies changed using binary or weighted network functioning measures, both for real-world or model networks; (ii) in some cases, removing nodes according to weighted rank produced the highest damage when functioning was measured by the weighted efficiency; (iii) adopting weighted measure for the network damage changed the efficacy of the attack strategy with respect the binary analyses. Our results show that if the weighted structure of complex networks is not taken into account, this may produce misleading models to forecast the system response to node failure, i.e. consider binary links may not unveil the real damage induced in the system. Last, once weighted measures are introduced, in order to discover the best attack strategy, it is important to analyze the network response to node loss using nodes rank accounting the intensity of the links to the node.

  16. Which Type of Inquiry Project Do High School Biology Students Prefer: Open or Guided? (United States)

    Sadeh, Irit; Zion, Michal


    In teaching inquiry to high school students, educators differ on which method of teaching inquiry is more effective: Guided or open inquiry? This paper examines the influence of these two different inquiry learning approaches on the attitudes of Israeli high school biology students toward their inquiry project. The results showed significant…

  17. The Teaching and Assessment of Inquiry Competences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rönnebeck, Silke; Nielsen, Jan Alexis; Olley, Christopher


    New competence-oriented learning goals can only be sustainably implemented if they are aligned with teaching and assessment goals. Within the fields of science, technology and mathematics education, one approach of compe-tence-oriented teaching is based on the concept of inquiry-based education....... Scien-tific inquiry in science, problem solving in mathematics, design processes in tech-nology and innovation as a cross-curricular approach to teaching and learning that is emphasised as a key element of 21st century skills allow students to engage in the thinking and working processes of scientists....... By applying these approaches, teachers can address subject-specific as well as generic competences (e.g. investi-gation in science as a subject-specific competence vs. argumentation or communi-cation as more generic competences). Since what is assessed strongly influences what is taught, changes in teaching...

  18. Socio-Materiality and Modes of Inquiry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buch, Anders


    the character of the socio-material relationship. The discussion will be guided by John Dewey’s and Arthur F. Bentley’s reflections on Knowing and the Known (1989/1948), as they distinguish between different levels of describing inquiry into the world we inhabit. At some levels of inquiry, we tend to construe...... of technology on human activity. In Science and Technology Studies (STS) the question has been discussed as the ‘social shaping of technology’ and various theoretical frameworks have been put forward that stress the interwoven character of the social and the material, e.g. Social Construction of Technology...... (SCOT), Actor-Network Theory (ANT), and Agential Realism. Whereas there is general agreement in STS that the social and the material is related there is no general agreement about how the socio-material relationship should be understood. Ontological, epistemological and methodological issues tend...

  19. Representational Inquiry competences in Science Games

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Magnussen, Rikke


    to support work with genuine scientific inquiry and to meet the seventh- to tenth grade curriculum objectives for science and Danish education in Danish schools. This paper comprises a presentation of the results of a long-term empirical study done of four school classes who have played the game. The chapter......This chapter concerns the enactment of competences in a particular science learning game Homicide, which is played in lower secondary schools. Homicide is a forensic investigation game in which pupils play police experts solving criminal cases in the space of one week. The game is designed......, transform and criticize visual representations as an integrated part of conducting an inquiry in the science game...

  20. Windscale inquiry and policy-making procedures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Von Moltke, K


    Policy decisions on the development and installation of nuclear facilities often strain both the time and human resources of a country, some countries having taken steps to involve the national government in specific siting decisions and shifting the constitutional balance in response to popular dissent. Challenges to nuclear facilities could be met by limiting the scope of intervenors and the use of judicial review. The 100-day Windscale Inquiry in the United Kingdom represents the most costly review any country has had of a specific nuclear policy and has international implications. A chronology of the inquiry illustrates how the debate evolved into a vote on whether nuclear energy should be developed at all and effectively cut off other avenues of recourse. The traditional procedures for planning are shown to be inadequate for setting nuclear energy policy without the intervention of Parliament. 18 references.

  1. Co-creating meaning through Artful Inquiry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Darsø, Lotte


    The purpose of this chapter is to point out the need for aesthetic and artful methods for reflection, learning and co-creation. The context is management education focused on developing innovation competency. The data derive from action research, observations and written reports. The main contrib...... of leadership icons as well as co-creating with tangible materials can give rise to new meaning and transformational learning.......The purpose of this chapter is to point out the need for aesthetic and artful methods for reflection, learning and co-creation. The context is management education focused on developing innovation competency. The data derive from action research, observations and written reports. The main...... contribution of this chapter is the introduction of a model for Artful Inquiry, which involves constructing powerful questions and finding appropriate artistic methods for reflecting and for co-creating with people or with artistic material. It is argued that Artful Inquiry can access deeper layers of knowing...

  2. The Industry Commission inquiry into charitable organisations. (United States)

    Suter, K


    The Industry Commission has carried out Australia's largest inquiry into charities. It was, from the point of view of charities, an unsatisfactory operation, all the more so since it was not clear why the task had been given to the commission. This article examines the commission's work in three ways: the overall relationship between government and charities; the commission's proposed major reforms; and the minor reforms.

  3. Improving Inquiry Teaching through Reflection on Practice (United States)

    Lotter, Christine R.; Miller, Cory


    In this paper, we explore middle school science teachers' learning of inquiry-based instructional strategies through reflection on practice teaching sessions during a summer enrichment program with middle level students. The reflection sessions were part of a larger year-long inquiry professional development program in which teachers learned science content and inquiry pedagogy. The program included a 2-week summer institute in which teachers participated in science content sessions, practice teaching to middle level students, and small group-facilitated reflection sessions on their teaching. For this study, data collection focused on teachers' recorded dialogue during the facilitator - run reflection sessions, the teachers' daily written reflections, a final written reflection, and a written reflection on a videotaped teaching session. We investigated the teachers' reflection levels and the themes teachers focused on during their reflection sessions. Teachers were found to reflect at various reflection levels, from simple description to a more sophisticated focus on how to improve student learning. Recurrent themes point to the importance of providing situated learning environments, such as the practice teaching with immediate reflection for teachers to have time to practice new instructional strategies and gain insight from peers and science educators on how to handle student learning issues.

  4. Robust loss functions for boosting. (United States)

    Kanamori, Takafumi; Takenouchi, Takashi; Eguchi, Shinto; Murata, Noboru


    Boosting is known as a gradient descent algorithm over loss functions. It is often pointed out that the typical boosting algorithm, Adaboost, is highly affected by outliers. In this letter, loss functions for robust boosting are studied. Based on the concept of robust statistics, we propose a transformation of loss functions that makes boosting algorithms robust against extreme outliers. Next, the truncation of loss functions is applied to contamination models that describe the occurrence of mislabels near decision boundaries. Numerical experiments illustrate that the proposed loss functions derived from the contamination models are useful for handling highly noisy data in comparison with other loss functions.

  5. Theoretical Framework for Robustness Evaluation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, John Dalsgaard


    This paper presents a theoretical framework for evaluation of robustness of structural systems, incl. bridges and buildings. Typically modern structural design codes require that ‘the consequence of damages to structures should not be disproportional to the causes of the damages’. However, although...... the importance of robustness for structural design is widely recognized the code requirements are not specified in detail, which makes the practical use difficult. This paper describes a theoretical and risk based framework to form the basis for quantification of robustness and for pre-normative guidelines...

  6. Distributed Robustness Analysis of Interconnected Uncertain Systems Using Chordal Decomposition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pakazad, Sina Khoshfetrat; Hansson, Anders; Andersen, Martin Skovgaard


    Large-scale interconnected uncertain systems commonly have large state and uncertainty dimensions. Aside from the heavy computational cost of performing robust stability analysis in a centralized manner, privacy requirements in the network can also introduce further issues. In this paper, we util...

  7. Robust model of fresh jujube soluble solids content with near ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A robust partial least square (PLS) calibration model with high accuracy and stability was established for the measurement of soluble solids content (SSC) of fresh jujube using near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy technique. Fresh jujube samples were collected in different areas of Taigu and Taiyuan cities, central China in ...

  8. Inquiry-Based Science and Technology Enrichment Program: Green Earth Enhanced with Inquiry and Technology (United States)

    Kim, Hanna


    This study investigated the effectiveness of a guided inquiry integrated with technology, in terms of female middle-school students' attitudes toward science/scientists and content knowledge regarding selective science concepts (e.g., Greenhouse Effect, Air/Water Quality, Alternative Energy, and Human Health). Thirty-five female students who were entering eighth grade attended an intensive, 1-week Inquiry-Based Science and Technology Enrichment Program which used a main theme, "Green Earth Enhanced with Inquiry and Technology." We used pre- and post-attitude surveys, pre- and post-science content knowledge tests, and selective interviews to collect data and measure changes in students' attitudes and content knowledge. The study results indicated that at the post-intervention measures, participants significantly improved their attitudes toward science and science-related careers and increased their content knowledge of selected science concepts ( p < .05).


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeni Hariningsih


    Full Text Available Learning science in junior high school in general is focused on mastery of concepts and basic science has not yet developed abilities, such as the ability berinkuiri. Therefore, it is necessary to find the appropriate steps to improve the process of learning science. The purpose of the study iniuntuk improve learning outcomes by using the skill aspect of inquiry learning model level. The method used in this research is mixed method. The instrument used is the syllabus, lesson plans, and the observation sheet keterampilan.Teknik data collection using observation. Aspects of data analysis skills using data reduction method, coding and interpretation. Results of research conducted on 36 students showed the ability berinkuiri learners increased by using the model level of inquiry. Results of learners aspect of overall skill increases with the good category. The conclusion from this study that the use of models level of inquiry to improve the ability berinkuiri learners and improve learning outcomes aspects of science skills of learners. Pembelajaran IPA di SMP pada umumnya masih menekankan pada penguasaan konsep dan belum mengembangkan kemampuan dasar sains, seperti kemampuan berinkuiri.Oleh karena itu perlu ditemukan langkah yang tepat untuk memperbaiki proses pembelajaran IPA. Tujuan dari penelitian iniuntuk meningkatkan hasil belajar aspek keterampilan dengan menggunakan model pembelajaran level of inquiry. Metode yang digunakan dalam penelitian ini yaitu mixed methode. Instrumen yang digunakan yaitu Silabus, RPP dan lembar observasi keterampilan. Teknik pengumpulan data menggunakan observasi. Analisis data aspek keterampilan dengan menggunakan cara mereduksi data, pengkodean dan interpretasi. Hasil penelitian yang dilakukan pada 36 peserta didik menunjukkan kemampuan berinkuiri peserta didik mengalami peningkatan dengan menggunakan model level of inquiry. Hasil belajar peserta didik aspek keterampilan secara keseluruhan meningkat dengan dengan

  10. Robust Portfolio Optimization Using Pseudodistances. (United States)

    Toma, Aida; Leoni-Aubin, Samuela


    The presence of outliers in financial asset returns is a frequently occurring phenomenon which may lead to unreliable mean-variance optimized portfolios. This fact is due to the unbounded influence that outliers can have on the mean returns and covariance estimators that are inputs in the optimization procedure. In this paper we present robust estimators of mean and covariance matrix obtained by minimizing an empirical version of a pseudodistance between the assumed model and the true model underlying the data. We prove and discuss theoretical properties of these estimators, such as affine equivariance, B-robustness, asymptotic normality and asymptotic relative efficiency. These estimators can be easily used in place of the classical estimators, thereby providing robust optimized portfolios. A Monte Carlo simulation study and applications to real data show the advantages of the proposed approach. We study both in-sample and out-of-sample performance of the proposed robust portfolios comparing them with some other portfolios known in literature.

  11. First-Year Teachers’ Uphill Struggle to Implement Inquiry Instruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanya Chichekian


    Full Text Available This longitudinal study of six first-year teachers focused on conceptualizations of inquiry-based pedagogy, self-efficacy for inquiry-based teaching, and its actual enactment. Data included a self-report survey of self-efficacy for inquiry-based instruction, individual interviews at the beginning and end of the year, and five distributed classroom observations. At year’s end, self-efficacy for inquiry teaching declined, as did frequencies of concepts teachers used to describe inquiry enactment. Inquiry descriptions reflected a set of interrelated procedures more than inquiry as conceptual knowledge. Novice teachers were observed least enacting pedagogical actions that required enabling students to communicate findings and the most in student engagement; however, over time frequencies of student engagement declined. Consistent patterns were observed between shifts in self-efficacy and inquiry enactment and shifts between self-efficacy and conceptualizations of inquiry enactment. We found beginning steps toward links between teacher’s conceptualizations and classroom practice.

  12. Robust methods for data reduction

    CERN Document Server

    Farcomeni, Alessio


    Robust Methods for Data Reduction gives a non-technical overview of robust data reduction techniques, encouraging the use of these important and useful methods in practical applications. The main areas covered include principal components analysis, sparse principal component analysis, canonical correlation analysis, factor analysis, clustering, double clustering, and discriminant analysis.The first part of the book illustrates how dimension reduction techniques synthesize available information by reducing the dimensionality of the data. The second part focuses on cluster and discriminant analy

  13. Supporting students' knowledge integration with technology-enhanced inquiry curricula (United States)

    Chiu, Jennifer Lopseen

    Dynamic visualizations of scientific phenomena have the potential to transform how students learn and understand science. Dynamic visualizations enable interaction and experimentation with unobservable atomic-level phenomena. A series of studies clarify the conditions under which embedding dynamic visualizations in technology-enhanced inquiry instruction can help students develop robust and durable chemistry knowledge. Using the knowledge integration perspective, I designed Chemical Reactions, a technology-enhanced curriculum unit, with a partnership of teachers, educational researchers, and chemists. This unit guides students in an exploration of how energy and chemical reactions relate to climate change. It uses powerful dynamic visualizations to connect atomic level interactions to the accumulation of greenhouse gases. The series of studies were conducted in typical classrooms in eleven high schools across the country. This dissertation describes four studies that contribute to understanding of how visualizations can be used to transform chemistry learning. The efficacy study investigated the impact of the Chemical Reactions unit compared to traditional instruction using pre-, post- and delayed posttest assessments. The self-monitoring study used self-ratings in combination with embedded assessments to explore how explanation prompts help students learn from dynamic visualizations. The self-regulation study used log files of students' interactions with the learning environment to investigate how external feedback and explanation prompts influence students' exploration of dynamic visualizations. The explanation study compared specific and general explanation prompts to explore the processes by which explanations benefit learning with dynamic visualizations. These studies delineate the conditions under which dynamic visualizations embedded in inquiry instruction can enhance student outcomes. The studies reveal that visualizations can be deceptively clear

  14. Hinkley Point 'C' power station public inquiry: proof of evidence on emergency planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Western, D.J.


    A public inquiry has been set up to examine the planning application made by the Central Electricity Generating Board (CEGB) for the construction of a 1200 MW Pressurized Water Reactor power station at Hinkley Point (Hinkley Point ''C'') in the United Kingdom, adjacent to an existing nuclear power station incorporating Magnox and Advanced Gas Cooled reactors. The CEGB evidence to the Inquiry presented here introduces the concept of the Reference Accident as the basis for emergency arrangements. The description which follows of the emergency arrangements at the Hinkley Point site include: the respective responsibilities and their co-ordination of bodies such as the CEGB, external emergency services and government departments; the site emergency organization; practical aspects of the emergency arrangements; and consideration of the extension of the arrangements to a PWR on the same site. Recent developments in emergency planning, such as those arising out of post Chernobyl reviews and the Sizewell ''B'' PWR Inquiry, are taken into account. The conclusion is reached that soundly based emergency arrangements already exist at Hinkley Point which would require relatively minor changes should the proposed PWR be constructed. (UK)


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vangelas, K; Tom Early, T; Michael Heitkamp, M; Brian02 Looney, B; David Major, D; Brian Riha, B; Jody Waugh, J; Gary Wein, G


    The Department of Energy (DOE) is sponsoring an initiative to facilitate efficient, effective and responsible use of Monitored Natural Attenuation (MNA) and Enhanced Passive Remediation (EPR) for chlorinated solvents. This Office of Environmental Management (EM) ''Alternative Project,'' focuses on providing scientific and policy support for MNA/EPR. A broadly representative working group of scientists supports the project along with partnerships with regulatory organizations such as the Interstate Technology and Regulatory Council and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The initial product of the technical working group was a summary report that articulated the conceptual approach and central scientific tenants of the project, and that identified a prioritized listing of technical targets for field research. This report documented the process in which: (1) scientific ground rules were developed, (2) lines of inquiry were identified and then critically evaluated, (3) promising applied research topics were highlighted in the various lines of inquiry, and (4) these were discussed and prioritized. The summary report will serve as a resource to guide management and decision-making throughout the period of the subject MNA/EPR Alternative Project. To support and more fully document the information presented in the summary report, we are publishing a series of supplemental documents that present the full texts from the technical analyses within the various lines of inquiry (see listing). The following report - documenting our evaluation of the state of the science of the characterization and monitoring process and tools-- is one of those supplemental documents.

  16. Robust design optimization using the price of robustness, robust least squares and regularization methods (United States)

    Bukhari, Hassan J.


    In this paper a framework for robust optimization of mechanical design problems and process systems that have parametric uncertainty is presented using three different approaches. Robust optimization problems are formulated so that the optimal solution is robust which means it is minimally sensitive to any perturbations in parameters. The first method uses the price of robustness approach which assumes the uncertain parameters to be symmetric and bounded. The robustness for the design can be controlled by limiting the parameters that can perturb.The second method uses the robust least squares method to determine the optimal parameters when data itself is subjected to perturbations instead of the parameters. The last method manages uncertainty by restricting the perturbation on parameters to improve sensitivity similar to Tikhonov regularization. The methods are implemented on two sets of problems; one linear and the other non-linear. This methodology will be compared with a prior method using multiple Monte Carlo simulation runs which shows that the approach being presented in this paper results in better performance.

  17. Narratives of Inquiry Learning in Middle-School Geographic Inquiry Class (United States)

    Kuisma, Merja


    This study aimed at modifying a teaching and learning model for a geographic inquiry to enhance both the subject-related skills of geography and so-called twenty-first century skills in middle-school students (14-15 years old). The purpose of this research is to extend our understanding of the user experiences concerning certain tools for learning…

  18. Inquiry and Groups: Student Interactions in Cooperative Inquiry-Based Science (United States)

    Woods-McConney, Amanda; Wosnitza, Marold; Sturrock, Keryn L.


    Science education research has recommended cooperative inquiry based science in the primary science context for more than two decades but after more than 20 years, student achievement in science has not substantially improved. This study, through direct observation and analysis, investigated content-related student interactions in an authentic…

  19. Primary teachers conducting inquiry projects : the effect on attitude towards science and inquiry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Aalderen-Smeets, Sandra; Walma van der Molen, Julie Henriëtte


    This paper presents the results of a theoretically informed professionalisation project that was set up to improve primary teachers’ attitudes towards science and attitude towards inquiry. A positive attitude towards science is of fundamental importance for teachers when stimulating interest in

  20. Inquiry and Irony: Promise and Paradox in Paul Jablon's "The Synergy of Inquiry" (United States)

    Nurenberg, David


    Paul Jablon's "The Synergy of Inquiry" (2014) is well-timed. The 2014 deadline set by No Child Left Behind (NCLB, 2002) for universal student proficiency has come and gone, and according to the National Assessment of Educational Progress, "proficiency rates last year were below 50 percent for nearly every racial and ethnic group, in…

  1. Inquiry-Based Science and Technology Enrichment Program: Green Earth Enhanced with Inquiry and Technology (United States)

    Kim, Hanna


    This study investigated the effectiveness of a guided inquiry integrated with technology, in terms of female middle-school students' attitudes toward science/scientists and content knowledge regarding selective science concepts (e.g., Greenhouse Effect, Air/Water Quality, Alternative Energy, and Human Health). Thirty-five female students who were…

  2. John Dewey's Dual Theory of Inquiry and Its Value for the Creation of an Alternative Curriculum (United States)

    Harris, Fred


    Dewey's theory of inquiry cannot be reduced to the pattern of inquiry common to both common-sense inquiry and scientific inquiry, which is grounded in the human life process, since such a reduction ignores Dewey's differentiation of the two forms of inquiry. The difference has to do with the focus of inquiry, with common-sense inquiry…

  3. EDRF supports Takakia Lake public inquiry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katzsch, K.


    The Queen Charlotte Power Corporation (QCPC) has applied for a water licence to drain Takakia Lake in British Columbia's Queen Charlotte Islands. Their plan is to build a tunnel into the side of the lake and draw water from it to supplement their power generating capabilities at their Moresby Lake hydro generating station. The BC Ministry of Environment, Lands and Parks called for a public inquiry into the application to address public concerns about the project. Through the Environmental Dispute Resolution Fund (EDRF), the North West Habitat Foundation (NWHF) was able to participate in this public inquiry which took place in June, 1999, and represent the environmental concerns of the community. Other participants included QCPC, BC Hydro, the Skidegate Band Council and the Haida Nation. One of the arguments raised was the lack of public disclosure and consultation, particularly regarding First Nations in the area. Takakia Lake area has been referred to as an ecological gem which hosts a unique ecosys tem and several rare plant species. The NWHF argued that the resulting draw-down of water from the lake would permanently damage the microclimate of the lake and would pose a major threat to the ecosystem. The Canadian Wildlife Service has also expressed concerns regarding the impacts on migratory birds. It was also noted that prior to their proposal, QCPC and BC Hydro did not fully consider the use of energy alternatives. As a result of this inquiry, QCPC has asked for more time to submit further documents regarding their proposal. In turn, the NWHF will be given a chance to respond to those materials and to submit their own additional information. 2 figs


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisna Handayani


    Full Text Available Tujuan  penelitian adalah menghasilkan perangkat pembelajaran IPS dengan Pendekatan Inquiry. Penelitian pengembangan ini menggunakan langkah-langkah Borg and Gall yang terdiri dari tiga tahapan utama yaitu pendahuluan, pengembangan dan validasi. Data yang diperoleh adalah hasil belajar, aktivitas diskusi dan respon peserta didik. Data dianalisis menggunakan analisis deskriptif dan uji t. Penggunaan pendekatan inquiry sebagai salah satau strategi pembelajaran IPS dapat dilakukan dengan mempersiapkan terlebih dahulu perangkat pembelajarannya. Hasil pengembangan divalidasi oleh pakar, diujicobakan pada kelas terbatas dan selanjutnya dilakukan ujicoba pada kelas eksperimen yang dibandingkan hasilnya dengan kelas kontrol. Perangkat pembelajaran tergolong efektif untuk meningkatkan hasil belajar peserta didik di kelas VII SMP Negeri 2 Jepara, terbukti dari adanya peningkatan yang nyata terbukti dari hasil uji paired sampel t-test dengan nilai signifikansi 0,000 <0,05, dan terjadi peningkatan yang tinggi (gain > 0,7, serta hasil belajar yang dicapai berbeda secara signifikan dengan kelompok kontrol. Di samping hasil belajar, pembelajaran yang dilakukan juga berdampak pada proses belajar yang membawa tingginya aktivitas peserta didik dalam memberikan gagasan, kerjasama, inisiatif, keaktifan dan kedisiplinan. The purpose of this research is creating Social Lesson Material with Inquiry Approach.This developing of the research is used of  the steps of Borg and Gall. They are Introducing, developing and evaluating. Learning materials are developed and validity by expert. Datas are gooten by study result, discussion activity and students, respone. Analizing datas are used descriptive analize and t- try out. The use of inquiry approach as one of learning strategy on Social Lesson Material can be done by preparing those. The result of  developing are being validity by expert,  try out on limited group and experiment group ad compare with control group

  5. Addressing scientific literacy through content area reading and processes of scientific inquiry: What teachers report (United States)

    Cooper, Susan J.

    The purpose of this study was to interpret the experiences of secondary science teachers in Florida as they address the scientific literacy of their students through teaching content reading strategies and student inquiry skills. Knowledge of the successful integration of content reading and inquiry skills by experienced classroom teachers would be useful to many educators as they plan instruction to achieve challenging state and national standards for reading as well as science. The problem was investigated using grounded theory methodology. Open-ended questions were asked in three focus groups and six individual interviews that included teachers from various Florida school districts. The constant comparative approach was used to analyze the data. Initial codes were collapsed into categories to determine the conceptual relationships among the data. From this, the five core categories were determined to be Influencers, Issues, Perceptions, Class Routines, and Future Needs. These relate to the central phenomenon, Instructional Modifications, because teachers often described pragmatic and philosophical changes in their teaching as they deliberated to meet state standards in both reading and science. Although Florida's secondary science teachers have been asked to incorporate content reading strategies into their science instruction for the past several years, there was limited evidence of using these strategies to further student understanding of scientific processes. Most teachers saw little connection between reading and inquiry, other than the fact that students must know how to read to follow directions in the lab. Scientific literacy, when it was addressed by teachers, was approached mainly through class discussions, not reading. Teachers realized that students cannot learn secondary science content unless they read science text with comprehension; therefore the focus of reading instruction was on learning science content, not scientific literacy or student

  6. Food irradiation: an inquiry by the Australian Consumers' Association

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    The Australian Consumers' Association's Inquiry into Food Irradiation was undertaken at the request of the Commonwealth Minister of Health, Dr N Blewett. The terms of reference of the Inquiry covered the implications of food irradiation in terms of consumer health, the environment, and the cost to the consumer

  7. Augmenting Guided-Inquiry Learning with a Blended Classroom Approach (United States)

    Baum, Edward J.


    Teaching strategies such as guided inquiry have long been reported to produce superior learning outcomes in postsecondary science education. Yet many teachers cite obstacles that prevent them from implementing the method. Students also often report negative attitudes toward guided inquiry, leading to a lack of student engagement and other…

  8. A Guided Inquiry Activity for Teaching Ligand Field Theory (United States)

    Johnson, Brian J.; Graham, Kate J.


    This paper will describe a guided inquiry activity for teaching ligand field theory. Previous research suggests the guided inquiry approach is highly effective for student learning. This activity familiarizes students with the key concepts of molecular orbital theory applied to coordination complexes. Students will learn to identify factors that…

  9. SAS2: A Guide to Collaborative Inquiry and Social Engagement ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)


    Jan 1, 2008 ... It also provides detailed instructions on how to integrate and ground collaborative inquiry in the projects, plans, evaluations and activities of multiple stakeholders. Part 2 presents a selection of techniques for collaborative inquiry and examples of real-life applications in South Asia and Latin America.

  10. Martian Boneyards: Scientific Inquiry in an MMO Game (United States)

    Asbell-Clarke, Jodi; Edwards, Teon; Rowe, Elizabeth; Larsen, Jamie; Sylvan, Elisabeth; Hewitt, Jim


    This paper reports on research of a game designed for scientific inquiry in a new and publicly available massively-multiplayer online environment (MMO). Educators and game designers worked together to create a highly immersive environment, a compelling storyline, and research-grounded tools for scientific inquiry within the game. The designers…

  11. Peer Inquiry: Discovering What You Know through Dialogue (United States)

    Wix, Linney; John-Steiner, Vera


    The article discusses a dialogical peer inquiry process as a practice of co-constructing knowledge in graduate coursework. The process, formerly structured as an exam, was developed by Dr. Vera John-Steiner more than 30 years ago and has been implemented in adapted forms by her students in their teaching. The dialogical peer inquiry process…

  12. Cases as Shared Inquiry: A Dialogical Model of Teacher Preparation. (United States)

    Harrington, Helen L.; Garrison, James W.


    A dialogical model is proposed for connecting theory to practice in teacher education by conceiving of cases from case-based pedagogy as problems that initiate shared inquiry. Cases with genuine cognitive and axiological content can initiate self-directed, student-centered inquiry while building democratic dialogical communities. (SLD)

  13. An Inquiry-Based Laboratory Design for Microbial Ecology (United States)

    Tessier, Jack T.; Penniman, Clayton A.


    There is a collective need to increase the use of inquiry-based instruction at the college level. This paper provides of an example of how inquiry was successfully used in the laboratory component of an undergraduate course in microbial ecology. Students were offered a collection of field and laboratory methods to choose from, and they developed a…

  14. Appreciative Inquiry and Implementation Science in Leadership Development. (United States)

    Bleich, Michael R; Hessler, Christine


    Appreciative inquiry was developed to initiate and animate change. As implementation science gains a foothold in practice settings to bridge theory, evidence, and practice, appreciative inquiry takes on new meaning as a leadership intervention and training tool. J Contin Educ Nurs. 2016;47(5):207-209. Copyright 2016, SLACK Incorporated.

  15. Exploring Inquiry as a Teaching Stance in the Writing Workshop (United States)

    Ray, Katie Wood


    This article begins with a "snapshot" of a fifth grade writing workshop and its study of op-ed writing to show an inquiry in action. The framework for this inquiry involves immersing students in reading multiple examples of the kind of text the teacher would like them to write, studying closely how the texts are crafted, and writing their own…

  16. Inquiry and Intersubjectivity in a Reggio Emilia-Inspired Preschool (United States)

    Lanphear, Jacquelyn; Vandermaas-Peeler, Maureen


    By utilizing inquiry processes, such as observing and questioning, young children learn to investigate and use evidence to evaluate information. Through intersubjectivity, or social collaboration and mutual focus, children coconstruct an understanding of the world. Children's inquiry and intersubjectivity were observed in a range of activities in…

  17. Lipman, Dewey, and Philosophical Inquiry in the Mathematics Classroom (United States)

    Kennedy, Nadia Stoyanova


    The paper discusses Matthew Lipman's approach to inquiry as shaped and fashioned by John Dewey's model of scientific inquiry. Although Lipman's program adopted the major aspects of Dewey's pedagogy, at least two characteristics of that program stand out as radically different--his use of relatively free-form philosophical discussions to teach…

  18. FILE: a tool for the study of inquiry learning.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hulshof, C.D.; Wilhelm, P.; Beishuizen, J.J.; Beishuizen, J.J.; van Rijn, H.


    A computerized learning environment (Flexible Inquiry Learning Environment; FILE) is discussed. FILE allows researchers in inquiry learning to design, administer, and analyze learning tasks in which content domain and task complexity can be configured independently, while other factors (e.g., the

  19. Knowledge about Inquiry: A Study in South African High Schools (United States)

    Gaigher, Estelle; Lederman, Norman; Lederman, Judith


    This paper reports a study on South African learners' knowledge about scientific inquiry using the Views About Scientific Inquiry (VASI) Questionnaire. The sample consisted of 105 grade 11 learners from 7 schools across the socio-economic spectrum in a South African city. A rubric for scoring the VASI Questionnaire was developed and refined during…

  20. Mathematics in Student-­Centred Inquiry Learning: Student Engagement (United States)

    Calder, Nigel


    This paper examines how mathematical understandings might be facilitated through student-centred inquiry. Data is drawn from a research project on student-centred inquiry learning that situated mathematics within authentic problem-solving contexts and involved students in a collaboratively constructed curriculum. A contemporary interpretive frame…

  1. Inquiry-Based Examination of Chemical Disruption of Bacterial Biofilms (United States)

    Redelman, Carly V.; Hawkins, Misty A. W.; Drumwright, Franklin R.; Ransdell, Beverly; Marrs, Kathleen; Anderson, Gregory G.


    Inquiry-based instruction in the sciences has been demonstrated as a successful educational strategy to use for both high school and college science classrooms. As participants in the NSF Graduate STEM Fellows in K-12 Education (GK-12) Program, we were tasked with creating novel inquiry-based activities for high school classrooms. As a way to…

  2. Nudging toward Inquiry: Developing Questions and a Sense of Wonder (United States)

    Fontichiaro, Kristin, Comp.


    Inquiry does not replace information literacy; it encompasses it. It encourages librarians to consider instructional design beyond information search, retrieval, citation, and use. Inquiry-based learning invites school librarians to step into all aspects of instructional planning, from activating prior knowledge straight through to reflection.…

  3. Dilemmas of Teaching Inquiry in Elementary Science Methods (United States)

    Newman, William J., Jr.; Abell, Sandra K.; Hubbard, Paula D.; McDonald, James; Otaala, Justine; Martini, Mariana


    Because various definitions of inquiry exist in the science education literature and in classroom practice, elementary science methods students and instructors face dilemmas during the study of inquiry. Using field notes, instructor anecdotal notes, student products, and course artifacts, science methods course instructors created fictional…

  4. Exploring Metaskills of Knowledge-Creating Inquiry in Higher Education (United States)

    Muukkonen, Hanni; Lakkala, Minna


    The skills of knowledge-creating inquiry are explored as a challenge for higher education. The knowledge-creation approach to learning provides a theoretical tool for addressing them: In addition to the individual and social aspects in regulation of inquiry, the knowledge-creation approach focuses on aspects related to advancing shared objects of…

  5. Small Waterfalls in Art Therapy Supervision: A Poetic Appreciative Inquiry (United States)

    Schreibman, Rachel; Chilton, Gioia


    This viewpoint presents aesthetic writing and reflection on the art therapy supervisor and supervisee dyad from a practice of appreciative inquiry. Through writing and exchanging poems, the authors sought to uncover the dynamics of the supervisory relationship that contributed to a positive learning experience. Poetry as inquiry provoked new…

  6. Advances in robust fractional control

    CERN Document Server

    Padula, Fabrizio


    This monograph presents design methodologies for (robust) fractional control systems. It shows the reader how to take advantage of the superior flexibility of fractional control systems compared with integer-order systems in achieving more challenging control requirements. There is a high degree of current interest in fractional systems and fractional control arising from both academia and industry and readers from both milieux are catered to in the text. Different design approaches having in common a trade-off between robustness and performance of the control system are considered explicitly. The text generalizes methodologies, techniques and theoretical results that have been successfully applied in classical (integer) control to the fractional case. The first part of Advances in Robust Fractional Control is the more industrially-oriented. It focuses on the design of fractional controllers for integer processes. In particular, it considers fractional-order proportional-integral-derivative controllers, becau...

  7. Robustness of digital artist authentication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Robert; Nielsen, Morten

    In many cases it is possible to determine the authenticity of a painting from digital reproductions of the paintings; this has been demonstrated for a variety of artists and with different approaches. Common to all these methods in digital artist authentication is that the potential of the method...... is in focus, while the robustness has not been considered, i.e. the degree to which the data collection process influences the decision of the method. However, in order for an authentication method to be successful in practice, it needs to be robust to plausible error sources from the data collection....... In this paper we investigate the robustness of the newly proposed authenticity method introduced by the authors based on second generation multiresolution analysis. This is done by modelling a number of realistic factors that can occur in the data collection....

  8. Attractive ellipsoids in robust control

    CERN Document Server

    Poznyak, Alexander; Azhmyakov, Vadim


    This monograph introduces a newly developed robust-control design technique for a wide class of continuous-time dynamical systems called the “attractive ellipsoid method.” Along with a coherent introduction to the proposed control design and related topics, the monograph studies nonlinear affine control systems in the presence of uncertainty and presents a constructive and easily implementable control strategy that guarantees certain stability properties. The authors discuss linear-style feedback control synthesis in the context of the above-mentioned systems. The development and physical implementation of high-performance robust-feedback controllers that work in the absence of complete information is addressed, with numerous examples to illustrate how to apply the attractive ellipsoid method to mechanical and electromechanical systems. While theorems are proved systematically, the emphasis is on understanding and applying the theory to real-world situations. Attractive Ellipsoids in Robust Control will a...

  9. Robustness of holonomic quantum gates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solinas, P.; Zanardi, P.; Zanghi, N.


    Full text: If the driving field fluctuates during the quantum evolution this produces errors in the applied operator. The holonomic (and geometrical) quantum gates are believed to be robust against some kind of noise. Because of the geometrical dependence of the holonomic operators can be robust against this kind of noise; in fact if the fluctuations are fast enough they cancel out leaving the final operator unchanged. I present the numerical studies of holonomic quantum gates subject to this parametric noise, the fidelity of the noise and ideal evolution is calculated for different noise correlation times. The holonomic quantum gates seem robust not only for fast fluctuating fields but also for slow fluctuating fields. These results can be explained as due to the geometrical feature of the holonomic operator: for fast fluctuating fields the fluctuations are canceled out, for slow fluctuating fields the fluctuations do not perturb the loop in the parameter space. (author)

  10. Robust estimation and hypothesis testing

    CERN Document Server

    Tiku, Moti L


    In statistical theory and practice, a certain distribution is usually assumed and then optimal solutions sought. Since deviations from an assumed distribution are very common, one cannot feel comfortable with assuming a particular distribution and believing it to be exactly correct. That brings the robustness issue in focus. In this book, we have given statistical procedures which are robust to plausible deviations from an assumed mode. The method of modified maximum likelihood estimation is used in formulating these procedures. The modified maximum likelihood estimators are explicit functions of sample observations and are easy to compute. They are asymptotically fully efficient and are as efficient as the maximum likelihood estimators for small sample sizes. The maximum likelihood estimators have computational problems and are, therefore, elusive. A broad range of topics are covered in this book. Solutions are given which are easy to implement and are efficient. The solutions are also robust to data anomali...

  11. Optics robustness of the ATLAS Tile Calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Costa Batalha Pedro, Rute; The ATLAS collaboration


    TileCal, the central hadronic calorimeter of the ATLAS detector is composed of plastic scintillators interleaved by iron plates, and wavelength shifting optical fibres. The optical properties of these components are known to suffer from natural ageing and degrade due to exposure to radiation. The calorimeter was designed for 10 years of LHC operating at the design luminosity of $10^{34}$ cm$^{-1}$s$^{-1}$. Irradiation tests of scintillators and fibres shown that their light yield decrease about 10 for the maximum dose expected after the 10 years of LHC operation. The robustness of the TileCal optics components is evaluated using the calibration systems of the calorimeter: Cs-137 gamma source, laser light, and integrated photomultiplier signals of particles from collisions. It is observed that the loss of light yield increases with exposure to radiation as expected. The decrease in the light yield during the years 2015-2017 corresponding to the LHC Run 2 will be reported.

  12. Robustness in Railway Operations (RobustRailS)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jens Parbo; Nielsen, Otto Anker

    This study considers the problem of enhancing railway timetable robustness without adding slack time, hence increasing the travel time. The approach integrates a transit assignment model to assess how passengers adapt their behaviour whenever operations are changed. First, the approach considers...

  13. Towards an Ecological Inquiry in Child-Computer Interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smith, Rachel Charlotte; Iversen, Ole Sejer; Hjermitslev, Thomas


    The paper introduces an Ecological Inquiry as a methodological approach for designing technology with children. The inquiry is based on the ‘ecological turn’ in HCI, Ubiquitous Computing and Participatory Design that shift the emphasis of design from technological artifacts to entire use ecologies...... into which technologies are integrated. Our Ecological Inquiry extends Cooperative Inquiry in three directions: from understanding to emergence of social practices and meanings, from design of artifacts to hybrid environments, and from a focus on technology to appropriations through design and use. We...... exemplify our approach in a case study in which we designed social technologies for hybrid learning environments with children in two schools, and discuss how an Ecological Inquiry can inform existing approaches in CCI....

  14. A Robust Design Applicability Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ebro, Martin; Lars, Krogstie; Howard, Thomas J.


    to be applicable in organisations assigning a high importance to one or more factors that are known to be impacted by RD, while also experiencing a high level of occurrence of this factor. The RDAM supplements existing maturity models and metrics to provide a comprehensive set of data to support management......This paper introduces a model for assessing the applicability of Robust Design (RD) in a project or organisation. The intention of the Robust Design Applicability Model (RDAM) is to provide support for decisions by engineering management considering the relevant level of RD activities...

  15. Ins-Robust Primitive Words


    Srivastava, Amit Kumar; Kapoor, Kalpesh


    Let Q be the set of primitive words over a finite alphabet with at least two symbols. We characterize a class of primitive words, Q_I, referred to as ins-robust primitive words, which remain primitive on insertion of any letter from the alphabet and present some properties that characterizes words in the set Q_I. It is shown that the language Q_I is dense. We prove that the language of primitive words that are not ins-robust is not context-free. We also present a linear time algorithm to reco...

  16. Which Type of Inquiry Project Do High School Biology Students Prefer: Open or Guided? (United States)

    Sadeh, Irit; Zion, Michal


    In teaching inquiry to high school students, educators differ on which method of teaching inquiry is more effective: Guided or open inquiry? This paper examines the influence of these two different inquiry learning approaches on the attitudes of Israeli high school biology students toward their inquiry project. The results showed significant differences between the two groups: Open inquiry students were more satisfied and felt they gained benefits from implementing the project to a greater extent than guided inquiry students. On the other hand, regarding documentation throughout the project, guided inquiry students believed that they conducted more documentation, as compared to their open inquiry peers. No significant differences were found regarding `the investment of time', but significant differences were found in the time invested and difficulties which arose concerning the different stages of the inquiry process: Open inquiry students believed they spent more time in the first stages of the project, while guided inquiry students believed they spent more time in writing the final paper. In addition, other differences were found: Open inquiry students felt more involved in their project, and felt a greater sense of cooperation with others, in comparison to guided inquiry students. These findings may help teachers who hesitate to teach open inquiry to implement this method of inquiry; or at least provide their students with the opportunity to be more involved in inquiry projects, and ultimately provide their students with more autonomy, high-order thinking, and a deeper understanding in performing science.

  17. A Statewide Partnership for Implementing Inquiry Science (United States)

    Lytle, Charles

    The North Carolina Infrastructure for Science Education (NC-ISE) is a statewide partnership for implementing standards-based inquiry science using exemplary curriculum materials in the public schools of North Carolina. North Carolina is the 11th most populous state in the USA with 8,000,000 residents, 117 school districts and a geographic area of 48,718 miles. NC-ISE partners include the state education agency, local school systems, three branches of the University of North Carolina, the state mathematics and science education network, businesses, and business groups. The partnership, based upon the Science for All Children model developed by the National Science Resources Centre, was initiated in 1997 for improvement in teaching and learning of science and mathematics. This research-based model has been successfully implemented in several American states during the past decade. Where effectively implemented, the model has led to significant improvements in student interest and student learning. It has also helped reduce the achievement gap between minority and non-minority students and among students from different economic levels. A key program element of the program is an annual Leadership Institute that helps teams of administrators and teachers develop a five-year strategic plan for their local systems. Currently 33 of the117 local school systems have joined the NC-ISE Program and are in various stages of implementation of inquiry science in grades K-8.

  18. The Diagrammatic Inquiry of Architectural Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Bertram


    Full Text Available According to the philosopher C.S. Peirce the diagram is a system of interrelated parts that operates in a manner similar to another system of interrelated parts. It is a mental map of relations. It drives an open-ended inquiry on a given problem. In architectural discourse a diagram is often defined as a particular form of drawing. It is a simplified image and/or it uses a notation system. In this context, the latter is termed a digital diagram. However, an architectural medium has material properties that influence both the making and the translation of the drawing. It is both a singular artefact and a set of instructions for actions undertaken in another space than that of the medium. This article introduces the notion of an immanent diagram to discuss how the composition of a drawing is distributed. The proposition is that the architectural diagrammatic inquiry operates in the struggle between digital and analogue diagrams. I develop the argument using a traditional architectural drawing as a starting point. In the last section, I discuss a contemporary computer based design practice in which drawings and prototype modelling constitute a heterogeneous technological environment.

  19. How to Support Primary Teachers' Implementation of Inquiry: Teachers' Reflections on Teaching Cooperative Inquiry-Based Science (United States)

    Gillies, Robyn M.; Nichols, Kim


    Many primary teachers face challenges in teaching inquiry science, often because they believe that they do not have the content knowledge or pedagogical skills to do so. This is a concern given the emphasis attached to teaching science through inquiry where students do not simply learn about science but also do science. This study reports on the…

  20. Teaching molecular diffusion using an inquiry approach : diffusion activities in a secondary school inquiry-learning community

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Rens, L.; van der Schee, J.; Pilot, A.


    The Dutch chemistry curriculum for upper secondary schools has prescribed inquiry-based student learning since 1997. For some decades inquiry tasks have been a feature of school science in various countries (1). As in other countries, some of our chemistry teachers are used to recipe-geared

  1. A Template for Open Inquiry: Using Questions to Encourage and Support Inquiry in Earth and Space Science (United States)

    Hermann, Ronald S.; Miranda, Rommel J.


    This article provides an instructional approach to helping students generate open-inquiry research questions, which the authors call the "open-inquiry question template." This template was created based on their experience teaching high school science and preservice university methods courses. To help teachers implement this template, they…

  2. Identifying Effective Design Features of Technology-Infused Inquiry Learning Modules: A Two-Year Study of Students' Inquiry Abilities (United States)

    Hsu, Ying-Shao; Fang, Su-Chi; Zhang, Wen-Xin; Hsin-Kai, Wu; Wu, Pai-Hsing; Hwang, Fu-Kwun


    The two-year study aimed to explore how students' development of different inquiry abilities actually benefited from the design of technology-infused learning modules. Three learning modules on the topics of seasons, environmental issues and air pollution were developed to facilitate students' inquiry abilities: questioning, planning, analyzing,…

  3. Hinkley Point 'C' power station public inquiry: proof of evidence on comparison of non-fossil options to Hinkley Point 'C'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goddard, S.C.


    A public inquiry has been set up to examine the planning application made by the Central Electricity Generating Board (CEGB) for the construction of a 1200 MW Pressurized Water Reactor power station at Hinkley Point (Hinkley Point ''C'') in the United Kingdom. This evidence to the Inquiry sets out and explains the non-fossil fuel options, with particular reference to renewable energy sources and other PWR locations; gives feasibility, capital cost, performance and total resource estimates for the renewable sources; and shows that no other non-fossil fuel source is to be preferred to Hinkley Point ''C''. (author)

  4. Robust visual hashing via ICA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fournel, Thierry; Coltuc, Daniela


    Designed to maximize information transmission in the presence of noise, independent component analysis (ICA) could appear in certain circumstances as a statistics-based tool for robust visual hashing. Several ICA-based scenarios can attempt to reach this goal. A first one is here considered.

  5. Robustness of raw quantum tomography (United States)

    Asorey, M.; Facchi, P.; Florio, G.; Man'ko, V. I.; Marmo, G.; Pascazio, S.; Sudarshan, E. C. G.


    We scrutinize the effects of non-ideal data acquisition on the tomograms of quantum states. The presence of a weight function, schematizing the effects of a finite window or equivalently noise, only affects the state reconstruction procedure by a normalization constant. The results are extended to a discrete mesh and show that quantum tomography is robust under incomplete and approximate knowledge of tomograms.

  6. Robustness of raw quantum tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asorey, M. [Departamento de Fisica Teorica, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Zaragoza, 50009 Zaragoza (Spain); Facchi, P. [Dipartimento di Matematica, Universita di Bari, I-70125 Bari (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Bari, I-70126 Bari (Italy); MECENAS, Universita Federico II di Napoli and Universita di Bari (Italy); Florio, G. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Bari, I-70126 Bari (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Bari, I-70126 Bari (Italy); MECENAS, Universita Federico II di Napoli and Universita di Bari (Italy); Man' ko, V.I., E-mail: manko@lebedev.r [P.N. Lebedev Physical Institute, Leninskii Prospect 53, Moscow 119991 (Russian Federation); Marmo, G. [Dipartimento di Scienze Fisiche, Universita di Napoli ' Federico II' , I-80126 Napoli (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Napoli, I-80126 Napoli (Italy); MECENAS, Universita Federico II di Napoli and Universita di Bari (Italy); Pascazio, S. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Bari, I-70126 Bari (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Bari, I-70126 Bari (Italy); MECENAS, Universita Federico II di Napoli and Universita di Bari (Italy); Sudarshan, E.C.G. [Department of Physics, University of Texas, Austin, TX 78712 (United States)


    We scrutinize the effects of non-ideal data acquisition on the tomograms of quantum states. The presence of a weight function, schematizing the effects of a finite window or equivalently noise, only affects the state reconstruction procedure by a normalization constant. The results are extended to a discrete mesh and show that quantum tomography is robust under incomplete and approximate knowledge of tomograms.

  7. Aspects of robust linear regression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Davies, P.L.


    Section 1 of the paper contains a general discussion of robustness. In Section 2 the influence function of the Hampel-Rousseeuw least median of squares estimator is derived. Linearly invariant weak metrics are constructed in Section 3. It is shown in Section 4 that $S$-estimators satisfy an exact

  8. Manipulation Robustness of Collaborative Filtering


    Benjamin Van Roy; Xiang Yan


    A collaborative filtering system recommends to users products that similar users like. Collaborative filtering systems influence purchase decisions and hence have become targets of manipulation by unscrupulous vendors. We demonstrate that nearest neighbors algorithms, which are widely used in commercial systems, are highly susceptible to manipulation and introduce new collaborative filtering algorithms that are relatively robust.

  9. Robustness Regions for Dichotomous Decisions. (United States)

    Vijn, Pieter; Molenaar, Ivo W.


    In the case of dichotomous decisions, the total set of all assumptions/specifications for which the decision would have been the same is the robustness region. Inspection of this (data-dependent) region is a form of sensitivity analysis which may lead to improved decision making. (Author/BW)

  10. Theoretical Framework for Robustness Evaluation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, John Dalsgaard


    This paper presents a theoretical framework for evaluation of robustness of structural systems, incl. bridges and buildings. Typically modern structural design codes require that ‘the consequence of damages to structures should not be disproportional to the causes of the damages’. However, althou...

  11. Robust control design with MATLAB

    CERN Document Server

    Gu, Da-Wei; Konstantinov, Mihail M


    Robust Control Design with MATLAB® (second edition) helps the student to learn how to use well-developed advanced robust control design methods in practical cases. To this end, several realistic control design examples from teaching-laboratory experiments, such as a two-wheeled, self-balancing robot, to complex systems like a flexible-link manipulator are given detailed presentation. All of these exercises are conducted using MATLAB® Robust Control Toolbox 3, Control System Toolbox and Simulink®. By sharing their experiences in industrial cases with minimum recourse to complicated theories and formulae, the authors convey essential ideas and useful insights into robust industrial control systems design using major H-infinity optimization and related methods allowing readers quickly to move on with their own challenges. The hands-on tutorial style of this text rests on an abundance of examples and features for the second edition: ·        rewritten and simplified presentation of theoretical and meth...

  12. Robust Portfolio Optimization Using Pseudodistances (United States)


    The presence of outliers in financial asset returns is a frequently occurring phenomenon which may lead to unreliable mean-variance optimized portfolios. This fact is due to the unbounded influence that outliers can have on the mean returns and covariance estimators that are inputs in the optimization procedure. In this paper we present robust estimators of mean and covariance matrix obtained by minimizing an empirical version of a pseudodistance between the assumed model and the true model underlying the data. We prove and discuss theoretical properties of these estimators, such as affine equivariance, B-robustness, asymptotic normality and asymptotic relative efficiency. These estimators can be easily used in place of the classical estimators, thereby providing robust optimized portfolios. A Monte Carlo simulation study and applications to real data show the advantages of the proposed approach. We study both in-sample and out-of-sample performance of the proposed robust portfolios comparing them with some other portfolios known in literature. PMID:26468948

  13. Facial Symmetry in Robust Anthropometrics

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kalina, Jan


    Roč. 57, č. 3 (2012), s. 691-698 ISSN 0022-1198 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 1M06014 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : forensic science * anthropology * robust image analysis * correlation analysis * multivariate data * classification Subject RIV: BB - Applied Statistics, Operational Research Impact factor: 1.244, year: 2012

  14. Sparse and Robust Factor Modelling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C. Croux (Christophe); P. Exterkate (Peter)


    textabstractFactor construction methods are widely used to summarize a large panel of variables by means of a relatively small number of representative factors. We propose a novel factor construction procedure that enjoys the properties of robustness to outliers and of sparsity; that is, having

  15. Robust distributed cognitive relay beamforming

    KAUST Repository

    Pandarakkottilil, Ubaidulla; Aissa, Sonia


    design takes into account a parameter of the error in the channel state information (CSI) to render the performance of the beamformer robust in the presence of imperfect CSI. Though the original problem is non-convex, we show that the proposed design can

  16. Approximability of Robust Network Design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olver, N.K.; Shepherd, F.B.


    We consider robust (undirected) network design (RND) problems where the set of feasible demands may be given by an arbitrary convex body. This model, introduced by Ben-Ameur and Kerivin [Ben-Ameur W, Kerivin H (2003) New economical virtual private networks. Comm. ACM 46(6):69-73], generalizes the

  17. Inquiry-Based Learning in China: Lesson Learned for School Science Practices (United States)

    Nuangchalerm, Prasart


    Inquiry-based learning is widely considered for science education in this era. This study aims to explore inquiry-based learning in teacher preparation program and the findings will help us to understanding what inquiry-based classroom is and how inquiry-based learning are. Data were collected by qualitative methods; classroom observation,…

  18. Engaging Nature of Science to Preservice Teachers through Inquiry-Based Classroom (United States)

    Nuangchalerm, Prasart


    Inquiry-based classroom is widely distributed in the school science based on its useful and effective instruction. Science teachers are key elements allowing students to have scientific inquiry. If teachers understand and imply inquiry-based learning into science classroom, students will learn science as scientific inquiry and understand nature of…

  19. Pre-Service Science Teachers in Xinjiang "Scientific Inquiry" - Pedagogical Content Knowledge Research (United States)

    Li, Yufeng; Xiong, Jianwen


    Scientific inquiry is one of the science curriculum content, "Scientific inquiry" - Pedagogical Content Knowledge is the face of scientific inquiry and teachers - of course pedagogical content knowledge and scientific inquiry a teaching practice with more direct expertise. Pre-service teacher training phase of acquisition of knowledge is…

  20. Analyzing students' attitudes towards science during inquiry-based lessons (United States)

    Kostenbader, Tracy C.

    Due to the logistics of guided-inquiry lesson, students learn to problem solve and develop critical thinking skills. This mixed-methods study analyzed the students' attitudes towards science during inquiry lessons. My quantitative results from a repeated measures survey showed no significant difference between student attitudes when taught with either structured-inquiry or guided-inquiry lessons. The qualitative results analyzed through a constant-comparative method did show that students generate positive interest, critical thinking and low level stress during guided-inquiry lessons. The qualitative research also gave insight into a teacher's transition to guided-inquiry. This study showed that with my students, their attitudes did not change during this transition according to the qualitative data however, the qualitative data did how high levels of excitement. The results imply that students like guided-inquiry laboratories, even though they require more work, just as much as they like traditional laboratories with less work and less opportunity for creativity.

  1. Exploring the inquiry experience: A focus on Kentucky teachers (United States)

    Nolte, Beth


    Inquiry-based instruction is driven by active participation by the learner. Through the learning process, critical thinking skills are practiced. While inquiry methods are often discussed in the realm of science education, the methods are not subject specific. In fact, the Kentucky Program of Studies calls for the incorporation of inquiry strategies into all areas of the curriculum. This call for more inquiry-based education occurs in the midst of a national testing debate in which accountability is tied to student test scores. This study takes a narrative approach to explore teachers' experiences with using inquiry methods. Interviews were conducted with teachers who, at least 1 year prior to participating in this study, had attended a weeklong intensive professional development workshop on using inquiry methods for instruction. A method is described for analyzing interview data direct in its digital audio form---without transcription. Eight teachers' experiences are presented here in the narrative form and their narratives are compared for an overall analysis. Themes of conflict previously reported in the literature are explored in participants' stories. This research concludes with a discussion of the results, a reflection on the method, and suggestions for the future based on teachers' experiences with using inquiry-based learning strategies.

  2. Trained Inquiry Skills on Heat and Temperature Concepts (United States)

    Hasanah, U.; Hamidah, I.; Utari, S.


    Inquiry skills are skills that aperson needs in developing concepts, but the results of the study suggest that these skills haven’t yet been trained along with the development of concepts in science feeding, found the difficulties of students in building the concept scientifically. Therefore, this study aims to find ways that are effective in training inquiry skills trough Levels of Inquiry (LoI) learning. Experimental research with one group pretest-postest design, using non-random sampling samples in one of vocational high school in Cimahi obtained purposively 33 students of X class. The research using the inquiry skills test instrument in the form of 15questions multiple choice with reliability in very high category. The result of data processing by using the normalized gain value obtained an illustration that the ways developed in the LoI are considered effective trained inquiry skills in the middle category. Some of the ways LoI learning are considered effective in communicating aspects through discovery learning, predicting trough interactive demonstration, hypotheses through inquiry lesson, and interpreting data through inquiry lab, but the implementation of LoI learning in this study hasn’t found a way that is seen as effective for trespassing aspects of designing an experiment.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.D. Pamelasari


    Full Text Available Tantangan yang harus dihadapi dalam mengajar Bahasa Inggris di pada mahasiswa selain jurusan Bahasa Inggris adalah tingkat pemahaman kosakata yang rendah. Hal tersebut berpengaruh pada pemahaman materi mereka, berdasarkan permasalahan tersebut metode schoolyard inquiry digagas untuk membantu meningkatkan pemahaman mereka dalam memahami science vocabulary sebagai metode alternative untuk membantu mereka belajar. Schoolyard inquiry adalah metode belajar kosakata secara mandiri di luar kelas. Hasil analisis menunjukkan bahwa pemahaman science vocabulary mahasiswa Pendidikan IPA FMIPA Unnes mengingkat secara signifikan dan mencapai tingkat tinggi pada level pemahamannya. Melalui metode ini mahasiswa juga dapat mengintegrasikan pembelajaran Bahasa Inggris dengan metode saintifik. Mahasiswa juga memberikan respon positif terhadap metode schoolyard inquiry  ini. The challenge that should be faced of teaching English for non English department students is the low level of students’ vocabulary mastery. It affects their comprehension of material, therefore to help students to master the science vocabulary schoolyard inquiry method was proposed to be used as alternative method to improve students’ vocabulary mastery. Schoolyard inquiry is a method of independent learning that is conducted outside the class. The result showed that the students’ science vocabulary mastery improved significantly most of students reached high level of science vocabulary mastery. Through Schoolyard Inquiry method Students were be able to learn English by applying the scientific skill. The students also gave positive responses of learning vocabulary by using alternatif method of schoolyard inquiry.

  4. Meta-Analysis of Inquiry-Based Instruction Research (United States)

    Hasanah, N.; Prasetyo, A. P. B.; Rudyatmi, E.


    Inquiry-based instruction in biology has been the focus of educational research conducted by Unnes biology department students in collaboration with their university supervisors. This study aimed to describe the methodological aspects, inquiry teaching methods critically, and to analyse the results claims, of the selected four student research reports, grounded in inquiry, based on the database of Unnes biology department 2014. Four experimental quantitative research of 16 were selected as research objects by purposive sampling technique. Data collected through documentation study was qualitatively analysed regarding methods used, quality of inquiry syntax, and finding claims. Findings showed that the student research was still the lack of relevant aspects of research methodology, namely in appropriate sampling procedures, limited validity tests of all research instruments, and the limited parametric statistic (t-test) not supported previously by data normality tests. Their consistent inquiry syntax supported the four mini-thesis claims that inquiry-based teaching influenced their dependent variables significantly. In other words, the findings indicated that positive claims of the research results were not fully supported by good research methods, and well-defined inquiry procedures implementation.

  5. Reactive Robustness and Integrated Approaches for Railway Optimization Problems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haahr, Jørgen Thorlund

    journeys helps the driver to drive efficiently and enhances robustness in a realistic (dynamic) environment. Four international scientific prizes have been awarded for distinct parts of the research during the course of this PhD project. The first prize was awarded for work during the \\2014 RAS Problem...... to absorb or withstand unexpected events such as delays. Making robust plans is central in order to maintain a safe and timely railway operation. This thesis focuses on reactive robustness, i.e., the ability to react once a plan is rendered infeasible in operation due to disruptions. In such time...... Solving Competition", where a freight yard optimization problem was considered. The second junior (PhD) prize was awared for the work performed in the \\ROADEF/EURO Challenge 2014: Trains don't vanish!", where the planning of rolling stock movements at a large station was considered. An honorable mention...

  6. Robust Reliability or reliable robustness? - Integrated consideration of robustness and reliability aspects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kemmler, S.; Eifler, Tobias; Bertsche, B.


    products are and vice versa. For a comprehensive understanding and to use existing synergies between both domains, this paper discusses the basic principles of Reliability- and Robust Design theory. The development of a comprehensive model will enable an integrated consideration of both domains...

  7. Refining Inquiry with Multi-Form Assessment: Formative and summative assessment functions for flexible inquiry (United States)

    Zuiker, Steven; Reid Whitaker, J.


    This paper describes the 5E+I/A inquiry model and reports a case study of one curricular enactment by a US fifth-grade classroom. A literature review establishes the model's conceptual adequacy with respect to longstanding research related to both the 5E inquiry model and multiple, incremental innovations of it. As a collective line of research, the review highlights a common emphasis on formative assessment, at times coupled either with differentiated instruction strategies or with activities that target the generalization of learning. The 5E+I/A model contributes a multi-level assessment strategy that balances formative and summative functions of multiple forms of assessment in order to support classroom participation while still attending to individual achievement. The case report documents the enactment of a weeklong 5E+I/A curricular design as a preliminary account of the model's empirical adequacy. A descriptive and analytical narrative illustrates variable ways that multi-level assessment makes student thinking visible and pedagogical decision-making more powerful. In light of both, it also documents productive adaptations to a flexible curricular design and considers future research to advance this collective line of inquiry.

  8. Reflections on the public inquiry system; Address to the Parliamentary Group for Energy Studies, 13th February 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cokayne, C.B.M.rd


    The Piper Alpha Inquiry was an example of the so-called discretionary or ad hoc public inquiry. Such an inquiry is quite distinct in its purpose and organisation from the mandatory type of public inquiry which is often used in fields such as that of planning control. Topics discussed include the nature of the inquiry, some aspects of the organisation of the inquiry, how the subject matter for investigation was approached, and some reflections on the role of the inquiry. (author).

  9. 'Searching for the people in charge': appraising the 1983 Griffiths NHS management inquiry. (United States)

    Gorsky, Martin


    This is the first of two related articles in the present volume which examine the recent history of health services management using the case of the British National Health Service (NHS). In the historiography of the NHS the 1980s is widely seen as a watershed, when public policy first sought to introduce market disciplines into its operation. Administrative and managerial reforms were central to this process, and their origins and impact have been the subject of continuing debate. This article examines and evaluates one of the key events in this history, the Griffiths NHS Inquiry of 1983, which put in place the principles of 'general management' in the NHS. Drawing on both documentary records and oral evidence it offers fresh perspectives on the reasons why the Conservative government embarked on this reform, on the workings of the inquiry team under the leadership of the businessman Roy Griffiths, and on the uneven course of the implementation of his recommendations. While its initial impact arguably did not meet the expectations of its supporters, it is suggested that several of Griffiths' key concerns have grown, not diminished, in importance as aspects of subsequent health politics. These include: the need for clinician involvement in NHS management and financing; the conundrum of how to depoliticise the central direction of the service while retaining political accountability; the desirability of measuring and improving performance; and the question of how best to incorporate the wishes of patients and public in the decision-making arena.

  10. Using appreciative inquiry to transform health care. (United States)

    Trajkovski, Suza; Schmied, Virginia; Vickers, Margaret; Jackson, Debra


    Amid tremendous changes in contemporary health care stimulated by shifts in social, economic and political environments, health care managers are challenged to provide new structures and processes to continually improve health service delivery. The general public and the media are becoming less tolerant of poor levels of health care, and health care professionals need to be involved and supported to bring about positive change in health care. Appreciative inquiry (AI) is a philosophy and method for promoting transformational change, shifting from a traditional problem-based orientation to a more strength-based approach to change, that focuses on affirmation, appreciation and positive dialog. This paper discusses how an innovative participatory approach such as AI may be used to promote workforce engagement and organizational learning, and facilitate positive organizational change in a health care context.

  11. Robust Watermarking of Video Streams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Polyák


    Full Text Available In the past few years there has been an explosion in the use of digital video data. Many people have personal computers at home, and with the help of the Internet users can easily share video files on their computer. This makes possible the unauthorized use of digital media, and without adequate protection systems the authors and distributors have no means to prevent it.Digital watermarking techniques can help these systems to be more effective by embedding secret data right into the video stream. This makes minor changes in the frames of the video, but these changes are almost imperceptible to the human visual system. The embedded information can involve copyright data, access control etc. A robust watermark is resistant to various distortions of the video, so it cannot be removed without affecting the quality of the host medium. In this paper I propose a video watermarking scheme that fulfills the requirements of a robust watermark. 

  12. Project LITE - Light Inquiry Through Experiments (United States)

    Brecher, K.


    Hands-on, inquiry-based, constructivist activity offers students a powerful way to explore, uncover and ultimately gain a feel for the nature of science. In order to make practicable a more genuine approach to learning astronomy, we have undertaken the development of hands-on (and eyes-on) materials that can be used in introductory undergraduate astronomy courses. These materials focus on light and optics. Over the past several years as part of Project LITE (Light Inquiry Through Experiments), we have developed a kit of optical materials that is integrated with a set of Java applets. The combined kit and software allows students to do actual experiments concerning geometrical optics, fluorescence, phosphorescence, polarization and other topics by making use of the photons that are emitted by their computer screens. We have also developed a suite of over 100 Flash applets that allow students to directly explore many aspects of visual perception. A major effort of the project concerns spectroscopy, since it is arguably the most important tool used by astronomers to disentangle the nature of the universe. It is also one of the most challenging subjects to teach in undergraduate astronomy courses. The spectroscopy component of Project LITE includes take-home laboratory materials and experiments that are integrated with web-based software. We have also developed a novel quantitative handheld binocular spectrometer (patent pending). Our major spectroscopic software is called the Spectrum Explorer (SPEX). It allows students to create, manipulate and explore all types of spectra including blackbody, power law, emission and absorption. We are now extending the SPEX capabilities to help students gain easy access to the astronomical spectra included in the NVO databases. All of the Project LITE software can be found Project LITE is supported by Grant #DUE-0125992 from the NSF Division of Undergraduate Education.

  13. Inefficient but robust public leadership.


    Matsumura, Toshihiro; Ogawa, Akira


    We investigate endogenous timing in a mixed duopoly in a differentiated product market. We find that private leadership is better than public leadership from a social welfare perspective if the private firm is domestic, regardless of the degree of product differentiation. Nevertheless, the public leadership equilibrium is risk-dominant, and it is thus robust if the degree of product differentiation is high. We also find that regardless of the degree of product differentiation, the public lead...

  14. Testing Heteroscedasticity in Robust Regression

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kalina, Jan


    Roč. 1, č. 4 (2011), s. 25-28 ISSN 2045-3345 Grant - others:GA ČR(CZ) GA402/09/0557 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : robust regression * heteroscedasticity * regression quantiles * diagnostics Subject RIV: BB - Applied Statistics , Operational Research

  15. Robust power system frequency control

    CERN Document Server

    Bevrani, Hassan


    This updated edition of the industry standard reference on power system frequency control provides practical, systematic and flexible algorithms for regulating load frequency, offering new solutions to the technical challenges introduced by the escalating role of distributed generation and renewable energy sources in smart electric grids. The author emphasizes the physical constraints and practical engineering issues related to frequency in a deregulated environment, while fostering a conceptual understanding of frequency regulation and robust control techniques. The resulting control strategi

  16. Science Camps for Introducing Nature of Scientific Inquiry Through Student Inquiries in Nature: Two Applications with Retention Study (United States)

    Leblebicioglu, G.; Abik, N. M.; Capkinoglu, E.; Metin, D.; Dogan, E. Eroglu; Cetin, P. S.; Schwartz, R.


    Scientific inquiry is widely accepted as a method of science teaching. Understanding its characteristics, called Nature of Scientific Inquiry (NOSI), is also necessary for a whole conception of scientific inquiry. In this study NOSI aspects were taught explicitly through student inquiries in nature in two summer science camps. Students conducted four inquiries through their questions about surrounding soil, water, plants, and animals under the guidance of university science educators. At the end of each investigation, students presented their inquiry. NOSI aspects were made explicit by one of the science educators in the context of the investigations. Effectiveness of the science camp program and its retention were determined by applying Views of Scientific Inquiry (VOSI-S) (Schwartz et al. 2008) questionnaire as pre-, post-, and retention test after two months. The patterns in the data were similar. The science camp program was effective in developing three of six NOSI aspects which were questions guide scientific research, multiple methods of research, and difference between data and evidence. Students' learning of these aspects was retained. Discussion about these and the other three aspects is included in the paper. Implications of differences between school and out-of-school science experiences are also discussed.

  17. A robust multivariate long run analysis of European electricity prices


    Bruno Bosco; Lucia Parisio; Matteo Pelagatti; Fabio Baldi


    This paper analyses the interdependencies existing in wholesale electricity prices in six major European countries. The results of our robust multivariate long run dynamic analysis reveal the presence of four highly integrated central European markets (France, Germany, the Netherlands and Austria). The trend shared by these four electricity markets appears to be common also to gas prices, but not to oil prices. The existence of long term dynamics among electricity prices and between electrici...

  18. Comparing communities of inquiry of Portuguese higher education students: one for all or one for each?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose António Moreira


    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to report evidence obtained in a survey based on the Community of Inquiry (CoI framework (Garrison, Anderson & Archer, 1991; 2000 carried out in different groups. The study comprised 510 higher education students enrolled in blended online courses offered through Moodle platform during one semester. It considered students from different private and public Portuguese polytechnic schools and universities. Moreira & Almeida (2011 have suggested that CoI framework is a valid, reliable, and efficient measure of its dimensions within the Portuguese population. Although similarities in aspects of social presence were discovered among polytechnic and universities students, the two groups showed some differences. In particular, it was observed that the polytechnic students appear to be a more robust community when compared to university students.

  19. Preparing pre-service teachers to integrate technology into inquiry-based science education: Three case studies in The Netherlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tran, Trinh-Ba; Ed van den Berg, Ed; Beishuizen, Jos; Ellermeijer, Ton


    Integration of technology (e.g. measuring with sensors, video measurement, and modeling) into secondary-school science teaching is a need globally recognized. A central issue of incorporating these technologies in teaching is how to turn manipulations of equipment and software into manipulations of ideas. Therefore, preparation for pre-service teachers to apply ICT tools should be combined with the issues of minds-on inquiring and meaning-making. From this perspective, we developed a course within the post-graduate teacher-education program in the Netherlands. During the course, pre-service teachers learnt not only to master ICT skills but also to design, teach, and evaluate an inquiry-based lesson in which the ICT tool was integrated. Besides three life sessions, teachers’ learning scenario also consisted of individual tasks which teachers could carry out mostly in the school or at home with support materials and online assistance. We taught three iterations of the course within a design-research framework in 2013, 2014 and collected data on the teacher learning processes and outcomes. The analyses of these data from observation, interviews, questionnaires, and documents were to evaluate implementation of the course, then suggest for revisions of the course set-up, which was executed and then assessed again in a subsequent case study. Main outcomes of the three case studies can be summarized as follows: within a limited time (3 life sessions spread over 2–3 months), the heterogeneous groups of pre-service teachers achieved a reasonable level of competence regarding the use of ICT tools in inquiry-based lessons. The blended set-up with support materials, especially the Coach activities and the lesson-plan form for an ICT-integrated inquiry-based lesson, contributed to this result under the condition that the course participants really spent considerable time outside the life sessions. There was a need for more time for hands-on, in-group activities in life

  20. Preparing pre-service teachers to integrate technology into inquiry-based science education: Three case studies in The Netherlands (United States)

    Tran, Trinh-Ba; van den Berg, Ed; Ellermeijer, Ton; Beishuizen, Jos


    Integration of technology ( e.g. measuring with sensors, video measurement, and modeling) into secondary-school science teaching is a need globally recognized. A central issue of incorporating these technologies in teaching is how to turn manipulations of equipment and software into manipulations of ideas. Therefore, preparation for pre-service teachers to apply ICT tools should be combined with the issues of minds-on inquiring and meaning-making. From this perspective, we developed a course within the post-graduate teacher-education program in the Netherlands. During the course, pre-service teachers learnt not only to master ICT skills but also to design, teach, and evaluate an inquiry-based lesson in which the ICT tool was integrated. Besides three life sessions, teachers' learning scenario also consisted of individual tasks which teachers could carry out mostly in the school or at home with support materials and online assistance. We taught three iterations of the course within a design-research framework in 2013, 2014 and collected data on the teacher learning processes and outcomes. The analyses of these data from observation, interviews, questionnaires, and documents were to evaluate implementation of the course, then suggest for revisions of the course set-up, which was executed and then assessed again in a subsequent case study. Main outcomes of the three case studies can be summarized as follows: within a limited time (3 life sessions spread over 2-3 months), the heterogeneous groups of pre-service teachers achieved a reasonable level of competence regarding the use of ICT tools in inquiry-based lessons. The blended set-up with support materials, especially the Coach activities and the lesson-plan form for an ICT-integrated inquiry-based lesson, contributed to this result under the condition that the course participants really spent considerable time outside the life sessions. There was a need for more time for hands-on, in-group activities in life

  1. Characterizing and predicting the robustness of power-law networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LaRocca, Sarah; Guikema, Seth D.


    Power-law networks such as the Internet, terrorist cells, species relationships, and cellular metabolic interactions are susceptible to node failures, yet maintaining network connectivity is essential for network functionality. Disconnection of the network leads to fragmentation and, in some cases, collapse of the underlying system. However, the influences of the topology of networks on their ability to withstand node failures are poorly understood. Based on a study of the response of 2000 randomly-generated power-law networks to node failures, we find that networks with higher nodal degree and clustering coefficient, lower betweenness centrality, and lower variability in path length and clustering coefficient maintain their cohesion better during such events. We also find that network robustness, i.e., the ability to withstand node failures, can be accurately predicted a priori for power-law networks across many fields. These results provide a basis for designing new, more robust networks, improving the robustness of existing networks such as the Internet and cellular metabolic pathways, and efficiently degrading networks such as terrorist cells. - Highlights: • Examine relationship between network topology and robustness to failures. • Relationship is statistically significant for scale-free networks. • Use statistical models to estimate robustness to failures for real-world networks

  2. Assessing Dimensions of Inquiry Practice by Middle School Science Teachers Engaged in a Professional Development Program (United States)

    Lakin, Joni M.; Wallace, Carolyn S.


    Inquiry-based teaching promotes students' engagement in problem-solving and investigation as they learn science concepts. Current practice in science teacher education promotes the use of inquiry in the teaching of science. However, the literature suggests that many science teachers hold incomplete or incorrect conceptions of inquiry. Teachers, therefore, may believe they are providing more inquiry experiences than they are, reducing the positive impact of inquiry on science interest and skills. Given the prominence of inquiry in professional development experiences, educational evaluators need strong tools to detect intended use in the classroom. The current study focuses on the validity of assessments developed for evaluating teachers' use of inquiry strategies and classroom orientations. We explored the relationships between self-reported inquiry strategy use, preferences for inquiry, knowledge of inquiry practices, and related pedagogical content knowledge. Finally, we contrasted students' and teachers' reports of the levels of inquiry-based teaching in the classroom. Self-reports of inquiry use, especially one specific to the 5E instructional model, were useful, but should be interpreted with caution. Teachers tended to self-report higher levels of inquiry strategy use than their students perceived. Further, there were no significant correlations between either knowledge of inquiry practices or PCK and self-reported inquiry strategy use.

  3. Hinkley Point 'C' power station public inquiry: proof of evidence on CEGB policy with privatisation in prospect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, D.A.


    A public inquiry has been set up to examine the planning application made by the Central Electricity Generating Board (CEGB) for the construction of a 1200 MW Pressurized Water Reactor power station at Hinkley Point (Hinkley Point ''C'') in the United Kingdom. Part of the evidence submitted to the Inquiry is set out in this report. It concerns the implications for the CEGB's initial case of subsequent government proposals for electricity supply privatization. That case rested on the need for diversity of primary fuel source. Present Government policy endorses the CEGB policy in this regard in the intention to make legislative provision for a quota of electricity generation from non-fossil-fueled sources in a privatized supply industry. (UK)

  4. Hinkley Point 'C' power station public inquiry: proof of evidence on on-site radioactive waste management and decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Passant, F.H.


    A public inquiry has been set up to examine the planning application made by the Central Electricity Generating Board (CEGB) for the construction of a 1200 MW Pressurized Water Reactor power station at Hinkley Point (Hinkley Point ''C'') in the United Kingdom. The CEGB evidence to the Inquiry presented here provides information on the on-site management of solid, liquid and gaseous radioactive wastes both during station operation and during decommissioning. Estimates are given of current and projected future discharges of liquid and gaseous wastes from the site and packaging and transport arrangements for solid radioactive wastes are described. The framework of waste management policy, disposal strategy and legislation in the United Kingdom which will determine procedure at Hinkley Point ''C'' is given. (UK)

  5. Teacher and student reflections on ICT-rich science inquiry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Williams, John; Otrel-Cass, Kathrin


    and different ways for students to engage with, explore and communicate science ideas within inquiry. Sample: This project developed case studies with 6 science teachers of year 9 and 10 students, with an average age of 13 and 14 years in three New Zealand high schools. Teacher participants in the project had...... varying levels of understanding and experience with inquiry learning in science. Teacher knowledge and experience with ICT were equally diverse. Design and Methods: Teachers and researchers developed initially in a joint workshop a shared understanding of inquiry, and how this could be enacted. During......Background: Inquiry learning in science provides authentic and relevant contexts in which students can create knowledge to solve problems, make decisions and find solutions to issues in today’s world. The use of electronic networks can facilitate this interaction, dialogue and sharing, and adds...

  6. Implementing e-network-supported inquiry learning in science

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Williams, John; Cowie, Bronwen; Khoo, Elaine


    The successful implementation of electronically networked (e-networked) tools to support an inquiry-learning approach in secondary science classrooms is dependent on a range of factors spread between teachers, schools, and students. The teacher must have a clear understanding of the nature......-construct knowledge using a wide range of resources for meaning making and expression of ideas. These outcomes were, however, contingent on the interplay of teacher understanding of the nature of science inquiry and school provision of an effective technological infrastructure and support for flexible curriculum...... of inquiry, the school must provide effective technological infrastructure and sympathetic curriculum parameters, and the students need to be carefully scaffolded to the point of engaging with the inquiry process. Within this study, e-networks supported students to exercise agency, collaborate, and co...

  7. National inquiry system of radiological events: a viable proposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xavier, Ana Maria; Cavalcante, Vera Lucia.


    The SINAER- National Inquiry System of Radiological Events is a supportive structure devised to deal with the request of help or complaints that involve sources of ionizing radiations in the national territory

  8. Using Peer Feedback to Improve Students' Scientific Inquiry (United States)

    Tasker, Tammy Q.; Herrenkohl, Leslie Rupert


    This article examines a 7th grade teacher's pedagogical practices to support her students to provide peer feedback to one another using technology during scientific inquiry. This research is part of a larger study in which teachers in California and Washington and their classes engaged in inquiry projects using a Web-based system called Web of Inquiry. Videotapes of classroom lessons and artifacts such as student work were collected as part of the corpus of data. In the case examined, Ms. E supports her students to collectively define "meaningful feedback," thereby improving the quality of feedback that was provided in the future. This is especially timely, given the attention in Next Generation Science Standards to cross-cutting concepts and practices that require students discuss and debate ideas with each other in order to improve their understanding and their written inquiry reports (NGSS, 2013).

  9. Narrative inquiry: a relational research methodology for medical education. (United States)

    Clandinin, D Jean; Cave, Marie T; Berendonk, Charlotte


    Narrative research, an inclusive term for a range of methodologies, has rapidly become part of medical education scholarship. In this paper we identify narrative inquiry as a particular theoretical and methodological framework within narrative research and outline its characteristics. We briefly summarise how narrative research has been used in studying medical learners' identity making in medical education. We then turn to the uses of narrative inquiry in studying medical learners' professional identity making. With the turn to narrative inquiry, the shift is to thinking with stories instead of about stories. We highlight four challenges in engaging in narrative inquiry in medical education and point toward promising future research and practice possibilities. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd and The Association for the Study of Medical Education.

  10. Science teachers understanding of inquiry-based science teaching ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    This paper aims at finding out Rwandan lower secondary school science teachers' ... enterprise, which in the context of the present study has a focus on inquiry. .... methods was adopted and both quantitative and qualitative data collected.

  11. Evaluation Inquiry in Donor Funded Programmes in Northern Ghana ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    May 1, 2016 ... Department of Administration and Management Studies, Wa Campus, ... therefore seeks to contribute to knowledge on evaluation inquiry and the implications .... poverty reduction strategy approach by the World Bank and ...

  12. 14 CFR 1274.214 - Inquiries and release of information. (United States)


    ... AGREEMENTS WITH COMMERCIAL FIRMS Pre-Award Requirements § 1274.214 Inquiries and release of information. NASA personnel shall follow the procedures established in NFS 1805.402 prior to releasing information to the news...

  13. The Sizewell inquiry - is there a better way

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenhalgh, G.


    The author sees the Inquiry as the latest in a line arising from government's wish to achieve greater public participation in controversial decisions. He believes that the Sizewell Inquiry is unlikely to shake the public out of its apathy, while a decision that goes against them will not satisfy the objectors. The concept of the Inquiry is based on the belief that the legal process will unearth objective truth, while most of the issues are matters of opinion and judgement. The wide-ranging terms of reference are leading to constitutional anomalies and attempts to take on Herculean tasks in the search for objective truth. However, while concluding that an Inquiry Commission adopting a legal approach and following courtroom procedures is not a satisfactory way of dealing with large-scale technological projects, the author finds it hard to suggest alternatives short of more direct parliamentary control. (author)

  14. The (non)making/becoming of inquiry practicing science teachers (United States)

    Sharma, Ajay; Muzaffar, Irfan


    Teacher education programs have adopted preparing science teachers that teach science through inquiry as an important pedagogic agenda. However, their efforts have not met with much success. While traditional explanations for this failure focus largely on preservice science teachers' knowledge, beliefs and conceptions regarding science and science teaching, this conceptual paper seeks to direct attention toward discursive practices surrounding inquiry science teaching in teacher education programs for understanding why most science teachers do not teach science through inquiry. The paper offers a theoretical framework centered on critical notions of subjection and performativity as a much needed perspective on making/becoming of science teachers through participation in discursive practices of science teacher education programs. It argues that research based on such perspectives have much potential to offer a deeper understanding of the difficult challenges teacher education programs face in preparing inquiry practicing science teachers.

  15. Librarian-Teacher Partnerships for Inquiry Learning: Measures of Effectiveness for a Practice-Based Model of Professional Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joyce Yukawa


    in practice. The summative evaluation identified significant changes in practice in three areas: (1 the design of inquiry-focused learning, (2 the roles of the teacher and librarian in collaborative development of instruction, and (3 the impact on student performance. Two years after the yearlong professional development course, most participants indicated that they continued to incorporate inquiry-based approaches, and over half of the participants were involving other colleagues at their schools in inquiry-focused practices. Six of the librarians assumed major curricular roles in their respective schools. Conclusion – The practice-based model of professional development appears to be effective and sustainable. It has been tested and modified by other development teams in the last two years. More extensive use of the model in other contexts with further testing and refinement by other developers is needed to ensure that the model is robust and widely applicable.

  16. Potentials in Udeskole: Inquiry-Based Teaching Outside the Classroom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen S. Barfod


    Full Text Available Most research on outdoor education, including the Scandinavian concept udeskole (regular curriculum-based teaching outside the classroom, has focused on pupils' outcomes, whereas less has focused on teachers' practices. In this article, we described the occurrence of inquiry-based teaching in udeskole. To analyze practice, we extended the notion of inquiry-based education. Within science and mathematics education, a strong stepwise teaching approach formerly was established, called Inquiry Based Science and Mathematics Education (IBSME, emphasizing pupils' hypothesis testing, data validation and systematic experimentation. In this study, we broadened the IBSME-concept of inquiry in order to include a more holistic, non-linear teaching approach, but excluding teacher-instructed inquiry. Using this idea, we observed and documented by field notes how five experienced teachers practiced mathematics and science teaching in udeskole at primary level in Denmark. Twenty-eight outdoor days were observed. Each day was divided into separate teaching incidents with a distinct start and end. The level of teacher interference and possible choices in each teaching incidents formed the analytic background. We analyzed each of the 71 teaching incidents, and categorized each of them into one of five categories numbered 4–0. The categories designated numbers 4–2 contained the inquiry-based teaching incidents, and the categories designated 1 and 0 were categorized as “non-inquiry-based.” They contained teaching incidents where the teacher was instructing the pupils (category 1, and outdoor teaching activities with no sign of inquiry, called training activities (category 0. Our results showed that about half of the analyzed outdoor teaching practice seemed to be inquiry-based, emphasizing pupils' choice and presenting cognitive challenge. This indicates that the analyzed udeskole had the potential to support an explorative and multifaceted inquiry

  17. "Martian Boneyards": Sustained Scientific Inquiry in a Social Digital Game (United States)

    Asbell-Clarke, Jordis

    Social digital gaming is an explosive phenomenon where youth and adults are engaged in inquiry for the sake of fun. The complexity of learning evidenced in social digital games is attracting the attention of educators. Martian Boneyards is a proof-of-concept game designed to study how a community of voluntary gamers can be enticed to engage in sustained, high-quality scientific inquiry. Science educators and game designers worked together to create an educational game with the polish and intrigue of a professional-level game, striving to attract a new audience to scientific inquiry. Martian Boneyards took place in the high-definition, massively multiplayer online environment, Blue Mars, where players spent an average of 30 hours in the game over the 4-month implementation period, with some exceeding 200 hours. Most of the players' time was spent in scientific inquiry activities and about 30% of the players' in-game interactions were in the analysis and theory-building phases of inquiry. Female players conducted most of the inquiry, in particular analysis and theory building. The quality of scientific inquiry processes, which included extensive information gathering by players, and the resulting content were judged to be very good by a team of independent scientists. This research suggests that a compelling storyline, a highly aesthetic environment, and the emergent social bonds among players and between players and the characters played by designers were all responsible for sustaining high quality inquiry among gamers in this free-choice experience. The gaming environment developed for Martian Boneyards is seen as an evolving ecosystem with interactions among design, players' activity, and players' progress.

  18. Robustness Analysis of Timber Truss Structure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rajčić, Vlatka; Čizmar, Dean; Kirkegaard, Poul Henning


    The present paper discusses robustness of structures in general and the robustness requirements given in the codes. Robustness of timber structures is also an issues as this is closely related to Working group 3 (Robustness of systems) of the COST E55 project. Finally, an example of a robustness...... evaluation of a widespan timber truss structure is presented. This structure was built few years ago near Zagreb and has a span of 45m. Reliability analysis of the main members and the system is conducted and based on this a robustness analysis is preformed....

  19. Long term stability of learning outcomes in undergraduates after an open-inquiry instruction on thermal science (United States)

    Persano Adorno, Dominique; Pizzolato, Nicola; Fazio, Claudio


    This paper investigates the efficacy of an open-inquiry approach to achieve a long term stability of physics instruction. This study represents the natural continuation of a research project started four years ago when a sample of thirty engineering undergraduates, having already attended traditional university physics instruction, were involved in a six-week long learning experience of open-inquiry research activities within the highly motivating context of developing a thermodynamically efficient space base on Mars. Four years later, we explore the effectiveness of that learning experience by analyzing the outcomes that the students achieved by answering again the same questionnaire that was administered them both prior to and immediately after those activities. As we did in the first work, students' answers were classified within three epistemological profiles. Now, a comparison among students' outcomes during the three phases, namely, preinstruction, postinstruction, and after four years has been carried out. Immediately after the open-inquiry experience, the students obtained significant benefits in terms of the strengthening of their practical and reasoning abilities, by proficiently applying the learned concepts to face and solve real-world problem situations. In this study, the students' answers do not highlight any significant regress towards their preinstruction profiles. The global robustness of the teaching strategy adopted four years ago is confirmed by a statistically significant comparison with a control group of students who experienced the same curricular instruction except for the open inquiry-based workshop. Nevertheless, some changes have been observed and discussed in the light of the answers the students provided to a short interview regarding their studying or working experiences across the four-year temporal window.

  20. Soliton robustness in optical fibers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menyuk, C.R.


    Simulations and experiments indicate that solitons in optical fibers are robust in the presence of Hamiltonian deformations such as higher-order dispersion and birefringence but are destroyed in the presence of non-Hamiltonian deformations such as attenuation and the Raman effect. Two hypotheses are introduced that generalize these observations and give a recipe for when deformations will be Hamiltonian. Concepts from nonlinear dynamics are used to make these two hypotheses plausible. Soliton stabilization with frequency filtering is also briefly discussed from this point of view

  1. Robust and Sparse Factor Modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Croux, Christophe; Exterkate, Peter

    Factor construction methods are widely used to summarize a large panel of variables by means of a relatively small number of representative factors. We propose a novel factor construction procedure that enjoys the properties of robustness to outliers and of sparsity; that is, having relatively few...... nonzero factor loadings. Compared to the traditional factor construction method, we find that this procedure leads to a favorable forecasting performance in the presence of outliers and to better interpretable factors. We investigate the performance of the method in a Monte Carlo experiment...

  2. Robustness Evaluation of Timber Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkegaard, Poul Henning; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard; čizmar, D.


    The present paper outlines results from working group 3 (WG3) in the EU COST Action E55 – ‘Modelling of the performance of timber structures’. The objectives of the project are related to the three main research activities: the identification and modelling of relevant load and environmental...... exposure scenarios, the improvement of knowledge concerning the behaviour of timber structural elements and the development of a generic framework for the assessment of the life-cycle vulnerability and robustness of timber structures....

  3. Sustainable Resilient, Robust & Resplendent Enterprises

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edgeman, Rick

    to their impact. Resplendent enterprises are introduced with resplendence referring not to some sort of public or private façade, but instead refers to organizations marked by dual brilliance and nobility of strategy, governance and comportment that yields superior and sustainable triple bottom line performance....... Herein resilience, robustness, and resplendence (R3) are integrated with sustainable enterprise excellence (Edgeman and Eskildsen, 2013) or SEE and social-ecological innovation (Eskildsen and Edgeman, 2012) to aid progress of a firm toward producing continuously relevant performance that proceed from...

  4. How Select Groups of Preservice Science Teachers with Inquiry Orientations View Teaching and Learning Science through Inquiry (United States)

    Ward, Peggy

    Although hailed as a powerful form of instruction, in most teaching and learning contexts, inquiry-based instruction is fraught with ambiguous and conflicting definitions and descriptions. Yet little has been written about the experiences preservice science teacher have regarding their learning to teach science through inquiry. This project sought to understand how select preservice secondary science teachers enrolled in three UTeach programs in Arkansas conceptualize inquiry instruction and how they rationalize its value in a teaching and learning context. The three teacher education programs investigated in this study are adoption sites aligned with the UTeach Program in Austin, TX that distinguishes itself in part by its inquiry emphasis. Using a mixed method investigation design, this study utilized two sources of data to explore the preservice science teachers' thinking. In the first phase, a modified version of the Pedagogy of Science teaching Tests (POSTT) was used to identify select program participants who indicated preferences for inquiry instruction over other instructional strategies. Secondly, the study used an open-ended questionnaire to explore the selected subjects' beliefs and conceptions of teaching and learning science in an inquiry context. The study also focused on identifying particular junctures in the prospective science teachers' education preparation that might impact their understanding about inquiry. Using a constant comparative approach, this study explored 19 preservice science teachers' conceptions about inquiry. The results indicate that across all levels of instruction, the prospective teachers tended to have strong student-centered teaching orientations. Except subjects in for the earliest courses, subjects' definitions and descriptions of inquiry tended toward a few of the science practices. More advanced subjects, however, expressed more in-depth descriptions. Excluding the subjects who have completed the program, multiple

  5. Robust Instrumentation[Water treatment for power plant]; Robust Instrumentering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wik, Anders [Vattenfall Utveckling AB, Stockholm (Sweden)


    Cementa Slite Power Station is a heat recovery steam generator (HRSG) with moderate steam data; 3.0 MPa and 420 deg C. The heat is recovered from Cementa, a cement industry, without any usage of auxiliary fuel. The Power station commenced operation in 2001. The layout of the plant is unusual, there are no similar in Sweden and very few world-wide, so the operational experiences are limited. In connection with the commissioning of the power plant a R and D project was identified with the objective to minimise the manpower needed for chemistry management of the plant. The lean chemistry management is based on robust instrumentation and chemical-free water treatment plant. The concept with robust instrumentation consists of the following components; choice of on-line instrumentation with a minimum of O and M and a chemical-free water treatment. The parameters are specific conductivity, cation conductivity, oxygen and pH. In addition to that, two fairly new on-line instruments were included; corrosion monitors and differential pH calculated from specific and cation conductivity. The chemical-free water treatment plant consists of softening, reverse osmosis and electro-deionisation. The operational experience shows that the cycle chemistry is not within the guidelines due to major problems with the operation of the power plant. These problems have made it impossible to reach steady state and thereby not viable to fully verify and validate the concept with robust instrumentation. From readings on the panel of the online analysers some conclusions may be drawn, e.g. the differential pH measurements have fulfilled the expectations. The other on-line analysers have been working satisfactorily apart from contamination with turbine oil, which has been noticed at least twice. The corrosion monitors seem to be working but the lack of trend curves from the mainframe computer system makes it hard to draw any clear conclusions. The chemical-free water treatment has met all

  6. Perspective: Evolution and detection of genetic robustness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, de J.A.G.M.; Hermisson, J.; Wagner, G.P.; Ancel Meyers, L.; Bagheri-Chaichian, H.; Blanchard, J.L.; Chao, L.; Cheverud, J.M.; Elena, S.F.; Fontana, W.; Gibson, G.; Hansen, T.F.; Krakauer, D.; Lewontin, R.C.; Ofria, C.; Rice, S.H.; Dassow, von G.; Wagner, A.; Whitlock, M.C.


    Robustness is the invariance of phenotypes in the face of perturbation. The robustness of phenotypes appears at various levels of biological organization, including gene expression, protein folding, metabolic flux, physiological homeostasis, development, and even organismal fitness. The mechanisms

  7. Robust lyapunov controller for uncertain systems

    KAUST Repository

    Laleg-Kirati, Taous-Meriem; Elmetennani, Shahrazed


    Various examples of systems and methods are provided for Lyapunov control for uncertain systems. In one example, a system includes a process plant and a robust Lyapunov controller configured to control an input of the process plant. The robust

  8. Robust distributed cognitive relay beamforming

    KAUST Repository

    Pandarakkottilil, Ubaidulla


    In this paper, we present a distributed relay beamformer design for a cognitive radio network in which a cognitive (or secondary) transmit node communicates with a secondary receive node assisted by a set of cognitive non-regenerative relays. The secondary nodes share the spectrum with a licensed primary user (PU) node, and each node is assumed to be equipped with a single transmit/receive antenna. The interference to the PU resulting from the transmission from the cognitive nodes is kept below a specified limit. The proposed robust cognitive relay beamformer design seeks to minimize the total relay transmit power while ensuring that the transceiver signal-to-interference- plus-noise ratio and PU interference constraints are satisfied. The proposed design takes into account a parameter of the error in the channel state information (CSI) to render the performance of the beamformer robust in the presence of imperfect CSI. Though the original problem is non-convex, we show that the proposed design can be reformulated as a tractable convex optimization problem that can be solved efficiently. Numerical results are provided and illustrate the performance of the proposed designs for different network operating conditions and parameters. © 2012 IEEE.

  9. Two-level Robust Measurement Fusion Kalman Filter for Clustering Sensor Networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Peng; QI Wen-Juan; DENG Zi-Li


    This paper investigates the distributed fusion Kalman filtering over clustering sensor networks. The sensor network is partitioned as clusters by the nearest neighbor rule and each cluster consists of sensing nodes and cluster-head. Using the minimax robust estimation principle, based on the worst-case conservative system with the conservative upper bounds of noise variances, two-level robust measurement fusion Kalman filter is presented for the clustering sensor network systems with uncertain noise variances. It can significantly reduce the communication load and save energy when the number of sensors is very large. A Lyapunov equation approach for the robustness analysis is presented, by which the robustness of the local and fused Kalman filters is proved. The concept of the robust accuracy is presented, and the robust accuracy relations among the local and fused robust Kalman filters are proved. It is proved that the robust accuracy of the two-level weighted measurement fuser is equal to that of the global centralized robust fuser and is higher than those of each local robust filter and each local weighted measurement fuser. A simulation example shows the correctness and effectiveness of the proposed results.

  10. Robust canonical correlations: A comparative study


    Branco, JA; Croux, Christophe; Filzmoser, P; Oliveira, MR


    Several approaches for robust canonical correlation analysis will be presented and discussed. A first method is based on the definition of canonical correlation analysis as looking for linear combinations of two sets of variables having maximal (robust) correlation. A second method is based on alternating robust regressions. These methods axe discussed in detail and compared with the more traditional approach to robust canonical correlation via covariance matrix estimates. A simulation study ...

  11. Comparing the perceptions of scientific inquiry between experts and practitioners (United States)

    Gooding, Julia Terese Chembars

    The purpose of this study was to determine if there was a difference in the perception of scientific inquiry between experts and practitioners, and, if a difference was shown to exist, to analyze those perceptions in order to better understand the extent of that difference or gap. A disconnect was found between how experts and practitioners perceived scientific inquiry. The practitioners differed from both the experts and the literature in three key areas. First, although the teachers indicated that students would be manipulating materials, there was no direct reference to this manipulation actually being performed for the purpose of investigating. Second, the practitioners implied active physical engagement with materials, but they did not tie this to active mental engagement or direct involvement in their own learning. Third, teachers omitted their role in laying the foundation for inquiry. Though classroom teachers lacked a complete understanding of true inquiry and its place in the K-12 classroom, most of them actually believed they were practicing the art of teaching via inquiry. Additionally, two other points of interest arose. First, an examination of the national standards for a number of curricular areas established that the process skills of scientific inquiry are mirrored in those standards, implying that inquiry is not limited to the sciences. Second, a definition of inquiry was formulated based upon interviews with experts in the field. Although the literature and the experts were in unison in their definition, there was a disparity between the accepted definition and that provided by the teachers. The struggle for a comprehensive understanding of inquiry continues to this day. It might very well be that the concept still remains elusive partly because the teacher behaviors associated with it run counter to more traditional methods of instruction...methods that most teachers have experienced throughout their own educational careers. The most pervasive

  12. Robust adaptive synchronization of general dynamical networks ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Pramana – Journal of Physics; Volume 86; Issue 6. Robust ... A robust adaptive synchronization scheme for these general complex networks with multiple delays and uncertainties is established and raised by employing the robust adaptive control principle and the Lyapunov stability theory. We choose ...

  13. Robust portfolio selection under norm uncertainty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Wang


    Full Text Available Abstract In this paper, we consider the robust portfolio selection problem which has a data uncertainty described by the ( p , w $(p,w$ -norm in the objective function. We show that the robust formulation of this problem is equivalent to a linear optimization problem. Moreover, we present some numerical results concerning our robust portfolio selection problem.

  14. A robust standard deviation control chart

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoonhoven, M.; Does, R.J.M.M.


    This article studies the robustness of Phase I estimators for the standard deviation control chart. A Phase I estimator should be efficient in the absence of contaminations and resistant to disturbances. Most of the robust estimators proposed in the literature are robust against either diffuse

  15. Methodology in robust and nonparametric statistics

    CERN Document Server

    Jurecková, Jana; Picek, Jan


    Introduction and SynopsisIntroductionSynopsisPreliminariesIntroductionInference in Linear ModelsRobustness ConceptsRobust and Minimax Estimation of LocationClippings from Probability and Asymptotic TheoryProblemsRobust Estimation of Location and RegressionIntroductionM-EstimatorsL-EstimatorsR-EstimatorsMinimum Distance and Pitman EstimatorsDifferentiable Statistical FunctionsProblemsAsymptotic Representations for L-Estimators

  16. Learning to teach inquiry with ICT (United States)

    Tran, Trinh-Ba; van den Berg, Ed; Ellermeijer, Ton; Beishuizen, Jos


    Research has shown that the objectives for laboratory teaching—just as with other teaching methods—are often not achieved and that many laboratory sessions are ineffective and yet expensive in terms of pupil and teacher time, and facilities. There are several reasons for this, but one reason is that instructions for many lab activities are too prescriptive and leave too little room for thinking and creativity of pupils. Even though this problem had been pointed out already in the early 1980s, it has persisted to this day. Additionally, ICT tools such as data logging, video measurement, and modelling have been available to secondary schools for decades. These tools provide unique opportunities for authentic investigations at the secondary school level. However, even friendly software might require considerable instruction and reinforce a prescriptive approach. Therefore, we developed a course for pre-service and in-service teachers to learn to apply ICT tools in a minds-on and inquiry way. The short course (1 ECTS  =  28 study hours) described in this article was tried out in three different countries (the Netherlands, Slovakia, Vietnam) and improved through different cycles of iterative development. Its pedagogical principles were validated through research and may be applicable and useful in other areas of teacher education and professional development.

  17. EPIC: an Error Propagation/Inquiry Code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baker, A.L.


    The use of a computer program EPIC (Error Propagation/Inquiry Code) will be discussed. EPIC calculates the variance of a materials balance closed about a materials balance area (MBA) in a processing plant operated under steady-state conditions. It was designed for use in evaluating the significance of inventory differences in the Department of Energy (DOE) nuclear plants. EPIC rapidly estimates the variance of a materials balance using average plant operating data. The intent is to learn as much as possible about problem areas in a process with simple straightforward calculations assuming a process is running in a steady-state mode. EPIC is designed to be used by plant personnel or others with little computer background. However, the user should be knowledgeable about measurement errors in the system being evaluated and have a limited knowledge of how error terms are combined in error propagation analyses. EPIC contains six variance equations; the appropriate equation is used to calculate the variance at each measurement point. After all of these variances are calculated, the total variance for the MBA is calculated using a simple algebraic sum of variances. The EPIC code runs on any computer that accepts a standard form of the BASIC language. 2 refs., 1 fig., 6 tabs

  18. Using guided inquiry to teach academic language (United States)

    Parent, Kelley


    Introducing new physics phenomena through inquiry labs has been a staple of the successful physics teacher for years. Introducing new vocabulary through lab work, however, is less common. This paper offers an example of a simple and short lab that does just that, and one that I have found to be quite useful in my college prep physics courses to help students construct (and retain) functional definitions of the oft-transposed terms distance and displacement. A standard definition for displacement is a change in an object's position, while distance would be the entire path traveled by the object, yet my students were using the two terms interchangeably, often saying distance when they really should have referred to displacement. I wanted them to be able to clearly distinguish between the two terms, so I designed a brief experiment that allows students the chance to engage with the concept. My colleagues and I have found that putting the students in charge of their learning with this simple activity helps the students better understand the difference between these two terms.

  19. Sandboxes for Model-Based Inquiry (United States)

    Brady, Corey; Holbert, Nathan; Soylu, Firat; Novak, Michael; Wilensky, Uri


    In this article, we introduce a class of constructionist learning environments that we call Emergent Systems Sandboxes ( ESSs), which have served as a centerpiece of our recent work in developing curriculum to support scalable model-based learning in classroom settings. ESSs are a carefully specified form of virtual construction environment that support students in creating, exploring, and sharing computational models of dynamic systems that exhibit emergent phenomena. They provide learners with "entity"-level construction primitives that reflect an underlying scientific model. These primitives can be directly "painted" into a sandbox space, where they can then be combined, arranged, and manipulated to construct complex systems and explore the emergent properties of those systems. We argue that ESSs offer a means of addressing some of the key barriers to adopting rich, constructionist model-based inquiry approaches in science classrooms at scale. Situating the ESS in a large-scale science modeling curriculum we are implementing across the USA, we describe how the unique "entity-level" primitive design of an ESS facilitates knowledge system refinement at both an individual and social level, we describe how it supports flexible modeling practices by providing both continuous and discrete modes of executability, and we illustrate how it offers students a variety of opportunities for validating their qualitative understandings of emergent systems as they develop.

  20. Analysis of robustness of urban bus network (United States)

    Tao, Ren; Yi-Fan, Wang; Miao-Miao, Liu; Yan-Jie, Xu


    In this paper, the invulnerability and cascade failures are discussed for the urban bus network. Firstly, three static models(bus stop network, bus transfer network, and bus line network) are used to analyse the structure and invulnerability of urban bus network in order to understand the features of bus network comprehensively. Secondly, a new way is proposed to study the invulnerability of urban bus network by modelling two layered networks, i.e., the bus stop-line network and the bus line-transfer network and then the interactions between different models are analysed. Finally, by modelling a new layered network which can reflect the dynamic passenger flows, the cascade failures are discussed. Then a new load redistribution method is proposed to study the robustness of dynamic traffic. In this paper, the bus network of Shenyang City which is one of the biggest cities in China, is taken as a simulation example. In addition, some suggestions are given to improve the urban bus network and provide emergency strategies when traffic congestion occurs according to the numerical simulation results. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 61473073, 61374178, 61104074, and 61203329), the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities (Grant Nos. N130417006, L1517004), and the Program for Liaoning Excellent Talents in University (Grant No. LJQ2014028).

  1. Robustness from flexibility in the fungal circadian clock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akman Ozgur E


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Robustness is a central property of living systems, enabling function to be maintained against environmental perturbations. A key challenge is to identify the structures in biological circuits that confer system-level properties such as robustness. Circadian clocks allow organisms to adapt to the predictable changes of the 24-hour day/night cycle by generating endogenous rhythms that can be entrained to the external cycle. In all organisms, the clock circuits typically comprise multiple interlocked feedback loops controlling the rhythmic expression of key genes. Previously, we showed that such architectures increase the flexibility of the clock's rhythmic behaviour. We now test the relationship between flexibility and robustness, using a mathematical model of the circuit controlling conidiation in the fungus Neurospora crassa. Results The circuit modelled in this work consists of a central negative feedback loop, in which the frequency (frq gene inhibits its transcriptional activator white collar-1 (wc-1, interlocked with a positive feedback loop in which FRQ protein upregulates WC-1 production. Importantly, our model reproduces the observed entrainment of this circuit under light/dark cycles with varying photoperiod and cycle duration. Our simulations show that whilst the level of frq mRNA is driven directly by the light input, the falling phase of FRQ protein, a molecular correlate of conidiation, maintains a constant phase that is uncoupled from the times of dawn and dusk. The model predicts the behaviour of mutants that uncouple WC-1 production from FRQ's positive feedback, and shows that the positive loop enhances the buffering of conidiation phase against seasonal photoperiod changes. This property is quantified using Kitano's measure for the overall robustness of a regulated system output. Further analysis demonstrates that this functional robustness is a consequence of the greater evolutionary flexibility conferred on

  2. Container Materials, Fabrication And Robustness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunn, K.; Louthan, M.; Rawls, G.; Sindelar, R.; Zapp, P.; Mcclard, J.


    The multi-barrier 3013 container used to package plutonium-bearing materials is robust and thereby highly resistant to identified degradation modes that might cause failure. The only viable degradation mechanisms identified by a panel of technical experts were pressurization within and corrosion of the containers. Evaluations of the container materials and the fabrication processes and resulting residual stresses suggest that the multi-layered containers will mitigate the potential for degradation of the outer container and prevent the release of the container contents to the environment. Additionally, the ongoing surveillance programs and laboratory studies should detect any incipient degradation of containers in the 3013 storage inventory before an outer container is compromised.

  3. Robust matching for voice recognition (United States)

    Higgins, Alan; Bahler, L.; Porter, J.; Blais, P.


    This paper describes an automated method of comparing a voice sample of an unknown individual with samples from known speakers in order to establish or verify the individual's identity. The method is based on a statistical pattern matching approach that employs a simple training procedure, requires no human intervention (transcription, work or phonetic marketing, etc.), and makes no assumptions regarding the expected form of the statistical distributions of the observations. The content of the speech material (vocabulary, grammar, etc.) is not assumed to be constrained in any way. An algorithm is described which incorporates frame pruning and channel equalization processes designed to achieve robust performance with reasonable computational resources. An experimental implementation demonstrating the feasibility of the concept is described.

  4. Robustness of Dengue Complex Network under Targeted versus Random Attack

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hafiz Abid Mahmood Malik


    Full Text Available Dengue virus infection is one of those epidemic diseases that require much consideration in order to save the humankind from its unsafe impacts. According to the World Health Organization (WHO, 3.6 billion individuals are at risk because of the dengue virus sickness. Researchers are striving to comprehend the dengue threat. This study is a little commitment to those endeavors. To observe the robustness of the dengue network, we uprooted the links between nodes randomly and targeted by utilizing different centrality measures. The outcomes demonstrated that 5% targeted attack is equivalent to the result of 65% random assault, which showed the topology of this complex network validated a scale-free network instead of random network. Four centrality measures (Degree, Closeness, Betweenness, and Eigenvector have been ascertained to look for focal hubs. It has been observed through the results in this study that robustness of a node and links depends on topology of the network. The dengue epidemic network presented robust behaviour under random attack, and this network turned out to be more vulnerable when the hubs of higher degree have higher probability to fail. Moreover, representation of this network has been projected, and hub removal impact has been shown on the real map of Gombak (Malaysia.

  5. Hinkley Point 'C' power station public inquiry: proof of evidence on plant parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    George, B.V.


    A public inquiry has been set up to examine the planning application made by the Central Electricity Generating Board (CEGB) for the construction of a 1200 MW Pressurized Water Reactor power station at Hinkley Point (Hinkley Point ''C'') in the United Kingdom. The overall economics of a nuclear power station depends on many factors which are determined by the design; the effectiveness with which the station is constructed; and the performance of the plant. In this respect the most significant factors are: construction time; capital cost; availability of the plant to produce electricity, taking account of those outages due to either planned or unplanned shutdowns; net electrical power output; and the working life of the plant. In this evidence to the Inquiry, the basis for the values chosen as ''targets'' for these parameters in the design of the plant and the control of the project is set out. The adjustment of the parameters to make them suitable for economic appraisal is explained. The design and project management arrangements are described. (author)

  6. Hinkley Point 'C' power station public inquiry: proof of evidence on system considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eunson, E.M.


    A public inquiry has been set up to examine the planning application made by the Central Electricity Generating Board (CEGB) for the construction of a 1200 MW Pressurized Water Reactor power station at Hinkley Point (Hinkley Point ''C'') in the United Kingdom. This evidence to the Inquiry describes the CEGB system and the concepts of economy, security and quality of supply which underlie it. Attention is drawn to the present geographical imbalance between generation and demand on the CEGB system which leads to high power transfers at times of peak demand and for long periods at off-peak times. When there is a need to install new generating plant in the mid-1990s, system benefits can be achieved by siting plant in the South rather than in the North. The system benefits which would arise from the siting of a new PWR nuclear power station at Hinkley Point ''C'' rather than elsewhere are identified. The system benefits of other PWR sites and non-fossil options, such as a further link with France, interconnection with Iceland and the Severn Tidal Barrage, are reviewed. System benefits in terms of security and economics would accrue from locating a PWR station at Hinkley Point without the need for new transmission lines. (author)

  7. Robustness Assessment of Spatial Timber Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkegaard, Poul Henning


    Robustness of structural systems has obtained a renewed interest due to a much more frequent use of advanced types of structures with limited redundancy and serious consequences in case of failure. In order to minimise the likelihood of such disproportionate structural failures many modern buildi...... to robustness of spatial timber structures and will discuss the consequences of such robustness issues related to the future development of timber structures.......Robustness of structural systems has obtained a renewed interest due to a much more frequent use of advanced types of structures with limited redundancy and serious consequences in case of failure. In order to minimise the likelihood of such disproportionate structural failures many modern building...... codes consider the need for robustness of structures and provide strategies and methods to obtain robustness. Therefore a structural engineer may take necessary steps to design robust structures that are insensitive to accidental circumstances. The present paper summaries issues with respect...

  8. The influence of democratic racism in nursing inquiry. (United States)

    Hilario, Carla T; Browne, Annette J; McFadden, Alysha


    Neoliberal ideology and exclusionary policies based on racialized identities characterize the current contexts in North America and Western Europe. Nursing knowledge cannot be abstracted from social, political and historical contexts; the task of examining the influence of race and racial ideologies on disciplinary knowledge and inquiry therefore remains an important task. Contemporary analyses of the role and responsibility of the discipline in addressing race-based health and social inequities as a focus of nursing inquiry remain underdeveloped. In this article, we examine nursing's engagement with ideas about race and racism and explore the ways in which nursing knowledge and inquiry have been influenced by race-based ideological discourses. Drawing on Henry and Tator's framework of democratic racism, we consider how strategic discursive responses-the discourses of individualism, multiculturalism, colour-blindness, political correctness and denial-have been deployed within nursing knowledge and inquiry to reinforce the belief in an essentially fair and just society while avoiding the need to acknowledge the persistence of racist discourses and ideologies. Greater theoretical, conceptual and methodological clarity regarding race, racialization and related concepts in nursing inquiry is needed to address health and social inequities. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Disciplined Improvisation: Characteristics of Inquiry in Mindfulness-Based Teaching. (United States)

    Crane, Rebecca S; Stanley, Steven; Rooney, Michael; Bartley, Trish; Cooper, Lucinda; Mardula, Jody

    Evidence for the effectiveness of mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) and mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT) is rapidly growing as interest in this field expands. By contrast, there are few empirical analyses of the pedagogy of MBSR and MBCT. Development of the evidence base concerning the teaching of MBCT or MBSR would support the integrity of the approach in the context of rapid expansion. This paper describes an applied conversation analysis (CA) of the characteristics of inquiry in the MBSR and MBCT teaching process. Audio-recordings of three 8-week MBCT and MBSR classes, with 24, 12, and 6 participants, were transcribed and systematically examined. The study focused on the teacher-led interactive inquiry which takes place in each session after a guided meditation practice. The study describes and analyzes three practices within the inquiry process that can be identified in sequences of talk: turn-taking talk involving questions and reformulations; the development of participant skills in a particular way of describing experience; and talk that constructs intersubjective connection and affiliation within the group. CA enables fine-grained analysis of the interactional work of mindfulness-based inquiry. Inquiry is a process of disciplined improvisation which is both highly specific to the conditions of the moment it took place in and uses repeated and recognizable patterns of interaction.

  10. Narrative inquiry: Locating Aboriginal epistemology in a relational methodology. (United States)

    Barton, Sylvia S


    This methodology utilizes narrative analysis and the elicitation of life stories as understood through dimensions of interaction, continuity, and situation. It is congruent with Aboriginal epistemology formulated by oral narratives through representation, connection, storytelling and art. Needed for culturally competent scholarship is an experience of research whereby inquiry into epiphanies, ritual, routines, metaphors and everyday experience creates a process of reflexive thinking for multiple ways of knowing. Based on the sharing of perspectives, narrative inquiry allows for experimentation into creating new forms of knowledge by contextualizing diabetes from the experience of a researcher overlapped with experiences of participants--a reflective practice in itself. The aim of this paper is to present narrative inquiry as a relational methodology and to analyse critically its appropriateness as an innovative research approach for exploring Aboriginal people's experience living with diabetes. Narrative inquiry represents an alternative culture of research for nursing science to generate understanding and explanation of Aboriginal people's 'diabetic self' stories, and to coax open a window for co-constructing a narrative about diabetes as a chronic illness. The ability to adapt a methodology for use in a cultural context, preserve the perspectives of Aboriginal peoples, maintain the holistic nature of social problems, and value co-participation in respectful ways are strengths of an inquiry partial to a responsive and embodied scholarship.

  11. Central Chile (United States)


    The beginning of spring in central Chile looked like this to SeaWiFS. The snow-covered Andes mark the country's eastern border, and phytoplankton blooms and river sediment plumes fill the waters off its west coast. A large eddy due west of Concepcion is highlighted by the phytoplankton it contains.

  12. Afrique Centrale

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    (Afrique Centrale) : peuplement de protozoaires ciliés et macro invertébrés ... Le lac d'Obili est un écosystème aquatique situé en plein cœur de Yaoundé en ...... électrique des eaux est assez stable, autour de 200 ; ce qui suppose que la ...

  13. Degeneracy: a link between evolvability, robustness and complexity in biological systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Whitacre James M


    Full Text Available Abstract A full accounting of biological robustness remains elusive; both in terms of the mechanisms by which robustness is achieved and the forces that have caused robustness to grow over evolutionary time. Although its importance to topics such as ecosystem services and resilience is well recognized, the broader relationship between robustness and evolution is only starting to be fully appreciated. A renewed interest in this relationship has been prompted by evidence that mutational robustness can play a positive role in the discovery of adaptive innovations (evolvability and evidence of an intimate relationship between robustness and complexity in biology. This paper offers a new perspective on the mechanics of evolution and the origins of complexity, robustness, and evolvability. Here we explore the hypothesis that degeneracy, a partial overlap in the functioning of multi-functional components, plays a central role in the evolution and robustness of complex forms. In support of this hypothesis, we present evidence that degeneracy is a fundamental source of robustness, it is intimately tied to multi-scaled complexity, and it establishes conditions that are necessary for system evolvability.

  14. Towards a Dialogical Pedagogy: Some Characteristics of a Community of Mathematical Inquiry (United States)

    Kennedy, Nadia Stoyanova


    This paper discusses a teaching model called community of mathematical inquiry (CMI), characterized by dialogical and inquiry-driven communication and a dynamic structure of intertwined cognitive processes including distributed thinking, mathematical argumentation, integrated reasoning, conceptual transformation, internalization of critical…

  15. Physics Learning using Inquiry-Student Team Achievement Division (ISTAD and Guided Inquiry Models Viewed by Students Achievement Motivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. H. Sulistijo


    Full Text Available This study aims to determine the differences in learning outcomes of between students that are given the Physics learning models of Inquiry-Student Team Achievement Division (ISTAD and guided inquiry, between students who have high achievement motivation and low achievement motivation. This study was an experimental study with a 2x2x2 factorial design. The study population was the students of class X of SMAN 1 Toroh Grobogan of academic year 2016/2017. Samples were obtained by cluster random sampling technique consists of two classes, class X IPA 3 is used as an experimental class using ISTAD model and class X IPA 4 as the control class using guided inquiry model. Data collection techniques using test techniques for learning outcomes, and technical questionnaire to obtain the data of students' achievement motivation. Analysis of data using two-way ANOVA. The results showed that: (1 there is a difference between the learning outcomes of students with the ISTAD Physics models and with the physics model of guided inquiry. (2 There are differences in learning outcomes between students who have high achievement motivation and low achievement motivation. (3 There is no interaction between ISTAD and guided inquiry Physics models learning and achievement motivation of students.

  16. The Impact of Collaborative Reflections on Teachers' Inquiry Teaching (United States)

    Lin, Huann-shyang; Hong, Zuway-R.; Yang, Kuay-keng; Lee, Sung-Tao


    This study investigates the impact of collaborative reflections on teachers' inquiry teaching practices and identifies supportive actions relating to their professional development. Three science teachers in the same elementary school worked as a cooperative and collaborative group. They attended workshops and worked collaboratively through observing colleagues' teaching practices and discussing with university professors about their own inquiry teaching. The pre- and post-treatment classroom observations and comparisons of their teaching reveal that the three teachers were more focussed on asking inquiry-oriented questions in the post-treatment teaching. With additional qualitative data analysis, this study identified supportive resources of professional development. Workshop training sessions and sample unit served as the initiative agent in the beginning stage. Discussions with peers and reflective observation of peer teaching acted as a facilitative agent. Finally, student responses and researchers' on-site visit comments worked as a catalytic agent for their professional development.

  17. Argumentation in the Chemistry Laboratory: Inquiry and Confirmatory Experiments (United States)

    Katchevich, Dvora; Hofstein, Avi; Mamlok-Naaman, Rachel


    One of the goals of science education is to provide students with the ability to construct arguments—reasoning and thinking critically in a scientific context. Over the years, many studies have been conducted on constructing arguments in science teaching, but only few of them have dealt with studying argumentation in the laboratory. Our research focuses on the process in which students construct arguments in the chemistry laboratory while conducting various types of experiments. It was found that inquiry experiments have the potential to serve as an effective platform for formulating arguments, owing to the features of this learning environment. The discourse during inquiry-type experiments was found to be rich in arguments, whereas that during confirmatory-type experiments was found to be sparse in arguments. The arguments, which were developed during the discourse of an open inquiry experiment, focus on the hypothesis-building stage, analysis of the results, and drawing appropriate conclusions.

  18. Robust holographic storage system design. (United States)

    Watanabe, Takahiro; Watanabe, Minoru


    Demand is increasing daily for large data storage systems that are useful for applications in spacecraft, space satellites, and space robots, which are all exposed to radiation-rich space environment. As candidates for use in space embedded systems, holographic storage systems are promising because they can easily provided the demanded large-storage capability. Particularly, holographic storage systems, which have no rotation mechanism, are demanded because they are virtually maintenance-free. Although a holographic memory itself is an extremely robust device even in a space radiation environment, its associated lasers and drive circuit devices are vulnerable. Such vulnerabilities sometimes engendered severe problems that prevent reading of all contents of the holographic memory, which is a turn-off failure mode of a laser array. This paper therefore presents a proposal for a recovery method for the turn-off failure mode of a laser array on a holographic storage system, and describes results of an experimental demonstration. © 2011 Optical Society of America

  19. Efficient robust conditional random fields. (United States)

    Song, Dongjin; Liu, Wei; Zhou, Tianyi; Tao, Dacheng; Meyer, David A


    Conditional random fields (CRFs) are a flexible yet powerful probabilistic approach and have shown advantages for popular applications in various areas, including text analysis, bioinformatics, and computer vision. Traditional CRF models, however, are incapable of selecting relevant features as well as suppressing noise from noisy original features. Moreover, conventional optimization methods often converge slowly in solving the training procedure of CRFs, and will degrade significantly for tasks with a large number of samples and features. In this paper, we propose robust CRFs (RCRFs) to simultaneously select relevant features. An optimal gradient method (OGM) is further designed to train RCRFs efficiently. Specifically, the proposed RCRFs employ the l1 norm of the model parameters to regularize the objective used by traditional CRFs, therefore enabling discovery of the relevant unary features and pairwise features of CRFs. In each iteration of OGM, the gradient direction is determined jointly by the current gradient together with the historical gradients, and the Lipschitz constant is leveraged to specify the proper step size. We show that an OGM can tackle the RCRF model training very efficiently, achieving the optimal convergence rate [Formula: see text] (where k is the number of iterations). This convergence rate is theoretically superior to the convergence rate O(1/k) of previous first-order optimization methods. Extensive experiments performed on three practical image segmentation tasks demonstrate the efficacy of OGM in training our proposed RCRFs.

  20. Robust boosting via convex optimization (United States)

    Rätsch, Gunnar


    In this work we consider statistical learning problems. A learning machine aims to extract information from a set of training examples such that it is able to predict the associated label on unseen examples. We consider the case where the resulting classification or regression rule is a combination of simple rules - also called base hypotheses. The so-called boosting algorithms iteratively find a weighted linear combination of base hypotheses that predict well on unseen data. We address the following issues: o The statistical learning theory framework for analyzing boosting methods. We study learning theoretic guarantees on the prediction performance on unseen examples. Recently, large margin classification techniques emerged as a practical result of the theory of generalization, in particular Boosting and Support Vector Machines. A large margin implies a good generalization performance. Hence, we analyze how large the margins in boosting are and find an improved algorithm that is able to generate the maximum margin solution. o How can boosting methods be related to mathematical optimization techniques? To analyze the properties of the resulting classification or regression rule, it is of high importance to understand whether and under which conditions boosting converges. We show that boosting can be used to solve large scale constrained optimization problems, whose solutions are well characterizable. To show this, we relate boosting methods to methods known from mathematical optimization, and derive convergence guarantees for a quite general family of boosting algorithms. o How to make Boosting noise robust? One of the problems of current boosting techniques is that they are sensitive to noise in the training sample. In order to make boosting robust, we transfer the soft margin idea from support vector learning to boosting. We develop theoretically motivated regularized algorithms that exhibit a high noise robustness. o How to adapt boosting to regression problems

  1. Categorization of questions posed before and after inquiry-based learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Milena García González


    Full Text Available Posing research questions is the central ability of the scientific thought. This article examines the ability of sixth grade children to pose researchable questions before and after a three months’ work on a didactic sequence based on the inquiry school model. According to their purpose, the questions asked by children, after reading a text, were classified into researchable questions -susceptible to be empirically explored-, questions about a cause, and questions on a piece of data. The results show that the amount and the type of questions the students were able to pose during the intervention changed, from most of questions on data or information, to most of researchable questions, subsequently, the importance of designing teaching approaches to foster this ability was proved.

  2. Communicating with scientific graphics: A descriptive inquiry into non-ideal normativity. (United States)

    Sheredos, Benjamin


    Scientists' graphical practices have recently become a target of inquiry in the philosophy of science, and in the cognitive sciences. Here I supplement our understanding of graphical practices via a case study of how researchers crafted the graphics for scientific publication in the field of circadian biology. The case highlights social aspects of graphical production which have gone understudied - especially concerning the negotiation of publication. I argue that it also supports a challenge to the claim that empirically-informed "cognitive design principles" offer an apt understanding of the norms of success which govern good scientific graphic design to communicate data and hypotheses to other experts. In this respect, the case-study also illustrates how "descriptive" studies of scientific practice can connect with normative issues in philosophy of science, thereby addressing a central concern in recent discussions of practice-oriented philosophy of science. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Inquiry Based Science Education og den sociokulturelt forankrede dialog i naturfagsundervisningen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Lars Domino


    Through study, investigation and discussion of the concept Best Practice in science education (Ellebæk & Østergaard, 2009) it was shown, that the dialogue in the teaching sequences was an important factor for the children’s understanding, engagement and interest for the science subjects......). The method is central in the action research project NatSats, where focus is on chidren’s hypothesizing and the way teacher’s use dialogue in their teaching or guiding of children in kindergarten and primary school. Results from the project indicate that an open and interrogative dialogue based...... and phenomena. In this article we will discuss dialogue in the light of sociocultural learning theories, and relate it to Inquiry Based Science Education (IBSE), as the pedagogical and didactical method, which are promoted most strongly these years (e.g. in the inter-European Pollen and Fibonacci projects...

  4. Inquiry-Based Instruction and High Stakes Testing (United States)

    Cothern, Rebecca L.

    Science education is a key to economic success for a country in terms of promoting advances in national industry and technology and maximizing competitive advantage in a global marketplace. The December 2010 Program for International Student Assessment (PISA) ranked the United States 23rd of 65 countries in science. That dismal standing in science proficiency impedes the ability of American school graduates to compete in the global market place. Furthermore, the implementation of high stakes testing in science mandated by the 2007 No Child Left Behind (NCLB) Act has created an additional need for educators to find effective science pedagogy. Research has shown that inquiry-based science instruction is one of the predominant science instructional methods. Inquiry-based instruction is a multifaceted teaching method with its theoretical foundation in constructivism. A correlational survey research design was used to determine the relationship between levels of inquiry-based science instruction and student performance on a standardized state science test. A self-report survey, using a Likert-type scale, was completed by 26 fifth grade teachers. Participants' responses were analyzed and grouped as high, medium, or low level inquiry instruction. The unit of analysis for the achievement variable was the student scale score average from the state science test. Spearman's Rho correlation data showed a positive relationship between the level of inquiry-based instruction and student achievement on the state assessment. The findings can assist teachers and administrators by providing additional research on the benefits of the inquiry-based instructional method. Implications for positive social change include increases in student proficiency and decision-making skills related to science policy issues which can help make them more competitive in the global marketplace.

  5. Procedural status of prosecutor during the conduction of short inquiry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikanorov S.A.


    Full Text Available The issues of conducting short inquiry from the position of prosecutor’s procedural status are considered. Low rate of applying short inquiry is caused by ignorance about this procedural form among the participants in criminal procedure. The initiators of conducting short inquiry were not suspects (accused, but their lawyers who followed by their own ambitions, not by the interests of defendants. The insufficiency of total time of short inquiry is noted. The author proposes to minimize prosecutors’ paperwork, notably to concentrate their attention on collecting crime data by conducting secret investigation operations, receiving explanations and other documentation. Obtained data should be processed according to police regulations. Confession of guilt, recognition of damage and consent with legal assessment of criminal act allow to collect only the evidence, indicating crime event and complicacy of a person (expertise should be established on court’s initiative. The favourable conditions of adequacy of collected evidence for establishing crime event, character and amount of damage, as well as guilt of committing crime are confirmed. The right of investigators not to examine evidences if they were not contradicted by suspect, victim or his/her representative (predetermined strength of evidence is criticized. There is no short effective procedure of trying criminal cases with rational division of powers among the authorities, conducting criminal proceeding. The author proves the necessity of reasonable approach to prosecutor’s supervision of conducting short inquiry. Main tendency of further improvement of short inquiry procedure is redivision of powers among agencies in charge of preliminary investigation and prosecutor’s office.

  6. Robust AIC with High Breakdown Scale Estimate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shokrya Saleh


    Full Text Available Akaike Information Criterion (AIC based on least squares (LS regression minimizes the sum of the squared residuals; LS is sensitive to outlier observations. Alternative criterion, which is less sensitive to outlying observation, has been proposed; examples are robust AIC (RAIC, robust Mallows Cp (RCp, and robust Bayesian information criterion (RBIC. In this paper, we propose a robust AIC by replacing the scale estimate with a high breakdown point estimate of scale. The robustness of the proposed methods is studied through its influence function. We show that, the proposed robust AIC is effective in selecting accurate models in the presence of outliers and high leverage points, through simulated and real data examples.

  7. Tracing learning about astronomy during an ICT supported inquiry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Otrel-Cass, Kathrin; Østergaard, Lars Domino; Johnson, Per


    -based learning has to offer. In this presentation we examine the cases of two year 8 classes (14 year old students) who engaged in science inquiry in their science and English lessons and collaborated with a New Zealand class to explore the topic of astronomy. To gain insight into the students’ developing ideas...... in astronomy we adopted a multilevel– multifaceted approach. Evidence of learning was collected at three different levels: immediate, close and proximal. We will highlight the insights we gained into students’ developing science inquiry skills and knowledge and explain how the different proximities...

  8. On learning to inquire: Revisiting the detailed inquiry. (United States)

    Appelbaum, David


    This paper describes the author's experience of initial disorientation when encountering for the first time in supervision an interpersonal analytic approach with an emphasis on active questioning of the patient through the use of a detailed inquiry. This initial disorientation is linked to a predominant trend in psychoanalysis that generally opposes the use of questions as a significant means of analytic interaction. In contrast, Interpersonal approaches that make free use of inquiry are discussed in light of the author's clinical experience that learning to inquire contributed to a more finely tuned awareness of the analytic process.

  9. Using Aesthetic Response, a Poetic Inquiry to Expand Knowing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gerge, Anna; Warja, Margareta; Pedersen, Inge Nygaard


    affective neuroscience aimed at deepening the understanding of embodied felt sense. The Rx6 approach is based in aesthetics, a pragmatic pre-understanding inspired from an interpretive and a constructivist tradition, and it is a heuristic endeavour where art is applied towards the creation of meaning......Using Aesthetic Response, a Poetic Inquiry to Expand Knowing Abstract: The Rx6-Method A simple step-wise research procedure of arts-based research (ABR) called the Rx6 method is presented. This ABR method is grounded in expressive arts therapy, heuristic inquiry, attachment theory and contemporary...

  10. Investigating Human Impact in the Environment with Faded Scaffolded Inquiry Supported by Technologies (United States)

    Campbell, Todd; Longhurst, Max; Duffy, Aaron M.; Wolf, Paul G.; Nagy, Robin


    Teaching science as inquiry is advocated in all national science education documents and by leading science and science teaching organizations. In addition to teaching science as inquiry, we recognize that learning experiences need to connect to students' lives. This article details how we use a sequence of faded scaffolded inquiry supported by…

  11. Understanding Students' Experiments--What Kind of Support Do They Need in Inquiry Tasks? (United States)

    Arnold, Julia Caroline; Kremer, Kerstin; Mayer, Jürgen


    Inquiry learning is a widely recognized method for fostering inquiry competence in science education. Nevertheless, there is discussion about how to best support students while working on inquiry tasks (in this case: experiments on causal relationships). To identify the kind of support students need in order to design experiments in upper grades,…

  12. From Log Files to Assessment Metrics: Measuring Students' Science Inquiry Skills Using Educational Data Mining (United States)

    Gobert, Janice D.; Sao Pedro, Michael; Raziuddin, Juelaila; Baker, Ryan S.


    We present a method for assessing science inquiry performance, specifically for the inquiry skill of designing and conducting experiments, using educational data mining on students' log data from online microworlds in the Inq-ITS system (Inquiry Intelligent Tutoring System; In our approach, we use a 2-step process: First we use…

  13. An Analysis of Pre-Service Elementary Teachers' Understanding of Inquiry-Based Science Teaching (United States)

    Lee, Carole K.; Shea, Marilyn


    This study examines how pre-service elementary teachers (PSETs) view inquiry-based science learning and teaching, and how the science methods course builds their confidence to teach inquiry science. Most PSETs think that inquiry is asking students questions rather than a formal set of pedagogical tools. In the present study, three groups of PSETs…

  14. The role of the teacher in promoting dialogue and polylogue during inquiry activities in primary education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dobber, M.; van Oers, B.


    In inquiry, dialogue between persons present in the classroom can be enriched with polylogue with knowledgeable others outside of the classroom. This study aimed to find out what role dialogue and polylogue play in encouraging philosophical inquiry in three other forms of inquiry in primary

  15. The role of dialogue and polylogue during an inquiry process in primary education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dobber, M.; Baucal, A.; Radisic, J.


    Inquiry is commonly applied in all types of education. In inquiry, dialogue between persons present in the classroom and polylogue with knowledgeable others outside the classroom (e.g., via books) are vital. In the context of Developmental Education, inquiry takes on three forms: consulting sources,

  16. Students Learn How Nonprofits Utilize Volunteers through Inquiry-Based Learning (United States)

    Bolton, Elizabeth B.; Brennan, M. A.; Terry, Bryan D.


    This article highlights how undergraduate students implemented inquiry-based learning strategies to learn how nonprofit organizations utilize volunteers. In inquiry-based learning, students begin with a problem or question with some degree of focus or structure provided by the professor. The student inquiry showcased in this article was based on a…

  17. Inquiry Teaching in High School Chemistry Classrooms: The Role of Knowledge and Beliefs (United States)

    Roehrig, Gillian H.; Luft, Julie A.


    The call for implementation of inquiry-based teaching in secondary classrooms has taken on a new sense of urgency, hence several instructions models are developed to assists teachers in implementing inquiry in their classrooms. The role of knowledge and beliefs in inquiry teaching are examined.

  18. Working environment with social and personal open tools for inquiry based learning: Pedagogic and diagnostic frameworks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Protopsaltis, Aristos; Seitlinger, Paul; Chaimala, Foteini; Firssova, Olga; Hetzner, Sonja; Kikis-Papadakis, Kitty; Boytchev, Pavel


    The weSPOT project aims at propagating scientific inquiry as the approach for science learning and teaching in combination with today’s curricula and teaching practices The project focuses on inquiry-based learning with a theoretically sound and technology supported personal inquiry approach and it

  19. Improvement of Inquiry in a Complex Technology-Enhanced Learning Environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pedaste, Margus; Kori, Külli; Maeots, Mario; de Jong, Anthonius J.M.; Riopel, Martin; Smyrnaiou, Zacharoula


    Inquiry learning is an effective approach in science education. Complex technology-enhanced learning environments are needed to apply inquiry worldwide to support knowledge gain and improvement of inquiry skills. In our study, we applied an ecology mission in the SCY-Lab learning environment and

  20. Inquiry-Based Leadership: The Influence of Affective Attitude, Experienced Social Pressure and Self-Efficacy (United States)

    Uiterwijk-Luijk, Lisette; Krüger, Meta; Zijlstra, Bonne; Volman, Monique


    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to improve the understanding of psychological factors that influence inquiry-based leadership. This study investigates how affective attitude, experienced social pressure, and self-efficacy relate to aspects of inquiry-based school leadership. A school leader's inquiry habit of mind, data literacy, and the…

  1. Inquiry-Based Instruction in the Social Studies: Successes and Challenges (United States)

    Beshears, Crystal M.


    The purpose of this study was to investigate teachers' perceptions, understanding, and use of inquiry-based instruction in the social studies, to assess the impact of inquiry-based units on instruction, to detail implementation successes and challenges reported by teachers when implementing inquiry-based instruction, and to provide…

  2. Incorporating Practitioner Inquiry into an Online Professional Development Program: The Prime Online Experience (United States)

    Dana, Nancy Fichtman; Pape, Stephen J.; Griffin, Cynthia C.; Prosser, Sherri Kay


    Engagement in practitioner inquiry by classroom teachers is a promising mechanism for teacher professional learning. While much has been learned about the positive role inquiry can play in traditional professional development efforts, we know less about the impact of inquiry in a rapidly advancing technological age that includes the proliferation…

  3. Investigating Preservice Teachers' Beliefs toward Cultural Diversity Employing an Inquiry through Literature Approach (United States)

    Rangseechatchawan, Dusadee


    This study investigated preservice teachers' beliefs toward cultural diversity by employing an inquiry through literature approach. The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of an inquiry through literature instructional format, such as book clubs, and whole class and individual inquiry, on preservice teachers' beliefs regarding cultural…

  4. Nudging toward Inquiry: Strategies for Searching for and Finding Great Information (United States)

    Fontichiaro, Kristin, Comp.


    Inquiry does not replace information literacy; rather, it encompasses it. Inquiry-based learning invites school librarians to step into all aspects of instructional planning, from activating prior knowledge straight through to reflection. Libraries pursuing inquiry-based instruction are building on the bedrock of information literacy, not starting…

  5. Ethics as a Form of Critical and Rhetorical Inquiry in the Writing Classroom (United States)

    Henning, Teresa


    To define ethics as a mode of inquiry, it is first important to consider how ethics relates to critical thinking. Put simply, ethical inquiry is one type of inquiry required to think critically. A connection between critical thinking and ethics is only possible, however, when ethics is defined not as a static list of rules but as a "mode of…

  6. A Comparison of Exemplary Biology, Chemistry, Earth Science, and Physics Teachers' Conceptions and Enactment of Inquiry (United States)

    Breslyn, Wayne; McGinnis, J. Randy


    Teachers' use of inquiry has been studied largely without regard for the disciplines in which teachers practice. As a result, there is no theoretical understanding of the possible role of discipline in shaping teachers' conceptions and enactment of inquiry. In this mixed-methods study, conceptions and enactment of inquiry for 60 National Board…

  7. Phase V storage (Project W-112) Central Waste Complex operational readiness review, final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wight, R.H.


    This document is the final report for the RFSH conducted, Contractor Operational Readiness Review (ORR) for the Central Waste Complex (CWC) Project W-112 and Interim Safety Basis implementation. As appendices, all findings, observations, lines of inquiry and the implementation plan are included

  8. Phase 5 storage (Project W-112) Central Waste Complex operational readiness review, final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wight, R.H.


    This document is the final report for the RFSH conducted, Contractor Operational Readiness Review (ORR) for the Central Waste Complex (CWC) Project W-112 and Interim Safety Basis implementation. As appendices, all findings, observations, lines of inquiry and the implementation plan are included.

  9. Multimodel Robust Control for Hydraulic Turbine


    Osuský, Jakub; Števo, Stanislav


    The paper deals with the multimodel and robust control system design and their combination based on M-Δ structure. Controller design will be done in the frequency domain with nominal performance specified by phase margin. Hydraulic turbine model is analyzed as system with unstructured uncertainty, and robust stability condition is included in controller design. Multimodel and robust control approaches are presented in detail on hydraulic turbine model. Control design approaches are compared a...

  10. Forecasting exchange rates: a robust regression approach


    Preminger, Arie; Franck, Raphael


    The least squares estimation method as well as other ordinary estimation method for regression models can be severely affected by a small number of outliers, thus providing poor out-of-sample forecasts. This paper suggests a robust regression approach, based on the S-estimation method, to construct forecasting models that are less sensitive to data contamination by outliers. A robust linear autoregressive (RAR) and a robust neural network (RNN) models are estimated to study the predictabil...

  11. Europa central

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karel BARTOSEK


    Full Text Available La investigación francesa continúa interesándose por Europa Central. Desde luego, hay límites a este interés en el ambiente general de mi nueva patria: en la ignorancia, producto del largo desinterés de Francia por este espacio después de la Segunda Guerra Mundial, y en el comportamiento y la reflexión de la clase política y de los medios de comunicación (una anécdota para ilustrar este ambiente: durante la preparación de nuestro coloquio «Refugiados e inmigrantes de Europa Central en el movimiento antifascista y la Resistencia en Francia, 1933-1945», celebrado en París en octubre de 1986, el problema de la definición fue planteado concreta y «prácticamente». ¡Y hubo entonces un historiador eminente, para quién Alemania no formaría parte de Europa Central!.

  12. Epistemologic inquiries in evidence-based medicine. (United States)

    Djulbegovic, Benjamin; Guyatt, Gordon H; Ashcroft, Richard E


    Since the term "evidence-based medicine" (EBM) first appeared in the scientific literature in 1991, the concept has had considerable influence in many parts of the world. Most professional societies, the public,and funding agencies have accepted EBM with remarkable enthusiasm. The concept of evidence-based practice is now applied in management, education, criminology, and social work. Yet, EBM has attracted controversy: its critics allege that EBM uses a narrow concept of evidence and a naive conception of the relationships between evidence, theory, and practice. They also contend that EBM presents itself as a radical restructuring of medical knowledge that discredits more traditional ways of knowing in medicine, largely in the interests of people with a particular investment in the enterprise of large-scale clinical trials. Because EBM proposes aspecific relationship between theory, evidence, and knowledge, its theoretical basis can be understood as an epistemological system. Undertaking epistemological inquiry is important because the adoption of a particular epistemological view defines how science is conducted. In this paper, we challenge this critical view of EBM by examining how EBM fits into broad epistemological debates within the philosophy of science. We consider how EBM relates to some classical debates regarding the nature of science and knowledge. We investigate EBM from the perspective of major epistemological theories (logical-positivism/inductivism, deductivism/falsificationism/theory-ladeness of observations, explanationism/holism, instrumentalism, underdetermination theory by evidence). We first explore the relationship between evidence and knowledge and discuss philosophical support for the main way that evidence is used in medicine: (1) in the philosophical tradition that "rational thinkers respect their evidence," we show that EBM refers to making medical decisions that are consistent with evidence, (2) as a reliable sign, symptom, or mark to

  13. The enigma of energy: A philosophical inquiry (United States)

    Todaro-Franceschi, Vidette


    A philosophical inquiry was undertaken to examine the enigma of energy in an attempt to clarify and further illuminate the basic ideas of energy. Beginning with the origin of the concept-Aristotle's conceptualization of energeia-and continuing through to the present day with an overview of the historical conceptual development of energy in Western science, an analysis and interpretation of the scientific and philosophic literature was performed. Literature regarding aspects of human sentience was also examined for underlying ideas of energy. And, finally, selected medical and nursing science theoretical frameworks were analyzed with the hope of further grasping the philosophical underpinnings related to the phenomenon of human energy. Certain ideas of energy became evident. Energy can be viewed as a process and this view works well within the physical science domain. When energy is viewed as a process it falls within the mechanistic tradition: things are viewed as particulate, and cause and effect related. However, energy can also be viewed as a phenomenon, a thing. As a phenomenon, energy is continually transforming and actualizing inherent potentials in a communal process. When energy is recognized as the sole phenomenon responsible for everything in existence, it becomes evident that all is essentially one. In addition, when energy is viewed in this manner it becomes increasingly difficult to deny the purposive character underlying all nature. It is argued that the mystery ultimately leads to something far beyond what we know exists. One of the intuitive feelings of this researcher was that there were at least two different ideas of energy in the sciences of medicine and nursing, which, while different, shared some common elements as well. An examination of Hippocrates', Nightingale's, Selye's, Levine's, and Rogers' ideas, as well as the basic tenets of alternative health care, revealed two distinct worldviews regarding human energy which are congruent with the

  14. Robustness: confronting lessons from physics and biology. (United States)

    Lesne, Annick


    The term robustness is encountered in very different scientific fields, from engineering and control theory to dynamical systems to biology. The main question addressed herein is whether the notion of robustness and its correlates (stability, resilience, self-organisation) developed in physics are relevant to biology, or whether specific extensions and novel frameworks are required to account for the robustness properties of living systems. To clarify this issue, the different meanings covered by this unique term are discussed; it is argued that they crucially depend on the kind of perturbations that a robust system should by definition withstand. Possible mechanisms underlying robust behaviours are examined, either encountered in all natural systems (symmetries, conservation laws, dynamic stability) or specific to biological systems (feedbacks and regulatory networks). Special attention is devoted to the (sometimes counterintuitive) interrelations between robustness and noise. A distinction between dynamic selection and natural selection in the establishment of a robust behaviour is underlined. It is finally argued that nested notions of robustness, relevant to different time scales and different levels of organisation, allow one to reconcile the seemingly contradictory requirements for robustness and adaptability in living systems.

  15. Robustness of Long Span Reciprocal Timber Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balfroid, Nathalie; Kirkegaard, Poul Henning


    engineer may take necessary steps to design robust structures that are insensitive to accidental circumstances. The present paper makes a discussion of such robustness issues related to the future development of reciprocal timber structures. The paper concludes that these kind of structures can have...... a potential as long span timber structures in real projects if they are carefully designed with respect to the overall robustness strategies.......Robustness of structural systems has obtained a renewed interest due to a much more frequent use of advanced types of structures with limited redundancy and serious consequences in case of failure. The interest has also been facilitated due to recently severe structural failures...

  16. System Identification and Robust Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tøffner-Clausen, S.

    a thorough introduction to the m framework. A central results is that if performance is measured in terms of the inifity-norm and model uncertainty is bounded in the same manner, then, using m it is possible to pose one necessary and sufficient condition for block-structured norm-bounded perturbations which...... permitted by m is definitely much more flexible than those used in H inifity. Unfortunately m synthesis is a very difficult mathematical problem which is only well developed for purely complex perturbation sets. In order to develop our main result we will unfortunately need to synthesize m controllers....... The given examples thus represent a major part of the work behind this thesis. They consequently serve not just as illustrations but introduce many new ideas and should be interesting in their own right....

  17. The Mutational Robustness of Influenza A Virus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa Visher


    Full Text Available A virus' mutational robustness is described in terms of the strength and distribution of the mutational fitness effects, or MFE. The distribution of MFE is central to many questions in evolutionary theory and is a key parameter in models of molecular evolution. Here we define the mutational fitness effects in influenza A virus by generating 128 viruses, each with a single nucleotide mutation. In contrast to mutational scanning approaches, this strategy allowed us to unambiguously assign fitness values to individual mutations. The presence of each desired mutation and the absence of additional mutations were verified by next generation sequencing of each stock. A mutation was considered lethal only after we failed to rescue virus in three independent transfections. We measured the fitness of each viable mutant relative to the wild type by quantitative RT-PCR following direct competition on A549 cells. We found that 31.6% of the mutations in the genome-wide dataset were lethal and that the lethal fraction did not differ appreciably between the HA- and NA-encoding segments and the rest of the genome. Of the viable mutants, the fitness mean and standard deviation were 0.80 and 0.22 in the genome-wide dataset and best modeled as a beta distribution. The fitness impact of mutation was marginally lower in the segments coding for HA and NA (0.88 ± 0.16 than in the other 6 segments (0.78 ± 0.24, and their respective beta distributions had slightly different shape parameters. The results for influenza A virus are remarkably similar to our own analysis of CirSeq-derived fitness values from poliovirus and previously published data from other small, single stranded DNA and RNA viruses. These data suggest that genome size, and not nucleic acid type or mode of replication, is the main determinant of viral mutational fitness effects.

  18. Model Based Autonomy for Robust Mars Operations (United States)

    Kurien, James A.; Nayak, P. Pandurang; Williams, Brian C.; Lau, Sonie (Technical Monitor)


    Space missions have historically relied upon a large ground staff, numbering in the hundreds for complex missions, to maintain routine operations. When an anomaly occurs, this small army of engineers attempts to identify and work around the problem. A piloted Mars mission, with its multiyear duration, cost pressures, half-hour communication delays and two-week blackouts cannot be closely controlled by a battalion of engineers on Earth. Flight crew involvement in routine system operations must also be minimized to maximize science return. It also may be unrealistic to require the crew have the expertise in each mission subsystem needed to diagnose a system failure and effect a timely repair, as engineers did for Apollo 13. Enter model-based autonomy, which allows complex systems to autonomously maintain operation despite failures or anomalous conditions, contributing to safe, robust, and minimally supervised operation of spacecraft, life support, In Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU) and power systems. Autonomous reasoning is central to the approach. A reasoning algorithm uses a logical or mathematical model of a system to infer how to operate the system, diagnose failures and generate appropriate behavior to repair or reconfigure the system in response. The 'plug and play' nature of the models enables low cost development of autonomy for multiple platforms. Declarative, reusable models capture relevant aspects of the behavior of simple devices (e.g. valves or thrusters). Reasoning algorithms combine device models to create a model of the system-wide interactions and behavior of a complex, unique artifact such as a spacecraft. Rather than requiring engineers to all possible interactions and failures at design time or perform analysis during the mission, the reasoning engine generates the appropriate response to the current situation, taking into account its system-wide knowledge, the current state, and even sensor failures or unexpected behavior.

  19. central t

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel R. Piña Monarrez


    Full Text Available Dado que la Regresión Ridge (RR, es una estimación sesgada que parte de la solución de la regresión de Mínimos Cuadrados (MC, es vital establecer las condiciones para las que la distribución central t de Student que se utiliza en la prueba de hipótesis en MC, sea también aplicable a la regresión RR. La prueba de este importante resultado se presenta en este artículo.

  20. Central sleep apnea (United States)

    Sleep apnea - central; Obesity - central sleep apnea; Cheyne-Stokes - central sleep apnea; Heart failure - central sleep apnea ... Central sleep apnea results when the brain temporarily stops sending signals to the muscles that control breathing. The condition ...

  1. Ensemble Modeling for Robustness Analysis in engineering non-native metabolic pathways. (United States)

    Lee, Yun; Lafontaine Rivera, Jimmy G; Liao, James C


    Metabolic pathways in cells must be sufficiently robust to tolerate fluctuations in expression levels and changes in environmental conditions. Perturbations in expression levels may lead to system failure due to the disappearance of a stable steady state. Increasing evidence has suggested that biological networks have evolved such that they are intrinsically robust in their network structure. In this article, we presented Ensemble Modeling for Robustness Analysis (EMRA), which combines a continuation method with the Ensemble Modeling approach, for investigating the robustness issue of non-native pathways. EMRA investigates a large ensemble of reference models with different parameters, and determines the effects of parameter drifting until a bifurcation point, beyond which a stable steady state disappears and system failure occurs. A pathway is considered to have high bifurcational robustness if the probability of system failure is low in the ensemble. To demonstrate the utility of EMRA, we investigate the bifurcational robustness of two synthetic central metabolic pathways that achieve carbon conservation: non-oxidative glycolysis and reverse glyoxylate cycle. With EMRA, we determined the probability of system failure of each design and demonstrated that alternative designs of these pathways indeed display varying degrees of bifurcational robustness. Furthermore, we demonstrated that target selection for flux improvement should consider the trade-offs between robustness and performance. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Evaluating an Inquiry-Based Bioinformatics Course Using Q Methodology (United States)

    Ramlo, Susan E.; McConnell, David; Duan, Zhong-Hui; Moore, Francisco B.


    Faculty at a Midwestern metropolitan public university recently developed a course on bioinformatics that emphasized collaboration and inquiry. Bioinformatics, essentially the application of computational tools to biological data, is inherently interdisciplinary. Thus part of the challenge of creating this course was serving the needs and…

  3. Teacher Trust in District Administration: A Promising Line of Inquiry (United States)

    Adams, Curt M.; Miskell, Ryan C.


    Purpose: We set out in this study to establish a foundation for a line of inquiry around teacher trust in district administration by (1) describing the role of trust in capacity building, (2) conceptualizing trust in district administration, (3) developing a scale to measure teacher trust in district administration, and (4) testing the…

  4. Mentoring and Coaching in Schools: Professional Learning through Collaborative Inquiry (United States)

    Burley, Suzanne; Pomphrey, Cathy


    Can mentoring and coaching really improve professional practice? How can research and inquiry improve mentoring and coaching practice? "Mentoring and Coaching in Schools" explores the ways in which mentoring and coaching can be used as a dynamic collaborative process for effective professional learning. It demonstrates how the use of practitioner…

  5. Structured Ethical Reflection in Practitioner Inquiry: Theory, Pedagogy, and Practice (United States)

    Stevens, Douglas M.; Brydon-Miller, Mary; Raider-Roth, Miriam


    Practitioner inquiry provides a powerful tool for improving practice and addressing critical issues in classrooms, schools, and broader communities. However, it also raises unique ethical challenges that often go unrecognized and unresolved. Structured Ethical Reflection (SER) provides teacher researchers with a process for identifying core values…

  6. Finding Freedom in Dialectic Inquiry: New Teachers' Responses to Silencing (United States)

    Bieler, Deborah; Thomas, Anne Burns


    Background: The need to support new teachers in urban public schools is well established, given current shortages and research that highlights serious issues with teacher retention. Debate continues about approaches to support for new teachers, including questions about the importance of developing an inquiry stance toward teaching. As more…

  7. Kidspiration[R] for Inquiry-Centered Activities (United States)

    Shaw, Edward L., Jr.; Baggett, Paige V.; Salyer, Barbara


    Computer technology can be integrated into science inquiry activities to increase student motivation and enhance and expand scientific thinking. Fifth-grade students used the visual thinking tools in the Kidspiration[R] software program to generate and represent a web of hypotheses around the question, "What affects the distance a marble rolls?"…

  8. A Simple Inquiry-Based Lab for Teaching Osmosis (United States)

    Taylor, John R.


    This simple inquiry-based lab was designed to teach the principle of osmosis while also providing an experience for students to use the skills and practices commonly found in science. Students first design their own experiment using very basic equipment and supplies, which generally results in mixed, but mostly poor, outcomes. Classroom "talk…

  9. Teaching Inquiry with Linked Classes and Learning Communities (United States)

    Piercey, Victor; Cullen, Roxanne


    In order to improve problem-solving dispositions, a section of an inquiry-based math sequence for first-year business students was linked with a section of our general education English sequence. We describe how the linked classes worked and compare some preliminary results from linked and unlinked sections of the math sequence.

  10. Using appreciative inquiry and gender to focus on performance ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article seeks to explore how male and female educators perceive the integrated quality management system (IQMS) from an appreciative inquiry (AI) approach. An exploratory, qualitative design within the AI framework was used, and both male and female educators in selected primary and secondary schools were ...

  11. A Narrative Inquiry of Identity Formation of EFL University Teachers (United States)

    Cheng, Xiangli


    Drawing on narrative inquiry, the present study aims to investigate the trajectory of identity formation of EFL university teachers. Two types of data are collected. One type comes from life histories of Hyland (2014), Nunan (2011) and Widdowson (2009), and the other type comes from semi-structured interviews with three excellent university…

  12. A Narrative Inquiry into Rural School Leadership in South Africa (United States)

    Smit, Brigitte


    This article attends to rural school leadership in two South African schools through the lens of the concepts of relational leadership and emotional labour. The inquiry draws on five years of guided conversations and observations that speak to leadership experiences of hope and anticipation as well as despair and disillusionment. I worked with one…

  13. Development of a Value Inquiry Model in Biology Education. (United States)

    Jeong, Eun-Young; Kim, Young-Soo


    Points out the rapid advances in biology, increasing bioethical issues, and how students need to make rational decisions. Introduces a value inquiry model development that includes identifying and clarifying value problems; understanding biological knowledge related to conflict situations; considering, selecting, and evaluating each alternative;…


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. H. Agustanti


    Full Text Available Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk meningkatkan hasil belajar biologi pada siswa kelas VIIE SMP N 2 Wonosobo semester 1 tahun pelajaran 2010/2011 pada mata pelajaran biologi melalui Implementasi Metode Inquiry. Dari hasil penelitian dapat disimpulkan bahwa Implementasi Metode Inquiry dapat meningkatkan hasil belajar siswa pada mata pelajaran Biologi. Dari penelitian ini disarankan agar guru-guru mencari inovasi-inovasi baru yang dapat merangsang sehingga proses pembelajaran lebih bermakna. The purpose of this research is to improve the learning result for first semester students of SMP N 2 Wonosobo VIIE class in the academic year 2010/2011 in the Biology subject using Inquiry method. From the research, it can be concluded that the implementation of Inquiry method can improve the learning result in the Biology subject. Base don the research result it can be suggested that the teacher can find the new innovation to stimulate students’ motivation in order to make the learning process to be more significant.

  15. 10 CFR 1304.103 - Privacy Act inquiries. (United States)


    ... writing may be sent to: Privacy Act Officer, U.S. Nuclear Waste Technical Review Board, 2300 Clarendon... NUCLEAR WASTE TECHNICAL REVIEW BOARD PRIVACY ACT OF 1974 § 1304.103 Privacy Act inquiries. (a) Requests... contains a record pertaining to him or her may file a request in person or in writing, via the internet, or...

  16. Reflective Ethical Inquiry: Preparing Students for Life. IDEA Paper #54 (United States)

    Qualters, Donna M.; McDaniels, Melissa; Cohen, Perrin


    Although universities often teach ethics courses, they do not always teach students how to apply ethical course content to ethical dilemmas they encounter on a day-to-day basis. The Awareness-Investigation-Responding (AIR) model of ethical inquiry bridges this gap by scaffolding the reflective process and empowering students to make more caring,…

  17. The Effectiveness of Guided Inquiry Learning for Comparison Topics (United States)

    Asnidar; Khabibah, S.; Sulaiman, R.


    This research aims at producing a good quality learning device using guided inquiry for comparison topics and describing the effectiveness of guided inquiry learning for comparison topics. This research is a developmental research using 4-D model. The result is learning device consisting of lesson plan, student’s worksheet, and achievement test. The subjects of the study were class VII students, each of which has 46 students. Based on the result in the experimental class, the learning device using guided inquiry for comparison topics has good quality. The learning device has met the valid, practical, and effective aspects. The result, especially in the implementation class, showed that the learning process with guided inquiry has fulfilled the effectiveness indicators. The ability of the teacher to manage the learning process has fulfilled the criteria good. In addition, the students’ activity has fulfilled the criteria of, at least, good. Moreover, the students’ responses to the learning device and the learning activities were positive, and the students were able to complete the classical learning. Based on the result of this research, it is expected that the learning device resulted can be used as an alternative learning device for teachers in implementing mathematic learning for comparison topics.

  18. Using Scientific Inquiry to Teach Students about Water Quality (United States)

    Puche, Helena; Holt, Jame


    This semi-guided inquiry activity explores the macroinvertebrate fauna in water sources affected by different levels of pollution. Students develop their ability to identify macroinvertebrates, compare aquatic fauna from different sources of water samples, evaluate water quality using an index, document and analyze data, raise questions and…

  19. What Is Heat? Inquiry regarding the Science of Heat (United States)

    Rascoe, Barbara


    This lab activity uses inquiry to help students define heat. It is generic in that it can be used to introduce a plethora of science content across middle and high school grade levels and across science disciplines that include biology, Earth and space science, and physical science. Even though heat is a universal science phenomenon that is…

  20. Invasion Ecology. Student Edition. Cornell Scientific Inquiry Series. (United States)

    Krasny, Marianne E.; Trautmann, Nancy; Carlsen, William; Cunningham, Christine

    This book contains the student edition of the Environmental Inquiry curriculum series developed at Cornell University. It is designed to teach learning skills for investigating the behaviors of non-native and native species and demonstrate how to apply scientific knowledge to solve real-life problems. This book focuses on strange intruders…

  1. Inquiry-Based Approach to Understanding Common Descent (United States)

    Parker, Monica


    In this inquiry-based activity, students catalog external and internal characteristics of four different classes of animals during dissection exercises. On the basis of their accumulated data, students compare and contrast the animals, devise a phylogenetic tree, and provide reasonable characteristics for extinct transitional organisms. (Contains…

  2. Preservice Teachers Developing Coherent Inquiry Investigations in Elementary Astronomy (United States)

    Plummer, Julia D.; Tanis Ozcelik, Arzu


    For students to attain deep understanding of scientific practices, they will need to have opportunities to participate in sustained engagement in doing science. Such opportunities begin with elementary teachers implementing coherent and well-sequenced inquiry-based investigations in their classrooms. This study explored how preservice teachers (N…

  3. Inquiry by Engineering Design: Applying the Sixth "E" (United States)

    Brand, Brenda; Kasarda, Mary; Williams, Christopher Bryant


    As the emphasis on STEM education increases, the "E" (engineering) in the acronym is gaining more attention in K-12 education. K-12 educators are urged to develop new and creative strategies for engaging youth in science and engineering activities that encourage them to be inventors and not just consumers. The Inquiry By Engineering…

  4. Composing Storied Ground: Four Generations of Narrative Inquiry (United States)

    Schaafsma, David; Pagnucci, Gian; Wallace, Rob; Stock, Patricia Lambert


    Narrative inquiry in English education comes in many shapes and forms--tales of classrooms and communities, didactic argu-stories, postmodern pastiches, open tales with O. Henry endings--but the heart of the enterprise is research in the form of story or, in other words, exploring the world by telling a story about it. In many such tales, all of…

  5. Inquiry into Teaching: Using Reflective Teaching to Improve My Practice (United States)

    Pennington, Sarah E.


    How effective is reflective teaching in increasing the engagement and achievement of pre-service teachers when utilized by a first-year college instructor? This article documents a practitioner inquiry project in which I reflected both on my own observations and student feedback regarding what teaching methods were most beneficial in an…

  6. Pluralistic Inquiry for the History of Community Psychology (United States)

    Kelly, James G.; Chang, Janet


    The authors present the case not only for studying the history of community psychology but also of adopting a pluralistic approach to historical inquiry, using multiple methods and access to resources from other disciplines (e.g., historians of science and social historians). Examples of substantive topics and methods, including social network and…

  7. Effect of the inquiry-based teaching approach on students ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The experimental group was treated with a teaching approach that integrated inquiry-based teaching into classroom discourse. Tests (pre- and post-), for assessing students' understanding of circle theorems and a questionnaire for measuring the students' perception of motivation to learn were given to the two groups ...

  8. Science Teacher Attitudes toward Inquiry-Based Teaching and Learning (United States)

    DiBiase, Warren; McDonald, Judith R.


    The purpose of this study was to determine teachers' attitudes, values, and beliefs about inquiry. The participants of this study were 275 middle grade and secondary science teachers from four districts in North Carolina. Issues such as class size, accountability, curricular demands, and administrative support are perceived as constraints,…

  9. Supporting Inquiry-based Learning with Google Glass (GPIM)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Suarez, Angel; Ternier, Stefaan; Kalz, Marco; Specht, Marcus


    Wearable technology is a new genre of technology that is appearing to enhance learning in context. This manuscript introduces a Google Glass application to support Inquiry-based Learning (IBL). Applying Google Glass to IBL, we aim to transform the learning process into a more seamless, personal and

  10. Towards a Methodological Improvement of Narrative Inquiry: A Qualitative Analysis (United States)

    Abdallah, Mahmoud Mohammad Sayed


    The article suggests that though narrative inquiry as a research methodology entails free conversations and personal stories, yet it should not be totally free and fictional as it has to conform to some recognized standards used for conducting educational research. Hence, a qualitative study conducted by Russ (1999) was explored as an exemplar…

  11. Community of Inquiry Method and Language Skills Acquisition: Empirical Evidence (United States)

    Preece, Abdul Shakhour Duncan


    The study investigates the effectiveness of community of inquiry method in preparing students to develop listening and speaking skills in a sample of junior secondary school students in Borno state, Nigeria. A sample of 100 students in standard classes was drawn in one secondary school in Maiduguri metropolis through stratified random sampling…

  12. Science from the Pond up: Using Measurement to Introduce Inquiry (United States)

    Demir, Abdulkadir; Schmidt, Frank; Abell, Sandra K.


    The authors engaged nonscience majors enrolled in an integrated science course with a prototype activity designed to change their mindset from cookbook to inquiry science. This article describes the activity, the Warm Little Pond, which helped students develop essential understanding of basic statistics, significant figures, and the idea that…

  13. Creating a Community of Inquiry in Online Library Instruction (United States)

    Rapchak, Marcia E.


    According to the Community of Inquiry (CoI) model (Garrison, Anderson, & Archer, 2000), an enriching educational experience online in a collaborative learning environment requires three interdependent elements: social presence, teaching presence, and cognitive presence. Social presence provides interaction in the online environment that allows…

  14. Creating Classrooms of Preference: An Exercise in Appreciative Inquiry (United States)

    Conklin, Thomas A.


    This article reviews Appreciative Inquiry (AI) as a process used in organizational creation and change and then outlines steps for an in-class exercise titled "The Preferred Classroom," to be used to design and organize a college classroom for the term. The exercise also prepares business students for future exposure to AI. A brief literature…

  15. An Appreciative Inquiry into an Urban Drug Court: Cultural Transformation (United States)

    Calabrese, Raymond; Cohen, Erik


    The purpose of this study was to use an appreciative inquiry (AI) theoretical research perspective and change methodology to transform the working relationships and cultural expectations of members through the discovery of their positive core leading to an optimistic and confidence-based future for an urban drug court. This study describes how…

  16. An Appreciative Inquiry Exploring Game Sense Teaching in Physical Education (United States)

    Pill, Shane


    This paper reports on research framed as a strengths-based appreciative inquiry (AI) into the use of a game sense (GS) approach for sport and games teaching in physical education (PE). The aim of this research was to find the elements which sustain teachers in the use of a GS approach. This is particularly pertinent given strong advocacy for GS as…

  17. 32 CFR 516.53 - News media and other inquiries. (United States)


    ... AUTHORITIES AND PUBLIC RELATIONS LITIGATION Release of Information and Appearance of Witnesses Scope... appropriate recommendations for review and approval by the Office of the Chief of Public Affairs. All releases... inquiries regarding litigation or potential litigation will be referred to the appropriate public affairs...

  18. Counternarrative and antenarrative inquiry in two cross-cultural contexts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boje, David M.; Svane, Marita Susanna; Gergerich, Erika


    stereotypical representations of race, class, and gender, and offer theory and methodology resources for a more meaningful understanding of homeless life and cultures. The second case explores narrative-counternarrative and antenarrative inquiry into a cross-cultural merger between two companies. Both cases...

  19. Narrative Inquiry as Travel Study Method: Affordances and Constraints (United States)

    Craig, Cheryl J.; Zou, Yali; Poimbeauf, Rita


    This article maps how narrative inquiry--the use of story to study human experience--has been employed as both method and form to capture cross-cultural learning associated with Western doctoral students' travel study to eastern destinations. While others were the first to employ this method in the travel study domain, we are the first to…

  20. The Collaborative Teacher Inquiry Project: A Purposeful Professional Development Initiative (United States)

    Jao, Limin; McDougall, Douglas


    The transition from Grade 8 to Grade 9 is particularly difficult for students who were not very successful in mathematics in Grade 8. Research into ways to improve this transition as well as improve the teaching practices at the Applied level will be helpful for teachers, administrators, and policy makers. The Collaborative Teacher Inquiry Project…