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Sample records for robust arbitrarily high

  1. Discrete nonlinear Schrodinger equations with arbitrarily high-order nonlinearities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khare, A.; Rasmussen, Kim Ø; Salerno, M.

    2006-01-01

    -Ladik equation. As a common property, these equations possess three kinds of exact analytical stationary solutions for which the Peierls-Nabarro barrier is zero. Several properties of these solutions, including stability, discrete breathers, and moving solutions, are investigated.......A class of discrete nonlinear Schrodinger equations with arbitrarily high-order nonlinearities is introduced. These equations are derived from the same Hamiltonian using different Poisson brackets and include as particular cases the saturable discrete nonlinear Schrodinger equation and the Ablowitz...

  2. A method for robust segmentation of arbitrarily shaped radiopaque structures in cone-beam CT projections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poulsen, Per Rugaard; Fledelius, Walther; Keall, Paul J.; Weiss, Elisabeth; Lu Jun; Brackbill, Emily; Hugo, Geoffrey D.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Implanted markers are commonly used in radiotherapy for x-ray based target localization. The projected marker position in a series of cone-beam CT (CBCT) projections can be used to estimate the three dimensional (3D) target trajectory during the CBCT acquisition. This has important applications in tumor motion management such as motion inclusive, gating, and tumor tracking strategies. However, for irregularly shaped markers, reliable segmentation is challenged by large variations in the marker shape with projection angle. The purpose of this study was to develop a semiautomated method for robust and reliable segmentation of arbitrarily shaped radiopaque markers in CBCT projections. Methods: The segmentation method involved the following three steps: (1) Threshold based segmentation of the marker in three to six selected projections with large angular separation, good marker contrast, and uniform background; (2) construction of a 3D marker model by coalignment and backprojection of the threshold-based segmentations; and (3) construction of marker templates at all imaging angles by projection of the 3D model and use of these templates for template-based segmentation. The versatility of the segmentation method was demonstrated by segmentation of the following structures in the projections from two clinical CBCT scans: (1) Three linear fiducial markers (Visicoil) implanted in or near a lung tumor and (2) an artificial cardiac valve in a lung cancer patient. Results: Automatic marker segmentation was obtained in more than 99.9% of the cases. The segmentation failed in a few cases where the marker was either close to a structure of similar appearance or hidden behind a dense structure (data cable). Conclusions: A robust template-based method for segmentation of arbitrarily shaped radiopaque markers in CBCT projections was developed.

  3. Arbitrarily high super-resolving phase measurements at telecommunication wavelengths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kothe, Christian; Bjoerk, Gunnar; Bourennane, Mohamed

    2010-01-01

    We present two experiments that achieve phase super-resolution at telecommunication wavelengths. One of the experiments is realized in the space domain and the other is realized in the time domain. Both experiments show high visibility and are performed with standard lasers and single-photon detectors. The first experiment uses six-photon coincidences, whereas the latter experiment needs no coincidence measurements, is easy to perform, and achieves, in principle, arbitrarily high phase super-resolution. Here, we demonstrate a 30-fold increase of the resolution. We stress that neither entanglement nor joint detection is needed in these experiments, which demonstrates that neither is necessary to achieve phase super-resolution.

  4. Robustness of unstable attractors in arbitrarily sized pulse-coupled networks with delay

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broer, Hendrik; Efstathiou, Konstantinos; Subramanian, Easwar

    We consider arbitrarily large networks of pulse-coupled oscillators with non-zero delay where the coupling is given by the Mirollo-Strogatz function. We prove that such systems have unstable attractors (saddle periodic orbits whose stable set has non-empty interior) in an open parameter region for

  5. Robustness of unstable attractors in arbitrarily sized pulse-coupled networks with delay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broer, Henk; Efstathiou, Konstantinos; Subramanian, Easwar

    2008-01-01

    We consider arbitrarily large networks of pulse-coupled oscillators with non-zero delay where the coupling is given by the Mirollo–Strogatz function. We prove that such systems have unstable attractors (saddle periodic orbits whose stable set has non-empty interior) in an open parameter region for three or more oscillators. The evolution operator of the system can be discontinuous and we propose an improved model with continuous evolution operator

  6. Robustness of the filamentation instability for asymmetric plasma shells collision in arbitrarily oriented magnetic field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bret, A. [ETSI Industriales, Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha, 13071 Ciudad Real, Spain and Instituto de Investigaciones Energticas y Aplicaciones Industriales, Campus Universitario de Ciudad Real, 13071 Ciudad Real (Spain)

    2013-10-15

    The filamentation instability triggered when two counter streaming plasma shells overlap appears to be the main mechanism by which collisionless shocks are generated. It has been known for long that a flow aligned magnetic field can completely suppress this instability. In a recent paper [Phys. Plasmas 18, 080706 (2011)], it was demonstrated in two dimensions that for the case of two cold, symmetric, relativistically colliding shells, such cancellation cannot occur if the field is not perfectly aligned. Here, this result is extended to the case of two asymmetric shells. The filamentation instability appears therefore as an increasingly robust mechanism to generate shocks.

  7. Arbitrarily shaped high-coherence electron bunches from cold atoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCulloch, A. J.; Sheludko, D. V.; Saliba, S. D.; Bell, S. C.; Junker, M.; Nugent, K. A.; Scholten, R. E.

    2011-10-01

    Ultrafast electron diffractive imaging of nanoscale objects such as biological molecules and defects in solid-state devices provides crucial information on structure and dynamic processes: for example, determination of the form and function of membrane proteins, vital for many key goals in modern biological science, including rational drug design. High brightness and high coherence are required to achieve the necessary spatial and temporal resolution, but have been limited by the thermal nature of conventional electron sources and by divergence due to repulsive interactions between the electrons, known as the Coulomb explosion. It has been shown that, if the electrons are shaped into ellipsoidal bunches with uniform density, the Coulomb explosion can be reversed using conventional optics, to deliver the maximum possible brightness at the target. Here we demonstrate arbitrary and real-time control of the shape of cold electron bunches extracted from laser-cooled atoms. The ability to dynamically shape the electron source itself and to observe this shape in the propagated electron bunch provides a remarkable experimental demonstration of the intrinsically high spatial coherence of a cold-atom electron source, and the potential for alleviation of electron-source brightness limitations due to Coulomb explosion.

  8. Robustness of the filamentation instability in arbitrarily oriented magnetic field: Full three dimensional calculation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bret, A., E-mail: antoineclaude.bret@uclm.es [ETSI Industriales, Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha, 13071 Ciudad Real, Spain and Instituto de Investigaciones Energéticas y Aplicaciones Industriales, Campus Universitario de Ciudad Real, 13071 Ciudad Real (Spain)

    2014-02-15

    The filamentation (Weibel) instability plays a key role in the formation of collisionless shocks which are thought to produce Gamma-Ray-Bursts and High-Energy-Cosmic-Rays in astrophysical environments. While it has been known for long that a flow-aligned magnetic field can completely quench the instability, it was recently proved in 2D that in the cold regime, such cancelation is possible if and only if the field is perfectly aligned. Here, this result is finally extended to a 3D geometry. Calculations are conducted for symmetric and asymmetric counter-streaming relativistic plasma shells. 2D results are retrieved in 3D: the instability can never be completely canceled for an oblique magnetic field. In addition, the maximum growth-rate is always larger for wave vectors lying in the plan defined by the flow and the oblique field. On the one hand, this bears consequences on the orientation of the generated filaments. On the other hand, it certifies 2D simulations of the problem can be performed without missing the most unstable filamentation modes.

  9. Application of the Arbitrarily High Order Method to Coupled Electron Photon Transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duo, Jose Ignacio

    2004-01-01

    This work is about the application of the Arbitrary High Order Nodal Method to coupled electron photon transport.A Discrete Ordinates code was enhanced and validated which permited to evaluate the advantages of using variable spatial development order per particle.The results obtained using variable spatial development and adaptive mesh refinement following an a posteriori error estimator are encouraging.Photon spectra for clinical accelerator target and, dose and charge depositio profiles are simulated in one-dimensional problems using cross section generated with CEPXS code.Our results are in good agreement with ONELD and MCNP codes

  10. High performance Lyot and PIAA coronagraphy for arbitrarily shaped telescope apertures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guyon, Olivier; Hinz, Philip M. [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Cady, Eric [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Belikov, Ruslan [NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA 94035 (United States); Martinache, Frantz, E-mail: guyon@naoj.org [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, Subaru Telescope, Hilo, HI 96720 (United States)

    2014-01-10

    Two high-performance coronagraphic approaches compatible with segmented and obstructed telescope pupils are described. Both concepts use entrance pupil amplitude apodization and a combined phase and amplitude focal plane mask to achieve full coronagraphic extinction of an on-axis point source. While the first concept, called Apodized Pupil Complex Mask Lyot Coronagraph (APCMLC), relies on a transmission mask to perform the pupil apodization, the second concept, called Phase-Induced Amplitude Apodization complex mask coronagraph (PIAACMC), uses beam remapping for lossless apodization. Both concepts theoretically offer complete coronagraphic extinction (infinite contrast) of a point source in monochromatic light, with high throughput and sub-λ/D inner working angle, regardless of aperture shape. The PIAACMC offers nearly 100% throughput and approaches the fundamental coronagraph performance limit imposed by first principles. The steps toward designing the coronagraphs for arbitrary apertures are described for monochromatic light. Designs for the APCMLC and the higher performance PIAACMC are shown for several monolith and segmented apertures, such as the apertures of the Subaru Telescope, Giant Magellan Telescope, Thirty Meter Telescope, the European Extremely Large Telescope, and the Large Binocular Telescope. Performance in broadband light is also quantified, suggesting that the monochromatic designs are suitable for use in up to 20% wide spectral bands for ground-based telescopes.

  11. Robust AIC with High Breakdown Scale Estimate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shokrya Saleh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Akaike Information Criterion (AIC based on least squares (LS regression minimizes the sum of the squared residuals; LS is sensitive to outlier observations. Alternative criterion, which is less sensitive to outlying observation, has been proposed; examples are robust AIC (RAIC, robust Mallows Cp (RCp, and robust Bayesian information criterion (RBIC. In this paper, we propose a robust AIC by replacing the scale estimate with a high breakdown point estimate of scale. The robustness of the proposed methods is studied through its influence function. We show that, the proposed robust AIC is effective in selecting accurate models in the presence of outliers and high leverage points, through simulated and real data examples.

  12. Symmetric and arbitrarily high-order Birkhoff-Hermite time integrators and their long-time behaviour for solving nonlinear Klein-Gordon equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Changying; Iserles, Arieh; Wu, Xinyuan

    2018-03-01

    The Klein-Gordon equation with nonlinear potential occurs in a wide range of application areas in science and engineering. Its computation represents a major challenge. The main theme of this paper is the construction of symmetric and arbitrarily high-order time integrators for the nonlinear Klein-Gordon equation by integrating Birkhoff-Hermite interpolation polynomials. To this end, under the assumption of periodic boundary conditions, we begin with the formulation of the nonlinear Klein-Gordon equation as an abstract second-order ordinary differential equation (ODE) and its operator-variation-of-constants formula. We then derive a symmetric and arbitrarily high-order Birkhoff-Hermite time integration formula for the nonlinear abstract ODE. Accordingly, the stability, convergence and long-time behaviour are rigorously analysed once the spatial differential operator is approximated by an appropriate positive semi-definite matrix, subject to suitable temporal and spatial smoothness. A remarkable characteristic of this new approach is that the requirement of temporal smoothness is reduced compared with the traditional numerical methods for PDEs in the literature. Numerical results demonstrate the advantage and efficiency of our time integrators in comparison with the existing numerical approaches.

  13. Highly Robust Methods in Data Mining

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kalina, Jan

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 8, č. 1 (2013), s. 9-24 ISSN 1452-4864 Institutional support: RVO:67985807 Keywords : data mining * robust statistics * high-dimensional data * cluster analysis * logistic regression * neural networks Subject RIV: BB - Applied Statistics, Operational Research

  14. Robust High Performance Aquaporin based Biomimetic Membranes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helix Nielsen, Claus; Zhao, Yichun; Qiu, C.

    2013-01-01

    on top of a support membrane. Control membranes, either without aquaporins or with the inactive AqpZ R189A mutant aquaporin served as controls. The separation performance of the membranes was evaluated by cross-flow forward osmosis (FO) and reverse osmosis (RO) tests. In RO the ABM achieved a water......Aquaporins are water channel proteins with high water permeability and solute rejection, which makes them promising for preparing high-performance biomimetic membranes. Despite the growing interest in aquaporin-based biomimetic membranes (ABMs), it is challenging to produce robust and defect...... permeability of ~ 4 L/(m2 h bar) with a NaCl rejection > 97% at an applied hydraulic pressure of 5 bar. The water permeability was ~40% higher compared to a commercial brackish water RO membrane (BW30) and an order of magnitude higher compared to a seawater RO membrane (SW30HR). In FO, the ABMs had > 90...

  15. Robust high temperature oxygen sensor electrodes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Anders

    Platinum is the most widely used material in high temperature oxygen sensor electrodes. However, platinum is expensive and the platinum electrode may, under certain conditions, suffer from poisoning, which is detrimental for an oxygen sensor. The objective of this thesis is to evaluate electrode...... materials as candidates for robust oxygen sensor electrodes. The present work focuses on characterising the electrochemical properties of a few electrode materials to understand which oxygen electrode processes are limiting for the response time of the sensor electrode. Three types of porous platinum......-Dansensor. The electrochemical properties of the electrodes were characterised by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), and the structures were characterised by x-ray diffraction and electron microscopy. At an oxygen partial pressures of 0.2 bar, the response time of the sensor electrode was determined by oxygen...

  16. High-accuracy power series solutions with arbitrarily large radius of convergence for the fractional nonlinear Schrödinger-type equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khawaja, U. Al; Al-Refai, M.; Shchedrin, Gavriil; Carr, Lincoln D.

    2018-06-01

    Fractional nonlinear differential equations present an interplay between two common and important effective descriptions used to simplify high dimensional or more complicated theories: nonlinearity and fractional derivatives. These effective descriptions thus appear commonly in physical and mathematical modeling. We present a new series method providing systematic controlled accuracy for solutions of fractional nonlinear differential equations, including the fractional nonlinear Schrödinger equation and the fractional nonlinear diffusion equation. The method relies on spatially iterative use of power series expansions. Our approach permits an arbitrarily large radius of convergence and thus solves the typical divergence problem endemic to power series approaches. In the specific case of the fractional nonlinear Schrödinger equation we find fractional generalizations of cnoidal waves of Jacobi elliptic functions as well as a fractional bright soliton. For the fractional nonlinear diffusion equation we find the combination of fractional and nonlinear effects results in a more strongly localized solution which nevertheless still exhibits power law tails, albeit at a much lower density.

  17. Multidisciplinary Design Optimization for High Reliability and Robustness

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Grandhi, Ramana

    2005-01-01

    .... Over the last 3 years Wright State University has been applying analysis tools to predict the behavior of critical disciplines to produce highly robust torpedo designs using robust multi-disciplinary...

  18. The Robustness of High Danish National Happiness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hussain, M. Azhar

    2014-01-01

    Denmark’s top position in various rankings of country happiness is well-documented. This study goes beyond the national average comparisons and investigates whether Denmark’s top position is also found when we disaggregate data in line with social categories often used within the social sciences....... The central measure is the empirical probability that a given population subgroup in Denmark has significantly higher happiness compared to another country’s similar subgroup in a given year. All five rounds of the European Social Survey are used but only the sixteen countries that were surveyed in each...... of the five rounds are included in this study. The results show that Denmark’s position at the top of the happiness scale is also robust when we look at population subgroups, but not in the sense that Denmark dominates all countries for all years. Instead, a modified version of robustness is necessary...

  19. Consensus of Heterogeneous Multiagent Systems with Arbitrarily Bounded Communication Delay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xue Li

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the consensus problem of high-order heterogeneous multiagent systems with arbitrarily bounded communication delays. Through the method of nonnegative matrices, we get a sufficient consensus condition for the systems with dynamically changing topology. The results of this paper show, even when there are arbitrarily bounded communication delays in the systems, all agents can reach a consensus no matter whether there are spanning trees for the corresponding communication graphs at any time.

  20. Robust

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2017-01-01

    Robust – Reflections on Resilient Architecture’, is a scientific publication following the conference of the same name in November of 2017. Researches and PhD-Fellows, associated with the Masters programme: Cultural Heritage, Transformation and Restoration (Transformation), at The Royal Danish...

  1. Robust Tracking at the High Luminosity LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Woods, Natasha Lee; The ATLAS collaboration

    2018-01-01

    The High Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC) aims to increase the LHC data-set by an order of magnitude in order to increase its potential for discoveries. Starting from the middle of 2026, the HL-LHC is expected to reach the peak instantaneous luminosity of 7.5×10^34cm^-2s^-1 which corresponds to about 200 inelastic proton-proton collisions per beam crossing. To cope with the large radiation doses and high pileup, the current ATLAS Inner Detector will be replaced with a new all-silicon Inner Tracker. In this talk the expected performance of tracking and vertexing with the HL-LHC tracker is presented. Comparison is made to the performance with the Run2 detector. Ongoing developments of the track reconstruction for the HL-LHC are also discussed.

  2. On Robust Information Extraction from High-Dimensional Data

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kalina, Jan

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 9, č. 1 (2014), s. 131-144 ISSN 1452-4864 Grant - others:GA ČR(CZ) GA13-01930S Institutional support: RVO:67985807 Keywords : data mining * high-dimensional data * robust econometrics * outliers * machine learning Subject RIV: IN - Informatics, Computer Science

  3. High-dimensional data in economics and their (robust) analysis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kalina, Jan

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 12, č. 1 (2017), s. 171-183 ISSN 1452-4864 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA17-07384S Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : econometrics * high-dimensional data * dimensionality reduction * linear regression * classification analysis * robustness Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics OBOR OECD: Business and management http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2017/SI/kalina-0474076.pdf

  4. High-dimensional Data in Economics and their (Robust) Analysis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kalina, Jan

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 12, č. 1 (2017), s. 171-183 ISSN 1452-4864 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA17-07384S Grant - others:GA ČR(CZ) GA13-01930S Institutional support: RVO:67985807 Keywords : econometrics * high-dimensional data * dimensionality reduction * linear regression * classification analysis * robustness Subject RIV: BB - Applied Statistics, Operational Research OBOR OECD: Statistics and probability

  5. High-throughput electrical characterization for robust overlay lithography control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devender, Devender; Shen, Xumin; Duggan, Mark; Singh, Sunil; Rullan, Jonathan; Choo, Jae; Mehta, Sohan; Tang, Teck Jung; Reidy, Sean; Holt, Jonathan; Kim, Hyung Woo; Fox, Robert; Sohn, D. K.

    2017-03-01

    Realizing sensitive, high throughput and robust overlay measurement is a challenge in current 14nm and advanced upcoming nodes with transition to 300mm and upcoming 450mm semiconductor manufacturing, where slight deviation in overlay has significant impact on reliability and yield1). Exponentially increasing number of critical masks in multi-patterning lithoetch, litho-etch (LELE) and subsequent LELELE semiconductor processes require even tighter overlay specification2). Here, we discuss limitations of current image- and diffraction- based overlay measurement techniques to meet these stringent processing requirements due to sensitivity, throughput and low contrast3). We demonstrate a new electrical measurement based technique where resistance is measured for a macro with intentional misalignment between two layers. Overlay is quantified by a parabolic fitting model to resistance where minima and inflection points are extracted to characterize overlay control and process window, respectively. Analyses using transmission electron microscopy show good correlation between actual overlay performance and overlay obtained from fitting. Additionally, excellent correlation of overlay from electrical measurements to existing image- and diffraction- based techniques is found. We also discuss challenges of integrating electrical measurement based approach in semiconductor manufacturing from Back End of Line (BEOL) perspective. Our findings open up a new pathway for accessing simultaneous overlay as well as process window and margins from a robust, high throughput and electrical measurement approach.

  6. Reshaping the perfect electrical conductor cylinder arbitrarily

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Huanyang; Zhang Xiaohe; Luo Xudong; Ma Hongru; Chan Cheting

    2008-01-01

    A general method is proposed to design a cylindrical cloak, concentrator and superscatterer with an arbitrary cross section. The method is demonstrated by the design of a perfect electrical conductor (PEC) reshaper which is able to reshape a PEC cylinder arbitrarily by combining the concept of cloak, concentrator and superscatterer together. Numerical simulations are performed to demonstrate its properties.

  7. Light propagation in the gravitational field of N arbitrarily moving bodies in the 1.5PN approximation for high-precision astrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zschocke, Sven

    2016-05-01

    High-precision astrometry on sub-micro-arcsecond level in angular resolution requires accurate determination of the trajectory of a light-signal from the celestial light source through the gravitational field of the Solar System toward the observer. In this investigation the light trajectory in the gravitational field of N moving bodies is determined in the 1.5 post-Newtonian approximation. In the approach presented two specific issues of particular importance are accounted for: (1) According to the recommendations of International Astronomical Union, the metric of the Solar System is expressed in terms of intrinsic mass-multipoles and intrinsic spin-multipoles of the massive bodies, allowing for arbitrary shape, inner structure and rotational motion of the massive bodies of the Solar System. (2) The Solar System bodies move along arbitrary world lines which can later be specified by Solar System ephemeris. The presented analytical solution for light trajectory is a primary requirement for extremely high-precision astrometry on sub-micro-arcsecond level of accuracy and associated massive computations in astrometric data reduction. An estimation of the numerical magnitude for time delay and light deflection of the leading multipoles is given.

  8. Calibration of an arbitrarily arranged projection moiré system for 3D shape measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Ying; Yao, Jun; Zhou, Yihao; Sun, Chen; Yang, Peng; Miao, Hong; Chen, Jubing

    2018-05-01

    An arbitrarily arranged projection moiré system is presented for three-dimensional shape measurement. We develop a model for projection moiré system and derive a universal formula expressing the relation between height and phase variation before and after we put the object on the reference plane. With so many system parameters involved, a system calibration technique is needed. In this work, we provide a robust and accurate calibration method for an arbitrarily arranged projection moiré system. The system no longer puts restrictions on the configuration of the optical setup. Real experiments have been conducted to verify the validity of this method.

  9. A note on arbitrarily vertex decomposable graphs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antoni Marczyk

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available A graph \\(G\\ of order \\(n\\ is said to be arbitrarily vertex decomposable if for each sequence \\((n_{1},\\ldots,n_k\\ of positive integers such that \\(n_{1}+\\ldots+n_{k}=n\\ there exists a partition \\((V_{1},\\ldots,V_{k}\\ of the vertex set of \\(G\\ such that for each \\(i \\in \\{1,\\ldots,k\\}\\, \\(V_{i}\\ induces a connected subgraph of \\(G\\ on \\(n_i\\ vertices. In this paper we show that if \\(G\\ is a two-connected graph on \\(n\\ vertices with the independence number at most \\(\\lceil n/2\\rceil\\ and such that the degree sum of any pair of non-adjacent vertices is at least \\(n-3\\, then \\(G\\ is arbitrarily vertex decomposable. We present another result for connected graphs satisfying a similar condition, where the bound \\(n-3\\ is replaced by \\(n-2\\.

  10. Arbitrarily elliptical-cylindrical invisible cloaking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang Weixiang; Cui Tiejun; Yu Guanxia; Lin Xianqi; Cheng Qiang; Chin, J Y

    2008-01-01

    Based on the idea of coordinate transformation (Pendry, Schurig and Smith 2006 Science 312 1780), arbitrarily elliptical-cylindrical cloaks are proposed and designed. The elliptical cloak, which is composed of inhomogeneous anisotropic metamaterials in an elliptical-shell region, will deflect incoming electromagnetic (EM) waves and guide them to propagate around the inner elliptical region. Such EM waves will return to their original propagation directions without distorting the waves outside the elliptical cloak. General formulations of the inhomogeneous and anisotropic permittivity and permeability tensors are derived for arbitrarily elliptical axis ratio k, which can also be used for the circular cloak when k = 1. Hence the elliptical cloaks can make a large range of objects invisible, from round objects (when k approaches 1) to long and thin objects (when k is either very large or very small). We also show that the material parameters in elliptical cloaking are singular at only two points, instead of on the whole inner circle for circular cloaking, which are much easier to be realized in actual applications. Full-wave simulations are given to validate the arbitrarily elliptical cloaking

  11. Highly scalable and robust rule learner: performance evaluation and comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurgan, Lukasz A; Cios, Krzysztof J; Dick, Scott

    2006-02-01

    Business intelligence and bioinformatics applications increasingly require the mining of datasets consisting of millions of data points, or crafting real-time enterprise-level decision support systems for large corporations and drug companies. In all cases, there needs to be an underlying data mining system, and this mining system must be highly scalable. To this end, we describe a new rule learner called DataSqueezer. The learner belongs to the family of inductive supervised rule extraction algorithms. DataSqueezer is a simple, greedy, rule builder that generates a set of production rules from labeled input data. In spite of its relative simplicity, DataSqueezer is a very effective learner. The rules generated by the algorithm are compact, comprehensible, and have accuracy comparable to rules generated by other state-of-the-art rule extraction algorithms. The main advantages of DataSqueezer are very high efficiency, and missing data resistance. DataSqueezer exhibits log-linear asymptotic complexity with the number of training examples, and it is faster than other state-of-the-art rule learners. The learner is also robust to large quantities of missing data, as verified by extensive experimental comparison with the other learners. DataSqueezer is thus well suited to modern data mining and business intelligence tasks, which commonly involve huge datasets with a large fraction of missing data.

  12. A wide-bandwidth and high-sensitivity robust microgyroscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahin, Korhan; Sahin, Emre; Akin, Tayfun; Alper, Said Emre

    2009-01-01

    This paper reports a microgyroscope design concept with the help of a 2 degrees of freedom (DoF) sense mode to achieve a wide bandwidth without sacrificing mechanical and electronic sensitivity and to obtain robust operation against variations under ambient conditions. The design concept is demonstrated with a tuning fork microgyroscope fabricated with an in-house silicon-on-glass micromachining process. When the fabricated gyroscope is operated with a relatively wide bandwidth of 1 kHz, measurements show a relatively high raw mechanical sensitivity of 131 µV (° s −1 ) −1 . The variation in the amplified mechanical sensitivity (scale factor) of the gyroscope is measured to be less than 0.38% for large ambient pressure variations such as from 40 to 500 mTorr. The bias instability and angle random walk of the gyroscope are measured to be 131° h −1 and 1.15° h −1/2 , respectively

  13. Highly Robust Statistical Methods in Medical Image Analysis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kalina, Jan

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 32, č. 2 (2012), s. 3-16 ISSN 0208-5216 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 1M06014 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : robust statistics * classification * faces * robust image analysis * forensic science Subject RIV: BB - Applied Statistics, Operational Research Impact factor: 0.208, year: 2012 http://www.ibib.waw.pl/bbe/bbefulltext/BBE_32_2_003_FT.pdf

  14. Software Tools for Robust Analysis of High-Dimensional Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentin Todorov

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The present work discusses robust multivariate methods specifically designed for highdimensions. Their implementation in R is presented and their application is illustratedon examples. The first group are algorithms for outlier detection, already introducedelsewhere and implemented in other packages. The value added of the new package isthat all methods follow the same design pattern and thus can use the same graphicaland diagnostic tools. The next topic covered is sparse principal components including anobject oriented interface to the standard method proposed by Zou, Hastie, and Tibshirani(2006 and the robust one proposed by Croux, Filzmoser, and Fritz (2013. Robust partialleast squares (see Hubert and Vanden Branden 2003 as well as partial least squares fordiscriminant analysis conclude the scope of the new package.

  15. Arbitrarily accurate twin composite π -pulse sequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torosov, Boyan T.; Vitanov, Nikolay V.

    2018-04-01

    We present three classes of symmetric broadband composite pulse sequences. The composite phases are given by analytic formulas (rational fractions of π ) valid for any number of constituent pulses. The transition probability is expressed by simple analytic formulas and the order of pulse area error compensation grows linearly with the number of pulses. Therefore, any desired compensation order can be produced by an appropriate composite sequence; in this sense, they are arbitrarily accurate. These composite pulses perform equally well as or better than previously published ones. Moreover, the current sequences are more flexible as they allow total pulse areas of arbitrary integer multiples of π .

  16. Robust Trajectory Design in Highly Perturbed Environments Leveraging Continuation Methods, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Research is proposed to investigate continuation methods to improve the robustness of trajectory design algorithms for spacecraft in highly perturbed dynamical...

  17. Creating geometrically robust designs for highly sensitive problems using topology optimization: Acoustic cavity design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Rasmus E.; Lazarov, Boyan S.; Jensen, Jakob S.

    2015-01-01

    Resonance and wave-propagation problems are known to be highly sensitive towards parameter variations. This paper discusses topology optimization formulations for creating designs that perform robustly under spatial variations for acoustic cavity problems. For several structural problems, robust...... and limitations are discussed. In addition, a known explicit penalization approach is considered for comparison. For near-uniform spatial variations it is shown that highly robust designs can be obtained using the double filter approach. It is finally demonstrated that taking non-uniform variations into account...... further improves the robustness of the designs....

  18. Robust Control for High-Speed Visual Servoing Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ellekilde, Lars-Peter; Favrholdt, Peter; Paulin, Mads

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a new control scheme for visual servoing applications. The approach employs quadratic optimization, and explicitly handles both joint position, velocity and acceleration limits. Contrary to existing techniques, our method does not rely on large safety margins and slow task...... execution to avoid joint limits, and is hence able to exploit the full potential of the robot. Furthermore, our control scheme guarantees a well-defined behavior of the robot even when it is in a singular configuration, and thus handles both internal and external singularities robustly. We demonstrate...... the correctness and efficiency of our approach in a number of visual servoing applications, and compare it to a range of previously proposed techniques....

  19. Robust sigma delta converters : and their application in low-power highly-digitized flexible receivers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veldhoven, van R.H.M.; Roermund, van A.H.M.

    2011-01-01

    Sigma Delta converters are a very popular choice for the A/D converter in multi-standard, mobile and cellular receivers. Key A/D converter specifications are high dynamic range, robustness, scalability, low-power and low EMI. Robust Sigma Delta Converters presents a requirement derivation of a Sigma

  20. A robust robotic high-throughput antibody purification platform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Peter M; Abdo, Michael; Butcher, Rebecca E; Yap, Min-Yin; Scotney, Pierre D; Ramunno, Melanie L; Martin-Roussety, Genevieve; Owczarek, Catherine; Hardy, Matthew P; Chen, Chao-Guang; Fabri, Louis J

    2016-07-15

    Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) have become the fastest growing segment in the drug market with annual sales of more than 40 billion US$ in 2013. The selection of lead candidate molecules involves the generation of large repertoires of antibodies from which to choose a final therapeutic candidate. Improvements in the ability to rapidly produce and purify many antibodies in sufficient quantities reduces the lead time for selection which ultimately impacts on the speed with which an antibody may transition through the research stage and into product development. Miniaturization and automation of chromatography using micro columns (RoboColumns(®) from Atoll GmbH) coupled to an automated liquid handling instrument (ALH; Freedom EVO(®) from Tecan) has been a successful approach to establish high throughput process development platforms. Recent advances in transient gene expression (TGE) using the high-titre Expi293F™ system have enabled recombinant mAb titres of greater than 500mg/L. These relatively high protein titres reduce the volume required to generate several milligrams of individual antibodies for initial biochemical and biological downstream assays, making TGE in the Expi293F™ system ideally suited to high throughput chromatography on an ALH. The present publication describes a novel platform for purifying Expi293F™-expressed recombinant mAbs directly from cell-free culture supernatant on a Perkin Elmer JANUS-VariSpan ALH equipped with a plate shuttle device. The purification platform allows automated 2-step purification (Protein A-desalting/size exclusion chromatography) of several hundred mAbs per week. The new robotic method can purify mAbs with high recovery (>90%) at sub-milligram level with yields of up to 2mg from 4mL of cell-free culture supernatant. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Quantum capacity under adversarial quantum noise: arbitrarily varying quantum channels

    OpenAIRE

    Ahlswede, Rudolf; Bjelakovic, Igor; Boche, Holger; Noetzel, Janis

    2010-01-01

    We investigate entanglement transmission over an unknown channel in the presence of a third party (called the adversary), which is enabled to choose the channel from a given set of memoryless but non-stationary channels without informing the legitimate sender and receiver about the particular choice that he made. This channel model is called arbitrarily varying quantum channel (AVQC). We derive a quantum version of Ahlswede's dichotomy for classical arbitrarily varying channels. This includes...

  2. Robust, nonlinear, high angle-of-attack control design for a supermaneuverable vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Richard J.

    1993-01-01

    High angle-of-attack flight control laws are developed for a supermaneuverable fighter aircraft. The methods of dynamic inversion and structured singular value synthesis are combined into an approach which addresses both the nonlinearity and robustness problems of flight at extreme operating conditions. The primary purpose of the dynamic inversion control elements is to linearize the vehicle response across the flight envelope. Structured singular value synthesis is used to design a dynamic controller which provides robust tracking to pilot commands. The resulting control system achieves desired flying qualities and guarantees a large margin of robustness to uncertainties for high angle-of-attack flight conditions. The results of linear simulation and structured singular value stability analysis are presented to demonstrate satisfaction of the design criteria. High fidelity nonlinear simulation results show that the combined dynamics inversion/structured singular value synthesis control law achieves a high level of performance in a realistic environment.

  3. Robustness of Multiple High Speed TCP CUBIC Connections Under Severe Operating Conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pilimon, Artur; Ruepp, Sarah Renée; Berger, Michael Stübert

    2015-01-01

    We study the adaptation capabilities and robustness of the high-speed TCP CUBIC algorithm. For this purpose we consider a network environment with variable and high random packet loss and a large Bandwidth-Delay product, shared by multiple heterogeneous TCP connections. The analysis is based on a...

  4. Drift wave dispersion relation for arbitrarily collisional plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angus, Justin R.; Krasheninnikov, Sergei I.

    2012-01-01

    The standard local linear analysis of drift waves in a plasma slab is generalized to be valid for arbitrarily collisional electrons by considering the electrons to be governed by the drift-kinetic equation with a BGK-like (Bhatnagar-Gross-Krook) collision operator. The obtained dispersion relation reduces to that found from collisionless kinetic theory when the collision frequency is zero. Electron temperature fluctuations must be retained in the standard fluid analysis in order to obtain good quantitative agreement with our general solution in the highly collisional limit. Any discrepancies between the fluid solution and our general solution in this limit are attributed to the limitations of the BGK collision operator. The maximum growth rates in both the collisional and collisionless limits are comparable and are both on the order of the fundamental drift wave frequency. The main role of the destabilizing mechanism is found to be in determining the parallel wave number at which the maximum growth rate will occur. The parallel wave number corresponding to the maximum growth rate is set by the wave-particle resonance condition in the collisionless limit and transitions to being set by the real frequency being on the order of the rate for electrons to diffuse a parallel wavelength in the collisional limit.

  5. Drift wave dispersion relation for arbitrarily collisional plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Angus, Justin R.; Krasheninnikov, Sergei I. [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093-0417 (United States)

    2012-05-15

    The standard local linear analysis of drift waves in a plasma slab is generalized to be valid for arbitrarily collisional electrons by considering the electrons to be governed by the drift-kinetic equation with a BGK-like (Bhatnagar-Gross-Krook) collision operator. The obtained dispersion relation reduces to that found from collisionless kinetic theory when the collision frequency is zero. Electron temperature fluctuations must be retained in the standard fluid analysis in order to obtain good quantitative agreement with our general solution in the highly collisional limit. Any discrepancies between the fluid solution and our general solution in this limit are attributed to the limitations of the BGK collision operator. The maximum growth rates in both the collisional and collisionless limits are comparable and are both on the order of the fundamental drift wave frequency. The main role of the destabilizing mechanism is found to be in determining the parallel wave number at which the maximum growth rate will occur. The parallel wave number corresponding to the maximum growth rate is set by the wave-particle resonance condition in the collisionless limit and transitions to being set by the real frequency being on the order of the rate for electrons to diffuse a parallel wavelength in the collisional limit.

  6. High-Efficiency Colloidal Quantum Dot Photovoltaics via Robust Self-Assembled Monolayers

    KAUST Repository

    Kim, Gi-Hwan; Garcí a de Arquer, F. Pelayo; Yoon, Yung Jin; Lan, Xinzheng; Liu, Mengxia; Voznyy, Oleksandr; Yang, Zhenyu; Fan, Fengjia; Ip, Alexander H.; Kanjanaboos, Pongsakorn; Hoogland, Sjoerd; Kim, Jin Young; Sargent, Edward H.

    2015-01-01

    to voltage. With this goal in mind, self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) can be used to modify interface energy levels locally. However, to be effective SAMs must be made robust to treatment using the various solvents and ligands required for to fabricate high

  7. Arbitrarily thin metamaterial structure for perfect absorption and giant magnification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jin, Yi; Xiao, Sanshui; Mortensen, N. Asger

    2011-01-01

    In our common understanding, for strong absorption or amplification in a slab structure, the desire of reducing the slab thickness seems contradictory to the condition of small loss or gain. In this paper, this common understanding is challenged. It is shown that an arbitrarily thin metamaterial ...

  8. Hawking Temperature of an Arbitrarily Accelerating Black Hole Wei ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Introduction. In 1974, Hawking (1974) made a striking discovery that black holes could produce thermal radiation. In this paper, we will obtain Hawking temperature of an arbitrarily accelerating black hole based on the Klein–Gordon equation, which is identical to the one obtained by the Hamilton–Jacobi equation under the ...

  9. A THz Tomography System for Arbitrarily Shaped Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stübling, E.; Bauckhage, Y.; Jelli, E.; Fischer, B.; Globisch, B.; Schell, M.; Heinrich, A.; Balzer, J. C.; Koch, M.

    2017-10-01

    We combine a THz time-domain spectroscopy system with a robotic arm. With this scheme, the THz emitter and receiver can be positioned perpendicular and at defined distance to the sample surface. Our system allows the acquisition of reflection THz tomographic images of samples with an arbitrarily shaped surface.

  10. Robust output feedback cruise control for high-speed train movement with uncertain parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Shu-Kai; Yang Li-Xing; Li Ke-Ping

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, the robust output feedback cruise control for high-speed train movement with uncertain parameters is investigated. The dynamic of a high-speed train is modeled by a cascade of cars connected by flexible couplers, which is subject to rolling mechanical resistance, aerodynamic drag and wind gust. Based on Lyapunov’s stability theory, the sufficient condition for the existence of the robust output feedback cruise control law is given in terms of linear matrix inequalities (LMIs), under which the high-speed train tracks the desired speed, the relative spring displacement between the two neighboring cars is stable at the equilibrium state, and meanwhile a small prescribed H ∞ disturbance attenuation level is guaranteed. One numerical example is given to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed methods. (paper)

  11. Synchronization and secure communication of chaotic systems via robust adaptive high-gain fuzzy observer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hyun, Chang-Ho; Park, Chang-Woo; Kim, Jae-Hun; Park, Mignon

    2009-01-01

    This paper proposes an alternative robust adaptive high-gain fuzzy observer design scheme and its application to synchronization and secure communication of chaotic systems. It is assumed that their states are immeasurable and their parameters are unknown. The structure of the proposed observer is represented by Takagi-Sugeno fuzzy model and has the integrator of the estimation error. It improves the performance of high-gain observer and makes the proposed observer robust against noisy measurements, uncertainties and parameter perturbations as well. Using Lyapunov stability theory, an adaptive law is derived to estimate the unknown parameters and the stability of the proposed observer is analyzed. Some simulation result of synchronization and secure communication of chaotic systems is given to present the validity of theoretical derivations and the performance of the proposed observer as an application.

  12. Robustness of IPSA optimized high-dose-rate prostate brachytherapy treatment plans to catheter displacements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poder, Joel; Whitaker, May

    2016-06-01

    Inverse planning simulated annealing (IPSA) optimized brachytherapy treatment plans are characterized with large isolated dwell times at the first or last dwell position of each catheter. The potential of catheter shifts relative to the target and organs at risk in these plans may lead to a more significant change in delivered dose to the volumes of interest relative to plans with more uniform dwell times. This study aims to determine if the Nucletron Oncentra dwell time deviation constraint (DTDC) parameter can be optimized to improve the robustness of high-dose-rate (HDR) prostate brachytherapy plans to catheter displacements. A set of 10 clinically acceptable prostate plans were re-optimized with a DTDC parameter of 0 and 0.4. For each plan, catheter displacements of 3, 7, and 14 mm were retrospectively applied and the change in dose volume histogram (DVH) indices and conformity indices analyzed. The robustness of clinically acceptable prostate plans to catheter displacements in the caudal direction was found to be dependent on the DTDC parameter. A DTDC value of 0 improves the robustness of planning target volume (PTV) coverage to catheter displacements, whereas a DTDC value of 0.4 improves the robustness of the plans to changes in hotspots. The results indicate that if used in conjunction with a pre-treatment catheter displacement correction protocol and a tolerance of 3 mm, a DTDC value of 0.4 may produce clinically superior plans. However, the effect of the DTDC parameter in plan robustness was not observed to be as strong as initially suspected.

  13. A Distributed Robust Dispatch Approach for Interconnected Systems with a High Proportion of Wind Power Penetration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianwen Ren

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a distributed robust dispatch approach to solve the economic dispatch problem of the interconnected systems with a high proportion of wind power penetration. First of all, the basic principle of synchronous alternating direction method of multipliers (SADMM is introduced to solve the economic dispatch problem of the two interconnected regions. Next, the polyhedron set of the robust optimization method is utilized to describe the wind power output. To adjust the conservativeness of the polyhedron set, an adjustment factor of robust conservativeness is introduced. Subsequently, considering the operation characteristics of the DC tie line between the interconnected regions, an economic dispatch model with a high proportion of wind power penetration is established and parallel iteration based on SADMM is used to solve the model. In each iteration, the optimized power of DC tie lines is exchanged between the regions without requiring the participation of the superior dispatch center. Finally, the validity of the proposed model is verified by the examples of the 2-area 6-node interconnected system and the interconnection of several modified New England 39-node systems. The results show that the proposed model can meet the needs of the independent dispatch of regional power grids, effectively deal with the uncertainty of wind power output, and maximize the wind power consumption under the condition of ensuring the safe operation of the interconnected systems.

  14. Semi-analytical solution to arbitrarily shaped beam scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wenjie; Zhang, Huayong; Sun, Yufa

    2017-07-01

    Based on the field expansions in terms of appropriate spherical vector wave functions and the method of moments scheme, an exact semi-analytical solution to the scattering of an arbitrarily shaped beam is given. For incidence of a Gaussian beam, zero-order Bessel beam and Hertzian electric dipole radiation, numerical results of the normalized differential scattering cross section are presented to a spheroid and a circular cylinder of finite length, and the scattering properties are analyzed concisely.

  15. High-Efficiency Colloidal Quantum Dot Photovoltaics via Robust Self-Assembled Monolayers

    KAUST Repository

    Kim, Gi-Hwan

    2015-11-11

    © 2015 American Chemical Society. The optoelectronic tunability offered by colloidal quantum dots (CQDs) is attractive for photovoltaic applications but demands proper band alignment at electrodes for efficient charge extraction at minimal cost to voltage. With this goal in mind, self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) can be used to modify interface energy levels locally. However, to be effective SAMs must be made robust to treatment using the various solvents and ligands required for to fabricate high quality CQD solids. We report robust self-assembled monolayers (R-SAMs) that enable us to increase the efficiency of CQD photovoltaics. Only by developing a process for secure anchoring of aromatic SAMs, aided by deposition of the SAMs in a water-free deposition environment, were we able to provide an interface modification that was robust against the ensuing chemical treatments needed in the fabrication of CQD solids. The energy alignment at the rectifying interface was tailored by tuning the R-SAM for optimal alignment relative to the CQD quantum-confined electron energy levels. This resulted in a CQD PV record power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 10.7% with enhanced reproducibility relative to controls.

  16. Distributed robust adaptive control of high order nonlinear multi agent systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashemi, Mahnaz; Shahgholian, Ghazanfar

    2018-03-01

    In this paper, a robust adaptive neural network based controller is presented for multi agent high order nonlinear systems with unknown nonlinear functions, unknown control gains and unknown actuator failures. At first, Neural Network (NN) is used to approximate the nonlinear uncertainty terms derived from the controller design procedure for the followers. Then, a novel distributed robust adaptive controller is developed by combining the backstepping method and the Dynamic Surface Control (DSC) approach. The proposed controllers are distributed in the sense that the designed controller for each follower agent only requires relative state information between itself and its neighbors. By using the Young's inequality, only few parameters need to be tuned regardless of NN nodes number. Accordingly, the problems of dimensionality curse and explosion of complexity are counteracted, simultaneously. New adaptive laws are designed by choosing the appropriate Lyapunov-Krasovskii functionals. The proposed approach proves the boundedness of all the closed-loop signals in addition to the convergence of the distributed tracking errors to a small neighborhood of the origin. Simulation results indicate that the proposed controller is effective and robust. Copyright © 2018 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Robust Multiscale Iterative Solvers for Nonlinear Flows in Highly Heterogeneous Media

    KAUST Repository

    Efendiev, Y.

    2012-08-01

    In this paper, we study robust iterative solvers for finite element systems resulting in approximation of steady-state Richards\\' equation in porous media with highly heterogeneous conductivity fields. It is known that in such cases the contrast, ratio between the highest and lowest values of the conductivity, can adversely affect the performance of the preconditioners and, consequently, a design of robust preconditioners is important for many practical applications. The proposed iterative solvers consist of two kinds of iterations, outer and inner iterations. Outer iterations are designed to handle nonlinearities by linearizing the equation around the previous solution state. As a result of the linearization, a large-scale linear system needs to be solved. This linear system is solved iteratively (called inner iterations), and since it can have large variations in the coefficients, a robust preconditioner is needed. First, we show that under some assumptions the number of outer iterations is independent of the contrast. Second, based on the recently developed iterative methods, we construct a class of preconditioners that yields convergence rate that is independent of the contrast. Thus, the proposed iterative solvers are optimal with respect to the large variation in the physical parameters. Since the same preconditioner can be reused in every outer iteration, this provides an additional computational savings in the overall solution process. Numerical tests are presented to confirm the theoretical results. © 2012 Global-Science Press.

  18. Geometrical Bell inequalities for arbitrarily many qudits with different outcome strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wieśniak, Marcin; Dutta, Arijit; Ryu, Junghee

    2016-01-01

    Greenberger–Horne–Zeilinger (GHZ) states are intuitively known to be the most nonclassical ones. They lead to the most radically nonclassical behavior of three or more entangled quantum subsystems. In the case of two-dimensional systems, it has been shown that GHZ states lead to an exponentially higher robustness of Bell nonclassicality against the white noise for geometrical inequalities than in the case of Weinfurter–Werner–Wolf–Żukowski–Brukner ones. We introduce geometrical Bell inequalities for collections of arbitrarily many systems of any dimensionality. We show that the violation factor of these inequalities grows exponentially with the number of parties and study their behavior in terms of dimensionality of subsystems and number of local measurements. We also investigate various strategies of assigning mathematical objects to events in the experiment, each leading to different violation ratios. (paper)

  19. Spirally Structured Conductive Composites for Highly Stretchable, Robust Conductors and Sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiaodong; Han, Yangyang; Zhang, Xinxing; Lu, Canhui

    2017-07-12

    Flexible and stretchable electronics are highly desirable for next generation devices. However, stretchability and conductivity are fundamentally difficult to combine for conventional conductive composites, which restricts their widespread applications especially as stretchable electronics. Here, we innovatively develop a new class of highly stretchable and robust conductive composites via a simple and scalable structural approach. Briefly, carbon nanotubes are spray-coated onto a self-adhesive rubber film, followed by rolling up the film completely to create a spirally layered structure within the composites. This unique spirally layered structure breaks the typical trade-off between stretchability and conductivity of traditional conductive composites and, more importantly, restrains the generation and propagation of mechanical microcracks in the conductive layer under strain. Benefiting from such structure-induced advantages, the spirally layered composites exhibit high stretchability and flexibility, good conductive stability, and excellent robustness, enabling the composites to serve as highly stretchable conductors (up to 300% strain), versatile sensors for monitoring both subtle and large human activities, and functional threads for wearable electronics. This novel and efficient methodology provides a new design philosophy for manufacturing not only stretchable conductors and sensors but also other stretchable electronics, such as transistors, generators, artificial muscles, etc.

  20. A dissipative particle dynamics method for arbitrarily complex geometries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhen; Bian, Xin; Tang, Yu-Hang; Karniadakis, George Em

    2018-02-01

    Dissipative particle dynamics (DPD) is an effective Lagrangian method for modeling complex fluids in the mesoscale regime but so far it has been limited to relatively simple geometries. Here, we formulate a local detection method for DPD involving arbitrarily shaped geometric three-dimensional domains. By introducing an indicator variable of boundary volume fraction (BVF) for each fluid particle, the boundary of arbitrary-shape objects is detected on-the-fly for the moving fluid particles using only the local particle configuration. Therefore, this approach eliminates the need of an analytical description of the boundary and geometry of objects in DPD simulations and makes it possible to load the geometry of a system directly from experimental images or computer-aided designs/drawings. More specifically, the BVF of a fluid particle is defined by the weighted summation over its neighboring particles within a cutoff distance. Wall penetration is inferred from the value of the BVF and prevented by a predictor-corrector algorithm. The no-slip boundary condition is achieved by employing effective dissipative coefficients for liquid-solid interactions. Quantitative evaluations of the new method are performed for the plane Poiseuille flow, the plane Couette flow and the Wannier flow in a cylindrical domain and compared with their corresponding analytical solutions and (high-order) spectral element solution of the Navier-Stokes equations. We verify that the proposed method yields correct no-slip boundary conditions for velocity and generates negligible fluctuations of density and temperature in the vicinity of the wall surface. Moreover, we construct a very complex 3D geometry - the "Brown Pacman" microfluidic device - to explicitly demonstrate how to construct a DPD system with complex geometry directly from loading a graphical image. Subsequently, we simulate the flow of a surfactant solution through this complex microfluidic device using the new method. Its

  1. Robust zero resistance in a superconducting high-entropy alloy at pressures up to 190 GPa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Jing; Wang, Honghong; von Rohr, Fabian; Wang, Zhe; Cai, Shu; Zhou, Yazhou; Yang, Ke; Li, Aiguo; Jiang, Sheng; Wu, Qi; Cava, Robert J.; Sun, Liling

    2017-12-01

    We report the observation of extraordinarily robust zero-resistance superconductivity in the pressurized (TaNb)0.67(HfZrTi)0.33 high-entropy alloy--a material with a body-centered-cubic crystal structure made from five randomly distributed transition-metal elements. The transition to superconductivity (TC) increases from an initial temperature of 7.7 K at ambient pressure to 10 K at ˜60 GPa, and then slowly decreases to 9 K by 190.6 GPa, a pressure that falls within that of the outer core of the earth. We infer that the continuous existence of the zero-resistance superconductivity from 1 atm up to such a high pressure requires a special combination of electronic and mechanical characteristics. This high-entropy alloy superconductor thus may have a bright future for applications under extreme conditions, and also poses a challenge for understanding the underlying quantum physics.

  2. High-Performance Flexible Force and Temperature Sensing Array with a Robust Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Min-Seok; Song, Han-Wook; Park, Yon-Kyu

    We have developed a flexible tactile sensor array capable of sensing physical quantities, e.g. force and temperature with high-performances and high spatial resolution. The fabricated tactile sensor consists of 8 × 8 force measuring array with 1 mm spacing and a thin metal (copper) temperature sensor. The flexible force sensing array consists of sub-millimetre-size bar-shaped semi-conductor strain gage array attached to a thin and flexible printed circuit board covered by stretchable elastomeric material on both sides. This design incorporates benefits of both materials; the semi-conductor's high performance and the polymer's mechanical flexibility and robustness, while overcoming their drawbacks of those two materials. Special fabrication processes, so called “dry-transfer technique” have been used to fabricate the tactile sensor along with standard micro-fabrication processes.

  3. Designing a robust high-speed CMOS-MEMS capacitive humidity sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lazarus, N; Fedder, G K

    2012-01-01

    In our previous work (Lazarus and Fedder 2011 J. Micromech. Microeng. 21 0650281), we demonstrated a CMOS-MEMS capacitive humidity sensor with a 72% improvement in sensitivity over the highest previously integrated on a CMOS die. This paper explores a series of methods for creating a faster and more manufacturable high-sensitivity capacitive humidity sensor. These techniques include adding oxide pillars to hold the plates apart, spin coating polymer to allow sensors to be fabricated more cheaply, adding a polysilicon heater and etching away excess polymer in the release holes. In most cases a tradeoff was found between sensitivity and other factors such as response time or robustness. A robust high-speed sensor was designed with a sensitivity of 0.21% change in capacitance per per cent relative humidity, while dropping the response time constant from 70 to 4s. Although less sensitive than our design, the sensor remains 17% more sensitive than the most sensitive interdigitated designs successfully integrated with CMOS. (paper)

  4. High Performance, Robust Control of Flexible Space Structures: MSFC Center Director's Discretionary Fund

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whorton, M. S.

    1998-01-01

    Many spacecraft systems have ambitious objectives that place stringent requirements on control systems. Achievable performance is often limited because of difficulty of obtaining accurate models for flexible space structures. To achieve sufficiently high performance to accomplish mission objectives may require the ability to refine the control design model based on closed-loop test data and tune the controller based on the refined model. A control system design procedure is developed based on mixed H2/H(infinity) optimization to synthesize a set of controllers explicitly trading between nominal performance and robust stability. A homotopy algorithm is presented which generates a trajectory of gains that may be implemented to determine maximum achievable performance for a given model error bound. Examples show that a better balance between robustness and performance is obtained using the mixed H2/H(infinity) design method than either H2 or mu-synthesis control design. A second contribution is a new procedure for closed-loop system identification which refines parameters of a control design model in a canonical realization. Examples demonstrate convergence of the parameter estimation and improved performance realized by using the refined model for controller redesign. These developments result in an effective mechanism for achieving high-performance control of flexible space structures.

  5. Robust and sparse correlation matrix estimation for the analysis of high-dimensional genomics data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serra, Angela; Coretto, Pietro; Fratello, Michele; Tagliaferri, Roberto; Stegle, Oliver

    2018-02-15

    Microarray technology can be used to study the expression of thousands of genes across a number of different experimental conditions, usually hundreds. The underlying principle is that genes sharing similar expression patterns, across different samples, can be part of the same co-expression system, or they may share the same biological functions. Groups of genes are usually identified based on cluster analysis. Clustering methods rely on the similarity matrix between genes. A common choice to measure similarity is to compute the sample correlation matrix. Dimensionality reduction is another popular data analysis task which is also based on covariance/correlation matrix estimates. Unfortunately, covariance/correlation matrix estimation suffers from the intrinsic noise present in high-dimensional data. Sources of noise are: sampling variations, presents of outlying sample units, and the fact that in most cases the number of units is much larger than the number of genes. In this paper, we propose a robust correlation matrix estimator that is regularized based on adaptive thresholding. The resulting method jointly tames the effects of the high-dimensionality, and data contamination. Computations are easy to implement and do not require hand tunings. Both simulated and real data are analyzed. A Monte Carlo experiment shows that the proposed method is capable of remarkable performances. Our correlation metric is more robust to outliers compared with the existing alternatives in two gene expression datasets. It is also shown how the regularization allows to automatically detect and filter spurious correlations. The same regularization is also extended to other less robust correlation measures. Finally, we apply the ARACNE algorithm on the SyNTreN gene expression data. Sensitivity and specificity of the reconstructed network is compared with the gold standard. We show that ARACNE performs better when it takes the proposed correlation matrix estimator as input. The R

  6. Robust Hydrological Forecasting for High-resolution Distributed Models Using a Unified Data Assimilation Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, F.; Liang, X.

    2017-12-01

    Reliable real-time hydrological forecasting, to predict important phenomena such as floods, is invaluable to the society. However, modern high-resolution distributed models have faced challenges when dealing with uncertainties that are caused by the large number of parameters and initial state estimations involved. Therefore, to rely on these high-resolution models for critical real-time forecast applications, considerable improvements on the parameter and initial state estimation techniques must be made. In this work we present a unified data assimilation algorithm called Optimized PareTo Inverse Modeling through Inverse STochastic Search (OPTIMISTS) to deal with the challenge of having robust flood forecasting for high-resolution distributed models. This new algorithm combines the advantages of particle filters and variational methods in a unique way to overcome their individual weaknesses. The analysis of candidate particles compares model results with observations in a flexible time frame, and a multi-objective approach is proposed which attempts to simultaneously minimize differences with the observations and departures from the background states by using both Bayesian sampling and non-convex evolutionary optimization. Moreover, the resulting Pareto front is given a probabilistic interpretation through kernel density estimation to create a non-Gaussian distribution of the states. OPTIMISTS was tested on a low-resolution distributed land surface model using VIC (Variable Infiltration Capacity) and on a high-resolution distributed hydrological model using the DHSVM (Distributed Hydrology Soil Vegetation Model). In the tests streamflow observations are assimilated. OPTIMISTS was also compared with a traditional particle filter and a variational method. Results show that our method can reliably produce adequate forecasts and that it is able to outperform those resulting from assimilating the observations using a particle filter or an evolutionary 4D variational

  7. Light squeezing through arbitrarily shaped plasmonic channels and sharp bends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alu, Andrea; Engheta, Nader

    2008-01-01

    We propose a mechanism for optical energy squeezing and anomalous light transmission through arbitrarily-shaped plasmonic ultranarrow channels and bends connecting two larger plasmonic metal-insulator-metal waveguides. It is shown how a proper design of subwavelength optical channels at cutoff, patterned by plasmonic implants and connecting larger plasmonic waveguides, may allow enhanced resonant transmission inspired by the anomalous properties of epsilon-near-zero (ENZ) metamaterials. The resonant transmission is shown to be only weakly dependent on the channel length and its specific geometry, such as possible presence of abruptions and bends

  8. Robust image registration for multiple exposure high dynamic range image synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Susu

    2011-03-01

    Image registration is an important preprocessing technique in high dynamic range (HDR) image synthesis. This paper proposed a robust image registration method for aligning a group of low dynamic range images (LDR) that are captured with different exposure times. Illumination change and photometric distortion between two images would result in inaccurate registration. We propose to transform intensity image data into phase congruency to eliminate the effect of the changes in image brightness and use phase cross correlation in the Fourier transform domain to perform image registration. Considering the presence of non-overlapped regions due to photometric distortion, evolutionary programming is applied to search for the accurate translation parameters so that the accuracy of registration is able to be achieved at a hundredth of a pixel level. The proposed algorithm works well for under and over-exposed image registration. It has been applied to align LDR images for synthesizing high quality HDR images..

  9. Robust design for shape parameters of high pressure thermal vapor compressor by numerical analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Il Seouk

    2008-01-01

    A high motive pressure Thermal Vapor Compressor(TVC) for a commercial Multi-Effect Desalination(MED) plant is designed to have a high entraining performance and its robustness is also considered in the respect of operating stability at the abrupt change of the operating pressures like the motive and suction steam pressure which can be easily fluctuated by the external disturbance. The TVC having a good entraining performance of more than entrainment ratio 6.0 is designed through the iterative CFD analysis for the various primary nozzle diameter, mixing tube diameter and mixing tube length. And then for a couple of TVC having a similar entrainment ratio, the changes of the entrainment ratio are checked along the motive and suction pressure change. The system stability is diagnosed through the analyzing the changing pattern of the entrainment ratio

  10. Robust Synchronization in an E/I Network with Medium Synaptic Delay and High Level of Heterogeneity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han Fang; Wang Zhi-Jie; Gong Tao; Fan Hong

    2015-01-01

    It is known that both excitatory and inhibitory neuronal networks can achieve robust synchronization only under certain conditions, such as long synaptic delay or low level of heterogeneity. In this work, robust synchronization can be found in an excitatory/inhibitory (E/I) neuronal network with medium synaptic delay and high level of heterogeneity, which often occurs in real neuronal networks. Two effects of post-synaptic potentials (PSP) to network synchronization are presented, and the synaptic contribution of excitatory and inhibitory neurons to robust synchronization in this E/I network is investigated. It is found that both excitatory and inhibitory neurons may contribute to robust synchronization in E/I networks, especially the excitatory PSP has a more positive effect on synchronization in E/I networks than that in excitatory networks. This may explain the strong robustness of synchronization in E/I neuronal networks. (paper)

  11. Quantum Capacity under Adversarial Quantum Noise: Arbitrarily Varying Quantum Channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahlswede, Rudolf; Bjelaković, Igor; Boche, Holger; Nötzel, Janis

    2013-01-01

    We investigate entanglement transmission over an unknown channel in the presence of a third party (called the adversary), which is enabled to choose the channel from a given set of memoryless but non-stationary channels without informing the legitimate sender and receiver about the particular choice that he made. This channel model is called an arbitrarily varying quantum channel (AVQC). We derive a quantum version of Ahlswede's dichotomy for classical arbitrarily varying channels. This includes a regularized formula for the common randomness-assisted capacity for entanglement transmission of an AVQC. Quite surprisingly and in contrast to the classical analog of the problem involving the maximal and average error probability, we find that the capacity for entanglement transmission of an AVQC always equals its strong subspace transmission capacity. These results are accompanied by different notions of symmetrizability (zero-capacity conditions) as well as by conditions for an AVQC to have a capacity described by a single-letter formula. In the final part of the paper the capacity of the erasure-AVQC is computed and some light shed on the connection between AVQCs and zero-error capacities. Additionally, we show by entirely elementary and operational arguments motivated by the theory of AVQCs that the quantum, classical, and entanglement-assisted zero-error capacities of quantum channels are generically zero and are discontinuous at every positivity point.

  12. Robust enhancement of high harmonic generation via attosecond control of ionization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruner, Barry D; Krüger, Michael; Pedatzur, Oren; Orenstein, Gal; Azoury, Doron; Dudovich, Nirit

    2018-04-02

    High-harmonic generation (HHG) is a powerful tool to generate coherent attosecond light pulses in the extreme ultraviolet. However, the low conversion efficiency of HHG at the single atom level poses a significant practical limitation for many applications. Enhancing the efficiency of the process defines one of the primary challenges in the application of HHG as an advanced XUV source. In this work, we demonstrate a new mechanism, which in contrast to current methods, enhances the HHG conversion efficiency purely on a single particle level. We show that using a bichromatic driving field, sub-optical-cycle control and enhancement of the tunnelling ionization rate can be achieved, leading to enhancements in HHG efficiency by up to two orders of magnitude. Our method advances the perspectives of HHG spectroscopy, where isolating the single particle response is an essential component, and offers a simple route toward scalable, robust XUV sources.

  13. Robust Intratumor Partitioning to Identify High-Risk Subregions in Lung Cancer: A Pilot Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Jia; Gensheimer, Michael F.; Dong, Xinzhe; Rubin, Daniel L.; Napel, Sandy; Diehn, Maximilian; Loo, Billy W.; Li, Ruijiang

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To develop an intratumor partitioning framework for identifying high-risk subregions from "1"8F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) and computed tomography (CT) imaging and to test whether tumor burden associated with the high-risk subregions is prognostic of outcomes in lung cancer. Methods and Materials: In this institutional review board–approved retrospective study, we analyzed the pretreatment FDG-PET and CT scans of 44 lung cancer patients treated with radiation therapy. A novel, intratumor partitioning method was developed, based on a 2-stage clustering process: first at the patient level, each tumor was over-segmented into many superpixels by k-means clustering of integrated PET and CT images; next, tumor subregions were identified by merging previously defined superpixels via population-level hierarchical clustering. The volume associated with each of the subregions was evaluated using Kaplan-Meier analysis regarding its prognostic capability in predicting overall survival (OS) and out-of-field progression (OFP). Results: Three spatially distinct subregions were identified within each tumor that were highly robust to uncertainty in PET/CT co-registration. Among these, the volume of the most metabolically active and metabolically heterogeneous solid component of the tumor was predictive of OS and OFP on the entire cohort, with a concordance index or CI of 0.66-0.67. When restricting the analysis to patients with stage III disease (n=32), the same subregion achieved an even higher CI of 0.75 (hazard ratio 3.93, log-rank P=.002) for predicting OS, and a CI of 0.76 (hazard ratio 4.84, log-rank P=.002) for predicting OFP. In comparison, conventional imaging markers, including tumor volume, maximum standardized uptake value, and metabolic tumor volume using threshold of 50% standardized uptake value maximum, were not predictive of OS or OFP, with CI mostly below 0.60 (log-rank P>.05). Conclusion: We propose a robust intratumor

  14. Robust Intratumor Partitioning to Identify High-Risk Subregions in Lung Cancer: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jia; Gensheimer, Michael F; Dong, Xinzhe; Rubin, Daniel L; Napel, Sandy; Diehn, Maximilian; Loo, Billy W; Li, Ruijiang

    2016-08-01

    To develop an intratumor partitioning framework for identifying high-risk subregions from (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) and computed tomography (CT) imaging and to test whether tumor burden associated with the high-risk subregions is prognostic of outcomes in lung cancer. In this institutional review board-approved retrospective study, we analyzed the pretreatment FDG-PET and CT scans of 44 lung cancer patients treated with radiation therapy. A novel, intratumor partitioning method was developed, based on a 2-stage clustering process: first at the patient level, each tumor was over-segmented into many superpixels by k-means clustering of integrated PET and CT images; next, tumor subregions were identified by merging previously defined superpixels via population-level hierarchical clustering. The volume associated with each of the subregions was evaluated using Kaplan-Meier analysis regarding its prognostic capability in predicting overall survival (OS) and out-of-field progression (OFP). Three spatially distinct subregions were identified within each tumor that were highly robust to uncertainty in PET/CT co-registration. Among these, the volume of the most metabolically active and metabolically heterogeneous solid component of the tumor was predictive of OS and OFP on the entire cohort, with a concordance index or CI of 0.66-0.67. When restricting the analysis to patients with stage III disease (n=32), the same subregion achieved an even higher CI of 0.75 (hazard ratio 3.93, log-rank P=.002) for predicting OS, and a CI of 0.76 (hazard ratio 4.84, log-rank P=.002) for predicting OFP. In comparison, conventional imaging markers, including tumor volume, maximum standardized uptake value, and metabolic tumor volume using threshold of 50% standardized uptake value maximum, were not predictive of OS or OFP, with CI mostly below 0.60 (log-rank P>.05). We propose a robust intratumor partitioning method to identify clinically relevant, high

  15. Robust Intratumor Partitioning to Identify High-Risk Subregions in Lung Cancer: A Pilot Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Jia; Gensheimer, Michael F.; Dong, Xinzhe [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California (United States); Rubin, Daniel L. [Department of Radiology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California (United States); Department of Medicine (Biomedical Informatics Research), Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California (United States); Napel, Sandy [Department of Radiology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California (United States); Diehn, Maximilian [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California (United States); Stanford Cancer Institute, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California (United States); Institute for Stem Cell Biology and Regenerative Medicine, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California (United States); Loo, Billy W. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California (United States); Stanford Cancer Institute, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California (United States); Li, Ruijiang, E-mail: rli2@stanford.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California (United States); Stanford Cancer Institute, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California (United States)

    2016-08-01

    Purpose: To develop an intratumor partitioning framework for identifying high-risk subregions from {sup 18}F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) and computed tomography (CT) imaging and to test whether tumor burden associated with the high-risk subregions is prognostic of outcomes in lung cancer. Methods and Materials: In this institutional review board–approved retrospective study, we analyzed the pretreatment FDG-PET and CT scans of 44 lung cancer patients treated with radiation therapy. A novel, intratumor partitioning method was developed, based on a 2-stage clustering process: first at the patient level, each tumor was over-segmented into many superpixels by k-means clustering of integrated PET and CT images; next, tumor subregions were identified by merging previously defined superpixels via population-level hierarchical clustering. The volume associated with each of the subregions was evaluated using Kaplan-Meier analysis regarding its prognostic capability in predicting overall survival (OS) and out-of-field progression (OFP). Results: Three spatially distinct subregions were identified within each tumor that were highly robust to uncertainty in PET/CT co-registration. Among these, the volume of the most metabolically active and metabolically heterogeneous solid component of the tumor was predictive of OS and OFP on the entire cohort, with a concordance index or CI of 0.66-0.67. When restricting the analysis to patients with stage III disease (n=32), the same subregion achieved an even higher CI of 0.75 (hazard ratio 3.93, log-rank P=.002) for predicting OS, and a CI of 0.76 (hazard ratio 4.84, log-rank P=.002) for predicting OFP. In comparison, conventional imaging markers, including tumor volume, maximum standardized uptake value, and metabolic tumor volume using threshold of 50% standardized uptake value maximum, were not predictive of OS or OFP, with CI mostly below 0.60 (log-rank P>.05). Conclusion: We propose a robust

  16. Robust microscale superlubricity under high contact pressure enabled by graphene-coated microsphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shu-Wei; Wang, Hua-Ping; Xu, Qiang; Ma, Tian-Bao; Yu, Gui; Zhang, Chenhui; Geng, Dechao; Yu, Zhiwei; Zhang, Shengguang; Wang, Wenzhong; Hu, Yuan-Zhong; Wang, Hui; Luo, Jianbin

    2017-02-01

    Superlubricity of graphite and graphene has aroused increasing interest in recent years. Yet how to obtain a long-lasting superlubricity between graphene layers, under high applied normal load in ambient atmosphere still remains a challenge but is highly desirable. Here, we report a direct measurement of sliding friction between graphene and graphene, and graphene and hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) under high contact pressures by employing graphene-coated microsphere (GMS) probe prepared by metal-catalyst-free chemical vapour deposition. The exceptionally low and robust friction coefficient of 0.003 is accomplished under local asperity contact pressure up to 1 GPa, at arbitrary relative surface rotation angles, which is insensitive to relative humidity up to 51% RH. This ultralow friction is attributed to the sustainable overall incommensurability due to the multi-asperity contact covered with randomly oriented graphene nanograins. This realization of microscale superlubricity can be extended to the sliding between a variety of two-dimensional (2D) layers.

  17. Distributed force simulation for arbitrarily shaped IPMC actuators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez, M; Lumia, R

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a simulation model that predicts the force output of arbitrarily shaped ionic polymer–metal composite (IPMC) actuators. Theoretical and experimental force measurements are compared for a triangular IPMC actuator with a tip length of 11 mm. The results show that the simulated tip force is within 80% of the experimentally determined value. Simulated electrical results for an artificial shark pectoral fin and a 7 mm × 17 mm actuator are also presented. In each case, the voltage is shown to decrease exponentially from the input point. The results of an ion migration simulation for a 180 μm cubic element of Nafion are presented for both a constant 2 V input and a 2 V 0.25 Hz sine signal. Finally, the simulated deformation of an IPMC shark fin is shown. (paper)

  18. Hybrid Robust Control Law with Disturbance Observer for High-Frequency Response Electro-Hydraulic Servo Loading System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiqing Sheng

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Addressing the simulating issue of the helicopter-manipulating booster aerodynamic load with high-frequency dynamic load superimposed on a large static load, this paper studies the design of the robust controller for the electro-hydraulic loading system to realize the simulation of this kind of load. Firstly, the equivalent linear model of the electro-hydraulic loading system under assumed parameter uncertainty is established. Then, a hybrid control scheme is proposed for the loading system. This control scheme consists of a constant velocity feed-forward compensator, a robust inner loop compensator based on disturbance observer and a robust outer loop feedback controller. The constant velocity compensator eliminates most of the extraneous force at first, and then the double-loop cascade composition control strategy is employed to design the compensated system. The disturbance observer–based inner loop compensator further restrains the disturbances including the remaining extraneous force, and makes the actual plant tracking a nominal model approximately in a certain frequency range. The robust outer loop controller achieves the desired force-tracking performance, and guarantees system robustness in the high frequency region. The optimized low-pass filter Q(s is designed by using the H∞ mixed sensitivity optimization method. The simulation results show that the proposed hybrid control scheme and controller can effectively suppress the extraneous force and improve the robustness of the electro-hydraulic loading system.

  19. Miniature robust five-dimensional fingertip force/torque sensor with high performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liang, Qiaokang; Huang, Xiuxiang; Li, Zhongyang; Zhang, Dan; Ge, Yunjian

    2011-01-01

    This paper proposes an innovative design and investigation for a five-dimensional fingertip force/torque sensor with a dual annular diaphragm. This sensor can be applied to a robot hand to measure forces along the X-, Y- and Z-axes (F x , F y and F z ) and moments about the X- and Y-axes (M x and M y ) simultaneously. Particularly, the details of the sensing principle, the structural design and the overload protection mechanism are presented. Afterward, based on the design of experiments approach provided by the software ANSYS®, a finite element analysis and an optimization design are performed. These are performed with the objective of achieving both high sensitivity and stiffness of the sensor. Furthermore, static and dynamic calibrations based on the neural network method are carried out. Finally, an application of the developed sensor on a dexterous robot hand is demonstrated. The results of calibration experiments and the application show that the developed sensor possesses high performance and robustness

  20. A Robust, Water-Based, Functional Binder Framework for High-Energy Lithium-Sulfur Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacey, Matthew J; Österlund, Viking; Bergfelt, Andreas; Jeschull, Fabian; Bowden, Tim; Brandell, Daniel

    2017-07-10

    We report here a water-based functional binder framework for the lithium-sulfur battery systems, based on the general combination of a polyether and an amide-containing polymer. These binders are applied to positive electrodes optimised towards high-energy electrochemical performance based only on commercially available materials. Electrodes with up to 4 mAh cm -2 capacity and 97-98 % coulombic efficiency are achievable in electrodes with a 65 % total sulfur content and a poly(ethylene oxide):poly(vinylpyrrolidone) (PEO:PVP) binder system. Exchange of either binder component for a different polymer with similar functionality preserves the high capacity and coulombic efficiency. The improvement in coulombic efficiency from the inclusion of the coordinating amide group was also observed in electrodes where pyrrolidone moieties were covalently grafted to the carbon black, indicating the role of this functionality in facilitating polysulfide adsorption to the electrode surface. The mechanical properties of the electrodes appear not to significantly influence sulfur utilisation or coulombic efficiency in the short term but rather determine retention of these properties over extended cycling. These results demonstrate the robustness of this very straightforward approach, as well as the considerable scope for designing binder materials with targeted properties. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Highly flexible and robust N-doped SiC nanoneedle field emitters

    KAUST Repository

    Chen, Shanliang

    2015-01-23

    Flexible field emission (FE) emitters, whose unique advantages are lightweight and conformable, promise to enable a wide range of technologies, such as roll-up flexible FE displays, e-papers and flexible light-emitting diodes. In this work, we demonstrate for the first time highly flexible SiC field emitters with low turn-on fields and excellent emission stabilities. n-Type SiC nanoneedles with ultra-sharp tips and tailored N-doping levels were synthesized via a catalyst-assisted pyrolysis process on carbon fabrics by controlling the gas mixture and cooling rate. The turn-on field, threshold field and current emission fluctuation of SiC nanoneedle emitters with an N-doping level of 7.58 at.% are 1.11 V μm-1, 1.55 V μm-1 and 8.1%, respectively, suggesting the best overall performance for such flexible field emitters. Furthermore, characterization of the FE properties under repeated bending cycles and different bending states reveal that the SiC field emitters are mechanically and electrically robust with unprecedentedly high flexibility and stabilities. These findings underscore the importance of concurrent morphology and composition controls in nanomaterial synthesis and establish SiC nanoneedles as the most promising candidate for flexible FE applications. © 2015 Nature Publishing Group All rights reserved.

  2. Resilient and Robust High Performance Computing Platforms for Scientific Computing Integrity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jin, Yier [Univ. of Central Florida, Orlando, FL (United States)

    2017-07-14

    As technology advances, computer systems are subject to increasingly sophisticated cyber-attacks that compromise both their security and integrity. High performance computing platforms used in commercial and scientific applications involving sensitive, or even classified data, are frequently targeted by powerful adversaries. This situation is made worse by a lack of fundamental security solutions that both perform efficiently and are effective at preventing threats. Current security solutions fail to address the threat landscape and ensure the integrity of sensitive data. As challenges rise, both private and public sectors will require robust technologies to protect its computing infrastructure. The research outcomes from this project try to address all these challenges. For example, we present LAZARUS, a novel technique to harden kernel Address Space Layout Randomization (KASLR) against paging-based side-channel attacks. In particular, our scheme allows for fine-grained protection of the virtual memory mappings that implement the randomization. We demonstrate the effectiveness of our approach by hardening a recent Linux kernel with LAZARUS, mitigating all of the previously presented side-channel attacks on KASLR. Our extensive evaluation shows that LAZARUS incurs only 0.943% overhead for standard benchmarks, and is therefore highly practical. We also introduced HA2lloc, a hardware-assisted allocator that is capable of leveraging an extended memory management unit to detect memory errors in the heap. We also perform testing using HA2lloc in a simulation environment and find that the approach is capable of preventing common memory vulnerabilities.

  3. Highly flexible and robust N-doped SiC nanoneedle field emitters

    KAUST Repository

    Chen, Shanliang; Ying, Pengzhan; Wang, Lin; Wei, Guodong; Gao, Fengmei; Zheng, Jinju; Shang, Minhui; Yang, Zuobao; Yang, Weiyou; Wu, Tao

    2015-01-01

    Flexible field emission (FE) emitters, whose unique advantages are lightweight and conformable, promise to enable a wide range of technologies, such as roll-up flexible FE displays, e-papers and flexible light-emitting diodes. In this work, we demonstrate for the first time highly flexible SiC field emitters with low turn-on fields and excellent emission stabilities. n-Type SiC nanoneedles with ultra-sharp tips and tailored N-doping levels were synthesized via a catalyst-assisted pyrolysis process on carbon fabrics by controlling the gas mixture and cooling rate. The turn-on field, threshold field and current emission fluctuation of SiC nanoneedle emitters with an N-doping level of 7.58 at.% are 1.11 V μm-1, 1.55 V μm-1 and 8.1%, respectively, suggesting the best overall performance for such flexible field emitters. Furthermore, characterization of the FE properties under repeated bending cycles and different bending states reveal that the SiC field emitters are mechanically and electrically robust with unprecedentedly high flexibility and stabilities. These findings underscore the importance of concurrent morphology and composition controls in nanomaterial synthesis and establish SiC nanoneedles as the most promising candidate for flexible FE applications. © 2015 Nature Publishing Group All rights reserved.

  4. Robust and Fragile Mathematical Identities: A Framework for Exploring Racialized Experiences and High Achievement among Black College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGee, Ebony O.

    2015-01-01

    I introduce the construct of fragile and robust identities for the purpose of exploring the experiences that influenced the mathematical and racial identities of high-achieving Black college students in mathematics and engineering. These students maintained high levels of academic achievement in these fields while enduring marginalization,…

  5. A robust high-throughput fungal biosensor assay for the detection of estrogen activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zutz, Christoph; Wagener, Karen; Yankova, Desislava; Eder, Stefanie; Möstl, Erich; Drillich, Marc; Rychli, Kathrin; Wagner, Martin; Strauss, Joseph

    2017-10-01

    Estrogenic active compounds are present in a variety of sources and may alter biological functions in vertebrates. Therefore, it is crucial to develop innovative analytical systems that allow us to screen a broad spectrum of matrices and deliver fast and reliable results. We present the adaptation and validation of a fungal biosensor for the detection of estrogen activity in cow derived samples and tested the clinical applicability for pregnancy diagnosis in 140 mares and 120 cows. As biosensor we used a previously engineered genetically modified strain of the filamentous fungus Aspergillus nidulans, which contains the human estrogen receptor alpha and a reporter construct, in which β-galactosidase gene expression is controlled by an estrogen-responsive-element. The estrogen response of the fungal biosensor was validated with blood, urine, feces, milk and saliva. All matrices were screened for estrogenic activity prior to and after chemical extraction and the results were compared to an enzyme immunoassay (EIA). The biosensor showed consistent results in milk, urine and feces, which were comparable to those of the EIA. In contrast to the EIA, no sample pre-treatment by chemical extraction was needed. For 17β-estradiol, the biosensor showed a limit of detection of 1ng/L. The validation of the biosensor for pregnancy diagnosis revealed a specificity of 100% and a sensitivity of more than 97%. In conclusion, we developed and validated a highly robust fungal biosensor for detection of estrogen activity, which is highly sensitive and economic as it allows analyzing in high-throughput formats without the necessity for organic solvents. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. A Triblock Copolymer Design Leads to Robust Hybrid Hydrogels for High-Performance Flexible Supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Guangzhao; Chen, Yunhua; Deng, Yonghong; Wang, Chaoyang

    2017-10-18

    We report here an intriguing hybrid conductive hydrogel as electrode for high-performance flexible supercapacitor. The key is using a rationally designed water-soluble ABA triblock copolymer (termed as IAOAI) containing a central poly(ethylene oxide) block (A) and terminal poly(acrylamide) (PAAm) block with aniline moieties randomly incorporated (B), which was synthesized by reversible additional fragment transfer polymerization. The subsequent copolymerization of aniline monomers with the terminated aniline moieties on the IAOAI polymer generates a three-dimensional cross-linking hybrid network. The hybrid hydrogel electrode demonstrates robust mechanical flexibility, remarkable electrochemical capacitance (919 F/g), and cyclic stability (90% capacitance retention after 1000 cycles). Moreover, the flexible supercapacitor based on this hybrid hydrogel electrode presents a large specific capacitance (187 F/g), superior to most reported conductive hydrogel-based supercapacitors. With the demonstrated additional favorable cyclic stability and excellent capacitive and rate performance, this hybrid hydrogel-based supercapacitor holds great promise for flexible energy-storage device.

  7. Robust/optimal temperature profile control of a high-speed aerospace vehicle using neural networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Vivek; Padhi, Radhakant; Balakrishnan, S N

    2007-07-01

    An approximate dynamic programming (ADP)-based suboptimal neurocontroller to obtain desired temperature for a high-speed aerospace vehicle is synthesized in this paper. A 1-D distributed parameter model of a fin is developed from basic thermal physics principles. "Snapshot" solutions of the dynamics are generated with a simple dynamic inversion-based feedback controller. Empirical basis functions are designed using the "proper orthogonal decomposition" (POD) technique and the snapshot solutions. A low-order nonlinear lumped parameter system to characterize the infinite dimensional system is obtained by carrying out a Galerkin projection. An ADP-based neurocontroller with a dual heuristic programming (DHP) formulation is obtained with a single-network-adaptive-critic (SNAC) controller for this approximate nonlinear model. Actual control in the original domain is calculated with the same POD basis functions through a reverse mapping. Further contribution of this paper includes development of an online robust neurocontroller to account for unmodeled dynamics and parametric uncertainties inherent in such a complex dynamic system. A neural network (NN) weight update rule that guarantees boundedness of the weights and relaxes the need for persistence of excitation (PE) condition is presented. Simulation studies show that in a fairly extensive but compact domain, any desired temperature profile can be achieved starting from any initial temperature profile. Therefore, the ADP and NN-based controllers appear to have the potential to become controller synthesis tools for nonlinear distributed parameter systems.

  8. Mechanical Properties of Organic Semiconductors for Stretchable, Highly Flexible, and Mechanically Robust Electronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Root, Samuel E; Savagatrup, Suchol; Printz, Adam D; Rodriquez, Daniel; Lipomi, Darren J

    2017-05-10

    Mechanical deformability underpins many of the advantages of organic semiconductors. The mechanical properties of these materials are, however, diverse, and the molecular characteristics that permit charge transport can render the materials stiff and brittle. This review is a comprehensive description of the molecular and morphological parameters that govern the mechanical properties of organic semiconductors. Particular attention is paid to ways in which mechanical deformability and electronic performance can coexist. The review begins with a discussion of flexible and stretchable devices of all types, and in particular the unique characteristics of organic semiconductors. It then discusses the mechanical properties most relevant to deformable devices. In particular, it describes how low modulus, good adhesion, and absolute extensibility prior to fracture enable robust performance, along with mechanical "imperceptibility" if worn on the skin. A description of techniques of metrology precedes a discussion of the mechanical properties of three classes of organic semiconductors: π-conjugated polymers, small molecules, and composites. The discussion of each class of materials focuses on molecular structure and how this structure (and postdeposition processing) influences the solid-state packing structure and thus the mechanical properties. The review concludes with applications of organic semiconductor devices in which every component is intrinsically stretchable or highly flexible.

  9. High Resolution Robust GPS-free Localization for Wireless Sensor Networks and its Applications

    KAUST Repository

    Mirza, Mohammed

    2011-12-12

    In this thesis we investigate the problem of robustness and scalability w.r.t. estimating the position of randomly deployed motes/nodes of a Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) without the help of Global Positioning System (GPS) devices. We propose a few applications of range independent localization algorithms that allow the sensors to actively determine their location with high resolution without increasing the complexity of the hardware or any additional device setup. In our first application we try to present a localized and centralized cooperative spectrum sensing using RF sensor networks. This scheme collaboratively sense the spectrum and localize the whole network efficiently and with less difficulty. In second application we try to focus on how efficiently we can localize the nodes, to detect underwater threats, without the use of beacons. In third application we try to focus on 3-Dimensional localization for LTE systems. Our performance evaluation shows that these schemes lead to a significant improvement in localization accuracy compared to the state-of-art range independent localization schemes, without requiring GPS support.

  10. Robust Multiscale Iterative Solvers for Nonlinear Flows in Highly Heterogeneous Media

    KAUST Repository

    Efendiev, Y.; Galvis, J.; Kang, S. Ki; Lazarov, R.D.

    2012-01-01

    needs to be solved. This linear system is solved iteratively (called inner iterations), and since it can have large variations in the coefficients, a robust preconditioner is needed. First, we show that under some assumptions the number of outer

  11. New generation of one-dimensional photonic crystal cavities as robust high-efficient frequency converter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parvini, T. S.; Tehranchi, M. M.; Hamidi, S. M.

    2017-07-01

    An effective method is proposed to design finite one-dimensional photonic crystal cavities (PhCCs) as robust high-efficient frequency converter. For this purpose, we consider two groups of PhCCs which are constructed by stacking m nonlinear (LiNbO3) and n linear (air) layers with variable thicknesses. In the first group, the number of linear layers is less than the nonlinear layers by one and in the second group by two. The conversion efficiency is calculated as a function of the arrangement and thicknesses of the linear and nonlinear layers by benefiting from nonlinear transfer matrix method. Our numerical simulations show that for each group of PhCCs, there is a structural formula by which the configurations with the highest efficiency can be constructed for any values of m and n (i.e. any number of layers). The efficient configurations are equivalent to Fabry-Pérot cavities that depend on the relationship between m and n and the mirrors in two sides of these cavities can be periodic or nonperiodic. The conversion efficiencies of these designed PhCCs are more than 5 orders of magnitude higher than the perfect ones which satisfy photonic bandgap edge and quasi-phase matching. Moreover, the results reveal that conversion efficiencies of Fabry-Pérot cavities with non-periodic mirrors are one order of magnitude higher than those with periodic mirrors. The major physical mechanisms of the enhancement are quasi-phase matching effect, cavity effect induced by dispersive mirrors, and double resonance for the pump and the harmonic fields in defect state. We believe that this method is very beneficial to the design of high-efficient compact optical frequency converters.

  12. Highly Conductive, Mechanically Robust, and Electrochemically Inactive TiC/C Nanofiber Scaffold for High-Performance Silicon Anode Batteries

    KAUST Repository

    Yao, Yan; Huo, Kaifu; Hu, Liangbing; Liu, Nian; Cha, Judy J.; McDowell, Matthew T.; Chu, Paul K.; Cui, Yi

    2011-01-01

    Silicon has a high specific capacity of 4200 mAh/g as lithium-ion battery anodes, but its rapid capacity fading due to >300% volume expansion and pulverization presents a significant challenge for practical applications. Here we report a core-shell TiC/C/Si inactive/active nanocomposite for Si anodes demonstrating high specific capacity and excellent electrochemical cycling. The amorphous silicon layer serves as the active material to store Li+, while the inactive TiC/C nanofibers act as a conductive and mechanically robust scaffold for electron transport during the Li-Si alloying process. The core-shell TiC/C/Si nanocomposite anode shows ∼3000 mAh g-1 discharge capacity and 92% capacity retention after 100 charge/discharge cycles. The excellent cycling stability and high rate performance could be attributed to the tapering of the nanofibers and the open structure that allows facile Li ion transport and the high conductivity and mechanical stability of the TiC/C scaffold. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

  13. Highly Conductive, Mechanically Robust, and Electrochemically Inactive TiC/C Nanofiber Scaffold for High-Performance Silicon Anode Batteries

    KAUST Repository

    Yao, Yan

    2011-10-25

    Silicon has a high specific capacity of 4200 mAh/g as lithium-ion battery anodes, but its rapid capacity fading due to >300% volume expansion and pulverization presents a significant challenge for practical applications. Here we report a core-shell TiC/C/Si inactive/active nanocomposite for Si anodes demonstrating high specific capacity and excellent electrochemical cycling. The amorphous silicon layer serves as the active material to store Li+, while the inactive TiC/C nanofibers act as a conductive and mechanically robust scaffold for electron transport during the Li-Si alloying process. The core-shell TiC/C/Si nanocomposite anode shows ∼3000 mAh g-1 discharge capacity and 92% capacity retention after 100 charge/discharge cycles. The excellent cycling stability and high rate performance could be attributed to the tapering of the nanofibers and the open structure that allows facile Li ion transport and the high conductivity and mechanical stability of the TiC/C scaffold. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

  14. Robust MST-Based Clustering Algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qidong; Zhang, Ruisheng; Zhao, Zhili; Wang, Zhenghai; Jiao, Mengyao; Wang, Guangjing

    2018-06-01

    Minimax similarity stresses the connectedness of points via mediating elements rather than favoring high mutual similarity. The grouping principle yields superior clustering results when mining arbitrarily-shaped clusters in data. However, it is not robust against noises and outliers in the data. There are two main problems with the grouping principle: first, a single object that is far away from all other objects defines a separate cluster, and second, two connected clusters would be regarded as two parts of one cluster. In order to solve such problems, we propose robust minimum spanning tree (MST)-based clustering algorithm in this letter. First, we separate the connected objects by applying a density-based coarsening phase, resulting in a low-rank matrix in which the element denotes the supernode by combining a set of nodes. Then a greedy method is presented to partition those supernodes through working on the low-rank matrix. Instead of removing the longest edges from MST, our algorithm groups the data set based on the minimax similarity. Finally, the assignment of all data points can be achieved through their corresponding supernodes. Experimental results on many synthetic and real-world data sets show that our algorithm consistently outperforms compared clustering algorithms.

  15. A Robust High-Accuracy Ultrasound Indoor Positioning System Based on a Wireless Sensor Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Jun; Liu, Guo-Ping

    2017-11-06

    This paper describes the development and implementation of a robust high-accuracy ultrasonic indoor positioning system (UIPS). The UIPS consists of several wireless ultrasonic beacons in the indoor environment. Each of them has a fixed and known position coordinate and can collect all the transmissions from the target node or emit ultrasonic signals. Every wireless sensor network (WSN) node has two communication modules: one is WiFi, that transmits the data to the server, and the other is the radio frequency (RF) module, which is only used for time synchronization between different nodes, with accuracy up to 1 μ s. The distance between the beacon and the target node is calculated by measuring the time-of-flight (TOF) for the ultrasonic signal, and then the position of the target is computed by some distances and the coordinate of the beacons. TOF estimation is the most important technique in the UIPS. A new time domain method to extract the envelope of the ultrasonic signals is presented in order to estimate the TOF. This method, with the envelope detection filter, estimates the value with the sampled values on both sides based on the least squares method (LSM). The simulation results show that the method can achieve envelope detection with a good filtering effect by means of the LSM. The highest precision and variance can reach 0.61 mm and 0.23 mm, respectively, in pseudo-range measurements with UIPS. A maximum location error of 10.2 mm is achieved in the positioning experiments for a moving robot, when UIPS works on the line-of-sight (LOS) signal.

  16. A Robust High-Accuracy Ultrasound Indoor Positioning System Based on a Wireless Sensor Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Qi

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the development and implementation of a robust high-accuracy ultrasonic indoor positioning system (UIPS. The UIPS consists of several wireless ultrasonic beacons in the indoor environment. Each of them has a fixed and known position coordinate and can collect all the transmissions from the target node or emit ultrasonic signals. Every wireless sensor network (WSN node has two communication modules: one is WiFi, that transmits the data to the server, and the other is the radio frequency (RF module, which is only used for time synchronization between different nodes, with accuracy up to 1 μs. The distance between the beacon and the target node is calculated by measuring the time-of-flight (TOF for the ultrasonic signal, and then the position of the target is computed by some distances and the coordinate of the beacons. TOF estimation is the most important technique in the UIPS. A new time domain method to extract the envelope of the ultrasonic signals is presented in order to estimate the TOF. This method, with the envelope detection filter, estimates the value with the sampled values on both sides based on the least squares method (LSM. The simulation results show that the method can achieve envelope detection with a good filtering effect by means of the LSM. The highest precision and variance can reach 0.61 mm and 0.23 mm, respectively, in pseudo-range measurements with UIPS. A maximum location error of 10.2 mm is achieved in the positioning experiments for a moving robot, when UIPS works on the line-of-sight (LOS signal.

  17. Robust DNA Isolation and High-throughput Sequencing Library Construction for Herbarium Specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saeidi, Saman; McKain, Michael R; Kellogg, Elizabeth A

    2018-03-08

    Herbaria are an invaluable source of plant material that can be used in a variety of biological studies. The use of herbarium specimens is associated with a number of challenges including sample preservation quality, degraded DNA, and destructive sampling of rare specimens. In order to more effectively use herbarium material in large sequencing projects, a dependable and scalable method of DNA isolation and library preparation is needed. This paper demonstrates a robust, beginning-to-end protocol for DNA isolation and high-throughput library construction from herbarium specimens that does not require modification for individual samples. This protocol is tailored for low quality dried plant material and takes advantage of existing methods by optimizing tissue grinding, modifying library size selection, and introducing an optional reamplification step for low yield libraries. Reamplification of low yield DNA libraries can rescue samples derived from irreplaceable and potentially valuable herbarium specimens, negating the need for additional destructive sampling and without introducing discernible sequencing bias for common phylogenetic applications. The protocol has been tested on hundreds of grass species, but is expected to be adaptable for use in other plant lineages after verification. This protocol can be limited by extremely degraded DNA, where fragments do not exist in the desired size range, and by secondary metabolites present in some plant material that inhibit clean DNA isolation. Overall, this protocol introduces a fast and comprehensive method that allows for DNA isolation and library preparation of 24 samples in less than 13 h, with only 8 h of active hands-on time with minimal modifications.

  18. Robust inter-subject audiovisual decoding in functional magnetic resonance imaging using high-dimensional regression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raz, Gal; Svanera, Michele; Singer, Neomi; Gilam, Gadi; Cohen, Maya Bleich; Lin, Tamar; Admon, Roee; Gonen, Tal; Thaler, Avner; Granot, Roni Y; Goebel, Rainer; Benini, Sergio; Valente, Giancarlo

    2017-12-01

    Major methodological advancements have been recently made in the field of neural decoding, which is concerned with the reconstruction of mental content from neuroimaging measures. However, in the absence of a large-scale examination of the validity of the decoding models across subjects and content, the extent to which these models can be generalized is not clear. This study addresses the challenge of producing generalizable decoding models, which allow the reconstruction of perceived audiovisual features from human magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data without prior training of the algorithm on the decoded content. We applied an adapted version of kernel ridge regression combined with temporal optimization on data acquired during film viewing (234 runs) to generate standardized brain models for sound loudness, speech presence, perceived motion, face-to-frame ratio, lightness, and color brightness. The prediction accuracies were tested on data collected from different subjects watching other movies mainly in another scanner. Substantial and significant (Q FDR movies (R¯=0.62, R¯ = 0.60, R¯ = 0.60, respectively) with high reproducibility of the predictors across subjects. The face ratio model produced significant correlations in 7 out of 8 movies (R¯=0.56). The lightness and brightness models did not show robustness (R¯=0.23, R¯ = 0). Further analysis of additional data (95 runs) indicated that loudness reconstruction veridicality can consistently reveal relevant group differences in musical experience. The findings point to the validity and generalizability of our loudness, speech, motion, and face ratio models for complex cinematic stimuli (as well as for music in the case of loudness). While future research should further validate these models using controlled stimuli and explore the feasibility of extracting more complex models via this method, the reliability of our results indicates the potential usefulness of the approach and the resulting models

  19. "Fabrication of arbitrarily shaped carbonate apatite foam based on the interlocking process of dicalcium hydrogen phosphate dihydrate".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugiura, Yuki; Tsuru, Kanji; Ishikawa, Kunio

    2017-08-01

    Carbonate apatite (CO 3 Ap) foam with an interconnected porous structure is highly attractive as a scaffold for bone replacement. In this study, arbitrarily shaped CO 3 Ap foam was formed from α-tricalcium phosphate (α-TCP) foam granules via a two-step process involving treatment with acidic calcium phosphate solution followed by hydrothermal treatment with NaHCO 3 . The treatment with acidic calcium phosphate solution, which is key to fabricating arbitrarily shaped CO 3 Ap foam, enables dicalcium hydrogen phosphate dihydrate (DCPD) crystals to form on the α-TCP foam granules. The generated DCPD crystals cause the α-TCP granules to interlock with each other, inducing an α-TCP/DCPD foam. The interlocking structure containing DCPD crystals can survive hydrothermal treatment with NaHCO 3 . The arbitrarily shaped CO 3 Ap foam was fabricated from the α-TCP/DCPD foam via hydrothermal treatment at 200 °C for 24 h in the presence of a large amount of NaHCO 3 .

  20. Tiling arbitrarily nested loops by means of the transitive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bielecki Włodzimierz

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available A novel approach to generation of tiled code for arbitrarily nested loops is presented. It is derived via a combination of the polyhedral and iteration space slicing frameworks. Instead of program transformations represented by a set of affine functions, one for each statement, it uses the transitive closure of a loop nest dependence graph to carry out corrections of original rectangular tiles so that all dependences of the original loop nest are preserved under the lexicographic order of target tiles. Parallel tiled code can be generated on the basis of valid serial tiled code by means of applying affine transformations or transitive closure using on input an inter-tile dependence graph whose vertices are represented by target tiles while edges connect dependent target tiles. We demonstrate how a relation describing such a graph can be formed. The main merit of the presented approach in comparison with the well-known ones is that it does not require full permutability of loops to generate both serial and parallel tiled codes; this increases the scope of loop nests to be tiled.

  1. A New Technique to Identify Arbitrarily Shaped Noise Sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto A. Tenenbaum

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Acoustic intensity is one of the available tools for evaluating sound radiation from vibrating bodies. Active intensity may, in some situations, not give a faithful insight about how much energy is in fact carried into the far field. It was then proposed a new parameter, the supersonic acoustic intensity, which takes into account only the intensity generated by components having a smaller wavenumber than the acoustic one. However, the method is only efective for simple sources, such as plane plates, cylinders and spheres. This work presents a new technique, based on the Boundary Elements Method and the Singular Value Decomposition, to compute the supersonic acoustic intensity for arbitrarily shaped sources. The technique is based in the Kirchoff-Helmholtz equation in a discretized approach, leading to a radiation operator that relates the normal velocity on the source's surface mesh with the pressure at grid points located in the field. Then, the singular value decomposition technique is set to the radiation operator and a cutoff criterion is applied to remove non propagating components. Some numerical examples are presented.

  2. Spatial filtering velocimetry revisited: exact short-time detecting schemes from arbitrarily small-size reticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ando, S; Nara, T; Kurihara, T

    2014-01-01

    Spatial filtering velocimetry was proposed in 1963 by Ator as a velocity-sensing technique for aerial camera-control systems. The total intensity of a moving surface is observed through a set of parallel-slit reticles, resulting in a narrow-band temporal signal whose frequency is directly proportional to the image velocity. However, even despite its historical importance and inherent technical advantages, the mathematical formulation of this technique is only valid when infinite-length observation in both space and time is possible, which causes significant errors in most applications where a small receptive window and high resolution in both axes are desired. In this study, we apply a novel mathematical technique, the weighted integral method, to solve this problem, and obtain exact sensing schemes and algorithms for finite (arbitrarily small but non-zero) size reticles and short-time estimation. Practical considerations for utilizing these schemes are also explored both theoretically and experimentally. (paper)

  3. A Robust Supervised Variable Selection for Noisy High-Dimensional Data

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kalina, Jan; Schlenker, Anna

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 2015, Article 320385 (2015), s. 1-10 ISSN 2314-6133 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-17187S Institutional support: RVO:67985807 Keywords : dimensionality reduction * variable selection * robustness Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 2.134, year: 2015

  4. Estimator-based multiobjective robust control strategy for an active pantograph in high-speed railways

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lu, Xiaobing; Liu, Zhigang; Song, Yang

    2018-01-01

    Active control of the pantograph is one of the promising measures for decreasing fluctuation in the contact force between the pantograph and the catenary. In this paper, an estimator-based multiobjective robust control strategy is proposed for an active pantograph, which consists of a state estim...

  5. Precise and efficient evaluation of gravimetric quantities at arbitrarily scattered points in space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov, Kamen G.; Pavlis, Nikolaos K.; Petrushev, Pencho

    2017-12-01

    Gravimetric quantities are commonly represented in terms of high degree surface or solid spherical harmonics. After EGM2008, such expansions routinely extend to spherical harmonic degree 2190, which makes the computation of gravimetric quantities at a large number of arbitrarily scattered points in space using harmonic synthesis, a very computationally demanding process. We present here the development of an algorithm and its associated software for the efficient and precise evaluation of gravimetric quantities, represented in high degree solid spherical harmonics, at arbitrarily scattered points in the space exterior to the surface of the Earth. The new algorithm is based on representation of the quantities of interest in solid ellipsoidal harmonics and application of the tensor product trigonometric needlets. A FORTRAN implementation of this algorithm has been developed and extensively tested. The capabilities of the code are demonstrated using as examples the disturbing potential T, height anomaly ζ , gravity anomaly Δ g , gravity disturbance δ g , north-south deflection of the vertical ξ , east-west deflection of the vertical η , and the second radial derivative T_{rr} of the disturbing potential. After a pre-computational step that takes between 1 and 2 h per quantity, the current version of the software is capable of computing on a standard PC each of these quantities in the range from the surface of the Earth up to 544 km above that surface at speeds between 20,000 and 40,000 point evaluations per second, depending on the gravimetric quantity being evaluated, while the relative error does not exceed 10^{-6} and the memory (RAM) use is 9.3 GB.

  6. Robust Learning of High-dimensional Biological Networks with Bayesian Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nägele, Andreas; Dejori, Mathäus; Stetter, Martin

    Structure learning of Bayesian networks applied to gene expression data has become a potentially useful method to estimate interactions between genes. However, the NP-hardness of Bayesian network structure learning renders the reconstruction of the full genetic network with thousands of genes unfeasible. Consequently, the maximal network size is usually restricted dramatically to a small set of genes (corresponding with variables in the Bayesian network). Although this feature reduction step makes structure learning computationally tractable, on the downside, the learned structure might be adversely affected due to the introduction of missing genes. Additionally, gene expression data are usually very sparse with respect to the number of samples, i.e., the number of genes is much greater than the number of different observations. Given these problems, learning robust network features from microarray data is a challenging task. This chapter presents several approaches tackling the robustness issue in order to obtain a more reliable estimation of learned network features.

  7. Robust Sequential Circuits Design Technique for Low Voltage and High Noise Scenarios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garcia-Leyva Lancelot

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we introduce an innovative input and output data redundancy principle for sequential block circuits, the responsible to keep the state of the system, showing its efficiency in front of other robust technique approaches. The methodology is totally different from the Von Neumann approaches, because element are not replicated N times, but instead, they check the coherence of redundant input data no allowing data propagation in case of discrepancy. This mechanism does not require voting devices.

  8. Robustness of high-fidelity Rydberg gates with single-site addressability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goerz, Michael H.; Halperin, Eli J.; Aytac, Jon M.; Koch, Christiane P.; Whaley, K. Birgitta

    2014-09-01

    Controlled-phase (cphase) gates can be realized with trapped neutral atoms by making use of the Rydberg blockade. Achieving the ultrahigh fidelities required for quantum computation with such Rydberg gates, however, is compromised by experimental inaccuracies in pulse amplitudes and timings, as well as by stray fields that cause fluctuations of the Rydberg levels. We report here a comparative study of analytic and numerical pulse sequences for the Rydberg cphase gate that specifically examines the robustness of the gate fidelity with respect to such experimental perturbations. Analytical pulse sequences of both simultaneous and stimulated Raman adiabatic passage (STIRAP) are found to be at best moderately robust under these perturbations. In contrast, optimal control theory is seen to allow generation of numerical pulses that are inherently robust within a predefined tolerance window. The resulting numerical pulse shapes display simple modulation patterns and can be rationalized in terms of an interference between distinct two-photon Rydberg excitation pathways. Pulses of such low complexity should be experimentally feasible, allowing gate fidelities of order 99.90-99.99% to be achievable under realistic experimental conditions.

  9. Birds achieve high robustness in uneven terrain through active control of landing conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birn-Jeffery, Aleksandra V; Daley, Monica A

    2012-06-15

    We understand little about how animals adjust locomotor behaviour to negotiate uneven terrain. The mechanical demands and constraints of such behaviours likely differ from uniform terrain locomotion. Here we investigated how common pheasants negotiate visible obstacles with heights from 10 to 50% of leg length. Our goal was to determine the neuro-mechanical strategies used to achieve robust stability, and address whether strategies vary with obstacle height. We found that control of landing conditions was crucial for minimising fluctuations in stance leg loading and work in uneven terrain. Variation in touchdown leg angle (θ(TD)) was correlated with the orientation of ground force during stance, and the angle between the leg and body velocity vector at touchdown (β(TD)) was correlated with net limb work. Pheasants actively targeted obstacles to control body velocity and leg posture at touchdown to achieve nearly steady dynamics on the obstacle step. In the approach step to an obstacle, the birds produced net positive limb work to launch themselves upward. On the obstacle, body dynamics were similar to uniform terrain. Pheasants also increased swing leg retraction velocity during obstacle negotiation, which we suggest is an active strategy to minimise fluctuations in peak force and leg posture in uneven terrain. Thus, pheasants appear to achieve robustly stable locomotion through a combination of path planning using visual feedback and active adjustment of leg swing dynamics to control landing conditions. We suggest that strategies for robust stability are context specific, depending on the quality of sensory feedback available, especially visual input.

  10. Curved Microneedle Array-Based sEMG Electrode for Robust Long-Term Measurements and High Selectivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minjae Kim

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Surface electromyography is widely used in many fields to infer human intention. However, conventional electrodes are not appropriate for long-term measurements and are easily influenced by the environment, so the range of applications of sEMG is limited. In this paper, we propose a flexible band-integrated, curved microneedle array electrode for robust long-term measurements, high selectivity, and easy applicability. Signal quality, in terms of long-term usability and sensitivity to perspiration, was investigated. Its motion-discriminating performance was also evaluated. The results show that the proposed electrode is robust to perspiration and can maintain a high-quality measuring ability for over 8 h. The proposed electrode also has high selectivity for motion compared with a commercial wet electrode and dry electrode.

  11. Meta-algorithmics patterns for robust, low cost, high quality systems

    CERN Document Server

    Simske, Steven J

    2013-01-01

    The confluence of cloud computing, parallelism and advanced machine intelligence approaches has created a world in which the optimum knowledge system will usually be architected from the combination of two or more knowledge-generating systems. There is a need, then, to provide a reusable, broadly-applicable set of design patterns to empower the intelligent system architect to take advantage of this opportunity. This book explains how to design and build intelligent systems that are optimized for changing system requirements (adaptability), optimized for changing system input (robustness), an

  12. Acoustic propagation operators for pressure waves on an arbitrarily curved surface in a homogeneous medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yimin; Verschuur, Eric; van Borselen, Roald

    2018-03-01

    The Rayleigh integral solution of the acoustic Helmholtz equation in a homogeneous medium can only be applied when the integral surface is a planar surface, while in reality almost all surfaces where pressure waves are measured exhibit some curvature. In this paper we derive a theoretically rigorous way of building propagation operators for pressure waves on an arbitrarily curved surface. Our theory is still based upon the Rayleigh integral, but it resorts to matrix inversion to overcome the limitations faced by the Rayleigh integral. Three examples are used to demonstrate the correctness of our theory - propagation of pressure waves acquired on an arbitrarily curved surface to a planar surface, on an arbitrarily curved surface to another arbitrarily curved surface, and on a spherical cap to a planar surface, and results agree well with the analytical solutions. The generalization of our method for particle velocities and the calculation cost of our method are also discussed.

  13. Magnetic field from arbitrarily shaped flat coils with filamentary, ribbon, and rectangular cross sections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weissenburger, D.W.; Christensen, U.R.

    1975-01-01

    This report describes the derivation of three groups of equations: (1) Field components from an arbitrarily shaped filament lying in a plane. (2) Field components from an arbitrarily shaped ribbon of infinitesimal thickness with center line lying in a plane. (3) Field components from an arbitrarily shaped bar of rectangular cross section with its center line lying in a plane. In all three cases analytical expressions for the field components were found for an infinitesimal element of the cross section. These expressions are then integrated numerically along the arbitrarily shaped center line of the coil to obtain the three field components. As a check for accuracy the calculated field values of an elliptically shaped coil were compared to an existing analytic expression for a filamentary elliptical coil

  14. SPS-ALPHA: The First Practical Solar Power Satellite via Arbitrarily Large PHased Array

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — SPS-ALPHA (Solar Power Satellite via Arbitrarily Large Phased Array) is a novel, bio-mimetic approach to the challenge of space solar power. If successful, this...

  15. A robust internal control for high-precision DNA methylation analyses by droplet digital PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pharo, Heidi D; Andresen, Kim; Berg, Kaja C G; Lothe, Ragnhild A; Jeanmougin, Marine; Lind, Guro E

    2018-01-01

    Droplet digital PCR (ddPCR) allows absolute quantification of nucleic acids and has potential for improved non-invasive detection of DNA methylation. For increased precision of the methylation analysis, we aimed to develop a robust internal control for use in methylation-specific ddPCR. Two control design approaches were tested: (a) targeting a genomic region shared across members of a gene family and (b) combining multiple assays targeting different pericentromeric loci on different chromosomes. Through analyses of 34 colorectal cancer cell lines, the performance of the control assay candidates was optimized and evaluated, both individually and in various combinations, using the QX200™ droplet digital PCR platform (Bio-Rad). The best-performing control was tested in combination with assays targeting methylated CDO1 , SEPT9 , and VIM . A 4Plex panel consisting of EPHA3 , KBTBD4 , PLEKHF1 , and SYT10 was identified as the best-performing control. The use of the 4Plex for normalization reduced the variability in methylation values, corrected for differences in template amount, and diminished the effect of chromosomal aberrations. Positive Droplet Calling (PoDCall), an R-based algorithm for standardized threshold determination, was developed, ensuring consistency of the ddPCR results. Implementation of a robust internal control, i.e., the 4Plex, and an algorithm for automated threshold determination, PoDCall, in methylation-specific ddPCR increase the precision of DNA methylation analysis.

  16. Robust automatic high resolution segmentation of SOFC anode porosity in 3D

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Peter Stanley; Bowen, Jacob R.

    2008-01-01

    Routine use of 3D characterization of SOFCs by focused ion beam (FIB) serial sectioning is generally restricted by the time consuming task of manually delineating structures within each image slice. We apply advanced image analysis algorithms to automatically segment the porosity phase of an SOFC...... anode in 3D. The technique is based on numerical approximations to partial differential equations to evolve a 3D surface to the desired phase boundary. Vector fields derived from the experimentally acquired data are used as the driving force. The automatic segmentation compared to manual delineation...... reveals and good correspondence and the two approaches are quantitatively compared. It is concluded that the. automatic approach is more robust, more reproduceable and orders of magnitude quicker than manual segmentation of SOFC anode porosity for subsequent quantitative 3D analysis. Lastly...

  17. Robust and Low-Cost Flame-Treated Wood for High-Performance Solar Steam Generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Guobin; Liu, Kang; Chen, Qian; Yang, Peihua; Li, Jia; Ding, Tianpeng; Duan, Jiangjiang; Qi, Bei; Zhou, Jun

    2017-05-03

    Solar-enabled steam generation has attracted increasing interest in recent years because of its potential applications in power generation, desalination, and wastewater treatment, among others. Recent studies have reported many strategies for promoting the efficiency of steam generation by employing absorbers based on carbon materials or plasmonic metal nanoparticles with well-defined pores. In this work, we report that natural wood can be utilized as an ideal solar absorber after a simple flame treatment. With ultrahigh solar absorbance (∼99%), low thermal conductivity (0.33 W m -1 K -1 ), and good hydrophilicity, the flame-treated wood can localize the solar heating at the evaporation surface and enable a solar-thermal efficiency of ∼72% under a solar intensity of 1 kW m -2 , and it thus represents a renewable, scalable, low-cost, and robust material for solar steam applications.

  18. Robust Sub-nanomolar Library Preparation for High Throughput Next Generation Sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Wells W; Phue, Je-Nie; Lee, Chun-Ting; Lin, Changyi; Xu, Lai; Wang, Rong; Zhang, Yaqin; Shen, Rong-Fong

    2018-05-04

    Current library preparation protocols for Illumina HiSeq and MiSeq DNA sequencers require ≥2 nM initial library for subsequent loading of denatured cDNA onto flow cells. Such amounts are not always attainable from samples having a relatively low DNA or RNA input; or those for which a limited number of PCR amplification cycles is preferred (less PCR bias and/or more even coverage). A well-tested sub-nanomolar library preparation protocol for Illumina sequencers has however not been reported. The aim of this study is to provide a much needed working protocol for sub-nanomolar libraries to achieve outcomes as informative as those obtained with the higher library input (≥ 2 nM) recommended by Illumina's protocols. Extensive studies were conducted to validate a robust sub-nanomolar (initial library of 100 pM) protocol using PhiX DNA (as a control), genomic DNA (Bordetella bronchiseptica and microbial mock community B for 16S rRNA gene sequencing), messenger RNA, microRNA, and other small noncoding RNA samples. The utility of our protocol was further explored for PhiX library concentrations as low as 25 pM, which generated only slightly fewer than 50% of the reads achieved under the standard Illumina protocol starting with > 2 nM. A sub-nanomolar library preparation protocol (100 pM) could generate next generation sequencing (NGS) results as robust as the standard Illumina protocol. Following the sub-nanomolar protocol, libraries with initial concentrations as low as 25 pM could also be sequenced to yield satisfactory and reproducible sequencing results.

  19. A robust and high-performance queue management controller for large round trip time networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoshnevisan, Ladan; Salmasi, Farzad R.

    2016-05-01

    Congestion management for transmission control protocol is of utmost importance to prevent packet loss within a network. This necessitates strategies for active queue management. The most applied active queue management strategies have their inherent disadvantages which lead to suboptimal performance and even instability in the case of large round trip time and/or external disturbance. This paper presents an internal model control robust queue management scheme with two degrees of freedom in order to restrict the undesired effects of large and small round trip time and parameter variations in the queue management. Conventional approaches such as proportional integral and random early detection procedures lead to unstable behaviour due to large delay. Moreover, internal model control-Smith scheme suffers from large oscillations due to the large round trip time. On the other hand, other schemes such as internal model control-proportional integral and derivative show excessive sluggish performance for small round trip time values. To overcome these shortcomings, we introduce a system entailing two individual controllers for queue management and disturbance rejection, simultaneously. Simulation results based on Matlab/Simulink and also Network Simulator 2 (NS2) demonstrate the effectiveness of the procedure and verify the analytical approach.

  20. A facile precursor route to highly loaded metal/ceramic nanofibers as a robust surface-enhanced Raman template

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jay Hoon; Joo, Yong Lak

    2017-09-01

    We report silver (Ag)/ceramic nanofibers with highly robust and sensitive optical sensory capabilities that can withstand harsh conditions. These nanofibers are fabricated by first electrospinning solutions of poly vinyl alcohol (PVA) and metal precursor polymers, followed by subsequent series of heat treatment. The reported fabrication method demonstrate the effects of (i) the location of Ag crystals, (ii) crystal size and shape, and (iii) constituents of the ceramic matrix as surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) templates with 10-6 M 4-mercaptobenzoic acid (4-MBA). Notably, these silver/ceramic nanofibers preserved most of their highly sensitive localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) even under high temperature of 400 °C, in contrast to preformed Ag nanoparticles (NPs) in PVA nanofibers which lost most of its optical property presumably due to (i) Ag oxidation and (ii) loss of the matrix material. Among the ceramic substrates of ZrO2, Al2O3, and ZnO with silver crystals, we discovered that the ZnO substrate showed the most consistent and the strongest signal strength owing to the synergistic chemical and optical properties of the ZnO substrate. Moreover, the pure Ag nanofiber proved to be the best heat-resistant SERS template, owing to its (i) anisotropic morphology and (ii) thicker diameter when compared with other conventional Ag nanomaterials. These results demonstrated simple yet highly controllable fabrication of robust SERS templates, with potential applications in a catalytic sensory which is often exposed to harsh conditions.

  1. The optimal shape of elastomer mushroom-like fibers for high and robust adhesion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burak Aksak

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Over the last decade, significant effort has been put into mimicking the ability of the gecko lizard to strongly and reversibly cling to surfaces, by using synthetic structures. Among these structures, mushroom-like elastomer fiber arrays have demonstrated promising performance on smooth surfaces matching the adhesive strengths obtained with the natural gecko foot-pads. It is possible to improve the already impressive adhesive performance of mushroom-like fibers provided that the underlying adhesion mechanism is understood. Here, the adhesion mechanism of bio-inspired mushroom-like fibers is investigated by implementing the Dugdale–Barenblatt cohesive zone model into finite elements simulations. It is found that the magnitude of pull-off stress depends on the edge angle θ and the ratio of the tip radius to the stalk radius β of the mushroom-like fiber. Pull-off stress is also found to depend on a dimensionless parameter χ, the ratio of the fiber radius to a length-scale related to the dominance of adhesive stress. As an estimate, the optimal parameters are found to be β = 1.1 and θ = 45°. Further, the location of crack initiation is found to depend on χ for given β and θ. An analytical model for pull-off stress, which depends on the location of crack initiation as well as on θ and β, is proposed and found to agree with the simulation results. Results obtained in this work provide a geometrical guideline for designing robust bio-inspired dry fibrillar adhesives.

  2. A Very Robust AlGaN/GaN HEMT Technology to High Forward Gate Bias and Current

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bradley D. Christiansen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Reports to date of GaN HEMTs subjected to forward gate bias stress include varied extents of degradation. We report an extremely robust GaN HEMT technology that survived—contrary to conventional wisdom—high forward gate bias (+6 V and current (>1.8 A/mm for >17.5 hours exhibiting only a slight change in gate diode characteristic, little decrease in maximum drain current, with only a 0.1 V positive threshold voltage shift, and, remarkably, a persisting breakdown voltage exceeding 200 V.

  3. Robust Estimation for a CSTR Using a High Order Sliding Mode Observer and an Observer-Based Estimator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esteban Jiménez-Rodríguez

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an estimation structure for a continuous stirred-tank reactor, which is comprised of a sliding mode observer-based estimator coupled with a high-order sliding-mode observer. The whole scheme allows the robust estimation of the state and some parameters, specifically the concentration of the reactive mass, the heat of reaction and the global coefficient of heat transfer, by measuring the temperature inside the reactor and the temperature inside the jacket. In order to verify the results, the convergence proof of the proposed structure is done, and numerical simulations are presented with noiseless and noisy measurements, suggesting the applicability of the posed approach.

  4. Schmitt-Trigger-based Recycling Sensor and Robust and High-Quality PUFs for Counterfeit IC Detection

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, Cheng-Wei; Jang, Jae-Won; Ghosh, Swaroop

    2015-01-01

    We propose Schmitt-Trigger (ST) based recycling sensor that are tailored to amplify the aging mechanisms and detect fine grained recycling (minutes to seconds). We exploit the susceptibility of ST to process variations to realize high-quality arbiter PUF. Conventional SRAM PUF suffer from environmental fluctuation-induced bit flipping. We propose 8T SRAM PUF with a back-to-back PMOS latch to improve robustness by 4X. We also propose a low-power 7T SRAM with embedded Magnetic Tunnel Junction (...

  5. Motion robust high resolution 3D free-breathing pulmonary MRI using dynamic 3D image self-navigator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Wenwen; Ong, Frank; Johnson, Kevin M; Nagle, Scott K; Hope, Thomas A; Lustig, Michael; Larson, Peder E Z

    2018-06-01

    To achieve motion robust high resolution 3D free-breathing pulmonary MRI utilizing a novel dynamic 3D image navigator derived directly from imaging data. Five-minute free-breathing scans were acquired with a 3D ultrashort echo time (UTE) sequence with 1.25 mm isotropic resolution. From this data, dynamic 3D self-navigating images were reconstructed under locally low rank (LLR) constraints and used for motion compensation with one of two methods: a soft-gating technique to penalize the respiratory motion induced data inconsistency, and a respiratory motion-resolved technique to provide images of all respiratory motion states. Respiratory motion estimation derived from the proposed dynamic 3D self-navigator of 7.5 mm isotropic reconstruction resolution and a temporal resolution of 300 ms was successful for estimating complex respiratory motion patterns. This estimation improved image quality compared to respiratory belt and DC-based navigators. Respiratory motion compensation with soft-gating and respiratory motion-resolved techniques provided good image quality from highly undersampled data in volunteers and clinical patients. An optimized 3D UTE sequence combined with the proposed reconstruction methods can provide high-resolution motion robust pulmonary MRI. Feasibility was shown in patients who had irregular breathing patterns in which our approach could depict clinically relevant pulmonary pathologies. Magn Reson Med 79:2954-2967, 2018. © 2017 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. © 2017 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  6. Design of robust hollow fiber membranes with high power density for osmotic energy production

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Sui; Sukitpaneenit, Panu; Chung, Neal Tai-Shung

    2014-01-01

    This study highlights the design strategy of highly asymmetric hollow fiber membranes that possess both characteristics of high flux and high mechanical strength to effectively reap the osmotic energy from seawater brine with an ultrahigh power density. An advanced co-extrusion technology was employed to fabricate the polyethersulfone (PES) hollow fiber supports with diversified structures from macrovoid to sponge-like. The microstructure of the supports is found critical for the stability and water permeability of the thin film composite (TFC) membranes. A high porosity in the porous layer is needed to reduce internal concentration polarization, while a thick and relatively dense skin layer underneath the TFC layer is required to maintain good mechanical stability and stress dissipation. The pore size of the supporting layer underneath the TFC layer must be small with a narrow pore size distribution to ensure the formation of a less-defective, highly permeable and mechanically stable TFC layer. The newly developed hollow fiber comprising high asymmetry, high porosity, and a thick skin layer with a small and narrow pore size distribution underneath the TFC layer produces a maximum power density of 24.3W/m2 at 20.0bar by using 1M NaCl as the concentrated brine and deionized (DI) water as the feed. The proposed design strategy for ultrahigh power density membranes clearly advances the osmotic energy production close to commercialization with a quite cost-effective and practicable approach. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.

  7. Design of robust hollow fiber membranes with high power density for osmotic energy production

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Sui

    2014-04-01

    This study highlights the design strategy of highly asymmetric hollow fiber membranes that possess both characteristics of high flux and high mechanical strength to effectively reap the osmotic energy from seawater brine with an ultrahigh power density. An advanced co-extrusion technology was employed to fabricate the polyethersulfone (PES) hollow fiber supports with diversified structures from macrovoid to sponge-like. The microstructure of the supports is found critical for the stability and water permeability of the thin film composite (TFC) membranes. A high porosity in the porous layer is needed to reduce internal concentration polarization, while a thick and relatively dense skin layer underneath the TFC layer is required to maintain good mechanical stability and stress dissipation. The pore size of the supporting layer underneath the TFC layer must be small with a narrow pore size distribution to ensure the formation of a less-defective, highly permeable and mechanically stable TFC layer. The newly developed hollow fiber comprising high asymmetry, high porosity, and a thick skin layer with a small and narrow pore size distribution underneath the TFC layer produces a maximum power density of 24.3W/m2 at 20.0bar by using 1M NaCl as the concentrated brine and deionized (DI) water as the feed. The proposed design strategy for ultrahigh power density membranes clearly advances the osmotic energy production close to commercialization with a quite cost-effective and practicable approach. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.

  8. Application of the arbitrarily primed polymerase chain reaction for the detection of DNA damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atienzar, F.; Evenden, A.; Jha, A.; Depledge, M.; Savva, D.; Walker, C.

    1998-01-01

    The technique of arbitrarily primed polymerase chain reaction (AP-PCR) shows potential as a selective and sensitive assay for the detection of xenobiotic-induced DNA damage. Problems, however, may occur in AP-PCR, diminishing its discriminative abilities. These problems include the presence of spurious amplification products in non-template-containing negative control reactions, and a lack of reproducibility amongst amplification patterns. Experiments designed to remove contaminated nucleic acids by ultraviolet (UV) treatment indicated that spurious bands are the result of aberrant primer-induced polymerisation, an event shown to be influenced by the concentration of deoxynucleotide triphosphates (dNTP) present in the reaction mixtures. Optimisation of dNTP concentration from 0.22 to 0.33 MM resulted in clear negative controls and highly reproducible amplification patterns with all DNA templates. As an example of the application of the method, in the present study, the macroalga Palmaria palmata (Rhodophyta) was exposed to UV A and B radiations. The study shows that the AP-PCR method can detect DNA damage and may be useful in detecting such damage following exposure of cells to xenobiotics. (author)

  9. Application of the arbitrarily primed polymerase chain reaction for the detection of DNA damage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atienzar, F.; Evenden, A.; Jha, A.; Depledge, M. [University of Plymouth (United Kingdom). Environmental Research Centre; Child, P. [ADAS Boxworth (United Kingdom); Savva, D.; Walker, C. [University of Reading (United Kingdom). School of Animal and Microbial Sciences

    1998-07-01

    The technique of arbitrarily primed polymerase chain reaction (AP-PCR) shows potential as a selective and sensitive assay for the detection of xenobiotic-induced DNA damage. Problems, however, may occur in AP-PCR, diminishing its discriminative abilities. These problems include the presence of spurious amplification products in non-template-containing negative control reactions, and a lack of reproducibility amongst amplification patterns. Experiments designed to remove contaminated nucleic acids by ultraviolet (UV) treatment indicated that spurious bands are the result of aberrant primer-induced polymerisation, an event shown to be influenced by the concentration of deoxynucleotide triphosphates (dNTP) present in the reaction mixtures. Optimisation of dNTP concentration from 0.22 to 0.33 MM resulted in clear negative controls and highly reproducible amplification patterns with all DNA templates. As an example of the application of the method, in the present study, the macroalga Palmaria palmata (Rhodophyta) was exposed to UV A and B radiations. The study shows that the AP-PCR method can detect DNA damage and may be useful in detecting such damage following exposure of cells to xenobiotics. (author)

  10. Development of a Robust, Highly Efficient Oxygen-Carbon Monoxide Cogeneration System, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This small business innovation research is intended to develop a long-life, highly efficient O2-CO cogeneration system to support NASA's endeavors to pursue...

  11. A Robust Highly Aligned DNA Nanowire Array-Enabled Lithography for Graphene Nanoribbon Transistors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Seok Hee; Hwang, Wan Sik; Lin, Zhiqun; Kwon, Se Hun; Hong, Suck Won

    2015-12-09

    Because of its excellent charge carrier mobility at the Dirac point, graphene possesses exceptional properties for high-performance devices. Of particular interest is the potential use of graphene nanoribbons or graphene nanomesh for field-effect transistors. Herein, highly aligned DNA nanowire arrays were crafted by flow-assisted self-assembly of a drop of DNA aqueous solution on a flat polymer substrate. Subsequently, they were exploited as "ink" and transfer-printed on chemical vapor deposited (CVD)-grown graphene substrate. The oriented DNA nanowires served as the lithographic resist for selective removal of graphene, forming highly aligned graphene nanoribbons. Intriguingly, these graphene nanoribbons can be readily produced over a large area (i.e., millimeter scale) with a high degree of feature-size controllability and a low level of defects, rendering the fabrication of flexible two terminal devices and field-effect transistors.

  12. Bimetallic Ag-Pt Sub-nanometer Supported Clusters as Highly Efficient and Robust Oxidation Catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Negreiros, Fabio R. [CNR-ICCOM & IPCF, Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Pisa Italy; Halder, Avik [Materials Science Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Lemont IL USA; Yin, Chunrong [Materials Science Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Lemont IL USA; Singh, Akansha [Harish-Chandra Research Institute, HBNI, Chhatnag Road Jhunsi Allahabad 211019 India; Barcaro, Giovanni [CNR-ICCOM & IPCF, Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Pisa Italy; Sementa, Luca [CNR-ICCOM & IPCF, Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Pisa Italy; Tyo, Eric C. [Materials Science Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Lemont IL USA; Pellin, Michael J. [Materials Science Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Lemont IL USA; Bartling, Stephan [Institut für Physik, Universität Rostock, Rostock Germany; Meiwes-Broer, Karl-Heinz [Institut für Physik, Universität Rostock, Rostock Germany; Seifert, Sönke [X-ray Science Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Lemont IL USA; Sen, Prasenjit [Harish-Chandra Research Institute, HBNI, Chhatnag Road Jhunsi Allahabad 211019 India; Nigam, Sandeep [Chemistry Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay Mumbai- 400 085 India; Majumder, Chiranjib [Chemistry Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay Mumbai- 400 085 India; Fukui, Nobuyuki [East Tokyo Laboratory, Genesis Research Institute, Inc., Ichikawa Chiba 272-0001 Japan; Yasumatsu, Hisato [Cluster Research Laboratory, Toyota Technological Institute: in, East Tokyo Laboratory, Genesis Research Institute, Inc. Ichikawa, Chiba 272-0001 Japan; Vajda, Stefan [Materials Science Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Lemont IL USA; Nanoscience and Technology Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Lemont IL USA; Institute for Molecular Engineering, University of Chicago, Chicago IL USA; Fortunelli, Alessandro [CNR-ICCOM & IPCF, Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Pisa Italy; Materials and Process Simulation Center, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena CA USA

    2017-12-29

    A combined experimental and theoretical investigation of Ag-Pt sub-nanometer clusters as heterogeneous catalysts in the CO -> CO2 reaction (COox) is presented. Ag9Pt2 and Ag9Pt3 clusters are size-selected in the gas phase, deposited on an ultrathin amorphous alumina support, and tested as catalysts experimentally under realistic conditions and by first-principles simulations at realistic coverage. Insitu GISAXS/TPRx demonstrates that the clusters do not sinter or deactivate even after prolonged exposure to reactants at high temperature, and present comparable, extremely high COox catalytic efficiency. Such high activity and stability are ascribed to a synergic role of Ag and Pt in ultranano-aggregates, in which Pt anchors the clusters to the support and binds and activates two CO molecules, while Ag binds and activates O-2, and Ag/Pt surface proximity disfavors poisoning by CO or oxidized species.

  13. A Fault-Tolerant Radiation-Robust Mass Storage Concept for Highly Scaled Flash Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuchs, Cristian M.; Trinitis, Carsten; Appel, Nicolas; Langer, Martin

    2015-09-01

    Future spacemissions will require vast amounts of data to be stored and processed aboard spacecraft. While satisfying operational mission requirements, storage systems must guarantee data integrity and recover damaged data throughout the mission. NAND-flash memories have become popular for space-borne high performance mass memory scenarios, though future storage concepts will rely upon highly scaled flash or other memory technologies. With modern flash memory, single bit erasure coding and RAID based concepts are insufficient. Thus, a fully run-time configurable, high performance, dependable storage concept, requiring a minimal set of logic or software. The solution is based on composite erasure coding and can be adjusted for altered mission duration or changing environmental conditions.

  14. MySQL High Availability Tools for Building Robust Data Centers

    CERN Document Server

    Bell, Charles; Thalmann, Lars

    2010-01-01

    Server bottlenecks and failures are a fact of life in any database deployment, but they don't have to bring everything to a halt. MySQL has several features that can help you protect your system from outages, whether it's running on hardware, virtual machines, or in the cloud. MySQL High Availability explains how to use these replication, cluster, and monitoring features in a wide range of real-life situations. Written by engineers who designed many of the tools covered inside, this book reveals undocumented or hard-to-find aspects of MySQL reliability and high availability -- knowledge that

  15. Robust optimization of the laser induced damage threshold of dielectric mirrors for high power lasers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chorel, Marine; Lanternier, Thomas; Lavastre, Éric; Bonod, Nicolas; Bousquet, Bruno; Néauport, Jérôme

    2018-04-30

    We report on a numerical optimization of the laser induced damage threshold of multi-dielectric high reflection mirrors in the sub-picosecond regime. We highlight the interplay between the electric field distribution, refractive index and intrinsic laser induced damage threshold of the materials on the overall laser induced damage threshold (LIDT) of the multilayer. We describe an optimization method of the multilayer that minimizes the field enhancement in high refractive index materials while preserving a near perfect reflectivity. This method yields a significant improvement of the damage resistance since a maximum increase of 40% can be achieved on the overall LIDT of the multilayer.

  16. Robust piezoelectric composites for energy harvesting in high-strain environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ende, D.A. van der; Groen, W.A.; Zwaag, S. van der

    2013-01-01

    High-strain environments, such as are found in automobile tires, provide deformation energy that can be harvested using piezoelectric materials, for instance, for powering electronics such as wireless sensors. Despite numerous efforts, none of the present devices easily satisfy the stringent

  17. A new highly specific and robust yeast androgen bioassay for the detection of agonist and antagonists

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bovee, T.F.H.; Helsdingen, J.R.; Hamers, A.R.M.; Duursen, van M.; Nielen, M.W.F.; Hoogenboom, L.A.P.

    2007-01-01

    Public concern about the presence of natural and anthropogenic compounds which affect human health by modulating normal endocrine functions is continuously growing. Fast and simple high-throughput screening methods for the detection of hormone activities are thus indispensable. During the last two

  18. A novel robust and efficient algorithm for charge particle tracking in high background flux

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fanelli, C; Cisbani, E; Dotto, A Del

    2015-01-01

    The high luminosity that will be reached in the new generation of High Energy Particle and Nuclear physics experiments implies large high background rate and large tracker occupancy, representing therefore a new challenge for particle tracking algorithms. For instance, at Jefferson Laboratory (JLab) (VA,USA), one of the most demanding experiment in this respect, performed with a 12 GeV electron beam, is characterized by a luminosity up to 10 39 cm -2 s -1 . To this scope, Gaseous Electron Multiplier (GEM) based trackers are under development for a new spectrometer that will operate at these high rates in the Hall A of JLab. Within this context, we developed a new tracking algorithm, based on a multistep approach: (i) all hardware - time and charge - information are exploited to minimize the number of hits to associate; (ii) a dedicated Neural Network (NN) has been designed for a fast and efficient association of the hits measured by the GEM detector; (iii) the measurements of the associated hits are further improved in resolution through the application of Kalman filter and Rauch- Tung-Striebel smoother. The algorithm is shortly presented along with a discussion of the promising first results. (paper)

  19. Robust state estimation for double pantographs with random missing measurements in high-speed railway

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lu, Xiaobing; Liu, Zhigang; Wang, Yanbo

    2016-01-01

    Active control of pantograph could be performed to decrease the fluctuation in pantograph-catenary contact force (PCCF) in high-speed railway. However, it is difficult to obtain the states of the pantograph when state feedback control is implemented. And the measurements may randomly miss due...

  20. Synthesis of multi-wavelength temporal phase-shifting algorithms optimized for high signal-to-noise ratio and high detuning robustness using the frequency transfer function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Servin, Manuel; Padilla, Moises; Garnica, Guillermo

    2016-05-02

    Synthesis of single-wavelength temporal phase-shifting algorithms (PSA) for interferometry is well-known and firmly based on the frequency transfer function (FTF) paradigm. Here we extend the single-wavelength FTF-theory to dual and multi-wavelength PSA-synthesis when several simultaneous laser-colors are present. The FTF-based synthesis for dual-wavelength (DW) PSA is optimized for high signal-to-noise ratio and minimum number of temporal phase-shifted interferograms. The DW-PSA synthesis herein presented may be used for interferometric contouring of discontinuous industrial objects. Also DW-PSA may be useful for DW shop-testing of deep free-form aspheres. As shown here, using the FTF-based synthesis one may easily find explicit DW-PSA formulae optimized for high signal-to-noise and high detuning robustness. To this date, no general synthesis and analysis for temporal DW-PSAs has been given; only ad hoc DW-PSAs formulas have been reported. Consequently, no explicit formulae for their spectra, their signal-to-noise, their detuning and harmonic robustness has been given. Here for the first time a fully general procedure for designing DW-PSAs (or triple-wavelengths PSAs) with desire spectrum, signal-to-noise ratio and detuning robustness is given. We finally generalize DW-PSA to higher number of wavelength temporal PSAs.

  1. Low-cost, portable, robust and high-resolution single-camera stereo-DIC system and its application in high-temperature deformation measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, Yuxi; Yu, Liping; Pan, Bing

    2018-05-01

    A low-cost, portable, robust and high-resolution single-camera stereo-digital image correlation (stereo-DIC) system for accurate surface three-dimensional (3D) shape and deformation measurements is described. This system adopts a single consumer-grade high-resolution digital Single Lens Reflex (SLR) camera and a four-mirror adaptor, rather than two synchronized industrial digital cameras, for stereo image acquisition. In addition, monochromatic blue light illumination and coupled bandpass filter imaging are integrated to ensure the robustness of the system against ambient light variations. In contrast to conventional binocular stereo-DIC systems, the developed pseudo-stereo-DIC system offers the advantages of low cost, portability, robustness against ambient light variations, and high resolution. The accuracy and precision of the developed single SLR camera-based stereo-DIC system were validated by measuring the 3D shape of a stationary sphere along with in-plane and out-of-plane displacements of a translated planar plate. Application of the established system to thermal deformation measurement of an alumina ceramic plate and a stainless-steel plate subjected to radiation heating was also demonstrated.

  2. Development of internal CRD for next generation BWR-endurance and robustness tests of ball-bearing materials in high-pressure and high-temperature water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shoji Goto; Shuichi Ohmori; Michitsugu Mori; Shohei Kawano; Tadashi Narabayashi; Shinichi Ishizato

    2005-01-01

    An internal CRD using a heatproof ceramics insulated coil is under development to be a competitive and higher performance as Next- Generation BWR. In the case of the 1700MWe next generation BWR, adapting the internal CRDs, the reactor pressure vessel is almost equivalent to that of 1356 MWe ABWR. The endurance and robustness tests were examined in order to confirm the durability of the bearing for the internal CRD. The durability of the ball bearing for the internal CRD was performed in the high-pressure and high-temperature reactor water of current BWR conditions. The experimental results confirmed the durability of rotational numbers for the operation length of 60 years. We added the cruds into water to confirm the robustness of the ball bearing. The test results also showed good robustness even in high-density crud conditions, compared with the current BWR. This program is conducted as one of the selected offers for the advertised technical developments of the Institute of Applied Energy founded by METI (Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry) of Japan. (authors)

  3. A high-performance, flexible and robust metal nanotrough-embedded transparent conducting film for wearable touch screen panels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Im, Hyeon-Gyun; An, Byeong Wan; Jin, Jungho; Jang, Junho; Park, Young-Geun; Park, Jang-Ung; Bae, Byeong-Soo

    2016-02-01

    We report a high-performance, flexible and robust metal nanotrough-embedded transparent conducting hybrid film (metal nanotrough-GFRHybrimer). Using an electro-spun polymer nanofiber web as a template and vacuum-deposited gold as a conductor, a junction resistance-free continuous metal nanotrough network is formed. Subsequently, the metal nanotrough is embedded on the surface of a glass-fabric reinforced composite substrate (GFRHybrimer). The monolithic composite structure of our transparent conducting film allows simultaneously high thermal stability (24 h at 250 °C in air), a smooth surface topography (Rrms touch screen panel (TSP) is fabricated using the transparent conducting films. The flexible TSP device stably operates on the back of a human hand and on a wristband.We report a high-performance, flexible and robust metal nanotrough-embedded transparent conducting hybrid film (metal nanotrough-GFRHybrimer). Using an electro-spun polymer nanofiber web as a template and vacuum-deposited gold as a conductor, a junction resistance-free continuous metal nanotrough network is formed. Subsequently, the metal nanotrough is embedded on the surface of a glass-fabric reinforced composite substrate (GFRHybrimer). The monolithic composite structure of our transparent conducting film allows simultaneously high thermal stability (24 h at 250 °C in air), a smooth surface topography (Rrms touch screen panel (TSP) is fabricated using the transparent conducting films. The flexible TSP device stably operates on the back of a human hand and on a wristband. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr07657a

  4. Nonlinear vibrations of thin arbitrarily laminated composite plates subjected to harmonic excitations using DKT elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, C. K.; Xue, David Y.; Mei, Chuh

    1993-04-01

    A finite element formulation is presented for determining the large-amplitude free and steady-state forced vibration response of arbitrarily laminated anisotropic composite thin plates using the Discrete Kirchhoff Theory (DKT) triangular elements. The nonlinear stiffness and harmonic force matrices of an arbitrarily laminated composite triangular plate element are developed for nonlinear free and forced vibration analyses. The linearized updated-mode method with nonlinear time function approximation is employed for the solution of the system nonlinear eigenvalue equations. The amplitude-frequency relations for convergence with gridwork refinement, triangular plates, different boundary conditions, lamination angles, number of plies, and uniform versus concentrated loads are presented.

  5. Extracting physical properties of arbitrarily shaped laser-doped micro-scale areas in semiconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heinrich, Martin; Kluska, Sven; Hameiri, Ziv; Hoex, Bram; Aberle, Armin G.

    2013-01-01

    We present a method that allows the extraction of relevant physical properties such as sheet resistance and dopant profile from arbitrarily shaped laser-doped micro-scale areas formed in semiconductors with a focused pulsed laser beam. The key feature of the method is to use large laser-doped areas with an identical average number of laser pulses per area (laser pulse density) as the arbitrarily shaped areas. The method is verified using sheet resistance measurements on laser-doped silicon samples. Furthermore, the method is extended to doping with continuous-wave lasers by using the average number of passes per area or density of passes

  6. Robust, high-throughput solution structural analyses by small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hura, Greg L.; Menon, Angeli L.; Hammel, Michal; Rambo, Robert P.; Poole II, Farris L.; Tsutakawa, Susan E.; Jenney Jr, Francis E.; Classen, Scott; Frankel, Kenneth A.; Hopkins, Robert C.; Yang, Sungjae; Scott, Joseph W.; Dillard, Bret D.; Adams, Michael W. W.; Tainer, John A.

    2009-07-20

    We present an efficient pipeline enabling high-throughput analysis of protein structure in solution with small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS). Our SAXS pipeline combines automated sample handling of microliter volumes, temperature and anaerobic control, rapid data collection and data analysis, and couples structural analysis with automated archiving. We subjected 50 representative proteins, mostly from Pyrococcus furiosus, to this pipeline and found that 30 were multimeric structures in solution. SAXS analysis allowed us to distinguish aggregated and unfolded proteins, define global structural parameters and oligomeric states for most samples, identify shapes and similar structures for 25 unknown structures, and determine envelopes for 41 proteins. We believe that high-throughput SAXS is an enabling technology that may change the way that structural genomics research is done.

  7. Robust cladding light stripper for high-power fiber lasers using soft metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babazadeh, Amin; Nasirabad, Reza Rezaei; Norouzey, Ahmad; Hejaz, Kamran; Poozesh, Reza; Heidariazar, Amir; Golshan, Ali Hamedani; Roohforouz, Ali; Jafari, S Naser Tabatabaei; Lafouti, Majid

    2014-04-20

    In this paper we present a novel method to reliably strip the unwanted cladding light in high-power fiber lasers. Soft metals are utilized to fabricate a high-power cladding light stripper (CLS). The capability of indium (In), aluminum (Al), tin (Sn), and gold (Au) in extracting unwanted cladding light is examined. The experiments show that these metals have the right features for stripping the unwanted light out of the cladding. We also find that the metal-cladding contact area is of great importance because it determines the attenuation and the thermal load on the CLS. These metals are examined in different forms to optimize the contact area to have the highest possible attenuation and avoid localized heating. The results show that sheets of indium are very effective in stripping unwanted cladding light.

  8. High power diode pumped solid state (DPSS) laser systems active media robust modeling and analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashef, Tamer M.; Mokhtar, Ayman M.; Ghoniemy, Samy A.

    2018-02-01

    Diode side-pumped solid-state lasers have the potential to yield high quality laser beams with high efficiency and reliability. This paper summarizes the results of simulation of the most predominant active media that are used in high power diode pumped solid-state (DPSS) laser systems. Nd:YAG, Nd:glass, and Nd:YLF rods laser systems were simulated using the special finite element analysis software program LASCAD. A performance trade off analysis for Nd:YAG, Nd:glass, and Nd:YLF rods was performed in order to predict the system optimized parameters and to investigate thermally induced thermal fracture that may occur due to heat load and mechanical stress. The simulation results showed that at the optimized values Nd:YAG rod achieved the highest output power of 175W with 43% efficiency and heat load of 1.873W/mm3. A negligible changes in laser output power, heat load, stress, and temperature distributions were observed when the Nd:YAG rod length was increased from 72 to 80mm. Simulation of Nd:glass at different rod diameters at the same pumping conditions showed better results for mechanical stress and thermal load than that of Nd:YAG and Nd:YLF which makes it very suitable for high power laser applications especially for large rod diameters. For large rod diameters Nd:YLF is mechanically weaker and softer crystal compared to Nd:YAG and Nd:glass due to its poor thermomechanical properties which limits its usage to only low to medium power systems.

  9. Robust and High Order Computational Method for Parachute and Air Delivery and MAV System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-11-01

    numerical algorithms and develop a computational platform forthe study of the dynamic system involving highly complex geometric interface immersed in...students in their summer internship. Results Dissemination: Our research project has produced two publications in the Journal of Fluid and Structure, one...publication in the AIAA journal , one in Communication in Computational Physics, along with several related publications in other journals . Two other

  10. Toward robust high resolution fluorescence tomography: a hybrid row-action edge preserving regularization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behrooz, Ali; Zhou, Hao-Min; Eftekhar, Ali A.; Adibi, Ali

    2011-02-01

    Depth-resolved localization and quantification of fluorescence distribution in tissue, called Fluorescence Molecular Tomography (FMT), is highly ill-conditioned as depth information should be extracted from limited number of surface measurements. Inverse solvers resort to regularization algorithms that penalize Euclidean norm of the solution to overcome ill-posedness. While these regularization algorithms offer good accuracy, their smoothing effects result in continuous distributions which lack high-frequency edge-type features of the actual fluorescence distribution and hence limit the resolution offered by FMT. We propose an algorithm that penalizes the total variation (TV) norm of the solution to preserve sharp transitions and high-frequency components in the reconstructed fluorescence map while overcoming ill-posedness. The hybrid algorithm is composed of two levels: 1) An Algebraic Reconstruction Technique (ART), performed on FMT data for fast recovery of a smooth solution that serves as an initial guess for the iterative TV regularization, 2) A time marching TV regularization algorithm, inspired by the Rudin-Osher-Fatemi TV image restoration, performed on the initial guess to further enhance the resolution and accuracy of the reconstruction. The performance of the proposed method in resolving fluorescent tubes inserted in a liquid tissue phantom imaged by a non-contact CW trans-illumination FMT system is studied and compared to conventional regularization schemes. It is observed that the proposed method performs better in resolving fluorescence inclusions at higher depths.

  11. Carbon materials-functionalized tin dioxide nanoparticles toward robust, high-performance nitrogen dioxide gas sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Rui; Liu, Xiupeng; Zhou, Tingting; Wang, Lili; Zhang, Tong

    2018-08-15

    Carbon (C) materials, which process excellent electrical conductivity and high carrier mobility, are promising sensing materials as active units for gas sensors. However, structural agglomeration caused by chemical processes results in a small resistance change and low sensing response. To address the above issues, structure-derived carbon-coated tin dioxide (SnO 2 ) nanoparticles having distinct core-shell morphology with a 3D net-like structure and highly uniform size are prepared by careful synthesis and fine structural design. The optimum carbon-coated SnO 2 nanoparticles (SnO 2 /C)-based gas sensor exhibits a low working temperature, excellent selectivity and fast response-recovery properties. In addition, the SnO 2 /C-based gas sensor can maintain a sensitivity to nitrogen dioxide (NO 2 ) of 3 after being cycled 4 times at 140 °C for, suggesting its good long-term stability. The structural integrity, good synergistic properties, and high gas-sensing performance of SnO 2 /C render it a promising sensing material for advanced gas sensors. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. A robust, simple genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS approach for high diversity species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert J Elshire

    Full Text Available Advances in next generation technologies have driven the costs of DNA sequencing down to the point that genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS is now feasible for high diversity, large genome species. Here, we report a procedure for constructing GBS libraries based on reducing genome complexity with restriction enzymes (REs. This approach is simple, quick, extremely specific, highly reproducible, and may reach important regions of the genome that are inaccessible to sequence capture approaches. By using methylation-sensitive REs, repetitive regions of genomes can be avoided and lower copy regions targeted with two to three fold higher efficiency. This tremendously simplifies computationally challenging alignment problems in species with high levels of genetic diversity. The GBS procedure is demonstrated with maize (IBM and barley (Oregon Wolfe Barley recombinant inbred populations where roughly 200,000 and 25,000 sequence tags were mapped, respectively. An advantage in species like barley that lack a complete genome sequence is that a reference map need only be developed around the restriction sites, and this can be done in the process of sample genotyping. In such cases, the consensus of the read clusters across the sequence tagged sites becomes the reference. Alternatively, for kinship analyses in the absence of a reference genome, the sequence tags can simply be treated as dominant markers. Future application of GBS to breeding, conservation, and global species and population surveys may allow plant breeders to conduct genomic selection on a novel germplasm or species without first having to develop any prior molecular tools, or conservation biologists to determine population structure without prior knowledge of the genome or diversity in the species.

  13. Robust naphthyl methacrylate monolithic column for high performance liquid chromatography of a wide range of solutes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonnada, Murthy; El Rassi, Ziad

    2015-08-28

    An organic monolithic column based on the co-polymerization of 2-naphthyl methacrylate (NAPM) as the functional monomer and trimethylolpropane trimethacrylate (TRIM) as the crosslinker was introduced for high performance reversed-phase liquid chromatography (RPC). The co-polymerization was performed in situ in a stainless steel column of 4.6mm i.d. in the presence of a ternary porogen consisting of 1-dodecanol and cyclohexanol. This monolithic column (referred to as naphthyl methacrylate monolithic column or NMM column) showed high mechanical stability at relatively high mobile phase flow velocity indicating that the column has excellent hydrodynamic characteristics. To characterize the NMM column, different probe molecules including alkyl benzenes, and aniline, benzene, toluene and phenol derivatives were chromatographed on the column and the results in terms of k, selectivity and plate counts were compared to those obtained on an octadecyl silica (ODS) column in order to assess the presence of π-π and hydrophobic interactions on the NMM column under otherwise the same elution conditions. The NMM column offered additional π-π interactions with aromatic molecules in addition to hydrophobic interactions under RPC elution conditions. Run-to-run and column-to-column reproducibility of solute k values were evaluated, and percent relative standard deviation of column using shallow (30min at 1.0mL/min), steep (10min at 1.0mL/min) and ultra steep (1min at 3.0mL/min) linear gradient elution at increasing ACN concentration in the mobile phase using a 10cm×4.6mm i.d. column in case of shallow and steep linear gradients and a 3cm×4.6mm i.d. column for ultra steep linear gradient. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Robust, Rework-able Thermal Electronic Packaging: Applications in High Power TR Modules for Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, James Patrick; Del Castillo, Linda; Hunter, Don; Miller, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    The higher output power densities required of modern radar architectures, such as the proposed DESDynI [Deformation, Ecosystem Structure, and Dynamics of Ice] SAR [Synthetic Aperture Radar] Instrument (or DSI) require increasingly dense high power electronics. To enable these higher power densities, while maintaining or even improving hardware reliability, requires improvements in integrating advanced thermal packaging technologies into radar transmit/receive (TR) modules. New materials and techniques have been studied and are now being implemented side-by-side with more standard technology typically used in flight hardware.

  15. Robust, Reliable Low Emission Gas Turbine Combustion of High Hydrogen Content Fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wooldridge, Margaret Stacy [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Im, Hong Geum [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

    2016-12-16

    The effects of high hydrogen content fuels were studied using experimental, computational and theoretical approaches to understand the effects of mixture and state conditions on the ignition behavior of the fuels. A rapid compression facility (RCF) was used to measure the ignition delay time of hydrogen and carbon monoxide mixtures. The data were combined with results of previous studies to develop ignition regime criteria. Analytical theory and direct numerical simulation were used to validate and interpret the RCF ignition data. Based on the integrated information the ignition regime criteria were extended to non-dimensional metrics which enable application of the results to practical gas turbine combustion systems.

  16. A Robust, Gravity-Insensitive, High-Temperature Condenser for Water Recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Weibo; Conboy, Thomas; Ewert, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Regenerative life support systems are vital for NASA's future long-duration human space exploration missions. A Heat Melt Compactor (HMC) system is being developed by NASA to dry and compress trash generated during space missions. The resulting water vapor is recovered and separated from the process gas flow by a gravity-insensitive condenser. Creare is developing a high-temperature condenser for this application. The entire condenser is constructed from metals that have excellent resistance to chemical attack from contaminants and is suitable for high-temperature operation. The metal construction and design configuration also offer greatest flexibility for potential coating and regeneration processes to reduce biofilm growth and thus enhancing the reliability of the condenser. The proposed condenser builds on the gravity-insensitive phase separator technology Creare developed for aircraft and spacecraft applications. This paper will first discuss the design requirements for the condenser in an HMC system that will be demonstrated on the International Space Station (ISS). Then, it will present the overall design of the condenser and the preliminary thermal test results of a subscale condenser. Finally, this paper will discuss the predicted performance of the full-size condenser and the development plan to mature the technology and enhance its long-term reliability for a flight system.

  17. Multi-stage robust scheme for citrus identification from high resolution airborne images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amorós-López, Julia; Izquierdo Verdiguier, Emma; Gómez-Chova, Luis; Muñoz-Marí, Jordi; Zoilo Rodríguez-Barreiro, Jorge; Camps-Valls, Gustavo; Calpe-Maravilla, Javier

    2008-10-01

    Identification of land cover types is one of the most critical activities in remote sensing. Nowadays, managing land resources by using remote sensing techniques is becoming a common procedure to speed up the process while reducing costs. However, data analysis procedures should satisfy the accuracy figures demanded by institutions and governments for further administrative actions. This paper presents a methodological scheme to update the citrus Geographical Information Systems (GIS) of the Comunidad Valenciana autonomous region, Spain). The proposed approach introduces a multi-stage automatic scheme to reduce visual photointerpretation and ground validation tasks. First, an object-oriented feature extraction process is carried out for each cadastral parcel from very high spatial resolution (VHR) images (0.5m) acquired in the visible and near infrared. Next, several automatic classifiers (decision trees, multilayer perceptron, and support vector machines) are trained and combined to improve the final accuracy of the results. The proposed strategy fulfills the high accuracy demanded by policy makers by means of combining automatic classification methods with visual photointerpretation available resources. A level of confidence based on the agreement between classifiers allows us an effective management by fixing the quantity of parcels to be reviewed. The proposed methodology can be applied to similar problems and applications.

  18. A Bootstrap Based Measure Robust to the Choice of Normalization Methods for Detecting Rhythmic Features in High Dimensional Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larriba, Yolanda; Rueda, Cristina; Fernández, Miguel A; Peddada, Shyamal D

    2018-01-01

    Motivation: Gene-expression data obtained from high throughput technologies are subject to various sources of noise and accordingly the raw data are pre-processed before formally analyzed. Normalization of the data is a key pre-processing step, since it removes systematic variations across arrays. There are numerous normalization methods available in the literature. Based on our experience, in the context of oscillatory systems, such as cell-cycle, circadian clock, etc., the choice of the normalization method may substantially impact the determination of a gene to be rhythmic. Thus rhythmicity of a gene can purely be an artifact of how the data were normalized. Since the determination of rhythmic genes is an important component of modern toxicological and pharmacological studies, it is important to determine truly rhythmic genes that are robust to the choice of a normalization method. Results: In this paper we introduce a rhythmicity measure and a bootstrap methodology to detect rhythmic genes in an oscillatory system. Although the proposed methodology can be used for any high-throughput gene expression data, in this paper we illustrate the proposed methodology using several publicly available circadian clock microarray gene-expression datasets. We demonstrate that the choice of normalization method has very little effect on the proposed methodology. Specifically, for any pair of normalization methods considered in this paper, the resulting values of the rhythmicity measure are highly correlated. Thus it suggests that the proposed measure is robust to the choice of a normalization method. Consequently, the rhythmicity of a gene is potentially not a mere artifact of the normalization method used. Lastly, as demonstrated in the paper, the proposed bootstrap methodology can also be used for simulating data for genes participating in an oscillatory system using a reference dataset. Availability: A user friendly code implemented in R language can be downloaded from http://www.eio.uva.es/~miguel/robustdetectionprocedure.html.

  19. Emerging Robust Heterostructure of MoS2-rGO for High-Performance Supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saraf, Mohit; Natarajan, Kaushik; Mobin, Shaikh M

    2018-05-16

    The intermittent nature of renewable energy resources has led to a continuous mismatch between energy demand and supply. A possible solution to overcome this persistent problem is to design appropriate energy-storage materials. Supercapacitors based on different nanoelectrode materials have emerged as one of the promising storage devices. In this work, we investigate the supercapacitor properties of a molybdenum disulfide-reduced graphene oxide (rGO) heterostructure-based binder-free electrode, which delivered a high specific capacitance (387.6 F g -1 at 1.2 A g -1 ) and impressive cycling stability (virtually no loss up to 1000 cycles). In addition, the possible role of rGO in the composite toward synergistically enhanced supercapacitance has been highlighted. Moreover, an attempt has been made to correlate the electrochemical impedance spectroscopy studies with the voltammetric analyses. The performance exceeds that of the reported state-of-the-art structures.

  20. Robust high-resolution quantification of time signals encoded by in vivo magnetic resonance spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belkić, Dževad; Belkić, Karen

    2018-01-01

    This paper on molecular imaging emphasizes improving specificity of magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) for early cancer diagnostics by high-resolution data analysis. Sensitivity of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is excellent, but specificity is insufficient. Specificity is improved with MRS by going beyond morphology to assess the biochemical content of tissue. This is contingent upon accurate data quantification of diagnostically relevant biomolecules. Quantification is spectral analysis which reconstructs chemical shifts, amplitudes and relaxation times of metabolites. Chemical shifts inform on electronic shielding of resonating nuclei bound to different molecular compounds. Oscillation amplitudes in time signals retrieve the abundance of MR sensitive nuclei whose number is proportional to metabolite concentrations. Transverse relaxation times, the reciprocal of decay probabilities of resonances, arise from spin-spin coupling and reflect local field inhomogeneities. In MRS single voxels are used. For volumetric coverage, multi-voxels are employed within a hybrid of MRS and MRI called magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging (MRSI). Common to MRS and MRSI is encoding of time signals and subsequent spectral analysis. Encoded data do not provide direct clinical information. Spectral analysis of time signals can yield the quantitative information, of which metabolite concentrations are the most clinically important. This information is equivocal with standard data analysis through the non-parametric, low-resolution fast Fourier transform and post-processing via fitting. By applying the fast Padé transform (FPT) with high-resolution, noise suppression and exact quantification via quantum mechanical signal processing, advances are made, presented herein, focusing on four areas of critical public health importance: brain, prostate, breast and ovarian cancers.

  1. High Efficiency Robust Open Tubular Capillary Electrochromatography Column for the Separation of Peptides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ali, Faiz; Cheong, Won Jo [Inha University, Incheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-08-15

    In this study, the carefully designed tri-component copolymer layer was fabricated onto the inner surface of a pretreated silica capillary (52 cm effective length, 50 μm id). The initiator moieties were incorporated onto the capillary inner surface by reaction with 4-chloromehtylphenyl isocyanate followed by sodium diethyl dithiocarbamate. Next, RAFT copolymerization was held upon the initiator moieties and a thin polymer film was made. The observed peak capacity was, of course, lower than those of the state-of-the art gradient HPLC systems. The UPLC system operated in the long gradient elution mode with a long narrow column of sub-3 μm packed particles could achieve the impressive high peak capacity of ca. 1000. On the other hand, a system with a 20 cm column of 0.8 μm particles could achieve a peak capacity of 220 (comparable to our result) under a pressure of 20 000 psi in a gradient time of 20 min. It should be noted that the operational conditions of this study has been optimized to obtain the best column separation efficiency. It was also operated in the isocratic elution mode. A better peak capacity is expected if the operational conditions are tuned to the optimum peak capacity.

  2. Square-Wave Voltage Injection Algorithm for PMSM Position Sensorless Control With High Robustness to Voltage Errors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ni, Ronggang; Xu, Dianguo; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2017-01-01

    relationship with the magnetic field distortion. Position estimation errors caused by higher order harmonic inductances and voltage harmonics generated by the SVPWM are also discussed. Both simulations and experiments are carried out based on a commercial PMSM to verify the superiority of the proposed method......Rotor position estimated with high-frequency (HF) voltage injection methods can be distorted by voltage errors due to inverter nonlinearities, motor resistance, and rotational voltage drops, etc. This paper proposes an improved HF square-wave voltage injection algorithm, which is robust to voltage...... errors without any compensations meanwhile has less fluctuation in the position estimation error. The average position estimation error is investigated based on the analysis of phase harmonic inductances, and deduced in the form of the phase shift of the second-order harmonic inductances to derive its...

  3. Robust multiple cue fusion-based high-speed and nonrigid object tracking algorithm for short track speed skating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chenguang; Cheng, Heng-Da; Zhang, Yingtao; Wang, Yuxuan; Xian, Min

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a methodology for tracking multiple skaters in short track speed skating competitions. Nonrigid skaters move at high speed with severe occlusions happening frequently among them. The camera is panned quickly in order to capture the skaters in a large and dynamic scene. To automatically track the skaters and precisely output their trajectories becomes a challenging task in object tracking. We employ the global rink information to compensate camera motion and obtain the global spatial information of skaters, utilize random forest to fuse multiple cues and predict the blob of each skater, and finally apply a silhouette- and edge-based template-matching and blob-evolving method to labelling pixels to a skater. The effectiveness and robustness of the proposed method are verified through thorough experiments.

  4. High-intensity high-volume swimming induces more robust signaling through PGC-1α and AMPK activation than sprint interval swimming in m. triceps brachii

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Casuso, Rafael A; Plaza-Díaz, Julio; Ruiz-Ojeda, Francisco J

    2017-01-01

    We aimed to test whether high-intensity high-volume training (HIHVT) swimming would induce more robust signaling than sprint interval training (SIT) swimming within the m. triceps brachii due to lower metabolic and oxidation. Nine well-trained swimmers performed the two training procedures...... on separate randomized days. Muscle biopsies from m. triceps brachii and blood samples were collected at three different time points: a) before the intervention (pre), b) immediately after the swimming procedures (post) and c) after 3 h of rest (3 h). Hydroperoxides, creatine kinase (CK), and lactate...

  5. Fast and accurate phylogenetic reconstruction from high-resolution whole-genome data and a novel robustness estimator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Y; Rajan, V; Moret, B M E

    2011-09-01

    The rapid accumulation of whole-genome data has renewed interest in the study of genomic rearrangements. Comparative genomics, evolutionary biology, and cancer research all require models and algorithms to elucidate the mechanisms, history, and consequences of these rearrangements. However, even simple models lead to NP-hard problems, particularly in the area of phylogenetic analysis. Current approaches are limited to small collections of genomes and low-resolution data (typically a few hundred syntenic blocks). Moreover, whereas phylogenetic analyses from sequence data are deemed incomplete unless bootstrapping scores (a measure of confidence) are given for each tree edge, no equivalent to bootstrapping exists for rearrangement-based phylogenetic analysis. We describe a fast and accurate algorithm for rearrangement analysis that scales up, in both time and accuracy, to modern high-resolution genomic data. We also describe a novel approach to estimate the robustness of results-an equivalent to the bootstrapping analysis used in sequence-based phylogenetic reconstruction. We present the results of extensive testing on both simulated and real data showing that our algorithm returns very accurate results, while scaling linearly with the size of the genomes and cubically with their number. We also present extensive experimental results showing that our approach to robustness testing provides excellent estimates of confidence, which, moreover, can be tuned to trade off thresholds between false positives and false negatives. Together, these two novel approaches enable us to attack heretofore intractable problems, such as phylogenetic inference for high-resolution vertebrate genomes, as we demonstrate on a set of six vertebrate genomes with 8,380 syntenic blocks. A copy of the software is available on demand.

  6. Progress towards a high-gain and robust target design for heavy ion fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henestroza, Enrique; Grant Logan, B. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States)

    2012-07-15

    Recently [E. Henestroza et al., Phys. Plasmas 18, 032702 (2011)], a new inertial-fusion target configuration, the X-target, using one-sided axial illumination has been explored. This class of target uses annular and solid-profile heavy ion beams to compress and ignite deuterium-tritium (DT) fuel that fills the interior of metal cases that have side-view cross sections in the shape of an 'X.' X-targets using all-DT-filled metal cases imploded by three annular ion beams resulted in fuel densities of {approx}50 g/cm{sup 3} at peak compression, and fusion gains of {approx}50, comparable to heavy ion driven hohlraum targets [D. A. Callahan-Miller and M. Tabak, Phys. Plasmas 7, 2083 (2000)]. This paper discusses updated X-target configurations that incorporate inside the case a propellant (plastic) and a pusher (aluminum) surrounding the DT fuel. The updated configurations are capable of assembling higher fuel areal densities {approx}2 g/cm{sup 2} using two annular beams to implode the target to peak DT densities {approx}100 g/cm{sup 3}, followed by a fast-ignition solid ion beam which heats the high-density fuel to thermonuclear temperatures in {approx}200 ps to start the burn propagation, obtaining gains of {approx}300. These targets have been modeled using the radiation-hydrodynamics code HYDRA [M. M. Marinak et al., Phys. Plasmas 8, 2275 (2001)] in two- and three- dimensions to study the properties of the implosion as well as the ignition and burn propagation phases. At typical Eulerian mesh resolutions of a few microns, the aluminum-DT interface shows negligible Rayleigh-Taylor (RT) and Richtmyer-Meshkov instability growth; also, the shear flow of the DT fuel as it slides along the metal X-target walls, which drives the RT and Kelvin Helmholtz instabilities, does not have a major effect on the burning rate. An analytic estimate of the RT instability process at the Al-DT interface shows that the aluminum spikes generated during the pusher deceleration phase

  7. Inverse beta decay of arbitrarily polarized neutrons in a magnetic field

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Gvozdev and Ognev [3] considered the final electron to be exclusively ... convention, is the positive unit of charge, taken as usual to be equal to the proton charge. ... We stress that the choice of normalization can be arbitrarily made, as will be.

  8. Explicit solution of the Volterra integral equation for transient fields on inhomogeneous arbitrarily shaped dielectric bodies

    KAUST Repository

    Al Jarro, Ahmed

    2011-09-01

    A new predictor-corrector scheme for solving the Volterra integral equation to analyze transient electromagnetic wave interactions with arbitrarily shaped inhomogeneous dielectric bodies is considered. Numerical results demonstrating stability and accuracy of the proposed method are presented. © 2011 IEEE.

  9. Piecewise linearisation of the first order loss function for families of arbitrarily distributed random variables

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rossi, R.; Hendrix, E.M.T.

    2014-01-01

    We discuss the problem of computing optimal linearisation parameters for the first order loss function of a family of arbitrarily distributed random variable. We demonstrate that, in contrast to the problem in which parameters must be determined for the loss function of a single random variable,

  10. Robust Scientists

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gorm Hansen, Birgitte

    their core i nterests, 2) developing a selfsupply of industry interests by becoming entrepreneurs and thus creating their own compliant industry partner and 3) balancing resources within a larger collective of researchers, thus countering changes in the influx of funding caused by shifts in political...... knowledge", Danish research policy seems to have helped develop politically and economically "robust scientists". Scientific robustness is acquired by way of three strategies: 1) tasting and discriminating between resources so as to avoid funding that erodes academic profiles and push scientists away from...

  11. Electromagnetic drift waves dispersion for arbitrarily collisional plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Wonjae, E-mail: wol023@ucsd.edu; Krasheninnikov, Sergei I., E-mail: skrash@mae.ucsd.edu [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, University of California, San Diego, 9500 Gilman Drive, La Jolla, California 92093 (United States); Angus, J. R. [Naval Research Laboratory, 4555 Overlook Avenue, Washington, DC 20375 (United States)

    2015-07-15

    The impacts of the electromagnetic effects on resistive and collisionless drift waves are studied. A local linear analysis on an electromagnetic drift-kinetic equation with Bhatnagar-Gross-Krook-like collision operator demonstrates that the model is valid for describing linear growth rates of drift wave instabilities in a wide range of plasma parameters showing convergence to reference models for limiting cases. The wave-particle interactions drive collisionless drift-Alfvén wave instability in low collisionality and high beta plasma regime. The Landau resonance effects not only excite collisionless drift wave modes but also suppress high frequency electron inertia modes observed from an electromagnetic fluid model in collisionless and low beta regime. Considering ion temperature effects, it is found that the impact of finite Larmor radius effects significantly reduces the growth rate of the drift-Alfvén wave instability with synergistic effects of high beta stabilization and Landau resonance.

  12. A Semianalytical Model for Pumping Tests in Finite Heterogeneous Confined Aquifers With Arbitrarily Shaped Boundary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lei; Dai, Cheng; Xue, Liang

    2018-04-01

    This study presents a Laplace-transform-based boundary element method to model the groundwater flow in a heterogeneous confined finite aquifer with arbitrarily shaped boundaries. The boundary condition can be Dirichlet, Neumann or Robin-type. The derived solution is analytical since it is obtained through the Green's function method within the domain. However, the numerical approximation is required on the boundaries, which essentially renders it a semi-analytical solution. The proposed method can provide a general framework to derive solutions for zoned heterogeneous confined aquifers with arbitrarily shaped boundary. The requirement of the boundary element method presented here is that the Green function must exist for a specific PDE equation. In this study, the linear equations for the two-zone and three-zone confined aquifers with arbitrarily shaped boundary is established in Laplace space, and the solution can be obtained by using any linear solver. Stehfest inversion algorithm can be used to transform it back into time domain to obtain the transient solution. The presented solution is validated in the two-zone cases by reducing the arbitrarily shaped boundaries to circular ones and comparing it with the solution in Lin et al. (2016, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhydrol.2016.07.028). The effect of boundary shape and well location on dimensionless drawdown in two-zone aquifers is investigated. Finally the drawdown distribution in three-zone aquifers with arbitrarily shaped boundary for constant-rate tests (CRT) and flow rate distribution for constant-head tests (CHT) are analyzed.

  13. Highly efficient organic solar Cells based on a robust room-temperature solution-processed copper iodide hole transporter

    KAUST Repository

    Zhao, Kui

    2015-07-30

    Achieving high performance and reliable organic solar cells hinges on the development of stable and energetically suitable hole transporting buffer layers in tune with the electrode and photoactive materials of the solar cell stack. Here we have identified solution-processed copper(I) iodide (CuI) thin films with low-temperature processing conditions as an effective hole–transporting layer (HTL) for a wide range of polymer:fullerene bulk heterojunction (BHJ) systems. The solar cells using CuI HTL show higher power conversion efficiency (PCE) in standard device structure for polymer blends, up to PCE of 8.8%, as compared with poly(3,4-ethylenedioxy-thiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) HTL, for a broad range of polymer:fullerene systems. The CuI layer properties and solar cell device behavior are shown to be remarkably robust and insensitive to a wide range of processing conditions of the HTL, including processing solvent, annealing temperature (room temperature up to 200 °C), and film thickness. CuI is also shown to improve the overall lifetime of solar cells in the standard architecture as compared to PEDOT:PSS. We further demonstrate promising solar cell performance when using CuI as top HTL in an inverted device architecture. The observation of uncommon properties, such as photoconductivity of CuI and templating effects on the BHJ layer formation, are also discussed. This study points to CuI as being a good candidate to replace PEDOT:PSS in solution-processed solar cells thanks to the facile implementation and demonstrated robustness of CuI thin films.

  14. Highly efficient organic solar Cells based on a robust room-temperature solution-processed copper iodide hole transporter

    KAUST Repository

    Zhao, Kui; Ngongang Ndjawa, Guy Olivier; Jagadamma, Lethy Krishnan; El Labban, Abdulrahman; Hu, Hanlin; Wang, Qingxiao; Li, Ruipeng; Abdelsamie, Maged; Beaujuge, Pierre; Amassian, Aram

    2015-01-01

    Achieving high performance and reliable organic solar cells hinges on the development of stable and energetically suitable hole transporting buffer layers in tune with the electrode and photoactive materials of the solar cell stack. Here we have identified solution-processed copper(I) iodide (CuI) thin films with low-temperature processing conditions as an effective hole–transporting layer (HTL) for a wide range of polymer:fullerene bulk heterojunction (BHJ) systems. The solar cells using CuI HTL show higher power conversion efficiency (PCE) in standard device structure for polymer blends, up to PCE of 8.8%, as compared with poly(3,4-ethylenedioxy-thiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) HTL, for a broad range of polymer:fullerene systems. The CuI layer properties and solar cell device behavior are shown to be remarkably robust and insensitive to a wide range of processing conditions of the HTL, including processing solvent, annealing temperature (room temperature up to 200 °C), and film thickness. CuI is also shown to improve the overall lifetime of solar cells in the standard architecture as compared to PEDOT:PSS. We further demonstrate promising solar cell performance when using CuI as top HTL in an inverted device architecture. The observation of uncommon properties, such as photoconductivity of CuI and templating effects on the BHJ layer formation, are also discussed. This study points to CuI as being a good candidate to replace PEDOT:PSS in solution-processed solar cells thanks to the facile implementation and demonstrated robustness of CuI thin films.

  15. Sequential function approximation on arbitrarily distributed point sets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Kailiang; Xiu, Dongbin

    2018-02-01

    We present a randomized iterative method for approximating unknown function sequentially on arbitrary point set. The method is based on a recently developed sequential approximation (SA) method, which approximates a target function using one data point at each step and avoids matrix operations. The focus of this paper is on data sets with highly irregular distribution of the points. We present a nearest neighbor replacement (NNR) algorithm, which allows one to sample the irregular data sets in a near optimal manner. We provide mathematical justification and error estimates for the NNR algorithm. Extensive numerical examples are also presented to demonstrate that the NNR algorithm can deliver satisfactory convergence for the SA method on data sets with high irregularity in their point distributions.

  16. 3D Polyaniline Architecture by Concurrent Inorganic and Organic Acid Doping for Superior and Robust High Rate Supercapacitor Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gawli, Yogesh; Banerjee, Abhik; Dhakras, Dipti; Deo, Meenal; Bulani, Dinesh; Wadgaonkar, Prakash; Shelke, Manjusha; Ogale, Satishchandra

    2016-02-01

    A good high rate supercapacitor performance requires a fine control of morphological (surface area and pore size distribution) and electrical properties of the electrode materials. Polyaniline (PANI) is an interesting material in supercapacitor context because it stores energy Faradaically. However in conventional inorganic (e.g. HCl) acid doping, the conductivity is high but the morphological features are undesirable. On the other hand, in weak organic acid (e.g. phytic acid) doping, interesting and desirable 3D connected morphological features are attained but the conductivity is poorer. Here the synergy of the positive quality factors of these two acid doping approaches is realized by concurrent and optimized strong-inorganic (HCl) and weak-organic (phytic) acid doping, resulting in a molecular composite material that renders impressive and robust supercapacitor performance. Thus, a nearly constant high specific capacitance of 350 F g-1 is realized for the optimised case of binary doping over the entire range of 1 A g-1 to 40 A g-1 with stability of 500 cycles at 40 A g-1. Frequency dependant conductivity measurements show that the optimized co-doped case is more metallic than separately doped materials. This transport property emanates from the unique 3D single molecular character of such system.

  17. A simple, robust and efficient high-order accurate shock-capturing scheme for compressible flows: Towards minimalism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohwada, Taku; Shibata, Yuki; Kato, Takuma; Nakamura, Taichi

    2018-06-01

    Developed is a high-order accurate shock-capturing scheme for the compressible Euler/Navier-Stokes equations; the formal accuracy is 5th order in space and 4th order in time. The performance and efficiency of the scheme are validated in various numerical tests. The main ingredients of the scheme are nothing special; they are variants of the standard numerical flux, MUSCL, the usual Lagrange's polynomial and the conventional Runge-Kutta method. The scheme can compute a boundary layer accurately with a rational resolution and capture a stationary contact discontinuity sharply without inner points. And yet it is endowed with high resistance against shock anomalies (carbuncle phenomenon, post-shock oscillations, etc.). A good balance between high robustness and low dissipation is achieved by blending three types of numerical fluxes according to physical situation in an intuitively easy-to-understand way. The performance of the scheme is largely comparable to that of WENO5-Rusanov, while its computational cost is 30-40% less than of that of the advanced scheme.

  18. 3D Polyaniline Architecture by Concurrent Inorganic and Organic Acid Doping for Superior and Robust High Rate Supercapacitor Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gawli, Yogesh; Banerjee, Abhik; Dhakras, Dipti; Deo, Meenal; Bulani, Dinesh; Wadgaonkar, Prakash; Shelke, Manjusha; Ogale, Satishchandra

    2016-02-12

    A good high rate supercapacitor performance requires a fine control of morphological (surface area and pore size distribution) and electrical properties of the electrode materials. Polyaniline (PANI) is an interesting material in supercapacitor context because it stores energy Faradaically. However in conventional inorganic (e.g. HCl) acid doping, the conductivity is high but the morphological features are undesirable. On the other hand, in weak organic acid (e.g. phytic acid) doping, interesting and desirable 3D connected morphological features are attained but the conductivity is poorer. Here the synergy of the positive quality factors of these two acid doping approaches is realized by concurrent and optimized strong-inorganic (HCl) and weak-organic (phytic) acid doping, resulting in a molecular composite material that renders impressive and robust supercapacitor performance. Thus, a nearly constant high specific capacitance of 350 F g(-1) is realized for the optimised case of binary doping over the entire range of 1 A g(-1) to 40 A g(-1) with stability of 500 cycles at 40 A g(-1). Frequency dependant conductivity measurements show that the optimized co-doped case is more metallic than separately doped materials. This transport property emanates from the unique 3D single molecular character of such system.

  19. Arbitrarily amplified DNA: New molecular approaches to plant breeding, ecology and evolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caetano-Anolles, G [Department of Biology, University of Oslo, Oslo (Norway)

    2001-11-01

    Several DNA fingerprinting techniques that use arbitrary primers to characterize, scan and tag genomic DNA were optimized and used to study plants and microbial pathogens. The generated arbitrarily amplified DNA (AAD) profiles could be tailored in their complexity and polymorphic content, allowing analysis of closely related organisms, such as vegetatively-propagated horticultural crops or clonal fungal populations. AAD markers were used in cultivar and strain identification, map-based cloning, and marker-assisted breeding, sometimes as sequence-tagged sites. Phenetic analysis using parsimony, cluster, and numerical methods was applied successfully to the identification of genetic relationships in turfgrass species such as bermudagrass, woody plants such as dogwoods, and floricultural species such as petunia and chrysanthemum. AAD profiles were used to measure for the first time a genome-wide mutation rate, directly in a plant. Mutation rates in vegetatively propagated bermudagrass were comparable to those in human, mice, fruit flies, and worms. In combination with established tools used in molecular systematics (e.g. rDNA sequence analysis), AAD markers tracked the introduction of exotic dogwood anthracnose-causing fungi in North America. As part of a breeding effort to combat dogwood diseases, AAD was used in pseudo-testcross mapping of the tree at the intra-specific level. Markers were efficiently generated despite the close relatedness of parental dogwood material. Finally, DNA markers and tags were also generated in soybean, and were used to construct high density maps and walk towards defined genomic regions in the positional cloning of the supernodulation nts-1 symbiotic gene. (author)

  20. Arbitrarily amplified DNA: New molecular approaches to plant breeding, ecology and evolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caetano-Anolles, G.

    2001-01-01

    Several DNA fingerprinting techniques that use arbitrary primers to characterize, scan and tag genomic DNA were optimized and used to study plants and microbial pathogens. The generated arbitrarily amplified DNA (AAD) profiles could be tailored in their complexity and polymorphic content, allowing analysis of closely related organisms, such as vegetatively-propagated horticultural crops or clonal fungal populations. AAD markers were used in cultivar and strain identification, map-based cloning, and marker-assisted breeding, sometimes as sequence-tagged sites. Phenetic analysis using parsimony, cluster, and numerical methods was applied successfully to the identification of genetic relationships in turfgrass species such as bermudagrass, woody plants such as dogwoods, and floricultural species such as petunia and chrysanthemum. AAD profiles were used to measure for the first time a genome-wide mutation rate, directly in a plant. Mutation rates in vegetatively propagated bermudagrass were comparable to those in human, mice, fruit flies, and worms. In combination with established tools used in molecular systematics (e.g. rDNA sequence analysis), AAD markers tracked the introduction of exotic dogwood anthracnose-causing fungi in North America. As part of a breeding effort to combat dogwood diseases, AAD was used in pseudo-testcross mapping of the tree at the intra-specific level. Markers were efficiently generated despite the close relatedness of parental dogwood material. Finally, DNA markers and tags were also generated in soybean, and were used to construct high density maps and walk towards defined genomic regions in the positional cloning of the supernodulation nts-1 symbiotic gene. (author)

  1. Silver mirror reaction as an approach to construct a durable, robust superhydrophobic surface of bamboo timber with high conductivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jin, Chunde; Li, Jingpeng [School of Engineering, Zhejiang Agricultural and Forestry University, Lin’an 311300 (China); Key Laboratory of Wood Science and Technology, Zhejiang Province (China); Han, Shenjie; Wang, Jin; Yao, Qiufang [School of Engineering, Zhejiang Agricultural and Forestry University, Lin’an 311300 (China); Sun, Qingfeng, E-mail: zafuqfsun@163.com [School of Engineering, Zhejiang Agricultural and Forestry University, Lin’an 311300 (China); Key Laboratory of Wood Science and Technology, Zhejiang Province (China)

    2015-06-25

    Highlights: • Ag NPs were deposited onto the surface of bamboo timber by silver mirror reaction. • The Ag NPs made the intrinsic insulating bamboo timber have a high conductivity. • The modified surfaces displayed superhydrophobicity even for corrosive solutions. - Abstract: Silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) were successfully in situ deposited onto the surface of the bamboo timber through a simple silver mirror reaction. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images showed that the surface of the bamboo timber was densely covered with the uniform Ag NPs, which made the intrinsic insulating bamboo timber conductive. With further modification by fluoroalkylsilane (FAS), the Ag NPs-covered bamboo timber showed superhydrophobicity with the water contact angle (WCA) of 155°. Simultaneously, the modified bamboo timber displayed a durable and robust superhydrophobic property even under corrosive solutions including acidic, alkali and NaCl solutions with different molar concentrations. Especially in harsh conditions of boiling water or intense water stirring, the modified bamboo timber remained superhydrophobicity and high conductivity.

  2. High resolution bone material property assignment yields robust subject specific finite element models of complex thin bone structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pakdel, Amirreza; Fialkov, Jeffrey; Whyne, Cari M

    2016-06-14

    Accurate finite element (FE) modeling of complex skeletal anatomy requires high resolution in both meshing and the heterogeneous mapping of material properties onto the generated mesh. This study introduces Node-based elastic Modulus Assignment with Partial-volume correction (NMAP) as a new approach for FE material property assignment to thin bone structures. The NMAP approach incorporates point spread function based deblurring of CT images, partial-volume correction of CT image voxel intensities and anisotropic interpolation and mapping of CT intensity assignment to FE mesh nodes. The NMAP procedure combined with a derived craniomaxillo-facial skeleton (CMFS) specific density-isotropic elastic modulus relationship was applied to produce specimen-specific FE models of 6 cadaveric heads. The NMAP procedure successfully generated models of the complex thin bone structures with surface elastic moduli reflective of cortical bone material properties. The specimen-specific CMFS FE models were able to accurately predict experimental strains measured under in vitro temporalis and masseter muscle loading (r=0.93, slope=1.01, n=5). The strength of this correlation represents a robust validation for CMFS FE modeling that can be used to better understand load transfer in this complex musculoskeletal system. The developed methodology offers a systematic process-flow able to address the complexity of the CMFS that can be further applied to create high-fidelity models of any musculoskeletal anatomy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. A Reconfigurable Buck, Boost, and Buck-Boost Converter: Unified Model and Robust Controller

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martín Antonio Rodríguez Licea

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The need for reconfigurable, high power density, and low-cost configurations of DC-DC power electronic converters (PEC in areas such as the transport electrification and the use of renewable energy has spread out the requirement to incorporate in a single circuit several topologies, which generally result in an increment of complexity about the modeling, control, and stability analyses. In this paper, a reconfigurable topology is presented which can be applied in alterative/changing power conversion scenarios and consists of a reconfigurable Buck, Boost, and Buck-Boost DC-DC converter (RBBC. A unified averaged model of the RBBC is obtained, a robust controller is designed through a polytopic representation, and a Lyapunov based switched stability analysis of the closed-loop system is presented. The reported RBBC provides a wide range of voltage operation, theoretically from -∞ to ∞ volts with a single power source. Robust stability, even under arbitrarily fast (bounded parameter variations and reconfiguration changes, is reported including numerical and experimental results. The main advantages of the converter and the robust controller proposed are simple design, robustness against abrupt changes in the parameters, and low cost.

  4. High-Performance Quantum Dot Thin-Film Transistors with Environmentally Benign Surface Functionalization and Robust Defect Passivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Su Min; Kang, Han Lim; Won, Jong Kook; Kim, JaeHyun; Hwang, ChaHwan; Ahn, KyungHan; Chung, In; Ju, Byeong-Kwon; Kim, Myung-Gil; Park, Sung Kyu

    2018-01-31

    The recent development of high-performance colloidal quantum dot (QD) thin-film transistors (TFTs) has been achieved with removal of surface ligand, defect passivation, and facile electronic doping. Here, we report on high-performance solution-processed CdSe QD-TFTs with an optimized surface functionalization and robust defect passivation via hydrazine-free metal chalcogenide (MCC) ligands. The underlying mechanism of the ligand effects on CdSe QDs has been studied with hydrazine-free ex situ reaction derived MCC ligands, such as Sn 2 S 6 4- , Sn 2 Se 6 4- , and In 2 Se 4 2- , to allow benign solution-process available. Furthermore, the defect passivation and remote n-type doping effects have been investigated by incorporating indium nanoparticles over the QD layer. Strong electronic coupling and solid defect passivation of QDs could be achieved by introducing electronically active MCC capping and thermal diffusion of the indium nanoparticles, respectively. It is also noteworthy that the diffused indium nanoparticles facilitate charge injection not only inter-QDs but also between source/drain electrodes and the QD semiconductors, significantly reducing contact resistance. With benign organic solvents, the Sn 2 S 6 4- , Sn 2 Se 6 4- , and In 2 Se 4 2- ligand based QD-TFTs exhibited field-effect mobilities exceeding 4.8, 12.0, and 44.2 cm 2 /(V s), respectively. The results reported here imply that the incorporation of MCC ligands and appropriate dopants provide a general route to high-performance, extremely stable solution-processed QD-based electronic devices with marginal toxicity, offering compatibility with standard complementary metal oxide semiconductor processing and large-scale on-chip device applications.

  5. A Robust High-Performance GPS L1 Receiver with Single-stage Quadrature Redio-Frequency Circuit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jianghua; Xu, Weilin; Wan, Qinq; Liu, Tianci

    2018-03-01

    A low power current reuse single-stage quadrature raido-frequency part (SQRF) is proposed for GPS L1 receiver in 180nm CMOS process. The proposed circuit consists of LNA, Mixer, QVCO, is called the QLMV cell. A two blocks stacked topology is adopted in this design. The parallel QVCO and mixer placed on the top forms the upper stacked block, and the LNA placed on the bottom forms the other stacked block. The two blocks share the current and achieve low power performance. To improve the stability, a float current source is proposed. The float current isolated the local oscillation signal and the input RF signal, which bring the whole circuit robust high-performance. The result shows conversion gain is 34 dB, noise figure is three dB, the phase noise is -110 dBc/Hz at 1MHz and IIP3 is -20 dBm. The proposed circuit dissipated 1.7mW with 1 V supply voltage.

  6. Green Fabrication of Ultrathin Co3O4 Nanosheets from Metal-Organic Framework for Robust High-Rate Supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Zhenyu; Fan, Lili; Xu, Ben; Zhang, Shanqing; Kang, Wenpei; Kang, Zixi; Lin, Huan; Liu, Xiuping; Zhang, Shiyu; Sun, Daofeng

    2017-12-06

    Two-dimensional cobalt oxide (Co 3 O 4 ) is a promising candidate for robust electrochemical capacitors with high performance. Herein, we use 2,3,5,6-tetramethyl-1,4-diisophthalate as a recyclable ligand to construct a Co-based metal-organic framework of UPC-9, and subsequently, we obtain ultrathin hierarchical Co 3 O 4 hexagonal nanosheets with a thickness of 3.5 nm through a hydrolysis and calcination process. A remarkable and excellent specific capacitance of 1121 F·g -1 at a current density of 1 A·g -1 and 873 F·g -1 at a current density of 25 A·g -1 were achieved for the as-prepared asymmetric supercapacitor, which can be attributed to the ultrathin 2D morphology and the rich macroporous and mesoporous structures of the ultrathin Co 3 O 4 nanosheets. This synthesis strategy is environmentally benign and economically viable due to the fact that the costly organic ligand molecules are recycled, reducing the materials cost as well as the environmental cost for the synthesis process.

  7. Constructing robust and highly-selective hydrogel membranes by bioadhesion-inspired method for CO 2 separation

    KAUST Repository

    Wu, Yingzhen

    2018-06-01

    Water-swollen hydrogel membranes are good candidates for CO2 separations due to the favorable solubility of CO2 in water. However, the excessive amount of water often causes the poor mechanical property and low selectivity. Herein, we propose a bioadhesion-inspired method to construct robust and high-performance CO2 separation membranes via in situ generation of polydopamine (PDA) nanoaggregates within poly (vinyl alcohol) (PVA) matrix. PDA nanoaggregates entangled with PVA chains and formed hydrogen bonding with hydroxyl groups from PVA chains. Physical cross-linking occurred between PVA chains and PDA nanoaggregates. Compared with the PVA membrane, the PVA-PDA hybrid membrane with the dopamine content of 0.5mol% exhibited a 1.7-fold increase in tensile strength and a 2.2-fold increase in the tensile modulus. The membranes were used for CO2/CH4 separation. The physical cross-linking resulted in a PVA chain rigidification region around PDA nanoaggregates, which hindered the penetration of larger-size gas molecules and thus enhancing the CO2/CH4 selectivity. Moreover, the abundant amine groups from PDA nanoaggregates could facilitate CO2 transport. The optimized hybrid hydrogel membrane exhibited CO2/CH4 selectivity of 43.2, which was 43.85% higher than that of the PVA membrane. The bioadhesion-inspired method opens up new opportunities to exploit the potential application of hydrogel membranes.

  8. Transforming a Simple Commercial Glue into Highly Robust Superhydrophobic Surfaces via Aerosol-Assisted Chemical Vapor Deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, Aoyun; Liao, Ruijin; Lu, Yao; Dixon, Sebastian C; Jiamprasertboon, Arreerat; Chen, Faze; Sathasivam, Sanjayan; Parkin, Ivan P; Carmalt, Claire J

    2017-12-06

    Robust superhydrophobic surfaces were synthesized as composites of the widely commercially available adhesives epoxy resin (EP) and polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS). The EP layer provided a strongly adhered micro/nanoscale structure on the substrates, while the PDMS was used as a post-treatment to lower the surface energy. In this study, the depositions of EP films were taken at a range of temperatures, deposition times, and substrates via aerosol-assisted chemical vapor deposition (AACVD). A novel dynamic deposition temperature approach was developed to create multiple-layered periodic micro/nanostructures that significantly improved the surface mechanical durability. Water droplet contact angles (CA) of 160° were observed with droplet sliding angles (SA) frequently UV testing (365 nm, 3.7 mW/cm 2 , 120 h) were carried out to exhibit the environmental stability of the films. Self-cleaning behavior was demonstrated in clearing the surfaces of various contaminating powders and aqueous dyes. This facile and flexible method for fabricating highly durable superhydrophobic polymer films points to a promising future for AACVD in their scalable and low-cost production.

  9. Approximating the Pareto set of multiobjective linear programs via robust optimization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gorissen, B.L.; den Hertog, D.

    2012-01-01

    We consider problems with multiple linear objectives and linear constraints and use adjustable robust optimization and polynomial optimization as tools to approximate the Pareto set with polynomials of arbitrarily large degree. The main difference with existing techniques is that we optimize a

  10. Numerical generation of boundary-fitted curvilinear coordinate systems for arbitrarily curved surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takagi, T.; Miki, K.; Chen, B.C.J.; Sha, W.T.

    1985-01-01

    A new method is presented for numerically generating boundary-fitted coordinate systems for arbitrarily curved surfaces. The three-dimensional surface has been expressed by functions of two parameters using the geometrical modeling techniques in computer graphics. This leads to new quasi-one- and two-dimensional elliptic partial differential equations for coordinate transformation. Since the equations involve the derivatives of the surface expressions, the grids geneated by the equations distribute on the surface depending on its slope and curvature. A computer program GRID-CS based on the method was developed and applied to a surface of the second order, a torus and a surface of a primary containment vessel for a nuclear reactor. These applications confirm that GRID-CS is a convenient and efficient tool for grid generation on arbitrarily curved surfaces

  11. Two-dimensional Potts antiferromagnets with a phase transition at arbitrarily large q

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Huang, Y.; Chen, K.; Deng, Y.; Jacobsen, J. L.; Kotecký, R.; Salas, J.; Sokal, Alan D.; Swart, Jan M.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 87, Č. 1 (2013), 12136-1-12136-5 ISSN 1539-3755 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP201/12/2613 Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : Monte Carlo simulation * two-dimensional lattices * q-state Potts Subject RIV: BE - Theoretical Physics Impact factor: 2.326, year: 2013 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2013/SI/swart-two-dimensional potts antiferromagnets with a phase transition at arbitrarily large q.pdf

  12. Construction of 3D Metallic Nanostructures on an Arbitrarily Shaped Substrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Fei; Li, Jingning; Yu, Fangfang; Zhao, Di; Wang, Fan; Chen, Yanbin; Peng, Ru-Wen; Wang, Mu

    2016-09-01

    Constructing conductive/magnetic nanowire arrays with 3D features by electrodeposition remains challenging. An unprecedented fabrication approach that allows to construct metallic (cobalt) nanowires on an arbitrarily shaped surface is reported. The spatial separation of nanowires varies from 70 to 3000 nm and the line width changes from 50 to 250 nm depending on growth conditions. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. High-performance integrated virtual environment (HIVE): a robust infrastructure for next-generation sequence data analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonyan, Vahan; Chumakov, Konstantin; Dingerdissen, Hayley; Faison, William; Goldweber, Scott; Golikov, Anton; Gulzar, Naila; Karagiannis, Konstantinos; Vinh Nguyen Lam, Phuc; Maudru, Thomas; Muravitskaja, Olesja; Osipova, Ekaterina; Pan, Yang; Pschenichnov, Alexey; Rostovtsev, Alexandre; Santana-Quintero, Luis; Smith, Krista; Thompson, Elaine E; Tkachenko, Valery; Torcivia-Rodriguez, John; Voskanian, Alin; Wan, Quan; Wang, Jing; Wu, Tsung-Jung; Wilson, Carolyn; Mazumder, Raja

    2016-01-01

    The High-performance Integrated Virtual Environment (HIVE) is a distributed storage and compute environment designed primarily to handle next-generation sequencing (NGS) data. This multicomponent cloud infrastructure provides secure web access for authorized users to deposit, retrieve, annotate and compute on NGS data, and to analyse the outcomes using web interface visual environments appropriately built in collaboration with research and regulatory scientists and other end users. Unlike many massively parallel computing environments, HIVE uses a cloud control server which virtualizes services, not processes. It is both very robust and flexible due to the abstraction layer introduced between computational requests and operating system processes. The novel paradigm of moving computations to the data, instead of moving data to computational nodes, has proven to be significantly less taxing for both hardware and network infrastructure.The honeycomb data model developed for HIVE integrates metadata into an object-oriented model. Its distinction from other object-oriented databases is in the additional implementation of a unified application program interface to search, view and manipulate data of all types. This model simplifies the introduction of new data types, thereby minimizing the need for database restructuring and streamlining the development of new integrated information systems. The honeycomb model employs a highly secure hierarchical access control and permission system, allowing determination of data access privileges in a finely granular manner without flooding the security subsystem with a multiplicity of rules. HIVE infrastructure will allow engineers and scientists to perform NGS analysis in a manner that is both efficient and secure. HIVE is actively supported in public and private domains, and project collaborations are welcomed. Database URL: https://hive.biochemistry.gwu.edu. © The Author(s) 2016. Published by Oxford University Press.

  14. High-accuracy and robust face recognition system based on optical parallel correlator using a temporal image sequence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Eriko; Ishikawa, Mami; Ohta, Maiko; Kodate, Kashiko

    2005-09-01

    Face recognition is used in a wide range of security systems, such as monitoring credit card use, searching for individuals with street cameras via Internet and maintaining immigration control. There are still many technical subjects under study. For instance, the number of images that can be stored is limited under the current system, and the rate of recognition must be improved to account for photo shots taken at different angles under various conditions. We implemented a fully automatic Fast Face Recognition Optical Correlator (FARCO) system by using a 1000 frame/s optical parallel correlator designed and assembled by us. Operational speed for the 1: N (i.e. matching a pair of images among N, where N refers to the number of images in the database) identification experiment (4000 face images) amounts to less than 1.5 seconds, including the pre/post processing. From trial 1: N identification experiments using FARCO, we acquired low error rates of 2.6% False Reject Rate and 1.3% False Accept Rate. By making the most of the high-speed data-processing capability of this system, much more robustness can be achieved for various recognition conditions when large-category data are registered for a single person. We propose a face recognition algorithm for the FARCO while employing a temporal image sequence of moving images. Applying this algorithm to a natural posture, a two times higher recognition rate scored compared with our conventional system. The system has high potential for future use in a variety of purposes such as search for criminal suspects by use of street and airport video cameras, registration of babies at hospitals or handling of an immeasurable number of images in a database.

  15. Robustness of Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes the background of the robustness requirements implemented in the Danish Code of Practice for Safety of Structures and in the Danish National Annex to the Eurocode 0, see (DS-INF 146, 2003), (DS 409, 2006), (EN 1990 DK NA, 2007) and (Sørensen and Christensen, 2006). More...... frequent use of advanced types of structures with limited redundancy and serious consequences in case of failure combined with increased requirements to efficiency in design and execution followed by increased risk of human errors has made the need of requirements to robustness of new structures essential....... According to Danish design rules robustness shall be documented for all structures in high consequence class. The design procedure to document sufficient robustness consists of: 1) Review of loads and possible failure modes / scenarios and determination of acceptable collapse extent; 2) Review...

  16. Zeolite Y Adsorbents with High Vapor Uptake Capacity and Robust Cycling Stability for Potential Applications in Advanced Adsorption Heat Pumps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiansen; Narayanan, Shankar; Michaelis, Vladimir K; Ong, Ta-Chung; Keeler, Eric G; Kim, Hyunho; McKay, Ian S; Griffin, Robert G; Wang, Evelyn N

    2015-01-01

    Modular and compact adsorption heat pumps (AHPs) promise an energy-efficient alternative to conventional vapor compression based heating, ventilation and air conditioning systems. A key element in the advancement of AHPs is the development of adsorbents with high uptake capacity, fast intracrystalline diffusivity and durable hydrothermal stability. Herein, the ion exchange of NaY zeolites with ingoing Mg 2+ ions is systematically studied to maximize the ion exchange degree (IED) for improved sorption performance. It is found that beyond an ion exchange threshold of 64.1%, deeper ion exchange does not benefit water uptake capacity or characteristic adsorption energy, but does enhance the vapor diffusivity. In addition to using water as an adsorbate, the uptake properties of Mg,Na-Y zeolites were investigated using 20 wt.% MeOH aqueous solution as a novel anti-freeze adsorbate, revealing that the MeOH additive has an insignificant influence on the overall sorption performance. We also demonstrated that the labscale synthetic scalability is robust, and that the tailored zeolites scarcely suffer from hydrothermal stability even after successive 108-fold adsorption/desorption cycles. The samples were analyzed using N 2 sorption, 27 Al/ 29 Si MAS NMR spectroscopy, ICP-AES, dynamic vapor sorption, SEM, Fick's 2 nd law and D-R equation regressions. Among these, close examination of sorption isotherms for H 2 O and N 2 adsorbates allows us to decouple and extract some insightful information underlying the complex water uptake phenomena. This work shows the promising performance of our modified zeolites that can be integrated into various AHP designs for buildings, electronics, and transportation applications.

  17. Robust Design of a Particle-Free Silver-Organo-Complex Ink with High Conductivity and Inkjet Stability for Flexible Electronics

    KAUST Repository

    Vaseem, Mohammad; McKerricher, Garret; Shamim, Atif

    2015-01-01

    Currently, silver-nanoparticle-based inkjet ink is commercially available. This type of ink has several serious problems such as a complex synthesis protocol, high cost, high sintering temperatures (∼200 °C), particle aggregation, nozzle clogging, poor shelf life, and jetting instability. For the emerging field of printed electronics, these shortcomings in conductive inks are barriers for their widespread use in practical applications. Formulating particle-free silver inks has potential to solve these issues and requires careful design of the silver complexation. The ink complex must meet various requirements, such as in situ reduction, optimum viscosity, storage and jetting stability, smooth uniform sintered films, excellent adhesion, and high conductivity. This study presents a robust formulation of silver–organo-complex (SOC) ink, where complexing molecules act as reducing agents. The 17 wt % silver loaded ink was printed and sintered on a wide range of substrates with uniform surface morphology and excellent adhesion. The jetting stability was monitored for 5 months to confirm that the ink was robust and highly stable with consistent jetting performance. Radio frequency inductors, which are highly sensitive to metal quality, were demonstrated as a proof of concept on flexible PEN substrate. This is a major step toward producing high-quality electronic components with a robust inkjet printing process.

  18. Robust Design of a Particle-Free Silver-Organo-Complex Ink with High Conductivity and Inkjet Stability for Flexible Electronics

    KAUST Repository

    Vaseem, Mohammad

    2015-12-29

    Currently, silver-nanoparticle-based inkjet ink is commercially available. This type of ink has several serious problems such as a complex synthesis protocol, high cost, high sintering temperatures (∼200 °C), particle aggregation, nozzle clogging, poor shelf life, and jetting instability. For the emerging field of printed electronics, these shortcomings in conductive inks are barriers for their widespread use in practical applications. Formulating particle-free silver inks has potential to solve these issues and requires careful design of the silver complexation. The ink complex must meet various requirements, such as in situ reduction, optimum viscosity, storage and jetting stability, smooth uniform sintered films, excellent adhesion, and high conductivity. This study presents a robust formulation of silver–organo-complex (SOC) ink, where complexing molecules act as reducing agents. The 17 wt % silver loaded ink was printed and sintered on a wide range of substrates with uniform surface morphology and excellent adhesion. The jetting stability was monitored for 5 months to confirm that the ink was robust and highly stable with consistent jetting performance. Radio frequency inductors, which are highly sensitive to metal quality, were demonstrated as a proof of concept on flexible PEN substrate. This is a major step toward producing high-quality electronic components with a robust inkjet printing process.

  19. Calculation of pressure fields from arbitrarily shaped, apodized, and excited ultrasound transducers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jørgen Arendt; Svendsen, Niels Bruun

    1992-01-01

    A method for simulation of pulsed pressure fields from arbitrarily shaped, apodized and excited ultrasound transducers is suggested. It relies on the Tupholme-Stepanishen method for calculating pulsed pressure fields, and can also handle the continuous wave and pulse-echo case. The field...... is calculated by dividing the surface into small rectangles and then Summing their response. A fast calculation is obtained by using the far-field approximation. Examples of the accuracy of the approach and actual calculation times are given...

  20. Production of a Scalar Boson and a Fermion Pair in Arbitrarily Polarized e - e + Beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullayev, S. K.; Gojayev, M. Sh.; Nasibova, N. A.

    2018-05-01

    Within the framework of the Standard Model (Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model) we consider the production of the scalar boson HSM (h; H) and a fermion pair ff- in arbitrarily polarized, counterpropagating electron-positron beams e - e + ⇒ HSM (h; H) ff-. Characteristic features of the behavior of the cross sections and polarization characteristics (right-left spin asymmetry, degree of longitudinal polarization of the fermion, and transverse spin asymmetry) are investigated and elucidated as functions of the energy of the electron-positron beams and the mass of the scalar boson.

  1. Realization of arbitrarily long focus-depth optical vortices with spiral area-varying zone plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Chenglong; Zang, Huaping; Du, Yanli; Tian, Yongzhi; Ji, Ziwen; Zhang, Jing; Fan, Quanping; Wang, Chuanke; Cao, Leifeng; Liang, Erjun

    2018-05-01

    We provide a methodology to realize an optical vortex with arbitrarily long focus-depth. With a technique of varying each zone area of a phase spiral zone plate one can obtain optics capable of generating ultra-long focus-depth optical vortex from a plane wave. The focal property of such optics was analysed using the Fresnel diffraction theory, and an experimental demonstration was performed to verify its effectiveness. Such optics may bring new opportunity and benefits for optical vortex application such as optical manipulation and lithography.

  2. Analytical calculation of the solid angle subtended by an arbitrarily positioned ellipsoid to a point source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heitz, Eric

    2017-01-01

    We present a geometric method for computing an ellipse that subtends the same solid-angle domain as an arbitrarily positioned ellipsoid. With this method we can extend existing analytical solid-angle calculations of ellipses to ellipsoids. Our idea consists of applying a linear transformation on the ellipsoid such that it is transformed into a sphere from which a disk that covers the same solid-angle domain can be computed. We demonstrate that by applying the inverse linear transformation on this disk we obtain an ellipse that subtends the same solid-angle domain as the ellipsoid. We provide a MATLAB implementation of our algorithm and we validate it numerically.

  3. Revisiting the Majority Problem: Average-Case Analysis with Arbitrarily Many Colours

    OpenAIRE

    Kleerekoper, Anthony

    2016-01-01

    The majority problem is a special case of the heavy hitters problem. Given a collection of coloured balls, the task is to identify the majority colour or state that no such colour exists. Whilst the special case of two-colours has been well studied, the average-case performance for arbitrarily many colours has not. In this paper, we present heuristic analysis of the average-case performance of three deterministic algorithms that appear in the literature. We empirically validate our analysis w...

  4. Optical parametric amplification of arbitrarily polarized light in periodically poled LiNbO3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Guang-hao; Song, Xiao-shi; Xu, Fei; Lu, Yan-qing

    2012-08-13

    Optical parametric amplification (OPA) of arbitrarily polarized light is proposed in a multi-section periodically poled Lithium Niobate (PPLN). External electric field is applied on selected sections to induce the polarization rotation of involved lights, thus the quasi-phase matched optical parametric processes exhibit polarization insensitivity under suitable voltage. In addition to the amplified signal wave, an idler wave with the same polarization is generated simultaneously. As an example, a ~10 times OPA showing polarization independency is simulated. Applications of this technology are also discussed.

  5. Analytical calculation of the solid angle subtended by an arbitrarily positioned ellipsoid to a point source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heitz, Eric, E-mail: eheitz.research@gmail.com

    2017-04-21

    We present a geometric method for computing an ellipse that subtends the same solid-angle domain as an arbitrarily positioned ellipsoid. With this method we can extend existing analytical solid-angle calculations of ellipses to ellipsoids. Our idea consists of applying a linear transformation on the ellipsoid such that it is transformed into a sphere from which a disk that covers the same solid-angle domain can be computed. We demonstrate that by applying the inverse linear transformation on this disk we obtain an ellipse that subtends the same solid-angle domain as the ellipsoid. We provide a MATLAB implementation of our algorithm and we validate it numerically.

  6. Time-Domain Analytical Expression for Near Fields of Arbitrarily Oriented Electric Dipole and Its Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian Yang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The near fields of electric dipole are commonly used in wide-band analysis of complex electromagnetic problems. In this paper, we propose new near field time-domain expressions for electric dipole. The analytical expressions for the frequency-domain of arbitrarily oriented electric dipole are given at first; next we give the time-domain expressions by time-frequency transformation. The proposed expressions are used in hybrid TDIE/DGTD method for analysis of circular antenna with radome. The accuracy of the proposed algorithm is verified by numerical examples.

  7. Robust Manufacturing Control

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    This contributed volume collects research papers, presented at the CIRP Sponsored Conference Robust Manufacturing Control: Innovative and Interdisciplinary Approaches for Global Networks (RoMaC 2012, Jacobs University, Bremen, Germany, June 18th-20th 2012). These research papers present the latest developments and new ideas focusing on robust manufacturing control for global networks. Today, Global Production Networks (i.e. the nexus of interconnected material and information flows through which products and services are manufactured, assembled and distributed) are confronted with and expected to adapt to: sudden and unpredictable large-scale changes of important parameters which are occurring more and more frequently, event propagation in networks with high degree of interconnectivity which leads to unforeseen fluctuations, and non-equilibrium states which increasingly characterize daily business. These multi-scale changes deeply influence logistic target achievement and call for robust planning and control ...

  8. Absorption and scattering properties of arbitrarily shaped particles in the Rayleigh domain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Min, M.; Hovenier, J.W.; Dominik, C.; Koter, A. de; Yurkin, M.A.

    2006-01-01

    We provide a theoretical foundation for the statistical approach for computing the absorption properties of particles in the Rayleigh domain. We present a general method based on the discrete dipole approximation to compute the absorption and scattering properties of particles in the Rayleigh domain. The method allows to separate the geometrical aspects of a particle from its material properties. Doing the computation of the optical properties of a particle once, provides them for any set of refractive indices, wavelengths and orientations. This allows for fast computations of e.g. absorption spectra of arbitrarily shaped particles. Other practical applications of the method are in the interpretation of atmospheric and radar measurements as well as computations of the scattering matrix of small particles as a function of the scattering angle. In the statistical approach, the optical properties of irregularly shaped particles are represented by the average properties of an ensemble of particles with simple shapes. We show that the absorption cross section of an ensemble of arbitrarily shaped particles with arbitrary orientations can always be uniquely represented by the average absorption cross section of an ensemble of spheroidal particles with the same composition and fixed orientation. This proves for the first time that the statistical approach is generally viable in the Rayleigh domain

  9. Laser sub-Doppler cooling of atoms in an arbitrarily directed magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Soo; Kwon, Taeg Yong; Lee, Ho Seong; Minogin, V.G.

    2002-01-01

    We analyze the influence of an arbitrarily directed uniform magnetic field on the laser sub-Doppler cooling of atoms. The analysis is done for a (3+5)-level atom excited by a σ + -σ - laser field configuration. Our analysis shows that the effects of the magnetic field depend strongly on the direction of the magnetic field. In an arbitrarily directed magnetic field the laser cooling configuration produces both the main resonance existing already at zero magnetic field and additional sub-Doppler resonances caused by two-photon and higher-order multiphoton processes. These sub-Doppler resonances are, however, well separated on the velocity scale if the Zeeman shift exceeds the widths of the resonances. This allows one to use the main sub-Doppler resonance for an effective laser cooling of atoms even in the presence of the magnetic field. The effective temperature of the atomic ensemble at the velocity of the main resonance is found to be almost the same as in the absence of the magnetic field. The defined structure of the multiphoton resonances may be of importance for the sub-Doppler laser cooling of atoms, atomic extraction from magneto-optical traps, and applications related to the control of atomic motion

  10. Impact of Interference in Coexisting Wireless Networks with Applications to Arbitrarily Varying Bidirectional Broadcast Channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holger Boche

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The paradigm shift from an exclusive allocation of frequency bands, one for each system, to a shared use of frequencies comes along with the need of new concepts since interference will be an ubiquitous phenomenon. In this paper, we use the concept of arbitrarily varying channels to model the impact of unknown interference caused by coexisting wireless systems which operate on the same frequencies. Within this framework, capacity can be zero if pre-specified encoders and decoders are used. This necessitates the use of more sophisticated coordination schemes where the choice of encoders and decoders is additionally coordinated based on common randomness. As an application we study the arbitrarily varying bidirectional broadcast channel and derive the capacity regions for different coordination strategies. This problem is motivated by decode-and-forward bidirectional or two-way relaying, where a relay establishes a bidirectional communication between two other nodes while sharing the resources with other coexisting wireless networks.

  11. Modeling 3D Dynamic Rupture on Arbitrarily-Shaped faults by Boundary-Conforming Finite Difference Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, D.; Zhu, H.; Luo, Y.; Chen, X.

    2008-12-01

    We use a new finite difference method (FDM) and the slip-weakening law to model the rupture dynamics of a non-planar fault embedded in a 3-D elastic media with free surface. The new FDM, based on boundary- conforming grid, sets up the mapping equations between the curvilinear coordinate and the Cartesian coordinate and transforms irregular physical space to regular computational space; it also employs a higher- order non-staggered DRP/opt MacCormack scheme which is of low dispersion and low dissipation so that the high accuracy and stability of our rupture modeling are guaranteed. Compared with the previous methods, not only we can compute the spontaneous rupture of an arbitrarily shaped fault, but also can model the influence of the surface topography on the rupture process of earthquake. In order to verify the feasibility of this method, we compared our results and other previous results, and found out they matched perfectly. Thanks to the boundary-conforming FDM, problems such as dynamic rupture with arbitrary dip, strike and rake over an arbitrary curved plane can be handled; and supershear or subshear rupture can be simulated with different parameters such as the initial stresses and the critical slip displacement Dc. Besides, our rupture modeling is economical to be implemented owing to its high efficiency and does not suffer from displacement leakage. With the help of inversion data of rupture by field observations, this method is convenient to model rupture processes and seismograms of natural earthquakes.

  12. Highly Efficient Malolactic Fermentation of Red Wine Using Encapsulated Bacteria in a Robust Biocomposite of Silica-Alginate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simó, Guillermo; Vila-Crespo, Josefina; Fernández-Fernández, Encarnación; Ruipérez, Violeta; Rodríguez-Nogales, José Manuel

    2017-06-28

    Bacteria encapsulation to develop malolactic fermentation emerges as a biotechnological strategy that provides significant advantages over the use of free cells. Two encapsulation methods have been proposed embedding Oenococcus oeni, (i) interpenetrated polymer networks of silica and Ca-alginate and (ii) Ca-alginate capsules coated with hydrolyzed 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (hAPTES). On the basis of our results, only the first method was suitable for bacteria encapsulation. The optimized silica-alginate capsules exhibited a negligible bacteria release and an increase of 328% and 65% in L-malic acid consumption and mechanical robustness, respectively, compared to untreated alginate capsules. Moreover, studies of capsule stability at different pH and ethanol concentrations in water solutions and in wine indicated a better behavior of silica-alginate capsules than untreated ones. The inclusion of silicates and colloidal silica in alginate capsules containing O. oeni improved markedly their capacity to deplete the levels of L-malic acid in red wines and their mechanical robustness and stability.

  13. Hybrid GPU-CPU adaptive precision ray-triangle intersection tests for robust high-performance GPU dosimetry computations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perrotte, Lancelot; Bodin, Bruno; Chodorge, Laurent

    2011-01-01

    Before an intervention on a nuclear site, it is essential to study different scenarios to identify the less dangerous one for the operator. Therefore, it is mandatory to dispose of an efficient dosimetry simulation code with accurate results. One classical method in radiation protection is the straight-line attenuation method with build-up factors. In the case of 3D industrial scenes composed of meshes, the computation cost resides in the fast computation of all of the intersections between the rays and the triangles of the scene. Efficient GPU algorithms have already been proposed, that enable dosimetry calculation for a huge scene (800000 rays, 800000 triangles) in a fraction of second. But these algorithms are not robust: because of the rounding caused by floating-point arithmetic, the numerical results of the ray-triangle intersection tests can differ from the expected mathematical results. In worst case scenario, this can lead to a computed dose rate dramatically inferior to the real dose rate to which the operator is exposed. In this paper, we present a hybrid GPU-CPU algorithm to manage adaptive precision floating-point arithmetic. This algorithm allows robust ray-triangle intersection tests, with very small loss of performance (less than 5 % overhead), and without any need for scene-dependent tuning. (author)

  14. Capacity estimation and verification of quantum channels with arbitrarily correlated errors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfister, Corsin; Rol, M Adriaan; Mantri, Atul; Tomamichel, Marco; Wehner, Stephanie

    2018-01-02

    The central figure of merit for quantum memories and quantum communication devices is their capacity to store and transmit quantum information. Here, we present a protocol that estimates a lower bound on a channel's quantum capacity, even when there are arbitrarily correlated errors. One application of these protocols is to test the performance of quantum repeaters for transmitting quantum information. Our protocol is easy to implement and comes in two versions. The first estimates the one-shot quantum capacity by preparing and measuring in two different bases, where all involved qubits are used as test qubits. The second verifies on-the-fly that a channel's one-shot quantum capacity exceeds a minimal tolerated value while storing or communicating data. We discuss the performance using simple examples, such as the dephasing channel for which our method is asymptotically optimal. Finally, we apply our method to a superconducting qubit in experiment.

  15. Mathematical model for the power generation from arbitrarily oriented photovoltaic panel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Qusay

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a mathematical model for modelling the solar radiation components and photovoltaic arrays power outputs from arbitrarily oriented photovoltaic panel has been presented. Base on the model electrical power prediction of the photovoltaic system in realistic local condition has been presented and compared with experimental measurement. The results show the effectiveness of the proposed model, which provides tools to better understand the performance and reliability as well as decision-making tool in designing of a hybrid renewable energy base power generation system. It has been shown that base on the model prediction, the efficiency and possible failures of the system can be found which are important from the technical and economical point of view.

  16. On stochastic differential equations with arbitrarily slow convergence rates for strong approximation in two space dimensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerencsér, Máté; Jentzen, Arnulf; Salimova, Diyora

    2017-11-01

    In a recent article (Jentzen et al. 2016 Commun. Math. Sci. 14 , 1477-1500 (doi:10.4310/CMS.2016.v14.n6.a1)), it has been established that, for every arbitrarily slow convergence speed and every natural number d ∈{4,5,…}, there exist d -dimensional stochastic differential equations with infinitely often differentiable and globally bounded coefficients such that no approximation method based on finitely many observations of the driving Brownian motion can converge in absolute mean to the solution faster than the given speed of convergence. In this paper, we strengthen the above result by proving that this slow convergence phenomenon also arises in two ( d =2) and three ( d =3) space dimensions.

  17. Determination of K-factors for arbitrarily shaped flaws at pressure vessel nozzle corners

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bryson, J.W.

    1979-01-01

    Photoelastic and finite element studies are being conducted to determine Mode I stress intensity factor distributions along arbitrarily shaped flaw fronts at pressure vessel nozzle corners. Comparisons of results from NOZ-FLAW, BIGIF, and the photoelastic studies showed that (1) good agreement was obtained between NOZ-FLAW and the photoelastically determined K 1 's for the deep flaw in an ITV model, (2) good agreement was obtained between NOZ-FLAW BIGIF for shallow and moderately deep flaws in a BWR model, and (3) less satisfactory agreement was obtained between NOZ- FLAW and the photoelastic results for the BWR models, particularly for moderately deep to deep flaws. Attempts are presently being made at understanding and explaining the discrepancies between the two

  18. Differentiation of bacterial feeding nematodes in soil ecological studies by means of arbitrarily primed PCR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Der Knaap, Esther; Rodriguez, Russell J.; Freckman, Diana W.

    1993-01-01

    Arbitrarily-primed polymerase chain reaction (ap-PCR) was used to differentiate closely related bacterial-feeding nematodes of the genera: Caenorhabditis, Acrobeloides, Cephalobus and Zeldia. Average percentage similarity of bands generated by ap-PCR with seven different primers between 14 isolates of Caenorhabditis elegans was ⪢ 90%, whereas between C. elegans, C. briggsae and C. remanei similarity was nematode populations were also obtained from ap-PCR analysis of single worms. Due to the difficulty of identification of soil nematodes, the ap-PCR offers potential as a rapid and reliable technique to assess biodiversity. Ap-PCR will make it feasible, for the first time, to study the ecological interactions of unique nematode genotypes in soil habitats.

  19. The surface diffusion coefficient for an arbitrarily curved fluid-fluid interface. (I). General expression

    Science.gov (United States)

    M. C. Sagis, Leonard

    2001-03-01

    In this paper, we develop a theory for the calculation of the surface diffusion coefficient for an arbitrarily curved fluid-fluid interface. The theory is valid for systems in hydrodynamic equilibrium, with zero mass-averaged velocities in the bulk and interfacial regions. We restrict our attention to systems with isotropic bulk phases, and an interfacial region that is isotropic in the plane parallel to the dividing surface. The dividing surface is assumed to be a simple interface, without memory effects or yield stresses. We derive an expression for the surface diffusion coefficient in terms of two parameters of the interfacial region: the coefficient for plane-parallel diffusion D (AB)aa(ξ) , and the driving force d(B)I||(ξ) . This driving force is the parallel component of the driving force for diffusion in the interfacial region. We derive an expression for this driving force using the entropy balance.

  20. Cut set-based risk and reliability analysis for arbitrarily interconnected networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyss, Gregory D.

    2000-01-01

    Method for computing all-terminal reliability for arbitrarily interconnected networks such as the United States public switched telephone network. The method includes an efficient search algorithm to generate minimal cut sets for nonhierarchical networks directly from the network connectivity diagram. Efficiency of the search algorithm stems in part from its basis on only link failures. The method also includes a novel quantification scheme that likewise reduces computational effort associated with assessing network reliability based on traditional risk importance measures. Vast reductions in computational effort are realized since combinatorial expansion and subsequent Boolean reduction steps are eliminated through analysis of network segmentations using a technique of assuming node failures to occur on only one side of a break in the network, and repeating the technique for all minimal cut sets generated with the search algorithm. The method functions equally well for planar and non-planar networks.

  1. Computation of stress on the surface of a soft homogeneous arbitrarily shaped particle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Minglin; Ren, Kuan Fang; Wu, Yueqian; Sheng, Xinqing

    2014-04-01

    Prediction of the stress on the surface of an arbitrarily shaped particle of soft material is essential in the study of elastic properties of the particles with optical force. It is also necessary in the manipulation and sorting of small particles with optical tweezers, since a regular-shaped particle, such as a sphere, may be deformed under the nonuniform optical stress on its surface. The stress profile on a spherical or small spheroidal soft particle trapped by shaped beams has been studied, however little work on computing the surface stress of an irregular-shaped particle has been reported. We apply in this paper the surface integral equation with multilevel fast multipole algorithm to compute the surface stress on soft homogeneous arbitrarily shaped particles. The comparison of the computed stress profile with that predicted by the generalized Lorenz-Mie theory for a water droplet of diameter equal to 51 wavelengths in a focused Gaussian beam show that the precision of our method is very good. Then stress profiles on spheroids with different aspect ratios are computed. The particles are illuminated by a Gaussian beam of different waist radius at different incidences. Physical analysis on the mechanism of optical stress is given with help of our recently developed vectorial complex ray model. It is found that the maximum of the stress profile on the surface of prolate spheroids is not only determined by the reflected and refracted rays (orders p=0,1) but also the rays undergoing one or two internal reflections where they focus. Computational study of stress on surface of a biconcave cell-like particle, which is a typical application in life science, is also undertaken.

  2. Post-1-Newtonian equations of motion for systems of arbitrarily structured bodies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Racine, Etienne; Flanagan, Eanna E.

    2005-01-01

    We give a surface-integral derivation of post-1-Newtonian translational equations of motion for a system of arbitrarily structured bodies, including the coupling to all the bodies' mass and current multipole moments. The derivation requires only that the post-1-Newtonian vacuum field equations are satisfied in weak field regions between the bodies; the bodies' internal gravity can be arbitrarily strong. In particular, black holes are not excluded. The derivation extends previous results due to Damour, Soffel, and Xu (DSX) for weakly self-gravitating bodies in which the post-1-Newtonian field equations are satisfied everywhere. The derivation consists of a number of steps: (i) The definition of each body's current and mass multipole moments and center-of-mass world line in terms of the behavior of the metric in a weak field region surrounding the body. (ii) The definition for each body of a set of gravitoelectric and gravitomagnetic tidal moments that act on that body, again in terms of the behavior of the metric in a weak field region surrounding the body. For the special case of weakly self-gravitating bodies, our definitions of these multipole and tidal moments agree with definitions given previously by DSX. (iii) The derivation of a formula, for any given body, of the second time derivative of its mass dipole moment in terms of its other multipole and tidal moments and their time derivatives. This formula was obtained previously by DSX for weakly self-gravitating bodies. (iv) A derivation of the relation between the tidal moments acting on each body and the multipole moments and center-of-mass world lines of all the other bodies. A formalism to compute this relation was developed by DSX; we simplify their formalism and compute the relation explicitly. (v) The deduction from the previous steps of the explicit translational equations of motion, whose form has not been previously derived

  3. Post-1-Newtonian equations of motion for systems of arbitrarily structured bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Racine, Étienne; Flanagan, Éanna É.

    2005-02-01

    We give a surface-integral derivation of post-1-Newtonian translational equations of motion for a system of arbitrarily structured bodies, including the coupling to all the bodies' mass and current multipole moments. The derivation requires only that the post-1-Newtonian vacuum field equations are satisfied in weak field regions between the bodies; the bodies' internal gravity can be arbitrarily strong. In particular, black holes are not excluded. The derivation extends previous results due to Damour, Soffel, and Xu (DSX) for weakly self-gravitating bodies in which the post-1-Newtonian field equations are satisfied everywhere. The derivation consists of a number of steps: (i) The definition of each body’s current and mass multipole moments and center-of-mass world line in terms of the behavior of the metric in a weak field region surrounding the body. (ii) The definition for each body of a set of gravitoelectric and gravitomagnetic tidal moments that act on that body, again in terms of the behavior of the metric in a weak field region surrounding the body. For the special case of weakly self-gravitating bodies, our definitions of these multipole and tidal moments agree with definitions given previously by DSX. (iii) The derivation of a formula, for any given body, of the second time derivative of its mass dipole moment in terms of its other multipole and tidal moments and their time derivatives. This formula was obtained previously by DSX for weakly self-gravitating bodies. (iv) A derivation of the relation between the tidal moments acting on each body and the multipole moments and center-of-mass world lines of all the other bodies. A formalism to compute this relation was developed by DSX; we simplify their formalism and compute the relation explicitly. (v) The deduction from the previous steps of the explicit translational equations of motion, whose form has not been previously derived.

  4. Robust Airline Schedules

    OpenAIRE

    Eggenberg, Niklaus; Salani, Matteo; Bierlaire, Michel

    2010-01-01

    Due to economic pressure industries, when planning, tend to focus on optimizing the expected profit or the yield. The consequence of highly optimized solutions is an increased sensitivity to uncertainty. This generates additional "operational" costs, incurred by possible modifications of the original plan to be performed when reality does not reflect what was expected in the planning phase. The modern research trend focuses on "robustness" of solutions instead of yield or profit. Although ro...

  5. High-order fractional partial differential equation transform for molecular surface construction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Langhua; Chen, Duan; Wei, Guo-Wei

    2013-01-01

    Fractional derivative or fractional calculus plays a significant role in theoretical modeling of scientific and engineering problems. However, only relatively low order fractional derivatives are used at present. In general, it is not obvious what role a high fractional derivative can play and how to make use of arbitrarily high-order fractional derivatives. This work introduces arbitrarily high-order fractional partial differential equations (PDEs) to describe fractional hyperdiffusions. The fractional PDEs are constructed via fractional variational principle. A fast fractional Fourier transform (FFFT) is proposed to numerically integrate the high-order fractional PDEs so as to avoid stringent stability constraints in solving high-order evolution PDEs. The proposed high-order fractional PDEs are applied to the surface generation of proteins. We first validate the proposed method with a variety of test examples in two and three-dimensional settings. The impact of high-order fractional derivatives to surface analysis is examined. We also construct fractional PDE transform based on arbitrarily high-order fractional PDEs. We demonstrate that the use of arbitrarily high-order derivatives gives rise to time-frequency localization, the control of the spectral distribution, and the regulation of the spatial resolution in the fractional PDE transform. Consequently, the fractional PDE transform enables the mode decomposition of images, signals, and surfaces. The effect of the propagation time on the quality of resulting molecular surfaces is also studied. Computational efficiency of the present surface generation method is compared with the MSMS approach in Cartesian representation. We further validate the present method by examining some benchmark indicators of macromolecular surfaces, i.e., surface area, surface enclosed volume, surface electrostatic potential and solvation free energy. Extensive numerical experiments and comparison with an established surface model

  6. Aerodynamics in arbitrarily accelerating frames: application to high-g turns

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Gledhill, Irvy MA

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Fifth-generation missiles accelerate up to 100 g in turns, and higher accelerations are expected as agility increases. The auhtors have developed the theory of aerodynamics for arbitrary accelerations, and have validated modelling in a Computational...

  7. Aerodynamics in arbitrarily accelerating frames: application to high-g turns

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Gledhill, Irvy MA

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Fifth-generation missilies accelerate up to 100 g in turns, and higher accelerations are expected as agility increases. The authors have developed the theory of aerodynamics for arbitrary accelerations, and have validated modelling in a...

  8. Robust high pressure stability and negative thermal expansion in sodium-rich antiperovskites Na{sub 3}OBr and Na{sub 4}OI{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Yonggang, E-mail: yyggwang@gmail.com, E-mail: yangwg@hpstar.ac.cn, E-mail: yusheng.zhao@unlv.edu [High Pressure Science and Engineering Center, University of Nevada, Las Vegas, Nevada 89154 (United States); Institute of Nanostructured Functional Materials, Huanghe Science and Technology College, Zhengzhou, Henan 450006 (China); High Pressure Synergetic Consortium (HPSynC), Geophysical Laboratory, Carnegie Institution of Washington, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States); Wen, Ting [Institute of Nanostructured Functional Materials, Huanghe Science and Technology College, Zhengzhou, Henan 450006 (China); Park, Changyong; Kenney-Benson, Curtis [High Pressure Collaborative Access Team (HPCAT), Geophysical Laboratory, Carnegie Institution of Washington, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States); Pravica, Michael; Zhao, Yusheng, E-mail: yyggwang@gmail.com, E-mail: yangwg@hpstar.ac.cn, E-mail: yusheng.zhao@unlv.edu [High Pressure Science and Engineering Center, University of Nevada, Las Vegas, Nevada 89154 (United States); Yang, Wenge, E-mail: yyggwang@gmail.com, E-mail: yangwg@hpstar.ac.cn, E-mail: yusheng.zhao@unlv.edu [High Pressure Synergetic Consortium (HPSynC), Geophysical Laboratory, Carnegie Institution of Washington, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States); Center for High Pressure Science and Technology Advanced Research (HPSTAR), Shanghai 201203 (China)

    2016-01-14

    The structure stability under high pressure and thermal expansion behavior of Na{sub 3}OBr and Na{sub 4}OI{sub 2}, two prototypes of alkali-metal-rich antiperovskites, were investigated by in situ synchrotron X-ray diffraction techniques under high pressure and low temperature. Both are soft materials with bulk modulus of 58.6 GPa and 52.0 GPa for Na{sub 3}OBr and Na{sub 4}OI{sub 2}, respectively. The cubic Na{sub 3}OBr structure and tetragonal Na{sub 4}OI{sub 2} with intergrowth K{sub 2}NiF{sub 4} structure are stable under high pressure up to 23 GPa. Although being a characteristic layered structure, Na{sub 4}OI{sub 2} exhibits nearly isotropic compressibility. Negative thermal expansion was observed at low temperature range (20–80 K) in both transition-metal-free antiperovskites for the first time. The robust high pressure structure stability was examined and confirmed by first-principles calculations among various possible polymorphisms qualitatively. The results provide in-depth understanding of the negative thermal expansion and robust crystal structure stability of these antiperovskite systems and their potential applications.

  9. Robust high pressure stability and negative thermal expansion in sodium-rich antiperovskites Na3OBr and Na4OI2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Yonggang; Wen, Ting; Park, Changyong; Kenney-Benson, Curtis; Pravica, Michael; Zhao, Yusheng; Yang, Wenge

    2016-01-01

    The structure stability under high pressure and thermal expansion behavior of Na 3 OBr and Na 4 OI 2 , two prototypes of alkali-metal-rich antiperovskites, were investigated by in situ synchrotron X-ray diffraction techniques under high pressure and low temperature. Both are soft materials with bulk modulus of 58.6 GPa and 52.0 GPa for Na 3 OBr and Na 4 OI 2 , respectively. The cubic Na 3 OBr structure and tetragonal Na 4 OI 2 with intergrowth K 2 NiF 4 structure are stable under high pressure up to 23 GPa. Although being a characteristic layered structure, Na 4 OI 2 exhibits nearly isotropic compressibility. Negative thermal expansion was observed at low temperature range (20–80 K) in both transition-metal-free antiperovskites for the first time. The robust high pressure structure stability was examined and confirmed by first-principles calculations among various possible polymorphisms qualitatively. The results provide in-depth understanding of the negative thermal expansion and robust crystal structure stability of these antiperovskite systems and their potential applications

  10. Vapor-Liquid Sol-Gel Approach to Fabricating Highly Durable and Robust Superhydrophobic Polydimethylsiloxane@Silica Surface on Polyester Textile for Oil-Water Separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Xiaojing; Li, Hongqiang; Lai, Xuejun; Zhang, Lin; Wang, Jing; Liao, Xiaofeng; Zeng, Xingrong

    2017-08-23

    Large-scale fabrication of superhydrophobic surfaces with excellent durability by simple techniques has been of considerable interest for its urgent practical application in oil-water separation in recent years. Herein, we proposed a facile vapor-liquid sol-gel approach to fabricating highly durable and robust superhydrophobic polydimethylsiloxane@silica surfaces on the cross-structure polyester textiles. Scanning electron microscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy demonstrated that the silica generated from the hydrolysis-condensation of tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS) gradually aggregated at microscale driven by the extreme nonpolar dihydroxyl-terminated polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS(OH)). This led to construction of hierarchical roughness and micronano structures of the superhydrophobic textile surface. The as-fabricated superhydrophobic textile possessed outstanding durability in deionized water, various solvents, strong acid/base solutions, and boiling/ice water. Remarkably, the polyester textile still retained great water repellency and even after ultrasonic treatment for 18 h, 96 laundering cycles, and 600 abrasion cycles, exhibiting excellent mechanical robustness. Importantly, the superhydrophobic polyester textile was further applied for oil-water separation as absorption materials and/or filter pipes, presenting high separation efficiency and great reusability. Our method to construct superhydrophobic textiles is simple but highly efficient; no special equipment, chemicals, or atmosphere is required. Additionally, no fluorinated slianes and organic solvents are involved, which is very beneficial for environment safety and protection. Our findings conceivably stand out as a new tool to fabricate organic-inorganic superhydrophobic surfaces with strong durability and robustness for practical applications in oil spill accidents and industrial sewage emission.

  11. Robust loss functions for boosting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanamori, Takafumi; Takenouchi, Takashi; Eguchi, Shinto; Murata, Noboru

    2007-08-01

    Boosting is known as a gradient descent algorithm over loss functions. It is often pointed out that the typical boosting algorithm, Adaboost, is highly affected by outliers. In this letter, loss functions for robust boosting are studied. Based on the concept of robust statistics, we propose a transformation of loss functions that makes boosting algorithms robust against extreme outliers. Next, the truncation of loss functions is applied to contamination models that describe the occurrence of mislabels near decision boundaries. Numerical experiments illustrate that the proposed loss functions derived from the contamination models are useful for handling highly noisy data in comparison with other loss functions.

  12. Rapid genomic fingerprinting of Lactococcus lactis strains by arbitrarily primed polymerase chain reaction with 32P and fluorescent labels.

    OpenAIRE

    Cancilla, M R; Powell, I B; Hillier, A J; Davidson, B E

    1992-01-01

    Arbitrarily primed polymerase chain reaction, with incorporation of either radioactive or fluorescent labels, was used as a rapid and sensitive method for obtaining genomic fingerprints of strains of Lactococcus lactis. Closely related strains produced almost identical fingerprints. Fingerprints of other strains showed only some similarities.

  13. Active coated nano-particle excited by an arbitrarily located electric Hertzian dipole — resonance and transparency effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arslanagic, Samel; Ziolkowski, Richard W.

    2010-01-01

    The present work investigates the optical properties of active coated spherical nano-particles excited by an arbitrarily located electric Hertzian dipole. The nano-particles are made of specific dielectric and plasmonic materials. The spatial near-field distribution as well as the normalized...

  14. Methods for robustness programming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olieman, N.J.

    2008-01-01

    Robustness of an object is defined as the probability that an object will have properties as required. Robustness Programming (RP) is a mathematical approach for Robustness estimation and Robustness optimisation. An example in the context of designing a food product, is finding the best composition

  15. Robustness in laying hens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Star, L.

    2008-01-01

    The aim of the project ‘The genetics of robustness in laying hens’ was to investigate nature and regulation of robustness in laying hens under sub-optimal conditions and the possibility to increase robustness by using animal breeding without loss of production. At the start of the project, a robust

  16. The robustness of two tomography reconstructing techniques with heavily noisy dynamical experimental data from a high speed gamma-ray tomograph

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasconcelos, Geovane Vitor; Melo, Silvio de Barros; Dantas, Carlos Costa; Moreira, Icaro Malta; Johansen, Geira; Maad, Rachid

    2013-01-01

    The PSIRT (Particle Systems Iterative Reconstructive Technique) is, just like the ART method, an iterative tomographic reconstruction technique with the recommended use in the reconstruction of catalytic density distribution in the refining process of oil in the FCC-type riser. The PSIRT is based upon computer graphics' particle systems, where the reconstructing material is initially represented as composed of particles subject to a force field emanating from the beams, whose intensities are parameterized by the differences between the experimental readings of a given beam trajectory, and the values corresponding to the current amount of particles landed in this trajectory. A dynamical process is set as the beams fields of attracting forces dispute the particles. At the end, with the equilibrium established, the particles are replaced by the corresponding regions of pixels. The High Speed Gamma-ray Tomograph is a 5-source-fan-beam device with a 17-detector deck per source, capable of producing up to a thousand complete sinograms per second. Around 70.000 experimental sinograms from this tomograph were produced simulating the move of gas bubbles in different angular speeds immersed in oil within the vessel, through the use of a two-hole-polypropylene phantom. The sinogram frames were set with several different detector integration times. This article studies and compares the robustness of both ART and PSIRT methods in this heavily noisy scenario, where this noise comes not only from limitations in the dynamical sampling, but also from to the underlying apparatus that produces the counting in the tomograph. These experiments suggest that PSIRT is a more robust method than ART for noisy data. Visual inspection on the resulting images suggests that PSIRT is a more robust method than ART for noisy data, since it almost never presents globally scattered noise. (author)

  17. Robust and conductive two-dimensional metal-organic frameworks with exceptionally high volumetric and areal capacitance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Dawei; Lei, Ting; Lukatskaya, Maria R.; Park, Jihye; Huang, Zhehao; Lee, Minah; Shaw, Leo; Chen, Shucheng; Yakovenko, Andrey A.; Kulkarni, Ambarish; Xiao, Jianping; Fredrickson, Kurt; Tok, Jeffrey B.; Zou, Xiaodong; Cui, Yi; Bao, Zhenan

    2018-01-01

    For miniaturized capacitive energy storage, volumetric and areal capacitances are more important metrics than gravimetric ones because of the constraints imposed by device volume and chip area. Typically used in commercial supercapacitors, porous carbons, although they provide a stable and reliable performance, lack volumetric performance because of their inherently low density and moderate capacitances. Here we report a high-performing electrode based on conductive hexaaminobenzene (HAB)-derived two-dimensional metal-organic frameworks (MOFs). In addition to possessing a high packing density and hierarchical porous structure, these MOFs also exhibit excellent chemical stability in both acidic and basic aqueous solutions, which is in sharp contrast to conventional MOFs. Submillimetre-thick pellets of HAB MOFs showed high volumetric capacitances up to 760 F cm-3 and high areal capacitances over 20 F cm-2. Furthermore, the HAB MOF electrodes exhibited highly reversible redox behaviours and good cycling stability with a capacitance retention of 90% after 12,000 cycles. These promising results demonstrate the potential of using redox-active conductive MOFs in energy-storage applications.

  18. The hard fall effect: high working memory capacity leads to a higher, but less robust short-term memory performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomassin, Noémylle; Gonthier, Corentin; Guerraz, Michel; Roulin, Jean-Luc

    2015-01-01

    Participants with a high working memory span tend to perform better than low spans in a variety of tasks. However, their performance is paradoxically more impaired when they have to perform two tasks at once, a phenomenon that could be labeled the "hard fall effect." The present study tested whether this effect exists in a short-term memory task, and investigated the proposal that the effect is due to high spans using efficient facilitative strategies under simple task conditions. Ninety-eight participants performed a spatial short-term memory task under simple and dual task conditions; stimuli presentation times either allowed for the use of complex facilitative strategies or not. High spans outperformed low spans only under simple task conditions when presentation times allowed for the use of facilitative strategies. These results indicate that the hard fall effect exists on a short-term memory task and may be caused by individual differences in strategy use.

  19. Robustness of airline route networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lordan, Oriol; Sallan, Jose M.; Escorihuela, Nuria; Gonzalez-Prieto, David

    2016-03-01

    Airlines shape their route network by defining their routes through supply and demand considerations, paying little attention to network performance indicators, such as network robustness. However, the collapse of an airline network can produce high financial costs for the airline and all its geographical area of influence. The aim of this study is to analyze the topology and robustness of the network route of airlines following Low Cost Carriers (LCCs) and Full Service Carriers (FSCs) business models. Results show that FSC hubs are more central than LCC bases in their route network. As a result, LCC route networks are more robust than FSC networks.

  20. Applications of Robust, Radiation Hard AlGaN Optoelectronic Devices in Space Exploration and High Energy Density Physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, K.

    2011-05-04

    This slide show presents: space exploration applications; high energy density physics applications; UV LED and photodiode radiation hardness; UV LED and photodiode space qualification; UV LED AC charge management; and UV LED satellite payload instruments. A UV LED satellite will be launched 2nd half 2012.

  1. Transient Analysis of Dispersive Power-Ground Plate Pairs With Arbitrarily Shaped Antipads by the DGTD Method With Wave Port Excitation

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Ping

    2016-09-09

    A discontinuous Galerkin time-domain (DGTD) method analyzing signal/power integrity on multilayered power-ground parallel plate pairs is proposed. The excitation is realized by introducing wave ports on the antipads where electric/magnetic current sources are represented in terms of the eigenmodes of the antipads. Since closed-forms solutions do not exist for the eigenmodes of the arbitrarily shaped antipads, they have to be calculated using numerical schemes. Spatial orthogonality of the eigenmodes permits determination of each mode\\'s temporal expansion coefficient by integrating the product of the electric field and the mode over the wave port. The temporal mode coefficients are then Fourier transformed to accurately calculate the S-parameters corresponding to different modes. Additionally, to generalize the DGTD to manipulate dispersive media, the auxiliary differential equation method is employed. This is done by introducing a time-dependent polarization volume current as an auxiliary unknown and the constitutive relation between this current and the electric field as an auxiliary equation. Consequently, computationally expensive temporal convolution is avoided. Various numerical examples, which demonstrate the applicability, robustness, and accuracy of the proposed method, are presented.

  2. A rapid, naked-eye detection of hypochlorite and bisulfite using a robust and highly-photostable indicator dye Quinaldine Red in aqueous medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, Tanoy; Chandra, Falguni; Koner, Apurba L.

    2018-02-01

    A ;naked-eye; detection of health hazardous bisulfite (HSO3-) and hypochlorite (ClO-) using an indicator dye (Quinaldine Red, QR) in a wide range of pH is demonstrated. The molecule contains a quinoline moiety linked to an N,N-dimethylaniline moiety with a conjugated double bond. Treatment of QR with HSO3- and ClO-, in aqueous solution at near-neutral pH, resulted in a colorless product with high selectivity and sensitivity. The detection limit was 47.8 μM and 0.2 μM for HSO3- and ClO- respectively. However, ClO- was 50 times more sensitive and with 2 times faster response compared to HSO3-. The detail characterization and related analysis demonstrate the potential of QR for a rapid, robust and highly efficient colorimetric sensor for the practical applications to detect hypochlorite in water samples.

  3. Multishelled NiO Hollow Microspheres for High-performance Supercapacitors with Ultrahigh Energy Density and Robust Cycle Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Xinhong; Zheng, Wenji; Li, Xiangcun; He, Gaohong

    2016-09-01

    Multishelled NiO hollow microspheres for high-performance supercapacitors have been prepared and the formation mechanism has been investigated. By using resin microspheres to absorb Ni2+ and subsequent proper calcinations, the shell numbers, shell spacing and exterior shell structure were facilely controlled via varying synthetic parameters. Particularly, the exterior shell structure that accurately associated with the ion transfer is finely controlled by forming a single shell or closed exterior double-shells. Among multishelled NiO hollow microspheres, the triple-shelled NiO with an outer single-shelled microspheres show a remarkable capacity of 1280 F g-1 at 1 A g-1, and still keep a high value of 704 F g-1 even at 20 A g-1. The outstanding performances are attributed to its fast ion/electron transfer, high specific surface area and large shell space. The specific capacitance gradually increases to 108% of its initial value after 2500 cycles, demonstrating its high stability. Importantly, the 3S-NiO-HMS//RGO@Fe3O4 asymmetric supercapacitor shows an ultrahigh energy density of 51.0 Wh kg-1 at a power density of 800 W kg-1, and 78.8% capacitance retention after 10,000 cycles. Furthermore, multishelled NiO can be transferred into multishelled Ni microspheres with high-efficient H2 generation rate of 598.5 mL H2 min-1 g-1Ni for catalytic hydrolysis of NH3BH3 (AB).

  4. Subtractive hybridization and random arbitrarily primed PCR analyses of a benzoate-assimilating bacterium, Desulfotignum balticum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habe, Hiroshi; Kobuna, Akinori; Hosoda, Akifumi; Kouzuma, Atsushi; Yamane, Hisakazu; Nojiri, Hideaki; Omori, Toshio; Watanabe, Kazuya

    2008-05-01

    Subtractive hybridization (SH) and random arbitrarily primed PCR (RAP-PCR) were used to detect genes involved in anaerobic benzoate degradation by Desulfotignum balticum. Through SH, we obtained 121 DNA sequences specific for D. balticum but not for D. phosphitoxidans (a non-benzoate-assimilating species). Furthermore, RAP-PCR analysis showed that a 651-bp DNA fragment, having 55% homology with the solute-binding protein of the ABC transporter system in Methanosarcina barkeri, was expressed when D. balticum was grown on benzoate, but not on pyruvate. By shotgun sequencing of the fosmid clone (38,071 bp) containing the DNA fragment, 33 open reading frames (ORFs) and two incomplete ORFs were annotated, and several genes within this region corresponded to the DNA fragments obtained by SH. An 11.3-kb gene cluster (ORF10-17) revealed through reverse transcription-PCR showed homology with the ABC transporter system and TonB-dependent receptors, both of which are presumably involved in the uptake of siderophore/heme/vitamin B(12), and was expressed in response to growth on benzoate.

  5. Construction of 3D Metallic Nanowire Arrays on Arbitrarily-Shaped Substrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Fei; Li, Jingning; Yu, Fangfang; Peng, Ru-Wen; Wang, Mu; Mu Wang Team

    Formation of three-dimensional (3D) nanostructures is an important step of advanced manufacture for new concept devices with novel functionality. Despite of great achievements in fabricating nanostructures with state of the art lithography approaches, these nanostructures are normally limited on flat substrates. Up to now it remains challenging to build metallic nanostructures directly on a rough and bumpy surface. Here we demonstrate a unique approach to fabricate metallic nanowire arrays on an arbitrarily-shaped surface by electrodeposition, which is unknown before 2016. Counterintuitively here the growth direction of the nanowires is perpendicular to their longitudinal axis, and the specific geometry of nanowires can be achieved by introducing specially designed shaped substrate. The spatial separation and the width of the nanowires can be tuned by voltage, electrolyte concentration and temperature in electrodeposition. By taking cobalt nanowire array as an example, we demonstrate that head-to-head and tail-to-tail magnetic domain walls can be easily introduced and modulated in the nanowire arrays, which is enlightening to construct new devices such as domain wall racetrack memory. We acknowledge the foundation from MOST and NSF(China).

  6. Positivity, discontinuity, finite resources, and nonzero error for arbitrarily varying quantum channels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boche, H.; Nötzel, J.

    2014-01-01

    This work is motivated by a quite general question: Under which circumstances are the capacities of information transmission systems continuous? The research is explicitly carried out on finite arbitrarily varying quantum channels (AVQCs). We give an explicit example that answers the recent question whether the transmission of messages over AVQCs can benefit from assistance by distribution of randomness between the legitimate sender and receiver in the affirmative. The specific class of channels introduced in that example is then extended to show that the unassisted capacity does have discontinuity points, while it is known that the randomness-assisted capacity is always continuous in the channel. We characterize the discontinuity points and prove that the unassisted capacity is always continuous around its positivity points. After having established shared randomness as an important resource, we quantify the interplay between the distribution of finite amounts of randomness between the legitimate sender and receiver, the (nonzero) probability of a decoding error with respect to the average error criterion and the number of messages that can be sent over a finite number of channel uses. We relate our results to the entanglement transmission capacities of finite AVQCs, where the role of shared randomness is not yet well understood, and give a new sufficient criterion for the entanglement transmission capacity with randomness assistance to vanish

  7. Differentiation of Colletotrichum species responsible for anthracnose of strawberry by arbitrarily primed PCR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, S.; Rodriguez, R.J.

    1995-01-01

    A collection of 39 isolates of Colletotrichum acutatum, C. fragariae and C. gloeosporioides, which cause anthracnose on strawberry, was grouped into species based on the arbitrarily primed polymerase chain reaction (ap-PCR). All isolates used had previously been identified according to classical taxonomic morphology. Ap-PCR amplification of genomic DNA using four different primers allowed for reliable differentiation between isolates of C. acutatum, C. fragariae and two genotypes of C. gloeosporioides. Fifteen of the 18 C. acutatum isolates were very similar, although three isolates which produced a red pigment had distinctly different banding patterns. Nearly identical banding patterns were observed for all nine isolates of C. fragariae. The 12 C. gloeosporioides isolates were more diverse and two separate genotypes, Cgl-1 (six isolates) and Cgl-2 (five isolates) were distinguished by ap-PCR. An additional isolate did not conform to either the Cgl-1 or Cgl-2 genotypes. The utility of ap-PCR compared with other molecular techniques for reliable identification of Colletotrichum isolates pathogenic on strawberry is discussed.

  8. Start-up of electrophoresis of an arbitrarily oriented dielectric cylinder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Guan Y; Keh, Huan J

    2014-09-01

    An analytical study is presented for the transient electrophoretic response of a circular cylindrical particle to the step application of an electric field. The electric double layer adjacent to the particle surface is thin but finite compared with the radius of the particle. The time-evolving electroosmotic velocity at the outer boundary of the double layer is utilized as a slip condition so that the transient momentum conservation equation for the bulk fluid flow is solved. Explicit formulas for the unsteady electrophoretic velocity of the particle are obtained for both axially and transversely applied electric fields, and can be linearly superimposed for an arbitrarily-oriented applied field. If the cylindrical particle is neutrally buoyant in the suspending fluid, the transient electrophoretic velocity is independent of the orientation of the particle relative to the applied electric field and will be in the direction of the applied field. If the particle is different in density from the fluid, then the direction of electrophoresis will not coincide with that of the applied field until the steady state is attained. The growth of the electrophoretic mobility with the elapsed time for a cylindrical particle is substantially slower than for a spherical particle. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Self-force on an arbitrarily coupled scalar charge in cylindrical thin-shell spacetimes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomasini, C.; Rubin de Celis, E.; Simeone, C. [Universidad de Buenos Aires y IFIBA, CONICET, Ciudad Universitaria, Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2018-02-15

    We consider the arbitrarily coupled field and self-force of a static massless scalar charge in cylindrical spacetimes with one or two asymptotic regions, with the only matter content concentrated in a thin-shell characterized by the trace of the extrinsic curvature jump κ. The self-force is studied numerically and analytically in terms of the curvature coupling ξ. We found the critical values ξ{sub c}{sup (n)} = n/(ρ(r{sub s})κ), with n element of N and ρ(r{sub s}) the metric's profile function at the position of the shell, for which the scalar field is divergent in the background configuration. The pathological behavior is removed by restricting the coupling to a domain of stability. The coupling has a significant influence over the self-force at the vicinities of the shell, and we identified ξ = 1/4 as the value for which the scalar force changes sign at a neighborhood of r{sub s}; if κ(1-4ξ) > 0 the shell acts repulsively as an effective potential barrier, while if κ(1-4ξ) < 0 it attracts the charge as a potential well. The sign of the asymptotic self-force only depends on whether there is an angle deficit or not on the external region where the charge is placed; conical asymptotics produce a leading attractive force, while Minkowski regions produce a repulsive asymptotic self-force. (orig.)

  10. A two-level parallel direct search implementation for arbitrarily sized objective functions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hutchinson, S.A.; Shadid, N.; Moffat, H.K. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)] [and others

    1994-12-31

    In the past, many optimization schemes for massively parallel computers have attempted to achieve parallel efficiency using one of two methods. In the case of large and expensive objective function calculations, the optimization itself may be run in serial and the objective function calculations parallelized. In contrast, if the objective function calculations are relatively inexpensive and can be performed on a single processor, then the actual optimization routine itself may be parallelized. In this paper, a scheme based upon the Parallel Direct Search (PDS) technique is presented which allows the objective function calculations to be done on an arbitrarily large number (p{sub 2}) of processors. If, p, the number of processors available, is greater than or equal to 2p{sub 2} then the optimization may be parallelized as well. This allows for efficient use of computational resources since the objective function calculations can be performed on the number of processors that allow for peak parallel efficiency and then further speedup may be achieved by parallelizing the optimization. Results are presented for an optimization problem which involves the solution of a PDE using a finite-element algorithm as part of the objective function calculation. The optimum number of processors for the finite-element calculations is less than p/2. Thus, the PDS method is also parallelized. Performance comparisons are given for a nCUBE 2 implementation.

  11. Arbitrarily primed PCR- A rapid and simple method for typing of leptospiral serovars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramadass P

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To investigate the use of arbitrarily primed polymerase chain reaction (AP-PCR for typing of leptospiral serovars. METHODS: AP-PCR was adopted for identification of laboratory strains of leptospires and leptospiral cultures at serovar level. A primer of 12 bp was used for amplifying DNA of 13 laboratory strains of leptospires as well as culture pellets of leptospires. RESULTS: Each serovar produced distinct DNA fingerprint which was characteristic for each serovar. These patterns were used for typing of 81 serum culture samples obtained from human leptospiral cases. Of these samples, 39 could be typed based on AP-PCR fingerprints belonging to serovars autumnalis, pomona, canicola, javanica, icterohaemorrhagiae, patoc and pyrogenes. These results were confirmed by RAPD fingerprinting of the DNA samples of the respective leptospiral serovars after culturing -FNx01them in EMJH media. One of the important findings of this work was that straight culture sample could be used for AP-PCR assay, without purification of DNA. By having more number of AP-PCR reference fingerprints, more serovars could be typed. CONCLUSIONS: AP-PCR technique provides great potential for simple and rapid identification of leptospires at serovar level, which could be useful in molecular epidemiological studies of leptospirosis.

  12. Tech-X Corporation releases simulation code for solving complex problems in plasma physics : VORPAL code provides a robust environment for simulating plasma processes in high-energy physics, IC fabrications and material processing applications

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    Tech-X Corporation releases simulation code for solving complex problems in plasma physics : VORPAL code provides a robust environment for simulating plasma processes in high-energy physics, IC fabrications and material processing applications

  13. Robust and thermal-enhanced melamine formaldehyde–modified glassfiber composite separator for high-performance lithium batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Qingfu

    2015-01-01

    The composite separator of melamine formaldehyde resin coated glass microfiber membrane was prepared for high performance lithium ion battery. It was demonstrated that this composite membranes possessed a significantly enhanced tensile strength and a modified porous structure, compared with that of pristine glass microfiber membrane. Impressive improvements in thermo-stability, with no shrinkage at an elevated temperature of 150 °C. Meanwhile, such composite membrane presented a favorable wettability and remarkable electrochemical stability in commercial liquid electrolyte. In addition, the battery test results of LiCoO 2 /graphite cells proved the composite membrane was a promising separator with an improved cycling performance and rate capability. The cycle performance of LiFePO 4 /Li cells at the elevated temperature of 120 °C demonstrated their excellent safety characteristic as separator in LIB, indicating the composite membrane was a potential separator candidate for high power battery.

  14. Robust high-yield ~1 TBq production of cyclotron based sodium [99mTc]pertechnetate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, J D; Thomas, B; Selivanova, S V; Berthelette, E; Wilson, J S; McEwan, A J B; Gagnon, K

    2018-03-02

    This paper presents the irradiation and processing of high-current 100 Mo targets at the University of Alberta (UofA) in a GMP compliant setting. For purpose of comparison with a second production facility, additional studies at Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Sherbrooke (CHUS) are also described. More than 70% of today's diagnostic radiopharmaceuticals are based on 99m Tc, however the conventional supply chain for obtaining 99m Tc is fragile. The aim of this work was to demonstrate reliable high yield production and processing of 99m Tc with medium-energy, high-current, cyclotrons. We used two cyclotrons (TR-24, Advanced Cyclotron Systems, Inc) for irradiations with 22 MeV or 24 MeV incident energy and 400 μA current up to a maximum of 6 h. The irradiated 100 Mo was dissolved using peroxide, basified using ammonium carbonate, and purified using a PEG-based solid phase extraction technique. High-yield productions with 22 MeV (400 μA, 6 h) yielded an average isolated [ 99m Tc]TcO 4 - yield of 878 GBq ± 99 GBq (23.7 Ci ± 2.7 Ci) decay corrected to EOB, n = 8 (isolated saturation yield: 4.36 ± 0.49 GBq/μA). Irradiations with 24 MeV (400 μA, 6 h) resulted in an average isolated [ 99m Tc]TcO 4 - yield of 993 GBq ± 100 GBq (26.8 Ci ± 2.7 Ci) decay corrected to EOB, n = 7 (isolated saturation yield: 4.97 ± 0.50 GBq/μA). These yields corresponds to 600-700 GBq (16-19 Ci) of [ 99m Tc]TcO 4 - at release (i.e. 3 hour post-EOB). For all tested batches, the QC results were within the recently published specifications in the European Pharmacopoeia. Reliable near-TBq production yields for 99m Tc can be obtained using medium-energy cyclotrons. This work presents evidence that medium-energy high-current cyclotrons can provide high yields of [ 99m Tc]TcO 4 - with radionuclidic impurities levels within the specifications of the existing European Pharmacopoeia monograph, indicating that this

  15. Highly open bowl-like PtAuAg nanocages as robust electrocatalysts towards ethylene glycol oxidation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Hui; Yan, Bo; Li, Shumin; Wang, Jin; Song, Pingping; Wang, Caiqin; Guo, Jun; Du, Yukou

    2018-04-01

    A novel combined seed mediated and galvanic replacement method has been demonstrated to synthesize a new class of trimetallic PtAuAg nanocatalysts with highly open bowl-like nanocage structure. The newly-generated PtAuAg nanocages catalysts exhibit superior electrocatalytic performances towards ethylene glycol oxidation with the mass activity of 6357.1 mA mg-1, 5.5 times higher than that of commercial Pt/C (1151.1 mA mg-1). This work demonstrates the first example of designing shape-controlled architectures of trimetallic bowl-like PtAuAg nanocages for liquid fuel electrooxidation.

  16. Electric field conjugation for ground-based high-contrast imaging: robustness study and tests with the Project 1640 coronagraph

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Christopher T.; Crepp, Justin R.; Vasisht, Gautam; Cady, Eric

    2017-10-01

    The electric field conjugation (EFC) algorithm has shown promise for removing scattered starlight from high-contrast imaging measurements, both in numerical simulations and laboratory experiments. To prepare for the deployment of EFC using ground-based telescopes, we investigate the response of EFC to unaccounted for deviations from an ideal optical model. We explore the linear nature of the algorithm by assessing its response to a range of inaccuracies in the optical model generally present in real systems. We find that the algorithm is particularly sensitive to unresponsive deformable mirror (DM) actuators, misalignment of the Lyot stop, and misalignment of the focal plane mask. Vibrations and DM registration appear to be less of a concern compared to values expected at the telescope. We quantify how accurately one must model these core coronagraph components to ensure successful EFC corrections. We conclude that while the condition of the DM can limit contrast, EFC may still be used to improve the sensitivity of high-contrast imaging observations. Our results have informed the development of a full EFC implementation using the Project 1640 coronagraph at Palomar observatory. While focused on a specific instrument, our results are applicable to the many coronagraphs that may be interested in employing EFC.

  17. High-throughput droplet analysis and multiplex DNA detection in the microfluidic platform equipped with a robust sample-introduction technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Jinyang; Ji, Xinghu; He, Zhike

    2015-01-01

    In this work, a simple, flexible and low-cost sample-introduction technique was developed and integrated with droplet platform. The sample-introduction strategy was realized based on connecting the components of positive pressure input device, sample container and microfluidic chip through the tygon tubing with homemade polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) adaptor, so the sample was delivered into the microchip from the sample container under the driving of positive pressure. This sample-introduction technique is so robust and compatible that could be integrated with T-junction, flow-focus or valve-assisted droplet microchips. By choosing the PDMS adaptor with proper dimension, the microchip could be flexibly equipped with various types of familiar sample containers, makes the sampling more straightforward without trivial sample transfer or loading. And the convenient sample changing was easily achieved by positioning the adaptor from one sample container to another. Benefiting from the proposed technique, the time-dependent concentration gradient was generated and applied for quantum dot (QD)-based fluorescence barcoding within droplet chip. High-throughput droplet screening was preliminarily demonstrated through the investigation of the quenching efficiency of ruthenium complex to the fluorescence of QD. More importantly, multiplex DNA assay was successfully carried out in the integrated system, which shows the practicability and potentials in high-throughput biosensing. - Highlights: • A simple, robust and low-cost sample-introduction technique was developed. • Convenient and flexible sample changing was achieved in microfluidic system. • Novel strategy of concentration gradient generation was presented for barcoding. • High-throughput droplet screening could be realized in the integrated platform. • Multiplex DNA assay was successfully carried out in the droplet platform

  18. High-throughput droplet analysis and multiplex DNA detection in the microfluidic platform equipped with a robust sample-introduction technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Jinyang; Ji, Xinghu [Key Laboratory of Analytical Chemistry for Biology and Medicine (Ministry of Education), College of Chemistry and Molecular Sciences, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 (China); He, Zhike, E-mail: zhkhe@whu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Analytical Chemistry for Biology and Medicine (Ministry of Education), College of Chemistry and Molecular Sciences, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 (China); Suzhou Institute of Wuhan University, Suzhou 215123 (China)

    2015-08-12

    In this work, a simple, flexible and low-cost sample-introduction technique was developed and integrated with droplet platform. The sample-introduction strategy was realized based on connecting the components of positive pressure input device, sample container and microfluidic chip through the tygon tubing with homemade polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) adaptor, so the sample was delivered into the microchip from the sample container under the driving of positive pressure. This sample-introduction technique is so robust and compatible that could be integrated with T-junction, flow-focus or valve-assisted droplet microchips. By choosing the PDMS adaptor with proper dimension, the microchip could be flexibly equipped with various types of familiar sample containers, makes the sampling more straightforward without trivial sample transfer or loading. And the convenient sample changing was easily achieved by positioning the adaptor from one sample container to another. Benefiting from the proposed technique, the time-dependent concentration gradient was generated and applied for quantum dot (QD)-based fluorescence barcoding within droplet chip. High-throughput droplet screening was preliminarily demonstrated through the investigation of the quenching efficiency of ruthenium complex to the fluorescence of QD. More importantly, multiplex DNA assay was successfully carried out in the integrated system, which shows the practicability and potentials in high-throughput biosensing. - Highlights: • A simple, robust and low-cost sample-introduction technique was developed. • Convenient and flexible sample changing was achieved in microfluidic system. • Novel strategy of concentration gradient generation was presented for barcoding. • High-throughput droplet screening could be realized in the integrated platform. • Multiplex DNA assay was successfully carried out in the droplet platform.

  19. Palladium Nanoparticle-Loaded Cellulose Paper: A Highly Efficient, Robust, and Recyclable Self-Assembled Composite Catalytic System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Guangchao; Kaefer, Katharina; Mourdikoudis, Stefanos; Polavarapu, Lakshminarayana; Vaz, Belén; Cartmell, Samantha E; Bouleghlimat, Azzedine; Buurma, Niklaas J; Yate, Luis; de Lera, Ángel R; Liz-Marzán, Luis M; Pastoriza-Santos, Isabel; Pérez-Juste, Jorge

    2015-01-15

    We present a novel strategy based on the immobilization of palladium nanoparticles (Pd NPs) on filter paper for development of a catalytic system with high efficiency and recyclability. Oleylamine-capped Pd nanoparticles, dispersed in an organic solvent, strongly adsorb on cellulose filter paper, which shows a great ability to wick fluids due to its microfiber structure. Strong van der Waals forces and hydrophobic interactions between the particles and the substrate lead to nanoparticle immobilization, with no desorption upon further immersion in any solvent. The prepared Pd NP-loaded paper substrates were tested for several model reactions such as the oxidative homocoupling of arylboronic acids, the Suzuki cross-coupling reaction, and nitro-to-amine reduction, and they display efficient catalytic activity and excellent recyclability and reusability. This approach of using NP-loaded paper substrates as reusable catalysts is expected to open doors for new types of catalytic support for practical applications.

  20. A simple robust method for synthesis of metallic copper nanoparticles of high antibacterial potency against E. coli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Arijit Kumar; Sarkar, Raj Kumar; Prasun Chattopadhyay, Asoke; Aich, Pulakesh; Chakraborty, Ruchira; Basu, Tarakdas

    2012-03-01

    A method for preparation of copper nanoparticles (Cu-NPs) was developed by simple reduction of CuCl2 in the presence of gelatin as a stabilizer and without applying stringent conditions like purging with nitrogen. The NPs were characterized by spectrophotometry, dynamic light scattering, x-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The particles were about 50-60 nm in size and highly stable. The antibacterial activity of this Cu-NP on Gram-negative Escherichia coli was demonstrated by the methods of agar plating, flow cytometry and phase contrast microscopy. The minimum inhibitory concentration (3.0 µg ml-1), minimum bactericidal concentration (7.5 µg ml-1) and susceptibility constant (0.92) showed that this Cu-NP is highly effective against E. coli at a much lower concentration than that reported previously. Treatment with Cu-NPs made E. coli cells filamentous. The higher the concentration of Cu-NPs, the greater the population of filamentous cells; average filament size varied from 7 to 20 µm compared to the normal cell size of ˜2.5 µm. Both filamentation and killing of cells by Cu-NPs (7.5 µg ml-1) also occurred in an E. coli strain resistant to multiple antibiotics. Moreover, an antibacterial effect of Cu-NPs was also observed in Gram-positive Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus, for which the values of minimum inhibitory concentration and minimum bactericidal concentration were close to that for E. coli.

  1. A simple robust method for synthesis of metallic copper nanoparticles of high antibacterial potency against E. coli

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chatterjee, Arijit Kumar; Aich, Pulakesh; Chakraborty, Ruchira; Basu, Tarakdas; Sarkar, Raj Kumar; Chattopadhyay, Asoke Prasun

    2012-01-01

    A method for preparation of copper nanoparticles (Cu-NPs) was developed by simple reduction of CuCl 2 in the presence of gelatin as a stabilizer and without applying stringent conditions like purging with nitrogen. The NPs were characterized by spectrophotometry, dynamic light scattering, x-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The particles were about 50–60 nm in size and highly stable. The antibacterial activity of this Cu-NP on Gram-negative Escherichia coli was demonstrated by the methods of agar plating, flow cytometry and phase contrast microscopy. The minimum inhibitory concentration (3.0 µg ml −1 ), minimum bactericidal concentration (7.5 µg ml −1 ) and susceptibility constant (0.92) showed that this Cu-NP is highly effective against E. coli at a much lower concentration than that reported previously. Treatment with Cu-NPs made E. coli cells filamentous. The higher the concentration of Cu-NPs, the greater the population of filamentous cells; average filament size varied from 7 to 20 µm compared to the normal cell size of ∼2.5 µm. Both filamentation and killing of cells by Cu-NPs (7.5 µg ml −1 ) also occurred in an E. coli strain resistant to multiple antibiotics. Moreover, an antibacterial effect of Cu-NPs was also observed in Gram-positive Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus, for which the values of minimum inhibitory concentration and minimum bactericidal concentration were close to that for E. coli. (paper)

  2. Generalized shortcuts to adiabaticity and enhanced robustness against decoherence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Alan C.; Sarandy, Marcelo S.

    2018-01-01

    Shortcuts to adiabaticity provide a general approach to mimic adiabatic quantum processes via arbitrarily fast evolutions in Hilbert space. For these counter-diabatic evolutions, higher speed comes at higher energy cost. Here, the counter-diabatic theory is employed as a minimal energy demanding scheme for speeding up adiabatic tasks. As a by-product, we show that this approach can be used to obtain infinite classes of transitionless models, including time-independent Hamiltonians under certain conditions over the eigenstates of the original Hamiltonian. We apply these results to investigate shortcuts to adiabaticity in decohering environments by introducing the requirement of a fixed energy resource. In this scenario, we show that generalized transitionless evolutions can be more robust against decoherence than their adiabatic counterparts. We illustrate this enhanced robustness both for the Landau-Zener model and for quantum gate Hamiltonians.

  3. Pyrosequencing the Bemisia tabaci transcriptome reveals a highly diverse bacterial community and a robust system for insecticide resistance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen Xie

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius is a phloem-feeding insect poised to become one of the major insect pests in open field and greenhouse production systems throughout the world. The high level of resistance to insecticides is a main factor that hinders continued use of insecticides for suppression of B. tabaci. Despite its prevalence, little is known about B. tabaci at the genome level. To fill this gap, an invasive B. tabaci B biotype was subjected to pyrosequencing-based transcriptome analysis to identify genes and gene networks putatively involved in various physiological and toxicological processes. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using Roche 454 pyrosequencing, 857,205 reads containing approximately 340 megabases were obtained from the B. tabaci transcriptome. De novo assembly generated 178,669 unigenes including 30,980 from insects, 17,881 from bacteria, and 129,808 from the nohit. A total of 50,835 (28.45% unigenes showed similarity to the non-redundant database in GenBank with a cut-off E-value of 10-5. Among them, 40,611 unigenes were assigned to one or more GO terms and 6,917 unigenes were assigned to 288 known pathways. De novo metatranscriptome analysis revealed highly diverse bacterial symbionts in B. tabaci, and demonstrated the host-symbiont cooperation in amino acid production. In-depth transcriptome analysis indentified putative molecular markers, and genes potentially involved in insecticide resistance and nutrient digestion. The utility of this transcriptome was validated by a thiamethoxam resistance study, in which annotated cytochrome P450 genes were significantly overexpressed in the resistant B. tabaci in comparison to its susceptible counterparts. CONCLUSIONS: This transcriptome/metatranscriptome analysis sheds light on the molecular understanding of symbiosis and insecticide resistance in an agriculturally important phloem-feeding insect pest, and lays the foundation for future functional genomics research of the

  4. Robust high-throughput batch screening method in 384-well format with optical in-line resin quantification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kittelmann, Jörg; Ottens, Marcel; Hubbuch, Jürgen

    2015-04-15

    High-throughput batch screening technologies have become an important tool in downstream process development. Although continuative miniaturization saves time and sample consumption, there is yet no screening process described in the 384-well microplate format. Several processes are established in the 96-well dimension to investigate protein-adsorbent interactions, utilizing between 6.8 and 50 μL resin per well. However, as sample consumption scales with resin volumes and throughput scales with experiments per microplate, they are limited in costs and saved time. In this work, a new method for in-well resin quantification by optical means, applicable in the 384-well format, and resin volumes as small as 0.1 μL is introduced. A HTS batch isotherm process is described, utilizing this new method in combination with optical sample volume quantification for screening of isotherm parameters in 384-well microplates. Results are qualified by confidence bounds determined by bootstrap analysis and a comprehensive Monte Carlo study of error propagation. This new approach opens the door to a variety of screening processes in the 384-well format on HTS stations, higher quality screening data and an increase in throughput. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Scalable integration of Li5FeO4 towards robust, high-performance lithium-ion hybrid capacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Min-Sik; Lim, Young-Geun; Hwang, Soo Min; Kim, Jung Ho; Kim, Jeom-Soo; Dou, Shi Xue; Cho, Jaephil; Kim, Young-Jun

    2014-11-01

    Lithium-ion hybrid capacitors have attracted great interest due to their high specific energy relative to conventional electrical double-layer capacitors. Nevertheless, the safety issue still remains a drawback for lithium-ion capacitors in practical operational environments because of the use of metallic lithium. Herein, single-phase Li5FeO4 with an antifluorite structure that acts as an alternative lithium source (instead of metallic lithium) is employed and its potential use for lithium-ion capacitors is verified. Abundant Li(+) amounts can be extracted from Li5FeO4 incorporated in the positive electrode and efficiently doped into the negative electrode during the first electrochemical charging. After the first Li(+) extraction, Li(+) does not return to the Li5FeO4 host structure and is steadily involved in the electrochemical reactions of the negative electrode during subsequent cycling. Various electrochemical and structural analyses support its superior characteristics for use as a promising lithium source. This versatile approach can yield a sufficient Li(+)-doping efficiency of >90% and improved safety as a result of the removal of metallic lithium from the cell. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Robust fault detection for the dynamics of high-speed train with multi-source finite frequency interference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Weiqi; Dong, Hairong; Yao, Xiuming; Ning, Bin

    2018-04-01

    This paper proposes a composite fault detection scheme for the dynamics of high-speed train (HST), using an unknown input observer-like (UIO-like) fault detection filter, in the presence of wind gust and operating noises which are modeled as disturbance generated by exogenous system and unknown multi-source disturbance within finite frequency domain. Using system input and system output measurements, the fault detection filter is designed to generate the needed residual signals. In order to decouple disturbance from residual signals without truncating the influence of faults, this paper proposes a method to partition the disturbance into two parts. One subset of the disturbance does not appear in residual dynamics, and the influence of the other subset is constrained by H ∞ performance index in a finite frequency domain. A set of detection subspaces are defined, and every different fault is assigned to its own detection subspace to guarantee the residual signals are diagonally affected promptly by the faults. Simulations are conducted to demonstrate the effectiveness and merits of the proposed method. Copyright © 2018 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Synthesis of robust and high-performance aquaporin-based biomimetic membranes by interfacial polymerization-membrane preparation and RO performance characterization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhao, Yang; Qiu, Changquan; Li, Xuesong

    2012-01-01

    -free ABMs that can be easily scaled up. In the current study, a thin film composite (TFC) ABM was prepared by the interfacial polymerization method, where AquaporinZ-containing proteoliposomes were added to the m-phenylene-diamine aqueous solution. Control membranes, either without aquaporins......Aquaporins are water channel proteins with excellent water permeability and solute rejection, which makes them promising for preparing high-performance biomimetic membranes. Despite the growing interest in aquaporin-based biomimetic membranes (ABMs), it is challenging to produce robust and defect...... or with inactive (mutant) aquaporins, were also similarly prepared. The separation performance of these membranes was evaluated by cross-flow reverse osmosis (RO) tests. Compared to the controls, the active ABM achieved significantly higher water permeability (∼4L/m2hbar) with comparable NaCl rejection (∼97...

  8. Encapsulating Silica/Antimony into Porous Electrospun Carbon Nanofibers with Robust Structure Stability for High-Efficiency Lithium Storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hongkang; Yang, Xuming; Wu, Qizhen; Zhang, Qiaobao; Chen, Huixin; Jing, Hongmei; Wang, Jinkai; Mi, Shao-Bo; Rogach, Andrey L; Niu, Chunming

    2018-04-24

    To address the volume-change-induced pulverization problems of electrode materials, we propose a "silica reinforcement" concept, following which silica-reinforced carbon nanofibers with encapsulated Sb nanoparticles (denoted as SiO 2 /Sb@CNFs) are fabricated via an electrospinning method. In this composite structure, insulating silica fillers not only reinforce the overall structure but also contribute to additional lithium storage capacity; encapsulation of Sb nanoparticles into the carbon-silica matrices efficiently buffers the volume changes during Li-Sb alloying-dealloying processes upon cycling and alleviates the mechanical stress; the porous carbon nanofiber framework allows for fast charge transfer and electrolyte diffusion. These advantageous characteristics synergistically contribute to the superior lithium storage performance of SiO 2 /Sb@CNF electrodes, which demonstrate excellent cycling stability and rate capability, delivering reversible discharge capacities of 700 mA h/g at 200 mA/g, 572 mA h/g at 500 mA/g, and 468 mA h/g at 1000 mA/g each after 400 cycles. Ex situ as well as in situ TEM measurements confirm that the structural integrity of silica-reinforced Sb@CNF electrodes can efficiently withstand the mechanical stress induced by the volume changes. Notably, the SiO 2 /Sb@CNF//LiCoO 2 full cell delivers high reversible capacities of ∼400 mA h/g after 800 cycles at 500 mA/g and ∼336 mA h/g after 500 cycles at 1000 mA/g.

  9. Perceptual Robust Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Søren Nygaard

    The research presented in this PhD thesis has focused on a perceptual approach to robust design. The results of the research and the original contribution to knowledge is a preliminary framework for understanding, positioning, and applying perceptual robust design. Product quality is a topic...... been presented. Therefore, this study set out to contribute to the understanding and application of perceptual robust design. To achieve this, a state-of-the-art and current practice review was performed. From the review two main research problems were identified. Firstly, a lack of tools...... for perceptual robustness was found to overlap with the optimum for functional robustness and at most approximately 2.2% out of the 14.74% could be ascribed solely to the perceptual robustness optimisation. In conclusion, the thesis have offered a new perspective on robust design by merging robust design...

  10. Ultrasonic assisted rapid synthesis of high uniform super-paramagnetic microspheres with core-shell structure and robust magneto-chromatic ability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Wenyan, E-mail: wiseyanyan@jit.edu.cn [College of Material Engineering, Jinling Institute of technology, Nanjing (China); Chen, Jiahua [College of Material Engineering, Jinling Institute of technology, Nanjing (China); Wang, Wei [Jiangsu Collaborative Innovation Center for Advanced Inorganic Function Composites, Nanjing Tech University, Nanjing (China); School of Physics and Optoelectronic Engineering, Nanjing University of Information Science & Technology, Nanjing (China); Lu, GongXuan [State Key Laboratory for Oxo Synthesis and Selective Oxidation, Lanzhou Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Science, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Hao, Lingyun [College of Material Engineering, Jinling Institute of technology, Nanjing (China); Ni, Yaru; Lu, Chunhua; Xu, Zhongzi [Jiangsu Collaborative Innovation Center for Advanced Inorganic Function Composites, Nanjing Tech University, Nanjing (China); State Key Laboratory of Materials-Oriented Chemical Engineering, College of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanjing Tech University, Nanjing (China)

    2017-03-15

    Super-paramagnetic core-shell microspheres were synthesized by ultrasonic assisted routine under low ultrasonic irradiation powers. Compared with conventional routine, ultrasonic effect could not only improve the uniformity of the core-shell structure of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}@SiO{sub 2}, but shorten the synthesis time in large scale. Owing to their hydrophilicity and high surface charge, the Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}@SiO{sub 2} microspheres could be dispersed well in distilled water to form homogeneous colloidal suspension. The suspensions have favorable magneto-chromatic ability that they sensitively exhibit brilliant colorful ribbons by magnetic attraction. The colorful ribbons, which distributed along the magnetic lines, make morphology of the magnetic fields become “visible” to naked eyed. Those colorful ribbons originate from strong magnetic interaction between the microspheres and magnetic fields. Furthermore, the magneto-chromatic performance is reversible as the colorful ribbons vanished rapidly with the removing of magnetic fields. The silica layer effectively enhanced the acid resistance and surface-oxidation resistance of theFe{sub 3}O{sub 4}@SiO{sub 2} microspheres, so they could exhibit stable magnetic nature and robust magneto-chromatic property in acid environment. - Graphical abstract: The Graphical abstract shows the sensitive magneto-chromatic ability, the acid resistance ability as well as the magneto-chromatic mechanism of the Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} and Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}@SiO{sub 2} suspension. - Highlights: • Sensitive and reversible robust magneto-chromatic property under magnetic attraction. • Morphology of magnetic field “visible” to naked eyes. • Enhance acid resistance and surface-oxidation resistance. • Ultrasonic effect largely shorten the synthesis time of high uniform microspheres.

  11. Ultrasonic assisted rapid synthesis of high uniform super-paramagnetic microspheres with core-shell structure and robust magneto-chromatic ability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Wenyan; Chen, Jiahua; Wang, Wei; Lu, GongXuan; Hao, Lingyun; Ni, Yaru; Lu, Chunhua; Xu, Zhongzi

    2017-01-01

    Super-paramagnetic core-shell microspheres were synthesized by ultrasonic assisted routine under low ultrasonic irradiation powers. Compared with conventional routine, ultrasonic effect could not only improve the uniformity of the core-shell structure of Fe_3O_4@SiO_2, but shorten the synthesis time in large scale. Owing to their hydrophilicity and high surface charge, the Fe_3O_4@SiO_2 microspheres could be dispersed well in distilled water to form homogeneous colloidal suspension. The suspensions have favorable magneto-chromatic ability that they sensitively exhibit brilliant colorful ribbons by magnetic attraction. The colorful ribbons, which distributed along the magnetic lines, make morphology of the magnetic fields become “visible” to naked eyed. Those colorful ribbons originate from strong magnetic interaction between the microspheres and magnetic fields. Furthermore, the magneto-chromatic performance is reversible as the colorful ribbons vanished rapidly with the removing of magnetic fields. The silica layer effectively enhanced the acid resistance and surface-oxidation resistance of theFe_3O_4@SiO_2 microspheres, so they could exhibit stable magnetic nature and robust magneto-chromatic property in acid environment. - Graphical abstract: The Graphical abstract shows the sensitive magneto-chromatic ability, the acid resistance ability as well as the magneto-chromatic mechanism of the Fe_3O_4 and Fe_3O_4@SiO_2 suspension. - Highlights: • Sensitive and reversible robust magneto-chromatic property under magnetic attraction. • Morphology of magnetic field “visible” to naked eyes. • Enhance acid resistance and surface-oxidation resistance. • Ultrasonic effect largely shorten the synthesis time of high uniform microspheres.

  12. A study of composite beam with shape memory alloy arbitrarily embedded under thermal and mechanical loadings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Yin; Zhao Yapu

    2007-01-01

    The constitutive relations and kinematic assumptions on the composite beam with shape memory alloy (SMA) arbitrarily embedded are discussed and the results related to the different kinematic assumptions are compared. As the approach of mechanics of materials is to study the composite beam with the SMA layer embedded, the kinematic assumption is vital. In this paper, we systematically study the kinematic assumptions influence on the composite beam deflection and vibration characteristics. Based on the different kinematic assumptions, the equations of equilibrium/motion are different. Here three widely used kinematic assumptions are presented and the equations of equilibrium/motion are derived accordingly. As the three kinematic assumptions change from the simple to the complex one, the governing equations evolve from the linear to the nonlinear ones. For the nonlinear equations of equilibrium, the numerical solution is obtained by using Galerkin discretization method and Newton-Rhapson iteration method. The analysis on the numerical difficulty of using Galerkin method on the post-buckling analysis is presented. For the post-buckling analysis, finite element method is applied to avoid the difficulty due to the singularity occurred in Galerkin method. The natural frequencies of the composite beam with the nonlinear governing equation, which are obtained by directly linearizing the equations and locally linearizing the equations around each equilibrium, are compared. The influences of the SMA layer thickness and the shift from neutral axis on the deflection, buckling and post-buckling are also investigated. This paper presents a very general way to treat thermo-mechanical properties of the composite beam with SMA arbitrarily embedded. The governing equations for each kinematic assumption consist of a third order and a fourth order differential equation with a total of seven boundary conditions. Some previous studies on the SMA layer either ignore the thermal constraint

  13. Solution strategies for linear and nonlinear instability phenomena for arbitrarily thin shell structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eckstein, U.; Harte, R.; Kraetzig, W.B.; Wittek, U.

    1983-01-01

    In order to describe nonlinear response and instability behaviour the paper starts with the total potential energy considering the basic kinematic equations of a consistent nonlinear shell theory for large displacements and moderate rotations. The material behaviour is assumed to be hyperelastic and isotropic. The incrementation and discretization of the total potential energy leads to the tangent stiffness relation, which is the central equation of computational algorithms based on combined incremental and iterative techniques. Here a symmetrized form of the RIKS/WEMPNER-algorithm for positive and negative load incrementation represents the basis of the nonlinear solution technique. To detect secondary equilibrium branches at points of neutral equilibrium within nonlinear primary paths a quadratic eigenvalue-problem has to be solved. In order to follow those complicated nonlinear response phenomena the RIKS/WEMPNER incrementation/iteration process is combined with a simultaneous solution of the linearized quadratic eigenvalue-problem. Additionally the essentials of a recently derived family of arbitrarily curved shell elements for linear (LACS) and geometrically nonlinear (NACS) shell problems are presented. The main advantage of these elements is the exact description of all geometric properties as well as the energy-equivalent representation of the applied loads in combination with an efficient algorithm to form the stiffness submatrices. Especially the NACS-elements are designed to improve the accuracy of the solution in the deep postbuckling range including moderate rotations. The derived finite elements and solution strategies are applied to a certain number of typical shell problems to prove the precision of the shell elements and to demonstrate the possibilities of tracing linear and nonlinear bifurcation problems as well as snap-through phenomena with and without secondary bifurcation branches. (orig.)

  14. Arbitrarily exhaustive hypergraph generation of 4-, 6-, 8-, 16-, and 32-dimensional quantum contextual sets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavičić, Mladen

    2017-06-01

    Quantum contextuality turns out to be a necessary resource for universal quantum computation and important in the field of quantum information processing. It is therefore of interest both for theoretical considerations and for experimental implementation to find new types and instances of contextual sets and develop methods of their optimal generation. We present an arbitrarily exhaustive hypergraph-based generation of the most explored contextual sets [Kochen-Specker (KS) ones] in 4, 6, 8, 16, and 32 dimensions. We consider and analyze 12 KS classes and obtain numerous properties of theirs, which we then compare with the results previously obtained in the literature. We generate several thousand additional types and instances of KS sets, including all KS sets in three of the classes and the upper part of a fourth set. We make use of the McKay-Megill-Pavičić (MMP) hypergraph language, algorithms, and programs to generate KS sets strictly following their definition from the Kochen-Specker theorem. This approach proves to be particularly advantageous over the parity-proof-based ones (which prevail in the literature) since it turns out that only a very few KS sets have a parity proof (in six KS classes <0.01% and in one of them 0%). MMP hypergraph formalism enables a translation of an exponentially complex task of solving systems of nonlinear equations, describing KS vector orthogonalities, into a statistically linearly complex task of evaluating vertex states of hypergraph edges, thus exponentially speeding up the generation of KS sets and enabling us to generate billions of novel instances of them. The MMP hypergraph notation also enables us to graphically represent KS sets and to visually discern their features.

  15. Diffuse interface immersed boundary method for multi-fluid flows with arbitrarily moving rigid bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Jitendra Kumar; Natarajan, Ganesh

    2018-05-01

    We present an interpolation-free diffuse interface immersed boundary method for multiphase flows with moving bodies. A single fluid formalism using the volume-of-fluid approach is adopted to handle multiple immiscible fluids which are distinguished using the volume fractions, while the rigid bodies are tracked using an analogous volume-of-solid approach that solves for the solid fractions. The solution to the fluid flow equations are carried out using a finite volume-immersed boundary method, with the latter based on a diffuse interface philosophy. In the present work, we assume that the solids are filled with a "virtual" fluid with density and viscosity equal to the largest among all fluids in the domain. The solids are assumed to be rigid and their motion is solved using Newton's second law of motion. The immersed boundary methodology constructs a modified momentum equation that reduces to the Navier-Stokes equations in the fully fluid region and recovers the no-slip boundary condition inside the solids. An implicit incremental fractional-step methodology in conjunction with a novel hybrid staggered/non-staggered approach is employed, wherein a single equation for normal momentum at the cell faces is solved everywhere in the domain, independent of the number of spatial dimensions. The scalars are all solved for at the cell centres, with the transport equations for solid and fluid volume fractions solved using a high-resolution scheme. The pressure is determined everywhere in the domain (including inside the solids) using a variable coefficient Poisson equation. The solution to momentum, pressure, solid and fluid volume fraction equations everywhere in the domain circumvents the issue of pressure and velocity interpolation, which is a source of spurious oscillations in sharp interface immersed boundary methods. A well-balanced algorithm with consistent mass/momentum transport ensures robust simulations of high density ratio flows with strong body forces. The

  16. Development of a Robust, High Current, Low Power Field Emission Electron Gun for a Spaceflight Reflectron Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Southard, Adrian E.; Getty, Stephanie A.; Feng, Steven; Glavin, Daniel P.; Auciello, Orlando; Sumant, Anirudha

    2012-01-01

    Carbon materials, including carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and nitrogen-incorporated ultrananocrystalline diamond (N-UNCD), have been of considerable interest for field emission applications for over a decade. In particular, robust field emission materials are compelling for space applications due to the low power consumption and potential for miniaturization. A reflectron time-of-flight mass spectrometer (TOF-MS) under development for in situ measurements on the Moon and other Solar System bodies uses a field emitter to generate ions from gaseous samples, using electron ionization. For these unusual environments, robustness, reliability, and long life are of paramount importance, and to this end, we have explored the field emission properties and lifetime of carbon nanotubes and nitrogen-incorporated ultrananocrystalline diamond (N-UNCD) thin films, the latter developed and patented by Argonne National Laboratory. We will present recent investigations of N-UNCD as a robust field emitter, revealing that this material offers stable performance in high vacuum for up to 1000 hours with threshold voltage for emission of about 3-4 V/lJm and current densities in the range of tens of microA. Optimizing the mass resolution and sensitivity of such a mass spectrometer has also been enabled by a parallel effort to scale up a CNT emitter to an array measuring 2 mm x 40 mm. Through simulation and experiment of the new extended format emitter, we have determined that focusing the electron beam is limited due to the angular spread of the emitted electrons. This dispersion effect can be reduced through modification of the electron gun geometry, but this reduces the current reaching the ionization region. By increasing the transmission efficiency of the electron beam to the anode, we have increased the anode current by two orders of magnitude to realize a corresponding enhancement in instrument sensitivity, at a moderate cost to mass resolution. We will report recent experimental and

  17. Robustness of Structural Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Canisius, T.D.G.; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard; Baker, J.W.

    2007-01-01

    The importance of robustness as a property of structural systems has been recognised following several structural failures, such as that at Ronan Point in 1968,where the consequenceswere deemed unacceptable relative to the initiating damage. A variety of research efforts in the past decades have...... attempted to quantify aspects of robustness such as redundancy and identify design principles that can improve robustness. This paper outlines the progress of recent work by the Joint Committee on Structural Safety (JCSS) to develop comprehensive guidance on assessing and providing robustness in structural...... systems. Guidance is provided regarding the assessment of robustness in a framework that considers potential hazards to the system, vulnerability of system components, and failure consequences. Several proposed methods for quantifying robustness are reviewed, and guidelines for robust design...

  18. Robust multivariate analysis

    CERN Document Server

    J Olive, David

    2017-01-01

    This text presents methods that are robust to the assumption of a multivariate normal distribution or methods that are robust to certain types of outliers. Instead of using exact theory based on the multivariate normal distribution, the simpler and more applicable large sample theory is given.  The text develops among the first practical robust regression and robust multivariate location and dispersion estimators backed by theory.   The robust techniques  are illustrated for methods such as principal component analysis, canonical correlation analysis, and factor analysis.  A simple way to bootstrap confidence regions is also provided. Much of the research on robust multivariate analysis in this book is being published for the first time. The text is suitable for a first course in Multivariate Statistical Analysis or a first course in Robust Statistics. This graduate text is also useful for people who are familiar with the traditional multivariate topics, but want to know more about handling data sets with...

  19. SU-D-207B-05: Robust Intra-Tumor Partitioning to Identify High-Risk Subregions for Prognosis in Lung Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, J; Gensheimer, M; Dong, X; Rubin, D; Napel, S; Diehn, M; Loo, B; Li, R [Stanford University, Palo Alto, CA (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: To develop an intra-tumor partitioning framework for identifying high-risk subregions from 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) and CT imaging, and to test whether tumor burden associated with the high-risk subregions is prognostic of outcomes in lung cancer. Methods: In this institutional review board-approved retrospective study, we analyzed the pre-treatment FDG-PET and CT scans of 44 lung cancer patients treated with radiotherapy. A novel, intra-tumor partitioning method was developed based on a two-stage clustering process: first at patient-level, each tumor was over-segmented into many superpixels by k-means clustering of integrated PET and CT images; next, tumor subregions were identified by merging previously defined superpixels via population-level hierarchical clustering. The volume associated with each of the subregions was evaluated using Kaplan-Meier analysis regarding its prognostic capability in predicting overall survival (OS) and out-of-field progression (OFP). Results: Three spatially distinct subregions were identified within each tumor, which were highly robust to uncertainty in PET/CT co-registration. Among these, the volume of the most metabolically active and metabolically heterogeneous solid component of the tumor was predictive of OS and OFP on the entire cohort, with a concordance index or CI = 0.66–0.67. When restricting the analysis to patients with stage III disease (n = 32), the same subregion achieved an even higher CI = 0.75 (HR = 3.93, logrank p = 0.002) for predicting OS, and a CI = 0.76 (HR = 4.84, logrank p = 0.002) for predicting OFP. In comparison, conventional imaging markers including tumor volume, SUVmax and MTV50 were not predictive of OS or OFP, with CI mostly below 0.60 (p < 0.001). Conclusion: We propose a robust intra-tumor partitioning method to identify clinically relevant, high-risk subregions in lung cancer. We envision that this approach will be applicable to identifying useful

  20. High-intensity stress elicits robust cortisol increases, and impairs working memory and visuo-spatial declarative memory in Special Forces candidates: A field experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taverniers, John; Van Ruysseveldt, Joris; Smeets, Tom; von Grumbkow, Jasper

    2010-07-01

    While running a selection procedure, 27 male Belgian Special Forces candidates, with a mean age of 27.4 years (SD = 5.1), were randomly assigned to a no-stress control (n = 14) or a high-intensity stress group (n = 13). Participants in the latter group were exposed to an extremely strenuous mock prisoner of war (POW) exercise. Immediately after stress or control treatment, working memory and visuo-spatial declarative memory performances were measured by the digit span (DS) test and the Rey-Osterrieth complex figure (ROCF), respectively. Concurrently, stress levels were assessed by obtaining salivary cortisol measurements and subjectively by the NASA Task Load Index (TLX). As expected, exposure to high-intensity stress led to both robust cortisol increases and significant differences in TLX scores. Stress induction also significantly impaired DS and ROCF performances. Moreover, delta cortisol increases and ROCF performance in the POW stress group showed a significant negative correlation, while DS performances followed the same tendency. Summarizing, the current findings complement and extend previous work on hormonal stress effects, and the subsequent performance deterioration on two memory tests in a unique high-intensity stress environment.

  1. A flexible, robust and antifouling asymmetric membrane based on ultra-long ceramic/polymeric fibers for high-efficiency separation of oil/water emulsions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kui; Yiming, Wubulikasimu; Saththasivam, Jayaprakash; Liu, Zhaoyang

    2017-07-06

    Polymeric and ceramic asymmetric membranes have dominated commercial membranes for water treatment. However, polymeric membranes are prone to becoming fouled, while ceramic membranes are mechanically fragile. Here, we report a novel concept to develop asymmetric membranes based on ultra-long ceramic/polymeric fibers, with the combined merits of good mechanical stability, excellent fouling resistance and high oil/water selectivity, in order to meet the stringent requirements for practical oil/water separation. The ultra-long dimensions of ceramic nanofibers/polymeric microfibers endow this novel membrane with mechanical flexibility and robustness, due to the integrated and intertwined structure. This membrane is capable of separating oil/water emulsions with high oil-separation efficiency (99.9%), thanks to its nanoporous selective layer made of ceramic nanofibers. Further, this membrane also displays superior antifouling properties due to its underwater superoleophobicity and ultra-low oil adhesion of the ceramic-based selective layer. This membrane exhibits high water permeation flux (6.8 × 10 4 L m -2 h -1 bar -1 ) at low operation pressures, which is attributed to its 3-dimensional (3D) interconnected fiber-based structure throughout the membrane. In addition, the facile fabrication process and inexpensive materials required for this membrane suggest its significant potential for industrial applications.

  2. On the Robustness and Prospects of Adaptive BDDC Methods for Finite Element Discretizations of Elliptic PDEs with High-Contrast Coefficients

    KAUST Repository

    Zampini, Stefano

    2016-06-02

    Balancing Domain Decomposition by Constraints (BDDC) methods have proven to be powerful preconditioners for large and sparse linear systems arising from the finite element discretization of elliptic PDEs. Condition number bounds can be theoretically established that are independent of the number of subdomains of the decomposition. The core of the methods resides in the design of a larger and partially discontinuous finite element space that allows for fast application of the preconditioner, where Cholesky factorizations of the subdomain finite element problems are additively combined with a coarse, global solver. Multilevel and highly-scalable algorithms can be obtained by replacing the coarse Cholesky solver with a coarse BDDC preconditioner. BDDC methods have the remarkable ability to control the condition number, since the coarse space of the preconditioner can be adaptively enriched at the cost of solving local eigenproblems. The proper identification of these eigenproblems extends the robustness of the methods to any heterogeneity in the distribution of the coefficients of the PDEs, not only when the coefficients jumps align with the subdomain boundaries or when the high contrast regions are confined to lie in the interior of the subdomains. The specific adaptive technique considered in this paper does not depend upon any interaction of discretization and partition; it relies purely on algebraic operations. Coarse space adaptation in BDDC methods has attractive algorithmic properties, since the technique enhances the concurrency and the arithmetic intensity of the preconditioning step of the sparse implicit solver with the aim of controlling the number of iterations of the Krylov method in a black-box fashion, thus reducing the number of global synchronization steps and matrix vector multiplications needed by the iterative solver; data movement and memory bound kernels in the solve phase can be thus limited at the expense of extra local ops during the setup of

  3. A Robust Design Applicability Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ebro, Martin; Lars, Krogstie; Howard, Thomas J.

    2015-01-01

    to be applicable in organisations assigning a high importance to one or more factors that are known to be impacted by RD, while also experiencing a high level of occurrence of this factor. The RDAM supplements existing maturity models and metrics to provide a comprehensive set of data to support management......This paper introduces a model for assessing the applicability of Robust Design (RD) in a project or organisation. The intention of the Robust Design Applicability Model (RDAM) is to provide support for decisions by engineering management considering the relevant level of RD activities...

  4. A robust object-based shadow detection method for cloud-free high resolution satellite images over urban areas and water bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatar, Nurollah; Saadatseresht, Mohammad; Arefi, Hossein; Hadavand, Ahmad

    2018-06-01

    Unwanted contrast in high resolution satellite images such as shadow areas directly affects the result of further processing in urban remote sensing images. Detecting and finding the precise position of shadows is critical in different remote sensing processing chains such as change detection, image classification and digital elevation model generation from stereo images. The spectral similarity between shadow areas, water bodies, and some dark asphalt roads makes the development of robust shadow detection algorithms challenging. In addition, most of the existing methods work on pixel-level and neglect the contextual information contained in neighboring pixels. In this paper, a new object-based shadow detection framework is introduced. In the proposed method a pixel-level shadow mask is built by extending established thresholding methods with a new C4 index which enables to solve the ambiguity of shadow and water bodies. Then the pixel-based results are further processed in an object-based majority analysis to detect the final shadow objects. Four different high resolution satellite images are used to validate this new approach. The result shows the superiority of the proposed method over some state-of-the-art shadow detection method with an average of 96% in F-measure.

  5. Influence of High Magnetic Field and Zn Doping on Robust CO Phase of La0.5Ca0.5MnO3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Z.; Xia, Z. C.; Wei, M.; Yang, F.; Huang, S.; Xiao, G. L.; Shang, C.; Cheng, H.; Wu, H.; Zhang, X. X.; Ouyang, Z. W.

    2017-08-01

    Magnetic and electrical transport properties of La0.5Ca0.5- x Zn x MnO3 ( x = 0, 0.1, 0.15) have been investigated in a wide magnetic field range from 0 T to 50 T. Experimental results show that doping of nonmagnetic Zn2+ ion at Ca site and application of high magnetic field had obvious tuning effects on the stability of the robust charge-order phase, inducing new magnetization and electrical transport behaviors. In particular, obvious temperature and field hysteresis was induced, leading to enhanced magnetoresistance at around room temperature. Based on the intricate interplay between the external magnetic field and chemical strain (lattice distortion) induced by the dopant, which changed the bond length and the angle of double exchange and partially destroyed the charge-order phase, a weak ferromagnetic phase formed. The hysteretic behavior and enhanced magnetoresistance can be understood based on the tuning effects of the high magnetic field and dopant on the stability of the charge-order phase.

  6. Robust automated knowledge capture.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stevens-Adams, Susan Marie; Abbott, Robert G.; Forsythe, James Chris; Trumbo, Michael Christopher Stefan; Haass, Michael Joseph; Hendrickson, Stacey M. Langfitt

    2011-10-01

    This report summarizes research conducted through the Sandia National Laboratories Robust Automated Knowledge Capture Laboratory Directed Research and Development project. The objective of this project was to advance scientific understanding of the influence of individual cognitive attributes on decision making. The project has developed a quantitative model known as RumRunner that has proven effective in predicting the propensity of an individual to shift strategies on the basis of task and experience related parameters. Three separate studies are described which have validated the basic RumRunner model. This work provides a basis for better understanding human decision making in high consequent national security applications, and in particular, the individual characteristics that underlie adaptive thinking.

  7. Robust snapshot interferometric spectropolarimetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Daesuk; Seo, Yoonho; Yoon, Yonghee; Dembele, Vamara; Yoon, Jae Woong; Lee, Kyu Jin; Magnusson, Robert

    2016-05-15

    This Letter describes a Stokes vector measurement method based on a snapshot interferometric common-path spectropolarimeter. The proposed scheme, which employs an interferometric polarization-modulation module, can extract the spectral polarimetric parameters Ψ(k) and Δ(k) of a transmissive anisotropic object by which an accurate Stokes vector can be calculated in the spectral domain. It is inherently strongly robust to the object 3D pose variation, since it is designed distinctly so that the measured object can be placed outside of the interferometric module. Experiments are conducted to verify the feasibility of the proposed system. The proposed snapshot scheme enables us to extract the spectral Stokes vector of a transmissive anisotropic object within tens of msec with high accuracy.

  8. Robustness of Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faber, Michael Havbro; Vrouwenvelder, A.C.W.M.; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    2011-01-01

    In 2005, the Joint Committee on Structural Safety (JCSS) together with Working Commission (WC) 1 of the International Association of Bridge and Structural Engineering (IABSE) organized a workshop on robustness of structures. Two important decisions resulted from this workshop, namely...... ‘COST TU0601: Robustness of Structures’ was initiated in February 2007, aiming to provide a platform for exchanging and promoting research in the area of structural robustness and to provide a basic framework, together with methods, strategies and guidelines enhancing robustness of structures...... the development of a joint European project on structural robustness under the COST (European Cooperation in Science and Technology) programme and the decision to develop a more elaborate document on structural robustness in collaboration between experts from the JCSS and the IABSE. Accordingly, a project titled...

  9. Cafeteria diet is a robust model of human metabolic syndrome with liver and adipose inflammation: comparison to high-fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampey, Brante P; Vanhoose, Amanda M; Winfield, Helena M; Freemerman, Alex J; Muehlbauer, Michael J; Fueger, Patrick T; Newgard, Christopher B; Makowski, Liza

    2011-06-01

    Obesity has reached epidemic proportions worldwide and reports estimate that American children consume up to 25% of calories from snacks. Several animal models of obesity exist, but studies are lacking that compare high-fat diets (HFD) traditionally used in rodent models of diet-induced obesity (DIO) to diets consisting of food regularly consumed by humans, including high-salt, high-fat, low-fiber, energy dense foods such as cookies, chips, and processed meats. To investigate the obesogenic and inflammatory consequences of a cafeteria diet (CAF) compared to a lard-based 45% HFD in rodent models, male Wistar rats were fed HFD, CAF or chow control diets for 15 weeks. Body weight increased dramatically and remained significantly elevated in CAF-fed rats compared to all other diets. Glucose- and insulin-tolerance tests revealed that hyperinsulinemia, hyperglycemia, and glucose intolerance were exaggerated in the CAF-fed rats compared to controls and HFD-fed rats. It is well-established that macrophages infiltrate metabolic tissues at the onset of weight gain and directly contribute to inflammation, insulin resistance, and obesity. Although both high fat diets resulted in increased adiposity and hepatosteatosis, CAF-fed rats displayed remarkable inflammation in white fat, brown fat and liver compared to HFD and controls. In sum, the CAF provided a robust model of human metabolic syndrome compared to traditional lard-based HFD, creating a phenotype of exaggerated obesity with glucose intolerance and inflammation. This model provides a unique platform to study the biochemical, genomic and physiological mechanisms of obesity and obesity-related disease states that are pandemic in western civilization today.

  10. Robust Growth Determinants

    OpenAIRE

    Doppelhofer, Gernot; Weeks, Melvyn

    2011-01-01

    This paper investigates the robustness of determinants of economic growth in the presence of model uncertainty, parameter heterogeneity and outliers. The robust model averaging approach introduced in the paper uses a flexible and parsi- monious mixture modeling that allows for fat-tailed errors compared to the normal benchmark case. Applying robust model averaging to growth determinants, the paper finds that eight out of eighteen variables found to be significantly related to economic growth ...

  11. Robust Programming by Example

    OpenAIRE

    Bishop , Matt; Elliott , Chip

    2011-01-01

    Part 2: WISE 7; International audience; Robust programming lies at the heart of the type of coding called “secure programming”. Yet it is rarely taught in academia. More commonly, the focus is on how to avoid creating well-known vulnerabilities. While important, that misses the point: a well-structured, robust program should anticipate where problems might arise and compensate for them. This paper discusses one view of robust programming and gives an example of how it may be taught.

  12. Robust continuous clustering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Sohil Atul; Koltun, Vladlen

    2017-09-12

    Clustering is a fundamental procedure in the analysis of scientific data. It is used ubiquitously across the sciences. Despite decades of research, existing clustering algorithms have limited effectiveness in high dimensions and often require tuning parameters for different domains and datasets. We present a clustering algorithm that achieves high accuracy across multiple domains and scales efficiently to high dimensions and large datasets. The presented algorithm optimizes a smooth continuous objective, which is based on robust statistics and allows heavily mixed clusters to be untangled. The continuous nature of the objective also allows clustering to be integrated as a module in end-to-end feature learning pipelines. We demonstrate this by extending the algorithm to perform joint clustering and dimensionality reduction by efficiently optimizing a continuous global objective. The presented approach is evaluated on large datasets of faces, hand-written digits, objects, newswire articles, sensor readings from the Space Shuttle, and protein expression levels. Our method achieves high accuracy across all datasets, outperforming the best prior algorithm by a factor of 3 in average rank.

  13. Robust and highly-efficient differentiation of functional monocytic cells from human pluripotent stem cells under serum- and feeder cell-free conditions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masakatsu D Yanagimachi

    Full Text Available Monocytic lineage cells (monocytes, macrophages and dendritic cells play important roles in immune responses and are involved in various pathological conditions. The development of monocytic cells from human embryonic stem cells (ESCs and induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs is of particular interest because it provides an unlimited cell source for clinical application and basic research on disease pathology. Although the methods for monocytic cell differentiation from ESCs/iPSCs using embryonic body or feeder co-culture systems have already been established, these methods depend on the use of xenogeneic materials and, therefore, have a relatively poor-reproducibility. Here, we established a robust and highly-efficient method to differentiate functional monocytic cells from ESCs/iPSCs under serum- and feeder cell-free conditions. This method produced 1.3 × 10(6 ± 0.3 × 10(6 floating monocytes from approximately 30 clusters of ESCs/iPSCs 5-6 times per course of differentiation. Such monocytes could be differentiated into functional macrophages and dendritic cells. This method should be useful for regenerative medicine, disease-specific iPSC studies and drug discovery.

  14. Robust Diagnosis Method Based on Parameter Estimation for an Interturn Short-Circuit Fault in Multipole PMSM under High-Speed Operation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jewon; Moon, Seokbae; Jeong, Hyeyun; Kim, Sang Woo

    2015-11-20

    This paper proposes a diagnosis method for a multipole permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM) under an interturn short circuit fault. Previous works in this area have suffered from the uncertainties of the PMSM parameters, which can lead to misdiagnosis. The proposed method estimates the q-axis inductance (Lq) of the faulty PMSM to solve this problem. The proposed method also estimates the faulty phase and the value of G, which serves as an index of the severity of the fault. The q-axis current is used to estimate the faulty phase, the values of G and Lq. For this reason, two open-loop observers and an optimization method based on a particle-swarm are implemented. The q-axis current of a healthy PMSM is estimated by the open-loop observer with the parameters of a healthy PMSM. The Lq estimation significantly compensates for the estimation errors in high-speed operation. The experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method can estimate the faulty phase, G, and Lq besides exhibiting robustness against parameter uncertainties.

  15. Hybrid Monolith of Graphene/TEMPO-Oxidized Cellulose Nanofiber as Mechanically Robust, Highly Functional, and Recyclable Adsorbent of Methylene Blue Dye

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asif Hussain

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Herein we demonstrate first report on fabrication, characterization, and adsorptive appraisal of graphene/cellulose nanofibers (GO/CNFs monolith for methylene blue (MB dye. Series of hybrid monolith (GO/CNFs were assembled via urea assisted self-assembly method. Hybrid materials were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction patterns, Raman spectroscopy, elemental analysis, thermogravimetric curve analysis, specific surface area, surface charge density measurement, and compressional mechanical analysis. It was proposed that strong chemical interaction (mainly hydrogen bonding was responsible for the formation of hybrid assembly. GO/CNFs monolith showed mechanically robust architecture with tunable pore structure and surface properties. GO/CNFs adsorbent could completely remove trace to moderate concentrations of MB dye and follow pseudo-second-order kinetics model. Adsorption isotherm behaviors were found in the following order: Langmuir isotherm > Freundlich isotherm > Temkin isotherm model. Maximum adsorption capacity of 227.27 mg g−1 was achieved which is much higher than reported graphene based monoliths and magnetic adsorbent. Incorporation of nanocellulose follows exponential relationship with dye uptake capacities. High surface charge density and specific surface area were main dye adsorptive mechanism. Regeneration and recycling efficiency was achieved up to four consecutive cycles with cost-effective recollection and zero recontamination of treated water.

  16. A simple and robust protocol for high-yield expression of perdeuterated proteins in Escherichia coli grown in shaker flasks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cai, Mengli; Huang, Ying; Yang, Renbin; Craigie, Robert; Clore, G. M.

    2016-01-01

    We present a simple, convenient and robust protocol for expressing perdeuterated proteins in E. coli BL21(DE3) cells in shaker flasks that reduces D_2O usage tenfold and d_7-glucose usage by 30 %. Using a modified M9 medium and optimized growth conditions, we were able to grow cells in linear log phase to an OD_6_0_0 of up to 10. Inducing the cells with isopropyl β-d-1-thiogalactopyranoside at an OD_6_0_0 of 10, instead of less than 1, enabled us to increase the cell mass tenfold per unit volume of cell culture. We show that protein expression levels per cell are the same when induced at an OD_6_0_0 between 1 and 10 under these growth conditions. Thus, our new protocol can increase protein yield per unit volume of cell culture tenfold. Adaptation of E. coli from H_2O-based to D_2O-based medium is also key for ensuring high levels of protein expression in D_2O. We find that a simple three-step adaptation approach—Luria–Bertani (LB) medium in H_2O to LB in D_2O to modified-M9 medium in D_2O is both simple and reliable. The method increases the yield of perdeuterated proteins by up to tenfold using commonly available air shakers without any requirement for specialized fermentation equipment.

  17. Manipulation Robustness of Collaborative Filtering

    OpenAIRE

    Benjamin Van Roy; Xiang Yan

    2010-01-01

    A collaborative filtering system recommends to users products that similar users like. Collaborative filtering systems influence purchase decisions and hence have become targets of manipulation by unscrupulous vendors. We demonstrate that nearest neighbors algorithms, which are widely used in commercial systems, are highly susceptible to manipulation and introduce new collaborative filtering algorithms that are relatively robust.

  18. Advances in robust fractional control

    CERN Document Server

    Padula, Fabrizio

    2015-01-01

    This monograph presents design methodologies for (robust) fractional control systems. It shows the reader how to take advantage of the superior flexibility of fractional control systems compared with integer-order systems in achieving more challenging control requirements. There is a high degree of current interest in fractional systems and fractional control arising from both academia and industry and readers from both milieux are catered to in the text. Different design approaches having in common a trade-off between robustness and performance of the control system are considered explicitly. The text generalizes methodologies, techniques and theoretical results that have been successfully applied in classical (integer) control to the fractional case. The first part of Advances in Robust Fractional Control is the more industrially-oriented. It focuses on the design of fractional controllers for integer processes. In particular, it considers fractional-order proportional-integral-derivative controllers, becau...

  19. Attractive ellipsoids in robust control

    CERN Document Server

    Poznyak, Alexander; Azhmyakov, Vadim

    2014-01-01

    This monograph introduces a newly developed robust-control design technique for a wide class of continuous-time dynamical systems called the “attractive ellipsoid method.” Along with a coherent introduction to the proposed control design and related topics, the monograph studies nonlinear affine control systems in the presence of uncertainty and presents a constructive and easily implementable control strategy that guarantees certain stability properties. The authors discuss linear-style feedback control synthesis in the context of the above-mentioned systems. The development and physical implementation of high-performance robust-feedback controllers that work in the absence of complete information is addressed, with numerous examples to illustrate how to apply the attractive ellipsoid method to mechanical and electromechanical systems. While theorems are proved systematically, the emphasis is on understanding and applying the theory to real-world situations. Attractive Ellipsoids in Robust Control will a...

  20. Robust procedures in chemometrics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kotwa, Ewelina

    properties of the analysed data. The broad theoretical background of robust procedures was given as a very useful supplement to the classical methods, and a new tool, based on robust PCA, aiming at identifying Rayleigh and Raman scatters in excitation-mission (EEM) data was developed. The results show...

  1. Pixel-size-maintained image reconstruction of digital holograms on arbitrarily tilted planes by the angular spectrum method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Seung Jun; Hong, Chung Ki

    2008-06-01

    We present an effective method for the pixel-size-maintained reconstruction of images on arbitrarily tilted planes in digital holography. The method is based on the plane wave expansion of the diffraction wave fields and the three-axis rotation of the wave vectors. The images on the tilted planes are reconstructed without loss of the frequency contents of the hologram and have the same pixel sizes. Our method shows good results in the extreme cases of large tilting angles and in the region closer than the paraxial case. The effectiveness of the method is demonstrated by both simulation and experiment.

  2. Synthesis of multi-wavelength temporal phase-shifting algorithms optimized for high signal-to-noise ratio and high detuning robustness using the frequency transfer function

    OpenAIRE

    Servin, Manuel; Padilla, Moises; Garnica, Guillermo

    2016-01-01

    Synthesis of single-wavelength temporal phase-shifting algorithms (PSA) for interferometry is well-known and firmly based on the frequency transfer function (FTF) paradigm. Here we extend the single-wavelength FTF-theory to dual and multi-wavelength PSA-synthesis when several simultaneous laser-colors are present. The FTF-based synthesis for dual-wavelength PSA (DW-PSA) is optimized for high signal-to-noise ratio and minimum number of temporal phase-shifted interferograms. The DW-PSA synthesi...

  3. Amorphizing of Cu Nanoparticles toward Highly Efficient and Robust Electrocatalyst for CO2 Reduction to Liquid Fuels with High Faradaic Efficiencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Yan-Xin; Meng, Fan-Lu; Liu, Kai-Hua; Yi, Sha-Sha; Li, Si-Jia; Yan, Jun-Min; Jiang, Qing

    2018-04-01

    Conversion of carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) into valuable chemicals, especially liquid fuels, through electrochemical reduction driven by sustainable energy sources, is a promising way to get rid of dependence on fossil fuels, wherein developing of highly efficient catalyst is still of paramount importance. In this study, as a proof-of-concept experiment, first a facile while very effective protocol is proposed to synthesize amorphous Cu NPs. Unexpectedly, superior electrochemical performances, including high catalytic activity and selectivity of CO 2 reduction to liquid fuels are achieved, that is, a total Faradaic efficiency of liquid fuels can sum up to the maximum value of 59% at -1.4 V, with formic acid (HCOOH) and ethanol (C 2 H 6 O) account for 37% and 22%, respectively, as well as a desirable long-term stability even up to 12 h. More importantly, this work opens a new avenue for improved electroreduction of CO 2 based on amorphous metal catalysts. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. A simple and robust protocol for high-yield expression of perdeuterated proteins in Escherichia coli grown in shaker flasks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cai, Mengli [National Institutes of Health, Laboratories of Chemical Physics, National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (United States); Huang, Ying; Yang, Renbin; Craigie, Robert, E-mail: robertc@niddk.nih.gov [National Institutes of Health, Laboratories of Molecular Biology, National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (United States); Clore, G. M., E-mail: mariusc@mail.nih.gov [National Institutes of Health, Laboratories of Chemical Physics, National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (United States)

    2016-10-15

    We present a simple, convenient and robust protocol for expressing perdeuterated proteins in E. coli BL21(DE3) cells in shaker flasks that reduces D{sub 2}O usage tenfold and d{sub 7}-glucose usage by 30 %. Using a modified M9 medium and optimized growth conditions, we were able to grow cells in linear log phase to an OD{sub 600} of up to 10. Inducing the cells with isopropyl β-d-1-thiogalactopyranoside at an OD{sub 600} of 10, instead of less than 1, enabled us to increase the cell mass tenfold per unit volume of cell culture. We show that protein expression levels per cell are the same when induced at an OD{sub 600} between 1 and 10 under these growth conditions. Thus, our new protocol can increase protein yield per unit volume of cell culture tenfold. Adaptation of E. coli from H{sub 2}O-based to D{sub 2}O-based medium is also key for ensuring high levels of protein expression in D{sub 2}O. We find that a simple three-step adaptation approach—Luria–Bertani (LB) medium in H{sub 2}O to LB in D{sub 2}O to modified-M9 medium in D{sub 2}O is both simple and reliable. The method increases the yield of perdeuterated proteins by up to tenfold using commonly available air shakers without any requirement for specialized fermentation equipment.

  5. Robustness Beamforming Algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sajad Dehghani

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Adaptive beamforming methods are known to degrade in the presence of steering vector and covariance matrix uncertinity. In this paper, a new approach is presented to robust adaptive minimum variance distortionless response beamforming make robust against both uncertainties in steering vector and covariance matrix. This method minimize a optimization problem that contains a quadratic objective function and a quadratic constraint. The optimization problem is nonconvex but is converted to a convex optimization problem in this paper. It is solved by the interior-point method and optimum weight vector to robust beamforming is achieved.

  6. Molecular genotyping of Colletotrichum species based on arbitrarily primed PCR, A + T-Rich DNA, and nuclear DNA analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, S.; Pham, M.; Rodriguez, R.J.

    1993-01-01

    Molecular genotyping of Colletotrichum species based on arbitrarily primed PCR, A + T-rich DNA, and nuclear DNA analyses. Experimental Mycology 17, 309-322. Isolates of Colletotrichum were grouped into 10 separate species based on arbitrarily primed PCR (ap-PCR), A + T-rich DNA (AT-DNA) and nuclear DNA banding patterns. In general, the grouping of Colletotrichum isolates by these molecular approaches corresponded to that done by classical taxonomic identification, however, some exceptions were observed. PCR amplification of genomic DNA using four different primers allowed for reliable differentiation between isolates of the 10 species. HaeIII digestion patterns of AT-DNA also distinguished between species of Colletotrichum by generating species-specific band patterns. In addition, hybridization of the repetitive DNA element (GcpR1) to genomic DNA identified a unique set of Pst 1-digested nuclear DNA fragments in each of the 10 species of Colletotrichum tested. Multiple isolates of C. acutatum, C. coccodes, C. fragariae, C. lindemuthianum, C. magna, C. orbiculare, C. graminicola from maize, and C. graminicola from sorghum showed 86-100% intraspecies similarity based on ap-PCR and AT-DNA analyses. Interspecies similarity determined by ap-PCR and AT-DNA analyses varied between 0 and 33%. Three distinct banding patterns were detected in isolates of C. gloeosporioides from strawberry. Similarly, three different banding patterns were observed among isolates of C. musae from diseased banana.

  7. Resource cost results for one-way entanglement distillation and state merging of compound and arbitrarily varying quantum sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boche, H.; Janßen, G.

    2014-01-01

    We consider one-way quantum state merging and entanglement distillation under compound and arbitrarily varying source models. Regarding quantum compound sources, where the source is memoryless, but the source state an unknown member of a certain set of density matrices, we continue investigations begun in the work of Bjelaković et al. [“Universal quantum state merging,” J. Math. Phys. 54, 032204 (2013)] and determine the classical as well as entanglement cost of state merging. We further investigate quantum state merging and entanglement distillation protocols for arbitrarily varying quantum sources (AVQS). In the AVQS model, the source state is assumed to vary in an arbitrary manner for each source output due to environmental fluctuations or adversarial manipulation. We determine the one-way entanglement distillation capacity for AVQS, where we invoke the famous robustification and elimination techniques introduced by Ahlswede. Regarding quantum state merging for AVQS we show by example that the robustification and elimination based approach generally leads to suboptimal entanglement as well as classical communication rates

  8. Hiding the weakness: structural robustness using origami design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Bin; Santangelo, Christian; Cohen, Itai

    2015-03-01

    A non-deformable structure is typically associated with infinitely stiff materials that resist distortion. In this work, we designed a structure with a region that will not deform even though it is made of arbitrarily compliant materials. More specifically, we show that a foldable sheet with a circular hole in the middle can be deformed externally with the internal geometry of the hole unaffected. Instead of strengthening the local stiffness, we fine tune the crease patterns so that all the soft modes that can potentially deform the internal geometry are not accessible through strain on the external boundary. The inner structure is thus protected by the topological mechanics, based on the detailed geometry of how the vertices in the foldable sheet are connected. In this way, we isolate the structural robustness from the mechanical properties of the materials, which introduces an extra degree of freedom for structural design.

  9. Robustness Metrics: Consolidating the multiple approaches to quantify Robustness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Göhler, Simon Moritz; Eifler, Tobias; Howard, Thomas J.

    2016-01-01

    robustness metrics; 3) Functional expectancy and dispersion robustness metrics; and 4) Probability of conformance robustness metrics. The goal was to give a comprehensive overview of robustness metrics and guidance to scholars and practitioners to understand the different types of robustness metrics...

  10. Robustness of structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vrouwenvelder, T.; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    2009-01-01

    After the collapse of the World Trade Centre towers in 2001 and a number of collapses of structural systems in the beginning of the century, robustness of structural systems has gained renewed interest. Despite many significant theoretical, methodical and technological advances, structural...... of robustness for structural design such requirements are not substantiated in more detail, nor have the engineering profession been able to agree on an interpretation of robustness which facilitates for its uantification. A European COST action TU 601 on ‘Robustness of structures' has started in 2007...... by a group of members of the CSS. This paper describes the ongoing work in this action, with emphasis on the development of a theoretical and risk based quantification and optimization procedure on the one side and a practical pre-normative guideline on the other....

  11. Robust Approaches to Forecasting

    OpenAIRE

    Jennifer Castle; David Hendry; Michael P. Clements

    2014-01-01

    We investigate alternative robust approaches to forecasting, using a new class of robust devices, contrasted with equilibrium correction models. Their forecasting properties are derived facing a range of likely empirical problems at the forecast origin, including measurement errors, implulses, omitted variables, unanticipated location shifts and incorrectly included variables that experience a shift. We derive the resulting forecast biases and error variances, and indicate when the methods ar...

  12. Robustness - theoretical framework

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, John Dalsgaard; Rizzuto, Enrico; Faber, Michael H.

    2010-01-01

    More frequent use of advanced types of structures with limited redundancy and serious consequences in case of failure combined with increased requirements to efficiency in design and execution followed by increased risk of human errors has made the need of requirements to robustness of new struct...... of this fact sheet is to describe a theoretical and risk based framework to form the basis for quantification of robustness and for pre-normative guidelines....

  13. Qualitative Robustness in Estimation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Nasser

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman","serif";} Qualitative robustness, influence function, and breakdown point are three main concepts to judge an estimator from the viewpoint of robust estimation. It is important as well as interesting to study relation among them. This article attempts to present the concept of qualitative robustness as forwarded by first proponents and its later development. It illustrates intricacies of qualitative robustness and its relation with consistency, and also tries to remove commonly believed misunderstandings about relation between influence function and qualitative robustness citing some examples from literature and providing a new counter-example. At the end it places a useful finite and a simulated version of   qualitative robustness index (QRI. In order to assess the performance of the proposed measures, we have compared fifteen estimators of correlation coefficient using simulated as well as real data sets.

  14. Implicitly Weighted Methods in Robust Image Analysis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kalina, Jan

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 44, č. 3 (2012), s. 449-462 ISSN 0924-9907 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 1M06014 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : robustness * high breakdown point * outlier detection * robust correlation analysis * template matching * face recognition Subject RIV: BB - Applied Statistics, Operational Research Impact factor: 1.767, year: 2012

  15. What is it to be sturdy (robust)?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Niss Skov; Zwisler, Lars Pagter; Bojsen, Ann Kristina Mikkelsen

    Purpose: This paper intends to give a first insight into the concept of being "sturdy/robust"; To develop and test a Danish model of how to measure sturdi-ness/robustness; To test the scale's ability to identify people in emergency situa-tions who have high risk of developing psychological illness....

  16. Inefficient but robust public leadership.

    OpenAIRE

    Matsumura, Toshihiro; Ogawa, Akira

    2014-01-01

    We investigate endogenous timing in a mixed duopoly in a differentiated product market. We find that private leadership is better than public leadership from a social welfare perspective if the private firm is domestic, regardless of the degree of product differentiation. Nevertheless, the public leadership equilibrium is risk-dominant, and it is thus robust if the degree of product differentiation is high. We also find that regardless of the degree of product differentiation, the public lead...

  17. A Robust and Self-Paced BCI System Based on a Four Class SSVEP Paradigm: Algorithms and Protocols for a High-Transfer-Rate Direct Brain Communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Parini

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we present, with particular focus on the adopted processing and identification chain and protocol-related solutions, a whole self-paced brain-computer interface system based on a 4-class steady-state visual evoked potentials (SSVEPs paradigm. The proposed system incorporates an automated spatial filtering technique centred on the common spatial patterns (CSPs method, an autoscaled and effective signal features extraction which is used for providing an unsupervised biofeedback, and a robust self-paced classifier based on the discriminant analysis theory. The adopted operating protocol is structured in a screening, training, and testing phase aimed at collecting user-specific information regarding best stimulation frequencies, optimal sources identification, and overall system processing chain calibration in only a few minutes. The system, validated on 11 healthy/pathologic subjects, has proven to be reliable in terms of achievable communication speed (up to 70 bit/min and very robust to false positive identifications.

  18. Hawking effect and quantum nonthermal radiation of an arbitrarily accelerating charged black hole using a new tortoise coordinate transformation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pan Wei-Zhen; Yang Xue-Jun; Xie Zhi-Kun

    2011-01-01

    Using a new tortoise coordinate transformation, this paper investigates the Hawking effect from an arbitrarily accelerating charged black hole by the improved Damour—Ruffini method. After the tortoise coordinate transformation, the Klein—Gordon equation can be written as the standard form at the event horizon. Then extending the outgoing wave from outside to inside of the horizon analytically, the surface gravity and Hawking temperature can be obtained automatically. It is found that the Hawking temperatures of different points on the surface are different. The quantum nonthermal radiation characteristics of a black hole near the event horizon is also discussed by studying the Hamilton—Jacobi equation in curved spacetime and the maximum overlap of the positive and negative energy levels near the event horizon is given. There is a dimensional problem in the standard tortoise coordinate and the present results may be more reasonable. (geophysics, astronomy, and astrophysics)

  19. Computation of fields in an arbitrarily shaped heterogeneous dielectric or biological body by an iterative conjugate gradient method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, J.J.H.; Dubberley, J.R.

    1989-01-01

    Electromagnetic (EM) fields in a three-dimensional, arbitrarily shaped heterogeneous dielectric or biological body illuminated by a plane wave are computed by an iterative conjugate gradient method. The method is a generalized method of moments applied to the volume integral equation. Because no matrix is explicitly involved or stored, the present iterative method is capable of computing EM fields in objects an order of magnitude larger than those that can be handled by the conventional method of moments. Excellent numerical convergence is achieved. Perfect convergence to the result of the conventional moment method using the same basis and weighted with delta functions is consistently achieved in all the cases computed, indicating that these two algorithms (direct and interactive) are equivalent

  20. Robustness in econometrics

    CERN Document Server

    Sriboonchitta, Songsak; Huynh, Van-Nam

    2017-01-01

    This book presents recent research on robustness in econometrics. Robust data processing techniques – i.e., techniques that yield results minimally affected by outliers – and their applications to real-life economic and financial situations are the main focus of this book. The book also discusses applications of more traditional statistical techniques to econometric problems. Econometrics is a branch of economics that uses mathematical (especially statistical) methods to analyze economic systems, to forecast economic and financial dynamics, and to develop strategies for achieving desirable economic performance. In day-by-day data, we often encounter outliers that do not reflect the long-term economic trends, e.g., unexpected and abrupt fluctuations. As such, it is important to develop robust data processing techniques that can accommodate these fluctuations.

  1. Robust plasmonic substrates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kostiučenko, Oksana; Fiutowski, Jacek; Tamulevicius, Tomas

    2014-01-01

    Robustness is a key issue for the applications of plasmonic substrates such as tip-enhanced Raman spectroscopy, surface-enhanced spectroscopies, enhanced optical biosensing, optical and optoelectronic plasmonic nanosensors and others. A novel approach for the fabrication of robust plasmonic...... substrates is presented, which relies on the coverage of gold nanostructures with diamond-like carbon (DLC) thin films of thicknesses 25, 55 and 105 nm. DLC thin films were grown by direct hydrocarbon ion beam deposition. In order to find the optimum balance between optical and mechanical properties...

  2. Robust Self Tuning Controllers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Niels Kjølstad

    1985-01-01

    The present thesis concerns robustness properties of adaptive controllers. It is addressed to methods for robustifying self tuning controllers with respect to abrupt changes in the plant parameters. In the thesis an algorithm for estimating abruptly changing parameters is presented. The estimator...... has several operation modes and a detector for controlling the mode. A special self tuning controller has been developed to regulate plant with changing time delay.......The present thesis concerns robustness properties of adaptive controllers. It is addressed to methods for robustifying self tuning controllers with respect to abrupt changes in the plant parameters. In the thesis an algorithm for estimating abruptly changing parameters is presented. The estimator...

  3. Robust surgery loading

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hans, Elias W.; Wullink, Gerhard; van Houdenhoven, Mark; Kazemier, Geert

    2008-01-01

    We consider the robust surgery loading problem for a hospital’s operating theatre department, which concerns assigning surgeries and sufficient planned slack to operating room days. The objective is to maximize capacity utilization and minimize the risk of overtime, and thus cancelled patients. This

  4. Robustness Envelopes of Networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trajanovski, S.; Martín-Hernández, J.; Winterbach, W.; Van Mieghem, P.

    2013-01-01

    We study the robustness of networks under node removal, considering random node failure, as well as targeted node attacks based on network centrality measures. Whilst both of these have been studied in the literature, existing approaches tend to study random failure in terms of average-case

  5. A robust classic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutzner, Florian; Vogel, Tobias; Freytag, Peter; Fiedler, Klaus

    2011-01-01

    In the present research, we argue for the robustness of illusory correlations (ICs, Hamilton & Gifford, 1976) regarding two boundary conditions suggested in previous research. First, we argue that ICs are maintained under extended experience. Using simulations, we derive conflicting predictions. Whereas noise-based accounts predict ICs to be maintained (Fielder, 2000; Smith, 1991), a prominent account based on discrepancy-reducing feedback learning predicts ICs to disappear (Van Rooy et al., 2003). An experiment involving 320 observations with majority and minority members supports the claim that ICs are maintained. Second, we show that actively using the stereotype to make predictions that are met with reward and punishment does not eliminate the bias. In addition, participants' operant reactions afford a novel online measure of ICs. In sum, our findings highlight the robustness of ICs that can be explained as a result of unbiased but noisy learning.

  6. Radial rescaling approach for the eigenvalue problem of a particle in an arbitrarily shaped box.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lijnen, Erwin; Chibotaru, Liviu F; Ceulemans, Arnout

    2008-01-01

    In the present work we introduce a methodology for solving a quantum billiard with Dirichlet boundary conditions. The procedure starts from the exactly known solutions for the particle in a circular disk, which are subsequently radially rescaled in such a way that they obey the new boundary conditions. In this way one constructs a complete basis set which can be used to obtain the eigenstates and eigenenergies of the corresponding quantum billiard to a high level of precision. Test calculations for several regular polygons show the efficiency of the method which often requires one or two basis functions to describe the lowest eigenstates with high accuracy.

  7. The Crane Robust Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Hicar

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is about a control design for complete structure of the crane: crab, bridge and crane uplift.The most important unknown parameters for simulations are burden weight and length of hanging rope. We will use robustcontrol for crab and bridge control to ensure adaptivity for burden weight and rope length. Robust control will be designed for current control of the crab and bridge, necessary is to know the range of unknown parameters. Whole robust will be splitto subintervals and after correct identification of unknown parameters the most suitable robust controllers will be chosen.The most important condition at the crab and bridge motion is avoiding from burden swinging in the final position. Crab and bridge drive is designed by asynchronous motor fed from frequency converter. We will use crane uplift with burden weightobserver in combination for uplift, crab and bridge drive with cooperation of their parameters: burden weight, rope length and crab and bridge position. Controllers are designed by state control method. We will use preferably a disturbance observerwhich will identify burden weight as a disturbance. The system will be working in both modes at empty hook as well asat maximum load: burden uplifting and dropping down.

  8. Design Robust Controller for Rotary Kiln

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar D. Hernández-Arboleda

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the design of a robust controller for a rotary kiln. The designed controller is a combination of a fractional PID and linear quadratic regulator (LQR, these are not used to control the kiln until now, in addition robustness criteria are evaluated (gain margin, phase margin, strength gain, rejecting high frequency noise and sensitivity applied to the entire model (controller-plant, obtaining good results with a frequency range of 0.020 to 90 rad/s, which contributes to the robustness of the system.

  9. 3-D analysis on arbitrarily-shaped ICRF antennas and Faraday shields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, G.L.; Whealton, J.H.; Baity, F.W.; Hoffman, D.J.; Owens, T.L.

    1986-01-01

    Cavity antennas with Faraday shields are proposed to couple ion cyclotron radio frequency power for heating fusion plasmas. This application requires small, high-power, low-frequency antennas. The results are presented of a theoretical study of the ICRF antennas being developed for this purpose at the Radio Frequency Test Facility (RFTF). The objectives of this work are to optimize experimental designs and to confirm test results

  10. The method of arbitrarily large moments to calculate single scale processes in quantum field theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bluemlein, Johannes [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany); Schneider, Carsten [Johannes Kepler Univ., Linz (Austria). Research Inst. for Symbolic Computation (RISC)

    2017-01-15

    We device a new method to calculate a large number of Mellin moments of single scale quantities using the systems of differential and/or difference equations obtained by integration-by-parts identities between the corresponding Feynman integrals of loop corrections to physical quantities. These scalar quantities have a much simpler mathematical structure than the complete quantity. A sufficiently large set of moments may even allow the analytic reconstruction of the whole quantity considered, holding in case of first order factorizing systems. In any case, one may derive highly precise numerical representations in general using this method, which is otherwise completely analytic.

  11. The method of arbitrarily large moments to calculate single scale processes in quantum field theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes Blümlein

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available We devise a new method to calculate a large number of Mellin moments of single scale quantities using the systems of differential and/or difference equations obtained by integration-by-parts identities between the corresponding Feynman integrals of loop corrections to physical quantities. These scalar quantities have a much simpler mathematical structure than the complete quantity. A sufficiently large set of moments may even allow the analytic reconstruction of the whole quantity considered, holding in case of first order factorizing systems. In any case, one may derive highly precise numerical representations in general using this method, which is otherwise completely analytic.

  12. Fast and accurate algorithm for repeated optical trapping simulations on arbitrarily shaped particles based on boundary element method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Kai-Jiang; Pan, Xiao-Min; Li, Ren-Xian; Sheng, Xin-Qing

    2017-01-01

    In optical trapping applications, the optical force should be investigated within a wide range of parameter space in terms of beam configuration to reach the desirable performance. A simple but reliable way of conducting the related investigation is to evaluate optical forces corresponding to all possible beam configurations. Although the optical force exerted on arbitrarily shaped particles can be well predicted by boundary element method (BEM), such investigation is time costing because it involves many repetitions of expensive computation, where the forces are calculated from the equivalent surface currents. An algorithm is proposed to alleviate the difficulty by exploiting our previously developed skeletonization framework. The proposed algorithm succeeds in reducing the number of repetitions. Since the number of skeleton beams is always much less than that of beams in question, the computation can be very efficient. The proposed algorithm is accurate because the skeletonization is accuracy controllable. - Highlights: • A fast and accurate algorithm is proposed in terms of boundary element method to reduce the number of repetitions of computing the optical forces from the equivalent currents. • The algorithm is accuracy controllable because the accuracy of the associated rank-revealing process is well-controlled. • The accelerate rate can reach over one thousand because the number of skeleton beams can be very small. • The algorithm can be applied to other methods, e.g., FE-BI.

  13. Axial and transverse acoustic radiation forces on a fluid sphere placed arbitrarily in Bessel beam standing wave tweezers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitri, F.G.

    2014-01-01

    The axial and transverse radiation forces on a fluid sphere placed arbitrarily in the acoustical field of Bessel beams of standing waves are evaluated. The three-dimensional components of the time-averaged force are expressed in terms of the beam-shape coefficients of the incident field and the scattering coefficients of the fluid sphere using a partial-wave expansion (PWE) method. Examples are chosen for which the standing wave field is composed of either a zero-order (non-vortex) Bessel beam, or a first-order Bessel vortex beam. It is shown here, that both transverse and axial forces can push or pull the fluid sphere to an equilibrium position depending on the chosen size parameter ka (where k is the wave-number and a the sphere’s radius). The corresponding results are of particular importance in biophysical applications for the design of lab-on-chip devices operating with Bessel beams standing wave tweezers. Moreover, potential investigations in acoustic levitation and related applications in particle rotation in a vortex beam may benefit from the results of this study. -- Highlights: •The axial and transverse forces on a fluid sphere in acoustical Bessel beams tweezers are evaluated. •The attraction or repulsion to an equilibrium position in the standing wave field is examined. •Potential applications are in particle manipulation using standing waves

  14. Axial and transverse acoustic radiation forces on a fluid sphere placed arbitrarily in Bessel beam standing wave tweezers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitri, F.G., E-mail: mitri@chevron.com

    2014-03-15

    The axial and transverse radiation forces on a fluid sphere placed arbitrarily in the acoustical field of Bessel beams of standing waves are evaluated. The three-dimensional components of the time-averaged force are expressed in terms of the beam-shape coefficients of the incident field and the scattering coefficients of the fluid sphere using a partial-wave expansion (PWE) method. Examples are chosen for which the standing wave field is composed of either a zero-order (non-vortex) Bessel beam, or a first-order Bessel vortex beam. It is shown here, that both transverse and axial forces can push or pull the fluid sphere to an equilibrium position depending on the chosen size parameter ka (where k is the wave-number and a the sphere’s radius). The corresponding results are of particular importance in biophysical applications for the design of lab-on-chip devices operating with Bessel beams standing wave tweezers. Moreover, potential investigations in acoustic levitation and related applications in particle rotation in a vortex beam may benefit from the results of this study. -- Highlights: •The axial and transverse forces on a fluid sphere in acoustical Bessel beams tweezers are evaluated. •The attraction or repulsion to an equilibrium position in the standing wave field is examined. •Potential applications are in particle manipulation using standing waves.

  15. Technical Note: Harmonic analysis applied to MR image distortion fields specific to arbitrarily shaped volumes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanescu, T; Jaffray, D

    2018-05-25

    Magnetic resonance imaging is expected to play a more important role in radiation therapy given the recent developments in MR-guided technologies. MR images need to consistently show high spatial accuracy to facilitate RT specific tasks such as treatment planning and in-room guidance. The present study investigates a new harmonic analysis method for the characterization of complex 3D fields derived from MR images affected by system-related distortions. An interior Dirichlet problem based on solving the Laplace equation with boundary conditions (BCs) was formulated for the case of a 3D distortion field. The second-order boundary value problem (BVP) was solved using a finite elements method (FEM) for several quadratic geometries - i.e., sphere, cylinder, cuboid, D-shaped, and ellipsoid. To stress-test the method and generalize it, the BVP was also solved for more complex surfaces such as a Reuleaux 9-gon and the MR imaging volume of a scanner featuring a high degree of surface irregularities. The BCs were formatted from reference experimental data collected with a linearity phantom featuring a volumetric grid structure. The method was validated by comparing the harmonic analysis results with the corresponding experimental reference fields. The harmonic fields were found to be in good agreement with the baseline experimental data for all geometries investigated. In the case of quadratic domains, the percentage of sampling points with residual values larger than 1 mm were 0.5% and 0.2% for the axial components and vector magnitude, respectively. For the general case of a domain defined by the available MR imaging field of view, the reference data showed a peak distortion of about 12 mm and 79% of the sampling points carried a distortion magnitude larger than 1 mm (tolerance intrinsic to the experimental data). The upper limits of the residual values after comparison with the harmonic fields showed max and mean of 1.4 mm and 0.25 mm, respectively, with only 1.5% of

  16. StereoBox: A Robust and Efficient Solution for Automotive Short-Range Obstacle Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Broggi

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a robust method for close-range obstacle detection with arbitrarily aligned stereo cameras. System calibration is performed by means of a dense grid to remove perspective and lens distortion after a direct mapping between image pixels and world points. Obstacle detection is based on the differences between left and right images after transformation phase and with a polar histogram, it is possible to detect vertical structures and to reject noise and small objects. Found objects' world coordinates are transmitted via CAN bus; the driver can also be warned through an audio interface. The proposed algorithm can be useful in different automotive applications, requiring real-time segmentation without any assumption on background. Experimental results proved the system to be robust in several envitonmental conditions. In particular, the system has been tested to investigate presence of obstacles in blind spot areas around heavy goods vehicles (HGVs and has been mounted on three different prototypes at different heights.

  17. StereoBox: A Robust and Efficient Solution for Automotive Short-Range Obstacle Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Broggi Alberto

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a robust method for close-range obstacle detection with arbitrarily aligned stereo cameras. System calibration is performed by means of a dense grid to remove perspective and lens distortion after a direct mapping between image pixels and world points. Obstacle detection is based on the differences between left and right images after transformation phase and with a polar histogram, it is possible to detect vertical structures and to reject noise and small objects. Found objects' world coordinates are transmitted via CAN bus; the driver can also be warned through an audio interface. The proposed algorithm can be useful in different automotive applications, requiring real-time segmentation without any assumption on background. Experimental results proved the system to be robust in several envitonmental conditions. In particular, the system has been tested to investigate presence of obstacles in blind spot areas around heavy goods vehicles (HGVs and has been mounted on three different prototypes at different heights.

  18. An Efficient XFEM Approximation of Darcy Flows in Arbitrarily Fractured Porous Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fumagalli Alessio

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Subsurface flows are influenced by the presence of faults and large fractures which act as preferential paths or barriers for the flow. In literature models were proposed to handle fractures in a porous medium as objects of codimension 1. In this work we consider the case of a network of intersecting fractures, with the aim of deriving physically consistent and effective interface conditions to impose at the intersection between fractures. This new model accounts for the angle between fractures at the intersections and allows for jumps of pressure across the intersection. This latter property permits to describe more accurately the flow when fractures are characterised by different properties, than other models that impose pressure continuity. The main mathematical properties of the model, derived in the two-dimensional setting, are analysed. As concerns the numerical discretization we allow the grids of the fractures to be independent, thus in general non-matching at the intersection, by means of the Extended Finite Element Method (XFEM, to increase the flexibility of the method in the case of complex geometries characterized by a high number of fractures.

  19. Stable pseudoanalytical computation of electromagnetic fields from arbitrarily-oriented dipoles in cylindrically stratified media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Haksu; Teixeira, Fernando L.; Donderici, Burkay

    2014-09-01

    Computation of electromagnetic fields due to point sources (Hertzian dipoles) in cylindrically stratified media is a classical problem for which analytical expressions of the associated tensor Green's function have been long known. However, under finite-precision arithmetic, direct numerical computations based on the application of such analytical (canonical) expressions invariably lead to underflow and overflow problems related to the poor scaling of the eigenfunctions (cylindrical Bessel and Hankel functions) for extreme arguments and/or high-order, as well as convergence problems related to the numerical integration over the spectral wavenumber and to the truncation of the infinite series over the azimuth mode number. These problems are exacerbated when a disparate range of values is to be considered for the layers' thicknesses and material properties (resistivities, permittivities, and permeabilities), the transverse and longitudinal distances between source and observation points, as well as the source frequency. To overcome these challenges in a systematic fashion, we introduce herein different sets of range-conditioned, modified cylindrical functions (in lieu of standard cylindrical eigenfunctions), each associated with nonoverlapped subdomains of (numerical) evaluation to allow for stable computations under any range of physical parameters. In addition, adaptively-chosen integration contours are employed in the complex spectral wavenumber plane to ensure convergent numerical integration in all cases. We illustrate the application of the algorithm to problems of geophysical interest involving layer resistivities ranging from 1000 Ω m to 10-8 Ω m, frequencies of operation ranging from 10 MHz down to the low magnetotelluric range of 0.01 Hz, and for various combinations of layer thicknesses.

  20. Highly selective solid-phase extraction and large volume injection for the robust gas chromatography-mass spectrometric analysis of TCA and TBA in wines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Insa, S; Anticó, E; Ferreira, V

    2005-09-30

    A reliable solid-phase extraction (SPE) method for the simultaneous determination of 2,4,6-trichloroanisole (TCA) and 2,4,6-tribromoanisole (TBA) in wines has been developed. In the proposed procedure 50 mL of wine are extracted in a 1 mL cartridge filled with 50 mg of LiChrolut EN resins. Most wine volatiles are washed up with 12.5 mL of a water:methanol solution (70%, v/v) containing 1% of NaHCO3. Analytes are further eluted with 0.6 mL of dichloromethane. A 40 microL aliquot of this extract is directly injected into a PTV injector operated in the solvent split mode, and analysed by gas chromatography (GC)-ion trap mass spectrometry using the selected ion storage mode. The solid-phase extraction, including sample volume and rinsing and elution solvents, and the large volume GC injection have been carefully evaluated and optimized. The resulting method is precise (RSD (%) TBA, respectively), robust (the absolute recoveries of both analytes are higher than 80% and consistent wine to wine) and friendly to the GC-MS system (the extract is clean, simple and free from non-volatiles).

  1. RNA-ID, a highly sensitive and robust method to identify cis-regulatory sequences using superfolder GFP and a fluorescence-based assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, Kimberly M; Grayhack, Elizabeth J

    2012-12-01

    We have developed a robust and sensitive method, called RNA-ID, to screen for cis-regulatory sequences in RNA using fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) of yeast cells bearing a reporter in which expression of both superfolder green fluorescent protein (GFP) and yeast codon-optimized mCherry red fluorescent protein (RFP) is driven by the bidirectional GAL1,10 promoter. This method recapitulates previously reported progressive inhibition of translation mediated by increasing numbers of CGA codon pairs, and restoration of expression by introduction of a tRNA with an anticodon that base pairs exactly with the CGA codon. This method also reproduces effects of paromomycin and context on stop codon read-through. Five key features of this method contribute to its effectiveness as a selection for regulatory sequences: The system exhibits greater than a 250-fold dynamic range, a quantitative and dose-dependent response to known inhibitory sequences, exquisite resolution that allows nearly complete physical separation of distinct populations, and a reproducible signal between different cells transformed with the identical reporter, all of which are coupled with simple methods involving ligation-independent cloning, to create large libraries. Moreover, we provide evidence that there are sequences within a 9-nt library that cause reduced GFP fluorescence, suggesting that there are novel cis-regulatory sequences to be found even in this short sequence space. This method is widely applicable to the study of both RNA-mediated and codon-mediated effects on expression.

  2. Robust efficient video fingerprinting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puri, Manika; Lubin, Jeffrey

    2009-02-01

    We have developed a video fingerprinting system with robustness and efficiency as the primary and secondary design criteria. In extensive testing, the system has shown robustness to cropping, letter-boxing, sub-titling, blur, drastic compression, frame rate changes, size changes and color changes, as well as to the geometric distortions often associated with camcorder capture in cinema settings. Efficiency is afforded by a novel two-stage detection process in which a fast matching process first computes a number of likely candidates, which are then passed to a second slower process that computes the overall best match with minimal false alarm probability. One key component of the algorithm is a maximally stable volume computation - a three-dimensional generalization of maximally stable extremal regions - that provides a content-centric coordinate system for subsequent hash function computation, independent of any affine transformation or extensive cropping. Other key features include an efficient bin-based polling strategy for initial candidate selection, and a final SIFT feature-based computation for final verification. We describe the algorithm and its performance, and then discuss additional modifications that can provide further improvement to efficiency and accuracy.

  3. Compactness and robustness: Applications in the solution of integral equations for chemical kinetics and electromagnetic scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yajun

    This thesis employs the topological concept of compactness to deduce robust solutions to two integral equations arising from chemistry and physics: the inverse Laplace problem in chemical kinetics and the vector wave scattering problem in dielectric optics. The inverse Laplace problem occurs in the quantitative understanding of biological processes that exhibit complex kinetic behavior: different subpopulations of transition events from the "reactant" state to the "product" state follow distinct reaction rate constants, which results in a weighted superposition of exponential decay modes. Reconstruction of the rate constant distribution from kinetic data is often critical for mechanistic understandings of chemical reactions related to biological macromolecules. We devise a "phase function approach" to recover the probability distribution of rate constants from decay data in the time domain. The robustness (numerical stability) of this reconstruction algorithm builds upon the continuity of the transformations connecting the relevant function spaces that are compact metric spaces. The robust "phase function approach" not only is useful for the analysis of heterogeneous subpopulations of exponential decays within a single transition step, but also is generalizable to the kinetic analysis of complex chemical reactions that involve multiple intermediate steps. A quantitative characterization of the light scattering is central to many meteoro-logical, optical, and medical applications. We give a rigorous treatment to electromagnetic scattering on arbitrarily shaped dielectric media via the Born equation: an integral equation with a strongly singular convolution kernel that corresponds to a non-compact Green operator. By constructing a quadratic polynomial of the Green operator that cancels out the kernel singularity and satisfies the compactness criterion, we reveal the universality of a real resonance mode in dielectric optics. Meanwhile, exploiting the properties of

  4. Passion, Robustness and Perseverance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lim, Miguel Antonio; Lund, Rebecca

    2016-01-01

    Evaluation and merit in the measured university are increasingly based on taken-for-granted assumptions about the “ideal academic”. We suggest that the scholar now needs to show that she is passionate about her work and that she gains pleasure from pursuing her craft. We suggest that passion...... and pleasure achieve an exalted status as something compulsory. The scholar ought to feel passionate about her work and signal that she takes pleasure also in the difficult moments. Passion has become a signal of robustness and perseverance in a job market characterised by funding shortages, increased pressure...... way to demonstrate their potential and, crucially, their passion for their work. Drawing on the literature on technologies of governance, we reflect on what is captured and what is left out by these two evaluation instruments. We suggest that bibliometric analysis at the individual level is deeply...

  5. Robust Optical Flow Estimation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Sánchez Pérez

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available n this work, we describe an implementation of the variational method proposed by Brox etal. in 2004, which yields accurate optical flows with low running times. It has several benefitswith respect to the method of Horn and Schunck: it is more robust to the presence of outliers,produces piecewise-smooth flow fields and can cope with constant brightness changes. Thismethod relies on the brightness and gradient constancy assumptions, using the information ofthe image intensities and the image gradients to find correspondences. It also generalizes theuse of continuous L1 functionals, which help mitigate the effect of outliers and create a TotalVariation (TV regularization. Additionally, it introduces a simple temporal regularizationscheme that enforces a continuous temporal coherence of the flow fields.

  6. Robust Multimodal Dictionary Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Tian; Jojic, Vladimir; Modla, Shannon; Powell, Debbie; Czymmek, Kirk; Niethammer, Marc

    2014-01-01

    We propose a robust multimodal dictionary learning method for multimodal images. Joint dictionary learning for both modalities may be impaired by lack of correspondence between image modalities in training data, for example due to areas of low quality in one of the modalities. Dictionaries learned with such non-corresponding data will induce uncertainty about image representation. In this paper, we propose a probabilistic model that accounts for image areas that are poorly corresponding between the image modalities. We cast the problem of learning a dictionary in presence of problematic image patches as a likelihood maximization problem and solve it with a variant of the EM algorithm. Our algorithm iterates identification of poorly corresponding patches and re-finements of the dictionary. We tested our method on synthetic and real data. We show improvements in image prediction quality and alignment accuracy when using the method for multimodal image registration. PMID:24505674

  7. International Conference on Robust Statistics

    CERN Document Server

    Filzmoser, Peter; Gather, Ursula; Rousseeuw, Peter

    2003-01-01

    Aspects of Robust Statistics are important in many areas. Based on the International Conference on Robust Statistics 2001 (ICORS 2001) in Vorau, Austria, this volume discusses future directions of the discipline, bringing together leading scientists, experienced researchers and practitioners, as well as younger researchers. The papers cover a multitude of different aspects of Robust Statistics. For instance, the fundamental problem of data summary (weights of evidence) is considered and its robustness properties are studied. Further theoretical subjects include e.g.: robust methods for skewness, time series, longitudinal data, multivariate methods, and tests. Some papers deal with computational aspects and algorithms. Finally, the aspects of application and programming tools complete the volume.

  8. On arbitrarily graded rings

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    58

    paper is devoted to the study of arbitrary rings graded through arbitrary sets. .... which recover certain multiplicative relations among the homogeneous components ... instance the case in which the grading set A is an Abelian group, where the ...

  9. Numerical Models for Exact Description of in-situ Digital In-Line Holography Experiments with Irregularly-Shaped Arbitrarily-Located Particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Brunel

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available We present the development of a numerical simulator for digital in-line holography applications. In-line holograms of arbitrarily shaped and arbitrarily located objects are calculated using generalized Huygens-Fresnel integrals. The objects are 2D opaque or phase objects. The optical set-up is described by its optical transfer matrix. A wide variety of optical systems, involving windows, spherical or cylindrical lenses, can thus be taken into account. It makes the simulator applicable for design and description of in situ experiments. We discuss future applications of this simulator for detection of nanoparticles in droplets, or calibration of airborne instruments that detect and measure ice crystals in the atmosphere.

  10. Robustness Analyses of Timber Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkegaard, Poul Henning; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard; Hald, Frederik

    2013-01-01

    The robustness of structural systems has obtained a renewed interest arising from a much more frequent use of advanced types of structures with limited redundancy and serious consequences in case of failure. In order to minimise the likelihood of such disproportionate structural failures, many mo...... with respect to robustness of timber structures and will discuss the consequences of such robustness issues related to the future development of timber structures.......The robustness of structural systems has obtained a renewed interest arising from a much more frequent use of advanced types of structures with limited redundancy and serious consequences in case of failure. In order to minimise the likelihood of such disproportionate structural failures, many...... modern building codes consider the need for the robustness of structures and provide strategies and methods to obtain robustness. Therefore, a structural engineer may take necessary steps to design robust structures that are insensitive to accidental circumstances. The present paper summaries issues...

  11. Effects induced on the transverse-spatial-impulse response of an inhomogeneous photoreceptor with a nonsymmetric refractive index profile and arbitrarily located origin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calvo, M.L.

    1987-01-01

    In a few earlier communications, spatial-transverse-impulse response (STIR) associated with the initial field transversely distributed across the entrance pupil of an inhomogeneous optical wave guide (photo-receptor) has been investigated. In the present work, effects of indetermination in the location of the origin on an arbitrarily defined refractive index profile, representing the degree of inhomogenity at the aperture pupil of a single receptor, have been studied. Some consequences related to a few possible technical applications have been discussed

  12. Effects induced on the transverse-spatial-impulse response of an inhomogeneous photoreceptor with a nonsymmetric refractive index profile and arbitrarily located origin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calvo, M.L.; Mondal, P.K.

    1987-03-01

    In a few earlier communications, spatial-transverse-impulse response (STIR) associated with the initial field transversely distributed across the entrance pupil of an inhomogeneous optical wave guide (photoreceptor) has been investigated. In the present work, effects of indetermination in the location of the origin on an arbitrarily defined refractive index profile, representing the degree of inhomogeneity at the aperture pupil of a single receptor, have been studied. Some consequences related to a few possible technical applications have been discussed.

  13. Act No. 23.592 adopting measures against those who arbitrarily impede the full exercise of fundamental rights and guarantees recognized in the National Constitution, 23 August 1988.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-01

    This Act provides that whoever arbitrarily impedes, obstructs, restricts, or in any other way limits the full exercise on an equal basis of fundamental rights and guarantees recognized by the National Constitution of Argentina will be obligated, at the request of the injured person, to render the discriminatory act without effect or cease in its realization and repair the moral and material damage that has resulted. To be particularly scrutinized are discriminatory acts or omissions undertaken for sexual reasons, among others. full text

  14. A mathematical model of a steady flow through the Kaplan turbine - The existence of a weak solution in the case of an arbitrarily large inflow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neustupa, Tomáš

    2017-07-01

    The paper presents the mathematical model of a steady 2-dimensional viscous incompressible flow through a radial blade machine. The corresponding boundary value problem is studied in the rotating frame. We provide the classical and weak formulation of the problem. Using a special form of the so called "artificial" or "natural" boundary condition on the outflow, we prove the existence of a weak solution for an arbitrarily large inflow.

  15. Using sulfite chemistry for robust bioconversion of Douglas-fir forest residue to bioethanol at high titer and lignosulfonate: A pilot-scale evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    J.Y. Zhu; M. Subhosh Chandra; Feng Gu; Roland Gleisner; J.Y. Zhu; John Sessions; Gevan Marrs; Johnway Gao; Dwight Anderson

    2015-01-01

    This study demonstrated at the pilot-scale (50 kg) use of Douglas-fir forest harvest residue, an underutilized forest biomass, for the production of high titer and high yield bioethanol using sulfite chemistry without solid–liquor separation and detoxification. Sulfite Pretreatment to Overcome the Recalcitrance of Lignocelluloses (SPORL) was directly applied to the...

  16. Robust binder-free anodes assembled with ultralong mischcrystal TiO2 nanowires and reduced graphene oxide for high-rate and long cycle life lithium-ion storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Yongzheng; Yang, Dongzhi; Yu, Ruomeng; Liu, Yaxin; Hao, Shu-Meng; Zhang, Shiyi; Qu, Jin; Yu, Zhong-Zhen

    2018-04-01

    To satisfy increasing power demands of mobile devices and electric vehicles, rationally designed electrodes with short diffusion length are highly imperative to provide highly efficient ion and electron transport paths for high-rate and long-life lithium-ion batteries. Herein, binder-free electrodes with the robust three-dimensional conductive network are prepared by assembling ultralong TiO2 nanowires with reduced graphene oxide (RGO) sheets for high-performance lithium-ion storage. Ultralong TiO2 nanowires are synthesized and used to construct an interconnecting network that avoids the use of inert auxiliary additives of polymer binders and conductive agents. By thermal annealing, a small amount of anatase is generated in situ in the TiO2(B) nanowires to form abundant TiO2(B)/anatase interfaces for accommodating additional lithium ions. Simultaneously, RGO sheets efficiently enhance the electronic conductivity and enlarge the specific surface area of the TiO2/RGO nanocomposite. The robust 3D network in the binder-free electrode not only effectively avoids the agglomeration of TiO2/RGO components during the long-term charging/discharging process, but also provides direct and fast ion/electron transport paths. The binder-free electrode exhibits a high reversible capacity of 259.9 mA h g-1 at 0.1 C and an excellent cycling performance with a high reversible capacity of 111.9 mA h g-1 at 25 C after 5000 cycles.

  17. Robust Fiber Coatings

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Goettler, Richard

    2002-01-01

    The highly desired ceramic matrix composite is the one in which the high strength and strain-to-failure is achieved through judicious selection of a fiber coating that can survive the high-temperature...

  18. Robust-mode analysis of hydrodynamic flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Sukesh; Gord, James R.; Hua, Jia-Chen; Gunaratne, Gemunu H.

    2017-04-01

    The emergence of techniques to extract high-frequency high-resolution data introduces a new avenue for modal decomposition to assess the underlying dynamics, especially of complex flows. However, this task requires the differentiation of robust, repeatable flow constituents from noise and other irregular features of a flow. Traditional approaches involving low-pass filtering and principle components analysis have shortcomings. The approach outlined here, referred to as robust-mode analysis, is based on Koopman decomposition. Three applications to (a) a counter-rotating cellular flame state, (b) variations in financial markets, and (c) turbulent injector flows are provided.

  19. Dynamics robustness of cascading systems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan T Young

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available A most important property of biochemical systems is robustness. Static robustness, e.g., homeostasis, is the insensitivity of a state against perturbations, whereas dynamics robustness, e.g., homeorhesis, is the insensitivity of a dynamic process. In contrast to the extensively studied static robustness, dynamics robustness, i.e., how a system creates an invariant temporal profile against perturbations, is little explored despite transient dynamics being crucial for cellular fates and are reported to be robust experimentally. For example, the duration of a stimulus elicits different phenotypic responses, and signaling networks process and encode temporal information. Hence, robustness in time courses will be necessary for functional biochemical networks. Based on dynamical systems theory, we uncovered a general mechanism to achieve dynamics robustness. Using a three-stage linear signaling cascade as an example, we found that the temporal profiles and response duration post-stimulus is robust to perturbations against certain parameters. Then analyzing the linearized model, we elucidated the criteria of when signaling cascades will display dynamics robustness. We found that changes in the upstream modules are masked in the cascade, and that the response duration is mainly controlled by the rate-limiting module and organization of the cascade's kinetics. Specifically, we found two necessary conditions for dynamics robustness in signaling cascades: 1 Constraint on the rate-limiting process: The phosphatase activity in the perturbed module is not the slowest. 2 Constraints on the initial conditions: The kinase activity needs to be fast enough such that each module is saturated even with fast phosphatase activity and upstream changes are attenuated. We discussed the relevance of such robustness to several biological examples and the validity of the above conditions therein. Given the applicability of dynamics robustness to a variety of systems, it

  20. Container Materials, Fabrication And Robustness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunn, K.; Louthan, M.; Rawls, G.; Sindelar, R.; Zapp, P.; Mcclard, J.

    2009-01-01

    The multi-barrier 3013 container used to package plutonium-bearing materials is robust and thereby highly resistant to identified degradation modes that might cause failure. The only viable degradation mechanisms identified by a panel of technical experts were pressurization within and corrosion of the containers. Evaluations of the container materials and the fabrication processes and resulting residual stresses suggest that the multi-layered containers will mitigate the potential for degradation of the outer container and prevent the release of the container contents to the environment. Additionally, the ongoing surveillance programs and laboratory studies should detect any incipient degradation of containers in the 3013 storage inventory before an outer container is compromised.

  1. Robust electrodes based on coaxial TiC/C-MnO2 core/shell nanofiber arrays with excellent cycling stability for high-performance supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xuming; Peng, Xiang; Li, Wan; Li, Limin; Gao, Biao; Wu, Guosong; Huo, Kaifu; Chu, Paul K

    2015-04-17

    A coaxial electrode structure composed of manganese oxide-decorated TiC/C core/shell nanofiber arrays is produced hydrothermally in a KMnO4 solution. The pristine TiC/C core/shell structure prepared on the Ti alloy substrate provides the self-sacrificing carbon shell and highly conductive TiC core, thus greatly simplifying the fabrication process without requiring an additional reduction source and conductive additive. The as-prepared electrode exhibits a high specific capacitance of 645 F g(-1) at a discharging current density of 1 A g(-1) attributable to the highly conductive TiC/C and amorphous MnO2 shell with fast ion diffusion. In the charging/discharging cycling test, the as-prepared electrode shows high stability and 99% capacity retention after 5000 cycles. Although the thermal treatment conducted on the as-prepared electrode decreases the initial capacitance, the electrode undergoes capacitance recovery through structural transformation from the crystalline cluster to layered birnessite type MnO2 nanosheets as a result of dissolution and further electrodeposition in the cycling. 96.5% of the initial capacitance is retained after 1000 cycles at high charging/discharging current density of 25 A g(-1). This study demonstrates a novel scaffold to construct MnO2 based SCs with high specific capacitance as well as excellent mechanical and cycling stability boding well for future design of high-performance MnO2-based SCs. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Robust Instrumentation[Water treatment for power plant]; Robust Instrumentering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wik, Anders [Vattenfall Utveckling AB, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2003-08-01

    Cementa Slite Power Station is a heat recovery steam generator (HRSG) with moderate steam data; 3.0 MPa and 420 deg C. The heat is recovered from Cementa, a cement industry, without any usage of auxiliary fuel. The Power station commenced operation in 2001. The layout of the plant is unusual, there are no similar in Sweden and very few world-wide, so the operational experiences are limited. In connection with the commissioning of the power plant a R and D project was identified with the objective to minimise the manpower needed for chemistry management of the plant. The lean chemistry management is based on robust instrumentation and chemical-free water treatment plant. The concept with robust instrumentation consists of the following components; choice of on-line instrumentation with a minimum of O and M and a chemical-free water treatment. The parameters are specific conductivity, cation conductivity, oxygen and pH. In addition to that, two fairly new on-line instruments were included; corrosion monitors and differential pH calculated from specific and cation conductivity. The chemical-free water treatment plant consists of softening, reverse osmosis and electro-deionisation. The operational experience shows that the cycle chemistry is not within the guidelines due to major problems with the operation of the power plant. These problems have made it impossible to reach steady state and thereby not viable to fully verify and validate the concept with robust instrumentation. From readings on the panel of the online analysers some conclusions may be drawn, e.g. the differential pH measurements have fulfilled the expectations. The other on-line analysers have been working satisfactorily apart from contamination with turbine oil, which has been noticed at least twice. The corrosion monitors seem to be working but the lack of trend curves from the mainframe computer system makes it hard to draw any clear conclusions. The chemical-free water treatment has met all

  3. Robust Trust in Expert Testimony

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Dahlman

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The standard of proof in criminal trials should require that the evidence presented by the prosecution is robust. This requirement of robustness says that it must be unlikely that additional information would change the probability that the defendant is guilty. Robustness is difficult for a judge to estimate, as it requires the judge to assess the possible effect of information that the he or she does not have. This article is concerned with expert witnesses and proposes a method for reviewing the robustness of expert testimony. According to the proposed method, the robustness of expert testimony is estimated with regard to competence, motivation, external strength, internal strength and relevance. The danger of trusting non-robust expert testimony is illustrated with an analysis of the Thomas Quick Case, a Swedish legal scandal where a patient at a mental institution was wrongfully convicted for eight murders.

  4. ROBUST MOTION SEGMENTATION FOR HIGH DEFINITION VIDEO SEQUENCES USING A FAST MULTI-RESOLUTION MOTION ESTIMATION BASED ON SPATIO-TEMPORAL TUBES

    OpenAIRE

    Brouard , Olivier; Delannay , Fabrice; Ricordel , Vincent; Barba , Dominique

    2007-01-01

    4 pages; International audience; Motion segmentation methods are effective for tracking video objects. However, objects segmentation methods based on motion need to know the global motion of the video in order to back-compensate it before computing the segmentation. In this paper, we propose a method which estimates the global motion of a High Definition (HD) video shot and then segments it using the remaining motion information. First, we develop a fast method for multi-resolution motion est...

  5. A DNA fingerprinting procedure for ultra high-throughput genetic analysis of insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlipalius, D I; Waldron, J; Carroll, B J; Collins, P J; Ebert, P R

    2001-12-01

    Existing procedures for the generation of polymorphic DNA markers are not optimal for insect studies in which the organisms are often tiny and background molecular information is often non-existent. We have used a new high throughput DNA marker generation protocol called randomly amplified DNA fingerprints (RAF) to analyse the genetic variability in three separate strains of the stored grain pest, Rhyzopertha dominica. This protocol is quick, robust and reliable even though it requires minimal sample preparation, minute amounts of DNA and no prior molecular analysis of the organism. Arbitrarily selected oligonucleotide primers routinely produced approximately 50 scoreable polymorphic DNA markers, between individuals of three independent field isolates of R. dominica. Multivariate cluster analysis using forty-nine arbitrarily selected polymorphisms generated from a single primer reliably separated individuals into three clades corresponding to their geographical origin. The resulting clades were quite distinct, with an average genetic difference of 37.5 +/- 6.0% between clades and of 21.0 +/- 7.1% between individuals within clades. As a prelude to future gene mapping efforts, we have also assessed the performance of RAF under conditions commonly used in gene mapping. In this analysis, fingerprints from pooled DNA samples accurately and reproducibly reflected RAF profiles obtained from individual DNA samples that had been combined to create the bulked samples.

  6. Robust estimation of the expected survival probabilities from high-dimensional Cox models with biomarker-by-treatment interactions in randomized clinical trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nils Ternès

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Thanks to the advances in genomics and targeted treatments, more and more prediction models based on biomarkers are being developed to predict potential benefit from treatments in a randomized clinical trial. Despite the methodological framework for the development and validation of prediction models in a high-dimensional setting is getting more and more established, no clear guidance exists yet on how to estimate expected survival probabilities in a penalized model with biomarker-by-treatment interactions. Methods Based on a parsimonious biomarker selection in a penalized high-dimensional Cox model (lasso or adaptive lasso, we propose a unified framework to: estimate internally the predictive accuracy metrics of the developed model (using double cross-validation; estimate the individual survival probabilities at a given timepoint; construct confidence intervals thereof (analytical or bootstrap; and visualize them graphically (pointwise or smoothed with spline. We compared these strategies through a simulation study covering scenarios with or without biomarker effects. We applied the strategies to a large randomized phase III clinical trial that evaluated the effect of adding trastuzumab to chemotherapy in 1574 early breast cancer patients, for which the expression of 462 genes was measured. Results In our simulations, penalized regression models using the adaptive lasso estimated the survival probability of new patients with low bias and standard error; bootstrapped confidence intervals had empirical coverage probability close to the nominal level across very different scenarios. The double cross-validation performed on the training data set closely mimicked the predictive accuracy of the selected models in external validation data. We also propose a useful visual representation of the expected survival probabilities using splines. In the breast cancer trial, the adaptive lasso penalty selected a prediction model with 4

  7. Wing Tip Drag Reduction at Nominal Take-Off Mach Number: An Approach to Local Active Flow Control with a Highly Robust Actuator System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias Bauer

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses wind tunnel test results aimed at advancing active flow control technology to increase the aerodynamic efficiency of an aircraft during take-off. A model of the outer section of a representative civil airliner wing was equipped with two-stage fluidic actuators between the slat edge and wing tip, where mechanical high-lift devices fail to integrate. The experiments were conducted at a nominal take-off Mach number of M = 0.2. At this incidence velocity, separation on the wing section, accompanied by increased drag, is triggered by the strong slat edge vortex at high angles of attack. On the basis of global force measurements and local static pressure data, the effect of pulsed blowing on the complex flow is evaluated, considering various momentum coefficients and spanwise distributions of the actuation effort. It is shown that through local intensification of forcing, a momentum coefficient of less than c μ = 0.6 % suffices to offset the stall by 2.4°, increase the maximum lift by more than 10% and reduce the drag by 37% compared to the uncontrolled flow.

  8. Robust giant magnetoresistive effect type multilayer sensor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lenssen, K.M.H.; Kuiper, A.E.T.; Roozeboom, F.

    2002-01-01

    A robust Giant Magneto Resistive effect type multilayer sensor comprising a free and a pinned ferromagnetic layer, which can withstand high temperatures and strong magnetic fields as required in automotive applications. The GMR multi-layer has an asymmetric magneto-resistive curve and enables

  9. Robust diamond meshes with unique wettability properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yizhou; Li, Hongdong; Cheng, Shaoheng; Zou, Guangtian; Wang, Chuanxi; Lin, Quan

    2014-03-18

    Robust diamond meshes with excellent superhydrophobic and superoleophilic properties have been fabricated. Superhydrophobicity is observed for water with varying pH from 1 to 14 with good recyclability. Reversible superhydrophobicity and hydrophilicity can be easily controlled. The diamond meshes show highly efficient water-oil separation and water pH droplet transference.

  10. Robust balance shift control with posture optimization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kavafoglu, Z.; Kavafoglu, Ersan; Egges, J.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we present a control framework which creates robust and natural balance shifting behaviours during standing. Given high-level features such as the position of the center of mass projection and the foot configurations, a kinematic posture satisfying these features is synthesized using

  11. Robust control charts in statistical process control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nazir, H.Z.

    2014-01-01

    The presence of outliers and contaminations in the output of the process highly affects the performance of the design structures of commonly used control charts and hence makes them of less practical use. One of the solutions to deal with this problem is to use control charts which are robust

  12. Chance constrained uncertain classification via robust optimization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ben-Tal, A.; Bhadra, S.; Bhattacharayya, C.; Saketha Nat, J.

    2011-01-01

    This paper studies the problem of constructing robust classifiers when the training is plagued with uncertainty. The problem is posed as a Chance-Constrained Program (CCP) which ensures that the uncertain data points are classified correctly with high probability. Unfortunately such a CCP turns out

  13. Measure of robustness for complex networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youssef, Mina Nabil

    to the spread of susceptible/infected/recovered (SIR) epidemics. To compute VCSIR, we propose a novel individual-based approach to model the spread of SIR epidemics in networks, which captures the infection size for a given effective infection rate. Thus, VCSIR quantitatively integrates the infection strength with the corresponding infection size. To optimize the VCSIR metric, a new mitigation strategy is proposed, based on a temporary reduction of contacts in social networks. The social contact network is modeled as a weighted graph that describes the frequency of contacts among the individuals. Thus, we consider the spread of an epidemic as a dynamical system, and the total number of infection cases as the state of the system, while the weight reduction in the social network is the controller variable leading to slow/reduce the spread of epidemics. Using optimal control theory, the obtained solution represents an optimal adaptive weighted network defined over a finite time interval. Moreover, given the high complexity of the optimization problem, we propose two heuristics to find the near optimal solutions by reducing the contacts among the individuals in a decentralized way. Finally, the cascading failures that can take place in power grids and have recently caused several blackouts are studied. We propose a new metric to assess the robustness of the power grid with respect to the cascading failures. The power grid topology is modeled as a network, which consists of nodes and links representing power substations and transmission lines, respectively. We also propose an optimal islanding strategy to protect the power grid when a cascading failure event takes place in the grid. The robustness metrics are numerically evaluated using real and synthetic networks to quantify their robustness with respect to disturbing dynamics. We show that the proposed metrics outperform the classical metrics in quantifying the robustness of networks and the efficiency of the mitigation

  14. Nitrogen doped RGO-Co3O4 nanograin cookies: highly porous and robust catalyst for removing nitrophenol from waste water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pervaiz, Erum; Syam Azhar Virk, Muhammad; Bingxue, Zhang; Yin, Conglin; Yang, Minghui

    2017-09-01

    The fabrication of nanograins with a uniform morphology wrapped with reduced graphene oxide (RGO) in a designed manner is critical for obtaining a large surface, high porosity and efficient catalytic ability at mild conditions. Hybrid structures of metal oxides decorated on two-dimensional (2D) RGO lacked an interface and channels between the individual grains and RGO. The present work focuses on the synthesis of RGO-wrapped Co3O4 nanograin architecture in micron-sized polyhedrons and the ability to reduce aromatic nitro compounds. Doping N in the designed microstructure polyhedrons resulted in very large surface area (1085.6 m2 g-1) and pore density (0.47 m3 g-1) microcages. Binding energies from x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Raman intensities confirmed the presence of doped N and RGO-wrapped around Co3O4 nanograins. However, the morphology and microstructure was supported by FESEM and HRTEM images revealing the fabrication of high integrity RGO-Co3O4 microstructure hybrids composed of a 10 nm grain size with narrower grain size distribution. Ammonia treatment produced interconnected channels and dumbbell pores that facilitated ion exchange between the catalyst surface and the liquid medium at the grain boundary interfaces, and offered less mass transport resistance providing fast adsorption of reactants and desorption of the product causing surface renewal. Prepared N-RGO-Co3O4 shows the largest percentage reduction (96%) of p-nitrophenol (p-NP) at room temperature as compared to pure Co3O4 and RGO-Co3O4 nanograin microstructures over 10 min. Fabricated architectures can be applied effectively for fast and facile treatment of industrial waste streams with complex organic molecules.

  15. Robust Object Tracking Using Valid Fragments Selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Jin; Li, Bo; Tian, Peng; Luo, Gang

    Local features are widely used in visual tracking to improve robustness in cases of partial occlusion, deformation and rotation. This paper proposes a local fragment-based object tracking algorithm. Unlike many existing fragment-based algorithms that allocate the weights to each fragment, this method firstly defines discrimination and uniqueness for local fragment, and builds an automatic pre-selection of useful fragments for tracking. Then, a Harris-SIFT filter is used to choose the current valid fragments, excluding occluded or highly deformed fragments. Based on those valid fragments, fragment-based color histogram provides a structured and effective description for the object. Finally, the object is tracked using a valid fragment template combining the displacement constraint and similarity of each valid fragment. The object template is updated by fusing feature similarity and valid fragments, which is scale-adaptive and robust to partial occlusion. The experimental results show that the proposed algorithm is accurate and robust in challenging scenarios.

  16. Robust and distributed hypothesis testing

    CERN Document Server

    Gül, Gökhan

    2017-01-01

    This book generalizes and extends the available theory in robust and decentralized hypothesis testing. In particular, it presents a robust test for modeling errors which is independent from the assumptions that a sufficiently large number of samples is available, and that the distance is the KL-divergence. Here, the distance can be chosen from a much general model, which includes the KL-divergence as a very special case. This is then extended by various means. A minimax robust test that is robust against both outliers as well as modeling errors is presented. Minimax robustness properties of the given tests are also explicitly proven for fixed sample size and sequential probability ratio tests. The theory of robust detection is extended to robust estimation and the theory of robust distributed detection is extended to classes of distributions, which are not necessarily stochastically bounded. It is shown that the quantization functions for the decision rules can also be chosen as non-monotone. Finally, the boo...

  17. Robustness of IPTV business models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouwman, H.; Zhengjia, M.; Duin, P. van der; Limonard, S.

    2008-01-01

    The final stage in the STOF method is an evaluation of the robustness of the design, for which the method provides some guidelines. For many innovative services, the future holds numerous uncertainties, which makes evaluating the robustness of a business model a difficult task. In this chapter, we

  18. Robustness Evaluation of Timber Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkegaard, Poul Henning; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    2009-01-01

    Robustness of structural systems has obtained a renewed interest due to a much more frequent use of advanced types of structures with limited redundancy and serious consequences in case of failure.......Robustness of structural systems has obtained a renewed interest due to a much more frequent use of advanced types of structures with limited redundancy and serious consequences in case of failure....

  19. Robust Strategy for Crafting Li5Cr7Ti6O25@CeO2 Composites as High-Performance Anode Material for Lithium-Ion Battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, Jie; Yi, Ting-Feng; Li, Xin-Yuan; Zhu, Yan-Rong; Xie, Ying; Zhang, Chao-Feng

    2017-07-19

    A facile strategy was developed to prepare Li 5 Cr 7 Ti 6 O 25 @CeO 2 composites as a high-performance anode material. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Rietveld refinement results show that the CeO 2 coating does not alter the structure of Li 5 Cr 7 Ti 6 O 25 but increases the lattice parameter. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) indicates that all samples have similar morphologies with a homogeneous particle distribution in the range of 100-500 nm. Energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) mapping and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) prove that CeO 2 layer successfully formed a coating layer on a surface of Li 5 Cr 7 Ti 6 O 25 particles and supplied a good conductive connection between the Li 5 Cr 7 Ti 6 O 25 particles. The electrochemical characterization reveals that Li 5 Cr 7 Ti 6 O 25 @CeO 2 (3 wt %) electrode shows the highest reversibility of the insertion and deinsertion behavior of Li ion, the smallest electrochemical polarization, the best lithium-ion mobility among all electrodes, and a better electrochemical activity than the pristine one. Therefore, Li 5 Cr 7 Ti 6 O 25 @CeO 2 (3 wt %) electrode indicates the highest delithiation and lithiation capacities at each rate. At 5 C charge-discharge rate, the pristine Li 5 Cr 7 Ti 6 O 25 only delivers an initial delithiation capacity of ∼94.7 mAh g -1 , and the delithiation capacity merely achieves 87.4 mAh g -1 even after 100 cycles. However, Li 5 Cr 7 Ti 6 O 25 @CeO 2 (3 wt %) delivers an initial delithiation capacity of 107.5 mAh·g -1 , and the delithiation capacity also reaches 100.5 mAh g -1 even after 100 cycles. The cerium dioxide modification is a direct and efficient approach to improve the delithiation and lithiation capacities and cycle property of Li 5 Cr 7 Ti 6 O 25 at large current densities.

  20. High-Performance Lithium-Sulfur Batteries with a Self-Assembled Multiwall Carbon Nanotube Interlayer and a Robust Electrode-Electrolyte Interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hee Min; Hwang, Jang-Yeon; Manthiram, Arumugam; Sun, Yang-Kook

    2016-01-13

    Elemental sulfur electrode has a huge advantage in terms of charge-storage capacity. However, the lack of electrical conductivity results in poor electrochemical utilization of sulfur and performance. This problem has been overcome to some extent previously by using a bare multiwall carbon nanotube (MWCNT) paper interlayer between the sulfur cathode and the polymeric separator, resulting in good electron transport and adsorption of dissolved polysulfides. To advance the interlayer concept further, we present here a self-assembled MWCNT interlayer fabricated by a facile, low-cost process. The Li-S cells fabricated with the self-assembled MWCNT interlayer and a high loading of 3 mg cm(-2) sulfur exhibit a first discharge specific capacity of 1112 mAh g(-1) at 0.1 C rate and retain 95.8% of the capacity at 0.5 C rate after 100 cycles as the self-assembled MWCNT interlayer facilitates good interfacial contact between the interlayer and the sulfur cathode and fast electron and lithium-ion transport while trapping and reutilizing the migrating polysulfides. The approach presented here has the potential to advance the commercialization feasibility of the Li-S batteries.

  1. Opto-mechanical design of a buckling cavity in a novel high-performance outside-plant robust field installable single-mode fibre connector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebraert, Evert; Van Erps, Jürgen; Beri, Stefano; Watté, Jan; Thienpont, Hugo

    2014-05-01

    Fibre-to-the-home (FTTH) networks provide an ideal means to reach the goal the European Union has set to provide 50 % of the households with a broadband connection faster than 100 Mb/s. Deployment of FTTH networks, which is still costly today, could be significantly boosted by novel ferrule-less connectors which don't require highly skilled personnel and allow installation in the field. We propose a ferrule-less connector in which two single-mode fibres (SMFs) are aligned and maintain physical contact by ensuring that at least one fibre is in a buckled state. To this end, we design a cavity in which a fibre can buckle in a controlled way. Using finite element analysis simulations to investigate the shape of the formed buckle for various buckling cavity lengths, we show that it can be accurately approximated by a cosine function. In addition, the optical performance of a buckled SMF is investigated by bending loss calculations and simulations. We show a good agreement between the analytical and the simulated bending loss results for a G.652 fibre at a wavelength of 1550 nm. Buckling cavity lengths smaller than 20 mm should be avoided to keep the optical bending loss due to buckling below 0.1 dB. In this case the cavity height should at least be 2 mm to avoid mechanical confinement of the fibre.

  2. Facile solvothermal synthesis of highly active and robust Pd1.87Cu0.11Sn electrocatalyst towards direct ethanol fuel cell applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jana, Rajkumar; Dhiman, Shikha; Peter, Sebastian C.

    2016-08-01

    Ordered intermetallic Pd1.87Cu0.11Sn ternary electrocatalyst has been synthesized by sodium borohydride reduction of precursor salts Pd(acac)2, CuCl2.2H2O and SnCl2 using one-pot solvothermal synthesis method at 220 °C with a reaction time of 24 h. To the best of our knowledge, here for the first time we report surfactant free synthesis of a novel ordered intermetallic ternary Pd1.87Cu0.11Sn nanoparticles. The ordered structure of the catalyst has been confirmed by powder x-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Composition and morphology of the nanoparticles have been confirmed through field emission scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive spectrometry and TEM. The electrocatalytic activity and stability of the ternary electrocatalyst towards ethanol oxidation in alkaline medium was investigated by cyclic voltammetry and chronoamperometry techniques. The catalyst is proved to be highly efficient and stable upto 500th cycle and even better than commercially available Pd/C (20 wt%) electrocatalysts. The specific and mass activity of the as synthesized ternary catalyst are found to be ∼4.76 and ∼2.9 times better than that of commercial Pd/C. The enhanced activity and stability of the ordered ternary Pd1.87Cu0.11Sn catalyst can make it as a promising candidate for the alkaline direct ethanol fuel cell application.

  3. Robust statistical methods with R

    CERN Document Server

    Jureckova, Jana

    2005-01-01

    Robust statistical methods were developed to supplement the classical procedures when the data violate classical assumptions. They are ideally suited to applied research across a broad spectrum of study, yet most books on the subject are narrowly focused, overly theoretical, or simply outdated. Robust Statistical Methods with R provides a systematic treatment of robust procedures with an emphasis on practical application.The authors work from underlying mathematical tools to implementation, paying special attention to the computational aspects. They cover the whole range of robust methods, including differentiable statistical functions, distance of measures, influence functions, and asymptotic distributions, in a rigorous yet approachable manner. Highlighting hands-on problem solving, many examples and computational algorithms using the R software supplement the discussion. The book examines the characteristics of robustness, estimators of real parameter, large sample properties, and goodness-of-fit tests. It...

  4. Robust analysis of the determinants of healthcare expenditure growth: evidence from panel data for low-, middle- and high-income countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Younsi, Moheddine; Chakroun, Mohamed; Nafla, Amine

    2016-10-01

    This paper examines the determinants of healthcare expenditure for low-, middle- and high-income countries, and it quantifies their influences in order to assess policies for achieving universal health coverage. We elaborate two models, a fixed-effect model and the dynamic panel model, to estimate the factors associated with the total health expenditure growth as well as its major components for 167 countries over the period of 1993-2013. The panel data on total health expenditure per capita and its components were taken from the World Development Indicators. Overall, our results showed that total health expenditure per capita is rising in all countries over time as a result of rising incomes. However, our estimates showed that the income elasticity of health expenditure ranged from 0.75 to 0.96 in the fixed-effect static panel model, while in the dynamic panel model, it was smaller and ranged from 0.16 to 0.47. Our empirical findings indicate that development assistance for health reduced government domestic spending on health but increased total government health spending. Our results also indicate that the trend in health expenditure growth is significantly depending with the country's economic development. In addition, out-of-pocket expenditure is powerfully influenced by a country's capacity to increase general government revenues and social insurance contributions. Knowledge of factors associated to health expenditure might help policy makers to make wise judgments, plan health reforms and allocate resources efficiently. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. A high level of liver-specific expression of oncogenic KrasV12 drives robust liver tumorigenesis in transgenic zebrafish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anh Tuan Nguyen

    2011-11-01

    Human liver cancer is one of the deadliest cancers worldwide, with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC being the most common type. Aberrant Ras signaling has been implicated in the development and progression of human HCC, but a complete understanding of the molecular mechanisms of this protein in hepatocarcinogenesis remains elusive. In this study, a stable in vivo liver cancer model using transgenic zebrafish was generated to elucidate Ras-driven tumorigenesis in HCC. Using the liver-specific fabp10 (fatty acid binding protein 10 promoter, we overexpressed oncogenic krasV12 specifically in the transgenic zebrafish liver. Only a high level of krasV12 expression initiated liver tumorigenesis, which progressed from hyperplasia to benign and malignant tumors with activation of the Ras-Raf-MEK-ERK and Wnt–β-catenin pathways. Histological diagnosis of zebrafish tumors identified HCC as the main lesion. The tumors were invasive and transplantable, indicating malignancy of these HCC cells. Oncogenic krasV12 was also found to trigger p53-dependent senescence as a tumor suppressive barrier in the pre-neoplastic stage. Microarray analysis of zebrafish liver hyperplasia and HCC uncovered the deregulation of several stage-specific and common biological processes and signaling pathways responsible for krasV12-driven liver tumorigenesis that recapitulated the molecular hallmarks of human liver cancer. Cross-species comparisons of cancer transcriptomes further defined a HCC-specific gene signature as well as a liver cancer progression gene signature that are evolutionarily conserved between human and zebrafish. Collectively, our study presents a comprehensive portrait of molecular mechanisms during progressive Ras-induced HCC. These observations indicate the validity of our transgenic zebrafish to model human liver cancer, and this model might act as a useful platform for drug screening and identifying new therapeutic targets.

  6. First report of vertically aligned (Sn,Ir)O2:F solid solution nanotubes: Highly efficient and robust oxygen evolution electrocatalysts for proton exchange membrane based water electrolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghadge, Shrinath Dattatray; Patel, Prasad P.; Datta, Moni K.; Velikokhatnyi, Oleg I.; Shanthi, Pavithra M.; Kumta, Prashant N.

    2018-07-01

    One dimensional (1D) vertically aligned nanotubes (VANTs) of (Sn0.8Ir0.2)O2:10F are synthesized for the first time by a sacrificial template assisted approach. The aim is to enhance the electrocatalytic activity of F doped (Sn,Ir)O2 solid solution electrocatalyst for oxygen evolution reaction (OER) in proton exchange membrane (PEM) based water electrolysis by generating (Sn0.8Ir0.2)O2:10F nanotubes (NTs). The 1D vertical channels and the high electrochemically active surface area (ECSA ∼38.46 m2g-1) provide for facile electron transport. This results in low surface charge transfer resistance (4.2 Ω cm2), low Tafel slope (58.8 mV dec-1) and excellent electrochemical OER performance with ∼2.3 and ∼2.6 fold higher electrocatalytic activity than 2D thin films of (Sn0.8Ir0.2)O2:10F and benchmark IrO2 electrocatalysts, respectively. Furthermore, (Sn0.8Ir0.2)O2:10F NTs exhibit excellent mass activity (21.67 A g-1), specific activity (0.0056 mAcm-2) and TOF (0.016 s-1), which is ∼2-2.6 fold higher than thin film electrocatalysts at an overpotential of 270 mV, with a total mass loading of 0.3 mg cm-2. In addition, (Sn0.8Ir0.2)O2:10F NTs demonstrate remarkable electrochemical durability - comparable to thin films of (Sn0.8Ir0.2)O2:10F and pure IrO2, operated under identical testing conditions in PEM water electrolysis. These results therefore indicate promise of (Sn0.8Ir0.2)O2:10F NTs as OER electrocatalysts for efficient and sustainable hydrogen production.

  7. Paired Pulse Basis Functions for the Method of Moments EFIE Solution of Electromagnetic Problems Involving Arbitrarily-shaped, Three-dimensional Dielectric Scatterers

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacKenzie, Anne I.; Rao, Sadasiva M.; Baginski, Michael E.

    2007-01-01

    A pair of basis functions is presented for the surface integral, method of moment solution of scattering by arbitrarily-shaped, three-dimensional dielectric bodies. Equivalent surface currents are represented by orthogonal unit pulse vectors in conjunction with triangular patch modeling. The electric field integral equation is employed with closed geometries for dielectric bodies; the method may also be applied to conductors. Radar cross section results are shown for dielectric bodies having canonical spherical, cylindrical, and cubic shapes. Pulse basis function results are compared to results by other methods.

  8. Theoretical Framework for Robustness Evaluation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a theoretical framework for evaluation of robustness of structural systems, incl. bridges and buildings. Typically modern structural design codes require that ‘the consequence of damages to structures should not be disproportional to the causes of the damages’. However, although...... the importance of robustness for structural design is widely recognized the code requirements are not specified in detail, which makes the practical use difficult. This paper describes a theoretical and risk based framework to form the basis for quantification of robustness and for pre-normative guidelines...

  9. Development of a robust ionic liquid-based dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction against high concentration of salt for preconcentration of trace metals in saline aqueous samples: Application to the determination of Pb and Cd

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yousefi, Seyed Reza; Shemirani, Farzaneh

    2010-01-01

    A new ionic liquid-based dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction method was developed for preconcentration and determination of compounds in aqueous samples containing very high salt concentrations. This method can solve the problems associated with the limited application of the conventional IL-based DLLME in these samples. This is believed to arise from dissolving of the ionic liquids in aqueous samples with high salt content. In this method, the robustness of microextraction system against high salt concentration (up to 40%, w/v) is increased by introducing a common ion of the ionic liquid into the sample solution. The proposed method was applied satisfactorily to the preconcentration of lead and cadmium in saline samples. After preconcentration, the settled IL-phase was dissolved in 100 μL ethanol and aspirated into the flame atomic absorption spectrometer (FAAS) using a home-made microsample introduction system. Several variables affecting the microextraction efficiency were investigated and optimized. Under the optimized conditions and preconcentration of only 10 mL of sample, the enhancement factors of 273 and 311 and the detection limits of 0.6 μg L -1 and 0.03 μg L -1 were obtained for lead and cadmium, respectively. Validation of the method was performed by both an analysis of a certified reference material (CRM) and comparison of results with those obtained by ISO standard method.

  10. Robust Portfolio Optimization Using Pseudodistances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toma, Aida; Leoni-Aubin, Samuela

    2015-01-01

    The presence of outliers in financial asset returns is a frequently occurring phenomenon which may lead to unreliable mean-variance optimized portfolios. This fact is due to the unbounded influence that outliers can have on the mean returns and covariance estimators that are inputs in the optimization procedure. In this paper we present robust estimators of mean and covariance matrix obtained by minimizing an empirical version of a pseudodistance between the assumed model and the true model underlying the data. We prove and discuss theoretical properties of these estimators, such as affine equivariance, B-robustness, asymptotic normality and asymptotic relative efficiency. These estimators can be easily used in place of the classical estimators, thereby providing robust optimized portfolios. A Monte Carlo simulation study and applications to real data show the advantages of the proposed approach. We study both in-sample and out-of-sample performance of the proposed robust portfolios comparing them with some other portfolios known in literature.

  11. Robust methods for data reduction

    CERN Document Server

    Farcomeni, Alessio

    2015-01-01

    Robust Methods for Data Reduction gives a non-technical overview of robust data reduction techniques, encouraging the use of these important and useful methods in practical applications. The main areas covered include principal components analysis, sparse principal component analysis, canonical correlation analysis, factor analysis, clustering, double clustering, and discriminant analysis.The first part of the book illustrates how dimension reduction techniques synthesize available information by reducing the dimensionality of the data. The second part focuses on cluster and discriminant analy

  12. Robust Forecasting of Non-Stationary Time Series

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Croux, C.; Fried, R.; Gijbels, I.; Mahieu, K.

    2010-01-01

    This paper proposes a robust forecasting method for non-stationary time series. The time series is modelled using non-parametric heteroscedastic regression, and fitted by a localized MM-estimator, combining high robustness and large efficiency. The proposed method is shown to produce reliable

  13. Neuromorphic Configurable Architecture for Robust Motion Estimation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo Botella

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The robustness of the human visual system recovering motion estimation in almost any visual situation is enviable, performing enormous calculation tasks continuously, robustly, efficiently, and effortlessly. There is obviously a great deal we can learn from our own visual system. Currently, there are several optical flow algorithms, although none of them deals efficiently with noise, illumination changes, second-order motion, occlusions, and so on. The main contribution of this work is the efficient implementation of a biologically inspired motion algorithm that borrows nature templates as inspiration in the design of architectures and makes use of a specific model of human visual motion perception: Multichannel Gradient Model (McGM. This novel customizable architecture of a neuromorphic robust optical flow can be constructed with FPGA or ASIC device using properties of the cortical motion pathway, constituting a useful framework for building future complex bioinspired systems running in real time with high computational complexity. This work includes the resource usage and performance data, and the comparison with actual systems. This hardware has many application fields like object recognition, navigation, or tracking in difficult environments due to its bioinspired and robustness properties.

  14. Robust boosting via convex optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rätsch, Gunnar

    2001-12-01

    In this work we consider statistical learning problems. A learning machine aims to extract information from a set of training examples such that it is able to predict the associated label on unseen examples. We consider the case where the resulting classification or regression rule is a combination of simple rules - also called base hypotheses. The so-called boosting algorithms iteratively find a weighted linear combination of base hypotheses that predict well on unseen data. We address the following issues: o The statistical learning theory framework for analyzing boosting methods. We study learning theoretic guarantees on the prediction performance on unseen examples. Recently, large margin classification techniques emerged as a practical result of the theory of generalization, in particular Boosting and Support Vector Machines. A large margin implies a good generalization performance. Hence, we analyze how large the margins in boosting are and find an improved algorithm that is able to generate the maximum margin solution. o How can boosting methods be related to mathematical optimization techniques? To analyze the properties of the resulting classification or regression rule, it is of high importance to understand whether and under which conditions boosting converges. We show that boosting can be used to solve large scale constrained optimization problems, whose solutions are well characterizable. To show this, we relate boosting methods to methods known from mathematical optimization, and derive convergence guarantees for a quite general family of boosting algorithms. o How to make Boosting noise robust? One of the problems of current boosting techniques is that they are sensitive to noise in the training sample. In order to make boosting robust, we transfer the soft margin idea from support vector learning to boosting. We develop theoretically motivated regularized algorithms that exhibit a high noise robustness. o How to adapt boosting to regression problems

  15. Robust design optimization using the price of robustness, robust least squares and regularization methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bukhari, Hassan J.

    2017-12-01

    In this paper a framework for robust optimization of mechanical design problems and process systems that have parametric uncertainty is presented using three different approaches. Robust optimization problems are formulated so that the optimal solution is robust which means it is minimally sensitive to any perturbations in parameters. The first method uses the price of robustness approach which assumes the uncertain parameters to be symmetric and bounded. The robustness for the design can be controlled by limiting the parameters that can perturb.The second method uses the robust least squares method to determine the optimal parameters when data itself is subjected to perturbations instead of the parameters. The last method manages uncertainty by restricting the perturbation on parameters to improve sensitivity similar to Tikhonov regularization. The methods are implemented on two sets of problems; one linear and the other non-linear. This methodology will be compared with a prior method using multiple Monte Carlo simulation runs which shows that the approach being presented in this paper results in better performance.

  16. Robustness of digital artist authentication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Robert; Nielsen, Morten

    In many cases it is possible to determine the authenticity of a painting from digital reproductions of the paintings; this has been demonstrated for a variety of artists and with different approaches. Common to all these methods in digital artist authentication is that the potential of the method...... is in focus, while the robustness has not been considered, i.e. the degree to which the data collection process influences the decision of the method. However, in order for an authentication method to be successful in practice, it needs to be robust to plausible error sources from the data collection....... In this paper we investigate the robustness of the newly proposed authenticity method introduced by the authors based on second generation multiresolution analysis. This is done by modelling a number of realistic factors that can occur in the data collection....

  17. Robustness of holonomic quantum gates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solinas, P.; Zanardi, P.; Zanghi, N.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: If the driving field fluctuates during the quantum evolution this produces errors in the applied operator. The holonomic (and geometrical) quantum gates are believed to be robust against some kind of noise. Because of the geometrical dependence of the holonomic operators can be robust against this kind of noise; in fact if the fluctuations are fast enough they cancel out leaving the final operator unchanged. I present the numerical studies of holonomic quantum gates subject to this parametric noise, the fidelity of the noise and ideal evolution is calculated for different noise correlation times. The holonomic quantum gates seem robust not only for fast fluctuating fields but also for slow fluctuating fields. These results can be explained as due to the geometrical feature of the holonomic operator: for fast fluctuating fields the fluctuations are canceled out, for slow fluctuating fields the fluctuations do not perturb the loop in the parameter space. (author)

  18. Robust estimation and hypothesis testing

    CERN Document Server

    Tiku, Moti L

    2004-01-01

    In statistical theory and practice, a certain distribution is usually assumed and then optimal solutions sought. Since deviations from an assumed distribution are very common, one cannot feel comfortable with assuming a particular distribution and believing it to be exactly correct. That brings the robustness issue in focus. In this book, we have given statistical procedures which are robust to plausible deviations from an assumed mode. The method of modified maximum likelihood estimation is used in formulating these procedures. The modified maximum likelihood estimators are explicit functions of sample observations and are easy to compute. They are asymptotically fully efficient and are as efficient as the maximum likelihood estimators for small sample sizes. The maximum likelihood estimators have computational problems and are, therefore, elusive. A broad range of topics are covered in this book. Solutions are given which are easy to implement and are efficient. The solutions are also robust to data anomali...

  19. Robustness in Railway Operations (RobustRailS)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jens Parbo; Nielsen, Otto Anker

    This study considers the problem of enhancing railway timetable robustness without adding slack time, hence increasing the travel time. The approach integrates a transit assignment model to assess how passengers adapt their behaviour whenever operations are changed. First, the approach considers...

  20. Ins-Robust Primitive Words

    OpenAIRE

    Srivastava, Amit Kumar; Kapoor, Kalpesh

    2017-01-01

    Let Q be the set of primitive words over a finite alphabet with at least two symbols. We characterize a class of primitive words, Q_I, referred to as ins-robust primitive words, which remain primitive on insertion of any letter from the alphabet and present some properties that characterizes words in the set Q_I. It is shown that the language Q_I is dense. We prove that the language of primitive words that are not ins-robust is not context-free. We also present a linear time algorithm to reco...

  1. Curvilinear immersed-boundary method for simulating unsteady flows in shallow natural streams with arbitrarily complex obstacles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Seokkoo; Borazjani, Iman; Sotiropoulos, Fotis

    2008-11-01

    Unsteady 3D simulations of flows in natural streams is a challenging task due to the complexity of the bathymetry, the shallowness of the flow, and the presence of multiple nature- and man-made obstacles. This work is motivated by the need to develop a powerful numerical method for simulating such flows using coherent-structure-resolving turbulence models. We employ the curvilinear immersed boundary method of Ge and Sotiropoulos (Journal of Computational Physics, 2007) and address the critical issue of numerical efficiency in large aspect ratio computational domains and grids such as those encountered in long and shallow open channels. We show that the matrix-free Newton-Krylov method for solving the momentum equations coupled with an algebraic multigrid method with incomplete LU preconditioner for solving the Poisson equation yield a robust and efficient procedure for obtaining time-accurate solutions in such problems. We demonstrate the potential of the numerical approach by carrying out a direct numerical simulation of flow in a long and shallow meandering stream with multiple hydraulic structures.

  2. Robust blood-glucose control using Mathematica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovács, Levente; Paláncz, Béla; Benyó, Balázs; Török, László; Benyó, Zoltán

    2006-01-01

    A robust control design on frequency domain using Mathematica is presented for regularization of glucose level in type I diabetes persons under intensive care. The method originally proposed under Mathematica by Helton and Merino, --now with an improved disturbance rejection constraint inequality--is employed, using a three-state minimal patient model. The robustness of the resulted high-order linear controller is demonstrated by nonlinear closed loop simulation in state-space, in case of standard meal disturbances and is compared with H infinity design implemented with the mu-toolbox of Matlab. The controller designed with model parameters represented the most favorable plant dynamics from the point of view of control purposes, can operate properly even in case of parameter values of the worst-case scenario.

  3. A Robust CuCr2O4/SiO2 Composite Photothermal Material with Underwater Black Property and Extremely High Thermal Stability for Solar-Driven Water Evaporation

    KAUST Repository

    Shi, Yusuf

    2017-12-27

    The design and fabrication of efficient photothermal materials is the key issue in solar-driven water evaporation. In this work, a robust CuCr2O4/SiO2 composite membrane with outstanding solar-driven water evaporation performance (1.32 kg m−2 h−1) under one sun irradiation is rationally designed and synthesized by using quartz glass fibrous membrane as supporting matrix and stable CuCr2O4 particles as the active light absorber. Instead of coating a separate layer on top of the support, the CuCr2O4 particles are evenly distributed inside the matrix, which endows the membrane with great mechanical strength and excellent wear and abrasion resistance. The highly porous composite survives 6 atm pressure and retains its performance even after 75% of the membrane is removed by sandpaper. This work also looks into a generally overlooked aspect of wet versus dry state of photothermal material and its implications. Interestingly, the composite possesses a gray color with a high reflectance in dry state but turns into deep black with a low reflectance in wet state due to the decreased subsurface scattering and strong NIR light absorbance of water in wet state. This composite material also possesses excellent thermal stability and thermal shock resistance, making it able to be easily recovered by calcination in air or direct burning in fire for contaminants removal. The results demonstrate that this composite is a competitive photothermal material for practical solar distillation and indicate that the optical properties of material in wet state are more relevant to photothermal material screening and optimization for solar distillation.

  4. Transparent 1T-MoS2 nanofilm robustly anchored on substrate by layer-by-layer self-assembly and its ultra-high cycling stability as supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Danqin; Zhou, Weiqiang; Zhou, Qianjie; Ye, Guo; Wang, Tongzhou; Wu, Jing; Chang, Yanan; Xu, Jingkun

    2017-09-01

    Two-dimensional MoS2 materials have attracted more and more interest and been applied to the field of energy storage because of its unique physical, optical, electronic and electrochemical properties. However, there are no reports on high-stable transparent MoS2 nanofilms as supercapacitors electrode. Here, we describe a transparent 1T-MoS2 nanofilm electrode with super-long stability anchored on the indium tin oxide (ITO) glass by a simple alternate layer-by-layer (LBL) self-assembly of a highly charged cationic poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride) (PDDA) and negative single-/few-layer 1T MoS2 nanosheets. The ITO/(PDDA/MoS2)20 electrode shows a transmittance of 51.6% at 550 nm and obviously exhibits excellent transparency by naked eye observation. Ultrasonic damage test validates that the (PDDA/MoS2)20 film with the average thickness about 50 nm is robustly anchored on ITO substrate. Additionally, the electrochemical results indicate that the ITO/(PDDA/MoS2)20 film shows areal capacitance of 1.1 mF cm-2 and volumetric capacitance of 220 F cm-3 at 0.04 mA cm-2, 130.6% retention of the original capacitance value after 5000 cycles. Further experiments indicate that the formation of transparent (PDDA/MoS2) x nanofilm by LBL self-assembly can be extended to other substrates, e.g., slide glass and flexible polyethylene terephthalate (PET). Thus, the easily available (PDDA/MoS2) x nanofilm electrode has great potential for application in transparent and/or flexible optoelectronic and electronics devices.

  5. Calculated Hanle transmission and absorption spectra of the 87Rb D1 line with residual magnetic field for arbitrarily polarized light

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noh, Heung-Ryoul; Moon, Han Seb

    2010-01-01

    This paper reports a theoretical study on the transmission spectra of an arbitrarily polarized laser beam through a rubidium cell with or without a buffer gas in Hanle-type coherent population trapping (CPT). This study examined how laser polarization, transverse magnetic field, and collisions with buffer gas affects the spectrum. The transmission spectrum due to CPT and the absorption spectrum due to the level crossing absorption (LCA) were calculated according to the laser polarization. The results show that the LCA is strongly dependent on the transverse magnetic field and interaction time of the atoms with a laser light via collisions with the buffer gas. In addition, the spectral shape of the calculated Hanle spectrum is closely related to the direction between the (stray) transverse magnetic field and polarization of the laser.

  6. Automatic Mode Transition Enabled Robust Triboelectric Nanogenerators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jun; Yang, Jin; Guo, Hengyu; Li, Zhaoling; Zheng, Li; Su, Yuanjie; Wen, Zhen; Fan, Xing; Wang, Zhong Lin

    2015-12-22

    Although the triboelectric nanogenerator (TENG) has been proven to be a renewable and effective route for ambient energy harvesting, its robustness remains a great challenge due to the requirement of surface friction for a decent output, especially for the in-plane sliding mode TENG. Here, we present a rationally designed TENG for achieving a high output performance without compromising the device robustness by, first, converting the in-plane sliding electrification into a contact separation working mode and, second, creating an automatic transition between a contact working state and a noncontact working state. The magnet-assisted automatic transition triboelectric nanogenerator (AT-TENG) was demonstrated to effectively harness various ambient rotational motions to generate electricity with greatly improved device robustness. At a wind speed of 6.5 m/s or a water flow rate of 5.5 L/min, the harvested energy was capable of lighting up 24 spot lights (0.6 W each) simultaneously and charging a capacitor to greater than 120 V in 60 s. Furthermore, due to the rational structural design and unique output characteristics, the AT-TENG was not only capable of harvesting energy from natural bicycling and car motion but also acting as a self-powered speedometer with ultrahigh accuracy. Given such features as structural simplicity, easy fabrication, low cost, wide applicability even in a harsh environment, and high output performance with superior device robustness, the AT-TENG renders an effective and practical approach for ambient mechanical energy harvesting as well as self-powered active sensing.

  7. Essays on robust asset pricing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horváth, Ferenc

    2017-01-01

    The central concept of this doctoral dissertation is robustness. I analyze how model and parameter uncertainty affect financial decisions of investors and fund managers, and what their equilibrium consequences are. Chapter 1 gives an overview of the most important concepts and methodologies used in

  8. Robust visual hashing via ICA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fournel, Thierry; Coltuc, Daniela

    2010-01-01

    Designed to maximize information transmission in the presence of noise, independent component analysis (ICA) could appear in certain circumstances as a statistics-based tool for robust visual hashing. Several ICA-based scenarios can attempt to reach this goal. A first one is here considered.

  9. Robustness of raw quantum tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asorey, M.; Facchi, P.; Florio, G.; Man'ko, V. I.; Marmo, G.; Pascazio, S.; Sudarshan, E. C. G.

    2011-01-01

    We scrutinize the effects of non-ideal data acquisition on the tomograms of quantum states. The presence of a weight function, schematizing the effects of a finite window or equivalently noise, only affects the state reconstruction procedure by a normalization constant. The results are extended to a discrete mesh and show that quantum tomography is robust under incomplete and approximate knowledge of tomograms.

  10. Robustness of raw quantum tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asorey, M. [Departamento de Fisica Teorica, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Zaragoza, 50009 Zaragoza (Spain); Facchi, P. [Dipartimento di Matematica, Universita di Bari, I-70125 Bari (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Bari, I-70126 Bari (Italy); MECENAS, Universita Federico II di Napoli and Universita di Bari (Italy); Florio, G. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Bari, I-70126 Bari (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Bari, I-70126 Bari (Italy); MECENAS, Universita Federico II di Napoli and Universita di Bari (Italy); Man' ko, V.I., E-mail: manko@lebedev.r [P.N. Lebedev Physical Institute, Leninskii Prospect 53, Moscow 119991 (Russian Federation); Marmo, G. [Dipartimento di Scienze Fisiche, Universita di Napoli ' Federico II' , I-80126 Napoli (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Napoli, I-80126 Napoli (Italy); MECENAS, Universita Federico II di Napoli and Universita di Bari (Italy); Pascazio, S. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Bari, I-70126 Bari (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Bari, I-70126 Bari (Italy); MECENAS, Universita Federico II di Napoli and Universita di Bari (Italy); Sudarshan, E.C.G. [Department of Physics, University of Texas, Austin, TX 78712 (United States)

    2011-01-31

    We scrutinize the effects of non-ideal data acquisition on the tomograms of quantum states. The presence of a weight function, schematizing the effects of a finite window or equivalently noise, only affects the state reconstruction procedure by a normalization constant. The results are extended to a discrete mesh and show that quantum tomography is robust under incomplete and approximate knowledge of tomograms.

  11. Aspects of robust linear regression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Davies, P.L.

    1993-01-01

    Section 1 of the paper contains a general discussion of robustness. In Section 2 the influence function of the Hampel-Rousseeuw least median of squares estimator is derived. Linearly invariant weak metrics are constructed in Section 3. It is shown in Section 4 that $S$-estimators satisfy an exact

  12. Robustness Regions for Dichotomous Decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijn, Pieter; Molenaar, Ivo W.

    1981-01-01

    In the case of dichotomous decisions, the total set of all assumptions/specifications for which the decision would have been the same is the robustness region. Inspection of this (data-dependent) region is a form of sensitivity analysis which may lead to improved decision making. (Author/BW)

  13. Theoretical Framework for Robustness Evaluation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a theoretical framework for evaluation of robustness of structural systems, incl. bridges and buildings. Typically modern structural design codes require that ‘the consequence of damages to structures should not be disproportional to the causes of the damages’. However, althou...

  14. Robust control design with MATLAB

    CERN Document Server

    Gu, Da-Wei; Konstantinov, Mihail M

    2013-01-01

    Robust Control Design with MATLAB® (second edition) helps the student to learn how to use well-developed advanced robust control design methods in practical cases. To this end, several realistic control design examples from teaching-laboratory experiments, such as a two-wheeled, self-balancing robot, to complex systems like a flexible-link manipulator are given detailed presentation. All of these exercises are conducted using MATLAB® Robust Control Toolbox 3, Control System Toolbox and Simulink®. By sharing their experiences in industrial cases with minimum recourse to complicated theories and formulae, the authors convey essential ideas and useful insights into robust industrial control systems design using major H-infinity optimization and related methods allowing readers quickly to move on with their own challenges. The hands-on tutorial style of this text rests on an abundance of examples and features for the second edition: ·        rewritten and simplified presentation of theoretical and meth...

  15. Robust Portfolio Optimization Using Pseudodistances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    The presence of outliers in financial asset returns is a frequently occurring phenomenon which may lead to unreliable mean-variance optimized portfolios. This fact is due to the unbounded influence that outliers can have on the mean returns and covariance estimators that are inputs in the optimization procedure. In this paper we present robust estimators of mean and covariance matrix obtained by minimizing an empirical version of a pseudodistance between the assumed model and the true model underlying the data. We prove and discuss theoretical properties of these estimators, such as affine equivariance, B-robustness, asymptotic normality and asymptotic relative efficiency. These estimators can be easily used in place of the classical estimators, thereby providing robust optimized portfolios. A Monte Carlo simulation study and applications to real data show the advantages of the proposed approach. We study both in-sample and out-of-sample performance of the proposed robust portfolios comparing them with some other portfolios known in literature. PMID:26468948

  16. Facial Symmetry in Robust Anthropometrics

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kalina, Jan

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 57, č. 3 (2012), s. 691-698 ISSN 0022-1198 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 1M06014 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : forensic science * anthropology * robust image analysis * correlation analysis * multivariate data * classification Subject RIV: BB - Applied Statistics, Operational Research Impact factor: 1.244, year: 2012

  17. Sparse and Robust Factor Modelling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C. Croux (Christophe); P. Exterkate (Peter)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractFactor construction methods are widely used to summarize a large panel of variables by means of a relatively small number of representative factors. We propose a novel factor construction procedure that enjoys the properties of robustness to outliers and of sparsity; that is, having

  18. Robust distributed cognitive relay beamforming

    KAUST Repository

    Pandarakkottilil, Ubaidulla; Aissa, Sonia

    2012-01-01

    design takes into account a parameter of the error in the channel state information (CSI) to render the performance of the beamformer robust in the presence of imperfect CSI. Though the original problem is non-convex, we show that the proposed design can

  19. Approximability of Robust Network Design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olver, N.K.; Shepherd, F.B.

    2014-01-01

    We consider robust (undirected) network design (RND) problems where the set of feasible demands may be given by an arbitrary convex body. This model, introduced by Ben-Ameur and Kerivin [Ben-Ameur W, Kerivin H (2003) New economical virtual private networks. Comm. ACM 46(6):69-73], generalizes the

  20. Designing Phononic Crystals with Wide and Robust Band Gaps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Zian; Chen, Yanyu; Yang, Haoxiang; Wang, Lifeng

    2018-04-01

    Phononic crystals (PnCs) engineered to manipulate and control the propagation of mechanical waves have enabled the design of a range of novel devices, such as waveguides, frequency modulators, and acoustic cloaks, for which wide and robust phononic band gaps are highly preferable. While numerous PnCs have been designed in recent decades, to the best of our knowledge, PnCs that possess simultaneous wide and robust band gaps (to randomness and deformations) have not yet been reported. Here, we demonstrate that by combining the band-gap formation mechanisms of Bragg scattering and local resonances (the latter one is dominating), PnCs with wide and robust phononic band gaps can be established. The robustness of the phononic band gaps are then discussed from two aspects: robustness to geometric randomness (manufacture defects) and robustness to deformations (mechanical stimuli). Analytical formulations further predict the optimal design parameters, and an uncertainty analysis quantifies the randomness effect of each designing parameter. Moreover, we show that the deformation robustness originates from a local resonance-dominant mechanism together with the suppression of structural instability. Importantly, the proposed PnCs require only a small number of layers of elements (three unit cells) to obtain broad, robust, and strong attenuation bands, which offer great potential in designing flexible and deformable phononic devices.

  1. Evolution favors protein mutational robustness in sufficiently large populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venturelli Ophelia S

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background An important question is whether evolution favors properties such as mutational robustness or evolvability that do not directly benefit any individual, but can influence the course of future evolution. Functionally similar proteins can differ substantially in their robustness to mutations and capacity to evolve new functions, but it has remained unclear whether any of these differences might be due to evolutionary selection for these properties. Results Here we use laboratory experiments to demonstrate that evolution favors protein mutational robustness if the evolving population is sufficiently large. We neutrally evolve cytochrome P450 proteins under identical selection pressures and mutation rates in populations of different sizes, and show that proteins from the larger and thus more polymorphic population tend towards higher mutational robustness. Proteins from the larger population also evolve greater stability, a biophysical property that is known to enhance both mutational robustness and evolvability. The excess mutational robustness and stability is well described by mathematical theory, and can be quantitatively related to the way that the proteins occupy their neutral network. Conclusion Our work is the first experimental demonstration of the general tendency of evolution to favor mutational robustness and protein stability in highly polymorphic populations. We suggest that this phenomenon could contribute to the mutational robustness and evolvability of viruses and bacteria that exist in large populations.

  2. Designing Phononic Crystals with Wide and Robust Band Gaps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Yanyu [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Jia, Zian [State University of New York at Stony Brook; Yang, Haoxiang [State University of New York at Stony Brook; Wang, Lifeng [State University of New York at Stony Brook

    2018-04-16

    Phononic crystals (PnCs) engineered to manipulate and control the propagation of mechanical waves have enabled the design of a range of novel devices, such as waveguides, frequency modulators, and acoustic cloaks, for which wide and robust phononic band gaps are highly preferable. While numerous PnCs have been designed in recent decades, to the best of our knowledge, PnCs that possess simultaneous wide and robust band gaps (to randomness and deformations) have not yet been reported. Here, we demonstrate that by combining the band-gap formation mechanisms of Bragg scattering and local resonances (the latter one is dominating), PnCs with wide and robust phononic band gaps can be established. The robustness of the phononic band gaps are then discussed from two aspects: robustness to geometric randomness (manufacture defects) and robustness to deformations (mechanical stimuli). Analytical formulations further predict the optimal design parameters, and an uncertainty analysis quantifies the randomness effect of each designing parameter. Moreover, we show that the deformation robustness originates from a local resonance-dominant mechanism together with the suppression of structural instability. Importantly, the proposed PnCs require only a small number of layers of elements (three unit cells) to obtain broad, robust, and strong attenuation bands, which offer great potential in designing flexible and deformable phononic devices.

  3. Distributed redundancy and robustness in complex systems

    KAUST Repository

    Randles, Martin

    2011-03-01

    The uptake and increasing prevalence of Web 2.0 applications, promoting new large-scale and complex systems such as Cloud computing and the emerging Internet of Services/Things, requires tools and techniques to analyse and model methods to ensure the robustness of these new systems. This paper reports on assessing and improving complex system resilience using distributed redundancy, termed degeneracy in biological systems, to endow large-scale complicated computer systems with the same robustness that emerges in complex biological and natural systems. However, in order to promote an evolutionary approach, through emergent self-organisation, it is necessary to specify the systems in an \\'open-ended\\' manner where not all states of the system are prescribed at design-time. In particular an observer system is used to select robust topologies, within system components, based on a measurement of the first non-zero Eigen value in the Laplacian spectrum of the components\\' network graphs; also known as the algebraic connectivity. It is shown, through experimentation on a simulation, that increasing the average algebraic connectivity across the components, in a network, leads to an increase in the variety of individual components termed distributed redundancy; the capacity for structurally distinct components to perform an identical function in a particular context. The results are applied to a specific application where active clustering of like services is used to aid load balancing in a highly distributed network. Using the described procedure is shown to improve performance and distribute redundancy. © 2010 Elsevier Inc.

  4. TAO-robust backpropagation learning algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pernía-Espinoza, Alpha V; Ordieres-Meré, Joaquín B; Martínez-de-Pisón, Francisco J; González-Marcos, Ana

    2005-03-01

    In several fields, as industrial modelling, multilayer feedforward neural networks are often used as universal function approximations. These supervised neural networks are commonly trained by a traditional backpropagation learning format, which minimises the mean squared error (mse) of the training data. However, in the presence of corrupted data (outliers) this training scheme may produce wrong models. We combine the benefits of the non-linear regression model tau-estimates [introduced by Tabatabai, M. A. Argyros, I. K. Robust Estimation and testing for general nonlinear regression models. Applied Mathematics and Computation. 58 (1993) 85-101] with the backpropagation algorithm to produce the TAO-robust learning algorithm, in order to deal with the problems of modelling with outliers. The cost function of this approach has a bounded influence function given by the weighted average of two psi functions, one corresponding to a very robust estimate and the other to a highly efficient estimate. The advantages of the proposed algorithm are studied with an example.

  5. A robust nonlinear filter for image restoration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koivunen, V

    1995-01-01

    A class of nonlinear regression filters based on robust estimation theory is introduced. The goal of the filtering is to recover a high-quality image from degraded observations. Models for desired image structures and contaminating processes are employed, but deviations from strict assumptions are allowed since the assumptions on signal and noise are typically only approximately true. The robustness of filters is usually addressed only in a distributional sense, i.e., the actual error distribution deviates from the nominal one. In this paper, the robustness is considered in a broad sense since the outliers may also be due to inappropriate signal model, or there may be more than one statistical population present in the processing window, causing biased estimates. Two filtering algorithms minimizing a least trimmed squares criterion are provided. The design of the filters is simple since no scale parameters or context-dependent threshold values are required. Experimental results using both real and simulated data are presented. The filters effectively attenuate both impulsive and nonimpulsive noise while recovering the signal structure and preserving interesting details.

  6. UNIX-based operating systems robustness evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yu-Ming

    1996-01-01

    Robust operating systems are required for reliable computing. Techniques for robustness evaluation of operating systems not only enhance the understanding of the reliability of computer systems, but also provide valuable feed- back to system designers. This thesis presents results from robustness evaluation experiments on five UNIX-based operating systems, which include Digital Equipment's OSF/l, Hewlett Packard's HP-UX, Sun Microsystems' Solaris and SunOS, and Silicon Graphics' IRIX. Three sets of experiments were performed. The methodology for evaluation tested (1) the exception handling mechanism, (2) system resource management, and (3) system capacity under high workload stress. An exception generator was used to evaluate the exception handling mechanism of the operating systems. Results included exit status of the exception generator and the system state. Resource management techniques used by individual operating systems were tested using programs designed to usurp system resources such as physical memory and process slots. Finally, the workload stress testing evaluated the effect of the workload on system performance by running a synthetic workload and recording the response time of local and remote user requests. Moderate to severe performance degradations were observed on the systems under stress.

  7. Tension and robustness in multitasking cellular networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey V Wong

    Full Text Available Cellular networks multitask by exhibiting distinct, context-dependent dynamics. However, network states (parameters that generate a particular dynamic are often sub-optimal for others, defining a source of "tension" between them. Though multitasking is pervasive, it is not clear where tension arises, what consequences it has, and how it is resolved. We developed a generic computational framework to examine the source and consequences of tension between pairs of dynamics exhibited by the well-studied RB-E2F switch regulating cell cycle entry. We found that tension arose from task-dependent shifts in parameters associated with network modules. Although parameter sets common to distinct dynamics did exist, tension reduced both their accessibility and resilience to perturbation, indicating a trade-off between "one-size-fits-all" solutions and robustness. With high tension, robustness can be preserved by dynamic shifting of modules, enabling the network to toggle between tasks, and by increasing network complexity, in this case by gene duplication. We propose that tension is a general constraint on the architecture and operation of multitasking biological networks. To this end, our work provides a framework to quantify the extent of tension between any network dynamics and how it affects network robustness. Such analysis would suggest new ways to interfere with network elements to elucidate the design principles of cellular networks.

  8. Robust Reliability or reliable robustness? - Integrated consideration of robustness and reliability aspects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kemmler, S.; Eifler, Tobias; Bertsche, B.

    2015-01-01

    products are and vice versa. For a comprehensive understanding and to use existing synergies between both domains, this paper discusses the basic principles of Reliability- and Robust Design theory. The development of a comprehensive model will enable an integrated consideration of both domains...

  9. New approach to 3-D, high sensitivity, high mass resolution space plasma composition measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McComas, D.J.; Nordholt, J.E.

    1990-01-01

    This paper describes a new type of 3-D space plasma composition analyzer. The design combines high sensitivity, high mass resolution measurements with somewhat lower mass resolution but even higher sensitivity measurements in a single compact and robust design. While the lower resolution plasma measurements are achieved using conventional straight-through time-of-flight mass spectrometry, the high mass resolution measurements are made by timing ions reflected in a linear electric field (LEF), where the restoring force that an ion experiences is proportional to the depth it travels into the LEF region. Consequently, the ion's equation of motion in that dimension is that of a simple harmonic oscillator and its travel time is simply proportional to the square root of the ion's mass/charge (m/q). While in an ideal LEF, the m/q resolution can be arbitrarily high, in a real device the resolution is limited by the field linearity which can be achieved. In this paper we describe how a nearly linear field can be produced and discuss how the design can be optimized for various different plasma regimes and spacecraft configurations

  10. Robust Watermarking of Video Streams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Polyák

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In the past few years there has been an explosion in the use of digital video data. Many people have personal computers at home, and with the help of the Internet users can easily share video files on their computer. This makes possible the unauthorized use of digital media, and without adequate protection systems the authors and distributors have no means to prevent it.Digital watermarking techniques can help these systems to be more effective by embedding secret data right into the video stream. This makes minor changes in the frames of the video, but these changes are almost imperceptible to the human visual system. The embedded information can involve copyright data, access control etc. A robust watermark is resistant to various distortions of the video, so it cannot be removed without affecting the quality of the host medium. In this paper I propose a video watermarking scheme that fulfills the requirements of a robust watermark. 

  11. Robust Decentralized Formation Flight Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao Weihua

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Motivated by the idea of multiplexed model predictive control (MMPC, this paper introduces a new framework for unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs formation flight and coordination. Formulated using MMPC approach, the whole centralized formation flight system is considered as a linear periodic system with control inputs of each UAV subsystem as its periodic inputs. Divided into decentralized subsystems, the whole formation flight system is guaranteed stable if proper terminal cost and terminal constraints are added to each decentralized MPC formulation of the UAV subsystem. The decentralized robust MPC formulation for each UAV subsystem with bounded input disturbances and model uncertainties is also presented. Furthermore, an obstacle avoidance control scheme for any shape and size of obstacles, including the nonapriorily known ones, is integrated under the unified MPC framework. The results from simulations demonstrate that the proposed framework can successfully achieve robust collision-free formation flights.

  12. Testing Heteroscedasticity in Robust Regression

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kalina, Jan

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 1, č. 4 (2011), s. 25-28 ISSN 2045-3345 Grant - others:GA ČR(CZ) GA402/09/0557 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : robust regression * heteroscedasticity * regression quantiles * diagnostics Subject RIV: BB - Applied Statistics , Operational Research http://www.researchjournals.co.uk/documents/Vol4/06%20Kalina.pdf

  13. Robust power system frequency control

    CERN Document Server

    Bevrani, Hassan

    2014-01-01

    This updated edition of the industry standard reference on power system frequency control provides practical, systematic and flexible algorithms for regulating load frequency, offering new solutions to the technical challenges introduced by the escalating role of distributed generation and renewable energy sources in smart electric grids. The author emphasizes the physical constraints and practical engineering issues related to frequency in a deregulated environment, while fostering a conceptual understanding of frequency regulation and robust control techniques. The resulting control strategi

  14. Toward robust nanogenerators using aluminum substrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Sangmin; Xu, Chen; Lee, Minbaek; Lin, Long [School of Material Science and Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia (United States); Hong, Jung-Il [School of Material Science and Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia (United States); Department of Emerging Materials Science, Daegu Gyeongbuk Institute of Science and Technology, Daegu (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Dongseob; Hwang, Woonbong [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Pohang University of Science and Technology, San 31, Hyoja, Namgu, Pohang, Gyungbuk (Korea, Republic of); Wang, Zhong Lin [School of Material Science and Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia (United States); Beijing Institue of Nanoenergy and Nanosystems, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China)

    2012-08-22

    Nanogenerators (NG) have been developed to harvest mechanical energy from environmental sources such as vibration, human motion, or movement of automobiles. We demonstrate a robust and large-area NG based on a cost-effective Al substrate with the capability to be easily integrated in series and parallel for high-output performance. The output voltage and current density of the three-dimensionally integrated NG device reaches up to 3 V and 195 nA under human walking conditions. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  15. Robust, directed assembly of fluorescent nanodiamonds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kianinia, Mehran; Shimoni, Olga; Bendavid, Avi; Schell, Andreas W; Randolph, Steven J; Toth, Milos; Aharonovich, Igor; Lobo, Charlene J

    2016-10-27

    Arrays of fluorescent nanoparticles are highly sought after for applications in sensing, nanophotonics and quantum communications. Here we present a simple and robust method of assembling fluorescent nanodiamonds into macroscopic arrays. Remarkably, the yield of this directed assembly process is greater than 90% and the assembled patterns withstand ultra-sonication for more than three hours. The assembly process is based on covalent bonding of carboxyl to amine functional carbon seeds and is applicable to any material, and to non-planar surfaces. Our results pave the way to directed assembly of sensors and nanophotonics devices.

  16. Robust Pseudo-Hierarchical Support Vector Clustering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Michael Sass; Sjöstrand, Karl; Olafsdóttir, Hildur

    2007-01-01

    Support vector clustering (SVC) has proven an efficient algorithm for clustering of noisy and high-dimensional data sets, with applications within many fields of research. An inherent problem, however, has been setting the parameters of the SVC algorithm. Using the recent emergence of a method...... for calculating the entire regularization path of the support vector domain description, we propose a fast method for robust pseudo-hierarchical support vector clustering (HSVC). The method is demonstrated to work well on generated data, as well as for detecting ischemic segments from multidimensional myocardial...

  17. A Robust Geometric Model for Argument Classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannone, Cristina; Croce, Danilo; Basili, Roberto; de Cao, Diego

    Argument classification is the task of assigning semantic roles to syntactic structures in natural language sentences. Supervised learning techniques for frame semantics have been recently shown to benefit from rich sets of syntactic features. However argument classification is also highly dependent on the semantics of the involved lexicals. Empirical studies have shown that domain dependence of lexical information causes large performance drops in outside domain tests. In this paper a distributional approach is proposed to improve the robustness of the learning model against out-of-domain lexical phenomena.

  18. Robust indexing for automatic data collection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sauter, Nicholas K.; Grosse-Kunstleve, Ralf W.; Adams, Paul D.

    2003-01-01

    We present improved methods for indexing diffraction patterns from macromolecular crystals. The novel procedures include a more robust way to verify the position of the incident X-ray beam on the detector, an algorithm to verify that the deduced lattice basis is consistent with the observations, and an alternative approach to identify the metric symmetry of the lattice. These methods help to correct failures commonly experienced during indexing, and increase the overall success rate of the process. Rapid indexing, without the need for visual inspection, will play an important role as beamlines at synchrotron sources prepare for high-throughput automation

  19. Robustly Fitting and Forecasting Dynamical Data With Electromagnetically Coupled Artificial Neural Network: A Data Compression Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ziyin; Liu, Mandan; Cheng, Yicheng; Wang, Rubin

    2017-06-01

    In this paper, a dynamical recurrent artificial neural network (ANN) is proposed and studied. Inspired from a recent research in neuroscience, we introduced nonsynaptic coupling to form a dynamical component of the network. We mathematically proved that, with adequate neurons provided, this dynamical ANN model is capable of approximating any continuous dynamic system with an arbitrarily small error in a limited time interval. Its extreme concise Jacobian matrix makes the local stability easy to control. We designed this ANN for fitting and forecasting dynamic data and obtained satisfied results in simulation. The fitting performance is also compared with those of both the classic dynamic ANN and the state-of-the-art models. Sufficient trials and the statistical results indicated that our model is superior to those have been compared. Moreover, we proposed a robust approximation problem, which asking the ANN to approximate a cluster of input-output data pairs in large ranges and to forecast the output of the system under previously unseen input. Our model and learning scheme proposed in this paper have successfully solved this problem, and through this, the approximation becomes much more robust and adaptive to noise, perturbation, and low-order harmonic wave. This approach is actually an efficient method for compressing massive external data of a dynamic system into the weight of the ANN.

  20. Voice Activity Detection. Fundamentals and Speech Recognition System Robustness

    OpenAIRE

    Ramirez, J.; Gorriz, J. M.; Segura, J. C.

    2007-01-01

    This chapter has shown an overview of the main challenges in robust speech detection and a review of the state of the art and applications. VADs are frequently used in a number of applications including speech coding, speech enhancement and speech recognition. A precise VAD extracts a set of discriminative speech features from the noisy speech and formulates the decision in terms of well defined rule. The chapter has summarized three robust VAD methods that yield high speech/non-speech discri...

  1. Robust Forecasting of Non-Stationary Time Series

    OpenAIRE

    Croux, C.; Fried, R.; Gijbels, I.; Mahieu, K.

    2010-01-01

    This paper proposes a robust forecasting method for non-stationary time series. The time series is modelled using non-parametric heteroscedastic regression, and fitted by a localized MM-estimator, combining high robustness and large efficiency. The proposed method is shown to produce reliable forecasts in the presence of outliers, non-linearity, and heteroscedasticity. In the absence of outliers, the forecasts are only slightly less precise than those based on a localized Least Squares estima...

  2. Robustness Analysis of Visual QA Models by Basic Questions

    KAUST Repository

    Huang, Jia-Hong

    2017-09-14

    Visual Question Answering (VQA) models should have both high robustness and accuracy. Unfortunately, most of the current VQA research only focuses on accuracy because there is a lack of proper methods to measure the robustness of VQA models. There are two main modules in our algorithm. Given a natural language question about an image, the first module takes the question as input and then outputs the ranked basic questions, with similarity scores, of the main given question. The second module takes the main question, image and these basic questions as input and then outputs the text-based answer of the main question about the given image. We claim that a robust VQA model is one, whose performance is not changed much when related basic questions as also made available to it as input. We formulate the basic questions generation problem as a LASSO optimization, and also propose a large scale Basic Question Dataset (BQD) and Rscore (novel robustness measure), for analyzing the robustness of VQA models. We hope our BQD will be used as a benchmark for to evaluate the robustness of VQA models, so as to help the community build more robust and accurate VQA models.

  3. Robustness Analysis of Visual Question Answering Models by Basic Questions

    KAUST Repository

    Huang, Jia-Hong

    2017-11-01

    Visual Question Answering (VQA) models should have both high robustness and accuracy. Unfortunately, most of the current VQA research only focuses on accuracy because there is a lack of proper methods to measure the robustness of VQA models. There are two main modules in our algorithm. Given a natural language question about an image, the first module takes the question as input and then outputs the ranked basic questions, with similarity scores, of the main given question. The second module takes the main question, image and these basic questions as input and then outputs the text-based answer of the main question about the given image. We claim that a robust VQA model is one, whose performance is not changed much when related basic questions as also made available to it as input. We formulate the basic questions generation problem as a LASSO optimization, and also propose a large scale Basic Question Dataset (BQD) and Rscore (novel robustness measure), for analyzing the robustness of VQA models. We hope our BQD will be used as a benchmark for to evaluate the robustness of VQA models, so as to help the community build more robust and accurate VQA models.

  4. Design optimization for cost and quality: The robust design approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unal, Resit

    1990-01-01

    Designing reliable, low cost, and operable space systems has become the key to future space operations. Designing high quality space systems at low cost is an economic and technological challenge to the designer. A systematic and efficient way to meet this challenge is a new method of design optimization for performance, quality, and cost, called Robust Design. Robust Design is an approach for design optimization. It consists of: making system performance insensitive to material and subsystem variation, thus allowing the use of less costly materials and components; making designs less sensitive to the variations in the operating environment, thus improving reliability and reducing operating costs; and using a new structured development process so that engineering time is used most productively. The objective in Robust Design is to select the best combination of controllable design parameters so that the system is most robust to uncontrollable noise factors. The robust design methodology uses a mathematical tool called an orthogonal array, from design of experiments theory, to study a large number of decision variables with a significantly small number of experiments. Robust design also uses a statistical measure of performance, called a signal-to-noise ratio, from electrical control theory, to evaluate the level of performance and the effect of noise factors. The purpose is to investigate the Robust Design methodology for improving quality and cost, demonstrate its application by the use of an example, and suggest its use as an integral part of space system design process.

  5. Robustness Analysis of Visual Question Answering Models by Basic Questions

    KAUST Repository

    Huang, Jia-Hong

    2017-01-01

    Visual Question Answering (VQA) models should have both high robustness and accuracy. Unfortunately, most of the current VQA research only focuses on accuracy because there is a lack of proper methods to measure the robustness of VQA models. There are two main modules in our algorithm. Given a natural language question about an image, the first module takes the question as input and then outputs the ranked basic questions, with similarity scores, of the main given question. The second module takes the main question, image and these basic questions as input and then outputs the text-based answer of the main question about the given image. We claim that a robust VQA model is one, whose performance is not changed much when related basic questions as also made available to it as input. We formulate the basic questions generation problem as a LASSO optimization, and also propose a large scale Basic Question Dataset (BQD) and Rscore (novel robustness measure), for analyzing the robustness of VQA models. We hope our BQD will be used as a benchmark for to evaluate the robustness of VQA models, so as to help the community build more robust and accurate VQA models.

  6. Robustness Analysis of Visual QA Models by Basic Questions

    KAUST Repository

    Huang, Jia-Hong; Alfadly, Modar; Ghanem, Bernard

    2017-01-01

    Visual Question Answering (VQA) models should have both high robustness and accuracy. Unfortunately, most of the current VQA research only focuses on accuracy because there is a lack of proper methods to measure the robustness of VQA models. There are two main modules in our algorithm. Given a natural language question about an image, the first module takes the question as input and then outputs the ranked basic questions, with similarity scores, of the main given question. The second module takes the main question, image and these basic questions as input and then outputs the text-based answer of the main question about the given image. We claim that a robust VQA model is one, whose performance is not changed much when related basic questions as also made available to it as input. We formulate the basic questions generation problem as a LASSO optimization, and also propose a large scale Basic Question Dataset (BQD) and Rscore (novel robustness measure), for analyzing the robustness of VQA models. We hope our BQD will be used as a benchmark for to evaluate the robustness of VQA models, so as to help the community build more robust and accurate VQA models.

  7. Robustness Analysis of Timber Truss Structure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rajčić, Vlatka; Čizmar, Dean; Kirkegaard, Poul Henning

    2010-01-01

    The present paper discusses robustness of structures in general and the robustness requirements given in the codes. Robustness of timber structures is also an issues as this is closely related to Working group 3 (Robustness of systems) of the COST E55 project. Finally, an example of a robustness...... evaluation of a widespan timber truss structure is presented. This structure was built few years ago near Zagreb and has a span of 45m. Reliability analysis of the main members and the system is conducted and based on this a robustness analysis is preformed....

  8. Robust optimum design with maximum entropy method; Saidai entropy ho mochiita robust sei saitekika sekkeiho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawaguchi, K; Egashira, Y; Watanabe, G [Mazda Motor Corp., Hiroshima (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    Vehicle and unit performance change according to not only external causes represented by the environment such as temperature or weather, but also internal causes which are dispersion of component characteristics and manufacturing processes or aged deteriorations. We developed the design method to estimate thus performance distributions with maximum entropy method and to calculate specifications with high performance robustness using Fuzzy theory. This paper describes the details of these methods and examples applied to power window system. 3 refs., 7 figs., 4 tabs.

  9. Robust surface roughness indices and morphological interpretation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trevisani, Sebastiano; Rocca, Michele

    2016-04-01

    Geostatistical-based image/surface texture indices based on variogram (Atkison and Lewis, 2000; Herzfeld and Higginson, 1996; Trevisani et al., 2012) and on its robust variant MAD (median absolute differences, Trevisani and Rocca, 2015) offer powerful tools for the analysis and interpretation of surface morphology (potentially not limited to solid earth). In particular, the proposed robust index (Trevisani and Rocca, 2015) with its implementation based on local kernels permits the derivation of a wide set of robust and customizable geomorphometric indices capable to outline specific aspects of surface texture. The stability of MAD in presence of signal noise and abrupt changes in spatial variability is well suited for the analysis of high-resolution digital terrain models. Moreover, the implementation of MAD by means of a pixel-centered perspective based on local kernels, with some analogies to the local binary pattern approach (Lucieer and Stein, 2005; Ojala et al., 2002), permits to create custom roughness indices capable to outline different aspects of surface roughness (Grohmann et al., 2011; Smith, 2015). In the proposed poster, some potentialities of the new indices in the context of geomorphometry and landscape analysis will be presented. At same time, challenges and future developments related to the proposed indices will be outlined. Atkinson, P.M., Lewis, P., 2000. Geostatistical classification for remote sensing: an introduction. Computers & Geosciences 26, 361-371. Grohmann, C.H., Smith, M.J., Riccomini, C., 2011. Multiscale Analysis of Topographic Surface Roughness in the Midland Valley, Scotland. IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing 49, 1220-1213. Herzfeld, U.C., Higginson, C.A., 1996. Automated geostatistical seafloor classification - Principles, parameters, feature vectors, and discrimination criteria. Computers and Geosciences, 22 (1), pp. 35-52. Lucieer, A., Stein, A., 2005. Texture-based landform segmentation of LiDAR imagery

  10. Robust Protection against Highly Virulent Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus in Swine by Combination Treatment with Recombinant Adenoviruses Expressing Porcine Alpha and Gamma Interferons and Multiple Small Interfering RNAs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jong-Hyeon; Lee, Kwang-Nyeong; Kim, Se-Kyung; You, Su-Hwa; Kim, Taeseong; Tark, Dongseob; Lee, Hyang-Sim; Seo, Min-Goo; Kim, Byounghan

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Because the currently available vaccines against foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) provide no protection until 4 to 7 days postvaccination, the only alternative method to halt the spread of the FMD virus (FMDV) during outbreaks is the application of antiviral agents. Combination treatment strategies have been used to enhance the efficacy of antiviral agents, and such strategies may be advantageous in overcoming viral mechanisms of resistance to antiviral treatments. We have developed recombinant adenoviruses (Ads) for the simultaneous expression of porcine alpha and gamma interferons (Ad-porcine IFN-αγ) as well as 3 small interfering RNAs (Ad-3siRNA) targeting FMDV mRNAs encoding nonstructural proteins. The antiviral effects of Ad-porcine IFN-αγ and Ad-3siRNA expression were tested in combination in porcine cells, suckling mice, and swine. We observed enhanced antiviral effects in porcine cells and mice as well as robust protection against the highly pathogenic strain O/Andong/SKR/2010 and increased expression of cytokines in swine following combination treatment. In addition, we showed that combination treatment was effective against all serotypes of FMDV. Therefore, we suggest that the combined treatment with Ad-porcine IFN-αγ and Ad-3siRNA may offer fast-acting antiviral protection and be used with a vaccine during the period that the vaccine does not provide protection against FMD. IMPORTANCE The use of current foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) vaccines to induce rapid protection provides limited effectiveness because the protection does not become effective until a minimum of 4 days after vaccination. Therefore, during outbreaks antiviral agents remain the only available treatment to confer rapid protection and reduce the spread of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) in livestock until vaccine-induced protective immunity can become effective. Interferons (IFNs) and small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) have been reported to be effective antiviral agents against

  11. Utilization of highly robust and selective crosslinked polymeric ionic liquid-based sorbent coatings in direct-immersion solid-phase microextraction and high-performance liquid chromatography for determining polar organic pollutants in waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacheco-Fernández, Idaira; Najafi, Ali; Pino, Verónica; Anderson, Jared L; Ayala, Juan H; Afonso, Ana M

    2016-09-01

    Several crosslinked polymeric ionic liquid (PIL)-based sorbent coatings of different nature were prepared by UV polymerization onto nitinol wires. They were evaluated in a direct-immersion solid-phase microextraction (DI-SPME) method in combination with high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and diode array detection (DAD). The studied PIL coatings contained either vinyl alkyl or vinylbenzyl imidazolium-based (ViCnIm- or ViBCnIm-) IL monomers with different anions, as well as different dicationic IL crosslinkers. The analytical performance of these PIL-based SPME coatings was firstly evaluated for the extraction of a group of 10 different model analytes, including hydrocarbons and phenols, while exhaustively comparing the performance with commercial SPME fibers such as polydimethylsyloxane (PDMS), polyacrylate (PA) and polydimethylsiloxane/divinylbenzene (PDMS/DVB), and using all fibers under optimized conditions. Those fibers exhibiting a high selectivity for polar compounds were selected to carry out an analytical method for a group of 5 alkylphenols, including bisphenol-A (BPA) and nonylphenol (n-NP). Under optimum conditions, average relative recoveries of 108% and inter-day precision values (3 non-consecutive days) lower than 19% were obtained for a spiked level of 10µgL(-1). Correlations coefficients for the overall method ranged between 0.990 and 0.999, and limits of detection were down to 1µgL(-1). Tap water, river water, and bottled water were analyzed to evaluate matrix effects. Comparison with the PA fiber was also performed in terms of analytical performance. Partition coefficients (logKfs) of the alkylphenols to the SPME coating varied from 1.69 to 2.45 for the most efficient PIL-based fiber, and from 1.58 to 2.30 for the PA fiber. These results agree with those obtained by the normalized calibration slopes, pointing out the affinity of these PILs-based coatings. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Soliton robustness in optical fibers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menyuk, C.R.

    1993-01-01

    Simulations and experiments indicate that solitons in optical fibers are robust in the presence of Hamiltonian deformations such as higher-order dispersion and birefringence but are destroyed in the presence of non-Hamiltonian deformations such as attenuation and the Raman effect. Two hypotheses are introduced that generalize these observations and give a recipe for when deformations will be Hamiltonian. Concepts from nonlinear dynamics are used to make these two hypotheses plausible. Soliton stabilization with frequency filtering is also briefly discussed from this point of view

  13. Robust and Sparse Factor Modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Croux, Christophe; Exterkate, Peter

    Factor construction methods are widely used to summarize a large panel of variables by means of a relatively small number of representative factors. We propose a novel factor construction procedure that enjoys the properties of robustness to outliers and of sparsity; that is, having relatively few...... nonzero factor loadings. Compared to the traditional factor construction method, we find that this procedure leads to a favorable forecasting performance in the presence of outliers and to better interpretable factors. We investigate the performance of the method in a Monte Carlo experiment...

  14. Robustness Evaluation of Timber Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkegaard, Poul Henning; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard; čizmar, D.

    2010-01-01

    The present paper outlines results from working group 3 (WG3) in the EU COST Action E55 – ‘Modelling of the performance of timber structures’. The objectives of the project are related to the three main research activities: the identification and modelling of relevant load and environmental...... exposure scenarios, the improvement of knowledge concerning the behaviour of timber structural elements and the development of a generic framework for the assessment of the life-cycle vulnerability and robustness of timber structures....

  15. Sustainable Resilient, Robust & Resplendent Enterprises

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edgeman, Rick

    to their impact. Resplendent enterprises are introduced with resplendence referring not to some sort of public or private façade, but instead refers to organizations marked by dual brilliance and nobility of strategy, governance and comportment that yields superior and sustainable triple bottom line performance....... Herein resilience, robustness, and resplendence (R3) are integrated with sustainable enterprise excellence (Edgeman and Eskildsen, 2013) or SEE and social-ecological innovation (Eskildsen and Edgeman, 2012) to aid progress of a firm toward producing continuously relevant performance that proceed from...

  16. Perspective: Evolution and detection of genetic robustness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, de J.A.G.M.; Hermisson, J.; Wagner, G.P.; Ancel Meyers, L.; Bagheri-Chaichian, H.; Blanchard, J.L.; Chao, L.; Cheverud, J.M.; Elena, S.F.; Fontana, W.; Gibson, G.; Hansen, T.F.; Krakauer, D.; Lewontin, R.C.; Ofria, C.; Rice, S.H.; Dassow, von G.; Wagner, A.; Whitlock, M.C.

    2003-01-01

    Robustness is the invariance of phenotypes in the face of perturbation. The robustness of phenotypes appears at various levels of biological organization, including gene expression, protein folding, metabolic flux, physiological homeostasis, development, and even organismal fitness. The mechanisms

  17. Robust lyapunov controller for uncertain systems

    KAUST Repository

    Laleg-Kirati, Taous-Meriem; Elmetennani, Shahrazed

    2017-01-01

    Various examples of systems and methods are provided for Lyapunov control for uncertain systems. In one example, a system includes a process plant and a robust Lyapunov controller configured to control an input of the process plant. The robust

  18. Robust distributed cognitive relay beamforming

    KAUST Repository

    Pandarakkottilil, Ubaidulla

    2012-05-01

    In this paper, we present a distributed relay beamformer design for a cognitive radio network in which a cognitive (or secondary) transmit node communicates with a secondary receive node assisted by a set of cognitive non-regenerative relays. The secondary nodes share the spectrum with a licensed primary user (PU) node, and each node is assumed to be equipped with a single transmit/receive antenna. The interference to the PU resulting from the transmission from the cognitive nodes is kept below a specified limit. The proposed robust cognitive relay beamformer design seeks to minimize the total relay transmit power while ensuring that the transceiver signal-to-interference- plus-noise ratio and PU interference constraints are satisfied. The proposed design takes into account a parameter of the error in the channel state information (CSI) to render the performance of the beamformer robust in the presence of imperfect CSI. Though the original problem is non-convex, we show that the proposed design can be reformulated as a tractable convex optimization problem that can be solved efficiently. Numerical results are provided and illustrate the performance of the proposed designs for different network operating conditions and parameters. © 2012 IEEE.

  19. Feedforward/feedback control synthesis for performance and robustness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wie, Bong; Liu, Qiang

    1990-01-01

    Both feedforward and feedback control approaches for uncertain dynamical systems are investigated. The control design objective is to achieve a fast settling time (high performance) and robustness (insensitivity) to plant modeling uncertainty. Preshapong of an ideal, time-optimal control input using a 'tapped-delay' filter is shown to provide a rapid maneuver with robust performance. A robust, non-minimum-phase feedback controller is synthesized with particular emphasis on its proper implementation for a non-zero set-point control problem. The proposed feedforward/feedback control approach is robust for a certain class of uncertain dynamical systems, since the control input command computed for a given desired output does not depend on the plant parameters.

  20. Improved non-dimensional dynamic influence function method for vibration analysis of arbitrarily shaped plates with clamped edges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang-Wook Kang

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available A new formulation for the non-dimensional dynamic influence function method, which was developed by the authors, is proposed to efficiently extract eigenvalues and mode shapes of clamped plates with arbitrary shapes. Compared with the finite element and boundary element methods, the non-dimensional dynamic influence function method yields highly accurate solutions in eigenvalue analysis problems of plates and membranes including acoustic cavities. However, the non-dimensional dynamic influence function method requires the uneconomic procedure of calculating the singularity of a system matrix in the frequency range of interest for extracting eigenvalues because it produces a non-algebraic eigenvalue problem. This article describes a new approach that reduces the problem of free vibrations of clamped plates to an algebraic eigenvalue problem, the solution of which is straightforward. The validity and efficiency of the proposed method are illustrated through several numerical examples.

  1. Robust canonical correlations: A comparative study

    OpenAIRE

    Branco, JA; Croux, Christophe; Filzmoser, P; Oliveira, MR

    2005-01-01

    Several approaches for robust canonical correlation analysis will be presented and discussed. A first method is based on the definition of canonical correlation analysis as looking for linear combinations of two sets of variables having maximal (robust) correlation. A second method is based on alternating robust regressions. These methods axe discussed in detail and compared with the more traditional approach to robust canonical correlation via covariance matrix estimates. A simulation study ...

  2. Robust adaptive synchronization of general dynamical networks ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Pramana – Journal of Physics; Volume 86; Issue 6. Robust ... A robust adaptive synchronization scheme for these general complex networks with multiple delays and uncertainties is established and raised by employing the robust adaptive control principle and the Lyapunov stability theory. We choose ...

  3. Robust portfolio selection under norm uncertainty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Wang

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In this paper, we consider the robust portfolio selection problem which has a data uncertainty described by the ( p , w $(p,w$ -norm in the objective function. We show that the robust formulation of this problem is equivalent to a linear optimization problem. Moreover, we present some numerical results concerning our robust portfolio selection problem.

  4. A robust standard deviation control chart

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoonhoven, M.; Does, R.J.M.M.

    2012-01-01

    This article studies the robustness of Phase I estimators for the standard deviation control chart. A Phase I estimator should be efficient in the absence of contaminations and resistant to disturbances. Most of the robust estimators proposed in the literature are robust against either diffuse

  5. Methodology in robust and nonparametric statistics

    CERN Document Server

    Jurecková, Jana; Picek, Jan

    2012-01-01

    Introduction and SynopsisIntroductionSynopsisPreliminariesIntroductionInference in Linear ModelsRobustness ConceptsRobust and Minimax Estimation of LocationClippings from Probability and Asymptotic TheoryProblemsRobust Estimation of Location and RegressionIntroductionM-EstimatorsL-EstimatorsR-EstimatorsMinimum Distance and Pitman EstimatorsDifferentiable Statistical FunctionsProblemsAsymptotic Representations for L-Estimators

  6. Modeling arbitrarily directed slots that are narrow both in width and depth with regard to the FDTD spatial cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riley, D.J.; Turner, C.D.

    1991-12-31

    The Hybrid Thin-Slot Algorithm (HTSA) integrates a transient integral-equation solution for an aperture in an infinite plane into a finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) code. The technique was introduced for linear apertures and was extended to include wall loss and lossy internal gaskets. A general implementation for arbitrary thin slots is briefly described here. The 3-D FDTD-code TSAR was selected for the implementation. The HTSA does not provide universal solutions to the narrow slot problem, but has merits appropriate for particular applications. The HTSA is restricted to planar slots, but can solve the important case that both the width and depth of the slot are narrow compared to the FDTD spatial cell. IN addition, the HTSA is not bound to the FDTD discrete spatial and time increments, and therefore, high-resolution solutions for the slot physics are possible. The implementation of the HTSA into TSAR is based upon a ``slot data file`` that includes the cell indices where the desired slots are exist within the FDTD mesh. For an HTSA-defined slot, the wall region local to the slot is shorted, and therefore, to change the slot`s topology simply requires altering the file to include the desired cells. 7 refs.

  7. Robust Adaptive Thresholder For Document Scanning Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsing, To R.

    1982-12-01

    In document scanning applications, thresholding is used to obtain binary data from a scanner. However, due to: (1) a wide range of different color backgrounds; (2) density variations of printed text information; and (3) the shading effect caused by the optical systems, the use of adaptive thresholding to enhance the useful information is highly desired. This paper describes a new robust adaptive thresholder for obtaining valid binary images. It is basically a memory type algorithm which can dynamically update the black and white reference level to optimize a local adaptive threshold function. The results of high image quality from different types of simulate test patterns can be obtained by this algorithm. The software algorithm is described and experiment results are present to describe the procedures. Results also show that the techniques described here can be used for real-time signal processing in the varied applications.

  8. Robust matching for voice recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, Alan; Bahler, L.; Porter, J.; Blais, P.

    1994-10-01

    This paper describes an automated method of comparing a voice sample of an unknown individual with samples from known speakers in order to establish or verify the individual's identity. The method is based on a statistical pattern matching approach that employs a simple training procedure, requires no human intervention (transcription, work or phonetic marketing, etc.), and makes no assumptions regarding the expected form of the statistical distributions of the observations. The content of the speech material (vocabulary, grammar, etc.) is not assumed to be constrained in any way. An algorithm is described which incorporates frame pruning and channel equalization processes designed to achieve robust performance with reasonable computational resources. An experimental implementation demonstrating the feasibility of the concept is described.

  9. Robust tumor morphometry in multispectral fluorescence microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabesh, Ali; Vengrenyuk, Yevgen; Teverovskiy, Mikhail; Khan, Faisal M.; Sapir, Marina; Powell, Douglas; Mesa-Tejada, Ricardo; Donovan, Michael J.; Fernandez, Gerardo

    2009-02-01

    Morphological and architectural characteristics of primary tissue compartments, such as epithelial nuclei (EN) and cytoplasm, provide important cues for cancer diagnosis, prognosis, and therapeutic response prediction. We propose two feature sets for the robust quantification of these characteristics in multiplex immunofluorescence (IF) microscopy images of prostate biopsy specimens. To enable feature extraction, EN and cytoplasm regions were first segmented from the IF images. Then, feature sets consisting of the characteristics of the minimum spanning tree (MST) connecting the EN and the fractal dimension (FD) of gland boundaries were obtained from the segmented compartments. We demonstrated the utility of the proposed features in prostate cancer recurrence prediction on a multi-institution cohort of 1027 patients. Univariate analysis revealed that both FD and one of the MST features were highly effective for predicting cancer recurrence (p <= 0.0001). In multivariate analysis, an MST feature was selected for a model incorporating clinical and image features. The model achieved a concordance index (CI) of 0.73 on the validation set, which was significantly higher than the CI of 0.69 for the standard multivariate model based solely on clinical features currently used in clinical practice (p < 0.0001). The contributions of this work are twofold. First, it is the first demonstration of the utility of the proposed features in morphometric analysis of IF images. Second, this is the largest scale study of the efficacy and robustness of the proposed features in prostate cancer prognosis.

  10. Robustness Assessment of Spatial Timber Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkegaard, Poul Henning

    2012-01-01

    Robustness of structural systems has obtained a renewed interest due to a much more frequent use of advanced types of structures with limited redundancy and serious consequences in case of failure. In order to minimise the likelihood of such disproportionate structural failures many modern buildi...... to robustness of spatial timber structures and will discuss the consequences of such robustness issues related to the future development of timber structures.......Robustness of structural systems has obtained a renewed interest due to a much more frequent use of advanced types of structures with limited redundancy and serious consequences in case of failure. In order to minimise the likelihood of such disproportionate structural failures many modern building...... codes consider the need for robustness of structures and provide strategies and methods to obtain robustness. Therefore a structural engineer may take necessary steps to design robust structures that are insensitive to accidental circumstances. The present paper summaries issues with respect...

  11. Robustness of public choice models of voting behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihai UNGUREANU

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Modern economics modeling practice involves highly unrealistic assumptions. Since testing such models is not always an easy enterprise, researchers face the problem of determining whether a result is dependent (or not on the unrealistic details of the model. A solution for this problem is conducting robustness analysis. In its classical form, robustness analysis is a non-empirical method of confirmation – it raises our trust in a given result by implying it with from several different models. In this paper I argue that robustness analysis could be thought as a method of post-empirical failure. This form of robustness analysis involves assigning guilt for the empirical failure to a certain part of the model. Starting from this notion of robustness, I analyze a case of empirical failure from public choice theory or the economic approach of politics. Using the fundamental methodological principles of neoclassical economics, the first model of voting behavior implied that almost no one would vote. This was clearly an empirical failure. Public choice scholars faced the problem of either restraining the domain of their discipline or giving up to some of their neoclassical methodological features. The second solution was chosen and several different models of voting behavior were built. I will treat these models as a case for performing robustness analysis and I will determine which assumption from the original model is guilty for the empirical failure.

  12. Revisiting Robustness and Evolvability: Evolution in Weighted Genotype Spaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Partha, Raghavendran; Raman, Karthik

    2014-01-01

    Robustness and evolvability are highly intertwined properties of biological systems. The relationship between these properties determines how biological systems are able to withstand mutations and show variation in response to them. Computational studies have explored the relationship between these two properties using neutral networks of RNA sequences (genotype) and their secondary structures (phenotype) as a model system. However, these studies have assumed every mutation to a sequence to be equally likely; the differences in the likelihood of the occurrence of various mutations, and the consequence of probabilistic nature of the mutations in such a system have previously been ignored. Associating probabilities to mutations essentially results in the weighting of genotype space. We here perform a comparative analysis of weighted and unweighted neutral networks of RNA sequences, and subsequently explore the relationship between robustness and evolvability. We show that assuming an equal likelihood for all mutations (as in an unweighted network), underestimates robustness and overestimates evolvability of a system. In spite of discarding this assumption, we observe that a negative correlation between sequence (genotype) robustness and sequence evolvability persists, and also that structure (phenotype) robustness promotes structure evolvability, as observed in earlier studies using unweighted networks. We also study the effects of base composition bias on robustness and evolvability. Particularly, we explore the association between robustness and evolvability in a sequence space that is AU-rich – sequences with an AU content of 80% or higher, compared to a normal (unbiased) sequence space. We find that evolvability of both sequences and structures in an AU-rich space is lesser compared to the normal space, and robustness higher. We also observe that AU-rich populations evolving on neutral networks of phenotypes, can access less phenotypic variation compared to

  13. Robust network topologies for generating switch-like cellular responses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Najaf A Shah

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Signaling networks that convert graded stimuli into binary, all-or-none cellular responses are critical in processes ranging from cell-cycle control to lineage commitment. To exhaustively enumerate topologies that exhibit this switch-like behavior, we simulated all possible two- and three-component networks on random parameter sets, and assessed the resulting response profiles for both steepness (ultrasensitivity and extent of memory (bistability. Simulations were used to study purely enzymatic networks, purely transcriptional networks, and hybrid enzymatic/transcriptional networks, and the topologies in each class were rank ordered by parametric robustness (i.e., the percentage of applied parameter sets exhibiting ultrasensitivity or bistability. Results reveal that the distribution of network robustness is highly skewed, with the most robust topologies clustering into a small number of motifs. Hybrid networks are the most robust in generating ultrasensitivity (up to 28% and bistability (up to 18%; strikingly, a purely transcriptional framework is the most fragile in generating either ultrasensitive (up to 3% or bistable (up to 1% responses. The disparity in robustness among the network classes is due in part to zero-order ultrasensitivity, an enzyme-specific phenomenon, which repeatedly emerges as a particularly robust mechanism for generating nonlinearity and can act as a building block for switch-like responses. We also highlight experimentally studied examples of topologies enabling switching behavior, in both native and synthetic systems, that rank highly in our simulations. This unbiased approach for identifying topologies capable of a given response may be useful in discovering new natural motifs and in designing robust synthetic gene networks.

  14. Mars - robust automatic backbone assignment of proteins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Young-Sang; Zweckstetter, Markus

    2004-01-01

    MARS a program for robust automatic backbone assignment of 13 C/ 15 N labeled proteins is presented. MARS does not require tight thresholds for establishing sequential connectivity or detailed adjustment of these thresholds and it can work with a wide variety of NMR experiments. Using only 13 C α / 13 C β connectivity information, MARS allows automatic, error-free assignment of 96% of the 370-residue maltose-binding protein. MARS can successfully be used when data are missing for a substantial portion of residues or for proteins with very high chemical shift degeneracy such as partially or fully unfolded proteins. Other sources of information, such as residue specific information or known assignments from a homologues protein, can be included into the assignment process. MARS exports its result in SPARKY format. This allows visual validation and integration of automated and manual assignment

  15. Approximate truncation robust computed tomography—ATRACT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dennerlein, Frank; Maier, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    We present an approximate truncation robust algorithm to compute tomographic images (ATRACT). This algorithm targets at reconstructing volumetric images from cone-beam projections in scenarios where these projections are highly truncated in each dimension. It thus facilitates reconstructions of small subvolumes of interest, without involving prior knowledge about the object. Our method is readily applicable to medical C-arm imaging, where it may contribute to new clinical workflows together with a considerable reduction of x-ray dose. We give a detailed derivation of ATRACT that starts from the conventional Feldkamp filtered-backprojection algorithm and that involves, as one component, a novel original formula for the inversion of the two-dimensional Radon transform. Discretization and numerical implementation are discussed and reconstruction results from both, simulated projections and first clinical data sets are presented. (paper)

  16. Robust holographic storage system design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Takahiro; Watanabe, Minoru

    2011-11-21

    Demand is increasing daily for large data storage systems that are useful for applications in spacecraft, space satellites, and space robots, which are all exposed to radiation-rich space environment. As candidates for use in space embedded systems, holographic storage systems are promising because they can easily provided the demanded large-storage capability. Particularly, holographic storage systems, which have no rotation mechanism, are demanded because they are virtually maintenance-free. Although a holographic memory itself is an extremely robust device even in a space radiation environment, its associated lasers and drive circuit devices are vulnerable. Such vulnerabilities sometimes engendered severe problems that prevent reading of all contents of the holographic memory, which is a turn-off failure mode of a laser array. This paper therefore presents a proposal for a recovery method for the turn-off failure mode of a laser array on a holographic storage system, and describes results of an experimental demonstration. © 2011 Optical Society of America

  17. Efficient robust conditional random fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Dongjin; Liu, Wei; Zhou, Tianyi; Tao, Dacheng; Meyer, David A

    2015-10-01

    Conditional random fields (CRFs) are a flexible yet powerful probabilistic approach and have shown advantages for popular applications in various areas, including text analysis, bioinformatics, and computer vision. Traditional CRF models, however, are incapable of selecting relevant features as well as suppressing noise from noisy original features. Moreover, conventional optimization methods often converge slowly in solving the training procedure of CRFs, and will degrade significantly for tasks with a large number of samples and features. In this paper, we propose robust CRFs (RCRFs) to simultaneously select relevant features. An optimal gradient method (OGM) is further designed to train RCRFs efficiently. Specifically, the proposed RCRFs employ the l1 norm of the model parameters to regularize the objective used by traditional CRFs, therefore enabling discovery of the relevant unary features and pairwise features of CRFs. In each iteration of OGM, the gradient direction is determined jointly by the current gradient together with the historical gradients, and the Lipschitz constant is leveraged to specify the proper step size. We show that an OGM can tackle the RCRF model training very efficiently, achieving the optimal convergence rate [Formula: see text] (where k is the number of iterations). This convergence rate is theoretically superior to the convergence rate O(1/k) of previous first-order optimization methods. Extensive experiments performed on three practical image segmentation tasks demonstrate the efficacy of OGM in training our proposed RCRFs.

  18. Multimodel Robust Control for Hydraulic Turbine

    OpenAIRE

    Osuský, Jakub; Števo, Stanislav

    2014-01-01

    The paper deals with the multimodel and robust control system design and their combination based on M-Δ structure. Controller design will be done in the frequency domain with nominal performance specified by phase margin. Hydraulic turbine model is analyzed as system with unstructured uncertainty, and robust stability condition is included in controller design. Multimodel and robust control approaches are presented in detail on hydraulic turbine model. Control design approaches are compared a...

  19. Forecasting exchange rates: a robust regression approach

    OpenAIRE

    Preminger, Arie; Franck, Raphael

    2005-01-01

    The least squares estimation method as well as other ordinary estimation method for regression models can be severely affected by a small number of outliers, thus providing poor out-of-sample forecasts. This paper suggests a robust regression approach, based on the S-estimation method, to construct forecasting models that are less sensitive to data contamination by outliers. A robust linear autoregressive (RAR) and a robust neural network (RNN) models are estimated to study the predictabil...

  20. Scalable Robust Principal Component Analysis Using Grassmann Averages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauberg, Søren; Feragen, Aasa; Enficiaud, Raffi

    2016-01-01

    In large datasets, manual data verification is impossible, and we must expect the number of outliers to increase with data size. While principal component analysis (PCA) can reduce data size, and scalable solutions exist, it is well-known that outliers can arbitrarily corrupt the results. Unfortu...

  1. Robustness: confronting lessons from physics and biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesne, Annick

    2008-11-01

    The term robustness is encountered in very different scientific fields, from engineering and control theory to dynamical systems to biology. The main question addressed herein is whether the notion of robustness and its correlates (stability, resilience, self-organisation) developed in physics are relevant to biology, or whether specific extensions and novel frameworks are required to account for the robustness properties of living systems. To clarify this issue, the different meanings covered by this unique term are discussed; it is argued that they crucially depend on the kind of perturbations that a robust system should by definition withstand. Possible mechanisms underlying robust behaviours are examined, either encountered in all natural systems (symmetries, conservation laws, dynamic stability) or specific to biological systems (feedbacks and regulatory networks). Special attention is devoted to the (sometimes counterintuitive) interrelations between robustness and noise. A distinction between dynamic selection and natural selection in the establishment of a robust behaviour is underlined. It is finally argued that nested notions of robustness, relevant to different time scales and different levels of organisation, allow one to reconcile the seemingly contradictory requirements for robustness and adaptability in living systems.

  2. Robustness of Long Span Reciprocal Timber Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balfroid, Nathalie; Kirkegaard, Poul Henning

    2011-01-01

    engineer may take necessary steps to design robust structures that are insensitive to accidental circumstances. The present paper makes a discussion of such robustness issues related to the future development of reciprocal timber structures. The paper concludes that these kind of structures can have...... a potential as long span timber structures in real projects if they are carefully designed with respect to the overall robustness strategies.......Robustness of structural systems has obtained a renewed interest due to a much more frequent use of advanced types of structures with limited redundancy and serious consequences in case of failure. The interest has also been facilitated due to recently severe structural failures...

  3. ROBUST CYLINDER FITTING IN THREE-DIMENSIONAL POINT CLOUD DATA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Nurunnabi

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the problems of cylinder fitting in laser scanning three-dimensional Point Cloud Data (PCD. Most existing methods require full cylinder data, do not study the presence of outliers, and are not statistically robust. But especially mobile laser scanning often has incomplete data, as street poles for example are only scanned from the road. Moreover, existence of outliers is common. Outliers may occur as random or systematic errors, and may be scattered and/or clustered. In this paper, we present a statistically robust cylinder fitting algorithm for PCD that combines Robust Principal Component Analysis (RPCA with robust regression. Robust principal components as obtained by RPCA allow estimating cylinder directions more accurately, and an existing efficient circle fitting algorithm following robust regression principles, properly fit cylinder. We demonstrate the performance of the proposed method on artificial and real PCD. Results show that the proposed method provides more accurate and robust results: (i in the presence of noise and high percentage of outliers, (ii for incomplete as well as complete data, (iii for small and large number of points, and (iv for different sizes of radius. On 1000 simulated quarter cylinders of 1m radius with 10% outliers a PCA based method fit cylinders with a radius of on average 3.63 meter (m; the proposed method on the other hand fit cylinders of on average 1.02 m radius. The algorithm has potential in applications such as fitting cylindrical (e.g., light and traffic poles, diameter at breast height estimation for trees, and building and bridge information modelling.

  4. Generalized internal model robust control for active front steering intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jian; Zhao, Youqun; Ji, Xuewu; Liu, Yahui; Zhang, Lipeng

    2015-03-01

    Because of the tire nonlinearity and vehicle's parameters' uncertainties, robust control methods based on the worst cases, such as H ∞, µ synthesis, have been widely used in active front steering control, however, in order to guarantee the stability of active front steering system (AFS) controller, the robust control is at the cost of performance so that the robust controller is a little conservative and has low performance for AFS control. In this paper, a generalized internal model robust control (GIMC) that can overcome the contradiction between performance and stability is used in the AFS control. In GIMC, the Youla parameterization is used in an improved way. And GIMC controller includes two sections: a high performance controller designed for the nominal vehicle model and a robust controller compensating the vehicle parameters' uncertainties and some external disturbances. Simulations of double lane change (DLC) maneuver and that of braking on split- µ road are conducted to compare the performance and stability of the GIMC control, the nominal performance PID controller and the H ∞ controller. Simulation results show that the high nominal performance PID controller will be unstable under some extreme situations because of large vehicle's parameters variations, H ∞ controller is conservative so that the performance is a little low, and only the GIMC controller overcomes the contradiction between performance and robustness, which can both ensure the stability of the AFS controller and guarantee the high performance of the AFS controller. Therefore, the GIMC method proposed for AFS can overcome some disadvantages of control methods used by current AFS system, that is, can solve the instability of PID or LQP control methods and the low performance of the standard H ∞ controller.

  5. Robust record preservation system on geological repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohuchi, J.; Torata, S.; Tsuboya, T.

    2004-01-01

    Long-term record preservation system on geological disposal of High Level Radioactive Wastes (HLW) has been investigated as the institutional control by RWMC, Japan. Geological disposal of HLW, being based on the passive safe concept, has been considered not to necessitate the human controls to maintain its long-term safety. However how to complement the safety case on geological disposal is an important issue in each countries to progress the repository program with the step-wise decisions process during the long-term period up to several hundreds years. Although we cannot predict the future society, we need to realize the robust and redundant system for preserving records, which should be accessible, retrievable and understandable for the unpredicted future generations. First of all, we held a Rome workshop in January 2003 to exchange views on the matter, resulted in the suggestion directing the discussion on the record management and long-term preservation and retrieval of information regarding radioactive waste. Second, we considered the balance of active and passive system to strengthen the robustness. Another significance of long-term record preservation is to send current generation an implicit message, 'doing our best for future generations', in addition to aiming at both warning and their own decision-making. We call it 'meta-signal' to current generation. Thirdly, we demonstrated the laser-engraving technology to have converted five hundreds pages of an A4 sized report with human readable font sizes to 42 square silicon carbide plates, 10cm x10cm and 1mm in thickness. Silicon carbide would be an alternative to paper and might be possible to be an alternative to microfilm utilized as digital recording media. Another case study is the future generations' accessibility to the preserved records. (author)

  6. Robust model of fresh jujube soluble solids content with near ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A robust partial least square (PLS) calibration model with high accuracy and stability was established for the measurement of soluble solids content (SSC) of fresh jujube using near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy technique. Fresh jujube samples were collected in different areas of Taigu and Taiyuan cities, central China in ...

  7. Using vulnerability performance indicators to attain food supply chain robustness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vlajic, J.V.; Lokven, van S.W.M.; Haijema, R.; Vorst, van der J.G.A.J.

    2013-01-01

    High effectiveness and leanness of modern supply chains (SCs) increase their vulnerability, i.e. susceptibility to disturbances reflected in non-robust SC performances. Both the SC management literature and SC professionals indicate the need for the development of SC vulnerability assessment tools.

  8. Do flexible labor markets indeed reduce unemployment? A robustness check

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vergeer, R.; Kleinknecht, A.

    2012-01-01

    Nickell et al. (2005) have frequently been cited as empirical evidence that labor market rigidities cause high unemployment. We find that their model is not robust. Leaving their database unchanged and changing three details in their estimation procedure, it turns out that several policy-relevant

  9. Robust AlGaN/GaN MMIC Receiver Components

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijningen, M. van; Janssen, J.P.B.; Vliet, F.E. van

    2009-01-01

    Apart from delivering very high output powers, GaN can also be used to realize robust receiver components, such as Low Noise Amplifiersand Switches. This paper presents the designand measurement results of two GaN X-band switch and LNA MMICs, designed for integration in a radar front end. The switch

  10. Intrinsic Grassmann Averages for Online Linear and Robust Subspace Learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chakraborty, Rudrasis; Hauberg, Søren; Vemuri, Baba C.

    2017-01-01

    Principal Component Analysis (PCA) is a fundamental method for estimating a linear subspace approximation to high-dimensional data. Many algorithms exist in literature to achieve a statistically robust version of PCA called RPCA. In this paper, we present a geometric framework for computing the p...

  11. Robustness indicators and capacity models for railway networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Lars Wittrup

    In a world continuous striving for higher mobility and the use of more sustainable modes of transport, there is a constant pressure on utilising railway capacity better and, at the same time, obtaining a high robustness against delays. During the planning of railway operations and infrastructure ....... This has motivated the research conducted and described in this thesis, where the objective has been to develop and improve existing methods to achieve timetable and infrastructure plans with robust capacity utilisation aimed at the strategic and early tactical planning phases....

  12. Robust Speaker Authentication Based on Combined Speech and Voiceprint Recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malcangi, Mario

    2009-08-01

    Personal authentication is becoming increasingly important in many applications that have to protect proprietary data. Passwords and personal identification numbers (PINs) prove not to be robust enough to ensure that unauthorized people do not use them. Biometric authentication technology may offer a secure, convenient, accurate solution but sometimes fails due to its intrinsically fuzzy nature. This research aims to demonstrate that combining two basic speech processing methods, voiceprint identification and speech recognition, can provide a very high degree of robustness, especially if fuzzy decision logic is used.

  13. Wavelet Filtering to Reduce Conservatism in Aeroservoelastic Robust Stability Margins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenner, Marty; Lind, Rick

    1998-01-01

    Wavelet analysis for filtering and system identification was used to improve the estimation of aeroservoelastic stability margins. The conservatism of the robust stability margins was reduced with parametric and nonparametric time-frequency analysis of flight data in the model validation process. Nonparametric wavelet processing of data was used to reduce the effects of external desirableness and unmodeled dynamics. Parametric estimates of modal stability were also extracted using the wavelet transform. Computation of robust stability margins for stability boundary prediction depends on uncertainty descriptions derived from the data for model validation. F-18 high Alpha Research Vehicle aeroservoelastic flight test data demonstrated improved robust stability prediction by extension of the stability boundary beyond the flight regime.

  14. Robust Nonlinear Control with Compensation Operator for a Peltier System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheng-Jun Wen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Robust nonlinear control with compensation operator is presented for a Peltier actuated system, where the compensation operator is designed by using a predictive model on heat radiation. For the Peltier system, the heat radiation is related to the fourth power of temperature. So, the heat radiation is affected evidently by the temperature when it is high and temperature difference between the system and environment is large. A new nonlinear model with the heat radiation is set up for the system according to some thermal conduction laws. To ensure robust stability of the nonlinear system, operator based robust right coprime factorization design is considered. Also, a compensation operator based on a predictive model is proposed to cancel effect of the heat radiation, where the predictive model is set up by using radial basis kernel function based SVM (support vector machine method. Finally, simulation results are given to show the effectiveness of the proposed scheme.

  15. Robust Model Predictive Control of a Wind Turbine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mirzaei, Mahmood; Poulsen, Niels Kjølstad; Niemann, Hans Henrik

    2012-01-01

    In this work the problem of robust model predictive control (robust MPC) of a wind turbine in the full load region is considered. A minimax robust MPC approach is used to tackle the problem. Nonlinear dynamics of the wind turbine are derived by combining blade element momentum (BEM) theory...... of the uncertain system is employed and a norm-bounded uncertainty model is used to formulate a minimax model predictive control. The resulting optimization problem is simplified by semidefinite relaxation and the controller obtained is applied on a full complexity, high fidelity wind turbine model. Finally...... and first principle modeling of the turbine flexible structure. Thereafter the nonlinear model is linearized using Taylor series expansion around system operating points. Operating points are determined by effective wind speed and an extended Kalman filter (EKF) is employed to estimate this. In addition...

  16. Adaptive integral robust control and application to electromechanical servo systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Wenxiang; Yao, Jianyong

    2017-03-01

    This paper proposes a continuous adaptive integral robust control with robust integral of the sign of the error (RISE) feedback for a class of uncertain nonlinear systems, in which the RISE feedback gain is adapted online to ensure the robustness against disturbances without the prior bound knowledge of the additive disturbances. In addition, an adaptive compensation integrated with the proposed adaptive RISE feedback term is also constructed to further reduce design conservatism when the system also exists parametric uncertainties. Lyapunov analysis reveals the proposed controllers could guarantee the tracking errors are asymptotically converging to zero with continuous control efforts. To illustrate the high performance nature of the developed controllers, numerical simulations are provided. At the end, an application case of an actual electromechanical servo system driven by motor is also studied, with some specific design consideration, and comparative experimental results are obtained to verify the effectiveness of the proposed controllers. Copyright © 2017 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Robust adaptive multichannel SAR processing based on covariance matrix reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Zhen-ya; He, Feng

    2018-04-01

    With the combination of digital beamforming (DBF) processing, multichannel synthetic aperture radar(SAR) systems in azimuth promise well in high-resolution and wide-swath imaging, whereas conventional processing methods don't take the nonuniformity of scattering coefficient into consideration. This paper brings up a robust adaptive Multichannel SAR processing method which utilizes the Capon spatial spectrum estimator to obtain the spatial spectrum distribution over all ambiguous directions first, and then the interference-plus-noise covariance Matrix is reconstructed based on definition to acquire the Multichannel SAR processing filter. The performance of processing under nonuniform scattering coefficient is promoted by this novel method and it is robust again array errors. The experiments with real measured data demonstrate the effectiveness and robustness of the proposed method.

  18. Structural Robustness Evaluation of Offshore Wind Turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giuliani, Luisa; Bontempi, Franco

    2010-01-01

    in the framework of a safe design: it depends on different factors, like exposure, vulnerability and robustness. Particularly, the requirement of structural vulnerability and robustness are discussed in this paper and a numerical application is presented, in order to evaluate the effects of a ship collision...

  19. In Silico Design of Robust Bolalipid Membranes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bulacu, Monica; Periole, Xavier; Marrink, Siewert J.; Périole, Xavier

    The robustness of microorganisms used in industrial fermentations is essential for the efficiency and yield of the production process. A viable tool to increase the robustness is through engineering of the cell membrane and especially by incorporating lipids from species that survive under harsh

  20. Assessment of Process Robustness for Mass Customization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kjeld; Brunø, Thomas Ditlev

    2013-01-01

    robustness and their capability to develop it. Through literature study and analysis of robust process design characteristics a number of metrics are described which can be used for assessment. The metrics are evaluated and analyzed to be applied as KPI’s to help MC companies prioritize efforts in business...