Sainath, K; Donderici, B
2013-01-01
We develop a general-purpose formulation, based on two-dimensional spectral integrals, for computing electromagnetic fields produced by arbitrarily-oriented dipoles in planar-stratified environments, where each layer may exhibit arbitrary and independent anisotropy in both the (complex) permittivity and permeability. Among the salient features of our formulation are (1) computation of eigenmodes (characteristic plane waves) supported in arbitrarily anisotropic media in a numerically robust fashion, (2) implementation of an hp-adaptive refinement for the numerical integration to evaluate the radiation and weakly-evanescent spectra contributions, and (3) development of an adaptive extension of an integral convergence acceleration technique to compute the strongly-evanescent spectrum contribution. While other semianalytic techniques exist to solve this problem, none have full applicability to media exhibiting arbitrary double anisotropies in each layer, where one must account for the whole range of possible phen...
Kerr black holes as particle accelerators to arbitrarily high energy.
Bañados, Máximo; Silk, Joseph; West, Stephen M
2009-09-11
We show that intermediate mass black holes conjectured to be the early precursors of supermassive black holes and surrounded by relic cold dark matter density spikes can act as particle accelerators with collisions, in principle, at arbitrarily high center-of-mass energies in the case of Kerr black holes. While the ejecta from such interactions will be highly redshifted, we may anticipate the possibility of a unique probe of Planck-scale physics.
Sainath, Kamalesh; Teixeira, Fernando L; Donderici, Burkay
2014-01-01
We develop a general-purpose formulation, based on two-dimensional spectral integrals, for computing electromagnetic fields produced by arbitrarily oriented dipoles in planar-stratified environments, where each layer may exhibit arbitrary and independent anisotropy in both its (complex) permittivity and permeability tensors. Among the salient features of our formulation are (i) computation of eigenmodes (characteristic plane waves) supported in arbitrarily anisotropic media in a numerically robust fashion, (ii) implementation of an hp-adaptive refinement for the numerical integration to evaluate the radiation and weakly evanescent spectra contributions, and (iii) development of an adaptive extension of an integral convergence acceleration technique to compute the strongly evanescent spectrum contribution. While other semianalytic techniques exist to solve this problem, none have full applicability to media exhibiting arbitrary double anisotropies in each layer, where one must account for the whole range of possible phenomena (e.g., mode coupling at interfaces and nonreciprocal mode propagation). Brute-force numerical methods can tackle this problem but only at a much higher computational cost. The present formulation provides an efficient and robust technique for field computation in arbitrary planar-stratified environments. We demonstrate the formulation for a number of problems related to geophysical exploration.
Discrete nonlinear Schrodinger equations with arbitrarily high-order nonlinearities
Khare, A.; Rasmussen, Kim Ø; Salerno, M.
2006-01-01
A class of discrete nonlinear Schrodinger equations with arbitrarily high-order nonlinearities is introduced. These equations are derived from the same Hamiltonian using different Poisson brackets and include as particular cases the saturable discrete nonlinear Schrodinger equation and the Ablowi......-Ladik equation. As a common property, these equations possess three kinds of exact analytical stationary solutions for which the Peierls-Nabarro barrier is zero. Several properties of these solutions, including stability, discrete breathers, and moving solutions, are investigated....
Bret, A. [ETSI Industriales, Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha, 13071 Ciudad Real, Spain and Instituto de Investigaciones Energticas y Aplicaciones Industriales, Campus Universitario de Ciudad Real, 13071 Ciudad Real (Spain)
2013-10-15
The filamentation instability triggered when two counter streaming plasma shells overlap appears to be the main mechanism by which collisionless shocks are generated. It has been known for long that a flow aligned magnetic field can completely suppress this instability. In a recent paper [Phys. Plasmas 18, 080706 (2011)], it was demonstrated in two dimensions that for the case of two cold, symmetric, relativistically colliding shells, such cancellation cannot occur if the field is not perfectly aligned. Here, this result is extended to the case of two asymmetric shells. The filamentation instability appears therefore as an increasingly robust mechanism to generate shocks.
Comment on "Kerr Black Holes as Particle Accelerators to Arbitrarily High Energy"
Berti, Emanuele; Gualtieri, Leonardo; Pretorius, Frans; Sperhake, Ulrich
2009-01-01
It has been suggested that rotating black holes could serve as particle colliders with arbitrarily high center-of-mass energy. Astrophysical limitations on the maximal spin, back-reaction effects and sensitivity to the initial conditions impose severe limits on the likelihood of such collisions.
Bret, Antoine
2014-01-01
The filamentation (Weibel) instability plays a key role in the formation of collisionless shocks which are thought to produce Gamma-Ray-Bursts and High-Energy-Cosmic-Rays in astrophysical environments. While it has been known for long that a flow-aligned magnetic field can completely quench the instability, it was recently proved in 2D that in the cold regime, such cancelation is possible if and only if the field is perfectly aligned. Here, this result is finally extended to a 3D geometry. Calculations are conducted for symmetric and asymmetric counter-streaming relativistic plasma shells. 2D results are retrieved in 3D: the instability can never be completely canceled for an oblique magnetic field. In addition, the maximum growth-rate is always larger for wave vectors lying in the plan defined by the flow and the oblique field. On the one hand, this bears consequences on the orientation of the generated filaments. On the other hand, it certifies 2D simulations of the problem can be performed without missing ...
Bret, A., E-mail: antoineclaude.bret@uclm.es [ETSI Industriales, Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha, 13071 Ciudad Real, Spain and Instituto de Investigaciones Energéticas y Aplicaciones Industriales, Campus Universitario de Ciudad Real, 13071 Ciudad Real (Spain)
2014-02-15
The filamentation (Weibel) instability plays a key role in the formation of collisionless shocks which are thought to produce Gamma-Ray-Bursts and High-Energy-Cosmic-Rays in astrophysical environments. While it has been known for long that a flow-aligned magnetic field can completely quench the instability, it was recently proved in 2D that in the cold regime, such cancelation is possible if and only if the field is perfectly aligned. Here, this result is finally extended to a 3D geometry. Calculations are conducted for symmetric and asymmetric counter-streaming relativistic plasma shells. 2D results are retrieved in 3D: the instability can never be completely canceled for an oblique magnetic field. In addition, the maximum growth-rate is always larger for wave vectors lying in the plan defined by the flow and the oblique field. On the one hand, this bears consequences on the orientation of the generated filaments. On the other hand, it certifies 2D simulations of the problem can be performed without missing the most unstable filamentation modes.
Exploring arbitrarily high orders of optimized perturbation theory in QCD with nf -> 16.5
Stevenson, P M
2016-01-01
Perturbative QCD with nf flavours of massless quarks becomes simple in the hypothetical limit nf -> 16.5, where the leading beta-function coefficient vanishes. The Banks-Zaks (BZ) expansion in a0=(8/321)(16.5-nf) is straightforward to obtain from perturbative results in MSbar or any renormalization scheme (RS) whose nf dependence is `regular.' However, `irregular' RS's are perfectly permissible and should ultimately lead to the same BZ results. We show here that the `optimal' RS determined by the Principle of Minimal Sensitivity does yield the same BZ-expansion results when all orders of perturbation theory are taken into account. The BZ limit provides an arena for exploring optimized perturbation theory at arbitrarily high orders. These explorations are facilitated by a `master equation' expressing the optimization conditions in the fixed-point limit. We find an intriguing strong/weak coupling duality a -> a*^2/a about the fixed point a*.
Exploring arbitrarily high orders of optimized perturbation theory in QCD with nf→1612
P.M. Stevenson
2016-09-01
Full Text Available Perturbative QCD with nf flavours of massless quarks becomes simple in the hypothetical limit nf→1612, where the leading β-function coefficient vanishes. The Banks–Zaks (BZ expansion in a0≡8321(1612−nf is straightforward to obtain from perturbative results in MS‾ or any renormalization scheme (RS whose nf dependence is ‘regular’. However, ‘irregular’ RS's are perfectly permissible and should ultimately lead to the same BZ results. We show here that the ‘optimal’ RS determined by the Principle of Minimal Sensitivity does yield the same BZ-expansion results when all orders of perturbation theory are taken into account. The BZ limit provides an arena for exploring optimized perturbation theory at arbitrarily high orders. These explorations are facilitated by a ‘master equation’ expressing the optimization conditions in the fixed-point limit. We find an intriguing strong/weak coupling duality a→a⁎2/a about the fixed point a⁎.
Exploring arbitrarily high orders of optimized perturbation theory in QCD with nf → 161/2
Stevenson, P. M.
2016-09-01
Perturbative QCD with nf flavours of massless quarks becomes simple in the hypothetical limit nf → 161/2, where the leading β-function coefficient vanishes. The Banks-Zaks (BZ) expansion in a0 ≡8/321 (161/2 -nf) is straightforward to obtain from perturbative results in MS ‾ or any renormalization scheme (RS) whose nf dependence is 'regular'. However, 'irregular' RS's are perfectly permissible and should ultimately lead to the same BZ results. We show here that the 'optimal' RS determined by the Principle of Minimal Sensitivity does yield the same BZ-expansion results when all orders of perturbation theory are taken into account. The BZ limit provides an arena for exploring optimized perturbation theory at arbitrarily high orders. These explorations are facilitated by a 'master equation' expressing the optimization conditions in the fixed-point limit. We find an intriguing strong/weak coupling duality a →a*2 / a about the fixed point a*.
Purifying selection, drift and reversible mutation with arbitrarily high mutation rates
Charlesworth, Brian; Jain, Kavita
2014-01-01
Some species exhibit very high levels of DNA sequence variability; there is also evidence for the existence of heritable epigenetic variants that experience state changes at a much higher rate than sequence variants. In both cases, the resulting high diversity levels within a population (hyperdiversity) mean that standard population genetics methods are not trustworthy. We analyze a population genetics model that incorporates purifying selection, reversible mutations, and genetic drift, assum...
High Performance Lyot and PIAA Coronagraphy for Arbitrarily shaped Telescope Apertures
Guyon, Olivier; Cady, Eric; Belikov, Ruslan; Martinache, Frantz
2013-01-01
Two high performance coronagraphic approaches compatible with segmented and obstructed telescope pupils are described. Both concepts use entrance pupil amplitude apodization and a combined phase and amplitude focal plane mask to achieve full coronagraphic extinction of an on-axis point source. While the first concept, named Apodized Pupil Complex Mask Lyot Coronagraph (APCMLC), relies on a transmission mask to perform the pupil apodization, the second concept, named Phase-Induced Amplitude Apodization complex mask coronagraph (PIAACMC), uses beam remapping for lossless apodization. Both concepts theoretically offer complete coronagraphic extinction (infinite contrast) of a point source in monochromatic light, with high throughput and sub-lambda/D inner working angle, regardless of aperture shape. The PIAACMC offers nearly 100% throughput and approaches the fundamental coronagraph performance limit imposed by first principles. The steps toward designing the coronagraphs for arbitrary apertures are described fo...
Purifying selection, drift, and reversible mutation with arbitrarily high mutation rates.
Charlesworth, Brian; Jain, Kavita
2014-12-01
Some species exhibit very high levels of DNA sequence variability; there is also evidence for the existence of heritable epigenetic variants that experience state changes at a much higher rate than sequence variants. In both cases, the resulting high diversity levels within a population (hyperdiversity) mean that standard population genetics methods are not trustworthy. We analyze a population genetics model that incorporates purifying selection, reversible mutations, and genetic drift, assuming a stationary population size. We derive analytical results for both population parameters and sample statistics and discuss their implications for studies of natural genetic and epigenetic variation. In particular, we find that (1) many more intermediate-frequency variants are expected than under standard models, even with moderately strong purifying selection, and (2) rates of evolution under purifying selection may be close to, or even exceed, neutral rates. These findings are related to empirical studies of sequence and epigenetic variation.
An Evaluation of Polarisability Tensors of Arbitrarily Shaped Highly Conducting Bodies
Jelinek, L; Capek, M
2016-01-01
A full-wave numerical scheme of polarisability tensors evaluation is presented. The method accepts highly conducting bodies of arbitrary shape and explicitly accounts for the radiation as well as ohmic losses. The method is verified on canonical bodies with known polarisability tensors, such as a sphere and a cube, as well as on realistic scatterers. The theoretical developments are followed by a freely available code whose sole user input is the triangular mesh covering the surface of the body under consideration.
Automatic high-bandwidth calibration and reconstruction of arbitrarily sampled parallel MRI.
Jan Aelterman
Full Text Available Today, many MRI reconstruction techniques exist for undersampled MRI data. Regularization-based techniques inspired by compressed sensing allow for the reconstruction of undersampled data that would lead to an ill-posed reconstruction problem. Parallel imaging enables the reconstruction of MRI images from undersampled multi-coil data that leads to a well-posed reconstruction problem. Autocalibrating pMRI techniques encompass pMRI techniques where no explicit knowledge of the coil sensivities is required. A first purpose of this paper is to derive a novel autocalibration approach for pMRI that allows for the estimation and use of smooth, but high-bandwidth coil profiles instead of a compactly supported kernel. These high-bandwidth models adhere more accurately to the physics of an antenna system. The second purpose of this paper is to demonstrate the feasibility of a parameter-free reconstruction algorithm that combines autocalibrating pMRI and compressed sensing. Therefore, we present several techniques for automatic parameter estimation in MRI reconstruction. Experiments show that a higher reconstruction accuracy can be had using high-bandwidth coil models and that the automatic parameter choices yield an acceptable result.
High Performance Lyot and PIAA Coronagraphy for Arbitrarily Shaped Telescope Apertures
Guyon, Olivier; Hinz, Philip M.; Cady, Eric; Belikov, Ruslan; Martinache, Frantz
2014-01-01
Two high-performance coronagraphic approaches compatible with segmented and obstructed telescope pupils are described. Both concepts use entrance pupil amplitude apodization and a combined phase and amplitude focal plane mask to achieve full coronagraphic extinction of an on-axis point source. While the first concept, called Apodized Pupil Complex Mask Lyot Coronagraph (APCMLC), relies on a transmission mask to perform the pupil apodization, the second concept, called Phase-Induced Amplitude Apodization complex mask coronagraph (PIAACMC), uses beam remapping for lossless apodization. Both concepts theoretically offer complete coronagraphic extinction (infinite contrast) of a point source in monochromatic light, with high throughput and sub-λ/D inner working angle, regardless of aperture shape. The PIAACMC offers nearly 100% throughput and approaches the fundamental coronagraph performance limit imposed by first principles. The steps toward designing the coronagraphs for arbitrary apertures are described for monochromatic light. Designs for the APCMLC and the higher performance PIAACMC are shown for several monolith and segmented apertures, such as the apertures of the Subaru Telescope, Giant Magellan Telescope, Thirty Meter Telescope, the European Extremely Large Telescope, and the Large Binocular Telescope. Performance in broadband light is also quantified, suggesting that the monochromatic designs are suitable for use in up to 20% wide spectral bands for ground-based telescopes.
High performance Lyot and PIAA coronagraphy for arbitrarily shaped telescope apertures
Guyon, Olivier; Hinz, Philip M. [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Cady, Eric [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Belikov, Ruslan [NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA 94035 (United States); Martinache, Frantz, E-mail: guyon@naoj.org [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, Subaru Telescope, Hilo, HI 96720 (United States)
2014-01-10
Two high-performance coronagraphic approaches compatible with segmented and obstructed telescope pupils are described. Both concepts use entrance pupil amplitude apodization and a combined phase and amplitude focal plane mask to achieve full coronagraphic extinction of an on-axis point source. While the first concept, called Apodized Pupil Complex Mask Lyot Coronagraph (APCMLC), relies on a transmission mask to perform the pupil apodization, the second concept, called Phase-Induced Amplitude Apodization complex mask coronagraph (PIAACMC), uses beam remapping for lossless apodization. Both concepts theoretically offer complete coronagraphic extinction (infinite contrast) of a point source in monochromatic light, with high throughput and sub-λ/D inner working angle, regardless of aperture shape. The PIAACMC offers nearly 100% throughput and approaches the fundamental coronagraph performance limit imposed by first principles. The steps toward designing the coronagraphs for arbitrary apertures are described for monochromatic light. Designs for the APCMLC and the higher performance PIAACMC are shown for several monolith and segmented apertures, such as the apertures of the Subaru Telescope, Giant Magellan Telescope, Thirty Meter Telescope, the European Extremely Large Telescope, and the Large Binocular Telescope. Performance in broadband light is also quantified, suggesting that the monochromatic designs are suitable for use in up to 20% wide spectral bands for ground-based telescopes.
Robust AIC with High Breakdown Scale Estimate
Shokrya Saleh
2014-01-01
Full Text Available Akaike Information Criterion (AIC based on least squares (LS regression minimizes the sum of the squared residuals; LS is sensitive to outlier observations. Alternative criterion, which is less sensitive to outlying observation, has been proposed; examples are robust AIC (RAIC, robust Mallows Cp (RCp, and robust Bayesian information criterion (RBIC. In this paper, we propose a robust AIC by replacing the scale estimate with a high breakdown point estimate of scale. The robustness of the proposed methods is studied through its influence function. We show that, the proposed robust AIC is effective in selecting accurate models in the presence of outliers and high leverage points, through simulated and real data examples.
HIGHLY ROBUST METHODS IN DATA MINING
Jan Kalina
2013-05-01
Full Text Available This paper is devoted to highly robust methods for information extraction from data, with a special attention paid to methods suitable for management applications. The sensitivity of availabledata mining methods to the presence of outlying measurements in the observed data is discussed as a major drawback of available data mining methods. The paper proposes several newhighly robustmethods for data mining, which are based on the idea of implicit weighting of individual data values.Particularly it propose a novel robust method of hierarchical cluster analysis, which is a popular data mining method of unsupervised learning. Further, a robust method for estimating parameters in thelogistic regression was proposed. This idea is extended to a robust multinomial logistic classification analysis. Finally, the sensitivity of neural networks to the presence of noise and outlying measurements in the data was discussed. The method for robust training of neural networks for the task of function approximation, which has the form of a robust estimator in nonlinear regression, was proposed.
Yu Lu
2016-01-01
Full Text Available This paper presents the implementation aspects and design of high-speed data transmission in laser direct-writing lithography. With a single field programmable gate array (FPGA chip, mass data storage management, transmission, and synchronization of each part in real-time were implemented. To store a massive amount of data and transmit data with high bandwidth, a serial advanced technology attachment (SATA intellectual property (IP was developed on Xilinx Virtex-6 FPGA. In addition, control of laser beam power, collection of status read back data of the lithography laser through an analog-to-digital converter, and synchronization of the positioning signal were implemented on the same FPGA. A data structure for each unit with a unique exposure dose and other necessary information was established. Results showed that the maximum read bandwidth (240 MB/s and maximum write bandwidth (200 MB/s of a single solid-state drive conform to the data transmission requirement. The total amount of data meets the requirement of a large-area diffractive element approximately 102 cm2. The throughput has been greatly improved at meters per second or square centimeter per second. And test results showed that data transmission meets the requirement of the experiment.
The Robustness of High Danish National Happiness
Hussain, M. Azhar
2014-01-01
Denmark’s top position in various rankings of country happiness is well-documented. This study goes beyond the national average comparisons and investigates whether Denmark’s top position is also found when we disaggregate data in line with social categories often used within the social sciences....... The central measure is the empirical probability that a given population subgroup in Denmark has significantly higher happiness compared to another country’s similar subgroup in a given year. All five rounds of the European Social Survey are used but only the sixteen countries that were surveyed in each...... of the five rounds are included in this study. The results show that Denmark’s position at the top of the happiness scale is also robust when we look at population subgroups, but not in the sense that Denmark dominates all countries for all years. Instead, a modified version of robustness is necessary...
Sørensen, John Dalsgaard; Rizzuto, Enrico; Narasimhan, Harikrishna
2012-01-01
More frequent use of advanced types of structures with limited redundancy and serious consequences in case of failure combined with increased requirements to efficiency in design and execution followed by increased risk of human errors has made the need of requirements to robustness of structures......, a theoretical and risk-based framework is presented which facilitates the quantification of robustness, and thus supports the formulation of pre-normative guidelines....
Consensus of Heterogeneous Multiagent Systems with Arbitrarily Bounded Communication Delay
Xue Li
2017-01-01
Full Text Available This paper focuses on the consensus problem of high-order heterogeneous multiagent systems with arbitrarily bounded communication delays. Through the method of nonnegative matrices, we get a sufficient consensus condition for the systems with dynamically changing topology. The results of this paper show, even when there are arbitrarily bounded communication delays in the systems, all agents can reach a consensus no matter whether there are spanning trees for the corresponding communication graphs at any time.
Review of robust multivariate statistical methods in high dimension.
Filzmoser, Peter; Todorov, Valentin
2011-10-31
General ideas of robust statistics, and specifically robust statistical methods for calibration and dimension reduction are discussed. The emphasis is on analyzing high-dimensional data. The discussed methods are applied using the packages chemometrics and rrcov of the statistical software environment R. It is demonstrated how the functions can be applied to real high-dimensional data from chemometrics, and how the results can be interpreted.
Robust high temperature oxygen sensor electrodes
Lund, Anders
Platinum is the most widely used material in high temperature oxygen sensor electrodes. However, platinum is expensive and the platinum electrode may, under certain conditions, suffer from poisoning, which is detrimental for an oxygen sensor. The objective of this thesis is to evaluate electrode ......-based electrodes and one porous electrode based on the perovskite-structured strontium and vanadiumdoped lanthanum chromium oxide (LSCV) were investigated. The porous electrodes were applied on yttrium-stabilised zirconium oxide (YSZ) substrates in a collaboration with the company PBI...
High-performance quantitative robust switching control for optical telescopes
Lounsbury, William P.; Garcia-Sanz, Mario
2014-07-01
This paper introduces an innovative robust and nonlinear control design methodology for high-performance servosystems in optical telescopes. The dynamics of optical telescopes typically vary according to azimuth and altitude angles, temperature, friction, speed and acceleration, leading to nonlinearities and plant parameter uncertainty. The methodology proposed in this paper combines robust Quantitative Feedback Theory (QFT) techniques with nonlinear switching strategies that achieve simultaneously the best characteristics of a set of very active (fast) robust QFT controllers and very stable (slow) robust QFT controllers. A general dynamic model and a variety of specifications from several different commercially available amateur Newtonian telescopes are used for the controller design as well as the simulation and validation. It is also proven that the nonlinear/switching controller is stable for any switching strategy and switching velocity, according to described frequency conditions based on common quadratic Lyapunov functions (CQLF) and the circle criterion.
High-throughput electrical characterization for robust overlay lithography control
Devender, Devender; Shen, Xumin; Duggan, Mark; Singh, Sunil; Rullan, Jonathan; Choo, Jae; Mehta, Sohan; Tang, Teck Jung; Reidy, Sean; Holt, Jonathan; Kim, Hyung Woo; Fox, Robert; Sohn, D. K.
2017-03-01
Realizing sensitive, high throughput and robust overlay measurement is a challenge in current 14nm and advanced upcoming nodes with transition to 300mm and upcoming 450mm semiconductor manufacturing, where slight deviation in overlay has significant impact on reliability and yield1). Exponentially increasing number of critical masks in multi-patterning lithoetch, litho-etch (LELE) and subsequent LELELE semiconductor processes require even tighter overlay specification2). Here, we discuss limitations of current image- and diffraction- based overlay measurement techniques to meet these stringent processing requirements due to sensitivity, throughput and low contrast3). We demonstrate a new electrical measurement based technique where resistance is measured for a macro with intentional misalignment between two layers. Overlay is quantified by a parabolic fitting model to resistance where minima and inflection points are extracted to characterize overlay control and process window, respectively. Analyses using transmission electron microscopy show good correlation between actual overlay performance and overlay obtained from fitting. Additionally, excellent correlation of overlay from electrical measurements to existing image- and diffraction- based techniques is found. We also discuss challenges of integrating electrical measurement based approach in semiconductor manufacturing from Back End of Line (BEOL) perspective. Our findings open up a new pathway for accessing simultaneous overlay as well as process window and margins from a robust, high throughput and electrical measurement approach.
Recursively arbitrarily vertex-decomposable suns
Olivier Baudon
2011-01-01
Full Text Available A graph \\(G = (V,E\\ is arbitrarily vertex decomposable if for any sequence \\(\\tau\\ of positive integers adding up to \\(|V|\\, there is a sequence of vertex-disjoint subsets of \\(V\\ whose orders are given by \\(\\tau\\, and which induce connected graphs. The aim of this paper is to study the recursive version of this problem on a special class of graphs called suns. This paper is a complement of [O. Baudon, F. Gilbert, M. Woźniak, Recursively arbitrarily vertex-decomposable graphs, research report, 2010].
Zschocke, Sven
2016-01-01
High-precision astrometry on sub-micro-arcsecond level in angular resolution requires accurate determination of the trajectory of a light-signal from the celestial light source through the gravitational field of the Solar system toward the observer. In this investigation the light trajectory in the gravitational field of N moving bodies is determined in the 1.5 post-Newtonian approximation. In the approach presented two specific issues of particular importance are accounted for: (1) According to the recommendations of International Astronomical Union, the metric of the Solar system is expressed in terms of intrinsic mass-multipoles and intrinsic spin-multipoles of the massive bodies, allowing for arbitrary shape, inner structure and rotational motion of the massive bodies of the Solar system. (2) The Solar system bodies move along arbitrary worldlines which can later be specified by Solar system ephemeris. The presented analytical solution for light trajectory is a primary requirement for extremely high-preci...
Robust high-κ response in molecularly thin perovskite nanosheets.
Osada, Minoru; Akatsuka, Kosho; Ebina, Yasuo; Funakubo, Hiroshi; Ono, Kanta; Takada, Kazunori; Sasaki, Takayoshi
2010-09-28
Size-induced suppression of permittivity in perovskite thin films is a fundamental problem that has remained unresolved for decades. This size-effect issue becomes increasingly important due to the integration of perovskite nanofilms into high-κ capacitors, as well as concerns that intrinsic size effects may limit their device performance. Here, we report a new approach to produce robust high-κ nanodielectrics using perovskite nanosheet (Ca2Nb3O10), a new class of nanomaterials that is derived from layered compounds by exfoliation. By a solution-based bottom-up approach using perovskite nanosheets, we have successfully fabricated multilayer nanofilms directly on SrRuO3 or Pt substrates without any interfacial dead layers. These nanofilms exhibit high dielectric constant (>200), the largest value seen so far in perovskite films with a thickness down to 10 nm. Furthermore, the superior high-κ properties are a size-effect-free characteristic with low leakage current density (<10(-7) A cm(-2)). Our work provides a key for understanding the size effect and also represents a step toward a bottom-up paradigm for future high-κ devices.
Sartori, Mary Ann; Bauske, Terri; Lunenburg, Fred C.
This study investigates students' perceptions of teachers' pupil control behavior, classroom robustness, and student self-control. Results reveal an association between humanistic pupil control behavior of teachers and high levels of classroom robustness, high levels of classroom robustness and high student self-control, and teacher humanism in…
Robustness of various metals against high THz field induced damage
Zhu, Jianfei; Iwaszczuk, Krzysztof; Tarekegne, Abebe Tilahun;
2016-01-01
We investigate various metals for their robustness against damage caused by strong THz field. Even though the damage process is not of a thermal nature we observe a correlation between robustness and the melting temperature. Influence of the substrate material on the damage pattern is also studied....
A robust TALENs system for highly efficient mammalian genome editing.
Feng, Yuanxi; Zhang, Siliang; Huang, Xin
2014-01-10
Recently, transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs) have emerged as a highly effective tool for genomic editing. A pair of TALENs binds to two DNA recognition sites separated by a spacer sequence, and the dimerized FokI nucleases at the C terminal then cleave DNA in the spacer. Because of its modular design and capacity to precisely target almost any desired genomic locus, TALEN is a technology that can revolutionize the entire biomedical research field. Currently, for genomic editing in cultured cells, two plasmids encoding a pair of TALENs are co-transfected, followed by limited dilution to isolate cell colonies with the intended genomic manipulation. However, uncertain transfection efficiency becomes a bottleneck, especially in hard-to-transfect cells, reducing the overall efficiency of genome editing. We have developed a robust TALENs system in which each TALEN plasmid also encodes a fluorescence protein. Thus, cells transfected with both TALEN plasmids, a prerequisite for genomic editing, can be isolated by fluorescence-activated cell sorting. Our improved TALENs system can be applied to all cultured cells to achieve highly efficient genomic editing. Furthermore, an optimized procedure for genomic editing using TALENs is also presented. We expect our system to be widely adopted by the scientific community.
Recursively arbitrarily vertex-decomposable graphs
Olivier Baudon
2012-01-01
Full Text Available A graph \\(G = (V;E\\ is arbitrarily vertex decomposable if for any sequence \\(\\tau\\ of positive integers adding up to \\(|V|\\, there is a sequence of vertex-disjoint subsets of \\(V\\ whose orders are given by \\(\\tau\\, and which induce connected graphs. The main aim of this paper is to study the recursive version of this problem. We present a solution for trees, suns, and partially for a class of 2-connected graphs called balloons.
Towards robust dynamical decoupling and high fidelity adiabatic quantum computation
Quiroz, Gregory
Quantum computation (QC) relies on the ability to implement high-fidelity quantum gate operations and successfully preserve quantum state coherence. One of the most challenging obstacles for reliable QC is overcoming the inevitable interaction between a quantum system and its environment. Unwanted interactions result in decoherence processes that cause quantum states to deviate from a desired evolution, consequently leading to computational errors and loss of coherence. Dynamical decoupling (DD) is one such method, which seeks to attenuate the effects of decoherence by applying strong and expeditious control pulses solely to the system. Provided the pulses are applied over a time duration sufficiently shorter than the correlation time associated with the environment dynamics, DD effectively averages out undesirable interactions and preserves quantum states with a low probability of error, or fidelity loss. In this study various aspects of this approach are studied from sequence construction to applications of DD to protecting QC. First, a comprehensive examination of the error suppression properties of a near-optimal DD approach is given to understand the relationship between error suppression capabilities and the number of required DD control pulses in the case of ideal, instantaneous pulses. While such considerations are instructive for examining DD efficiency, i.e., performance vs the number of control pulses, high-fidelity DD in realizable systems is difficult to achieve due to intrinsic pulse imperfections which further contribute to decoherence. As a second consideration, it is shown how one can overcome this hurdle and achieve robustness and recover high-fidelity DD in the presence of faulty control pulses using Genetic Algorithm optimization and sequence symmetrization. Thirdly, to illustrate the implementation of DD in conjunction with QC, the utilization of DD and quantum error correction codes (QECCs) as a protection method for adiabatic quantum
Robust Optimization Design Algorithm for High-Frequency TWTs
Wilson, Jeffrey D.; Chevalier, Christine T.
2010-01-01
Traveling-wave tubes (TWTs), such as the Ka-band (26-GHz) model recently developed for the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter, are essential as communication amplifiers in spacecraft for virtually all near- and deep-space missions. This innovation is a computational design algorithm that, for the first time, optimizes the efficiency and output power of a TWT while taking into account the effects of dimensional tolerance variations. Because they are primary power consumers and power generation is very expensive in space, much effort has been exerted over the last 30 years to increase the power efficiency of TWTs. However, at frequencies higher than about 60 GHz, efficiencies of TWTs are still quite low. A major reason is that at higher frequencies, dimensional tolerance variations from conventional micromachining techniques become relatively large with respect to the circuit dimensions. When this is the case, conventional design- optimization procedures, which ignore dimensional variations, provide inaccurate designs for which the actual amplifier performance substantially under-performs that of the design. Thus, this new, robust TWT optimization design algorithm was created to take account of and ameliorate the deleterious effects of dimensional variations and to increase efficiency, power, and yield of high-frequency TWTs. This design algorithm can help extend the use of TWTs into the terahertz frequency regime of 300-3000 GHz. Currently, these frequencies are under-utilized because of the lack of efficient amplifiers, thus this regime is known as the "terahertz gap." The development of an efficient terahertz TWT amplifier could enable breakthrough applications in space science molecular spectroscopy, remote sensing, nondestructive testing, high-resolution "through-the-wall" imaging, biomedical imaging, and detection of explosives and toxic biochemical agents.
Robustness aware high performance high fan-in domino OR logic design
Gong Na; Wang Jinhui; Guo Baozeng; Wang Yongqing; Cao Xiaobing; Tian Xiuli
2009-01-01
A novel technique using a keeper with a simultaneous low supply voltage and low body voltage is proposed to improve the overall performance of high fan-in OR gates without modifying the physical dimensions of the keeper. Simulation results of a 16-input domino OR gate using 45 nm CMOS technology show that the proposed technique could trade off between a high power/speed efficient operation and the robustness to noise effectively.Also, a Monte Carlo analysis indicates that the proposed domino OR gate is more robust to parameter variation compared to a conventional domino OR gate.
Software Tools for Robust Analysis of High-Dimensional Data
Valentin Todorov
2014-06-01
Full Text Available The present work discusses robust multivariate methods specifically designed for highdimensions. Their implementation in R is presented and their application is illustratedon examples. The first group are algorithms for outlier detection, already introducedelsewhere and implemented in other packages. The value added of the new package isthat all methods follow the same design pattern and thus can use the same graphicaland diagnostic tools. The next topic covered is sparse principal components including anobject oriented interface to the standard method proposed by Zou, Hastie, and Tibshirani(2006 and the robust one proposed by Croux, Filzmoser, and Fritz (2013. Robust partialleast squares (see Hubert and Vanden Branden 2003 as well as partial least squares fordiscriminant analysis conclude the scope of the new package.
Neurodynamics-Based Robust Pole Assignment for High-Order Descriptor Systems.
Le, Xinyi; Wang, Jun
2015-11-01
In this paper, a neurodynamic optimization approach is proposed for synthesizing high-order descriptor linear systems with state feedback control via robust pole assignment. With a new robustness measure serving as the objective function, the robust eigenstructure assignment problem is formulated as a pseudoconvex optimization problem. A neurodynamic optimization approach is applied and shown to be capable of maximizing the robust stability margin for high-order singular systems with guaranteed optimality and exact pole assignment. Two numerical examples and vehicle vibration control application are discussed to substantiate the efficacy of the proposed approach.
Arbitrarily shaped scatterer by moment method
Shu, Yongze; Ma, Feng
1988-12-01
The calculation of radar cross section (RCS) for an arbitrarily shaped and perfectly conducting scatterer with small electric size has been studied by moment method. The starting point of this paper is the reaction integral equation (RIE). Polygonal plates are used to construct models of realistic structures and to segment every plate into modes automatically. Overlap modes can be obtained between the connecting intersecting plates. The piecewise-sinusoidal modes have been chosen as expansion and testing functions. From RIE, the matrix equation IZ = V can be derived. The scattering field and RCS of the scatterer can be obtained. The method has advantages of simplicity and flexibility of input, versatility, and accuracy. The calculating results of RCS for a few scatterers with different shapes, including a realistic rocket, have been given. The results are in good agreement with those published abroad.
Robust high-resolution beam-forming based on high order cross sensor processing method
Changyu Sun
2015-01-01
In order to obtain the robust high-resolution beam-forming, a high order cross sensor processing (CSP) approach is developed. According to the relation ship between the target bear-ing and the phase difference of each element receiving signal, this method exploits the property that the same diagonal of covariance matrix with the same phase difference and obtains (2M−1)(N−1) virtual elements (N is the original array number) by executing M order CSP. The extended virtual elements can effectively increase the physical aperture of linear array, reduce the main lobe width of beam-forming, and improve the bearing resolution. The CSP method accumulates the data on the same sub-diagonal of the covariance matrix, which can decrease the impact of background noise on beam-forming. The theoretical analysis and experimental results both show that this method has high resolution in bearing estimation, compared with the MUSIC method, which has better robustness under the lower signal-to-noise ratio (SNR).
A robust robotic high-throughput antibody purification platform.
Schmidt, Peter M; Abdo, Michael; Butcher, Rebecca E; Yap, Min-Yin; Scotney, Pierre D; Ramunno, Melanie L; Martin-Roussety, Genevieve; Owczarek, Catherine; Hardy, Matthew P; Chen, Chao-Guang; Fabri, Louis J
2016-07-15
Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) have become the fastest growing segment in the drug market with annual sales of more than 40 billion US$ in 2013. The selection of lead candidate molecules involves the generation of large repertoires of antibodies from which to choose a final therapeutic candidate. Improvements in the ability to rapidly produce and purify many antibodies in sufficient quantities reduces the lead time for selection which ultimately impacts on the speed with which an antibody may transition through the research stage and into product development. Miniaturization and automation of chromatography using micro columns (RoboColumns(®) from Atoll GmbH) coupled to an automated liquid handling instrument (ALH; Freedom EVO(®) from Tecan) has been a successful approach to establish high throughput process development platforms. Recent advances in transient gene expression (TGE) using the high-titre Expi293F™ system have enabled recombinant mAb titres of greater than 500mg/L. These relatively high protein titres reduce the volume required to generate several milligrams of individual antibodies for initial biochemical and biological downstream assays, making TGE in the Expi293F™ system ideally suited to high throughput chromatography on an ALH. The present publication describes a novel platform for purifying Expi293F™-expressed recombinant mAbs directly from cell-free culture supernatant on a Perkin Elmer JANUS-VariSpan ALH equipped with a plate shuttle device. The purification platform allows automated 2-step purification (Protein A-desalting/size exclusion chromatography) of several hundred mAbs per week. The new robotic method can purify mAbs with high recovery (>90%) at sub-milligram level with yields of up to 2mg from 4mL of cell-free culture supernatant.
A robust TALENs system for highly efficient mammalian genome editing
Feng, Yuanxi; Zhang, Siliang; Huang, Xin
2014-01-01
Recently, transcription activator–like effector nucleases (TALENs) have emerged as a highly effective tool for genomic editing. A pair of TALENs binds to two DNA recognition sites separated by a spacer sequence, and the dimerized FokI nucleases at the C terminal then cleave DNA in the spacer. Because of its modular design and capacity to precisely target almost any desired genomic locus, TALEN is a technology that can revolutionize the entire biomedical research field. Currently, for genomic ...
The Arbitrarily Varying Multiple-Access Channel with Conferencing Encoders
Wiese, Moritz
2011-01-01
We derive the capacity region of arbitrarily varying multiple-access channels with conferencing encoders for both deterministic and random coding. We obtain a dichotomy: either the channel's deterministic capacity region is zero or it equals the two-dimensional random coding region. We determine exactly when either case holds. We also discuss the benefits of conferencing. For both the compound and the arbitrarily varying cases, we give the example of a channel which does not achieve any non-zero rate pair without encoder cooperation, but the two-dimensional random coding capacity region if conferencing is possible. Unlike compound multiple-access channels, arbitrarily varying multiple-access channels may exhibit a discontinuous increase of the capacity region when conferencing is enabled. We use the arbitrarily varying multiple-access channel with conferencing encoders for an information-theoretic analysis of the performance of wireless networks with cooperating base stations disturbed by exterior interferenc...
Hawking Temperature of an Arbitrarily Accelerating Black Hole
Wei-Zhen Pan; Wei Liu
2014-09-01
Hawking temperature of an arbitrarily accelerating black hole with electric and magnetic charges are obtained based on the Klein–Gordon equation with a correct-dimension new tortoise coordinate transformation.
Mo, Huangrui; Zhang, Fan; Cronin, Duane S
2016-01-01
In this paper, a sharp interface immersed boundary method is developed for efficiently and robustly solving flow with arbitrarily irregular and changing geometries. The proposed method employs a three-step prediction-correction flow reconstruction scheme for boundary treatment and enforces Dirichlet, Neumann, Robin, and Cauchy boundary conditions in a straightforward and consistent manner. Numerical experiments concerning flow of two and three space dimensions, stationary and moving objects, convex and concave geometries, no-slip and slip wall boundary conditions are conducted to demonstrate the proposed method.
Robustness of Multiple High Speed TCP CUBIC Connections Under Severe Operating Conditions
Pilimon, Artur; Ruepp, Sarah Renée; Berger, Michael Stübert
2015-01-01
We study the adaptation capabilities and robustness of the high-speed TCP CUBIC algorithm. For this purpose we consider a network environment with variable and high random packet loss and a large Bandwidth-Delay product, shared by multiple heterogeneous TCP connections. The analysis is based on a...
A Robust Method for Relative Gravity Data Estimation with High Efficiency
Touati, F.; Idres, M.; Kahlouche, S.
2010-01-01
When gravimetric data observations have outliers, using standard least squares (LS) estimation will likely give poor accuracies and unreliable parameter estimates. One of the typical approaches to overcome this problem consists of using the robust estimation techniques. In this paper, we modified the robust estimator of Gervini and Yohai (2002) called REWLSE (Robust and Efficient Weighted Least Squares Estimator), which combines simultaneously high statistical efficiency and high breakdown point by replacing the weight function by a new weight function. This method allows reducing the outlier impacts and makes more use of the information provided by the data. In order to adapt this technique to the relative gravity data, weights are computed using the empirical distribution of the residuals obtained initially by the LTS (Least Trimmed Squares) estimator and by minimizing the mean distances relatively to the LS-estimator without outliers. The robustness of the initial estimator is maintained by adapted cut-off values as suggested by the REWLSE method which allows also a reasonable statistical efficiency. Hereafter we give the advantage and the pertinence of REWLSE procedure on real and semi-simulated gravity data by comparing it with conventional LS and other robust approaches like M- and MM-estimators.
Christiansen, Rasmus E.; Lazarov, Boyan S.; Jensen, Jakob S.;
2015-01-01
and limitations are discussed. In addition, a known explicit penalization approach is considered for comparison. For near-uniform spatial variations it is shown that highly robust designs can be obtained using the double filter approach. It is finally demonstrated that taking non-uniform variations into account...
Robust Hessian Locally Linear Embedding Techniques for High-Dimensional Data
Xianglei Xing
2016-05-01
Full Text Available Recently manifold learning has received extensive interest in the community of pattern recognition. Despite their appealing properties, most manifold learning algorithms are not robust in practical applications. In this paper, we address this problem in the context of the Hessian locally linear embedding (HLLE algorithm and propose a more robust method, called RHLLE, which aims to be robust against both outliers and noise in the data. Specifically, we first propose a fast outlier detection method for high-dimensional datasets. Then, we employ a local smoothing method to reduce noise. Furthermore, we reformulate the original HLLE algorithm by using the truncation function from differentiable manifolds. In the reformulated framework, we explicitly introduce a weighted global functional to further reduce the undesirable effect of outliers and noise on the embedding result. Experiments on synthetic as well as real datasets demonstrate the effectiveness of our proposed algorithm.
Thermal modeling of bore fields with arbitrarily oriented boreholes
Lazzarotto, Alberto
2016-04-01
The accurate prediction of the thermal behavior of bore fields for shallow geothermal applications is necessary to carry out a proper design of such systems. A classical methodology to perform this analysis is the so-called g-function method. Most commercial tools implementing this methodology are designed to handle only bore fields configurations with vertical boreholes. This is a limitation since this condition might not apply in a real installation. In a recent development by the author, a semi-analytical method to determine g-function for bore fields with arbitrarily oriented boreholes was introduced. The strategy utilized is based on the idea introduced by Cimmino of representing boreholes as stacked finite line sources. The temperature along these finite lines is calculated by applying the superposition of the effects of each linear heat source in the field. This modeling technique allows to approximate uneven heat distribution along the boreholes which is a key feature for the calculation of g-functions according to Eskilson's boundary conditions. The method has been tested for a few simple configurations and showed results that are similar compare to previous results computed numerically by Eskilson. The method has been then successfully applied to the g-function calculation of an existing large scale highly asymmetrical bore field.
Martínez-Fonseca, Nadhynee; Castañeda, Luis Ángel; Uranga, Agustín; Luviano-Juárez, Alberto; Chairez, Isaac
2016-05-01
This study addressed the problem of robust control of a biped robot based on disturbance estimation. Active disturbance rejection control was the paradigm used for controlling the biped robot by direct active estimation. A robust controller was developed to implement disturbance cancelation based on a linear extended state observer of high gain class. A robust high-gain scheme was proposed for developing a state estimator of the biped robot despite poor knowledge of the plant and the presence of uncertainties. The estimated states provided by the state estimator were used to implement a feedback controller that was effective in actively rejecting the perturbations as well as forcing the trajectory tracking error to within a small vicinity of the origin. The theoretical convergence of the tracking error was proven using the Lyapunov theory. The controller was implemented by numerical simulations that showed the convergence of the tracking error. A comparison with a high-order sliding-mode-observer-based controller confirmed the superior performance of the controller using the robust observer introduced in this study. Finally, the proposed controller was implemented on an actual biped robot using an embedded hardware-in-the-loop strategy.
Tu, Tao; Sun, Zheming; Fang, Weiwei; Xu, Mizhi; Zhou, Yunfei
2012-08-17
Robust acenaphthoimidazolylidene palladium complexes have been demonstrated as highly efficient and general catalysts for the sterically hindered Suzuki-Miyaura cross-coupling reactions in excellent yields even with low catalyst loadings under mild reaction conditions. The high catalytic activity of these complexes highlights that, besides the "flexible steric bulky" concept, σ-donor properties of the NHC ligands are also crucial to accelerate the transformations.
Arbitrarily thin metamaterial structure for perfect absorption and giant magnification
Jin, Yi; Xiao, Sanshui; Mortensen, N. Asger
2011-01-01
In our common understanding, for strong absorption or amplification in a slab structure, the desire of reducing the slab thickness seems contradictory to the condition of small loss or gain. In this paper, this common understanding is challenged. It is shown that an arbitrarily thin metamaterial...... layer can perfectly absorb or giantly amplify an incident plane wave at a critical angle when the real parts of the permittivity and permeability of the metamaterial are zero while the absolute imaginary parts can be arbitrarily small. The metamaterial layer needs a totally reflective substrate...
Hawking Radiation via Tunnelling from Arbitrarily Dimensional Schwarzschild Black Holes
REN Jun; ZHAO Zheng; GAO Chang-Jun
2005-01-01
@@ We extend Parikh's recent work to the arbitrarily dimensional Schwarzschild black holes whose Arnowitt-DeserMisner (ADM) mass is identical to its mass parameter. We view Hawking radiation as a tunnelling process across the event horizon. From the tunnelling probability we also find a leading correction to the semiclassical emission rate. The result consists with an underlying unitary theory.
Electromagnetic radiation and motion of arbitrarily shaped particle
Klacka, J
2001-01-01
Covariant form of equation of motion for arbitrarily shaped particle in the electromagnetic radiation field is presented. Equation of motion in the proper frame of the particle uses the radiation pressure cross section 3 $\\times$ 3 matrix. The obtained equation of motion is compared with known result.
Whitaker, May
2016-01-01
Purpose Inverse planning simulated annealing (IPSA) optimized brachytherapy treatment plans are characterized with large isolated dwell times at the first or last dwell position of each catheter. The potential of catheter shifts relative to the target and organs at risk in these plans may lead to a more significant change in delivered dose to the volumes of interest relative to plans with more uniform dwell times. Material and methods This study aims to determine if the Nucletron Oncentra dwell time deviation constraint (DTDC) parameter can be optimized to improve the robustness of high-dose-rate (HDR) prostate brachytherapy plans to catheter displacements. A set of 10 clinically acceptable prostate plans were re-optimized with a DTDC parameter of 0 and 0.4. For each plan, catheter displacements of 3, 7, and 14 mm were retrospectively applied and the change in dose volume histogram (DVH) indices and conformity indices analyzed. Results The robustness of clinically acceptable prostate plans to catheter displacements in the caudal direction was found to be dependent on the DTDC parameter. A DTDC value of 0 improves the robustness of planning target volume (PTV) coverage to catheter displacements, whereas a DTDC value of 0.4 improves the robustness of the plans to changes in hotspots. Conclusions The results indicate that if used in conjunction with a pre-treatment catheter displacement correction protocol and a tolerance of 3 mm, a DTDC value of 0.4 may produce clinically superior plans. However, the effect of the DTDC parameter in plan robustness was not observed to be as strong as initially suspected. PMID:27504129
Poder, Joel; Whitaker, May
2016-06-01
Inverse planning simulated annealing (IPSA) optimized brachytherapy treatment plans are characterized with large isolated dwell times at the first or last dwell position of each catheter. The potential of catheter shifts relative to the target and organs at risk in these plans may lead to a more significant change in delivered dose to the volumes of interest relative to plans with more uniform dwell times. This study aims to determine if the Nucletron Oncentra dwell time deviation constraint (DTDC) parameter can be optimized to improve the robustness of high-dose-rate (HDR) prostate brachytherapy plans to catheter displacements. A set of 10 clinically acceptable prostate plans were re-optimized with a DTDC parameter of 0 and 0.4. For each plan, catheter displacements of 3, 7, and 14 mm were retrospectively applied and the change in dose volume histogram (DVH) indices and conformity indices analyzed. The robustness of clinically acceptable prostate plans to catheter displacements in the caudal direction was found to be dependent on the DTDC parameter. A DTDC value of 0 improves the robustness of planning target volume (PTV) coverage to catheter displacements, whereas a DTDC value of 0.4 improves the robustness of the plans to changes in hotspots. The results indicate that if used in conjunction with a pre-treatment catheter displacement correction protocol and a tolerance of 3 mm, a DTDC value of 0.4 may produce clinically superior plans. However, the effect of the DTDC parameter in plan robustness was not observed to be as strong as initially suspected.
Gunjal, Baisa L; Mali, Suresh N
2015-01-01
The aim of this paper is to present multiobjective evolutionary optimizer (MEO) based highly secured and strongly robust image watermarking technique using discrete wavelet transform (DWT) and singular value decomposition (SVD). Many researchers have failed to achieve optimization of perceptual quality and robustness with high capacity watermark embedding. Here, we achieved optimized peak signal to noise ratio (PSNR) and normalized correlation (NC) using MEO. Strong security is implemented through eight different security levels including watermark scrambling by Fibonacci-Lucas transformation (FLT). Haar wavelet is selected for DWT decomposition to compare practical performance of wavelets from different wavelet families. The technique is non-blind and tested with cover images of size 512x512 and grey scale watermark of size 256x256. The achieved perceptual quality in terms of PSNR is 79.8611dBs for Lena, 87.8446 dBs for peppers and 93.2853 dBs for lake images by varying scale factor K1 from 1 to 5. All candidate images used for testing namely Lena, peppers and lake images show exact recovery of watermark giving NC equals to 1. The robustness is tested against variety of attacks on watermarked image. The experimental demonstration proved that proposed method gives NC more than 0.96 for majority of attacks under consideration. The performance evaluation of this technique is found superior to all existing hybrid image watermarking techniques under consideration.
High-content analysis to leverage a robust phenotypic profiling approach to vascular modulation.
Isherwood, Beverley J; Walls, Rebecca E; Roberts, Mark E; Houslay, Thomas M; Brave, Sandra R; Barry, Simon T; Carragher, Neil O
2013-12-01
Phenotypic screening seeks to identify substances that modulate phenotypes in a desired manner with the aim of progressing first-in-class agents. Successful campaigns require physiological relevance, robust screening, and an ability to deconvolute perturbed pathways. High-content analysis (HCA) is increasingly used in cell biology and offers one approach to prosecution of phenotypic screens, but challenges exist in exploitation where data generated are high volume and complex. We combine development of an organotypic model with novel HCA tools to map phenotypic responses to pharmacological perturbations. We describe implementation for angiogenesis, a process that has long been a focus for therapeutic intervention but has lacked robust models that recapitulate more completely mechanisms involved. The study used human primary endothelial cells in co-culture with stromal fibroblasts to model multiple aspects of angiogenic signaling: cell interactions, proliferation, migration, and differentiation. Multiple quantitative descriptors were derived from automated microscopy using custom-designed algorithms. Data were extracted using a bespoke informatics platform that integrates processing, statistics, and feature display into a streamlined workflow for building and interrogating fingerprints. Ninety compounds were characterized, defining mode of action by phenotype. Our approach for assessing phenotypic outcomes in complex assay models is robust and capable of supporting a range of phenotypic screens at scale.
Design and Simulation of BTT Missile with High-Aspect-Ratio Wing Robust H∞ Autopilot
CUI Sheng-wang; LIU Li; MA Chun-yan
2007-01-01
For the strong coupling among the channels of bank-to-turn (BTT) missile with high-aspect-ratio wing,an autopilot is designed with a two loop control structure robust autopilot design methods.By the inner loop design,the question of pole-zero cancellation is solved,and the stabilization of structured uncertainty is achieved.Through the outer loop of H∞ controller design,the flying performance and robustness can be guaranteed.The nonlinear simulation results show that the autopilot designed has perfect time domain response,and can suppress bad influence of the inertial and kinematics couplings.It can make the missile fly stably in the large flying areas.The control is very effective.
A new method for high-capacity information hiding in video robust against temporal desynchronization
Mitekin, Vitaly; Fedoseev, Victor A.
2015-02-01
This paper presents a new method for high-capacity information hiding in digital video and algorithms of embedding and extraction of hidden information based on this method. These algorithms do not require temporal synchronization to provide robustness against both malicious and non-malicious frame dropping (temporal desynchronization). At the same time, due to randomized distribution of hidden information bits across the video frames, the proposed method allows to increase the hiding capacity proportionally to the number of frames used for information embedding. The proposed method is also robust against "watermark estimation" attack aimed at estimation of hidden information without knowing the embedding key or non-watermarked video. Presented experimental results demonstrate declared features of this method.
Robust Matrix Completion with Corrupted Columns
Chen, Yudong; Caramanis, Constantine; Sanghavi, Sujay
2011-01-01
This paper considers the problem of matrix completion, when some number of the columns are arbitrarily corrupted, potentially by a malicious adversary. It is well-known that standard algorithms for matrix completion can return arbitrarily poor results, if even a single column is corrupted. What can be done if a large number, or even a constant fraction of columns are corrupted? In this paper, we study this very problem, and develop an efficient algorithm for its solution. Our results show that with a vanishing fraction of observed entries, it is nevertheless possible to succeed in performing matrix completion, even when the number of corrupted columns grows. When the number of corruptions is as high as a constant fraction of the total number of columns, we show that again exact matrix completion is possible, but in this case our algorithm requires many more -- a constant fraction -- of observations. One direct application comes from robust collaborative filtering. Here, some number of users are so-called mani...
Surface nanoscale axial photonics: Robust fabrication of high quality factor microresonators
Sumetsky, M; Dulashko, Y; Fini, J M; Liu, X; Monberg, E M; Taunay, T F
2011-01-01
Recently introduced Surface Nanoscale Axial Photonics (SNAP) makes it possible to fabricate high Q-factor microresonators and other photonic microdevices by dramatically small deformation of the optical fiber surface. To become a practical and robust technology, the SNAP platform requires methods enabling reproducible modification of the optical fiber radius at nanoscale. In this Letter, we demonstrate super-accurate fabrication of high Q-factor microresonators by nanoscale modification of the optical fiber radius and refractive index using the CO2 laser and the UV excimer laser beam exposures. The achieved fabrication accuracy is better than 2 angstroms in variation of the effective fiber radius.
Two-Step Robust Diagnostic Method for Identification of Multiple High Leverage Points
Arezoo Bagheri
2009-01-01
Full Text Available Problem statement: High leverage points are extreme outliers in the X-direction. In regression analysis, the detection of these leverage points becomes important due to their arbitrary large effects on the estimations as well as multicollinearity problems. Mahalanobis Distance (MD has been used as a diagnostic tool for identification of outliers in multivariate analysis where it finds the distance between normal and abnormal groups of the data. Since the computation of MD relies on non-robust classical estimations, the classical MD can hardly detect outliers accurately. As an alternative, Robust MD (RMD methods such as Minimum Covariance Determinant (MCD and Minimum Volume Ellipsoid (MVE estimators had been used to identify the existence of high leverage points in the data set. However, these methods tended to swamp some low leverage points even though they can identify high leverage points correctly. Since, the detection of leverage points is one of the most important issues in regression analysis, it is imperative to introduce a novel detection method of high leverage points. Approach: In this study, we proposed a relatively new two-step method for detection of high leverage points by utilizing the RMD (MVE and RMD (MCD in the first step to identify the suspected outlier points. Then, in the second step the MD was used based on the mean and covariance of the clean data set. We called this method two-step Robust Diagnostic Mahalanobis Distance (RDMDTS which could identify high leverage points correctly and also swamps less low leverage points. Results: The merit of the newly proposed method was investigated extensively by real data sets and Monte Carlo Simulations study. The results of this study indicated that, for small sample sizes, the best detection method is (RDMDTS (MVE-mad while there was not much difference between (RDMDTS (MVE-mad and (RDMDTS (MCD-mad for large sample sizes. Conclusion/Recommendations: In order to swamp less low
Sliding-Mode Control Applied for Robust Control of a Highly Unstable Aircraft
Vetter, Travis Kenneth
2002-01-01
An investigation into the application of an observer based sliding mode controller for robust control of a highly unstable aircraft and methods of compensating for actuator dynamics is performed. After a brief overview of some reconfigurable controllers, sliding mode control (SMC) is selected because of its invariance properties and lack of need for parameter identification. SMC is reviewed and issues with parasitic dynamics, which cause system instability, are addressed. Utilizing sliding manifold boundary layers, the nonlinear control is converted to a linear control and sliding manifold design is performed in the frequency domain. An additional feedback form of model reference hedging is employed which is similar to a prefilter and has large benefits to system performance. The effects of inclusion of actuator dynamics into the designed plant is heavily investigated. Multiple Simulink models of the full longitudinal dynamics and wing deflection modes of the forward swept aero elastic vehicle (FSAV) are constructed. Additionally a linear state space models to analyze effects from various system parameters. The FSAV has a pole at +7 rad/sec and is non-minimum phase. The use of 'model actuators' in the feedback path, and varying there design, is heavily investigated for the resulting effects on plant robustness and tolerance to actuator failure. The use of redundant actuators is also explored and improved robustness is shown. All models are simulated with severe failure and excellent tracking, and task dependent handling qualities, and low pilot induced oscillation tendency is shown.
Robust Multiscale Iterative Solvers for Nonlinear Flows in Highly Heterogeneous Media
Efendiev, Y.
2012-08-01
In this paper, we study robust iterative solvers for finite element systems resulting in approximation of steady-state Richards\\' equation in porous media with highly heterogeneous conductivity fields. It is known that in such cases the contrast, ratio between the highest and lowest values of the conductivity, can adversely affect the performance of the preconditioners and, consequently, a design of robust preconditioners is important for many practical applications. The proposed iterative solvers consist of two kinds of iterations, outer and inner iterations. Outer iterations are designed to handle nonlinearities by linearizing the equation around the previous solution state. As a result of the linearization, a large-scale linear system needs to be solved. This linear system is solved iteratively (called inner iterations), and since it can have large variations in the coefficients, a robust preconditioner is needed. First, we show that under some assumptions the number of outer iterations is independent of the contrast. Second, based on the recently developed iterative methods, we construct a class of preconditioners that yields convergence rate that is independent of the contrast. Thus, the proposed iterative solvers are optimal with respect to the large variation in the physical parameters. Since the same preconditioner can be reused in every outer iteration, this provides an additional computational savings in the overall solution process. Numerical tests are presented to confirm the theoretical results. © 2012 Global-Science Press.
High-Efficiency Colloidal Quantum Dot Photovoltaics via Robust Self-Assembled Monolayers.
Kim, Gi-Hwan; García de Arquer, F Pelayo; Yoon, Yung Jin; Lan, Xinzheng; Liu, Mengxia; Voznyy, Oleksandr; Jagadamma, Lethy Krishnan; Abbas, Abdullah Saud; Yang, Zhenyu; Fan, Fengjia; Ip, Alexander H; Kanjanaboos, Pongsakorn; Hoogland, Sjoerd; Kim, Jin Young; Sargent, Edward H
2015-11-11
The optoelectronic tunability offered by colloidal quantum dots (CQDs) is attractive for photovoltaic applications but demands proper band alignment at electrodes for efficient charge extraction at minimal cost to voltage. With this goal in mind, self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) can be used to modify interface energy levels locally. However, to be effective SAMs must be made robust to treatment using the various solvents and ligands required for to fabricate high quality CQD solids. We report robust self-assembled monolayers (R-SAMs) that enable us to increase the efficiency of CQD photovoltaics. Only by developing a process for secure anchoring of aromatic SAMs, aided by deposition of the SAMs in a water-free deposition environment, were we able to provide an interface modification that was robust against the ensuing chemical treatments needed in the fabrication of CQD solids. The energy alignment at the rectifying interface was tailored by tuning the R-SAM for optimal alignment relative to the CQD quantum-confined electron energy levels. This resulted in a CQD PV record power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 10.7% with enhanced reproducibility relative to controls.
High-Efficiency Colloidal Quantum Dot Photovoltaics via Robust Self-Assembled Monolayers
Kim, Gi-Hwan
2015-11-11
© 2015 American Chemical Society. The optoelectronic tunability offered by colloidal quantum dots (CQDs) is attractive for photovoltaic applications but demands proper band alignment at electrodes for efficient charge extraction at minimal cost to voltage. With this goal in mind, self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) can be used to modify interface energy levels locally. However, to be effective SAMs must be made robust to treatment using the various solvents and ligands required for to fabricate high quality CQD solids. We report robust self-assembled monolayers (R-SAMs) that enable us to increase the efficiency of CQD photovoltaics. Only by developing a process for secure anchoring of aromatic SAMs, aided by deposition of the SAMs in a water-free deposition environment, were we able to provide an interface modification that was robust against the ensuing chemical treatments needed in the fabrication of CQD solids. The energy alignment at the rectifying interface was tailored by tuning the R-SAM for optimal alignment relative to the CQD quantum-confined electron energy levels. This resulted in a CQD PV record power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 10.7% with enhanced reproducibility relative to controls.
Pressure Transient Analysis of Arbitrarily Shaped Fractured Reservoirs
Gao Huimei; He Yingfu; Jiang Hanqiao; Chen Minfeng
2007-01-01
Reservoir boundary shape has a great influence on the transient pressure response of oil wells located in arbitrarily shaped reservoirs.Conventional analytical methods can only be used to calculate transient pressure response in regularly shaped reservoirs.Under the assumption that permeability varies exponentially with pressure drop,a mathematical model for well test interpretation of arbitrarily shaped deformable reservoirs was established.By using the regular perturbation method and the boundary element method,the model could be solved.The pressure behavior of wells with wellbore storage and skin effects was obtained by using the Duhamel principle.The type curves were plotted and analyzed by considering the effects of permeability modulus,arbitrary shape and impermeable region.
High-throughput preparation methods of crude extract for robust cell-free protein synthesis.
Kwon, Yong-Chan; Jewett, Michael C
2015-03-02
Crude extract based cell-free protein synthesis (CFPS) has emerged as a powerful technology platform for high-throughput protein production and genetic part characterization. Unfortunately, robust preparation of highly active extracts generally requires specialized and costly equipment and can be labor and time intensive. Moreover, cell lysis procedures can be hard to standardize, leading to different extract performance across laboratories. These challenges limit new entrants to the field and new applications, such as comprehensive genome engineering programs to improve extract performance. To address these challenges, we developed a generalizable and easily accessible high-throughput crude extract preparation method for CFPS based on sonication. To validate our approach, we investigated two Escherichia coli strains: BL21 Star™ (DE3) and a K12 MG1655 variant, achieving similar productivity (defined as CFPS yield in g/L) by varying only a few parameters. In addition, we observed identical productivity of cell extracts generated from culture volumes spanning three orders of magnitude (10 mL culture tubes to 10 L fermentation). We anticipate that our rapid and robust extract preparation method will speed-up screening of genomically engineered strains for CFPS applications, make possible highly active extracts from non-model organisms, and promote a more general use of CFPS in synthetic biology and biotechnology.
Bell tests with arbitrarily low photodetection efficiency and homodyne measurements
Araújo, Mateus; Cavalcanti, Daniel; Santos, Marcelo França; Cabello, Adán; Cunha, Marcelo Terra
2011-01-01
We show that hybrid local measurements combining homodyne measurements and photodetection provide violations of a Bell inequality with arbitrarily low photodetection efficiency. This is shown in two different scenarios: when one part receives an atom entangled to the field mode to be measured by the other part and when both parts make similar photonic measurements. Our findings definitely put the hybrid measurement scenario as a strong candidate for the implementation of a loophole-free Bell test.
Leung, Kaston; Klaus, Anders; Lin, Bill K.; Laks, Emma; Biele, Justina; Lai, Daniel; Bashashati, Ali; Huang, Yi-Fei; Aniba, Radhouane; Moksa, Michelle; Steif, Adi; Mes-Masson, Anne-Marie; Hirst, Martin; Shah, Sohrab P.; Aparicio, Samuel; Hansen, Carl L.
2016-01-01
The genomes of large numbers of single cells must be sequenced to further understanding of the biological significance of genomic heterogeneity in complex systems. Whole genome amplification (WGA) of single cells is generally the first step in such studies, but is prone to nonuniformity that can compromise genomic measurement accuracy. Despite recent advances, robust performance in high-throughput single-cell WGA remains elusive. Here, we introduce droplet multiple displacement amplification (MDA), a method that uses commercially available liquid dispensing to perform high-throughput single-cell MDA in nanoliter volumes. The performance of droplet MDA is characterized using a large dataset of 129 normal diploid cells, and is shown to exceed previously reported single-cell WGA methods in amplification uniformity, genome coverage, and/or robustness. We achieve up to 80% coverage of a single-cell genome at 5× sequencing depth, and demonstrate excellent single-nucleotide variant (SNV) detection using targeted sequencing of droplet MDA product to achieve a median allelic dropout of 15%, and using whole genome sequencing to achieve false and true positive rates of 9.66 × 10−6 and 68.8%, respectively, in a G1-phase cell. We further show that droplet MDA allows for the detection of copy number variants (CNVs) as small as 30 kb in single cells of an ovarian cancer cell line and as small as 9 Mb in two high-grade serous ovarian cancer samples using only 0.02× depth. Droplet MDA provides an accessible and scalable method for performing robust and accurate CNV and SNV measurements on large numbers of single cells. PMID:27412862
DFIG-Based Wind Turbine Robust Control Using High-Order Sliding Modes and a High Gain Observer
Beltran, Brice; Benbouzid, Mohamed; Ahmed-Ali, Tarek; Mangel, Hervé
2011-01-01
International audience; This paper deals with the power generation control in variable speed wind turbines. In this context, a control strategy is proposed to ensure power extraction optimization of a DFIG-based wind turbine. The proposed control strategy combines an MPPT using a high gain observer and second-order sliding mode for the DFIG control. This strategy presents attractive features such as chattering-free behavior, finite reaching time, robustness and unmodeled dynamics (generator a...
Robust and Accurate Shock Capturing Method for High-Order Discontinuous Galerkin Methods
Atkins, Harold L.; Pampell, Alyssa
2011-01-01
A simple yet robust and accurate approach for capturing shock waves using a high-order discontinuous Galerkin (DG) method is presented. The method uses the physical viscous terms of the Navier-Stokes equations as suggested by others; however, the proposed formulation of the numerical viscosity is continuous and compact by construction, and does not require the solution of an auxiliary diffusion equation. This work also presents two analyses that guided the formulation of the numerical viscosity and certain aspects of the DG implementation. A local eigenvalue analysis of the DG discretization applied to a shock containing element is used to evaluate the robustness of several Riemann flux functions, and to evaluate algorithm choices that exist within the underlying DG discretization. A second analysis examines exact solutions to the DG discretization in a shock containing element, and identifies a "model" instability that will inevitably arise when solving the Euler equations using the DG method. This analysis identifies the minimum viscosity required for stability. The shock capturing method is demonstrated for high-speed flow over an inviscid cylinder and for an unsteady disturbance in a hypersonic boundary layer. Numerical tests are presented that evaluate several aspects of the shock detection terms. The sensitivity of the results to model parameters is examined with grid and order refinement studies.
Problems of robustness for universal coding schemes
V'yugin, V. V.
2008-01-01
The Lempel-Ziv universal coding scheme is asymptotically optimal for the class of all stationary ergodic sources. A problem of robustness of this property under small violations of ergodicity is studied. A notion of deficiency of algorithmic randomness is used as a measure of disagreement between data sequence and probability measure. We prove that universal compressing schemes from a large class are non-robust in the following sense: if the randomness deficiency grows arbitrarily slowly on i...
Robust Joining and Assembly of Ceramic Matrix Composites for High Temperature Applications
Singh, Mrityunjay
2003-01-01
Advanced ceramic matrix composites (CMCs) are under active consideration for use in a wide variety of high temperature applications within the aerospace, energy, and nuclear industries. The engineering designs of CMC components require fabrication and manufacturing of large and complex shaped parts of various thicknesses. In many instances, it is more economical to build up complex shapes by joining simple geometrical shapes. Thus, joining and attachment have been recognized as enabling technologies for successful utilization of ceramic components in various demanding applications. In this presentation, various challenges and opportunities in design, fabrication, and testing of high temperature joints in ceramic matrix composites will be presented. A wide variety of ceramic composites, in different shapes and sizes, have been joined using an affordable, robust ceramic joining technology (ARCJoinT). Microstructure and mechanical properties of joints in melt infiltrated and CVI Sic matrix composites will be reported. Various joint design philosophies and design issues in joining of composites will be discussed.
Integrative fitting of absorption line profiles with high accuracy, robustness, and speed
Skrotzki, Julian; Habig, Jan Christoph; Ebert, Volker
2014-08-01
The principle of the integrative evaluation of absorption line profiles relies on the numeric integration of absorption line signals to retrieve absorber concentrations, e.g., of trace gases. Thus, it is a fast and robust technique. However, previous implementations of the integrative evaluation principle showed shortcomings in terms of accuracy and the lack of a fit quality indicator. This has motivated the development of an advanced integrative (AI) fitting algorithm. The AI fitting algorithm retains the advantages of previous integrative implementations—robustness and speed—and is able to achieve high accuracy by introduction of a novel iterative fitting process. A comparison of the AI fitting algorithm with the widely used Levenberg-Marquardt (LM) fitting algorithm indicates that the AI algorithm has advantages in terms of robustness due to its independence from appropriately chosen start values for the initialization of the fitting process. In addition, the AI fitting algorithm shows speed advantages typically resulting in a factor of three to four shorter computational times on a standard personal computer. The LM algorithm on the other hand retains advantages in terms of a much higher flexibility, as the AI fitting algorithm is restricted to the evaluation of single absorption lines with precomputed line width. Comparing both fitting algorithms for the specific application of in situ laser hygrometry at 1,370 nm using direct tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS) suggests that the accuracy of the AI algorithm is equivalent to that of the LM algorithm. For example, a signal-to-noise ratio of 80 and better typically yields a deviation of TDLAS hygrometry at the aerosol and cloud chamber aerosol interactions and dynamics in the atmosphere (AIDA)—a unique large-scale facility to study atmospheric processes. The robustness of the AI fitting algorithm has been validated for typical AIDA conditions encompassing strong transmission fluctuations
A new grid deformation technology with high quality and robustness based on quaternion
Huang Jiangtao
2014-10-01
Full Text Available Quality and robustness of grid deformation is of the most importance in the field of aircraft design, and grid in high quality is essential for improving the precision of numerical simulation. In order to maintain the orthogonality of deformed grid, the displacement of grid points is divided into rotational and translational parts in this paper, and inverse distance weighted interpolation is used to transfer the changing location from boundary grid to the spatial grid. Moreover, the deformation of rotational part is implemented in combination with the exponential space mapping that improves the certainty and stability of quaternion interpolation. Furthermore, the new grid deformation technique named “layering blend deformation” is built based on the basic quaternion technique, which combines the layering arithmetic with transfinite interpolation (TFI technique. Then the proposed technique is applied in the movement of airfoil, parametric modeling, and the deformation of complex configuration, in which the robustness of grid quality is tested. The results show that the new method has the capacity to deal with the problems with large deformation, and the “layering blend deformation” improves the efficiency and quality of the basic quaternion deformation method significantly.
A new grid deformation technology with high quality and robustness based on quaternion
Huang Jiangtao; Gao Zhenghong; Wang Chao
2014-01-01
Quality and robustness of grid deformation is of the most importance in the field of aircraft design, and grid in high quality is essential for improving the precision of numerical simulation. In order to maintain the orthogonality of deformed grid, the displacement of grid points is divided into rotational and translational parts in this paper, and inverse distance weighted interpolation is used to transfer the changing location from boundary grid to the spatial grid. Moreover, the deformation of rotational part is implemented in combination with the exponential space mapping that improves the certainty and stability of quaternion interpolation. Furthermore, the new grid deformation technique named‘‘layering blend deformation’’ is built based on the basic quaternion technique, which com-bines the layering arithmetic with transfinite interpolation (TFI) technique. Then the proposed tech-nique is applied in the movement of airfoil, parametric modeling, and the deformation of complex configuration, in which the robustness of grid quality is tested. The results show that the new method has the capacity to deal with the problems with large deformation, and the‘‘layering blend deforma-tion’’ improves the efficiency and quality of the basic quaternion deformation method significantly.
Huthwaite, P; Simonetti, F
2011-09-01
Breast ultrasound tomography has the potential to improve the cost, safety, and reliability of breast cancer screening and diagnosis over the gold-standard of mammography. Vital to achieving this potential is the development of imaging algorithms to unravel the complex anatomy of the breast and its mechanical properties. The solution most commonly relied upon is time-of-flight tomography, but this exhibits low resolution due to the presence of diffraction effects. Iterative full-wave inversion methods present one solution to achieve higher resolution, but these are slow and are not guaranteed to converge to the correct solution. Presented here is HARBUT, the hybrid algorithm for robust breast ultrasound tomography, which utilizes the complementary strengths of time-of-flight and diffraction tomography resulting in a direct, fast, robust and accurate high resolution method of reconstructing the sound speed through the breast. The algorithm is shown to produce accurate reconstructions with realistic data from a complex three-dimensional simulation, with masses as small as 4 mm being clearly visible.
Robust content-dependent high-fidelity watermark for tracking in digital cinema
Lubin, Jeffrey; Bloom, Jeffrey A.; Cheng, Hui
2003-06-01
Forensic digital watermarking is a promising tool in the fight against piracy of copyrighted motion imagery content, but to be effective it must be (1) imperceptibly embedded in high-definition motion picture source, (2) reliably retrieved, even from degraded copies as might result from camcorder capture and subsequent very-low-bitrate compression and distribution on the Internet, and (3) secure against unauthorized removal. No existing watermarking technology has yet to meet these three simultaneous requirements of fidelity, robustness, and security. We describe here a forensic watermarking approach that meets all three requirements. It is based on the inherent robustness and imperceptibility of very low spatiotemporal frequency watermark carriers, and on a watermark placement technique that renders jamming attacks too costly in picture quality, even if the attacker has complete knowledge of the embedding algorithm. The algorithm has been tested on HD Cinemascope source material exhibited in a digital cinema viewing room. The watermark is imperceptible, yet recoverable after exhibition capture with camcorders, and after the introduction of other distortions such as low-pass filtering, noise addition, geometric shifts, and the manipulation of brightness and contrast.
Robust adaptive output feedback control of nonlinearly parameterized systems
LIU Yusheng; LI Xingyuan
2007-01-01
The ideas of adaptive nonlinear damping and changing supply functions were used to counteract the effects of parameter and nonlinear uncertainties,unmodeled dynamics and unknown bounded disturbances.The high-gain observer was used to estimate the state of the system.A robust adaptive output feedback control scheme was proposed for nonlinearly parameterized systems represented by inputoutput models.The scheme does not need to estimate the unknown parameters nor add a dynamical signal to dominate the effects of unmodeled dynamics.It is proven that the proposed control scheme guarantees that all the variables in the closed-loop system are bounded and the mean-square tracking error can be made arbitrarily small by choosing some design parameters appropriately.Simulation results have illustrated the effectiveness of the proposed robust adaptive control scheme.
Robustness of the filamentation instability as shock mediator in arbitrarily oriented magnetic field
Bret, Antoine
2011-01-01
The filamentation instability (sometimes also referred to as "Weibel") is a key process in many astrophysical scenario. In the Fireball model for Gamma Ray Bursts, this instability is believed to mediate collisionless shock formation from the collision of two plasma shells. It has been known for long that a flow aligned magnetic field can completely cancel this instability. We show here that in the general case where there is an angle between the field and the flow, the filamentation instability can never be stabilized, regardless of the field strength. The presented model analyzes the stability of two symmetric counter-streaming cold electron/proton plasma shells. Relativistic effects are accounted for, and various exact analytical results are derived. This result guarantees the occurrence of the instability in realistic settings fulfilling the cold approximation.
Prestack reverse-time depth migration of arbitrarily wide-angle wave equations
HE Bing-shou; ZHANG Hui-xing; ZHANG Jing
2008-01-01
Based on arbitrarily wide-angle wave equations, a reverse-time propagation scheme is developed by substituting the partial derivatives of depth and time with central differences. The partial derivative of horizontal direction is replaced with high order difference. The imaging condition is computed by solving the eikonal equations. On the basis of above techniques, a prestack reverse-time depth migration algorithm is developed. The processing exam-ples of synthetic data show that the method can remove unwanted internal reflections and decrease the migration noise. The method also has the advantage of fidelity and is appficable of dip angle reflector imaging.
Carrier recovery systems for arbitrarily mapped APK signals
Matsuo, Y.; Namiki, J.
1982-10-01
This paper introduces new carrier recovery techniques for general amplitude-phase keying (APK) modulation signals. The APK's include not only normal QAM but also arbitrarily mapped APK's, including an unsymmetrical APK. Difficulty in phase error detection due to signal mapping complexity, undesirable stable-lock point existence, and the contradiction between a fast acquisition and an accurate steady state performance can be overcome. For that purpose, an acquisition mode and a steady-state mode are used. Furthermore, read-only memories (ROM) are used for recognizing various system states. Random sampling controlled PLL noise performance and acquisition mode carrier recovery circuit pull-in performance with hysteresis property was obtained.
Scattering of arbitrarily shaped beam by a chiral object
Wang, Wenjie; Sun, Yufa; Zhang, Huayong
2017-02-01
An exact semi-analytical solution to the arbitrarily shaped beam scattering by a chiral object is proposed through expanding the scattered and internal fields in terms of appropriate spherical vector wave functions. By using the boundary conditions and the method of moments technique, the unknown expansion coefficients are determined. For incidence of a Gaussian beam, zero-order Bessel beam and Hertzian electric dipole radiation, numerical results of the normalized differential scattering cross section are given to a chiral spheroid and a chiral circular cylinder of finite length, and the scattering characteristics are discussed concisely.
Robust PID Steering Control in Parameter Space for Highly Automated Driving
Mümin Tolga Emirler
2014-01-01
Full Text Available This paper is on the design of a parameter space based robust PID steering controller. This controller is used for automated steering in automated path following of a midsized sedan. Linear and nonlinear models of this midsized sedan are presented in the paper. Experimental results are used to validate the longitudinal and lateral dynamic models of this vehicle. This paper is on automated steering control and concentrates on the lateral direction of motion. The linear model is used to design a PID steering controller in parameter space that satisfies D-stability. The PID steering controller that is designed is used in a simulation study to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed method. Simulation results for a circular trajectory and for a curved trajectory are presented and discussed in detail. This study is part of a larger research effort aimed at implementing highly automated driving in a midsized sedan.
Accurate and robust unitary transformation of a high-dimensional quantum system
Anderson, B E; Riofrío, C A; Deutsch, I H; Jessen, P S
2014-01-01
Quantum control in large dimensional Hilbert spaces is essential for realizing the power of quantum information processing. For closed quantum systems the relevant input/output maps are unitary transformations, and the fundamental challenge becomes how to implement these with high fidelity in the presence of experimental imperfections and decoherence. For two-level systems (qubits) most aspects of unitary control are well understood, but for systems with Hilbert space dimension d>2 (qudits), many questions remain regarding the optimal design of control Hamiltonians and the feasibility of robust implementation. Here we show that arbitrary, randomly chosen unitary transformations can be efficiently designed and implemented in a large dimensional Hilbert space (d=16) associated with the electronic ground state of atomic 133Cs, achieving fidelities above 0.98 as measured by randomized benchmarking. Generalizing the concepts of inhomogeneous control and dynamical decoupling to d>2 systems, we further demonstrate t...
Comminal, Raphaël; Spangenberg, Jon; Hattel, Jesper Henri
2015-01-01
A new streamfunction/log-conformation formulation of incompressible viscoelastic flows is presented. The log-conformation representation guaranties the positive-definiteness of the conformation tensor and obviates the high Weissenberg number problem. The streamfunction is defined as a vector...... potential of the velocity field, and provides a pressureless formulation of the conservation laws, which automatically enforces the incompressibility. The resulting numerical method is free from velocity-pressure decoupling errors, and can achieve stable calculations for large Courant numbers, which improve...... the robustness and the efficiency of the solver. The two-dimensional flow of an Oldroyd-B fluid inside the lid-driven cavity is simulated for a large range of Weissenberg numbers. The numerical results demonstrate the second-order accuracy of our scheme, and our solutions are in good agreement with the available...
A robust approach to the generation of high-quality random numbers
Bisadi, Zahra; Fontana, Giorgio; Moser, Enrico; Pucker, Georg; Pavesi, Lorenzo
2016-10-01
A random number generation approach comprising a silicon nanocrystals LED (Si-NCs LED), silicon single photon avalanche photodiode (Si SPAD) and a field-programmable gate array (FPGA) is introduced. The Si-NCs LED is the source of entropy with photon emission in the visible range detectable by silicon detectors allowing the fabrication of an all-silicon-based device. The proposed quantum random number generator (QRNG) is robust against variations of the internal and external parameters such as aging of the components, changing temperature, the ambient interferences and the silicon detector artifacts. The raw data show high quality of randomness and passed all the statistical tests in National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) tests suite without the application of a post-processing algorithm. The efficiency of random number generation is 4-bits per detected photon.
RTP-based broadcast streaming of high definition H.264/AVC video: an error robustness evaluation
HILLESTAD Odd Inge; JETLUND Ola; PERKIS Andrew
2006-01-01
In this work, we present an evaluation of the performance and error robustness of RTP-based broadcast streaming of high-quality high-definition (HD) H.264/AVC video. Using a fully controlled IP test bed (Hillestad et al., 2005), we broadcast high-definition video over RTP/UDP, and use an IP network emulator to introduce a varying amount of randomly distributed packet loss. A high-performance network interface monitoring card is used to capture the video packets into a trace file. Purpose-built software parses the trace file, analyzes the RTP stream and assembles the correctly received NAL units into an H.264/AVC Annex B byte stream file, which is subsequently decoded by JVT JM 10.1 reference software. The proposed measurement setup is a novel, practical and intuitive approach to perform error resilience testing of real-world H.264/AVC broadcast applications. Through a series of experiments, we evaluate some of the error resilience features of the H.264/AVC standard, and see how they perform at packet loss rates from 0.01% to 5%. The results confirmed that an appropriate slice partitioning scheme is essential to have a graceful degradation in received quality in the case of packet loss. While flexible macroblock ordering reduces the compression efficiency about 1 dB for our test material, reconstructed video quality is improved for loss rates above 0.25%.
Humbird, Kelli; Peterson, J. Luc; Brandon, Scott; Field, John; Nora, Ryan; Spears, Brian
2016-10-01
Next-generation supercomputer architecture and in-transit data analysis have been used to create a large collection of 2-D ICF capsule implosion simulations. The database includes metrics for approximately 60,000 implosions, with x-ray images and detailed physics parameters available for over 20,000 simulations. To map and explore this large database, surrogate models for numerous quantities of interest are built using supervised machine learning algorithms. Response surfaces constructed using the predictive capabilities of the surrogates allow for continuous exploration of parameter space without requiring additional simulations. High performing regions of the input space are identified to guide the design of future experiments. In particular, a model for the yield built using a random forest regression algorithm has a cross validation score of 94.3% and is consistently conservative for high yield predictions. The model is used to search for robust volumes of parameter space where high yields are expected, even given variations in other input parameters. Surrogates for additional quantities of interest relevant to ignition are used to further characterize the high yield regions. This work performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344, Lawrence Livermore National Security, LLC. LLNL-ABS-697277.
A finite crack with arbitrarily varied surface piezoelectricity
Xu, Yang; Wang, Xu
2017-01-01
We study the contribution of arbitrarily varied surface piezoelectricity to the anti-plane deformation and in-plane electric fields of a hexagonal piezoelectric material containing a finite crack. The varied surface piezoelectricity is incorporated by using an extended version of the continuum-based surface/interface model of Gurtin and Murdoch. In our discussion, the surface properties, including the surface elastic stiffness, the surface piezoelectric modulus and the surface dielectric permittivity, are assumed to be varied arbitrarily along the crack surfaces. By using the Green’s function method, the original boundary value problem is reduced to a system of two coupled first-order Cauchy singular integro-differential equations. Through a diagonalization strategy, the coupled system is transformed into two independent singular integro-differential equations, each of which can be numerically solved by using the collocation method. Our results indicate that the variation of the surface electroelastic moduli exerts a significant influence on the crack opening displacement, the electric potential jump across the crack faces and on the strengths of the logarithmic singularity in stresses and electric displacements at the crack tips.
A gyroscope fabrication method for high sensitivity and robustness to fabrication tolerances
Sung, Jungwoo; Kim, Jin Young; Seok, Seyeong; Kwon, Hyuckjin J.; Kim, Minseo; Kim, Geonhwee; Lim, Geunbae
2014-07-01
MEMS gyroscopes have favorable characteristics, including small size, high throughput, and low cost. The performance of MEMS gyroscopes depends on the displacement sensitivity of the capacitors. In this paper, we describe the fabrication of 300-µm-thick gyroscopes that can provide high displacement sensitivity and are robust to fabrication tolerances, i.e. deep reactive ion etch (DRIE) rate uniformity. When thick structures are perforated using DRIE to achieve high-aspect-ratio features, footing is commonly observed. However, we describe a fabrication method that circumvents problems associated with footing and side-wall etching, so that the gyroscopes can have uniform dimensions and small variations across the wafer. Using a post-fabrication translation approach, the position of capacitors is modified following DRIE, and the gap in the gyroscopes can be reduced to 3 μm, which leads to an aspect ratio of 100. Using this method, we fabricated MEMS gyroscopes that can overcome the DRIE aspect ratio limit and have capacitors with higher sensitivities than those of other gyroscopes, which typically employ substrates that are less than 100 µm thick. The gyroscope had a resonant frequency of 9.91 kHz, a quality factor of 2500 and a sensitivity of 23 mV/[deg/s].
Whyte, D. G.; Bonoli, P.; Barnard, H.; Haakonsen, C.; Hartwig, Z.; Kasten, C.; Palmer, T.; Sung, C.; Sutherland, D.; Bromberg, L.; Mangiarotti, F.; Goh, J.; Sorbom, B.; Sierchio, J.; Ball, J.; Greenwald, M.; Olynyk, G.; Minervini, J.
2012-10-01
Two of the greatest challenges to tokamak reactors are 1) large single-unit cost of each reactor's construction and 2) their susceptibility to disruptions from operation at or above operational limits. We present an attractive tokamak reactor design that substantially lessens these issues by exploiting recent advancements in superconductor (SC) tapes allowing peak field on SC coil > 20 Tesla. A R˜3.3 m, B˜9.2 T, ˜ 500 MW fusion power tokamak provides high fusion gain while avoiding all disruptive operating boundaries (no-wall beta, kink, and density limits). Robust steady-state core scenarios are obtained by exploiting the synergy of high field, compact size and ideal efficiency current drive using high-field side launch of Lower Hybrid waves. The design features a completely modular replacement of internal solid components enabled by the demountability of the coils/tapes and the use of an immersion liquid blanket. This modularity opens up the possibility of using the device as a nuclear component test facility.
Robust microscale superlubricity under high contact pressure enabled by graphene-coated microsphere
Liu, Shu-Wei; Wang, Hua-Ping; Xu, Qiang; Ma, Tian-Bao; Yu, Gui; Zhang, Chenhui; Geng, Dechao; Yu, Zhiwei; Zhang, Shengguang; Wang, Wenzhong; Hu, Yuan-Zhong; Wang, Hui; Luo, Jianbin
2017-02-01
Superlubricity of graphite and graphene has aroused increasing interest in recent years. Yet how to obtain a long-lasting superlubricity between graphene layers, under high applied normal load in ambient atmosphere still remains a challenge but is highly desirable. Here, we report a direct measurement of sliding friction between graphene and graphene, and graphene and hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) under high contact pressures by employing graphene-coated microsphere (GMS) probe prepared by metal-catalyst-free chemical vapour deposition. The exceptionally low and robust friction coefficient of 0.003 is accomplished under local asperity contact pressure up to 1 GPa, at arbitrary relative surface rotation angles, which is insensitive to relative humidity up to 51% RH. This ultralow friction is attributed to the sustainable overall incommensurability due to the multi-asperity contact covered with randomly oriented graphene nanograins. This realization of microscale superlubricity can be extended to the sliding between a variety of two-dimensional (2D) layers.
Kim, Jeong-Gyun; Kang, Haeyong; Kim, Joonggyu; Lee, Young Hee; Suh, Dongseok
A flexible superconducting fiber is prepared by twisting carbon nanotube (CNT) sheets coated with sputter-deposited niobium nitride (NbN) layer to form the shape of yarn. Twisted CNT yarn, which has been extensively studied due to its high flexibility as well as excellent mechanical properties, and NbN, which is a superconducting material with high transition temperature (Tc) and critical magnetic field (Hc), are combined together by the deposition of NbN layer on free-standing CNT-sheet substrate followed by the biscrolling process. We tried many experimental conditions to investigate the superconducting properties of NbN-CNT yarn as a function of NbN thickness and number of CNT-sheet layers, and found out that the superconducting property of NbN on CNT-sheet can be comparable to that of NbN thin film on the normal solid substrate. In addition, the superconducting property survived even under the condition of severe mechanical deformation such as knotting. These results show the potential application of this technology as a large-scale fabrication method of flexible, mechanically robust, high performance superconducting wire. This work is supported by the Institute for Basic Science (IBS-R011-D1), and by the National Research Foundation (BSR-2013R1A1A1076063) funded by the Ministry of Science, ICT & Future Planning, Republic of Korea.
Robust microscale superlubricity under high contact pressure enabled by graphene-coated microsphere
Liu, Shu-Wei; Wang, Hua-Ping; Xu, Qiang; Ma, Tian-Bao; Yu, Gui; Zhang, Chenhui; Geng, Dechao; Yu, Zhiwei; Zhang, Shengguang; Wang, Wenzhong; Hu, Yuan-Zhong; Wang, Hui; Luo, Jianbin
2017-01-01
Superlubricity of graphite and graphene has aroused increasing interest in recent years. Yet how to obtain a long-lasting superlubricity between graphene layers, under high applied normal load in ambient atmosphere still remains a challenge but is highly desirable. Here, we report a direct measurement of sliding friction between graphene and graphene, and graphene and hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) under high contact pressures by employing graphene-coated microsphere (GMS) probe prepared by metal-catalyst-free chemical vapour deposition. The exceptionally low and robust friction coefficient of 0.003 is accomplished under local asperity contact pressure up to 1 GPa, at arbitrary relative surface rotation angles, which is insensitive to relative humidity up to 51% RH. This ultralow friction is attributed to the sustainable overall incommensurability due to the multi-asperity contact covered with randomly oriented graphene nanograins. This realization of microscale superlubricity can be extended to the sliding between a variety of two-dimensional (2D) layers. PMID:28195130
Digital Image Watermarking for Arbitrarily Shaped Objects Based On SA-DWT
Essaouabi, A; Fegragui, F
2009-01-01
Many image watermarking schemes have been proposed in recent years, but they usually involve embedding a watermark to the entire image without considering only a particular object in the image, which the image owner may be interested in. This paper proposes a watermarking scheme that can embed a watermark to an arbitrarily shaped object in an image. Before embedding, the image owner specifies an object of arbitrary shape that is of a concern to him. Then the object is transformed into the wavelet domain using in place lifting shape adaptive DWT(SADWT) and a watermark is embedded by modifying the wavelet coefficients. In order to make the watermark robust and transparent, the watermark is embedded in the average of wavelet blocks using the visual model based on the human visual system. Wavelet coefficients n least significant bits (LSBs) are adjusted in concert with the average. Simulation results shows that the proposed watermarking scheme is perceptually invisible and robust against many attacks such as loss...
Digital Image Watermarking for Arbitrarily Shaped Objects Based On SA-DWT
F. Regragui
2009-10-01
Full Text Available Many image watermarking schemes have been proposed in recent years, but they usually involve embedding a watermark to the entire image without considering only a particular object in the image, which the image owner may be interested in. This paper proposes a watermarking scheme that can embed a watermark to an arbitrarily shaped object in an image. Before embedding, the image owner specifies an object of arbitrary shape that is of a concern to him. Then the object is transformed into the wavelet domain using in place lifting shape adaptive DWT(SADWT and a watermark is embedded by modifying the wavelet coefficients. In order to make the watermark robust and transparent, the watermark is embedded in the average of wavelet blocks using the visual model based on the human visual system. Wavelet coefficients n least significant bits (LSBs are adjusted in concert with the average. Simulation results shows that the proposed watermarking scheme is perceptually invisible and robust against many attacks such as lossy compression (e.g. JPEG, JPEG2000, scaling, adding noise, filtering, etc.
Zhiqing Sheng
2016-04-01
Full Text Available Addressing the simulating issue of the helicopter-manipulating booster aerodynamic load with high-frequency dynamic load superimposed on a large static load, this paper studies the design of the robust controller for the electro-hydraulic loading system to realize the simulation of this kind of load. Firstly, the equivalent linear model of the electro-hydraulic loading system under assumed parameter uncertainty is established. Then, a hybrid control scheme is proposed for the loading system. This control scheme consists of a constant velocity feed-forward compensator, a robust inner loop compensator based on disturbance observer and a robust outer loop feedback controller. The constant velocity compensator eliminates most of the extraneous force at first, and then the double-loop cascade composition control strategy is employed to design the compensated system. The disturbance observer–based inner loop compensator further restrains the disturbances including the remaining extraneous force, and makes the actual plant tracking a nominal model approximately in a certain frequency range. The robust outer loop controller achieves the desired force-tracking performance, and guarantees system robustness in the high frequency region. The optimized low-pass filter Q(s is designed by using the H∞ mixed sensitivity optimization method. The simulation results show that the proposed hybrid control scheme and controller can effectively suppress the extraneous force and improve the robustness of the electro-hydraulic loading system.
Ratschbacher, Lothar; Gallego, Jose; Ghosh, Sutapa; Alavi, Seyed; Alt, Wolfgang; Martinez-Dorantes, Miguel; Meschede, Dieter
2016-04-01
Fiber Fabry-Perot cavities, formed by micro-machined mirrors on the end-facets of optical fibers, are used in an increasing number of technical and scientific applications. Some of the most promising areas of application of these optical micro-resonators with high finesse and small mode volume are in the field of quantum communication and information. The resonator-enhanced light-matter interaction, for instance, provide basis for the realization of efficient optical interfaces between stationary matter-based quantum nodes and flying single-photon qubits. To date fiber Fabry-Perot cavities have been successfully applied in experiments interfacing single photons with a wide range of quantum systems, including cold atoms, ions and solid state emitters as well as quantum optomechanical experiments. Here we address some important practical questions that arise during the experimental implementation of high finesse fiber Fabry-Perot cavities: How can optimal fiber cavity alignment be achieved and how can the efficiency of coupling light from the optical fibers to the cavity mode and vice versa be characterized? How should optical fiber cavities be constructed and stabilized to fulfill their potential for miniaturization and integration into robust scientific and technological devices that can operate outside of dedicated laboratory environments in the future? The first two questions we answer with an analytic mode matching calculation that relates the alignment dependent fiber-to-cavity mode-matching efficiency to the easily measurable dip in the reflected light power at the cavity resonance. Our general analysis provides a simple recipe for the optimal alignment of fiber Fabry-Perot cavities and moreover for the first time explains the asymmetry in their reflective line shapes. The latter question we explore by investigating a novel, intrinsically rigid fiber cavity design that makes use of the high passive stability of a monolithic cavity spacer and employs thermal
Chevallier, Christyves; Fressengeas, Nicolas; Jacquet, Joel
2013-01-01
A GaAs/AlOx high contrast grating structure design which exhibits a 99.5% high reflectivity for a 425nm large bandwidth is reported. The high contrast grating (HCG) structure has been designed in order to enhance the properties of mid-infrared VCSEL devices by replacing the top Bragg mirror of the cavity. A robust optimization algorithm has been implemented to design the HCG structure not only as an efficient mirror but also as a robust structure against the imperfections of fabrication. The design method presented here can be easily adapted for other HCG applications at different wavelengths.
Highly flexible and robust N-doped SiC nanoneedle field emitters
Chen, Shanliang
2015-01-23
Flexible field emission (FE) emitters, whose unique advantages are lightweight and conformable, promise to enable a wide range of technologies, such as roll-up flexible FE displays, e-papers and flexible light-emitting diodes. In this work, we demonstrate for the first time highly flexible SiC field emitters with low turn-on fields and excellent emission stabilities. n-Type SiC nanoneedles with ultra-sharp tips and tailored N-doping levels were synthesized via a catalyst-assisted pyrolysis process on carbon fabrics by controlling the gas mixture and cooling rate. The turn-on field, threshold field and current emission fluctuation of SiC nanoneedle emitters with an N-doping level of 7.58 at.% are 1.11 V μm-1, 1.55 V μm-1 and 8.1%, respectively, suggesting the best overall performance for such flexible field emitters. Furthermore, characterization of the FE properties under repeated bending cycles and different bending states reveal that the SiC field emitters are mechanically and electrically robust with unprecedentedly high flexibility and stabilities. These findings underscore the importance of concurrent morphology and composition controls in nanomaterial synthesis and establish SiC nanoneedles as the most promising candidate for flexible FE applications. © 2015 Nature Publishing Group All rights reserved.
PHYRN: a robust method for phylogenetic analysis of highly divergent sequences.
Gaurav Bhardwaj
Full Text Available Both multiple sequence alignment and phylogenetic analysis are problematic in the "twilight zone" of sequence similarity (≤ 25% amino acid identity. Herein we explore the accuracy of phylogenetic inference at extreme sequence divergence using a variety of simulated data sets. We evaluate four leading multiple sequence alignment (MSA methods (MAFFT, T-COFFEE, CLUSTAL, and MUSCLE and six commonly used programs of tree estimation (Distance-based: Neighbor-Joining; Character-based: PhyML, RAxML, GARLI, Maximum Parsimony, and Bayesian against a novel MSA-independent method (PHYRN described here. Strikingly, at "midnight zone" genetic distances (~7% pairwise identity and 4.0 gaps per position, PHYRN returns high-resolution phylogenies that outperform traditional approaches. We reason this is due to PHRYN's capability to amplify informative positions, even at the most extreme levels of sequence divergence. We also assess the applicability of the PHYRN algorithm for inferring deep evolutionary relationships in the divergent DANGER protein superfamily, for which PHYRN infers a more robust tree compared to MSA-based approaches. Taken together, these results demonstrate that PHYRN represents a powerful mechanism for mapping uncharted frontiers in highly divergent protein sequence data sets.
Resilient and Robust High Performance Computing Platforms for Scientific Computing Integrity
Jin, Yier [Univ. of Central Florida, Orlando, FL (United States)
2017-07-14
As technology advances, computer systems are subject to increasingly sophisticated cyber-attacks that compromise both their security and integrity. High performance computing platforms used in commercial and scientific applications involving sensitive, or even classified data, are frequently targeted by powerful adversaries. This situation is made worse by a lack of fundamental security solutions that both perform efficiently and are effective at preventing threats. Current security solutions fail to address the threat landscape and ensure the integrity of sensitive data. As challenges rise, both private and public sectors will require robust technologies to protect its computing infrastructure. The research outcomes from this project try to address all these challenges. For example, we present LAZARUS, a novel technique to harden kernel Address Space Layout Randomization (KASLR) against paging-based side-channel attacks. In particular, our scheme allows for fine-grained protection of the virtual memory mappings that implement the randomization. We demonstrate the effectiveness of our approach by hardening a recent Linux kernel with LAZARUS, mitigating all of the previously presented side-channel attacks on KASLR. Our extensive evaluation shows that LAZARUS incurs only 0.943% overhead for standard benchmarks, and is therefore highly practical. We also introduced HA2lloc, a hardware-assisted allocator that is capable of leveraging an extended memory management unit to detect memory errors in the heap. We also perform testing using HA2lloc in a simulation environment and find that the approach is capable of preventing common memory vulnerabilities.
Xie, Zhongliu; Kitamoto, Asanobu; Tamura, Masaru; Shiroishi, Toshihiko; Gillies, Duncan
2016-03-01
Intensive international efforts are underway towards phenotyping the mouse genome, by knocking out each of its ≍25,000 genes one-by-one for comparative study. With vast amounts of data to analyze, the traditional method using time-consuming histological examination is clearly impractical, leading to an overwhelming demand for some high-throughput phenotyping framework, especially with the employment of biomedical image informatics to efficiently identify phenotypes concerning morphological abnormality. Existing work has either excessively relied on volumetric analytics which is insensitive to phenotypes associated with no severe volume variations, or tailored for specific defects and thus fails to serve a general phenotyping purpose. Furthermore, the prevailing requirement of an atlas for image segmentation in contrast to its limited availability further complicates the issue in practice. In this paper we propose a high-throughput general-purpose phenotyping framework that is able to efficiently perform batch-wise anomaly detection without prior knowledge of the phenotype and the need for atlas-based segmentation. Anomaly detection is centered on the combined use of group-wise non-rigid image registration and robust principal component analysis (RPCA) for feature extraction and decomposition.
Robust Change Vector Analysis (RCVA) for multi-sensor very high resolution optical satellite data
Thonfeld, Frank; Feilhauer, Hannes; Braun, Matthias; Menz, Gunter
2016-08-01
The analysis of rapid land cover/land use changes by means of remote sensing is often based on data acquired under varying and occasionally unfavorable conditions. In addition, such analyses frequently use data acquired by different sensor systems. These acquisitions often differ with respect to sun position and sensor viewing geometry which lead to characteristic effects in each image. These differences may have a negative impact on reliable change detection. Here, we propose an approach called Robust Change Vector Analysis (RCVA), aiming to mitigate these effects. RCVA is an improvement of the widely-used Change Vector Analysis (CVA), developed to account for pixel neighborhood effects. We used a RapidEye and Kompsat-2 cross-sensor change detection test to demonstrate the efficiency of RCVA. Our analysis showed that RCVA results in fewer false negatives as well as false positives when compared to CVA under similar test conditions. We conclude that RCVA is a powerful technique which can be utilized to reduce spurious changes in bi-temporal change detection analyses based on high- or very-high spatial resolution imagery.
Gilmanov, Anvar, E-mail: agilmano@umn.edu [Saint Anthony Falls Laboratory, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55414 (United States); Le, Trung Bao, E-mail: lebao002@umn.edu [Saint Anthony Falls Laboratory, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55414 (United States); Sotiropoulos, Fotis, E-mail: fotis@umn.edu [Saint Anthony Falls Laboratory, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55414 (United States); Department of Civil, Environmental and Geo-Engineering, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55414 (United States)
2015-11-01
We present a new numerical methodology for simulating fluid–structure interaction (FSI) problems involving thin flexible bodies in an incompressible fluid. The FSI algorithm uses the Dirichlet–Neumann partitioning technique. The curvilinear immersed boundary method (CURVIB) is coupled with a rotation-free finite element (FE) model for thin shells enabling the efficient simulation of FSI problems with arbitrarily large deformation. Turbulent flow problems are handled using large-eddy simulation with the dynamic Smagorinsky model in conjunction with a wall model to reconstruct boundary conditions near immersed boundaries. The CURVIB and FE solvers are coupled together on the flexible solid–fluid interfaces where the structural nodal positions, displacements, velocities and loads are calculated and exchanged between the two solvers. Loose and strong coupling FSI schemes are employed enhanced by the Aitken acceleration technique to ensure robust coupling and fast convergence especially for low mass ratio problems. The coupled CURVIB-FE-FSI method is validated by applying it to simulate two FSI problems involving thin flexible structures: 1) vortex-induced vibrations of a cantilever mounted in the wake of a square cylinder at different mass ratios and at low Reynolds number; and 2) the more challenging high Reynolds number problem involving the oscillation of an inverted elastic flag. For both cases the computed results are in excellent agreement with previous numerical simulations and/or experiential measurements. Grid convergence tests/studies are carried out for both the cantilever and inverted flag problems, which show that the CURVIB-FE-FSI method provides their convergence. Finally, the capability of the new methodology in simulations of complex cardiovascular flows is demonstrated by applying it to simulate the FSI of a tri-leaflet, prosthetic heart valve in an anatomic aorta and under physiologic pulsatile conditions.
Gilmanov, Anvar; Le, Trung Bao; Sotiropoulos, Fotis
2015-11-01
We present a new numerical methodology for simulating fluid-structure interaction (FSI) problems involving thin flexible bodies in an incompressible fluid. The FSI algorithm uses the Dirichlet-Neumann partitioning technique. The curvilinear immersed boundary method (CURVIB) is coupled with a rotation-free finite element (FE) model for thin shells enabling the efficient simulation of FSI problems with arbitrarily large deformation. Turbulent flow problems are handled using large-eddy simulation with the dynamic Smagorinsky model in conjunction with a wall model to reconstruct boundary conditions near immersed boundaries. The CURVIB and FE solvers are coupled together on the flexible solid-fluid interfaces where the structural nodal positions, displacements, velocities and loads are calculated and exchanged between the two solvers. Loose and strong coupling FSI schemes are employed enhanced by the Aitken acceleration technique to ensure robust coupling and fast convergence especially for low mass ratio problems. The coupled CURVIB-FE-FSI method is validated by applying it to simulate two FSI problems involving thin flexible structures: 1) vortex-induced vibrations of a cantilever mounted in the wake of a square cylinder at different mass ratios and at low Reynolds number; and 2) the more challenging high Reynolds number problem involving the oscillation of an inverted elastic flag. For both cases the computed results are in excellent agreement with previous numerical simulations and/or experiential measurements. Grid convergence tests/studies are carried out for both the cantilever and inverted flag problems, which show that the CURVIB-FE-FSI method provides their convergence. Finally, the capability of the new methodology in simulations of complex cardiovascular flows is demonstrated by applying it to simulate the FSI of a tri-leaflet, prosthetic heart valve in an anatomic aorta and under physiologic pulsatile conditions.
Borate cross-linked graphene oxide-chitosan as robust and high gas barrier films
Yan, Ning; Capezzuto, Filomena; Lavorgna, Marino; Buonocore, Giovanna G.; Tescione, Fabiana; Xia, Hesheng; Ambrosio, Luigi
2016-05-01
Chitosan (CS) is one of the most promising polymers due to its biocompatibility, biodegradability, and natural abundance. However, its poor mechanical and barrier properties make it difficult to satisfy a wide range of applications. Herein, borate ions, originating from the hydrolysis of sodium tetraborate decahydrate (borax), have been used to crosslink chitosan and graphene oxide (GO) nanocomposites. Chitosan films consisting of 1.0 wt% boron and 1.0 wt% GO exhibit a significant improvement in both the toughness and oxygen barrier properties compared to pristine chitosan. In particular the tensile strength of the samples after thermal treatment increases by ~160% compared to pristine chitosan, whereas their oxygen permeability reduces by ~90%. This is ascribed to the chemical crosslinking between chitosan and GO nanoplatelets through borate ions, as well as the formation of a layered morphology with graphene nanoplatelets oriented parallel to the sample surface. The exceptional robust and high gas barrier film has promising application in the packaging industry. The borate-crosslinking chemistry represents the potential strategy for improving properties of other polymer nanocomposites.Chitosan (CS) is one of the most promising polymers due to its biocompatibility, biodegradability, and natural abundance. However, its poor mechanical and barrier properties make it difficult to satisfy a wide range of applications. Herein, borate ions, originating from the hydrolysis of sodium tetraborate decahydrate (borax), have been used to crosslink chitosan and graphene oxide (GO) nanocomposites. Chitosan films consisting of 1.0 wt% boron and 1.0 wt% GO exhibit a significant improvement in both the toughness and oxygen barrier properties compared to pristine chitosan. In particular the tensile strength of the samples after thermal treatment increases by ~160% compared to pristine chitosan, whereas their oxygen permeability reduces by ~90%. This is ascribed to the chemical
MIMO Multiple Access Channel with an Arbitrarily Varying Eavesdropper
He, Xiang; Yener, Aylin
2012-01-01
A two-transmitter Gaussian multiple access wiretap channel with multiple antennas at each of the nodes is investigated. The channel matrices at the legitimate terminals are fixed and revealed to all the terminals, whereas the channel matrix of the eavesdropper is arbitrarily varying and only known to the eavesdropper. The secrecy degrees of freedom (s.d.o.f.) region under a strong secrecy constraint is characterized. A transmission scheme that orthogonalizes the transmit signals of the two users at the intended receiver and uses a single-user wiretap code is shown to be sufficient to achieve the s.d.o.f. region. The converse involves establishing an upper bound on a weighted-sum-rate expression. This is accomplished by using induction, where at each step one combines the secrecy and multiple-access constraints associated with an adversary eavesdropping a carefully selected group of sub-channels.
Sawano, Takahiro; Thacker, Nathan C.; Lin, Zekai; McIsaac, Alexandra R.; Lin, Wenbin (UC)
2016-05-06
We report here the design of BINAP-based metal–organic frameworks and their postsynthetic metalation with Rh complexes to afford highly active and enantioselective single-site solid catalysts for the asymmetric cyclization reactions of 1,6-enynes. Robust, chiral, and porous Zr-MOFs of UiO topology, BINAP-MOF (I) or BINAP-dMOF (II), were prepared using purely BINAP-derived dicarboxylate linkers or by mixing BINAP-derived linkers with unfunctionalized dicarboxylate linkers, respectively. Upon metalation with Rh(nbd)2BF4 and [Rh(nbd)Cl]2/AgSbF6, the MOF precatalysts I·Rh(BF4) and I·Rh(SbF6) efficiently catalyzed highly enantioselective (up to 99% ee) reductive cyclization and Alder-ene cycloisomerization of 1,6-enynes, respectively. I·Rh catalysts afforded cyclization products at comparable enantiomeric excesses (ee’s) and 4–7 times higher catalytic activity than the homogeneous controls, likely a result of catalytic site isolation in the MOF which prevents bimolecular catalyst deactivation pathways. However, I·Rh is inactive in the more sterically encumbered Pauson–Khand reactions between 1,6-enynes and carbon monoxide. In contrast, with a more open structure, Rh-functionalized BINAP-dMOF, II·Rh, effectively catalyzed Pauson–Khand cyclization reactions between 1,6-enynes and carbon monoxide at 10 times higher activity than the homogeneous control. II·Rh was readily recovered and used three times in Pauson–Khand cyclization reactions without deterioration of yields or ee’s. Our work has expanded the scope of MOF-catalyzed asymmetric reactions and showed that the mixed linker strategy can effectively enlarge the open space around the catalytic active site to accommodate highly sterically demanding polycyclic metallocycle transition states/intermediates in asymmetric intramolecular cyclization reactions.
Minakshi, Manickam; Barmi, Maryam J; Jones, Robert T
2017-03-14
Hybrid capacitors can replace or complement batteries, while storing energy through ion adsorption and fast surface redox reactions. There is a growing demand in developing nanostructured materials as electrodes for hybrid systems that can enhance the specific capacitance by ion desolvation in the nanopores. Here, we demonstrate that rescaling the pore diameter with the aid of biopolymer at an optimal level during the synthesis of metal molybdate leads to high capacitance 124 F g(-1) giving robust capacitance retention of 80% over 2000 cycles for a constructed device (activated carbon vs. metal molybdate). The presence of biopolymer (l-glutamic acid) in the metal molybdate acts as a complexing agent of the metal ion while enhancing the mass transport and hence it's improved electrochemical performance. However, XPS and other elemental analyses illustrated no evidence for N doping but traces of other surface functional groups (i.e. C and O) could be present on the molybdate surface. The biopolymer synthetic approach has the advantage of yielding nanostructured material with a relatively narrow pore size distribution controlled by l-glutamic acid. This study will provide a generic route to rescale other metal molybdate, phosphate or oxide counterparts and be an added value to the database.
High Resolution Robust GPS-free Localization for Wireless Sensor Networks and its Applications
Mirza, Mohammed
2011-12-12
In this thesis we investigate the problem of robustness and scalability w.r.t. estimating the position of randomly deployed motes/nodes of a Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) without the help of Global Positioning System (GPS) devices. We propose a few applications of range independent localization algorithms that allow the sensors to actively determine their location with high resolution without increasing the complexity of the hardware or any additional device setup. In our first application we try to present a localized and centralized cooperative spectrum sensing using RF sensor networks. This scheme collaboratively sense the spectrum and localize the whole network efficiently and with less difficulty. In second application we try to focus on how efficiently we can localize the nodes, to detect underwater threats, without the use of beacons. In third application we try to focus on 3-Dimensional localization for LTE systems. Our performance evaluation shows that these schemes lead to a significant improvement in localization accuracy compared to the state-of-art range independent localization schemes, without requiring GPS support.
High-Rate Data-Hiding Robust to Linear Filtering for Colored Hosts
Pérez-González Fernando
2009-01-01
Full Text Available The discrete Fourier transform-rational dither modulation (DFT-RDM has been proposed as a way to provide robustness to linear-time-invariant (LTI filtering for quantization-based watermarking systems. This scheme has been proven to provide high rates for white Gaussian hosts but those rates considerably decrease for nonwhite hosts. In this paper the theoretical analysis of DFT-RDM is generalized to colored Gaussian hosts supplied with an explanation of the performance degradation with respect to white Gaussian hosts. Moreover the characterization of the watermark-to-noise ratio in the frequency domain is shown as an useful tool to give a simple and intuitive measure of performance. Afterwards an extension of DFT-RDM is proposed to improve its performance for colored hosts without assuming any additional knowledge on the attack filter. Our analysis is validated by experiments and the results of several simulations for different attack filters confirm the performance improvement afforded by the whitening operation for both Gaussian colored hosts and audio tracks.
Highly Efficient and Robust Micropump for Small Spacecraft Thermal Control Project
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — With the introduction of low-cost, small, rapidly configurable spacecraft, the need for robust, versatile, readily deployable, and easily ground-testable thermal...
Keller, M; Czilwik, G; Schott, J; Schwarz, I; Dormanns, K; von Stetten, F; Zengerle, R; Paust, N
2017-02-28
We present new unit operations for valving and switching in centrifugal microfluidics that are actuated by a temperature change rate (TCR) and controlled by the rotational frequency. Implementation is realized simply by introducing a comparatively large fluidic resistance to an air vent of a fluidic structure downstream of a siphon channel. During temperature decrease at a given TCR, the air pressure inside the downstream structure decreases and the fluidic resistance of the air vent slows down air pressure compensation allowing a thermally induced underpressure to build up temporarily. Thereby the rate of temperature change determines the time course of the underpressure for a given geometry. The thermally induced underpressure pulls the liquid against a centrifugal counterpressure above a siphon crest, which triggers the valve or switch. The centrifugal counterpressure (adjusted by rotation) serves as an independent control parameter to allow or prevent valving or switching at any TCR. The unit operations are thus compatible with any temperature or centrifugation protocol prior to valving or switching. In contrast to existing methods, this compatibility is achieved at no additional costs: neither additional fabrication steps nor additional disk space or external means are required besides global temperature control, which is needed for the assay. For the layout, an analytical model is provided and verified. The TCR actuated unit operations are demonstrated, first, by a stand-alone switch that routes the liquid to either one of the two collection chambers (n = 6) and, second, by studying the robustness of TCR actuated valving within a microfluidic cartridge for highly integrated nucleic acid testing. Valving could safely be prevented during PCR by compensating the thermally induced underpressure of 3.52 kPa with a centrifugal counterpressure at a rotational frequency of 30 Hz with a minimum safety range to valving of 2.03 kPa. Subsequently, a thermally induced
Yao, Yan
2011-10-25
Silicon has a high specific capacity of 4200 mAh/g as lithium-ion battery anodes, but its rapid capacity fading due to >300% volume expansion and pulverization presents a significant challenge for practical applications. Here we report a core-shell TiC/C/Si inactive/active nanocomposite for Si anodes demonstrating high specific capacity and excellent electrochemical cycling. The amorphous silicon layer serves as the active material to store Li+, while the inactive TiC/C nanofibers act as a conductive and mechanically robust scaffold for electron transport during the Li-Si alloying process. The core-shell TiC/C/Si nanocomposite anode shows ∼3000 mAh g-1 discharge capacity and 92% capacity retention after 100 charge/discharge cycles. The excellent cycling stability and high rate performance could be attributed to the tapering of the nanofibers and the open structure that allows facile Li ion transport and the high conductivity and mechanical stability of the TiC/C scaffold. © 2011 American Chemical Society.
Wei, Xile; Lu, Meili; Wang, Jiang; Tsang, K. M.; Deng, Bin; Che, Yanqiu
2010-05-01
We consider the assumption of existence of the general nonlinear internal model that is introduced in the design of robust output regulators for a class of minimum-phase nonlinear systems with rth degree (r ≥ 2). The robust output regulation problem can be converted into a robust stabilisation problem of an augmented system consisting of the given plant and a high-gain nonlinear internal model, perfectly reproducing the bounded including not only periodic but also nonperiodic exogenous signal from a nonlinear system, which satisfies some general immersion assumption. The state feedback controller is designed to guarantee the asymptotic convergence of system errors to zero manifold. Furthermore, the proposed scheme makes use of output feedback dynamic controller that only processes information from the regulated output error by using high-gain observer to robustly estimate the derivatives of the regulated output error. The stabilisation analysis of the resulting closed-loop systems leads to regional as well as semi-global robust output regulation achieved for some appointed initial condition in the state space, for all possible values of the uncertain parameter vector and the exogenous signal, ranging over an arbitrary compact set.
Udugama, Isuru A; Wolfenstetter, Florian; Kirkpatrick, Robert; Yu, Wei; Young, Brent R
2017-07-01
In this work we have developed a novel, robust practical control structure to regulate an industrial methanol distillation column. This proposed control scheme is based on a override control framework and can manage a non-key trace ethanol product impurity specification while maintaining high product recovery. For comparison purposes, a MPC with a discrete process model (based on step tests) was also developed and tested. The results from process disturbance testing shows that, both the MPC and the proposed controller were capable of maintaining both the trace level ethanol specification in the distillate (XD) and high product recovery (β). Closer analysis revealed that the MPC controller has a tighter XD control, while the proposed controller was tighter in β control. The tight XD control allowed the MPC to operate at a higher XD set point (closer to the 10ppm AA grade methanol standard), allowing for savings in energy usage. Despite the energy savings of the MPC, the proposed control scheme has lower installation and running costs. An economic analysis revealed a multitude of other external economic and plant design factors, that should be considered when making a decision between the two controllers. In general, we found relatively high energy costs favour MPC. Copyright © 2017 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
A multi-layer robust adaptive fault tolerant control system for high performance aircraft
Huo, Ying
Modern high-performance aircraft demand advanced fault-tolerant flight control strategies. Not only the control effector failures, but the aerodynamic type failures like wing-body damages often result in substantially deteriorate performance because of low available redundancy. As a result the remaining control actuators may yield substantially lower maneuvering capabilities which do not authorize the accomplishment of the air-craft's original specified mission. The problem is to solve the control reconfiguration on available control redundancies when the mission modification is urged to save the aircraft. The proposed robust adaptive fault-tolerant control (RAFTC) system consists of a multi-layer reconfigurable flight controller architecture. It contains three layers accounting for different types and levels of failures including sensor, actuator, and fuselage damages. In case of the nominal operation with possible minor failure(s) a standard adaptive controller stands to achieve the control allocation. This is referred to as the first layer, the controller layer. The performance adjustment is accounted for in the second layer, the reference layer, whose role is to adjust the reference model in the controller design with a degraded transit performance. The upmost mission adjust is in the third layer, the mission layer, when the original mission is not feasible with greatly restricted control capabilities. The modified mission is achieved through the optimization of the command signal which guarantees the boundedness of the closed-loop signals. The main distinguishing feature of this layer is the the mission decision property based on the current available resources. The contribution of the research is the multi-layer fault-tolerant architecture that can address the complete failure scenarios and their accommodations in realities. Moreover, the emphasis is on the mission design capabilities which may guarantee the stability of the aircraft with restricted post
Impact of parasitic resistance on the ESD robustness of high-voltage devices
Lin Lijuan; Jiang Lingli; Fan Hang; Zhang Bo
2012-01-01
The impacts ofsubstrate parasitic resistance and drain ballast resistance on electrostatic discharge (ESD)robustness of LDMOS are analyzed.By increasing the two parasitic resistances,the ESD robustness of LDMOS are significantly improved.The proposed structures have been successfully verified in a 0.35 μm BCD process without using additional process steps.Experimental results show that the second breakdown current of the optimal structure increases to 3.5 A,which is about 367% of the original device.
A Study of Force and Position Tracking Control for Robot Contact with an Arbitrarily Inclined Plane
Ye Bosheng
2013-01-01
Full Text Available This paper proposes an adaptive impedance control method for a robot’s end‐effector while it slides steadily on an arbitrarily inclined panel; it concentrates on robot force position tracking control for the inclined plane with an unknown normal direction and varying environmental damping and stiffness. The proposed control strategy uses the Recursive Least Squares (RLS algorithm to estimate environmental damping and stiffness parameters during the impact‐contact process between the robot and the environment. It achieves the expected posture adjustment of the robot’s end‐effector based on the measured contact torques and, during the robot’s end‐ effectorʹs sliding on the inclined plane, a fuzzy control is developed to adjust the robot impedance model parameters on‐line and adaptively for changes in environmental damping and stiffness. The designed robot force position control method is robust to the changes of the environmental parameters but the implementation of the proposed control algorithms is simple. Finally, experiments demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.
Robustness of features for automatic target discrimination in high resolution polarimetric SAR data.
Broek, A.C. van den; Dekker, R.J.; Steeghs, P.
2003-01-01
We have studied the robustness of features against aspect variability for the purpose of target discrimination using polarimetric 35 Ghz ISAR data. Images at a resolution of 10 cm and 30 cm have been used for a complete aspect range of 360 degrees. The data covered four military targets: T72, ZSU23/
Quasi-static relaxation of arbitrarily shaped sessile drops
Iliev, S; Nikolayev, Vadim
2016-01-01
We study a spontaneous relaxation dynamics of arbitrarily shaped liquid drops on solid surfaces in the partial wetting regime. It is assumed that the energy dissipated near the contact line is much larger than that in the bulk of the fluid. We have shown rigorously in the case of quasi-static relaxation using the standard mechanical description of dissipative system dynamics that the introduction of a dissipation term proportional to the contact line length leads to the well known local relation between the contact line velocity and the dynamic contact angle at every point of an arbitrary contact line shape. A numerical code is developed for 3D drops to study the dependence of the relaxation dynamics on the initial drop shape. The available asymptotic solutions are tested against the obtained numerical data. We show how the relaxation at a given point of the contact line is influenced by the dynamics of the whole drop which is a manifestation of the non-local
Array projector design for projection on arbitrarily curved surfaces
Fischer, Stephanie; Schreiber, Peter; Riedel, Alf; Sieler, Marcel
2015-09-01
The micro-optical array projector is a new and innovative possibility to project patterns onto arbitrary shaped surfaces1 . In contrast to single-aperture systems the illuminance of the projected image is raised by only increasing the lateral extent of the projector while keeping the length constant. Thanks to the setup - analogous to a fly's eye condenser - we obtain a very compact design with homogenization of illumination. The images to be projected are presented as arbitrarily curved CAD-objects. Because of its complexity, the first attempt was a chief-ray backtrace implemented into a CAD-program, with the individual projectorlets modelled as pinhole cameras. With this principle one can trace the slides for several applications like the projection on perpendicular, as well as tilted and curved surfaces. Since aberrations cannot be considered with the simple CAD backtrace described above, we used the commercially available raytracer Zemax®, controlled by a macro, working in conjunction with a CADprogram for improved slide mask generation. Despite both methods, depending on the complexity of the optical system, are generating the fundamental mask data, the paper will show that there is a tradeoff between calculation time and accuracy. Based on this evaluation we will discuss further development as well as the possibility of improvement concerning the calculation methods. The different methods were investigated to determine their advantages and disadvantages. This provides the basis for the scope of application. Further we will demonstrate simulations as well as results obtained with built demonstrators.
朱良生; 洪广文
2001-01-01
Based on the high order nonlinear and dispersive wave equation with a dissipative term, a numerical model for nonlinear waves is developed. It is suitable to calculate wave propagation in water areas with an arbitrarily varying bottom slope and a relative depth h/L0≤1. By the application of the completely implicit stagger grid and central difference algorithm, discrete governing equations are obtained. Although the central difference algorithm of second-order accuracy both in time and space domains is used to yield the difference equations, the order of truncation error in the difference equation is the same as that of the third-order derivatives of the Boussinesq equation. In this paper, the correction to the first-order derivative is made, and the accuracy of the difference equation is improved. The verifications of accuracy show that the results of the numerical model are in good agreement with those of analytical solutions and physical models.
Jiang Qing-Quan; Yang Shu-Zheng; Wu Shuang-Qing
2006-01-01
This paper extends Parikh-Wilzcek's recent work, which treats the Hawking radiation as a semi-classical tunnelling process from the event horizon of four dimensional Schwarzshild and Reissner-Nordstr(o)m black holes, to that of arbitrarily dimensional Reissner-Nordstr(o)m de Sitter black hole. The result shows that the tunnelling rate is related to the change of Bekenstein-Hawking entropy and the factually radiant spectrum is no longer precisely thermal after taking the dynamical black hole background and energy conservation into account, but is consistent with the underlying unitary theory and then satisfies the first law of the black hole thermodynamics. Meanwhile, in Parikh-Wilzcek's framework, this paper points out that the information conservation is only suitable for the reversible process but in highly unstable evaporating black hole (irreversible process) the information loss is possible.
Variational Stability Form for the Capacitance of an Arbitrarily Shaped Conducting Plate
LIANGChanghong; LILong; ZHAIHuiqing
2004-01-01
A new analytical method for finding the capacitance of an arbitrarily shaped conducting plate is presented in this paper. If the charge density suitable to fringe conditions and the appropriate charge barycenter are supposed, the variational stability form with high accuracy for the capacitance C can be achieved by simple curve integrals or the superposition of basic triangles. In this paper, some analytical examples such as an elliptical plate, a regular polygonal plate and a rectangular plate are given. It is worth pointing out that the analytical closed-form for an elliptical plate is accurate. Comparing the result of the analytical closed-form for the square plate and the numerical result of Richardson's extrapolation, the relative error is less than 1.7%. Furthermore, the relationship between the charge barycenter and the variational stability is discussed.
Lee, Sangkyun; Rahnenführer, Jörg; Lang, Michel; De Preter, Katleen; Mestdagh, Pieter; Koster, Jan; Versteeg, Rogier; Stallings, Raymond L.; Varesio, Luigi; Asgharzadeh, Shahab; Schulte, Johannes H.; Fielitz, Kathrin; Schwermer, Melanie; Morik, Katharina; Schramm, Alexander
2014-01-01
Identifying relevant signatures for clinical patient outcome is a fundamental task in high-throughput studies. Signatures, composed of features such as mRNAs, miRNAs, SNPs or other molecular variables, are often non-overlapping, even though they have been identified from similar experiments considering samples with the same type of disease. The lack of a consensus is mostly due to the fact that sample sizes are far smaller than the numbers of candidate features to be considered, and therefore signature selection suffers from large variation. We propose a robust signature selection method that enhances the selection stability of penalized regression algorithms for predicting survival risk. Our method is based on an aggregation of multiple, possibly unstable, signatures obtained with the preconditioned lasso algorithm applied to random (internal) subsamples of a given cohort data, where the aggregated signature is shrunken by a simple thresholding strategy. The resulting method, RS-PL, is conceptually simple and easy to apply, relying on parameters automatically tuned by cross validation. Robust signature selection using RS-PL operates within an (external) subsampling framework to estimate the selection probabilities of features in multiple trials of RS-PL. These probabilities are used for identifying reliable features to be included in a signature. Our method was evaluated on microarray data sets from neuroblastoma, lung adenocarcinoma, and breast cancer patients, extracting robust and relevant signatures for predicting survival risk. Signatures obtained by our method achieved high prediction performance and robustness, consistently over the three data sets. Genes with high selection probability in our robust signatures have been reported as cancer-relevant. The ordering of predictor coefficients associated with signatures was well-preserved across multiple trials of RS-PL, demonstrating the capability of our method for identifying a transferable consensus signature
Sangkyun Lee
Full Text Available Identifying relevant signatures for clinical patient outcome is a fundamental task in high-throughput studies. Signatures, composed of features such as mRNAs, miRNAs, SNPs or other molecular variables, are often non-overlapping, even though they have been identified from similar experiments considering samples with the same type of disease. The lack of a consensus is mostly due to the fact that sample sizes are far smaller than the numbers of candidate features to be considered, and therefore signature selection suffers from large variation. We propose a robust signature selection method that enhances the selection stability of penalized regression algorithms for predicting survival risk. Our method is based on an aggregation of multiple, possibly unstable, signatures obtained with the preconditioned lasso algorithm applied to random (internal subsamples of a given cohort data, where the aggregated signature is shrunken by a simple thresholding strategy. The resulting method, RS-PL, is conceptually simple and easy to apply, relying on parameters automatically tuned by cross validation. Robust signature selection using RS-PL operates within an (external subsampling framework to estimate the selection probabilities of features in multiple trials of RS-PL. These probabilities are used for identifying reliable features to be included in a signature. Our method was evaluated on microarray data sets from neuroblastoma, lung adenocarcinoma, and breast cancer patients, extracting robust and relevant signatures for predicting survival risk. Signatures obtained by our method achieved high prediction performance and robustness, consistently over the three data sets. Genes with high selection probability in our robust signatures have been reported as cancer-relevant. The ordering of predictor coefficients associated with signatures was well-preserved across multiple trials of RS-PL, demonstrating the capability of our method for identifying a transferable
Kim, Minjae; Kim, Taewan; Kim, Dong Sung; Chung, Wan Kyun
2015-07-06
Surface electromyography is widely used in many fields to infer human intention. However, conventional electrodes are not appropriate for long-term measurements and are easily influenced by the environment, so the range of applications of sEMG is limited. In this paper, we propose a flexible band-integrated, curved microneedle array electrode for robust long-term measurements, high selectivity, and easy applicability. Signal quality, in terms of long-term usability and sensitivity to perspiration, was investigated. Its motion-discriminating performance was also evaluated. The results show that the proposed electrode is robust to perspiration and can maintain a high-quality measuring ability for over 8 h. The proposed electrode also has high selectivity for motion compared with a commercial wet electrode and dry electrode.
Curved Microneedle Array-Based sEMG Electrode for Robust Long-Term Measurements and High Selectivity
Minjae Kim
2015-07-01
Full Text Available Surface electromyography is widely used in many fields to infer human intention. However, conventional electrodes are not appropriate for long-term measurements and are easily influenced by the environment, so the range of applications of sEMG is limited. In this paper, we propose a flexible band-integrated, curved microneedle array electrode for robust long-term measurements, high selectivity, and easy applicability. Signal quality, in terms of long-term usability and sensitivity to perspiration, was investigated. Its motion-discriminating performance was also evaluated. The results show that the proposed electrode is robust to perspiration and can maintain a high-quality measuring ability for over 8 h. The proposed electrode also has high selectivity for motion compared with a commercial wet electrode and dry electrode.
How Robust Are the Size Measurements of High-redshift Compact Galaxies?
Davari, Roozbeh; Peng, Chien Y; Huang, Song
2014-01-01
Massive quiescent galaxies at $z \\approx 2$ are apparently much more compact than galaxies of comparable mass today. How robust are these size measurements? We perform comprehensive simulations to determine possible biases and uncertainties in fitting single-component light distributions to real galaxies. In particular, we examine the robustness of the measurements of the luminosity, size, and other structural parameters. We devise simulations with increasing realism to systematically disentangle effects due to the technique (specifically using GALFIT) and the intrinsic structures of the galaxies. By accurately capturing the detailed substructures of nearby elliptical galaxies and then rescaling their sizes and signal-to-noise to mimic galaxies at different redshifts, we confirm that the massive quiescent galaxies at $z \\approx 2$ are significantly more compact intrinsically than their local counterparts. Their observed compactness is not a result of missing faint outer light due to systematic errors in model...
Meaningful Clustered Forest: an Automatic and Robust Clustering Algorithm
Tepper, Mariano; Almansa, Andrés
2011-01-01
We propose a new clustering method that can be regarded as a numerical method to compute the proximity gestalt. The method analyzes edge length statistics in the MST of the dataset and provides an a contrario cluster detection criterion. The approach is fully parametric on the chosen distance and can detect arbitrarily shaped clusters. The method is also automatic, in the sense that only a single parameter is left to the user. This parameter has an intuitive interpretation as it controls the expected number of false detections. We show that the iterative application of our method can (1) provide robustness to noise and (2) solve a masking phenomenon in which a highly populated and salient cluster dominates the scene and inhibits the detection of less-populated, but still salient, clusters.
A nonlinear robust PI controller for an uncertain system
Aguilar-Ibañez, Carlos; Mendoza-Mendoza, Julio A.; Suarez-Castanon, Miguel S.; Davila, Jorge
2014-05-01
This paper presents a smooth control strategy for the regulation problem of an uncertain system, which assures uniform ultimate boundedness of the closed-loop system inside of the zero-state neighbourhood. This neighbourhood can be made arbitrarily small. To this end, a class of nonlinear proportional integral controllers or PI controllers was designed. The behaviour of this controller emulates very close a sliding mode controller. To accomplish this behaviour saturation functions were combined with traditional PI controller. The controller did not need a high-gain controller or a sliding mode controller to accomplish robustness against unmodelled persistent perturbations. The obtained closed-solution has a finite time of convergence in a small vicinity. The corresponding stability convergence analysis was done applying the traditional Lyapunov method. Numerical simulations were carried out to assess the effectiveness of the obtained controller.
Robust Sequential Circuits Design Technique for Low Voltage and High Noise Scenarios
Garcia-Leyva Lancelot
2016-01-01
In this paper we introduce an innovative input and output data redundancy principle for sequential block circuits, the responsible to keep the state of the system, showing its efficiency in front of other robust technique approaches. The methodology is totally different from the Von Neumann approaches, because element are not replicated N times, but instead, they check the coherence of redundant input data no allowing data propagation in case of discrepancy. This mechanism does not require voting devices.
How robust are the size measurements of high-redshift compact galaxies?
Davari, Roozbeh [University of California, Riverside 900 University Avenue, Riverside, CA 92521 (United States); Ho, Luis C. [The Observatories of the Carnegie Institution for Science 813 Santa Barbara Street, Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States); Peng, Chien Y. [Giant Magellan Telescope Organization 251 South Lake Avenue, Suite 300 Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States); Huang, Song [School of Space Science and Astronomy, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China)
2014-05-20
Massive quiescent galaxies at z ≈ 2 are apparently much more compact than galaxies of comparable mass today. How robust are these size measurements? We perform comprehensive simulations to determine possible biases and uncertainties in fitting single-component light distributions to real galaxies. In particular, we examine the robustness of the measurements of the luminosity, size, and other structural parameters. We devise simulations with increasing realism to systematically disentangle effects due to the technique (specifically using GALFIT) and the intrinsic structures of the galaxies. By accurately capturing the detailed substructures of nearby elliptical galaxies and then rescaling their sizes and signal-to-noise to mimic galaxies at different redshifts, we confirm that the massive quiescent galaxies at z ≈ 2 are significantly more compact intrinsically than their local counterparts. Their observed compactness is not a result of missing faint outer light due to systematic errors in modeling. In fact, we find that fitting multi-component galaxies with a single Sérsic profile, the procedure most commonly adopted in the literature, biases the inferred sizes higher by up to 10%-20%, which accentuates the amount of size evolution required. If the sky estimation has been done robustly and the model for the point-spread function is fairly accurate, GALFIT can retrieve the properties of single-component galaxies over a wide range of signal-to-noise ratios without introducing any systematic errors.
Cho, Myung Kwon; Shin, Hwa Sung
2016-09-09
Microalgae lipids are a promising energy source, but current biochemical methods of lipid-inductions such as nitrogen deprivation have low process robustness and controllability. Recently, use of mechanotransduction based membrane distortion by applying compression stress in a 2D-microsystem was suggested as a way to overcome these limitations of biochemical induction. However, reproduction in large numbers of cells without cell death has been difficult to overcome because compression for direct membrane distortion reduces culture volume and leads to cell death due to nutrient deprivation. In this study, a mechanotransduction-induced lipid production (MDLP) system that redirects elastic microbeads to induce membrane distortion of microalgae with alleviating cell death was developed. This system resulted in accumulation of lipid in as little as 4 hr. Once compressed, porous microbeads absorb media and swell simultaneously while homogeneously inducing compression stress of microalgae. The absorbed media within beads could be supplied to adjacent cells and could minimize cell death from nutrient deficiency. All mechanotransduction was confirmed by measuring upregulation of calcium influx and Mat3 genes. The microbeads ensured robustness and controllability in repeated compression/de-compression processes. Overall, the MDLP system has potential for use as a fundamental biodiesel process that requires robustness and controllability.
Cho, Myung Kwon; Shin, Hwa Sung
2016-09-01
Microalgae lipids are a promising energy source, but current biochemical methods of lipid-inductions such as nitrogen deprivation have low process robustness and controllability. Recently, use of mechanotransduction based membrane distortion by applying compression stress in a 2D-microsystem was suggested as a way to overcome these limitations of biochemical induction. However, reproduction in large numbers of cells without cell death has been difficult to overcome because compression for direct membrane distortion reduces culture volume and leads to cell death due to nutrient deprivation. In this study, a mechanotransduction-induced lipid production (MDLP) system that redirects elastic microbeads to induce membrane distortion of microalgae with alleviating cell death was developed. This system resulted in accumulation of lipid in as little as 4 hr. Once compressed, porous microbeads absorb media and swell simultaneously while homogeneously inducing compression stress of microalgae. The absorbed media within beads could be supplied to adjacent cells and could minimize cell death from nutrient deficiency. All mechanotransduction was confirmed by measuring upregulation of calcium influx and Mat3 genes. The microbeads ensured robustness and controllability in repeated compression/de-compression processes. Overall, the MDLP system has potential for use as a fundamental biodiesel process that requires robustness and controllability.
A robust jet reconstruction algorithm for high-energy lepton colliders
M. Boronat
2015-11-01
Full Text Available We propose a new sequential jet reconstruction algorithm for future lepton colliders at the energy frontier. The Valencia algorithm combines the natural distance criterion for lepton colliders with the greater robustness against backgrounds of algorithms adapted to hadron colliders. Results on a detailed Monte Carlo simulation of tt¯ and ZZ production at future linear e+e− colliders (ILC and CLIC with a realistic level of background overlaid, show that it achieves better performance in the presence of background than the classical algorithms used at previous e+e− colliders.
A robust binary supramolecular organic framework (SOF) with high CO2 adsorption and selectivity
2014-01-01
A robust binary hydrogen-bonded supramolecular organic framework (SOF-7) has been synthesized by solvothermal reaction of 1,4-bis-(4-(3,5-dicyano-2,6 dipyridyl)dihydropyridyl)benzene (1) and 5,5’-bis-(azanediyl)-oxalyl-diisophthalic acid (2). Single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis shows that SOF-7 comprises 2 and 1,4-bis-(4-(3,5-dicyano-2,6-dipyridyl)pyridyl)benzene (3), the latter formed in situ from the oxidative dehydrogenation of 1. SOF-7 shows a three-dimensional four-fold interpenetr...
Meta-algorithmics patterns for robust, low cost, high quality systems
Simske, Steven J
2013-01-01
The confluence of cloud computing, parallelism and advanced machine intelligence approaches has created a world in which the optimum knowledge system will usually be architected from the combination of two or more knowledge-generating systems. There is a need, then, to provide a reusable, broadly-applicable set of design patterns to empower the intelligent system architect to take advantage of this opportunity. This book explains how to design and build intelligent systems that are optimized for changing system requirements (adaptability), optimized for changing system input (robustness), an
Chevallier, Christyves; Jacquet, Joel; Fressengeas, Nicolas; 10.1016/j.optlastec.2011.09.010
2011-01-01
A high reflectivity and polarization selective high contrast grating mirror has been designed with the use of an automated optimization algorithm. Through a precise study of the tolerance of the different lengths of the structure, the robustness with respect to the fabrication errors has been enhanced to high tolerance values between 5 % and 210 %. This adjustment of the dimensions of the structure leads to a 250 nm large bandwidth mirror well adapted for a VCSEL application at \\lambda = 2.65 $\\mu$m and can easily be scaled for other wavelengths.
Xu, Mingkun; Wang, Jimmy; Xue, Zhaoguo; Wang, Junzhuan; Feng, Ping; Yu, Linwei; Xu, Jun; Shi, Yi; Chen, Kunji; Roca I Cabarrocas, Pere
2017-07-27
High mobility, scalable and even transparent thin-film transistors (TFTs) are always being pursued in the field of large area electronics. While excimer laser-beam-scanning can crystallize amorphous Si (a-Si) into high mobility poly-Si, it is limited to small areas. We here demonstrate a robust nano-droplet-scanning strategy that converts an a-Si:H thin film directly into periodic poly-Si nano-channels, with the aid of well-coordinated indium droplets. This enables the robust batch-fabrication of high performance Fin-TFTs with a high hole mobility of >100 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1) and an excellent subthreshold swing of only 163 mV dec(-1), via a low temperature high aperture displays and fully transparent electronics. The successful implementation of such a reliable nano-droplet-scanning strategy, rooted in the strength of nanoscale growth dynamics, will enable eventually the batch-manufacturing and upgrade of high performance large area electronics in general, and high definition and scalable flat-panel displays in particular.
a Linear Model for Meandering Rivers with Arbitrarily Varying Width
Frascati, A.; Lanzoni, S.
2011-12-01
Alluvial rivers usually exhibit quite complex planforms, characterized by a wide variety of alternating bends, that have attracted the interest of a large number of researchers. Much less attention has been paid to another striking feature observed in alluvial rivers, namely the relatively regular spatial variations attained by the channel width. Actively meandering channels, in fact, generally undergo spatial oscillations systematically correlated with channel curvature, with cross sections wider at bends than at crossings. Some other streams have been observed to exhibit irregular width variations. Conversely, rivers flowing in highly vegetated flood plains, i.e. canaliform rivers, may exhibit an opposite behavior, owing to the combined effects of bank erodibility and floodplain depositional processes which, in turn, are strictly linked to vegetation cover. Similarly to streamline curvatures induced by bends, the presence of along channel width variations may have remarkable effects on the flow field and sediment dynamics and, thereby, on the equilibrium river bed configuration. In particular, spatial distribution of channel curvature typically determines the formation of a rhythmic bar-pool pattern in the channel bed strictly associated with the development of river meanders. Channel width variations are on the contrary characterized by a sequence of narrowing, yielding a central scour, alternated to the downstream development of a widening associated with the formation of a central bar. Here we present a morphodynamic model that predict at a linear level the spatial distribution of the flow field and the equilibrium bed configuration of an alluvial river characterized by arbitrary along channel distributions of both the channel axis curvature and the channel width. The mathematical model is averaged over the depth and describes the steady, non-uniform flow and sediment transport in sinuous channels with a noncohesive bed. The governing two-dimensional equations
Robust H∞ Control for a Class of Nonlinear Systems with Input Unmodeled Dynamics1）
WANGXing-Ping; CHENGZhao-Lin
2004-01-01
The problem of robust H∞ control of a class of nonlinear systems with input dynamicaluncertainty is dealt with. By the recursive design approach, a robust controller is constructed suchthat the closed-loop system has an arbitrarily small L2 gain from disturbance to output and in theabsence of disturbance, the closed-loop system is globally asymptotically stable.
V.Ts. Gnuni
2016-03-01
Full Text Available The non-conservative stability problem of pressing beam when two support billeting symmetrical on arbitrarily distance from the end is considered. It is show the possibility statical form loss of stability. The critical loads are determined.
SPS-ALPHA: The First Practical Solar Power Satellite via Arbitrarily Large PHased Array Project
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — SPS-ALPHA (Solar Power Satellite via Arbitrarily Large Phased Array) is a novel, bio-mimetic approach to the challenge of space solar power. If successful, this...
Applying informed coding and embedding to design a robust high-capacity watermark.
Miller, Matt L; Doërr, Gwenaël J; Cox, Ingemar J
2004-06-01
We describe a new watermarking system based on the principles of informed coding and informed embedding. This system is capable of embedding 1380 bits of information in images with dimensions 240 x 368 pixels. Experiments on 2000 images indicate the watermarks are robust to significant valumetric distortions, including additive noise, low-pass filtering, changes in contrast, and lossy compression. Our system encodes watermark messages with a modified trellis code in which a given message may be represented by a variety of different signals, with the embedded signal selected according to the cover image. The signal is embedded by an iterative method that seeks to ensure the message will not be confused with other messages, even after addition of noise. Fidelity is improved by the incorporation of perceptual shaping into the embedding process. We show that each of these three components improves performance substantially.
Robust automatic high resolution segmentation of SOFC anode porosity in 3D
Jørgensen, Peter Stanley; Bowen, Jacob R.
2008-01-01
Routine use of 3D characterization of SOFCs by focused ion beam (FIB) serial sectioning is generally restricted by the time consuming task of manually delineating structures within each image slice. We apply advanced image analysis algorithms to automatically segment the porosity phase of an SOFC...... anode in 3D. The technique is based on numerical approximations to partial differential equations to evolve a 3D surface to the desired phase boundary. Vector fields derived from the experimentally acquired data are used as the driving force. The automatic segmentation compared to manual delineation...... reveals and good correspondence and the two approaches are quantitatively compared. It is concluded that the. automatic approach is more robust, more reproduceable and orders of magnitude quicker than manual segmentation of SOFC anode porosity for subsequent quantitative 3D analysis. Lastly...
Robust and High Fidelity Quantum Logic with the Rydberg-Dressed Blockade
Keating, Tyler; Cook, Robert; Deutsch, Ivan; Hankin, Aaron; Jau, Yuan-Yu; Biedermann, Grant
2015-05-01
We study a scheme for implementing a controlled-Z (CZ) gate between two neutral-atom qubits based on the Rydberg blockade mechanism in a manner that is robust to errors caused by atomic motion. By adiabatically dressing the ground electronic state, we can protect the gate from decoherence due to random phase errors that typically arise from atomic thermal motion. The adiabatic protocol also allows for a Doppler-free configuration with counterpropagating lasers in a σ+ /σ- orthogonal polarization geometry that further reduces motional errors due to Doppler shifts. The residual error is dominated by dipole-dipole forces acting on doubly-excited Rydberg atoms when the blockade is imperfect. For reasonable parameters, with qubits encoded into the clock states of 133Cs, we predict that our protocol could produce a CZ gate in logic.
Robust design of Si/Si3N4 high contrast grating mirror for mid-infrared VCSEL application
Chevallier, Christyves; Genty, Frédéric; Jacquet, Joel
2012-01-01
A Si/Si3N4 high contrast grating mirror has been designed for a VCSEL integration in mid-infrared ({\\lambda} = 2.65 $\\mu$m). The use of an optimization algorithm which maximizes a VCSEL mirror quality factor allowed the adjustment of the grating parameters while keeping large and shallow grating pattern. The robustness with respect to fabrication error has been enhanced thanks to a precise study of the grating dimension tolerances. The final mirror exhibits large high reflectivity bandwidth with a polarization selectivity and several percent of tolerance on the grating dimensions.
Time-Domain Analysis of a Wire Antenna Near Arbitrarily Shaped Conductor Bodies
Zheng; Li-Zhi; Xiao; Bo-xun; 等
2003-01-01
A time domain electrical field integral equation (TDEFIE) is formulated for the problem of a thin wire antenna in the presence of conductor bodies, and this equation is solved by the method in time marching algorithm. The analysis is valid for any arbitrarily shaped, oriented and positioned wire antennas relative to arbitrarily shaped conductor bodies. Current at the excited point, input admittance and radiation pattern are given and agree with the results computed by the method in frequency domain.
Time-Domain Analysis of a Wire Antenna Near Arbitrarily Shaped Conductor Bodies
Zheng Li-zhi; Xiao Bo-xur; Zhu Guo-qiang; Yang Zi-jie
2003-01-01
A time domain electrical field integral equation (TDEFIE) is formulated for the problem of a thin wire antenna in the presence of conductor bodies, and this equation is solved by the method of time marching algorithm. The analysis is valid for any arbitrarily shaped, oriented and positioned wire antennas relative to arbitrarily shaped conductor bodies. Current at the excited point, input admittance and radiation pattern are given and agree with the results computed by the method in frequency domain.
Bose, Prosenjit; Morin, Pat; Smid, Michiel
2012-01-01
Highly connected and yet sparse graphs (such as expanders or graphs of high treewidth) are fundamental, widely applicable and extensively studied combinatorial objects. We initiate the study of such highly connected graphs that are, in addition, geometric spanners. We define a property of spanners called robustness. Informally, when one removes a few vertices from a robust spanner, this harms only a small number of other vertices. We show that robust spanners must have a superlinear number of edges, even in one dimension. On the positive side, we give constructions, for any dimension, of robust spanners with a near-linear number of edges.
Gorm Hansen, Birgitte
The concepts of “socially robust knowledge” and “mode 2 knowledge production” (Nowotny 2003, Gibbons et al. 1994) have migrated from STS into research policy practices. Both STS-scholars and policy makers have been known to propomote the idea that the way forward for today’s scientist is to jump...... from the ivory tower and learn how to create high-flying synergies with citizens, corporations and governments. In STS as well as in Danish research policy it has thus been argued that scientists will gain more support and enjoy greater success in their work by “externalizing” their research...... and adapting their interests to the needs of outside actors. However, when studying the concrete strategies of such successful scientists, matters seem a bit more complicated. Based on interviews with a plant biologist working in GMO the paper uses the biological concepts of field participants...
Fully automatic segmentation of arbitrarily shaped fiducial markers in cone-beam CT projections
Bertholet, J.; Wan, H.; Toftegaard, J.; Schmidt, M. L.; Chotard, F.; Parikh, P. J.; Poulsen, P. R.
2017-02-01
Radio-opaque fiducial markers of different shapes are often implanted in or near abdominal or thoracic tumors to act as surrogates for the tumor position during radiotherapy. They can be used for real-time treatment adaptation, but this requires a robust, automatic segmentation method able to handle arbitrarily shaped markers in a rotational imaging geometry such as cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) projection images and intra-treatment images. In this study, we propose a fully automatic dynamic programming (DP) assisted template-based (TB) segmentation method. Based on an initial DP segmentation, the DPTB algorithm generates and uses a 3D marker model to create 2D templates at any projection angle. The 2D templates are used to segment the marker position as the position with highest normalized cross-correlation in a search area centered at the DP segmented position. The accuracy of the DP algorithm and the new DPTB algorithm was quantified as the 2D segmentation error (pixels) compared to a manual ground truth segmentation for 97 markers in the projection images of CBCT scans of 40 patients. Also the fraction of wrong segmentations, defined as 2D errors larger than 5 pixels, was calculated. The mean 2D segmentation error of DP was reduced from 4.1 pixels to 3.0 pixels by DPTB, while the fraction of wrong segmentations was reduced from 17.4% to 6.8%. DPTB allowed rejection of uncertain segmentations as deemed by a low normalized cross-correlation coefficient and contrast-to-noise ratio. For a rejection rate of 9.97%, the sensitivity in detecting wrong segmentations was 67% and the specificity was 94%. The accepted segmentations had a mean segmentation error of 1.8 pixels and 2.5% wrong segmentations.
Webb, David Bedford
The solution of electromagnetic scattering by objects located in planar, multilayered media has long been the subject of active research. For layered-media integral equation solutions via the Method of Moments (MoM), the O(N^2) matrix fill is often prohibitively expensive, even for problems of moderate size. For spatial-domain formulations, this is due to the presence of the Sommerfeld integrals required for obtaining the Green's functions in spatial form. These integrals are completely avoided through use of the complex-image method, which represents the spatial -domain Green's functions in closed form. However, this method is not without limitations, most notably a finite region of validity and an undesirable sensitivity to the choice of requisite parameters. This thesis focuses on methods for overcoming these limitations, to allow robust implementation of the method within the framework of an automated, general-purpose analysis program, applicable to the solution of scattering from arbitrarily shaped objects residing in any number of dielectric layers. Evaluations of several possible improvements to the original complex -image method are presented. A new approach is also presented for representing the angular-dependent Green's function terms that are required when both horizontal and vertical electric currents are present. The complex-image method is applied in this work to the MoM solution of the mixed-potential form of the electric field integral equation (MPIE). Several numerical results are presented for planar and nonplanar objects, including a microstrip patch antenna, wire dipole antennas penetrating dielectric half-spaces, and a microstrip air bridge. These results are compared with measurements or the results from other programs whenever possible. A brief discussion of scattering parameter extraction is also covered, with a comparison of the Prony and Generalized Pencil-of-Functions (GPOF) methods.
Xin-yu ZHANG; Tian-tian LI; Xiang-jun LIU
2007-01-01
Aim: To investigate the robust gene signature in liver cancer, we applied an integrated approach to perform a joint analysis of a highly diverse collection of liver cancer genome-wide datasets, including genomic alterations and transcrip- tion profiles. Methods: 1-class Significance Analysis of Microarrays coupled with ranking score method were used to identify the robust gene signature in liver tumor tissue. Results: In total, 1 625 051 gene expression measurements from 16 public microarrays, 2 pairs of serial analyses of gene expression experiments, and 252 loss of heterozygosity reports obtained from 568 publications were used in this integrated study. The resulting robust gene signatures included 90 genes, which may be of great importance to liver cancer research. A system assessment analysis revealed that our integrative method had an accuracy of 92% and a correlation coefficient value of 0.88. Conclusion: The system assessment results indicated that our method had the ability of integrating the datasets from various types of sources, and eliciting more accurate results, as can be very useful in the study of liver cancer.
Park, Jay Hoon; Joo, Yong Lak
2017-09-01
We report silver (Ag)/ceramic nanofibers with highly robust and sensitive optical sensory capabilities that can withstand harsh conditions. These nanofibers are fabricated by first electrospinning solutions of poly vinyl alcohol (PVA) and metal precursor polymers, followed by subsequent series of heat treatment. The reported fabrication method demonstrate the effects of (i) the location of Ag crystals, (ii) crystal size and shape, and (iii) constituents of the ceramic matrix as surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) templates with 10-6 M 4-mercaptobenzoic acid (4-MBA). Notably, these silver/ceramic nanofibers preserved most of their highly sensitive localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) even under high temperature of 400 °C, in contrast to preformed Ag nanoparticles (NPs) in PVA nanofibers which lost most of its optical property presumably due to (i) Ag oxidation and (ii) loss of the matrix material. Among the ceramic substrates of ZrO2, Al2O3, and ZnO with silver crystals, we discovered that the ZnO substrate showed the most consistent and the strongest signal strength owing to the synergistic chemical and optical properties of the ZnO substrate. Moreover, the pure Ag nanofiber proved to be the best heat-resistant SERS template, owing to its (i) anisotropic morphology and (ii) thicker diameter when compared with other conventional Ag nanomaterials. These results demonstrated simple yet highly controllable fabrication of robust SERS templates, with potential applications in a catalytic sensory which is often exposed to harsh conditions.
A robust and high-performance queue management controller for large round trip time networks
Khoshnevisan, Ladan; Salmasi, Farzad R.
2016-05-01
Congestion management for transmission control protocol is of utmost importance to prevent packet loss within a network. This necessitates strategies for active queue management. The most applied active queue management strategies have their inherent disadvantages which lead to suboptimal performance and even instability in the case of large round trip time and/or external disturbance. This paper presents an internal model control robust queue management scheme with two degrees of freedom in order to restrict the undesired effects of large and small round trip time and parameter variations in the queue management. Conventional approaches such as proportional integral and random early detection procedures lead to unstable behaviour due to large delay. Moreover, internal model control-Smith scheme suffers from large oscillations due to the large round trip time. On the other hand, other schemes such as internal model control-proportional integral and derivative show excessive sluggish performance for small round trip time values. To overcome these shortcomings, we introduce a system entailing two individual controllers for queue management and disturbance rejection, simultaneously. Simulation results based on Matlab/Simulink and also Network Simulator 2 (NS2) demonstrate the effectiveness of the procedure and verify the analytical approach.
Huang, Shuo; Kannadorai, Ravi Kumar; Chen, Yuan; Liu, Quan; Wang, Mingfeng
2015-03-11
Photothermal therapy has emerged as a promising tool for treatment of diseases such as cancers. Previous photothermal agents have been largely limited to inorganic nanomaterials and conductive polymers that are barely biodegradable, thus raising issues of long-term toxicity for clinical applications. Here we report a new photothermal agent based on colloidal nanoparticles formed by a small-molecular dye, benzo[1,2-c;4,5-c']bis[1,2,5]thiadiazole-4,7-bis(5-(2-ethylhexyl)thiophene). These nanoparticles showed strong near-infrared absorption, robust photostability and high therapeutic efficiency for photothermal treatment of cancer cells.
A Very Robust AlGaN/GaN HEMT Technology to High Forward Gate Bias and Current
Bradley D. Christiansen
2012-01-01
Full Text Available Reports to date of GaN HEMTs subjected to forward gate bias stress include varied extents of degradation. We report an extremely robust GaN HEMT technology that survived—contrary to conventional wisdom—high forward gate bias (+6 V and current (>1.8 A/mm for >17.5 hours exhibiting only a slight change in gate diode characteristic, little decrease in maximum drain current, with only a 0.1 V positive threshold voltage shift, and, remarkably, a persisting breakdown voltage exceeding 200 V.
Robust Principal Component Analysis?
Candes, Emmanuel J; Ma, Yi; Wright, John
2009-01-01
This paper is about a curious phenomenon. Suppose we have a data matrix, which is the superposition of a low-rank component and a sparse component. Can we recover each component individually? We prove that under some suitable assumptions, it is possible to recover both the low-rank and the sparse components exactly by solving a very convenient convex program called Principal Component Pursuit; among all feasible decompositions, simply minimize a weighted combination of the nuclear norm and of the L1 norm. This suggests the possibility of a principled approach to robust principal component analysis since our methodology and results assert that one can recover the principal components of a data matrix even though a positive fraction of its entries are arbitrarily corrupted. This extends to the situation where a fraction of the entries are missing as well. We discuss an algorithm for solving this optimization problem, and present applications in the area of video surveillance, where our methodology allows for th...
Evaluation of zoonotic potency of Escherichia coli O157:H7 through arbitrarily primed PCR methods
I Wayan Suardana; Dyah Ayu Widiasih; I Gusti Ngurah Kade Mahardika; Komang Januartha Putra Pinatih; Budi Setiadi Daryono
2015-01-01
Objective:To evaluate the zoonotic potency of Escherichia coli O157:H7 through arbitrarily primed-PCR (AP-PCR) methods as one of the DNA fingerprinting methods. Methods:A total of 14 isolates consisted of 11 isolates originated from human feces with renal failure symptoms, 2 isolates originated from cattle feces, and 1 control isolate were used in this study. DNA of each isolate was extracted, and their profiles were studied by using AP-PCR method with M13 F and M13 R arbitrary primers. Results:The results founded that all of 14 isolates had similarity range from 54.6%to 88.5%. Isolates KL-106(3) and KL-55(6) originated from humans showed the degree of similarity with isolates SM-25(1) and SM-7(1) originated from cattle as high as 85%and 77%, respectively. Conclusions:The high degree of similarity between isolates originated from cattle and human indicated the high potency of zoonoses. The results also concluded AP-PCR method as a briefly fingerprinting method in order to trace the epidemiological of E. coli O157:H7.
Evaluation of zoonotic potency of Escherichia coli O157:H7 through arbitrarily primed PCR methods
I; Wayan; Suardana; Dyah; Ayu; Widiasih; I; Gusti; Ngurah; Kade; Mahardika; Komang; Januartha; Putra; Pinatih; Budi; Setiadi; Daryono
2015-01-01
Objective: To evaluate the zoonotic potency of Escherichia coli O157:H7 through arbitrarily primed-PCR(AP-PCR) methods as one of the DNA fingerprinting methods.Methods: A total of 14 isolates consisted of 11 isolates originated from human feces with renal failure symptoms, 2 isolates originated from cattle feces, and 1 control isolate were used in this study. DNA of each isolate was extracted, and their pro files were studied by using AP-PCR method with M13 F and M13 R arbitrary primers.Results: The results founded that all of 14 isolates had similarity range from 54.6% to88.5%. Isolates KL-106(3) and KL-55(6) originated from humans showed the degree of similarity with isolates SM-25(1) and SM-7(1) originated from cattle as high as 85% and77%, respectively.Conclusions: The high degree of similarity between isolates originated from cattle and human indicated the high potency of zoonoses. The results also concluded AP-PCR method as a brie fly fingerprinting method in order to trace the epidemiological of E. coli O157:H7.
The optimal shape of elastomer mushroom-like fibers for high and robust adhesion
Burak Aksak
2014-05-01
Full Text Available Over the last decade, significant effort has been put into mimicking the ability of the gecko lizard to strongly and reversibly cling to surfaces, by using synthetic structures. Among these structures, mushroom-like elastomer fiber arrays have demonstrated promising performance on smooth surfaces matching the adhesive strengths obtained with the natural gecko foot-pads. It is possible to improve the already impressive adhesive performance of mushroom-like fibers provided that the underlying adhesion mechanism is understood. Here, the adhesion mechanism of bio-inspired mushroom-like fibers is investigated by implementing the Dugdale–Barenblatt cohesive zone model into finite elements simulations. It is found that the magnitude of pull-off stress depends on the edge angle θ and the ratio of the tip radius to the stalk radius β of the mushroom-like fiber. Pull-off stress is also found to depend on a dimensionless parameter χ, the ratio of the fiber radius to a length-scale related to the dominance of adhesive stress. As an estimate, the optimal parameters are found to be β = 1.1 and θ = 45°. Further, the location of crack initiation is found to depend on χ for given β and θ. An analytical model for pull-off stress, which depends on the location of crack initiation as well as on θ and β, is proposed and found to agree with the simulation results. Results obtained in this work provide a geometrical guideline for designing robust bio-inspired dry fibrillar adhesives.
Robust Simulations and Significant Separations
Fortnow, Lance
2010-01-01
We define and study a new notion of "robust simulations" between complexity classes which is intermediate between the traditional notions of infinitely-often and almost-everywhere, as well as a corresponding notion of "significant separations". A language L has a robust simulation in a complexity class C if there is a language in C which agrees with L on arbitrarily large polynomial stretches of input lengths. There is a significant separation of L from C if there is no robust simulation of L in C. The new notion of simulation is a cleaner and more natural notion of simulation than the infinitely-often notion. We show that various implications in complexity theory such as the collapse of PH if NP = P and the Karp-Lipton theorem have analogues for robust simulations. We then use these results to prove that most known separations in complexity theory, such as hierarchy theorems, fixed polynomial circuit lower bounds, time-space tradeoffs, and the theorems of Allender and Williams, can be strengthened to signifi...
Joo, Yunsik; Byun, Junghwan; Seong, Narkhyeon; Ha, Jewook; Kim, Hyunjong; Kim, Sangwoo; Kim, Taehoon; Im, Hwarim; Kim, Donghyun; Hong, Yongtaek
2015-04-14
The development of highly sensitive pressure sensors with a low-cost and facile fabrication technique is desirable for electronic skins and wearable sensing devices. Here a low-cost and facile fabrication strategy to obtain multiscale-structured elastomeric electrodes and a highly sensitive and robust flexible pressure sensor is presented. The principles of spontaneous buckle formation of the PDMS surface and the embedding of silver nanowires are used to fabricate the multiscale-structured elastomeric electrode. By laminating the multiscale-structured elastomeric electrode onto the dielectric layer/bottom electrode template, the pressure sensor can be obtained. The pressure sensor is based on the capacitive sensing mechanism and shows high sensitivity (>3.8 kPa(-1)), fast response and relaxation time (pressure sensor arrays and they can detect the spatial distribution of the applied pressure. It is also demonstrated that the fingertip pressure sensing device can sense the pressure distribution of each finger, when grabbing an object.
Design of robust hollow fiber membranes with high power density for osmotic energy production
Zhang, Sui
2014-04-01
This study highlights the design strategy of highly asymmetric hollow fiber membranes that possess both characteristics of high flux and high mechanical strength to effectively reap the osmotic energy from seawater brine with an ultrahigh power density. An advanced co-extrusion technology was employed to fabricate the polyethersulfone (PES) hollow fiber supports with diversified structures from macrovoid to sponge-like. The microstructure of the supports is found critical for the stability and water permeability of the thin film composite (TFC) membranes. A high porosity in the porous layer is needed to reduce internal concentration polarization, while a thick and relatively dense skin layer underneath the TFC layer is required to maintain good mechanical stability and stress dissipation. The pore size of the supporting layer underneath the TFC layer must be small with a narrow pore size distribution to ensure the formation of a less-defective, highly permeable and mechanically stable TFC layer. The newly developed hollow fiber comprising high asymmetry, high porosity, and a thick skin layer with a small and narrow pore size distribution underneath the TFC layer produces a maximum power density of 24.3W/m2 at 20.0bar by using 1M NaCl as the concentrated brine and deionized (DI) water as the feed. The proposed design strategy for ultrahigh power density membranes clearly advances the osmotic energy production close to commercialization with a quite cost-effective and practicable approach. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.
Hybrid Cooling Loop Technology for Robust High Heat Flux Cooling Project
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Advanced Cooling Technologies, Inc. proposes to develop a hybrid cooling loop technology for space thermal control. The proposed technology combines the high heat...
Development of a Robust, Highly Efficient Oxygen-Carbon Monoxide Cogeneration System Project
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This small business innovation research is intended to develop a long-life, highly efficient O2-CO cogeneration system to support NASA's endeavors to pursue...
Development of a Robust, Highly Efficient Oxygen-Carbon Monoxide Cogeneration System Project
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This small business innovation research is intended to develop a long-life, highly efficient O2-CO cogeneration system to support NASA's endeavors to pursue...
A Robust Highly Aligned DNA Nanowire Array-Enabled Lithography for Graphene Nanoribbon Transistors.
Kang, Seok Hee; Hwang, Wan Sik; Lin, Zhiqun; Kwon, Se Hun; Hong, Suck Won
2015-12-01
Because of its excellent charge carrier mobility at the Dirac point, graphene possesses exceptional properties for high-performance devices. Of particular interest is the potential use of graphene nanoribbons or graphene nanomesh for field-effect transistors. Herein, highly aligned DNA nanowire arrays were crafted by flow-assisted self-assembly of a drop of DNA aqueous solution on a flat polymer substrate. Subsequently, they were exploited as "ink" and transfer-printed on chemical vapor deposited (CVD)-grown graphene substrate. The oriented DNA nanowires served as the lithographic resist for selective removal of graphene, forming highly aligned graphene nanoribbons. Intriguingly, these graphene nanoribbons can be readily produced over a large area (i.e., millimeter scale) with a high degree of feature-size controllability and a low level of defects, rendering the fabrication of flexible two terminal devices and field-effect transistors.
Unique Power Dense, Configurable, Robust, High-Voltage Power Supplies Project
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Princeton Power will develop and deliver three small, lightweight 50 W high-voltage power supplies that have a configurable output voltage range from 500 to 50 kVDC....
Shape-adaptive discrete wavelet transform for coding arbitrarily shaped texture
Li, Shipeng; Li, Weiping
1997-01-01
This paper presents a shape adaptive discrete wavelet transform (SA-DWT) scheme for coding arbitrarily shaped texture. The proposed SA-DWT can be used for object-oriented image coding. The number of coefficients after SA-DWT is identical to the number of pels contained in the arbitrarily shaped image objects. The locality property of wavelet transform and self-similarity among subbands are well preserved throughout this process.For a rectangular region, the SA-DWT is identical to a standard wavelet transform. With SA-DWT, conventional wavelet based coding schemes can be readily extended to the coding of arbitrarily shaped objects. The proposed shape adaptive wavelet transform is not unitary but the small energy increase is restricted at the boundary of objects in subbands. Two approaches of using the SA-DWT algorithm for object-oriented image and video coding are presented. One is to combine scalar SA-DWT with embedded zerotree wavelet (EZW) coding technique, the other is an extension of the normal vector wavelet coding (VWC) technique to arbitrarily shaped objects. Results of applying SA-VWC to real arbitrarily shaped texture coding are also given at the end of this paper.
Robust PCA via Outlier Pursuit
Xu, Huan; Sanghavi, Sujay
2010-01-01
Singular Value Decomposition (and Principal Component Analysis) is one of the most widely used techniques for dimensionality reduction: successful and efficiently computable, it is nevertheless plagued by a well-known, well-documented sensitivity to outliers. Recent work has considered the setting where each point has a few arbitrarily corrupted components. Yet, in applications of SVD or PCA such as robust collaborative filtering or bioinformatics, malicious agents, defective genes, or simply corrupted or contaminated experiments may effectively yield entire points that are completely corrupted. We present an efficient convex optimization-based algorithm we call Outlier Pursuit, that under some mild assumptions on the uncorrupted points (satisfied, e.g., by the standard generative assumption in PCA problems) recovers the exact optimal low-dimensional subspace, and identifies the corrupted points. Such identification of corrupted points that do not conform to the low-dimensional approximation, is of paramount ...
Afik, Eldad
2013-01-01
Three-dimensional particle tracking is an essential tool in studying dynamics under the microscope, namely, cellular trafficking, bacteria taxis, fluid dynamics in microfluidics devices. The 3d position of a fluorescent particle can be determined using 2d imaging alone, by measuring the diffraction rings generated by an out-of-focus particle, imaged on a single camera. Here I present a ring detection algorithm exhibiting a high detection rate, which is robust to the challenges arising from particles vicinity. It is capable of real time analysis thanks to its high performance and low memory footprint. Many of the algorithmic concepts introduced can be advantageous in other cases, particularly for sparse data. The implementation is based on open-source and cross-platform software packages only, making it easy to distribute and modify. The image analysis algorithm, which is an offspring of the full 3d circle Hough transform, addresses the need to efficiently trace the trajectories of several particles concurrent...
Shi, Zhong-Ke; Wu, Fang-Xiang
2013-06-01
A common assumption is that the model structure is known for modelling high performance aircraft. In practice, this is not the case. Actually, structure identification plays the most important role in the processing of nonlinear system modelling. The integration of mode structure identification and parameter estimation is an efficient method to construct the model for high performance aircraft, which is nonlinear and also contains uncertainties. This article presents an efficient method for identifying nonlinear model structure and estimating parameters for high-performance aircraft model, which contains uncertainties. The parameters associated with nonlinear terms are considered one after the other if they should be included in the nonlinear model until a stopping criterion is met, which is based on Akaike's information criterion. A numerically efficient U-D factorisation is presented to avoid complex computation of high-order matrices. The proposed method is applied to flight test data of a high-performance aircraft. The results demonstrate that the proposed method could obtain the good aircraft model with a reasonably good fidelity based on the comparison with flight test data.
Mechanisms for Robust Cognition
Walsh, Matthew M.; Gluck, Kevin A.
2015-01-01
To function well in an unpredictable environment using unreliable components, a system must have a high degree of robustness. Robustness is fundamental to biological systems and is an objective in the design of engineered systems such as airplane engines and buildings. Cognitive systems, like biological and engineered systems, exist within…
Mechanisms for Robust Cognition
Walsh, Matthew M.; Gluck, Kevin A.
2015-01-01
To function well in an unpredictable environment using unreliable components, a system must have a high degree of robustness. Robustness is fundamental to biological systems and is an objective in the design of engineered systems such as airplane engines and buildings. Cognitive systems, like biological and engineered systems, exist within…
MySQL High Availability Tools for Building Robust Data Centers
Bell, Charles; Thalmann, Lars
2010-01-01
Server bottlenecks and failures are a fact of life in any database deployment, but they don't have to bring everything to a halt. MySQL has several features that can help you protect your system from outages, whether it's running on hardware, virtual machines, or in the cloud. MySQL High Availability explains how to use these replication, cluster, and monitoring features in a wide range of real-life situations. Written by engineers who designed many of the tools covered inside, this book reveals undocumented or hard-to-find aspects of MySQL reliability and high availability -- knowledge that
Im, Hyeon-Gyun; An, Byeong Wan; Jin, Jungho; Jang, Junho; Park, Young-Geun; Park, Jang-Ung; Bae, Byeong-Soo
2016-02-01
We report a high-performance, flexible and robust metal nanotrough-embedded transparent conducting hybrid film (metal nanotrough-GFRHybrimer). Using an electro-spun polymer nanofiber web as a template and vacuum-deposited gold as a conductor, a junction resistance-free continuous metal nanotrough network is formed. Subsequently, the metal nanotrough is embedded on the surface of a glass-fabric reinforced composite substrate (GFRHybrimer). The monolithic composite structure of our transparent conducting film allows simultaneously high thermal stability (24 h at 250 °C in air), a smooth surface topography (Rrms touch screen panel (TSP) is fabricated using the transparent conducting films. The flexible TSP device stably operates on the back of a human hand and on a wristband.We report a high-performance, flexible and robust metal nanotrough-embedded transparent conducting hybrid film (metal nanotrough-GFRHybrimer). Using an electro-spun polymer nanofiber web as a template and vacuum-deposited gold as a conductor, a junction resistance-free continuous metal nanotrough network is formed. Subsequently, the metal nanotrough is embedded on the surface of a glass-fabric reinforced composite substrate (GFRHybrimer). The monolithic composite structure of our transparent conducting film allows simultaneously high thermal stability (24 h at 250 °C in air), a smooth surface topography (Rrms touch screen panel (TSP) is fabricated using the transparent conducting films. The flexible TSP device stably operates on the back of a human hand and on a wristband. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr07657a
Krupnik, Tomasz; Kotabová, Eva; van Bezouwen, Laura S; Mazur, Radoslaw; Garstka, Maciej; Nixon, Peter J; Barber, James; Kaňa, Radek; Boekema, Egbert J; Kargul, Joanna
2013-08-09
Members of the rhodophytan order Cyanidiales are unique among phototrophs in their ability to live in extremely low pH levels and moderately high temperatures. The photosynthetic apparatus of the red alga Cyanidioschyzon merolae represents an intermediate type between cyanobacteria and higher plants, suggesting that this alga may provide the evolutionary link between prokaryotic and eukaryotic phototrophs. Although we now have a detailed structural model of photosystem II (PSII) from cyanobacteria at an atomic resolution, no corresponding structure of the eukaryotic PSII complex has been published to date. Here we report the isolation and characterization of a highly active and robust dimeric PSII complex from C. merolae. We show that this complex is highly stable across a range of extreme light, temperature, and pH conditions. By measuring fluorescence quenching properties of the isolated C. merolae PSII complex, we provide the first direct evidence of pH-dependent non-photochemical quenching in the red algal PSII reaction center. This type of quenching, together with high zeaxanthin content, appears to underlie photoprotection mechanisms that are efficiently employed by this robust natural water-splitting complex under excess irradiance. In order to provide structural details of this eukaryotic form of PSII, we have employed electron microscopy and single particle analyses to obtain a 17 Å map of the C. merolae PSII dimer in which we locate the position of the protein mass corresponding to the additional extrinsic protein stabilizing the oxygen-evolving complex, PsbQ'. We conclude that this lumenal subunit is present in the vicinity of the CP43 protein, close to the membrane plane.
Krupnik, Tomasz; Kotabová, Eva; van Bezouwen, Laura S.; Mazur, Radosław; Garstka, Maciej; Nixon, Peter J.; Barber, James; Kaňa, Radek; Boekema, Egbert J.; Kargul, Joanna
2013-01-01
Members of the rhodophytan order Cyanidiales are unique among phototrophs in their ability to live in extremely low pH levels and moderately high temperatures. The photosynthetic apparatus of the red alga Cyanidioschyzon merolae represents an intermediate type between cyanobacteria and higher plants, suggesting that this alga may provide the evolutionary link between prokaryotic and eukaryotic phototrophs. Although we now have a detailed structural model of photosystem II (PSII) from cyanobacteria at an atomic resolution, no corresponding structure of the eukaryotic PSII complex has been published to date. Here we report the isolation and characterization of a highly active and robust dimeric PSII complex from C. merolae. We show that this complex is highly stable across a range of extreme light, temperature, and pH conditions. By measuring fluorescence quenching properties of the isolated C. merolae PSII complex, we provide the first direct evidence of pH-dependent non-photochemical quenching in the red algal PSII reaction center. This type of quenching, together with high zeaxanthin content, appears to underlie photoprotection mechanisms that are efficiently employed by this robust natural water-splitting complex under excess irradiance. In order to provide structural details of this eukaryotic form of PSII, we have employed electron microscopy and single particle analyses to obtain a 17 Å map of the C. merolae PSII dimer in which we locate the position of the protein mass corresponding to the additional extrinsic protein stabilizing the oxygen-evolving complex, PsbQ′. We conclude that this lumenal subunit is present in the vicinity of the CP43 protein, close to the membrane plane. PMID:23775073
Tomo-PIV measurement of flow around an arbitrarily moving body with surface reconstruction
Im, Sunghyuk; Jeon, Young Jin; Sung, Hyung Jin
2015-02-01
A three-dimensional surface of an arbitrarily moving body in a flow field was reconstructed using the DAISY descriptor and epipolar geometry constraints. The surface shape of a moving body was reconstructed with tomographic PIV flow measurement. Experimental images were captured using the tomographic PIV system, which consisted of four high-speed cameras and a laser. The originally captured images, which contained the shape of the arbitrary moving body and the tracer particles, were separated into the particle and surface images using a Gaussian smoothing filter. The weak contrast of the surface images was enhanced using a local histogram equalization method. The histogram-equalized surface images were used to reconstruct the surface shape of the moving body. The surface reconstruction method required a sufficiently detailed surface pattern to obtain the intensity gradient profile of the local descriptor. The separated particle images were used to reconstruct the particle volume intensity via tomographic reconstruction approaches. Voxels behind the reconstructed body surface were neglected during the tomographic reconstruction and velocity calculation. The three-dimensional three-component flow vectors were calculated based on the cross-correlation functions between the reconstructed particle volumes. Three-dimensional experiments that modeled the flows around a flapping flag, a rotating cylinder, and a flapping robot fish tail were conducted to validate the present technique.
Gorm Hansen, Birgitte
2012-01-01
as the analytical framework for descri bing the complex relationship between academic science and its so called “external” habitat. Although relational skills and adaptability do seem to be at the heart of successful research management, the key to success does not lie with the ability to assimilate to industrial...... knowledge", Danish research policy seems to have helped develop politically and economically "robust scientists". Scientific robustness is acquired by way of three strategies: 1) tasting and discriminating between resources so as to avoid funding that erodes academic profiles and push scientists away from...... and industrial intere sts. The paper concludes by stressing the potential danger of policy habitats who have promoted the evolution of robust scientists based on a competitive system where only the fittest survive. Robust scientists, it is argued, have the potential to become a new “invasive species...
Robust piezoelectric composites for energy harvesting in high-strain environments
Ende, D.A. van der; Groen, W.A.; Zwaag, S. van der
2013-01-01
High-strain environments, such as are found in automobile tires, provide deformation energy that can be harvested using piezoelectric materials, for instance, for powering electronics such as wireless sensors. Despite numerous efforts, none of the present devices easily satisfy the stringent operati
Ge, Dengteng; Lee, Elaine; Yang, Lili; Cho, Yigil; Li, Min; Gianola, Daniel S; Yang, Shu
2015-04-17
A smart window is fabricated from a composite consisting of elastomeric poly(dimethylsiloxane) embedded with a thin layer of quasi-amorphous silica nanoparticles. The smart window can be switched from the initial highly transparent state to opaqueness and displays angle-independent structural color via mechanical stretching. The switchable optical property can be fully recovered after 1000 stretching/releasing cycles.
Bovee, T.F.H.; Helsdingen, J.R.; Hamers, A.R.M.; Duursen, van M.; Nielen, M.W.F.; Hoogenboom, L.A.P.
2007-01-01
Public concern about the presence of natural and anthropogenic compounds which affect human health by modulating normal endocrine functions is continuously growing. Fast and simple high-throughput screening methods for the detection of hormone activities are thus indispensable. During the last two d
Microfluidic train station: highly robust and multiplexable sorting of droplets on electric rails.
Frenzel, Daniel; Merten, Christoph A
2017-02-24
Fluorescence-activated droplet sorting (FADS) has become a widely used technique for high-throughput screening applications. However, existing methods are very sensitive to fluctuating flow rates at the sorting junction, which can be caused by the pulsing effects of mechanical pumps, droplet aggregates or the accumulation of precipitates during lengthy biological screening applications. Furthermore, existing sorting devices allow only 2-way sorting. We present here a dielectrophoretic sorting system in which the droplets are sorted along multiple electrode pairs that run parallel to the channels. This enables highly reliable sorting (no errors were detected for more than 2000 sorting events) even when inverting the relative flow rates at a 2-way sorting junction from 80 : 20 to 20 : 80. Furthermore, our toolbox is scalable: we demonstrate on the example of a triple-colour sorting experiment with a total of four decoupled electrodes that multi-way sorting is feasible.
Robust cladding light stripper for high-power fiber lasers using soft metals.
Babazadeh, Amin; Nasirabad, Reza Rezaei; Norouzey, Ahmad; Hejaz, Kamran; Poozesh, Reza; Heidariazar, Amir; Golshan, Ali Hamedani; Roohforouz, Ali; Jafari, S Naser Tabatabaei; Lafouti, Majid
2014-04-20
In this paper we present a novel method to reliably strip the unwanted cladding light in high-power fiber lasers. Soft metals are utilized to fabricate a high-power cladding light stripper (CLS). The capability of indium (In), aluminum (Al), tin (Sn), and gold (Au) in extracting unwanted cladding light is examined. The experiments show that these metals have the right features for stripping the unwanted light out of the cladding. We also find that the metal-cladding contact area is of great importance because it determines the attenuation and the thermal load on the CLS. These metals are examined in different forms to optimize the contact area to have the highest possible attenuation and avoid localized heating. The results show that sheets of indium are very effective in stripping unwanted cladding light.
Robust, high-throughput solution structural analyses by small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS)
Hura, Greg L.; Menon, Angeli L.; Hammel, Michal; Rambo, Robert P.; Poole II, Farris L.; Tsutakawa, Susan E.; Jenney Jr, Francis E.; Classen, Scott; Frankel, Kenneth A.; Hopkins, Robert C.; Yang, Sungjae; Scott, Joseph W.; Dillard, Bret D.; Adams, Michael W. W.; Tainer, John A.
2009-07-20
We present an efficient pipeline enabling high-throughput analysis of protein structure in solution with small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS). Our SAXS pipeline combines automated sample handling of microliter volumes, temperature and anaerobic control, rapid data collection and data analysis, and couples structural analysis with automated archiving. We subjected 50 representative proteins, mostly from Pyrococcus furiosus, to this pipeline and found that 30 were multimeric structures in solution. SAXS analysis allowed us to distinguish aggregated and unfolded proteins, define global structural parameters and oligomeric states for most samples, identify shapes and similar structures for 25 unknown structures, and determine envelopes for 41 proteins. We believe that high-throughput SAXS is an enabling technology that may change the way that structural genomics research is done.
Robust Short-Pulse, High-Peak-Power Laser Transmitter for Optical Communications
Wright, Malcolm W.
2009-01-01
We report on a pulsed fiber based master oscillator power amplifier laser at 1550 nm to support moderate data rates with high peak powers in a compact package suitable for interplanetary optical communications. To accommodate pulse position modulation, the polarization maintaining laser transmitter generates pulses from 0.1 to 1 ns with variable duty cycle over a pulse repetition frequency range of 10 to 100 MHz.
Comparing the Robustness of High-Frequency Traveling-Wave Tube Slow-Wave Circuits
Chevalier, Christine T.; Wilson, Jeffrey D.; Kory, Carol L.
2007-01-01
A three-dimensional electromagnetic field simulation software package was used to compute the cold-test parameters, phase velocity, on-axis interaction impedance, and attenuation, for several high-frequency traveling-wave tube slow-wave circuit geometries. This research effort determined the effects of variations in circuit dimensions on cold-test performance. The parameter variations were based on the tolerances of conventional micromachining techniques.
Robust atlas-based segmentation of highly variable anatomy: left atrium segmentation
Depa, Michal; Sabuncu, Mert R.; Holmvang, Godtfred; Nezafat, Reza; Schmidt, Ehud J.; Golland, Polina
2010-01-01
Automatic segmentation of the heart's left atrium offers great benefits for planning and outcome evaluation of atrial ablation procedures. However, the high anatomical variability of the left atrium presents significant challenges for atlas-guided segmentation. In this paper, we demonstrate an automatic method for left atrium segmentation using weighted voting label fusion and a variant of the demons registration algorithm adapted to handle images with different intensity distributions. We ac...
Bovee, T. F. H.; Helsdingen, J.R.; Hamers, A.R.M.; Duursen, van, M.; Nielen, M. W. F.; Hoogenboom, L.A.P.
2007-01-01
Public concern about the presence of natural and anthropogenic compounds which affect human health by modulating normal endocrine functions is continuously growing. Fast and simple high-throughput screening methods for the detection of hormone activities are thus indispensable. During the last two decades, a panel of different in vitro assays has been developed, mainly for compounds with an estrogenic mode of action. Here we describe the development of an androgen transcription activation ass...
Wu, Qian; Wei, Junjie; Xu, Bing; Liu, Xinhua; Wang, Hongbo; Wang, Wei; Wang, Qigang; Liu, Wenguang
2017-01-01
Dual amide hydrogen bond crosslinked and strengthened high strength supramolecular polymer conductive hydrogels were fabricated by simply in situ doping poly (N-acryloyl glycinamide-co-2-acrylamide-2-methylpropanesulfonic) (PNAGA-PAMPS) hydrogels with PEDOT/PSS. The nonswellable conductive hydrogels in PBS demonstrated high mechanical performances—0.22–0.58 MPa tensile strength, 1.02–7.62 MPa compressive strength, and 817–1709% breaking strain. The doping of PEDOT/PSS could significantly improve the specific conductivities of the hydrogels. Cyclic heating and cooling could lead to reversible sol-gel transition and self-healability due to the dynamic breakup and reconstruction of hydrogen bonds. The mending hydrogels recovered not only the mechanical properties, but also conductivities very well. These supramolecular conductive hydrogels could be designed into arbitrary shapes with 3D printing technique, and further, printable electrode can be obtained by blending activated charcoal powder with PNAGA-PAMPS/PEDOT/PSS hydrogel under melting state. The fabricated supercapacitor via the conducting hydrogel electrodes possessed high capacitive performances. These cytocompatible conductive hydrogels have a great potential to be used as electro-active and electrical biomaterials.
A Maximum a Posteriori Estimation Framework for Robust High Dynamic Range Video Synthesis.
Li, Yuelong; Lee, Chul; Monga, Vishal
2017-03-01
High dynamic range (HDR) image synthesis from multiple low dynamic range exposures continues to be actively researched. The extension to HDR video synthesis is a topic of significant current interest due to potential cost benefits. For HDR video, a stiff practical challenge presents itself in the form of accurate correspondence estimation of objects between video frames. In particular, loss of data resulting from poor exposures and varying intensity makes conventional optical flow methods highly inaccurate. We avoid exact correspondence estimation by proposing a statistical approach via maximum a posterior estimation, and under appropriate statistical assumptions and choice of priors and models, we reduce it to an optimization problem of solving for the foreground and background of the target frame. We obtain the background through rank minimization and estimate the foreground via a novel multiscale adaptive kernel regression technique, which implicitly captures local structure and temporal motion by solving an unconstrained optimization problem. Extensive experimental results on both real and synthetic data sets demonstrate that our algorithm is more capable of delivering high-quality HDR videos than current state-of-the-art methods, under both subjective and objective assessments. Furthermore, a thorough complexity analysis reveals that our algorithm achieves better complexity-performance tradeoff than conventional methods.
Wu, Qian; Wei, Junjie; Xu, Bing; Liu, Xinhua; Wang, Hongbo; Wang, Wei; Wang, Qigang; Liu, Wenguang
2017-01-01
Dual amide hydrogen bond crosslinked and strengthened high strength supramolecular polymer conductive hydrogels were fabricated by simply in situ doping poly (N-acryloyl glycinamide-co-2-acrylamide-2-methylpropanesulfonic) (PNAGA-PAMPS) hydrogels with PEDOT/PSS. The nonswellable conductive hydrogels in PBS demonstrated high mechanical performances—0.22–0.58 MPa tensile strength, 1.02–7.62 MPa compressive strength, and 817–1709% breaking strain. The doping of PEDOT/PSS could significantly improve the specific conductivities of the hydrogels. Cyclic heating and cooling could lead to reversible sol-gel transition and self-healability due to the dynamic breakup and reconstruction of hydrogen bonds. The mending hydrogels recovered not only the mechanical properties, but also conductivities very well. These supramolecular conductive hydrogels could be designed into arbitrary shapes with 3D printing technique, and further, printable electrode can be obtained by blending activated charcoal powder with PNAGA-PAMPS/PEDOT/PSS hydrogel under melting state. The fabricated supercapacitor via the conducting hydrogel electrodes possessed high capacitive performances. These cytocompatible conductive hydrogels have a great potential to be used as electro-active and electrical biomaterials. PMID:28134283
Xia, Xinhui; Zhan, Jiye; Zhong, Yu; Wang, Xiuli; Tu, Jiangping; Fan, Hong Jin
2017-02-01
Customized electrode materials with good temperature adaptability and high-rate capability are critical to the development of wide-temperature power sources. Herein, high-quality TiC nanowires are uniformly grown on flexible carbon cloth as free-standing electric-double-layer supercapacitor electrode. The TiC nanowires, 20-40 nm wide and 3-6 µm long, are single-crystalline and highly conductive that is close to typical metal. Symmetric supercapacitors are constructed with ionic liquid electrolyte and TiC nanowires electrodes as wide-temperature and long-cycle stable power source. Ultrastable high-rate cycling life of TiC nanowire arrays electrodes is demonstrated with capacitance retention of 96.8% at 60 °C (≈440 F g(-1) ), 99% at 25 °C (≈400 F g(-1) ), and 98% at -25 °C (≈240 F g(-1) ) after 50 000 cycles at 10 A g(-1) . Moreover, due to high electrical conductivity, the TiC nanowire arrays show ultrafast energy release with a fast response time constant of ≈0.7 ms. The results demonstrate the viability of metal carbide nanostructures as wide-temperature, robust electrode materials for high-rate and ultrastable supercapacitors.
Jonnada, Murthy; El Rassi, Ziad
2015-08-28
An organic monolithic column based on the co-polymerization of 2-naphthyl methacrylate (NAPM) as the functional monomer and trimethylolpropane trimethacrylate (TRIM) as the crosslinker was introduced for high performance reversed-phase liquid chromatography (RPC). The co-polymerization was performed in situ in a stainless steel column of 4.6mm i.d. in the presence of a ternary porogen consisting of 1-dodecanol and cyclohexanol. This monolithic column (referred to as naphthyl methacrylate monolithic column or NMM column) showed high mechanical stability at relatively high mobile phase flow velocity indicating that the column has excellent hydrodynamic characteristics. To characterize the NMM column, different probe molecules including alkyl benzenes, and aniline, benzene, toluene and phenol derivatives were chromatographed on the column and the results in terms of k, selectivity and plate counts were compared to those obtained on an octadecyl silica (ODS) column in order to assess the presence of π-π and hydrophobic interactions on the NMM column under otherwise the same elution conditions. The NMM column offered additional π-π interactions with aromatic molecules in addition to hydrophobic interactions under RPC elution conditions. Run-to-run and column-to-column reproducibility of solute k values were evaluated, and percent relative standard deviation of column using shallow (30min at 1.0mL/min), steep (10min at 1.0mL/min) and ultra steep (1min at 3.0mL/min) linear gradient elution at increasing ACN concentration in the mobile phase using a 10cm×4.6mm i.d. column in case of shallow and steep linear gradients and a 3cm×4.6mm i.d. column for ultra steep linear gradient.
A robust, simple genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS approach for high diversity species.
Robert J Elshire
Full Text Available Advances in next generation technologies have driven the costs of DNA sequencing down to the point that genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS is now feasible for high diversity, large genome species. Here, we report a procedure for constructing GBS libraries based on reducing genome complexity with restriction enzymes (REs. This approach is simple, quick, extremely specific, highly reproducible, and may reach important regions of the genome that are inaccessible to sequence capture approaches. By using methylation-sensitive REs, repetitive regions of genomes can be avoided and lower copy regions targeted with two to three fold higher efficiency. This tremendously simplifies computationally challenging alignment problems in species with high levels of genetic diversity. The GBS procedure is demonstrated with maize (IBM and barley (Oregon Wolfe Barley recombinant inbred populations where roughly 200,000 and 25,000 sequence tags were mapped, respectively. An advantage in species like barley that lack a complete genome sequence is that a reference map need only be developed around the restriction sites, and this can be done in the process of sample genotyping. In such cases, the consensus of the read clusters across the sequence tagged sites becomes the reference. Alternatively, for kinship analyses in the absence of a reference genome, the sequence tags can simply be treated as dominant markers. Future application of GBS to breeding, conservation, and global species and population surveys may allow plant breeders to conduct genomic selection on a novel germplasm or species without first having to develop any prior molecular tools, or conservation biologists to determine population structure without prior knowledge of the genome or diversity in the species.
Robust, Rework-able Thermal Electronic Packaging: Applications in High Power TR Modules for Space
Hoffman, James Patrick; Del Castillo, Linda; Hunter, Don; Miller, Jennifer
2012-01-01
The higher output power densities required of modern radar architectures, such as the proposed DESDynI [Deformation, Ecosystem Structure, and Dynamics of Ice] SAR [Synthetic Aperture Radar] Instrument (or DSI) require increasingly dense high power electronics. To enable these higher power densities, while maintaining or even improving hardware reliability, requires improvements in integrating advanced thermal packaging technologies into radar transmit/receive (TR) modules. New materials and techniques have been studied and are now being implemented side-by-side with more standard technology typically used in flight hardware.
Robust, Rework-able Thermal Electronic Packaging: Applications in High Power TR Modules for Space
Hoffman, James Patrick; Del Castillo, Linda; Hunter, Don; Miller, Jennifer
2012-01-01
The higher output power densities required of modern radar architectures, such as the proposed DESDynI [Deformation, Ecosystem Structure, and Dynamics of Ice] SAR [Synthetic Aperture Radar] Instrument (or DSI) require increasingly dense high power electronics. To enable these higher power densities, while maintaining or even improving hardware reliability, requires improvements in integrating advanced thermal packaging technologies into radar transmit/receive (TR) modules. New materials and techniques have been studied and are now being implemented side-by-side with more standard technology typically used in flight hardware.
Guesmi, Latifa; Hraghi, Abir; Menif, Mourad
2015-09-01
There is a need, for high speed optical communication networks, in the monitoring process, to determine the modulation format type of a received signal. In this paper, we present a new achievement of modulation format recognition technique, where we proposed the use of wavelet transform of the detected signal in conjunction with the artificial neural network (ANN) algorithm. Besides, wavelet transform is one of the most popular candidates of the time-frequency transformations, where the wavelets are generated from a basic wavelet function by dilations and translations. We proved that this technique is capable of recognizing the multi-carriers modulation scheme with high accuracy under different transmission impairments such as chromatic dispersion (CD), differential group delay (DGD) and accumulated amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) noise with different ranges. Both the theoretical analysis and the simulation results showed that the wavelet transform not only can be used for modulation identification of optical communication signals, but also has a better classification accuracies under appropriate OSNR (optical signal-to-noise ratio) values.
Multi-stage robust scheme for citrus identification from high resolution airborne images
Amorós-López, Julia; Izquierdo Verdiguier, Emma; Gómez-Chova, Luis; Muñoz-Marí, Jordi; Zoilo Rodríguez-Barreiro, Jorge; Camps-Valls, Gustavo; Calpe-Maravilla, Javier
2008-10-01
Identification of land cover types is one of the most critical activities in remote sensing. Nowadays, managing land resources by using remote sensing techniques is becoming a common procedure to speed up the process while reducing costs. However, data analysis procedures should satisfy the accuracy figures demanded by institutions and governments for further administrative actions. This paper presents a methodological scheme to update the citrus Geographical Information Systems (GIS) of the Comunidad Valenciana autonomous region, Spain). The proposed approach introduces a multi-stage automatic scheme to reduce visual photointerpretation and ground validation tasks. First, an object-oriented feature extraction process is carried out for each cadastral parcel from very high spatial resolution (VHR) images (0.5m) acquired in the visible and near infrared. Next, several automatic classifiers (decision trees, multilayer perceptron, and support vector machines) are trained and combined to improve the final accuracy of the results. The proposed strategy fulfills the high accuracy demanded by policy makers by means of combining automatic classification methods with visual photointerpretation available resources. A level of confidence based on the agreement between classifiers allows us an effective management by fixing the quantity of parcels to be reviewed. The proposed methodology can be applied to similar problems and applications.
A Robust, Gravity-Insensitive, High-Temperature Condenser for Water Recovery
Chen, Weibo; Conboy, Thomas; Ewert, Michael
2016-01-01
Regenerative life support systems are vital for NASA's future long-duration human space exploration missions. A Heat Melt Compactor (HMC) system is being developed by NASA to dry and compress trash generated during space missions. The resulting water vapor is recovered and separated from the process gas flow by a gravity-insensitive condenser. Creare is developing a high-temperature condenser for this application. The entire condenser is constructed from metals that have excellent resistance to chemical attack from contaminants and is suitable for high-temperature operation. The metal construction and design configuration also offer greatest flexibility for potential coating and regeneration processes to reduce biofilm growth and thus enhancing the reliability of the condenser. The proposed condenser builds on the gravity-insensitive phase separator technology Creare developed for aircraft and spacecraft applications. This paper will first discuss the design requirements for the condenser in an HMC system that will be demonstrated on the International Space Station (ISS). Then, it will present the overall design of the condenser and the preliminary thermal test results of a subscale condenser. Finally, this paper will discuss the predicted performance of the full-size condenser and the development plan to mature the technology and enhance its long-term reliability for a flight system.
Extracting physical properties of arbitrarily shaped laser-doped micro-scale areas in semiconductors
Heinrich, Martin, E-mail: mh@nus.edu.sg [Solar Energy Research Institute of Singapore, National University of Singapore, Singapore, Singapore 117574 (Singapore); NUS Graduate School for Integrative Science and Engineering, National University of Singapore, Singapore, Singapore 117456 (Singapore); Kluska, Sven [Fraunhofer Institute for Solar Energy Systems (ISE), Heidenhofstr. 2, D-79110 Freiburg (Germany); Hameiri, Ziv; Hoex, Bram [Solar Energy Research Institute of Singapore, National University of Singapore, Singapore, Singapore 117574 (Singapore); Aberle, Armin G. [Solar Energy Research Institute of Singapore, National University of Singapore, Singapore, Singapore 117574 (Singapore); Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, National University of Singapore, Singapore, Singapore 117456 (Singapore)
2013-12-23
We present a method that allows the extraction of relevant physical properties such as sheet resistance and dopant profile from arbitrarily shaped laser-doped micro-scale areas formed in semiconductors with a focused pulsed laser beam. The key feature of the method is to use large laser-doped areas with an identical average number of laser pulses per area (laser pulse density) as the arbitrarily shaped areas. The method is verified using sheet resistance measurements on laser-doped silicon samples. Furthermore, the method is extended to doping with continuous-wave lasers by using the average number of passes per area or density of passes.
Zheng, Qiang; Jin, Yiming; Liu, Zhuo; Ouyang, Han; Li, Hu; Shi, Bojing; Jiang, Wen; Zhang, Hao; Li, Zhou; Wang, Zhong Lin
2016-10-03
Harvesting biomechanical energy especially in vivo is of special significance for sustainable powering of wearable/implantable electronics. The triboelectric nanogenerator (TENG) is one of the most promising solutions considering its high efficiency, low cost, light weight, and easy fabrication, but its performance will be greatly affected if there is moisture or liquid leaked into the device when applied in vivo. Here, we demonstrate a multiple encapsulation process of the TENG to maintain its output performance in various harsh environments. Through systematic studies, the encapsulated TENG showed great reliability in humid or even harsh environment over 30 days with a stability index of more than 95%. Given its outstanding reliability, the TENG has the potential to be applied in variety of circumstances to function as a sustainable power source for self-powered biomedical electronics and environmental sensing systems.
Tropolone as a High-Performance Robust Anchoring Group for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells.
Higashino, Tomohiro; Fujimori, Yamato; Sugiura, Kenichi; Tsuji, Yukihiro; Ito, Seigo; Imahori, Hiroshi
2015-07-27
A tropolone group has been employed for the first time as an anchoring group for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). The DSSC based on a porphyrin, YD2-o-C8T, with a tropolone moiety exhibited a power-conversion efficiency of 7.7 %, which is only slightly lower than that observed for a reference porphyrin, YD2-o-C8, with a conventional carboxylic group. More importantly, YD2-o-C8T was found to be superior to YD2-o-C8 with respect to DSSC durability and binding ability to TiO2 . These results unambiguously demonstrate that tropolone is a highly promising dye-anchoring group for DSSCs in terms of device durability as well as photovoltaic performance.
Sharma, Nikhil; Kern, Dominik; Seemann, Wolfgang
2015-02-01
A heavy pinched loop is formed by bringing and clamping the two ends of a highly deformable slender beam, elastica. A collocation solution technique is implemented for studying the formation statically and dynamically, i.e. small vibrations around the large deformed static solutions, and the earlier work using a shooting method is validated. A new and clear Galerkin formulation capable of modelling damping is established for finding transients, and a new theoretical multi-point boundary value problem approach is used for numerically obtaining the frequency response function. Lastly, the obtained dynamic model is used for active vibration control, wherein a controller is designed using H ∞ algorithm for active damping in a heavy pinched loop for two simplified cases, and the simulated results are shown.
Casuso, Rafael A; Plaza-Díaz, Julio; Ruiz-Ojeda, Francisco J
2017-01-01
We aimed to test whether high-intensity high-volume training (HIHVT) swimming would induce more robust signaling than sprint interval training (SIT) swimming within the m. triceps brachii due to lower metabolic and oxidation. Nine well-trained swimmers performed the two training procedures...... on separate randomized days. Muscle biopsies from m. triceps brachii and blood samples were collected at three different time points: a) before the intervention (pre), b) immediately after the swimming procedures (post) and c) after 3 h of rest (3 h). Hydroperoxides, creatine kinase (CK), and lactate...
Liu, Xiao; Yi, Qiaolian; Han, Yongzhen; Liang, Zhenning; Shen, Chaohua; Zhou, Zhengyang; Sun, Jun-Liang; Li, Yizhi; Du, Wenbin; Cao, Rui
2015-02-02
A simple and robust microfluidic device was developed to synthesize organometallic polymers with highly organized structures. The device is compatible with organic solvents. Reactants are loaded into pairs of reservoirs connected by a 15 cm long microchannel prefilled with solvents, thus allowing long-term counter diffusion for self-assembly of organometallic polymers. The process can be monitored, and the resulting crystalline polymers are harvested without damage. The device was used to synthesize three insoluble silver acetylides as single crystals of X-ray diffraction quality. Importantly, for the first time, the single-crystal structure of silver phenylacetylide was determined. The reported approach may have wide applications, such as crystallization of membrane proteins, synthesis and crystal growth of organic, inorganic, and polymeric coordination compounds, whose single crystals cannot be obtained using traditional methods.
Robust-LongSAGE (RL-SAGE): an improved LongSAGE method for high-throughput transcriptome analysis.
Gowda, Malali; Wang, Guo-Liang
2008-01-01
Serial analysis of gene expression (SAGE) is a powerful technique for large-scale transcriptome analysis in eukaryotes. However, technical difficulties in the SAGE library construction, such as low concatemer cloning efficiency, small concatemer size, and a high level of empty clones, has prohibited its widespread use as a routine technique for expression profiling in many laboratories. We recently improved the LongSAGE library construction method considerably and developed a modified version called Robust-LongSAGE, or RL-SAGE. In RL-SAGE, concatemer cloning efficiency and clone insert size were increased significantly. About 20 PCR reactions are sufficient to make a library with more than 150,000 clones. Using RL-SAGE, we have made 10 libraries of rice, maize, and the rice blast fungus Magnaporthe grisea.
Delewski, Wojciech; Paterkiewicz, Bogumiła; Manicki, Mateusz; Schilke, Brenda; Tomiczek, Bartłomiej; Ciesielski, Szymon J; Nierzwicki, Lukasz; Czub, Jacek; Dutkiewicz, Rafal; Craig, Elizabeth A; Marszalek, Jaroslaw
2016-03-01
Biogenesis of iron-sulfur clusters (FeS) is a highly conserved process involving Hsp70 and J-protein chaperones. However, Hsp70 specialization differs among species. In most eukaryotes, including Schizosaccharomyces pombe, FeS biogenesis involves interaction between the J-protein Jac1 and the multifunctional Hsp70 Ssc1. But, in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and closely related species, Jac1 interacts with the specialized Hsp70 Ssq1, which emerged through duplication of SSC1. As little is known about how gene duplicates affect the robustness of their protein interaction partners, we analyzed the functional and evolutionary consequences of Ssq1 specialization on the ubiquitous J-protein cochaperone Jac1, by comparing S. cerevisiae and S. pombe. Although deletion of JAC1 is lethal in both species, alanine substitutions within the conserved His-Pro-Asp (HPD) motif, which is critical for Jac1:Hsp70 interaction, have species-specific effects. They are lethal in S. pombe, but not in S. cerevisiae. These in vivo differences correlated with in vitro biochemical measurements. Charged residues present in the J-domain of S. cerevisiae Jac1, but absent in S. pombe Jac1, are important for tolerance of S. cerevisiae Jac1 to HPD alterations. Moreover, Jac1 orthologs from species that encode Ssq1 have a higher sequence divergence. The simplest interpretation of our results is that Ssq1's coevolution with Jac1 resulted in expansion of their binding interface, thus increasing the efficiency of their interaction. Such an expansion could in turn compensate for negative effects of HPD substitutions. Thus, our results support the idea that the robustness of Jac1 emerged as consequence of its highly efficient and specific interaction with Ssq1. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.
Delewski, Wojciech; Paterkiewicz, Bogumiła; Manicki, Mateusz; Schilke, Brenda; Tomiczek, Bartłomiej; Ciesielski, Szymon J.; Nierzwicki, Lukasz; Czub, Jacek; Dutkiewicz, Rafal; Craig, Elizabeth A.; Marszalek, Jaroslaw
2016-01-01
Biogenesis of iron–sulfur clusters (FeS) is a highly conserved process involving Hsp70 and J-protein chaperones. However, Hsp70 specialization differs among species. In most eukaryotes, including Schizosaccharomyces pombe, FeS biogenesis involves interaction between the J-protein Jac1 and the multifunctional Hsp70 Ssc1. But, in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and closely related species, Jac1 interacts with the specialized Hsp70 Ssq1, which emerged through duplication of SSC1. As little is known about how gene duplicates affect the robustness of their protein interaction partners, we analyzed the functional and evolutionary consequences of Ssq1 specialization on the ubiquitous J-protein cochaperone Jac1, by comparing S. cerevisiae and S. pombe. Although deletion of JAC1 is lethal in both species, alanine substitutions within the conserved His–Pro–Asp (HPD) motif, which is critical for Jac1:Hsp70 interaction, have species-specific effects. They are lethal in S. pombe, but not in S. cerevisiae. These in vivo differences correlated with in vitro biochemical measurements. Charged residues present in the J-domain of S. cerevisiae Jac1, but absent in S. pombe Jac1, are important for tolerance of S. cerevisiae Jac1 to HPD alterations. Moreover, Jac1 orthologs from species that encode Ssq1 have a higher sequence divergence. The simplest interpretation of our results is that Ssq1’s coevolution with Jac1 resulted in expansion of their binding interface, thus increasing the efficiency of their interaction. Such an expansion could in turn compensate for negative effects of HPD substitutions. Thus, our results support the idea that the robustness of Jac1 emerged as consequence of its highly efficient and specific interaction with Ssq1. PMID:26545917
Highly robust silicon nanowire/graphene core-shell electrodes without polymeric binders
Lee, Sang Eon; Kim, Han-Jung; Kim, Hwanjin; Park, Jong Hyeok; Choi, Dae-Geun
2013-09-01
A large theoretical charge storage capacity along with a low discharge working potential renders silicon a promising anode material for high energy density lithium ion batteries. However, up to 400% volume expansion during charge-discharge cycling coupled with a low intrinsic electronic conductivity causes pulverization and fracture, thus inhibiting silicon's widespread use in practical applications. We report herein on a low cost approach to fabricate hybrid silicon nanowire (SiNW)/graphene nanostructures that exhibit enhanced cycle performance with the capability of retaining more than 90% of their initial capacity after 50 cycles. We also demonstrate the use of hot-pressing in the absence of any common polymer binder such as PVDF to bind the hybrid structure to the current collector. The applied heat and pressure ensure strong adhesion between the SiNW/graphene nano-composite and current collector. This facile yet strong binding method is expected to find use in the further development of polymer-binder free anodes for lithium ion batteries.A large theoretical charge storage capacity along with a low discharge working potential renders silicon a promising anode material for high energy density lithium ion batteries. However, up to 400% volume expansion during charge-discharge cycling coupled with a low intrinsic electronic conductivity causes pulverization and fracture, thus inhibiting silicon's widespread use in practical applications. We report herein on a low cost approach to fabricate hybrid silicon nanowire (SiNW)/graphene nanostructures that exhibit enhanced cycle performance with the capability of retaining more than 90% of their initial capacity after 50 cycles. We also demonstrate the use of hot-pressing in the absence of any common polymer binder such as PVDF to bind the hybrid structure to the current collector. The applied heat and pressure ensure strong adhesion between the SiNW/graphene nano-composite and current collector. This facile yet strong
Grassmann Averages for Scalable Robust PCA
2014-01-01
As the collection of large datasets becomes increasingly automated, the occurrence of outliers will increase—“big data” implies “big outliers”. While principal component analysis (PCA) is often used to reduce the size of data, and scalable solutions exist, it is well-known that outliers can arbitrarily corrupt the results. Unfortunately, state-of-the-art approaches for robust PCA do not scale beyond small-to-medium sized datasets. To address this, we introduce the Grassmann Average (GA), whic...
Robust diffraction correction method for high-frequency ultrasonic tissue characterization
Raju, Balasundar
2001-05-01
The computation of quantitative ultrasonic parameters such as the attenuation or backscatter coefficient requires compensation for diffraction effects. In this work a simple and accurate diffraction correction method for skin characterization requiring only a single focal zone is developed. The advantage of this method is that the transducer need not be mechanically repositioned to collect data from several focal zones, thereby reducing the time of imaging and preventing motion artifacts. Data were first collected under controlled conditions from skin of volunteers using a high-frequency system (center frequency=33 MHz, BW=28 MHz) at 19 focal zones through axial translation. Using these data, mean backscatter power spectra were computed as a function of the distance between the transducer and the tissue, which then served as empirical diffraction correction curves for subsequent data. The method was demonstrated on patients patch-tested for contact dermatitis. The computed attenuation coefficient slope was significantly (p<0.05) lower at the affected site (0.13+/-0.02 dB/mm/MHz) compared to nearby normal skin (0.2+/-0.05 dB/mm/MHz). The mean backscatter level was also significantly lower at the affected site (6.7+/-2.1 in arbitrary units) compared to normal skin (11.3+/-3.2). These results show diffraction corrected ultrasonic parameters can differentiate normal from affected skin tissues.
Ozcelik, Berkay; Blencowe, Anton; Palmer, Jason; Ladewig, Katharina; Stevens, Geoffrey W; Abberton, Keren M; Morrison, Wayne A; Qiao, Greg G
2014-06-01
The development of suitable scaffolds plays a significant role in tissue engineering research. Although scaffolds with promising features have been produced via a variety of innovative methods, there are no fully synthetic tissue engineering scaffolds that possess all the desired properties in one three-dimensional construct. Herein, we report the development of novel polyester poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) sponges that display many of the desirable scaffold characteristics. Our novel synthetic approach utilizes acidchloride/alcohol chemistry, whereby the reaction between a hydroxyl end-functionalized 4-arm PEG and sebacoyl chloride resulted in cross-linking and simultaneous hydrogen chloride gas production, which was exploited for the in situ formation of highly interconnected pores. Variation of the fabrication conditions, including the precursor volume and concentration, allowed the pore size and structure as well as the compressive properties to be tailored. The sponges were found to possess excellent elastic properties, preserving their shape even after 80% compressive strain without failure. The benign properties of the sponges were demonstrated in an in vivo subcutaneous rat model, which also revealed uniform infiltration of vascularized tissue by 8 weeks and complete degradation of the sponges by 16 weeks, with only a minimal inflammatory response being observed over the course of the experiments. Copyright © 2014 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Ali, Faiz; Cheong, Won Jo [Inha University, Incheon (Korea, Republic of)
2016-08-15
In this study, the carefully designed tri-component copolymer layer was fabricated onto the inner surface of a pretreated silica capillary (52 cm effective length, 50 μm id). The initiator moieties were incorporated onto the capillary inner surface by reaction with 4-chloromehtylphenyl isocyanate followed by sodium diethyl dithiocarbamate. Next, RAFT copolymerization was held upon the initiator moieties and a thin polymer film was made. The observed peak capacity was, of course, lower than those of the state-of-the art gradient HPLC systems. The UPLC system operated in the long gradient elution mode with a long narrow column of sub-3 μm packed particles could achieve the impressive high peak capacity of ca. 1000. On the other hand, a system with a 20 cm column of 0.8 μm particles could achieve a peak capacity of 220 (comparable to our result) under a pressure of 20 000 psi in a gradient time of 20 min. It should be noted that the operational conditions of this study has been optimized to obtain the best column separation efficiency. It was also operated in the isocratic elution mode. A better peak capacity is expected if the operational conditions are tuned to the optimum peak capacity.
Bovee, Toine F H; Helsdingen, Richard J R; Hamers, Astrid R M; van Duursen, Majorie B M; Nielen, Michel W F; Hoogenboom, Ron L A P
2007-11-01
Public concern about the presence of natural and anthropogenic compounds which affect human health by modulating normal endocrine functions is continuously growing. Fast and simple high-throughput screening methods for the detection of hormone activities are thus indispensable. During the last two decades, a panel of different in vitro assays has been developed, mainly for compounds with an estrogenic mode of action. Here we describe the development of an androgen transcription activation assay that is easy to use in routine screening. Recombinant yeast cells were constructed that express the human androgen receptor and yeast enhanced green fluorescent protein (yEGFP), the latter in response to androgens. Compared with other reporters, the yEGFP reporter protein is very convenient because it is directly measurable in intact living cells, i.e., cell wall disruption and the addition of a substrate are not needed. When yeast was exposed to 17beta-testosterone, the concentration where half-maximal activation is reached (EC(50)) was 50 nM. The relative androgenic potencies, defined as the ratio between the EC(50) of 17beta-testosterone and the EC(50) of the compound, of 5alpha-dihydrotestosterone, methyltrienolone, and 17beta-boldenone are 2.3, 1.4, and 0.15 respectively. The results presented in this paper demonstrate that this new yeast androgen bioassay is fast, sensitive, and very specific and also suited to detect compounds that have an antiandrogenic mode of action.
Stefan Seeber
Full Text Available We have developed a robust platform to generate and functionally characterize rabbit-derived antibodies using B cells from peripheral blood. The rapid high throughput procedure generates a diverse set of antibodies, yet requires only few animals to be immunized without the need to sacrifice them. The workflow includes (i the identification and isolation of single B cells from rabbit blood expressing IgG antibodies, (ii an elaborate short term B-cell cultivation to produce sufficient monoclonal antigen specific IgG for comprehensive phenotype screens, (iii the isolation of VH and VL coding regions via PCR from B-cell clones producing antigen specific and functional antibodies followed by the sequence determination, and (iv the recombinant expression and purification of IgG antibodies. The fully integrated and to a large degree automated platform (demonstrated in this paper using IL1RL1 immunized rabbits yielded clonal and very diverse IL1RL1-specific and functional IL1RL1-inhibiting rabbit antibodies. These functional IgGs from individual animals were obtained at a short time range after immunization and could be identified already during primary screening, thus substantially lowering the workload for the subsequent B-cell PCR workflow. Early availability of sequence information permits one to select early-on function- and sequence-diverse antibodies for further characterization. In summary, this powerful technology platform has proven to be an efficient and robust method for the rapid generation of antigen specific and functional monoclonal rabbit antibodies without sacrificing the immunized animal.
Stefan eElfwing
2013-02-01
Full Text Available Free-energy based reinforcement learning was proposed for learning in high-dimensional state- and action spaces, which cannot be handled by standard function approximation methods. In this study, we propose a scaled version of free-energy based reinforcement learning to achieve more robust and more efficient learning performance. The action-value function is approximated by the negative free energy of a restricted Boltzmann machine, divided by a constant scaling factor that is related to the size of the Boltzmann machine (the square root of the number of state nodes in this study. Our first task is a digit floor gridworld task, where the states are represented by images of handwritten digits from the MNIST data set. The purpose of the task is to investigate the proposed method's ability, through the extraction of task-relevant features in the hidden layer, to cluster images of the same digitand to cluster images of different digits that corresponds to states with the same optimal action. We also test the method's robustness with respect to different exploration schedules, i.e., different settings of the initial temperature and the temperature discount rate in softmax action selection. Our second task is a robot visual navigation task, where the robot can learn its position by the different colors of the lower part of four landmarks and it can infer the correct corner goal area by the color of the upper part of the landmarks. The state space consists of binarized camera images with, at most, nine different colors, which is equal to 6642 binary states. For both tasks, the learning performance is compared with standard free-energy based reinforcement learning and with function approximation where the action-value function is approximated by a two-layered feedforward neural network.
Zhao, Kui
2015-07-30
Achieving high performance and reliable organic solar cells hinges on the development of stable and energetically suitable hole transporting buffer layers in tune with the electrode and photoactive materials of the solar cell stack. Here we have identified solution-processed copper(I) iodide (CuI) thin films with low-temperature processing conditions as an effective hole–transporting layer (HTL) for a wide range of polymer:fullerene bulk heterojunction (BHJ) systems. The solar cells using CuI HTL show higher power conversion efficiency (PCE) in standard device structure for polymer blends, up to PCE of 8.8%, as compared with poly(3,4-ethylenedioxy-thiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) HTL, for a broad range of polymer:fullerene systems. The CuI layer properties and solar cell device behavior are shown to be remarkably robust and insensitive to a wide range of processing conditions of the HTL, including processing solvent, annealing temperature (room temperature up to 200 °C), and film thickness. CuI is also shown to improve the overall lifetime of solar cells in the standard architecture as compared to PEDOT:PSS. We further demonstrate promising solar cell performance when using CuI as top HTL in an inverted device architecture. The observation of uncommon properties, such as photoconductivity of CuI and templating effects on the BHJ layer formation, are also discussed. This study points to CuI as being a good candidate to replace PEDOT:PSS in solution-processed solar cells thanks to the facile implementation and demonstrated robustness of CuI thin films.
Seeber, Stefan; Ros, Francesca; Thorey, Irmgard; Tiefenthaler, Georg; Kaluza, Klaus; Lifke, Valeria; Fischer, Jens André Alexander; Klostermann, Stefan; Endl, Josef; Kopetzki, Erhard; Pashine, Achal; Siewe, Basile; Kaluza, Brigitte; Platzer, Josef; Offner, Sonja
2014-01-01
We have developed a robust platform to generate and functionally characterize rabbit-derived antibodies using B cells from peripheral blood. The rapid high throughput procedure generates a diverse set of antibodies, yet requires only few animals to be immunized without the need to sacrifice them. The workflow includes (i) the identification and isolation of single B cells from rabbit blood expressing IgG antibodies, (ii) an elaborate short term B-cell cultivation to produce sufficient monoclonal antigen specific IgG for comprehensive phenotype screens, (iii) the isolation of VH and VL coding regions via PCR from B-cell clones producing antigen specific and functional antibodies followed by the sequence determination, and (iv) the recombinant expression and purification of IgG antibodies. The fully integrated and to a large degree automated platform (demonstrated in this paper using IL1RL1 immunized rabbits) yielded clonal and very diverse IL1RL1-specific and functional IL1RL1-inhibiting rabbit antibodies. These functional IgGs from individual animals were obtained at a short time range after immunization and could be identified already during primary screening, thus substantially lowering the workload for the subsequent B-cell PCR workflow. Early availability of sequence information permits one to select early-on function- and sequence-diverse antibodies for further characterization. In summary, this powerful technology platform has proven to be an efficient and robust method for the rapid generation of antigen specific and functional monoclonal rabbit antibodies without sacrificing the immunized animal.
Jeong, Hyung Mo; Choi, Kyung Min; Cheng, Tao; Lee, Dong Ki; Zhou, Renjia; Ock, Il Woo; Milliron, Delia J; Goddard, William A; Kang, Jeung Ku
2015-06-30
Nanocrystals are promising structures, but they are too large for achieving maximum energy storage performance. We show that rescaling 3-nm particles through lithiation followed by delithiation leads to high-performance energy storage by realizing high capacitance close to the theoretical capacitance available via ion-to-atom redox reactions. Reactive force-field (ReaxFF) molecular dynamics simulations support the conclusion that Li atoms react with nickel oxide nanocrystals (NiO-n) to form lithiated core-shell structures (Ni:Li2O), whereas subsequent delithiation causes Ni:Li2O to form atomic clusters of NiO-a. This is consistent with in situ X-ray photoelectron and optical spectroscopy results showing that Ni(2+) of the nanocrystal changes during lithiation-delithiation through Ni(0) and back to Ni(2+). These processes are also demonstrated to provide a generic route to rescale another metal oxide. Furthermore, assembling NiO-a into the positive electrode of an asymmetric device enables extraction of full capacitance for a counter negative electrode, giving high energy density in addition to robust capacitance retention over 100,000 cycles.
Gawli, Yogesh; Banerjee, Abhik; Dhakras, Dipti; Deo, Meenal; Bulani, Dinesh; Wadgaonkar, Prakash; Shelke, Manjusha; Ogale, Satishchandra
2016-02-12
A good high rate supercapacitor performance requires a fine control of morphological (surface area and pore size distribution) and electrical properties of the electrode materials. Polyaniline (PANI) is an interesting material in supercapacitor context because it stores energy Faradaically. However in conventional inorganic (e.g. HCl) acid doping, the conductivity is high but the morphological features are undesirable. On the other hand, in weak organic acid (e.g. phytic acid) doping, interesting and desirable 3D connected morphological features are attained but the conductivity is poorer. Here the synergy of the positive quality factors of these two acid doping approaches is realized by concurrent and optimized strong-inorganic (HCl) and weak-organic (phytic) acid doping, resulting in a molecular composite material that renders impressive and robust supercapacitor performance. Thus, a nearly constant high specific capacitance of 350 F g(-1) is realized for the optimised case of binary doping over the entire range of 1 A g(-1) to 40 A g(-1) with stability of 500 cycles at 40 A g(-1). Frequency dependant conductivity measurements show that the optimized co-doped case is more metallic than separately doped materials. This transport property emanates from the unique 3D single molecular character of such system.
Gawli, Yogesh; Banerjee, Abhik; Dhakras, Dipti; Deo, Meenal; Bulani, Dinesh; Wadgaonkar, Prakash; Shelke, Manjusha; Ogale, Satishchandra
2016-02-01
A good high rate supercapacitor performance requires a fine control of morphological (surface area and pore size distribution) and electrical properties of the electrode materials. Polyaniline (PANI) is an interesting material in supercapacitor context because it stores energy Faradaically. However in conventional inorganic (e.g. HCl) acid doping, the conductivity is high but the morphological features are undesirable. On the other hand, in weak organic acid (e.g. phytic acid) doping, interesting and desirable 3D connected morphological features are attained but the conductivity is poorer. Here the synergy of the positive quality factors of these two acid doping approaches is realized by concurrent and optimized strong-inorganic (HCl) and weak-organic (phytic) acid doping, resulting in a molecular composite material that renders impressive and robust supercapacitor performance. Thus, a nearly constant high specific capacitance of 350 F g‑1 is realized for the optimised case of binary doping over the entire range of 1 A g‑1 to 40 A g‑1 with stability of 500 cycles at 40 A g‑1. Frequency dependant conductivity measurements show that the optimized co-doped case is more metallic than separately doped materials. This transport property emanates from the unique 3D single molecular character of such system.
Feng, Xiao; Ding, Xuesong; Chen, Long; Wu, Yang; Liu, Lili; Addicoat, Matthew; Irle, Stephan; Dong, Yuping; Jiang, Donglin
2016-09-01
Highly ordered discrete assemblies of chlorophylls that are found in natural light-harvesting antennae are key to photosynthesis, which converts light energy to chemical energy and is the principal producer of organic matter on Earth. Porphyrins and phthalocyanines, which are analogues of chlorophylls, exhibit a strong absorbance of visible and near-infrared light, respectively. A highly ordered porphyrin-co-phthalocyanine antennae would harvest photons over the entire solar spectrum for chemical transformation. However, such a robust antennae has not yet been synthesised. Herein, we report a strategy that merges covalent bonds and noncovalent forces to produce highly ordered two-dimensional porphyrin-co-phthalocyanine antennae. This methodology enables control over the stoichiometry and order of the porphyrin and phthalocyanine units; more importantly, this approach is compatible with various metalloporphyrin and metallophthalocyanine derivatives and thus may lead to the generation of a broad structural diversity of two-dimensional artificial antennae. These ordered porphyrin-co-phthalocyanine two-dimensional antennae exhibit unique optical properties and catalytic functions that are not available with single-component or non-structured materials. These 2D artificial antennae exhibit exceptional light-harvesting capacity over the entire solar spectrum as a result of a synergistic light-absorption effect. In addition, they exhibit outstanding photosensitising activities in using both visible and near-infrared photons for producing singlet oxygen.
Al Jarro, Ahmed
2011-09-01
A new predictor-corrector scheme for solving the Volterra integral equation to analyze transient electromagnetic wave interactions with arbitrarily shaped inhomogeneous dielectric bodies is considered. Numerical results demonstrating stability and accuracy of the proposed method are presented. © 2011 IEEE.
Tanev, Stoyan; Sun, Wenbo
2012-01-01
This chapter reviews the fundamental methods and some of the applications of the three-dimensional (3D) finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) technique for the modeling of light scattering by arbitrarily shaped dielectric particles and surfaces. The emphasis is on the details of the FDTD algorithms...
Tanev, Stoyan; Sun, Wenbo
2012-01-01
This chapter reviews the fundamental methods and some of the applications of the three-dimensional (3D) finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) technique for the modeling of light scattering by arbitrarily shaped dielectric particles and surfaces. The emphasis is on the details of the FDTD algorithms...
Electromagnetic drift waves dispersion for arbitrarily collisional plasmas
Lee, Wonjae, E-mail: wol023@ucsd.edu; Krasheninnikov, Sergei I., E-mail: skrash@mae.ucsd.edu [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, University of California, San Diego, 9500 Gilman Drive, La Jolla, California 92093 (United States); Angus, J. R. [Naval Research Laboratory, 4555 Overlook Avenue, Washington, DC 20375 (United States)
2015-07-15
The impacts of the electromagnetic effects on resistive and collisionless drift waves are studied. A local linear analysis on an electromagnetic drift-kinetic equation with Bhatnagar-Gross-Krook-like collision operator demonstrates that the model is valid for describing linear growth rates of drift wave instabilities in a wide range of plasma parameters showing convergence to reference models for limiting cases. The wave-particle interactions drive collisionless drift-Alfvén wave instability in low collisionality and high beta plasma regime. The Landau resonance effects not only excite collisionless drift wave modes but also suppress high frequency electron inertia modes observed from an electromagnetic fluid model in collisionless and low beta regime. Considering ion temperature effects, it is found that the impact of finite Larmor radius effects significantly reduces the growth rate of the drift-Alfvén wave instability with synergistic effects of high beta stabilization and Landau resonance.
Robust modeling and performance analysis of high-power diode side-pumped solid-state laser systems.
Kashef, Tamer; Ghoniemy, Samy; Mokhtar, Ayman
2015-12-20
In this paper, we present an enhanced high-power extrinsic diode side-pumped solid-state laser (DPSSL) model to accurately predict the dynamic operations and pump distribution under different practical conditions. We introduce a new implementation technique for the proposed model that provides a compelling incentive for the performance assessment and enhancement of high-power diode side-pumped Nd:YAG lasers using cooperative agents and by relying on the MATLAB, GLAD, and Zemax ray tracing software packages. A large-signal laser model that includes thermal effects and a modified laser gain formulation and incorporates the geometrical pump distribution for three radially arranged arrays of laser diodes is presented. The design of a customized prototype diode side-pumped high-power laser head fabricated for the purpose of testing is discussed. A detailed comparative experimental and simulation study of the dynamic operation and the beam characteristics that are used to verify the accuracy of the proposed model for analyzing the performance of high-power DPSSLs under different conditions are discussed. The simulated and measured results of power, pump distribution, beam shape, and slope efficiency are shown under different conditions and for a specific case, where the targeted output power is 140 W, while the input pumping power is 400 W. The 95% output coupler reflectivity showed good agreement with the slope efficiency, which is approximately 35%; this assures the robustness of the proposed model to accurately predict the design parameters of practical, high-power DPSSLs.
Jin, Chunde; Li, Jingpeng [School of Engineering, Zhejiang Agricultural and Forestry University, Lin’an 311300 (China); Key Laboratory of Wood Science and Technology, Zhejiang Province (China); Han, Shenjie; Wang, Jin; Yao, Qiufang [School of Engineering, Zhejiang Agricultural and Forestry University, Lin’an 311300 (China); Sun, Qingfeng, E-mail: zafuqfsun@163.com [School of Engineering, Zhejiang Agricultural and Forestry University, Lin’an 311300 (China); Key Laboratory of Wood Science and Technology, Zhejiang Province (China)
2015-06-25
Highlights: • Ag NPs were deposited onto the surface of bamboo timber by silver mirror reaction. • The Ag NPs made the intrinsic insulating bamboo timber have a high conductivity. • The modified surfaces displayed superhydrophobicity even for corrosive solutions. - Abstract: Silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) were successfully in situ deposited onto the surface of the bamboo timber through a simple silver mirror reaction. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images showed that the surface of the bamboo timber was densely covered with the uniform Ag NPs, which made the intrinsic insulating bamboo timber conductive. With further modification by fluoroalkylsilane (FAS), the Ag NPs-covered bamboo timber showed superhydrophobicity with the water contact angle (WCA) of 155°. Simultaneously, the modified bamboo timber displayed a durable and robust superhydrophobic property even under corrosive solutions including acidic, alkali and NaCl solutions with different molar concentrations. Especially in harsh conditions of boiling water or intense water stirring, the modified bamboo timber remained superhydrophobicity and high conductivity.
Maity, Arnab; Padhi, Radhakant; Mallaram, Sanjeev; Mallikarjuna Rao, G.; Manickavasagam, M.
2016-10-01
A new nonlinear optimal and explicit guidance law is presented in this paper for launch vehicles propelled by solid motors. It can ensure very high terminal precision despite not having the exact knowledge of the thrust-time curve apriori. This was motivated from using it for a carrier launch vehicle in a hypersonic mission, which demands an extremely narrow terminal accuracy window for the launch vehicle for successful initiation of operation of the hypersonic vehicle. The proposed explicit guidance scheme, which computes the optimal guidance command online, ensures the required stringent final conditions with high precision at the injection point. A key feature of the proposed guidance law is an innovative extension of the recently developed model predictive static programming guidance with flexible final time. A penalty function approach is also followed to meet the input and output inequality constraints throughout the vehicle trajectory. In this paper, the guidance law has been successfully validated from nonlinear six degree-of-freedom simulation studies by designing an inner-loop autopilot as well, which enhances confidence of its usefulness significantly. In addition to excellent nominal results, the proposed guidance has been found to have good robustness for perturbed cases as well.
Gallenne, A; Kervella, P; Monnier, J D; Schaefer, G H; Baron, F; Breitfelder, J; Bouquin, J B Le; Roettenbacher, R M; Gieren, W; Pietrzynski, G; McAlister, H; Brummelaar, T ten; Sturmann, J; Sturmann, L; Turner, N; Ridgway, S; Kraus, S
2015-01-01
Long-baseline interferometry is an important technique to spatially resolve binary or multiple systems in close orbits. By combining several telescopes together and spectrally dispersing the light, it is possible to detect faint components around bright stars. Aims. We provide a rigorous and detailed method to search for high-contrast companions around stars, determine the detection level, and estimate the dynamic range from interferometric observations. We developed the code CANDID (Companion Analysis and Non-Detection in Interferometric Data), a set of Python tools that allows us to search systematically for point-source, high-contrast companions and estimate the detection limit. The search pro- cedure is made on a N x N grid of fit, whose minimum needed resolution is estimated a posteriori. It includes a tool to estimate the detection level of the companion in the number of sigmas. The code CANDID also incorporates a robust method to set a 3{\\sigma} detection limit on the flux ratio, which is based on an a...
Lemmo, Stephanie; Nasrollahi, Samila; Tavana, Hossein
2014-03-01
Migration of tumor cells is a fundamental event implicated in metastatic progression of cancer. Therapeutic compounds with the ability to inhibit the motility of cancer cells are critical for preventing cancer metastasis. Achieving this goal requires new technologies that enable high-throughput drug screening against migration of cancer cells and expedite drug discovery. We report an easy-to-implement, robotically operated, cell migration microtechnology with the capability of simultaneous screening of multiple compounds. The technology utilizes a fully biocompatible polymeric aqueous two-phase system to pattern a monolayer of cells containing a cell-excluded gap that serves as the migration niche. We adapted this technology to a standard 96-well plate format and parametrically optimized it to generate highly consistent migration niches. The analysis of migration is done automatically using computerized schemes. We use statistical metrics and show the robustness of this assay for drug screening and its sensitivity to identify effects of different drug compounds on migration of cancer cells. This technology can be employed in core centers, research laboratories, and pharmaceutical industries to evaluate the efficacy of compounds against migration of various types of metastatic cancer cells prior to expensive animal tests and thus, streamline anti-migratory drug screening.
Zhu, Jian; Shan, Yu; Wang, Tao; Sun, Hongtao; Zhao, Zipeng; Mei, Lin; Fan, Zheng; Xu, Zhi; Shakir, Imran; Huang, Yu; Lu, Bingan; Duan, Xiangfeng
2016-11-01
Natural plants consist of a hierarchical architecture featuring an intricate network of highly interconnected struts and channels that not only ensure extraordinary structural stability, but also allow efficient transport of nutrients and electrolytes throughout the entire plants. Here we show that a hyperaccumulation effect can allow efficient enrichment of selected metal ions (for example, Sn2+, Mn2+) in the halophytic plants, which can then be converted into three-dimensional carbon/metal oxide (3DC/MOx) nanocomposites with both the composition and structure hierarchy. The nanocomposites retain the 3D hierarchical porous network structure, with ultrafine MOx nanoparticles uniformly distributed in multi-layers of carbon derived from the cell wall, cytomembrane and tonoplast. It can simultaneously ensure efficient electron and ion transport and help withstand the mechanical stress during the repeated electrochemical cycles, enabling the active material to combine high specific capacities typical of batteries and the cycling stability of supercapacitors.
Banerjee, S; Grebogi, C; Banerjee, Soumitro; Yorke, James A.; Grebogi, Celso
1998-01-01
It has been proposed to make practical use of chaos in communication, in enhancing mixing in chemical processes and in spreading the spectrum of switch-mode power suppies to avoid electromagnetic interference. It is however known that for most smooth chaotic systems, there is a dense set of periodic windows for any range of parameter values. Therefore in practical systems working in chaotic mode, slight inadvertent fluctuation of a parameter may take the system out of chaos. We say a chaotic attractor is robust if, for its parameter values there exists a neighborhood in the parameter space with no periodic attractor and the chaotic attractor is unique in that neighborhood. In this paper we show that robust chaos can occur in piecewise smooth systems and obtain the conditions of its occurrence. We illustrate this phenomenon with a practical example from electrical engineering.
Tactile feedback to the palm using arbitrarily shaped DEA
Mößinger, Holger; Haus, Henry; Kauer, Michaela; Schlaak, Helmut F.
2014-03-01
Tactile stimulation enhances user experience and efficiency in human machine interaction by providing information via another sensory channel to the human brain. DEA as tactile interfaces have been in the focus of research in recent years. Examples are (vibro-) tactile keyboards or Braille displays. These applications of DEA focus mainly on interfacing with the user's fingers or fingertips only - demonstrating the high spatial resolution achievable with DEA. Besides providing a high resolution, the flexibility of DEA also allows designing free form surfaces equipped with single actuators or actuator matrices which can be fitted to the surface of the human skin. The actuators can then be used to provide tactile stimuli to different areas of the body, not to the fingertips only. Utilizing and demonstrating this flexibility we designed a free form DEA pad shaped to fit into the inside of the human palm. This pad consists of four single actuators which can provide e.g. directional information such as left, right, up and down. To demonstrate the value of such free form actuators we manufactured a PC-mouse using 3d printing processes. The actuator pad is mounted on the back of the mouse, resting against the palm while operating it. Software on the PC allows control of the vibration patterns displayed by the actuators. This allows helping the user by raising attention to certain directions or by discriminating between different modes like "pick" or "manipulate". Results of first tests of the device show an improved user experience while operating the PC mouse.
Čίžek, Pavel; Härdle, Wolfgang Karl
2006-01-01
Econometrics often deals with data under, from the statistical point of view, non-standard conditions such as heteroscedasticity or measurement errors and the estimation methods need thus be either adopted to such conditions or be at least insensitive to them. The methods insensitive to violation of certain assumptions, for example insensitive to the presence of heteroscedasticity, are in a broad sense referred to as robust (e.g., to heteroscedasticity). On the other hand, there is also a mor...
Fu, Junjie; Wang, Jinzhi
2016-06-01
In this paper, we study the robust finite-time containment control problem for a class of high-order uncertain nonlinear multi-agent systems modelled as high-order integrator systems with bounded matched uncertainties. When relative state information between neighbouring agents is available, an observer-based distributed controller is proposed for each follower using the sliding mode control technique which solves the finite-time containment control problem under general directed communication graphs. When only relative output information is available, robust exact differentiators and high-order sliding-mode controllers are employed together with the distributed finite-time observers. It is shown that robust finite-time containment control can still be achieved in this situation. An application in the coordination of multiple non-holonomic mobile robots is used as an example to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed control strategies.
Accurate analysis of arbitrarily-shaped helical groove waveguide
Liu Hong-Tao; Wei Yan-Yu; Gong Yu-Bin; Yue Ling-Na; Wang Wen-Xiang
2006-01-01
This paper presents a theory on accurately analysing the dispersion relation and the interaction impedance of electromagnetic waves propagating through a helical groove waveguide with arbitrary groove shape, in which the complex groove profile is synthesized by a series of rectangular steps. By introducing the influence of high-order evanescent modes on the connection of any two neighbouring steps by an equivalent susceptance under a modified admittance matching condition, the assumption of the neglecting discontinuity capacitance in previously published analysis is avoided, and the accurate dispersion equation is obtained by means of a combination of field-matching method and admittancematching technique. The validity of this theory is proved by comparison between the measurements and the numerical calculations for two kinds of helical groove waveguides with different groove shapes.
Graham McDowell
2017-09-01
Full Text Available Climate-related changes in glacierized watersheds are widely documented, stimulating adaptive responses among the 370 million people living in glacier-influenced watersheds as well as aquatic and riparian ecosystems. The situation denotes important interdependencies between science, society, and ecosystems, yet integrative approaches to the study of adaptation to such changes remain scarce in both the mountain- and non-mountain-focused adaptation scholarship. Using the example of glacio-hydrological change, it is argued here that this analytical limitation impedes the identification, development, and implementation of “successful” adaptations. In response, the paper introduces three guiding principles for robust adaptation research in glaciated mountain regions. Principle 1: Adaptation research should integrate detailed analyses of watershed-specific glaciological and hydro-meteorological conditions; glacio-hydrological changes are context-specific and therefore cannot be assumed to follow idealized trajectories of “peak water”. Principle 2: Adaptation research should consider the complex interplay between glacio-hydrological changes and socio-economic, cultural, and political conditions; responses to environmental changes are non-deterministic and therefore not deducible from hydrological changes alone. Principle 3: Adaptation research should be attentive to interdependencies, feedbacks, and tradeoffs between human and ecological responses to glacio-hydrological change; research that does not evaluate these socio-ecological dynamics may lead to maladaptive adaptation plans. These principles call attention to the linked scientific, social, and ecological dimensions of adaptation, and offer a point of departure for future climate change adaptation research in high mountains.
Carrilho, Emanuel; Miller, Arthur W.; Ruiz-Martinez, Marie C.; Kotler, Lev; Kesilman, Jeffrey; Karger, Barry L.
1997-05-01
The overall goal of our program is to develop a robust, high throughput, fully automated DNA sequencing instrument based on replaceable polymer solutions using a multicapillary array. Significant effort has already been devoted to column and polymer chemistry in order to obtain long read lengths per run in fast analysis time. In this paper we report on progress in instrument considerations and data processing software. A simple instrument design, based on no moving parts for continuous illumination of the capillaries and detection of the fluorescent light was used for this study. Our polymer solution replacement system with the permanent connection between the buffer/chamber manifold and capillary columns on the detector side is designed to prevent the trapping of air bubbles during matrix solution replacement. A special construction of a column-electrode couple on the injection side precludes air trapping during sample injection from small sample volumes. Our in-house software now features the significant reduction of the crosstalk signal from neighbor columns, which may be a potential problem in densely packed large capillary array sequencers.
Cheung, Sai Hung; Miki, Kenji; Prudencio, Ernesto; Simmons, Chris
2016-08-01
In this paper, a stochastic system based Bayesian approach is applied to quantify the uncertainties involved in the modeling of the HCN/O2/Ar mixture kinetics proposed by Thielen and Roth (1987). This enables more robust predictions of quantities of interest such as rate coefficients of HCN + Ar → H + CN + Ar and O2 + CN → NCO + O by using a stochastic Arrhenius form calibrated against their experimental data. This Bayesian approach requires the evaluation of multidimensional integrals, which cannot be done analytically. Here a recently developed stochastic simulation algorithm, which allows for efficient sampling in the high-dimensional parameter space, is used. We quantify the uncertainties in the modeling of the HCN/O2/Ar mixture kinetics and in turn the two rate coefficients and the other relevant rate coefficients. The uncertainty in the error including both the experimental measurement error and physical modeling error is also quantified. The effect of the number of uncertain parameters on the uncertainties is investigated.
Thirumalai, Muthukumaresan Kuppuswamy; Roy, Arpita; Sanikommu, Suma; Arockiaraj, Jesu; Pasupuleti, Mukesh
2014-05-01
The indiscriminate usage of antibiotics has created a major problem in the form of antibiotic resistance. Even though new antimicrobial drug discovery programs have been in place from the last two decades, still we are unsuccessful in identifying novel molecules that have a potential to become new therapeutic agents for the treatment of microbial infections. A major problem in most screening studies is the requirement of high-throughput techniques. Given this, we present here an enzyme-based robust method for screening antimicrobial agent's active against Escherichia coli. This method is based upon the ability of the intracellular innate enzyme to cleave o-nitrophenyl β-d-galactopyranoside (non-chromogenic) to o-nitrophenolate (ONP) (chromogenic) upon the membrane damage or disruption. In comparison with the other currently available methods, we believe that our method provides an opportunity for real-time monitoring of the antimicrobial agents action by measuring the ONP generation in a user-friendly manner. Even though this method can be applied to other strain, our experience shows that one has to be careful especially when the pigments or metabolites present in the bacteria have the same wavelength absorbance.
Simonyan, Vahan; Chumakov, Konstantin; Dingerdissen, Hayley; Faison, William; Goldweber, Scott; Golikov, Anton; Gulzar, Naila; Karagiannis, Konstantinos; Vinh Nguyen Lam, Phuc; Maudru, Thomas; Muravitskaja, Olesja; Osipova, Ekaterina; Pan, Yang; Pschenichnov, Alexey; Rostovtsev, Alexandre; Santana-Quintero, Luis; Smith, Krista; Thompson, Elaine E; Tkachenko, Valery; Torcivia-Rodriguez, John; Voskanian, Alin; Wan, Quan; Wang, Jing; Wu, Tsung-Jung; Wilson, Carolyn; Mazumder, Raja
2016-01-01
The High-performance Integrated Virtual Environment (HIVE) is a distributed storage and compute environment designed primarily to handle next-generation sequencing (NGS) data. This multicomponent cloud infrastructure provides secure web access for authorized users to deposit, retrieve, annotate and compute on NGS data, and to analyse the outcomes using web interface visual environments appropriately built in collaboration with research and regulatory scientists and other end users. Unlike many massively parallel computing environments, HIVE uses a cloud control server which virtualizes services, not processes. It is both very robust and flexible due to the abstraction layer introduced between computational requests and operating system processes. The novel paradigm of moving computations to the data, instead of moving data to computational nodes, has proven to be significantly less taxing for both hardware and network infrastructure.The honeycomb data model developed for HIVE integrates metadata into an object-oriented model. Its distinction from other object-oriented databases is in the additional implementation of a unified application program interface to search, view and manipulate data of all types. This model simplifies the introduction of new data types, thereby minimizing the need for database restructuring and streamlining the development of new integrated information systems. The honeycomb model employs a highly secure hierarchical access control and permission system, allowing determination of data access privileges in a finely granular manner without flooding the security subsystem with a multiplicity of rules. HIVE infrastructure will allow engineers and scientists to perform NGS analysis in a manner that is both efficient and secure. HIVE is actively supported in public and private domains, and project collaborations are welcomed. Database URL: https://hive.biochemistry.gwu.edu.
Watanabe, Eriko; Ishikawa, Mami; Ohta, Maiko; Kodate, Kashiko
2005-09-01
Face recognition is used in a wide range of security systems, such as monitoring credit card use, searching for individuals with street cameras via Internet and maintaining immigration control. There are still many technical subjects under study. For instance, the number of images that can be stored is limited under the current system, and the rate of recognition must be improved to account for photo shots taken at different angles under various conditions. We implemented a fully automatic Fast Face Recognition Optical Correlator (FARCO) system by using a 1000 frame/s optical parallel correlator designed and assembled by us. Operational speed for the 1: N (i.e. matching a pair of images among N, where N refers to the number of images in the database) identification experiment (4000 face images) amounts to less than 1.5 seconds, including the pre/post processing. From trial 1: N identification experiments using FARCO, we acquired low error rates of 2.6% False Reject Rate and 1.3% False Accept Rate. By making the most of the high-speed data-processing capability of this system, much more robustness can be achieved for various recognition conditions when large-category data are registered for a single person. We propose a face recognition algorithm for the FARCO while employing a temporal image sequence of moving images. Applying this algorithm to a natural posture, a two times higher recognition rate scored compared with our conventional system. The system has high potential for future use in a variety of purposes such as search for criminal suspects by use of street and airport video cameras, registration of babies at hospitals or handling of an immeasurable number of images in a database.
Sørensen, John Dalsgaard
2008-01-01
. According to Danish design rules robustness shall be documented for all structures in high consequence class. The design procedure to document sufficient robustness consists of: 1) Review of loads and possible failure modes / scenarios and determination of acceptable collapse extent; 2) Review......This paper describes the background of the robustness requirements implemented in the Danish Code of Practice for Safety of Structures and in the Danish National Annex to the Eurocode 0, see (DS-INF 146, 2003), (DS 409, 2006), (EN 1990 DK NA, 2007) and (Sørensen and Christensen, 2006). More...... frequent use of advanced types of structures with limited redundancy and serious consequences in case of failure combined with increased requirements to efficiency in design and execution followed by increased risk of human errors has made the need of requirements to robustness of new structures essential...
A novel synthesis approach for birefringent filters having arbitrarily amplitude transmittances
Halassi, Abde Rezzaq; Hamdi, Rachid; Bendimerad, Djalal Falih; Benkelfat, Badr-Eddine
2016-06-01
In this paper, we present a novel procedure for the synthesis of a filter having an arbitrarily specified amplitude transmittance. The filter configuration consists of N birefringent stages placed between a polarizer and an analyzer, with each stage containing an identical section and a variable section. An additional variable section is placed in front of the analyzer. The synthesis procedure is based on the resolution of a generalized nonlinear equation system directly deducted from the Jones matrix formalism to determine the angles of each stage, the angle of the analyzer and the phase shifts of the variable sections. A typical example of a 6-stage birefringent filter having an arbitrarily non-symmetric amplitude transmittance is shown and the opto-geometrical parameters are given to demonstrate the efficiency of the proposed synthesis procedure. The results obtained show an excellent agreement with those developed in the literature.
Kim, Kyoohyun
2016-01-01
Optical trapping can be used to manipulate the three-dimensional (3-D) motion of spherical particles based on the simple prediction of optical forces and the responding motion of samples. However, controlling the 3-D behaviour of non-spherical particles with arbitrary orientations is extremely challenging, due to experimental difficulties and the extensive computations. Here, we achieved the real-time optical control of arbitrarily shaped particles by combining the wavefront shaping of a trapping beam and measurements of the 3-D refractive index (RI) distribution of samples. Engineering the 3-D light field distribution of a trapping beam based on the measured 3-D RI map of samples generates a light mould, which can be used to manipulate colloidal and biological samples which have arbitrary orientations and/or shapes. The present method provides stable control of the orientation and assembly of arbitrarily shaped particles without knowing a priori information about the sample geometry. The proposed method can ...
吴双清; 闫沐霖
2003-01-01
The Hawking radiation of Weyl neutrinos in an arbitrarily accelerating Kinnersley black hole is investigated using a method of the generalized tortoise coordinate transformation.Both the location and temperature of the event horizon depend on the time and on the angles.They are in agreement with the previous results,but thethermal radiation spectrum of massless spinor particles displays a type of spin-acceleration coupling effect.
Phatak, Sayali S.; Li, Dongmei; Luka, Janos; Calderone, Richard A.
2017-01-01
Fungal infections are a global problem imposing considerable disease burden. One of the unmet needs in addressing these infections is rapid, sensitive diagnostics. A promising molecular diagnostic approach is high-resolution melt analysis (HRM). However, there has been little effort in leveraging HRM data for automated, objective identification of fungal species. The purpose of these studies was to assess the utility of distance methods developed for comparison of time series data to classify HRM curves as a means of fungal species identification. Dynamic time warping (DTW), first introduced in the context of speech recognition to identify temporal distortion of similar sounds, is an elastic distance measure that has been successfully applied to a wide range of time series data. Comparison of HRM curves of the rDNA internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region from 51 strains of 18 fungal species using DTW distances allowed accurate classification and clustering of all 51 strains. The utility of DTW distances for species identification was demonstrated by matching HRM curves from 243 previously identified clinical isolates against a database of curves from standard reference strains. The results revealed a number of prior misclassifications, discriminated species that are not resolved by routine phenotypic tests, and accurately identified all 243 test strains. In addition to DTW, several other distance functions, Edit Distance on Real sequence (EDR) and Shape-based Distance (SBD), showed promise. It is concluded that DTW-based distances provide a useful metric for the automated identification of fungi based on HRM curves of the ITS region and that this provides the foundation for a robust and automatable method applicable to the clinical setting. PMID:28264030
Pannu, V; Rida, P C G; Ogden, A; Clewley, R; Cheng, A; Karna, P; Lopus, M; Mishra, R C; Zhou, J; Aneja, R
2012-07-12
Centrosome amplification (CA) and resultant chromosomal instability have long been associated with tumorigenesis. However, exacerbation of CA and relentless centrosome declustering engender robust spindle multipolarity (SM) during mitosis and may induce cell death. Recently, we demonstrated that a noscapinoid member, reduced bromonoscapine, (S)-3-(R)-9-bromo-5-(4,5-dimethoxy-1,3-dihydroisobenzofuran-1-yl)-4-methoxy-6-methyl-5,6,7,8-tetrahydro-[1,3]dioxolo-[4,5-g]isoquinoline (Red-Br-nos), induces reactive oxygen species (ROS)-mediated autophagy and caspase-independent death in prostate cancer PC-3 cells. Herein, we show that Red-Br-nos induces ROS-dependent DNA damage that resulted in high-grade CA and SM in PC-3 cells. Unlike doxorubicin, which causes double-stranded DNA breaks and chronic G2 arrest accompanied by 'templated' CA, Red-Br-nos-mediated DNA damage elicits de novo CA during a transient S/G2 stall, followed by checkpoint abrogation and mitotic entry to form aberrant mitotic figures with supernumerary spindle poles. Attenuation of multipolar phenotype in the presence of tiron, a ROS inhibitor, indicated that ROS-mediated DNA damage was partly responsible for driving CA and SM. Although a few cells (∼5%) yielded to aberrant cytokinesis following an 'anaphase catastrophe', most mitotically arrested cells (∼70%) succumbed to 'metaphase catastrophe,' which was caspase-independent. This report is the first documentation of rapid de novo centrosome formation in the presence of parent centrosome by a noscapinoid family member, which triggers death-inducing SM via a unique mechanism that distinguishes it from other ROS-inducers, conventional DNA-damaging agents, as well as other microtubule-binding drugs.
Li, XS; Narayanan, S; Michaelis, VK; Ong, TC; Keeler, EG; Kim, H; Mckay, IS; Griffin, RG; Wang, EN
2015-01-01
Modular and compact adsorption heat pumps (AHPs) promise an energy-efficient alternative to conventional vapor compression based heating, ventilation and air conditioning systems. A key element in the advancement of AHPs is the development of adsorbents with high uptake capacity, fast intracrystalline diffusivity and durable hydrothermal stability. Herein, the ion exchange of NaY zeolites with ingoing Mg2+ ions is systematically studied to maximize the ion exchange degree (IED) for improved sorption performance. It is found that beyond an ion exchange threshold of 64.1%, deeper ion exchange does not benefit water uptake capacity or characteristic adsorption energy, but does enhance the vapor diffusivity. In addition to using water as an adsorbate, the uptake properties of Mg, Na-Y zeolites were investigated using 20 wt.% MeOH aqueous solution as a novel anti-freeze adsorbate, revealing that the MeOH additive has an insignificant influence on the overall sorption performance. We also demonstrated that the lab-scale synthetic scalability is robust, and that the tailored zeolites scarcely suffer from hydrothermal stability even after successive 108-fold adsorption/desorption cycles. The samples were analyzed using N-2 sorption, Al-27/Si-29 MAS NMR spectroscopy, ICP-AES, dynamic vapor sorption, SEM, Fick's 2nd law and D-R equation regressions. Among these, close examination of sorption isotherms for H2O and N-2 adsorbates allows us to decouple and extract some insightful information underlying the complex water uptake phenomena. This work shows the promising performance of our modified zeolites that can be integrated into various AHP designs for buildings, electronics, and transportation applications. (C) 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Ma, Xingliang; Zhang, Qunyu; Zhu, Qinlong; Liu, Wei; Chen, Yan; Qiu, Rong; Wang, Bin; Yang, Zhongfang; Li, Heying; Lin, Yuru; Xie, Yongyao; Shen, Rongxin; Chen, Shuifu; Wang, Zhi; Chen, Yuanling; Guo, Jingxin; Chen, Letian; Zhao, Xiucai; Dong, Zhicheng; Liu, Yao-Guang
2015-08-01
CRISPR/Cas9 genome targeting systems have been applied to a variety of species. However, most CRISPR/Cas9 systems reported for plants can only modify one or a few target sites. Here, we report a robust CRISPR/Cas9 vector system, utilizing a plant codon optimized Cas9 gene, for convenient and high-efficiency multiplex genome editing in monocot and dicot plants. We designed PCR-based procedures to rapidly generate multiple sgRNA expression cassettes, which can be assembled into the binary CRISPR/Cas9 vectors in one round of cloning by Golden Gate ligation or Gibson Assembly. With this system, we edited 46 target sites in rice with an average 85.4% rate of mutation, mostly in biallelic and homozygous status. We reasoned that about 16% of the homozygous mutations in rice were generated through the non-homologous end-joining mechanism followed by homologous recombination-based repair. We also obtained uniform biallelic, heterozygous, homozygous, and chimeric mutations in Arabidopsis T1 plants. The targeted mutations in both rice and Arabidopsis were heritable. We provide examples of loss-of-function gene mutations in T0 rice and T1 Arabidopsis plants by simultaneous targeting of multiple (up to eight) members of a gene family, multiple genes in a biosynthetic pathway, or multiple sites in a single gene. This system has provided a versatile toolbox for studying functions of multiple genes and gene families in plants for basic research and genetic improvement. Copyright © 2015 The Author. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Yoon, Ju-Heon; Yoon, Kwan-Hee; Jeong, Jeung-hyun [Solar Cell Research Center, Korea Institute of Science and Technology, 39-1, Seoul 136-791 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Won Mok; Park, Jong-Keuk; Baik, Young-Joon [Electronic Materials Research Center, Korea Institute of Science and Technology, 39-1, Seoul 136-791 (Korea, Republic of); Seong, Tae-Yeon, E-mail: jhjeong@kist.re.kr [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, College of Engineering, Korea University, Seoul 136-701 (Korea, Republic of)
2011-10-26
The thermal stability of Mo thin films is indispensable to Cu(In,Ga)Se{sub 2} (CIGS) solar cells: CIGS films are deposited above 500 deg. C. The thermal stabilities of Mo thin films with dense to porous Mo microstructures, which are varied by controlling the sputtering pressure, are investigated. Interface failures are found to occur in buckling mode in denser Mo films, whereas cracking arises in less dense films. The failure modes are apparently dependent on the sign of the residual stress: the former is due to compressive stress, whereas the latter is due to tensile stress. Interestingly, the softening of soda-lime glass at high temperatures reconfigures the film stresses to be more compressive after annealing, which in turn triggers buckling even in films that are tensile-stressed in the as-deposited states. We conclude that the appropriate processing conditions for thermally stable back contacts cannot be obtained with the simple single layer approach. On the basis of this relationship between microstructure, residual stress and the failure modes, it is shown that improvements in film adhesion can widen the processing window for the preparation of robust back contacts, i.e. with a conventional bilayer approach and substrate roughening. Since the bilayer approach employed more compliant porous structures in the bottom layer, back contacts that are better suited to higher stress and temperature can be produced. Furthermore, substrate roughening might make the back contact more conductive as well as more stable because adhesion can be enhanced without the use of an electrically resistive buffer layer.
Li, Xiansen; Narayanan, Shankar; Michaelis, Vladimir K; Ong, Ta-Chung; Keeler, Eric G; Kim, Hyunho; McKay, Ian S; Griffin, Robert G; Wang, Evelyn N
2015-01-01
Modular and compact adsorption heat pumps (AHPs) promise an energy-efficient alternative to conventional vapor compression based heating, ventilation and air conditioning systems. A key element in the advancement of AHPs is the development of adsorbents with high uptake capacity, fast intracrystalline diffusivity and durable hydrothermal stability. Herein, the ion exchange of NaY zeolites with ingoing Mg(2+) ions is systematically studied to maximize the ion exchange degree (IED) for improved sorption performance. It is found that beyond an ion exchange threshold of 64.1%, deeper ion exchange does not benefit water uptake capacity or characteristic adsorption energy, but does enhance the vapor diffusivity. In addition to using water as an adsorbate, the uptake properties of Mg,Na-Y zeolites were investigated using 20 wt.% MeOH aqueous solution as a novel anti-freeze adsorbate, revealing that the MeOH additive has an insignificant influence on the overall sorption performance. We also demonstrated that the labscale synthetic scalability is robust, and that the tailored zeolites scarcely suffer from hydrothermal stability even after successive 108-fold adsorption/desorption cycles. The samples were analyzed using N2 sorption, (27)Al/(29)Si MAS NMR spectroscopy, ICP-AES, dynamic vapor sorption, SEM, Fick's 2(nd) law and D-R equation regressions. Among these, close examination of sorption isotherms for H2O and N2 adsorbates allows us to decouple and extract some insightful information underlying the complex water uptake phenomena. This work shows the promising performance of our modified zeolites that can be integrated into various AHP designs for buildings, electronics, and transportation applications.
Zhao, Yang; Qiu, Changquan; Li, Xuesong
2012-01-01
Aquaporins are water channel proteins with excellent water permeability and solute rejection, which makes them promising for preparing high-performance biomimetic membranes. Despite the growing interest in aquaporin-based biomimetic membranes (ABMs), it is challenging to produce robust and defect...
''Towards a High-Performance and Robust Implementation of MPI-IO on Top of GPFS''
Prost, J.P.; Tremann, R.; Blackwore, R.; Hartman, C.; Hedges, R.; Jia, B.; Kouiges, A.; White, A.
2000-01-11
MPI-IO/GPFS is a prototype implementation of the I/O chapter of the Message Passing Interface (MPI) 2 standard. It uses the IBM General Parallel File System (GPFS), with prototyped extensions, as the underlying file system. this paper describes the features of this prototype which support its high performance and robustness. The use of hints at the file system level and at the MPI-IO level allows tailoring the use of the file system to the application needs. Error handling in collective operations provides robust error reporting and deadlock prevention in case of returning errors.
Aanæs, Henrik; Fisker, Rune; Åström, Kalle;
2002-01-01
Factorization algorithms for recovering structure and motion from an image stream have many advantages, but they usually require a set of well-tracked features. Such a set is in generally not available in practical applications. There is thus a need for making factorization algorithms deal...... effectively with errors in the tracked features. We propose a new and computationally efficient algorithm for applying an arbitrary error function in the factorization scheme. This algorithm enables the use of robust statistical techniques and arbitrary noise models for the individual features....... These techniques and models enable the factorization scheme to deal effectively with mismatched features, missing features, and noise on the individual features. The proposed approach further includes a new method for Euclidean reconstruction that significantly improves convergence of the factorization algorithms...
Desmet, Jonathan; Meunier, Christophe; Danloy, Emeric; Duprez, Marie-Eve; Lox, Frédéric; Thomas, Diane; Hantson, Anne-Lise; Crine, Michel; Toye, Dominique; Rooke, Joanna; Su, Bao-Lian
2015-06-15
An efficient one-step process to synthesize highly porous (Ca-alginate-SiO2-polycation) shell: (Na-alginate-SiO2) core hybrid beads for cell encapsulation, yielding a reusable long-life photosynthetically active material for a sustainable manufacture of high-value metabolites is presented. Bead formation is based on crosslinking of an alginate biopolymer and mineralisation of silicic acid in combination with a coacervation process between a polycation and the silica sol, forming a semi-permeable external membrane. The excellent mechanical strength and durability of the monodispersed beads and the control of their porosity and textural properties is achieved by tailoring the silica and alginate loading, polycation concentration and incubation time during coacervation. This process has led to the formation of a remarkably robust hybrid material that confers exceptional protection to live cells against sheer stresses and contamination in a diverse range of applications. Dunaliella tertiolecta encapsulated within this hybrid core-shell system display high photosynthetic activity over a long duration (>1 year). This sustainable biotechnology could find use in high value chemical harvests and biofuel cells to photosynthetic solar cells (energy transformation, electricity production, water splitting technologies). Furthermore the material can be engineered into various forms from spheres to variable thickness films, broadening its potential applications. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Servin, Manuel; Garnica, Guillermo
2016-01-01
Synthesis of single-wavelength temporal phase-shifting algorithms (PSA) for interferometry is well-known and firmly based on the frequency transfer function (FTF) paradigm. Here we extend the single-wavelength FTF-theory to dual and multi-wavelength PSA-synthesis when several simultaneous laser-colors are present. The FTF-based synthesis for dual-wavelength PSA (DW-PSA) is optimized for high signal-to-noise ratio and minimum number of temporal phase-shifted interferograms. The DW-PSA synthesis herein presented may be used for interferometric contouring of discontinuous industrial objects. Also DW-PSA may be useful for DW shop-testing of deep free-form aspheres. As shown here, using the FTF-based synthesis one may easily find explicit DW-PSA formulae optimized for high signal-to-noise and high detuning robustness. To this date, no general synthesis and analysis for temporal DW-PSAs has been given; only had-hoc DW-PSAs formulas have been reported. Consequently, no explicit formulae for their spectra, their sign...
Lai, Chun-Feng; Li, Jia-Sian; Shen, Chung-Wen
2017-02-08
This study demonstrated that combined free-standing quasi-amorphous/micropattern (QA/MP) composited resin film-assisted phosphor films enhanced the mechanical robustness, luminous efficacy, color rendering index (CRI), and special R9 of high-power remote warm white light-emitting diodes (WLEDs). Introducing QA/MP nanostructures into phosphor film resulted in high efficiency of remote warm WLEDs with low phosphor thickness (approximately 25 μm) and reduced the correlated color temperature (CCT) from cold white light (approximately 5565 K) to warm white light (approximately 3178 K). The QA/MP composited phosphor films (CPFs) used for high-power remote WLEDs enhanced the CRI and special R9 and reduced the CCT. These results were attributed to that QA resin film reflected the blue light and re-emitted the added red emission. CIR (84), a natural warm white CCT (3178 K), and an acceptable luminous efficacy (102.5 lm/W) were achieved from the QA/MP CPFs of high-power remote WLEDs during operation at an input power of 10 W (current of 700 mA). The bending strength of QA/MP CPFs at approximately 112 N was significantly enhanced by 40% compared with that of flat CPFs. The QA/MP CPFs applied to high-power remote WLEDs exhibited good thermal and optical stability. QA/MP CPFs were also conducted to a reliability analysis (RA), in which temperature of 85 °C and relative humidity of 85% were applied for 3288 h. Lumen maintenance was degraded by 8% during RA test because the transmittance of trimethylolopropane ethoxylate triacrylate resins was degraded under high temperature. Overall, we implemented a reliable and inexpensive technology that can potentially reduce phosphor thickness, address the out-bin problems of defective WLEDs, and fabricate flat-panel lighting source with good lighting quality.
Schiattarella, Vincenzo; Spiller, Dario; Curti, Fabio
2017-04-01
This work proposes a novel technique for the star pattern recognition for the Lost in Space, named Multi-Poles Algorithm. This technique is especially designed to ensure a reliable identification of stars when there is a large number of false objects in the image, such as Single Event Upsets, hot pixels or other celestial bodies. The algorithm identifies the stars using three phases: the acceptance phase, the verification phase and the confirmation phase. The acceptance phase uses a polar technique to yield a set of accepted stars. The verification phase performs a cross-check between two sets of accepted stars providing a new set of verified stars. Finally, the confirmation phase introduces an additional check to discard or to keep a verified star. As a result, this procedure guarantees a high robustness to false objects in the acquired images. A reliable simulator is developed to test the algorithm to obtain accurate numerical results. The star tracker is simulated as a 1024 × 1024 Active Pixel Sensor with a 20° Field of View. The sensor noises are added using suitable distribution models. The stars are simulated using the Hipparcos catalog with corrected magnitudes accordingly to the instrumental response of the sensor. The Single Event Upsets are modeled based on typical shapes detected from some missions. The tests are conducted through a Monte Carlo analysis covering the entire celestial sphere. The numerical results are obtained for both a fixed and a variable attitude configuration. In the first case, the angular velocity is zero and the simulations give a success rate of 100% considering a number of false objects up to six times the number of the cataloged stars in the image. The success rate decreases at 66% when the number of false objects is increased to fifteen times the number of cataloged stars. For moderate angular velocities, preliminary results are given for constant rate and direction. By increasing the angular rate, the performances of the
Vaseem, Mohammad; McKerricher, Garret; Shamim, Atif
2016-01-13
Currently, silver-nanoparticle-based inkjet ink is commercially available. This type of ink has several serious problems such as a complex synthesis protocol, high cost, high sintering temperatures (∼200 °C), particle aggregation, nozzle clogging, poor shelf life, and jetting instability. For the emerging field of printed electronics, these shortcomings in conductive inks are barriers for their widespread use in practical applications. Formulating particle-free silver inks has potential to solve these issues and requires careful design of the silver complexation. The ink complex must meet various requirements, such as in situ reduction, optimum viscosity, storage and jetting stability, smooth uniform sintered films, excellent adhesion, and high conductivity. This study presents a robust formulation of silver-organo-complex (SOC) ink, where complexing molecules act as reducing agents. The 17 wt % silver loaded ink was printed and sintered on a wide range of substrates with uniform surface morphology and excellent adhesion. The jetting stability was monitored for 5 months to confirm that the ink was robust and highly stable with consistent jetting performance. Radio frequency inductors, which are highly sensitive to metal quality, were demonstrated as a proof of concept on flexible PEN substrate. This is a major step toward producing high-quality electronic components with a robust inkjet printing process.
Vaseem, Mohammad
2015-12-29
Currently, silver-nanoparticle-based inkjet ink is commercially available. This type of ink has several serious problems such as a complex synthesis protocol, high cost, high sintering temperatures (∼200 °C), particle aggregation, nozzle clogging, poor shelf life, and jetting instability. For the emerging field of printed electronics, these shortcomings in conductive inks are barriers for their widespread use in practical applications. Formulating particle-free silver inks has potential to solve these issues and requires careful design of the silver complexation. The ink complex must meet various requirements, such as in situ reduction, optimum viscosity, storage and jetting stability, smooth uniform sintered films, excellent adhesion, and high conductivity. This study presents a robust formulation of silver–organo-complex (SOC) ink, where complexing molecules act as reducing agents. The 17 wt % silver loaded ink was printed and sintered on a wide range of substrates with uniform surface morphology and excellent adhesion. The jetting stability was monitored for 5 months to confirm that the ink was robust and highly stable with consistent jetting performance. Radio frequency inductors, which are highly sensitive to metal quality, were demonstrated as a proof of concept on flexible PEN substrate. This is a major step toward producing high-quality electronic components with a robust inkjet printing process.
Pannu, V; Rida, P C G; Ogden, A; Clewley, R; Cheng, A; Karna, P.; Lopus, M; MISHRA, R.C.; Zhou, J; Aneja, R
2012-01-01
Centrosome amplification (CA) and resultant chromosomal instability have long been associated with tumorigenesis. However, exacerbation of CA and relentless centrosome declustering engender robust spindle multipolarity (SM) during mitosis and may induce cell death. Recently, we demonstrated that a noscapinoid member, reduced bromonoscapine, (S)-3-(R)-9-bromo-5-(4,5-dimethoxy-1,3-dihydroisobenzofuran-1-yl)-4-methoxy-6-methyl-5,6,7,8-tetrahydro-[1,3]dioxolo-[4,5-g]isoquinoline (Red-Br-nos), ind...
Robust global motion estimation
无
2007-01-01
A global motion estimation method based on robust statistics is presented in this paper. By using tracked feature points instead of whole image pixels to estimate parameters the process speeds up. To further speed up the process and avoid numerical instability, an alterative description of the problem is given, and three types of solution to the problem are compared. By using a two step process, the robustness of the estimator is also improved. Automatic initial value selection is an advantage of this method. The proposed approach is illustrated by a set of examples, which shows good results with high speed.
2013-01-01
This contributed volume collects research papers, presented at the CIRP Sponsored Conference Robust Manufacturing Control: Innovative and Interdisciplinary Approaches for Global Networks (RoMaC 2012, Jacobs University, Bremen, Germany, June 18th-20th 2012). These research papers present the latest developments and new ideas focusing on robust manufacturing control for global networks. Today, Global Production Networks (i.e. the nexus of interconnected material and information flows through which products and services are manufactured, assembled and distributed) are confronted with and expected to adapt to: sudden and unpredictable large-scale changes of important parameters which are occurring more and more frequently, event propagation in networks with high degree of interconnectivity which leads to unforeseen fluctuations, and non-equilibrium states which increasingly characterize daily business. These multi-scale changes deeply influence logistic target achievement and call for robust planning and control ...
Robust quantum data locking from phase modulation
Lupo, Cosmo; Wilde, Mark M.; Lloyd, Seth
2014-08-01
Quantum data locking is a uniquely quantum phenomenon that allows a relatively short key of constant size to (un)lock an arbitrarily long message encoded in a quantum state, in such a way that an eavesdropper who measures the state but does not know the key has essentially no information about the message. The application of quantum data locking in cryptography would allow one to overcome the limitations of the one-time pad encryption, which requires the key to have the same length as the message. However, it is known that the strength of quantum data locking is also its Achilles heel, as the leakage of a few bits of the key or the message may in principle allow the eavesdropper to unlock a disproportionate amount of information. In this paper we show that there exist quantum data locking schemes that can be made robust against information leakage by increasing the length of the key by a proportionate amount. This implies that a constant size key can still lock an arbitrarily long message as long as a fraction of it remains secret to the eavesdropper. Moreover, we greatly simplify the structure of the protocol by proving that phase modulation suffices to generate strong locking schemes, paving the way to optical experimental realizations. Also, we show that successful data locking protocols can be constructed using random code words, which very well could be helpful in discovering random codes for data locking over noisy quantum channels.
Agata, Ryoichiro; Ichimura, Tsuyoshi; Hirahara, Kazuro; Hyodo, Mamoru; Hori, Takane; Hori, Muneo
2016-09-01
Computation of many Green's functions (GFs) in finite element (FE) analyses of crustal deformation is an essential technique in inverse analyses of coseismic slip estimations. In particular, analysis based on a high-resolution FE model (high-fidelity model) is expected to contribute to the construction of a community standard FE model and benchmark solution. Here, we propose a naive but robust and portable capacity computing method to compute many GFs using a high-fidelity model, assuming that various types of PC clusters are used. The method is based on the master-worker model, implemented using the Message Passing Interface (MPI), to perform robust and efficient input/output operations. The method was applied to numerical experiments of coseismic slip estimation in the Tohoku region of Japan; comparison of the estimated results with those generated using lower-fidelity models revealed the benefits of using a high-fidelity FE model in coseismic slip distribution estimation. Additionally, the proposed method computes several hundred GFs more robustly and efficiently than methods without the master-worker model and MPI.
Calculation of pressure fields from arbitrarily shaped, apodized, and excited ultrasound transducers
Jensen, Jørgen Arendt; Svendsen, Niels Bruun
1992-01-01
A method for simulation of pulsed pressure fields from arbitrarily shaped, apodized and excited ultrasound transducers is suggested. It relies on the Tupholme-Stepanishen method for calculating pulsed pressure fields, and can also handle the continuous wave and pulse-echo case. The field...... is calculated by dividing the surface into small rectangles and then Summing their response. A fast calculation is obtained by using the far-field approximation. Examples of the accuracy of the approach and actual calculation times are given...
LIU Wuxiang; MA Shaokun; WU Hao
2014-01-01
An orthotropic functionally graded piezoelectric rectangular plate with arbitrarily distributed material properties was studied, which is simply supported and grounded (electrically) on its four lateral edges. The state equations of the functionally graded piezoelectric material were obtained using the state-space approach, and a Peano-Baker series solution was obtained for the coupled electroelastic fields of the functionally graded piezoelectric plate subjected to mechanical and electric loading on its upper and lower surfaces. The influence of different distributions of material properties on the structural response of the plate was studied using the obtained solutions.
A general method for numerical Green's function in arbitrarily layered soils
ZOU Jun; HE Jinliang; ZENG Rong; SUN Weiming; YU Gang
2003-01-01
A straightforward approach is developed to calculate Green's function of a point current source in horizontal multi-layer soils. The sampling value of the coefficient of Green's function is obtained in an iterative way in terms of the equation group satisfying the pertinent boundary value problem. Further, the closed-form expression of multilayered soil Green's function can be given by the vector matrix pencil technology. The numerical results are in agreement with those by using other softwares. The approach proposed here is applicable to grounding problems with the structure of arbitrarily layered soil without needing the analytical expression of Green's function.
B. Bisselink
2016-12-01
New hydrological insights: Results indicate large discrepancies in terms of the linear correlation (r, bias (β and variability (γ between the observed and simulated streamflows when using different precipitation estimates as model input. The best model performance was obtained with products which ingest gauge data for bias correction. However, catchment behavior was difficult to be captured using a single parameter set and to obtain a single robust parameter set for each catchment, which indicate that transposing model parameters should be carried out with caution. Model parameters depend on the precipitation characteristics of the calibration period and should therefore only be used in target periods with similar precipitation characteristics (wet/dry.
Weeda, Wouter D; Waldorp, Lourens J; Christoffels, Ingrid; Huizenga, Hilde M
2009-08-01
An important issue in the analysis of fMRI is how to account for the spatial smoothness of activated regions. In this article a method is proposed to accomplish this by modeling activated regions with Gaussian shapes. Hypothesis tests on the location, spatial extent, and amplitude of these regions are performed instead of hypothesis tests of individual voxels. This increases power and eases interpretation. Simulation studies show robust hypothesis tests under misspecification of the shape model, and increased power over standard techniques especially at low signal-to-noise ratios. An application to real single-subject data also indicates that the method has increased power over standard methods.
Karube, K.; White, J. S.; Reynolds, N.; Gavilano, J. L.; Oike, H.; Kikkawa, A.; Kagawa, F.; Tokunaga, Y.; Rønnow, H. M.; Tokura, Y.; Taguchi, Y.
2016-12-01
Skyrmions, topologically protected nanometric spin vortices, are being investigated extensively in various magnets. Among them, many structurally chiral cubic magnets host the triangular-lattice skyrmion crystal (SkX) as the thermodynamic equilibrium state. However, this state exists only in a narrow temperature and magnetic-field region just below the magnetic transition temperature Tc, while a helical or conical magnetic state prevails at lower temperatures. Here we describe that for a room-temperature skyrmion material, β-Mn-type Co 8Zn 8Mn 4, a field-cooling via the equilibrium SkX state can suppress the transition to the helical or conical state, instead realizing robust metastable SkX states that survive over a very wide temperature and magnetic-field region. Furthermore, the lattice form of the metastable SkX is found to undergo reversible transitions between a conventional triangular lattice and a novel square lattice upon varying the temperature and magnetic field. These findings exemplify the topological robustness of the once-created skyrmions, and establish metastable skyrmion phases as a fertile ground for technological applications.
Simó, Guillermo; Vila-Crespo, Josefina; Fernández-Fernández, Encarnación; Ruipérez, Violeta; Rodríguez-Nogales, José Manuel
2017-06-28
Bacteria encapsulation to develop malolactic fermentation emerges as a biotechnological strategy that provides significant advantages over the use of free cells. Two encapsulation methods have been proposed embedding Oenococcus oeni, (i) interpenetrated polymer networks of silica and Ca-alginate and (ii) Ca-alginate capsules coated with hydrolyzed 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (hAPTES). On the basis of our results, only the first method was suitable for bacteria encapsulation. The optimized silica-alginate capsules exhibited a negligible bacteria release and an increase of 328% and 65% in L-malic acid consumption and mechanical robustness, respectively, compared to untreated alginate capsules. Moreover, studies of capsule stability at different pH and ethanol concentrations in water solutions and in wine indicated a better behavior of silica-alginate capsules than untreated ones. The inclusion of silicates and colloidal silica in alginate capsules containing O. oeni improved markedly their capacity to deplete the levels of L-malic acid in red wines and their mechanical robustness and stability.
Robustness Evaluation of Timber Structures
Kirkegaard, Poul Henning; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard
2009-01-01
The present paper considers robustness evaluation of a Norwegian sports arena with a structural system of glulam frames. The robustness evaluation is based on the framework for robustness analysis introduced in the Danish Code of Practice for the Safety of Structures and a probabilistic modelling...... of the timber material proposed in the Probabilistic Model Code (PMC) of the Joint Committee on Structural Safety (JCSS). The results show that the requirements for robustness of the structure are highly related to the modelling of the snow load used on the structures when ‘removal of a limited part...
Holger Boche
2012-08-01
Full Text Available The paradigm shift from an exclusive allocation of frequency bands, one for each system, to a shared use of frequencies comes along with the need of new concepts since interference will be an ubiquitous phenomenon. In this paper, we use the concept of arbitrarily varying channels to model the impact of unknown interference caused by coexisting wireless systems which operate on the same frequencies. Within this framework, capacity can be zero if pre-specified encoders and decoders are used. This necessitates the use of more sophisticated coordination schemes where the choice of encoders and decoders is additionally coordinated based on common randomness. As an application we study the arbitrarily varying bidirectional broadcast channel and derive the capacity regions for different coordination strategies. This problem is motivated by decode-and-forward bidirectional or two-way relaying, where a relay establishes a bidirectional communication between two other nodes while sharing the resources with other coexisting wireless networks.
Robust visual tracking for manipulators with unknown intrinsic and extrinsic Parameters
无
2007-01-01
This paper addresses the robust visual tracking of multi-feature points for a 3D manipulator with unknown intrinsic and extrinsic parameters of the vision system.This class of control systems are highly nonlinear control systems characterized as time-varying and strong coupling in states and unknown parameters.It is first pointed out that not only is the Jacobian image matrix nonsingular,but also its minimum singular value has a positive limit.This provides the foundation of kinematics and dynamics control of manipulators with visual feedback.Second,the Euler angle expressed rotation transformation is employed to estimate a subspace of the parameter space of the vision system.Based on the two results above,and arbitrarily chosen parameters in this subspace,the tracking controllers are proposed so that the image errors can be made as small as desired so long as the control gain is allowed to be large.The controller does not use visual velocity to achieve high and robust performance with low sampling rate of the vision system.The obtained results are proved by Lyapunov direct method.Experiments are included to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed controller.
Principal Component Analysis with Contaminated Data: The High Dimensional Case
Xu, Huan; Mannor, Shie
2010-01-01
We consider the dimensionality-reduction problem (finding a subspace approximation of observed data) for contaminated data in the high dimensional regime, where the number of observations is of the same magnitude as the number of variables of each observation, and the data set contains some (arbitrarily) corrupted observations. We propose a High-dimensional Robust Principal Component Analysis (HR-PCA) algorithm that is tractable, robust to contaminated points, and easily kernelizable. The resulting subspace has a bounded deviation from the desired one, achieves maximal robustness -- a breakdown point of 50% while all existing algorithms have a breakdown point of zero, and unlike ordinary PCA algorithms, achieves optimality in the limit case where the proportion of corrupted points goes to zero.
J. Strečka
2012-12-01
Full Text Available The ferrimagnetic spin-1/2 chain composed of alternating Ising and Heisenberg spins in an arbitrarily oriented magnetic field is exactly solved using the spin-rotation transformation and the transfer-matrix method. It is shown that the low-temperature magnetization process depends basically on a spatial orientation of the magnetic field. A sharp stepwise magnetization curve with a marked intermediate plateau, which emerges for the magnetic field applied along the easy-axis direction of the Ising spins, becomes smoother and the intermediate plateau shrinks if the external field is tilted from the easy-axis direction. The magnetization curve of a polycrystalline system is also calculated by performing powder averaging of the derived magnetization formula. The proposed spin-chain model brings an insight into high-field magnetization data of 3d-4f bimetallic polymeric compound Dy(NO3(DMSO2Cu(opba(DMSO2, which provides an interesting experimental realization of the ferrimagnetic chain composed of two different but regularly alternating spin-1/2 magnetic ions Dy3+ and Cu2+ that are reasonably approximated by the notion of Ising and Heisenberg spins, respectively.
Tropp, James
The first-order theory of a low-pass bird-cage resonator perturbed at a single capacitor [J. Tropp, J. Magn. Reson.82, 51 (1989)] is extended by explicit calculation to cover a low-pass bird cage perturbed arbitrarily at every reactance, provided that a first-order condition is satisfied. It is shown that the effect of arbitrary perturbation, i.e., the splitting of resonances and rotation of the polarization axes, can be exactly mimicked (in first order) by a pair of capacitors spaced by an azimuth of {π}/{4}. This result may be extended by symmetry arguments to the high-pass and simple band-pass bird cage. A method of correcting symmetry (abolishing the splitting of the useful eigenstates) is then derived, which provides near-perfect correction by the application of two capacitors, typically spaced {π}/{4} on the resonator azimuth. Experimental results are given for a low-pass bird-cage; and the correction procedure is verified and demonstrated in practical detail; and it is shown that the limit of the first-order theory is that the first of the two requisite correction capacitors should be within 7 or 8% of the nominal bird-cage capacitance. Practical examples of symmetry correction outside the first-order regime are also given.
Epstein, Ariel; Wong, Joseph P S; Eleftheriades, George V
2016-01-21
One of the long-standing problems in antenna engineering is the realization of highly directive beams using low-profile devices. In this paper, we provide a solution to this problem by means of Huygens' metasurfaces (HMSs), based on the equivalence principle. This principle states that a given excitation can be transformed to a desirable aperture field by inducing suitable electric and (equivalent) magnetic surface currents. Building on this concept, we propose and demonstrate cavity-excited HMS antennas, where the single-source-fed cavity is designed to optimize aperture illumination, while the HMS facilitates the current distribution that ensures phase purity of aperture fields. The HMS breaks the coupling between the excitation and radiation spectra typical to standard partially reflecting surfaces, allowing tailoring of the aperture properties to produce a desirable radiation pattern, without incurring edge-taper losses. The proposed low-profile design yields near-unity aperture illumination efficiencies from arbitrarily large apertures, offering new capabilities for microwave, terahertz and optical radiators.
A New Lyapunov Based Robust Control for Uncertain Mechanical Systems
ZHEN Sheng-Chao; ZHAO Han; CHEN Ye-Hwa; HUANG Kang
2014-01-01
We design a new robust controller for uncertain mechanical systems. The inertia matrix0s singularity and upper bound property are first analyzed. It is shown that the inertia matrix may be positive semi-definite due to over-simplified model. Further-more, the inertia matrix0s being uniformly bounded above is also limited. A robust controller is proposed to suppress the effect of uncertainty in mechanical systems with the assumption of uniform positive definiteness and upper bound of the inertia matrix. We theoretically prove that the robust control renders uniform boundedness and uniform ultimate boundedness. The size of the ultimate boundedness ball can be made arbitrarily small by the designer. Simulation results are presented and discussed.
Wang, Yonggang, E-mail: yyggwang@gmail.com, E-mail: yangwg@hpstar.ac.cn, E-mail: yusheng.zhao@unlv.edu [High Pressure Science and Engineering Center, University of Nevada, Las Vegas, Nevada 89154 (United States); Institute of Nanostructured Functional Materials, Huanghe Science and Technology College, Zhengzhou, Henan 450006 (China); High Pressure Synergetic Consortium (HPSynC), Geophysical Laboratory, Carnegie Institution of Washington, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States); Wen, Ting [Institute of Nanostructured Functional Materials, Huanghe Science and Technology College, Zhengzhou, Henan 450006 (China); Park, Changyong; Kenney-Benson, Curtis [High Pressure Collaborative Access Team (HPCAT), Geophysical Laboratory, Carnegie Institution of Washington, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States); Pravica, Michael; Zhao, Yusheng, E-mail: yyggwang@gmail.com, E-mail: yangwg@hpstar.ac.cn, E-mail: yusheng.zhao@unlv.edu [High Pressure Science and Engineering Center, University of Nevada, Las Vegas, Nevada 89154 (United States); Yang, Wenge, E-mail: yyggwang@gmail.com, E-mail: yangwg@hpstar.ac.cn, E-mail: yusheng.zhao@unlv.edu [High Pressure Synergetic Consortium (HPSynC), Geophysical Laboratory, Carnegie Institution of Washington, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States); Center for High Pressure Science and Technology Advanced Research (HPSTAR), Shanghai 201203 (China)
2016-01-14
The structure stability under high pressure and thermal expansion behavior of Na{sub 3}OBr and Na{sub 4}OI{sub 2}, two prototypes of alkali-metal-rich antiperovskites, were investigated by in situ synchrotron X-ray diffraction techniques under high pressure and low temperature. Both are soft materials with bulk modulus of 58.6 GPa and 52.0 GPa for Na{sub 3}OBr and Na{sub 4}OI{sub 2}, respectively. The cubic Na{sub 3}OBr structure and tetragonal Na{sub 4}OI{sub 2} with intergrowth K{sub 2}NiF{sub 4} structure are stable under high pressure up to 23 GPa. Although being a characteristic layered structure, Na{sub 4}OI{sub 2} exhibits nearly isotropic compressibility. Negative thermal expansion was observed at low temperature range (20–80 K) in both transition-metal-free antiperovskites for the first time. The robust high pressure structure stability was examined and confirmed by first-principles calculations among various possible polymorphisms qualitatively. The results provide in-depth understanding of the negative thermal expansion and robust crystal structure stability of these antiperovskite systems and their potential applications.
Wang, Yonggang; Wen, Ting; Park, Changyong; Kenney-Benson, Curtis; Pravica, Michael; Yang, Wenge; Zhao, Yusheng
2016-01-01
The structure stability under high pressure and thermal expansion behavior of Na3OBr and Na4OI2, two prototypes of alkali-metal-rich antiperovskites, were investigated by in situ synchrotron X-ray diffraction techniques under high pressure and low temperature. Both are soft materials with bulk modulus of 58.6 GPa and 52.0 GPa for Na3OBr and Na4OI2, respectively. The cubic Na3OBr structure and tetragonal Na4OI2 with intergrowth K2NiF4 structure are stable under high pressure up to 23 GPa. Although being a characteristic layered structure, Na4OI2 exhibits nearly isotropic compressibility. Negative thermal expansion was observed at low temperature range (20-80 K) in both transition-metal-free antiperovskites for the first time. The robust high pressure structure stability was examined and confirmed by first-principles calculations among various possible polymorphisms qualitatively. The results provide in-depth understanding of the negative thermal expansion and robust crystal structure stability of these antiperovskite systems and their potential applications.
Hu, Jiangping; Yuan, Jing
2016-10-01
Based on the assumption that the superconducting state belongs to a single irreducible representation of lattice symmetry, we propose that the pairing symmetry in all measured iron-based superconductors is generally consistent with the A 1 g s-wave. Robust s-wave pairing throughout the different families of iron-based superconductors at different doping regions signals two fundamental principles behind high- T c superconducting mechanisms: (i) the correspondence principle: the short-range magnetic-exchange interactions and the Fermi surfaces act collaboratively to achieve high- T c superconductivity and determine pairing symmetries; (ii) the magnetic-selection pairing rule: superconductivity is only induced by the magnetic-exchange couplings from the super-exchange mechanism through cation-anion-cation chemical bonding. These principles explain why unconventional high- T c superconductivity appears to be such a rare but robust phenomena, with its strict requirements regarding the electronic environment. The results will help us to identify new electronic structures that can support high- T c superconductivity.
Marin, Frederic
2016-01-01
It is believed that, in radio-loud active galactic nuclei (AGN), the core radio flux density can be normalized to the flux density of the extended lobe emission to infer the orientation of a radio source. However very little is known about the reliability and precision of this method, and we are unaware of any robust conversion recipe to infer the inclination from the core dominance. Investigating whether or not the radio core dominance parameter R separates the quasars from the radio-galaxies in the $z \\ge$~1 3CRR catalog, we found excellent agreement of R with optical type, infrared flux ratios and optical polarization. This indicates that probably both R and optical classification are very good orientation indicators, and the unified model is strongly predictive for these objects. The relative number densities indicate half-opening angles close to 60$^\\circ$, as expected from large surveys. The separations of optical types according to radio core dominance as well as NIR/MIR ratios, which are essentially p...
Ultra-robust high-field magnetization plateau and supersolidity in bond-frustrated MnCr2S4
Tsurkan, Vladimir; Zherlitsyn, Sergei; Prodan, Lilian; Felea, Viorel; Cong, Pham Thanh; Skourski, Yurii; Wang, Zhe; Deisenhofer, Joachim; von Nidda, Hans-Albrecht Krug; Wosnitza, Joahim; Loidl, Alois
2017-01-01
Frustrated magnets provide a promising avenue for realizing exotic quantum states of matter, such as spin liquids and spin ice or complex spin molecules. Under an external magnetic field, frustrated magnets can exhibit fractional magnetization plateaus related to definite spin patterns stabilized by field-induced lattice distortions. Magnetization and ultrasound experiments in MnCr2S4 up to 60 T reveal two fascinating features: (i) an extremely robust magnetization plateau with an unusual spin structure and (ii) two intermediate phases, indicating possible realizations of supersolid phases. The magnetization plateau characterizes fully polarized chromium moments, without any contributions from manganese spins. At 40 T, the middle of the plateau, a regime evolves, where sound waves propagate almost without dissipation. The external magnetic field exactly compensates the Cr–Mn exchange field and decouples Mn and Cr sublattices. In analogy to predictions of quantum lattice-gas models, the changes of the spin order of the manganese ions at the phase boundaries of the magnetization plateau are interpreted as transitions to supersolid phases. PMID:28345038
Kim, Seulong
2016-01-01
Bi-isotropic media, which include isotropic chiral media and Tellegen media as special cases, are the most general form of linear isotropic media where the electric displacement and the magnetic induction are related to both the electric field and the magnetic intensity. In inhomogeneous bi-isotropic media, electromagnetic waves of two different polarizations are coupled to each other. In this paper, we develop a generalized version of the invariant imbedding method for the study of wave propagation in arbitrarily-inhomogeneous stratified bi-isotropic media, which can be used to solve the coupled wave propagation problem accurately and efficiently. We verify the validity and usefulness of the method by applying it to several examples, including the wave propagation in a uniform chiral slab, the surface wave excitation in a bilayer system made of a layer of Tellegen medium and a metal layer, and the mode conversion of transverse electromagnetic waves into longitudinal plasma oscillations in inhomogeneous Telle...
On Equation of Motion for Arbitrarily Shaped Particle under Action of Electromagnetic Radiation
Klacka, J
2002-01-01
Arguments of astronomers against equation of motion for arbitrarily shaped particle under action of electromagnetic radiation are discussed. Each of the arguments is commented in detail from the point of view of the required physics. It is shown that the arguments of astronomers, including referees in several astronomical and astrophysical journals, are unacceptable from the physical point of view. Detail explanations should help astronomers in better physical understanding of the equation of motion. Relativistically covariant equation of motion for real dust particle under the action of electromagnetic radiation is derived. The particle is neutral in charge. Equation of motion is expressed in terms of particle's optical properties, standardly used in optics for stationary particles.
Multiple scattering of arbitrarily incident Bessel beams by random discrete particles.
Cui, Zhiwei; Han, Yiping; Ai, Xia
2013-11-01
In this paper, we introduce an efficient numerical method to characterize the multiple scattering by random discrete particles illuminated by Bessel beams with arbitrary incidence. Specifically, the vector expressions of Bessel beams that perfectly satisfy Maxwell's equations in combination with rotation Euler angles are used to represent the arbitrarily incident Bessel beams. A hybrid vector finite element-boundary integral-characteristic-basis function method is utilized to formulate the scattering problems involving multiple discrete particles with a random distribution. Due to the flexibility of the finite element method, the adopted method can conveniently deal with the problems of multiple scattering by randomly distributed homogeneous particles, inhomogeneous particles, and anisotropic particles. Some numerical results are included to illustrate the validity and capability of the proposed method and to show the scattering behaviors of random discrete particles when they are illuminated by Bessel beams.
Mathematical model for the power generation from arbitrarily oriented photovoltaic panel
Hassan Qusay
2017-01-01
Full Text Available In this paper, a mathematical model for modelling the solar radiation components and photovoltaic arrays power outputs from arbitrarily oriented photovoltaic panel has been presented. Base on the model electrical power prediction of the photovoltaic system in realistic local condition has been presented and compared with experimental measurement. The results show the effectiveness of the proposed model, which provides tools to better understand the performance and reliability as well as decision-making tool in designing of a hybrid renewable energy base power generation system. It has been shown that base on the model prediction, the efficiency and possible failures of the system can be found which are important from the technical and economical point of view.
Failure of energy stability in Oldroyd-B fluids at arbitrarily low Reynolds numbers
Döring, C; Schumacher, J
2004-01-01
Energy theory for incompressible Newtonian fluids is, in many cases, capable of producing strong absolute stability criteria for steady flows. In those fluids the kinetic energy naturally defines a norm in which perturbations decay monotonically in time at sufficiently low (but non-zero) Reynolds numbers. There are, however, at least two obstructions to the generalization of such methods to Oldroyd-B fluids. One previously recognized problem is the fact that the natural energy does not correspond to a proper functional norm on perturbations. Another problem, original to this work, is the fact that fluctuations in Oldroyd-B fluids may be subject to non-normal amplification at arbitrarily low Reynolds numbers (albeit at sufficiently large Weissenberg numbers). Such transient growth, occuring even when the base flow is linearly stable, precludes the uniform monotonic decay of any reasonable measure of the disturbance's amplitude.
侯朝胜; 李婧; 龙泉
2003-01-01
The cubic B-splines taken as trial function, the large deflection of a circular plate with arbitrarily variable thickness,as well as the buckling load, have been calculated by the method of point collocation. The support can be elastic. Loads imposed can be polynomial distributed loads, uniformly distributed radial forces or moments along the edge respectively or their combinations. Convergent solutions can still be obtained by this method under the load whose value is in great excess of normal one. Under the action of the uniformly distributed loads, linear solutions of circular plates with linearly or quadratically variable thickness are compared with those obtained by the parameter method. Buckling of a circular plate with identical thickness beyond critical thrust is compared with those obtained by the power series method.
Auxetic two-dimensional lattice with Poisson's Ratio arbitrarily close to -1
Cabras, L
2014-01-01
In this paper we propose a new lattice structure having macroscopic Poisson's ratio arbitrarily close to the stability limit -1. We tested experimentally the effective Poisson's ratio of the micro-structured medium; the uniaxial test has been performed on a thermoplastic lattice produced with a 3d printing technology. A theoretical analysis of the effective properties has been performed and the expression of the macroscopic constitutive properties is given in full analytical form as a function of the constitutive properties of the elements of the lattice and on the geometry of the microstructure. The analysis has been performed on three micro-geometry leading to an isotropic behaviour for the cases of three-fold and six-fold symmetry and to a cubic behaviour for the case of four-fold symmetry.
Equation of Motion for an Arbitrarily Shaped Particle Moving in a Radiation Field
Klacka, J
2003-01-01
We consider the motion of uncharged dust grains of arbitrary shape including the effects of electromagnetic radiation and thermal emission. The resulting relativistically covariant equation of motion is expressed in terms of standard optical parameters. Explicit expressions for secular changes of osculating orbital elements are derived in detail for the special case of the Poynting-Robertson effect. Two subcases are considered: (i) central acceleration due to gravity and the radial component of radiation pressure independent of the particle velocity, (ii) central acceleration given by gravity and the radiation force as the disturbing force. The latter case yields results which may be compared with secular orbital evolution in terms of orbital elements for an arbitrarily shaped dust particle. The effects of solar wind are also presented.
Su, Xiaojing; Li, Hongqiang; Lai, Xuejun; Zhang, Lin; Wang, Jing; Liao, Xiaofeng; Zeng, Xingrong
2017-08-23
Large-scale fabrication of superhydrophobic surfaces with excellent durability by simple techniques has been of considerable interest for its urgent practical application in oil-water separation in recent years. Herein, we proposed a facile vapor-liquid sol-gel approach to fabricating highly durable and robust superhydrophobic polydimethylsiloxane@silica surfaces on the cross-structure polyester textiles. Scanning electron microscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy demonstrated that the silica generated from the hydrolysis-condensation of tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS) gradually aggregated at microscale driven by the extreme nonpolar dihydroxyl-terminated polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS(OH)). This led to construction of hierarchical roughness and micronano structures of the superhydrophobic textile surface. The as-fabricated superhydrophobic textile possessed outstanding durability in deionized water, various solvents, strong acid/base solutions, and boiling/ice water. Remarkably, the polyester textile still retained great water repellency and even after ultrasonic treatment for 18 h, 96 laundering cycles, and 600 abrasion cycles, exhibiting excellent mechanical robustness. Importantly, the superhydrophobic polyester textile was further applied for oil-water separation as absorption materials and/or filter pipes, presenting high separation efficiency and great reusability. Our method to construct superhydrophobic textiles is simple but highly efficient; no special equipment, chemicals, or atmosphere is required. Additionally, no fluorinated slianes and organic solvents are involved, which is very beneficial for environment safety and protection. Our findings conceivably stand out as a new tool to fabricate organic-inorganic superhydrophobic surfaces with strong durability and robustness for practical applications in oil spill accidents and industrial sewage emission.
Sørensen, John Dalsgaard
2011-01-01
robust design as well as strategies for maintaining the robustness of existing structures throughout their service life. This paper describes an overall theoretical framework for assessing robustness of structures developed within WG1 “Robustness of structures”. Robustness can be defined in different......An important aspect of the COST Action TU0601 “Robustness of structures” concerns the development of a theoretically sound basis for the assessment of robustness and acceptance criteria for structural robustness which can form the basis for development of practical relevant methods for ensuring...
Synthetic generation of arbitrarily long series of flood hydrographs for flood risk assessment
Flores, Isabel; Sordo-Ward, Alvaro; Mediero, Luis; Garrote, Luis
2013-04-01
Flood risk assessment is an essential component of natural disaster management. Flood frequency analysis has traditionally been approached by fitting relatively short series of annual maxima of observations to a parametric probability distribution. Under this approach, only one relevant variable (usually peak discharge) can be analyzed, while in many practical applications, like dam safety analysis, the entire flood hydrograph is of interest. Obtaining a good representation of the ensemble of hydrographs would require extremely long historical flood series which almost never exist. Hydrometeorological modelling tools can be applied to extend the relatively short series of observations and generate an arbitrarily long series of synthetic events that can be used in flood risk assessment. The heavy computational burden of these processes requires the contribution of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) developments to enable the practical application of the hydrometeorological modelling chain for this purpose. In this paper, an example of this methodology is applied to the Santillana reservoir, located in the Manzanares basin, in Spain. The methodology is based on the Monte Carlo generation of synthetic hydrographs from rainstorms events extracted from arbitrarily long synthetic rainfall time series. The rainfall series are generated with the RainSim software, a model based on a spatial-temporal Neyman-Scott rectangular pulses process. The highest event of every year is chosen, based on three different criterions. The selected rainstorm events are transformed into runoff by the RIBS distributed rainfall-runoff event model, obtaining the ensemble of hydrographs which make possible to evaluate the associated flood risk. The procedure has been validated by comparing the observed flood frequency series in the Santillana reservoir with the synthetic ones, obtaining a good agreement.
Olaya-Castro, A; Quiroga, L; Olaya-Castro, Alexandra; Johnson, Neil F.; Quiroga, Luis
2004-01-01
We propose a physically realizable machine which can either generate multiparticle W-like states, or implement high fidelity $1 \\to M$ ($M=1,2,... \\infty$) anti-cloning of an arbitrary qubit state, in a single step. Moreover this universal machine acts as a catalyst in that it is unchanged after either procedure, effectively resetting itself for its next operation. It also possesses an inherent {\\em immunity} to decoherence. Most importantly in terms of practical multi-party quantum communication, the machine's robustness in the presence of decoherence actually {\\em increases} as the number of qubits $M$ increases.
Ramirez, Patricia; Papadopoulos, Dimitris N.; Hanna, Marc; Pellegrina, Alain; Friebel, Florence; Georges, Patrick; Druon, Frédéric
2013-01-01
International audience; A compact and robust, dual-crystal cross polarized wave generation setup combined with a hollow waveguide filter is implemented to deliver few-cycle, high-contrast laser pulses sourced from a commercial multipass Ti:Sa amplifier. The initial 25-fs pulses with a temporal contrast of 108 are shortened to 10 fs with an improved contrast of at least 10^10. The single nonlinear stage for spectral broadening and contrast enhancement of a commercial amplifier serves as an ide...
Population genetics of translational robustness.
Wilke, Claus O; Drummond, D Allan
2006-05-01
Recent work has shown that expression level is the main predictor of a gene's evolutionary rate and that more highly expressed genes evolve slower. A possible explanation for this observation is selection for proteins that fold properly despite mistranslation, in short selection for translational robustness. Translational robustness leads to the somewhat paradoxical prediction that highly expressed genes are extremely tolerant to missense substitutions but nevertheless evolve very slowly. Here, we study a simple theoretical model of translational robustness that allows us to gain analytic insight into how this paradoxical behavior arises.
Aerodynamics in arbitrarily accelerating frames: application to high-g turns
Gledhill, Irvy MA
2010-09-01
Full Text Available Fifth-generation missilies accelerate up to 100 g in turns, and higher accelerations are expected as agility increases. The authors have developed the theory of aerodynamics for arbitrary accelerations, and have validated modelling in a...
Aerodynamics in arbitrarily accelerating frames: application to high-g turns
Gledhill, Irvy MA
2010-09-01
Full Text Available Fifth-generation missiles accelerate up to 100 g in turns, and higher accelerations are expected as agility increases. The auhtors have developed the theory of aerodynamics for arbitrary accelerations, and have validated modelling in a Computational...
Arbitrarily high order Convected Scheme solution of the Vlasov-Poisson system
Güçlü, Yaman; Hitchon, William N G
2013-01-01
The Convected Scheme (CS) is a `forward-trajectory' semi-Lagrangian method for solution of transport equations, which has been most often applied to the kinetic description of plasmas and rarefied neutral gases. In its simplest form, the CS propagates the solution by advecting the `moving cells' along their characteristic trajectories, and by remapping them on the mesh at the end of the time step. The CS is conservative, positivity preserving, simple to implement, and not subject to time step restriction to maintain stability. Recently [Y. G\\"u\\c{c}l\\"u and W.N.G. Hitchon, 2012] a new methodology was introduced for reducing numerical diffusion, based on a modified equation analysis: the remapping error was compensated by applying small corrections to the final position of the moving cells prior to remapping. While the spatial accuracy was increased from 2nd to 4th order, the new scheme retained the important properties of the original method, and was shown to be simple and efficient for constant advection pro...
Junttila, Virpi; Gautam, Basanta; Karky, Bhaskar Singh; Maguya, Almasi; Tegel, Katri; Kauranne, Tuomo; Gunia, Katja; Hämäläinen, Jarno; Latva-Käyrä, Petri; Nikolaeva, Ekaterina; Peuhkurinen, Jussi
2015-12-01
Participatory forest monitoring has been promoted as a means to engage local forest-dependent communities in concrete climate mitigation activities as it brings a sense of ownership to the communities and hence increases the likelihood of success of forest preservation measures. However, sceptics of this approach argue that local community forest members will not easily attain the level of technical proficiency that accurate monitoring needs. Thus it is interesting to establish if local communities can attain such a level of technical proficiency. This paper addresses this issue by assessing the robustness of biomass estimation models based on air-borne laser data using models calibrated with two different field sample designs namely, field data gathered by professional forester teams and field data collected by local communities trained by professional foresters in two study sites in Nepal. The aim is to find if the two field sample data sets can give similar results (LiDAR models) and whether the data can be combined and used together in estimating biomass. Results show that even though the sampling designs and principles of both field campaigns were different, they produced equivalent regression models based on LiDAR data. This was successful in one of the sites (Gorkha). At the other site (Chitwan), however, major discrepancies remained in model-based estimates that used different field sample data sets. This discrepancy can be attributed to the complex terrain and dense forest in the site which makes it difficult to obtain an accurate digital elevation model (DTM) from LiDAR data, and neither set of data produced satisfactory results. Field sample data produced by professional foresters and field sample data produced by professionally trained communities can be used together without affecting prediction performance provided that the correlation between LiDAR predictors and biomass estimates is good enough.
Population genetics of translational robustness
Wilke, Claus O; Drummond, D. Allan
2005-01-01
Recent work has shown that expression level is the main predictor of a gene’s evolutionary rate, and that more highly expressed genes evolve slower. A possible explanation for this observation is selection for proteins which fold properly despite mistranslation, in short selection for translational robustness. Translational robustness leads to the somewhat paradoxical prediction that highly expressed genes are extremely tolerant to missense substitutions but nevertheless evolve very slo...
Methods for robustness programming
Olieman, N.J.
2008-01-01
Robustness of an object is defined as the probability that an object will have properties as required. Robustness Programming (RP) is a mathematical approach for Robustness estimation and Robustness optimisation. An example in the context of designing a food product, is finding the best composition
Robust Pole Assignment of Digital Control System with Output Multirate Sampled
无
2000-01-01
Multirate digital control system is a periodically time-variant (PTV)system in its essence. It has many “super capability”, such as obtaining arbitrarily-large gain-margin,simultaneous stabilization, strong stabilization, decentralized control, etc. Utilizing freedom aroused from the multirate sampling of system output, this paper assigns poles of the closedloop system robustly, and so improves the resistance of the system to perturbation.
郭晓洋; 尹安远; 郭晓东; 郭秀英; 戴维林; 范康年
2011-01-01
CoAl alloy catalyst is found, for the first time, to be highly active, selective and reusable for the synthesis of diols via the hydrogenolysis of glycerol under mild conditions. The products and the catalyst could be self-separated from the reaction system through a simple reactor.
Rider, William, E-mail: wjrider@sandia.gov [Sandia National Laboratories, Center for Computing Research, Albuquerque, NM 87185 (United States); Witkowski, Walt [Sandia National Laboratories, Verification and Validation, Uncertainty Quantification, Credibility Processes Department, Engineering Sciences Center, Albuquerque, NM 87185 (United States); Kamm, James R. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Methods and Algorithms Group, Computational Physics Division, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Wildey, Tim [Sandia National Laboratories, Center for Computing Research, Albuquerque, NM 87185 (United States)
2016-02-15
We introduce a new methodology for inferring the accuracy of computational simulations through the practice of solution verification. We demonstrate this methodology on examples from computational heat transfer, fluid dynamics and radiation transport. Our methodology is suited to both well- and ill-behaved sequences of simulations. Our approach to the analysis of these sequences of simulations incorporates expert judgment into the process directly via a flexible optimization framework, and the application of robust statistics. The expert judgment is systematically applied as constraints to the analysis, and together with the robust statistics guards against over-emphasis on anomalous analysis results. We have named our methodology Robust Verification. Our methodology is based on utilizing multiple constrained optimization problems to solve the verification model in a manner that varies the analysis' underlying assumptions. Constraints applied in the analysis can include expert judgment regarding convergence rates (bounds and expectations) as well as bounding values for physical quantities (e.g., positivity of energy or density). This approach then produces a number of error models, which are then analyzed through robust statistical techniques (median instead of mean statistics). This provides self-contained, data and expert informed error estimation including uncertainties for both the solution itself and order of convergence. Our method produces high quality results for the well-behaved cases relatively consistent with existing practice. The methodology can also produce reliable results for ill-behaved circumstances predicated on appropriate expert judgment. We demonstrate the method and compare the results with standard approaches used for both code and solution verification on well-behaved and ill-behaved simulations.
2008-02-15
penicillin -susceptible and peni- cillin-resistant Streptococcnspneuttmoniae serotypes in Canada. J Infect Dis Streptococcus pneumoniae Surveillance Group...Gray for the Streptococcus pneumonia Surveillance Group Report No. 00-44 Approved for public release; distribution unlimited. NAVAL HEALTH RESEARCH...Defense Surveillance for Invasive Streptococcus pneumoniae : Antibiotic Resistance, Serotype Distribution, and Arbitrarily Primed Polymerase Chain
Sagis, L.M.C.
2001-01-01
In this paper we developed an expression for the coefficient for plane-parallel diffusion for an arbitrarily curved fluid–fluid interface. The expression is valid for ordinary diffusion in binary mixtures, with isotropic bulk phases and an interfacial region that is isotropic in the plane parallel t
Zandvliet, Henricus J.W.
2015-01-01
We have derived within the framework of a solid-on-solid model with anisotropic nearest-neighbor interactions an exact expression for the free energy of an arbitrarily oriented step edge or boundary on a rectangular two-dimensional lattice. The full angular dependence of the step free energy allows
Liu, Tong; Xu, Ji-Jing; Liu, Qing-Chao; Chang, Zhi-Wen; Yin, Yan-Bin; Yang, Xiao-Yang; Zhang, Xin-Bo
2017-02-01
An ultrathin, lightweight, and wearable Li-O2 battery with a novel segmented structure is first fabricated by employing a "break up the whole into parts" strategy. Superior battery performance including low overpotential, high specific capacity, good rate capability, excellent cycle stability, and high gravimetric/volumetric energy density (294.68 Wh kg(-1) /274.06 Wh L(-1) ) is successfully achieved even under repeatedly various deformation.
Robustness of airline route networks
Lordan, Oriol; Sallan, Jose M.; Escorihuela, Nuria; Gonzalez-Prieto, David
2016-03-01
Airlines shape their route network by defining their routes through supply and demand considerations, paying little attention to network performance indicators, such as network robustness. However, the collapse of an airline network can produce high financial costs for the airline and all its geographical area of influence. The aim of this study is to analyze the topology and robustness of the network route of airlines following Low Cost Carriers (LCCs) and Full Service Carriers (FSCs) business models. Results show that FSC hubs are more central than LCC bases in their route network. As a result, LCC route networks are more robust than FSC networks.
2005-01-01
Tech-X Corporation releases simulation code for solving complex problems in plasma physics : VORPAL code provides a robust environment for simulating plasma processes in high-energy physics, IC fabrications and material processing applications
The robust regulation problem with robust stability
Cevik, M.K.K.; Schumacher, J.M.
1999-01-01
Among the most common purposes of control are the tracking of reference signals and the rejection of disturbance signals in the face of uncertainties. The related design problem is called the `robust regulation problem'. Here we investigate the trade-off between the robust regulation constraint and
Endrizzi, M.; Vittoria, F. A.; Diemoz, P. C.; Kallon, G. K.; Basta, D.; Zamir, A.; Hagen, C. K.; Wagner, U. H.; Rau, C.; Robinson, I. K.; Olivo, A.
2017-06-01
Edge illumination X-ray phase contrast imaging techniques are capable of quantitative retrieval of differential phase, absorption and X-ray scattering. We have recently developed a series of approaches enabling high-resolution implementations, both using synchrotron radiation and laboratory-based set-ups. Three-dimensional reconstruction of absorption, phase and dark-field can be achieved with a simple rotation of the sample. All these approaches share a common trait which consists in the use of an absorber that shapes the radiation field, in order to make the phase modulations introduced by the sample detectable. This enables a well-defined and high-contrast structuring of the radiation field as well as an accurate modelling of the effects that are related to the simultaneous use of a wide range of energies. Moreover, it can also be adapted for use with detectors featuring large pixel sizes, which could be desirable when a high detection efficiency is important.
Thomassin, Noémylle; Gonthier, Corentin; Guerraz, Michel; Roulin, Jean-Luc
2015-01-01
Participants with a high working memory span tend to perform better than low spans in a variety of tasks. However, their performance is paradoxically more impaired when they have to perform two tasks at once, a phenomenon that could be labeled the "hard fall effect." The present study tested whether this effect exists in a short-term memory task, and investigated the proposal that the effect is due to high spans using efficient facilitative strategies under simple task conditions. Ninety-eight participants performed a spatial short-term memory task under simple and dual task conditions; stimuli presentation times either allowed for the use of complex facilitative strategies or not. High spans outperformed low spans only under simple task conditions when presentation times allowed for the use of facilitative strategies. These results indicate that the hard fall effect exists on a short-term memory task and may be caused by individual differences in strategy use.
Sun, K.
2011-05-04
This slide show presents: space exploration applications; high energy density physics applications; UV LED and photodiode radiation hardness; UV LED and photodiode space qualification; UV LED AC charge management; and UV LED satellite payload instruments. A UV LED satellite will be launched 2nd half 2012.
Hua, B.; Li, M.; Zhang, Y.-Q.; Chen, J.; Sun, Y.-F.; Yan, N.; Li, J.; Luo, J.L.
2016-01-01
We report a novel Ni–Mo bimetallic alloy decorated with multimicrocrystals as an efficient anode catalyst for hydrocarbon-fueled solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs). We show that these Ni–Mo bimetallic alloys are highly active, thermally stable, and sulfur/coke tolerant electrocatalysts for hydrocarbon o
Krupnik, Tomasz; Kotabová, Eva; Bezouwen, Laura S. van; Mazur, Radosław; Garstka, Maciej; Nixon, Peter J.; Barber, James; Kaňa, Radek; Boekema, Egbert J.; Kargul, Joanna
2013-01-01
Members of the rhodophytan order Cyanidiales are unique among phototrophs in their ability to live in extremely low pH levels and moderately high temperatures. The photosynthetic apparatus of the red alga Cyanidioschyzon merolae represents an intermediate type between cyanobacteria and higher
Modular structure of a robust microporous MOF based on Cu2 paddle-wheels with high CO2 selectivity.
Seco, José M; Fairen-Jimenez, David; Calahorro, Antonio J; Méndez-Liñán, Laura; Pérez-Mendoza, Manuel; Casati, Nicola; Colacio, Enrique; Rodríguez-Diéguez, Antonio
2013-12-14
The synthesis of a new MOF with Cu2 paddle-wheels connected to glutarate and 1,3-bis(4-pyridyl)propane linkers has been explored. Experimental gas adsorption measurements reveal that the MOF is essentially non-porous to methane whereas it presents a type III isotherm upon CO2 adsorption, leading to high capacity and outstanding CO2 selectivity.
Mokhtar, Hatem I; Abdel-Salam, Randa A; Haddad, Ghada M
2015-06-19
Robustness of RP-HPLC methods is a crucial method quality attribute which has gained an increasing interest throughout the efforts to apply quality by design concepts in analytical methodology. Improvement to design space modeling approaches to represent method robustness was the goal of many previous works. Modeling of design spaces regarding to method robustness fulfils quality by design essence of ensuring method validity throughout the design space. The current work aimed to describe an improvement to robustness modeling of design spaces in context of RP-HPLC method development for screening of eight antidiabetic drugs. The described improvement consisted of in-silico simulation of practical robustness testing procedures thus had the advantage of modeling design spaces with higher confidence in estimated of method robustness. The proposed in-silico robustness test was performed as a full factorial design of simulated method conditions deliberate shifts for each predicted point in knowledge space with modeling error propagation. Design space was then calculated as zones exceeding a threshold probability to pass the simulated robustness testing. Potential design spaces were mapped for three different stationary phases as a function of gradient elution parameters, pH and ternary solvent ratio. A robust and fast separation for the eight compounds within less than 6 min was selected and confirmed through experimental robustness testing. The effectiveness of this approach regarding definition of design spaces with ensured robustness and desired objectives was demonstrated.
Qi, Xinhong; Zheng, Wenji; Li, Xiangcun; He, Gaohong
2016-09-12
Multishelled NiO hollow microspheres for high-performance supercapacitors have been prepared and the formation mechanism has been investigated. By using resin microspheres to absorb Ni(2+) and subsequent proper calcinations, the shell numbers, shell spacing and exterior shell structure were facilely controlled via varying synthetic parameters. Particularly, the exterior shell structure that accurately associated with the ion transfer is finely controlled by forming a single shell or closed exterior double-shells. Among multishelled NiO hollow microspheres, the triple-shelled NiO with an outer single-shelled microspheres show a remarkable capacity of 1280 F g(-1) at 1 A g(-1), and still keep a high value of 704 F g(-1) even at 20 A g(-1). The outstanding performances are attributed to its fast ion/electron transfer, high specific surface area and large shell space. The specific capacitance gradually increases to 108% of its initial value after 2500 cycles, demonstrating its high stability. Importantly, the 3S-NiO-HMS//RGO@Fe3O4 asymmetric supercapacitor shows an ultrahigh energy density of 51.0 Wh kg(-1) at a power density of 800 W kg(-1), and 78.8% capacitance retention after 10,000 cycles. Furthermore, multishelled NiO can be transferred into multishelled Ni microspheres with high-efficient H2 generation rate of 598.5 mL H2 min(-1) g(-1)Ni for catalytic hydrolysis of NH3BH3 (AB).
Qi, Xinhong; Zheng, Wenji; Li, Xiangcun; He, Gaohong
2016-09-01
Multishelled NiO hollow microspheres for high-performance supercapacitors have been prepared and the formation mechanism has been investigated. By using resin microspheres to absorb Ni2+ and subsequent proper calcinations, the shell numbers, shell spacing and exterior shell structure were facilely controlled via varying synthetic parameters. Particularly, the exterior shell structure that accurately associated with the ion transfer is finely controlled by forming a single shell or closed exterior double-shells. Among multishelled NiO hollow microspheres, the triple-shelled NiO with an outer single-shelled microspheres show a remarkable capacity of 1280 F g-1 at 1 A g-1, and still keep a high value of 704 F g-1 even at 20 A g-1. The outstanding performances are attributed to its fast ion/electron transfer, high specific surface area and large shell space. The specific capacitance gradually increases to 108% of its initial value after 2500 cycles, demonstrating its high stability. Importantly, the 3S-NiO-HMS//RGO@Fe3O4 asymmetric supercapacitor shows an ultrahigh energy density of 51.0 Wh kg-1 at a power density of 800 W kg-1, and 78.8% capacitance retention after 10,000 cycles. Furthermore, multishelled NiO can be transferred into multishelled Ni microspheres with high-efficient H2 generation rate of 598.5 mL H2 min-1 g-1Ni for catalytic hydrolysis of NH3BH3 (AB).
Robust inspection and interpretation techniques
Marriott, D.L. (Stress Engineering Services, Cincinnati, OH (United States))
1993-05-01
This paper explores the value of approximate methods of a specific type, as an efficient aid to performing residual life assessments, particularly when input data are incomplete. These methods, referred to as [open quotes]robust[close quotes] have the desirable attributes of providing satisfactory answers using less-than-perfect input, and being very economical in time of execution. Some examples of robust methods, which have been used successfully in high temperature design and fracture evaluations, are presented. 17 refs., 12 figs.
Li, Ping
2016-09-09
A discontinuous Galerkin time-domain (DGTD) method analyzing signal/power integrity on multilayered power-ground parallel plate pairs is proposed. The excitation is realized by introducing wave ports on the antipads where electric/magnetic current sources are represented in terms of the eigenmodes of the antipads. Since closed-forms solutions do not exist for the eigenmodes of the arbitrarily shaped antipads, they have to be calculated using numerical schemes. Spatial orthogonality of the eigenmodes permits determination of each mode\\'s temporal expansion coefficient by integrating the product of the electric field and the mode over the wave port. The temporal mode coefficients are then Fourier transformed to accurately calculate the S-parameters corresponding to different modes. Additionally, to generalize the DGTD to manipulate dispersive media, the auxiliary differential equation method is employed. This is done by introducing a time-dependent polarization volume current as an auxiliary unknown and the constitutive relation between this current and the electric field as an auxiliary equation. Consequently, computationally expensive temporal convolution is avoided. Various numerical examples, which demonstrate the applicability, robustness, and accuracy of the proposed method, are presented.
Zhang, Shichao; Liu, Hui; Yin, Xia; Li, Zhaoling; Yu, Jianyong; Ding, Bin
2017-01-01
Effective promotion of air filtration applications proposed for fibers requires their real nanoscale diameter, optimized pore structure, and high service strength; however, creating such filter medium has proved to be a tremendous challenge. This study first establishes a strategy to design and fabricate novel poly(m-phenylene isophthalamide) nanofiber/nets (PMIA NF/N) air filter via electrospinning/netting. Our strategy results in generation of a bimodal structure including a scaffold of nanofibers and abundant two-dimensional ultrathin (~20 nm) nanonets to synchronously construct PMIA filters by combining solution optimization, humidity regulation, and additive inspiration. Benefiting from the structural features including the true nanoscale diameter, small pore size, high porosity, and nets bonding contributed by the widely distributed nanonets, our PMIA NF/N filter exhibits the integrated properties of superlight weight (0.365 g m‑2), ultrathin thickness (~0.5 μm), and high tensile strength (72.8 MPa) for effective air filtration, achieving the ultra-low penetration air filter level of 99.999% and low pressure drop of 92 Pa for 300–500 nm particles by sieving mechanism. The successful synthesis of PMIA NF/N would not only provide a promising medium for particle filtration, but also develop a versatile platform for exploring the application of nanonets in structural enhancement, separation and purification.
High-Power Growth-Robust InGaAs/InAlAs Terahertz Quantum Cascade Lasers.
Deutsch, Christoph; Kainz, Martin Alexander; Krall, Michael; Brandstetter, Martin; Bachmann, Dominic; Schönhuber, Sebastian; Detz, Hermann; Zederbauer, Tobias; MacFarland, Donald; Andrews, Aaron Maxwell; Schrenk, Werner; Beck, Mattias; Ohtani, Keita; Faist, Jérôme; Strasser, Gottfried; Unterrainer, Karl
2017-04-19
We report on high-power terahertz quantum cascade lasers based on low effective electron mass InGaAs/InAlAs semiconductor heterostructures with excellent reproducibility. Growth-related asymmetries in the form of interface roughness and dopant migration play a crucial role in this material system. These bias polarity dependent phenomena are studied using a nominally symmetric active region resulting in a preferential electron transport in the growth direction. A structure based on a three-well optical phonon depletion scheme was optimized for this bias direction. Depending on the sheet doping density, the performance of this structure shows a trade-off between high maximum operating temperature and high output power. While the highest operating temperature of 155 K is observed for a moderate sheet doping density of 2 × 10(10) cm(-2), the highest peak output power of 151 mW is found for 7.3 × 10(10) cm(-2). Furthermore, by abutting a hyperhemispherical GaAs lens to a device with the highest doping level a record output power of 587 mW is achieved for double-metal waveguide structures.
Chen, Jinyang; Ji, Xinghu [Key Laboratory of Analytical Chemistry for Biology and Medicine (Ministry of Education), College of Chemistry and Molecular Sciences, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 (China); He, Zhike, E-mail: zhkhe@whu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Analytical Chemistry for Biology and Medicine (Ministry of Education), College of Chemistry and Molecular Sciences, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 (China); Suzhou Institute of Wuhan University, Suzhou 215123 (China)
2015-08-12
In this work, a simple, flexible and low-cost sample-introduction technique was developed and integrated with droplet platform. The sample-introduction strategy was realized based on connecting the components of positive pressure input device, sample container and microfluidic chip through the tygon tubing with homemade polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) adaptor, so the sample was delivered into the microchip from the sample container under the driving of positive pressure. This sample-introduction technique is so robust and compatible that could be integrated with T-junction, flow-focus or valve-assisted droplet microchips. By choosing the PDMS adaptor with proper dimension, the microchip could be flexibly equipped with various types of familiar sample containers, makes the sampling more straightforward without trivial sample transfer or loading. And the convenient sample changing was easily achieved by positioning the adaptor from one sample container to another. Benefiting from the proposed technique, the time-dependent concentration gradient was generated and applied for quantum dot (QD)-based fluorescence barcoding within droplet chip. High-throughput droplet screening was preliminarily demonstrated through the investigation of the quenching efficiency of ruthenium complex to the fluorescence of QD. More importantly, multiplex DNA assay was successfully carried out in the integrated system, which shows the practicability and potentials in high-throughput biosensing. - Highlights: • A simple, robust and low-cost sample-introduction technique was developed. • Convenient and flexible sample changing was achieved in microfluidic system. • Novel strategy of concentration gradient generation was presented for barcoding. • High-throughput droplet screening could be realized in the integrated platform. • Multiplex DNA assay was successfully carried out in the droplet platform.
Wang, Luoyuan; Zhang, Guoge; Liu, Yan; Li, Wenfang; Lu, Wei; Huang, Haitao
2016-05-01
Considerable research is being conducted in searching for effective anode catalysts in alkaline direct methanol fuel cells (DMFCs). Although significant progress has been achieved, it is still challenging to prepare non-Pt catalysts with both excellent activity and good durability. Herein, a highly porous NiO film is developed by a facile and fast anodization approach. The anodic NiO film demonstrates a high surface area, large mesopore volume and small crystallite size, leading to facilitated adsorption of reaction species, easy electrolyte penetration and fast reaction kinetics. Furthermore, as anodic NiO is grown in situ on a metallic substrate with strong adhesion strength and good electrical contact, it can be used directly as an anode catalyst for methanol oxidation without the need to add any binder or conducting agent. Such an additive-free approach greatly expedites the catalyst preparation process. The anodic NiO shows lower methanol oxidation potential, higher oxidation current and better catalytic durability than most of the state-of-the-art Ni-based catalysts reported elsewhere. As anodization is a simple, low cost and easily scaled up method, the work described here provides an exciting direction to speed up the practical application of alkaline DMFCs.Considerable research is being conducted in searching for effective anode catalysts in alkaline direct methanol fuel cells (DMFCs). Although significant progress has been achieved, it is still challenging to prepare non-Pt catalysts with both excellent activity and good durability. Herein, a highly porous NiO film is developed by a facile and fast anodization approach. The anodic NiO film demonstrates a high surface area, large mesopore volume and small crystallite size, leading to facilitated adsorption of reaction species, easy electrolyte penetration and fast reaction kinetics. Furthermore, as anodic NiO is grown in situ on a metallic substrate with strong adhesion strength and good electrical contact
Miller, Nathan D; Haase, Nicholas J; Lee, Jonghyun; Kaeppler, Shawn M; de Leon, Natalia; Spalding, Edgar P
2017-01-01
Grain yield of the maize plant depends on the sizes, shapes, and numbers of ears and the kernels they bear. An automated pipeline that can measure these components of yield from easily-obtained digital images is needed to advance our understanding of this globally important crop. Here we present three custom algorithms designed to compute such yield components automatically from digital images acquired by a low-cost platform. One algorithm determines the average space each kernel occupies along the cob axis using a sliding-window Fourier transform analysis of image intensity features. A second counts individual kernels removed from ears, including those in clusters. A third measures each kernel's major and minor axis after a Bayesian analysis of contour points identifies the kernel tip. Dimensionless ear and kernel shape traits that may interrelate yield components are measured by principal components analysis of contour point sets. Increased objectivity and speed compared to typical manual methods are achieved without loss of accuracy as evidenced by high correlations with ground truth measurements and simulated data. Millimeter-scale differences among ear, cob, and kernel traits that ranged more than 2.5-fold across a diverse group of inbred maize lines were resolved. This system for measuring maize ear, cob, and kernel attributes is being used by multiple research groups as an automated Web service running on community high-throughput computing and distributed data storage infrastructure. Users may create their own workflow using the source code that is staged for download on a public repository.
Wilmer, CE; Farha, OK; Yildirim, T; Eryazici, I; Krungleviciute, V; Sarjeant, AA; Snurr, RQ; Hupp, JT
2013-04-01
We have synthesized and characterized a new metal-organic framework (MOF) material, NU-125, that, in the single-crystal limit, achieves a methane storage density at 58 bar (840 psi) and 298 K corresponding to 86% of that obtained with compressed natural gas tanks (CNG) used in vehicles today, when the latter are pressurized to 248 bar (3600 psi). More importantly, the deliverable capacity (58 bar to 5.8 bar) for NU-125 is 67% of the deliverable capacity of a CNG tank that starts at 248 bar. (For crystalline granules or powders, particle packing inefficiencies will yield densities and deliverable capacities lower than 86% and 67% of high-pressure CNG.) This material was synthesized in high yield on a gram-scale in a single-batch synthesis. Methane adsorption isotherms were measured over a wide pressure range (0.1-58 bar) and repeated over twelve cycles on the same sample, which showed no detectable degradation. Adsorption of CO2 and H-2 over a broad range of pressures and temperatures are also reported and agree with our computational findings.
Electromagnetic scattering from two parallel 2D targets arbitrarily located in a Gaussian beam
Wang Yun-Hua; Guo Li-Xin; Wu Qiong
2006-01-01
In this paper based on the equivalence principle and the reciprocity theorem, the scattered field up to second-order by two parallel 2D targets arbitrarily located in a Gaussian beam is considered. The first-order solution can easily be obtained by calculating the scattered field from isolated targets when illuminated by a Gaussian beam. However, because of the difficulty in formulating the couple scattering field, it is almost impossible to find an analytical solution for the second-order scattered field if the shapes of 2D targets are not canonical geometries. In order to overcome this problem, in this paper, the second-order solution is derived by using the technique based on the reciprocity theorem and the equivalence principle. Meanwhile, the relation between the secondary scattered field from target #1 and target #2 is obtained. Specifically, the bi- and mono-static scattering of Gaussian beam by two parallel adjacent inhomogeneous plasma-coated conducting circular cylinders is calculated and the dependence of attenuation of the scattering width on the thickness of the coated layer, electron number density, collision frequency and radar frequency is discussed in detail.
Boche, H., E-mail: boche@tum.de, E-mail: janis.noetzel@tum.de; Nötzel, J., E-mail: boche@tum.de, E-mail: janis.noetzel@tum.de [Lehrstuhl für Theoretische Informationstechnik, Technische Universität München, 80290 München (Germany)
2014-12-15
This work is motivated by a quite general question: Under which circumstances are the capacities of information transmission systems continuous? The research is explicitly carried out on finite arbitrarily varying quantum channels (AVQCs). We give an explicit example that answers the recent question whether the transmission of messages over AVQCs can benefit from assistance by distribution of randomness between the legitimate sender and receiver in the affirmative. The specific class of channels introduced in that example is then extended to show that the unassisted capacity does have discontinuity points, while it is known that the randomness-assisted capacity is always continuous in the channel. We characterize the discontinuity points and prove that the unassisted capacity is always continuous around its positivity points. After having established shared randomness as an important resource, we quantify the interplay between the distribution of finite amounts of randomness between the legitimate sender and receiver, the (nonzero) probability of a decoding error with respect to the average error criterion and the number of messages that can be sent over a finite number of channel uses. We relate our results to the entanglement transmission capacities of finite AVQCs, where the role of shared randomness is not yet well understood, and give a new sufficient criterion for the entanglement transmission capacity with randomness assistance to vanish.
Effects of Arbitrarily Directed Field on Spin Phase Oscillations in Biaxial Molecular Magnets
HU Hui; ZHU JiaLin; LU Rong; XIONG JiaJiong
2001-01-01
Quantum phase interference and spin-parity effects are studied in biaxial molecular magnets in a magnetic field at an arbitrarily directed angle. The calculations of the ground-state tunnel splitting are performed on the basis of the instanton technique in the spin-coherent-state path-integral representation, and complemented by exactly numerical diagonalization. Both the Wentzel-Kramers-Brillouin exponent and the pre-exponential factor are obtained for the entire region of the direction of the field. Our results show that the tunnel splitting oscillates with the field for the small field angle, while for the large field angle the oscillation is completely suppressed. This distinct angular dependence, together with the dependence of the tunnel splitting on the field strength, provides an independent test for spin-parity effects in biaxial molecular magnets. The analytical results for the molecular Fes magnet are found to be in good agreement with the numerical simulations, which suggests that even the molecular magnet with total spin S = 10 is large enough to be treated as a giant spin system.``
3D time-domain airborne EM modeling for an arbitrarily anisotropic earth
Yin, Changchun; Qi, Yanfu; Liu, Yunhe
2016-08-01
Time-domain airborne EM data is currently interpreted based on an isotropic model. Sometimes, it can be problematic when working in the region with distinct dipping stratifications. In this paper, we simulate the 3D time-domain airborne EM responses over an arbitrarily anisotropic earth with topography by edge-based finite-element method. Tetrahedral meshes are used to describe the abnormal bodies with complicated shapes. We further adopt the Backward Euler scheme to discretize the time-domain diffusion equation for electric field, obtaining an unconditionally stable linear equations system. We verify the accuracy of our 3D algorithm by comparing with 1D solutions for an anisotropic half-space. Then, we switch attentions to effects of anisotropic media on the strengths and the diffusion patterns of time-domain airborne EM responses. For numerical experiments, we adopt three typical anisotropic models: 1) an anisotropic anomalous body embedded in an isotropic half-space; 2) an isotropic anomalous body embedded in an anisotropic half-space; 3) an anisotropic half-space with topography. The modeling results show that the electric anisotropy of the subsurface media has big effects on both the strengths and the distribution patterns of time-domain airborne EM responses; this effect needs to be taken into account when interpreting ATEM data in areas with distinct anisotropy.
Jo, Wonhyuk [Department of Physics, Soongsil University, Seoul 156-743 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Sooheyong, E-mail: sooheyong@gmail.com [Korea Research Institute of Standards and Science, Daejeon 305-600 (Korea, Republic of); Eom, Intae, E-mail: neplus@postech.ac.kr [Pohang Accelerator Laboratory, Pohang 790-784 (Korea, Republic of); Landahl, Eric C. [Department of Physics, DePaul University, Chicago, Illinois 60614 (United States)
2014-12-15
The ability to synchronize a femtosecond laser to x-ray pulses is crucial for performing ultrafast time-resolved x-ray scattering experiments at synchrotrons. Conventionally, the task has been achieved by locking a harmonic frequency of the laser oscillator to the storage ring master radio-frequency (RF). However, when the frequency mismatch between the two sources cannot be compensated by small adjustments to the laser cavity length, synchronization to a harmonic frequency requires modifying the optical components of the laser system. We demonstrate a novel synchronization scheme, which is a flexible alternative for synchronizing these two sources operating at arbitrarily different frequencies. First, we find the greatest common divisor (GCD) of the two frequencies that is still within the limited tuning range of the laser cavity length. The GCD is generated by dividing down from the storage ring RF, and is separately multiplied up to provide a feedback signal for synchronizing the laser cavity. Unique to our scheme, the GCD also serves as a harmonic RF source for the laser amplifier such that only laser oscillator pulses at fixed integer multiples of the storage ring RF are selected for amplification and delivery to experiments. Our method is implemented at the Photon Test Facility beamline of Pohang Light Source where timing-jitter less than 4 ps (r.m.s.) is measured using a new shot-to-shot method.
Boche, H.; Nötzel, J.
2014-12-01
This work is motivated by a quite general question: Under which circumstances are the capacities of information transmission systems continuous? The research is explicitly carried out on finite arbitrarily varying quantum channels (AVQCs). We give an explicit example that answers the recent question whether the transmission of messages over AVQCs can benefit from assistance by distribution of randomness between the legitimate sender and receiver in the affirmative. The specific class of channels introduced in that example is then extended to show that the unassisted capacity does have discontinuity points, while it is known that the randomness-assisted capacity is always continuous in the channel. We characterize the discontinuity points and prove that the unassisted capacity is always continuous around its positivity points. After having established shared randomness as an important resource, we quantify the interplay between the distribution of finite amounts of randomness between the legitimate sender and receiver, the (nonzero) probability of a decoding error with respect to the average error criterion and the number of messages that can be sent over a finite number of channel uses. We relate our results to the entanglement transmission capacities of finite AVQCs, where the role of shared randomness is not yet well understood, and give a new sufficient criterion for the entanglement transmission capacity with randomness assistance to vanish.
Start-up of electrophoresis of an arbitrarily oriented dielectric cylinder.
Chen, Guan Y; Keh, Huan J
2014-09-01
An analytical study is presented for the transient electrophoretic response of a circular cylindrical particle to the step application of an electric field. The electric double layer adjacent to the particle surface is thin but finite compared with the radius of the particle. The time-evolving electroosmotic velocity at the outer boundary of the double layer is utilized as a slip condition so that the transient momentum conservation equation for the bulk fluid flow is solved. Explicit formulas for the unsteady electrophoretic velocity of the particle are obtained for both axially and transversely applied electric fields, and can be linearly superimposed for an arbitrarily-oriented applied field. If the cylindrical particle is neutrally buoyant in the suspending fluid, the transient electrophoretic velocity is independent of the orientation of the particle relative to the applied electric field and will be in the direction of the applied field. If the particle is different in density from the fluid, then the direction of electrophoresis will not coincide with that of the applied field until the steady state is attained. The growth of the electrophoretic mobility with the elapsed time for a cylindrical particle is substantially slower than for a spherical particle.
A two-level parallel direct search implementation for arbitrarily sized objective functions
Hutchinson, S.A.; Shadid, N.; Moffat, H.K. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)] [and others
1994-12-31
In the past, many optimization schemes for massively parallel computers have attempted to achieve parallel efficiency using one of two methods. In the case of large and expensive objective function calculations, the optimization itself may be run in serial and the objective function calculations parallelized. In contrast, if the objective function calculations are relatively inexpensive and can be performed on a single processor, then the actual optimization routine itself may be parallelized. In this paper, a scheme based upon the Parallel Direct Search (PDS) technique is presented which allows the objective function calculations to be done on an arbitrarily large number (p{sub 2}) of processors. If, p, the number of processors available, is greater than or equal to 2p{sub 2} then the optimization may be parallelized as well. This allows for efficient use of computational resources since the objective function calculations can be performed on the number of processors that allow for peak parallel efficiency and then further speedup may be achieved by parallelizing the optimization. Results are presented for an optimization problem which involves the solution of a PDE using a finite-element algorithm as part of the objective function calculation. The optimum number of processors for the finite-element calculations is less than p/2. Thus, the PDS method is also parallelized. Performance comparisons are given for a nCUBE 2 implementation.
Freeman, S.; Rodriguez, R.J.
1995-01-01
A collection of 39 isolates of Colletotrichum acutatum, C. fragariae and C. gloeosporioides, which cause anthracnose on strawberry, was grouped into species based on the arbitrarily primed polymerase chain reaction (ap-PCR). All isolates used had previously been identified according to classical taxonomic morphology. Ap-PCR amplification of genomic DNA using four different primers allowed for reliable differentiation between isolates of C. acutatum, C. fragariae and two genotypes of C. gloeosporioides. Fifteen of the 18 C. acutatum isolates were very similar, although three isolates which produced a red pigment had distinctly different banding patterns. Nearly identical banding patterns were observed for all nine isolates of C. fragariae. The 12 C. gloeosporioides isolates were more diverse and two separate genotypes, Cgl-1 (six isolates) and Cgl-2 (five isolates) were distinguished by ap-PCR. An additional isolate did not conform to either the Cgl-1 or Cgl-2 genotypes. The utility of ap-PCR compared with other molecular techniques for reliable identification of Colletotrichum isolates pathogenic on strawberry is discussed.
Arbitrarily primed PCR- A rapid and simple method for typing of leptospiral serovars
Ramadass P
2002-01-01
Full Text Available PURPOSE: To investigate the use of arbitrarily primed polymerase chain reaction (AP-PCR for typing of leptospiral serovars. METHODS: AP-PCR was adopted for identification of laboratory strains of leptospires and leptospiral cultures at serovar level. A primer of 12 bp was used for amplifying DNA of 13 laboratory strains of leptospires as well as culture pellets of leptospires. RESULTS: Each serovar produced distinct DNA fingerprint which was characteristic for each serovar. These patterns were used for typing of 81 serum culture samples obtained from human leptospiral cases. Of these samples, 39 could be typed based on AP-PCR fingerprints belonging to serovars autumnalis, pomona, canicola, javanica, icterohaemorrhagiae, patoc and pyrogenes. These results were confirmed by RAPD fingerprinting of the DNA samples of the respective leptospiral serovars after culturing -FNx01them in EMJH media. One of the important findings of this work was that straight culture sample could be used for AP-PCR assay, without purification of DNA. By having more number of AP-PCR reference fingerprints, more serovars could be typed. CONCLUSIONS: AP-PCR technique provides great potential for simple and rapid identification of leptospires at serovar level, which could be useful in molecular epidemiological studies of leptospirosis.
Chatterjee, Arijit Kumar; Sarkar, Raj Kumar; Prasun Chattopadhyay, Asoke; Aich, Pulakesh; Chakraborty, Ruchira; Basu, Tarakdas
2012-03-01
A method for preparation of copper nanoparticles (Cu-NPs) was developed by simple reduction of CuCl2 in the presence of gelatin as a stabilizer and without applying stringent conditions like purging with nitrogen. The NPs were characterized by spectrophotometry, dynamic light scattering, x-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The particles were about 50-60 nm in size and highly stable. The antibacterial activity of this Cu-NP on Gram-negative Escherichia coli was demonstrated by the methods of agar plating, flow cytometry and phase contrast microscopy. The minimum inhibitory concentration (3.0 µg ml-1), minimum bactericidal concentration (7.5 µg ml-1) and susceptibility constant (0.92) showed that this Cu-NP is highly effective against E. coli at a much lower concentration than that reported previously. Treatment with Cu-NPs made E. coli cells filamentous. The higher the concentration of Cu-NPs, the greater the population of filamentous cells; average filament size varied from 7 to 20 µm compared to the normal cell size of ˜2.5 µm. Both filamentation and killing of cells by Cu-NPs (7.5 µg ml-1) also occurred in an E. coli strain resistant to multiple antibiotics. Moreover, an antibacterial effect of Cu-NPs was also observed in Gram-positive Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus, for which the values of minimum inhibitory concentration and minimum bactericidal concentration were close to that for E. coli.
Wang, Zhijie; Fan, Hong; Han, Fang
2014-08-01
A great number of biological experiments show that gamma oscillation occurs in many brain areas after the presentation of stimulus. The neural systems in these brain areas are highly heterogeneous. Specifically, the neurons and synapses in these neural systems are diversified; the external inputs and parameters of these neurons and synapses are heterogeneous. How the gamma oscillation generated in such highly heterogeneous networks remains a challenging problem. Aiming at this problem, a highly heterogeneous complex network model that takes account of many aspects of real neural circuits was constructed. The network model consists of excitatory neurons and fast spiking interneurons, has three types of synapses (GABAA, AMPA, and NMDA), and has highly heterogeneous external drive currents. We found a new regime for robust gamma oscillation, i.e. the oscillation in inhibitory neurons is rather accurate but the oscillation in excitatory neurons is weak, in such highly heterogeneous neural networks. We also found that the mechanism of the oscillation is a mixture of interneuron gamma (ING) and pyramidal-interneuron gamma (PING). We explained the mixture ING and PING mechanism in a consistent-way by a compound post-synaptic current, which has a slowly rising-excitatory stage and a sharp decreasing-inhibitory stage.
Wen Xie
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius is a phloem-feeding insect poised to become one of the major insect pests in open field and greenhouse production systems throughout the world. The high level of resistance to insecticides is a main factor that hinders continued use of insecticides for suppression of B. tabaci. Despite its prevalence, little is known about B. tabaci at the genome level. To fill this gap, an invasive B. tabaci B biotype was subjected to pyrosequencing-based transcriptome analysis to identify genes and gene networks putatively involved in various physiological and toxicological processes. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using Roche 454 pyrosequencing, 857,205 reads containing approximately 340 megabases were obtained from the B. tabaci transcriptome. De novo assembly generated 178,669 unigenes including 30,980 from insects, 17,881 from bacteria, and 129,808 from the nohit. A total of 50,835 (28.45% unigenes showed similarity to the non-redundant database in GenBank with a cut-off E-value of 10-5. Among them, 40,611 unigenes were assigned to one or more GO terms and 6,917 unigenes were assigned to 288 known pathways. De novo metatranscriptome analysis revealed highly diverse bacterial symbionts in B. tabaci, and demonstrated the host-symbiont cooperation in amino acid production. In-depth transcriptome analysis indentified putative molecular markers, and genes potentially involved in insecticide resistance and nutrient digestion. The utility of this transcriptome was validated by a thiamethoxam resistance study, in which annotated cytochrome P450 genes were significantly overexpressed in the resistant B. tabaci in comparison to its susceptible counterparts. CONCLUSIONS: This transcriptome/metatranscriptome analysis sheds light on the molecular understanding of symbiosis and insecticide resistance in an agriculturally important phloem-feeding insect pest, and lays the foundation for future functional genomics research of the
Adaptive Robust Variable Selection
Fan, Jianqing; Barut, Emre
2012-01-01
Heavy-tailed high-dimensional data are commonly encountered in various scientific fields and pose great challenges to modern statistical analysis. A natural procedure to address this problem is to use penalized least absolute deviation (LAD) method with weighted $L_1$-penalty, called weighted robust Lasso (WR-Lasso), in which weights are introduced to ameliorate the bias problem induced by the $L_1$-penalty. In the ultra-high dimensional setting, where the dimensionality can grow exponentially with the sample size, we investigate the model selection oracle property and establish the asymptotic normality of the WR-Lasso. We show that only mild conditions on the model error distribution are needed. Our theoretical results also reveal that adaptive choice of the weight vector is essential for the WR-Lasso to enjoy these nice asymptotic properties. To make the WR-Lasso practically feasible, we propose a two-step procedure, called adaptive robust Lasso (AR-Lasso), in which the weight vector in the second step is c...
Kim, Yong-Hwan; Lee, Eunji; Um, Jae Gwang; Mativenga, Mallory; Jang, Jin
2016-05-01
Advancements in thin-film transistor (TFT) technology have extended to electronics that can withstand extreme bending or even folding. Although the use of ultrathin plastic substrates has achieved considerable advancement towards this end, free-standing ultrathin plastics inevitably suffer from mechanical instability and are very difficult to handle during TFT fabrication. Here, in addition to the use of a 1.5 μm-thick polyimide (PI) substrate, a 1.5 μm-thick PI film is also deposited on top of the TFT devices to ensure that the devices are located at the neutral plane of the two PI films for high folding stability. For mechanical support during TFT fabrication up to the deposition of the top PI film, the PI substrate is spin coated on top of a carrier glass that is coated with a mixture of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and graphene oxide (GO). The mixture of CNT and GO facilitates mechanical detachment of the neutral plane (NP) TFTs from the carrier glass before they are transferred to a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) substrate as islands. Being located in the neutral bending plane, the NP TFT can be transferred to the PDMS without performance degradation and exhibit excellent mechanical stability after stretching the PDMS substrate up to a 25% elastic elongation.
Huertas-Company, M; Tasca, L; Soucail, G; Le Fèvre, O
2007-01-01
We present a new non-parametric method to quantify morphologies of galaxies based on a particular family of learning machines called support vector machines. The method, that can be seen as a generalization of the classical CAS classification but with an unlimited number of dimensions and non-linear boundaries between decision regions, is fully automated and thus particularly well adapted to large cosmological surveys. The source code is available for download at http://www.lesia.obspm.fr/~huertas/galsvm.html To test the method, we use a seeing limited near-infrared ($K_s$ band, $2,16\\mu m$) sample observed with WIRCam at CFHT at a median redshift of $z\\sim0.8$. The machine is trained with a simulated sample built from a local visually classified sample from the SDSS chosen in the high-redshift sample's rest-frame (i band, $0.77\\mu m$) and artificially redshifted to match the observing conditions. We use a 12-dimensional volume, including 5 morphological parameters and other caracteristics of galaxies such as...
Murthy SVN
2016-10-01
Full Text Available Different level of compression on real-time video streaming has successfully reduced the storage space complexities and bandwidth constraints in the recent times. This paper aims to design and develop a novel concept towards the enhancement of perceptual quality of a real-time video frames. The proposed model has been experimented considering multi-level compression operation using H.265 where .avi moving frames standards play a crucial role. The study also applies a novel concept of High-efficiency video coding (HEVC for adaptive live video streaming over a mobile network. The proposed study aims to formulate a multi-level optimization for HEVC to enhance the performance of both encoding and decoding mechanisms at the client as well as server side to ensure higher compression rate. The experimental outcomes also show that the proposed protocol achieves better performance ratio and overall; throughput in comparison with conventional H.263, H.264 by enhancing the perceptual quality of .avi format real-time video frames.
Rebassa-Mansergas, A; Liu, X -W; Han, Z; Garcia-Berro, E
2015-01-01
The mass function of hydrogen-rich atmosphere white dwarfs has been frequently found to reveal a distinctive high-mass excess near 1Msun. However, a significant excess of massive white dwarfs has not been detected in the mass function of the largest white dwarf catalogue to date from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. Hence, whether a high-mass excess exists or not has remained an open question. In this work we build the mass function of the latest catalogue of data release 10 SDSS hydrogen-rich white dwarfs, including the cool and faint population (i.e. effective temperatures 6,000 ~ 12,000 K, Mbol <~ 12 mag) are considered. This naturally explains why previous SDSS mass functions failed at detecting a significant excess of high-mass white dwarfs. Thus, our results provide additional and robust observational evidence for the existence of a distinctive high-mass excess near 1Msun. We investigate possible origins of this feature and argue that the most plausible scenario that may lead to an observed excess of ma...
Southard, Adrian E.; Getty, Stephanie A.; Feng, Steven; Glavin, Daniel P.; Auciello, Orlando; Sumant, Anirudha
2012-01-01
Carbon materials, including carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and nitrogen-incorporated ultrananocrystalline diamond (N-UNCD), have been of considerable interest for field emission applications for over a decade. In particular, robust field emission materials are compelling for space applications due to the low power consumption and potential for miniaturization. A reflectron time-of-flight mass spectrometer (TOF-MS) under development for in situ measurements on the Moon and other Solar System bodies uses a field emitter to generate ions from gaseous samples, using electron ionization. For these unusual environments, robustness, reliability, and long life are of paramount importance, and to this end, we have explored the field emission properties and lifetime of carbon nanotubes and nitrogen-incorporated ultrananocrystalline diamond (N-UNCD) thin films, the latter developed and patented by Argonne National Laboratory. We will present recent investigations of N-UNCD as a robust field emitter, revealing that this material offers stable performance in high vacuum for up to 1000 hours with threshold voltage for emission of about 3-4 V/lJm and current densities in the range of tens of microA. Optimizing the mass resolution and sensitivity of such a mass spectrometer has also been enabled by a parallel effort to scale up a CNT emitter to an array measuring 2 mm x 40 mm. Through simulation and experiment of the new extended format emitter, we have determined that focusing the electron beam is limited due to the angular spread of the emitted electrons. This dispersion effect can be reduced through modification of the electron gun geometry, but this reduces the current reaching the ionization region. By increasing the transmission efficiency of the electron beam to the anode, we have increased the anode current by two orders of magnitude to realize a corresponding enhancement in instrument sensitivity, at a moderate cost to mass resolution. We will report recent experimental and
高维数据挖掘中特征选择的稳健方法%Robust feature selection method in high-dimensional data mining
李泽安; 陈建平; 章雅娟; 赵为华
2013-01-01
针对高维数据的特点,即数据中变量个数往往大于样本观测数目,并且数据往往具有异质性特点,基于众数回归分析和变量选择降维技术,提出了一种稳健有效的特征选择方法,利用局部二次逼近算法(LQA)和最大期望(EM)算法,给出估计算法和最优调节参数的选取方法.通过实验的模拟数据分析表明,所提出的特征提取选择方法整体优于基于最小二乘和中位数的正则化估计方法,特别当误差是非正态分布时,与已有方法相比具有较高的预测能力和稳健性.%According to the feature of high-dimensional data,the number of variables is usually larger than the sample size and the data are often heterogeneous,a robust and effective feature selection method was proposed by using the dimensional reduction technique of variable selection and the modal regression based estimation method.The estimation algorithm was given by using Local Quadratic Algorithm(LQA) and Expectation-Maximum(EM) algorithm,and the selection method of the parameter adjustment was also discussed.Data analysis of the simulation shows that the proposed method is overall better than the least square and median regression based regularized method.Compared with the existing methods,the proposed method has higher prediction ability and stronger robustness especially for the non-normal error distribution.
Gong, Yu-Bin; Wei, Yan-Yu; Liu, Hong-Tao
2010-12-01
The dielectric-rod is loaded on the central axis of the arbitrarily-shaped helical groove slow-wave structure. Meanwhile, the profile of the groove is replaced by a series of continuous rectangular steps. The unified dispersion equation of the arbitrarily-shaped helical groove waveguide loaded with a concentric dielectric-rod is obtained by means of a combination of filed-matching method and admittance-matching technique. Then, the effect of the change of groove shape and the dielectric-rod parameters on the dispersion and coupling impedance is approached by theory calculation. The results show that: loaded with dielectric-rod, the bandwidth of the helical groove traveling wave tube (TWT) is effectively broadened, but the coupling impedance is reduced. Among the five different groove shapes, the triangle-type groove has the widest bandwidth but the smallest coupling impedance, and the swallow-tailed-type groove has the narrowest bandwidth but the largest coupling impedance.
Borel, C.C.; Clodius, W.B.; Szymanski, J.J.; Theiler, J.P.
1999-04-04
With the advent of multi-spectral thermal imagers such as EOS's ASTER high spatial resolution thermal imagery of the Earth's surface will soon be a reality. Previous high resolution sensors such as Landsat 5 had only one spectral channel in the thermal infrared and its utility to determine absolute sea surface temperatures was limited to 6-8 K for water warmer than 25 deg C. This inaccuracy resulted from insufficient knowledge of the atmospheric temperature and water vapor, inaccurate sensor calibration, and cooling effects of thin high cirrus clouds. The authors will present two studies of algorithms and compare their performance. The first algorithm they call robust since it retrieves sea surface temperatures accurately over a fairly wide range of atmospheric conditions using linear combinations of nadir and off-nadir brightness temperatures. The second they call physics-based because it relies on physics-based models of the atmosphere. It attempts to come up with a unique sea surface temperature which fits one set of atmospheric parameters.
Taverniers, John; Van Ruysseveldt, Joris; Smeets, Tom; von Grumbkow, Jasper
2010-07-01
While running a selection procedure, 27 male Belgian Special Forces candidates, with a mean age of 27.4 years (SD = 5.1), were randomly assigned to a no-stress control (n = 14) or a high-intensity stress group (n = 13). Participants in the latter group were exposed to an extremely strenuous mock prisoner of war (POW) exercise. Immediately after stress or control treatment, working memory and visuo-spatial declarative memory performances were measured by the digit span (DS) test and the Rey-Osterrieth complex figure (ROCF), respectively. Concurrently, stress levels were assessed by obtaining salivary cortisol measurements and subjectively by the NASA Task Load Index (TLX). As expected, exposure to high-intensity stress led to both robust cortisol increases and significant differences in TLX scores. Stress induction also significantly impaired DS and ROCF performances. Moreover, delta cortisol increases and ROCF performance in the POW stress group showed a significant negative correlation, while DS performances followed the same tendency. Summarizing, the current findings complement and extend previous work on hormonal stress effects, and the subsequent performance deterioration on two memory tests in a unique high-intensity stress environment.
Compact stars in the braneworld: A new branch of stellar configurations with arbitrarily large mass
Lugones, Germán; Arbañil, José D. V.
2017-03-01
We study the properties of compact stars in the Randall-Sundrum type-II braneworld (BW) model. To this end, we solve the braneworld generalization of the stellar structure equations for a static fluid distribution with spherical symmetry considering that the spacetime outside the star is described by a Schwarzschild metric. First, the stellar structure equations are integrated employing the so-called causal limit equation of state (EOS), which is constructed using a well-established EOS at densities below a fiducial density, and the causal EOS P =ρ above it. It is a standard procedure in general relativistic stellar structure calculations to use such EOSs for obtaining a limit in the mass radius diagram, known as the causal limit, above which no stellar configurations are possible if the EOS fulfills the condition that the sound velocity is smaller than the speed of light. We find that the equilibrium solutions in the braneworld model can violate the general relativistic causal limit, and for sufficiently large mass they approach asymptotically to the Schwarzschild limit M =2 R . Then, we investigate the properties of hadronic and strange quark stars using two typical EOSs: a nonlinear relativistic mean-field model for hadronic matter and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) bag model for quark matter. For masses below ˜1.5 M⊙- 2 M⊙ , the mass versus radius curves show the typical behavior found within the frame of general relativity. However, we also find a new branch of stellar configurations that can violate the general relativistic causal limit and that, in principle, may have an arbitrarily large mass. The stars belonging to this new branch are supported against collapse by the nonlocal effects of the bulk on the brane. We also show that these stars are always stable under small radial perturbations. These results support the idea that traces of extra dimensions might be found in astrophysics, specifically through the analysis of masses and
Sister, Ilya; Leviatan, Yehuda; Schächter, Levi
2017-06-12
Planck's famous blackbody radiation law was derived under the assumption that the dimensions of the radiating body are significantly larger than the radiated wavelengths. What is unique about Planck's formula is the fact that it is independent of the exact loss mechanism and the geometry. Therefore, for a long period of time, it was regarded as a fundamental property of all materials. Deviations from its predictions were attributed to imperfections and referred to as the emissivity of the specific body, a quantity which was always assumed to be smaller than unity. Recent studies showed that the emission spectrum is affected by the geometry of the body and in fact, in a limited frequency range, the emitted spectrum may exceed Planck's prediction provided the typical size of the body is of the same order of magnitude as the emitted wavelength. For the investigation of the blackbody radiation from an arbitrarily shaped body, we developed a code which incorporates the fluctuation-dissipation theorem (FDT) and the source model technique (SMT). The former determines the correlation between the quasi-microscopic current densities in the body and the latter is used to solve the electromagnetic problem numerically. In this study we present the essence of combining the two concepts. We verify the validity of our code by comparing its results obtained for the case of a sphere against analytic results and discuss how the accuracy of the solution is assessed in the general case. Finally, we illustrate several configurations in which the emitted spectrum exceeds Planck's prediction as well as cases in which the geometrical resonances of the body are revealed.
Park, Jong M.; Eversman, W.
1992-01-01
2D sound propagation over an arbitrarily-shaped barrier situated on a locally reacting infinite plane in a homogeneous medium is treated utilizing the BEM. The BIE is formulated so that the integral along an infinite homogeneous plane disappears if the half space Green's function is selected to satisfy the boundary condition of this plane. Comparison of the BEM results with test results by Habault and by Kearns shows good agreement of the sound field utilizing the BEM.
Zampini, Stefano
2016-06-02
Balancing Domain Decomposition by Constraints (BDDC) methods have proven to be powerful preconditioners for large and sparse linear systems arising from the finite element discretization of elliptic PDEs. Condition number bounds can be theoretically established that are independent of the number of subdomains of the decomposition. The core of the methods resides in the design of a larger and partially discontinuous finite element space that allows for fast application of the preconditioner, where Cholesky factorizations of the subdomain finite element problems are additively combined with a coarse, global solver. Multilevel and highly-scalable algorithms can be obtained by replacing the coarse Cholesky solver with a coarse BDDC preconditioner. BDDC methods have the remarkable ability to control the condition number, since the coarse space of the preconditioner can be adaptively enriched at the cost of solving local eigenproblems. The proper identification of these eigenproblems extends the robustness of the methods to any heterogeneity in the distribution of the coefficients of the PDEs, not only when the coefficients jumps align with the subdomain boundaries or when the high contrast regions are confined to lie in the interior of the subdomains. The specific adaptive technique considered in this paper does not depend upon any interaction of discretization and partition; it relies purely on algebraic operations. Coarse space adaptation in BDDC methods has attractive algorithmic properties, since the technique enhances the concurrency and the arithmetic intensity of the preconditioning step of the sparse implicit solver with the aim of controlling the number of iterations of the Krylov method in a black-box fashion, thus reducing the number of global synchronization steps and matrix vector multiplications needed by the iterative solver; data movement and memory bound kernels in the solve phase can be thus limited at the expense of extra local ops during the setup of
Chen, Jinyang; Ji, Xinghu; He, Zhike
2015-08-12
In this work, a simple, flexible and low-cost sample-introduction technique was developed and integrated with droplet platform. The sample-introduction strategy was realized based on connecting the components of positive pressure input device, sample container and microfluidic chip through the tygon tubing with homemade polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) adaptor, so the sample was delivered into the microchip from the sample container under the driving of positive pressure. This sample-introduction technique is so robust and compatible that could be integrated with T-junction, flow-focus or valve-assisted droplet microchips. By choosing the PDMS adaptor with proper dimension, the microchip could be flexibly equipped with various types of familiar sample containers, makes the sampling more straightforward without trivial sample transfer or loading. And the convenient sample changing was easily achieved by positioning the adaptor from one sample container to another. Benefiting from the proposed technique, the time-dependent concentration gradient was generated and applied for quantum dot (QD)-based fluorescence barcoding within droplet chip. High-throughput droplet screening was preliminarily demonstrated through the investigation of the quenching efficiency of ruthenium complex to the fluorescence of QD. More importantly, multiplex DNA assay was successfully carried out in the integrated system, which shows the practicability and potentials in high-throughput biosensing.
Chen, Nan-Kuei; Guidon, Arnaud; Chang, Hing-Chiu; Song, Allen W
2013-05-15
Diffusion weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DWI) data have been mostly acquired with single-shot echo-planar imaging (EPI) to minimize motion induced artifacts. The spatial resolution, however, is inherently limited in single-shot EPI, even when the parallel imaging (usually at an acceleration factor of 2) is incorporated. Multi-shot acquisition strategies could potentially achieve higher spatial resolution and fidelity, but they are generally susceptible to motion-induced phase errors among excitations that are exacerbated by diffusion sensitizing gradients, rendering the reconstructed images unusable. It has been shown that shot-to-shot phase variations may be corrected using navigator echoes, but at the cost of imaging throughput. To address these challenges, a novel and robust multi-shot DWI technique, termed multiplexed sensitivity-encoding (MUSE), is developed here to reliably and inherently correct nonlinear shot-to-shot phase variations without the use of navigator echoes. The performance of the MUSE technique is confirmed experimentally in healthy adult volunteers on 3Tesla MRI systems. This newly developed technique should prove highly valuable for mapping brain structures and connectivities at high spatial resolution for neuroscience studies.
Yi, Xia; Zhang, Peng; Sun, Jiaoe; Tu, Yi; Gao, Qiuqiang; Zhang, Jian; Bao, Jie
2016-01-10
Pediococcus acidilactici TY112 producing L-lactic acid and P. acidilactici ZP26 producing D-lactic acid, were engineered from the wild-type P. acidilactici DQ2 by ldhD or ldh gene disruption, and the robustness of the wild-type strain to the inhibitors derived from lignocellulose pretreatment was maintained well. In simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF), 77.66 g L(-1) of L-lactic acid and 76.76 g L(-1) of D-lactic acid were obtained at 25% (w/w) solids content of dry dilute acid pretreated and biodetoxified corn stover feedstock. L- and D-Lactic acid yield and productivity were highly dependent on the inhibitor removal extent due to the significant down-regulation on the expressions of ldh and ldhD encoding lactate dehydrogenase by inhibitor, especially syringaldehyde and vanillin at the low concentrations. This study provided a prototype of industrial process for high titer L- and D-lactic acid production from lignocellulose feedstock. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Robust Disaster Recovery System Model
无
2006-01-01
Highly security-critical system should possess features of continuous service. We present a new Robust Disaster Recovery System Model (RDRSM). Through strengthening the ability of safe communications, RDRSM guarantees the secure and reliable command on disaster recovery. Its self-supervision capability can monitor the integrality and security of disaster recovery system itself. By 2D and 3D real-time visible platform provided by GIS, GPS and RS, the model makes the using, management and maintenance of disaster recovery system easier. RDRSM possesses predominant features of security, robustness and controllability. And it can be applied to highly security-critical environments such as E-government and bank. Conducted by RDRSM, an important E-government disaster recovery system has been constructed successfully. The feasibility of this model is verified by practice. We especially emphasize the significance of some components of the model, such as risk assessment, disaster recovery planning, system supervision and robust communication support.
Robust automated knowledge capture.
Stevens-Adams, Susan Marie; Abbott, Robert G.; Forsythe, James Chris; Trumbo, Michael Christopher Stefan; Haass, Michael Joseph; Hendrickson, Stacey M. Langfitt
2011-10-01
This report summarizes research conducted through the Sandia National Laboratories Robust Automated Knowledge Capture Laboratory Directed Research and Development project. The objective of this project was to advance scientific understanding of the influence of individual cognitive attributes on decision making. The project has developed a quantitative model known as RumRunner that has proven effective in predicting the propensity of an individual to shift strategies on the basis of task and experience related parameters. Three separate studies are described which have validated the basic RumRunner model. This work provides a basis for better understanding human decision making in high consequent national security applications, and in particular, the individual characteristics that underlie adaptive thinking.
Georgiana Stefan, Vivien; Merlin, Olivier; José Escorihuela, Maria; AïtHssaine, Bouchra; Molero, Beatriz; Ezzahar, Jamal; Er-Raki, Salah; Bitar, Ahmad Al; Kerr, Yann
2016-04-01
The majority of hydrological and agricultural applications require high-resolution soil moisture (SM) information. To improve the spatial resolution of SMOS (Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity) SM, a downscaling algorithm is applied to the 40 km resolution SMOS level 3 product using 1 km resolution MODIS (MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) shortwave and thermal data. The DISPATCH (DISaggregation based on a Physical and Theoretical Scale CHange) algorithm converts soil temperature data into SM data using a soil evaporative efficiency (SEE) model and a first order Taylor series expansion. The current version of DISPATCH is contextual, meaning that the MODIS-derived SEE is a function of temperature endmembers (Tends), which are determined from the image-based trapezoid method. However, limitations concerning the estimation of Tends arise when fully dry and fully wet conditions are not met within the scene at the observation resolution. Therefore, in order to improve DISPATCH's robustness in such conditions, the aim of this paper is to estimate Tends independently of shortwave/thermal data using an energy balance model forced by meteorological data. As a mean to evaluate the new algorithm, results are analyzed in terms of both disaggregated SM with respect to in situ 0-5 cm measurements and DISPATCH-derived SEE with respect to theoretical models. The approach is tested over a mixed irrigated and dry land area located in Catalunya, Spain, spanning 2011 and 2012. When comparing 40 km SMOS and 1 km disaggregated SM data with the in situ measurements, results indicate that DISPATCH improves the spatio-temporal correlation with in situ measurements. Moreover, disaggregation results are further improved by integrating the energy balance model in the methodology. The representation of SEE is also enhanced, proving that meteorological data foster the physical link between shortwave/thermal and SM data within the disaggregation method. The synergy between SEE modeling
Sampey, Brante P.; Vanhoose, Amanda M.; Winfield, Helena M.; Freemerman, Alex J.; Muehlbauer, Michael J.; Fueger, Patrick T.; Newgard, Christopher B.; Makowski, Liza
2011-01-01
Obesity has reached epidemic proportions worldwide and reports estimate that American children consume up to 25% of calories from snacks. Several animal models of obesity exist, but studies are lacking that compare high-fat diets (HFD) traditionally used in rodent models of diet-induced obesity (DIO) to diets consisting of food regularly consumed by humans, including high-salt, high-fat, low-fiber, energy dense foods such as cookies, chips, and processed meats. To investigate the obesogenic and inflammatory consequences of a cafeteria diet (CAF) compared to a lard-based 45% HFD in rodent models, male Wistar rats were fed HFD, CAF or chow control diets for 15 weeks. Body weight increased dramatically and remained significantly elevated in CAF-fed rats compared to all other diets. Glucose- and insulin-tolerance tests revealed that hyperinsulinemia, hyperglycemia, and glucose intolerance were exaggerated in the CAF-fed rats compared to controls and HFD-fed rats. It is well-established that macrophages infiltrate metabolic tissues at the onset of weight gain and directly contribute to inflammation, insulin resistance, and obesity. Although both high fat diets resulted in increased adiposity and hepatosteatosis, CAF-fed rats displayed remarkable inflammation in white fat, brown fat and liver compared to HFD and controls. In sum, the CAF provided a robust model of human metabolic syndrome compared to traditional lard-based HFD, creating a phenotype of exaggerated obesity with glucose intolerance and inflammation. This model provides a unique platform to study the biochemical, genomic and physiological mechanisms of obesity and obesity-related disease states that are pandemic in western civilization today. PMID:21331068
Xu, Huan; Mannor, Shie
2008-01-01
Lasso, or $\\ell^1$ regularized least squares, has been explored extensively for its remarkable sparsity properties. It is shown in this paper that the solution to Lasso, in addition to its sparsity, has robustness properties: it is the solution to a robust optimization problem. This has two important consequences. First, robustness provides a connection of the regularizer to a physical property, namely, protection from noise. This allows a principled selection of the regularizer, and in particular, generalizations of Lasso that also yield convex optimization problems are obtained by considering different uncertainty sets. Secondly, robustness can itself be used as an avenue to exploring different properties of the solution. In particular, it is shown that robustness of the solution explains why the solution is sparse. The analysis as well as the specific results obtained differ from standard sparsity results, providing different geometric intuition. Furthermore, it is shown that the robust optimization formul...
Suqun Liao; Wenxiao Liu; Peng Xiao; Dongfeng Li
2008-01-01
BACKGROUND: Electrophysiological studies using brain slices have revealed that the developmental regulation of synaptic plasticity in vocal learning pathway is essential for song learning in zebra finches. Publications reporting in vivo electrophysiological investigation are scarce. Many aspects of neural mechanisms underlying song learning and production still remain uncertain.OBJECTIVE: To observe the efficacy of paired pulses and the effect on synaptic transmission induced by low-frequency stimulations, high-frequency stimulations, and theta-burst stimulations.DESIGN, TIME AND SETTING: A comparative observation. The experiment was conducted from October 2006 to October 2007 in the Neurophysiology Laboratory of South-China Normal University.MATERIALS: Twenty-four adult male zebra finches were supplied by the Department of Animal Experiment of College of Life Sciences, South China Normal University. A SEN-7203 stimulator (NIHON KOHDEN), as well as a DSJ-731WF microelectrode amplifier and DSJ-F amplifier (provided by South-China Normal University), were used to stimulate and record, respectively.METHODS: Animals were randomly divided into low-frequency, high-frequency, and theta-burst frequency stimulation groups. After recording evoked potentials, an input-output curve was evaluated. Subsequently, the efficacy of paired pulses with different stimulus intensity (1/3, 1/2, 2/3, or 3/4 of the value that induced the largest synaptic response), as well as interpulse intervals (50, 75, and 100ms), was measured in each group. The test stimulus intensity was set to a level that evoked 1/2 or 1/3 amplitude of the maximum response.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Changes in amplitude, slope, and area of evoked potentials elicited by different stimulus patterns.RESULTS: (1) Efficacy of paired pulses: there was significant paired-pulse facilitation in the high vocal center and robust nucleus of the arcopallium (HVC-RA) synapse. Efficacy decreased when paired-pulse intervals or stimulus
Robustness of Structural Systems
Canisius, T.D.G.; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard; Baker, J.W.
2007-01-01
The importance of robustness as a property of structural systems has been recognised following several structural failures, such as that at Ronan Point in 1968,where the consequenceswere deemed unacceptable relative to the initiating damage. A variety of research efforts in the past decades have...... systems. Guidance is provided regarding the assessment of robustness in a framework that considers potential hazards to the system, vulnerability of system components, and failure consequences. Several proposed methods for quantifying robustness are reviewed, and guidelines for robust design...
A.F. van Belkum (Alex); H. Maas (Hugo); H.A. Verbrugh (Henri); N. van Leeuwen (N.)
1996-01-01
textabstractFifty clinical and environmental isolates of Legionella pneumophila were typed serologically and by DNA fingerprinting using arbitrarily primed polymerase chain reaction (AP-PCR). Furthermore, variability in and around ribosomal operons was assessed by conventional ribotyping and
Zhang, Wenyan; Chen, Jiahua; Wang, Wei; Lu, GongXuan; Hao, Lingyun; Ni, Yaru; Lu, Chunhua; Xu, Zhongzi
2017-03-01
Super-paramagnetic core-shell microspheres were synthesized by ultrasonic assisted routine under low ultrasonic irradiation powers. Compared with conventional routine, ultrasonic effect could not only improve the uniformity of the core-shell structure of Fe3O4@SiO2, but shorten the synthesis time in large scale. Owing to their hydrophilicity and high surface charge, the Fe3O4@SiO2 microspheres could be dispersed well in distilled water to form homogeneous colloidal suspension. The suspensions have favorable magneto-chromatic ability that they sensitively exhibit brilliant colorful ribbons by magnetic attraction. The colorful ribbons, which distributed along the magnetic lines, make morphology of the magnetic fields become "visible" to naked eyed. Those colorful ribbons originate from strong magnetic interaction between the microspheres and magnetic fields. Furthermore, the magneto-chromatic performance is reversible as the colorful ribbons vanished rapidly with the removing of magnetic fields. The silica layer effectively enhanced the acid resistance and surface-oxidation resistance of theFe3O4@SiO2 microspheres, so they could exhibit stable magnetic nature and robust magneto-chromatic property in acid environment.
Yu, Shasha; Bian, Yingfang; Zhou, Rong; Mou, Renxiang; Chen, Mingxue; Cao, Zhaoyun
2015-12-01
A sensitive and robust high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray tandem mass spectrometry method for the identification and quantification of glutathione and phytochelatins from rice was developed. Homogenized samples were extracted with water containing 100 mM dithiothreitol, and solid-phase extraction using polymer anion exchange resin was employed for sample purification. Chromatography was performed on a polymeric column with acetonitrile and water containing 0.1% formic acid as the mobile phase at the flow rate of 300 μL/min. The limit of quantitation was 6-100 nM. This assay showed excellent linearity for both glutathione and phytochelatins over physiological normal ranges, with correlation coefficients (r) > 0.9976. Recoveries for four biothiols were within the range of 76-118%, within relative standard deviations less than 15%. The intraday precision (n = 7) was 2.1-13.3%, and the interday precision over 15 days was 4.3-15.2%. The optimized method was applied to analyze tissue samples from rice grown using nutrient solutions with three different cadmium concentrations (0, 50, and 100 μM). With increasing cadmium concentrations, the content of phytochelatin 2 and phytochelatin 3 in rice roots increased, in contrast to most phytochelatins, and the content of glutathione in rice stems and roots decreased significantly.
Ison, Mark; Vujaklija, Ivan; Whitsell, Bryan; Farina, Dario; Artemiadis, Panagiotis
2016-04-01
Myoelectric control offers a direct interface between human intent and various robotic applications through recorded muscle activity. Traditional control schemes realize this interface through direct mapping or pattern recognition techniques. The former approach provides reliable control at the expense of functionality, while the latter increases functionality at the expense of long-term reliability. An alternative approach, using concepts of motor learning, provides session-independent simultaneous control, but previously relied on consistent electrode placement over biomechanically independent muscles. This paper extends the functionality and practicality of the motor learning-based approach, using high-density electrode grids and muscle synergy-inspired decomposition to generate control inputs with reduced constraints on electrode placement. The method is demonstrated via real-time simultaneous and proportional control of a 4-DoF myoelectric interface over multiple days. Subjects showed learning trends consistent with typical motor skill learning without requiring any retraining or recalibration between sessions. Moreover, they adjusted to physical constraints of a robot arm after learning the control in a constraint-free virtual interface, demonstrating robust control as they performed precision tasks. The results demonstrate the efficacy of the proposed man-machine interface as a viable alternative to conventional control schemes for myoelectric interfaces designed for long-term use.
A robust adaptive robot controller
Berghuis, Harry; Ortega, Romeo; Nijmeijer, Henk
1993-01-01
A globally convergent adaptive control scheme for robot motion control with the following features is proposed. First, the adaptation law possesses enhanced robustness with respect to noisy velocity measurements. Second, the controller does not require the inclusion of high gain loops that may excit
Attractive ellipsoids in robust control
Poznyak, Alexander; Azhmyakov, Vadim
2014-01-01
This monograph introduces a newly developed robust-control design technique for a wide class of continuous-time dynamical systems called the “attractive ellipsoid method.” Along with a coherent introduction to the proposed control design and related topics, the monograph studies nonlinear affine control systems in the presence of uncertainty and presents a constructive and easily implementable control strategy that guarantees certain stability properties. The authors discuss linear-style feedback control synthesis in the context of the above-mentioned systems. The development and physical implementation of high-performance robust-feedback controllers that work in the absence of complete information is addressed, with numerous examples to illustrate how to apply the attractive ellipsoid method to mechanical and electromechanical systems. While theorems are proved systematically, the emphasis is on understanding and applying the theory to real-world situations. Attractive Ellipsoids in Robust Control will a...
Advances in robust fractional control
Padula, Fabrizio
2015-01-01
This monograph presents design methodologies for (robust) fractional control systems. It shows the reader how to take advantage of the superior flexibility of fractional control systems compared with integer-order systems in achieving more challenging control requirements. There is a high degree of current interest in fractional systems and fractional control arising from both academia and industry and readers from both milieux are catered to in the text. Different design approaches having in common a trade-off between robustness and performance of the control system are considered explicitly. The text generalizes methodologies, techniques and theoretical results that have been successfully applied in classical (integer) control to the fractional case. The first part of Advances in Robust Fractional Control is the more industrially-oriented. It focuses on the design of fractional controllers for integer processes. In particular, it considers fractional-order proportional-integral-derivative controllers, becau...
Onion structure and network robustness
Wu, Zhi-Xi; 10.1103/PhysRevE.84.026106
2011-01-01
In a recent work [Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 108, 3838 (2011)], Schneider et al. proposed a new measure for network robustness and investigated optimal networks with respect to this quantity. For networks with a power-law degree distribution, the optimized networks have an onion structure-high-degree vertices forming a core with radially decreasing degrees and an over-representation of edges within the same radial layer. In this paper we relate the onion structure to graphs with good expander properties (another characterization of robust network) and argue that networks of skewed degree distributions with large spectral gaps (and thus good expander properties) are typically onion structured. Furthermore, we propose a generative algorithm producing synthetic scale-free networks with onion structure, circumventing the optimization procedure of Schneider et al. We validate the robustness of our generated networks against malicious attacks and random removals.
Wang, H.
2009-01-01
Our society depends more strongly than ever on large networks such as transportation networks, the Internet and power grids. Engineers are confronted with fundamental questions such as “how to evaluate the robustness of networks for a given service?”, “how to design a robust network?”, because netwo
Zou, Yan; Fang, Ya; Meng, Hao; Meng, Fenghua; Deng, Chao; Zhang, Jian; Zhong, Zhiyuan
2016-12-28
Nanomedicines based on biodegradable micelles offer a most promising treatment for malignant tumors. Their clinical effectiveness, however, remains to be improved. Here, we report that self-crosslinkable and intracellularly decrosslinkable micellar nanoparticles (SCID-Ms) self-assembled from novel amphiphilic biodegradable poly(ethylene glycol)-b-poly(dithiolane trimethylene carbonate) block copolymer achieve high-efficiency targeted cancer chemotherapy in vivo. Interestingly, doxorubicin (DOX)-loaded SCID-Ms showed favorable features of superb stability, minimal drug leakage, long circulation time, triggered drug release inside the tumor cells, and an unprecedented maximum-tolerated dose (MTD) of over 100mg DOX equiv./kg in mice, which was at least 10 times higher than free drug. The in vivo studies in malignant B16 melanoma-bearing C57BL/6 mice revealed that DOX-SCID-Ms at a dosage of 30mg DOX equiv./kg could effectively suppress tumor growth and prolong mice survival time without causing obvious systemic toxicity. Moreover, DOX-SCID-Ms could be readily decorated with a targeting ligand like cRGD peptide. The biodistribution studies showed that cRGD20/DOX-SCID-Ms had a high tumor accumulation of 6.13% ID/g at 6h post injection, which was ca. 3-fold higher than that for clinically used pegylated liposomal doxorubicin (DOX-LPs). Accordingly, cRGD20/DOX-SCID-Ms exhibited significantly better therapeutic efficacy and lower side effects than DOX-LPs in B16 melanoma-bearing mice. These self-regulating biodegradable micellar nanoparticles offer a robust, multifunctional and viable nanoplatform for targeted cancer chemotherapy.
Robust mean field games for coupled Markov jump linear systems
Moon, Jun; Başar, Tamer
2016-07-01
We consider robust stochastic large population games for coupled Markov jump linear systems (MJLSs). The N agents' individual MJLSs are governed by different infinitesimal generators, and are affected not only by the control input but also by an individual disturbance (or adversarial) input. The mean field term, representing the average behaviour of N agents, is included in the individual worst-case cost function to capture coupling effects among agents. To circumvent the computational complexity and analyse the worst-case effect of the disturbance, we use robust mean field game theory to design low-complexity robust decentralised controllers and to characterise the associated worst-case disturbance. We show that with the individual robust decentralised controller and the corresponding worst-case disturbance, which constitute a saddle-point solution to a generic stochastic differential game for MJLSs, the actual mean field behaviour can be approximated by a deterministic function which is a fixed-point solution to the constructed mean field system. We further show that the closed-loop system is uniformly stable independent of N, and an approximate optimality can be obtained in the sense of ε-Nash equilibrium, where ε can be taken to be arbitrarily close to zero as N becomes sufficiently large. A numerical example is included to illustrate the results.
Eiselen, Sasia; Riedel, Sebastian; Schmidt, Michael
2014-05-01
Progressive developments in temporal shaping of short laser pulses offer entirely new approaches at influence and investigate laser-matter-interactions. Commonly used parameters for describing the behavior of short or ultrashort pulses or pulse trains are fluence and intensity. However, fluence does not imply any information about the temporal behavior of energy input during specific pulse duration τ while using the pulse intensity as describing parameter is more meaningful. Nevertheless it still is an averaging over pulse duration and no change in intensity can be determined if the temporal pulse shape changes within a certain combination of pulse duration and pulse energy. Using a flexible programmable MOPA fiber laser experimental studies on the impact of temporal energy distribution within one single laser pulse in micro machining applications were therefore carried out. With this laser source a direct modulation of the temporal pulse shape in the nanosecond regime can easily be controlled. Experiments were carried out with moved as well as with un-moved beam resulting in areas and dimples respectively drilling holes. The presented results clearly show that any averaging over pulse duration results in missing information about time-dependent interactions but can at the same time lead to significant differences in ablation results. Thus, resulting surface roughness Sa can be decreased up to 25 % when changing the pulse shape at constant parameters of fluence and pulse peak power at a pulse duration of 30 ns. It can be observed that the combination of an intensity peak and a lower edge within one pulse can lead to increasing ablation efficiency as well as higher ablation quality compared to the commonly used Gaussian-like temporal pulse shape.
Klančar, Uroš; Baumgartner, Saša; Legen, Igor; Smrdel, Polona; Kampuš, Nataša Jeraj; Krajcar, Dejan; Markun, Boštjan; Kočevar, Klemen
2015-04-01
It is challenging to achieve mechanically robust drug-release profiles from hydrophilic matrices containing a high dose of a drug with good solubility. However, a mechanically robust drug release over prolonged period of time can be achieved, especially if the viscosity and amount of the polymer is sufficiently high, above the "threshold values." The goal of this research was to determine the hydroxypropyl cellulose (HPC) and hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) polymer threshold amount that would enable robust drug release from matrix tablets containing a high dose of levetiracetam as a class I model drug according to the Biopharmaceutical Classification System (BCS). For this purpose, formulations containing HPC or HPMC of similar viscosity range, but in different amounts, were prepared. Based on the dissolution results, two final formulations were selected for additional in vitro and in vivo evaluation to confirm the robustness and to show bioequivalence. Tablets were exposed to various stress conditions in vitro with the use of different mechanically stress-inducing dissolution methods. The in vitro results were compared with in vivo results obtained from fasted and fed bioequivalence studies. Under both conditions, the formulations were bioequivalent and food had a negligible influence on the pharmacokinetic parameters C max and area under the curve (AUC). It was concluded that the drug release from both selected formulations is mechanically robust and that HPC and HPMC polymers with intrinsic viscosities above 9 dL/g and in quantities above 30% enable good mechanical resistance, which ensures bioequivalence. In addition, HPC matrices were found to be more mechanically robust compared to HPMC.
Takeshi Sato
2016-10-01
Full Text Available This work describes an intriguing strategy for the creation of arbitrarily shaped hydrogels utilizing a self-healing template (SHT. A SHT was loaded with a photo-crosslinkable monomer, PEG diacrylate (PEGDA, and then ultraviolet light (UV crosslinked after first shaping. The SHT template was removed by simple washing with water, leaving behind the hydrogel in the desired physical shape. A hierarchical 3D structure such as “Matreshka” boxes were successfully prepared by simply repeating the “self-healing” and “photo-irradiation” processes. We have also explored the potential of the SHT system for the manipulation of cells.
Faber, M.H.; Vrouwenvelder, A.C.W.M.; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard
2011-01-01
In 2005, the Joint Committee on Structural Safety (JCSS) together with Working Commission (WC) 1 of the International Association of Bridge and Structural Engineering (IABSE) organized a workshop on robustness of structures. Two important decisions resulted from this workshop, namely the developm......In 2005, the Joint Committee on Structural Safety (JCSS) together with Working Commission (WC) 1 of the International Association of Bridge and Structural Engineering (IABSE) organized a workshop on robustness of structures. Two important decisions resulted from this workshop, namely...... the development of a joint European project on structural robustness under the COST (European Cooperation in Science and Technology) programme and the decision to develop a more elaborate document on structural robustness in collaboration between experts from the JCSS and the IABSE. Accordingly, a project titled...... ‘COST TU0601: Robustness of Structures’ was initiated in February 2007, aiming to provide a platform for exchanging and promoting research in the area of structural robustness and to provide a basic framework, together with methods, strategies and guidelines enhancing robustness of structures...
Song, Lingyan; Feng, Dan; Campbell, Casey G; Gu, Dong; Forster, Aaron M; Yager, Kevin G; Fredin, Nathaniel; Lee, Hae-Jeong; Jones, Ronald L; Zhao, Dongyuan; Vogt, Bryan D [AZU
2012-07-11
In this work, we describe a facile approach to improve the robustness of conductive mesoporous carbon-based thin films by the addition of silica to the matrix through the triconstituent organic-inorganic-organic co-assembly of resol (carbon precursor) and tetraethylorthosilicate (silica precursor) with triblock-copolymer Pluronic F127. The pyrolysis of the resol-silica-pluronic F127 film yields a porous composite thin film with well-defined mesostructure. X-Ray diffraction (XRD), grazing incidence small angle X-ray scattering (GISAXS), and electron microscopy measurements indicate that the obtained carbon-based thin films have a highly ordered orthorhombic mesostructure (Fmmm) with uniform large pore size (~3 nm). The orthorhombic mesostructure is oriented and the (010) plane is parallel to the silicon wafer substrate. The addition of silica to the matrix impacts the pore size, surface area, porosity, modulus and conductivity. For composite films with approximately 40 wt% silica, the conductivity is decreased by approximately an order of magnitude in comparison to a pure carbon mesoporous film, but the conductivity is comparable to typical printed carbon inks used in electrochemical sensing, {approx}10 S cm^{-1}. The mechanical properties of these mesoporous silica-carbon hybrid films are similar to the pure carbon analogs with a Young's modulus between 10 GPa and 15 GPa, but the material is significantly more porous. Moreover, the addition of silica to the matrix appears to improve the adhesion of the mesoporous film to a silicon wafer. These mesoporous silica-carbon composite films have appropriate characteristics for use in sensing applications.
Quantifying the robustness of metro networks
Wang, Xiangrong; Derrible, Sybil; Ahmad, Sk Nasir; Kooij, Robert E
2015-01-01
Metros (heavy rail transit systems) are integral parts of urban transportation systems. Failures in their operations can have serious impacts on urban mobility, and measuring their robustness is therefore critical. Moreover, as physical networks, metros can be viewed as network topological entities, and as such they possess measurable network properties. In this paper, by using network science and graph theoretical concepts, we investigate both theoretical and experimental robustness metrics (i.e., the robustness indicator, the effective graph conductance, and the critical thresholds) and their performance in quantifying the robustness of metro networks under random failures or targeted attacks. We find that the theoretical metrics quantify different aspects of the robustness of metro networks. In particular, the robustness indicator captures the number of alternative paths and the effective graph conductance focuses on the length of each path. Moreover, the high positive correlation between the theoretical m...
New P2P Botnet with High Robustness%一种高鲁棒性的新型P2P僵尸网络
谢静; 谭良
2011-01-01
This paper presents a honeypot-prescient semi-distrbuted P2P Botnet. The robustness of such a Botnet is discussed based on two metrie functions C(p), D(p), and the robustness changee when the pecr-list updating procedure runs oncc with different number of scrvent bots. Results show that the new P2P Botnet has higher robustness than traditional Botnet.%提出一种利用认证sensor组建的蜜罐先知型半分布式P2P僵尸网络(Botnet),通过连接比C(p)和度数比D(p)2个度量函数,并在peer-list更新过程中使用不同数鼍servent bots,讨论其鲁棒性的变化.结果表明,与传统Botnet相比,该类Botnet具有较高的鲁棒性.
MULTIDISCIPLINARY ROBUST OPTIMIZATION DESIGN
Chen Jianjiang; Xiao Renbin; Zhong Yifang; Dou Gang
2005-01-01
Because uncertainty factors inevitably exist under multidisciplinary design environment, a hierarchical multidisciplinary robust optimization design based on response surface is proposed. The method constructs optimization model of subsystem level and system level to coordinate the coupling among subsystems, and also the response surface based on the artificial neural network is introduced to provide information for system level optimization tool to maintain the independence of subsystems,i.e. to realize multidisciplinary parallel design. The application case of electrical packaging demonstrates that reasonable robust optimum solution can be yielded and it is a potential and efficient multidisciplinary robust optimization approach.
Robustness Beamforming Algorithms
Sajad Dehghani
2014-04-01
Full Text Available Adaptive beamforming methods are known to degrade in the presence of steering vector and covariance matrix uncertinity. In this paper, a new approach is presented to robust adaptive minimum variance distortionless response beamforming make robust against both uncertainties in steering vector and covariance matrix. This method minimize a optimization problem that contains a quadratic objective function and a quadratic constraint. The optimization problem is nonconvex but is converted to a convex optimization problem in this paper. It is solved by the interior-point method and optimum weight vector to robust beamforming is achieved.
Robustness Beamforming Algorithms
Sajad Dehghani
2014-09-01
Full Text Available Adaptive beamforming methods are known to degrade in the presence of steering vector and covariance matrix uncertinity. In this paper, a new approach is presented to robust adaptive minimum variance distortionless response beamforming make robust against both uncertainties in steering vector and covariance matrix. This method minimize a optimization problem that contains a quadratic objective function and a quadratic constraint. The optimization problem is nonconvex but is converted to a convex optimization problem in this paper. It is solved by the interior-point method and optimum weight vector to robust beamforming is achieved.
Robust Quantum State Transfer in Random Unpolarized Spin Chains
Yao, Norman Y; Gorshkov, Alexey V; Gong, Zhe-Xuan; Zhai, Alex; Duan, L -M; Lukin, Mikhail D
2010-01-01
We propose and analyze a new approach for quantum state transfer between remote spin qubits. Specifically, we demonstrate that coherent quantum coupling between remote qubits can be achieved via certain classes of random, unpolarized spin chains. Our method is robust to coupling strength disorder and does not require manipulation or control over individual spins. In principle, it can be used to attain perfect state transfer over arbitrarily long range via purely Hamiltonian evolution and may be particularly applicable in a solid-state quantum information processor. As an example, we demonstrate that it can be used to attain strong coherent coupling between Nitrogen-Vacancy centers separated by micrometer distances at room temperature. Realistic imperfections and decoherence effects are analyzed.
Robust quantum state transfer in random unpolarized spin chains.
Yao, N Y; Jiang, L; Gorshkov, A V; Gong, Z-X; Zhai, A; Duan, L-M; Lukin, M D
2011-01-28
We propose and analyze a new approach for quantum state transfer between remote spin qubits. Specifically, we demonstrate that coherent quantum coupling between remote qubits can be achieved via certain classes of random, unpolarized (infinite temperature) spin chains. Our method is robust to coupling-strength disorder and does not require manipulation or control over individual spins. In principle, it can be used to attain perfect state transfer over an arbitrarily long range via purely Hamiltonian evolution and may be particularly applicable in a solid-state quantum information processor. As an example, we demonstrate that it can be used to attain strong coherent coupling between nitrogen-vacancy centers separated by micrometer distances at room temperature. Realistic imperfections and decoherence effects are analyzed.
What is it to be sturdy (robust)?
Nielsen, Niss Skov; Zwisler, Lars Pagter; Bojsen, Ann Kristina Mikkelsen;
2015-01-01
Purpose: This paper intends to give a first insight into the concept of being "sturdy/robust"; To develop and test a Danish model of how to measure sturdi-ness/robustness; To test the scale's ability to identify people in emergency situa-tions who have high risk of developing psychological illness....
M Sankar Kishore; K Veerabhadra Rao
2001-06-01
Correlation tracking plays an important role in the automation of weapon systems. Area correlation is an effective technique for tracking targets that have neither prominent features nor high contrast with the background and the ‘target’ can even be an area or a scene of interest. Even though this technique is robust under varying conditions of target background and light conditions, it has some problems like target drift and false registration. When the tracker or target is moving, the registration point drifts due to the discrete pixel size and aspect angle change. In this research work, an attempt has been made to improve the performance of a correlation tracker for tracking ground targets with very poor contrast. In the present work only the CCD visible images with very poor target to background contrast are considered. Applying novel linear and nonlinear filters, the problems present in the correlation tracker are overcome. Confidence and redundancy measures have been proposed to improve the performance by detecting misregistration. The proposed algorithm is tested on different sequences of images and its performance is satisfactory.
Guilloteau, Clement; Roca, Rémy; Gosset, Marielle
2015-04-01
In the Tropics where the ground-based rain gauges network is very sparse, satellite rainfall estimates are becoming a compulsory source of information for various applications: hydrological modeling, water resources management or vegetation-monitoring. The tropical Tropical Amount of Precipitation with Estimate of Error (TAPEER) algorithm, developed within the framework of Megha-Tropiques satellite mission is a robust estimate of surface rainfall accumulations at the daily, one degree resolution. TAPEER validation in West Africa has proven its accuracy. Nevertheless applications that involve non-linear processes (such as surface runoff) require finer space / time resolution than one degree one day, or at least the statistical characterization of the sub-grid rainfall variability. TAPEER is based on a Universally Adjusted Global Precipitation Index (UAGPI) technique. The one degree, one day estimation relies on the combination of observations from microwave radiometers embarked on the 7 platforms forming the GPM constellation of low earth orbit satellites together with geostationary infra-red (GEO-IR) imagery. TAPEER provides as an intermediate product a high-resolution rain-mask based on the GEO-IR information (2.8 km, 15 min in Africa). The main question of this work is, how to use this high-resolution mask information as a constraint for downscaling ? This work first presents the multi-scale evaluation of TAPEER's rain detection mask against ground X-band polarimetric radar data and TRMM precipitation radar data in West Africa, through wavelet transform. Other algorithms (climate prediction center morphing technique CMORPH, global satellite mapping of precipitation GSMaP, multi-sensor precipitation estimate MPE) detection capabilities are also evaluated. Spatio-temporal wavelet filtering of the detection mask is then used to compute precipitation probability at the GEO-IR resolution. The wavelet tool is finally used to stochastically generate rain / no rain field
Robustness - theoretical framework
Sørensen, John Dalsgaard; Rizzuto, Enrico; Faber, Michael H.
2010-01-01
More frequent use of advanced types of structures with limited redundancy and serious consequences in case of failure combined with increased requirements to efficiency in design and execution followed by increased risk of human errors has made the need of requirements to robustness of new struct...... of this fact sheet is to describe a theoretical and risk based framework to form the basis for quantification of robustness and for pre-normative guidelines....
Robust Nonstationary Regression
1993-01-01
This paper provides a robust statistical approach to nonstationary time series regression and inference. Fully modified extensions of traditional robust statistical procedures are developed which allow for endogeneities in the nonstationary regressors and serial dependence in the shocks that drive the regressors and the errors that appear in the equation being estimated. The suggested estimators involve semiparametric corrections to accommodate these possibilities and they belong to the same ...
Robustness - theoretical framework
Sørensen, John Dalsgaard; Rizzuto, Enrico; Faber, Michael H.
2010-01-01
More frequent use of advanced types of structures with limited redundancy and serious consequences in case of failure combined with increased requirements to efficiency in design and execution followed by increased risk of human errors has made the need of requirements to robustness of new struct...... of this fact sheet is to describe a theoretical and risk based framework to form the basis for quantification of robustness and for pre-normative guidelines....
Direct selection on genetic robustness revealed in the yeast transcriptome.
Stephen R Proulx
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Evolutionary theory predicts that organisms should evolve the ability to produce high fitness phenotypes in the face of environmental disturbances (environmental robustness or genetic mutations (genetic robustness. While several studies have uncovered mechanisms that lead to both environmental and genetic robustness, we have yet to understand why some components of the genome are more robust than others. According to evolutionary theory, environmental and genetic robustness will have different responses to selective forces. Selection on environmental robustness for a trait is expected to be strong and related to the fitness costs of altering that trait. In contrast to environmental robustness, selection on genetic robustness for a trait is expected to be largely independent of the fitness cost of altering the trait and instead should correlate with the standing genetic variation for the trait that can potentially be buffered. Several mechanisms that provide both environmental and genetic robustness have been described, and this correlation could be explained by direct selection on both forms of robustness (direct selection hypothesis, or through selection on environmental robustness and a correlated response in genetic robustness (congruence hypothesis. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using both published and novel data on gene expression in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, we find that genetic robustness is correlated with environmental robustness across the yeast genome as predicted by the congruence hypothesis. However, we also show that environmental robustness, but not genetic robustness, is related to per-gene fitness effects. In contrast, genetic robustness is significantly correlated with network position, suggesting that genetic robustness has been under direct selection. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We observed a significant correlation between our measures of genetic and environmental robustness, in agreement with the
Freeman, S.; Pham, M.; Rodriguez, R.J.
1993-01-01
Molecular genotyping of Colletotrichum species based on arbitrarily primed PCR, A + T-rich DNA, and nuclear DNA analyses. Experimental Mycology 17, 309-322. Isolates of Colletotrichum were grouped into 10 separate species based on arbitrarily primed PCR (ap-PCR), A + T-rich DNA (AT-DNA) and nuclear DNA banding patterns. In general, the grouping of Colletotrichum isolates by these molecular approaches corresponded to that done by classical taxonomic identification, however, some exceptions were observed. PCR amplification of genomic DNA using four different primers allowed for reliable differentiation between isolates of the 10 species. HaeIII digestion patterns of AT-DNA also distinguished between species of Colletotrichum by generating species-specific band patterns. In addition, hybridization of the repetitive DNA element (GcpR1) to genomic DNA identified a unique set of Pst 1-digested nuclear DNA fragments in each of the 10 species of Colletotrichum tested. Multiple isolates of C. acutatum, C. coccodes, C. fragariae, C. lindemuthianum, C. magna, C. orbiculare, C. graminicola from maize, and C. graminicola from sorghum showed 86-100% intraspecies similarity based on ap-PCR and AT-DNA analyses. Interspecies similarity determined by ap-PCR and AT-DNA analyses varied between 0 and 33%. Three distinct banding patterns were detected in isolates of C. gloeosporioides from strawberry. Similarly, three different banding patterns were observed among isolates of C. musae from diseased banana.
Qualitative Robustness in Estimation
Mohammed Nasser
2012-07-01
Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman","serif";} Qualitative robustness, influence function, and breakdown point are three main concepts to judge an estimator from the viewpoint of robust estimation. It is important as well as interesting to study relation among them. This article attempts to present the concept of qualitative robustness as forwarded by first proponents and its later development. It illustrates intricacies of qualitative robustness and its relation with consistency, and also tries to remove commonly believed misunderstandings about relation between influence function and qualitative robustness citing some examples from literature and providing a new counter-example. At the end it places a useful finite and a simulated version of qualitative robustness index (QRI. In order to assess the performance of the proposed measures, we have compared fifteen estimators of correlation coefficient using simulated as well as real data sets.
Huang, Chien-Yao; Lee, Wen-Chin; Lin, Albert
2016-09-01
. Finally, an exploratory path toward 20% high-efficiency Ga-profile with robustness against sulfur-induced performance variability is presented.
Peled, Amnon; Abraham, Michal; Avivi, Irit; Rowe, Jacob M; Beider, Katia; Wald, Hanna; Tiomkin, Lena; Ribakovsky, Lena; Riback, Yossi; Ramati, Yaron; Aviel, Sigal; Galun, Eithan; Shaw, Howard Laurence; Eizenberg, Orly; Hardan, Izhar; Shimoni, Avichai; Nagler, Arnon
2014-01-15
CXCR4 plays an important role in the retention of stem cells within the bone marrow. BKT140 (4F-benzoyl-TN14003) is a 14-residue bio stable synthetic peptide, which binds CXCR4 with a greater affinity compared with plerixafor (4 vs. 84 nmol/L). Studies in mice demonstrated the efficient and superior mobilization and transplantation of stem cells collected with GCSF-BKT140, compared with those obtained when using stem cells obtained with each one of these mobilizing agent alone. These results have served as a platform for the present clinical phase I study. Eighteen patients with multiple myeloma who were preparing for their first autologous stem cell transplantation were included. Patients received a standard multiple myeloma mobilization regimen, consisting of 3 to 4 g/m(2) cyclophosphamide (day 0), followed by granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) at 5 μg/kg/d starting on day 5 and administered between 8 and 10 pm until the end of stem cell collection. A single injection of BKT140 (0.006, 0.03, 0.1, 0.3, and 0.9 mg/kg) was administered subcutaneously on day 10 in the early morning, followed by G-CSF 12 hours later. BKT140 was well tolerated at all concentrations, and none of the patients developed grade 3 and 4 toxicity. A single administration of BKT140 at the highest dose, 0.9 mg/kg, resulted in a robust mobilization and collection of CD34(+) cells (20.6 ± 6.9 × 10(6)/kg), which were obtained through a single apheresis. All transplanted patients received ∼5.3 × 10(6) CD34(+) cells/kg, which rapidly engrafted (n = 17). The median time to neutrophil and platelet recovery was 12 and 14 days, respectively, at the highest dose (0.9 mg/kg). When combined with G-CSF, BKT140 is a safe and efficient stem cell mobilizer that enabled the collection of a high number of CD34(+) cells in 1 and 2 aphaeresis procedures, resulting in successful engraftment. ©2013 AACR.
Qiang Yang
2016-01-01
Full Text Available Based on adaptive nonlinear damping, a novel decentralized robust adaptive output feedback stabilization comprising a decentralized robust adaptive output feedback controller and a decentralized robust adaptive observer is proposed for a large-scale interconnected nonlinear system with general uncertainties, such as unknown nonlinear parameters, bounded disturbances, unknown nonlinearities, unmodeled dynamics, and unknown interconnections, which are nonlinear function of not only states and outputs but also unmodeled dynamics coming from other subsystems. In each subsystem, the proposed stabilization only has two adaptive parameters, and it is not needed to generate an additional dynamic signal or estimate the unknown parameters. Under certain assumptions, the proposed scheme guarantees that all the dynamic signals in the interconnected nonlinear system are bounded. Furthermore, the system states and estimate errors can approach arbitrarily small values by choosing the design parameters appropriately large. Finally, simulation results illustrated the effectiveness of the proposed scheme.
A robust adaptive robot controller
1993-01-01
A globally convergent adaptive control scheme for robot motion control with the following features is proposed. First, the adaptation law possesses enhanced robustness with respect to noisy velocity measurements. Second, the controller does not require the inclusion of high gain loops that may excite the unmodeled dynamics and amplify the noise level. Third, we derive for the unknown parameter design a relationship between compensator gains and closed-loop convergence rates that is independen...
Robust nonlinear regression in applications
Lim, Changwon; Sen, Pranab K.; Peddada, Shyamal D.
2013-01-01
Robust statistical methods, such as M-estimators, are needed for nonlinear regression models because of the presence of outliers/influential observations and heteroscedasticity. Outliers and influential observations are commonly observed in many applications, especially in toxicology and agricultural experiments. For example, dose response studies, which are routinely conducted in toxicology and agriculture, sometimes result in potential outliers, especially in the high dose gr...
Nonlinear Robust Tracking Control of a Quadrotor UAV on SE(3)
Lee, Taeyoung; McClamroch, N Harris
2011-01-01
This paper provides nonlinear tracking control systems for a quadrotor unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) that are robust to bounded uncertainties. A mathematical model of a quadrotor UAV is defined on the special Euclidean group, and nonlinear output-tracking controllers are developed to follow (1) an attitude command, and (2) a position command for the vehicle center of mass. The controlled system has the desirable properties that the tracking errors are uniformly ultimately bounded, and the size of the ultimate bound can be arbitrarily reduced by control system parameters. Numerical examples illustrating complex maneuvers are provided.
Epistemically Robust Strategy Subsets
Geir B. Asheim
2016-11-01
Full Text Available We define a concept of epistemic robustness in the context of an epistemic model of a finite normal-form game where a player type corresponds to a belief over the profiles of opponent strategies and types. A Cartesian product X of pure-strategy subsets is epistemically robust if there is a Cartesian product Y of player type subsets with X as the associated set of best reply profiles such that the set Y i contains all player types that believe with sufficient probability that the others are of types in Y − i and play best replies. This robustness concept provides epistemic foundations for set-valued generalizations of strict Nash equilibrium, applicable also to games without strict Nash equilibria. We relate our concept to closedness under rational behavior and thus to strategic stability and to the best reply property and thus to rationalizability.
Sriboonchitta, Songsak; Huynh, Van-Nam
2017-01-01
This book presents recent research on robustness in econometrics. Robust data processing techniques – i.e., techniques that yield results minimally affected by outliers – and their applications to real-life economic and financial situations are the main focus of this book. The book also discusses applications of more traditional statistical techniques to econometric problems. Econometrics is a branch of economics that uses mathematical (especially statistical) methods to analyze economic systems, to forecast economic and financial dynamics, and to develop strategies for achieving desirable economic performance. In day-by-day data, we often encounter outliers that do not reflect the long-term economic trends, e.g., unexpected and abrupt fluctuations. As such, it is important to develop robust data processing techniques that can accommodate these fluctuations.
Robustness of Spatial Micronetworks
McAndrew, Thomas C; Bagrow, James P
2015-01-01
Power lines, roadways, pipelines and other physical infrastructure are critical to modern society. These structures may be viewed as spatial networks where geographic distances play a role in the functionality and construction cost of links. Traditionally, studies of network robustness have primarily considered the connectedness of large, random networks. Yet for spatial infrastructure physical distances must also play a role in network robustness. Understanding the robustness of small spatial networks is particularly important with the increasing interest in microgrids, small-area distributed power grids that are well suited to using renewable energy resources. We study the random failures of links in small networks where functionality depends on both spatial distance and topological connectedness. By introducing a percolation model where the failure of each link is proportional to its spatial length, we find that, when failures depend on spatial distances, networks are more fragile than expected. Accounting...
Robustness - acceptance criteria
Rizzuto, Enrico; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard; Kroon, Inger B.
2010-01-01
This factsheet describes the general framework on the bases of which acceptance criteria for requirements on the robustness of structures can be set. Such framework is based on the more general concept of risk-based assessment of engineering systems. The present factsheet is to be seen in conjunc......This factsheet describes the general framework on the bases of which acceptance criteria for requirements on the robustness of structures can be set. Such framework is based on the more general concept of risk-based assessment of engineering systems. The present factsheet is to be seen...... in conjunction with the one on the theoretical framework for robustness (Sørensen et al. 2009). In the present factsheet, the focus is on normative implications....
A Robust Streaming Media System
Youwei, Zhang
Presently, application layer multicast protocols (ALM) are proposed as substitute for IP multicast and have made extraordinary achievements. Integrated with Multi-data-stream mode such as Multiple Description Coding (MDC), ALM becomes more scalable and robust in high-dynamic Internet environment compared with single data stream. Although MDC can provide a flexible data transmission style, the synchronization of different descriptions encoded from one video source is proved to be difficult due to different delay on diverse transmission paths. In this paper, an ALM system called HMDC is proposed to improve accepted video quality of streaming media, hosts can join the separate overlay trees in different layers simultaneously, then the maximum synchronized descriptions of the same layer are worked out to acquire the best video quality. Simulations implemented on Internet-like topology indicate that HMDC achieves better video quality, lower link stress, higher robustness and comparable latency compared with traditional ALM protocols.
Boolean networks with robust and reliable trajectories
Schmal, Christoph; Peixoto, Tiago P; Drossel, Barbara, E-mail: schmal@physik.uni-bielefeld.d, E-mail: tiago@fkp.tu-darmstadt.d, E-mail: drossel@fkp.tu-darmstadt.d [Institut fuer Festkoerperphysik, TU Darmstadt, Hochschulstrasse 6, 64289 Darmstadt (Germany)
2010-11-15
We construct and investigate Boolean networks that follow a given reliable trajectory in state space, which is insensitive to fluctuations in the updating schedule and which is also robust against noise. Robustness is quantified as the probability that the dynamics return to the reliable trajectory after a perturbation of the state of a single node. In order to achieve high robustness, we navigate through the space of possible update functions by using an evolutionary algorithm. We constrain the networks to those having the minimum number of connections required to obtain the reliable trajectory. Surprisingly, we find that robustness always reaches values close to 100% during the evolutionary optimization process. The set of update functions can be evolved such that it differs only slightly from that of networks that were not optimized with respect to robustness. The state space of the optimized networks is dominated by the basin of attraction of the reliable trajectory.
O Rahman; A A Mamun
2013-06-01
A theoretical investigation of dust-acoustic solitary waves in three-component unmagnetized dusty plasma consisting of trapped electrons, Maxwellian ions, and arbitrarily charged cold mobile dust was done. It has been found that, owing to the departure from the Maxwellian electron distribution to a vortex-like one, the dynamics of small but finite amplitude dust-acoustic (DA) waves is governed by a nonlinear equation of modified Korteweg–de Vries (mKdV) type (instead of KdV). The reductive perturbation method was employed to study the basic features (amplitude, width, speed, etc.) of DA solitary waves which are significantly modified by the presence of trapped electrons. The implications of our results in space and laboratory plasmas are briefly discussed.
Degani, D.
1984-01-01
A numerical algorithm that is second-order accurate in time has been developed for the conjugated problem of a separated, compressible flow field and a conductive solid body. The full two-dimensional time-dependent Navier-Stokes equations are coupled with the time-dependent energy equation for the solid body and are solved simultaneously. using implicit algorithms. The energy equation for the solid body may include arbitrarily distributed heat sources. The algorithm has been exmined for the case of two-dimensional supersonic compression-corner interaction, with a heat source embedded in the wall in the vicinity of the separation bubble and the attached boundary layer. The effect of the heat source on the flow field is studied for steady and transient cases.
Wei, Yanyu; Liu, Hongtao; He, Jun; Gong, Yubin; Yue, Lingna; Wang, Wenxiang; Park, Gun-Sik
2007-12-01
Properties of traveling wave-beam interaction in a centered dielectric-rod loaded, arbitrarily-shaped helical groove slow-wave structure (SWS) are investigated for a thin annular electron beam. The “hot” dispersion equation is obtained by means of the self-consistent field theory, and the small signal analysis is carried out including the effects of the dielectric-rod parameters and the groove shapes. The numerical results show that the bandwidth of the helical groove TWT is expanded by loading dielectric-rod, however, the small-signal gain is reduced; and when the groove shape changes from the swallow-tail shape to the triangle shape, the working frequency increases , while the peak gain decreases.
Mackenzie, Anne I.; Baginski, Michael E.; Rao, Sadasiva M.
2008-01-01
In this work, we present a new set of basis functions, defined over a pair of planar triangular patches, for the solution of electromagnetic scattering and radiation problems associated with arbitrarily-shaped surfaces using the method of moments solution procedure. The basis functions are constant over the function subdomain and resemble pulse functions for one and two dimensional problems. Further, another set of basis functions, point-wise orthogonal to the first set, is also defined over the same function space. The primary objective of developing these basis functions is to utilize them for the electromagnetic solution involving conducting, dielectric, and composite bodies. However, in the present work, only the conducting body solution is presented and compared with other data.
Arslanagic, Samel; Ziolkowski, Richard W.
2010-01-01
The present work investigates the optical properties of active coated spherical nano-particles excited by an arbitrarily located electric Hertzian dipole. The nano-particles are made of specific dielectric and plasmonic materials. The spatial near-field distribution as well as the normalized...... radiation resistance is examined. Both enhanced as well as reduced radiation effects are demonstrated. In particular, it is shown that specific active coated nano-particles can be designed to be resonant, leading to much larger values of the normalized radiation resistance than is the case...... with the corresponding passive coated nano-particles, thereby overcoming the intrinsic losses present in the plasmonic materials. Moreover, it is shown that other active coated nano-particle designs can significantly reduce the normalized radiation resistance; thus both the resonant as well as non...
Pan Wei-Zhen; Yang Xue-Jun; Xie Zhi-Kun
2011-01-01
Using a new tortoise coordinate transformation, this paper investigates the Hawking effect from an arbitrarily accelerating charged black hole by the improved Damour-Ruffini method. After the tortoise coordinate transformation,the Klein-Gordon equation can be written as the standard form at the event horizon. Then extending the outgoing wave from outside to inside of the horizon analytically, the surface gravity and Hawking temperature can be obtained automatically. It is found that the Hawking temperatures of different points on the surface are different. The quantum nonthermal radiation characteristics of a black hole near the event horizon is also discussed by studying the Hamilton Jacobi equation in curved spacetime and the maximum overlap of the positive and negative energy levels near the event horizon is given. There is a dimensional problem in the standard tortoise coordinate and the present results may be more reasonable.
袁丽娜; 林岩
2006-01-01
The problem of controlling a single-input-single-output plant without prior knowledge of high frequency gain sign is addressed by using the model reference robust control approach. A switching method is proposed based on a monitoring function so that after a finite number of switchings the tracking error converges to zero exponentially. Furthermore, it is shown that if some initial states of the closed-loop system are zero, only one switching is needed.
2013-01-01
Based on high speed moving target robust high-resolution direction of arrival (DOA) estimation problem under low signal-to-noise ratio and a small number of snapshots in the underwater acoustic vector signal processing framework, a novel spatial spectrum model combined with compressive sensing method is proposed. By studying the acoustic vector sensor structure, a generalized temporal filtering method based on sound pressure and particle velocity combined treatment is presented. According to the matrix spatial prefiltering theory, a new spatial filter with stopband constraint and mean square error min-max principle in passband is proposed which is used as vector sonar spatial prefiltering algorithm. Based on the methods above, a novel time-space domain jointly filtering high-resolution DOA estimation algorithm based on compressive sensing is proposed. The mathematical model, physical interpretation, and specific implement are explained in detail. Theoretical analysis and computer simulation results show that the new method has a lower dual-target distinguishing threshold and a higher estimation accuracy in solving the vector sonar high speed moving target robust DOA estimation problem under a small number of snapshots (single snapshot) condition. The higher robustness and better results of the proposed method are verified in the lake experiment.% 针对水声矢量信号处理框架中的高速运动目标低信噪比小快拍条件下的稳健高分辨方位估计问题，将压缩感知技术应用于水声矢量信号空间谱估计模型中。结合声矢量传感器结构特性，探讨了基于声压振速联合处理的广义时域滤波方法；结合矩阵空域预滤波理论，设计了基于阻带约束通带均方误差最大值最小的空域滤波器，研究了矢量声纳空域预滤波方法；结合以上分析，提出了基于压缩感知技术的时空联合滤波高分辨方位估计方法，给出了方法的数学模型、物理解释
Complexity, Robustness, and Performance
B. Visser (Bauke)
2002-01-01
textabstractThis paper analyses the relationship between organizational complexity ( the degree of detail of information necessary to correctly assign agents to positions), robustness (the relative loss of performance due to mis-allocated agents), and performance. More complex structures are not
Robustness via Diffractal Architectures
Moocarme, Matthew
2015-01-01
When plane waves diffract through fractal-patterned apertures, the resulting far-field profiles or diffractals also exhibit iterated, self-similar features. Here we show that this specific architecture enables robust signal processing and spatial multiplexing: arbitrary parts of a diffractal contain sufficient information to recreate the entire original sparse signal.
Vrouwenvelder, T.; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard
2009-01-01
robustness is still an issue of controversy and poses difficulties in regard to interpretation as well as regulation. Typically modern structural design codes require that ‘the consequence of damages to structures should not be disproportional to the causes of the damages'. However, despite the importance...
Robustness Envelopes of Networks
Trajanovski, S.; Martín-Hernández, J.; Winterbach, W.; Van Mieghem, P.
2013-01-01
We study the robustness of networks under node removal, considering random node failure, as well as targeted node attacks based on network centrality measures. Whilst both of these have been studied in the literature, existing approaches tend to study random failure in terms of average-case behavior
Complexity, Robustness, and Performance
B. Visser (Bauke)
2002-01-01
textabstractThis paper analyses the relationship between organizational complexity ( the degree of detail of information necessary to correctly assign agents to positions), robustness (the relative loss of performance due to mis-allocated agents), and performance. More complex structures are not nec
Polat, Esra; Gunay, Suleyman
2013-10-01
One of the problems encountered in Multiple Linear Regression (MLR) is multicollinearity, which causes the overestimation of the regression parameters and increase of the variance of these parameters. Hence, in case of multicollinearity presents, biased estimation procedures such as classical Principal Component Regression (CPCR) and Partial Least Squares Regression (PLSR) are then performed. SIMPLS algorithm is the leading PLSR algorithm because of its speed, efficiency and results are easier to interpret. However, both of the CPCR and SIMPLS yield very unreliable results when the data set contains outlying observations. Therefore, Hubert and Vanden Branden (2003) have been presented a robust PCR (RPCR) method and a robust PLSR (RPLSR) method called RSIMPLS. In RPCR, firstly, a robust Principal Component Analysis (PCA) method for high-dimensional data on the independent variables is applied, then, the dependent variables are regressed on the scores using a robust regression method. RSIMPLS has been constructed from a robust covariance matrix for high-dimensional data and robust linear regression. The purpose of this study is to show the usage of RPCR and RSIMPLS methods on an econometric data set, hence, making a comparison of two methods on an inflation model of Turkey. The considered methods have been compared in terms of predictive ability and goodness of fit by using a robust Root Mean Squared Error of Cross-validation (R-RMSECV), a robust R2 value and Robust Component Selection (RCS) statistic.
Nonlinear inversion for arbitrarily-oriented anisotropic models II: Inversion techniques
Bremner, P. M.; Panning, M. P.
2011-12-01
We present output models from inversion of a synthetic surface wave dataset. We implement new 3-D finite-frequency kernels, based on the Born approximation, to invert for upper mantle structure beneath western North America. The kernels are formulated based on a hexagonal symmetry with an arbitrary orientation. Numerical tests were performed to achieve a robust inversion scheme. Four synthetic input models were created, to include: isotropic, constant strength anisotropic, variable strength anisotropic, and both anisotropic and isotropic together. The reference model was a simplified version of PREM (dubbed PREM LIGHT) in which the crust and 220 km discontinuity have been removed. Output models from inversions of calculated synthetic data are compared against these input models to test for accurate reproduction of input model features, and the resolution of those features. The object of this phase of the study was to determine appropriate nonlinear inversion schemes that adequately recover the input models. The synthetic dataset consists of collected seismic waveforms of 126 earthquake mechanisms, of magnitude 6-7 from Dec 2006 to Feb 2009, from the IRIS database. Events were selected to correlate with USArray deployments, and to have as complete an azimuthal coverage as possible. The events occurred within a circular region of radius 150o centered about 44o lat, -110o lon (an arbitrary location within USArray coverage). Synthetic data were calculated utilizing a spectral element code (SEM) coupled to a normal mode solution. The mesh consists of a 3-D heterogeneous outer shell, representing the upper mantle above 450 km depth, coupled to a spherically symmetric inner sphere. From the synthetic dataset, multi-taper fundamental mode surface wave phase delay measurements are taken. The orthogonal 2.5π -prolate spheroidal wave function eigentapers (Slepian tapers) reduce noise biasing, and can provide error estimates in phase delay measurements. This study is a
Design Robust Controller for Rotary Kiln
Omar D. Hernández-Arboleda
2013-11-01
Full Text Available This paper presents the design of a robust controller for a rotary kiln. The designed controller is a combination of a fractional PID and linear quadratic regulator (LQR, these are not used to control the kiln until now, in addition robustness criteria are evaluated (gain margin, phase margin, strength gain, rejecting high frequency noise and sensitivity applied to the entire model (controller-plant, obtaining good results with a frequency range of 0.020 to 90 rad/s, which contributes to the robustness of the system.
Comparing dependent robust correlations.
Wilcox, Rand R
2016-11-01
Let r1 and r2 be two dependent estimates of Pearson's correlation. There is a substantial literature on testing H0 : ρ1 = ρ2 , the hypothesis that the population correlation coefficients are equal. However, it is well known that Pearson's correlation is not robust. Even a single outlier can have a substantial impact on Pearson's correlation, resulting in a misleading understanding about the strength of the association among the bulk of the points. A way of mitigating this concern is to use a correlation coefficient that guards against outliers, many of which have been proposed. But apparently there are no results on how to compare dependent robust correlation coefficients when there is heteroscedasicity. Extant results suggest that a basic percentile bootstrap will perform reasonably well. This paper reports simulation results indicating the extent to which this is true when using Spearman's rho, a Winsorized correlation or a skipped correlation.
Kutzner, Florian; Vogel, Tobias; Freytag, Peter; Fiedler, Klaus
2011-01-01
In the present research, we argue for the robustness of illusory correlations (ICs, Hamilton & Gifford, 1976) regarding two boundary conditions suggested in previous research. First, we argue that ICs are maintained under extended experience. Using simulations, we derive conflicting predictions. Whereas noise-based accounts predict ICs to be maintained (Fielder, 2000; Smith, 1991), a prominent account based on discrepancy-reducing feedback learning predicts ICs to disappear (Van Rooy et al., 2003). An experiment involving 320 observations with majority and minority members supports the claim that ICs are maintained. Second, we show that actively using the stereotype to make predictions that are met with reward and punishment does not eliminate the bias. In addition, participants' operant reactions afford a novel online measure of ICs. In sum, our findings highlight the robustness of ICs that can be explained as a result of unbiased but noisy learning.
1985-09-19
13.2 3.6. 14.0. 1.8. 11111.52 *.6 L 3 n1 i erated ~~~m nc. AFOSR-TR- 798 s AD-A 161 349 ROBUST ADAPTIVE CONTROL * FINAL REPORT PREPARED BY: R~ OBERT L... Centre Block Computes the Norm of the [1I] Solo, V., "Time Series Recursions and Stochastc Regressors. The Rematning Elemerts Imple- Approximation
Robust Self Tuning Controllers
Poulsen, Niels Kjølstad
1985-01-01
The present thesis concerns robustness properties of adaptive controllers. It is addressed to methods for robustifying self tuning controllers with respect to abrupt changes in the plant parameters. In the thesis an algorithm for estimating abruptly changing parameters is presented. The estimator...... has several operation modes and a detector for controlling the mode. A special self tuning controller has been developed to regulate plant with changing time delay....
Robustness of Interdependent Networks
Havlin, Shlomo
2011-03-01
In interdependent networks, when nodes in one network fail, they cause dependent nodes in other networks to also fail. This may happen recursively and can lead to a cascade of failures. In fact, a failure of a very small fraction of nodes in one network may lead to the complete fragmentation of a system of many interdependent networks. We will present a framework for understanding the robustness of interacting networks subject to such cascading failures and provide a basic analytic approach that may be useful in future studies. We present exact analytical solutions for the critical fraction of nodes that upon removal will lead to a failure cascade and to a complete fragmentation of two interdependent networks in a first order transition. Surprisingly, analyzing complex systems as a set of interdependent networks may alter a basic assumption that network theory has relied on: while for a single network a broader degree distribution of the network nodes results in the network being more robust to random failures, for interdependent networks, the broader the distribution is, the more vulnerable the networks become to random failure. We also show that reducing the coupling between the networks leads to a change from a first order percolation phase transition to a second order percolation transition at a critical point. These findings pose a significant challenge to the future design of robust networks that need to consider the unique properties of interdependent networks.
Marek Hicar
2004-01-01
Full Text Available The article is about a control design for complete structure of the crane: crab, bridge and crane uplift.The most important unknown parameters for simulations are burden weight and length of hanging rope. We will use robustcontrol for crab and bridge control to ensure adaptivity for burden weight and rope length. Robust control will be designed for current control of the crab and bridge, necessary is to know the range of unknown parameters. Whole robust will be splitto subintervals and after correct identification of unknown parameters the most suitable robust controllers will be chosen.The most important condition at the crab and bridge motion is avoiding from burden swinging in the final position. Crab and bridge drive is designed by asynchronous motor fed from frequency converter. We will use crane uplift with burden weightobserver in combination for uplift, crab and bridge drive with cooperation of their parameters: burden weight, rope length and crab and bridge position. Controllers are designed by state control method. We will use preferably a disturbance observerwhich will identify burden weight as a disturbance. The system will be working in both modes at empty hook as well asat maximum load: burden uplifting and dropping down.
Zimmerling, J.T.; Wei, L.; Urbach, H.P.; Remis, R.F.
2016-01-01
We present a Krylov model-order reduction approach to efficiently compute the spontaneous decay (SD) rate of arbitrarily shaped 3D nanosized resonators. We exploit the symmetry of Maxwell’s equations to efficiently construct so-called reduced-order models that approximate the SD rate of a quantum
A.F. van Belkum (Alex); H. Maas (Hugo); H.A. Verbrugh (Henri); N. van Leeuwen (N.)
1996-01-01
textabstractFifty clinical and environmental isolates of Legionella pneumophila were typed serologically and by DNA fingerprinting using arbitrarily primed polymerase chain reaction (AP-PCR). Furthermore, variability in and around ribosomal operons was assessed by conventional ribotyping and PCR-med
Robust Quantum Error Correction via Convex Optimization
Kosut, R L; Lidar, D A
2007-01-01
Quantum error correction procedures have traditionally been developed for specific error models, and are not robust against uncertainty in the errors. Using a semidefinite program optimization approach we find high fidelity quantum error correction procedures which present robust encoding and recovery effective against significant uncertainty in the error system. We present numerical examples for 3, 5, and 7-qubit codes. Our approach requires as input a description of the error channel, which can be provided via quantum process tomography.
Kaneko, K
1998-01-01
Strength of attractor is studied by the return rate to itself after perturbations, for a multi-attractor state of a globally coupled map. It is found that fragile (Milnor) attractors have a large basin volume at the partially ordered phase. Such dominance of fragile attractors is understood by robustness of global attraction in the phase space. Change of the attractor strength and basin volume against the parameter and size are studied. In the partially ordered phase, the dynamics is often described as Milnor attractor network, which leads to a new interpretation of chaotic itinerancy. Noise-induced selection of fragile attractors is found that has a sharp dependence on the noise amplitude. Relevance of the observed results to neural dynamics and cell differentiation is also discussed.
Evaluation of robustness indicators using railway operation simulation
Jensen, Lars Wittrup; Landex, Alex; Nielsen, Otto Anker
2014-01-01
The classical way of evaluating the robustness of railway timetables is the use of microscopic simulation. This is precise and offers a high level of detail, but it also requires a high amount of work. The alternative is to use robustness indicators that directly or indirectly indicate the robust......The classical way of evaluating the robustness of railway timetables is the use of microscopic simulation. This is precise and offers a high level of detail, but it also requires a high amount of work. The alternative is to use robustness indicators that directly or indirectly indicate...... the robustness of a railway system. However, the semantics of these are mainly unknown and indicators are therefore best for comparison of alternatives. The paper therefore reviews and evaluates different robustness indicators against a microscopic simulation. This evaluation show that the indicators compare...
Extending ALE3D, an Arbitrarily Connected hexahedral 3D Code, to Very Large Problem Size (U)
Nichols, A L
2010-12-15
As the number of compute units increases on the ASC computers, the prospect of running previously unimaginably large problems is becoming a reality. In an arbitrarily connected 3D finite element code, like ALE3D, one must provide a unique identification number for every node, element, face, and edge. This is required for a number of reasons, including defining the global connectivity array required for domain decomposition, identifying appropriate communication patterns after domain decomposition, and determining the appropriate load locations for implicit solvers, for example. In most codes, the unique identification number is defined as a 32-bit integer. Thus the maximum value available is 231, or roughly 2.1 billion. For a 3D geometry consisting of arbitrarily connected hexahedral elements, there are approximately 3 faces for every element, and 3 edges for every node. Since the nodes and faces need id numbers, using 32-bit integers puts a hard limit on the number of elements in a problem at roughly 700 million. The first solution to this problem would be to replace 32-bit signed integers with 32-bit unsigned integers. This would increase the maximum size of a problem by a factor of 2. This provides some head room, but almost certainly not one that will last long. Another solution would be to replace all 32-bit int declarations with 64-bit long long declarations. (long is either a 32-bit or a 64-bit integer, depending on the OS). The problem with this approach is that there are only a few arrays that actually need to extended size, and thus this would increase the size of the problem unnecessarily. In a future computing environment where CPUs are abundant but memory relatively scarce, this is probably the wrong approach. Based on these considerations, we have chosen to replace only the global identifiers with the appropriate 64-bit integer. The problem with this approach is finding all the places where data that is specified as a 32-bit integer needs to be
The method of arbitrarily large moments to calculate single scale processes in quantum field theory
Bluemlein, Johannes [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany); Schneider, Carsten [Johannes Kepler Univ., Linz (Austria). Research Inst. for Symbolic Computation (RISC)
2017-01-15
We device a new method to calculate a large number of Mellin moments of single scale quantities using the systems of differential and/or difference equations obtained by integration-by-parts identities between the corresponding Feynman integrals of loop corrections to physical quantities. These scalar quantities have a much simpler mathematical structure than the complete quantity. A sufficiently large set of moments may even allow the analytic reconstruction of the whole quantity considered, holding in case of first order factorizing systems. In any case, one may derive highly precise numerical representations in general using this method, which is otherwise completely analytic.
Robustness of Cantor diffractals.
Verma, Rupesh; Sharma, Manoj Kumar; Banerjee, Varsha; Senthilkumaran, Paramasivam
2013-04-08
Diffractals are electromagnetic waves diffracted by a fractal aperture. In an earlier paper, we reported an important property of Cantor diffractals, that of redundancy [R. Verma et. al., Opt. Express 20, 8250 (2012)]. In this paper, we report another important property, that of robustness. The question we address is: How much disorder in the Cantor grating can be accommodated by diffractals to continue to yield faithfully its fractal dimension and generator? This answer is of consequence in a number of physical problems involving fractal architecture.
Robust Kriged Kalman Filtering
Baingana, Brian; Dall' Anese, Emiliano; Mateos, Gonzalo; Giannakis, Georgios B.
2015-11-11
Although the kriged Kalman filter (KKF) has well-documented merits for prediction of spatial-temporal processes, its performance degrades in the presence of outliers due to anomalous events, or measurement equipment failures. This paper proposes a robust KKF model that explicitly accounts for presence of measurement outliers. Exploiting outlier sparsity, a novel l1-regularized estimator that jointly predicts the spatial-temporal process at unmonitored locations, while identifying measurement outliers is put forth. Numerical tests are conducted on a synthetic Internet protocol (IP) network, and real transformer load data. Test results corroborate the effectiveness of the novel estimator in joint spatial prediction and outlier identification.
Baisa L. Gunjal
2012-04-01
Full Text Available In this paper ‘DWT-SVD’ based Color Image Watermarking technique in YUV color space using Arnold Transform is proposed. The RGB color image is converted into YUV color space. Image is decomposed by 3 level DWT and then SVD is applied. The security is increased with watermark scrambling using Arnold Transform. The watermark is embedded in all Y,U and V color spaces in HL3 region. The decomposition is done with ‘Haar’ which is simple, symmetric and orthogonal wavelet and the direct weighting factor is used in watermark embedding and extraction process is used. PSNR and Normalized Correlations (NC values are tested for 10 different values of flexing factor. We got maximum PSNR up to 52.3337 for Y channel and average value of NC equal to 0.99 indicating best recovery of watermark. The proposed scheme is non blind and strongly robust to different attacks like compression, scaling, rotation, cropping and Noise addition which is tested with standard database image of size 512x512 and watermark of size 64X64.
Epstein, Ariel; Eleftheriades, George V
2015-01-01
One of the long-standing problems in antenna engineering is the realization of highly-directive beams using low-profile devices. In this paper we provide a solution to this problem by means of Huygens' metasurfaces (HMSs), based on the equivalence principle. This principle states that a given excitation can be transformed to a desirable aperture field by inducing suitable electric and magnetic surface currents. Building on this concept, we propose and demonstrate cavity-excited HMS antennas, where the single-source cavity excitation is designed to optimize aperture illumination, while the HMS facilitates the current distribution that ensures phase purity of aperture fields. The HMS breaks the coupling between the excitation and radiation spectrum typical to standard partially-reflecting surfaces, allowing tailoring of the aperture properties to produce a desirable radiation pattern. As shown, a single semianalytical formalism can be followed to achieve control of a variety of radiation features, such as the d...
Robustness Metrics: Consolidating the multiple approaches to quantify Robustness
Göhler, Simon Moritz; Eifler, Tobias; Howard, Thomas J.
2016-01-01
determined to be conceptually different from one another. The metrics were classified by their meaning and interpretation based on the types of information necessary to calculate the metrics. Four different classes were identified: 1) Sensitivity robustness metrics; 2) Size of feasible design space...... and to remove the ambiguities of the term robustness. By applying an exemplar metric from each class to a case study, the differences between the classes were further highlighted.These classes form the basis for the definition of four specific sub-definitions of robustness, namely the ‘robust concept’, ‘robust...
Fernández-Nieto, E D; Narbona-Reina, G; Zabsonré, J D
2015-01-01
In this work we present a deduction of the Saint-Venant-Exner model through an asymptotic analysis of the Navier-Stokes equations. A multi-scale analysis is performed in order to take into account that the velocity of the sediment layer is smaller than the one of the fluid layer. This leads us to consider a shallow water type system for the fluid layer and a lubrication Reynolds equation for the sediment one. This deduction provides some improvements with respect to the classical Saint-Venant-Exner model: (i) the deduced model has an associated energy. Moreover, it allows us to explain why classical models do not have an associated energy and how to modify them in order to recover a model with this property. (ii) The model incorporates naturally a necessary modification that must be taken into account in order to be applied to arbitrarily sloping beds. Furthermore, we show that this modification is different of the ones considered classically, and that it coincides with a classical one only if the solution ha...
Richard A. Shweder
2013-11-01
Full Text Available In this wide ranging interview, Professor Richard A. Shweder from the Department of Comparative Human Development at the University of Chicago, discusses whether it is or is not possible to be a robust cultural pluralist and a dedicated political liberal at the same time. In this discussion, Professor Shweder offers his insights - based on over 40 years of research - on issues related to the history and re-emergence of cultural psychology; moral anthropology and psychology; the experimental method in psychological investigation and its philosophical basis; contemporary and historical cultural collisions – most notably conflicting representations of female genital surgeries; cultural diversity and inequality; and the dissemination of ideas through open access publishing and Twitter. Professor Shweder ends by offering valuable advice to young researchers in the field of cultural psychology as well as a glimpse into the larger themes of his forthcoming book, which seeks to provide answers to the question of what forms of political liberalism are most compatible with robust cultural pluralism and which are not.
Hadron Resonance Gas Model for An Arbitrarily Large Number of Different Hard-Core Radii
Oliinychenko, D R; Sagun, V V; Ivanytskyi, A I; Yakimenko, I P; Nikonov, E G; Taranenko, A V; Zinovjev, G M
2016-01-01
We develop a novel formulation of the hadron-resonance gas model which, besides a hard-core repulsion, explicitly accounts for the surface tension induced by the interaction between the particles. Such an equation of state allows us to go beyond the Van der Waals approximation for any number of different hard-core radii. A comparison with the Carnahan-Starling equation of state shows that the new model is valid for packing fractions 0.2-0.22, while the usual Van der Waals model is inapplicable at packing fractions above 0.11-0.12. Moreover, it is shown that the equation of state with induced surface tension is softer than the one of hard spheres and remains causal at higher particle densities. The great advantage of our model is that there are only two equations to be solved and it does not depend on the various values of the hard-core radii used for different hadronic resonances. Using this novel equation of state we obtain a high-quality fit of the ALICE hadron multiplicities measured at center-of-mass ener...
An Efficient XFEM Approximation of Darcy Flows in Arbitrarily Fractured Porous Media
Fumagalli Alessio
2014-07-01
Full Text Available Subsurface flows are influenced by the presence of faults and large fractures which act as preferential paths or barriers for the flow. In literature models were proposed to handle fractures in a porous medium as objects of codimension 1. In this work we consider the case of a network of intersecting fractures, with the aim of deriving physically consistent and effective interface conditions to impose at the intersection between fractures. This new model accounts for the angle between fractures at the intersections and allows for jumps of pressure across the intersection. This latter property permits to describe more accurately the flow when fractures are characterised by different properties, than other models that impose pressure continuity. The main mathematical properties of the model, derived in the two-dimensional setting, are analysed. As concerns the numerical discretization we allow the grids of the fractures to be independent, thus in general non-matching at the intersection, by means of the Extended Finite Element Method (XFEM, to increase the flexibility of the method in the case of complex geometries characterized by a high number of fractures.
Moon, Haksu; Teixeira, Fernando L.; Donderici, Burkay
2014-09-01
Computation of electromagnetic fields due to point sources (Hertzian dipoles) in cylindrically stratified media is a classical problem for which analytical expressions of the associated tensor Green's function have been long known. However, under finite-precision arithmetic, direct numerical computations based on the application of such analytical (canonical) expressions invariably lead to underflow and overflow problems related to the poor scaling of the eigenfunctions (cylindrical Bessel and Hankel functions) for extreme arguments and/or high-order, as well as convergence problems related to the numerical integration over the spectral wavenumber and to the truncation of the infinite series over the azimuth mode number. These problems are exacerbated when a disparate range of values is to be considered for the layers' thicknesses and material properties (resistivities, permittivities, and permeabilities), the transverse and longitudinal distances between source and observation points, as well as the source frequency. To overcome these challenges in a systematic fashion, we introduce herein different sets of range-conditioned, modified cylindrical functions (in lieu of standard cylindrical eigenfunctions), each associated with nonoverlapped subdomains of (numerical) evaluation to allow for stable computations under any range of physical parameters. In addition, adaptively-chosen integration contours are employed in the complex spectral wavenumber plane to ensure convergent numerical integration in all cases. We illustrate the application of the algorithm to problems of geophysical interest involving layer resistivities ranging from 1000 Ω m to 10-8 Ω m, frequencies of operation ranging from 10 MHz down to the low magnetotelluric range of 0.01 Hz, and for various combinations of layer thicknesses.
International Conference on Robust Statistics
Filzmoser, Peter; Gather, Ursula; Rousseeuw, Peter
2003-01-01
Aspects of Robust Statistics are important in many areas. Based on the International Conference on Robust Statistics 2001 (ICORS 2001) in Vorau, Austria, this volume discusses future directions of the discipline, bringing together leading scientists, experienced researchers and practitioners, as well as younger researchers. The papers cover a multitude of different aspects of Robust Statistics. For instance, the fundamental problem of data summary (weights of evidence) is considered and its robustness properties are studied. Further theoretical subjects include e.g.: robust methods for skewness, time series, longitudinal data, multivariate methods, and tests. Some papers deal with computational aspects and algorithms. Finally, the aspects of application and programming tools complete the volume.
Passion, Robustness and Perseverance
Lim, Miguel Antonio; Lund, Rebecca
2016-01-01
Evaluation and merit in the measured university are increasingly based on taken-for-granted assumptions about the “ideal academic”. We suggest that the scholar now needs to show that she is passionate about her work and that she gains pleasure from pursuing her craft. We suggest that passion...... and pleasure achieve an exalted status as something compulsory. The scholar ought to feel passionate about her work and signal that she takes pleasure also in the difficult moments. Passion has become a signal of robustness and perseverance in a job market characterised by funding shortages, increased pressure...... to produce measurable output, and precariousness. For young academics in particular it is increasingly important to demonstrate the “right attitude”, “feelings”, and “personality traits” because they have yet to accumulate a record of past achievements that are used as the basis of merit. In hiring decisions...
Robust procedures in chemometrics
Kotwa, Ewelina
-way chemometrical methods, such as PCA and PARAFAC models for analysing spatial and depth profiles of sea water samples, defined by three data modes: depth, variables and geographical location. Emphasis was also put on predicting fluorescence values, as being a natural measure of biological activity, by applying....... applying a multivariate and multi-way data analytical frame-work in fields where less sophisticated data analysis methods are currently used, and 2. developing new, more robust alternatives to already existing multivariate tools. The first part of the study was realised by applying two- and three...... and comparing the Partial Least Squares (PLS) regression technique with its multi-way alternative, N-PLS. Results of the analysis indicated superiority of the three-way frame-work, potentially constituting a novel assessment of the sea water measurements. Particularly in the case of regression models...
Robust Optical Flow Estimation
Javier Sánchez Pérez
2013-10-01
Full Text Available n this work, we describe an implementation of the variational method proposed by Brox etal. in 2004, which yields accurate optical flows with low running times. It has several benefitswith respect to the method of Horn and Schunck: it is more robust to the presence of outliers,produces piecewise-smooth flow fields and can cope with constant brightness changes. Thismethod relies on the brightness and gradient constancy assumptions, using the information ofthe image intensities and the image gradients to find correspondences. It also generalizes theuse of continuous L1 functionals, which help mitigate the effect of outliers and create a TotalVariation (TV regularization. Additionally, it introduces a simple temporal regularizationscheme that enforces a continuous temporal coherence of the flow fields.
Validation of community robustness
Carissimo, Annamaria; Defeis, Italia
2016-01-01
The large amount of work on community detection and its applications leaves unaddressed one important question: the statistical validation of the results. In this paper we present a methodology able to clearly detect if the community structure found by some algorithms is statistically significant or is a result of chance, merely due to edge positions in the network. Given a community detection method and a network of interest, our proposal examines the stability of the partition recovered against random perturbations of the original graph structure. To address this issue, we specify a perturbation strategy and a null model to build a set of procedures based on a special measure of clustering distance, namely Variation of Information, using tools set up for functional data analysis. The procedures determine whether the obtained clustering departs significantly from the null model. This strongly supports the robustness against perturbation of the algorithm used to identify the community structure. We show the r...
Provably robust digital watermarking
Chen, Brian; Wornell, Gregory W.
1999-11-01
Copyright notification and enforcement, authentication, covert communication, and hybrid transmission are examples of emerging multimedia applications for digital watermarking methods, methods for embedding one signal (e.g., the digital watermark) within another 'host' signal to form a third, 'composite' signal. The embedding is designed to achieve efficient trade-offs among the three conflicting goals of maximizing information-embedding rate, minimizing distortion between the host signal and composite signal, and maximizing the robustness of the embedding. Quantization index modulation (QIM) methods are a class of watermarking methods that achieve provably good rate-distortion-robustness performance. Indeed, QIM methods exist that achieve performance within a few dB of capacity in the case of a (possibly colored) Gaussian host signal and an additive (possibly colored) Gaussian noise channel. Also, QIM methods can achieve capacity with a type of postprocessing called distortion compensation. This capacity is independent of host signal statistics, and thus, contrary to popular belief, the information-embedding capacity when the host signal is not available at the decoder is the same as the case when the host signal is available at the decoder. A low-complexity realization of QIM called dither modulation has previously been proven to be better than both linear methods of spread spectrum and nonlinear methods of low-bit(s) modulation against square-error distortion-constrained intentional attacks. We introduce a new form of dither modulation called spread-transform dither modulation that retains these favorable performance characteristics while achieving better performance against other attacks such as JPEG compression.
Lefèvre, T; Chauvin, P
2015-02-01
In an epidemiologist's toolbox, three main types of statistical tools can be found: means and proportions comparisons, linear or logistic regression models and Cox-type regression models. All these techniques have their own multivariate formulations, so that biases can be accounted for. Nonetheless, there is an entire set of natively massive multivariate techniques, which are based on weaker assumptions than classical statistical techniques are, and which seem to be underestimated or remain unknown to most epidemiologists. These techniques are used for pattern recognition or clustering – that is, for retrieving homogeneous groups in data without any a priori about these groups. They are widely used in connex domains such as genetics or biomolecular studies. Most clustering techniques require tuning specific parameters so that groups can be identified in data. A critical parameter to set is the number of groups the technique needs to discover. Different approaches to find the optimal number of groups are available, such as the silhouette approach and the robustness approach. This article presents the key aspects of clustering techniques (how proximity between observations is defined and how to find the number of groups), two archetypal techniques (namely the k-means and PAM algorithms) and how they relate to more classical statistical approaches. Through a theoretical, simple example and a real data application, we provide a complete framework within which classical epidemiological concerns can be reconsidered. We show how to (i) identify whether distinct groups exist in data, (ii) identify the optimal number of groups in data, (iii) label each observation according to its own group and (iv) analyze the groups identified according to separate and explicative data. In addition, how to achieve consistent results while removing sensitivity to initial conditions is explained. Clustering techniques, in conjunction with methods for parameter tuning, provide the
Fuzzy Design Method of Product Quality Robustness
无
2001-01-01
In order to express information on the quality grade of product, designed, the target value of product quality design was described with a fuzzy number in this paper. The rule of robust design with a fuzzy target was analyzed with fuzzy probability theory,then the principle and modeling method of fuzzy robust design for a high quality product were put forward. With this new method used, the high-quality ratio of the product de-signed could be increased, and the ability to resist the influence of various disturbing fac-tors ang noise factors could be enhanced.
Robust-mode analysis of hydrodynamic flows
Roy, Sukesh; Gord, James R.; Hua, Jia-Chen; Gunaratne, Gemunu H.
2017-04-01
The emergence of techniques to extract high-frequency high-resolution data introduces a new avenue for modal decomposition to assess the underlying dynamics, especially of complex flows. However, this task requires the differentiation of robust, repeatable flow constituents from noise and other irregular features of a flow. Traditional approaches involving low-pass filtering and principle components analysis have shortcomings. The approach outlined here, referred to as robust-mode analysis, is based on Koopman decomposition. Three applications to (a) a counter-rotating cellular flame state, (b) variations in financial markets, and (c) turbulent injector flows are provided.
J.Y. Zhu; M. Subhosh Chandra; Feng Gu; Roland Gleisner; J.Y. Zhu; John Sessions; Gevan Marrs; Johnway Gao; Dwight Anderson
2015-01-01
This study demonstrated at the pilot-scale (50 kg) use of Douglas-fir forest harvest residue, an underutilized forest biomass, for the production of high titer and high yield bioethanol using sulfite chemistry without solidâliquor separation and detoxification. Sulfite Pretreatment to Overcome the Recalcitrance of Lignocelluloses (SPORL) was directly applied to the...
Marc Brunel
2015-04-01
Full Text Available We present the development of a numerical simulator for digital in-line holography applications. In-line holograms of arbitrarily shaped and arbitrarily located objects are calculated using generalized Huygens-Fresnel integrals. The objects are 2D opaque or phase objects. The optical set-up is described by its optical transfer matrix. A wide variety of optical systems, involving windows, spherical or cylindrical lenses, can thus be taken into account. It makes the simulator applicable for design and description of in situ experiments. We discuss future applications of this simulator for detection of nanoparticles in droplets, or calibration of airborne instruments that detect and measure ice crystals in the atmosphere.
Papadimitriou, Konstantinos; Boutou, Effrossyni; Zoumpopoulou, Georgia; Tarantilis, Petros A; Polissiou, Moschos; Vorgias, Constantinos E; Tsakalidou, Effie
2008-10-01
We have previously reported that an acid tolerance response (ATR) can be induced in Streptococcus macedonicus cells at mid-log phase after autoacidification, transient exposure to acidic pH, or acid habituation, as well as at stationary phase. Here, we compared the transcriptional profiles of these epigenetic phenotypes, by RNA arbitrarily primed PCR (RAP-PCR), and their whole-cell chemical compositions, by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). RAP-PCR fingerprints revealed significant differences among the phenotypes, indicating that gene expression during the ATR is influenced not only by the growth phase but also by the treatments employed to induce the response. The genes coding for the mannose-specific IID component, the 1,2-diacylglycerol 3-glucosyltransferase, the 3-oxoacyl-acyl carrier protein, the large subunit of carbamoyl-phosphate synthase, and a hypothetical protein were found to be induced at least under some of the acid-adapting conditions. Furthermore, principal component analysis of the second-derivative-transformed FT-IR spectra segregated S. macedonicus phenotypes individually in all spectral regions that are characteristic for major cellular constituents like the polysaccharides of the cell wall, fatty acids of the cell membrane, proteins, and other compounds that absorb in these regions. These findings provide evidence for major changes in cellular composition due to acid adaptation that were clearly different to some extent among the phenotypes. Overall, our data demonstrate the plasticity in the ATR of S. macedonicus, which reflects the inherent ability of the bacterium to adjust the response to the distinctiveness of the imposed stress condition, probably to maximize its adaptability.
Robust audio hashing for audio authentication watermarking
Zmudzinski, Sascha; Steinebach, Martin
2008-02-01
Current systems and protocols based on cryptographic methods for integrity and authenticity verification of media data do not distinguish between legitimate signal transformation and malicious tampering that manipulates the content. Furthermore, they usually provide no localization or assessment of the relevance of such manipulations with respect to human perception or semantics. We present an algorithm for a robust message authentication code in the context of content fragile authentication watermarking to verify the integrity of audio recodings by means of robust audio fingerprinting. Experimental results show that the proposed algorithm provides both a high level of distinction between perceptually different audio data and a high robustness against signal transformations that do not change the perceived information. Furthermore, it is well suited for the integration in a content-based authentication watermarking system.
Ochirbat, G
2000-01-01
A plane medium, whose dielectric tensor's principal values arbitrarily depend upon intensity, is considered. The problems of the TM and TE waves, within the problem of light scattering, are reduced to quadrature. A question of integrability of the full system of Maxwell equations is discussed. A closed equation has been obtained for an auxiliary variable for a nonlinearity of Kerr type. A scheme for integrating the full system of Maxwell equations by solving the equation over the auxiliary variable is suggested.
Robust Instrumentation[Water treatment for power plant]; Robust Instrumentering
Wik, Anders [Vattenfall Utveckling AB, Stockholm (Sweden)
2003-08-01
Cementa Slite Power Station is a heat recovery steam generator (HRSG) with moderate steam data; 3.0 MPa and 420 deg C. The heat is recovered from Cementa, a cement industry, without any usage of auxiliary fuel. The Power station commenced operation in 2001. The layout of the plant is unusual, there are no similar in Sweden and very few world-wide, so the operational experiences are limited. In connection with the commissioning of the power plant a R and D project was identified with the objective to minimise the manpower needed for chemistry management of the plant. The lean chemistry management is based on robust instrumentation and chemical-free water treatment plant. The concept with robust instrumentation consists of the following components; choice of on-line instrumentation with a minimum of O and M and a chemical-free water treatment. The parameters are specific conductivity, cation conductivity, oxygen and pH. In addition to that, two fairly new on-line instruments were included; corrosion monitors and differential pH calculated from specific and cation conductivity. The chemical-free water treatment plant consists of softening, reverse osmosis and electro-deionisation. The operational experience shows that the cycle chemistry is not within the guidelines due to major problems with the operation of the power plant. These problems have made it impossible to reach steady state and thereby not viable to fully verify and validate the concept with robust instrumentation. From readings on the panel of the online analysers some conclusions may be drawn, e.g. the differential pH measurements have fulfilled the expectations. The other on-line analysers have been working satisfactorily apart from contamination with turbine oil, which has been noticed at least twice. The corrosion monitors seem to be working but the lack of trend curves from the mainframe computer system makes it hard to draw any clear conclusions. The chemical-free water treatment has met all
Robust Signal Processing in Living Cells
Steuer, Ralf; Waldherr, Steffen; Sourjik, Victor; Kollmann, Markus
2011-01-01
Cellular signaling networks have evolved an astonishing ability to function reliably and with high fidelity in uncertain environments. A crucial prerequisite for the high precision exhibited by many signaling circuits is their ability to keep the concentrations of active signaling compounds within tightly defined bounds, despite strong stochastic fluctuations in copy numbers and other detrimental influences. Based on a simple mathematical formalism, we identify topological organizing principles that facilitate such robust control of intracellular concentrations in the face of multifarious perturbations. Our framework allows us to judge whether a multiple-input-multiple-output reaction network is robust against large perturbations of network parameters and enables the predictive design of perfectly robust synthetic network architectures. Utilizing the Escherichia coli chemotaxis pathway as a hallmark example, we provide experimental evidence that our framework indeed allows us to unravel the topological organization of robust signaling. We demonstrate that the specific organization of the pathway allows the system to maintain global concentration robustness of the diffusible response regulator CheY with respect to several dominant perturbations. Our framework provides a counterpoint to the hypothesis that cellular function relies on an extensive machinery to fine-tune or control intracellular parameters. Rather, we suggest that for a large class of perturbations, there exists an appropriate topology that renders the network output invariant to the respective perturbations. PMID:22215991
On the existence of high index topologically minimal surfaces
Bachman, David
2009-01-01
The topological index of a surface was previously introduced by the first author as the topological analogue of the index of an unstable minimal surface. Here we show that surfaces of arbitrarily high topological index exist.
Zhang, Xuming; Peng, Xiang; Li, Wan; Li, Limin; Gao, Biao; Wu, Guosong; Huo, Kaifu; Chu, Paul K
2015-04-17
A coaxial electrode structure composed of manganese oxide-decorated TiC/C core/shell nanofiber arrays is produced hydrothermally in a KMnO4 solution. The pristine TiC/C core/shell structure prepared on the Ti alloy substrate provides the self-sacrificing carbon shell and highly conductive TiC core, thus greatly simplifying the fabrication process without requiring an additional reduction source and conductive additive. The as-prepared electrode exhibits a high specific capacitance of 645 F g(-1) at a discharging current density of 1 A g(-1) attributable to the highly conductive TiC/C and amorphous MnO2 shell with fast ion diffusion. In the charging/discharging cycling test, the as-prepared electrode shows high stability and 99% capacity retention after 5000 cycles. Although the thermal treatment conducted on the as-prepared electrode decreases the initial capacitance, the electrode undergoes capacitance recovery through structural transformation from the crystalline cluster to layered birnessite type MnO2 nanosheets as a result of dissolution and further electrodeposition in the cycling. 96.5% of the initial capacitance is retained after 1000 cycles at high charging/discharging current density of 25 A g(-1). This study demonstrates a novel scaffold to construct MnO2 based SCs with high specific capacitance as well as excellent mechanical and cycling stability boding well for future design of high-performance MnO2-based SCs. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
Yang, Qianli; Pitkow, Xaq
2015-03-01
Most interesting natural sensory stimuli are encoded in the brain in a form that can only be decoded nonlinearly. But despite being a core function of the brain, nonlinear population codes are rarely studied and poorly understood. Interestingly, the few existing models of nonlinear codes are inconsistent with known architectural features of the brain. In particular, these codes have information content that scales with the size of the cortical population, even if that violates the data processing inequality by exceeding the amount of information entering the sensory system. Here we provide a valid theory of nonlinear population codes by generalizing recent work on information-limiting correlations in linear population codes. Although these generalized, nonlinear information-limiting correlations bound the performance of any decoder, they also make decoding more robust to suboptimal computation, allowing many suboptimal decoders to achieve nearly the same efficiency as an optimal decoder. Although these correlations are extremely difficult to measure directly, particularly for nonlinear codes, we provide a simple, practical test by which one can use choice-related activity in small populations of neurons to determine whether decoding is suboptimal or optimal and limited by correlated noise. We conclude by describing an example computation in the vestibular system where this theory applies. QY and XP was supported by a grant from the McNair foundation.
Robust relativistic bit commitment
Chakraborty, Kaushik; Chailloux, André; Leverrier, Anthony
2016-12-01
Relativistic cryptography exploits the fact that no information can travel faster than the speed of light in order to obtain security guarantees that cannot be achieved from the laws of quantum mechanics alone. Recently, Lunghi et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 115, 030502 (2015), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.115.030502] presented a bit-commitment scheme where each party uses two agents that exchange classical information in a synchronized fashion, and that is both hiding and binding. A caveat is that the commitment time is intrinsically limited by the spatial configuration of the players, and increasing this time requires the agents to exchange messages during the whole duration of the protocol. While such a solution remains computationally attractive, its practicality is severely limited in realistic settings since all communication must remain perfectly synchronized at all times. In this work, we introduce a robust protocol for relativistic bit commitment that tolerates failures of the classical communication network. This is done by adding a third agent to both parties. Our scheme provides a quadratic improvement in terms of expected sustain time compared with the original protocol, while retaining the same level of security.
Yao, Lin; He, Junhui; Geng, Zhi; Ren, Tingting
2015-07-01
Low-cost antireflection (AR) thin films on large-area optical surfaces are important for high-performance optical devices, display devices and photovoltaic cells. In the current work, SiO2&TiO2 double-shell hollow nanospheres (DSHNs) were designed, synthesized and utilized as building blocks for fabricating multifunctional AR thin films. By optimizing the porosity of SiO2&TiO2 DSHN and thin film structure, substrates with DSHN thin films attained transmittance as high as 99.4% and average transmittance up to 98.5% in the visible region. The nano-composite SiO2-TiO2 films exhibited intrinsic superhydrophilicity, anti-fogging and high photocatalytic activity. Tape peeling test, sponge washing test, and high temperature and moisture proof test showed favorable robustness and functional durability of the thin films, which make them extremely attractive for applications in lenses, photovoltaic cells and windows of high-rise buildings.Low-cost antireflection (AR) thin films on large-area optical surfaces are important for high-performance optical devices, display devices and photovoltaic cells. In the current work, SiO2&TiO2 double-shell hollow nanospheres (DSHNs) were designed, synthesized and utilized as building blocks for fabricating multifunctional AR thin films. By optimizing the porosity of SiO2&TiO2 DSHN and thin film structure, substrates with DSHN thin films attained transmittance as high as 99.4% and average transmittance up to 98.5% in the visible region. The nano-composite SiO2-TiO2 films exhibited intrinsic superhydrophilicity, anti-fogging and high photocatalytic activity. Tape peeling test, sponge washing test, and high temperature and moisture proof test showed favorable robustness and functional durability of the thin films, which make them extremely attractive for applications in lenses, photovoltaic cells and windows of high-rise buildings. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr02467f
Brouard, Olivier; Delannay, Fabrice; Ricordel, Vincent; Barba, Dominique
2007-01-01
4 pages; International audience; Motion segmentation methods are effective for tracking video objects. However, objects segmentation methods based on motion need to know the global motion of the video in order to back-compensate it before computing the segmentation. In this paper, we propose a method which estimates the global motion of a High Definition (HD) video shot and then segments it using the remaining motion information. First, we develop a fast method for multi-resolution motion est...
Joly, Damien; Pellejà, Laia; Narbey, Stéphanie; Oswald, Frédéric; Chiron, Julien; Clifford, John N; Palomares, Emilio; Demadrille, Renaud
2014-02-07
Among the new photovoltaic technologies, the Dye-Sensitized Solar Cell (DSC) is becoming a realistic approach towards energy markets such as BIPV (Building Integrated PhotoVoltaics). In order to improve the performances of DSCs and to increase their commercial attractiveness, cheap, colourful, stable and highly efficient ruthenium-free dyes must be developed. Here we report the synthesis and complete characterization of a new purely organic sensitizer (RK1) that can be prepared and synthetically upscaled rapidly. Solar cells containing this orange dye show a power conversion efficiency of 10.2% under standard conditions (AM 1.5G, 1000 Wm(-2)) using iodine/iodide as the electrolyte redox shuttle in the electrolyte, which is among the few examples of DSC using an organic dyes and iodine/iodide red/ox pair to overcome the 10% efficiency barrier. We demonstrate that the combination of this dye with an ionic liquid electrolyte allows the fabrication of solar cells that show power conversion efficiencies of up to 7.36% that are highly stable with no measurable degradation of initial performances after 2200 h of light soaking at 65°C under standard irradiation conditions. RK1 achieves one of the best output power conversion efficiencies for a solar cell based on the iodine/iodide electrolyte, combining high efficiency and outstanding stability.
High-efficiency dye-sensitized solar cells based on robust and both-end-open TiO2 nanotube membranes
Lin Jia
2011-01-01
Full Text Available Abstract In the present work, dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs were fabricated by incorporating transparent electrodes of ordered free-standing TiO2 nanotube (TNT arrays with both ends open transferred onto fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO conductive glass. The high-quality TiO2 membranes used here were obtained by a self-detaching technique, with the superiorities of facile but reliable procedures. Afterwards, these TNT membranes can be easily transferred to FTO glass substrates by TiO2 nanoparticle paste without any crack. Compared with those DSSCs consisting of the bottom-closed membranes or attached to Ti substrate, the carefully assembled and front-side illuminated DSSCs showed an enhanced solar energy conversion efficiency as high as 5.32% of 24-μm-thick TiO2 nanotube membranes without further treatments. These results reveal that by facilitating high-quality membrane synthesis, this kind of DSSCs assembly with optimized tube configuration can have a fascinating future.
Robust message authentication code algorithm for digital audio recordings
Zmudzinski, Sascha; Steinebach, Martin
2007-02-01
Current systems and protocols for integrity and authenticity verification of media data do not distinguish between legitimate signal transformation and malicious tampering that manipulates the content. Furthermore, they usually provide no localization or assessment of the relevance of such manipulations with respect to human perception or semantics. We present an algorithm for a robust message authentication code (RMAC) to verify the integrity of audio recodings by means of robust audio fingerprinting and robust perceptual hashing. Experimental results show that the proposed algorithm provides both a high level of distinction between perceptually different audio data and a high robustness against signal transformations that do not change the perceived information.
A robust adaptive controller for robot manipulators
Berghuis, Harry; Ortega, Romeo; Nijmeijer, Henk
1992-01-01
The authors propose a globally convergent adaptive control scheme for robot motion control with the following features: first, the adaptation law processes enhanced robustness with respect to noisy velocity measurements; secondly, the controller does not require the inclusion of high-gain loops that
Assessment of Process Robustness for Mass Customization
Nielsen, Kjeld; Brunø, Thomas Ditlev
2013-01-01
In mass customization, the capability Robust Process Design defined as the ability to reuse or recombine existing organizational and value-chain resources is essential to deliver a high variety cost effectively. We argue that there is a need for methods which can assess a company’s process...
Robust balance shift control with posture optimization
Kavafoglu, Z.; Kavafoglu, Ersan; Egges, J.
2015-01-01
In this paper we present a control framework which creates robust and natural balance shifting behaviours during standing. Given high-level features such as the position of the center of mass projection and the foot configurations, a kinematic posture satisfying these features is synthesized using o
Assessment of Process Robustness for Mass Customization
Nielsen, Kjeld; Brunø, Thomas Ditlev
2013-01-01
In mass customization, the capability Robust Process Design defined as the ability to reuse or recombine existing organizational and value-chain resources is essential to deliver a high variety cost effectively. We argue that there is a need for methods which can assess a company’s process...
Implementing robust neuromodulation in neuromorphic circuits
Castaños, Fernando; Franci, Alessio
2016-01-01
We introduce a methodology to implement the physiological transition {between distinct neuronal spiking modes} in electronic circuits composed of resistors, capacitors and transistors. The result is a simple neuromorphic device organized by the same geometry {and exhibiting the same input--output properties as} high-dimensional electrophysiological neuron models. {Preliminary} experimental results highlight the robustness of the approach in real-world applications.
Robust control charts in statistical process control
Nazir, H.Z.
2014-01-01
The presence of outliers and contaminations in the output of the process highly affects the performance of the design structures of commonly used control charts and hence makes them of less practical use. One of the solutions to deal with this problem is to use control charts which are robust agains
Recent Advances in Robust Speech Recognition Technology
Ramírez, Javier
2011-01-01
This E-book is a collection of articles that describe advances in speech recognition technology. Robustness in speech recognition refers to the need to maintain high speech recognition accuracy even when the quality of the input speech is degraded, or when the acoustical, articulate, or phonetic characteristics of speech in the training and testing environments differ. Obstacles to robust recognition include acoustical degradations produced by additive noise, the effects of linear filtering, nonlinearities in transduction or transmission, as well as impulsive interfering sources, and diminishe
Robust Face Image Matching under Illumination Variations
Yang Chyuan-Huei Thomas
2004-01-01
Full Text Available Face image matching is an essential step for face recognition and face verification. It is difficult to achieve robust face matching under various image acquisition conditions. In this paper, a novel face image matching algorithm robust against illumination variations is proposed. The proposed image matching algorithm is motivated by the characteristics of high image gradient along the face contours. We define a new consistency measure as the inner product between two normalized gradient vectors at the corresponding locations in two images. The normalized gradient is obtained by dividing the computed gradient vector by the corresponding locally maximal gradient magnitude. Then we compute the average consistency measures for all pairs of the corresponding face contour pixels to be the robust matching measure between two face images. To alleviate the problem due to shadow and intensity saturation, we introduce an intensity weighting function for each individual consistency measure to form a weighted average of the consistency measure. This robust consistency measure is further extended to integrate multiple face images of the same person captured under different illumination conditions, thus making our robust face matching algorithm. Experimental results of applying the proposed face image matching algorithm on some well-known face datasets are given in comparison with some existing face recognition methods. The results show that the proposed algorithm consistently outperforms other methods and achieves higher than 93% recognition rate with three reference images for different datasets under different lighting conditions.