WorldWideScience

Sample records for robot motion primitives

  1. Action Recognition using Motion Primitives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moeslund, Thomas B.; Fihl, Preben; Holte, Michael Boelstoft

    The number of potential applications has made automatic recognition of human actions a very active research area. Different approaches have been followed based on trajectories through some state space. In this paper we also model an action as a trajectory through a state space, but we represent...... the actions as a sequence of temporal isolated instances, denoted primitives. These primitives are each defined by four features extracted from motion images. The primitives are recognized in each frame based on a trained classifier resulting in a sequence of primitives. From this sequence we recognize...

  2. Motion Primitives for Action Recognition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fihl, Preben; Holte, Michael Boelstoft; Moeslund, Thomas B.

    2007-01-01

    The number of potential applications has made automatic recognition of human actions a very active research area. Different approaches have been followed based on trajectories through some state space. In this paper we also model an action as a trajectory through a state space, but we represent...... the actions as a sequence of temporal isolated instances, denoted primitives. These primitives are each defined by four features extracted from motion images. The primitives are recognized in each frame based on a trained classifier resulting in a sequence of primitives. From this sequence we recognize...... different temporal actions using a probabilistic Edit Distance method. The method is tested on different actions with and without noise and the results show recognition rates of 88.7% and 85.5%, respectively....

  3. Motion Primitives and Probabilistic Edit Distance for Action Recognition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fihl, Preben; Holte, Michael Boelstoft; Moeslund, Thomas B.

    2009-01-01

    the actions as a sequence of temporal isolated instances, denoted primitives. These primitives are each defined by four features extracted from motion images. The primitives are recognized in each frame based on a trained classifier resulting in a sequence of primitives. From this sequence we recognize...

  4. View Invariant Gesture Recognition using 3D Motion Primitives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holte, Michael Boelstoft; Moeslund, Thomas B.

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a method for automatic recognition of human gestures. The method works with 3D image data from a range camera to achieve invariance to viewpoint. The recognition is based solely on motion from characteristic instances of the gestures. These instances are denoted 3D motion...... primitives. The method extracts 3D motion from range images and represent the motion from each input frame in a view invariant manner using harmonic shape context. The harmonic shape context is classified as a 3D motion primitive. A sequence of input frames results in a set of primitives that are classified...

  5. Coordinating control of multiple rigid bodies based on motion primitives

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fan Wu; Zhi-Yong Geng

    2012-01-01

    This paper studies the problem of coordinated motion generation for a group of rigid bodies.Two classes of coordinated motion primitives,relative equilibria and maneuvers,are given as building blocks for generating coordinated motions.In a motion-primitive based planning framework,a control method is proposed for the robust execution of a coordinated motion plan in the presence of perturbations,The control method combines the relative equilibria stabilization with maneuver design,and results in a closeloop motion planning framework.The performance of the control method has been illustrated through a numerical simulation.

  6. Robot Motion and Control 2011

    CERN Document Server

    2012-01-01

    Robot Motion Control 2011 presents very recent results in robot motion and control. Forty short papers have been chosen from those presented at the sixth International Workshop on Robot Motion and Control held in Poland in June 2011. The authors of these papers have been carefully selected and represent leading institutions in this field. The following recent developments are discussed: • Design of trajectory planning schemes for holonomic and nonholonomic systems with optimization of energy, torque limitations and other factors. • New control algorithms for industrial robots, nonholonomic systems and legged robots. • Different applications of robotic systems in industry and everyday life, like medicine, education, entertainment and others. • Multiagent systems consisting of mobile and flying robots with their applications The book is suitable for graduate students of automation and robotics, informatics and management, mechatronics, electronics and production engineering systems as well as scientists...

  7. Action Recognition in Semi-synthetic Images using Motion Primitives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fihl, Preben; Holte, Michael Boelstoft; Moeslund, Thomas B.

    This technical report describes an action recognition approach based on motion primitives. A few characteristic time instances are found in a sequence containing an action and the action is classified from these instances. The characteristic instances are defined solely on the human motion, hence...

  8. On the Kinematic Motion Primitives (kMPs - Theory and Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federico Lorenzo Moro

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Human neuromotor capabilities guarantee a wide variety of motions. A full understanding of human motion can be beneficial for rehabilitation or performance enhancement purposes, or for its reproduction on artificial systems like robots. This work aims at describing the complexity of human motion in a reduced dimensionality, by means of kinematic Motion Primitives (kMPs. A set of five invariant kMPs are identified for periodic motions, and a set of two kMPs for discrete motions. It is shown how these two sets of kMPs can be combined to synthesize more complex motion as the simultaneous execution of the periodic and the discrete motions. The results reported are an evidence of the theory of Central Pattern Generators (CPG, showing its effects on the kinematics, and are related to what presented in the literature on the Motor Primitives extracted from EMG signals.Experimental tests with the COmpliant huMANoid (COMAN were performed to show that the kMPs extracted from human subjects can be used to transfer the features of human locomotion to the gait of a robot.

  9. Kinematic primitives for walking and trotting gaits of a quadruped robot with compliant legs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spröwitz, Alexander T; Ajallooeian, Mostafa; Tuleu, Alexandre; Ijspeert, Auke Jan

    2014-01-01

    In this work we research the role of body dynamics in the complexity of kinematic patterns in a quadruped robot with compliant legs. Two gait patterns, lateral sequence walk and trot, along with leg length control patterns of different complexity were implemented in a modular, feed-forward locomotion controller. The controller was tested on a small, quadruped robot with compliant, segmented leg design, and led to self-stable and self-stabilizing robot locomotion. In-air stepping and on-ground locomotion leg kinematics were recorded, and the number and shapes of motion primitives accounting for 95% of the variance of kinematic leg data were extracted. This revealed that kinematic patterns resulting from feed-forward control had a lower complexity (in-air stepping, 2-3 primitives) than kinematic patterns from on-ground locomotion (νm4 primitives), although both experiments applied identical motor patterns. The complexity of on-ground kinematic patterns had increased, through ground contact and mechanical entrainment. The complexity of observed kinematic on-ground data matches those reported from level-ground locomotion data of legged animals. Results indicate that a very low complexity of modular, rhythmic, feed-forward motor control is sufficient for level-ground locomotion in combination with passive compliant legged hardware.

  10. Kinematic primitives for a quadruped robot walk and trot with compliant legs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Thomas Sprowitz

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In this work we research the role of body dynamics in the complexity of kinematic patterns in a quadruped robot with compliant legs. Two gait patterns, lateral sequence walk and trot, along with leg length control patterns of different complexity were implemented in a modular, feed-forward locomotion controller. The controller was tested on a small, quadruped robot with compliant, segmented leg design, and led to self-stable and self-stabilizing robot locomotion. In-air stepping and on-ground locomotion leg kinematics were recorded, and the number and shapes of motion primitives accounting for 95% of the variance of kinematic leg data were extracted. This revealed that kinematic patterns resulting from feed-forward control had a lower complexity (in-air stepping, 2 to 3 primitives than kinematic patterns from on-ground locomotion (4 primitives, although both experiments applied identical motor patterns. The complexity of on-ground kinematic patterns had increased, through ground contact and mechanical entrainment. The complexity of observed kinematic on-ground data matches those reported from level-ground locomotion data of legged animals. Results indicate that a very low complexity of modular, rhythmic, feed-forward motor control is sufficient for level-ground locomotion in combination with passive compliant legged hardware.

  11. Dance notations and robot motion

    CERN Document Server

    Abe, Naoko

    2016-01-01

    How and why to write a movement? Who is the writer? Who is the reader? They may be choreographers working with dancers. They may be roboticists programming robots. They may be artists designing cartoons in computer animation. In all such fields the purpose is to express an intention about a dance, a specific motion or an action to perform, in terms of intelligible sequences of elementary movements, as a music score that would be devoted to motion representation. Unfortunately there is no universal language to write a motion. Motion languages live together in a Babel tower populated by biomechanists, dance notators, neuroscientists, computer scientists, choreographers, roboticists. Each community handles its own concepts and speaks its own language. The book accounts for this diversity. Its origin is a unique workshop held at LAAS-CNRS in Toulouse in 2014. Worldwide representatives of various communities met there. Their challenge was to reach a mutual understanding allowing a choreographer to access robotics ...

  12. Extraction of Robot Primitive Control Rules from Natural Language Instructions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guang-Hong Wang; Ping Jiang; Zu-Ren Feng

    2006-01-01

    A support vector rule based method is investigated for the construction of motion controllers via natural language training. It is a two-phase process including motion control information collection from natural language instructions, and motion information condensation with the aid of support vector machine (SVM) theory. Self-organizing fuzzy neural networks are utilized for the collection of control rules, from which support vector rules are extracted to form a final controller to achieve any given control accuracy. In this way, the number of control rules is reduced, and the structure of the controller tidied, making a controller constructed using natural language training more appropriate in practice, and providing a fundamental rule base for high-level robot behavior control. Simulations and experiments on a wheeled robot are carried out to illustrate the effectiveness of the method.

  13. (Mobile robots and intelligent motion control)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pin, F.G.

    1990-09-07

    The traveler attended the IEEE International Workshop on Intelligent Motion Control, presented a paper entitled Autonomous Trajectory Generation for Mobile Robots with Non-Holonomic and Steering Angel Constraints,'' and chaired the session on mobile robots. Sessions of particular interests to ONRL/CESAR included Mobile Robots 1, 2, and 3, Motion Planning 1 and 2, Flexible Robots, Knowledge-Based Robotics Systems, Multi-Robot Systems, Redundant Robots, and Learning and Fuzzy Control 1 and 2. The traveler also visited the robotics laboratory of Bogazici University and held several discussions on design on redundant, compliant, reconfigurable, and dynamically balanced manipulators.

  14. Imitation learning of motor primitives and language bootstrapping in robots

    CERN Document Server

    Cederborg, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    Imitation learning in robots, also called programing by demonstration, has made important advances in recent years, allowing humans to teach context dependant motor skills/tasks to robots. We propose to extend the usual contexts investigated to also include acoustic linguistic expressions that might denote a given motor skill, and thus we target joint learning of the motor skills and their potential acoustic linguistic name. In addition to this, a modification of a class of existing algorithms within the imitation learning framework is made so that they can handle the unlabeled demonstration of several tasks/motor primitives without having to inform the imitator of what task is being demonstrated or what the number of tasks are, which is a necessity for language learning, i.e; if one wants to teach naturally an open number of new motor skills together with their acoustic names. Finally, a mechanism for detecting whether or not linguistic input is relevant to the task is also proposed, and our architecture als...

  15. Robot motion control in mobile environment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Iliya V Miroshnik; HUANG Xian-lin(黄显林); HE Jie(贺杰)

    2003-01-01

    With the problem of robot motion control in dynamic environment represented by mobile obstacles,working pieces and external mechanisms considered, a relevant control actions design procedure has been pro-posed to provide coordination of robot motions with respect to the moving external objects so that an extension ofrobot spatial motion techniques and active robotic strategies based on approaches of nonlinear control theory canbe achieved.

  16. Motion Control of Wheeled Mobile Robots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birol Kocaturk

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This article presents strategy for navigation of a wheeled mobile robot in unstructured environments with obstacles. The vehicle has two wheels independently to control the angular velocity. This work deals with mobile robots modelling then control strategies and simulation results. Simulation results recommends fuzzy logic controller for the wheeled mobile robot motion in unstructured environments.

  17. A Motion Planning System for Mobile Robots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TUNCER, A.

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a motion planning system for a mobile robot is proposed. Path planning tries to find a feasible path for mobile robots to move from a starting node to a target node in an environment with obstacles. A genetic algorithm is used to generate an optimal path by taking the advantage of its strong optimization ability. Mobile robot, obstacle and target localizations are realized by means of camera and image processing. A graphical user interface (GUI is designed for the motion planning system that allows the user to interact with the robot system and to observe the robot environment. All the software components of the system are written in MATLAB that provides to use non-predefined accessories rather than the robot firmware has, to avoid confusing in C++ libraries of robot's proprietary software, to control the robot in detail and not to re-compile the programs frequently in real-time dynamic operations.

  18. Asymmetric gear rectifies random robot motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, He; Zhang, H. P.

    2013-06-01

    We experimentally study the dynamics of centimetric robots and their interactions with rotary gears through inelastic collisions. Under the impacts of self-propelled robots, a gear with symmetric teeth diffuses with no preferred direction of motion. An asymmetric gear, however, rectifies random motion of nearby robots which, in return, exert a torque on the gear and drive it into unidirectional motion. Rectification efficiency increases with the degree of gear asymmetry. Our work demonstrates that asymmetric environments can be used to rectify and extract energy from random motion of macroscopic self-propelled particles.

  19. Motion Planning in Multi-robot Systems using Timed Automata

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Michael. S.; Jensen, Rune S.; Bak, Thomas;

    kinematics, is captured in an automata formalism that allows formal composition and symbolic reasoning. The verification software UppAal is used to verify specification requirements formulated in computational tree logic (CTL), generating all feasible trajectories that satisfy specifications. The results...... of the planning are demonstrateted in a testbed that allows execution of the planned paths and motion primitives by synchronizing the planning results from UppAal with actual robotic vehicles. The planning problem may be modified online by moving obstacles in the physical environment, which causes a re...

  20. Robots arm motion representation in Petri NETS using sequent calculus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Uzair Ahmad

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available There are many sort of motion in robots structure. Such as the robot locomotion robot jumps robots picking and so on but all are presented through Petri NETS. The one motion which is also the important one and most worthy motion of the robots is the robots arm motion. Which till yet not represented through Petri NETS. In this paper we are going to represent the motion of the robot arm in different angles and different aspect, such as up, down, circular, back and front moment of the robot arm, through Petri net we can present the complex form of motions into simplex paths.

  1. Automatic Control of Robot Motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-12-01

    8217It. I II. FUDMWALRBTC A. INTRODUCTION d The word robotics was invented by the Isaac Asimov , one of the best of the science fiction writers, to describe...8217, Asimov propounded the famous Three Laws of Robotics. 1. A robot must not harm a human being or, through inaction, allow human being to come to harm

  2. Human-robot trust. Is motion fluency an effective behavioral style for regulating robot trustworthiness?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ligthart, M.; Brule, R. van den; Haselager, W.F.G.

    2013-01-01

    Finding good behavioral styles to express robot trustworthiness will optimize the usage of robots. In previous research, motion fluency as behavioral style was studied. Smooth robot motions were compared with trembling robot motions. In a video experiment an effect of motion fluency on trust was fou

  3. Action Recognition Using Motion Primitives and Probabilistic Edit Distance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fihl, Preben; Holte, Michael Boelstoft; Moeslund, Thomas B.;

    2006-01-01

    instances. The human whereabouts at these instances are extracted by double difference images and represented by four features. In each frame the primitive, if any, that best explains the observed data is identified. This leads to a discrete recognition problem since a video sequence will be converted...

  4. A motion planner for nonholonomic mobile robots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laumond, J.P.; Jacobs, P.E.; Taiex, M. (LAA/CNRS, Toulouse (France)); Murray, R.M. (California Inst. of Technology, Pasadena, CA (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering)

    1994-10-01

    This paper considers the problems of motion planning for a car-like robot (i.e., a mobile robot with a nonholonomic constraint whose turning radius is lower-bounded). The authors present a fast and exact planner for their mobile robot model, based upon recursive subdivision of a collision-free path generated by a lower-level geometric planner that ignores the motion constraints. The resultant trajectory is optimized to give a path that is of near-minimal length in its homotopy class. Their claims of high speed are supported by experimental results for implementations that assume a robot moving amid polygonal obstacles. The completeness and the complexity of the algorithm are proven using an appropriate metric in the configuration space R[sup 2] [times] S[sup 1] of the robot. This metric is defined by using the length of the shortest paths in the absence of obstacles as the distance between two configurations. The authors prove that the new induced topology and the classical one are the same. Although the authors concentrate upon the car-like robot, the generalization of these techniques leads to new theoretical issues involving sub-Riemannian geometry and to practical results for nonholonomic motion planning.

  5. Fully Distributed Cooperative Motion of Group Robots

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    This paper is focused on the fully distributed cooperative motion of group robots and proposes a new approach. Each robot has a local sensing ability and a simple action selection strategy. Computational complexity is decreased by the fully distributed architecture and the information insufficiency is solved by the interaction between the robots and the environment. Variable loop and random method are used to deal with the fluctuation and equity selection problem and the rapidity and reasonabiliiy are guaranteed. Some simulations have proved the effectiveness of the proposed approach.

  6. Landing Motion Control of Articulated Hopping Robot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youngil Youm

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the landing motion of an articulated legged robot. Humans use a peculiar crouching motion to land safely which can be characterized by body stiffness and damping. A stiffness controller formulation is used to realize this human behavior for the robot. Using this method, the landing motion is achieved with only the desired body stiffness and damping values, without desired COG(Center of Gravity or joint paths. To achieve soft landing, variable body stiffness and damping values were optimized. PBOT, which has four links with flexible joints was used for validation of the landing controller. A body stiffness and damping controller was used as an outer landing control loop and a fast subsystem controller for flexible joints was used as an inner force control loop. Simulations and experimental results about the landing motion are presented to show the performance of the body stiffness and damping controller.

  7. Software for Project-Based Learning of Robot Motion Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moll, Mark; Bordeaux, Janice; Kavraki, Lydia E.

    2013-01-01

    Motion planning is a core problem in robotics concerned with finding feasible paths for a given robot. Motion planning algorithms perform a search in the high-dimensional continuous space of robot configurations and exemplify many of the core algorithmic concepts of search algorithms and associated data structures. Motion planning algorithms can…

  8. Motion Imagery and Robotics Application Project (MIRA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grubbs, Rodney P.

    2010-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation describes the Motion Imagery and Robotics Application (MIRA) Project. A detailed description of the MIRA camera service software architecture, encoder features, and on-board communications are presented. A description of a candidate camera under development is also shown.

  9. Robotics-based synthesis of human motion

    KAUST Repository

    Khatib, O.

    2009-05-01

    The synthesis of human motion is a complex procedure that involves accurate reconstruction of movement sequences, modeling of musculoskeletal kinematics, dynamics and actuation, and characterization of reliable performance criteria. Many of these processes have much in common with the problems found in robotics research. Task-based methods used in robotics may be leveraged to provide novel musculoskeletal modeling methods and physiologically accurate performance predictions. In this paper, we present (i) a new method for the real-time reconstruction of human motion trajectories using direct marker tracking, (ii) a task-driven muscular effort minimization criterion and (iii) new human performance metrics for dynamic characterization of athletic skills. Dynamic motion reconstruction is achieved through the control of a simulated human model to follow the captured marker trajectories in real-time. The operational space control and real-time simulation provide human dynamics at any configuration of the performance. A new criteria of muscular effort minimization has been introduced to analyze human static postures. Extensive motion capture experiments were conducted to validate the new minimization criterion. Finally, new human performance metrics were introduced to study in details an athletic skill. These metrics include the effort expenditure and the feasible set of operational space accelerations during the performance of the skill. The dynamic characterization takes into account skeletal kinematics as well as muscle routing kinematics and force generating capacities. The developments draw upon an advanced musculoskeletal modeling platform and a task-oriented framework for the effective integration of biomechanics and robotics methods.

  10. Robotics-based synthesis of human motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khatib, O; Demircan, E; De Sapio, V; Sentis, L; Besier, T; Delp, S

    2009-01-01

    The synthesis of human motion is a complex procedure that involves accurate reconstruction of movement sequences, modeling of musculoskeletal kinematics, dynamics and actuation, and characterization of reliable performance criteria. Many of these processes have much in common with the problems found in robotics research. Task-based methods used in robotics may be leveraged to provide novel musculoskeletal modeling methods and physiologically accurate performance predictions. In this paper, we present (i) a new method for the real-time reconstruction of human motion trajectories using direct marker tracking, (ii) a task-driven muscular effort minimization criterion and (iii) new human performance metrics for dynamic characterization of athletic skills. Dynamic motion reconstruction is achieved through the control of a simulated human model to follow the captured marker trajectories in real-time. The operational space control and real-time simulation provide human dynamics at any configuration of the performance. A new criteria of muscular effort minimization has been introduced to analyze human static postures. Extensive motion capture experiments were conducted to validate the new minimization criterion. Finally, new human performance metrics were introduced to study in details an athletic skill. These metrics include the effort expenditure and the feasible set of operational space accelerations during the performance of the skill. The dynamic characterization takes into account skeletal kinematics as well as muscle routing kinematics and force generating capacities. The developments draw upon an advanced musculoskeletal modeling platform and a task-oriented framework for the effective integration of biomechanics and robotics methods.

  11. The Mobile Robot HILARE: Dynamic Modeling and Motion Simulation

    OpenAIRE

    M. Ghazal; A. Talezadeh; Taheri, M.; M. Nazemi-Zade

    2014-01-01

    To perform mission in variant environment, several types of mobile robot has been developed an implemented. The mobile robot HILARE is a known wheeled mobile robot which has two fixed wheels and an off-entered orientable wheel. Due to extended application of this robot, its dynamic analysis has attracted a great deal of interests. This article investigates dynamic modeling and motion analysis of the mobile robot HILARE. As the wheels of the robot have kinematic constraints, the constraints of...

  12. Motion error compensation of multi-legged walking robots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Liangwen; Chen, Xuedong; Wang, Xinjie; Tang, Weigang; Sun, Yi; Pan, Chunmei

    2012-07-01

    Existing errors in the structure and kinematic parameters of multi-legged walking robots, the motion trajectory of robot will diverge from the ideal sports requirements in movement. Since the existing error compensation is usually used for control compensation of manipulator arm, the error compensation of multi-legged robots has seldom been explored. In order to reduce the kinematic error of robots, a motion error compensation method based on the feedforward for multi-legged mobile robots is proposed to improve motion precision of a mobile robot. The locus error of a robot body is measured, when robot moves along a given track. Error of driven joint variables is obtained by error calculation model in terms of the locus error of robot body. Error value is used to compensate driven joint variables and modify control model of robot, which can drive the robots following control model modified. The model of the relation between robot's locus errors and kinematic variables errors is set up to achieve the kinematic error compensation. On the basis of the inverse kinematics of a multi-legged walking robot, the relation between error of the motion trajectory and driven joint variables of robots is discussed. Moreover, the equation set is obtained, which expresses relation among error of driven joint variables, structure parameters and error of robot's locus. Take MiniQuad as an example, when the robot MiniQuad moves following beeline tread, motion error compensation is studied. The actual locus errors of the robot body are measured before and after compensation in the test. According to the test, variations of the actual coordinate value of the robot centroid in x-direction and z-direction are reduced more than one time. The kinematic errors of robot body are reduced effectively by the use of the motion error compensation method based on the feedforward.

  13. Kinematically optimal robot placement for minimum time coordinated motion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feddema, J.T.

    1995-10-01

    This paper describes an algorithm for determining the optimal placement of a robotic manipulator within a workcell for minimum time coordinated motion. The algorithm uses a simple principle of coordinated motion to estimate the time of a joint interpolated motion. Specifically, the coordinated motion profile is limited by the slowest axis. Two and six degree of freedom (DOF) examples are presented. In experimental tests on a FANUC S-800 arm, the optimal placement of the robot can improve cycle time of a robotic operation by as much as 25%. In high volume processes where the robot motion is currently the limiting factor, this increased throughput can result in substantial cost savings.

  14. Modeling Movement Primitives with Hidden Markov Models for Robotic and Biomedical Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karg, Michelle; Kulić, Dana

    2017-01-01

    Movement primitives are elementary motion units and can be combined sequentially or simultaneously to compose more complex movement sequences. A movement primitive timeseries consist of a sequence of motion phases. This progression through a set of motion phases can be modeled by Hidden Markov Models (HMMs). HMMs are stochastic processes that model time series data as the evolution of a hidden state variable through a discrete set of possible values, where each state value is associated with an observation (emission) probability. Each motion phase is represented by one of the hidden states and the sequential order by their transition probabilities. The observations of the MP-HMM are the sensor measurements of the human movement, for example, motion capture or inertial measurements. The emission probabilities are modeled as Gaussians. In this chapter, the MP-HMM modeling framework is described and applications to motion recognition and motion performance assessment are discussed. The selected applications include parametric MP-HMMs for explicitly modeling variability in movement performance and the comparison of MP-HMMs based on the loglikelihood, the Kullback-Leibler divergence, the extended HMM-based F-statistic, and gait-specific reference-based measures.

  15. Primitive robotic procedures: automotions for medical liquids in 12th century Asia minor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penbegul, Necmettin; Atar, Murat; Kendirci, Muammer; Bozkurt, Yasar; Hatipoglu, Namık Kemal; Verit, Ayhan; Kadıoglu, Ates

    2014-12-30

    In recent years, day by day, robotic surgery applications have increase their role in our medical life. In this article, we reported the discovery of the first primitive robotic applications as automatic machines for the sensitive calculation of liquids such as blood in the literature. Al-Jazari who wrote the book "Elcâmi 'Beyne'l - 'ilm ve'l - 'amel en-nâfi 'fi es-sınaâ 'ti'l - hiyel", lived in Anatolian territory between 1136 and 1206. In this book that was written in the twelfth century, Al-Jazari described nearly fifty graphics of robotic machines and six of them that were designed for medical purposes. We found that some of the robots mentioned in this book are related to medical applications. This book reviews approximately 50 devices, including water clocks, candle clocks, ewers, various automata used for amusement in drink assemblies, automata used for ablution, blood collection tanks, fountains, music devices, devices for water lifting, locks, a protractor, a boat-shaped water clock, and the gate of Diyarbakir City in south-east of Turkey, actually in northern Mesopotamia. We found that automata used for ablution and blood collection tanks were related with medical applications; therefore, we will describe these robots.

  16. Primitive robotic procedures: Automotions for medical liquids in 12th century Asia minor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Necmettin Penbegul

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, day by day, robotic surgery applications have increase their role in our medical life. In this article, we reported the discovery of the first primitive robotic applications as automatic machines for the sensitive calculation of liquids such as blood in the literature. Al-Jazari who wrote the book “Elcâmi ‘Beyne’l - ‘ilm ve’l - ‘amel en-nâfi ‘fi es-sınaâ ‘ti’l - hiyel”, lived in Anatolian territory between 1136 and 1206. In this book that was written in the twelfth century, Al-Jazari described nearly fifty graphics of robotic machines and six of them that were designed for medical purposes. We found that some of the robots mentioned in this book are related to medical applications. This book reviews approximately 50 devices, including water clocks, candle clocks, ewers, various automata used for amusement in drink assemblies, automata used for ablution, blood collection tanks, fountains, music devices, devices for water lifting, locks, a protractor, a boat-shaped water clock, and the gate of Diyarbakir City in south-east of Turkey, actually in northern Mesopotamia. We found that automata used for ablution and blood collection tanks were related with medical applications; therefore, we will describe these robots.

  17. Interaction learning for dynamic movement primitives used in cooperative robotic tasks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kulvicius, Tomas; Biehl, Martin; Aein, Mohamad Javad

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Since several years dynamic movement primitives (DMPs) are more and more getting into the center of interest for flexible movement control in robotics. In this study we introduce sensory feedback together with a predictive learning mechanism which allows tightly coupled dual-agent systems...... to learn an adaptive, sensor-driven interaction based on DMPs. The coupled conventional (no-sensors, no learning) DMP-system automatically equilibrates and can still be solved analytically allowing us to derive conditions for stability. When adding adaptive sensor control we can show that both agents learn...

  18. Interaction learning for dynamic movement primitives used in cooperative robotic tasks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kulvicius, Tomas; Biehl, Martin; Aein, Mohamad Javad;

    2013-01-01

    to learn an adaptive, sensor-driven interaction based on DMPs. The coupled conventional (no-sensors, no learning) DMP-system automatically equilibrates and can still be solved analytically allowing us to derive conditions for stability. When adding adaptive sensor control we can show that both agents learn......Abstract Since several years dynamic movement primitives (DMPs) are more and more getting into the center of interest for flexible movement control in robotics. In this study we introduce sensory feedback together with a predictive learning mechanism which allows tightly coupled dual-agent systems...

  19. STS Motion Control Using Humanoid Robot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Bazli Bahar

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This study presents the development of Sit to Stand (STS motion control method. The main challenge in STS is in addressing the lift-off from chair problem. In solving the problem, the main components of the humanoid STS motion system involved are the (1 phase and trajectory planning and (2 motion control. These components should be designed so that the Zero Moment Point (ZMP, Centre of Pressure (CoP and Centre of Mass (CoM is always in the support polygon. Basically, in STS motion control there are two components, 1. Action selector and 2. Tracking controller. The STS motion control should able to operate in real time and continuously able to adapt any change in between the motion. In this way, the accuracy of the controller to rectify the motion error shall increase. The overall proposed method to perform the STS motion is designed to have two main phases. (1 CoM transferring that implements Alexander STS technique and (2 Stabilization Strategy that used IF-THEN rules and proportional velocity controller. This study focuses on the presentation of the development of second phase which are 1. The development of the IF-THEN rules as the action selector that operates in real time to assists the proportional controller in making the best decision and, 2. The development of Proportional Gain Identification for the proportional velocity controller that is capable to change the gain implementation by referring to the define region that represent the motion condition. The validation of the proposed method is done experimentally using NAO robot as the test platform. The coefficient of the gain identification for the proportional controller was tuned using NAO robot that was initially set at sitting position on a wooden chair. The inclination of the body from a frame perpendicular with the ground, angle y is observed. Coefficient that gives the lowest RMSE of angle y trajectory is taken as a constant. Results show the proposed control method has reduce

  20. Autonomous Coordination and Online Motion Modeling for Mobile Robots

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-09-01

    COORDINATION AND ONLINE MOTION MODELING FOR MOBILE ROBOTS by Eric Sjoberg September 2007 Co-Advisors: Kevin Squire Craig Martell...AND DATES COVERED Master’s Thesis 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Autonomous Coordination and Online Motion Modeling for Mobile Robots 6. AUTHOR Eric J...unlimited AUTONOMOUS COORDINATION AND ONLINE MOTION MODELING FOR MOBILE ROBOTS Eric J. Sjoberg Captain, United States Marine Corps B.S

  1. Learned parametrized dynamic movement primitives with shared synergies for controlling robotic and musculoskeletal systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elmar eRückert

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available A salient feature of human motor skill learning is the ability to exploitsimilarities across related tasks.In biological motor control, it has been hypothesized that muscle synergies,coherent activations of groups of muscles, allow for exploiting shared knowledge.Recent studies have shown that a rich set of complex motor skills can be generated bya combination of a small number of muscle synergies.In robotics, dynamic movement primitives are commonlyused for motor skill learning. This machine learning approach implements a stable attractor systemthat facilitates learning and it can be used in high-dimensional continuous spaces. However, it does not allow for reusing shared knowledge, i.e. for each task an individual set of parameters has to be learned.We propose a novel movement primitive representationthat employs parametrized basis functions, which combines the benefits of muscle synergiesand dynamic movement primitives. For each task asuperposition of synergies modulates a stable attractor system.This approach leads to a compact representation of multiple motor skills andat the same time enables efficient learning in high-dimensional continuous systems.The movement representation supports discrete and rhythmic movements andin particular includes the dynamic movement primitive approach as a special case.We demonstrate the feasibility of the movement representation in three multi-task learning simulated scenarios.First, the characteristics of the proposed representation are illustrated in a point-mass task.Second, in complex humanoid walking experiments,multiple walking patterns with different step heights are learned robustly and efficiently.Finally, in a multi-directional reaching task simulated with a musculoskeletal modelof the human arm, we show how the proposed movement primitives can be used tolearn appropriate muscle excitation patterns and to generalize effectively to new reaching skills.

  2. Virtual Robot Teaching Based on Motion Analysis and Hand Manipulability for Multi-Fingered Robot

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    KAWASAKI, Haruhisa; FURUKAWA, Tomohir; UEKI, Satoshi; MOURI, Tetsuya

    2009-01-01

    A virtual robot teaching system, consisting of human demonstration and motion-intention analysis in a virtual reality environment, is an advanced form of automatic programming for multi-fingered robots...

  3. Hierarchical Motion Control for a Team of Humanoid Soccer Robots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seung-Joon Yi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Robot soccer has become an effective benchmarking problem for robotics research as it requires many aspects of robotics including perception, self localization, motion planning and distributed coordination to work in uncertain and adversarial environments. Especially with humanoid robots that lack inherent stability, a capable and robust motion controller is crucial for generating walking and kicking motions without losing balance. In this paper, we describe the details of a motion controller to control a team of humanoid soccer robots, which consists of a hierarchy of controllers with different time frames and abstraction levels. A low level controller governs the real time control of each joint angle, either using target joint angles or target endpoint transforms. A mid-level controller handles bipedal locomotion and balancing of the robot. A high level controller decides the long term behavior of the robot, and finally the team level controller coordinates the behavior of a group of robots by means of asynchronous communication between the robots. The suggested motion system has been successfully used by many humanoid robot teams at the RoboCup international robot soccer competitions, which has awarded us five successful championships in a row.

  4. Hierarchical Motion Control for a Team of Humanoid Soccer Robots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seung-Joon Yi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Robot soccer has become an effective benchmarking problem for robotics research as it requires many aspects of robotics including perception, self localization, motion planning and distributed coordination to work in uncertain and adversarial environments. Especially with humanoid robots that lack inherent stability, a capable and robust motion controller is crucial for generating walking and kicking motions without losing balance. In this paper, we describe the details of a motion controller to control a team of humanoid soccer robots, which consists of a hierarchy of controllers with different time frames and abstraction levels. A low level controller governs the real time control of each joint angle, either using target joint angles or target endpoint transforms. A mid-level controller handles bipedal locomotion and balancing of the robot. A high level controller decides the long term behavior of the robot, and finally the team level controller coordinates the behavior of a group of robots by means of asynchronous communication between the robots. The suggested motion system has been successfully used by many humanoid robot teams at the RoboCup international robot soccer competitions, which has awarded us five successful championships in a row.

  5. Intelligent Mobile Robot Motion Control in Unstructured Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gyula Mester

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the intelligent wheeled mobile robot motion control inunstructured environments. The fuzzy control of a wheeled mobile robot motion inunstructured environments with obstacles and slopes is proposed. Outputs of the fuzzycontroller are the angular speed difference between the left and right wheels of the mobilerobot and the mobile robot velocity. The simulation results show the effectiveness and thevalidity of the obstacle avoidance behavior in an unstructured environment and the velocitycontrol of a wheeled mobile robot motion of the proposed fuzzy control strategy. Wirelesssensor-based remote control of mobile robots motion in unstructured environments usingthe Sun SPOT technology is proposed. The proposed method has been implemented on theminiature mobile robot Khepera that is equipped with sensors. Finally, the effectivenessand efficiency of the proposed sensor-based remote control strategy are demonstrated byexperimental studies and good experimental results.

  6. Compensating for Quasi-periodic Motion in Robotic Radiosurgery

    CERN Document Server

    Ernst, Floris

    2012-01-01

    Compensating for Quasi-periodic Motion in Robotic Radiosurgery outlines the techniques needed to accurately track and compensate for respiratory and pulsatory motion during robotic radiosurgery. The algorithms presented within the book aid in the treatment of tumors that move during respiration. In Chapters 1 and 2,  the book introduces the concept of stereotactic body radiation therapy, motion compensation strategies and the clinical state-of-the-art. In Chapters 3 through 5, the author describes and evaluates new methods for motion prediction, for correlating external motion to internal organ motion, and for the evaluation of these algorithms’ output based on an unprecedented amount of real clinical data. Finally, Chapter 6 provides a brief introduction into currently investigated, open questions and further fields of research. Compensating for Quasi-periodic Motion in Robotic Radiosurgery targets researchers working in the related fields of surgical oncology, artificial intelligence, robotics and more. ...

  7. Motion control simulation based on VR for humanoid robot

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Huaiqing; Tang, Haoxuan

    2004-03-01

    This paper describes the motion control simulation based on VR for humanoid robot aiming at walking and running. To insure that the motion rhythm of humanoid robot conforms to the motion laws of humans, the body geometrical model based on skeleton and its kinematics models based on the graph of time sequences are presented firstly. Then a control algorithm based on Jacobian matrix is proposed to generate the periodical walking and running. Finally, computer simulation experiments demonstrate the feasibility of the models and the algorithm. The simulation system developed makes us interactively regulate the motion direction and velocity for humanoid robot.

  8. Swarm Robotics with Circular Formation Motion Including Obstacles Avoidance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nabil M. Hewahi

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The robots science has been developed over the past few years, where robots have become used to accomplish difficult, repetitive or accurate tasks, which are very hard for humans to carry out. In this paper, we propose an algorithm to control the motion of a swarm of robots and make them able to avoid obstacles. The proposed solution is based on forming the robots in circular fashion. A group set of robots consists of multiple groups of robots, each group of robots consists of robots forming a circular shape and each group set is a circular form of robots. The proposed algorithm is concerned with first locating the randomly generated robots in groups and secondly with the swarm robot motion and finally with the swarm obstacle avoidance and swarm reorganization after crossing the obstacle. The proposed algorithm has been simulated with five different obstacles with various numbers of randomly generated robots. The results show that the swarm in the circular form can deal with the obstacles very effectively by passing the obstacles smoothly. The proposed algorithm has been compared with flocking algorithm and it is shown that the circular formation algorithm does not need extensive computation after obstacle avoidance whereas the flocking algorithm needs extensive computation. In addition, the circular formation algorithm maintains every robot in its group after avoiding the obstacles whereas with flocking algorithm does not.

  9. Repetitive motion planning and control of redundant robot manipulators

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Yunong

    2013-01-01

    Repetitive Motion Planning and Control of Redundant Robot Manipulators presents four typical motion planning schemes based on optimization techniques, including the fundamental RMP scheme and its extensions. These schemes are unified as quadratic programs (QPs), which are solved by neural networks or numerical algorithms. The RMP schemes are demonstrated effectively by the simulation results based on various robotic models; the experiments applying the fundamental RMP scheme to a physical robot manipulator are also presented. As the schemes and the corresponding solvers presented in the book have solved the non-repetitive motion problems existing in redundant robot manipulators, it is of particular use in applying theoretical research based on the quadratic program for redundant robot manipulators in industrial situations. This book will be a valuable reference work for engineers, researchers, advanced undergraduate and graduate students in robotics fields. Yunong Zhang is a professor at The School of Informa...

  10. Individualised and adaptive upper limb rehabilitation with industrial robot using dynamic movement primitives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jacob; Sørensen, Anders Stengaard; Christensen, Thomas Søndergaard

    Stroke is a leading cause of serious long-term disability. Post-stroke rehabilitation is a demanding task for the patient and a costly challenge for both society and healthcare systems. We present a novel approach for training of upper extremities after a stroke by utilising an industrial robotic...... arm and dynamic movement primitives (DMPs) with force feedback. We show how pre-recorded and learned DMPs can act as basis exercises, that can be modified into individualized and adaptive rehabilitation exercises that fit with the patient’s physical prop- erties and impairments. We conclude that our...... novel approach allows for easy and flexible set-up of rehabilitation exercises and has the potential to provide the therapists and patients much easier interaction with such complex technology...

  11. A Motion System for Social and Animated Robots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jelle Saldien

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an innovative motion system that is used to control the motions and animations of a social robot. The social robot Probo is used to study Human-Robot Interactions (HRI, with a special focus on Robot Assisted Therapy (RAT. When used for therapy it is important that a social robot is able to create an “illusion of life” so as to become a believable character that can communicate with humans. The design of the motion system in this paper is based on insights from the animation industry. It combines operator-controlled animations with low-level autonomous reactions such as attention and emotional state. The motion system has a Combination Engine, which combines motion commands that are triggered by a human operator with motions that originate from different units of the cognitive control architecture of the robot. This results in an interactive robot that seems alive and has a certain degree of “likeability”. The Godspeed Questionnaire Series is used to evaluate the animacy and likeability of the robot in China, Romania and Belgium.

  12. A Motion System for Social and Animated Robots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jelle Saldien

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an innovative motion system that is used to control the motions and animations of a social robot. The social robot Probo is used to study Human-Robot Interactions (HRI, with a special focus on Robot Assisted Therapy (RAT. When used for therapy it is important that a social robot is able to create an “illusion of life” so as to become a believable character that can communicate with humans. The design of the motion system in this paper is based on insights from the animation industry. It combines operator-controlled animations with low-level autonomous reactions such as attention and emotional state. The motion system has a Combination Engine, which combines motion commands that are triggered by a human operator with motions that originate from different units of the cognitive control architecture of the robot. This results in an interactive robot that seems alive and has a certain degree of “likeability”. The Godspeed Questionnaire Series is used to evaluate the animacy and likeability of the robot in China, Romania and Belgium.

  13. Robot positioning based on point-to-point motion capability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Y. S.; Cho, H. S.; Koh, K. C.

    2000-03-20

    This paper presents an optimal search method for determining the base location of a robot manipulator so that the robot can have a designated point-to-point (PTP) motion capabilities. Based on the topological characterization of the manipulator workspace and the definitions of various p-connectivity, a computational method is developed for enumerating various PTP motion capabilities into quantitative cost functions. Then an unconstrained search by minimizing the cost function yields the task feasible location of the robot base. This methodology is useful for placement of mobile manipulators and robotic workcell layout design.

  14. THE ENSEMBLE FORECASTING OF TROPICAL CYCLONE MOTION I:USING A PRIMITIVE EQUATION BAROTROPIC MODEL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周霞琼; 端义宏; 朱永禔

    2003-01-01

    Ensemble forecasting of tropical cyclone (TC) motion was studied usinga primitive equation barotropic model by perturbing initial position and structure for 1979 - 1993 TC. The results show that TC initial position perturbation affects its track, but the ensemble mean is close to control forecast. Experiments was also performed by perturbing TC initial parameters which were used to generate TC initial field, and more improvement can be obtained by taking ensemble mean of selective member than selecting members randomly. The skill of 60 % - 70 % of all cases is improved in selective ensemble mean. When the ambient steeringcurrent is weak, more improvement can be obtained over the control forecast.

  15. ROBOT'S MOTION ERROR AND ONLINE COMPENSATION BASED ON FORCE SENSOR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAN Fangjian; LIU Zhengshi; REN Chuansheng; ZHANG Ping

    2007-01-01

    Robot's dynamic motion error and on-line compensation based on multi-axis force sensor are dealt with. It is revealed that the reasons of the error are formed and the relations of the error are delivered. A motion equation of robot's termination with the error is established, and then, an error matrix and an error compensation matrix of the motion equation are also defined. An on-line error's compensation method is put forward to decrease the displacement error, which is a degree of millimeter, shown by the result of Simulation of PUMA562 robot.

  16. Human motion behavior while interacting with an industrial robot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bortot, Dino; Ding, Hao; Antonopolous, Alexandros; Bengler, Klaus

    2012-01-01

    Human workers and industrial robots both have specific strengths within industrial production. Advantageously they complement each other perfectly, which leads to the development of human-robot interaction (HRI) applications. Bringing humans and robots together in the same workspace may lead to potential collisions. The avoidance of such is a central safety requirement. It can be realized with sundry sensor systems, all of them decelerating the robot when the distance to the human decreases alarmingly and applying the emergency stop, when the distance becomes too small. As a consequence, the efficiency of the overall systems suffers, because the robot has high idle times. Optimized path planning algorithms have to be developed to avoid that. The following study investigates human motion behavior in the proximity of an industrial robot. Three different kinds of encounters between the two entities under three robot speed levels are prompted. A motion tracking system is used to capture the motions. Results show, that humans keep an average distance of about 0,5m to the robot, when the encounter occurs. Approximation of the workbenches is influenced by the robot in ten of 15 cases. Furthermore, an increase of participants' walking velocity with higher robot velocities is observed.

  17. Learning and Chaining of Motor Primitives for Goal-directed Locomotion of a Snake-Like Robot with Screw-Drive Units

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chatterjee, Sromona; Nachstedt, Timo; Tamosiunaite, Minija

    2015-01-01

    Motor primitives provide a modular organization to complex behaviours in both vertebrates and invertebrates. Inspired by this, here we generate motor primitives for a complex snake-like robot with screw-drive units, and thence chain and combine them, in order to provide a versatile, goal-directed......Motor primitives provide a modular organization to complex behaviours in both vertebrates and invertebrates. Inspired by this, here we generate motor primitives for a complex snake-like robot with screw-drive units, and thence chain and combine them, in order to provide a versatile, goal...

  18. Adaptive Fuzzy Knowledge Based Controller for Autonomous Robot Motion Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mbaitiga Zacharie

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Research into robot motion control offers research opportunities that will change scientists and engineers for year to come. Autonomous robots are increasingly evident in many aspects of industry and everyday life and a robust robot motion control can be used for homeland security and many consumer applications. This study discussed the adaptive fuzzy knowledge based controller for robot motion control in indoor and outdoor environment. Approach: The proposed method consisted of two components: the process monitor that detects changes in the process characteristics and the adaptation mechanism that used information passed to it by the process monitor to update the controller parameters. Results: Experimental evaluation had been done in both indoor and outdoor environment where the robot communicates with the base station through its Wireless fidelity antenna and the performance monitor used a set of five performance criteria to access the fuzzy knowledge based controller. Conclusion: The proposed method had been found to be robust.

  19. Hybrid Force Motion Synchronization Control of Robot Manipulators

    OpenAIRE

    Fikkan, Kristoffer

    2010-01-01

    The main objective of this thesis was to combine the theory on synchronization of robot manipulators with the concept of hybrid force/motion control; resulting in a controller capable of following both the trajectory of another robot and a desired force trajectory at the same time. This report includes a short introduction to synchronization theory for robot manipulators, and a more thorough summary of existing hybrid control schemes. An intuitive method for describing constraints caused...

  20. A Course in Simulation and Demonstration of Humanoid Robot Motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hsin-Yu; Wang, Wen-June; Wang, Rong-Jyue

    2011-01-01

    An introductory course for humanoid robot motion realization for undergraduate and graduate students is presented in this study. The basic operations of AX-12 motors and the mechanics combination of a 16 degrees-of-freedom (DOF) humanoid robot are presented first. The main concepts of multilink systems, zero moment point (ZMP), and feedback…

  1. MECHANISM DESIGN AND MOTION ANALYSIS OF A SPHERICAL MOBILE ROBOT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhan Qiang; Jia Chuan; Ma Xiaohui; Zhai Yutao

    2005-01-01

    A new spherical mobile robot BHQ-1 is designed. The spherical robot is driven by two internally mounted motors that induce the ball to move straight and turn around on a flat surface. A dynamic model of the robot is developed with Lagrange method and factors affecting the driving torque of two motors are analyzed. The relationship between the turning radius of the robot and the length of two links is discussed in order to optimize its mechanism design. Simulation and experimental results demonstrate the good controllability and motion performance of BHQ-1.

  2. Motion synthesis and force distribution analysis for a biped robot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trojnacki, Maciej T; Zielińska, Teresa

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, the method of generating biped robot motion using recorded human gait is presented. The recorded data were modified taking into account the velocity available for robot drives. Data includes only selected joint angles, therefore the missing values were obtained considering the dynamic postural stability of the robot, which means obtaining an adequate motion trajectory of the so-called Zero Moment Point (ZMT). Also, the method of determining the ground reaction forces' distribution during the biped robot's dynamic stable walk is described. The method was developed by the authors. Following the description of equations characterizing the dynamics of robot's motion, the values of the components of ground reaction forces were symbolically determined as well as the coordinates of the points of robot's feet contact with the ground. The theoretical considerations have been supported by computer simulation and animation of the robot's motion. This was done using Matlab/Simulink package and Simulink 3D Animation Toolbox, and it has proved the proposed method.

  3. An Exoskeleton Robot for Human Forearm and Wrist Motion Assist

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranathunga Arachchilage Ruwan Chandra Gopura; Kiguchi, Kazuo

    The exoskeleton robot is worn by the human operator as an orthotic device. Its joints and links correspond to those of the human body. The same system operated in different modes can be used for different fundamental applications; a human-amplifier, haptic interface, rehabilitation device and assistive device sharing a portion of the external load with the operator. We have been developing exoskeleton robots for assisting the motion of physically weak individuals such as elderly or slightly disabled in daily life. In this paper, we propose a three degree of freedom (3DOF) exoskeleton robot (W-EXOS) for the forearm pronation/ supination motion, wrist flexion/extension motion and ulnar/radial deviation. The paper describes the wrist anatomy toward the development of the exoskeleton robot, the hardware design of the exoskeleton robot and EMG-based control method. The skin surface electromyographic (EMG) signals of muscles in forearm of the exoskeletons' user and the hand force/forearm torque are used as input information for the controller. By applying the skin surface EMG signals as main input signals to the controller, automatic control of the robot can be realized without manipulating any other equipment. Fuzzy control method has been applied to realize the natural and flexible motion assist. Experiments have been performed to evaluate the proposed exoskeleton robot and its control method.

  4. Self-Motions of General 3-RPR Planar Parallel Robots

    CERN Document Server

    Briot, Sébastien; Chablat, Damien; Wenger, Philippe; Arakelian, Vigen

    2008-01-01

    This paper studies the kinematic geometry of general 3-RPR planar parallel robots with actuated base joints. These robots, while largely overlooked, have simple direct kinematics and large singularity-free workspace. Furthermore, their kinematic geometry is the same as that of a newly developed parallel robot with SCARA-type motions. Starting from the direct and inverse kinematic model, the expressions for the singularity loci of 3-RPR planar parallel robots are determined. Then, the global behaviour at all singularities is geometrically described by studying the degeneracy of the direct kinematic model. Special cases of self-motions are then examined and the degree of freedom gained in such special configurations is kinematically interpreted. Finally, a practical example is discussed and experimental validations performed on an actual robot prototype are presented.

  5. Dexterous robotic motion planning using intelligent algorithms

    OpenAIRE

    Arismendi Gutiérrez, César Augusto

    2015-01-01

    The fundamental purpose of robots is to help humans in a variety of difficult tasks, enabling people to increase their capabilities of strength, energy, speed, memory, and to operate in hazardous environments and many other applications. Service robots, more precisely mobile manipulators, incorporate one or two robotic arms and a mobile base, and must accomplish complex manipulations tasks, interacting with tools or objects and navigating through cluttered environments. To this end, the motio...

  6. Localization/mapping motion control system for a mobile robot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang-Syu, Jr.; Su, Chiun-Shiang; Yang, Chan-Yun

    2011-12-01

    The objective of this paper is to design a mobile robot with automatic motion behaviors and obstacle avoidance functions. The robot is also able to make the SLAM (Simultaneous Localization And Mapping) at an unknown environment. The robot position is calculated by the developed software program from the motor encoders. An obstacle avoidance controller is developed by the fuzzy theory. A LRF(laser ranger finder) is installed on the robot. The sensing data of this LRF are applied to calculate the environmental information for the obstacle avoidance controller. Then, the ICP (Iterative Closest Point) algorithm is applied to compare the position error of the environmental data in order to obtain the estimated position of the LRF. Finally, these estimated position data are used to calculate the final SLAM of this mobile robot. Both the simulation and experimental results show that this developed robot system work very well.

  7. Constrained motion model of mobile robots and its applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fei; Xi, Yugeng; Lin, Zongli; Chen, Weidong

    2009-06-01

    Target detecting and dynamic coverage are fundamental tasks in mobile robotics and represent two important features of mobile robots: mobility and perceptivity. This paper establishes the constrained motion model and sensor model of a mobile robot to represent these two features and defines the k -step reachable region to describe the states that the robot may reach. We show that the calculation of the k-step reachable region can be reduced from that of 2(k) reachable regions with the fixed motion styles to k + 1 such regions and provide an algorithm for its calculation. Based on the constrained motion model and the k -step reachable region, the problems associated with target detecting and dynamic coverage are formulated and solved. For target detecting, the k-step detectable region is used to describe the area that the robot may detect, and an algorithm for detecting a target and planning the optimal path is proposed. For dynamic coverage, the k-step detected region is used to represent the area that the robot has detected during its motion, and the dynamic-coverage strategy and algorithm are proposed. Simulation results demonstrate the efficiency of the coverage algorithm in both convex and concave environments.

  8. Motion Control of the Soccer Robot Based on Fuzzy Logic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coman, Daniela; Ionescu, Adela

    2009-08-01

    Robot soccer is a challenging platform for multi-agent research, involving topics such as real-time image processing and control, robot path planning, obstacle avoidance and machine learning. The conventional robot control consists of methods for path generation and path following. When a robot moves away the estimated path, it must return immediately, and while doing so, the obstacle avoidance behavior and the effectiveness of such a path are not guaranteed. So, motion control is a difficult task, especially in real time and high speed control. This paper describes the use of fuzzy logic control for the low level motion of a soccer robot. Firstly, the modelling of the soccer robot is presented. The soccer robot based on MiroSoT Small Size league is a differential-drive mobile robot with non-slipping and pure-rolling. Then, the design of fuzzy controller is describes. Finally, the computer simulations in MATLAB Simulink show that proposed fuzzy logic controller works well.

  9. Toolkits Control Motion of Complex Robotics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    That space is a hazardous environment for humans is common knowledge. Even beyond the obvious lack of air and gravity, the extreme temperatures and exposure to radiation make the human exploration of space a complicated and risky endeavor. The conditions of space and the space suits required to conduct extravehicular activities add layers of difficulty and danger even to tasks that would be simple on Earth (tightening a bolt, for example). For these reasons, the ability to scout distant celestial bodies and perform maintenance and construction in space without direct human involvement offers significant appeal. NASA has repeatedly turned to complex robotics for solutions to extend human presence deep into space at reduced risk and cost and to enhance space operations in low Earth orbit. At Johnson Space Center, engineers explore the potential applications of dexterous robots capable of performing tasks like those of an astronaut during extravehicular activities and even additional ones too delicate or dangerous for human participation. Johnson's Dexterous Robotics Laboratory experiments with a wide spectrum of robot manipulators, such as the Mitsubishi PA-10 and the Robotics Research K-1207i robotic arms. To simplify and enhance the use of these robotic systems, Johnson researchers sought generic control methods that could work effectively across every system.

  10. Rough terrain motion planning for actively reconfigurable mobile robots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brunner, Michael

    2015-02-05

    In the aftermath of the Tohoku earthquake and the nuclear meltdown at the power plant of Fukushima Daiichi in 2011, reconfigurable robots like the iRobot Packbot were deployed. Instead of humans, the robots were used to investigate contaminated areas. Other incidents are the two major earthquakes in Northern Italy in May 2012. Besides many casualties, a large number of historical buildings was severely damaged. Due to the imminent danger of collapse, it was too dangerous for rescue personnel to enter many of the buildings. Therefore, the sites were inspected by reconfigurable robots, which are able to traverse the rubble and debris of the partially destroyed buildings. This thesis develops a navigation system enabling wheeled and tracked robots to safely traverse rough terrain and challenging structures. It consists of a planning mechanism and a controller. The focus of this thesis, however, is on the contribution to motion planning. The planning scheme employs a hierarchical approach to motion planning for actively reconfigurable robots in rough environments. Using a map of the environment the algorithm estimates the traversability under the consideration of uncertainties. Based on this analysis, an initial path search determines an approximate solution with respect to the robot's operating limits.Subsequently, a detailed planning step refines the initial path where it is required. The refinement step considers the robot's actuators and stability in addition to the quantities of the first search. Determining the robot-terrain interaction is very important in rough terrain. This thesis presents two path refinement approaches: a deterministic and a randomized approach. The experimental evaluation investigates the separate components of the planning scheme, the robot-terrain interaction for instance.In simulation as well as in real world experiments the evaluation demonstrates the necessity of such a planning algorithm in rough terrain and it provides

  11. Motion Planning for Robots with Topological Dimension Reduction Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1990-01-01

    This paper explores the realization of robotic motion planning,especially Findpath problem,which is a basic motion planning problem that arises in the development of robotics.Findpat means:Give the initial and desired final configurations of a robotic arm in 3-dimensional space,and give descriptions of the obstacles in the space,determine whether there is a continuous collision-free motion of the robotic arm from one configura tion to the other and find such a motion if it exists.There are several branches of approach in motion planning area,but in reality the important things are feasibility,efficiency and accuracy of the method.In this paper according to the concepts of Configuration Space(C-Space)and Rotation Mapping Graph(RMG) discussed in [1], a topological method named Dimension Reduction Method(DRM)for investigating the connectivity of the RMG(or the topologic structure of the RMG)is presented by using topologic technique.Based on this approach the Findpath problem is thus transformed to that of finding a connected way in a finite Characteristic Network(CN),The method has shown great potentiality in practice.Here a simulation system is designed to embody DRM[1-2] and it is in sight that DRM can be adopted in the first overall planning of real robot system in the near future.

  12. Motion Planning of Kinematically Redundant 12-tetrahedral Rolling Robot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xingbo Wang

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The 12-tetrahedral robot is an addressable reconfigurable technology (ART-based variable geometry truss mechanism with 26 extensible struts and nine nodes arranged in a tetrahedral mesh. The robot has the capability of configuring its shape to adapt to environmental requirements, which makes it suitable for space exploration. This paper considers the motion planning problem for the robot in terms of gait planning and trajectory planning. First, a gait planning method is developed that limits the forward falling angles to only 25 degrees. Then, according to the given gait, the jerk-bounded method and inverse kinematics are utilized to calculate the trajectories of the nodes and the struts, respectively. A robot system model was built in ADAMS and simulations were conducted to demonstrate the feasibility of the motion planning method.

  13. Multi-Robot Motion Planning: A Timed Automata Approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Quottrup, Michael Melholt; Bak, Thomas; Izadi-Zamanabadi, Roozbeh

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes how a network of interacting timed automata can be used to model, analyze, and verify motion planning problems in a scenario with multiple robotic vehicles. The method presupposes an infra-structure of robots with feed-back controllers obeying simple restriction on a planar...... against specification requirements formulated in computational tree logic (CTL). In this way, all feasible trajectories that satisfy specifications and which moves the robots from a set of initial positions to a set of desired goal positions may be algorithmically analyzed. The trajectories can...... then subsequently be used as a high-level motion plan for the robots. This paper reports on the timed automata framework, results of two verification experiments, promise of the approach, and gives a perspective for future research....

  14. Multi-Robot Motion Planning: A Timed Automata Approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Quottrup, Michael Melholt; Bak, Thomas; Izadi-Zamanabadi, Roozbeh

    This paper describes how a network of interacting timed automata can be used to model, analyze, and verify motion planning problems in a scenario with multiple robotic vehicles. The method presupposes an infra-structure of robots with feed-back controllers obeying simple restriction on a planar...... against specification requirements formulated in computational tree logic (CTL). In this way, all feasible trajectories that satisfy specifications and which moves the robots from a set of initial positions to a set of desired goal positions may be algorithmically analyzed. The trajectories can...... then subsequently be used as a high-level motion plan for the robots. This paper reports on the timed automata framework, results of two verification experiments, promise of the approach, and gives a perspective for future research....

  15. Multi-Robot Motion Planning Using Swarm Intelligence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerasimos G. Rigatos

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Swarm intelligence theory is proposed for motion planning of multi-robot systems. Multiple particles start from different points in the solutions space and interact to each other while moving towards the goal position. Swarm intelligence theory is a derivative-free approach to the problem of multi-robotcooperation which works by searching iteratively in regions defined by each robot's best previous move and the best previous move of its neighbors. The method's performance is evaluated through simulation tests.

  16. Motion Planning of Humanoid Robot for Obstacle Negotiation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The motion planning for obstacle negotiation by humanoid robot BHR-2 through stepping over or stepping on/off the wide and flat obstacle at known locations is presented. In the trajectory generation method, first the constraints of the foot motion parameters which include obstacle dimensions and the distance of obstacle from the humanoid robot is formulated. By varying the values of the constraint parameters, different types of foot motion for different obstacles can be produced. In this method, first the foot trajectory is generated, and then the waist trajectory is computed by using cubic spline interpolation without first calculating the zero moment point (ZMP) trajectory . The dynamic stability during the execution of stepping over and stepping on/off trajectories are ensured by incorporating the ZMP criterion. The effectiveness of the proposed method is confirmed by simulations and experiments on humanoid robot BHR-2.

  17. A marsupial robotic fish team: Design, motion and cooperation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    A bio-inspired marsupial robotic fish system composed of heterogeneous robotic fish is proposed in this paper. A miniature robotic fish, as the daughter robotic fish, can adapt to some narrow space, while the mother robotic fish, with a cabin to transport the daughter, possesses a powerful movement ability to improve the mobility and endurance of the team. The structures for mimicking bio-motion and the method for fishlike-motion are presented. A typical task of daughter-mother following is given to show the cooperation of the team. A motion model of free swimming is built based on the Lagrangian function, and the coupled dynamic and kinematic functions are calculated based on the relation between the generalized force and fluid force. Then, a neural network is trained through the data generated from this model to get a predictive yaw controller, which can control the orientation by a different offset of each link. The daughter robotic fish adopts a dynamic light source tracking approach to follow the mother, and a heterogeneous communication-based finite state machine is presented for task modeling. Experiments are carried out to verify the system.

  18. Motion and operation planning of robotic systems background and practical approaches

    CERN Document Server

    Gomez-Barvo, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    This book addresses the broad multi-disciplinary topic of robotics, and presents the basic techniques for motion and operation planning in robotics systems. Gathering contributions from experts in diverse and wide ranging fields, it offers an overview of the most recent and cutting-edge practical applications of these methodologies. It covers both theoretical and practical approaches, and elucidates the transition from theory to implementation. An extensive analysis is provided, including humanoids, manipulators, aerial robots and ground mobile robots. ‘Motion and Operation Planning of Robotic Systems’ addresses the following topics: *The theoretical background of robotics. *Application of motion planning techniques to manipulators, such as serial and parallel manipulators. *Mobile robots planning, including robotic applications related to aerial robots, large scale robots and traditional wheeled robots. *Motion planning for humanoid robots. An invaluable reference text for graduate students and researche...

  19. Realtime motion planning for a mobile robot in an unknown environment using a neurofuzzy based approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Taixiong

    2005-12-01

    A neuro-fuzzy network based approach for robot motion in an unknown environment was proposed. In order to control the robot motion in an unknown environment, the behavior of the robot was classified into moving to the goal and avoiding obstacles. Then, according to the dynamics of the robot and the behavior character of the robot in an unknown environment, fuzzy control rules were introduced to control the robot motion. At last, a 6-layer neuro-fuzzy network was designed to merge from what the robot sensed to robot motion control. After being trained, the network may be used for robot motion control. Simulation results show that the proposed approach is effective for robot motion control in unknown environment.

  20. Mechanism design and motion planning of M-Cubes robot

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xia Ping; Zhu Xinjian; Fei Yanqiong; Xu Bing

    2007-01-01

    A homogeneous and lattice self-reconfigurable robot module is designed, and each module is composed of a center body and six connection planes which can independently rotate. A module can independently connect or disconnect with other modules, and then change its connection by collaborating with other modules. We discuss how to describe and discover configuration of robot. Furthermore, we describe its motion planning based on the appraisal function and the adjacency matrix which is effective to solve the computationally difficult problem and optimize the system motion path during the self-reconfiguration process. Finally, a simulation experiment is demonstrated, which verifies the correctness of locomotion method.

  1. Psychological Evaluation of Frisky Robot Motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashimoto, Hiroshi; Takeda, Daisuke; Ohyama, Yasuhiro; Ishii, Chiharu; Niitsuma, Mihoko; Hashimoto, Hideki

    This paper describes the emotional evaluation of a frisky robot that weaves around its human owner; the evaluation is based on the SD (Semantic Differential) method and the RRV(R-R wave variance) method using electrocardiograms (ECG) as the biosignal source. The SD method is effective to measure emotion, and the RRV method is suitable for investigating the physiological state from the heartbeat. The SD method shows that humans show a significant response only when the robot weaves, not when it simply shadows the human. Furthermore, we revealed that these methods are correlated which suggests that the RRV method supports real time evaluation.

  2. Strategy for robot motion and path planning in robot taping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Qilong; Chen, I.-Ming; Lembono, Teguh Santoso; Landén, Simon Nelson; Malmgren, Victor

    2016-06-01

    Covering objects with masking tapes is a common process for surface protection in processes like spray painting, plasma spraying, shot peening, etc. Manual taping is tedious and takes a lot of effort of the workers. The taping process is a special process which requires correct surface covering strategy and proper attachment of the masking tape for an efficient surface protection. We have introduced an automatic robot taping system consisting of a robot manipulator, a rotating platform, a 3D scanner and specially designed taping end-effectors. This paper mainly talks about the surface covering strategies for different classes of geometries. The methods and corresponding taping tools are introduced for taping of following classes of surfaces: Cylindrical/extended surfaces, freeform surfaces with no grooves, surfaces with grooves, and rotational symmetrical surfaces. A collision avoidance algorithm is introduced for the robot taping manipulation. With further improvements on segmenting surfaces of taping parts and tape cutting mechanisms, such taping solution with the taping tool and the taping methodology can be combined as a very useful and practical taping package to assist humans in this tedious and time costly work.

  3. Sensing human hand motions for controlling dexterous robots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcus, Beth A.; Churchill, Philip J.; Little, Arthur D.

    1988-01-01

    The Dexterous Hand Master (DHM) system is designed to control dexterous robot hands such as the UTAH/MIT and Stanford/JPL hands. It is the first commercially available device which makes it possible to accurately and confortably track the complex motion of the human finger joints. The DHM is adaptable to a wide variety of human hand sizes and shapes, throughout their full range of motion.

  4. Sensory Integration with Articulated Motion on a Humanoid Robot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Rojas

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the integration of articulated motion with auditory and visual sensory information that enables a humanoid robot to achieve certain reflex actions that mimic those of people. Reflexes such as reach-and-grasp behavior enables the robot to learn, through experience, its own state and that of the world. A humanoid robot with binaural audio input, stereo vision, and pneumatic arms and hands exhibited tightly coupled sensory-motor behaviors in four different demonstrations. The complexity of successive demonstrations was increased to show that the reflexive sensory-motor behaviors combine to perform increasingly complex tasks. The humanoid robot executed these tasks effectively and established the groundwork for the further development of hardware and software systems, sensory-motor vector-space representations, and coupling with higher-level cognition.

  5. Stingray-inspired robot with simply actuated intermediate motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neely, Lincoln; Gaiennie, Jack; Noble, Nick; Erickson, Jonathan C.

    2016-04-01

    Batoids, or rays, utilize unique forms of locomotion that may offer more efficient techniques of motorized propulsion in various marine environments. We present a novel biomimetic engineering design and assembly of a stingray-inspired robot swimmer. The robots locomotion mimics the Dasyatis americana, or southern stingray, whose distinction among rays is its intermediate motion, characterized by sweeping strokes that propagate between 1/2-1 wavelength of the fin profile in the posterior direction. Though oscillatory ( wavelengths) ray-based robots have been created, this project demonstrates new engineering possibilities in what is, to the best of our knowledge, the first intermediately propelled batoid-based robot. The robots fins were made of silicone rubber, cast in a 3-D printed mold, with wingspan of 42 cm (1/2 - 1/5 scale for males and females, respectively, scale of model organism). Two anteriorly placed servomotors per fin were used, all controlled by one wirelessly enabled Arduino microcontroller. Each servomotor oscillated a flexible rod with cylindrical joint, whose frequency, speed, and front-back phase delay were user-programmed over wireless connection. During free-swimming tests, the fin profile developed about 0.8 wavelength, qualifying for successful mimicry of its biological inspiration. The robot satisfactorily maintained straight-line motion, reaching average peak velocity of 9.4+/-1.0 cm/s (0.27-0.03 body lengths/second) at its optimum flapping frequency of 1.4 Hz. This is in the same order of magnitude of speed normalized to body length achieved by others in two recent batoid-based projects. In summary, our robot performed intermediate stingray locomotion with relatively fewer components, which reveals robust potential for innovation of the simple intermediate batoid-based robot swimmer.

  6. Surgical robotics. Evaluation of the Computer Motion AESOP 3000 robotic endoscope holder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-07-01

    The use of robots to manipulate surgical instruments inside the patient has already moved from the world of fiction to fact. While the widespread use of full-function surgical robots is still many years away, less sophisticated robots that perform very specific surgical functions are already at a stage where the typical hospital can consider their use. Currently, the most affordable and commonly used type of "surgical-assist" robot is the robotic endoscope holder, which is used to hold and position rigid endoscopes during minimally invasive surgery. In this study, we introduce readers to the topic of surgical robotics, focusing specifically on robotic endoscope holders. The study includes a Technology Management Guide, in which we discuss who should and who shouldn't consider implementing such robots, and it includes our evaluation protocol and findings for one such robot, the Computer Motion AESOP 3000. We judged the evaluated system based on its performance relative to the human scope holders it is designed to replace, as well as its safety and ease of use. While we found the AESOP 3000 to be an acceptable, and sometimes preferred, alternative to the use of a human scope holder, we caution that many healthcare facilities won't see sufficient clinical benefit to warrant its purchase at this time.

  7. Determining Sense Of Motion In Robotic Vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawton, Teri B.

    1990-01-01

    Image-processing algorithms based partly on natural visual/mental processes. Proposed digital image-processing scheme determines sense of motion of object in image along one coordinate axis (left to right or right to left) with respect to background in image. Image encoded by passing it through spatiotemporal filters, including nonlinear contrast function with threshold. Nonlinear response to sums and differences of imagery processed through even and odd spatial filters indicates sense of motion.

  8. Reference trajectory generation for rehabilitation robots: complementary limb motion estimation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallery, Heike; van Asseldonk, Edwin H F; Buss, Martin; van der Kooij, Herman

    2009-02-01

    For gait rehabilitation robots, an important question is how to ensure stable gait, while avoiding any interaction forces between robot and human in case the patient walks correctly. To achieve this, the definition of "correct" gait needs to adapted both to the individual patient and to the situation. Recently, we proposed a method for online trajectory generation that can be applied for hemiparetic subjects. Desired states for one (disabled) leg are generated online based on the movements of the other (sound) leg. An instantaneous mapping between legs is performed by exploiting physiological interjoint couplings. This way, the patient generates the reference motion for the affected leg autonomously. The approach, called Complementary Limb Motion Estimation (CLME), is implemented on the LOPES gait rehabilitation robot and evaluated with healthy subjects in two different experiments. In a previously described study, subjects walk only with one leg, while the robot's other leg acts as a fake prosthesis, to simulate complete loss of function in one leg. This study showed that CLME ensures stable gait. In a second study, to be presented in this paper, healthy subjects walk with both their own legs to assess the interference with self-determined walking. Evaluation criteria are: Power delivered to the joints by the robot, electromyography (EMG) distortions, and kinematic distortions, all compared to zero torque control, which is the baseline of minimum achievable interference. Results indicate that interference of the robot is lower with CLME than with a fixed reference trajectory, mainly in terms of lowered exchanged power and less alteration of EMG. This implies that subjects can walk more naturally with CLME, and they are assisted less by the robot when it is not needed. Future studies with patients are yet to show whether these properties of CLME transfer to the clinical domain.

  9. Collective motion in populations of colloidal robots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartolo, Denis; Bricard, Antoine; Caussin, Jean-Baptiste; Dauchot, Olivier; Desreumaux, Nicolas

    2014-03-01

    Could the behavior of bacteria swarms, fish schools, and bird flocks be understood within a unified framework? Can one ignore the very details of the interaction mechanisms at the individual level to elucidate how strikingly similar collective motion emerges at the group level in this broad range of motile systems? These seemingly provocative questions have triggered significant advance in the physics and the biology, communities over the last decade. In the physics language these systems, made of motile individuals, can all be though as different realizations of ``active matter.'' In this talk, I will show how to gain more insight into this vivid field using self-propelled colloids as a proxy for motile organism. I will show how to motorize colloidal particles capable of sensing the orientation of their neighbors. Then, I will demonstrate that these archetypal populations display spontaneous transitions to swarming motion, and to global directed motion with very few density and orientation fluctuations.

  10. Vision System Measures Motions of Robot and External Objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talukder, Ashit; Matthies, Larry

    2008-01-01

    A prototype of an advanced robotic vision system both (1) measures its own motion with respect to a stationary background and (2) detects other moving objects and estimates their motions, all by use of visual cues. Like some prior robotic and other optoelectronic vision systems, this system is based partly on concepts of optical flow and visual odometry. Whereas prior optoelectronic visual-odometry systems have been limited to frame rates of no more than 1 Hz, a visual-odometry subsystem that is part of this system operates at a frame rate of 60 to 200 Hz, given optical-flow estimates. The overall system operates at an effective frame rate of 12 Hz. Moreover, unlike prior machine-vision systems for detecting motions of external objects, this system need not remain stationary: it can detect such motions while it is moving (even vibrating). The system includes a stereoscopic pair of cameras mounted on a moving robot. The outputs of the cameras are digitized, then processed to extract positions and velocities. The initial image-data-processing functions of this system are the same as those of some prior systems: Stereoscopy is used to compute three-dimensional (3D) positions for all pixels in the camera images. For each pixel of each image, optical flow between successive image frames is used to compute the two-dimensional (2D) apparent relative translational motion of the point transverse to the line of sight of the camera. The challenge in designing this system was to provide for utilization of the 3D information from stereoscopy in conjunction with the 2D information from optical flow to distinguish between motion of the camera pair and motions of external objects, compute the motion of the camera pair in all six degrees of translational and rotational freedom, and robustly estimate the motions of external objects, all in real time. To meet this challenge, the system is designed to perform the following image-data-processing functions: The visual-odometry subsystem

  11. MOTION PLANNING OF MULTIPLE MOBILE ROBOTS COOPERATIVELY TRANSPORTING A COMMON OBJECT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Many applications above the capability of a single robot need the cooperation of multiple mobile robots, but effective cooperation is hard to achieve. In this paper, a master-slave method is proposed to control the motions of multiple mobile robots that cooperatively transport a common object from a start point to a goal point. A noholonomic kinematic model to constrain the motions of multiple mobile robots is built in order to achieve cooperative motions of them, and a "Dynamic Coordinator" strategy is used to deal with the collision-avoidance of the master robot and slave robot individually. Simulation results show the robustness and effectiveness of the method.

  12. Motion Imagery and Robotics Application (MIRA): Standards-Based Robotics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Lindolfo; Rich, Thomas; Lucord, Steven; Diegelman, Thomas; Mireles, James; Gonzalez, Pete

    2012-01-01

    This technology development originated from the need to assess the debris threat resulting from soil material erosion induced by landing spacecraft rocket plume impingement on extraterrestrial planetary surfaces. The impact of soil debris was observed to be highly detrimental during NASA s Apollo lunar missions and will pose a threat for any future landings on the Moon, Mars, and other exploration targets. The innovation developed under this program provides a simulation tool that combines modeling of the diverse disciplines of rocket plume impingement gas dynamics, granular soil material liberation, and soil debris particle kinetics into one unified simulation system. The Unified Flow Solver (UFS) developed by CFDRC enabled the efficient, seamless simulation of mixed continuum and rarefied rocket plume flow utilizing a novel direct numerical simulation technique of the Boltzmann gas dynamics equation. The characteristics of the soil granular material response and modeling of the erosion and liberation processes were enabled through novel first principle-based granular mechanics models developed by the University of Florida specifically for the highly irregularly shaped and cohesive lunar regolith material. These tools were integrated into a unique simulation system that accounts for all relevant physics aspects: (1) Modeling of spacecraft rocket plume impingement flow under lunar vacuum environment resulting in a mixed continuum and rarefied flow; (2) Modeling of lunar soil characteristics to capture soil-specific effects of particle size and shape composition, soil layer cohesion and granular flow physics; and (3) Accurate tracking of soil-borne debris particles beginning with aerodynamically driven motion inside the plume to purely ballistic motion in lunar far field conditions.

  13. Integration Method of Emphatic Motions and Adverbial Expressions with Scalar Parameters for Robotic Motion Coaching System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okuno, Keisuke; Inamura, Tetsunari

    A robotic coaching system can improve humans' learning performance of motions by intelligent usage of emphatic motions and adverbial expressions according to user reactions. In robotics, however, method to control both the motions and the expressions and how to bind them had not been adequately discussed from an engineering point of view. In this paper, we propose a method for controlling and binding emphatic motions and adverbial expressions by using two scalar parameters in a phase space. In the phase space, variety of motion patterns and verbal expressions are connected and can be expressed as static points. We show the feasibility of the proposing method through experiments of actual sport coaching tasks for beginners. From the results of participants' improvements in motion learning, we confirmed the feasibility of the methods to control and bind emphatic motions and adverbial expressions, as well as confirmed contribution of the emphatic motions and positive correlation of adverbial expressions for participants' improvements in motion learning. Based on the results, we introduce a hypothesis that individually optimized method for binding adverbial expression is required.

  14. Optimal design and motion control of biomimetic robotic fish

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU JunZhi; WANG Long; ZHAO Wei; TAN Min

    2008-01-01

    This paper is concerned with the design, optimization, and motion control of a radio-controlled, multi-link, free-swimming biomimetic robotic fish based on an opti-mized kinematic and dynamic model of fish swimming. The performance of the robotic fish is determined by both the fish's morphological characteristics and ki-nematic parameters. By applying ichthyologic theories of propulsion, a design framework that takes into consideration both mechatronic constraints in physical realization and feasibility of control methods is presented, under which a multiple linked robotic fish that integrates both the carangiform and anguilliform swimming modes can be easily developed. Taking account of both theoretic hydrodynamic issues and practical problems in engineering realization, the optimal link-length-ratios are numerically calculated by an improved constrained cyclic variable method, which are successfully applied to a series of real robotic fishes. The rhythmic movements of swimming are driven by a central pattern generator (CPG) based on nonlinear oscillations, and up-and-down motion by regulating the rotating angle of pectoral fins. The experimental results verify that the presented scheme and method are effective in design and implementation.

  15. Very fast motion planning for highly dexterous-articulated robots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Challou, Daniel J.; Gini, Maria; Kumar, Vipin

    1994-01-01

    Due to the inherent danger of space exploration, the need for greater use of teleoperated and autonomous robotic systems in space-based applications has long been apparent. Autonomous and semi-autonomous robotic devices have been proposed for carrying out routine functions associated with scientific experiments aboard the shuttle and space station. Finally, research into the use of such devices for planetary exploration continues. To accomplish their assigned tasks, all such autonomous and semi-autonomous devices will require the ability to move themselves through space without hitting themselves or the objects which surround them. In space it is important to execute the necessary motions correctly when they are first attempted because repositioning is expensive in terms of both time and resources (e.g., fuel). Finally, such devices will have to function in a variety of different environments. Given these constraints, a means for fast motion planning to insure the correct movement of robotic devices would be ideal. Unfortunately, motion planning algorithms are rarely used in practice because of their computational complexity. Fast methods have been developed for detecting imminent collisions, but the more general problem of motion planning remains computationally intractable. However, in this paper we show how the use of multicomputers and appropriate parallel algorithms can substantially reduce the time required to synthesize paths for dexterous articulated robots with a large number of joints. We have developed a parallel formulation of the Randomized Path Planner proposed by Barraquand and Latombe. We have shown that our parallel formulation is capable of formulating plans in a few seconds or less on various parallel architectures including: the nCUBE2 multicomputer with up to 1024 processors (nCUBE2 is a registered trademark of the nCUBE corporation), and a network of workstations.

  16. VFI-based Robotic Arm Control for Natural Adaptive Motion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Woosung Yang

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Since neural oscillator based control methods can generate rhythmic motion without information on system dynamics, they can be a promising alternative to traditional motion planning based control approaches. However, for field application, they still need to be robust against unexpected forces or changes in environments so as to be able to generate “natural motion” like most biological systems. In this study a biologically inspired control algorithm that combines neural oscillators and virtual force is proposed. This work gives the condition with respect to parameters tuning to stably activate the neural oscillators. This is helpful to achieve motion adaptability to environmental changes keeping the motion repeatability. He efficacy and efficiency of the proposed methods are tested in the control of a planar three-linkage robotic arm. It is shown that the proposed controller generates a given circular path stably and repeatedly, even with unexpected contact with a wall. The adaptivity of motion control is also tested in control of a robotic arm with redundant degrees of freedom. The proposed control algorithm works throughout the simulations and experiments.

  17. Evaluation of robotic minimally invasive surgical skills using motion studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jun, Seung-Kook; Sathia Narayanan, Madusudanan; Singhal, Pankaj; Garimella, Sudha; Krovi, Venkat

    2013-09-01

    Robotic Minimally Invasive Surgery, and the engendered computer-integration, offers unique opportunities for quantitative computer-based surgical-performance evaluation. In this work, we examine extension of traditional manipulative skill assessment, having deep roots in performance evaluation in manufacturing industries, for applicability to robotic surgical skill evaluation. This method relies on: defining task-level segmentation of modular sub-tasks/micro-motions called 'Therbligs' that can be combined to perform a given task; and analyzing intra- and inter-user performance variance by studying surgeons' performance over each 'Therbligs'. Any of the performance metrics of macro-motions-from motion-economy, tool motion measurements to handed-symmetry-can now be extended over the micro-motion temporal segments. Evaluation studies were based on video recordings of surgical tasks in two settings: first, we examined performance of two representative manipulation exercises (peg board and pick-and-place) on a da Vinci surgical SKILLS simulator. This affords a relatively-controlled and standardized test-scenarios for surgeons with varied experience-levels. Second, task-sequences from real surgical videos were analyzed with a list of predefined 'Therbligs' in order to investigate its overall usefulness.

  18. The sensorimotor loop as a dynamical system: How regular motion primitives may emerge from self-organized limit cycles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bulcsú eSándor

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the sensorimotor loop of simple robots simulated within the LPZRobots environment from the point of view of dynamical systems theory. For a robot with a cylindrical shaped body and an actuator controlled by a single proprioceptual neuron we find various types of periodic motions in terms of stable limit cycles. These are self-organized in the sense, that the dynamics of the actuator kicks in only, for a certain range of parameters, when the barrel is already rolling, stopping otherwise. The stability of the resulting rolling motions terminates generally, as a function of the control parameters, at points where fold bifurcations of limit cycles occur. We find that several branches of motion types exist for the same parameters, in terms of the relative frequencies of the barrel and of the actuator, having each their respective basins of attractions in terms of initial conditions. For low drivings stable limit cycles describing periodic and drifting back-and-forth motions are found additionally. These modes allow to generate symmetry breaking explorative behavior purely by the timing an otherwise neutral signal with respect to the cyclic back-and-forth motion of the robot.

  19. Method for Collision Avoidance Motion Coordination of Multiple Mobile Robots Using Central Observation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ko, N.Y.; Seo, D.J. [Chosun University, Kwangju (Korea)

    2003-04-01

    This paper presents a new method driving multiple robots to their goal position without collision. Each robot adjusts its motion based on the information on the goal locations, velocity, and position of the robot and the velocity and position of the other robots. To consider the movement of the robots in a work area, we adopt the concept of avoidability measure. The avoidability measure figures the degree of how easily a robot can avoid other robots considering the following factors: the distance from the robot to the other robots, velocity of the robot and the other robots. To implement the concept in moving robot avoidance, relative distance between the robots is derived. Our method combines the relative distance with an artificial potential field method. The proposed method is simulated for several cases. The results show that the proposed method steers robots to open space anticipating the approach of other robots. In contrast, the usual potential field method sometimes fails preventing collision or causes hasty motion, because it initiates avoidance motion later than the proposed method. The proposed method can be used to move robots in a robot soccer team to their appropriate position without collision as fast as possible. (author). 21 refs., 10 figs., 13 tabs.

  20. Joining Movement Sequences: Modified Dynamic Movement Primitives for Robotics Applications Exemplified on Handwriting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kulvicius, Tomas; Ning, K.; Tamosiunaite, M.

    2012-01-01

    The generation of complex movement patterns, in particular, in cases where one needs to smoothly and accurately join trajectories in a dynamic way, is an important problem in robotics. This paper presents a novel joining method that is based on the modification of the original dynamic movement...... to simulated handwriting generation, which are also shown on a robot, where an adaptive algorithm is used to learn trajectories from human demonstration. These results demonstrate that the new method is a feasible alternative for joining of movement sequences, which has a high potential for all robotics...

  1. [Conformation motion equation and primitive molecular machines for electron (ion) transport in biological systems].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaĭtan, K V; Rubin, A B

    1982-01-01

    A general theory of electron-conformation interactions and correlation between electron transfer rates and conformational mobility are discussed on the basis of a stochastic model of protein dynamics. A set of equations is developed and solved for primitive molecular "machines". Estimation of structural parameters for the reduction of the secondary acceptor in bacterial photosynthesis is given.

  2. A Topological Implementation for Motion Planning of a Robotic Arm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李永成; 张Po

    1993-01-01

    An efficient path planning algorithm based on topologic method is presented in this paper.The collision free path planning for three-joint robotic arm consists of three parts:partition of C-space,construction of CN and search for a path in CN.We mainly solved the problems of partitioning the C-space and undging the connectivity between connected blocks,etc.For the motion planning of a robotic arm with a gripper,we developed the concepts of global planning and local planning,and discussed the basic factors for constructing the planning system.In the paper,some evaluation and analysis of the complexity and reliability of the algorithm are given,together with some ideas to improve the efficiency and increase the reliability.At last,some experimental results are pesented to show the efficency and accuracy of the algorithm.

  3. Stroke Motion Learning for a Humanoid Robotic Ping-Pong Player Using a Novel Motion Capture System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. H. Lai

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Human ping-pong players determine the stroke trajectory according to their experience before the ball enters their court. However, to enable a humanoid robot to select the appropriate stroke motion based on skills learned from 3D motion, important patterns must be generated to simplify the complex 3D motion. Approach: This study developed an effective strategy for teaching ping-pong skills to a humanoid robot. An optical/inertial motion-capture system that retrieves the stroke motion was constructed, along with the retrieved stroke motion trajectories analyzed to obtain the desired stroke patterns of the robot. Results: A motion capture system was implemented mainly to orient the robot on the stroke motion trajectory. This system was applied directly to a ping-pong game between a human player and a pitching machine to enable the robot to learn backhand strokes through human demonstration. The ball was continuously struck to the opponent so that it hit the anticipated region on the opposite side of the court while the pitching machine served the ball. The data were then classified using the proposed stopping detector and then processed by Principal Components Analysis (PCA to generate the stroke patterns after collecting 50 datasets for stroke trajectories. Conclusion: The right arm of the humanoid robot was successfully instructed to perform the actual ping-pong stroke using the generated trajectory.

  4. The sensorimotor loop as a dynamical system: How regular motion primitives may emerge from self-organized limit cycles

    CERN Document Server

    Sándor, Bulcsú; Martin, Laura; Gros, Claudius

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the sensorimotor loop of simple robots simulated within the LPZRobots environment from the point of view of dynamical systems theory. For a robot with a cylindrical shaped body and an actuator controlled by a single proprioceptual neuron we find various types of periodic motions in terms of stable limit cycles. These are self-organized in the sense, that the dynamics of the actuator kicks in only, for a certain range of parameters, when the barrel is already rolling, stopping otherwise. The stability of the resulting rolling motions terminates generally, as a function of the control parameters, at points where fold bifurcations of limit cycles occur. We find that several branches of motion types exist for the same parameters, in terms of the relative frequencies of the barrel and of the actuator, having each their respective basins of attractions in terms of initial conditions. For low drivings stable limit cycles describing periodic and drifting back-and-forth motions are found additionally. T...

  5. Motion states extraction with optical flow for rat-robot automatic navigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xinlu; Sun, Chao; Zheng, Nenggan; Chen, Weidong; Zheng, Xiaoxiang

    2012-01-01

    The real-time acquisition of precise motion states is significant and difficult for bio-robot automatic navigation. In this paper, we propose a real-time video-tracking algorithm to extract motion states of rat-robots in complex environment using optical flow. The rat-robot's motion states, including location, speed and motion trend, are acquired accurately in real time. Compared with the traditional methods based on single frame image, our algorithm using consecutive frames provides more exact and rich motion information for the automatic navigation of bio-robots. The video of the manual navigation experiments on rat-robots in eight-arm maze is applied to test this algorithm. The average computation time is 25.76 ms which is less than the speed of image acquisition. The results show that our method could extract the motion states with good performance of accuracy and time consumption.

  6. Motion Planning Using a Memetic Evolution Algorithm for Swarm Robots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chien-Chou Lin

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available A hierarchical memetic algorithm (MA is proposed for the path planning and formation control of swarm robots. The proposed algorithm consists of a global path planner (GPP and a local motion planner (LMP. The GPP plans a trajectory within the Voronoi diagram (VD of the free space. An MA with a non‐random initial population plans a series of configurations along the path given by the former stage. The MA locally adjusts the robot positions to search for better fitness along the gradient direction of the distance between the swarm robots and the intermediate goals (IGs. Once the optimal configuration is obtained, the best chromosomes are reserved as the initial population for the next generation. Since the proposed MA has a non‐random initial population and local searching, it is more efficient and the planned path is faster compared to a traditional genetic algorithm (GA. The simulation results show that the proposed algorithm works well in terms of path smoothness and computation efficiency.

  7. Analysis of Coordinated Motions of Humanoid Robot Fingers Using Interphalangeal Joint Coordination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byoung-Ho Kim

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we analyse the coordinated motions of humanoid robot fingers using an interphalangeal joint coordination. For this purpose, four humanoid robot fingers with different sizes have been considered. A biomimetic interphalangeal joint coordination (IJC formulation based on the grasp configuration of human fingers has been presented for humanoid robot fingers. The usefulness of the specified IJC formulation for human-like finger motion has been verified through comparative demonstrations. As a result, a proper coordination of humanoid robot fingertips can be achieved by applying our IJC formulation. Also the IJC formulation can be used to design of humanoid robot fingers.

  8. The Kinematics and Dynamics of Undulatory Motion of a Tuna-mimetic Robot

    OpenAIRE

    Sayyed Farideddin Masoomi; Stefanie Gutschmidt; XiaoQi Chen; Mathieu Sellier

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the steps for the mathematical modelling of a fish robot with four degrees of freedom (DOF) called UC-Ika 1. The swimming motion of the robot, which is inspired by tuna fish, needs to generate an undulatory motion by its tail peduncle and caudal fin. Hence, the robot has the benefit of a tail mechanism that plays a determining role in the dynamic behaviour of the robot. Analysing this tail mechanism and the hydrodynamic forces acting upon the fish robot, the governing equa...

  9. The Kinematics and Dynamics of Undulatory Motion of a Tuna-mimetic Robot

    OpenAIRE

    Sayyed Farideddin Masoomi; Stefanie Gutschmidt; XiaoQi Chen; Mathieu Sellier

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the steps for the mathematical modelling of a fish robot with four degrees of freedom (DOF) called UC-Ika 1. The swimming motion of the robot, which is inspired by tuna fish, needs to generate an undulatory motion by its tail peduncle and caudal fin. Hence, the robot has the benefit of a tail mechanism that plays a determining role in the dynamic behaviour of the robot. Analysing this tail mechanism and the hydrodynamic forces acting upon the fish robot, the governing equa...

  10. The Kinematics and Dynamics of Undulatory Motion of a Tuna-Mimetic Robot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayyed Farideddin Masoomi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the steps for the mathematical modelling of a fish robot with four degrees of freedom (DOF called UC-Ika 1. The swimming motion of the robot, which is inspired by tuna fish, needs to generate an undulatory motion by its tail peduncle and caudal fin. Hence, the robot has the benefit of a tail mechanism that plays a determining role in the dynamic behaviour of the robot. Analysing this tail mechanism and the hydrodynamic forces acting upon the fish robot, the governing equations of motion of the robot are derived. Solving these dynamic equations reveals that the robot has a cruising speed of 0.29 m/s, a slight oscillation in the Y direction, and a small swing around its centre of mass. These results are validated by the experimental results of UC-Ika 1.

  11. A Study of an EMG-Based Exoskeletal Robot for Human Shoulder Motion Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiguchi, Kazuo; Iwami, Koya; Watanabe, Keigo; Fukuda, Toshio

    We have been developing exoskeletal robots in order to realize the human motion support (especially for physically weak people). In this paper, we propose a 2-DOF exoskeletal robot and its method of control to support the human shoulder motion. In this exoskeletal robot, the flexion-extension and abduction-adduction motions of the shoulder are supported by activating the arm holder of the robot, which is atached to the upper arm of the human subject, using wires driven by DC motors. A fuzzy-neuro controller is designed to control the robot according to the skin surface electromyogram(EMG) signals in which the intention of the human subject is reflected. The proposed controller controls the flexion-extension and abduction-adduction motion of the human subject. The effectiveness of the proposed exoskeletal robot has been evaluated experimentally.

  12. Two-grade search mechanism based motion planning of a three-limbed robot

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pang Ming; Zang Xizhe; Yan Jihong; Zhao Jie

    2008-01-01

    A novel three-limbed robot was described and its motion planning method was discussed. After the introduction of the robot mechanical structure and the human-robot interface, a two-grade search mechanism based motion planning method was proposed. The first-grade search method using genetic algorithm tries to find an optimized target position and orientation of the three-limbed robot. The second-grade search method using virtual compliance tries to avoid the collision between the three-limbed robot and obstacles in a dynamic environment. Experiment shows the feasibility of the two-grade search mechanism and proves that the proposed motion planning method can be used to solve the motion planning problem of the redundant three-limbed robot without deficiencies of traditional genetic algorithm.

  13. Model and Behavior-Based Robotic Goalkeeper

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lausen, H.; Nielsen, J.; Nielsen, M.

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes the design, implementation and test of a goalkeeper robot for the Middle-Size League of RoboCub. The goalkeeper task is implemented by a set of primitive tasks and behaviours coordinated by a 2-level hierarchical state machine. The primitive tasks concerning complex motion...

  14. Dynamic Primitives in the Control of Locomotion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neville eHogan

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Humans achieve locomotor dexterity that far exceeds the capability of modern robots, yet this is achieved despite slower actuators, imprecise sensors and vastly slower communication. We propose that this spectacular performance arises from encoding motor commands in terms of dynamic primitives. We propose three primitives as a foundation for a comprehensive theoretical framework that can embrace a wide range of upper- and lower-limb behaviors. Building on previous work that suggested discrete and rhythmic movements as elementary dynamic behaviors, we define submovements and oscillations: As discrete movements cannot be combined with sufficient flexibility, we argue that suitably-defined submovements are primitives. As the term rhythmic may be ambiguous, we define oscillations as the corresponding class of primitives. We further propose mechanical impedances as a third class of dynamic primitives, necessary for interaction with the physical environment. Combination of these three classes of primitive requires care. One approach is through a generalized equivalent network: a virtual trajectory composed of simultaneous and/or sequential submovements and/or oscillations that interacts with mechanical impedances to produce observable forces and motions. Reliable experimental identification of these dynamic primitives presents challenges: Identification of mechanical impedances is exquisitely sensitive to assumptions about their dynamic structure; identification of submovements and oscillations is sensitive to their assumed form and to details of the algorithm used to extract them. Some methods to address these challenges are presented. Some implications of this theoretical framework for locomotor rehabilitation are considered.

  15. The development of advanced robotic technology - A study on the development of Motion capturing system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Dong Hyun; Kim, Ki Ho; Lee, Yong Woo; Park, Soo Il; Choi, Jin Sung; Kim, Hae Dong; Park, Chan Yong [System Engineering Research Institute, Taejon= (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-07-01

    Robots are used to perform jobs where the performer are exposed to the radioactivity. Good human-robot-interface is required to operate the robots easily and smoothly. It is believed that virtual reality and 3D graphics technology will be the beat solution for the good human-robot-interface. Using 3D computer graphics, complex human motions can be captured and displayed on the screen. The captured motion data can be used as the input to= control the remote robots using virtual reality technologies. Thus good human-robot-interface can be constructed. The motion capturing system developed in this study are very convenient and easy to be used to operate the robot. And the required time to operate the robot with the developed system is much shorter than to operate the robots without our motion capturing system. Therefore, efficient usage of the robot and related facilities will prolong the life time of them and reduce the manpower of the operators. The 3D data produced by our system will be used to generate commands to control the robot. 6 refs., 60 figs. (author)

  16. Motion generation of peristaltic mobile robot with particle swarm optimization algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homma, Takahiro; Kamamichi, Norihiro

    2015-03-01

    In developments of robots, bio-mimetics is attracting attention, which is a technology for the design of the structure and function inspired from biological system. There are a lot of examples of bio-mimetics in robotics such as legged robots, flapping robots, insect-type robots, fish-type robots. In this study, we focus on the motion of earthworm and aim to develop a peristaltic mobile robot. The earthworm is a slender animal moving in soil. It has a segmented body, and each segment can be shorted and lengthened by muscular actions. It can move forward by traveling expanding motions of each segment backward. By mimicking the structure and motion of the earthworm, we can construct a robot with high locomotive performance against an irregular ground or a narrow space. In this paper, to investigate the motion analytically, a dynamical model is introduced, which consist of a series-connected multi-mass model. Simple periodic patterns which mimic the motions of earthworms are applied in an open-loop fashion, and the moving patterns are verified through numerical simulations. Furthermore, to generate efficient motion of the robot, a particle swarm optimization algorithm, one of the meta-heuristic optimization, is applied. The optimized results are investigated by comparing to simple periodic patterns.

  17. Design and Implementation an Autonomous Humanoid Robot Based on Fuzzy Rule-Based Motion Controller

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Taheri

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Research on humanoid robotics in Mechatronics and Automation Laboratory, Electrical and Computer Engineering, Islamic Azad University Khorasgan branch (Isfahan of Iran was started at
    the beginning of this decade. Various research prototypes for humanoid robots have been designed and are going through evolution over these years. This paper describes the hardware and software design of the kid size humanoid robot systems of the PERSIA Team in 2009. The robot has 20 actuated degrees of freedom based on Hitec HSR898. In this paper we have tried to focus on areas such as mechanical structure, Image processing unit, robot controller, Robot AI and behavior
    learning. In 2009, our developments for the Kid size humanoid robot include: (1 the design and construction of our new humanoid robots (2 the design and construction of a new hardware and software controller to be used in our robots. The project is described in two main parts: Hardware and Software. The software is developed a robot application which consists walking controller, autonomous motion robot, self localization base on vision and Particle Filter, local AI, Trajectory Planning, Motion Controller and Network. The hardware consists of the mechanical structure and the driver circuit board. Each robot is able to walk, fast walk, pass, kick and dribble when it catches
    the ball. These humanoids have been successfully participating in various robotic soccer competitions. This project is still in progress and some new interesting methods are described in the current report.

  18. Automatic Motion Generation for Robotic Milling Optimizing Stiffness with Sample-Based Planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julian Ricardo Diaz Posada

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Optimal and intuitive robotic machining is still a challenge. One of the main reasons for this is the lack of robot stiffness, which is also dependent on the robot positioning in the Cartesian space. To make up for this deficiency and with the aim of increasing robot machining accuracy, this contribution describes a solution approach for optimizing the stiffness over a desired milling path using the free degree of freedom of the machining process. The optimal motion is computed based on the semantic and mathematical interpretation of the manufacturing process modeled on its components: product, process and resource; and by configuring automatically a sample-based motion problem and the transition-based rapid-random tree algorithm for computing an optimal motion. The approach is simulated on a CAM software for a machining path revealing its functionality and outlining future potentials for the optimal motion generation for robotic machining processes.

  19. Teleoperation of a robot manipulator from 3D human hand-arm motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kofman, Jonathan; Verma, Siddharth; Wu, Xianghai; Luu, Timothy

    2003-10-01

    The control of a robot manipulator by a human operator is often necessary in unstructured dynamic environments with unfamiliar objects. Remote teleoperation is required when human presence at the robot site is undesirable or difficult, such as in handling hazardous materials and operating in dangerous or inaccessible environments. Previous approaches have employed mechanical or other contacting interfaces which require unnatural motions for object manipulation tasks or hinder dexterous human motion. This paper presents a non-contacting method of teleoperating a robot manipulator by having the human operator perform the 3D human hand-arm motion that would naturally be used to compete an object manipulation task and tracking the motion with a stereo-camera system at a local site. The 3D human hand-arm motion is reconstructed at the remote robot site and is used to control the position and orientation of the robot manipulator end-effector in real-time. Images captured of the robot interacting with objects at the remote site provide visual feedback to the human operator. Tests in teleoperation of the robot manipulator have demonstrated the ability of the human to carry out object manipulator tasks remotely and the teleoperated robot manipulator system to copy human-arm motions in real-time.

  20. Configuration Synthesis and Efficient Motion Programming of Robot Manipulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-03-15

    pensation. 14. SUBJECT TERMS 15, NUMBER OF PAGES ?v’Yv .c , Robot Kinematics, Robot Dynamics , Robot Parameters, Numerical Methods, Jacobians :S. PRICE...The first order differential analysis of the manipulator is a basic step in robot dynamics and control. The velocity Jacobian of the manipulator

  1. Motion Detection from Mobile Robots with Fuzzy Threshold Selection in Consecutive 2D Laser Scans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María A. Martínez

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Motion detection and tracking is a relevant problem for mobile robots during navigation to avoid collisions in dynamic environments or in applications where service robots interact with humans. This paper presents a simple method to distinguish mobile obstacles from the environment that is based on applying fuzzy threshold selection to consecutive two-dimensional (2D laser scans previously matched with robot odometry. The proposed method has been tested with the Auriga-α mobile robot in indoors to estimate the motion of nearby pedestrians.

  2. MULTI-ROBOT MOTION PLANNING: A MODIFIED RECEDING HORIZON APPROACH FOR REACHING GOAL STATES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José M. Mendes Filho

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes the real-time implementation of an algorithm for collision-free motion planning based on a receding horizon approach, for the navigation of a team of mobile robots in presence of obstacles of different shapes. The method is simulated with three robots. Impact of parameters is studied with regard to computation time, obstacle avoidance and travel time.

  3. Unified Approach To Control Of Motions Of Mobile Robots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seraji, Homayoun

    1995-01-01

    Improved computationally efficient scheme developed for on-line coordinated control of both manipulation and mobility of robots that include manipulator arms mounted on mobile bases. Present scheme similar to one described in "Coordinated Control of Mobile Robotic Manipulators" (NPO-19109). Both schemes based on configuration-control formalism. Present one incorporates explicit distinction between holonomic and nonholonomic constraints. Several other prior articles in NASA Tech Briefs discussed aspects of configuration-control formalism. These include "Increasing the Dexterity of Redundant Robots" (NPO-17801), "Redundant Robot Can Avoid Obstacles" (NPO-17852), "Configuration-Control Scheme Copes with Singularities" (NPO-18556), "More Uses for Configuration Control of Robots" (NPO-18607/NPO-18608).

  4. Robotic motion compensation for applications in radiation oncology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herrmann, Christian

    2013-07-22

    Radiation therapy today, on account of improvements in treatment procedures over the last 60 years, allows precise treatment of static tumors inside the human body. However, irradiation of moving tumors is still a challenging task as moving tumors often leave the treatment beam and the radiation dose delivered to the tumor reduces simultaneously increasing that on healthy tissue. This research work aims to push the frontiers of radiation therapy in order to enable precise treatment of moving tumors with focus on research and development of a unique real-time system enabling active motion compensation through robotic means to compensate tumor motion. During treatment, patients lie on a treatment couch which is normally used for static position corrections of patient set-up errors prior to radiation treatment. The treatment couch used, called HexaPOD, is a parallel manipulator with six degrees of freedom which can precisely position heavy loads inside a small region. Despite the HexaPOD not initially built with dynamics in mind, it is used in this work for sustained motion compensation by moving patients such that tumors stay precisely located at the center of the treatment beam during the complete course of treatment. In order to realize real-time tumor motion compensation by means of the HexaPOD, several challenges need to be addressed. Real-time aspects are covered by the adoption of a hard real-time operation system in combination with measurement and estimation of latencies of all physical quantities in the compensation system such as tumor or breathing position measurements. Accurate timing information is respected consistently in the whole system and all software-induced latencies are adaptively compensated for. This requires knowledge of future tumor positions from predictors. Several predictors for breathing and tumor motion predictions are proposed and evaluated in terms of a variety of different performance metrics. Extensions to prediction algorithms are

  5. Returning Motion from the State of Falling Sideways for Articulated Mobile Robot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunobiki, Masayuki; Okuda, Koichi; Hasegawa, Motoyoshi

    We developed an inchworm-type mobile robot. It consisted of only six segments connected by four pitch joints and one yaw joint. Although this robot had neither legs nor wheels, it was able to advance by using vertically undulatory motion of whole body. Even if it became upside down, it was able to move just like normal posture. But if it fell sideways, it was not able to move until returning to normal posture. In this study, we proposed a returning method by which the angular moment around roll axis was generated by twisting itself. To analyze this motion, we developed a mathematical model for this returning motion by considering the robot to be an underactuated mechanical system that consisted of a base frame and two link frames. We confirmed this returning motion was able to equate with a falling down motion of an underactuated two-linked system.

  6. REAL-TIME MOTION PLANNING METHOD BASED ON NEURAL NETWORKS FOR MULTIPLE MOBILE ROBOTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The motion planning of multiple mobile robots undertaking individual tasks in the same environment is studied. A motion planning method based on neural networks is proposed. By storing fuzzy rules in neural networks the method can fully make use of the association ability and high processing speed of neural networks to make robots avoid collisions with other objects in real time.Compared with rules method,the method can not only avoid building a large and complex rules base but also make robots avoid collisions and conflicts at higher speed and with higher intelligence.

  7. DEVELOPMENT AND MOTION ANALYSIS OF MINIATURE WHEEL-TRACK-LEGGED MOBILE ROBOT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DUAN Xingguang; HUANG Qiang; XU Yan; RAHMAN N; ZHENG Change

    2007-01-01

    A miniature wheel-track-legged mobile robot to carry out military and civilian missions in both indoor and outdoor environments is presented. Firstly, the mechanical design is discussed, which consists of four wheeled and four independently controlled tracked arms, embedded control system and teleoperation. Then the locomotion modes of the mobile robot and motion analysis are analyzed.The mobile robot can move using wheeled, tracked and legged modes, and it has the characteristics of posture-recovering, high mobility, small size and light weight. Finally, the effectiveness of the developed mobile robot is confirmed by experiments such as posture recovering when tipped over, climbing stairs and traversing the high step.

  8. Comparison of three different techniques for camera and motion control of a teleoperated robot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doisy, Guillaume; Ronen, Adi; Edan, Yael

    2017-01-01

    This research aims to evaluate new methods for robot motion control and camera orientation control through the operator's head orientation in robot teleoperation tasks. Specifically, the use of head-tracking in a non-invasive way, without immersive virtual reality devices was combined and compared with classical control modes for robot movements and camera control. Three control conditions were tested: 1) a condition with classical joystick control of both the movements of the robot and the robot camera, 2) a condition where the robot movements were controlled by a joystick and the robot camera was controlled by the user head orientation, and 3) a condition where the movements of the robot were controlled by hand gestures and the robot camera was controlled by the user head orientation. Performance, workload metrics and their evolution as the participants gained experience with the system were evaluated in a series of experiments: for each participant, the metrics were recorded during four successive similar trials. Results shows that the concept of robot camera control by user head orientation has the potential of improving the intuitiveness of robot teleoperation interfaces, specifically for novice users. However, more development is needed to reach a margin of progression comparable to a classical joystick interface.

  9. An EMG Interface for the Control of Motion and Compliance of a Supernumerary Robotic Finger

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irfan Hussain

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we present an electromyographic (EMG control interface for a supernumerary robotic finger. This novel wearable robot can be used to compensate the missing grasping abilities in chronic stroke patients or to augment human healthy hand so to enhance its grasping capabilities and workspace. The proposed EMG interface controls the motion of the robotic extra finger and its joint compliance. In particular, we use a commercial EMG armband for gesture recognition to be associated with the motion control of the robotic device and surface one channel EMG electrodes interface to regulate the compliance of the robotic device. We also present an updated version of a robotic extra finger where the adduction/abduction motion is realized through ball bearing and spur gears mechanism. We validated the proposed interface with two sets of experiments related to compensation and augmentation. In the first set of experiments, different bi-manual tasks have been performed with the help of the robotic device and simulating a paretic hand. In the second set, the robotic extra finger is used to enlarge the workspace and manipulation capability of healthy hands. In both the sets, the same EMG control interface has been used. The obtained results demonstrate that the proposed control interface is intuitive and can successfully be used for both compensation and augmentation purposes. The proposed approach can be exploited also for the control of different wearable devices that has to actively cooperate with the human limbs.

  10. Autonomous tracked robots in planar off-road conditions modelling, localization, and motion control

    CERN Document Server

    González, Ramón; Guzmán, José Luis

    2014-01-01

    This monograph is framed within the context of off-road mobile robotics. In particular, it discusses issues related to modelling, localization, and motion control of tracked mobile robots working in planar slippery conditions. Tracked locomotion constitutes a well-known solution for mobile platforms operating over diverse challenging terrains, for that reason, tracked robotics constitutes an important research field with many applications (e.g. agriculture, mining, search and rescue operations, military activities). The specific topics of this monograph are: historical perspective of tracked vehicles and tracked robots; trajectory-tracking model taking into account slip effect; visual-odometry-based localization strategies; and advanced slip-compensation motion controllers ensuring efficient real-time execution. Physical experiments with a real tracked robot are presented showing the better performance of the suggested novel approaches to known techniques.   Keywords: longitudinal slip, visual odometry, slip...

  11. Multi-agent System for Off-line Coordinated Motion Planning of Multiple Industrial Robots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shital S. Chiddarwar

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available This article presents an agent based framework for coordinated motion planning of multiple robots. The emerging paradigm of agent based systems is implemented to address various issues related to safe and fast task execution when multiple robots share a common workspace. In the proposed agent based framework, each issue vital for coordinated motion planning of multiple robots and every robot participating in coordinated task is considered as an agent. The identified agents are interfaced with each other in order to incorporate the desired flexibility in the developed framework. This framework gives a complete strategy for determination of optimal trajectories of robots working in coordination with due consideration to their kinematic, dynamic and payload constraint. The complete architecture of the proposed framework and the detailed discussion on various modules are covered in this paper.

  12. Autonomous Navigation Motion Control of Mobile Robots using Hybrid System Control Method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Y.M. [Samsung Electronics Co., Ltd., Seoul (Korea); Lim, M.S. [Kyonggi Institute of Technology, Shihung (Korea); Lim, J.H. [Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea)

    2002-05-01

    This paper presents a framework of hybrid dynamic control systems for the motion control of wheeled mobile robot systems with nonholonomic constraints. The hybrid control system has the 3-layered hierarchical structure: digital automata for the higher process, mobile robot system for the lower process, and the interface as the interaction process between the continuous dynamics and the discrete dynamics. In the hybrid control architecture of mobile robot, the continuous dynamics of mobile robots are modeled by the switched systems. The abstract model and digital automata for the motion control are developed. In high level, the discrete states are defined by using the sensor-based search windows and the reference motions of a mobile robot in low level are specified in the abstracted motions. The mobile robots can perform both the motion planning and autonomous maneuvering with obstacle avoidance in indoor navigation problem. Simulation and experimental results show that hybrid system approach is an effective method for the autonomous maneuvering in indoor environments. (author). 13 refs., 13 figs., 1 tab.

  13. Hand Motion-Based Remote Control Interface with Vibrotactile Feedback for Home Robots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Wu

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the design and implementation of a hand-held interface system for the locomotion control of home robots. A handheld controller is proposed to implement hand motion recognition and hand motion-based robot control. The handheld controller can provide a ‘connect-and-play’ service for the users to control the home robot with visual and vibrotactile feedback. Six natural hand gestures are defined for navigating the home robots. A three-axis accelerometer is used to detect the hand motions of the user. The recorded acceleration data are analysed and classified to corresponding control commands according to their characteristic curves. A vibration motor is used to provide vibrotactile feedback to the user when an improper operation is performed. The performances of the proposed hand motion-based interface and the traditional keyboard and mouse interface have been compared in robot navigation experiments. The experimental results of home robot navigation show that the success rate of the handheld controller is 13.33% higher than the PC based controller. The precision of the handheld controller is 15.4% more than that of the PC and the execution time is 24.7% less than the PC based controller. This means that the proposed hand motion-based interface is more efficient and flexible.

  14. Tree Climbing Robot Design, Kinematics and Motion Planning

    CERN Document Server

    Lam, Tin Lun

    2012-01-01

    Climbing robot is a challenging research topic that has gained much attention from researchers. Most of the robots reported in the literature are designed to climb on manmade structures, but seldom robots are designed for climbing natural environment such as trees. Trees and manmade structures are very different in nature. It brings different aspects of technical challenges to the robot design. In this book, you can find a collection of the cutting edge technologies in the field of tree-climbing robot and the ways that animals climb. It provides a valuable reference for robot designers to select appropriate climbing methods in designing tree-climbing robots for specific purposes. Based on the study, a novel bio-inspired tree-climbing robot with several breakthrough performances has been developed and presents in this book. It is capable of performing various actions that is impossible in the state-of-the-art tree-climbing robots, such as moving between trunk and branches. This book also proposes several appro...

  15. Dynamics model of underwater robot motion control in 6 degrees of freedom

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Ye; LIU Jian-cheng; SHEN Ming-xue

    2005-01-01

    In order to analyze underwater robot control system dynamics features, a system 6-DOF dynamics model was founded. Underwater robot linear and nonlinear hydrodynamics were analyzed by Taylor series,based on general motion equation. Special control system motion equation was deduced by cluster of inertial items and non-inertial items. For program convenience, motion equation matrix format was presented. Experimental principles of screw propellers, rudders and wings were discussed. Experimental data least-square curve fitting, interpolation and their corresponding traditional equation helped us to obtain the whole system dynamic response procedure. A series of simulation experiments show that the dynamics model is correct and reliable.The model can provide theory proof for analyzing underwater robot motion control system physics characters and provide a mathematic model for traditional control method.

  16. Design and implementation of motion planning of inspection and maintenance robot for ITER-like vessel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Hesheng; Lai, Yinping [Department of Automation, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Key Laboratory of System Control and Information Processing, Ministry of Education of China (China); Chen, Weidong, E-mail: wdchen@sjtu.edu.cn [Department of Automation, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Key Laboratory of System Control and Information Processing, Ministry of Education of China (China); Cao, Qixin [Institute of Robotics, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China)

    2015-12-15

    Robot motion planning is a fundamental problem to ensure the robot executing the task without clashes, fast and accurately in a special environment. In this paper, a motion planning of a 12 DOFs remote handling robot used for inspecting the working state of the ITER-like vessel and maintaining key device components is proposed and implemented. Firstly, the forward and inverse kinematics are given by analytic method. The work space and posture space of this manipulator are both considered. Then the motion planning is divided into three stages: coming out of the cassette mover, moving along the in-vessel center line, and inspecting the D-shape section. Lastly, the result of experiments verified the performance of the motion design method. In addition, the task of unscrewing/screwing the screw demonstrated the feasibility of system in function.

  17. Reference trajectory generation for rehabilitation robots: complementary limb motion estimation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vallery, H.; van Asseldonk, Edwin H.F.; Buss, M.; van der Kooij, Herman

    2009-01-01

    For gait rehabilitation robots, an important question is how to ensure stable gait, while avoiding any interaction forces between robot and human in case the patient walks correctly. To achieve this, the definition of ldquocorrectrdquo gait needs to adapted both to the individual patient and to the

  18. Motion Control of Siro: The Silo Cleaning Robot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kinan Dandan

    2015-12-01

    A scaled prototype of the robot has been implemented and tested to prove the concept, in order to make certain that the mechanical design suits the main functions of the robotic system, to realize the robot’s design in an industrial version and to test it in a realistic environment.

  19. Reference Trajectory Generation for Rehabilitation Robots: Complementary Limb Motion Estimation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vallery, H.; Asseldonk, van E.H.F.; Buss, M.; Kooij, van der H.

    2009-01-01

    For gait rehabilitation robots, an important question is how to ensure stable gait, while avoiding any interaction forces between robot and human in case the patient walks correctly. To achieve this, the definition of ldquocorrectrdquo gait needs to adapted both to the individual patient and to the

  20. Efficient probabilistic planar robot motion estimation given pairs of images

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Booij, O.; Kröse, B.; Zivkovic, Z.

    2010-01-01

    Estimating the relative pose between two camera positions given image point correspondences is a vital task in most view based SLAM and robot navigation approaches. In order to improve the robustness to noise and false point correspondences it is common to incorporate the constraint that the robot m

  1. Collective Motion of Robotic Fish Synchronized with Antiphases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, Chen; Cao, Ming; Xie, Guangming

    2011-01-01

    The study of design principles for individual robotic fish can be traced back to at least the early 1990’s. More recently, different central pattern generator (CPG) models have been utilized to control the locomotions of robotic fish and some results have been reported to use proper sensing and plan

  2. Adaptive Robot to Person Encounter by Motion Patterns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Hans Jørgen; Bak, Thomas; Svenstrup, Mikael

    2009-01-01

    This paper introduces a new method for adaptive control of a robot approaching a person controlled by the person's interest in interaction. For adjustment of the robot behavior a cost function centered in the person is adapted according to an introduced person evaluator method relying on the three...... variables: the distance between the person and the robot, the relative velocity between the two, and position of the person. The person evaluator method determine the person's interest by evaluating the spatial relationship between robot and person in a Case Based Reasoning (CBR) system that is trained...... to determine to which degree the person is interested in interaction. The outcome of the CBR system is used to adapt the cost function around the person, so that the robot's behavior is adapted to the expressed interest. The proposed methods are evaluated by a number of physical experiments that demonstrate...

  3. Impact motion control of humanoid robot BHR-5 based on the energy integral method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei Meng

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available To replace human beings for a task conducted in a realistic environment, the ability to perform impact motions such as running, jumping, and carrying is required for a humanoid robot. At present, it is quite difficult for the humanoid robot to achieve the motion performance of human beings. To address this issue, this article proposes to use a novel impact motion control method for a humanoid robot called BHR-5 using energy integral method. First, we have designed a high power density joint controller to drive each brushless motor to actuate each robot joint. The joint controller can generate sufficient power to actuate the robot joint with an instantaneous overload when limiting the input power in a unit interval. Second, the control system can generate trajectories to realize impact motion by integrating the energy of the whole body. Finally, we have conducted performance test on BHR-5 to verify the control method using our motor drivers and trajectory generation method. Analysis of the experimental results confirmed the effectiveness of the proposed control method for performing impact motions.

  4. Combining Dense Structure From Motion and Visual SLAM in a Behavior-Based Robot Control Architecture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geert De Cubber

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we present a control architecture for an intelligent outdoor mobile robot. This enables the robot to navigate in a complex, natural outdoor environment, relying on only a single on-board camera as sensory input. This is achieved through a twofold analysis of the visual data stream: a dense structure from motion algorithm calculates a depth map of the environment and a visual simultaneous localization and mapping algorithm builds a map of the surroundings using image features. This information enables a behavior-based robot motion and path planner to navigate the robot through the environment. In this paper, we show the theoretical aspects of setting up this architecture.

  5. Control of humanoid robot via motion-onset visual evoked potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wei; Li, Mengfan; Zhao, Jing

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigates controlling humanoid robot behavior via motion-onset specific N200 potentials. In this study, N200 potentials are induced by moving a blue bar through robot images intuitively representing robot behaviors to be controlled with mind. We present the individual impact of each subject on N200 potentials and discuss how to deal with individuality to obtain a high accuracy. The study results document the off-line average accuracy of 93% for hitting targets across over five subjects, so we use this major component of the motion-onset visual evoked potential (mVEP) to code people's mental activities and to perform two types of on-line operation tasks: navigating a humanoid robot in an office environment with an obstacle and picking-up an object. We discuss the factors that affect the on-line control success rate and the total time for completing an on-line operation task.

  6. Obstacle-avoiding robot with IR and PIR motion sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, R.; Omar, Z.; Suaibun, S.

    2016-10-01

    Obstacle avoiding robot was designed, constructed and programmed which may be potentially used for educational and research purposes. The developed robot will move in a particular direction once the infrared (IR) and the PIR passive infrared (PIR) sensors sense a signal while avoiding the obstacles in its path. The robot can also perform desired tasks in unstructured environments without continuous human guidance. The hardware was integrated in one application board as embedded system design. The software was developed using C++ and compiled by Arduino IDE 1.6.5. The main objective of this project is to provide simple guidelines to the polytechnic students and beginners who are interested in this type of research. It is hoped that this robot could benefit students who wish to carry out research on IR and PIR sensors.

  7. HIT anthropomorphic robotic hand and finger motion control

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Nowadays many anthropomorphic robotic hands have been put forward. These hands emphasize different aspects according to their applications. HIT Anthropomorphic Robotic Hand (ARhand) is a simple,lightweight and dexterous design per the requirements of anthropomorphic robots. Underactuated self-adaptive theory is adopted to decrease the number of motors and weight. The fingers of HIT ARhand with multi phalanges have the same size as those of an adult hand. Force control is realized with the position sensor, joint torque sensor and fingertip torque sensor. From the 3D model, the whole hand, with the low power consumption DSP control board integrated in it, will weigh only 500 g. It will be assembled on a BIT-Anthropomorphic Robot.

  8. Combining Dense Structure From Motion and Visual SLAM in a Behavior-Based Robot Control Architecture

    OpenAIRE

    Geert De Cubber; Sid Ahmed Berrabah; Daniela Doroftei; Yvan Baudoin; Hichem Sahli

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we present a control architecture for an intelligent outdoor mobile robot. This enables the robot to navigate in a complex, natural outdoor environment, relying on only a single on-board camera as sensory input. This is achieved through a twofold analysis of the visual data stream: a dense structure from motion algorithm calculates a depth map of the environment and a visual simultaneous localization and mapping algorithm builds a map of the surroundings using image features. T...

  9. A surgical robot with a heart-surface-motion synchronization mechanism for myoblast cell sheet transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Kangyi; Nakamura, Ryoichi

    2013-01-01

    Myoblast cell sheets are employed in the clinical treatment of heart disorders. We propose a surgical robot system with two endoscopic cameras, characterized by a double remote center of motion (RCM) mechanism, to realize heart-surface-motion synchronization movement for myoblast cell sheet transplantation on a beating heart surface. A robot system with the double RCM mechanism was developed for which the linear and rotation motions are totally isolated, and an experiment was conducted to evaluate the tracking accuracy of the robot system when tracking a randomly moving target. The tracking data were updated with a Polaris system at 30 Hz. The experiment results showed linear and rotation tracking errors of 4.93 ± 5.92 mm and 2.54 ± 5.44°, respectively.

  10. Optimal Control of Holding Motion by Nonprehensile Two-Cooperative-Arm Robot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changan Jiang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, more researchers have focused on nursing-care assistant robot and placed their hope on it to solve the shortage problem of the caregivers in hospital or nursing home. In this paper, a nonprehensile two-cooperative-arm robot is considered to realize holding motion to keep a two-rigid-link object (regarded as a care-receiver stable on the robot arms. By applying Newton-Euler equations of motion, dynamic model of the object is obtained. In this model, for describing interaction behavior between object and robot arms in the normal direction, a viscoelastic model is employed to represent the normal forces. Considering existence of friction between object and robot arms, LuGre dynamic model is applied to describe the friction. Based on the obtained model, an optimal regulator is designed to control the holding motion of two-cooperative-arm robot. In order to verify the effectiveness of the proposed method, simulation results are shown.

  11. Predicting the Motion of a Robot Manipulator with Unknown Trajectories Based on an Artificial Neural Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sai Hong Tang

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Mathematically, the motion of a robot manipulator can be computed through the integration of kinematics, dynamics, and trajectories calculations. However, the calculations are complex and only can be applied if the configuration of the robot and the characteristics of the joint trajectories are known. This paper introduces the use of artificial neural networks (ANN to overcome these shortcomings by solving nonlinear functions and adapting the characteristics of unknown trajectories. A virtual six-degree-of-freedom (DOF robot manipulator is exploited as an example to show the robustness of the developed ANN topology.

  12. Multi-objective Design Optimization of a Parallel Schönflies-motion Robot

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Guanglei; Bai, Shaoping; Hjørnet, Preben

    2016-01-01

    This paper introduces a parallel Schoenflies-motion robot with rectangular workspace, which is suitable for pick-and-place operations. A multi-objective optimization problem is formulated to optimize the robot's geometric parameters with consideration of kinematic and dynamic performances....... The dynamic performance is concerned mainly the capability of force transmission in the parallel kinematic chain, for which transmission indices are defined. The Pareto-front is obtained to investigate the influence of the design variables to the robot performance. Dynamic characteristics for three Pareto...

  13. Study on motion simulation of arc welding robot based on UG

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Feng Shengqiang; Hu Shengsun; Du Naicheng; Shen Junqi

    2008-01-01

    The motion simulation of arc welding robot is the basis of the system of robot off-line programming, and it has been one of the important research directions. The UGNX4.0 is adopted to establish 3D simulating model of MOTOMAN-HP6 arc welding robot. The kinematic model under link-pole coordinate system is established by the second development function offered by UG/OPEN API and the method of programming using VC+ +6.0. The methods of founding model and operational procedures are introduced, which provides a good basis for off-line programming technique under Unigraphics condition.

  14. Motion Model Building of Robot Fish%机器鱼运动建模

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李近; 许成锋

    2009-01-01

    本文以水下航行体原理样机"机器鱼"为研究对象.分析了机器鱼的水动力特性以及推进系统的特殊性,建立了机器鱼的空间五自由度运动模型.%In the paper,the main objective was to construct the motion model of Robot Fish,which imitated dolphin or tuna. The unsteady hydrodynamic force feature of the Robot Fish was numerically analyzed,and a motion model of 5-direction freedom was constructed.

  15. Motion Synthesis of a Self-Steered Mobile Robot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roseborrough, Michael; Phillips, Keith

    1987-02-01

    Until the late 1950's there was an almost exclusive use of graphical methods in the kinematic analysis and synthesis of mechanisms. With the increasing availability of high-speed digital computers there was a major reawakening of interest in a field con-sidered by many to be mature and dormant. Today the birth of advanced robotic systems has heightened the interest in applications of kinematic analysis and synthesis. This paper discusses the application of kinematics to the path planning model of a three wheeled, self-steering, mobile robot. The problem is formulated through a kinematic analysis of the path curvature and the synthesis of a set of equivalent linkages. The equivalent linkages facilitate a direct relationship between the path and the robot steering control mechanism. This is accomplished through the kinematic param-eters displacement, velocity and acceleration. The mathematical model is presented in a generalized format with the robot represented as a rigid body. Examples are shown which solve the problem of moving the robot through a crowded environment and arriving at its destination in a predetermined orientation.

  16. Provision of Controlled Motion Accuracy of Industrial Robots and Multiaxis Machines by the Method of Integrated Deviations Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krakhmalev, O. N.; Petreshin, D. I.; Fedonin, O. N.

    2016-04-01

    There is a developed method of correction of the integrated motion deviations of industrial robots and multiaxis machines, which are caused by the primary geometrical deviations of their segments. This method can be used to develop a control system providing the motion correction for industrial robots and multiaxis machines.

  17. Kinematics design and human motion transfer for a humanoid service robot arm

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Dube, C

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available should have a struc- ture and range of motion similar to that of a human. This paper focuses on the kinematic design of a humanoid robot arm for human environments and the transferring of hu- man motion to the humanoid arm via visual motion capture... frame for the shoulder girdle DOFs a method of extracting ster- num position information from the motion capture data is for- mulated. Finally the formulation is compared against a test data set in order to verify the formulation (Section 6). 2...

  18. Virtual Reality Simulation of Fire Fighting Robot Dynamic and Motion

    CERN Document Server

    Setiawan, Joga D; Budiyono, Agus

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents one approach in designing a Fire Fighting Robot which has been contested annually in a robotic student competition in many countries following the rules initiated at the Trinity College. The approach makes use of computer simulation and animation in a virtual reality environment. In the simulation, the amount of time, starting from home until the flame is destroyed, can be confirmed. The efficacy of algorithms and parameter values employed can be easily evaluated. Rather than spending time building the real robot in a trial and error fashion, now students can explore more variation of algorithm, parameter and sensor-actuator configuration in the early stage of design. Besides providing additional excitement during learning process and enhancing students understanding to the engineering aspects of the design, this approach could become a useful tool to increase the chance of winning the contest.

  19. Bio-inspired motion planning algorithms for autonomous robots facilitating greater plasticity for security applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yi; Hohil, Myron; Desai, Sachi V.

    2007-10-01

    Proposed are techniques toward using collaborative robots for infrastructure security applications by utilizing them for mobile sensor suites. A vast number of critical facilities/technologies must be protected against unauthorized intruders. Employing a team of mobile robots working cooperatively can alleviate valuable human resources. Addressed are the technical challenges for multi-robot teams in security applications and the implementation of multi-robot motion planning algorithm based on the patrolling and threat response scenario. A neural network based methodology is exploited to plan a patrolling path with complete coverage. Also described is a proof-of-principle experimental setup with a group of Pioneer 3-AT and Centibot robots. A block diagram of the system integration of sensing and planning will illustrate the robot to robot interaction to operate as a collaborative unit. The proposed approach singular goal is to overcome the limits of previous approaches of robots in security applications and enabling systems to be deployed for autonomous operation in an unaltered environment providing access to an all encompassing sensor suite.

  20. Development of a 6DOF robotic motion phantom for radiation therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belcher, Andrew H.; Liu, Xinmin; Grelewicz, Zachary; Pearson, Erik; Wiersma, Rodney D., E-mail: rwiersma@uchicago.edu [Department of Radiation and Cellular Oncology, The University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60637-1470 (United States)

    2014-12-15

    Purpose: The use of medical technology capable of tracking patient motion or positioning patients along 6 degree-of-freedom (6DOF) has steadily increased in the field of radiation therapy. However, due to the complex nature of tracking and performing 6DOF motion, it is critical that such technology is properly verified to be operating within specifications in order to ensure patient safety. In this study, a robotic motion phantom is presented that can be programmed to perform highly accurate motion along any X (left–right), Y (superior–inferior), Z (anterior–posterior), pitch (around X), roll (around Y), and yaw (around Z) axes. In addition, highly synchronized motion along all axes can be performed in order to simulate the dynamic motion of a tumor in 6D. The accuracy and reproducibility of this 6D motion were characterized. Methods: An in-house designed and built 6D robotic motion phantom was constructed following the Stewart–Gough parallel kinematics platform archetype. The device was controlled using an inverse kinematics formulation, and precise movements in all 6 degrees-of-freedom (X, Y, Z, pitch, roll, and yaw) were performed, both simultaneously and separately for each degree-of-freedom. Additionally, previously recorded 6D cranial and prostate motions were effectively executed. The robotic phantom movements were verified using a 15 fps 6D infrared marker tracking system and the measured trajectories were compared quantitatively to the intended input trajectories. The workspace, maximum 6D velocity, backlash, and weight load capabilities of the system were also established. Results: Evaluation of the 6D platform demonstrated translational root mean square error (RMSE) values of 0.14, 0.22, and 0.08 mm over 20 mm in X and Y and 10 mm in Z, respectively, and rotational RMSE values of 0.16°, 0.06°, and 0.08° over 10° of pitch, roll, and yaw, respectively. The robotic stage also effectively performed controlled 6D motions, as well as reproduced

  1. Force and Acceleration Sensor Fusion for Compliant Robot Motion Control

    OpenAIRE

    Gámez García, Javier; Robertsson, Anders; Gómez Ortega, Juan; Johansson, Rolf

    2005-01-01

    In this work, we present implementation and experiment of the theory of dynamic force sensing for robotic manipulators, which uses a sensor fusion technique in order to extract the contact force exerted by the end-effector of the manipulator from those measured by a wrist force sensor, which are corrupted by the inertial forces on the end-effector. We propose a new control strategy based on multisensor fusion with three different sensors that is, encoders mounted at each joint of the robot wi...

  2. Humanoid Robot 3 -D Motion Simulation for Hardware Realization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAO Xi; ZHAO Qun-fei; MA Pei-sun

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, three dimensions kinematics andkinetics simulation arc discussed for hardware realization ofa physical biped walking-chair robot. The direct and inverseclose-form kinematics solution of the biped walking-chairis deduced. Several gaits are realized with thekinematics solution, including walking straight on levelfloor, going up stair, squatting down and standing up. ZeroMoment Point(ZMP) equation is analyzed considering themovement of the crew. The simulated biped walking-chairrobot is used for mechanical design, gaits development andvalidation before they are tested on real robot.

  3. Integration of task and motion planning for robotics

    OpenAIRE

    Suárez Hernández, Alejandro

    2016-01-01

    Describimos un proyecto de investigación en el cual exploramos la efectividad de una estrategia de integración de planificación simbólica y geométrica en el área de la robótica. Nos proponemos resolver un problema equiparable a una tarea de ensamblado con dos brazos robóticos. We describe a research project in which we explore the effectiveness of an approach for integrated symbolic and geometric planning in robotics. We target to solve an assembling-like problem with two robot arms. The s...

  4. Parametric Optimal Design of a Parallel Schönflies-Motion Robot under Pick-And-Place Trajectory Constraints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Guanglei; Bai, Shaoping; Hjørnet, Preben

    2015-01-01

    This paper deals with the parametric optimum design of a parallel Schoenflies-motion robot, named "Ragnar", designed for fast and flexible pick-and-place applications. The robot architecture admits a rectangular workspace, which can utilize the shop-floor space efficiently. In this work......-front is obtained, which provides optimal solutions to the robot design. Robot prototyping work based on the optimal results is described....

  5. Hand Motion-Based Remote Control Interface with Vibrotactile Feedback for Home Robots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Wu

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the design and implementation of a hand‐held interface system for the locomotion control of home robots. A handheld controller is proposed to implement hand motion recognition and hand motion‐based robot control. The handheld controller can provide a ‘connect‐and‐play’ service for the users to control the home robot with visual and vibrotactile feedback. Six natural hand gestures are defined for navigating the home robots. A three‐axis accelerometer is used to detect the hand motions of the user. The recorded acceleration data are analysed and classified to corresponding control commands according to their characteristic curves. A vibration motor is used to provide vibrotactile feedback to the user when an improper operation is performed. The performances of the proposed hand motion‐based interface and the traditional keyboard and mouse interface have been compared in robot navigation experiments. The experimental results of home robot navigation show that the success rate of the handheld controller is 13.33% higher than the PC based controller. The precision of the handheld controller is 15.4% more than that of the PC and the execution time is 24.7% less than the PC based controller. This means that the proposed hand motion‐based interface is more efficient and flexible.

  6. Whole-Body Motion Planning for Humanoid Robots by Specifying Via-Points

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ChangHyun Sung

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available We design a framework about the planning of whole body motion for humanoid robots. Motion planning with various constraints is essential to success the task. In this research, we propose a motion planning method corresponding to various conditions for achieving the task. We specify some via-points to deal with the conditions for target achievement depending on various constraints. Together with certain constraints including task accomplishment, the via-point representation plays a crucial role in the optimization process of our method. Furthermore, the via-points as the optimization parameters are related to some physical conditions. We applied this method to generate the kicking motion of a humanoid robot HOAP-3. We have confirmed that the robot was able to complete the task of kicking a ball over an obstacle into a goal in addition to changing conditions of the location of a ball. These results show that the proposed motion planning method using via-point representation can increase articulation of the motion.

  7. Solution and Application about Conversion Tensor of Motion in Dynamic Modeling of 6-HTRT Parallel Robot

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LUO Bing; LU Nian-li; CHE Ren-wei

    2009-01-01

    Equivalent integrated finite element method is a canonical and efficient modeling method in dynamic analysis of complex mechanism. The key of establishing dynamic equations of spatial mechanism by the method is to confirm Jacobian matrix reflecting relations of all joints, nodes, and generalized coordinates, namely, relations of second-order and corresponding third-order conversion tensors. For complex motion relations of components in a parallel robot, it gives second-order and third-order conversion tensors of dynamic equations for the 6-HTRT parallel robot based on equivalent integrated f'mite element method. The method is suitable for the typical robots whose positions of work space and sizes of mechanism are different. The solving course of the method is simple and convenient, so the method lays the foundation of dynamic analysis for robots.

  8. Study of Bipedal Robot Walking Motion in Low Gravity: Investigation and Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aiman Omer

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Humanoid robots are expected to play a major role in the future of space and planetary exploration. Humanoid robot features could have many advantages, such as interacting with astronauts and the ability to perform human tasks. However, the challenge of developing such a robot is quite high due to many difficulties. One of the main difficulties is the difference in gravity. Most researchers in the field of bipedal locomotion have not paid much attention to the effect of gravity. Gravity is an important parameter in generating a bipedal locomotion trajectory. This research investigates the effect of gravity on bipedal walking motion. It focuses on low gravity, since most of the known planets and moons have lower gravity than earth. Further study is conducted on a full humanoid robot model walking subject to the moon’s gravity, and an approach for dealing with moon gravity is proposed in this paper.

  9. Energy Consumption Analysis Procedure for Robotic Applications in different task motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Iman; Aris, Ishak b.; Hamiruce Marhaban, Mohammad; Juraiza Ishak, Asnor

    2015-11-01

    This work proposes energy analysis method for humanoid robot, seen from simple motion task to complex one in energy chain. The research developed a procedure suitable for analysis, saving and modelling of energy consumption not only in this type of robot but also in most robots that based on electrical power as an energy source. This method has validated by an accurate integration using Matlab software for the power consumption curve to calculate the energy of individual and multiple servo motors. Therefore, this study can be considered as a procedure for energy analysis by utilizing the laboratory instruments capabilities to measure the energy parameters. We performed a various task motions with different angular speed to find out the speed limits in terms of robot stability and control strategy. A battery capacity investigation have been searched for several types of batteries to extract the power modelling equation and energy density parameter for each battery type, Matlab software have been built to design the algorithm and to evaluate experimental amount of the energy which is represented by area under the curve of the power curves. This will provide a robust estimation for the required energy in different task motions to be considered in energy saving (i.e., motion planning and real time scheduling).

  10. A Framework for Multi-Robot Motion Planning from Temporal Logic Specifications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koo, T. John; Li, Rongqing; Quottrup, Michael Melholt;

    2012-01-01

    -time Temporal Logic, Computation Tree Logic, and -calculus can be preserved. Motion planning can then be performed at a discrete level by considering the parallel composition of discrete abstractions of the robots with a requirement specification given in a suitable temporal logic. The bisimilarity ensures...

  11. Human Hand Motion Analysis and Synthesis of Optimal Power Grasps for a Robotic Hand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Cordella

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Biologically inspired robotic systems can find important applications in biomedical robotics, since studying and replicating human behaviour can provide new insights into motor recovery, functional substitution and human-robot interaction. The analysis of human hand motion is essential for collecting information about human hand movements useful for generalizing reaching and grasping actions on a robotic system. This paper focuses on the definition and extraction of quantitative indicators for describing optimal hand grasping postures and replicating them on an anthropomorphic robotic hand. A motion analysis has been carried out on six healthy human subjects performing a transverse volar grasp. The extracted indicators point to invariant grasping behaviours between the involved subjects, thus providing some constraints for identifying the optimal grasping configuration. Hence, an optimization algorithm based on the Nelder-Mead simplex method has been developed for determining the optimal grasp configuration of a robotic hand, grounded on the aforementioned constraints. It is characterized by a reduced computational cost. The grasp stability has been tested by introducing a quality index that satisfies the form-closure property. The grasping strategy has been validated by means of simulation tests and experimental trials on an arm-hand robotic system. The obtained results have shown the effectiveness of the extracted indicators to reduce the non-linear optimization problem complexity and lead to the synthesis of a grasping posture able to replicate the human behaviour while ensuring grasp stability. The experimental results have also highlighted the limitations of the adopted robotic platform (mainly due to the mechanical structure to achieve the optimal grasp configuration.

  12. Coordinating robot motion, sensing, and control in plans. LDRD project final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xavier, P.G.; Brown, R.G.; Watterberg, P.A. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Intelligent Systems and Robotics Center

    1997-08-01

    The goal of this project was to develop a framework for robotic planning and execution that provides a continuum of adaptability with respect to model incompleteness, model error, and sensing error. For example, dividing robot motion into gross-motion planning, fine-motion planning, and sensor-augmented control had yielded productive research and solutions to individual problems. Unfortunately, these techniques could only be combined by hand with ad hoc methods and were restricted to systems where all kinematics are completely modeled in planning. The original intent was to develop methods for understanding and autonomously synthesizing plans that coordinate motion, sensing, and control. The project considered this problem from several perspectives. Results included (1) theoretical methods to combine and extend gross-motion and fine-motion planning; (2) preliminary work in flexible-object manipulation and an implementable algorithm for planning shortest paths through obstacles for the free-end of an anchored cable; (3) development and implementation of a fast swept-body distance algorithm; and (4) integration of Sandia`s C-Space Toolkit geometry engine and SANDROS motion planer and improvements, which yielded a system practical for everyday motion planning, with path-segment planning at interactive speeds. Results (3) and (4) have either led to follow-on work or are being used in current projects, and they believe that (2) will eventually be also.

  13. A visual motion detecting module for dragonfly-controlled robots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Thuy T; Higgins, Charles M

    2014-01-01

    When imitating biological sensors, we have not completely understood the early processing of the input to reproduce artificially. Building hybrid systems with both artificial and real biological components is a promising solution. For example, when a dragonfly is used as a living sensor, the early processing of visual information is performed fully in the brain of the dragonfly. The only significant remaining tasks are recording and processing neural signals in software and/or hardware. Based on existing works which focused on recording neural signals, this paper proposes a software application of neural information processing to design a visual processing module for dragonfly hybrid bio-robots. After a neural signal is recorded in real-time, the action potentials can be detected and matched with predefined templates to detect when and which descending neurons fire. The output of the proposed system will be used to control other parts of the robot platform.

  14. Artificial coordinating field and its application to motion planning of robots in uncertain dynamic environments

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JING; Xingjian; WANG; Yuechao; TAN; Dalong

    2004-01-01

    Artificial coordinating fields (ACF) are proposed to deal with the motion planning problems of mobile robots in uncertain dynamic environments. An ACF around an obstacle can generate two orthogonal force vectors to a robot: one is called the coordinating force vector which is purposively designed in this paper, and the other is the repulsive force vector which is the same as that in a conventional artificial potential field.The ACF is designed according to the updated motion purpose and the relative states of the robot with respect to its local environment, and it also satisfies the robot's dynamic constraints. The direction of the coordinating force can be determined on line according to an optimal evaluation function. The ACF can effectively remove the local minima, and reduce the oscillation of the planned trajectory between multiple obstacles. Only local knowledge of the environments is needed in the ACF-based motion planning. The properties of the ACF such as controllability, adaptability, safety and reachability are studied and discussed in detail in this paper. Theoretical analysis and simulations are given to illustrate our main results.

  15. Model-based Robotic Dynamic Motion Control for the Robonaut 2 Humanoid Robot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badger, Julia M.; Hulse, Aaron M.; Taylor, Ross C.; Curtis, Andrew W.; Gooding, Dustin R.; Thackston, Allison

    2013-01-01

    Robonaut 2 (R2), an upper-body dexterous humanoid robot, has been undergoing experimental trials on board the International Space Station (ISS) for more than a year. R2 will soon be upgraded with two climbing appendages, or legs, as well as a new integrated model-based control system. This control system satisfies two important requirements; first, that the robot can allow humans to enter its workspace during operation and second, that the robot can move its large inertia with enough precision to attach to handrails and seat track while climbing around the ISS. This is achieved by a novel control architecture that features an embedded impedance control law on the motor drivers called Multi-Loop control which is tightly interfaced with a kinematic and dynamic coordinated control system nicknamed RoboDyn that resides on centralized processors. This paper presents the integrated control algorithm as well as several test results that illustrate R2's safety features and performance.

  16. Controlling a robot with intention derived from motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crick, Christopher; Scassellati, Brian

    2010-01-01

    We present a novel, sophisticated intention-based control system for a mobile robot built from an extremely inexpensive webcam and radio-controlled toy vehicle. The system visually observes humans participating in various playground games and infers their goals and intentions through analyzing their spatiotemporal activity in relation to itself and each other, and then builds a coherent narrative out of the succession of these intentional states. Starting from zero information about the room, the rules of the games, or even which vehicle it controls, it learns rich relationships between players, their goals and intentions, probing uncertain situations with its own behavior. The robot is able to watch people playing various playground games, learn the roles and rules that apply to specific games, and participate in the play. The narratives it constructs capture essential information about the observed social roles and types of activity. After watching play for a short while, the system is able to participate appropriately in the games. We demonstrate how the system acts appropriately in scenarios such as chasing, follow-the-leader, and variants of tag.

  17. Development of a robotic evaluation system for the ability of proprioceptive sensation in slow hand motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Yoshiyuki; Mizoe, Genki; Kawaguchi, Tomohiro

    2015-01-01

    This paper proposes a simple diagnostic methodology for checking the ability of proprioceptive/kinesthetic sensation by using a robotic device. The perception ability of virtual frictional forces is examined in operations of the robotic device by the hand at a uniform slow velocity along the virtual straight/circular path. Experimental results by healthy subjects demonstrate that percentage of correct answers for the designed perceptual tests changes in the motion direction as well as the arm configuration and the HFM (human force manipulability) measure. It can be supposed that the proposed methodology can be applied into the early detection of neuromuscular/neurological disorders.

  18. Prioritized motion-force control of constrained fully-actuated robots: "Task Space Inverse Dynamics"

    OpenAIRE

    Del Prete, Andrea; Nori, Francesco; Metta, Giorgio; Natale, Lorenzo

    2014-01-01

    We present a new framework for prioritized multi-task motion-force control of fully-actuated robots. This work is established on a careful review and comparison of the state of the art. Some control frameworks are not optimal, that is they do not find the optimal solution for the secondary tasks. Other frameworks are optimal, but they tackle the control problem at kinematic level, hence they neglect the robot dynamics and they do not allow for force control. Still other frameworks are optimal...

  19. Analysis and Implementation of Multiple Bionic Motion Patterns for Caterpillar Robot Driven by Sinusoidal Oscillator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanhe Zhu

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Articulated caterpillar robot has various locomotion patterns—which make it adaptable to different tasks. Generally, the researchers have realized undulatory (transverse wave and simple rolling locomotion. But many motion patterns are still unexplored. In this paper, peristaltic locomotion and various additional rolling patterns are achieved by employing sinusoidal oscillator with fixed phase difference as the joint controller. The usefulness of the proposed method is verified using simulation and experiment. The design parameters for different locomotion patterns have been calculated that they can be replicated in similar robots immediately.

  20. Genetic algorithm-fuzzy based dynamic motion planning approach for a mobile robot

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Presents the mobile robots dynamic motion planning problem with a task to find an obstacle-free route that requires minimum travel time from the start point to the destination point in a changing environment, due to the obstacle's moving. An Genetic Algorithm fuzzy(GA-Fuzzy)based optimal approach proposed to find any obstacle-free path and the GA used to select the optimal one, points ont that using this learned knowledge off line, a mobile robot can navigate to its goal point when it faces new scenario on-line. Concludes with the opti mal rule base given and the simulation results showing its effectiveness.

  1. Offline motion planning and simulation of two-robot welding coordination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tie; Ouyang, Fan

    2012-03-01

    This paper focuses on the two-robot welding coordination of complex curve seam which means one robot grasp the workpiece, the other hold the torch, the two robots work on the same workpiece simultaneously. This paper builds the dual-robot coordinate system at the beginning, and three point calibration method of two robots' relative base coordinate system is presented. After that, the non master/slave scheme is chosen for the motion planning, the non master/slave scheme sets the poses versus time function of the point u on the workpiece, and calculates the two robot end effecter trajectories through the constrained relationship matrix automatically. Moreover, downhand welding is employed which can guarantee the torch and the seam keep in good contact condition all the time during the welding. Finally, a Solidworks-Sim Mechanics simulation platform is established, and a simulation of curved steel pipe welding is conducted. The results of the simulation illustrate the welding process can meet the requirements of downhand welding, the joint displacement curves are smooth and continuous and no joint velocities are out of working scope.

  2. Energy harvesting from walking motion of a humanoid robot using a piezoelectric composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, Youngsu; Hong, Seokmin

    2016-10-01

    In this paper, we investigate the energy harvesting of a piezoelectric composite in a knee pad during walking motion. We use a humanoid robot as a test bed for the experiments using the knee pad. The humanoid wears the knee pad hosting the piezoelectric composite, and its operating knee motion mimics the walking based on the data captured from a human. The use of the humanoid enables the motion to be completely repeatable. We quantitatively study the energy harvesting by using the repeated motion. An electromechanical model for the piezoelectric energy harvester is used to estimate power transferred to varied load resistances under the repeated knee motion. With a good agreement between the experiments and the model predictions, we demonstrate power harvesting on the order of ten microWatts.

  3. Detecting Biological Motion for Human–Robot Interaction: A Link between Perception and Action

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessia Vignolo

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available One of the fundamental skills supporting safe and comfortable interaction between humans is their capability to understand intuitively each other’s actions and intentions. At the basis of this ability is a special-purpose visual processing that human brain has developed to comprehend human motion. Among the first “building blocks” enabling the bootstrapping of such visual processing is the ability to detect movements performed by biological agents in the scene, a skill mastered by human babies in the first days of their life. In this paper, we present a computational model based on the assumption that such visual ability must be based on local low-level visual motion features, which are independent of shape, such as the configuration of the body and perspective. Moreover, we implement it on the humanoid robot iCub, embedding it into a software architecture that leverages the regularities of biological motion also to control robot attention and oculomotor behaviors. In essence, we put forth a model in which the regularities of biological motion link perception and action enabling a robotic agent to follow a human-inspired sensory-motor behavior. We posit that this choice facilitates mutual understanding and goal prediction during collaboration, increasing the pleasantness and safety of the interaction.

  4. Study on State Transition Method Applied to Motion Planning for a Humanoid Robot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuyang Wang

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an approach of motion planning for a humanoid robot using a state transition method. In this method, motion planning is simplified by introducing a state-space to describe the whole motion series. And each state in the state-space corresponds to a contact state specified during the motion. The continuous motion is represented by a sequence of discrete states. The concept of the transition between two neighboring states, that is the state transition, can be realized by using some traditional path planning methods. Considering the dynamical stability of the robot, a state transition method based on search strategy is proposed. Different sets of trajectories are generated by using a variable 5th-order polynomial interpolation method. After quantifying the stabilities of these trajectories, the trajectories with the largest stability margin are selected as the final state transition trajectories. Rising motion process is exemplified to validate the method and the simulation results show the proposed method to be feasible and effective.

  5. Robotic surgery is ready for prime time in India: For the motion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahesh Desai

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Robotic surgery with its bundled advantages is still in its burgeoning phase, the best of which is yet to come. The unrivalled suturing ease and motion scaling features, transforming into greater precision, has led to its widespread application in different surgical ramifications. These, coupled with the aforementioned advantages, has led to an increasing number of procedures being performed and that too with improved patient outcomes. It seems that the progressing India is readily accepting this robotic surgical innovation, the use of which is on a continuous rise, with the number of robotic platforms coming up in increasing numbers in many tertiary care Indian centres and a corresponding increase in demand of the same by the patients as well; thereby aptly fulfilling the economics of ′demand and supply′.

  6. Neural Network Control for the Linear Motion of a Spherical Mobile Robot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yao Cai

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper discussed the stabilization and position tracking control of the linear motion of an underactuated spherical robot. By considering the actuator dynamics, a complete dynamic model of the robot is deduced, which is a complex third order, two variables nonlinear differential system and those two variables have strong coupling due to the mechanical structure of the robot. Different from traditional treatments, no linearization is applied to this system but a single‐input multiple‐output PID (SIMO_PID controller is designed by adopting a six‐input single‐ output CMAC_GBF (Cerebellar Model Articulation Controller with General Basis Function neural network to compensate the actuator nonlinearity and the credit assignment (CA learning method to obtain faster convergence of CMAC_GBF. The proposed controller is generalizable to other single‐input multiple‐output system with good real‐time capability. Simulations in Matlab are used to validate the control effects.

  7. The use of a 3D sensor (Kinect) for robot motion compensation : The applicability in relation to medical applications

    OpenAIRE

    Kvalbein, Martin

    2012-01-01

    The use of robotic systems for remote ultrasound diagnostics has emerged over the last years. This thesis looks into the possibility of integrating the Kinect sensor from Microsoft into a semi-autonomous robotic system for ultrasound diagnostics, with the intention to give the robotic system visual feedback to compensate for patient motion. In the first part of this thesis, a series of tests have been performed to explore the Kinect's sensor capabilities, with focus on accuracy, precis...

  8. Insect-inspired high-speed motion vision system for robot control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Haiyan; Zou, Ke; Zhang, Tianguang; Borst, Alexander; Kühnlenz, Kolja

    2012-10-01

    The mechanism for motion detection in a fly's vision system, known as the Reichardt correlator, suffers from a main shortcoming as a velocity estimator: low accuracy. To enable accurate velocity estimation, responses of the Reichardt correlator to image sequences are analyzed in this paper. An elaborated model with additional preprocessing modules is proposed. The relative error of velocity estimation is significantly reduced by establishing a real-time response-velocity lookup table based on the power spectrum analysis of the input signal. By exploiting the improved velocity estimation accuracy and the simple structure of the Reichardt correlator, a high-speed vision system of 1 kHz is designed and applied for robot yaw-angle control in real-time experiments. The experimental results demonstrate the potential and feasibility of applying insect-inspired motion detection to robot control.

  9. Contact-state classification in human-demonstrated robot compliant motion tasks using the boosting algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabras, Stefano; Castellanos, María Eugenia; Staffetti, Ernesto

    2010-10-01

    Robot programming by demonstration is a robot programming paradigm in which a human operator directly demonstrates the task to be performed. In this paper, we focus on programming by demonstration of compliant motion tasks, which are tasks that involve contacts between an object manipulated by the robot and the environment in which it operates. Critical issues in this paradigm are to distinguish essential actions from those that are not relevant for the correct execution of the task and to transform this information into a robot-independent representation. Essential actions in compliant motion tasks are the contacts that take place, and therefore, it is important to understand the sequence of contact states that occur during a demonstration, called contact classification or contact segmentation. We propose a contact classification algorithm based on a supervised learning algorithm, in particular on a stochastic gradient boosting algorithm. The approach described in this paper is accurate and does not depend on the geometric model of the objects involved in the demonstration. It neither relies on the kinestatic model of the contact interactions nor on the contact state graph, whose computation is usually of prohibitive complexity even for very simple geometric object models.

  10. Moving Horizon Estimation for Vehicle Robots using Partial Marker Information of Motion Capture System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Manami; Nonaka, Kenichiro; Sekiguchi, Kazuma

    2016-09-01

    The measurement using a motion capture camera is fluctuated by white noise and outliers. In addition, markers to be measured are frequently hidden from cameras by occlusion, then the position and heading angle of a vehicle cannot be uniquely determined because of failure to detect sufficient number of markers. Thus, robust estimation method is required which suppresses the influence of the white noise, the outlier and the occlusion. In this study, we introduce Moving Horizon Estimation (MHE) using partial marker information of motion capture system. It optimizes the objective function using both the marker information in the evaluation range and the constraints on the robot dynamics. By virtue of introduction of constraints, even if the cameras fail to measure the actual state of the robot, the estimated value is determined by MHE. It is the difference from our previous research which assumed that sufficient number of markers are available. In this paper, we estimate the position of the vehicle robot by MHE using the information of the measured markers on the robot, even if several markers are hidden. We will prove the effectiveness of the proposed method by comparing MHE with EKF.

  11. The Motion Path Study of Measuring Robot Based on Variable Universe Fuzzy Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ma Guoqing

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available For the problem of measuring robot requires a higher positioning, firstly learning about the error overview of the system, analysised the influence of attitude, speed and other factors on systematic errors. Then collected and analyzed the systematic error curve in the track to complete the planning process. The last adding fuzzy control in both cases, by comparing with the original system, can found that the method based on fuzzy control system can significantly reduce the error during the motion.

  12. Optimal design of a novel remote center-of-motion mechanism for minimally invasive surgical robot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jingyuan; Yan, Zhiyuan; Du, Zhijiang

    2017-06-01

    Surgical robot with a remote center-of-motion (RCM) plays an important role in minimally invasive surgery (MIS) field. To make the mechanism has high flexibility and meet the demand of movements during processing of operation, an optimized RCM mechanism is proposed in this paper. Then, the kinematic performance and workspace are analyzed. Finally, a new optimization objective function is built by using the condition number index and the workspace index.

  13. Human Motion Recognition Using Ultra-Wideband Radar and Cameras on Mobile Robot

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Tuanjie; GE Mengmeng

    2009-01-01

    Cameras can reliably detect human motions in a normal environment, but they are usually affected by sudden illumination changes and complex conditions, which are the major obstacles to the reliability and robustness of the system. To solve this problem, a novel integration method was proposed to combine bi-static uitra-wideband radar and cameras. In this recognition system, two cameras are used to localize the object's region, regions while a radar is used to obtain its 3D motion models on a mobile robot. The recognition results can be matched in the 3D motion library in order to recognize its motions. To confirm the effectiveness of the proposed method, the experi-mental results of recognition using vision sensors and those of recognition using the integration method were com-pared in different environments. Higher correct-recognition rate is achieved in the experiment.

  14. Motion Control Algorithms for a Free-swimming Biomimetic Robot Fish

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YUJun-Zhi; CHENEr-Kui; WANGShuo; TANMin

    2005-01-01

    A practical motion control strategy for a radio-controlled, 4-1ink and free-swimming biomimetic robot fish is presented. Based on control performance of the fish the fish's motion control task is decomposed into on-line speed control and orientation control. The speed control algorithm is implemented by using piecewise control, and orientation control is realized by fuzzy logic. Combining with step control and fuzzy control, a point-to-point (PTP) control algorithm is proposed and applied to the closed-loop experimental system that uses a vision-based position sensing subsystem to provide feedback. Experiments confirm the reliability and effectiveness of the presented algorithms.

  15. Heart Motion Prediction Based on Adaptive Estimation Algorithms for Robotic Assisted Beating Heart Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuna, E. Erdem; Franke, Timothy J.; Bebek, Özkan; Shiose, Akira; Fukamachi, Kiyotaka; Çavuşoğlu, M. Cenk

    2013-01-01

    Robotic assisted beating heart surgery aims to allow surgeons to operate on a beating heart without stabilizers as if the heart is stationary. The robot actively cancels heart motion by closely following a point of interest (POI) on the heart surface—a process called Active Relative Motion Canceling (ARMC). Due to the high bandwidth of the POI motion, it is necessary to supply the controller with an estimate of the immediate future of the POI motion over a prediction horizon in order to achieve sufficient tracking accuracy. In this paper, two least-square based prediction algorithms, using an adaptive filter to generate future position estimates, are implemented and studied. The first method assumes a linear system relation between the consecutive samples in the prediction horizon. On the contrary, the second method performs this parametrization independently for each point over the whole the horizon. The effects of predictor parameters and variations in heart rate on tracking performance are studied with constant and varying heart rate data. The predictors are evaluated using a 3 degrees of freedom test-bed and prerecorded in-vivo motion data. Then, the one-step prediction and tracking performances of the presented approaches are compared with an Extended Kalman Filter predictor. Finally, the essential features of the proposed prediction algorithms are summarized. PMID:23976889

  16. A Motion Planning Method for Omnidirectional Mobile Robot Based on the Anisotropic Characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuntao Leng

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available A more suitable motion planning method for an omni-directional mobile robot (OMR, an improved APF method (iAPF, is proposed in this paper by introducing the revolving factor into the artificial potential field (APF. Accordingly, the motion direction derived from traditional artificial potential field (tAPF is regulated. The maximum velocity, maximum acceleration and energy consumption of the OMR moving in different directions are analyzed, based on the kinematic and dynamic constraints of an OMR, and the anisotropy of OMR is presented in this paper. Then the novel concept of an Anisotropic-Function is proposed to indicate the quality of motion in different directions, which can make a very favorable trade-off between time-optimality, stability and efficacy-optimality. In order to obtain the optimal motion, the path that the robot can take in order to avoid the obstacle safely and reach the goal in a shorter path is deduced. Finally, simulations and experiments are carried out to demonstrate that the motion resulting from the iAPF is high-speed, highly stable and highly efficient when compared to the tAPF.

  17. Collision-free motion planning for fiber positioner robots: discretization of velocity profiles

    CERN Document Server

    Makarem, Laleh; Gillet, Denis; Bleuler, Hannes; Bouri, Mohamed; Hörler, Philipp; Jenni, Laurent; Prada, Francisco; Sanchez, Justo

    2014-01-01

    The next generation of large-scale spectroscopic survey experiments such as DESI, will use thousands of fiber positioner robots packed on a focal plate. In order to maximize the observing time with this robotic system we need to move in parallel the fiber-ends of all positioners from the previous to the next target coordinates. Direct trajectories are not feasible due to collision risks that could undeniably damage the robots and impact the survey operation and performance. We have previously developed a motion planning method based on a novel decentralized navigation function for collision-free coordination of fiber positioners. The navigation function takes into account the configuration of positioners as well as their envelope constraints. The motion planning scheme has linear complexity and short motion duration (~2.5 seconds with the maximum speed of 30 rpm for the positioner), which is independent of the number of positioners. These two key advantages of the decentralization designate the method as a pr...

  18. Locomotion Generation and Motion Library Design for an Anguilliform Robotic Fish

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xuelei Niu; Jianxin Xu; Qinyuan Ren; Qingguo Wang

    2013-01-01

    In this paper,modeling,locomotion generation,motion library design and path planning for a real prototype of an Anguilliform robotic fish are presented.The robotic fish consists of four links and three joints,and the driving forces are the torques applied to the joints.Considering kinematic constraints and hydrodynamic forces,Lagrangian formulation is used to obtain the dynamic model of the fish.Using this model,three major locomotion patterns of Anguilliform fish,including forward locomotion,backward locomotion and turning locomotion are investigated.It is found that the fish exhibits different locomotion pattems by giving different reference joint angles,such as adding reversed phase difference,or adding deflections to the original reference angles.The results are validated by both simulations and experiments.Furthermore,the relations among the speed of the fish,angular frequency,undulation amplitude,phase difference,as well as the relationship between the turning radius and deflection angle are investigated.These relations provide an elaborated motion library that can be used for motion planning of the robotic fish.

  19. Concept verification of three dimensional free motion simulator for space robot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okamoto, Osamu; Nakaya, Teruomi; Pokines, Brett

    1994-01-01

    In the development of automatic assembling technologies for space structures, it is an indispensable matter to investigate and simulate the movements of robot satellites concerned with mission operation. The movement investigation and simulation on the ground will be effectively realized by a free motion simulator. Various types of ground systems for simulating free motion have been proposed and utilized. Some of these methods are a neutral buoyancy system, an air or magnetic suspension system, a passive suspension balance system, and a free flying aircraft or drop tower system. In addition, systems can be simulated by computers using an analytical model. Each free motion simulation method has limitations and well known problems, specifically, disturbance by water viscosity, limited number of degrees-of-freedom, complex dynamics induced by the attachment of the simulation system, short experiment time, and the lack of high speed super-computer simulation systems, respectively. The basic idea presented here is to realize 3-dimensional free motion. This is achieved by combining a spherical air bearing, a cylindrical air bearing, and a flat air bearing. A conventional air bearing system has difficulty realizing free vertical motion suspension. The idea of free vertical suspension is that a cylindrical air bearing and counter balance weight realize vertical free motion. This paper presents a design concept, configuration, and basic performance characteristics of an innovative free motion simulator. A prototype simulator verifies the feasibility of 3-dimensional free motion simulation.

  20. Dosimetric evaluation of intrafractional tumor motion by means of a robot driven phantom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richter, Anne; Wilbert, Juergen; Flentje, Michael [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Wuerzburg, 97080 Wuerzburg (Germany)

    2011-10-15

    Purpose: The aim of the work was to investigate the influence of intrafractional tumor motion to the accumulated (absorbed) dose. The accumulated dose was determined by means of calculations and measurements with a robot driven motion phantom. Methods: Different motion scenarios and compensation techniques were realized in a phantom study to investigate the influence of motion on image acquisition, dose calculation, and dose measurement. The influence of motion on the accumulated dose was calculated by employing two methods (a model based and a voxel based method). Results: Tumor motion resulted in a blurring of steep dose gradients and a reduction of dose at the periphery of the target. A systematic variation of motion parameters allowed the determination of the main influence parameters on the accumulated dose. The key parameters with the greatest influence on dose were the mean amplitude and the pattern of motion. Investigations on necessary safety margins to compensate for dose reduction have shown that smaller safety margins are sufficient, if the developed concept with optimized margins (OPT concept) was used instead of the standard internal target volume (ITV) concept. Both calculation methods were a reasonable approximation of the measured dose with the voxel based method being in better agreement with the measurements. Conclusions: Further evaluation of available systems and algorithms for dose accumulation are needed to create guidelines for the verification of the accumulated dose.

  1. Micro-Scale Motion Precision Simulation Method for a New-Type 6-DOF Micro-Manipulation Robot

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YE Xin; ZHANG Zhi-jing; WANG Yu-shu

    2007-01-01

    A new 6-DOF micro-manipulation robot based on 3-PPTTRS parallel mechanisms in combination with flexure hinges is proposed. The design principle of the mechanism is introduced, and the kinematics analysis method based on differentiation is used to get the (inverse) kinematics equations. Then a micro-scale motion precision simulation method is proposed according to finite element analysis (FEA) , and the prediction of robot's motion precision in design phase is realized. The simulation result indicates that the 6-DOF micro-manipulation robot can meet the design specification.

  2. New Jacobian Matrix and Equations of Motion for a 6 d.o.f Cable-Driven Robot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Afshari

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we introduce a new method and new motion variables to study kinematics and dynamics of a 6 d.o.f cable-driven robot. Using these new variables and Lagrange equations, we achieve new equations of motion which are different in appearance and several aspects from conventional equations usually used to study 6 d.o.f cable robots. Then, we introduce a new Jacobian matrix which expresses kinematical relations of the robot via a new approach and is basically different from the conventional Jacobian matrix. One of the important characteristics of the new method is computational efficiency in comparison with the conventional method. It is demonstrated that using the new method instead of the conventional one, significantly reduces the computation time required to determine workspace of the robot as well as the time required to solve the equations of motion.

  3. A Quadratic Nonlinear Prediction-Based Heart Motion Model Following Control Algorithm in Robotic-Assisted Beating Heart Surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fan Liang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Off‐pump coronary artery bypass graft surgery outperforms the traditional on‐pump surgery because the assisted robotic tools can cancel the relative motion between the beating heart and the robotic tools, which reduces post‐surgery complications for patients. The challenge for the robot assisted tool when tracking the beating heart is the abrupt change caused by the nonlinear nature of heart motion and high precision surgery requirements. A characteristic analysis of 3D heart motion data through bi‐spectral analysis demonstrates the quadratic nonlinearity in heart motion. Therefore, it is necessary to introduce nonlinear heart motion prediction into the motion tracking control procedures. In this paper, the heart motion tracking problem is transformed into a heart motion model following problem by including the adaptive heart motion model into the controller. Moreover, the model following algorithm with the nonlinear heart motion model embedded inside provides more accurate future reference by the quadratic term of sinusoid series, which could enhance the tracking accuracy of sharp change point and approximate the motion with sufficient detail. The experiment results indicate that the proposed algorithm outperforms the linear prediction‐based model following controller in terms of tracking accuracy (root mean square.

  4. Balanced Motions Realization for a Mechanical Regulators Free and Front-Wheel Drive Bicycle Robot Under Zero Forward Speed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yonghua Huang

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on a mechanical regulator free and front- wheel drive bicycle robot. We present a scheme to achieve the robot's track-stand motion and circular motion under zero forward speed. In a situation where the robot's front-bar is locked at 90 degrees, a kinetic constraint about the rotating rate of the front-wheel and the yawing rate of the frame is derived. Using the constraint as a basis, we developed a simplified model of two independent velocities for the robot. The model suggests there is an under-actuated rolling angle in the system. Our control strategy originates from the under- actuated characteristics of the robot system. Concretely, we linearize the rolling angle of the frame and set the bicycle robot to regulate its tilting by rotating the front-wheel. In the track-stand motion, we control the position and the rotational rate of the front-wheel; but in the circular motion, only the rotational rate of the front-wheel is strictly regulated. Both simulations and physical experiments results show that our strategy is effective for achieving these two motions.

  5. Extraction of primitive representation from captured human movements and measured ground reaction force to generate physically consistent imitated behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariki, Yuka; Hyon, Sang-Ho; Morimoto, Jun

    2013-04-01

    In this paper, we propose an imitation learning framework to generate physically consistent behaviors by estimating the ground reaction force from captured human behaviors. In the proposed framework, we first extract behavioral primitives, which are represented by linear dynamical models, from captured human movements and measured ground reaction force by using the Gaussian mixture of linear dynamical models. Therefore, our method has small dependence on classification criteria defined by an experimenter. By switching primitives with different combinations while estimating the ground reaction force, different physically consistent behaviors can be generated. We apply the proposed method to a four-link robot model to generate squat motion sequences. The four-link robot model successfully generated the squat movements by using our imitation learning framework. To show generalization performance, we also apply the proposed method to robot models that have different torso weights and lengths from a human demonstrator and evaluate the control performances. In addition, we show that the robot model is able to recognize and imitate demonstrator movements even when the observed movements are deviated from the movements that are used to construct the primitives. For further evaluation in higher-dimensional state space, we apply the proposed method to a seven-link robot model. The seven-link robot model was able to generate squat-and-sway motions by using the proposed framework.

  6. Multi-step motion planning: Application to free-climbing robots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bretl, Timothy Wolfe

    This dissertation addresses the problem of planning the motion of a multi-limbed robot to "free-climb" vertical rock surfaces. Free-climbing relies on natural features and friction (such as holes or protrusions) rather than special fixtures or tools. It requires strength, but more importantly it requires deliberate reasoning: not only must the robot decide how to adjust its posture to reach the next feature without falling, it must plan an entire sequence of steps, where each one might have future consequences. This process of reasoning is called multi-step planning. A multi-step planning framework is presented for computing non-gaited, free-climbing motions. This framework derives from an analysis of a free-climbing robot's configuration space, which can be decomposed into constraint manifolds associated with each state of contact between the robot and its environment. An understanding of the adjacency between manifolds motivates a two-stage strategy that uses a candidate sequence of steps to direct the subsequent search for motions. Three algorithms are developed to support the framework. The first algorithm reduces the amount of time required to plan each potential step, a large number of which must be considered over an entire multi-step search. It extends the probabilistic roadmap (PRM) approach based on an analysis of the interaction between balance and the topology of closed kinematic chains. The second algorithm addresses a problem with the PRM approach, that it is unable to distinguish challenging steps (which may be critical) from impossible ones. This algorithm detects impossible steps explicitly, using automated algebraic inference and machine learning. The third algorithm provides a fast constraint checker (on which the PRM approach depends), in particular a test of balance at the initially unknown number of sampled configurations associated with each step. It is a method of incremental precomputation, fast because it takes advantage of the sample

  7. Truss Climbing Robot for Space Station: Design, Analysis, and Motion Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Wing Kwong

    The application of space robots has become more popular in performing tasks such as Intra and Extra Vehicular Activities (EVA) in Low Earth Orbit. For EVA, space robots were always designed as a chain-like manipulator with a joint configuration similar to on the earth robotic arm. Based on their joint configuration, they can be classified into two main categories. The first one is the six degrees of freedom (DOF) robotic arm including Shuttle Remote Manipulator System (SRMS), Engineering Test Satellite No. 7 (ETS-VII), the Main Arm (MA) and the Small Fine Arm (SFA) of Module Remote Manipulator System (JEMRMS). The other group is the seven-DOF space robotic arm which includes European Robotic Arm (ERA) and Space Station Remote Manipulator System (SSRMS), or Canadarm2. They not only perform manipulation tasks, but also be able to navigate on the exterior of the International Space Station (ISS). In a free floating environment, motions of a space robotic arm cause the attitude change of a space station because of their dynamic coupling effect. Hence, the stabilization of the space station attitude is important to maintain the electrical energy generated by the solar panels and the signal strength for communication. Most of research in this area focuses on the motion control of a space manipulator through the study of Generalized Jacobian Matrix. Little research has been conducted specifically on the design of locomotion mechanism of a space manipulator. This dissertation proposes a novel methodology for the locomotion on a space station which aims to lower the disturbance on a space station. Without modifying the joint configuration of conventional space manipulators, the use of a new gripping mechanism is proposed which combines the advantages of active wheels and conventional grippers. To realize the proposed gripping mechanism, this dissertation also presents the design of a novel frame climbing robot (Frambot) which is equipped with the new gripping mechanism

  8. Reverse control for humanoid robot task recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hak, Sovannara; Mansard, Nicolas; Stasse, Olivier; Laumond, Jean Paul

    2012-12-01

    Efficient methods to perform motion recognition have been developed using statistical tools. Those methods rely on primitive learning in a suitable space, for example, the latent space of the joint angle and/or adequate task spaces. Learned primitives are often sequential: A motion is segmented according to the time axis. When working with a humanoid robot, a motion can be decomposed into parallel subtasks. For example, in a waiter scenario, the robot has to keep some plates horizontal with one of its arms while placing a plate on the table with its free hand. Recognition can thus not be limited to one task per consecutive segment of time. The method presented in this paper takes advantage of the knowledge of what tasks the robot is able to do and how the motion is generated from this set of known controllers, to perform a reverse engineering of an observed motion. This analysis is intended to recognize parallel tasks that have been used to generate a motion. The method relies on the task-function formalism and the projection operation into the null space of a task to decouple the controllers. The approach is successfully applied on a real robot to disambiguate motion in different scenarios where two motions look similar but have different purposes.

  9. Motion capability analysis of a quadruped robot as a parallel manipulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jingjun; Lu, Dengfeng; Zhang, Zhongxiang; Pei, Xu

    2014-12-01

    This paper presents the forward and inverse displacement analysis of a quadruped robot MANA as a parallel manipulator in quadruple stance phase, which is used to obtain the workspace and control the motion of the body. The robot MANA designed on the basis of the structure of quadruped mammal is able to not only walk and turn in the uneven terrain, but also accomplish various manipulating tasks as a parallel manipulator in quadruple stance phase. The latter will be the focus of this paper, however. For this purpose, the leg kinematics is primarily analyzed, which lays the foundation on the gait planning in terms of locomotion and body kinematics analysis as a parallel manipulator. When all four feet of the robot contact on the ground, by assuming there is no slipping at the feet, each contacting point is treated as a passive spherical joint and the kinematic model of parallel manipulator is established. The method for choosing six non-redundant actuated joints for the parallel manipulator from all twelve optional joints is elaborated. The inverse and forward displacement analysis of the parallel manipulator is carried out using the method of coordinate transformation. Finally, based on the inverse and forward kinematic model, two issues on obtaining the reachable workspace of parallel manipulator and planning the motion of the body are implemented and verified by ADAMS simulation.

  10. From the Cover: Sensitive dependence of the motion of a legged robot on granular media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chen; Umbanhowar, Paul B; Komsuoglu, Haldun; Koditschek, Daniel E; Goldman, Daniel I

    2009-03-01

    Legged locomotion on flowing ground (e.g., granular media) is unlike locomotion on hard ground because feet experience both solid- and fluid-like forces during surface penetration. Recent bioinspired legged robots display speed relative to body size on hard ground comparable with high-performing organisms like cockroaches but suffer significant performance loss on flowing materials like sand. In laboratory experiments, we study the performance (speed) of a small (2.3 kg) 6-legged robot, SandBot, as it runs on a bed of granular media (1-mm poppy seeds). For an alternating tripod gait on the granular bed, standard gait control parameters achieve speeds at best 2 orders of magnitude smaller than the 2 body lengths/s (approximately 60 cm/s) for motion on hard ground. However, empirical adjustment of these control parameters away from the hard ground settings restores good performance, yielding top speeds of 30 cm/s. Robot speed depends sensitively on the packing fraction phi and the limb frequency omega, and a dramatic transition from rotary walking to slow swimming occurs when phi becomes small enough and/or omega large enough. We propose a kinematic model of the rotary walking mode based on generic features of penetration and slip of a curved limb in granular media. The model captures the dependence of robot speed on limb frequency and the transition between walking and swimming modes but highlights the need for a deeper understanding of the physics of granular media.

  11. Maximum Likelihood Estimation of Monocular Optical Flow Field for Mobile Robot Ego-motion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huajun Liu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an optimized scheme of monocular ego-motion estimation to provide location and pose information for mobile robots with one fixed camera. First, a multi-scale hyper-complex wavelet phase-derived optical flow is applied to estimate micro motion of image blocks. Optical flow computation overcomes the difficulties of unreliable feature selection and feature matching of outdoor scenes; at the same time, the multi-scale strategy overcomes the problem of road surface self-similarity and local occlusions. Secondly, a support probability of flow vector is defined to evaluate the validity of the candidate image motions, and a Maximum Likelihood Estimation (MLE optical flow model is constructed based not only on image motion residuals but also their distribution of inliers and outliers, together with their support probabilities, to evaluate a given transform. This yields an optimized estimation of inlier parts of optical flow. Thirdly, a sampling and consensus strategy is designed to estimate the ego-motion parameters. Our model and algorithms are tested on real datasets collected from an intelligent vehicle. The experimental results demonstrate the estimated ego-motion parameters closely follow the GPS/INS ground truth in complex outdoor road scenarios.

  12. Least Squares Temporal Difference Actor-Critic Methods with Applications to Robot Motion Control

    CERN Document Server

    Estanjini, Reza Moazzez; Lahijanian, Morteza; Wang, Jing; Belta, Calin A; Paschalidis, Ioannis Ch

    2011-01-01

    We consider the problem of finding a control policy for a Markov Decision Process (MDP) to maximize the probability of reaching some states while avoiding some other states. This problem is motivated by applications in robotics, where such problems naturally arise when probabilistic models of robot motion are required to satisfy temporal logic task specifications. We transform this problem into a Stochastic Shortest Path (SSP) problem and develop a new approximate dynamic programming algorithm to solve it. This algorithm is of the actor-critic type and uses a least-square temporal difference learning method. It operates on sample paths of the system and optimizes the policy within a pre-specified class parameterized by a parsimonious set of parameters. We show its convergence to a policy corresponding to a stationary point in the parameters' space. Simulation results confirm the effectiveness of the proposed solution.

  13. Effect of head swing motion on hydrodynamic performance of fishlike robot propulsion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏丹; 陈维山; 刘军考; 吴泽

    2016-01-01

    This paper studies the effect of the head swing motion on the fishlike robot swimming performance numerically. Two critical parameters are employed in describing the kinematics of the head swing: the leading edge amplitude of the head and the trailing edge amplitude of the head. Three-dimensional Navier-Stokes equations are used to compute the viscous flow over the robot. The user-defined functions and the dynamic mesh technology are used to simulate the fishlike swimming with the head swing motion. The results reveal that it is of great benefit for the fish to improve the thrust and also the propulsive efficiency by increasing the two amplitudes properly. Superior hydrodynamic performance can be achieved at the leading edge amplitudes of0.05L (L is the fish length) and the trailing edge amplitudes of0.08L. The unsteady flow fields clearly indicate the evolution process of the flow structures along the swimming fish. Thrust-indicative flow structures with two pairs of pressure cores in a uniform mode are generated in the superior performance case with an appropriate head swing, rather than with one pair of pressure cores in the case of no head swing. The findings suggest that the swimming biological device design may improve its hydrodynamic performance through the head swing motion.

  14. Design and Voluntary Motion Intention Estimation of a Novel Wearable Full-Body Flexible Exoskeleton Robot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunjie Chen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The wearable full-body exoskeleton robot developed in this study is one application of mobile cyberphysical system (CPS, which is a complex mobile system integrating mechanics, electronics, computer science, and artificial intelligence. Steel wire was used as the flexible transmission medium and a group of special wire-locking structures was designed. Additionally, we designed passive joints for partial joints of the exoskeleton. Finally, we proposed a novel gait phase recognition method for full-body exoskeletons using only joint angular sensors, plantar pressure sensors, and inclination sensors. The method consists of four procedures. Firstly, we classified the three types of main motion patterns: normal walking on the ground, stair-climbing and stair-descending, and sit-to-stand movement. Secondly, we segregated the experimental data into one gait cycle. Thirdly, we divided one gait cycle into eight gait phases. Finally, we built a gait phase recognition model based on k-Nearest Neighbor perception and trained it with the phase-labeled gait data. The experimental result shows that the model has a 98.52% average correct rate of classification of the main motion patterns on the testing set and a 95.32% average correct rate of phase recognition on the testing set. So the exoskeleton robot can achieve human motion intention in real time and coordinate its movement with the wearer.

  15. Affine transform to reform pixel coordinates of EOG signals for controlling robot manipulators using gaze motions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusydi, Muhammad Ilhamdi; Sasaki, Minoru; Ito, Satoshi

    2014-06-10

    Biosignals will play an important role in building communication between machines and humans. One of the types of biosignals that is widely used in neuroscience are electrooculography (EOG) signals. An EOG has a linear relationship with eye movement displacement. Experiments were performed to construct a gaze motion tracking method indicated by robot manipulator movements. Three operators looked at 24 target points displayed on a monitor that was 40 cm in front of them. Two channels (Ch1 and Ch2) produced EOG signals for every single eye movement. These signals were converted to pixel units by using the linear relationship between EOG signals and gaze motion distances. The conversion outcomes were actual pixel locations. An affine transform method is proposed to determine the shift of actual pixels to target pixels. This method consisted of sequences of five geometry processes, which are translation-1, rotation, translation-2, shear and dilatation. The accuracy was approximately 0.86° ± 0.67° in the horizontal direction and 0.54° ± 0.34° in the vertical. This system successfully tracked the gaze motions not only in direction, but also in distance. Using this system, three operators could operate a robot manipulator to point at some targets. This result shows that the method is reliable in building communication between humans and machines using EOGs.

  16. Affine Transform to Reform Pixel Coordinates of EOG Signals for Controlling Robot Manipulators Using Gaze Motions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Ilhamdi Rusydi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Biosignals will play an important role in building communication between machines and humans. One of the types of biosignals that is widely used in neuroscience are electrooculography (EOG signals. An EOG has a linear relationship with eye movement displacement. Experiments were performed to construct a gaze motion tracking method indicated by robot manipulator movements. Three operators looked at 24 target points displayed on a monitor that was 40 cm in front of them. Two channels (Ch1 and Ch2 produced EOG signals for every single eye movement. These signals were converted to pixel units by using the linear relationship between EOG signals and gaze motion distances. The conversion outcomes were actual pixel locations. An affine transform method is proposed to determine the shift of actual pixels to target pixels. This method consisted of sequences of five geometry processes, which are translation-1, rotation, translation-2, shear and dilatation. The accuracy was approximately 0.86° ± 0.67° in the horizontal direction and 0.54° ± 0.34° in the vertical. This system successfully tracked the gaze motions not only in direction, but also in distance. Using this system, three operators could operate a robot manipulator to point at some targets. This result shows that the method is reliable in building communication between humans and machines using EOGs.

  17. Primitive Associations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ernst, Erik

    2007-01-01

    This position paper presents a very simple mechanism, primitive associations, and argues that this mechanism is worth careful consideration in connection with the kind of support for program correctness that grows out of mechanisms for ownership, controlled aliasing, sharing, escape analysis...

  18. Compensation for the intrinsic dynamics of the InMotion2 robot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Hoi B; Lum, Peter S

    2013-03-30

    The InMotion2 and other similarly designed robots, are commonly used for rehabilitation of neurological injuries and motor adaptation studies. These robots are used to simulate haptic environments; however, anisotropy in end-point impedance due to the intrinsic robot dynamics can compromise these experiments. The goal was to decrease the magnitude and anisotropy of the robot impedance using a dynamic compensation algorithm that reduces the forces normally felt by the user during rapid movements. We tested this algorithm with two different methods for real-time calculation of derivatives, a novel quadratic fit method (CQF) and the commonly used backward derivative method (CBD). Six subjects performed a series of point-to-point movements under three conditions (no compensation, CQF, CBD), in different directions at peak speeds of 50, 100 and 150 cm/s. Without compensation, tangential peak-to-peak forces were as large as 69 N in certain directions at the 150 cm/s speed. Both CQF and CBD significantly reduced tangential forces in all directions and speeds. CQF outperformed CBD in the directions with highest intrinsic impedance, reducing tangential forces by 64% in these directions. Compensation also significantly reduced forces normal to the movement direction, with CQF again outperforming CBD in several cases. Anisotropy was assessed by the range of tangential peak-to-peak forces across movement directions. In the no compensation condition, anisotropy was as high as 52.7 N at the 150 cm/s speed, but an average anisotropy reduction of 74% was achieved with CQF. The CQF method can significantly reduce impedance and anisotropy in this class of robot.

  19. Robotic real-time translational and rotational head motion correction during frameless stereotactic radiosurgery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Xinmin; Belcher, Andrew H.; Grelewicz, Zachary; Wiersma, Rodney D., E-mail: rwiersma@uchicago.edu [Department of Radiation and Cellular Oncology, The University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60637 (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To develop a control system to correct both translational and rotational head motion deviations in real-time during frameless stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS). Methods: A novel feedback control with a feed-forward algorithm was utilized to correct for the coupling of translation and rotation present in serial kinematic robotic systems. Input parameters for the algorithm include the real-time 6DOF target position, the frame pitch pivot point to target distance constant, and the translational and angular Linac beam off (gating) tolerance constants for patient safety. Testing of the algorithm was done using a 4D (XY Z + pitch) robotic stage, an infrared head position sensing unit and a control computer. The measured head position signal was processed and a resulting command was sent to the interface of a four-axis motor controller, through which four stepper motors were driven to perform motion compensation. Results: The control of the translation of a brain target was decoupled with the control of the rotation. For a phantom study, the corrected position was within a translational displacement of 0.35 mm and a pitch displacement of 0.15° 100% of the time. For a volunteer study, the corrected position was within displacements of 0.4 mm and 0.2° over 98.5% of the time, while it was 10.7% without correction. Conclusions: The authors report a control design approach for both translational and rotational head motion correction. The experiments demonstrated that control performance of the 4D robotic stage meets the submillimeter and subdegree accuracy required by SRS.

  20. Modeling and motion compensation of a bidirectional tendon-sheath actuated system for robotic endoscopic surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Zhenglong; Wang, Zheng; Phee, Soo Jay

    2015-04-01

    Recent study shows that tendon-sheath system (TSS) has great potential in the development of surgical robots for endoscopic surgery. It is able to deliver adequate power in a light-weight and compact package. And the flexibility and compliance of the tendon-sheath system make it capable of adapting to the long and winding path in the flexible endoscope. However, the main difficulties in precise control of such system fall on the nonlinearities of the system behavior and absence of necessary sensory feedback at the surgical end-effectors. Since accurate position control of the tool is a prerequisite for efficacy, safety and intuitive user-experience in robotic surgery, in this paper we propose a system modeling approach for motion compensation. Based on a bidirectional actuated system using two separate tendon-sheaths, motion transmission is firstly characterized. Two types of positional errors due to system backlash and environment loading are defined and modeled. Then a model-based feedforward compensation method is proposed for open-loop control, giving the system abilities to adjust according to changes in the transmission route configuration without any information feedback from the distal end. A dedicated experimental platform emulating a bidirectional TSS robotic system for endoscopic surgery is built for testing. Proposed positional errors are identified and verified. The performance of the proposed motion compensation is evaluated by trajectory tracking under different environment loading conditions. And the results demonstrate that accurate position control can be achieved even if the transmission route configuration is updated. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Robotics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popov, E. P.; Iurevich, E. I.

    The history and the current status of robotics are reviewed, as are the design, operation, and principal applications of industrial robots. Attention is given to programmable robots, robots with adaptive control and elements of artificial intelligence, and remotely controlled robots. The applications of robots discussed include mechanical engineering, cargo handling during transportation and storage, mining, and metallurgy. The future prospects of robotics are briefly outlined.

  2. Mechatronic System Design and Intelligent Motion Control of Hydraulic Robots and Machines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Conrad, Finn; Sørensen, Torben

    2003-01-01

    The paper presents an approach and concept to mechatronic system design and intelligent motion control. The Information Technology (IT) offers software and hardware for improvement of R&D Mechatronic Teams to create products and solutions for industrial applications. The latest progress in IT makes...... control as well as from the Esprit project SWING on IT-tools for rapid prototyping of fluid power components and systems. A mechatronic test facility for a DTU-AAU hydraulic robot ¿Thor¿, and a CNC XY-machine table was implemented. The controller applies digital signal processors (DSPs). The DSP...

  3. Motion Control Design for an Omnidirectional Mobile Robot Subject to Velocity Constraints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ollin Peñaloza-Mejía

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A solution to achieve global asymptotic tracking with bounded velocities in an omnidirectional mobile robot is proposed in this paper. It is motivated by the need of having a useful in-practice motion control scheme, which takes into account the physical limits of the velocities. To this end, a passive nonlinear controller is designed and combined with a tracking controller in a negative feedback connection structure. By using Lyapunov theory and passivity tools, global asymptotic tracking with desired bounded velocities is proved. Simulations and experimental results are provided to show the effectiveness of the proposal.

  4. A robust optical/inertial data fusion system for motion tracking of the robot manipulator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jie CHEN; Can-jun YANG; Jens HOFSCHULTE; Wan-li JIANG; Cha ZHANG

    2014-01-01

    We present an optical/inertial data fusion system for motion tracking of the robot manipulator, which is proved to be more robust and accurate than a normal optical tracking system (OTS). By data fusion with an inertial measurement unit (IMU), both robustness and accuracy of OTS are improved. The Kalman filter is used in data fusion. The error distribution of OTS pro-vides an important reference on the estimation of measurement noise using the Kalman filter. With a proper setup of the system and an effective method of coordinate frame synchronization, the results of experiments show a significant improvement in terms of robustness and position accuracy.

  5. Detection and Control of Mobile Robot Motion by Real-Time Computer Vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wunsche, H. J.

    1987-02-01

    An approach is presented that combines dynamical models of 3D motion with geometric models of the scene and the laws of perspective projection to estimate all motion parameters necessary to control a mobile robot vehicle. The approach is demonstrated by autonomous con-trol of a jet propelled air-cushion vehicle, navigating through a technical environment with three degrees of motion freedom and performing a rendezvous maneuver with a passive partner. Features of the partner and other objects in the scene, the 3D shapes of which are known, are looked for and then tracked by the processors of a multimicroprocessor system. A sequential Kalman filter formulation is used to detect and to cope with variable feature visibility due to occlusion and motion while determining the complete relative motion state without inversion of the projection equations. A scheme is developed for always selecting those features for tracking which yield the best state estimate, the quality of which is demonstrated by physical docking with a static partner. The system operates at 0.13 seconds cycle time, half of which is spent for I/O operations. Experimental results are given.

  6. PSD Camera Based Position and Posture Control of Redundant Robot Considering Contact Motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oda, Naoki; Kotani, Kentaro

    The paper describes a position and posture controller design based on the absolute position by external PSD vision sensor for redundant robot manipulator. The redundancy enables a potential capability to avoid obstacle while continuing given end-effector jobs under contact with middle link of manipulator. Under contact motion, the deformation due to joint torsion obtained by comparing internal and external position sensor, is actively suppressed by internal/external position hybrid controller. The selection matrix of hybrid loop is given by the function of the deformation. And the detected deformation is also utilized in the compliant motion controller for passive obstacle avoidance. The validity of the proposed method is verified by several experimental results of 3link planar redundant manipulator.

  7. Adaptation Algorithm of Geometric Graphs for Robot Motion Planning in Dynamic Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae-Han Park

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study proposes an adaptive graph algorithm for collision-free motion planning of articulated robots in dynamic environments. For this purpose, deformations of the configuration space were analyzed according to the changes of the workspace using various simulations. Subsequently, we adopted the principles of gas motion dynamics in our adaptation algorithm to address the issue of the deformation of the configuration space. The proposed algorithm has an adaptation mechanism based on expansive repulsion and sensory repulsion, and it can be performed to provide the entire adaptation using distributed processing. The simulation results confirmed that the proposed method allows the adaptation of the roadmap graph to changes of the configuration space.

  8. An Improved Chaotic Motion Path Planner for Autonomous Mobile Robots based on a Logistic Map

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caihong Li

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a chaotic motion path planner based on a Logistic Map (SCLCP for an autonomous mobile robot to cover an unknown terrain randomly, namely entirely, unpredictably and evenly. The path planner has been improved by arcsine and arccosine transformation. A motion path planner based only on the Logistic Chaotic Map (LCP can show chaotic behaviour, which possesses the chaotic characteristics of topological transitivity and unpredictability, but lacks better evenness. Therefore, the arcsine and arccosine transformations are used to enhance the randomness of LCP. The randomness of the followed path planner, LCP, the improved path planner SCLCP and the commonly used Random Path Planner (RP are discussed and compared under different sets of initial conditions and different iteration rounds. Simulation results confirm that a better evenness index of SCLCP can be obtained with regard to previous works.

  9. A 3-DOF parallel robot with spherical motion for the rehabilitation and evaluation of balance performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patanè, Fabrizio; Cappa, Paolo

    2011-04-01

    In this paper a novel electrically actuated parallel robot with three degrees-of-freedom (3 DOF) for dynamic postural studies is presented. The design has been described, the solution to the inverse kinematics has been found, and a numerical solution for the direct kinematics has been proposed. The workspace of the implemented robot is characterized by an angular range of motion of about ±10° for roll and pitch when yaw is in the range ±15°. The robot was constructed and the orientation accuracy was tested by means of an optoelectronic system and by imposing a sinusoidal input, with a frequency of 1 Hz and amplitude of 10°, along the three axes, in sequence. The collected data indicated a phase delay of 1° and an amplitude error of 0.5%-1.5%; similar values were observed for cross-axis sensitivity errors. We also conducted a clinical application on a group of normal subjects, who were standing in equilibrium on the robot base with eyes open (EO) and eyes closed (EC), which was rotated with a tri-axial sinusoidal trajectory with a frequency of 0.5 Hz and amplitude 5° for roll and pitch and 10° for the yaw. The postural configuration of the subjects was recorded with an optoelectronic system. However, due to the mainly technical nature of this paper, only initial validation outcomes are reported here. The clinical application showed that only the tilt and displacement on the sagittal pane of head, trunk, and pelvis in the trials conducted with eyes closed were affected by drift and that the reduction of the yaw rotation and of the mediolateral translation was not a controlled parameter, as happened, instead, for the other anatomical directions.

  10. Resolved motion rate and resolved acceleration servo-control of wheeled mobile robots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muir, P.F.; Neuman, C.P. (Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (USA); Carnegie-Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (USA). Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engineering)

    1989-01-01

    Accurate motion control of wheeled mobile robots (WMRs) is required for their application to autonomous, semi-autonomous and teleoperated tasks. The similarities between WMRs and stationary manipulators suggest that current, successful, model-based manipulator control algorithms may be applied to WMRs. Special characteristics of WMRs including higher-pairs, closed-chains, friction and unactuated and unsensed joints require innovative modeling methodologies. The WMR modeling challenge has been recently overcome, thus enabling the application of manipulator control algorithms to WMRs. This realization lays the foundation for significant technology transfer from manipulator control to WMR control. We apply two Cartesian-space manipulator control algorithms: resolved motion rate (kinematics-based) and resolved acceleration (dynamics-based) control to WMR servo-control. We evaluate simulation studies of two exemplary WMRs: Uranus (a three degree-of-freedom WMR constructed at Carnegie Mellon University), and Bicsun-Bicas (a two degree-of-freedom WMR being constructed at Sandia National Laboratories) under the control of these algorithms. Although resolved motion rate servo-control is adequate for the control of Uranus, resolved acceleration servo-control is required for the control of the mechanically simpler Bicsun-Bicas because it exhibits more dynamic coupling and nonlinearities. Successful accurate motion control of these WMRs in simulation is driving current experimental research studies. 18 refs., 7 figs., 5 tabs.

  11. Multi-motion robots control based on bioelectric signals from single-channel dry electrode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Hui-Min; Hu, Liang; Lee, Kok-Meng; Fu, Xin

    2015-02-01

    This article presents a multi-motion control system to help severe disabled people operate an auxiliary appliance using neck-up bioelectric signals measured by a single-channel dry electrode on the forehead. The single-channel dry-electrode multi-motion control system exhibits several practical advantages over its conventional counterparts that use multi-channel wet-electrodes; among the challenges is an effective technique to extract bioelectric features for reliable implementation of multi degrees-of-freedom motion control. Using both time and frequency characteristics of the single-channel dry-electrode measurements, motion commands are derived from multiple feature signals associated with concentration demands and different eye-blink actions for use in a two-level control strategy that has been developed to control predefined multi degrees-of-freedom motion trajectories. Test paradigms were designed to pre-calibrate the users' feature signals to statistically account for individual variances. Experimental trials were then carried out on able-bodied and disabled volunteers to validate the universal applicability of the algorithms. The classification success rates for two different eye-blink feature signals were approximately 95% with an average time of 2.4 s for executing a concentration feature signal. The single-channel dry-electrode-based technique has been validated on a 6-degree-of-freedom robot arm demonstrating its significant potentials to help patients suffering severe motor dysfunctions operate a multi-motion auxiliary appliance in everyday living where the ease of use is a priority.

  12. Sensorization of Robotic Hand Using Optical Three-Axis Tactile Sensor: Evaluation with Grasping and Twisting Motions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanafiah Yussof

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Sensitization of robot hand is still remaining as crucial issue since most of robot hand systems nowadays are only capable to grasp a predefined specific object. It is still difficult for robot hand system to realize human-like tactile sensation. Some common problems in robot hand system are low accuracy sensing device, sensors are not robust enough for long time work and heavy duties, inconsistence tactile sensing detection and difficulties in control of sensing fusion with robot trajectory. These problems are apparently drawback the progress to commercializing robot hands as real consumer products. Approach: This study presented the application of optical three-axis tactile sensor to robot hand to improve sensitization quality in robotic hand system. The proposed tactile sensor system was designed with compliance modules to communicate with robot hand control system. The sensing principle used in this tactile sensor comparatively provides better sensing accuracy to detect contact phenomena from acquisition of three axial directions of forces. Methodology of force and slippage detection in the tactile sensor system was presented. Accordingly, the optimization of robot hand control algorithm to comply with the tactile sensor system was presented and verified in experiment of grasping and twisting. Results: The tactile sensor presented in this study is capable of detecting normal and shear force simultaneously. The proposed methodology was verified in experiment with paper cup and water, in which the result shows the robot control system managed to respond to the proposed object stiffness distinction parameters and effectively respond to sudden change of object weight during grasping. An experiment of grasping and twisting motions was conducted using a bottle cap. In order to perform simultaneous grasping and twisting tasks, optimization of the control algorithm was conducted with additional parameters to satisfy the desired

  13. Simulation Platform of Underwater Quadruped Walking Robot Based on MotionGenesis Kane 5 3 and Central Pattern Generator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ke Yang; XuYang Wang; Tong Ge; Chao Wu

    2014-01-01

    It will still in lack of a simulation platform used to learn the walking of underwater quadruped walking robot. In order to alleviate this shortage, a simulation platform for the underwater quadruped walking robot based on Kane dynamic model and CPG-based controller is constructed. The Kane dynamic model of the underwater quadruped walking robot is processed with a commercial package MotionGenesis Kane 5�3. The forces between the feet and ground are represented as a spring and damper. The relation between coefficients of spring and damper and stability of underwater quadruped walking robot in the stationary state is studied. The CPG-based controller consisted of Central Pattern Generator ( CPG) and PD controller is presented, which can be used to control walking of the underwater quadruped walking robot. The relation between CPG parameters and walking speed of underwater quadruped walking robot is investigated. The relation between coefficients of spring and damper and walking speed of underwater quadruped walking robot is studied. The results show that the simulation platform can imitate the stable walking of the underwater quadruped walking robot.

  14. Compensation of Wave-Induced Motion and Force Phenomena for Ship-Based High Performance Robotic and Human Amplifying Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Love, LJL

    2003-09-24

    The decrease in manpower and increase in material handling needs on many Naval vessels provides the motivation to explore the modeling and control of Naval robotic and robotic assistive devices. This report addresses the design, modeling, control and analysis of position and force controlled robotic systems operating on the deck of a moving ship. First we provide background information that quantifies the motion of the ship, both in terms of frequency and amplitude. We then formulate the motion of the ship in terms of homogeneous transforms. This transformation provides a link between the motion of the ship and the base of a manipulator. We model the kinematics of a manipulator as a serial extension of the ship motion. We then show how to use these transforms to formulate the kinetic and potential energy of a general, multi-degree of freedom manipulator moving on a ship. As a demonstration, we consider two examples: a one degree-of-freedom system experiencing three sea states operating in a plane to verify the methodology and a 3 degree of freedom system experiencing all six degrees of ship motion to illustrate the ease of computation and complexity of the solution. The first series of simulations explore the impact wave motion has on tracking performance of a position controlled robot. We provide a preliminary comparison between conventional linear control and Repetitive Learning Control (RLC) and show how fixed time delay RLC breaks down due to the varying nature wave disturbance frequency. Next, we explore the impact wave motion disturbances have on Human Amplification Technology (HAT). We begin with a description of the traditional HAT control methodology. Simulations show that the motion of the base of the robot, due to ship motion, generates disturbances forces reflected to the operator that significantly degrade the positioning accuracy and resolution at higher sea states. As with position-controlled manipulators, augmenting the control with a Repetitive

  15. Learning Trajectories for Robot Programing by Demonstration Using a Coordinated Mixture of Factor Analyzers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field, Matthew; Stirling, David; Pan, Zengxi; Naghdy, Fazel

    2016-03-01

    This paper presents an approach for learning robust models of humanoid robot trajectories from demonstration. In this formulation, a model of the joint space trajectory is represented as a sequence of motion primitives where a nonlinear dynamical system is learned by constructing a hidden Markov model (HMM) predicting the probability of residing in each motion primitive. With a coordinated mixture of factor analyzers as the emission probability density of the HMM, we are able to synthesize motion from a dynamic system acting along a manifold shared by both demonstrator and robot. This provides significant advantages in model complexity for kinematically redundant robots and can reduce the number of corresponding observations required for further learning. A stability analysis shows that the system is robust to deviations from the expected trajectory as well as transitional motion between manifolds. This approach is demonstrated experimentally by recording human motion with inertial sensors, learning a motion primitive model and correspondence map between the human and robot, and synthesizing motion from the manifold to control a 19 degree-of-freedom humanoid robot.

  16. Hydrodynamics of a robotic fish tail: effects of the caudal peduncle, fin ray motions and the flow speed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Ziyu; Yang, Xingbang; Wang, Tianmiao; Wen, Li

    2016-02-08

    Recent advances in understanding fish locomotion with robotic devices have included the use of biomimetic flapping based and fin undulatory locomotion based robots, treating two locomotions separately from each other. However, in most fish species, patterns of active movements of fins occur in concert with the body undulatory deformation during swimming. In this paper, we describe a biomimetic robotic caudal fin programmed with individually actuated fin rays to mimic the fin motion of the Bluegill Sunfish (Lepomis macrochirus) and coupled with heave and pitch oscillatory motions adding to the robot to mimic the peduncle motion which is derived from the undulatory fish body. Multiple-axis force and digital particle image velocimetry (DPIV) experiments from both the vertical and horizontal planes behind the robotic model were conducted under different motion programs and flow speeds. We found that both mean thrust and lift could be altered by changing the phase difference (φ) from 0° to 360° between the robotic caudal peduncle and the fin ray motion (spanning from 3 mN to 124 mN). Notably, DPIV results demonstrated that the caudal fin generated multiple wake flow patterns in both the vertical and horizontal planes by varying φ. Vortex jet angle and thrust impulse also varied significantly both in these two planes. In addition, the vortex shedding position along the spanwise tail direction could be shifted around the mid-sagittal position between the upper and lower lobes by changing the phase difference. We hypothesize that the fish caudal fin may serve as a flexible vectoring propeller during swimming and may be critical for the high maneuverability of fish.

  17. Intra-operative prostate motion tracking using surface markers for robot-assisted laparoscopic radical prostatectomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esteghamatian, Mehdi; Sarkar, Kripasindhu; Pautler, Stephen E.; Chen, Elvis C. S.; Peters, Terry M.

    2012-02-01

    Radical prostatectomy surgery (RP) is the gold standard for treatment of localized prostate cancer (PCa). Recently, emergence of minimally invasive techniques such as Laparoscopic Radical Prostatectomy (LRP) and Robot-Assisted Laparoscopic Radical Prostatectomy (RARP) has improved the outcomes for prostatectomy. However, it remains difficult for the surgeons to make informed decisions regarding resection margins and nerve sparing since the location of the tumor within the organ is not usually visible in a laparoscopic view. While MRI enables visualization of the salient structures and cancer foci, its efficacy in LRP is reduced unless it is fused into a stereoscopic view such that homologous structures overlap. Registration of the MRI image and peri-operative ultrasound image using a tracked probe can potentially be exploited to bring the pre-operative information into alignment with the patient coordinate system during the procedure. While doing so, prostate motion needs to be compensated in real-time to synchronize the stereoscopic view with the pre-operative MRI during the prostatectomy procedure. In this study, a point-based stereoscopic tracking technique is investigated to compensate for rigid prostate motion so that the same motion can be applied to the pre-operative images. This method benefits from stereoscopic tracking of the surface markers implanted over the surface of the prostate phantom. The average target registration error using this approach was 3.25+/-1.43mm.

  18. Laser distance sensors used with a developed integrated algorithm for robot motion control in steel coil marking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Conrad, Finn; Vejby-Christensen, Jacob; Flyvholm, Morten;

    1999-01-01

    The paper deals with research and application of external sensor feedback for robot control. Two laser distance sensors are applied and tested as external sensors for motion control, particulary for marking of hot steel coils in steel strip mills. A developed algoritm integated with a coordinate...

  19. A New Approach for Human Forearm Motion Assist by Actuated Artificial Joint-An Inner Skeleton Robot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kundu, Subrata Kumar; Kiguchi, Kazuo; Teramoto, Kenbu

    In order to help the physical activities of the elderly or physically disabled persons, we propose a new concept of a power-assist inner skeleton robot (i.e., actuated artificial joint) that is supposed to assist the human daily life motion from inside of the human body. This paper presents an implantable 2 degree of freedom (DOF) inner skeleton robot that is designed to assist human elbow flexion-extension motion and forearm supination-pronation motion for daily life activities. We have developed a prototype of the inner skeleton robot that is supposed to assist the motion from inside of the body and act as an actuated artificial joint. The proposed system is controlled based on the activation patterns of the electromyogram (EMG) signals of the user's muscles by applying fuzzy-neuro control method. A joint actuator with angular position sensor is designed for the inner skeleton robot and a T-Mechanism is proposed to keep the bone arrangement similar to the normal human articulation after the elbow arthroplasty. The effectiveness of the proposed system has been evaluated by experiment.

  20. Research on Robot Surface Tracking Motion Based on Force Control of Six-Axis Wrist Force Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhijun Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to reduce the environmental contact force and make the operation task completed successfully, the robot is frequently required with force perception and active compliance control. Based on the six-axis wrist force sensor measuring, a robot model of surface tracking motion is proposed, and its force control algorithm and experiment are studied. The measurement principle of the six-axis wrist force sensor and the inadequacy of the sensor measuring the six-dimensional force online are introduced firstly. The surface tracking motion model and its coordinate system are established. On this basis, the relationship between the pose adjustment of surface tracking motion and the measuring results of the six-axis wrist force sensor is deduced. At last, the experimental study of the surface tracking robot system that applied the force control algorithm is conducted. The experiment shows that the robot can adjust the current position and orientation in real time according to the six-axis wrist force sensor measuring, which demonstrates the feasibility of the surface tracking motion model and the correctness of the force control algorithm.

  1. Unsupervised Learning of Action Primitives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baby, Sanmohan; Krüger, Volker; Kragic, Danica

    2010-01-01

    and scale, the use of the object can provide a strong invariant for the detection of motion primitives. In this paper we propose an unsupervised learning approach for action primitives that makes use of the human movements as well as the object state changes. We group actions according to the changes......Action representation is a key issue in imitation learning for humanoids. With the recent finding of mirror neurons there has been a growing interest in expressing actions as a combination meaningful subparts called primitives. Primitives could be thought of as an alphabet for the human actions....... In this paper we observe that human actions and objects can be seen as being intertwined: we can interpret actions from the way the body parts are moving, but as well from how their effect on the involved object. While human movements can look vastly different even under minor changes in location, orientation...

  2. Active Head Motion Compensation of TMS Robotic System Using Neuro-Fuzzy Estimation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wan Zakaria W.N.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS allows neuroscientist to study human brain behaviour and also become an important technique for changing the activity of brain neurons and the functions they sub serve. However, conventional manual procedure and robotized TMS are currently unable to precisely position the TMS coil because of unconstrained subject’s head movement and excessive contact force between the coil and subject’s head. This paper addressed this challenge by proposing an adaptive neuro-fuzzy force control to enable low contact force with a moving target surface. A learning and adaption mechanism is included in the control scheme to improve position disturbance estimation. The results show the ability of the proposed force control scheme to compensate subject’s head motions while maintaining desired contact force, thus allowing for more accurate and repeatable TMS procedures.

  3. Study on robot motion control for intelligent welding processes based on the laser tracking sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bin; Wang, Qian; Tang, Chen; Wang, Ju

    2017-06-01

    A robot motion control method is presented for intelligent welding processes of complex spatial free-form curve seams based on the laser tracking sensor. First, calculate the tip position of the welding torch according to the velocity of the torch and the seam trajectory detected by the sensor. Then, search the optimal pose of the torch under constraints using genetic algorithms. As a result, the intersection point of the weld seam and the laser plane of the sensor is within the detectable range of the sensor. Meanwhile, the angle between the axis of the welding torch and the tangent of the weld seam meets the requirements. The feasibility of the control method is proved by simulation.

  4. Compliant landing of a trotting quadruped robot based on hybrid motion/force robust control

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郎琳; 王剑; 韦庆; 马宏绪

    2016-01-01

    A compliant landing strategy for a trotting quadruped robot on unknown rough terrains based on contact force control is presented. Firstly, in order to lower the disturbance caused by the landing impact force, a landing phase is added between the swing phase and the stance phase, where the desired contact force is set as a small positive constant. Secondly, the joint torque optimization of the stance legs is formulated as a quadratic programming (QP) problem subject to equality and inequality/bound constraints. And a primal-dual dynamical system solver based on linear variational inequalities (LVI) is applied to solve this QP problem. Furthermore, based on the optimization results, a hybrid motion/force robust controller is designed to realize the tracking of the contact force, while the constraints of the stance feet landing angles are fulfilled simultaneously. Finally, the experiments are performed to validate the proposed methods.

  5. Animation of virtual mannequins, robot-like simulation or motion captures

    CERN Document Server

    Chablat, Damien

    2007-01-01

    In order to optimize the costs and time of design of the new products while improving their quality, concurrent engineering is based on the digital model of these products, the numerical model. However, in order to be able to avoid definitively physical model, old support of the design, without loss of information, new tools must be available. Especially, a tool making it possible to check simply and quickly the maintainability of complex mechanical sets using the numerical model is necessary. Since one decade, our team works on the creation of tool for the generation and the analysis of trajectories of virtual mannequins. The simulation of human tasks can be carried out either by robot-like simulation or by simulation by motion capture. This paper presents some results on the both two methods. The first method is based on a multi-agent system and on a digital mock-up technology, to assess an efficient path planner for a manikin or a robot for access and visibility task taking into account ergonomic constrain...

  6. Path Planner for Objects, Robots and Mannequins by Multi-Agents Systems or Motion Captures

    CERN Document Server

    Chablat, Damien

    2008-01-01

    In order to optimise the costs and time of design of the new products while improving their quality, concurrent engineering is based on the digital model of these products. However, in order to be able to avoid definitively physical model without loss of information, new tools must be available. Especially, a tool making it possible to check simply and quickly the maintainability of complex mechanical sets using the numerical model is necessary. Since one decade, the MCM team of IRCCyN works on the creation of tools for the generation and the analysis of trajectories of virtual mannequins. The simulation of human tasks can be carried out either by robot-like simulation or by simulation by motion capture. This paper presents some results on the both two methods. The first method is based on a multi-agent system and on a digital mock-up technology, to assess an efficient path planner for a manikin or a robot for access and visibility task taking into account ergonomic constraints or joint limits. The human oper...

  7. Design and development of an upper extremity motion capture system for a rehabilitation robot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanda, Pooja; Smith, Alan; Gebregiorgis, Adey; Brown, Edward E

    2009-01-01

    Human robot interaction is a new and rapidly growing field and its application in the realm of rehabilitation and physical care is a major focus area of research worldwide. This paper discusses the development and implementation of a wireless motion capture system for the human arm which can be used for physical therapy or real-time control of a robotic arm, among many other potential applications. The system is comprised of a mechanical brace with rotary potentiometers inserted at the different joints to capture position data. It also contains surface electrodes which acquire electromyographic signals through the CleveMed BioRadio device. The brace interfaces with a software subsystem which displays real time data signals. The software includes a 3D arm model which imitates the actual movement of a subject's arm under testing. This project began as part of the Rochester Institute of Technology's Undergraduate Multidisciplinary Senior Design curriculum and has been integrated into the overall research objectives of the Biomechatronic Learning Laboratory.

  8. Multi-Imager Compatible, MR Safe, Remote Center of Motion Needle-Guide Robot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoianovici, Dan; Jun, Changhan; Lim, Sunghwan; Li, Pan; Petrisor, Doru; Fricke, Stanley; Sharma, Karun; Cleary, Kevin

    2017-04-25

    We report the development of a new robotic system for direct image-guided interventions, DIGI (images acquired at the time of the intervention). The manipulator uses our previously reported Pneumatic Step Motors and is entirely made of electrically nonconductive, nonmetallic, and nonmagnetic materials. It orients a needle-guide with 2 degrees of freedom (DoF) about a fulcrum point located below the guide using an innovative Remote Center of Motion (RCM) parallelogram type mechanism. The depth of manual needle insertion is preset with a 3rd DoF, located remotely of the manipulator. Special consideration was given to the kinematic accuracy and the structural stiffness. The manipulator includes registration markers for image-to-robot registration. Based on the images, it may guide needles, drills, or other slender instruments to a target (ODDIGI where ����.��������+����.����������������∙���� [mm] accuracy lateral to the needle (2D) or ����.��������+����.����������������∙���� [mm] in 3D is acceptable. The system is also multi-imager compatible and could be used with other imaging modalities.

  9. Robotic calibration of the motional Stark effect diagnostic on Alcator C-Mod

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mumgaard, Robert T.; Scott, Steven D.; Ko, Jinseok

    2014-05-01

    The capability to calibrate diagnostics, such as the Motional Stark Effect (MSE) diagnostic, without using plasma or beam-into-gas discharges will become increasingly important on next step fusion facilities due to machine availability and operational constraints. A robotic calibration system consisting of a motorized three-axis positioning system and a polarization light source capable of generating arbitrary polarization states with a linear polarization angle accuracy of deployed on Alcator C-Mod. The polarization response of the complex diagnostic is shown to be fully captured using a Fourier expansion of the detector signals in terms of even harmonics of the input polarization angle. The system's high precision robotic control of position and orientation allow it to be used also to calibrate the geometry of the instrument's view. Combined with careful measurements of the narrow bandpass spectral filters, this system fully calibrates the diagnostic without any plasma discharges. The system's high repeatability, flexibility, and speed has been exploited to quantify several systematics in the MSE diagnostic response, providing a more complete understanding of the diagnostic performance.

  10. Modal-Power-Based Haptic Motion Recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasahara, Yusuke; Shimono, Tomoyuki; Kuwahara, Hiroaki; Sato, Masataka; Ohnishi, Kouhei

    Motion recognition based on sensory information is important for providing assistance to human using robots. Several studies have been carried out on motion recognition based on image information. However, in the motion of humans contact with an object can not be evaluated precisely by image-based recognition. This is because the considering force information is very important for describing contact motion. In this paper, a modal-power-based haptic motion recognition is proposed; modal power is considered to reveal information on both position and force. Modal power is considered to be one of the defining features of human motion. A motion recognition algorithm based on linear discriminant analysis is proposed to distinguish between similar motions. Haptic information is extracted using a bilateral master-slave system. Then, the observed motion is decomposed in terms of primitive functions in a modal space. The experimental results show the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  11. Predicting the Motions and Forces of Wearable Robotic Systems Using Optimal Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Millard

    2017-08-01

    . The simulations developed in this study are specific to lifting motion and a lower back exoskeleton. However, the framework is applicable for simulating a large range of robotic-assisted human motions.

  12. Analysis of Timing Control Mechanism of Utterance and Body Motion Using Dialogue between Human and Communication Robot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takasugi, Shoji; Yamamoto, Tomohito; Muto, Yumiko; Abe, Hiroyuki; Miyake, Yoshihiro

    The purpose of this study is to clarify the effects of timing control of utterance and body motion in human-robot interaction. Our previous study has already revealed the correlation of timing of utterance and body motion in human-human communication. Here we proposed a timing control model based on our previous research and estimated its influence to realize human-like communication using a questionnaire method. The results showed that the difference of effectiveness between the communication with the timing control model and that without it was observed. In addition, elderly people evaluated the communication with timing control much higher than younger people. These results show not only the importance of timing control of utterance and body motion in human communication but also its effectiveness for realizing human-like human-robot interaction.

  13. Development of an assist controller with robot suit HAL for hemiplegic patients using motion data on the unaffected side.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawamoto, Hiroaki; Kandone, Hideki; Sakurai, Takeru; Ariyasu, Ryohei; Ueno, Yukiko; Eguchi, Kiyoshi; Sankai, Yoshiyuki

    2014-01-01

    Among several characteristics seen in gait of hemiplegic patients after stroke, symmetry is known to be an indicator of the degree of impairment of walking ability. This paper proposes a control method for a wearable type lower limb motion assist robot to realize spontaneous symmetric gait for these individuals. This control method stores the motion of the unaffected limb during swing and then provides motion support on the affected limb during the subsequent swing using the stored pattern to realize symmetric gait based on spontaneous limb swing. This method is implemented on the robot suit HAL (Hybrid Assistive Limbs). Clinical tests were conducted in order to assess the feasibility of the control method. Our case study involved participation of one chronic stroke patient who was not able to flex his right knee. As a result, the walking support for hemiplegic leg provided by the HAL improved the subject's gait symmetry. The feasibility study showed promising basis for the future clinical study.

  14. Design, Implementation and Validation of the Three-Wheel Holonomic Motion System of the Assistant Personal Robot (APR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Moreno

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the design, implementation and validation of the three-wheel holonomic motion system of a mobile robot designed to operate in homes. The holonomic motion system is described in terms of mechanical design and electronic control. The paper analyzes the kinematics of the motion system and validates the estimation of the trajectory comparing the displacement estimated with the internal odometry of the motors and the displacement estimated with a SLAM procedure based on LIDAR information. Results obtained in different experiments have shown a difference on less than 30 mm between the position estimated with the SLAM and odometry, and a difference in the angular orientation of the mobile robot lower than 5° in absolute displacements up to 1000 mm.

  15. 基于人体动作识别的服务机器人手臂运动控制%Service Robot Motion Control Based on Human Motion Recognition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王梅; 卢熙昌; 屠大维; 于远芳; 周华

    2015-01-01

    建立了一种基于人体动作识别的服务机器人控制系统,通过微软Kinect传感器对人体的关节动作和手势进行跟踪检测,获取人体手臂各关节角度和人的手掌状态,然后将手臂关节角以一定的映射准则映射到机器人各关节上,人的手掌状态对应机器人手爪的开合,最后将这些信息进行平滑滤波、编码处理,以无线局域网通信的方式传递给机器人,实现对服务机器人关节臂和手爪的控制。%A service robot control system based on human motion recognition is constructed in this paper.The angles hu-man arm joints and hand status are acquired by detecting and tracking human joints movement and gestures using Mi-crosoft Kinect sensor.Then establish the mapping rule between the joint angles status and robot joints,and hand status to robot paw status.Final y,after filtering and coding process,the information is transmitted to service robot by wireless networks to realize robot arm control.

  16. Analysis of the waggle dance motion of honeybees for the design of a biomimetic honeybee robot.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim Landgraf

    Full Text Available The honeybee dance "language" is one of the most popular examples of information transfer in the animal world. Today, more than 60 years after its discovery it still remains unknown how follower bees decode the information contained in the dance. In order to build a robotic honeybee that allows a deeper investigation of the communication process we have recorded hundreds of videos of waggle dances. In this paper we analyze the statistics of visually captured high-precision dance trajectories of European honeybees (Apis mellifera carnica. The trajectories were produced using a novel automatic tracking system and represent the most detailed honeybee dance motion information available. Although honeybee dances seem very variable, some properties turned out to be invariant. We use these properties as a minimal set of parameters that enables us to model the honeybee dance motion. We provide a detailed statistical description of various dance properties that have not been characterized before and discuss the role of particular dance components in the commmunication process.

  17. Analysis of the Waggle Dance Motion of Honeybees for the Design of a Biomimetic Honeybee Robot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landgraf, Tim; Rojas, Raúl; Nguyen, Hai; Kriegel, Fabian; Stettin, Katja

    2011-01-01

    The honeybee dance “language” is one of the most popular examples of information transfer in the animal world. Today, more than 60 years after its discovery it still remains unknown how follower bees decode the information contained in the dance. In order to build a robotic honeybee that allows a deeper investigation of the communication process we have recorded hundreds of videos of waggle dances. In this paper we analyze the statistics of visually captured high-precision dance trajectories of European honeybees (Apis mellifera carnica). The trajectories were produced using a novel automatic tracking system and represent the most detailed honeybee dance motion information available. Although honeybee dances seem very variable, some properties turned out to be invariant. We use these properties as a minimal set of parameters that enables us to model the honeybee dance motion. We provide a detailed statistical description of various dance properties that have not been characterized before and discuss the role of particular dance components in the commmunication process. PMID:21857906

  18. Radial polar histogram: obstacle avoidance and path planning for robotic cognition and motion control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Po-Jen; Keyawa, Nicholas R.; Euler, Craig

    2012-01-01

    In order to achieve highly accurate motion control and path planning for a mobile robot, an obstacle avoidance algorithm that provided a desired instantaneous turning radius and velocity was generated. This type of obstacle avoidance algorithm, which has been implemented in California State University Northridge's Intelligent Ground Vehicle (IGV), is known as Radial Polar Histogram (RPH). The RPH algorithm utilizes raw data in the form of a polar histogram that is read from a Laser Range Finder (LRF) and a camera. A desired open block is determined from the raw data utilizing a navigational heading and an elliptical approximation. The left and right most radii are determined from the calculated edges of the open block and provide the range of possible radial paths the IGV can travel through. In addition, the calculated obstacle edge positions allow the IGV to recognize complex obstacle arrangements and to slow down accordingly. A radial path optimization function calculates the best radial path between the left and right most radii and is sent to motion control for speed determination. Overall, the RPH algorithm allows the IGV to autonomously travel at average speeds of 3mph while avoiding all obstacles, with a processing time of approximately 10ms.

  19. Patient-Centered Robot-Aided Passive Neurorehabilitation Exercise Based on Safety-Motion Decision-Making Mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Suolin; Yu, Zhuqing

    2017-01-01

    Safety is one of the crucial issues for robot-aided neurorehabilitation exercise. When it comes to the passive rehabilitation training for stroke patients, the existing control strategies are usually just based on position control to carry out the training, and the patient is out of the controller. However, to some extent, the patient should be taken as a “cooperator” of the training activity, and the movement speed and range of the training movement should be dynamically regulated according to the internal or external state of the subject, just as what the therapist does in clinical therapy. This research presents a novel motion control strategy for patient-centered robot-aided passive neurorehabilitation exercise from the point of the safety. The safety-motion decision-making mechanism is developed to online observe and assess the physical state of training impaired-limb and motion performances and regulate the training parameters (motion speed and training rage), ensuring the safety of the supplied rehabilitation exercise. Meanwhile, position-based impedance control is employed to realize the trajectory tracking motion with interactive compliance. Functional experiments and clinical experiments are investigated with a healthy adult and four recruited stroke patients, respectively. The two types of experimental results demonstrate that the suggested control strategy not only serves with safety-motion training but also presents rehabilitation efficacy. PMID:28194413

  20. Patient-Centered Robot-Aided Passive Neurorehabilitation Exercise Based on Safety-Motion Decision-Making Mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lizheng Pan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Safety is one of the crucial issues for robot-aided neurorehabilitation exercise. When it comes to the passive rehabilitation training for stroke patients, the existing control strategies are usually just based on position control to carry out the training, and the patient is out of the controller. However, to some extent, the patient should be taken as a “cooperator” of the training activity, and the movement speed and range of the training movement should be dynamically regulated according to the internal or external state of the subject, just as what the therapist does in clinical therapy. This research presents a novel motion control strategy for patient-centered robot-aided passive neurorehabilitation exercise from the point of the safety. The safety-motion decision-making mechanism is developed to online observe and assess the physical state of training impaired-limb and motion performances and regulate the training parameters (motion speed and training rage, ensuring the safety of the supplied rehabilitation exercise. Meanwhile, position-based impedance control is employed to realize the trajectory tracking motion with interactive compliance. Functional experiments and clinical experiments are investigated with a healthy adult and four recruited stroke patients, respectively. The two types of experimental results demonstrate that the suggested control strategy not only serves with safety-motion training but also presents rehabilitation efficacy.

  1. SENSOR-BASED MOTION CONTROLUSING ADAPTIVE NAVIGATION RULES IN THE DYNAMIC ENVIRONMENT FOR MOBILE ROBOT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    In the multi-robots system , it's important for a robot to acquire adaptive navigation rules for reaching the goal and avoiding other robots and obstacles and in the real-time environment.An efficient approach to collision-avoidance in multi-robots system is suggested .It is based on velocity information of moving objects and the distances between the robots and the obstacles in three specified directions and makes the robot navigate adaptively without collision with each other in a complicated situation.The effectiveness of algorithm is proved by the several simple examples in the physical world.

  2. Rapid world modeling: Fitting range data to geometric primitives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feddema, J.; Little, C.

    1996-12-31

    For the past seven years, Sandia National Laboratories has been active in the development of robotic systems to help remediate DOE`s waste sites and decommissioned facilities. Some of these facilities have high levels of radioactivity which prevent manual clean-up. Tele-operated and autonomous robotic systems have been envisioned as the only suitable means of removing the radioactive elements. World modeling is defined as the process of creating a numerical geometric model of a real world environment or workspace. This model is often used in robotics to plan robot motions which perform a task while avoiding obstacles. In many applications where the world model does not exist ahead of time, structured lighting, laser range finders, and even acoustical sensors have been used to create three dimensional maps of the environment. These maps consist of thousands of range points which are difficult to handle and interpret. This paper presents a least squares technique for fitting range data to planar and quadric surfaces, including cylinders and ellipsoids. Once fit to these primitive surfaces, the amount of data associated with a surface is greatly reduced up to three orders of magnitude, thus allowing for more rapid handling and analysis of world data.

  3. On covariances for fusing laser rangers and vision with sensors onboard a moving robot

    OpenAIRE

    Wernersson, Åke; Nygårds, Jonas

    1998-01-01

    Consider a robot to measure or operate on man made objects randomly located in the workspace. The optronic sensing onboard the robot are a scanning range measuring time-of-flight laser and a CCD camera. The goal of the paper is to give explicit covariance matrices for the extracted geometric primitives in the surrounding workspace. Emphasis is on correlation properties of the stochastic error models during motion. Topics studied include: (i) covariance of Radon/Hough peaks for plane surfaces;...

  4. Prediction of Intention during Interaction with iCub with Probabilistic Movement Primitives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oriane Dermy

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This article describes our open-source software for predicting the intention of a user physically interacting with the humanoid robot iCub. Our goal is to allow the robot to infer the intention of the human partner during collaboration, by predicting the future intended trajectory: this capability is critical to design anticipatory behaviors that are crucial in human–robot collaborative scenarios, such as in co-manipulation, cooperative assembly, or transportation. We propose an approach to endow the iCub with basic capabilities of intention recognition, based on Probabilistic Movement Primitives (ProMPs, a versatile method for representing, generalizing, and reproducing complex motor skills. The robot learns a set of motion primitives from several demonstrations, provided by the human via physical interaction. During training, we model the collaborative scenario using human demonstrations. During the reproduction of the collaborative task, we use the acquired knowledge to recognize the intention of the human partner. Using a few early observations of the state of the robot, we can not only infer the intention of the partner but also complete the movement, even if the user breaks the physical interaction with the robot. We evaluate our approach in simulation and on the real iCub. In simulation, the iCub is driven by the user using the Geomagic Touch haptic device. In the real robot experiment, we directly interact with the iCub by grabbing and manually guiding the robot’s arm. We realize two experiments on the real robot: one with simple reaching trajectories, and one inspired by collaborative object sorting. The software implementing our approach is open source and available on the GitHub platform. In addition, we provide tutorials and videos.

  5. Model-Based Design of Brushless DC Motor Control and Motion Control Modelling for RoboCup SSL Robots

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Xiaotian

    2015-01-01

    Over the recent years, the RoboCup competition has grown popular and attracted more and more domestic and international universities, and the levels of the teams increase every year. In Small Size League (SSL) competition, besides a good strategy system, the precision of the robots’ actions is also of vital importance in order to achieve high performance. Thus, a highly accurate and stable motion control system is needed to drive the robots to move in accordance with the planned trajectory. C...

  6. [Robotics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bier, J

    2000-05-01

    Content of this paper is the current state of the art of robots in surgery and the ongoing work on the field of surgical robotics at the Clinic for Maxillofacial Surgery at the Charité. Robots in surgery allows the surgeon to transform the accuracy of the imaging systems directly during the intervention and to plan an intervention beforehand. In this paper firstly the state of the art is described. Subsequently the scientific work at the clinic is described in detail. The paper closes with a outlook for future applications of robotics systems in maxillofacial surgery.

  7. Screw Theory Based Singularity Analysis of Lower-Mobility Parallel Robots considering the Motion/Force Transmissibility and Constrainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang Chen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Singularity is an inherent characteristic of parallel robots and is also a typical mathematical problem in engineering application. In general, to identify singularity configuration, the singular solution in mathematics should be derived. This work introduces an alternative approach to the singularity identification of lower-mobility parallel robots considering the motion/force transmissibility and constrainability. The theory of screws is used as the mathematic tool to define the transmission and constraint indices of parallel robots. The singularity is hereby classified into four types concerning both input and output members of a parallel robot, that is, input transmission singularity, output transmission singularity, input constraint singularity, and output constraint singularity. Furthermore, we take several typical parallel robots as examples to illustrate the process of singularity analysis. Particularly, the input and output constraint singularities which are firstly proposed in this work are depicted in detail. The results demonstrate that the method can not only identify all possible singular configurations, but also explain their physical meanings. Therefore, the proposed approach is proved to be comprehensible and effective in solving singularity problems in parallel mechanisms.

  8. Two-dimensional laser servoing for precision motion control of an ODV robotic license plate recognition system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Zhen; Moore, Kevin L.; Chen, YangQuan; Bahl, Vikas

    2003-09-01

    As an outgrowth of series of projects focused on mobility of unmanned ground vehicles (UGV), an omni-directional (ODV), multi-robot, autonomous mobile parking security system has been developed. The system has two types of robots: the low-profile Omni-Directional Inspection System (ODIS), which can be used for under-vehicle inspections, and the mid-sized T4 robot, which serves as a ``marsupial mothership'' for the ODIS vehicles and performs coarse resolution inspection. A key task for the T4 robot is license plate recognition (LPR). For a successful LPR task without compromising the recognition rate, the robot must be able to identify the bumper locations of vehicles in the parking area and then precisely position the LPR camera relative to the bumper. This paper describes a 2D-laser scanner based approach to bumper identification and laser servoing for the T4 robot. The system uses a gimbal-mounted scanning laser. As the T4 robot travels down a row of parking stalls, data is collected from the laser every 100ms. For each parking stall in the range of the laser during the scan, the data is matched to a ``bumper box'' corresponding to where a car bumper is expected, resulting in a point cloud of data corresponding to a vehicle bumper for each stall. Next, recursive line-fitting algorithms are used to determine a line for the data in each stall's ``bumper box.'' The fitting technique uses Hough based transforms, which are robust against segmentation problems and fast enough for real-time line fitting. Once a bumper line is fitted with an acceptable confidence, the bumper location is passed to the T4 motion controller, which moves to position the LPR camera properly relative to the bumper. The paper includes examples and results that show the effectiveness of the technique, including its ability to work in real-time.

  9. Stable Walking of Humanoid Robots Using Vertical Center of Mass and Foot Motions by an Evolutionary Optimized Central Pattern Generator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young-Dae Hong

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a method to produce the stable walking of humanoid robots by incorporating the vertical center of mass (COM and foot motions, which are generated by the evolutionary optimized central pattern generator (CPG, into the modifiable walking pattern generator (MWPG. The MWPG extends the conventional 3-D linear inverted pendulum model (3-D LIPM by allowing a zero moment point (ZMP variation. The disturbance caused by the vertical COM motion is compensated in real time by the sensory feedback in the CPG. In this paper, the vertical foot trajectory of the swinging leg, as well as the vertical COM trajectory of the 3-D LIPM, are generated by the CPG for the effective compensation of the disturbance. Consequently, using the proposed method, the humanoid robot is able to walk with a vertical COM and the foot motions generated by the CPG, while modifying its walking patterns by using the MWPG in real time. The CPG with the sensory feedback is optimized to obtain the desired output signals. The optimization of the CPG is formulated as a constrained optimization problem with equality constraints and is solved by two-phase evolutionary programming (TPEP. The validity of the proposed method is verified through walking experiments for the small-sized humanoid robot, HanSaRam-IX (HSR-IX.

  10. Robotic surgery is ready for prime time in India: Against the motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udwadia, Tehemton E

    2015-01-01

    The use of Robotic Surgery as a purported adjunct and aid to Minimal Access Surgery (MAS) is growing in several areas. The acknowledged advantages as also the obvious and hidden disadvantages of Robotic Surgery are highlighted. Survey of literature shows that while Robotic Surgery is "feasible" and the results are "comparable" there is no convincing evidence that it is any better than MAS or even open surgery in most areas. To move "Robotic Surgery is ready for prime time in India" with no less than two dozen robots, many sub-optimally utilized for a population of 1.2 billion seems untenable.

  11. Robotic surgery is ready for prime time in India: Against the motion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tehemton E Udwadia

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of Robotic Surgery as a purported adjunct and aid to Minimal Access Surgery (MAS is growing in several areas. The acknowledged advantages as also the obvious and hidden disadvantages of Robotic Surgery are highlighted. Survey of literature shows that while Robotic Surgery is "feasible" and the results are "comparable" there is no convincing evidence that it is any better than MAS or even open surgery in most areas. To move "Robotic Surgery is ready for prime time in India" with no less than two dozen robots, many sub-optimally utilized for a population of 1.2 billion seems untenable.

  12. WE-AB-303-05: Breathing Motion of Liver Segments From Fiducial Tracking During Robotic Radiosurgery and Comparison with 4D-CT-Derived Fiducial Motion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sutherland, J; Pantarotto, J; Nair, V; Cook, G; Plourde, M; Vandervoort, E [The Ottawa Hospital Cancer Centre, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To quantify respiratory-induced motion of liver segments using the positions of implanted fiducials during robotic radiosurgery. This study also compared fiducial motion derived from four-dimensional computed tomography (4D-CT) maximum intensity projections (MIP) with motion derived from imaging during treatment. Methods: Forty-two consecutive liver patients treated with liver ablative radiotherapy were accrued to an ethics approved retrospective study. The liver segment in which each fiducial resided was identified. Fiducial positions throughout each treatment fraction were determined using orthogonal kilovoltage images. Any data due to patient repositioning or motion was removed. Mean fiducial positions were calculated. Fiducial positions beyond two standard deviations of the mean were discarded and remaining positions were fit to a line segment using least squares minimization (LSM). For eight patients, fiducial motion was derived from 4D-CT MIPs by calculating the CT number weighted mean position of the fiducial on each slice and fitting a line segment to these points using LSM. Treatment derived fiducial trajectories were corrected for patient rotation and compared to MIP derived trajectories. Results: The mean total magnitude of fiducial motion across all liver segments in left-right, anteroposterior, and superoinferior (SI) directions were 3.0 ± 0.2 mm, 9.3 ± 0.4 mm, and 20.5 ± 0.5 mm, respectively. Differences in per-segment mean fiducial motion were found with SI motion ranging from 12.6 ± 0.8 mm to 22.6 ± 0.9 mm for segments 3 and 8, respectively. Large, varied differences between treatment and MIP derived motion at simulation were found with the mean difference for SI motion being 2.6 mm (10.8 mm standard deviation). Conclusion: The magnitude of liver fiducial motion was found to differ by liver segment. MIP derived liver fiducial motion differed from motion observed during treatment, implying that 4D-CTs may not accurately capture the

  13. Emulating a robotic manipulator arm with an hybrid motion-control system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aragón-González, G.; León-Galicia, A.; Noriega-Hernández, M.; Salazar-Hueta, A.

    2015-01-01

    A motion control system with four and 1/2 degrees of freedom, designed to move small objects within a 0.25 m3 space, parallel to a horizontal table, with high speed and performance similar to a robotic manipulator arm was built. The machine employs several actuators and control devices. Its main characteristic is to incorporate a servomotor, steeper motors, electromechanical and fluid power actuators and diverse control resources. A group of actuators arranged on a spherical coordinates system is attached to the servomotor platform. A linear pneumatic actuator with an angular grip provides the radial extension and load clamping capacity. Seven inductive proximity sensors and one encoder provide feedback, for operating the actuators under closed loop conditions. Communication between the sensors and control devices is organized by a PLC. A touch screen allows governing the system remotely, easily and interactively, without knowing the specific programming language of each control component. The graphic environment on the touch screen guides the user to design and store control programs, establishing coordinated automatic routines for moving objects in space, simulation and implementation of industrial positioning or machining processes.

  14. Real-time tracking using stereo and motion: Visual perception for space robotics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishihara, H. Keith; Thomas, Hans; Huber, Eric; Reid, C. Ann

    1994-01-01

    The state-of-the-art in computing technology is rapidly attaining the performance necessary to implement many early vision algorithms at real-time rates. This new capability is helping to accelerate progress in vision research by improving our ability to evaluate the performance of algorithms in dynamic environments. In particular, we are becoming much more aware of the relative stability of various visual measurements in the presence of camera motion and system noise. This new processing speed is also allowing us to raise our sights toward accomplishing much higher-level processing tasks, such as figure-ground separation and active object tracking, in real-time. This paper describes a methodology for using early visual measurements to accomplish higher-level tasks; it then presents an overview of the high-speed accelerators developed at Teleos to support early visual measurements. The final section describes the successful deployment of a real-time vision system to provide visual perception for the Extravehicular Activity Helper/Retriever robotic system in tests aboard NASA's KC135 reduced gravity aircraft.

  15. A Pipeline Inspection Micro Robot Based on Screw Motion Wheels%采用螺旋驱动轮的管道检测用微机器人

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The micro robot based on screw motion wheels, which features high payload/mass ratio, fast and continuous motion, adaptation to pipe diameter or roundness variations, is suitable for locomotion and inspection inside small-diameter pipelines. The robot inspection system, Tubot I, developed at Shanghai University is composed of locomotion mechanism with an inner motor, a micro CCD camera and a monitor outside the pipeline. In the paper, the kinematics and statics analyses are presented for the screw locomotion system of Tubot I.The moving characteristics are obtained from experiments on the robot prototype.

  16. A Real-Time Face Motion Based Approach towards Modeling Socially Assistive Wireless Robot Control with Voice Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhinaba Bhattacharjee

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The robotics domain has a couple of specific general design requirements which requires the close integration of planning, sensing, control and modeling and for sure the robot must take into account the interactions between itself, its task and its environment surrounding it. Thus considering the fundamental configurations, the main motive is to design a system with user-friendly interfaces that possess the ability to control embedded robotic systems by natural means. While earlier works have focused primarily on issues such as manipulation and navigation only, this proposal presents a conceptual and intuitive approach towards man-machine interaction in order to provide a secured live biometric logical authorization to the user access, while making an intelligent interaction with the control station to navigate advanced gesture controlled wireless Robotic prototypes or mobile surveillance systems along desired directions through required displacements. The intuitions are based on tracking real-time 3-Dimensional Face Motions using skin tone segmentation and maximum area considerations of segmented face-like blobs, Or directing the system with voice commands using real-time speech recognition. The system implementation requires designing a user interface to communicate between the Control station and prototypes wirelessly, either by accessing the internet over an encrypted Wi-Fi Protected Access (WPA via a HTML web page for communicating with face motions or with the help of natural voice commands like “Trace 5 squares”, “Trace 10 triangles”, “Move 10 meters”, etc. evaluated on an iRobot Create over Bluetooth connectivity using a Bluetooth Access Module (BAM. Such an implementation can prove to be highly effective for designing systems of elderly aid and maneuvering the physically challenged.

  17. Analysis of the kinematic characteristics of a high-speed parallel robot with Schönflies motion: Mobility, kinematics, and singularity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Fugui; Liu, Xin-Jun

    2016-06-01

    This study introduces a high-speed parallel robot with Schönflies motion. This robot exhibits a promising prospect in realizing high-speed pick-andplace manipulation for packaging production lines. The robot has four identical limbs and a single platform. Its compact structure and single-platform concept provides this robot with good dynamic response potential. A line graph method based on Grassmann line geometry is used to investigate the mobility characteristics of the proposed robot. A generalized Blanding rule is also introduced into this procedure to realize mutual conversion between the line graphs for motions and constraints. Subsequently, the inverse kinematics is derived, and the singularity issue of the robot is investigated using both qualitative and quantitative approaches. Input and output transmission singularity indices are defined based on the reciprocal product in screw theory and the virtual coefficient by considering motion/force transmission performance. Thereafter, the singular loci of the proposed robot with specific geometric parameters are derived. The mobility analysis, inverse kinematics modeling, and singularity analysis conducted in this study are helpful in developing the robot.

  18. Finite, primitive and euclidean spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Efim Khalimsky

    1988-01-01

    Full Text Available Integer and digital spaces are playing a significant role in digital image processing, computer graphics, computer tomography, robot vision, and many other fields dealing with finitely or countable many objects. It is proven here that every finite T0-space is a quotient space of a subspace of some simplex, i.e. of some subspace of a Euclidean space. Thus finite and digital spaces can be considered as abstract simplicial structures of subspaces of Euclidean spaces. Primitive subspaces of finite, digital, and integer spaces are introduced. They prove to be useful in the investigation of connectedness structure, which can be represented as a poset, and also in consideration of the dimension of finite spaces. Essentially T0-spaces and finitely connected and primitively path connected spaces are discussed.

  19. A Robotic System with a Hybrid Motion Cueing Controller for Inertia Tensor Approximation in Micro-Manipulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umar Asif

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper summarizes the development of a robotic system for the approximation of inertia tensor of micro‐sized rigid bodies. We described the design and computer‐based simulation of a 6‐DOF motion platform in our earlier work [32] that benefits from an anthropological serial manipulator design. In [32] we emphasized that, in contrast to a standard configuration based on linear actuators, a mechanism with actuator design inspired from an anthropological kinematic structure offers relatively a larger motion envelope and higher dexterity making it a viable motion platform for micromanipulations. After having described the basic design and kinematic analysis of our motion platform in [32], we now aim to propose an advanced motion cueing algorithm for facilitating the identification of inertial parameters at micron‐level. The motion cueing algorithm for achieving high fidelity dynamic simulation is described in this paper using a hybrid force‐position‐based controller. The inertia tensor identification is done by generating a controlled motion on the specimen and measuring the resultant forces and moments to approximate the inertia tensor using rigid body dynamics equations. The paper evaluates the performance of the controller using closed‐loop dynamic simulations and validates the significance of the proposed method through experimental results.

  20. Towards Vision-Based Deep Reinforcement Learning for Robotic Motion Control

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Fangyi; Leitner, Jürgen; Milford, Michael; Upcroft, Ben; Corke, Peter

    2015-01-01

    This paper introduces a machine learning based system for controlling a robotic manipulator with visual perception only. The capability to autonomously learn robot controllers solely from raw-pixel images and without any prior knowledge of configuration is shown for the first time. We build upon the success of recent deep reinforcement learning and develop a system for learning target reaching with a three-joint robot manipulator using external visual observation. A Deep Q Network (DQN) was d...

  1. Integration of humanoid robots in collaborative working environment: a case study on motion generation

    OpenAIRE

    Stasse, Olivier; Ruland, Rudolf; Lamiraux, Florent; Kheddar, Abderrahmane; Yokoi, Kazuhito; Prinz, Wolfgang

    2009-01-01

    International audience; This paper illustrates through a practical example an integration of a humanoid robotic architecture, with an open-platform collaborative working environment called BSCW (Be Smart-Cooperate Worldwide). BSCW is primarily designed to advocate a futuristic shared workspace system for humans. We exemplify how a complex robotic system (such as a humanoid robot) can be integrated as a proactive collaborative agent which provides services and interacts with other agents shari...

  2. On the Integration of Skilled Robot Motions for Productivity in Manufacturing

    OpenAIRE

    Björkelund, Anders; Edström, Lisett; Haage, Mathias; Malec, Jacek; Nilsson, Klas; Nugues, Pierre; Robertz, Sven; Störkle, Denis; Blomdell, Anders; Johansson, Rolf; Linderoth, Magnus; Nilsson, Anders; Robertsson, Anders; Stolt, Andreas; Bruyninckx, Herman

    2011-01-01

    Robots used in manufacturing today are tailored to their tasks by system integration based on expert knowledge concerning both production and machine control. For upcoming new generations of even more flexible robot solutions, in applications such as dexterous assembly, the robot setup and programming gets even more challenging. Reuse of solutions in terms of parameters, controls, process tuning, and of software modules in general then gets increasingly important. There has been valuable prog...

  3. Investigation In Two Wheels Mobile Robot Movement: Stability and Motion Paths

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulrahman A.A. Emhemed

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the problem of dynamic modelling of inspection robot two wheels. Fuzzy controller based on robotics techniques for optimize of an inspection stability. The target is to enhancement of robot direction and avoids the obstacles. To find collision free area, distance-sensors such as ultra-sonic sensors and laser scanners or vision systems are usually employed. The distance-sensors offer only distance information between mobile robots and obstacles. Also the target are shown can be reached by different directions. The fuzzy logic controller is effect to avoid the abstacles and get ideal direction to “the target box”.

  4. A cable-driven wrist robotic rehabilitator using a novel torque-field controller for human motion training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Weihai; Cui, Xiang; Zhang, Jianbin; Wang, Jianhua

    2015-06-01

    Rehabilitation technologies have great potentials in assisted motion training for stroke patients. Considering that wrist motion plays an important role in arm dexterous manipulation of activities of daily living, this paper focuses on developing a cable-driven wrist robotic rehabilitator (CDWRR) for motion training or assistance to subjects with motor disabilities. The CDWRR utilizes the wrist skeletal joints and arm segments as the supporting structure and takes advantage of cable-driven parallel design to build the system, which brings the properties of flexibility, low-cost, and low-weight. The controller of the CDWRR is designed typically based on a virtual torque-field, which is to plan "assist-as-needed" torques for the spherical motion of wrist responding to the orientation deviation in wrist motion training. The torque-field controller can be customized to different levels of rehabilitation training requirements by tuning the field parameters. Additionally, a rapidly convergent parameter self-identification algorithm is developed to obtain the uncertain parameters automatically for the floating wearable structure of the CDWRR. Finally, experiments on a healthy subject are carried out to demonstrate the performance of the controller and the feasibility of the CDWRR on wrist motion training or assistance.

  5. Effect of motion smoothness on brain activity while observing a dance: An fMRI study using a humanoid robot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miura, Naoki; Sugiura, Motoaki; Takahashi, Makoto; Sassa, Yuko; Miyamoto, Atsushi; Sato, Shigeru; Horie, Kaoru; Nakamura, Katsuki; Kawashima, Ryuta

    2010-01-01

    Motion smoothness is critical in transmitting implicit information of body action, such as aesthetic qualities in dance performances. We expected that the perception of motion smoothness would be characterized by great intersubject variability deriving from differences in personal backgrounds and attitudes toward expressive body actions. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging and a humanoid robot to investigate the effects of the motion smoothness of expressive body actions and the intersubject variability due to personal attitudes on perceptions during dance observation. The effect of motion smoothness was analyzed by both conventional subtraction analysis and functional connectivity analyses that detect cortical networks reflecting intersubject variability. The results showed that the cortical networks of motion- and body-sensitive visual areas showed increases in activity in areas corresponding with motion smoothness, but the intersubject variability of personal attitudes toward art did not influence these active areas. In contrast, activation of cortical networks, including the parieto-frontal network, has large intersubject variability, and this variability is associated with personal attitudes about the consciousness of art. Thus, our results suggest that activity in the cortical network involved in understanding action is influenced by personal attitudes about the consciousness of art during observations of expressive body actions.

  6. Motion design of a hybrid wheeled/legged robot for lunar exploration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈学东; 田文罡; 李小清; 渡边桂吾

    2003-01-01

    The robot consists of a quadruped mechanism and two active dual-wheel casters possesses the advan-tages of wheeled and legged mechanism, and can quickly move on the relatively plane ground with the wheeledmechanism, and can walk on the extremely uneven terrain with the legged mechanism. The effectiveness of themotion design of the hybrid robot is illustrated by simulation results.

  7. Rail-guided robotic end-effector position error due to rail compliance and ship motion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borgerink, Dian; Stegenga, J.; Brouwer, Dannis Michel; Woertche, H.J.; Stramigioli, Stefano

    2014-01-01

    A rail-guided robotic system is currently being designed for the inspection of ballast water tanks in ships. This robotic system will manipulate sensors toward the interior walls of the tank. In this paper, the influence of rail compliance on the end-effector position error due to ship movement is

  8. System Design and Locomotion of Superball, an Untethered Tensegrity Robot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabelhaus, Andrew P.; Bruce, Jonathan; Caluwaerts, Ken; Manovi, Pavlo; Firoozi, Roya Fallah; Dobi, Sarah; Agogino, Alice M.; Sunspiral, Vytas

    2015-01-01

    The Spherical Underactuated Planetary Exploration Robot ball (SUPERball) is an ongoing project within NASA Ames Research Center's Intelligent Robotics Group and the Dynamic Tensegrity Robotics Lab (DTRL). The current SUPERball is the first full prototype of this tensegrity robot platform, eventually destined for space exploration missions. This work, building on prior published discussions of individual components, presents the fully-constructed robot. Various design improvements are discussed, as well as testing results of the sensors and actuators that illustrate system performance. Basic low-level motor position controls are implemented and validated against sensor data, which show SUPERball to be uniquely suited for highly dynamic state trajectory tracking. Finally, SUPERball is shown in a simple example of locomotion. This implementation of a basic motion primitive shows SUPERball in untethered control.

  9. Dynamics and wheel's slip ratio of a wheel-legged robot in wheeled motion considering the change of height

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Xilun; Li, Kejia; Xu, Kun

    2012-09-01

    The existing research on dynamics and slip ratio of wheeled mobile robot (WMR) are derived without considering the effect of height, and the existing models can not be used to analyze the dynamics performance of the robot with variable height while moving such as NOROS-II. The existing method of dynamics modeling is improved by adding the constraint equation between perpendicular displacement of body and horizontal displacement of wheel into the constraint conditions. The dynamic model of NOROS-II in wheel motion is built by the Lagrange method under nonholonomic constraints. The inverse dynamics is calculated in three different paths based on this model, and the results demonstrate that torques of hip pitching joints are inversely proportional to the height of robot. The relative error of calculated torques is less than 2% compared with that of ADAMS simulation, by which the validity of dynamic model is verified. Moreover, the relative horizontal motion between fore/hind wheels and body is produced when the height is changed, and thus the accurate slip ratio can not be obtained by the traditional equation. The improved slip ratio equations with the parameter of the vertical velocity of body are introduced for fore wheels and hind wheels respectively. Numerical simulations of slip ratios are conducted to reveal the effect of varied height on slip ratios of different wheels. The result shows that the slip ratios of fore/hind wheels become larger/smaller respectively as the height increases, and as the height is reduced, the reverse applies. The proposed research of dynamic model and slip ratio based on the robot height provides the effective method to analyze the dynamics of WMRs with varying height.

  10. Design and modeling of an autonomous multi-link snake robot, capable of 3D-motion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rizkallah Rabel

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the design of an autonomous, wheeless, mechanical snake robot that was modeled and built at Notre Dame University – Louaize. The robot is also capable of 3D motion with an ability to climb in the z-direction. The snake is made of a series links, each containing one to three high torque DC motors and a gearing system. They are connected to each other through Aluminum hollow rods that can be rotated through a 180° span. This allows the snake to move in various environments including unfriendly and cluttered ones. The front link has a proximity sensor used to map the environment. This mapping is sent to a microcontroller which controls and adapts the motion pattern of the snake. The snake can therefore choose to avoid obstacles, or climb over them if their height is within its range. The presented model is made of five links, but this number can be increased as their role is repetitive. The novel design is meant to overcome previous limitations by allowing 3D motion through electric actuators and low energy consumption.

  11. Poster — Thur Eve — 38: Feasibility of a Table-Top Total Body Irradiation Technique using Robotic Couch Motion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chin, Erika; Otto, Karl; Hoppe, Richard; Hsu, Annie; Loo, Billy; Million, Lynn; Xing, Lei; Fahimian, Benjamin [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University (United States)

    2014-08-15

    Purpose: To develop and test the feasibility of a table-top implementation for total body irradiation (TBI) via robotic couch motion and coordinated monitor unit modulation on a standard C-arm linac geometry. Methods: To allow for collision free delivery and to maximize the effective field size, the couch was rotated to 270° IEC and dropped to 150 cm from the vertical radiation source. The robotic delivery was programmed using the TrueBeam STx Developer Mode using custom XML scripting. To assess the dosimetry of a sliding 30×20 cm{sup 2} field, irradiation on a solid water phantom of varying thickness was analyzed using EDR2 radiographic film and OSLDs. Beam modulation was achieved by dividing the couch path into multiple segments of varying dose rates and couch speeds in order to deliver 120 cGy to the midline. Results: The programmed irradiation in conjunction with coordinated couch motion was successfully delivered on a TrueBeam linac. When no beam modulation was employed, the dose difference between two different phantom sections was 17.0%. With simple beam modulation via changing dose rates and couch speeds, the desired prescription dose can be achieved at the centre of each phantom section within 1.9%. However, dose deviation at the junction was 9.2% due to the nonphysical change in the phantom thickness. Conclusions: The feasibility of robotic table-top TBI on a C-arm linac geometry was experimentally demonstrated. To achieve a more uniform dose distribution, inverse-planning allowing for a combination of dose rate modulation, jaw tracking and MLC motion is under investigation.

  12. Optimizing Design Parameters for Sets of Concentric Tube Robots using Sampling-based Motion Planning

    OpenAIRE

    Baykal, Cenk; Torres, Luis G.; Alterovitz, Ron

    2015-01-01

    Concentric tube robots are tentacle-like medical robots that can bend around anatomical obstacles to access hard-to-reach clinical targets. The component tubes of these robots can be swapped prior to performing a task in order to customize the robot’s behavior and reachable workspace. Optimizing a robot’s design by appropriately selecting tube parameters can improve the robot’s effectiveness on a procedure-and patient-specific basis. In this paper, we present an algorithm that generates sets ...

  13. Reactionless camera inspection with a free-flying space robot under reaction null-space motion control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sone, Hiroki; Nenchev, Dragomir

    2016-11-01

    The possibility of implementing reactionless motion control w.r.t. base orientation of a free-flying space robot in practical tasks is addressed. It is shown that such possibility depends strongly on the kinematic/dynamic design parameters as well as on the mission task. A successful implementation of a camera inspection task is reported. The presence of kinematic redundancy and the manipulator attachment position are shown to play important roles. More specifically, for a manipulator arm with a typical seven degree-of-freedom (DoF) kinematic structure, it is shown that two motion patterns, wrist reorientation and folding/unfolding of the arm, result in almost reactionless motion. The orientation pattern is adopted as the main task for camera inspection, while the remaining four DoFs are used to ensure complete reactionless motion and to minimize the position errors. Since the composition of these tasks introduces the so-called algorithmic singularities, two methods are suggested to alleviate the problem. Furthermore, it is shown that other types of singularities may also be introduced in case of an inappropriate choice of the manipulator attachment position. At the end, numerical analysis is performed to show that reactionless motion provides an advantage in terms of kinetic energy as well.

  14. Robots

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    驷萍

    1997-01-01

    一篇介绍机器人的文章写得如此耐读,如此清新! 首先.我们弄清了robot一词的来历: It was used first in 1920 in a play by Czcchoslovak writer Karel Capek.The wordrobot comes from the Czech word for slave. 上句提供了一个时间:1920。文章接着便抓住这个时间做文章: 且The word robot.and robots themselves are less than 100 years old.But humanshave been dreaming of real and imaginary copies of themselves for thousands of years. 文章就这样写出了波澜,1920年和 thousands of years自然而然构成了强烈对比。1954年和1960s是两个谈及机器人时不得不一提的时间: In 1954,the world’s first robot was produced in the United States. During the 1960s,the first industrial robots appeared beside human workers infactories.下面这句让我们体味到 the Czech word for slave中的 slave不仅言之有理,而且影视和小说里的机器人“造反”,进而 killed the humans who made them的情节也“事出有因”: What do today’s robots do?Robots do work.Work that human consideruninteresting or dangerous.…do many jobs that people consider tiring. 本文将机器人的“功过”放在一起写,笔

  15. Smart Skins and Tactile-Feedback Motion Control for Robotic Manipulators Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Future high-dexterity robots promise enormous benefits to many areas of human endeavor performing operations difficult or hazardous for humans such as extra...

  16. Multi-optimization Criteria-based Robot Behavioral Adaptability and Motion Planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pin, Francois G.

    2002-06-01

    Robotic tasks are typically defined in Task Space (e.g., the 3-D World), whereas robots are controlled in Joint Space (motors). The transformation from Task Space to Joint Space must consider the task objectives (e.g., high precision, strength optimization, torque optimization), the task constraints (e.g., obstacles, joint limits, non-holonomic constraints, contact or tool task constraints), and the robot kinematics configuration (e.g., tools, type of joints, mobile platform, manipulator, modular additions, locked joints). Commercially available robots are optimized for a specific set of tasks, objectives and constraints and, therefore, their control codes are extremely specific to a particular set of conditions. Thus, there exist a multiplicity of codes, each handling a particular set of conditions, but none suitable for use on robots with widely varying tasks, objectives, constraints, or environments. On the other hand, most DOE missions and tasks are typically ''batches of one''. Attempting to use commercial codes for such work requires significant personnel and schedule costs for re-programming or adding code to the robots whenever a change in task objective, robot configuration, number and type of constraint, etc. occurs. The objective of our project is to develop a ''generic code'' to implement this Task-space to Joint-Space transformation that would allow robot behavior adaptation, in real time (at loop rate), to changes in task objectives, number and type of constraints, modes of controls, kinematics configuration (e.g., new tools, added module). Our specific goal is to develop a single code for the general solution of under-specified systems of algebraic equations that is suitable for solving the inverse kinematics of robots, is useable for all types of robots (mobile robots, manipulators, mobile manipulators, etc.) with no limitation on the number of joints and the number of controlled Task-Space variables, can

  17. Describing upper body motions based on the Labanotation for learning-from-observation robots

    OpenAIRE

    Ikeuchi, Katsushi; Yan, Zengqiang; Ma, Zhaoyuan; SATO, Yoshihiro; NAKAMURA, Minako; Kudoh, Shunsuke

    2016-01-01

    We have been developing a paradigm, which we refer to as Learning-from-observation, for a robot to automatically acquire what-to-do through observation of human performance. Since a simple mimicking method to repeat exact joint angles does not work due to the kinematic and dynamic difference between a human and a robot, the method introduces an intermediate symbolic representation, task models, to conceptually represent what-to-do through observation. Then, these task models are mapped approp...

  18. Human Hand Motion Analysis and Synthesis of Optimal Power Grasps for a Robotic Hand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Cordella

    2014-03-01

    and experimental trials on an arm-hand robotic system. The obtained results have shown the effectiveness of the extracted indicators to reduce the non-linear optimization problem complexity and lead to the synthesis of a grasping posture able to replicate the human behaviour while ensuring grasp stability. The experimental results have also highlighted the limitations of the adopted robotic platform (mainly due to the mechanical structure to achieve the optimal grasp configuration.

  19. Understanding Human Hand Gestures for Learning Robot Pick-and-Place Tasks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsien-I Lin

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Programming robots by human demonstration is an intuitive approach, especially by gestures. Because robot pick-and-place tasks are widely used in industrial factories, this paper proposes a framework to learn robot pick-and-place tasks by understanding human hand gestures. The proposed framework is composed of the module of gesture recognition and the module of robot behaviour control. For the module of gesture recognition, transport empty (TE, transport loaded (TL, grasp (G, and release (RL from Gilbreth's therbligs are the hand gestures to be recognized. A convolution neural network (CNN is adopted to recognize these gestures from a camera image. To achieve the robust performance, the skin model by a Gaussian mixture model (GMM is used to filter out non-skin colours of an image, and the calibration of position and orientation is applied to obtain the neutral hand pose before the training and testing of the CNN. For the module of robot behaviour control, the corresponding robot motion primitives to TE, TL, G, and RL, respectively, are implemented in the robot. To manage the primitives in the robot system, a behaviour-based programming platform based on the Extensible Agent Behavior Specification Language (XABSL is adopted. Because the XABSL provides the flexibility and re-usability of the robot primitives, the hand motion sequence from the module of gesture recognition can be easily used in the XABSL programming platform to implement the robot pick-and-place tasks. The experimental evaluation of seven subjects performing seven hand gestures showed that the average recognition rate was 95.96%. Moreover, by the XABSL programming platform, the experiment showed the cube-stacking task was easily programmed by human demonstration.

  20. Development of virtual reality exercise of hand motion assist robot for rehabilitation therapy by patient self-motion control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueki, Satoshi; Nishimoto, Yutaka; Abe, Motoyuki; Kawasaki, Haruhisa; Ito, Satoshi; Ishigure, Yasuhiko; Mizumoto, Jun; Ojika, Takeo

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a virtual reality-enhanced hand rehabilitation support system with a symmetric master-slave motion assistant for independent rehabilitation therapies. Our aim is to provide fine motion exercise for a hand and fingers, which allows the impaired hand of a patient to be driven by his or her healthy hand on the opposite side. Since most disabilities caused by cerebral vascular accidents or bone fractures are hemiplegic, we adopted a symmetric master-slave motion assistant system in which the impaired hand is driven by the healthy hand on the opposite side. A VR environment displaying an effective exercise was created in consideration of system's characteristic. To verify the effectiveness of this system, a clinical test was executed by applying to six patients.

  1. Clinical effectiveness of combined virtual reality and robot assisted fine hand motion rehabilitation in subacute stroke patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xianwei; Naghdy, Fazel; Naghdy, Golshah; Du, Haiping

    2017-07-01

    Robot-assisted therapy is regarded as an effective and reliable method for the delivery of highly repetitive rehabilitation training in restoring motor skills after a stroke. This study focuses on the rehabilitation of fine hand motion skills due to their vital role in performing delicate activities of daily living (ADL) tasks. The proposed rehabilitation system combines an adaptive assist-as-needed (AAN) control algorithm and a Virtual Reality (VR) based rehabilitation gaming system (RGS). The developed system is described and its effectiveness is validated through clinical trials on a group of eight subacute stroke patients for a period of six weeks. The impact of the training is verified through standard clinical evaluation methods and measuring key kinematic parameters. A comparison of the pre- and post-training results indicates that the method proposed in this study can improve fine hand motion rehabilitation training effectiveness.

  2. SU-E-T-570: New Quality Assurance Method Using Motion Tracking for 6D Robotic Couches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheon, W; Cho, J [SungKyunKwan University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Ahn, S [Samsung Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Han, Y; Choi, D [Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To accommodate geometrically accurate patient positioning, a robotic couch that is capable of 6-degrees of freedom has been introduced. However, conventional couch QA methods are not sufficient to enable the necessary accuracy of tests. Therefore, we have developed a camera based motion detection and geometry calibration system for couch QA. Methods: Employing a Visual-Tracking System (VTS, BonitaB10, Vicon, UK) which tracks infrared reflective(IR) markers, camera calibration was conducted using a 5.7 × 5.7 × 5.7 cm{sup 3} cube attached with IR markers at each corner. After positioning a robotic-couch at the origin with the cube on the table top, 3D coordinates of the cube’s eight corners were acquired by VTS in the VTS coordinate system. Next, positions in reference coordinates (roomcoordinates) were assigned using the known relation between each point. Finally, camera calibration was completed by finding a transformation matrix between VTS and reference coordinate systems and by applying a pseudo inverse matrix method. After the calibration, the accuracy of linear and rotational motions as well as couch sagging could be measured by analyzing the continuously acquired data of the cube while the couch moves to a designated position. Accuracy of the developed software was verified through comparison with measurement data when using a Laser tracker (FARO, Lake Mary, USA) for a robotic-couch installed for proton therapy. Results: VTS system could track couch motion accurately and measured position in room-coordinates. The VTS measurements and Laser tracker data agreed within 1% of difference for linear and rotational motions. Also because the program analyzes motion in 3-Dimension, it can compute couch sagging. Conclusion: Developed QA system provides submillimeter/ degree accuracy which fulfills the high-end couch QA. This work was supported by the National Research Foundation of Korea funded by Ministry of Science, ICT & Future Planning. (2013M2A2A

  3. Vitruvian Robot

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasse, Cathrine

    2017-01-01

    . They are sexist, primitively normative and clearly ‘wax-doll machines’. So though Ava’s dimensions are perfect she, like the Vitruvian Man, remains a fiction. In real life, however, we may have to deal with an increasing solipsism stemming from people engaging with machines like sex robots. In this case...

  4. Mobile robots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolfe, W.J.; Marquina, N.

    1986-01-01

    This book presents papers given at a conference on mobile robots. Topics the conference included are the following: mobility systems for robotic vehicles; detection and control of mobile robot motion by real-time computer vision, obstacle avoidance algorithms for an autonomous land vehicle; hierarchical processor and matched filters for range image processing; asynchronous distributed control system for a mobile robot, and, planning in a hierarchical nested autonomous control system.

  5. Calibration of Robot Reference Frames for Enhanced Robot Positioning Accuracy

    OpenAIRE

    Cheng, Frank Shaopeng

    2008-01-01

    This chapter discussed the importance and methods of conducting robot workcell calibration for enhancing the accuracy of the robot TCP positions in industrial robot applications. It shows that the robot frame transformations define the robot geometric parameters such as joint position variables, link dimensions, and joint offsets in an industrial robot system. The D-H representation allows the robot designer to model the robot motion geometry with the four standard D-H parameters. The robot k...

  6. Calibration of Robot Reference Frames for Enhanced Robot Positioning Accuracy

    OpenAIRE

    Cheng, Frank Shaopeng

    2008-01-01

    This chapter discussed the importance and methods of conducting robot workcell calibration for enhancing the accuracy of the robot TCP positions in industrial robot applications. It shows that the robot frame transformations define the robot geometric parameters such as joint position variables, link dimensions, and joint offsets in an industrial robot system. The D-H representation allows the robot designer to model the robot motion geometry with the four standard D-H parameters. The robot k...

  7. Motion compensation for robotic lung tumour radiotherapy in remote locations: A personalised medicine approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ionescu, Clara M.; Copot, Cosmin; Verellen, Dirk

    2017-03-01

    The purpose of this work is to integrate the concept of patient-in-the-closed-loop application with tumour treatment of cancer-diagnosed patients in remote areas. The generic closed loop control objective is effective synchronisation of the radiation focus to the movement of a lung tissue tumour during actual breathing of the patient. This is facilitated by accurate repositioning of a robotic arm manipulator, i.e. we emulate the Cyberknife Robotic Radiosurgery system. Predictive control with disturbance filter is used in this application in a minimalistic model design. Performance of the control structure is validated by means of simulation using real recorded breathing patterns from patients measured in 3D space. Latency in communication protocol is taken into account, given telerobotics involve autonomous operation of a robot interacting with a human being in different location. Our results suggest that the proposed closed loop control structure has practical potential to individualise the treatment and improves accuracy by at least 15%.

  8. Optimal motion planning for collision avoidance of mobile robots in non-stationary environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyriakopoulos, K. J.; Saridis, G. N.

    1992-01-01

    An optimal control formulation of the problem of collision avoidance of mobile robots moving in general terrains containing moving obstacles is presented. A dynamic model of the mobile robot and the dynamic constraints are derived. Collision avoidance is guaranteed if the minimum distance between the robot and the object is nonzero. A nominal trajectory is assumed to be known from off-line planning. The main idea is to change the velocity along the nominal trajectory so that collisions are avoided. Time consistency with the nominal plan is desirable. A numerical solution of the optimization problem is obtained. A perturbation control type of approach is used to update the optimal plan. Simulation results verify the value of the proposed strategy.

  9. Kinetic Model for a Spherical Rolling Robot with Soft Shell in a Beeline Motion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheng Zhang

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available A simplified kinetic model called Spring Pendulum is developed for a spherical rolling robot with soft shell in order to meet the needs of attitude stabilization and controlling for the robot. The elasticity and plasticity of soft shell is represented by some uniform springs connected to the bracket in this model. The expression of the kinetic model is deduced from Newtonian mechanics principles. Testing data of the driving angle acquired from a prototype built by authors indicate that testing data curve accords to the theoretic kinetic characteristic curve, so the kinetic model is validated

  10. Imitation learning of Non-Linear Point-to-Point Robot Motions using Dirichlet Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krüger, Volker; Tikhanoff, Vadim; Natale, Lorenzo

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we discuss the use of the infinite Gaussian mixture model and Dirichlet processes for learning robot movements from demonstrations. Starting point of this work is an earlier paper where the authors learn a non-linear dynamic robot movement model from a small number of observations....... The model in that work is learned using a classical finite Gaussian mixture model (FGMM) where the Gaussian mixtures are appropriately constrained. The problem with this approach is that one needs to make a good guess for how many mixtures the FGMM should use. In this work, we generalize this approach...

  11. Evolving homogeneous neurocontrollers for a group of heterogeneous robots: coordinated motion, cooperation, and acoustic communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuci, Elio; Ampatzis, Christos; Vicentini, Federico; Dorigo, Marco

    2008-01-01

    This article describes a simulation model in which artificial evolution is used to design homogeneous control structures and adaptive communication protocols for a group of three autonomous simulated robots. The agents are required to cooperate in order to approach a light source while avoiding collisions. The robots are morphologically different: Two of them are equipped with infrared sensors, one with light sensors. Thus, the two morphologically identical robots should take care of obstacle avoidance; the other one should take care of phototaxis. Since all of the agents can emit and perceive sound, the group's coordination of actions is based on acoustic communication. The results of this study are a proof of concept: They show that dynamic artificial neural networks can be successfully synthesized by artificial evolution to design the neural mechanisms required to underpin the behavioral strategies and adaptive communication capabilities demanded by this task. Postevaluation analyses unveil operational aspects of the best evolved behavior. Our results suggest that the building blocks and the evolutionary machinery detailed in the article should be considered in future research work dealing with the design of homogeneous controllers for groups of heterogeneous cooperating and communicating robots.

  12. Motion Performance Analyses of Valve Welding Robots%阀体焊接机器人运动性能分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许勇; 程浩; 章兵; 王春燕; 吴永博; 曹银冬

    2016-01-01

    基于弗莱那雪列(Frenet-Serret)矢量理论,获得了离散焊点处的切向、法向和次法向矢量,据此可求得焊枪焊点间的相对位姿。基于变位机机器人主从运动链末端的耦合约束关系,提出以船型焊为最佳焊位时的协同焊接运动学模型及参数求解流程。在求解焊接机器人工作空间的基础上,依据球形手腕六关节串联机器人处于奇异位形的几何条件,归纳得出焊接机器人的10种独立的奇异位形。协同焊接阀体密封面的运动仿真和现场试验表明,该变位机机器人焊接系统能够平稳、准确地完成预期焊接任务,证实了提出的协同焊接运动学模型及参数求解方法正确可行。%The tangential vectors,normal vectors and auxiliary normal vectors of the discrete solder j oints were solved based on Frenet-Serret’s vector theory.Thus the relative positions and orien-tations between welding point and welding torch will be derived more easily.Based on the coupling constraint relationship between the ends of the active positioner kinematic chain and the driven robot kinematic chain,the coordinated welding kinematic model and the corresponding parameter solving process were presented for the optimum ship-welding position.On the basis of solving the working space of the welding robot,according to the geometric conditions of the singular positions for the spherical wrist 6-joint series robot,10 independent singular positions of the welding robot were ob-tained.The motion simulation and field tests of the robot-positioner coordinated welding operation show that the system may smoothly and accurately complete the coordinated welding tasks of valve sealing surface.These results confirm that the proposed kinematic model and parameter solving process are correct and feasible.

  13. Random field estimation approach to robot dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Guillermo

    1990-01-01

    The difference equations of Kalman filtering and smoothing recursively factor and invert the covariance of the output of a linear state-space system driven by a white-noise process. Here it is shown that similar recursive techniques factor and invert the inertia matrix of a multibody robot system. The random field models are based on the assumption that all of the inertial (D'Alembert) forces in the system are represented by a spatially distributed white-noise model. They are easier to describe than the models based on classical mechanics, which typically require extensive derivation and manipulation of equations of motion for complex mechanical systems. With the spatially random models, more primitive locally specified computations result in a global collective system behavior equivalent to that obtained with deterministic models. The primary goal of applying random field estimation is to provide a concise analytical foundation for solving robot control and motion planning problems.

  14. A Hierarchical Fuzzy Control Design for Indoor Mobile Robot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Foudil Abdessemed

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a motion control for an autonomous robot navigation using fuzzy logic motion control and stereo vision based path-planning module. This requires the capability to maneuver in a complex unknown environment. The mobile robot uses intuitive fuzzy rules and is expected to reach a specific target or follow a prespecified trajectory while moving among unforeseen obstacles. The robot's mission depends on the choice of the task. In this paper, behavioral-based control architecture is adopted, and each local navigational task is analyzed in terms of primitive behaviors. Our approach is systematic and original in the sense that some of the fuzzy rules are not triggered in face of critical situations for which the stere

  15. Adaptive-backstepping force/motion control for mobile-manipulator robot based on fuzzy CMAC neural networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Thang-Long MAI; Yaonan WANG

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, an adaptive backstepping fuzzy cerebellar-model-articulation-control neural-networks control (ABFCNC) system for motion/force control of the mobile-manipulator robot (MMR) is proposed. By applying the ABFCNC in the tracking-position controller, the unknown dynamics and parameter variation problems of the MMR control system are relaxed. In addition, an adaptive robust compensator is proposed to eliminate uncertainties that consist of approximation errors, uncertain disturbances. Based on the tracking position-ABFCNC design, an adaptive robust control strategy is also developed for the nonholonomic-constraint force of the MMR. The design of adaptive-online learning algorithms is obtained by using the Lyapunov stability theorem. Therefore, the proposed method proves that it not only can guarantee the stability and robustness but also the tracking performances of the MMR control system. The effectiveness and robustness of the proposed control system are verified by comparative simulation results.

  16. Advanced algorithms for mobile robot motion planning and tracking in structured static environments using particle swarm optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ćosić Aleksandar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available An approach to intelligent robot motion planning and tracking in known and static environments is presented in this paper. This complex problem is divided into several simpler problems. The first is generation of a collision free path from starting to destination point, which is solved using a particle swarm optimization (PSO algorithm. The second is interpolation of the obtained collision-free path, which is solved using a radial basis function neural network (RBFNN, and trajectory generation, based on the interpolated path. The last is a trajectory tracking problem, which is solved using a proportional-integral (PI controller. Due to uncertainties, obstacle avoidance is still not ensured, so an additional fuzzy controller is introduced, which corrects the control action of the PI controller. The proposed solution can be used even in dynamic environments, where obstacles change their position in time. Simulation studies were realized to validate and illustrate this approach.

  17. Real-Time Motion Planning and Safe Navigation in Dynamic Multi-Robot Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-12-15

    Science,Pittsburgh,PA,15213 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER 9. SPONSORING/ MONITORING AGENCY NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) 10. SPONSOR/MONITOR’S...181 B.2 The general architecture of the CMDragons offboard control software. . . . 182 B.3 View of the robot drive system, kicker , and dribbler...then monitor the environment and its execution of the plan to determine if it succeeds or fails. If the plan fails during execution, the agent can replan

  18. 空间冗余度机器入混沌自运动研究%A Spatial Redundant Robotic Manipulator's Chaotic Self-motion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    葛新锋; 殷志锋

    2012-01-01

    建立了空间自由飘浮冗余度机器人的模型和运动学方程,分析了其Jacobian矩阵,得出相应的运动学逆解,通过仿真验证了空间自由飘浮冗余度机器人自运动中存在混沌运动,利用混沌分析的直接观察法、时间历程法、相图法和poincare映射法,对一个空间3R刚性冗余度机器人,采用PD控制器控制其末端执行器重复跟踪工作空间内一平面路径时连杆的自运动进行了研充结果表明,该机器人的自运动存在混沌运动.%The model and kinematics equations of a floating redundant spatial robotic manipulator are established. The Jacobian matrices are analyzed, and the inverse kinematics is obtained. Chaotic motions which existed in the floating spatial redundant robotic manipulator's self-motions are proved by simulation. At last, a spatial 3R redundant robotic manipulator is taken as an example, and the links' self-motion has been studied when the end-effector tracking a plane path repeatedly in its workspace for PD controlling by analysis of direct observation, time history method, phase diagram method, and poincare mapping method. Results show that there exist chaotic motions in the self- motion of the floating spatial redundant robotic manipulator when solving the floating redundant robotic manipulator's inverse kinematics based on pseudo-inverse Jacobian matrix.

  19. 基于HMCD的仿人机器人单杠运动控制策略%HMCD-based dynamic motion control strategy of humanoid robot on a horizontal bar

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈雯柏; 高世杰; 吴细宝

    2012-01-01

    为完成仿人机器人单杠运动,分析了欠驱动单杠机器人Acrobot模型,并根据IHOG技术要求、实物机器人本体结构和自由度配置,提出了基于HMCD的控制策略.通过单杠视频捕捉获取人体运动数据,根据仿人机器人模型分析关键特征点、基本动作的运动数据得到的关键帧的关节角数据,经过运动学约束调整,采用插值方法生成能够应用于仿人机器人的运动轨迹.在MF-1型仿人机器人单杠实物平台上进行控制实验的成功,验证了该方法的有效性.%Aiming at the movement implementation of a humanoid robot on a horizontal bar, the control strategy based on HMCD (human motion capture data) is proposed in this paper. The Acrobot model, its physical structure, the degree of freedom and the technical requirements of International Humanoid-robot Olympic Games (IHOG) were analyzed for the robot on a horizontal bar. The key steps of this dynamic motion strategy are motion data capture through the video of humans motion on the horizontal bar, the key feature points'analysis of the humanoid robot model and the joint angles kinematic data match in the basic movements. After making the appropriate adjustments due to the kinematic constraints, an interpolation method was used to generate the motion trajectory of all the joints. The experimental results, based on MF-1 type humanoid robot on the horizontal bar indicate that the proposed method is feasible and effective.

  20. Motion

    CERN Document Server

    Graybill, George

    2007-01-01

    Take the mystery out of motion. Our resource gives you everything you need to teach young scientists about motion. Students will learn about linear, accelerating, rotating and oscillating motion, and how these relate to everyday life - and even the solar system. Measuring and graphing motion is easy, and the concepts of speed, velocity and acceleration are clearly explained. Reading passages, comprehension questions, color mini posters and lots of hands-on activities all help teach and reinforce key concepts. Vocabulary and language are simplified in our resource to make them accessible to str

  1. The study of the wedge-shaped vibration-driven robot motion in a viscous fluid forced by different oscillation laws of the internal mass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuriev, A. N.; Zakharova, O. S.; Zaitseva, O. N.; Yunusova, A. I.

    2016-11-01

    A rectilinear motion of a two-mass system in a viscous incompressible fluid is considered. The system consists of a shell having the form of an equilateral triangular cylinder and a movable internal mass. The motion of the system as a whole is forced by longitudinal oscillations of the internal mass relative to the shell. This mechanical system simulates a vibration-driven robot, i.e. a mobile device capable to move in a resistive medium without external moving parts. Investigation of the system is carried out by a direct numerical simulation. A comparative analysis of the characteristics of the motion and flow regimes around the vibration-driven robot is carried out for different internal mass oscillation laws.

  2. Buzz: An Extensible Programming Language for Self-Organizing Heterogeneous Robot Swarms

    OpenAIRE

    Pinciroli, Carlo; Lee-Brown, Adam; Beltrame, Giovanni

    2015-01-01

    We present Buzz, a novel programming language for heterogeneous robot swarms. Buzz advocates a compositional approach, offering primitives to define swarm behaviors both from the perspective of the single robot and of the overall swarm. Single-robot primitives include robot-specific instructions and manipulation of neighborhood data. Swarm-based primitives allow for the dynamic management of robot teams, and for sharing information globally across the swarm. Self-organization stems from the c...

  3. Design and analysis of a tendon-based computed tomography-compatible robot with remote center of motion for lung biopsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yunpeng; Jiang, Shan; Yang, Zhiyong; Yuan, Wei; Dou, Huaisu; Wang, Wei; Zhang, Daguang; Bian, Yuan

    2017-02-01

    Nowadays, biopsy is a decisive method of lung cancer diagnosis, whereas lung biopsy is time-consuming, complex and inaccurate. So a computed tomography-compatible robot for rapid and precise lung biopsy is developed in this article. According to the actual operation process, the robot is divided into two modules: 4-degree-of-freedom position module for location of puncture point is appropriate for patient's almost all positions and 3-degree-of-freedom tendon-based orientation module with remote center of motion is compact and computed tomography-compatible to orientate and insert needle automatically inside computed tomography bore. The workspace of the robot surrounds patient's thorax, and the needle tip forms a cone under patient's skin. A new error model of the robot based on screw theory is proposed in view of structure error and actuation error, which are regarded as screw motions. Simulation is carried out to verify the precision of the error model contrasted with compensation via inverse kinematics. The results of insertion experiment on specific phantom prove the feasibility of the robot with mean error of 1.373 mm in laboratory environment, which is accurate enough to replace manual operation.

  4. Robot Safe Motion Planning Based on Minimized Danger Index%基于危险指数最小化的机器人安全运动规划

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴海彬; 彭爱泉; 何素梅

    2015-01-01

    为防止机器人在运动过程中与人相撞,提高机器人运动的安全性,提出一种基于危险指数最小化的机器人安全运动规划方法。该运动规划方法把机器人的运动分为全局安全路径规划、在线实时安全轨迹规划、实时避碰控制和目标再搜索等四个阶段。基于人机之间的距离、机器人惯量、人机之间相对运动速度等因素,对每一阶段进行危险程度的评估,得到危险指数,以危险指数最小化为目标规划各阶段机器人的运动。建立三自由度机器人与人共处数学模型,并在 Matlab 下对不同阶段的运动规划进行仿真。为了进一步验证算法有效性,搭建了工业机器人安全运动规划试验平台,实现了基于危险指数最小化的安全避碰。仿真与试验结果表明,基于危险指数最小化的机器人安全运动规划,可以有效确保人在机器人工作环境中的安全性。%In order to prevent robot colliding to human, and improve robot safety during motion, a method of robot safe motion planning based on minimized danger index is proposed. The motion planning of robot is divided into four steps which include global path safe planner, real-time safe trajectory planner, real-time anti-collision controller and goal re-searching. The danger degree can be estimated based on the robot inertia, the distance and relative speed between robot and human during every planning step, and it described as danger index. The motion of robot can be planned by minimizing the danger index. A mathematic model including a 3 degree of freedom robot and human is established. Every motion planning step is simulated in Matlab. To further verify the validity of the planning algorithm, a safe motion planning experiment platform of industrial robot is established, and safe avoiding collision is realized based on minimized danger index. The simulation and experiment results show that this robot safe motion

  5. Parametric motion control of robotic arms: A biologically based approach using neural networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bock, O.; D'Eleuterio, G. M. T.; Lipitkas, J.; Grodski, J. J.

    1993-01-01

    A neural network based system is presented which is able to generate point-to-point movements of robotic manipulators. The foundation of this approach is the use of prototypical control torque signals which are defined by a set of parameters. The parameter set is used for scaling and shaping of these prototypical torque signals to effect a desired outcome of the system. This approach is based on neurophysiological findings that the central nervous system stores generalized cognitive representations of movements called synergies, schemas, or motor programs. It has been proposed that these motor programs may be stored as torque-time functions in central pattern generators which can be scaled with appropriate time and magnitude parameters. The central pattern generators use these parameters to generate stereotypical torque-time profiles, which are then sent to the joint actuators. Hence, only a small number of parameters need to be determined for each point-to-point movement instead of the entire torque-time trajectory. This same principle is implemented for controlling the joint torques of robotic manipulators where a neural network is used to identify the relationship between the task requirements and the torque parameters. Movements are specified by the initial robot position in joint coordinates and the desired final end-effector position in Cartesian coordinates. This information is provided to the neural network which calculates six torque parameters for a two-link system. The prototypical torque profiles (one per joint) are then scaled by those parameters. After appropriate training of the network, our parametric control design allowed the reproduction of a trained set of movements with relatively high accuracy, and the production of previously untrained movements with comparable accuracy. We conclude that our approach was successful in discriminating between trained movements and in generalizing to untrained movements.

  6. Renal primitive neuroectodermal tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartholow, Tanner; Parwani, Anil

    2012-06-01

    Primitive neuroectodermal tumors exist as a part of the Ewing sarcoma/primitive neuroectodermal tumor family. These tumors most commonly arise in the chest wall and paraspinal regions; cases with a renal origin are rare entities, but have become increasingly reported in recent years. Although such cases occur across a wide age distribution, the average age for a patient with a renal primitive neuroectodermal tumor is the mid- to late 20s, with both males and females susceptible. Histologically, these tumors are characterized by pseudorosettes. Immunohistochemically, CD99 is an important diagnostic marker. Clinically, these are aggressive tumors, with an average 5-year disease-free survival rate of only 45% to 55%. Given that renal primitive neuroectodermal tumor bears many similarities to other renal tumors, it is important to review the histologic features, immunostaining profile, and genetic abnormalities that can be used for its correct diagnosis.

  7. Uterine primitive neuroectodermal tumor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aminimoghaddam, Soheila; Seifirad, Soroush; Abbasi Dezfouli, Golbahar; Abbasi, Neda; Zare Mehrjardi, Ali; Razavi, Seyed Mohsen; Mahmoudzadeh, Fatemeh

    2015-04-01

    Primitive neuroectodermal tumors are fairly rare in uterus. A case of uterine body primitive neuroectodermal tumor in a 32-year-old Iranian woman is presented. The patient was admitted with abdominal pain and fever and underwent emergency exploratory surgery with total abdominal hysterectomy, bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy, and pelvic lymph node dissection. Posterior wall of the uterus was necrotic and ruptured and a huge tumor disrupted the uterine body. The tumor was strongly positive for CD99, NSE, and chromogranin; No reaction was seen for CD10, CD45 and myogenin. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of an uterine body primitive neuroectodermal tumor and the second report of uterine primitive neuroectodermal tumor from Iran.

  8. Workshop: Teaching Primitive Arts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordison, Jerry

    1999-01-01

    Discusses the concrete and spiritual aspects of teaching workshops on survival skills or primitive arts. Gives details on lostproofing, or ways to teach a child not to get lost in the outdoors; building a survival shelter; and wilderness cooking. (CDS)

  9. Motion Tracking and Identification of Unrestraint Gait Rehabilitation by Use of Elderly Support Robot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nokata, Makoto; Hirai, Wataru; Itatani, Ryosuke

    This paper presents a robotic training system that can exercise the user without bodily restraint, neither markers nor sensors are attached to the trainee. We developed the robot system that has a total of four mounted components: a laser sensor, a camera, a cushion, and an electric motor. This paper have showed the method used for determining whether the trainee was bending forward or backward while walking, and the extent of the tilt, using the recorded image of the back of the trainee's head. A characteristic of our software algorithms has been that the image was divided into 9 quadrants, and each quadrant undergoes Hough transformation. We have verified experimentally that by using our algorithms for the four patterns of forward, backward, diagonally, and crouching, the tilt of the trainee's body have been accurately determined. We created a flowchart for determining the direction of movement according to experimental results. By adjusting the values used to make the distinction according to the position and the angle of the camera, and the width of the back of the trainee's head, we were able to accurately determine the walking condition of the trainee, and achieve early detection of the start of a fall.

  10. Using the Functional Reach Test for Probing the Static Stability of Bipedal Standing in Humanoid Robots Based on the Passive Motion Paradigm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacopo Zenzeri

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this paper is to analyze the static stability of a computational architecture, based on the Passive Motion Paradigm, for coordinating the redundant degrees of freedom of a humanoid robot during whole-body reaching movements in bipedal standing. The analysis is based on a simulation study that implements the Functional Reach Test, originally developed for assessing the danger of falling in elderly people. The study is carried out in the YARP environment that allows realistic simulations with the iCub humanoid robot.

  11. Robotics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothschild, Lynn J.

    2012-01-01

    Earth's upper atmosphere is an extreme environment: dry, cold, and irradiated. It is unknown whether our aerobiosphere is limited to the transport of life, or there exist organisms that grow and reproduce while airborne (aerophiles); the microenvironments of suspended particles may harbor life at otherwise uninhabited altitudes[2]. The existence of aerophiles would significantly expand the range of planets considered candidates for life by, for example, including the cooler clouds of a hot Venus-like planet. The X project is an effort to engineer a robotic exploration and biosampling payload for a comprehensive survey of Earth's aerobiology. While many one-shot samples have been retrieved from above 15 km, their results are primarily qualitative; variations in method confound comparisons, leaving such major gaps in our knowledge of aerobiology as quantification of populations at different strata and relative species counts[1]. These challenges and X's preliminary solutions are explicated below. X's primary balloon payload is undergoing a series of calibrations before beginning flights in Spring 2012. A suborbital launch is currently planned for Summer 2012. A series of ground samples taken in Winter 2011 is being used to establish baseline counts and identify likely background contaminants.

  12. A Study of the Simulation for Robot Motion Based on VRML-JAVA%基于VRML-JAVA的机器人运动仿真

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马壮

    2012-01-01

    利用VRML-JAVA技术完成了对虚拟机器手臂控制系统的建立,以及模型与程序间的参数传递工作.进行了虚拟机器手臂的仿真研究,对虚拟机器人控制技术的应用和推广具有一定的研究价值.%This paper studied the control systems,modulation and procedures of the parameter translation for a virtual robot' s arm by using Virtual Reality technology through VRML-JAVA.The control of motion simulation for the robot' s arm has been preliminarily performed in present paper.The simulation results showed that the present research is a significant reference for the real application of robots virtual technology.

  13. Mechatronic System Design and Intelligent Motion Control of Hydraulic Robots and Machines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Conrad, Finn; Sørensen, Torben

    2003-01-01

    integration of an overall design and manufacturing IT- concept feasible and commercially attractive. An IT-tool concept for modelling, simulation and design of mechatronic products and systems is proposed in this paper. It built on results from a Danish mechatronic research program on intelligent motion...... controller utilizes the dSPACE System suitable for real-time experimentation, evaluation and validation of control laws and algorithms....

  14. Research on Coordinated Robotic Motion Control Based on Fuzzy Decoupling Method in Fluidic Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The underwater recovery of autonomous underwater vehicles (AUV is a process of 6-DOF motion control, which is related to characteristics with strong nonlinearity and coupling. In the recovery mission, the vehicle requires high level control accuracy. Considering an AUV called BSAV, this paper established a kinetic model to describe the motion of AUV in the horizontal plane, which consisted of nonlinear equations. On the basis of this model, the main coupling variables were analyzed during recovery. Aiming at the strong coupling problem between the heading control and sway motion, we designed a decoupling compensator based on the fuzzy theory and the decoupling theory. We analyzed to the rules of fuzzy compensation, the input and output membership functions of fuzzy compensator, through compose operation and clear operation of fuzzy reasoning, and obtained decoupling compensation quantity. Simulation results show that the fuzzy decoupling controller effectively reduces the overshoot of the system, and improves the control precision. Through the water tank experiments and analysis of experimental data, the effectiveness and feasibility of AUV recovery movement coordinated control based on fuzzy decoupling method are validated successful, and show that the fuzzy decoupling control method has a high practical value in the recovery mission.

  15. Hierarchical Task Planning for Multiarm Robot with Multiconstraint

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yifan Wang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Multiarm systems become the trends of space robots, for the on-orbit servicing missions are becoming more complex and various. A hierarchical task planning method with multiconstraint for multiarm space robot is presented in this paper. The process of task planning is separated into two hierarchies: mission profile analysis and task node planning. In mission profile analysis, several kinds of primitive tasks and operators are defined. Then, a complex task can be decomposed into a sequence of primitive tasks by using hierarchical task network (HTN with those primitive tasks and operators. In task node planning, A⁎ algorithm is improved to adapt the continuous motion of manipulator. Then, some of the primitive tasks which cannot be executed directly because of constraints are further decomposed into several task nodes by using improved A⁎ algorithm. Finally, manipulators execute the task by moving from one node to another with a simple path plan algorithm. The feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed task planning method are verified by simulation.

  16. 双足跳跃机器人的适应性 CPG 运动控制%Adaptive Motion Control of a Biped Jumping Robot Based on CPG

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王婷婷; 富生; 郭伟; 李满天; 孙立宁

    2014-01-01

    为解决双足跳跃机器人在突发状况下的适应性控制问题,依据生物中枢模式发生器(CPG)运动控制原理,建立了可变结构的 CPG 运动控制机制;模拟生物神经网络的自重构特性,在运动控制机制中添加了时间延迟响应环节,用于突发状况的判断与调节。在机器人肢体突发故障或运动受到限制时,此机制可通过对自身状态的感知自发地调整神经网络结构,以继续维持稳定的运动。最后,在仿真平台上验证了此控制机制在正常行走与肢体自由度突然受到限制2种情况下的控制效果。%For solving the adapt control problem of biped hopping robot in unexpected situations,we build a CPG control mechanism which is able to change its control structure according to robot motion status simulating the CPG control mechanism in animals.Imi-tating the self reconfigurable feature of animal control mechanism,a time delayed response link is added to this control mechanism,for judging and adjusting the robot motion under unexpected situations.When the limbs of robot suddenly fails or the motion of robot limb is restricted,this control mechanism can sponta-neously adjust the structure of neural network accord-ing to perception of the robot motion status,and main-tain stable hopping motion.Finally,this control mecha-nism is studied on a simulation platform under two situations:normal hopping and hopping when one robotlimb suddenly fails.

  17. Accurate Control of Agricultural Robot Motion Displacement%农业机器人运动位移的精确控制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董桂菊; 徐杰

    2014-01-01

    介绍了农业机器人行走的控制方法;提出了机器人姿势坐标的概念。将机器人的运动分为直线运动、姿势调整运动、圆弧运动。基于这3种运动,提出了一种机器人运动到目标点的路径规划算法,能够使机器人在无障碍时到达任意自身姿势坐标。同时,提出了一种使机器人在自主状态下,能返回的算法,使机器人具备原路返回的功能。%This article describes a control method that presents the concept of robot pose coordinates for autonomous mo -bile robot ., and in which the movement of the robot is divided into linear motion , posture adjustment movement , and cir-cular motion .It also presents path planning algorithm and return path algorithm in terms of these three movements to ena-ble the robot to return to the origin .

  18. A novel approach to locomotion learning: Actor-Critic architecture using central pattern generators and dynamic motor primitives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Cai; Lowe, Robert; Ziemke, Tom

    2014-01-01

    In this article, we propose an architecture of a bio-inspired controller that addresses the problem of learning different locomotion gaits for different robot morphologies. The modeling objective is split into two: baseline motion modeling and dynamics adaptation. Baseline motion modeling aims to achieve fundamental functions of a certain type of locomotion and dynamics adaptation provides a "reshaping" function for adapting the baseline motion to desired motion. Based on this assumption, a three-layer architecture is developed using central pattern generators (CPGs, a bio-inspired locomotor center for the baseline motion) and dynamic motor primitives (DMPs, a model with universal "reshaping" functions). In this article, we use this architecture with the actor-critic algorithms for finding a good "reshaping" function. In order to demonstrate the learning power of the actor-critic based architecture, we tested it on two experiments: (1) learning to crawl on a humanoid and, (2) learning to gallop on a puppy robot. Two types of actor-critic algorithms (policy search and policy gradient) are compared in order to evaluate the advantages and disadvantages of different actor-critic based learning algorithms for different morphologies. Finally, based on the analysis of the experimental results, a generic view/architecture for locomotion learning is discussed in the conclusion.

  19. A Novel Approach to Locomotion Learning: Actor-Critic Architecture using Central Pattern Generators and Dynamic Motor Primitives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cai eLi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we propose an architecture of a bio-inspired controller that addresses the problem of learning different locomotion gaits for different robot morphologies. The modelling objective is split into two: baseline motion modelling and dynamics adaptation. Baseline motion modelling aims to achieve fundamental functions of a certain type of locomotion and dynamics adaptation provides a ``reshaping function for adapting the baseline motion to desired motion. Based on this assumption, a three-layer architecture is developed using central pattern generators (CPGs, a bio-inspired locomotor center for the the baseline motion and dynamic motor primitives (DMPs, a model with universal ``reshaping functions. In this article, we use this architecture with the actor-critic algorithms for finding a good ``reshaping function. In order to demonstrate the learning power of the actor-critic based architecture, we tested it on two experiments: 1 learning to crawl on a humanoid and, 2 learning to gallop on a puppy robot. Two types of actor-critic algorithms (policy search and policy gradient are compared in order to evaluate the advantages and disadvantages of different actor-critic based learning algorithms for different morphologies. Finally, based on the analysis of the experimental results, a generic view/architecture for locomotion learning is discussed in the conclusion.

  20. An FPGA-Based Omnidirectional Vision Sensor for Motion Detection on Mobile Robots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jones Y. Mori

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This work presents the development of an integrated hardware/software sensor system for moving object detection and distance calculation, based on background subtraction algorithm. The sensor comprises a catadioptric system composed by a camera and a convex mirror that reflects the environment to the camera from all directions, obtaining a panoramic view. The sensor is used as an omnidirectional vision system, allowing for localization and navigation tasks of mobile robots. Several image processing operations such as filtering, segmentation and morphology have been included in the processing architecture. For achieving distance measurement, an algorithm to determine the center of mass of a detected object was implemented. The overall architecture has been mapped onto a commercial low-cost FPGA device, using a hardware/software co-design approach, which comprises a Nios II embedded microprocessor and specific image processing blocks, which have been implemented in hardware. The background subtraction algorithm was also used to calibrate the system, allowing for accurate results. Synthesis results show that the system can achieve a throughput of 26.6 processed frames per second and the performance analysis pointed out that the overall architecture achieves a speedup factor of 13.78 in comparison with a PC-based solution running on the real-time operating system xPC Target.

  1. Motion Control Algorithms for a Free-swimming Biomimetic Robot Fish%仿生机器鱼运动控制算法研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    喻俊志; 陈尔奎; 王硕; 谭民

    2005-01-01

    A practical motion control strategy for a radio-controlled, 4-link and free-swimming biomimetic robot fish is presented. Based on control performance of the fish the fish's motion control task is decomposed into on-line speed control and orientation control. The speed control algorithm is implemented by using piecewise control, and orientation control is realized by fuzzy logic. Combining with step control and fuzzy control, a point-to-point (PTP) control algorithm is proposed and applied to the closed-loop experimental system that uses a vision-based position sensing subsystem to provide feedback. Experiments confirm the reliability and effectiveness of the presented algorithms.

  2. Development of an In-pipe micro mobile robot using peristalsis motion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakazato, Yuichi; Sonobe, Yukihiro [Nippon Institute of Technology, Saitama (Japan); Toyama, Shigeki [Tokyo University, Tokyo (Japan)

    2010-01-15

    Currently, many researchers from various fields are engaged in developing machines that move in a tubular cylinder. Many such machines are being developed for industrial purposes, such as for the examination of ruptures at the joints of gas and water pipes and those caused by cracks. Studies specifically focused on applications to the medical field, such as the realization of machines that can travel through the intestines and blood vessels, have also been reported. In this study, we propose a microscopic moving mechanism that can move in 2-3 mm-diameter blood vessels by peristalsis motion with repeated expansion and contraction using hydraulic pressure, particularly using a physiological saline solution as an acting fluid. Peristalsis motion, observed in earthworms and nematodes, induces shape variation and a shift in the center of gravity, causing extensional waves to propagate and thus achieving movement without damage to the vulnerable inner walls of blood vessels. When this moving mechanism is combined with catheters, we can realize an active catheter that can reach a diseased site by itself. In this study, we created a microrobot with pistonlike hydraulic pressure sources outside both its ends. The microrobot can move back and forth as follows. When the piston pumps, the acting fluid is repeatedly injected into and ejected from the driving body, while the microrobot changes the length and width of its rubber body. The development of our microrobot and the results of its evaluation are reported in this paper

  3. Evaluating the User Experience of Exercising Reaching Motions With a Robot That Predicts Desired Movement Difficulty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirzad, Navid; Van der Loos, H F Machiel

    2016-01-01

    The notion of an optimal difficulty during practice has been articulated in many areas of cognitive psychology: flow theory, the challenge point framework, and desirable difficulties. Delivering exercises at a participant's desired difficulty has the potential to improve both motor learning and users' engagement in therapy. Motivation and engagement are among the contributing factors to the success of exercise programs. The authors previously demonstrated that error amplification can be used to introduce levels of challenge into a robotic reaching task, and that machine-learning algorithms can dynamically adjust difficulty to the desired level with 85% accuracy. Building on these findings, we present the results of a proof-of-concept study investigating the impacts of practicing under desirable difficulty conditions. A control condition with a predefined random order for difficulty levels was deemed more suitable for this study (compared to constant or continuously increasing difficulty). By practicing the task at their desirable difficulties, participants in the experimental group perceived their performance at a significantly higher level and reported lower required effort to complete the task, in comparison to a control group. Moreover, based on self-reports, participants in the experimental group were willing, on average, to continue the training session for 4.6 more training blocks (∼45 min) compared to the control group's average. This study demonstrates the efficiency of delivering the exercises at the user's desired difficulty level to improve the user's engagement in exercise tasks. Future work will focus on clinical feasibility of this approach in increasing stroke survivors' engagement in their therapy programs.

  4. 基于运动相对性的六足机器人机体运动规划%Body Motion Planning for a Hexapod Robot Based on Relative Motion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李满宏; 张明路; 张建华; 张小俊

    2015-01-01

    将处于支撑相的六足机器人视为时变的并联机构进行运动学分析,给出了姿态给定情况下机体工作空间的确定方法及边界方程。在此基础上基于运动相对性原理,提出将机体的运动规划转化为足端轨迹规划的方法,从而简化机体运动规划中逆解的求取问题,并通过仿真与实验进行了验证。结果表明:六足机器人在支撑相内机体的工作空间为至多是支撑腿条数个空心球体的交集,利用运动相对性原理对支撑相内机体的运动规划问题进行转化简便、可行。%A hexapod robot in support phase was regarded as a time-varying parallel mechanism to make the kinematics analysis.The determination methods and boundary equations of the workspace were described herein for the hexapod robot whose body posture was given.Based on the relative mo-tion theory,a method to transform body motion planning into foot trajectory planning was presented to simplify the issue of body motion planning.Simulation and experimental results show that the workspace for the hexapod robot in support phase is the intersection of the hollow spheres whose number is up to the number of the support legs and using the principles of relative motion to trans-form the issue of body motion planning in support phase it is simple and feasible.

  5. Waist design and motion simulation for pneumatic type humanoid robot%气压式仿人机器人的腰部设计与运动仿真

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邱家浩; 蒋刚

    2012-01-01

    提出了一种新型的气压式仿人机器人腰部机构,它具有结构简单和运动稳定的特点.气压式仿人机器人腰部的运动受到手部、头部和腿部等关节力矩的影响.在对机器人进行简化之后,依据高效-欧拉算法,对该仿人机器人进行整体建模,导出腰部俯仰和侧转关节的动力学模型.从动力学上分析,机器人腰部手部和腿部的运动以及外力(矩)等的影响.在Pro/e3.0上建立仿人机器人腰部结构模型,然后导入ADAMS中进行动力学仿真研究,验证了该模型的正确性.%It presents a new type of waist institutions of a pneumatic humanoid robot with simple structure and stable movementThe motion of pneumatic humanoid robot waist is affected by the torque of hand,head and legs joints.After Simplifying the robot,the modeling for overall humanoid robot is made based on efficient-Euler algorithm.Then,the dynamic model of pitching and tilt waist joint is derived. The impacts of the robot waist,hands and legs,as well as external forces (moments)on the kinetics is analyzed. After that, the waist structural of humanoid robot is modeled in Pro/e3.0,and then imported into the ADAMS for dynamic simulation,which results verify the correctness of the model.

  6. Balance maintenance in high-speed motion of humanoid robot arm-based on the 6D constraints of momentum change rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Da-song; Xiong, Rong; Wu, Jun; Chu, Jian

    2014-01-01

    Based on the 6D constraints of momentum change rate (CMCR), this paper puts forward a real-time and full balance maintenance method for the humanoid robot during high-speed movement of its 7-DOF arm. First, the total momentum formula for the robot's two arms is given and the momentum change rate is defined by the time derivative of the total momentum. The author also illustrates the idea of full balance maintenance and analyzes the physical meaning of 6D CMCR and its fundamental relation to full balance maintenance. Moreover, discretization and optimization solution of CMCR has been provided with the motion constraint of the auxiliary arm's joint, and the solving algorithm is optimized. The simulation results have shown the validity and generality of the proposed method on the full balance maintenance in the 6 DOFs of the robot body under 6D CMCR. This method ensures 6D dynamics balance performance and increases abundant ZMP stability margin. The resulting motion of the auxiliary arm has large abundance in joint space, and the angular velocity and the angular acceleration of these joints lie within the predefined limits. The proposed algorithm also has good real-time performance.

  7. Effect of robotic-assisted three-dimensional repetitive motion to improve hand motor function and control in children with handwriting deficits: a nonrandomized phase 2 device trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palsbo, Susan E; Hood-Szivek, Pamela

    2012-01-01

    We explored the efficacy of robotic technology in improving handwriting in children with impaired motor skills. Eighteen participants had impairments arising from cerebral palsy (CP), autism spectrum disorder (ASD), attention deficit disorder (ADD), attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), or other disorders. The intervention was robotic-guided three-dimensional repetitive motion in 15-20 daily sessions of 25-30 min each over 4-8 wk. Fine motor control improved for the children with learning disabilities and those ages 9 or older but not for those with CP or under age 9. All children with ASD or ADHD referred for slow writing speed were able to increase speed while maintaining legibility. Three-dimensional, robot-assisted, repetitive motion training improved handwriting fluidity in children with mild to moderate fine motor deficits associated with ASD or ADHD within 10 hr of training. This dosage may not be sufficient for children with CP. Copyright © 2012 by the American Occupational Therapy Association, Inc.

  8. [Jaws of primitive mammals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsubamoto, Takehisa

    2005-06-01

    Some of main osteological differences between mammals and reptiles are seen in the number of bones that constitute lower jaw and in jaw articulation. A lower jaw of mammals consists of only one bone, while in reptiles it consists of several bones (e.g., four to six in lizards and five in crocodiles). The jaw articulation in mammals is performed by squamosal of the skull and the mandible ( = dentary), while in reptiles it is done by quadrate of the skull and articular of the lower jaw. When mammals first appeared about 200 million years ago in the Mesozoic Era, the jaws of primitive mammals were morphologically intermediate between those of reptiles and typical mammals. Here, I briefly introduce the evolution of lower jaw morphology from the reptilian one to the mammalian one, showing lower jaw features of some mammal-like reptiles and primitive mammals.

  9. Weighted augmented Jacobian matrix with a variable coefficient method for kinematics mapping of space teleoperation based on human-robot motion similarity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Zhong; Huang, Xuexiang; Hu, Tianjian; Tan, Qian; Hou, Yuzhuo

    2016-10-01

    Space teleoperation is an important space technology, and human-robot motion similarity can improve the flexibility and intuition of space teleoperation. This paper aims to obtain an appropriate kinematics mapping method of coupled Cartesian-joint space for space teleoperation. First, the coupled Cartesian-joint similarity principles concerning kinematics differences are defined. Then, a novel weighted augmented Jacobian matrix with a variable coefficient (WAJM-VC) method for kinematics mapping is proposed. The Jacobian matrix is augmented to achieve a global similarity of human-robot motion. A clamping weighted least norm scheme is introduced to achieve local optimizations, and the operating ratio coefficient is variable to pursue similarity in the elbow joint. Similarity in Cartesian space and the property of joint constraint satisfaction is analysed to determine the damping factor and clamping velocity. Finally, a teleoperation system based on human motion capture is established, and the experimental results indicate that the proposed WAJM-VC method can improve the flexibility and intuition of space teleoperation to complete complex space tasks.

  10. 轮式移动仿人护理机器人运动稳定性分析%Analysis of Motion Stability of a Mobile Humanoid Nursing Robot

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贠今天; 邓利浩; 桑宏强

    2016-01-01

    When a nursing robot assisted medical staff to take good care of the patients,the mo-tion stability of the robot was the most concern,which was directly related to the success or failure of the nursing tasks.When the nursing robot lifted the patients with arm and waist,tilting and sliding would most likely to occur.Herein,an omni-directional mobile humanoid nursing robot was taken as the research object,and the motion stability was analyzed from two aspects of static and dynamic.Un-der the conditions of no load and low speed motion,centre of gravity projection method was used to analyze the static stability;under the load conditions,the theory of ZMP combined with the theory of recursive Newton Euler algorithm was used to analyze the dynamic stability.ADAMS was used to simulate the robot’s movement process,which provides the theoretical and simulation basis for the nursing robot stability.%针对护理机器人腰臂配合抱起病人时容易发生倾翻和侧滑的问题,以自主研发的全方位移动仿人护理机器人为研究对象,从静态和动态两个方面研究机器人此阶段的运动稳定性。在没有负载或低速运动工况下,利用重心投影法,分析其静态稳定性;在有负载变化情况下,利用零力矩点理论并结合递归牛顿-欧拉算法,分析其动态稳定性。最后运用 ADAMS 仿真软件对护理机器人运动过程进行仿真分析,为确保护理机器人的运动稳定性提供理论依据。

  11. Primitive helium in diamonds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozima, M.; Zashu, S.

    1983-03-01

    He-3/He-4 isotopic ratio analyses of 13 diamond stones from unspecified mines in South Africa yield values ranging from less than 10 to the -7th to 0.00032 + or - 0.000025. The latter value is higher than the primordial He-3/He-4 ratio in meteorites, and close to the ratio for solar type He. It is suggested that these elevated values may represent primitive He which has evolved little, in view of its minute increase in radiogenic He-4, since the earth's formation.

  12. 六自由度并联机器人结构运动的分析研究%Structure and Motion Analysis of Six-DOF Parallel Robot

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵良伟; 王惠源; 刘鹏展; 陆明; 兰晓龙

    2013-01-01

    To some dangerous job and intractable problems ,this paper set up the mathematical model of 6-DOF parallel robot ,and established the solid model of the parallel robot by UG .Based on reverse thinking method ,through a series of analysis research on robot and entity model ,the algorithm solving the law of driving element motion while the actuator realizing a specific function was got ,being favorable to the design and research of the control system .%针对一些危险作业和难处理问题,提出了六自由度并联机器人模型,应用 UG强大的三维建模能力,建立起了并联机器人实体模型。运用逆向思维的方法,通过对串联机器人和此实体模型的分析研究,在执行元件实现特定功能的情况下,推导出求解驱动元件运动规律的算法,为此控制系统的设计与研究奠定了基础。

  13. Differentially Constrained Motion Planning with State Lattice Motion Primitives

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-01

    power limitations. Moreover, the rovers are CHAPTER 1. INTRODUCTION 20 typically designed to move in stop and go fashion. GESTALT , the rover navigation...applied in other ways. For example, given its efficiency, it’s reasonable to imagine that navigation algorithms such as GESTALT could be enhanced with

  14. Robotized transcranial magnetic stimulation

    CERN Document Server

    Richter, Lars

    2014-01-01

    Presents new, cutting-edge algorithms for robot/camera calibration, sensor fusion and sensor calibration Explores the main challenges for accurate coil positioning, such as head motion, and outlines how active robotic motion compensation can outperform hand-held solutions Analyzes how a robotized system in medicine can alleviate concerns with a patient's safety, and presents a novel fault-tolerant algorithm (FTA) sensor for system safety

  15. Balance Maintenance in High-Speed Motion of Humanoid Robot Arm-Based on the 6D Constraints of Momentum Change Rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Da-song Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on the 6D constraints of momentum change rate (CMCR, this paper puts forward a real-time and full balance maintenance method for the humanoid robot during high-speed movement of its 7-DOF arm. First, the total momentum formula for the robot’s two arms is given and the momentum change rate is defined by the time derivative of the total momentum. The author also illustrates the idea of full balance maintenance and analyzes the physical meaning of 6D CMCR and its fundamental relation to full balance maintenance. Moreover, discretization and optimization solution of CMCR has been provided with the motion constraint of the auxiliary arm’s joint, and the solving algorithm is optimized. The simulation results have shown the validity and generality of the proposed method on the full balance maintenance in the 6 DOFs of the robot body under 6D CMCR. This method ensures 6D dynamics balance performance and increases abundant ZMP stability margin. The resulting motion of the auxiliary arm has large abundance in joint space, and the angular velocity and the angular acceleration of these joints lie within the predefined limits. The proposed algorithm also has good real-time performance.

  16. Tool Changer For Robot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voellmer, George M.

    1992-01-01

    Mechanism enables robot to change tools on end of arm. Actuated by motion of robot: requires no additional electrical or pneumatic energy to make or break connection between tool and wrist at end of arm. Includes three basic subassemblies: wrist interface plate attached to robot arm at wrist, tool interface plate attached to tool, and holster. Separate tool interface plate and holster provided for each tool robot uses.

  17. An online gait generator for quadruped walking using motor primitives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunlin Zhou

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This article presents implementation of an online gait generator on a quadruped robot. Firstly, the design of a quadruped robot is presented. The robot contains four leg modules each of which is constructed by a 2 degrees of freedom (2-DOF five-bar parallel linkage mechanism. Together with other two rotational DOF, the leg module is able to perform 4-DOF movement. The parallel mechanism of the robot allows all the servos attached on the body frame, so that the leg mass is decreased and motor load can be balanced. Secondly, an online gait generator based on dynamic movement primitives for the walking control is presented. Dynamic movement primitives provide an approach to generate periodic trajectories and they can be modulated in real time, which makes the online adjustment of walking gaits possible. This gait controller is tested by the quadruped robot in regulating walking speed, switching between forward\\backward movements and steering. The controller is easy to apply, expand and is quite effective on phase coordination and online trajectory modulation. Results of simulated experiments are presented.

  18. Biquaternion solution of the kinematic control problem for the motion of a rigid body and its application to the solution of inverse problems of robot-manipulator kinematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chelnokov, Yu. N.

    2013-01-01

    The problem of reducing the body-attached coordinate system to the reference (programmed) coordinate system moving relative to the fixed coordinate system with a given instantaneous velocity screw along a given trajectory is considered in the kinematic statement. The biquaternion kinematic equations of motion of a rigid body in normalized and unnormalized finite displacement biquaternions are used as the mathematical model of motion, and the dual orthogonal projections of the instantaneous velocity screw of the body motion onto the body coordinate axes are used as the control. Various types of correction (stabilization), which are biquaternion analogs of position and integral corrections, are proposed. It is shown that the linear (obtained without linearization) and stationary biquaternion error equations that are invariant under any chosen programmed motion of the reference coordinate system can be obtained for the proposed types of correction and the use of unnormalized finite displacement biquaternions and four-dimensional dual controls allows one to construct globally regular control laws. The general solution of the error equation is constructed, and conditions for asymptotic stability of the programmed motion are obtained. The constructed theory of kinematic control of motion is used to solve inverse problems of robot-manipulator kinematics. The control problem under study is a generalization of the kinematic problem [1, 2] of reducing the body-attached coordinate system to the reference coordinate system rotating at a given (programmed) absolute angular velocity, and the presentedmethod for solving inverse problems of robotmanipulator kinematics is a development of the method proposed in [3-5].

  19. Primitive Virtual Negative Charge

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, Kiyoung

    2008-01-01

    Physical fields, such as gravity and electromagnetic field, are interpreted as results from rearrangement of vacuum particles to get the equilibrium of net charge density and net mass density in 4-dimensional complex space. Then, both fields should interact to each other in that physical interaction is considered as a field-to-field interaction. Hence, Mass-Charge interaction is introduced with primitive-virtual negative charge defined for the mass. With the concept of Mass-Charge interaction electric equilibrium of the earth is discussed, especially about the electric field and magnetic field of the earth. For unsettled phenomena related with the earth's gravity, such as antigravity phenomenon, gravity anomalies during the solar eclipses, the connection between geomagnetic storms and earthquakes, etc., possible explanations are discussed.

  20. Team Robot Motion Planning in Dynamics Environments Using a New Hybrid Algorithm (Honey Bee Mating Optimization-Tabu List

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Abaee Shoushtary

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a new hybrid algorithm extracted from honey bee mating optimization (HBMO algorithm (for robot travelling distance minimization and tabu list technique (for obstacle avoidance for team robot system. This algorithm was implemented in a C++ programming language on a Pentium computer and simulated on simple cylindrical robots in a simulation software. The environment in this simulation was dynamic with moving obstacles and goals. The results of simulation have shown validity and reliability of new algorithm. The outcomes of simulation have shown better performance than ACO and PSO algorithm (society, nature algorithms with respect to two well-known metrics included, ATPD (average total path deviation and AUTD (average uncovered target distance.

  1. A Mobile Robotic Motion Control Algorithm Based on the Back-step Theory%一种基于反步法的移动机器人运动控制算法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    段文杰; 武颖; 刘大亮

    2012-01-01

    针对球形机器人、独轮机器人和双轮机器人的一种共同运动方式,提出一种稳定的运动控制算法.首先,将运动控制方式简化为平面内均质圆盘的垂直运动,并基于拉格朗日法建立了具有链式形式的非完整运动模型;其次,利用反步法设计一种反馈控制算法,并证明了该算法是原点渐进稳定的.仿真结果表明该算法是可行的、有效的.%A stable motion control algorithm was designed to develop the motion methods of three kinds of robots including spherical robot,unicycle robot and two-wheeled robot. First, the motion methods were simplified to a vertical motion of a circle plate in the plane and the chained non-holonomic motion model was developed using the Lagrangian approach. Then, a feedback control algorithm, which was proved to be asymptotically stable, was designed based on the back-step theory. The simulation results showed that the developed algorithm was feasible and effective.

  2. Primitive neuroectodermal tumor: CT findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Chang Soo; Eun, Tchoong Kie; Cha, Seong Sook; Han, Sang Suk; Chung, Duck Hwan [Inje College, Paik Hospital, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    1987-04-15

    Primitive neuroectodermal tumor is a neoplasm of young individuals that occurs predominantly in the supratentorial compartment. Authors experienced three cases of primitive neuroectodermal tumor. On the brain CT scans, all three cases reveal the large, irregular, hyperdense mass lesions with calcifications and cystic or necrotic areas, and show dense heterogeneous contrast enhancement.

  3. Unsupervised Learning of Action Primitives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baby, Sanmohan; Krüger, Volker; Kragic, Danica

    2010-01-01

    Action representation is a key issue in imitation learning for humanoids. With the recent finding of mirror neurons there has been a growing interest in expressing actions as a combination meaningful subparts called primitives. Primitives could be thought of as an alphabet for the human actions. ...

  4. Anterior cruciate ligament biomechanics during robotic and mechanical simulations of physiologic and clinical motion tasks: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bates, Nathaniel A; Myer, Gregory D; Shearn, Jason T; Hewett, Timothy E

    2015-01-01

    Investigators use in vitro joint simulations to invasively study the biomechanical behaviors of the anterior cruciate ligament. The aims of these simulations are to replicate physiologic conditions, but multiple mechanisms can be used to drive in vitro motions, which may influence biomechanical outcomes. The objective of this review was to examine, summarize, and compare biomechanical evidence related to anterior cruciate ligament function from in vitro simulations of knee motion. A systematic review was conducted (2004 to 2013) in Scopus, PubMed/Medline, and SPORTDiscus to identify peer-reviewed studies that reported kinematic and kinetic outcomes from in vitro simulations of physiologic or clinical tasks at the knee. Inclusion criteria for relevant studies were articles published in English that reported on whole-ligament anterior cruciate ligament mechanics during the in vitro simulation of physiologic or clinical motions on cadaveric knees that were unaltered outside of the anterior-cruciate-ligament-intact, -deficient, and -reconstructed conditions. A meta-analysis was performed to synthesize biomechanical differences between the anterior-cruciate-ligament-intact and reconstructed conditions. 77 studies met our inclusion/exclusion criteria and were reviewed. Combined joint rotations have the greatest impact on anterior cruciate ligament loads, but the magnitude by which individual kinematic degrees of freedom contribute to ligament loading during in vitro simulations is technique-dependent. Biomechanical data collected in prospective, longitudinal studies corresponds better with robotic-manipulator simulations than mechanical-impact simulations. Robotic simulation indicated that the ability to restore intact anterior cruciate ligament mechanics with anterior cruciate ligament reconstructions was dependent on loading condition and degree of freedom examined.

  5. 工业机器人运动控制系统的研究与设计%Research and design of motion control system for industrial robot

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赖时伍

    2016-01-01

    The industrial robot has the advantages of stable quality,adjustable speed,anti fatigue and other advantages,but also can replace the human to complete the task of higher risk coefficient.It is widely used,not only can improve the production efficiency,but also can improve product quality,reduce production costs,reduce the labor pressure of workers.Motion control system of industrial robot is set electronic,mechanical,computer hardware and software,artificial intelligence sensor a variety of advanced technologies have function personification of the mechanical and electronic device,is also an important research direction in the current industrial production of electromechanical integration technology development.With the rapid development of social economy and information science and technology, the production process is subject to various factors, such as electric,magnetic, etc.,all of which put forward higher requirements to the product parameters of industrial robots.In particular the design plan of the industrial robot must fully reflect the industrial robot motion control system is how to deal with anti-interference and stable performance of the system is maintained,thus ensuring the efficient movement of the industrial robot control.This is also one of the problems faced by the current stage of the development of industrial robot technology.%工业机器人具有质量稳定、速度可调节、抗疲劳等优势,还能替代人类完成危险系数较高的工作任务。它的广泛使用,不但可以提高生产效率,还能够提高产品质量,同时降低生产成本,减轻了工人的劳动压力。工业机器人的运动控制系统是集合电子、机械、计算机软硬件、人工智能传感器等多种先进技术的具备拟人功能的机械电子装置,也是目前工业生产机电一体化技术发展的重要研究方向。社会经济与信息科学技术的迅速发展,生产过程中受到电、磁等多种因素干扰

  6. 编队控制中的机器人行为与基于服务的运动行为结构设计%Robot Behavior and Service-based Motion Behavior Structure Design in Formation Control

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨帆; 刘士荣; 董德国

    2012-01-01

    以基于位姿误差的虚拟目标跟踪为控制模式,提出了独立于编队控制与协作任务,但却适用于多移动机器人编队运动的基于服务的机器人运动行为结构,并对其基本运动行为与选择方法进行了设计.提出的基于服务的机器人行为结构借鉴了软件工程领域的面向服务的架构思想,具有可重用性.多机器人编队形成、改变等仿真与实验验证了本文所提方法的有效性.%Taking the posture deviation based virtual target tracking as the control model, a service based robot motion behavior structure is presented for multi-robot formation control, which is independent of robot formation control and coop-eration tasks. The detailed basic motion behavior and its selection criteria are also designed. The service based robot motion behavior structure with reusability borrows the idea from the service-orientated architecture (SOA) in software engineering. Simulation and experiments with multi-robot formation initialization and change demonstrate the validity of the proposed approach.

  7. 六连杆助行机器人生理学运动规划研究%Research on physiological motion planning for walking assistance robots

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张立勋; 伊蕾; 白大鹏

    2011-01-01

    针对六连杆助行机器人助行过程中的运动协调问题,基于人体生理学步态信息进行了机器人运动规划研究.利用步态检测系统,获取了正常人行走过程中双腿髋、膝、踝关节的运动信息,骨盆中心前进方向的速度信息.基于检测结果拟合了人机系统末端的速度函数,根据机构及人机系统运动学模型规划了曲柄及移动单元的速度,同时通过优化人机间的最优尺寸关系规划了骨盆运动速度.利用MATLAB软件对助行过程系统的运动特性进行了仿真分析,并通过物理样机对助行机器人生理学运动规划进行了实验研究.研究结果表明:助行机器人能够按正常行走步态规律实现助行功能,运动轨迹正确,步态连续.%The coordinate motion planning for six-bar walking assistance robots was researched based on the human physiological gait information. The motion data about rotation angle and angular velocity of human legs' hip, knee and ankle joints in normal walking were obtained using a gait measurement system, and the velocity information of pelvic center was also detected. The speed function of the end of the man-machine system was fitted based on the detection results. The speed of crank and the speed of mobile unit were planned using the machine kinematics equation and the kinematics equation of human-mahine systems, and the proportion of the structure dimension between human and machine was optimized with the aim of pelvic velocity planning. The motion characteristics during assistance process were simulated using the MATLAB software, and experimental research was done using the physical prototype of the robot. The results showed the robot realized the walking assistance function and the gait trajectories were smooth and continuous.

  8. Notion of Control-Law Module and Modular Framework of Cooperative Transportation Using Multiple Nonholonomic Robotic Agents With Physical Rigid-Formation-Motion Constraints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wei

    2016-05-01

    Consider cooperative manipulation and transportation of a rigid body by multiple two-wheeled nonholonomic robotic agents that attached to it, the agents are then physically constrained to maintain rigid-formation-motion (RFM); thus the system has two physical motion-constraints at two levels: 1) the nonholonomic constraint at the individual level and 2) the RFM constraint at the system level. First, we provide a novel notion: the encapsulation of a category of control with certain constraints for one motion-mode as a control-law module (CLM), any concrete control law with such constraints is called an instance of the CLM; here two CLMs are provided as the examples. Then we provide an RFM control framework by decomposing a feasible RFM configuration-path as a concatenation of partitions, with one type of CLMs for each partition; thus any instance for each partition can be designed separately and incorporated easily with the interchangeable property, which makes the framework modular, flexible, and adaptive, to satisfy different kinematics requirements. As a result, the transportation is achieved by RFM control of agents. Also, the RFM framework implies a valuable rigid-closure-method for accurate rigid body manipulation even when agents are not attached to the body.

  9. Advances in robot kinematics

    CERN Document Server

    Khatib, Oussama

    2014-01-01

    The topics addressed in this book cover the whole range of kinematic analysis, synthesis and design and consider robotic systems possessing serial, parallel and cable driven mechanisms. The robotic systems range from being less than fully mobile to kinematically redundant to overconstrained.  The fifty-six contributions report the latest results in robot kinematics with emphasis on emerging areas such as design and control of humanoids or humanoid subsystems. The book is of interest to researchers wanting to bring their knowledge up to date regarding modern topics in one of the basic disciplines in robotics, which relates to the essential property of robots, the motion of mechanisms.

  10. Introduction to robotics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vukobratovic, M.

    1989-01-01

    This book is organized into nine chapters. Chapter 1 presents general robot characteristics concerning the classification of robot systems, the general specification of robot mechanisms and the specification of manipulation robots. Chapter 2 is devoted to manipulation robot kinematics. It treats the kinematic structure of manipulation robots, the types of kinematic configurations, the kinematic model of manipulation robots, based on the Denavit-Hartenberg (homogeneous) coordinates. The inverse problem of kinematics is formulated and the basic principles of robot trajectory synthesis are given. Chapter 3 contains the fundamentals of studying robot dynamics. It presents the automated construction of the dynamic equations of motion, the modelling of actuator dynamics and the effect of fundamental vibration on the robot dynamics. The class of tasks involving constrained gripper motion is also presented. The problems of manipulation robot control are discussed in Chapter 4. Chapter 5 is devoted to the microcomputer implementation of control algorithms. It presents the basic elements of today's robot control systems as well as software modules among which communication-command module, kinematic module and dynamic (servosystem) module deserve to be especially mentioned. Manipulation robot programming is treated in Chapter 6. Chapter 7 deals with the sensors used in robotics: position sensors (potentiometers, encoders, resolvers), environment sensors (force sensors, tactile sensors, proximity sensors) and vision sensors (scene illumination, special vision sensors, lasers). The elements of industrial robot design and application are discussed in Chapter 8. In Chapter 9 the authors try to unify in a systematic way major problems (and possible solutions) encountered with factory automation by integrating one or more robots and several machine tools into work cell, flexible manufacturing line and assembly systems. (orig./HP) With 228 figs.

  11. Tutorial Workshop on Robotics and Robot Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-10-26

    distance of the end effeccor from a given surface or object, centering on an object, ect. Complex accions consist of composite actions that are executed...execution of composite accions . All notion primitives have only input parameters. These parameters define motion increments in a given coordinate system

  12. Running Motion Planning for Humanoid Robot Based on Embedded Vision System%具有单目嵌入式视觉的仿人机器人分层控制系统设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩吉烨; 陈宇; 钟秋波; 赵余

    2012-01-01

    According to the characters of humanoid robot,a multi-layers control system for humanoid robot based on single vision is present.By studying the basic principles of robotic treadmill exercise,swinging of the robot arms is introduced to the motion of running and optimizing the overall energy cost through the process of running is proposed.Lastly,under the rules of sprint in FIRA,motion planning of sprint is implemented by the decision system via the response of vision and pose of the robot.Experiments show that the method of control presented here is suitable for games of athletics.%针对仿人机器人的特点,设计了一个具有单目视觉的仿人机器人分层控制系统.通过研究机器人跑步运动的基本原理,在机器人跑步运动中引入手臂摆动姿态,通过最优化跑步过程的总体能效进行步态规划.最后根据FIRA比赛规则,决策系统通过视觉反馈和姿态反馈信息,调用底层动作库,进行短跑运动规划.实验结果表明,该仿人机器人的控制方式效果良好,适合参加竞技类比赛.

  13. Hybrid Motion Planning Method for Autonomous Robots Using Kinect Based Sensor Fusion and Virtual Plane Approach in Dynamic Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doopalam Tuvshinjargal

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A new reactive motion planning method for an autonomous vehicle in dynamic environments is proposed. The new dynamic motion planning method combines a virtual plane based reactive motion planning technique with a sensor fusion based obstacle detection approach, which results in improving robustness and autonomy of vehicle navigation within unpredictable dynamic environments. The key feature of the new reactive motion planning method is based on a local observer in the virtual plane which allows the effective transformation of complex dynamic planning problems into simple stationary in the virtual plane. In addition, a sensor fusion based obstacle detection technique provides the pose estimation of moving obstacles by using a Kinect sensor and a sonar sensor, which helps to improve the accuracy and robustness of the reactive motion planning approach in uncertain dynamic environments. The performance of the proposed method was demonstrated through not only simulation studies but also field experiments using multiple moving obstacles even in hostile environments where conventional method failed.

  14. Study and application of improved PSO in the motion planning of under-actuated robot%改进PSO在欠驱动机器人运动规划中的应用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    厉虹; 张甜

    2012-01-01

    This paper researches the motion planning of under-actuated bionic robot which named Rock & Roll Robot-RRRobot. According to the dynamic model of RRRobot, the objective is minimizing the energy loss; the improved Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) algorithm based on genetic operator is proposed. At last, it gets motion planning of the robot from an initial state to a target state, and optimizes the motion planning on RRRobot. The simulation results show the improved PSO algorithm, compared with the PSO algorithm, the terminal configuration of the RRRobot error and system power consumption has significantly improvement.%研究欠驱动六足仿生机器人简化模型(Rock & Roll Robot-RRRobot)运动规划问题.根据RRRobot动力学模型,以能量损耗最小为目标,提出一种基于遗传算子的改进粒子群算法,对RRRobot运动规划进行优化.仿真实验结果表明,所提出的算法对解决运动规划的优化问题是有效的,与基本粒子群算法相比,改进的粒子群算法对RRRobot模型终端位形的误差有明显的改善作用.

  15. Advanced robot locomotion.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neely, Jason C.; Sturgis, Beverly Rainwater; Byrne, Raymond Harry; Feddema, John Todd; Spletzer, Barry Louis; Rose, Scott E.; Novick, David Keith; Wilson, David Gerald; Buerger, Stephen P.

    2007-01-01

    This report contains the results of a research effort on advanced robot locomotion. The majority of this work focuses on walking robots. Walking robot applications include delivery of special payloads to unique locations that require human locomotion to exo-skeleton human assistance applications. A walking robot could step over obstacles and move through narrow openings that a wheeled or tracked vehicle could not overcome. It could pick up and manipulate objects in ways that a standard robot gripper could not. Most importantly, a walking robot would be able to rapidly perform these tasks through an intuitive user interface that mimics natural human motion. The largest obstacle arises in emulating stability and balance control naturally present in humans but needed for bipedal locomotion in a robot. A tracked robot is bulky and limited, but a wide wheel base assures passive stability. Human bipedal motion is so common that it is taken for granted, but bipedal motion requires active balance and stability control for which the analysis is non-trivial. This report contains an extensive literature study on the state-of-the-art of legged robotics, and it additionally provides the analysis, simulation, and hardware verification of two variants of a proto-type leg design.

  16. An Improved Recurrent Neural Network for Complex-Valued Systems of Linear Equation and Its Application to Robotic Motion Tracking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Lei; Xiao, Lin; Liao, Bolin; Lu, Rongbo; Peng, Hua

    2017-01-01

    To obtain the online solution of complex-valued systems of linear equation in complex domain with higher precision and higher convergence rate, a new neural network based on Zhang neural network (ZNN) is investigated in this paper. First, this new neural network for complex-valued systems of linear equation in complex domain is proposed and theoretically proved to be convergent within finite time. Then, the illustrative results show that the new neural network model has the higher precision and the higher convergence rate, as compared with the gradient neural network (GNN) model and the ZNN model. Finally, the application for controlling the robot using the proposed method for the complex-valued systems of linear equation is realized, and the simulation results verify the effectiveness and superiorness of the new neural network for the complex-valued systems of linear equation.

  17. Interfacing intelligent software to robotic peripherals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlando, N. E.

    1986-01-01

    A paradigm for the specification of robotic behavior is proposed, based on a template of control and data elements replicated in a hierarchical lattice. Considerations from physiological psychology are proposed as control elements for the model. The resulting model allows freedom in implementational details within a symmetrical design, and should also provide a framework for evolving robotic behavior from relatively primitive to extremely complex. The model's implications for realizing learning capabilities in robotic systems are discussed, and its implementation and demonstration are described.

  18. Quantifying Mapping Orbit Performance in the Vicinity of Primitive Bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlak, Thomas A.; Broschart, Stephen B.; Lantoine, Gregory

    2015-01-01

    Predicting and quantifying the capability of mapping orbits in the vicinity of primitive bodies is challenging given the complex orbit geometries that exist and the irregular shape of the bodies themselves. This paper employs various quantitative metrics to characterize the performance and relative effectiveness of various types of mapping orbits including terminator, quasi-terminator, hovering, pingpong, and conic-like trajectories. Metrics of interest include surface area coverage, lighting conditions, and the variety of viewing angles achieved. The metrics discussed in this investigation are intended to enable mission designers and project stakeholders to better characterize candidate mapping orbits during preliminary mission formulation activities.The goal of this investigation is to understand the trade space associated with carrying out remotesensing campaigns at small primitive bodies in the context of a robotic space mission. Specifically,this study seeks to understand the surface viewing geometries, ranges, etc. that are available fromseveral commonly proposed mapping orbits architectures.

  19. AGUA TIBIA PRIMITIVE AREA, CALIFORNIA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irwin, William P.; Thurber, Horace K.

    1984-01-01

    The Agua Tibia Primitive Area in southwestern California is underlain by igneous and metamorphic rocks that are siilar to those widely exposed throughout much of the Peninsular Ranges. To detect the presence of any concealed mineral deposits, samples of stream sediments were collected along the various creeks that head in the mountain. As an additional aid in evaluating the mineral potential, an aeromagnetic survey was made and interpreted. A search for records of past or existing mining claims within the primitive area was made but none was found. Evidence of deposits of metallic or nonmetallic minerals was not seen during the study.

  20. Exploratorium: Robots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, Judith, Ed.

    2002-01-01

    This issue of Exploratorium Magazine focuses on the topic robotics. It explains how to make a vibrating robotic bug and features articles on robots. Contents include: (1) "Where Robot Mice and Robot Men Run Round in Robot Towns" (Ray Bradbury); (2) "Robots at Work" (Jake Widman); (3) "Make a Vibrating Robotic Bug" (Modesto Tamez); (4) "The Robot…

  1. Teen Sized Humanoid Robot: Archie

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baltes, Jacky; Byagowi, Ahmad; Anderson, John; Kopacek, Peter

    This paper describes our first teen sized humanoid robot Archie. This robot has been developed in conjunction with Prof. Kopacek’s lab from the Technical University of Vienna. Archie uses brushless motors and harmonic gears with a novel approach to position encoding. Based on our previous experience with small humanoid robots, we developed software to create, store, and play back motions as well as control methods which automatically balance the robot using feedback from an internal measurement unit (IMU).

  2. Dynamics and control of motion on the ground and in the air with application to biped robots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemami, H.; Zheng, Y.-F.

    The dynamics of a multi-linkage model of natural or man-made systems with arbitrary holonomic and non-holonomic constraints at the joints are formulated. The formulation is equally applicable to movements on the ground or in the air. Nonlinear control strategies for postural balance and rhythmic motion are presented. A predictive algorithm to compensate for computation or transmission delay is proposed. Digital computer simulations are presented to demonstrate the effectiveness of the control strategy for a five-link three-dimensional biped.

  3. Standards for Graph Algorithm Primitives

    OpenAIRE

    Mattson, Tim; Bader, David; Berry, Jon; Buluc, Aydin; Dongarra, Jack; Faloutsos, Christos; Feo, John; Gilbert, John; Gonzalez, Joseph; Hendrickson, Bruce; Kepner, Jeremy; Leiserson, Charles; Lumsdaine, Andrew; Padua, David; Poole, Stephen

    2014-01-01

    It is our view that the state of the art in constructing a large collection of graph algorithms in terms of linear algebraic operations is mature enough to support the emergence of a standard set of primitive building blocks. This paper is a position paper defining the problem and announcing our intention to launch an open effort to define this standard.

  4. Neuroradiology of primitive neuroectodermal tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hinshaw, D.B. Jr.; Thompson, J.R.; Hasso, A.N.; Ashwal, S.

    1983-05-01

    The neuroradiological findings in four cases of primitive neuroectodermal tumor of the cerebrum are described. These highly malignant neoplasms of childhood present as large, enhancing cerebral masses with extensive neovascularity. Cerebrospinal fluid seeding is common and distant extraneural metastases may occur.

  5. 1999 IEEE international conference on robotics and automation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-07-01

    Topics covered in this conference include: biped robots; underwater vehicles; robot planning and programming for assembly; discrete event control of mobile robot maneuvering; navigation in unknown environment; biped robots; underwater vehicles; robot planning and programming for assembly; discrete event control of manufacturing systems; motion planning; robot control; actuator; teleoperation; force and position control; contact and grasping control; visual servo control; tactile sensing; mobile robots and applications; sensor-based navigation; underwater robotics; sensing, navigation and control; flexible manipulators; task scheduling; actuators and joint actuation; teleoperation; sensor-based teleoperation; contact geometry; sonar-based sensing; mobile robot-environment interaction; mobile robot motion planning; biology-inspired methods; service and underwater robots; manufacturing planning and scheduling; constraint and nonholonomic system; fault-tolerant robots; parallel manipulators; dexterous manipulation; computer vision in manufacturing; contact sensing; mobile robot field applications; flexible robots; fuzzy control; and more.

  6. An Architecture for Robot Assemblt Task Planning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sun, Hongyan

    1999-01-01

    This paper discusses an integrated robot assembly task planning system architecture. In such an integrated system, the robot motion commands produced from the planning system can be validated before done-loading for actual execution.......This paper discusses an integrated robot assembly task planning system architecture. In such an integrated system, the robot motion commands produced from the planning system can be validated before done-loading for actual execution....

  7. Primitive Based Action Representation and Recognition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baby, Sanmohan; Krüger, Volker

    2009-01-01

    There has been a recent interest in segmenting action sequences into   meaningful parts (action primitives) and to model actions on a   higher level based on these action primitives. Unlike previous works where action primitives are defined    a-priori and search is made for them later, we presen...

  8. Primitive Based Action Representation and Recognition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baby, Sanmohan; Krüger, Volker

    2009-01-01

    There has been a recent interest in segmenting action sequences into   meaningful parts (action primitives) and to model actions on a   higher level based on these action primitives. Unlike previous works where action primitives are defined    a-priori and search is made for them later, we presen...

  9. Multigait soft robot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepherd, Robert F; Ilievski, Filip; Choi, Wonjae; Morin, Stephen A; Stokes, Adam A; Mazzeo, Aaron D; Chen, Xin; Wang, Michael; Whitesides, George M

    2011-12-20

    This manuscript describes a unique class of locomotive robot: A soft robot, composed exclusively of soft materials (elastomeric polymers), which is inspired by animals (e.g., squid, starfish, worms) that do not have hard internal skeletons. Soft lithography was used to fabricate a pneumatically actuated robot capable of sophisticated locomotion (e.g., fluid movement of limbs and multiple gaits). This robot is quadrupedal; it uses no sensors, only five actuators, and a simple pneumatic valving system that operates at low pressures (< 10 psi). A combination of crawling and undulation gaits allowed this robot to navigate a difficult obstacle. This demonstration illustrates an advantage of soft robotics: They are systems in which simple types of actuation produce complex motion.

  10. A Proof-Theoretic Account of Primitive Recursion and Primitive Iteration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cherabini, Luca; Danvy, Olivier

    2011-01-01

    We revisit both the usual ``going-up'' induction principle and Manna and Waldinger's ``going-down'' induction principle for primitive recursion,`a la Goedel, and primitive iteration, `a la Church. We use 'Kleene's trick' to show that primitive recursion and primitive iiteration are as expressive ...

  11. A Proof-Theoretic Account of Primitive Recursion and Primitive Iteration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cherabini, Luca; Danvy, Olivier

    2011-01-01

    We revisit both the usual ``going-up'' induction principle and Manna and Waldinger's ``going-down'' induction principle for primitive recursion,`a la Goedel, and primitive iteration, `a la Church. We use 'Kleene's trick' to show that primitive recursion and primitive iiteration are as expressive...

  12. A programmable molecular robot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muscat, Richard A; Bath, Jonathan; Turberfield, Andrew J

    2011-03-09

    We have developed a programmable and auton-omous molecular robot whose motion is fueled by DNA hybridization. Instructions determining the path to be followed are programmed into the fuel molecules, allowing precise control of cargo motion on a branched track.

  13. Primary renal primitive neuroectodermal tumor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goel, V; Talwar, V; Dodagoudar, C; Singh, S; Sharma, A; Patnaik, N

    2015-01-01

    Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor of the kidney is a rare entity. Very few cases of primary renal PNET have been reported to date. Most literature about rPNET is isolated case reports. We report a case of rPNET in a 39-year-old male with a pre-operative diagnosis of renal cell carcinoma with renal vein thrombosis. The patient underwent radical nephrectomy with thrombolectomy, and histopathological examination revealed a highly aggressive tumor composed of monotonous sheets of round cells. Tumor cells were positive for CD 99 and FLI-1, hence confirming the diagnosis of Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor. Post-surgery, patient was given VAC/IE-based adjuvant chemotherapy. In view of highly aggressive nature of this tumor, prompt diagnosis and imparting effective chemotherapy regimen to the patient is required, and it is important to differentiate PNET from other small round-cell tumors because of different therapeutic approach.

  14. Mechatronics Design of a Mobile Robot System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad A. Mahfouz

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Mobile robot motion control is simplified to a DC motor motion control that may include gear system. The simplest and widespread approach to control the mobile robot motion is the differential drive style, it consists of two in-lines with each a DC motor. Both DC motors are independently powered so the desired movements will rely on how these two DC motors are commanded. Thedevelop design, model and control of Mechatronics mobile robotic system is presented in this paper. The developed robotic system is intended for research purposes as well as for educational process. The model of proposed mobile robot was created and verified using MATLAB-Simulink software.

  15. SYCAMORE CANYON PRIMITIVE AREA, ARIZONA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huff, Lyman C.; Raabe, R.C.

    1984-01-01

    The Sycamore Canyon Primitive Area, which occupies about 74 sq mi, lies about 24 mi southwest of Flagstaff, Arizona. To help evaluate the area for mineral resources, sediment samples were collected along Sycamore Creek and its tributaries. These were analyzed for traces of the ore metals without finding any local concentrations. In addition, a scintillometer was used to test rocks in the area without finding any abnormal radioactivity.

  16. Universal Reconfiguration of (Hyper-)cubic Robots

    OpenAIRE

    Abel, Zachary; Kominers, Scott D.

    2008-01-01

    We study a simple reconfigurable robot model which has not been previously examined: cubic robots comprised of three-dimensional cubic modules which can slide across each other and rotate about each others' edges. We demonstrate that the cubic robot model is universal, i.e., that an n-module cubic robot can reconfigure itself into any specified n-module configuration. Additionally, we provide an algorithm that efficiently plans and executes cubic robot motion. Our results directly extend to a...

  17. Infrared Motion Sensing for Human-Following with Mobile Robots%实现机器人随动的红外感知方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯国栋; 刘敏; 王国利

    2012-01-01

    Considering the requirements for target localization of human-following robots, a hierarchical infrared motion sensing paradigm and its physical implementation using pyroelectric infrared (PIR) sensors are presented. From the perspec-tive of sensing model, the proposed sensing paradigm is structured in two tiers. The bottom tier is the geometric sensing tier, and it is composed of geometric sensing units, which offer multi-view bearing measurements of a moving target within the field of view (FOV) of a robot. The upper tier is the cooperative sensing tier, and it coordinates the geometric sensing units at the bottom tier to localize the moving target. From the perspective of physical implementation, at the bottom tier, the geometric sensing units for measuring the bearing information of the moving target are constructed by combining PIR sensors and Fresnel lens arrays. At the upper tier, the least square optimization is used to fuse the multi-view bearing measurements to obtain the position information of the moving target. The experimental results are given to validate the proposed sensing method in the context of human-following with mobile robots. Compared with the multi-view optical vision techniques, the proposed method has irreplaceable advantages of high sensing efficiency, robustness to illumination and background changes, low-cost and low energy consumption.%结合机器人随动任务对人体运动定位的需求,提出一种分层递阶结构的红外运动感知模式,及基于热释电红外传感器的物理实现方法.在传感模型方面,采用两层递阶结构的感知模式:底层为由多个几何传感单元构成的几何传感层,在机器人视野内实现多视角运动目标的方位测量;上层为协作感知层,用来组织底层各几何传感单元的协作,实现运动目标的定位测量.在物理实现方面,底层组合热释电红外传感阵列与菲涅尔透镜组,构建运动目标方位角测量所需的几何传感单

  18. Robot maps, robot moves, robot avoids

    OpenAIRE

    Farrugia, Claire

    2014-01-01

    Robotics is a cornerstone for this century’s innovations. From robot nurses to your own personal assistant, most robots need to know: ‘where is it?’ ‘Where should it go?’ And ‘how to get there?’ Without answers to these questions a robot cannot do much. http://www.um.edu.mt/think/robot-maps-robot-moves-robot-avoids/

  19. Robot maps, robot moves, robot avoids

    OpenAIRE

    Farrugia, Claire; Duca, Edward

    2014-01-01

    Robotics is a cornerstone for this century’s innovations. From robot nurses to your own personal assistant, most robots need to know: ‘where is it?’ ‘Where should it go?’ And ‘how to get there?’ Without answers to these questions a robot cannot do much. http://www.um.edu.mt/think/robot-maps-robot-moves-robot-avoids/

  20. 基于自适应动态碰撞检测的工业机器人运动规划算法研究%A novel motion planning algorithm with adaptive dynamic collision detection for industrial robots

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金明杰; 楼云江; 刘冠峰; 凌强

    2012-01-01

    A PRM (probabilistic roadmaps) based novel motion planning algorithm was proposed for industrial robots. It could significantly reduce computational efforts by carrying out robot path calculation in both Cartesian space and configuration space. This algorithm was embedded with a fast space partition method to improve sampling efficiency. Since both the robot and obstacles were modeled as cuboids, the static collision detection was formulated as a convex optimization problem. By applying the adaptive dynamic collision detection method, the motion planning problem was solved efficiently and completely without loss of computation precision.%提出了一种基于PRM (probabilistic roadmaps)算法思想的新型工业机器人运动规划算法.将PRM规划算法由全部C空间计算优化为大部分在欧氏空间、小部分在C空间的计算模式,大幅减少了计算量;使用优化空间分割方法提高采样效率;采用凸优化方法解决了机器人静止姿态碰撞检测问题,并结合自适应动态碰撞检测算法,实现在不降低计算精度的前提下,提高运算速度,使规划结果具有完备性.

  1. Robot Actors, Robot Dramaturgies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jochum, Elizabeth

    This paper considers the use of tele-operated robots in live performance. Robots and performance have long been linked, from the working androids and automata staged in popular exhibitions during the nineteenth century and the robots featured at Cybernetic Serendipity (1968) and the World Expo...

  2. Robot Actors, Robot Dramaturgies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jochum, Elizabeth

    This paper considers the use of tele-operated robots in live performance. Robots and performance have long been linked, from the working androids and automata staged in popular exhibitions during the nineteenth century and the robots featured at Cybernetic Serendipity (1968) and the World Expo...

  3. Basic Operational Robotics Instructional System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd, Brian Keith; Fischer, James; Falgout, Jane; Schweers, John

    2013-01-01

    The Basic Operational Robotics Instructional System (BORIS) is a six-degree-of-freedom rotational robotic manipulator system simulation used for training of fundamental robotics concepts, with in-line shoulder, offset elbow, and offset wrist. BORIS is used to provide generic robotics training to aerospace professionals including flight crews, flight controllers, and robotics instructors. It uses forward kinematic and inverse kinematic algorithms to simulate joint and end-effector motion, combined with a multibody dynamics model, moving-object contact model, and X-Windows based graphical user interfaces, coordinated in the Trick Simulation modeling environment. The motivation for development of BORIS was the need for a generic system for basic robotics training. Before BORIS, introductory robotics training was done with either the SRMS (Shuttle Remote Manipulator System) or SSRMS (Space Station Remote Manipulator System) simulations. The unique construction of each of these systems required some specialized training that distracted students from the ideas and goals of the basic robotics instruction.

  4. A Non-Newtonian Fluid Robot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hachmon, Guy; Mamet, Noam; Sasson, Sapir; Barkai, Tal; Hadar, Nomi; Abu-Horowitz, Almogit; Bachelet, Ido

    2016-01-01

    New types of robots inspired by biological principles of assembly, locomotion, and behavior have been recently described. In this work we explored the concept of robots that are based on more fundamental physical phenomena, such as fluid dynamics, and their potential capabilities. We report a robot made entirely of non-Newtonian fluid, driven by shear strains created by spatial patterns of audio waves. We demonstrate various robotic primitives such as locomotion and transport of metallic loads-up to 6-fold heavier than the robot itself-between points on a surface, splitting and merging, shapeshifting, percolation through gratings, and counting to 3. We also utilized interactions between multiple robots carrying chemical loads to drive a bulk chemical synthesis reaction. Free of constraints such as skin or obligatory structural integrity, fluid robots represent a radically different design that could adapt more easily to unfamiliar, hostile, or chaotic environments and carry out tasks that neither living organisms nor conventional machines are capable of.

  5. Robotic architectures

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mtshali, M

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In the development of mobile robotic systems, a robotic architecture plays a crucial role in interconnecting all the sub-systems and controlling the system. The design of robotic architectures for mobile autonomous robots is a challenging...

  6. Research on Motion Trajectory Control of Fruit and Vegetable Picking Robot Based on RBF Network%基于RBF网络的果蔬采摘机器人运动轨迹控制研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    薛亮; 樊卫国; 汪小志

    2016-01-01

    In order to improve the accuracy of robot manipulator movement and improve the efficiency of robot movement, a methodis proposed based on genetic algorithm and RBF neural network .The robot manipulator's movement and the whole trajectory are optimized.In order to verify the design of the picking robot reliability, in the experimental green-house on the robot's picking performance were tested, test items include robot path planning of mobile and manipulator path planning.Through the test, we found that using the RBF neural network algorithm can effectively control of manipu-lator motion in the three-dimensional space, in under the control of the genetic algorithm, the robot can with less amount of calculation using neural network algorithm search to get the optimal path, and the calculation precision is above 99%, for its high accuracy, which provides a valuable reference for the fast computational efficiency and effect of high vegetable production picking robot design.%为了提高果蔬采摘机器人机械手运动的精确性,提高机器人移动的效率,提出了一种基于遗传算法和RBF网络的机器人运动轨迹控制方法,并对果蔬机器人机械手的活动和整体的移动轨迹进行优化,有效地提高了果蔬采摘机器人的工作精度和作业效率。为了验证设计的采摘机器人的可靠性,在大棚内对机器人的采摘性能进行了测试,包括机器人移动路径规划和机械手路径规划。通过测试发现:使用 RBF 神经网络算法可以有效地控制机械手在三维空间内的运动;在遗传算法控制下,机器人可以通过较少的计算次数利用神经网络算法搜索得到最优路径,计算精度达到了99%以上。其计算精度及效率高,为高效果蔬采摘机器人的设计提供了较有价值的参考。

  7. Introduction to humanoid robotics

    CERN Document Server

    Kajita, Shuuji; Harada, Kensuke; Yokoi, Kazuhito

    2014-01-01

    This book is for researchers, engineers, and students who are willing to understand how humanoid robots move and be controlled. The book starts with an overview of the humanoid robotics research history and state of the art. Then it explains the required mathematics and physics such as kinematics of multi-body system, Zero-Moment Point (ZMP) and its relationship with body motion. Biped walking control is discussed in depth, since it is one of the main interests of humanoid robotics. Various topics of the whole body motion generation are also discussed. Finally multi-body dynamics is presented to simulate the complete dynamic behavior of a humanoid robot. Throughout the book, Matlab codes are shown to test the algorithms and to help the reader´s understanding.

  8. Obstacle Avoidance Criteria Based Motion Planning for Dual-arm Mobile Robot Moving within Truss%基于避障准则的双臂手移动机器人桁架内运动规划

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴伟国; 吴鹏

    2012-01-01

    Motion planning approach for dual-arm mobile robot within a truss is studied based on the obstacle avoidance requirements when moving in truss. The collision-free path search algorithm for end-effector in Cartesian coordinate space is proposed based on state-space model, which avoids the problem of complexity growing exponentially in Configuration space (C space) and achieves the requirement of truss bar could either be a target or and obstacle. Obstacle avoidance criteria within the plane for three-arm of dual-arm mobile robot is established, which solves the problem that robot's arms collide with truss bar when the robot moves in truss space. According to the obstacle avoidance criteria within the plane and arm configurations signs, the analytical solution of each joint angle is obtained, which solves the problem that the numerical solution is not closed. The gesture of end-effector in each moment is interpolated linearly by general rotation transformation formula. Matlab is used to model and simulate the dual-arm mobile robot's motion in the truss to verify the feasibility of the obstacle avoidance approach for the motion in the truss.%针对桁架内移动的避障要求,研究双臂手移动机器人桁架内运动的规划方法.基于状态空间模型提出直角坐标空间下的六面心、八边心和八顶点搜索算法,避免了C空间内复杂度呈几何级数增长的问题,实现了末端无碰撞路径搜索.建立双臂手移动机器人三节臂的平面内避障准则,解决了机器人在桁架内运动时机器人臂与桁架杆的碰撞问题.根据平面内避障准则和臂形标志,求得了各个关节角的解析解,解决了数值解的不封闭问题.每个时刻末端姿态由通用旋转变换公式线性插值得到,在Matlab中仿真双臂手移动机器人桁架内的运动,验证了双臂手移动机器人在桁架内运动时避障方法的可行性.

  9. Quantum Robots and Environments

    CERN Document Server

    Benioff, P

    1998-01-01

    Quantum robots and their interactions with environments of quantum systems are described and their study justified. A quantum robot is a mobile quantum system that includes a quantum computer and needed ancillary systems on board. Quantum robots carry out tasks whose goals include specified changes in the state of the environment or carrying out measurements on the environment. Each task is a sequence of alternating computation and action phases. Computation phase activities include determination of the action to be carried out in the next phase and possible recording of information on neighborhood environmental system states. Action phase activities include motion of the quantum robot and changes of neighborhood environment system states. Models of quantum robots and their interactions with environments are described using discrete space and time. To each task is associated a unitary step operator T that gives the single time step dynamics. T = T_{a}+T_{c} is a sum of action phase and computation phase step ...

  10. Stardust silicates from primitive meteorites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagashima, Kazuhide; Krot, Alexander N; Yurimoto, Hisayoshi

    2004-04-29

    Primitive chondritic meteorites contain material (presolar grains), at the level of a few parts per million, that predates the formation of our Solar System. Astronomical observations and the chemical composition of the Sun both suggest that silicates must have been the dominant solids in the protoplanetary disk from which the planets of the Solar System formed, but no presolar silicates have been identified in chondrites. Here we report the in situ discovery of presolar silicate grains 0.1-1 microm in size in the matrices of two primitive carbonaceous chondrites. These grains are highly enriched in 17O (delta17O(SMOW) > 100-400 per thousand ), but have solar silicon isotopic compositions within analytical uncertainties, suggesting an origin in an oxygen-rich red giant or an asymptotic giant branch star. The estimated abundance of these presolar silicates (3-30 parts per million) is higher than reported for other types of presolar grains in meteorites, consistent with their ubiquity in the early Solar System, but is about two orders of magnitude lower than their abundance in anhydrous interplanetary dust particles. This result is best explained by the destruction of silicates during high-temperature processing in the solar nebula.

  11. Primitives for Contract-based Synchronization

    CERN Document Server

    Bartoletti, Massimo; 10.4204/EPTCS.38.8

    2010-01-01

    We investigate how contracts can be used to regulate the interaction between processes. To do that, we study a variant of the concurrent constraints calculus presented in [1], featuring primitives for multi-party synchronization via contracts. We proceed in two directions. First, we exploit our primitives to model some contract-based interactions. Then, we discuss how several models for concurrency can be expressed through our primitives. In particular, we encode the pi-calculus and graph rewriting.

  12. Primitives for Contract-based Synchronization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimo Bartoletti

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available We investigate how contracts can be used to regulate the interaction between processes. To do that, we study a variant of the concurrent constraints calculus presented in [1], featuring primitives for multi-party synchronization via contracts. We proceed in two directions. First, we exploit our primitives to model some contract-based interactions. Then, we discuss how several models for concurrency can be expressed through our primitives. In particular, we encode the pi-calculus and graph rewriting.

  13. Task-Level Robot Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-08-01

    Massachusetts Institute of Techonology 1988 Accession For *JTIS GRA&I DTIC TAB Unanlounced fl Just ificatlon By _, Dntribut Ion/- Ava il.,blity Codes Avail...Cartesian coordinates to the sensor system. In a different context, the stereo vision model of a mobile robot [Brooks, Flynn, and Marill 1987] is...A.M. Flynn, and T. Marill, "Self-Calibration of Motion and Stereo Vision for Mobile Robots", Fourth Intl. Symposium on Robotics Research, (Santa Cruz

  14. 06421 Executive Summary -- Robot Navigation

    OpenAIRE

    Fekete, Sándor; Fleischer, Rudolf; Klein, Rolf; Lopez-Ortiz, Alejandro

    2007-01-01

    For quite a number of years, researchers from various fields have studied problems motivated by Robot Navigation. People in Online Algorithms have developed strategies that can deal with the inherent lack of information an autonomous robot encounters, as it sets out to perform a task in an unknown environment. Computational Geometers have obtained many results on the efficient planning of collision-free motions, and on visibility problems. Scientists and engineers in Robotics have perfected r...

  15. Machine learning in motion control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Renjeng; Kermiche, Noureddine

    1989-01-01

    The existing methodologies for robot programming originate primarily from robotic applications to manufacturing, where uncertainties of the robots and their task environment may be minimized by repeated off-line modeling and identification. In space application of robots, however, a higher degree of automation is required for robot programming because of the desire of minimizing the human intervention. We discuss a new paradigm of robotic programming which is based on the concept of machine learning. The goal is to let robots practice tasks by themselves and the operational data are used to automatically improve their motion performance. The underlying mathematical problem is to solve the problem of dynamical inverse by iterative methods. One of the key questions is how to ensure the convergence of the iterative process. There have been a few small steps taken into this important approach to robot programming. We give a representative result on the convergence problem.

  16. Machine learning in motion control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Renjeng; Kermiche, Noureddine

    1989-01-01

    The existing methodologies for robot programming originate primarily from robotic applications to manufacturing, where uncertainties of the robots and their task environment may be minimized by repeated off-line modeling and identification. In space application of robots, however, a higher degree of automation is required for robot programming because of the desire of minimizing the human intervention. We discuss a new paradigm of robotic programming which is based on the concept of machine learning. The goal is to let robots practice tasks by themselves and the operational data are used to automatically improve their motion performance. The underlying mathematical problem is to solve the problem of dynamical inverse by iterative methods. One of the key questions is how to ensure the convergence of the iterative process. There have been a few small steps taken into this important approach to robot programming. We give a representative result on the convergence problem.

  17. Distributed formation control for autonomous robots

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Garcia de Marina Peinado, Hector Jesús

    2016-01-01

    This thesis addresses several theoretical and practical problems related to formation-control of autonomous robots. Formation-control aims to simultaneously accomplish the tasks of forming a desired shape by the robots and controlling their coordinated collective motion. This kind of robot performan

  18. Robot and robot system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behar, Alberto E. (Inventor); Marzwell, Neville I. (Inventor); Wall, Jonathan N. (Inventor); Poole, Michael D. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A robot and robot system that are capable of functioning in a zero-gravity environment are provided. The robot can include a body having a longitudinal axis and having a control unit and a power source. The robot can include a first leg pair including a first leg and a second leg. Each leg of the first leg pair can be pivotally attached to the body and constrained to pivot in a first leg pair plane that is substantially perpendicular to the longitudinal axis of the body.

  19. Design and Experimental Implementation of Bipedal robot

    OpenAIRE

    Sreejith C; Sreeshma K

    2012-01-01

    Biped robots have better mobility than conventional wheeled robots, but they tend to tip over easily. To be able to walk stably in various environments, such as on rough terrain, up and down slopes, or in regions containing obstacles, it is necessary for the robot to adapt to the ground conditions with a foot motion, and maintain its stability with a torso motion. In this paper, we first formulate the design and walking pattern for a bipedal robot and then a kicking robot has been developed f...

  20. Modelling of industrial robot in LabView Robotics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banas, W.; Cwikła, G.; Foit, K.; Gwiazda, A.; Monica, Z.; Sekala, A.

    2017-08-01

    Currently can find many models of industrial systems including robots. These models differ from each other not only by the accuracy representation parameters, but the representation range. For example, CAD models describe the geometry of the robot and some even designate a mass parameters as mass, center of gravity, moment of inertia, etc. These models are used in the design of robotic lines and sockets. Also systems for off-line programming use these models and many of them can be exported to CAD. It is important to note that models for off-line programming describe not only the geometry but contain the information necessary to create a program for the robot. Exports from CAD to off-line programming system requires additional information. These models are used for static determination of reachability points, and testing collision. It’s enough to generate a program for the robot, and even check the interaction of elements of the production line, or robotic cell. Mathematical models allow robots to study the properties of kinematic and dynamic of robot movement. In these models the geometry is not so important, so are used only selected parameters such as the length of the robot arm, the center of gravity, moment of inertia. These parameters are introduced into the equations of motion of the robot and motion parameters are determined.

  1. Development of a Biomimetic Quadruped Robot

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Thanhtam Ho; Sunghac Choi; Sangyoon Lee

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents the design and prototype of a small quadruped robot whose walking motion is realized by two piezocomposite actuators. In the design, biomimetic ideas are employed to obtain the agility of motions and sustainability of a heavy load. The design of the robot legs is inspired by the leg configuration of insects, two joints (hip and knee) of the leg enable two basic motions, lifting and stepping. The robot frame is designed to have a slope relative to the horizontal plane, which makes the robot move forward. In addition, the bounding locomotion of quadruped animals is implemented in the robot. Experiments show that the robot can carry an additional load of about 100 g and run with a fairly high velocity. The quadruped prototype can be an important step towards the goal of building an autonomous mobile robot actuated by piezocomposite actuators.

  2. Recent developments in motion planning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Overmars, M.H.

    2002-01-01

    Motion planning is becoming an important topic in many application areas, ranging from robotics to virtual environments and games. In this paper I review some recent results in motion planning, concentrating on the probabilistic roadmap approach that has proven to be very successful for many motion

  3. Design and Implementation for the Motion Control System of Three Wheeled Omni-directional Mobile Robot%三足全向移动机器人运动控制系统的设计与实现

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周卓洋; 占颂

    2015-01-01

    Multi-directional robot can move in different directions without changing its posture.In these multi-directional robots,the most popular one is three wheeled multi-directional robot.In order to realize the motion control system,the design,selection and optimization of the system has been taken.Using the MSP430 Single chip microcomputer,as long as the wireless communication module、motor driver module and sensor module,we realized the control system.%全向移动机器人可以在不改变自身位置的情况下实现多方向的快速运动,在全向移动机器人领域中以三足全向移动机器人最为突出。本文为保证机器人运动控制系统的实现,对控制系统硬件结构进行了设计、选型、优化,最后选择了利用MSP430单片机作为运动控制系统微控制器,搭载无线通信模块、电机驱动模块、传感器模块的移动机器人控制系统方案。

  4. Anatomy-Based Organization of Modular Robots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, David Johan; Campbell, Jason

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a novel biologically inspired hierarchical approach to organizing and controlling modular robots. The purpose of our approach is to decompose the complexity of assembling and commanding a functional robot made of numerous simple modules (thousands to millions) by introducing...... a hierarchy of structure and control. The robots we describe incorporate anatomically inspired parts such as muscles, bones and joints, and these parts in turn are assembled from modules. Each of those parts encapsulates one or more functions, e.g. a muscle can contract. Control of the robot can then be cast...... as a problem of controlling its anatomical parts rather than each discrete module. We show simulation results from experiments using gradient-based primitives to control parts of increasingly complex robots, including snake, crawler, cilia-surface, arm-joint-muscle and grasping robots. We conclude...

  5. Push recovery for the standing under-actuated bipedal robot using the hip strategy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chao LI; Rong XIONG‡; Qiu-guo ZHU; Jun WU; Ya-liang WANG; Yi-ming HUANG

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a control algorithm for push recovery, which particularly focuses on the hip strategy when an external disturbance is applied on the body of a standing under-actuated biped. By analyzing a simplified dynamic model of a bipedal robot in the stance phase, it is found that horizontal stability can be maintained with a suitably controlled torque applied at the hip. However, errors in the angle or angular velocity of body posture may appear, due to the dynamic coupling of the transla-tional and rotational motions. To solve this problem, different hip strategies are discussed for two cases when (1) external dis-turbance is applied on the center of mass (CoM) and (2) external torque is acting around the CoM, and a universal hip strategy is derived for most disturbances. Moreover, three torque primitives for the hip, depending on the type of disturbance, are designed to achieve translational and rotational balance recovery simultaneously. Compared with closed-loop control, the advantage of the open-loop methods of torque primitives lies in rapid response and reasonable performance. Finally, simulation studies of the push recovery of a bipedal robot are presented to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed methods.

  6. Remote Control and Children's Understanding of Robots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somanader, Mark C.; Saylor, Megan M.; Levin, Daniel T.

    2011-01-01

    Children use goal-directed motion to classify agents as living things from early in infancy. In the current study, we asked whether preschoolers are flexible in their application of this criterion by introducing them to robots that engaged in goal-directed motion. In one case the robot appeared to move fully autonomously, and in the other case it…

  7. Design and omnidirectional motion control of hexapod robot with a steering-wheel%转向盘式六足机器人设计及全方位运动控制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王国富; 高峰; 罗杨宇; 徐国艳

    2012-01-01

    The omnidirectional walking robot with a steering-wheel synthesizes the mechanism features of legged robot and vehicle's steering wheel.To investigate the kinematic characteristics and motion control systematically,the design idea,mechanism features and kinematics principle of the robot are introduced.Then an equivalent manipulator model is built,the Jacobian of the manipulator is given and dynamics both in joint space and Cartesian space are developed,the resulting nonlinear closed-loop control system can be obtained based on the formulated dynamics equations.The co-simulation PID control of omnidirectional motion is implemented based on ADAMS and Matlab/Simulink,the experiments on the prototype is performed.The simulation and experiments validate that the robot with a steering wheel can be manipulated flexibly and accurately in omnidirectional motion,and the control method is simple and reliable.%基于转向盘的全方位步行机器人综合了腿式机器人与车辆方向盘的结构特征,为了对其运动性能及运动控制进行系统研究,介绍了该机器人的设计思想、机构特色及运动原理.建立了该机器人的等效操作臂模型,给出操作臂的雅克比矩阵,推导出操作臂在关节空间和笛卡尔空间下的动力学方程,以此给出了转向系统的非线性闭环控制模型.基于Adams与Matlab/Simulink对机器人全方位运动进行了PID联合控制仿真,并对样机模型进行了实验研究.结果表明:转向盘式步行机器人在全方位运动控制方面灵活性好,方向精度高,控制简单可靠.

  8. Control of robot dynamics using acceleration control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Workman, G. L.; Prateru, S.; Li, W.; Hinman, Elaine

    1992-01-01

    Acceleration control of robotic devices can provide improvements to many space-based operations using flexible manipulators and to ground-based operations requiring better precision and efficiency than current industrial robots can provide. This paper reports on a preliminary study of acceleration measurement on robotic motion during parabolic flights on the NASA KC-135 and a parallel study of accelerations with and without gravity arising from computer simulated motions using TREETOPS software.

  9. Control and Experiment for Exoskeleton Robot Based on Kalman Prediction of Human Motion Intent%基于人体运动意图卡尔曼预测的外骨骼机器人控制及实验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    龙亿; 杜志江; 王伟东

    2015-01-01

    To accurately acquire human motion intent for exoskeleton control, torque sensors are used to measure human-robot interaction information. Based on the single pendulum model of human swing leg, the motion trajectory of lower limb joints is obtained, which is predicted with Kalman filter to compensate the delay of motion intent. The PD (proportional-derivative) control law is used to control exoskeleton to track the joint trajectory of human swing leg, and real-time position of the exoskeleton joint is fed back by the encoder, which forms a closed-loop position control. Experiments on the exoskeleton swing leg are conducted and the results show that motion intent of human swing leg can be predicted with the measured human-robot interaction information using Kalman filter, and the exoskeleton robot can achieve the joint trajectory tracking of human swing leg. Therefore, the proposed method is effective.%为在外骨骼控制中准确获取人体运动意图,本文使用力矩传感器测量人机交互信息。基于人体下肢摆动腿的单摆模型获得摆动腿关节的运动轨迹,并使用卡尔曼滤波进行预测,从而弥补意图延时。使用PD(比例-微分)控制律控制外骨骼跟踪人体摆动腿的关节轨迹,编码器反馈外骨骼关节的实时位置,形成位置闭环控制。进行外骨骼摆动腿实验,结果表明,测得的人机交互信息经过卡尔曼滤波后,可以预测人体摆动腿的运动意图,外骨骼机器人能够实现对人体摆动腿关节轨迹的跟随,所提方法可行。

  10. General techniques for constrained motion planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, Yong K.; Watterberg, P.A.; Chen, Pang, C.; Lewis, C.L.

    1997-02-01

    This report presents automatic motion planning algorithms for robotic manipulators performing a variety of tasks. Given a task and a robot manipulator equipped with a tool in its hand, the motion planners compute robot motions to complete the task while respecting manipulator kinematic constraints and avoiding collisions with objects in the robot`s work space. To handle the high complexity of the motion planning problem, a sophisticated search strategy called SANDROS is developed and used to solve many variations of the motion planning problem. To facilitate systematic development of motion planning algorithms, robotic tasks are classified into three categories according to the dimension of the manifold the robot tool has to travel: visit-point (0 dimensional), trace-curve (1 dimensional) and cover-surface (2 dimensional) tasks. The motion planner for a particular dimension is used as a sub-module by the motion planner for the next-higher dimension. This hierarchy of motion planners has led to a set of compact and systematic algorithms that can plan robot motions for many types of robotic operations. In addition, an algorithm is developed that determines the optimal robot-base configuration for minimum cycle time. The SANDROS search paradigm is complete in that it finds a solution path if one exists, up to a user specified resolution. Although its worst-case time complexity is exponential in the degrees of freedom of the manipulator, its average performance is commensurate with the complexity of the solution path. Since solution paths for most of motion planning problems consist of a few monotone segments, the motion planners based on SANDROS search strategy show approximately two-orders of magnitude improvements over existing complete algorithms.

  11. Towards Using a Generic Robot as Training Partner

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Anders Stengaard; Savarimuthu, Thiusius Rajeeth; Nielsen, Jacob

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we demonstrate how a generic industrial robot can be used as a training partner, for upper limb training. The motion path and human/robot interaction of a non-generic upper-arm training robot is transferred to a generic industrial robot arm, and we demonstrate that the robot arm can...... implement the same type of interaction, but can expand the training regime to include both upper arm and shoulder training. We compare the generic robot to two affordable but custom-built training robots, and outline interesting directions for future work based on these training robots....

  12. 25th Conference on Robotics in Alpe-Adria-Danube Region

    CERN Document Server

    Borangiu, Theodor

    2017-01-01

    This book presents the proceedings of the 25th International Conference on Robotics in Alpe-Adria-Danube Region, RAAD 2016 held in Belgrade, Serbia, on June 30th–July 2nd, 2016. In keeping with the tradition of the event, RAAD 2016 covered all the important areas of research and innovation in new robot designs and intelligent robot control, with papers including Intelligent robot motion control; Robot vision and sensory processing; Novel design of robot manipulators and grippers; Robot applications in manufacturing and services; Autonomous systems, humanoid and walking robots; Human–robot interaction and collaboration; Cognitive robots and emotional intelligence; Medical, human-assistive robots and prosthetic design; Robots in construction and arts, and Evolution, education, legal and social issues of robotics. For the first time in RAAD history, the themes cloud robots, legal and ethical issues in robotics as well as robots in arts were included in the technical program. The book is a valuable resource f...

  13. Hiding robot inertia using resonance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallery, Heike; Duschau-Wicke, Alexander; Riener, Robert

    2010-01-01

    To enable compliant training modes with a rehabilitation robot, an important prerequisite is that any undesired human-robot interaction forces caused by robot dynamics must be avoided, either by an appropriate mechanical design or by compensating control strategies. Our recently proposed control scheme of "Generalized Elasticities" employs potential fields to compensate for robot dynamics, including inertia, beyond what can be done using closed-loop force control. In this paper, we give a simple mechanical equivalent using the example of the gait rehabilitation robot Lokomat. The robot consists of an exoskeleton that is attached to a frame around the patient's pelvis. This frame is suspended by a springloaded parallelogram structure. The mechanism allows vertical displacement while providing almost constant robot gravity compensation. However, inertia of the device when the patient's pelvis moves up and down remains a source of large interaction forces, which are reflected in increased ground reaction forces. Here, we investigate an alternative suspension: To hide not only gravity, but also robot inertia during vertical pelvis motion, we suspend the robot frame by a stiff linear spring that allows the robot to oscillate vertically at an eigenfrequency close to the natural gait frequency. This mechanism reduces human-robot interaction forces, which is demonstrated in pilot experimental results.

  14. Design and Motion Control of Ball-shaped Robot with Stereo Vision%具有立体视觉的球形机器人及其运动控制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶平; 韩亮亮; 张天石; 王轩; 孙汉旭

    2013-01-01

    针对现有球形机器人存在环境感知能力较弱、运动控制精度不高的问题,提出一种具有立体视觉的新型球形机器人Visionbot.介绍Visionbot机器人的机械结构,采用具有非完整约束的拉格朗日方程建立该球形机器人的动力学模型.针对状态变量过多难以用于控制系统设计的问题,对球形机器人的动力学模型进行合理简化.利用模型解耦、线性化以及状态反馈等方法,建立该球形机器人的运动控制模型,包括内环力矩控制器和外环路径跟踪控制器.采用延时环节对视觉反馈通道的时延进行建模,建立具有视觉反馈的球形机器人运动控制模型.通过运动仿真试验,研究机器人重摆质量、视觉反馈延时对其运动控制性能的影响,并验证系统设计的可行性.研究结果为Visionbot机器人的优化设计和样机研制提供理论基础.%Because existing ball-shaped robots have many drawbacks,such as weak capability of environmental perception and low precision of motion control,a novel ball-shaped robot with stereo vision,referred to as Visionbot,is proposed.After introduction of mechanical structure of the Visionbot,dynamic model of the robot is developed by using the constrained general Lagrangian formulation,as well as model simplification under reasonable assumptions.Based on a linearization approach,dynamic model of the robot is decomposed,and motion controller is designed,including two inner torque controllers and an outer path tracking controller.A motion control algorithm with delayed visual feedback is designed for the robot.Effects of pendulum mass and delayed visual feedback on performance of the control algorithm is studied by simulated experiments.Experimental results not only validate the feasibility of system design,but also can be used to do the optimum design and prototype development of the robot.

  15. PRINCIPLE,CONSTRUCTION AND KINEMATIC ANALYSIS FOR THE OMNIDIRECTIONAL MOBILE ROBOT--ICE-SKATER ROBOT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋立博; 吕恬生; 费燕琼; 袁池

    2002-01-01

    Three main basic types of locomotion for a mobile robot were introduced and the advantages and disadvantages of a legged mobile robot, a wheeled mobile robot and an articulated mobile robot were also discussed. A new type of leg-wheeled mobile robot was introduced which combines the adaptability of legged robot with the stability of wheeled robot. On the basis of the structure of the wheels, the paper described the principle of the iceskater robot developed from Roller-walker and ALDURO and its construction. The paper also established an inertia coordinate system and a wheel coordinate system, and analyzed the configuration or the posture and the related kinematic constraints of the robot according to some assumptions. Based on the motion principle, a logic-based coordinated control system and corresponded flowchart were designed. At last, taking the ice-skater robot as an example the paper expounded its application and the actual experiment proved its feasibility.

  16. Motion planning for gantry mounted manipulators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Anders Lau; Petersen, Henrik Gordon

    2007-01-01

    We present a roadmap based planner for finding robot motions for gantry mounted manipulators for a line welding application at Odense Steel Shipyard (OSS). The robot motions are planned subject to constraints on when the gantry may be moved. We show that random sampling of gantry configurations...

  17. Motion Planning of Robot on the Basis of Task Decomposition and Speed Distribution%基于任务分解和速度分配的机器人运动规划

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张勤; 范长湘

    2016-01-01

    In order to overcome the motion difficulties of robot near its singularities,a new motion planning algo-rithm is proposed on the basis of task decomposition and speed distribution.In this algorithm,the control task is di-vided into several sub-tasks according to their priorities,and each sub-task is controlled independently.The velocity component of each sub-task is determined according to the driving capability of joint motors and the priority of each sub-task,which helps implement the coordinated movement of robot even in the condition of low flexibility when the robot moves near the singularities or stays in the singularities,thus achieving the control objective and avoiding the vibration,excessive end-effector error and system instability caused by the sudden change of joint relative velocity. By taking a PUMA robot for example,the composition of the control system is illustrated,and the feasibility of the proposed method is proved via simulation.%为了克服机器人在奇异点附近的运动障碍,提出基于任务分解和速度分配的机器人运动规划方法:将控制任务按照优先顺序分解成若干项子任务分别进行控制;根据电机的驱动能力和任务优先顺序确定各项子任务的速度分配,以便在机器人处于奇异姿态或在奇异姿态附近,其灵活性降低的情况下,机器人也能够协调运动,保证重要控制目标的实现,避免由于速度突变造成的机器人抖动、末端误差过大和控制系统不稳定现象。最后以PUMA机器人为例,说明了控制系统的构成,并通过仿真证明了文中方法的可行性。

  18. Multi-Locomotion Robotic Systems New Concepts of Bio-inspired Robotics

    CERN Document Server

    Fukuda, Toshio; Sekiyama, Kosuke; Aoyama, Tadayoshi

    2012-01-01

    Nowadays, multiple attention have been paid on a robot working in the human living environment, such as in the field of medical, welfare, entertainment and so on. Various types of researches are being conducted actively in a variety of fields such as artificial intelligence, cognitive engineering, sensor- technology, interfaces and motion control. In the future, it is expected to realize super high functional human-like robot by integrating technologies in various fields including these types of researches. The book represents new developments and advances in the field of bio-inspired robotics research introducing the state of the art, the idea of multi-locomotion robotic system to implement the diversity of animal motion. It covers theoretical and computational aspects of Passive Dynamic Autonomous Control (PDAC), robot motion control, multi legged walking and climbing as well as brachiation focusing concrete robot systems, components and applications. In addition, gorilla type robot systems are described as...

  19. The Structure Design and Motion Simulation of Grain Flatting Robot%平粮机器人结构设计及运动仿真

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋林; 金祖飞; 刘晓磊; 晏晚君; 叶维林; 蔡军; 张新友

    2015-01-01

    At present the grain surface flatting operation of each grain storage essentially manually , not only labor inten-sive , low efficiency , but more dust in the grain storage , grain easy mobility resulting a serious security risk to staff . Therefore develop a grain flatting robot instead of manually work to operate the grain surface flatting has a broad market prospects and practical value .The dissertation designed a grain surface flatting robot for large size horizontal warehouse , establishing a three-dimensional model of the robot , and developed the robot physical prototype .When it works , grain particle will enter into the meshing area of track and track wheel deforming the track , it impacts the walking of robot . Therefore , track seal was added to the track to avoid grain particle enter into the track .Then use of simulation software Recurdyn on grain flatting robot dynamics simulation , take the analysis focused on the robot ’ s ability of pivot turning and climbing , and determine the maximum angle of climbing , the experiments verified the reasonableness and validity of the robot structure .Finally , we establish experimental environment to experiment the grain surface flatting properties of ro-bot .The experimental results show the robot can completed grain surface flatting work in a certain extent .%目前,粮食储备库基本上采用人工进行粮面平整作业,不仅劳动强度大、效率低,而且由于粮库内粉尘多、粮食易流动性大给工作人员造成严重的安全隐患,研发一种平粮机器人代替人工进行粮面平整工作具有广阔市场前景和实用价值。为此,设计一种适用于高大平房仓的平粮机器人,建立其三维模型,并研制机器人实物样机。同时,因其工作时粮粒会进入履带和履带轮啮合区挤压履带变形,影响机器人行走,在履带上增加了履带密封避免粮粒进入履带。运用仿真软件Recurdyn 对平粮机器人进行动

  20. Concurrent Path Planning with One or More Humanoid Robots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Adam M. (Inventor); Reiland, Matthew J. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    A robotic system includes a controller and one or more robots each having a plurality of robotic joints. Each of the robotic joints is independently controllable to thereby execute a cooperative work task having at least one task execution fork, leading to multiple independent subtasks. The controller coordinates motion of the robot(s) during execution of the cooperative work task. The controller groups the robotic joints into task-specific robotic subsystems, and synchronizes motion of different subsystems during execution of the various subtasks of the cooperative work task. A method for executing the cooperative work task using the robotic system includes automatically grouping the robotic joints into task-specific subsystems, and assigning subtasks of the cooperative work task to the subsystems upon reaching a task execution fork. The method further includes coordinating execution of the subtasks after reaching the task execution fork.

  1. Dynamical movement primitives: learning attractor models for motor behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ijspeert, Auke Jan; Nakanishi, Jun; Hoffmann, Heiko; Pastor, Peter; Schaal, Stefan

    2013-02-01

    Nonlinear dynamical systems have been used in many disciplines to model complex behaviors, including biological motor control, robotics, perception, economics, traffic prediction, and neuroscience. While often the unexpected emergent behavior of nonlinear systems is the focus of investigations, it is of equal importance to create goal-directed behavior (e.g., stable locomotion from a system of coupled oscillators under perceptual guidance). Modeling goal-directed behavior with nonlinear systems is, however, rather difficult due to the parameter sensitivity of these systems, their complex phase transitions in response to subtle parameter changes, and the difficulty of analyzing and predicting their long-term behavior; intuition and time-consuming parameter tuning play a major role. This letter presents and reviews dynamical movement primitives, a line of research for modeling attractor behaviors of autonomous nonlinear dynamical systems with the help of statistical learning techniques. The essence of our approach is to start with a simple dynamical system, such as a set of linear differential equations, and transform those into a weakly nonlinear system with prescribed attractor dynamics by means of a learnable autonomous forcing term. Both point attractors and limit cycle attractors of almost arbitrary complexity can be generated. We explain the design principle of our approach and evaluate its properties in several example applications in motor control and robotics.

  2. Robot Aesthetics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jochum, Elizabeth Ann; Putnam, Lance Jonathan

    This paper considers art-based research practice in robotics through a discussion of our course and relevant research projects in autonomous art. The undergraduate course integrates basic concepts of computer science, robotic art, live performance and aesthetic theory. Through practice...... in robotics research (such as aesthetics, culture and perception), we believe robot aesthetics is an important area for research in contemporary aesthetics....

  3. FY1995 development of rehabilitation system for promoting social integration of people with disabilities. Development of a robotic orthosis assisting motion capabilities; 1995 nendo shogaino aru hito no shakai shinshutsu wo sokushinsuru rehabilitation system no kaihatsu. Rehabilitation kino wo yusuru doryoku sogu no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    People with slight disabilities on motion. capability can be active in daily life using properly designed motion-assisting devices. Using these device in various cases would help the disabled participate in production activities, and would promote social integration of the disabled as rehabilitation in a broad sense. This research aims at developing such a device capable to help human motion by forearm based on technology and science in robotics. Two different methods are discussed in this research in order to develop robotic orthosis with good performance for assisting human motion by forearm. The first method is constructing a robotic orthosis with electronic motors and force sensors to produce a desired mechanical impedance. This orthosis was carefully designed such that mechanical safety for human is realized. The validity of the mechanism is illustrated by several experiments. The second method is constructing a low cost robotic orthosis with pneumatic actuators. A new type of pneumatic actuator is developed to realize this orthosis. Experimental results show that physical therapy can be performed effectively using this orthosis operated by direct teaching. (NEDO)

  4. Navigation and Control of a Wheeled Mobile Robot

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    IEEE Transactions on Robotics and Automation, Vol. 16, No. 5, pp. 615- 620, (2000). [10] J. Guldner and...V. I. Utkin, �Sliding Mode Con- trol for Gradient Tracking and Robot Navigation Us- ing ArtiÞcial Potential Fields,� IEEE Transactions on Robotics and...P. Laumond, P. E. Jacobs, M. Taix, and R. M. Murray, �A Motion Planner for Nonholonomic Mobile Robots,� IEEE Transactions on Robotics and Automa-

  5. Model-based Locomotion Control of Underactuated Snake Robots

    OpenAIRE

    Rezapour, Ehsan

    2015-01-01

    Snake robots are a class of biologically inspired robots which are built to emulate the features of biological snakes. These robots are underactuated, i.e. they have fewer control inputs than degrees of freedom, and are hyper redundant, i.e. they have many degrees of freedom. Furthermore, snake robots utilize complex motion patterns and possess a complicated but highly flexible physical structure. These properties make locomotion control of snake robots a complicated and cha...

  6. Discovery of Intrinsic Primitives on Triangle Meshes

    KAUST Repository

    Solomon, Justin

    2011-04-01

    The discovery of meaningful parts of a shape is required for many geometry processing applications, such as parameterization, shape correspondence, and animation. It is natural to consider primitives such as spheres, cylinders and cones as the building blocks of shapes, and thus to discover parts by fitting such primitives to a given surface. This approach, however, will break down if primitive parts have undergone almost-isometric deformations, as is the case, for example, for articulated human models. We suggest that parts can be discovered instead by finding intrinsic primitives, which we define as parts that posses an approximate intrinsic symmetry. We employ the recently-developed method of computing discrete approximate Killing vector fields (AKVFs) to discover intrinsic primitives by investigating the relationship between the AKVFs of a composite object and the AKVFs of its parts. We show how to leverage this relationship with a standard clustering method to extract k intrinsic primitives and remaining asymmetric parts of a shape for a given k. We demonstrate the value of this approach for identifying the prominent symmetry generators of the parts of a given shape. Additionally, we show how our method can be modified slightly to segment an entire surface without marking asymmetric connecting regions and compare this approach to state-of-the-art methods using the Princeton Segmentation Benchmark. © 2011 The Author(s).

  7. Robotic assisted minimally invasive surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palep Jaydeep

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The term "robot" was coined by the Czech playright Karel Capek in 1921 in his play Rossom′s Universal Robots. The word "robot" is from the check word robota which means forced labor.The era of robots in surgery commenced in 1994 when the first AESOP (voice controlled camera holder prototype robot was used clinically in 1993 and then marketed as the first surgical robot ever in 1994 by the US FDA. Since then many robot prototypes like the Endoassist (Armstrong Healthcare Ltd., High Wycombe, Buck, UK, FIPS endoarm (Karlsruhe Research Center, Karlsruhe, Germany have been developed to add to the functions of the robot and try and increase its utility. Integrated Surgical Systems (now Intuitive Surgery, Inc. redesigned the SRI Green Telepresence Surgery system and created the daVinci Surgical System ® classified as a master-slave surgical system. It uses true 3-D visualization and EndoWrist ® . It was approved by FDA in July 2000 for general laparoscopic surgery, in November 2002 for mitral valve repair surgery. The da Vinci robot is currently being used in various fields such as urology, general surgery, gynecology, cardio-thoracic, pediatric and ENT surgery. It provides several advantages to conventional laparoscopy such as 3D vision, motion scaling, intuitive movements, visual immersion and tremor filtration. The advent of robotics has increased the use of minimally invasive surgery among laparoscopically naοve surgeons and expanded the repertoire of experienced surgeons to include more advanced and complex reconstructions.

  8. Robotic Architectures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mbali Mtshali

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In the development of mobile robotic systems, a robotic architecture plays a crucial role in interconnecting all the sub-systems and controlling the system. The design of robotic architectures for mobile autonomous robots is a challenging and complex task. With a number of existing architectures and tools to choose from, a review of the existing robotic architecture is essential. This paper surveys the different paradigms in robotic architectures. A classification of the existing robotic architectures and comparison of different proposals attributes and properties have been carried out. The paper also provides a view on the current state of designing robot architectures. It also proposes a conceptual model of a generalised robotic architecture for mobile autonomous robots.Defence Science Journal, 2010, 60(1, pp.15-22, DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.14429/dsj.60.96

  9. 室内移动服务机器人的避障与运动规划%Research on obstacle avoidance and motion planning of indoor mobile service robot

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨国田; 高明明

    2011-01-01

    提出一种室内移动服务机器人在未知环境的避障和运动规划算法.该算法通过分析超声传感器阵列探测的障碍物信息,确定机器人旋转的角度和半径,同时根据障碍物距离分3档调整运动速度,据此设计的实时避障算法,结合运动学模型实现了机器人沿障碍物轮廓行驶的行为,针对外凸、内凹和孤立等3种障碍物类型进行了试验,试验结果验证了算法的有效性.%An algorithm of obstacle-avoiding and motion planning for indoor mobile service robot was adopted in this paper. According to the analysis of the information detected by the ultrasonic sensor array about obstacles in the unknown environment, the rotation angle and rotation radius of the robot were obtained, and the moving speed of the robot was selected from three values according to the distance. A real-time obstacle avoidance algorithm was proposed based on the kinematics model, and the movement of walking along the outline of the barrier was implemented. Experiments are carried out separately in environment with obstacle that has the outline of concave curve, convex curve, or closed curve. The final results show the effectiveness of the algorithm proposed.

  10. 果林机器人行走驱动闭环控制分析%Analysis of Motion Drive Closed-loop Control for Fruit-trees Robots

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余嘉傲

    2011-01-01

    This research is conducted to select the reasonable control mode of the robots. Taking the track fruit-trees robot as an example, the fruit-trees robot's dual-motor control system is analyzed. Based on the speed incremental PID closed-loop control algorithm of the step DC motor, the proportional coefficient, integral coefficient and differential coefficient of PID controller is calculated. The stimulation and experiments demonstrates that the speed incremental PID control is better than the open-loop control motor in the response speed and stability when the robot is running in a straight line on the ground at the 3000 rpm. These results indicate that the mode of the speed incremental PID closed-loop control is most reasonable.%该研究旨在选取控制机器人运动的合理方式.以履带式果林机器人为背景,分析了果林机器人运动双电机控制系统.基于步进直流电机转速增量式PID闭环控制算法,计算了PID控制器比例系数、积分系数和微分系数.仿真和试验表明:当机器人左、右电机以3000 r/min的速度在地面上直线运行时,采用转速增量式PID控制比开环控制电机响应速度快,稳定性能好.结果提示,转速增量式PID控制方式是有效合理的.

  11. Neural manual vs. robotic assisted mobilization to improve motion and reduce pain hypersensitivity in hand osteoarthritis: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Villafa?e, Jorge Hugo; Valdes, Kristin; Imperio, Grace; Borboni, Alberto; Cantero-T?llez, Raquel; Galeri, Silvia; Negrini, Stefano

    2017-01-01

    [Purpose] The aim of the present study is to detail the protocol for a randomised controlled trial (RCT) of neural manual vs. robotic assisted on pain in sensitivity as well as analyse the quantitative and qualitative movement of hand in subjects with hand osteoarthritis. [Subjects and Methods] Seventy-two patients, aged 50 to 90?years old of both genders, with a diagnosis of hand Osteoarthritis (OA), will be recruited. Two groups of 36 participants will receive an experimental intervention (...

  12. Robotic velocity generation using neural network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The fast-paced nature of robotic soccer necessitates real-time sensing coupled with quick decision making and behaving. The robot must have high response-rate, exact motion ability, and must robust enough to confront interfere during drastic match. But during the match, we find that the robot usually do not act exactly as the commands from host computer. In this paper, we analyze the reason and present a method that uses BP neural network to output robotic velocity directly instead of conventional path-plan strategy, to reduce the error between actual motion and ideal plan.

  13. The Toggle Local Planner for sampling-based motion planning

    KAUST Repository

    Denny, Jory

    2012-05-01

    Sampling-based solutions to the motion planning problem, such as the probabilistic roadmap method (PRM), have become commonplace in robotics applications. These solutions are the norm as the dimensionality of the planning space grows, i.e., d > 5. An important primitive of these methods is the local planner, which is used for validation of simple paths between two configurations. The most common is the straight-line local planner which interpolates along the straight line between the two configurations. In this paper, we introduce a new local planner, Toggle Local Planner (Toggle LP), which extends local planning to a two-dimensional subspace of the overall planning space. If no path exists between the two configurations in the subspace, then Toggle LP is guaranteed to correctly return false. Intuitively, more connections could be found by Toggle LP than by the straight-line planner, resulting in better connected roadmaps. As shown in our results, this is the case, and additionally, the extra cost, in terms of time or storage, for Toggle LP is minimal. Additionally, our experimental analysis of the planner shows the benefit for a wide array of robots, with DOF as high as 70. © 2012 IEEE.

  14. Towards a self-organizing pre-symbolic neural model representing sensorimotor primitives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junpei eZhong

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The acquisition of symbolic and linguistic representations of sensorimotor behavior is a cognitive process performed by an agent when it is executing and/or observing own and others' actions. According to Piaget's theory of cognitive development, these representations develop during the sensorimotor stage and the pre-operational stage. We propose a model that relates the conceptualization of the higher-level information from visual stimuli to the development of ventral/dorsal visual streams. This model employs neural network architecture incorporating a predictive sensory module based on an RNNPB (Recurrent Neural Network with Parametric Biases and a horizontal product model. We exemplify this model through a robot passively observing an object to learn its features and movements. During the learning process of observing sensorimotor primitives, i.e. observing a set of trajectories of arm movements and its oriented object features, the pre-symbolic representation is self-organized in the parametric units. These representational units act as bifurcation parameters, guiding the robot to recognize and predict various learned sensorimotor primitives. The pre-symbolic representation also accounts for the learning of sensorimotor primitives in a latent learning context.

  15. Snake Robots Modelling, Mechatronics, and Control

    CERN Document Server

    Liljebäck, Pål; Stavdahl, Øyvind; Gravdahl, Jan Tommy

    2013-01-01

    Snake Robots is a novel treatment of theoretical and practical topics related to snake robots: robotic mechanisms designed to move like biological snakes and able to operate in challenging environments in which human presence is either undesirable or impossible. Future applications of such robots include search and rescue, inspection and maintenance, and subsea operations. Locomotion in unstructured environments is a focus for this book. The text targets the disparate muddle of approaches to modelling, development and control of snake robots in current literature, giving a unified presentation of recent research results on snake robot locomotion to increase the reader’s basic understanding of these mechanisms and their motion dynamics and clarify the state of the art in the field. The book is a complete treatment of snake robotics, with topics ranging from mathematical modelling techniques, through mechatronic design and implementation, to control design strategies. The development of two snake robots is de...

  16. [Robot-aided training in rehabilitation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hachisuka, Kenji

    2010-02-01

    Recently, new training techniques that involve the use of robots have been used in the rehabilitation of patients with hemiplegia and paraplegia. Robots used for training the arm include the MIT-MANUS, Arm Trainer, mirror-image motion enabler (MIME) robot, and the assisted rehabilitation and measurement (ARM) Guide. Robots that are used for lower-limb training are the Rehabot, Gait Trainer, Lokomat, LOPES Exoskeleton Robot, and Gait Assist Robot. Robot-aided therapy has enabled the functional training of the arm and the lower limbs in an effective, easy, and comfortable manner. Therefore, with this type of therapy, the patients can repeatedly undergo sufficient and accurate training for a prolonged period. However, evidence of the benefits of robot-aided training has not yet been established.

  17. Machining operations using Yamaha YK 400 robot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pop, A.; Pop, A.; Savu, D.; Dolga, V.

    2016-08-01

    This paper addresses the topic of industrial robots built for handling processes used in cutting machining applications. The study discourses the machining of a globe calotte made of komatex using a Yamaha YK 400 SCARA robot. Are presented aspects regarding the capabilities of Yamaha YK 400 robot, the development of the robot program, analyses of the proposed system and methods of improvement. A set of experimental analyses was conducted in order to identify correlations between the robot speed variation and distance between the points that describe the trajectory of the motion.

  18. Transferring human impedance regulation skills to robots

    CERN Document Server

    Ajoudani, Arash

    2016-01-01

    This book introduces novel thinking and techniques to the control of robotic manipulation. In particular, the concept of teleimpedance control as an alternative method to bilateral force-reflecting teleoperation control for robotic manipulation is introduced. In teleimpedance control, a compound reference command is sent to the slave robot including both the desired motion trajectory and impedance profile, which are then realized by the remote controller. This concept forms a basis for the development of the controllers for a robotic arm, a dual-arm setup, a synergy-driven robotic hand, and a compliant exoskeleton for improved interaction performance.

  19. Modeling Robot Dynamic Performance for Endpoint Force Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-08-01

    Task Dynamics 55 2.5.1 The Dynamic Workpiece Model 55 2.5.2 Adding Robot Dynamics 56 2.5.3 Adding Actuator Dynamics 56 Tabie I o iiau 6 2.6 Grip...motion control system. Robot dynamics couple with the task dynamics in a very complex way. When the robot makes contact with the environment, the impact...robot flexibility or actuator dynamics. 2.5.2 Adding Robot Dynamics Figure 2.29 shows the robot now represented by two lumped masses, as in the robot

  20. Self-Organizing Robots

    CERN Document Server

    Murata, Satoshi

    2012-01-01

    It is man’s ongoing hope that a machine could somehow adapt to its environment by reorganizing itself. This is what the notion of self-organizing robots is based on. The theme of this book is to examine the feasibility of creating such robots within the limitations of current mechanical engineering. The topics comprise the following aspects of such a pursuit: the philosophy of design of self-organizing mechanical systems; self-organization in biological systems; the history of self-organizing mechanical systems; a case study of a self-assembling/self-repairing system as an autonomous distributed system; a self-organizing robot that can create its own shape and robotic motion; implementation and instrumentation of self-organizing robots; and the future of self-organizing robots. All topics are illustrated with many up-to-date examples, including those from the authors’ own work. The book does not require advanced knowledge of mathematics to be understood, and will be of great benefit to students in the rob...

  1. Robotic assisted andrological surgery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sijo J Parekattil; Ahmet Gudeloglu

    2013-01-01

    The introduction of the operative microscope for andrological surgery in the 1970s provided enhanced magnification and accuracy,unparalleled to any previous visual loop or magnification techniques.This technology revolutionized techniques for microsurgery in andrology.Today,we may be on the verge of a second such revolution by the incorporation of robotic assisted platforms for microsurgery in andrology.Robotic assisted microsurgery is being utilized to a greater degree in andrology and a number of other microsurgical fields,such as ophthalmology,hand surgery,plastics and reconstructive surgery.The potential advantages of robotic assisted platforms include elimination of tremor,improved stability,surgeon ergonomics,scalability of motion,multi-input visual interphases with up to three simultaneous visual views,enhanced magnification,and the ability to manipulate three surgical instruments and cameras simultaneously.This review paper begins with the historical development of robotic microsurgery.It then provides an in-depth presentation of the technique and outcomes of common robotic microsurgical andrological procedures,such as vasectomy reversal,subinguinal varicocelectomy,targeted spermatic cord denervation (for chronic orchialgia) and robotic assisted microsurgical testicular sperm extraction (microTESE).

  2. Recent developments in motion planning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Overmars, M.H.

    2002-01-01

    Motion planning is becoming an important topic in many application areas, ranging from robotics to virtual environments and games. In this paper I review some recent results in motion planning, concentrating on the probabilistic roadmap approach that has proven to be very successful for many

  3. Primitive Near-rings-Some Structure Theorems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gerhard Wendt

    2007-01-01

    We show that any zero symmetric 1-primitive near-ring with descending chain condition on left ideals can be described as a centralizer near-ring in which the multipli-cation is not the function composition but sandwich multiplication.This result follows from a more general structure theorem on 1-primitive near-rings with multiplicative right identity,not necessarily having a chain condition on left ideals.We then use our results to investigate more closely the multiplicative semigroup of a 1-primitive near-ring.In par-ticular,we show that the set of regular elements forms a right ideal of the multiplicative semigroup of the near-ring.

  4. The physics and metaphysics of primitive stuff

    CERN Document Server

    Esfeld, Michael; Lam, Vincent; Hubert, Mario

    2014-01-01

    The paper sets out a primitive ontology of the natural world in terms of primitive stuff, that is, stuff that has as such no physical properties at all, but that is not a bare substratum either, being individuated by metrical relations. We focus on quantum physics and employ identity-based Bohmian mechanics to illustrate this view, but point out that it applies all over physics. Properties then enter into the picture exclusively through the role that they play for the dynamics of the primitive stuff. We show that such properties can be local (classical mechanics), as well as holistic (quantum mechanics), and discuss two metaphysical options to conceive them, namely Humeanism and modal realism in the guise of dispositionalism.

  5. Relation of Origins of Primitive Chaos

    CERN Document Server

    Ogasawara, Yoshihito

    2014-01-01

    A new concept, primitive chaos, was proposed, as a concept closely related to the fundamental problems of sciences themselves such as determinism, causality, free will, predictability, and time asymmetry [{\\em J. Phys. Soc. Jpn.} {\\bf 2014}, {\\em 83}, 1401]. This concept is literally a primitive chaos in such a sense that it leads to the characteristic properties of the conventional chaos under natural conditions. Then, two contrast concepts, nondegenerate Peano continuum and Cantor set, are known as the origins of the primitive chaos. In this study, the relation of these origins is investigated with the aid of a mathematical method, topology. Then, we can see the emergence of interesting concepts such as the relation of whole and part, and coarse graining, which imply the essence of our intrinsic recognition for phenomena.

  6. Conceptual and user-centric design guidelines for a plant nursing robot

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Claus Aage Grøn; Jørgensen, Rasmus Nyholm; Maagaard, Jørgen

    2010-01-01

    Current service robots have relatively primitive behaviours and limited interaction with the environment. Technological foresights indicate that the next generation of service robots will demonstrate a high degree of autonomy and reliability, have minimal impact on the environment, and will inter...

  7. PRIMitive Asteroids Spectroscopic Survey - PRIMASS: First Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Leon, Julia; Pinilla-Alonso, Noemi; Campins, Humberto; Lorenzi, Vania; Licandro, Javier; Morate, David; Tanga, Paolo; Cellino, Alberto; Delbo, Marco

    2015-11-01

    NASA OSIRIS-REx and JAXA Hayabusa 2 sample-return missions have targeted two near-Earth asteroids: (101955) Bennu and (162173) 1999 JU3, respectively. These are primitive asteroids that are believed to originate in the inner belt, where five distinct sources have been identified: four primitive collisional families (Polana, Erigone, Sulamitis, and Clarissa), and a population of low-albedo and low-inclination background asteroids. Identifying and characterizing the populations from which these two NEAs might originate will enchance the science return of the two missions.With this main objective in mind, we initiated in 2010 a spectroscopic survey in the visible and the near-infrared to characterize the primitive collisional families in the inner belt and the low-albedo background population. This is the PRIMitive Asteroids Spectroscopic Survey - PRIMASS. So far we have obtained more than 200 spectra using telescopes located at different observatories. PRIMASS uses a variety of ground based facilities. Most of the spectra have been obtained using the 10.4m Gran Telescopio Canarias (GTC), and the 3.6m Telescopio Nazionale Galileo (TNG), both located at the El Roque de los Muchachos Observatory (La Palma, Spain), and the 3.0m NASA Infrared Telescope Facility on Mauna Kea (Hawai, USA).We present the first results from our on-going survey (de Leon et al. 2015; Pinilla-Alonso et al. 2015; Morate et al. 2015), focused on the Polana and the Erigone primitive families, with visible and near-infrared spectra of more than 200 objects, most of them with no previous spectroscopic data. Our survey is already the largest database of primitive asteroids spectra, and we keep obtaining data on the Sulamitis and the Clarissa families, as well as on the background low-albedo population.

  8. MotionTherapy@Home - First results of a clinical study with a novel robotic device for automated locomotion therapy at home.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rupp, Rüdiger; Plewa, Harry; Schuld, Christian; Gerner, Hans Jürgen; Hofer, Eberhard P; Knestel, Markus

    2011-02-01

    In incomplete spinal cord injured subjects, task-oriented training regimes are applied for enhancement of neuroplasticity to improve gait capacity. However, a sufficient training intensity can only be achieved during the inpatient phase, which is getting shorter and shorter due to economic restrictions. In the clinical environment, complex and expensive robotic devices have been introduced to maintain the duration and the intensity of the training, but up to now only a few exist for continuation of automated locomotion training at home. For continuation of the automated locomotion training at home prototypes of the compact, pneumatically driven orthosis MoreGait have been realized, which generate the key afferent stimuli for activation of the spinal gait pattern generator. Artificial pneumatic muscles with excellent weight-to-force ratio and safety characteristics have been integrated as joint actuators. Additionally, a Stimulative Shoe for generation of the appropriate foot loading pattern has been developed without the need for verticalization of the user. The first results of the pilot study in eight chronic incomplete spinal cord injured subjects indicate that the home-based therapy is safe and feasible. The therapy related improvements of the walking capacity are in the range of locomotion robots used in clinical settings.

  9. Neural manual vs. robotic assisted mobilization to improve motion and reduce pain hypersensitivity in hand osteoarthritis: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villafañe, Jorge Hugo; Valdes, Kristin; Imperio, Grace; Borboni, Alberto; Cantero-Téllez, Raquel; Galeri, Silvia; Negrini, Stefano

    2017-05-01

    [Purpose] The aim of the present study is to detail the protocol for a randomised controlled trial (RCT) of neural manual vs. robotic assisted on pain in sensitivity as well as analyse the quantitative and qualitative movement of hand in subjects with hand osteoarthritis. [Subjects and Methods] Seventy-two patients, aged 50 to 90 years old of both genders, with a diagnosis of hand Osteoarthritis (OA), will be recruited. Two groups of 36 participants will receive an experimental intervention (neurodynamic mobilization intervention plus exercise) or a control intervention (robotic assisted passive mobilization plus exercise) for 12 sessions over 4 weeks. Assessment points will be at baseline, end of therapy, and 1 and 3 months after end of therapy. The outcomes of this intervention will be pain and determine the central pain processing mechanisms. [Result] Not applicable. [Conclusion] If there is a reduction in pain hypersensitivity in hand OA patients it can suggest that supraspinal pain-inhibitory areas, including the periaqueductal gray matter, can be stimulated by joint mobilization.

  10. Robotics and the pediatric surgeon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorincz, Attila; Langenburg, Scott; Klein, Michael D

    2003-06-01

    Surgical robots are enabling devices for minimally invasive (laparoscopic) surgery (MIS). They use a computer to enhance a surgeon's skills as hand movements are transmitted to robotic arms. The computer filters tremor, which becomes important at high magnifications of 10 to 15 times available in MIS. It also provides motion scaling so that large hand movements are converted to very small movements of the robotic arm. The robotic arms also have wrists that make suturing and knot tying far more accurate and efficient. Surgical robots are currently used clinically for procedures such as MIS Nissen fundoplication, cholecystectomy, and splenectomy. Laboratory experience indicates that they may provide advantages for newborn procedures such as portoenterostomy for biliary atresia and repair of esophageal atresia and tracheoesophageal fistula. They have a potential for making possible MIS procedures, which can only be done open now, and for introducing entirely new procedures as well as for the performance of procedures by operators distant from the patient.

  11. Robot mapping with proximity detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik, Raashid; Prasad, Samuel

    1993-05-01

    Robots operating in unknown environments need to acquire knowledge about the environment to facilitate navigation and other tasks. Control procedures that enable a robot to acquire environment knowledge are referred to as mapping our terrain-acquisition procedures. All motion control procedures are influenced by the underlying models. In this area the significant models are: the robot model, the sensor model and the environment model. In this paper we present a mapping algorithm that uses a sensor model based on a proximity detector. The sensor is capable of detecting the presence or absence of objects within an annular ring of radius R to R + (Delta) , surrounding the robot. The sensor provides no exact range information but does indicate that angular region of contact with an obstacle. The robot is modelled as a disc of radius r (r

  12. Mobile Robots in Human Environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svenstrup, Mikael

    Traditionally, robots have been assistant machines in factories and a ubiquitous part of science fiction movies. But within the last decade the robots have started to emerge in everyday human environments. Today they are in our everyday environment in the shape of, for example, vacuum cleaners......, lawn mowers, toy pets, or as assisting technologies for care giving. If we want robots to be an even larger and more integrated part of our every- day environments, they need to become more intelligent, and behave safe and natural to the humans in the environment. This thesis deals with making...... intelligent mobile robotic devices capable of being a more natural and sociable actor in a human environment. More specific the emphasis is on safe and natural motion and navigation issues. First part of the work focus on developing a robotic system, which estimates human interest in interacting...

  13. Primitive neuroectodermal tumor of the heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nwaejike, Nnamdi; Rassl, Doris; Ford, Hugo; Large, Stephen R

    2012-02-01

    We present a case of primitive neuroectodermal tumor of the left atrium with involvement of the coronary sinus. The initial presentation was of cardiac tamponade resulting from the size of the tumor. There was no evidence of tumor elsewhere, and after complete resection and without adjuvant chemotherapy the patient is well at 2-year follow-up. There has been no evidence of tumor recurrence. This is a rare reported case of resection of a cardiac primitive neuroectodermal tumor without adjuvant chemotherapy. Other cases in the literature have been treated by orthoptic transplantation and resection with chemotherapy.

  14. Primary primitive neuroectodermal tumor of spinal cord

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashutosh Das Sharma

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Primarily spinal primitive neuroectodermal tumors are rare neoplasm. A 28-year-old female presented with complaints of pain in lower back, radiating to both lower limbs. Magnetic resonance imaging scan of the lumbosacral spine showed an intradural extramedullary space-occupying lesion. The patient underwent L2–L5 laminectomy with excision of the lesion. Histopathology and immunohistochemistry reports confirmed the diagnosis of primitive neuroectodermal tumor while a thorough metastatic workup ruled out secondary to the spinal cord. The patient developed recurrence at local site within a month after surgery, even before the adjuvant treatment could be started. She is being treated with chemotherapy (human resources protocol.

  15. [Primitive neuroectodermal tumor of the vagus nerve].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pegbessou, E; Diom, E S; Ndiaye, M; Dieng, P A; Nao, E E M; Thiam, A; Diouf, M S; Boube, D; Ndiaye, C; Kossinda, F; Tall, A; Diallo, B K; Ndiaye, I C; Diouf, R; Diop, E M

    2013-12-01

    Primitive neuroectodermal tumors are a rare type of malignant neuroectodermal tumor that is very aggressive. Cervicofacial location is rare, even exceptional. We report a case of a 4-month-old male infant, referred from the pediatric clinic for severe supralaryngeal dyspnea, a firm mass under the left mandibular angle, mobile and extended to the parotid area, painful, with a curve of the left side wall of the oropharynx. Cervical computed tomodensitometry showed a well-limited mass in the carotid area, enhanced by the contrast product. A vascularized mass, which had developed at the expense of the vagus nerve, was removed surgically. Histology found a primitive neuroectodermal tumor.

  16. Chemical evolution of primitive solar system bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oro, J.; Mills, T.

    1989-01-01

    Observations on organic molecules and compounds containing biogenic elements in the interstellar medium and in the primitive bodies of the solar system are reviewed. The discovery of phosphorus molecular species in dense interstellar clouds, the existence of organic ions in the dust and gas phase of the comas of Comet Halley, and the presence of presolar, deuterium-hydrogen ratios in the amino acids of carbonaceous chondrites are discussed. The relationships between comets, dark asteroids, and carbonaceous chondrites are examined. Also, consideration is given to the chemical evolution of Titan, the primitive earth, and early Mars.

  17. Primitive Form of Bony Fish Unveiled

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ With over 50,000 species,Osteichthyans, or bony fish, accounts for 98% of the present-day vertebrates. Bony fish falls into two groups: actinopterygians, meaning ray-finned bony fish, and sarcopterygians,meaning lobe-finned bony fish. The huge morphotype difference of the two catagories cast doubts on research into the origin and evolution of bony fish. The recent discovery of a primitive fish species by CAS researchers and their overseas colleagues provides a missing link between the two lineages, unveiling unique features for understanding primitive bony vertebrates.

  18. Locomotion of Microscopic Robots in Viscous Fluids

    CERN Document Server

    Hogg, Tad

    2013-01-01

    Microscopic robots could perform tasks with high spatial precision, such as acting in biological tissues on the scale of individual cells, provided they can reach precise locations. This paper evaluates the feasibility of in vivo locomotion for micron-size robots. Two appealing methods rely only on surface motions: steady tangential motion and small amplitude oscillations. These methods contrast with common microorganism propulsion based on flagella or cilia, which are more likely to damage nearby cells if used by robots made of stiff materials. The power available to robots, e.g., from oxygen and glucose in tissue, is sufficient to support speeds ranging from one to hundreds of microns per second, over the range of viscosities found in biological tissue. We discuss design trade-offs among propulsion method, speed, power, shear forces and robot shape, and relate those choices to robot task requirements.

  19. Control of multiple robots using vision sensors

    CERN Document Server

    Aranda, Miguel; Sagüés, Carlos

    2017-01-01

    This monograph introduces novel methods for the control and navigation of mobile robots using multiple-1-d-view models obtained from omni-directional cameras. This approach overcomes field-of-view and robustness limitations, simultaneously enhancing accuracy and simplifying application on real platforms. The authors also address coordinated motion tasks for multiple robots, exploring different system architectures, particularly the use of multiple aerial cameras in driving robot formations on the ground. Again, this has benefits of simplicity, scalability and flexibility. Coverage includes details of: a method for visual robot homing based on a memory of omni-directional images a novel vision-based pose stabilization methodology for non-holonomic ground robots based on sinusoidal-varying control inputs an algorithm to recover a generic motion between two 1-d views and which does not require a third view a novel multi-robot setup where multiple camera-carrying unmanned aerial vehicles are used to observe and c...

  20. Filigree Robotics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tamke, Martin; Evers, Henrik Leander; Clausen Nørgaard, Esben

    2016-01-01

    Filigree Robotics experiments with the combination of traditional ceramic craft with robotic fabrication in order to generate a new narrative of fine three-dimensional ceramic ornament for architecture....

  1. Cooperative Localization for Multi-Robot Incorporating Proprioceptive/Exteroceptive Position Sensors1

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Jihong; Jo, Kyounghwan; Jang, Choulsoo

    2007-01-01

    International audience; This paper presents a new method of cooperative localization for multiple robots utilizing correlation between GPS errors of common mode in shared workspace. Assuming that GPS data of individual robot are correlated strongly as the distance between robots are close, we utilize the differential position data between the robots to refine robot's position data. Under artificial environment for simulation with imposed model error to robot motion and GPS sensor data error, ...

  2. Army Robotics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-10-07

    Army Robotics 07 October 2009 Dr. Grant Gerhart, Senior Research Scientist Bernard Theisen, Joint Center for Robotics DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A... Robots 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Grant Gerhart; Bernard Theisen 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK...CBRNE • IED Defeat Systems • Disarm / Disrupt • Reconnaissance • Investigation • Explosive Sniffer • Common Robotic Kit • EOD • Convoy • Log

  3. TARDEC Robotics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-12

    unclassified TARDEC Robotics Dr. James L. Overholt Director, Joint Center for Robotics US Army TARDEC Report Documentation Page Form ApprovedOMB No...COVERED - 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE TARDEC Robotics 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) James L. Overholt... Robotics , Network and Control Components with a Focus on Customer Driven Requirements to Provide Full System Solutions to the War Fighter Technology

  4. Robot Futures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Anja; Grindsted Nielsen, Sally; Jochum, Elizabeth Ann;

    Robots are increasingly used in health care settings, e.g., as homecare assistants and personal companions. One challenge for personal robots in the home is acceptance. We describe an innovative approach to influencing the acceptance of care robots using theatrical performance. Live performance i...... perceive social robots interacting with humans in a future care scenario through a scripted performance. We discuss our methods and initial findings, and outline future work....

  5. Respiratory Motion Prediction in Radiation Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vedam, Sastry

    Active respiratory motion management has received increasing attention in the past decade as a means to reduce the internal margin (IM) component of the clinical target volume (CTV)—planning target volume (PTV) margin typically added around the gross tumor volume (GTV) during radiation therapy of thoracic and abdominal tumors. Engineering and technical developments in linear accelerator design and respiratory motion monitoring respectively have made the delivery of motion adaptive radiation therapy possible through real-time control of either dynamic multileaf collimator (MLC) motion (gantry based linear accelerator design) or robotic arm motion (robotic arm mounted linear accelerator design).

  6. Designing a Microhydraulically driven Mini robotic Squid

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-20

    34Hybrid type of underwater micro biped robot with walking and swimming motions," in Mechatronics and Automation, 2005 IEEE International Conference, Niagara Falls, Ont., 2005. ...Secretary of Defense for Research and Engineering. Designing a Microhydraulically-driven Mini- robotic Squid by Kevin Dehan Meng B.S., U.S. Air...Committee on Graduate Students 2 Designing a Microhydraulically-driven Mini- robotic Squid by Kevin Dehan Meng Submitted to the Department

  7. Multi-agent robotic cooperative assembly system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Presents a multi-robot cooperative assembly systen (MRCAS) which is composed of an organizer computer, three industrial robots, PUMA 562 mounted on an onni-directional vehicle, PUMA 760 and Adept I and organized in to a hierarchical structure with the cooperation organization on the top and the coordination motion at the bottom to solve the main problem of coordination and cooperation among robots, and concludes with experimental results that MRCAS is reconfigurable and adaptable as the mission changes.

  8. Design of Industrial Robotic Controller Based on DSP

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谈世哲; 杨汝清

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes the design of industrial robot controller based on the DSP technology. Robotic real time control is realized by PC and DSP motion control card and this method improves the performance of robotic controller. Finally this paper gives some experiment results and conclusion.

  9. 一种新型模块化自重构机器人的运动仿真和试验%Motion simulation and experiment of a novel modular self-reconfigurable robot

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴秋轩; 曹广益; 费燕琼

    2006-01-01

    根据自重构机器人的特点,设计了一种新型的同构阵列式自重构机器人M-Cubes,其每个单元模块由6个旋转关节和1个立方体连杆组成,具有12个自由度,旋转关节上设计了一种机械式的连接分离机构,连杆内部设计了一种空间传动系统,用一个电机分别带动6个空间均布的关节旋转,机构整体结构上更加简洁、紧凑.对设计的模块进行的基本运动试验表明:传动更加高效,连接分离更加可靠,控制更加简单方便.同时开发了一个自重构机器人仿真平台,可以图形化地设计系统的构型、模块的运动和系统的重构过程.利用元胞自动机的局部作用特性,将每个单元模块简化为元胞,结合遗传算法来进化元胞自动机的转移规则,将转移规则作用于每个单元模块,实现分布式控制,仿真结果表明该方法是有效和可行的.%Based on the character of the modular self-reconfigurable (MSR) robot, a novel homogeneous and lattice MSR robot, M-Cubes, was designed. Each module unit of the robot has 12 freedoms and is composed of six rotary joints and one cubic link. An attached/detached mechanism was designed on the rotary joints. A novel space transmitting system was placed on the inner portion of the cubic link. A motor separately transmitted torque to the six joints which were distributed equally on six surfaces of the cubic link. The example of a basic motion for the module was demonstrated. The result shows that the robot is concise and compact in structure,highly efficient in transmission, credible in connecting, and simple in controlling. At the same time, a simulator is developed to graphically design the system configuration, the reconfiguration process and the motion of cluster modules. The character of local action for the cellular automata (CA) is utilized. Each module is simplified as a cell. The transition rules of the CA are developed to combine with the genetic algorithm (GA)and applied

  10. 一种四自由度机器人运动控制系统开发%Development of Motion Control System For a 4-DOF Robot

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    左翔; 丁虎

    2016-01-01

    In order to develop a kind of robot platform, which is used for carrying piece and contour photographing purpose, the paper presents a method for developing a system for stepper motors control based on Labview. This has been achieved via developing a control system, which mainly includes a controller NI-9033, four-axis stepper motor interface modules SISU-1004, stepper motor controller SD-30807 and four stepper motors.%针对一种四自由度机器人的工件移送和轮廓拍摄要求,以Labview作为软件开发平台,以NI公司的NI-9033控制器、SISU-1004四轴步进电机接口模块和SD-30807森创步进电机控制器为主要控制器件,开发了机器人运动控制系统。

  11. Chemical Source Localization using Mobile Robots in Indoor Arena

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuli Zhang

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a virtual-physics force based control strategy for swarm robotic chemical source localization. The control force includes: structure formation force, goal force, and obstacle avoidant force. For swarm formation, the robots maintain the regular polygon formation and a virtual robot is located at the center of the polygon. The motion of the virtual robot depends on the goal force which obtained from the sensor observations of the robots. Once the virtual robot moved to a new place, the robots would also move as a single body with the structure formation force and obstacle avoidant force. In this paper, we adopted chemotaxis as plume tracing algorithms. Simulation experiments in indoor arena without obstacle and with obstacles using different robot number are carried out respectively, and the results show that the proposed strategy can effectively navigate the mobile robotics swarms to the chemical source once selecting proper number of robots.  

  12. Transputer Control of Hydraulic Actuators and Robots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Conrad, Finn

    1996-01-01

    Results from a Danish mechatronics research program entitled IMCIA - Intelligent Control and Intelligent Actuators. The objective is development of intelligent actuators for intelligent motion control. A mechatronics test facility with a transputer controlled hydraulic robot suiteable for real...

  13. Towards building a team of intelligent robots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varanasi, Murali R.; Mehrotra, R.

    1987-01-01

    Topics addressed include: collision-free motion planning of multiple robot arms; two-dimensional object recognition; and pictorial databases (storage and sharing of the representations of three-dimensional objects).

  14. Transputer Control of Hydraulic Actuators and Robots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Conrad, Finn

    1996-01-01

    Results from a Danish mechatronics research program entitled IMCIA - Intelligent Control and Intelligent Actuators. The objective is development of intelligent actuators for intelligent motion control. A mechatronics test facility with a transputer controlled hydraulic robot suiteable for real...

  15. The Growth of a Primitive Penumbra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sreejith, P.; Tritschler, A.; Sankarasubramanian, K.

    We report on the penumbral formation in active region NOAA 10837. The penumbra observed on continuum intensity images grew from a quiet-Sun area to a primitive penumbra and then to a fully developed penumbra over about 5 h. The growth indicates nonlinear development with time.

  16. Cutaneous metastasis of primitive neuroectodermal lung tumor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia Romero, Diana; Hilara Sanchez, Yolanda; Perez Alvarez, Javier; Ramirez Garcia, Jose Ramon; De Pable Martin, Maria Pilar

    2013-06-15

    Primary sarcomas of the chest are rare. Although primitive neuroectodermal tumor (PNET) usually develops in the chest wall, it has been described as a primary pulmonary tumor. We present an unusual case of PNET arising in the lung of an 89-year-old man.

  17. Primitive neuroectodermal tumor of the kidney

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aatif Rashid

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Primitive neuroectodermal tumor of the kidney is a rare entity. Only a few cases have been reported in the literature and they revealed a variable presentation and an aggressive behavior. Most commonly it is seen in the relatively young population. The diagnosis is usually made at histopathology.

  18. Melville and the Tradition of Primitive Utopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beauchamp, Gorman

    1981-01-01

    Discusses the relationships among the myth of the Golden Age, the concept of the Noble Savage, and the dream of Utopia. Uses Lewis Mumford's division of utopias into two basic types, i.e., reconstruction and escape utopias, to examine Herman Melville's "Typee" as an example of the primitive escapist utopia. (Editor/DMM)

  19. Evolution of Computational Toxicology-from Primitive ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presentation at the Health Canada seminar in Ottawa, ON, Canada on Nov. 15. 2016 Presentation at the Health Canada seminar in Ottawa, ON, Canada on Nov. 15. 2016 on the Evolution of Computational Toxicology-from Primitive Beginnings to Sophisticated Application

  20. Convolutions with the Continuous Primitive Integral

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik Talvila

    2009-01-01

    I⊂ℝ. When g∈L1, the estimate is ‖f∗g‖≤‖f‖‖g‖1. There are results on differentiation and integration of convolutions. A type of Fubini theorem is proved for the continuous primitive integral.