WorldWideScience

Sample records for robot behavior adaptation

  1. Adaptive Behavior for Mobile Robots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huntsberger, Terrance

    2009-01-01

    The term "System for Mobility and Access to Rough Terrain" (SMART) denotes a theoretical framework, a control architecture, and an algorithm that implements the framework and architecture, for enabling a land-mobile robot to adapt to changing conditions. SMART is intended to enable the robot to recognize adverse terrain conditions beyond its optimal operational envelope, and, in response, to intelligently reconfigure itself (e.g., adjust suspension heights or baseline distances between suspension points) or adapt its driving techniques (e.g., engage in a crabbing motion as a switchback technique for ascending steep terrain). Conceived for original application aboard Mars rovers and similar autonomous or semi-autonomous mobile robots used in exploration of remote planets, SMART could also be applied to autonomous terrestrial vehicles to be used for search, rescue, and/or exploration on rough terrain.

  2. Biologically-Inspired Adaptive Obstacle Negotiation Behavior of Hexapod Robots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goldschmidt, Dennis; Wörgötter, Florentin; Manoonpong, Poramate

    2014-01-01

    by these findings, we present an adaptive neural control mechanism for obstacle negotiation behavior in hexapod robots. It combines locomotion control, backbone joint control, local leg reflexes, and neural learning. While the first three components generate locomotion including walking and climbing, the neural...... learning mechanism allows the robot to adapt its behavior for obstacle negotiation with respect to changing conditions, e.g., variable obstacle heights and different walking gaits. By successfully learning the association of an early, predictive signal (conditioned stimulus, CS) and a late, reflex signal...... (unconditioned stimulus, UCS), both provided by ultrasonic sensors at the front of the robot, the robot can autonomously find an appropriate distance from an obstacle to initiate climbing. The adaptive neural control was developed and tested first on a physical robot simulation, and was then successfully...

  3. Biologically-Inspired Adaptive Obstacle Negotiation Behavior of Hexapod Robots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dennis eGoldschmidt

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Neurobiological studies have shown that insects are able to adapt leg movements and posture for obstacle negotiation in changing environments. Moreover, the distance to an obstacle where an insect begins to climb is found to be a major parameter for successful obstacle negotiation. Inspired by these findings, we present an adaptive neural control mechanism for obstacle negotiation behavior in hexapod robots. It combines locomotion control, backbone joint control, local leg reflexes, and neural learning. While the first three components generate locomotion including walking and climbing, the neural learning mechanism allows the robot to adapt its behavior for obstacle negotiation with respect to changing conditions, e.g., variable obstacle heights and different walking gaits. By successfully learning the association of an early, predictive signal (conditioned stimulus, CS and a late, reflex signal (unconditioned stimulus, UCS, both provided by ultrasonic sensors at the front of the robot, the robot can autonomously find an appropriate distance from an obstacle to initiate climbing. The adaptive neural control was developed and tested first on a physical robot simulation, and was then successfully transferred to a real hexapod robot, called AMOS II. The results show that the robot can efficiently negotiate obstacles with a height up to 85% of the robot's leg length in simulation and 75% in a real environment.

  4. Multi-optimization Criteria-based Robot Behavioral Adaptability and Motion Planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pin, Francois G.

    2002-01-01

    Robotic tasks are typically defined in Task Space (e.g., the 3-D World), whereas robots are controlled in Joint Space (motors). The transformation from Task Space to Joint Space must consider the task objectives (e.g., high precision, strength optimization, torque optimization), the task constraints (e.g., obstacles, joint limits, non-holonomic constraints, contact or tool task constraints), and the robot kinematics configuration (e.g., tools, type of joints, mobile platform, manipulator, modular additions, locked joints). Commercially available robots are optimized for a specific set of tasks, objectives and constraints and, therefore, their control codes are extremely specific to a particular set of conditions. Thus, there exist a multiplicity of codes, each handling a particular set of conditions, but none suitable for use on robots with widely varying tasks, objectives, constraints, or environments. On the other hand, most DOE missions and tasks are typically ''batches of one''. Attempting to use commercial codes for such work requires significant personnel and schedule costs for re-programming or adding code to the robots whenever a change in task objective, robot configuration, number and type of constraint, etc. occurs. The objective of our project is to develop a ''generic code'' to implement this Task-space to Joint-Space transformation that would allow robot behavior adaptation, in real time (at loop rate), to changes in task objectives, number and type of constraints, modes of controls, kinematics configuration (e.g., new tools, added module). Our specific goal is to develop a single code for the general solution of under-specified systems of algebraic equations that is suitable for solving the inverse kinematics of robots, is useable for all types of robots (mobile robots, manipulators, mobile manipulators, etc.) with no limitation on the number of joints and the number of controlled Task-Space variables, can adapt to real time changes in number and

  5. Synaptic plasticity in a recurrent neural network for versatile and adaptive behaviors of a walking robot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grinke, Eduard; Tetzlaff, Christian; Wörgötter, Florentin; Manoonpong, Poramate

    2015-01-01

    Walking animals, like insects, with little neural computing can effectively perform complex behaviors. For example, they can walk around their environment, escape from corners/deadlocks, and avoid or climb over obstacles. While performing all these behaviors, they can also adapt their movements to deal with an unknown situation. As a consequence, they successfully navigate through their complex environment. The versatile and adaptive abilities are the result of an integration of several ingredients embedded in their sensorimotor loop. Biological studies reveal that the ingredients include neural dynamics, plasticity, sensory feedback, and biomechanics. Generating such versatile and adaptive behaviors for a many degrees-of-freedom (DOFs) walking robot is a challenging task. Thus, in this study, we present a bio-inspired approach to solve this task. Specifically, the approach combines neural mechanisms with plasticity, exteroceptive sensory feedback, and biomechanics. The neural mechanisms consist of adaptive neural sensory processing and modular neural locomotion control. The sensory processing is based on a small recurrent neural network consisting of two fully connected neurons. Online correlation-based learning with synaptic scaling is applied to adequately change the connections of the network. By doing so, we can effectively exploit neural dynamics (i.e., hysteresis effects and single attractors) in the network to generate different turning angles with short-term memory for a walking robot. The turning information is transmitted as descending steering signals to the neural locomotion control which translates the signals into motor actions. As a result, the robot can walk around and adapt its turning angle for avoiding obstacles in different situations. The adaptation also enables the robot to effectively escape from sharp corners or deadlocks. Using backbone joint control embedded in the the locomotion control allows the robot to climb over small obstacles

  6. Synaptic plasticity in a recurrent neural network for versatile and adaptive behaviors of a walking robot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduard eGrinke

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Walking animals, like insects, with little neural computing can effectively perform complex behaviors. They can walk around their environment, escape from corners/deadlocks, and avoid or climb over obstacles. While performing all these behaviors, they can also adapt their movements to deal with an unknown situation. As a consequence, they successfully navigate through their complex environment. The versatile and adaptive abilities are the result of an integration of several ingredients embedded in their sensorimotor loop. Biological studies reveal that the ingredients include neural dynamics, plasticity, sensory feedback, and biomechanics. Generating such versatile and adaptive behaviors for a walking robot is a challenging task. In this study, we present a bio-inspired approach to solve this task. Specifically, the approach combines neural mechanisms with plasticity, sensory feedback, and biomechanics. The neural mechanisms consist of adaptive neural sensory processing and modular neural locomotion control. The sensory processing is based on a small recurrent network consisting of two fully connected neurons. Online correlation-based learning with synaptic scaling is applied to adequately change the connections of the network. By doing so, we can effectively exploit neural dynamics (i.e., hysteresis effects and single attractors in the network to generate different turning angles with short-term memory for a biomechanical walking robot. The turning information is transmitted as descending steering signals to the locomotion control which translates the signals into motor actions. As a result, the robot can walk around and adapt its turning angle for avoiding obstacles in different situations as well as escaping from sharp corners or deadlocks. Using backbone joint control embedded in the locomotion control allows the robot to climb over small obstacles. Consequently, it can successfully explore and navigate in complex environments.

  7. An Adaptive Robot Game

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Søren Tranberg; Svenstrup, Mikael; Dalgaard, Lars

    2010-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to describe an adaptive robot game, which motivates elderly people to do a regular amount of physical exercise while playing. One of the advantages of robot based games is that the initiative to play can be taken autonomously by the robot. In this case, the goal is to im......The goal of this paper is to describe an adaptive robot game, which motivates elderly people to do a regular amount of physical exercise while playing. One of the advantages of robot based games is that the initiative to play can be taken autonomously by the robot. In this case, the goal...... is to improve the mental and physical state of the user by playing a physical game with the robot. Ideally, a robot game should be simple to learn but difficult to master, providing an appropriate degree of challenge for players with different skills. In order to achieve that, the robot should be able to adapt...

  8. Synaptic plasticity in a recurrent neural network for versatile and adaptive behaviors of a walking robot

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grinke, Eduard; Tetzlaff, Christian; Wörgötter, Florentin

    2015-01-01

    correlation-based learning with synaptic scaling is applied to adequately change the connections of the network. By doing so, we can effectively exploit neural dynamics (i.e., hysteresis effects and single attractors) in the network to generate different turning angles with short-term memory for a walking...... dynamics, plasticity, sensory feedback, and biomechanics. Generating such versatile and adaptive behaviors for a many degrees-of-freedom (DOFs) walking robot is a challenging task. Thus, in this study, we present a bio-inspired approach to solve this task. Specifically, the approach combines neural...... mechanisms with plasticity, exteroceptive sensory feedback, and biomechanics. The neural mechanisms consist of adaptive neural sensory processing and modular neural locomotion control. The sensory processing is based on a small recurrent neural network consisting of two fully connected neurons. Online...

  9. Multi-optimization Criteria-based Robot Behavioral Adaptability and Motion Planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pin, Francois G.

    2003-01-01

    Our overall objective is the development of a generalized methodology and code for the automated generation of the kinematics equations of robots and for the analytical solution of their motion planning equations subject to time-varying constraints, behavioral objectives and modular configuration

  10. Multi-optimization Criteria-based Robot Behavioral Adaptability and Motion Planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pin, Grancois G.

    2004-01-01

    Our overall objective is the development of a generalized methodology and code for the automated generation of the kinematics equations of robots and for the analytical solution of their motion planning equations subject to time-varying constraints, behavioral objectives, and modular configuration

  11. Fuzzy Behaviors for Control of Mobile Robots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saleh Zein-Sabatto

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available In this research work, an RWI B-14 robot has been used as the development platform to embody some basic behaviors that can be combined to build more complex robotics behaviors. Emergency, avoid-obstacle, left wall- following, right wall-following, and move-to-point behaviors have been designed and embodied as basic robot behaviors. The basic behaviors developed in this research are designed based on fuzzy control technique and are integrated and coordinated to from complex robotics system. More behaviors can be added into the system as needed. A robot task can be defined by the user and executed by the intelligent robot control system. Testing results showed that fuzzy behaviors made the robot move intelligently and adapt to changes in its environment.

  12. Distributed Recurrent Neural Forward Models with Synaptic Adaptation and CPG-based control for Complex Behaviors of Walking Robots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sakyasingha eDasgupta

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Walking animals, like stick insects, cockroaches or ants, demonstrate a fascinating range of locomotive abilities and complex behaviors. The locomotive behaviors can consist of a variety of walking patterns along with adaptation that allow the animals to deal with changes in environmental conditions, like uneven terrains, gaps, obstacles etc. Biological study has revealed that such complex behaviors are a result of a combination of biomechanics and neural mechanism thus representing the true nature of embodied interactions. While the biomechanics helps maintain flexibility and sustain a variety of movements, the neural mechanisms generate movements while making appropriate predictions crucial for achieving adaptation. Such predictions or planning ahead can be achieved by way of internal models that are grounded in the overall behavior of the animal. Inspired by these findings, we present here, an artificial bio-inspired walking system which effectively combines biomechanics (in terms of the body and leg structures with the underlying neural mechanisms. The neural mechanisms consist of 1 central pattern generator based control for generating basic rhythmic patterns and coordinated movements, 2 distributed (at each leg recurrent neural network based adaptive forward models with efference copies as internal models for sensory predictions and instantaneous state estimations, and 3 searching and elevation control for adapting the movement of an individual leg to deal with different environmental conditions. Using simulations we show that this bio-inspired approach with adaptive internal models allows the walking robot to perform complex locomotive behaviors as observed in insects, including walking on undulated terrains, crossing large gaps as well as climbing over high obstacles. Furthermore we demonstrate that the newly developed recurrent network based approach to sensorimotor prediction outperforms the previous state of the art adaptive neuron

  13. Adaptive heterogeneous multi-robot teams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parker, L.E.

    1998-11-01

    This research addresses the problem of achieving fault tolerant cooperation within small- to medium-sized teams of heterogeneous mobile robots. The author describes a novel behavior-based, fully distributed architecture, called ALLIANCE, that utilizes adaptive action selection to achieve fault tolerant cooperative control in robot missions involving loosely coupled, largely independent tasks. The robots in this architecture possess a variety of high-level functions that they can perform during a mission, and must at all times select an appropriate action based on the requirements of the mission, the activities of other robots, the current environmental conditions, and their own internal states. Since such cooperative teams often work in dynamic and unpredictable environments, the software architecture allows the team members to respond robustly and reliably to unexpected environmental changes and modifications in the robot team that may occur due to mechanical failure, the learning of new skills, or the addition or removal of robots from the team by human intervention. After presenting ALLIANCE, the author describes in detail the experimental results of an implementation of this architecture on a team of physical mobile robots performing a cooperative box pushing demonstration. These experiments illustrate the ability of ALLIANCE to achieve adaptive, fault-tolerant cooperative control amidst dynamic changes in the capabilities of the robot team.

  14. Evolutionary Developmental Soft Robotics As a Framework to Study Intelligence and Adaptive Behavior in Animals and Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Corucci

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a comprehensive methodology and simulation framework will be reviewed, designed in order to study the emergence of adaptive and intelligent behavior in generic soft-bodied creatures. By incorporating artificial evolutionary and developmental processes, the system allows to evolve complete creatures (brain, body, developmental properties, sensory, control system, etc. for different task environments. Whether the evolved creatures will resemble animals or plants is in general not known a priori, and depends on the specific task environment set up by the experimenter. In this regard, the system may offer a unique opportunity to explore differences and similarities between these two worlds. Different material properties can be simulated and optimized, from a continuum of soft/stiff materials, to the interconnection of heterogeneous structures, both found in animals and plants alike. The adopted genetic encoding and simulation environment are particularly suitable in order to evolve distributed sensory and control systems, which play a particularly important role in plants. After a general description of the system some case studies will be presented, focusing on the emergent properties of the evolved creatures. Particular emphasis will be on some unifying concepts that are thought to play an important role in the emergence of intelligent and adaptive behavior across both the animal and plant kingdoms, such as morphological computation and morphological developmental plasticity. Overall, with this paper, we hope to draw attention on set of tools, methodologies, ideas and results, which may be relevant to researchers interested in plant-inspired robotics and intelligence.

  15. Adaptive Robot to Person Encounter by Motion Patterns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Hans Jørgen; Bak, Thomas; Svenstrup, Mikael

    2009-01-01

    This paper introduces a new method for adaptive control of a robot approaching a person controlled by the person's interest in interaction. For adjustment of the robot behavior a cost function centered in the person is adapted according to an introduced person evaluator method relying on the three...... variables: the distance between the person and the robot, the relative velocity between the two, and position of the person. The person evaluator method determine the person's interest by evaluating the spatial relationship between robot and person in a Case Based Reasoning (CBR) system that is trained...... to determine to which degree the person is interested in interaction. The outcome of the CBR system is used to adapt the cost function around the person, so that the robot's behavior is adapted to the expressed interest. The proposed methods are evaluated by a number of physical experiments that demonstrate...

  16. Multiple Decoupled CPGs with Local Sensory Feedback for Adaptive Locomotion Behaviors of Bio-inspired Walking Robots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shaker Barikhan, Subhi; Wörgötter, Florentin; Manoonpong, Poramate

    2014-01-01

    , and their interactions during body and leg movements through the environment. Based on this concept, we present here an artificial bio-inspired walking system. Its intralimb coordination is formed by multiple decoupled CPGs while its interlimb coordination is attained by the interactions between body dynamics...... and the environment through local sensory feedback of each leg. Simulation results show that this bio-inspired approach generates self-organizing emergent locomotion allowing the robot to adaptively form regular patterns, to stably walk while pushing an object with its front legs or performing multiple stepping...

  17. SIMULATION OF ADAPTIVE BEHAVIOR IN THE CONTEXT OF SOLVING AN AUTONOMOUS ROBOTIC VEHICLE MOTION TASK ON TWO-DIMENSIONAL PLANE WITH OBSTACLES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. A. Prakapovich

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available An adaptive neurocontroller for autonomous robotic vehicle control, which is designed to generate control signals (according to preprogrammed motion algorithm and to develop individual reactions to some external impacts during functioning process, that allows the robot to adapt to external environment changes, is suggested. To debug and test the proposed neurocontroller a specially designed program, able to simulate the sensory and executive systems operation of the robotic vehicle, is used.

  18. Robots that can adapt like animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cully, Antoine; Clune, Jeff; Tarapore, Danesh; Mouret, Jean-Baptiste

    2015-05-28

    Robots have transformed many industries, most notably manufacturing, and have the power to deliver tremendous benefits to society, such as in search and rescue, disaster response, health care and transportation. They are also invaluable tools for scientific exploration in environments inaccessible to humans, from distant planets to deep oceans. A major obstacle to their widespread adoption in more complex environments outside factories is their fragility. Whereas animals can quickly adapt to injuries, current robots cannot 'think outside the box' to find a compensatory behaviour when they are damaged: they are limited to their pre-specified self-sensing abilities, can diagnose only anticipated failure modes, and require a pre-programmed contingency plan for every type of potential damage, an impracticality for complex robots. A promising approach to reducing robot fragility involves having robots learn appropriate behaviours in response to damage, but current techniques are slow even with small, constrained search spaces. Here we introduce an intelligent trial-and-error algorithm that allows robots to adapt to damage in less than two minutes in large search spaces without requiring self-diagnosis or pre-specified contingency plans. Before the robot is deployed, it uses a novel technique to create a detailed map of the space of high-performing behaviours. This map represents the robot's prior knowledge about what behaviours it can perform and their value. When the robot is damaged, it uses this prior knowledge to guide a trial-and-error learning algorithm that conducts intelligent experiments to rapidly discover a behaviour that compensates for the damage. Experiments reveal successful adaptations for a legged robot injured in five different ways, including damaged, broken, and missing legs, and for a robotic arm with joints broken in 14 different ways. This new algorithm will enable more robust, effective, autonomous robots, and may shed light on the principles

  19. Adaptive Control Methods for Soft Robots

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — I propose to develop methods for soft and inflatable robots that will allow the control system to adapt and change control parameters based on changing conditions...

  20. Timing of Multimodal Robot Behaviors during Human-Robot Collaboration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Lars Christian; Fischer, Kerstin; Suvei, Stefan-Daniel

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we address issues of timing between robot behaviors in multimodal human-robot interaction. In particular, we study what effects sequential order and simultaneity of robot arm and body movement and verbal behavior have on the fluency of interactions. In a study with the Care-O-bot, ...... output plays a special role because participants carry their expectations from human verbal interaction into the interactions with robots....

  1. Behavioral Adaptation and Acceptance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martens, M.H.; Jenssen, G.D.

    2012-01-01

    One purpose of Intelligent Vehicles is to improve road safety, throughput, and emissions. However, the predicted effects are not always as large as aimed for. Part of this is due to indirect behavioral changes of drivers, also called behavioral adaptation. Behavioral adaptation (BA) refers to

  2. Adaptive Nonlinear Tracking for Robotic Walking

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dolinský, Kamil; Čelikovský, Sergej

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 1, č. 1 (2012), s. 28-35 ISSN 2223-7038 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : Adaptive control * Kalman filter * walking robots Subject RIV: BC - Control Systems Theory http://lib.physcon.ru/doc?id=9e51935aa5bc

  3. Adaptive control of robotic manipulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seraji, H.

    1987-01-01

    The author presents a novel approach to adaptive control of manipulators to achieve trajectory tracking by the joint angles. The central concept in this approach is the utilization of the manipulator inverse as a feedforward controller. The desired trajectory is applied as an input to the feedforward controller which behaves as the inverse of the manipulator at any operating point; the controller output is used as the driving torque for the manipulator. The controller gains are then updated by an adaptation algorithm derived from MRAC (model reference adaptive control) theory to cope with variations in the manipulator inverse due to changes of the operating point. An adaptive feedback controller and an auxiliary signal are also used to enhance closed-loop stability and to achieve faster adaptation. The proposed control scheme is computationally fast and does not require a priori knowledge of the complex dynamic model or the parameter values of the manipulator or the payload.

  4. Adaptive Robot Control – An Experimental Comparison

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Alonge

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with experimental comparison between stable adaptive controllers of robotic manipulators based on Model Based Adaptive, Neural Network and Wavelet -Based control. The above control methods were compared with each other in terms of computational efficiency, need for accurate mathematical model of the manipulator and tracking performances. An original management algorithm of the Wavelet Network control scheme has been designed, with the aim of constructing the net automatically during the trajectory tracking, without the need to tune it to the trajectory itself. Experimental tests, carried out on a planar two link manipulator, show that the Wavelet-Based control scheme, with the new management algorithm, outperforms the conventional Model-Based schemes in the presence of structural uncertainties in the mathematical model of the robot, without pre-training and more efficiently than the Neural Network approach.

  5. Adaptive Synchronization of Robotic Sensor Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Yıldırım, Kasım Sinan; Gürcan, Önder

    2014-01-01

    The main focus of recent time synchronization research is developing power-efficient synchronization methods that meet pre-defined accuracy requirements. However, an aspect that has been often overlooked is the high dynamics of the network topology due to the mobility of the nodes. Employing existing flooding-based and peer-to-peer synchronization methods, are networked robots still be able to adapt themselves and self-adjust their logical clocks under mobile network dynamics? In this paper, ...

  6. Robotics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popov, E. P.; Iurevich, E. I.

    The history and the current status of robotics are reviewed, as are the design, operation, and principal applications of industrial robots. Attention is given to programmable robots, robots with adaptive control and elements of artificial intelligence, and remotely controlled robots. The applications of robots discussed include mechanical engineering, cargo handling during transportation and storage, mining, and metallurgy. The future prospects of robotics are briefly outlined.

  7. Adaptive learning fuzzy control of a mobile robot

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsukada, Akira; Suzuki, Katsuo; Fujii, Yoshio; Shinohara, Yoshikuni

    1989-11-01

    In this report a problem is studied to construct a fuzzy controller for a mobile robot to move autonomously along a given reference direction curve, for which control rules are generated and acquired through an adaptive learning process. An adaptive learning fuzzy controller has been developed for a mobile robot. Good properties of the controller are shown through the travelling experiments of the mobile robot. (author)

  8. Arousal regulation and affective adaptation to human responsiveness by a robot that explores and learns a novel environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiolle, Antoine; Lewis, Matthew; Cañamero, Lola

    2014-01-01

    In the context of our work in developmental robotics regarding robot-human caregiver interactions, in this paper we investigate how a "baby" robot that explores and learns novel environments can adapt its affective regulatory behavior of soliciting help from a "caregiver" to the preferences shown by the caregiver in terms of varying responsiveness. We build on two strands of previous work that assessed independently (a) the differences between two "idealized" robot profiles-a "needy" and an "independent" robot-in terms of their use of a caregiver as a means to regulate the "stress" (arousal) produced by the exploration and learning of a novel environment, and (b) the effects on the robot behaviors of two caregiving profiles varying in their responsiveness-"responsive" and "non-responsive"-to the regulatory requests of the robot. Going beyond previous work, in this paper we (a) assess the effects that the varying regulatory behavior of the two robot profiles has on the exploratory and learning patterns of the robots; (b) bring together the two strands previously investigated in isolation and take a step further by endowing the robot with the capability to adapt its regulatory behavior along the "needy" and "independent" axis as a function of the varying responsiveness of the caregiver; and (c) analyze the effects that the varying regulatory behavior has on the exploratory and learning patterns of the adaptive robot.

  9. A Case-Study for Life-Long Learning and Adaptation in Cooperative Robot Teams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parker, L.E.

    1999-01-01

    While considerable progress has been made in recent years toward the development of multi-robot teams, much work remains to be done before these teams are used widely in real-world applications. Two particular needs toward this end are the development of mechanisms that enable robot teams to generate cooperative behaviors on their own, and the development of techniques that allow these teams to autonomously adapt their behavior over time as the environment or the robot team changes. This paper proposes the use of the Cooperative Multi-Robot Observation of Multiple Moving Targets (CMOMMT) application as a rich domain for studying the issues of multi-robot learning and adaptation. After discussing the need for learning and adaptation in multi-robot teams, this paper describes the CMOMMT application and its relevance to multi-robot learning. We discuss the results of the previously- developed, hand-generated algorithm for CMOMMT and the potential for learning that was discovered from the hand-generated approach. We then describe the early work that has been done (by us and others) to generate multi- robot learning techniques for the CMOMMT application, as well as our ongoing research to develop approaches that give performance as good, or better, than the hand-generated approach. The ultimate goal of this research is to develop techniques for multi-robot learning and adaptation in the CMOMMT application domain that will generalize to cooperative robot applications in other domains, thus making the practical use of multi-robot teams in a wide variety of real-world applications much closer to reality

  10. Model and Behavior-Based Robotic Goalkeeper

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lausen, H.; Nielsen, J.; Nielsen, M.

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes the design, implementation and test of a goalkeeper robot for the Middle-Size League of RoboCub. The goalkeeper task is implemented by a set of primitive tasks and behaviours coordinated by a 2-level hierarchical state machine. The primitive tasks concerning complex motion...... control are implemented by a non-linear control algorithm, adapted to the different task goals (e.g., follow the ball or the robot posture from local features extracted from images acquired by a catadioptric omni-directional vision system. Most robot parameters were designed based on simulations carried...

  11. L-ALLIANCE: a mechanism for adaptive action selection in heterogeneous multi-robot teams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parker, L.E.

    1995-11-01

    In practical applications of robotics, it is usually quite difficult, if not impossible, for the system designer to fully predict the environmental states in which the robots will operate. The complexity of the problem is further increased when dealing with teams of robots which themselves may be incompletely known and characterized in advance. It is thus highly desirable for robot teams to be able to adapt their performance during the mission due to changes in the environment, or to changes in other robot team members. In previous work, we introduced a behavior-based mechanism called the ALLIANCE architecture -- that facilitates the fault tolerant cooperative control of multi-robot teams. However, this previous work did not address the issue of how to dynamically update the control parameters during a mission to adapt to ongoing changes in the environment or in the robot team, and to ensure the efficiency of the collective team actions. In this paper, we address this issue by proposing the L-ALLIANCE mechanism, which defines an automated method whereby robots can use knowledge learned from previous experience to continually improve their collective action selection when working on missions composed of loosely coupled, discrete subtasks. This ability to dynamically update robotic control parameters provides a number of distinct advantages: it alleviates the need for human tuning of control parameters, it facilitates the use of custom-designed multi-robot teams for any given application, it improves the efficiency of the mission performance, and It allows robots to continually adapt their performance over time due to changes in the robot team and/or the environment. We describe the L-ALLIANCE mechanism, present the results of various alternative update strategies we investigated, present the formal model of the L-ALLIANCE mechanism, and present the results of a simple proof of concept implementation on a small team of heterogeneous mobile robots.

  12. Soft Ultrathin Electronics Innervated Adaptive Fully Soft Robots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chengjun; Sim, Kyoseung; Chen, Jin; Kim, Hojin; Rao, Zhoulyu; Li, Yuhang; Chen, Weiqiu; Song, Jizhou; Verduzco, Rafael; Yu, Cunjiang

    2018-03-01

    Soft robots outperform the conventional hard robots on significantly enhanced safety, adaptability, and complex motions. The development of fully soft robots, especially fully from smart soft materials to mimic soft animals, is still nascent. In addition, to date, existing soft robots cannot adapt themselves to the surrounding environment, i.e., sensing and adaptive motion or response, like animals. Here, compliant ultrathin sensing and actuating electronics innervated fully soft robots that can sense the environment and perform soft bodied crawling adaptively, mimicking an inchworm, are reported. The soft robots are constructed with actuators of open-mesh shaped ultrathin deformable heaters, sensors of single-crystal Si optoelectronic photodetectors, and thermally responsive artificial muscle of carbon-black-doped liquid-crystal elastomer (LCE-CB) nanocomposite. The results demonstrate that adaptive crawling locomotion can be realized through the conjugation of sensing and actuation, where the sensors sense the environment and actuators respond correspondingly to control the locomotion autonomously through regulating the deformation of LCE-CB bimorphs and the locomotion of the robots. The strategy of innervating soft sensing and actuating electronics with artificial muscles paves the way for the development of smart autonomous soft robots. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Evolutionary online behaviour learning and adaptation in real robots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Fernando; Correia, Luís; Christensen, Anders Lyhne

    2017-07-01

    Online evolution of behavioural control on real robots is an open-ended approach to autonomous learning and adaptation: robots have the potential to automatically learn new tasks and to adapt to changes in environmental conditions, or to failures in sensors and/or actuators. However, studies have so far almost exclusively been carried out in simulation because evolution in real hardware has required several days or weeks to produce capable robots. In this article, we successfully evolve neural network-based controllers in real robotic hardware to solve two single-robot tasks and one collective robotics task. Controllers are evolved either from random solutions or from solutions pre-evolved in simulation. In all cases, capable solutions are found in a timely manner (1 h or less). Results show that more accurate simulations may lead to higher-performing controllers, and that completing the optimization process in real robots is meaningful, even if solutions found in simulation differ from solutions in reality. We furthermore demonstrate for the first time the adaptive capabilities of online evolution in real robotic hardware, including robots able to overcome faults injected in the motors of multiple units simultaneously, and to modify their behaviour in response to changes in the task requirements. We conclude by assessing the contribution of each algorithmic component on the performance of the underlying evolutionary algorithm.

  14. Challenges in adapting imitation and reinforcement learning to compliant robots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Calinon Sylvain

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available There is an exponential increase of the range of tasks that robots are forecasted to accomplish. (Reprogramming these robots becomes a critical issue for their commercialization and for their applications to real-world scenarios in which users without expertise in robotics wish to adapt the robot to their needs. This paper addresses the problem of designing userfriendly human-robot interfaces to transfer skills in a fast and efficient manner. This paper presents recent work conducted at the Learning and Interaction group at ADVR-IIT, ranging from skill acquisition through kinesthetic teaching to self-refinement strategies initiated from demonstrations. Our group started to explore the use of imitation and exploration strategies that can take advantage of the compliant capabilities of recent robot hardware and control architectures.

  15. An adaptive inverse kinematics algorithm for robot manipulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colbaugh, R.; Glass, K.; Seraji, H.

    1990-01-01

    An adaptive algorithm for solving the inverse kinematics problem for robot manipulators is presented. The algorithm is derived using model reference adaptive control (MRAC) theory and is computationally efficient for online applications. The scheme requires no a priori knowledge of the kinematics of the robot if Cartesian end-effector sensing is available, and it requires knowledge of only the forward kinematics if joint position sensing is used. Computer simulation results are given for the redundant seven-DOF robotics research arm, demonstrating that the proposed algorithm yields accurate joint angle trajectories for a given end-effector position/orientation trajectory.

  16. Adaptive Rationality, Adaptive Behavior and Institutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volchik Vyacheslav, V.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The economic literature focused on understanding decision-making and choice processes reveals a vast collection of approaches to human rationality. Theorists’ attention has moved from absolutely rational, utility-maximizing individuals to boundedly rational and adaptive ones. A number of economists have criticized the concepts of adaptive rationality and adaptive behavior. One of the recent trends in the economic literature is to consider humans irrational. This paper offers an approach which examines adaptive behavior in the context of existing institutions and constantly changing institutional environment. It is assumed that adaptive behavior is a process of evolutionary adjustment to fundamental uncertainty. We emphasize the importance of actors’ engagement in trial and error learning, since if they are involved in this process, they obtain experience and are able to adapt to existing and new institutions. The paper aims at identifying relevant institutions, adaptive mechanisms, informal working rules and practices that influence actors’ behavior in the field of Higher Education in Russia (Rostov Region education services market has been taken as an example. The paper emphasizes the application of qualitative interpretative methods (interviews and discourse analysis in examining actors’ behavior.

  17. Pose Estimation and Adaptive Robot Behaviour for Human-Robot Interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svenstrup, Mikael; Hansen, Søren Tranberg; Andersen, Hans Jørgen

    2009-01-01

    Abstract—This paper introduces a new method to determine a person’s pose based on laser range measurements. Such estimates are typically a prerequisite for any human-aware robot navigation, which is the basis for effective and timeextended interaction between a mobile robot and a human. The robot......’s pose. The resulting pose estimates are used to identify humans who wish to be approached and interacted with. The interaction motion of the robot is based on adaptive potential functions centered around the person that respect the persons social spaces. The method is tested in experiments...

  18. Behavior Selection of Mobile Robot Based on Integration of Multimodal Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Bin; Kaneko, Masahide

    Recently, biologically inspired robots have been developed to acquire the capacity for directing visual attention to salient stimulus generated from the audiovisual environment. On purpose to realize this behavior, a general method is to calculate saliency maps to represent how much the external information attracts the robot's visual attention, where the audiovisual information and robot's motion status should be involved. In this paper, we represent a visual attention model where three modalities, that is, audio information, visual information and robot's motor status are considered, while the previous researches have not considered all of them. Firstly, we introduce a 2-D density map, on which the value denotes how much the robot pays attention to each spatial location. Then we model the attention density using a Bayesian network where the robot's motion statuses are involved. Secondly, the information from both of audio and visual modalities is integrated with the attention density map in integrate-fire neurons. The robot can direct its attention to the locations where the integrate-fire neurons are fired. Finally, the visual attention model is applied to make the robot select the visual information from the environment, and react to the content selected. Experimental results show that it is possible for robots to acquire the visual information related to their behaviors by using the attention model considering motion statuses. The robot can select its behaviors to adapt to the dynamic environment as well as to switch to another task according to the recognition results of visual attention.

  19. Direct adaptive control of a PUMA 560 industrial robot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seraji, Homayoun; Lee, Thomas; Delpech, Michel

    1989-01-01

    The implementation and experimental validation of a new direct adaptive control scheme on a PUMA 560 industrial robot is described. The testbed facility consists of a Unimation PUMA 560 six-jointed robot and controller, and a DEC MicroVAX II computer which hosts the Robot Control C Library software. The control algorithm is implemented on the MicroVAX which acts as a digital controller for the PUMA robot, and the Unimation controller is effectively bypassed and used merely as an I/O device to interface the MicroVAX to the joint motors. The control algorithm for each robot joint consists of an auxiliary signal generated by a constant-gain Proportional plus Integral plus Derivative (PID) controller, and an adaptive position-velocity (PD) feedback controller with adjustable gains. The adaptive independent joint controllers compensate for the inter-joint couplings and achieve accurate trajectory tracking without the need for the complex dynamic model and parameter values of the robot. Extensive experimental results on PUMA joint control are presented to confirm the feasibility of the proposed scheme, in spite of strong interactions between joint motions. Experimental results validate the capabilities of the proposed control scheme. The control scheme is extremely simple and computationally very fast for concurrent processing with high sampling rates.

  20. Goal inferences about robot behavior : goal inferences and human response behaviors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broers, H.A.T.; Ham, J.R.C.; Broeders, R.; De Silva, P.; Okada, M.

    2014-01-01

    This explorative research focused on the goal inferences human observers draw based on a robot's behavior, and the extent to which those inferences predict people's behavior in response to that robot. Results show that different robot behaviors cause different response behavior from people.

  1. Exploring adaptive program behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonnichsen, Lars Frydendal; Probst, Christian W.

    Modern computer systems are increasingly complex, with ever changing bottlenecks. This makes it difficult to ensure consistent performance when porting software, or even running it. Adaptivity, ie, switching between program variations, and dynamic recompilation have been suggested as solutions....... Both solutions come at a cost; adaptivity issues a runtime overhead and requires more design effort, while dynamic recompilation takes time to perform. In this project, we plan to investigate the possibilities, limitations, and benefits of these techniques. This abstract covers our thoughts on how...

  2. Effects of Interruptibility-Aware Robot Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Banerjee, Siddhartha; Silva, Andrew; Feigh, Karen; Chernova, Sonia

    2018-01-01

    As robots become increasingly prevalent in human environments, there will inevitably be times when a robot needs to interrupt a human to initiate an interaction. Our work introduces the first interruptibility-aware mobile robot system, and evaluates the effects of interruptibility-awareness on human task performance, robot task performance, and on human interpretation of the robot's social aptitude. Our results show that our robot is effective at predicting interruptibility at high accuracy, ...

  3. A discrete-time adaptive control scheme for robot manipulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarokh, M.

    1990-01-01

    A discrete-time model reference adaptive control scheme is developed for trajectory tracking of robot manipulators. The scheme utilizes feedback, feedforward, and auxiliary signals, obtained from joint angle measurement through simple expressions. Hyperstability theory is utilized to derive the adaptation laws for the controller gain matrices. It is shown that trajectory tracking is achieved despite gross robot parameter variation and uncertainties. The method offers considerable design flexibility and enables the designer to improve the performance of the control system by adjusting free design parameters. The discrete-time adaptation algorithm is extremely simple and is therefore suitable for real-time implementation. Simulations and experimental results are given to demonstrate the performance of the scheme.

  4. Developing robotic behavior using a genetic programming model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pryor, R.J.

    1998-01-01

    This report describes the methodology for using a genetic programming model to develop tracking behaviors for autonomous, microscale robotic vehicles. The use of such vehicles for surveillance and detection operations has become increasingly important in defense and humanitarian applications. Through an evolutionary process similar to that found in nature, the genetic programming model generates a computer program that when downloaded onto a robotic vehicle's on-board computer will guide the robot to successfully accomplish its task. Simulations of multiple robots engaged in problem-solving tasks have demonstrated cooperative behaviors. This report also discusses the behavior model produced by genetic programming and presents some results achieved during the study

  5. Combining Environment-Driven Adaptation and Task-Driven Optimisation in Evolutionary Robotics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haasdijk, E.W.; Bredeche, Nicolas; Eiben, A.E.

    2014-01-01

    Embodied evolutionary robotics is a sub-field of evolutionary robotics that employs evolutionary algorithms on the robotic hardware itself, during the operational period, i.e., in an on-line fashion. This enables robotic systems that continuously adapt, and are therefore capable of (re-)adjusting

  6. Behavior-based obstacle avoidance capability for biologically inspired eight-legged walking robot

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Izzeldin Ibrahim Mohd; Shamsudin M Amin; Adel Ali Syed Al-Jumaily

    1999-01-01

    Behavior-based approach has proven to be useful in making mobile robot working in real world situations. Since the behaviors are responsible for managing the interaction between the robots and its environment, observing their use can be exploited to model these interactions. A real-time obstacle avoidance algorithm has been developed and implemented. This algorithm permits the detection of unknown obstacle simultaneously with the steering of the mobile robot to avoid collisions and advance toward the target. In our approach the robot is initially given a set of behavior-producing modules to choose from, and the algorithm provides a memory-based approach to dynamically adapt the selection of the behaviors according to the history of their use. We developed a set of algorithms, which uses Subsumption Architecture (SA) for controlling an eight-legged walking robot operating in closed vicinity. This paper describes a successful application of these algorithms to Oct-Ib robot and experimental results of the robot navigating in complex environment. (Author)

  7. Towards Behavior Control for Evolutionary Robot Based on RL with ENN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingan Yang

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a behavior-switching control strategy of anevolutionary robotics based on Artificial NeuralNetwork (ANN and Genetic Algorithms (GA. This method is able not only to construct thereinforcement learning models for autonomous robots and evolutionary robot modules thatcontrol behaviors and reinforcement learning environments, and but also to perform thebehavior-switching control and obstacle avoidance of an evolutionary robotics (ER intime-varying environments with static and moving obstacles by combining ANN and GA.The experimental results on thebasic behaviors and behavior-switching control have demonstrated that ourmethod can perform the decision-making strategy and parameters set opimization ofFNN and GA by learning and can escape successfully from the trap of a localminima and avoid \\emph{"motion deadlock" status} of humanoid soccer robotics agents,and reduce the oscillation of the planned trajectory betweenthe multiple obstacles by crossover and mutation. Some results of the proposed algorithmhave been successfully applied to our simulation humanoid robotics soccer team CIT3Dwhich won \\emph{the 1st prize} of RoboCup Championship and ChinaOpen2010 (July 2010 and \\emph{the $2^{nd}$ place}of the official RoboCup World Championship on 5-11 July, 2011 in Istanbul, Turkey.As compared with the conventional behavior network and the adaptive behavior method,the genetic encoding complexity of our algorithm is simplified, and the networkperformance and the {\\em convergence rate $\\rho$} have been greatlyimproved.

  8. ADAPTIVE DISTRIBUTION OF A SWARM OF HETEROGENEOUS ROBOTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda Prorok

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available We present a method that distributes a swarm of heterogeneous robots among a set of tasks that require specialized capabilities in order to be completed. We model the system of heterogeneous robots as a community of species, where each species (robot type is defined by the traits (capabilities that it owns. Our method is based on a continuous abstraction of the swarm at a macroscopic level as we model robots switching between tasks. We formulate an optimization problem that produces an optimal set of transition rates for each species, so that the desired trait distribution is reached as quickly as possible. Since our method is based on the derivation of an analytical gradient, it is very efficient with respect to state-of-the-art methods. Building on this result, we propose a real-time optimization method that enables an online adaptation of transition rates. Our approach is well-suited for real-time applications that rely on online redistribution of large-scale robotic systems.

  9. Adaptive Inverse Optimal Control for Rehabilitation Robot Systems Using Actor-Critic Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fancheng Meng

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The higher goal of rehabilitation robot is to aid a person to achieve a desired functional task (e.g., tracking trajectory based on assisted-as-needed principle. To this goal, a new adaptive inverse optimal hybrid control (AHC combining inverse optimal control and actor-critic learning is proposed. Specifically, an uncertain nonlinear rehabilitation robot model is firstly developed that includes human motor behavior dynamics. Then, based on this model, an open-loop error system is formed; thereafter, an inverse optimal control input is designed to minimize the cost functional and a NN-based actor-critic feedforward signal is responsible for the nonlinear dynamic part contaminated by uncertainties. Finally, the AHC controller is proven (through a Lyapunov-based stability analysis to yield a global uniformly ultimately bounded stability result, and the resulting cost functional is meaningful. Simulation and experiment on rehabilitation robot demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed control scheme.

  10. Toward Speech and Nonverbal Behaviors Integration for Humanoid Robot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Wang

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available It is essential to integrate speeches and nonverbal behaviors for a humanoid robot in human-robot interaction. This paper presents an approach using multi-object genetic algorithm to match the speeches and behaviors automatically. Firstly, with humanoid robot's emotion status, we construct a hierarchical structure to link voice characteristics and nonverbal behaviors. Secondly, these behaviors corresponding to speeches are matched and integrated into an action sequence based on genetic algorithm, so the robot can consistently speak and perform emotional behaviors. Our approach takes advantage of relevant knowledge described by psychologists and nonverbal communication. And from experiment results, our ultimate goal, implementing an affective robot to act and speak with partners vividly and fluently, could be achieved.

  11. Folk-Psychological Interpretation of Human vs. Humanoid Robot Behavior: Exploring the Intentional Stance toward Robots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thellman, Sam; Silvervarg, Annika; Ziemke, Tom

    2017-01-01

    People rely on shared folk-psychological theories when judging behavior. These theories guide people's social interactions and therefore need to be taken into consideration in the design of robots and other autonomous systems expected to interact socially with people. It is, however, not yet clear to what degree the mechanisms that underlie people's judgments of robot behavior overlap or differ from the case of human or animal behavior. To explore this issue, participants ( N = 90) were exposed to images and verbal descriptions of eight different behaviors exhibited either by a person or a humanoid robot. Participants were asked to rate the intentionality, controllability and desirability of the behaviors, and to judge the plausibility of seven different types of explanations derived from a recently proposed psychological model of lay causal explanation of human behavior. Results indicate: substantially similar judgments of human and robot behavior, both in terms of (1a) ascriptions of intentionality/controllability/desirability and in terms of (1b) plausibility judgments of behavior explanations; (2a) high level of agreement in judgments of robot behavior - (2b) slightly lower but still largely similar to agreement over human behaviors; (3) systematic differences in judgments concerning the plausibility of goals and dispositions as explanations of human vs. humanoid behavior. Taken together, these results suggest that people's intentional stance toward the robot was in this case very similar to their stance toward the human.

  12. Adaptation of the IBM ECR [electric cantilever robot] robot to plutonium processing applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armantrout, G.A.; Pedrotti, L.R.; Halter, E.A.; Crossfield, M.

    1990-12-01

    The changing regulatory climate in the US is adding increasing incentive to reduce operator dose and TRU waste for DOE plutonium processing operations. To help achieve that goal the authors have begun adapting a small commercial overhead gantry robot, the IBM electric cantilever robot (ECR), to plutonium processing applications. Steps are being taken to harden this robot to withstand the dry, often abrasive, environment within a plutonium glove box and to protect the electronic components against alpha radiation. A mock-up processing system for the reduction of the oxide to a metal was prepared and successfully demonstrated. Design of a working prototype is now underway using the results of this mock-up study. 7 figs., 4 tabs

  13. A neural learning classifier system with self-adaptive constructivism for mobile robot control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurst, Jacob; Bull, Larry

    2006-01-01

    For artificial entities to achieve true autonomy and display complex lifelike behavior, they will need to exploit appropriate adaptable learning algorithms. In this context adaptability implies flexibility guided by the environment at any given time and an open-ended ability to learn appropriate behaviors. This article examines the use of constructivism-inspired mechanisms within a neural learning classifier system architecture that exploits parameter self-adaptation as an approach to realize such behavior. The system uses a rule structure in which each rule is represented by an artificial neural network. It is shown that appropriate internal rule complexity emerges during learning at a rate controlled by the learner and that the structure indicates underlying features of the task. Results are presented in simulated mazes before moving to a mobile robot platform.

  14. Neural Behavior Chain Learning of Mobile Robot Actions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lejla Banjanovic-Mehmedovic

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a visual/motor behavior learning approach, based on neural networks. We propose Behavior Chain Model (BCM in order to create a way of behavior learning. Our behavior-based system evolution task is a mobile robot detecting a target and driving/acting towards it. First, the mapping relations between the image feature domain of the object and the robot action domain are derived. Second, a multilayer neural network for offline learning of the mapping relations is used. This learning structure through neural network training process represents a connection between the visual perceptions and motor sequence of actions in order to grip a target. Last, using behavior learning through a noticed action chain, we can predict mobile robot behavior for a variety of similar tasks in similar environment. Prediction results suggest that the methodology is adequate and could be recognized as an idea for designing different mobile robot behaviour assistance.

  15. Modeling and Simulation of Elementary Robot Behaviors using Associative Memories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claude F. Touzet

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Today, there are several drawbacks that impede the necessary and much needed use of robot learning techniques in real applications. First, the time needed to achieve the synthesis of any behavior is prohibitive. Second, the robot behavior during the learning phase is – by definition – bad, it may even be dangerous. Third, except within the lazy learning approach, a new behavior implies a new learning phase. We propose in this paper to use associative memories (self-organizing maps to encode the non explicit model of the robot-world interaction sampled by the lazy memory, and then generate a robot behavior by means of situations to be achieved, i.e., points on the self-organizing maps. Any behavior can instantaneously be synthesized by the definition of a goal situation. Its performance will be minimal (not necessarily bad and will improve by the mere repetition of the behavior.

  16. Adaptive Robotic Systems Design in University of Applied Sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunsing Jos

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the industry for highly specialized machine building (small series with high variety and high complexity and in healthcare a demand for adaptive robotics is rapidly coming up. Technically skilled people are not always available in sufficient numbers. A lot of know how with respect to the required technologies is available but successful adaptive robotic system designs are still rare. In our research at the university of applied sciences we incorporate new available technologies in our education courses by way of research projects; in these projects students will investigate the application possibilities of new technologies together with companies and teachers. Thus we are able to transfer knowledge to the students including an innovation oriented attitude and skills. Last years we developed several industrial binpicking applications for logistics and machining-factories with different types of 3D vision. Also force feedback gripping has been developed including slip sensing. Especially for healthcare robotics we developed a so-called twisted wire actuator, which is very compact in combination with an underactuated gripper, manufactured in one piece in polyurethane. We work both on modeling and testing the functions of these designs but we work also on complete demonstrator systems. Since the amount of disciplines involved in complex product and machine design increases rapidly we pay a lot of attention with respect to systems engineering methods. Apart from the classical engineering disciplines like mechanical, electrical, software and mechatronics engineering, especially for adaptive robotics more and more disciplines like industrial product design, communication … multimedia design and of course physics and even art are to be involved depending on the specific application to be designed. Design tools like V-model, agile/scrum and design-approaches to obtain the best set of requirements are being implemented in the engineering studies from

  17. Developing new behavior strategies of robot soccer team SjF TUKE Robotics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikuláš Hajduk

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available There are too many types of robotic soccer approaches at present. SjF TUKE Robotics, who won robot soccer world tournament for year 2010 in category MiroSot, is a team with multiagent system approach. They have one main agent (master and five agent players, represented by robots. There is a point of view, in the article, for code programmer how to create new behavior strategies by creating a new code for master. There is a methodology how to prepare and create it following some rules.

  18. Adaptive robotic control driven by a versatile spiking cerebellar network.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Casellato

    Full Text Available The cerebellum is involved in a large number of different neural processes, especially in associative learning and in fine motor control. To develop a comprehensive theory of sensorimotor learning and control, it is crucial to determine the neural basis of coding and plasticity embedded into the cerebellar neural circuit and how they are translated into behavioral outcomes in learning paradigms. Learning has to be inferred from the interaction of an embodied system with its real environment, and the same cerebellar principles derived from cell physiology have to be able to drive a variety of tasks of different nature, calling for complex timing and movement patterns. We have coupled a realistic cerebellar spiking neural network (SNN with a real robot and challenged it in multiple diverse sensorimotor tasks. Encoding and decoding strategies based on neuronal firing rates were applied. Adaptive motor control protocols with acquisition and extinction phases have been designed and tested, including an associative Pavlovian task (Eye blinking classical conditioning, a vestibulo-ocular task and a perturbed arm reaching task operating in closed-loop. The SNN processed in real-time mossy fiber inputs as arbitrary contextual signals, irrespective of whether they conveyed a tone, a vestibular stimulus or the position of a limb. A bidirectional long-term plasticity rule implemented at parallel fibers-Purkinje cell synapses modulated the output activity in the deep cerebellar nuclei. In all tasks, the neurorobot learned to adjust timing and gain of the motor responses by tuning its output discharge. It succeeded in reproducing how human biological systems acquire, extinguish and express knowledge of a noisy and changing world. By varying stimuli and perturbations patterns, real-time control robustness and generalizability were validated. The implicit spiking dynamics of the cerebellar model fulfill timing, prediction and learning functions.

  19. Adaptive robotic control driven by a versatile spiking cerebellar network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casellato, Claudia; Antonietti, Alberto; Garrido, Jesus A; Carrillo, Richard R; Luque, Niceto R; Ros, Eduardo; Pedrocchi, Alessandra; D'Angelo, Egidio

    2014-01-01

    The cerebellum is involved in a large number of different neural processes, especially in associative learning and in fine motor control. To develop a comprehensive theory of sensorimotor learning and control, it is crucial to determine the neural basis of coding and plasticity embedded into the cerebellar neural circuit and how they are translated into behavioral outcomes in learning paradigms. Learning has to be inferred from the interaction of an embodied system with its real environment, and the same cerebellar principles derived from cell physiology have to be able to drive a variety of tasks of different nature, calling for complex timing and movement patterns. We have coupled a realistic cerebellar spiking neural network (SNN) with a real robot and challenged it in multiple diverse sensorimotor tasks. Encoding and decoding strategies based on neuronal firing rates were applied. Adaptive motor control protocols with acquisition and extinction phases have been designed and tested, including an associative Pavlovian task (Eye blinking classical conditioning), a vestibulo-ocular task and a perturbed arm reaching task operating in closed-loop. The SNN processed in real-time mossy fiber inputs as arbitrary contextual signals, irrespective of whether they conveyed a tone, a vestibular stimulus or the position of a limb. A bidirectional long-term plasticity rule implemented at parallel fibers-Purkinje cell synapses modulated the output activity in the deep cerebellar nuclei. In all tasks, the neurorobot learned to adjust timing and gain of the motor responses by tuning its output discharge. It succeeded in reproducing how human biological systems acquire, extinguish and express knowledge of a noisy and changing world. By varying stimuli and perturbations patterns, real-time control robustness and generalizability were validated. The implicit spiking dynamics of the cerebellar model fulfill timing, prediction and learning functions.

  20. Dynamical Behavior of Multi-Robot Systems Using Lattice Gas Automata

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cameron, S.M.; Robinett, R.; Stantz, K.M.; Trahan, M.W.; Wagner, J.S.

    1999-03-11

    Recent attention has been given to the deployment of an adaptable sensor array realized by multi-robotic systems. Our group has been studying the collective behavior of autonomous, multi-agent systems and their applications in the area of remote-sensing and emerging threats. To accomplish such tasks, an interdisciplinary research effort at Sandia National Laboratories are conducting tests in the fields of sensor technology, robotics, and multi-robotic and multi-agents architectures. Our goal is to coordinate a constellation of point sensors that optimizes spatial coverage and multivariate signal analysis using unmanned robotic vehicles (e.g., RATLERs, Robotic All-ten-sin Lunar Exploration Rover-class vehicles). Overall design methodology is to evolve complex collective behaviors realized through simple interaction (kinetic) physics and artificial intelligence to enable real-time operational responses to emerging threats. This paper focuses on our recent work understanding the dynamics of many-body systems using the physics-based hydrodynamic model of lattice gas automata. Three design features are investigated. One, for single-speed robots, a hexagonal nearest-neighbor interaction topology is necessary to preserve standard hydrodynamic flow. Two, adaptability, defined by the swarm's deformation rate, can be controlled through the hydrodynamic viscosity term, which, in turn, is defined by the local robotic interaction rules. Three, due to the inherent non-linearity of the dynamical equations describing large ensembles, development of stability criteria ensuring convergence to equilibrium states is developed by scaling information flow rates relative to a swarm's hydrodynamic flow rate. An initial test case simulates a swarm of twenty-five robots that maneuvers past an obstacle while following a moving target. A genetic algorithm optimizes applied nearest-neighbor forces in each of five spatial regions distributed over the simulation domain. Armed with

  1. Motion and Emotional Behavior Design for Pet Robot Dog

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Chi-Tai; Yang, Yu-Ting; Miao, Shih-Heng; Wong, Ching-Chang

    A pet robot dog with two ears, one mouth, one facial expression plane, and one vision system is designed and implemented so that it can do some emotional behaviors. Three processors (Inter® Pentium® M 1.0 GHz, an 8-bit processer 8051, and embedded soft-core processer NIOS) are used to control the robot. One camera, one power detector, four touch sensors, and one temperature detector are used to obtain the information of the environment. The designed robot with 20 DOF (degrees of freedom) is able to accomplish the walking motion. A behavior system is built on the implemented pet robot so that it is able to choose a suitable behavior for different environmental situation. From the practical test, we can see that the implemented pet robot dog can do some emotional interaction with the human.

  2. Adaptive behavior of children with visual impairment

    OpenAIRE

    Anđelković Marija

    2014-01-01

    Adaptive behavior includes a wide range of skills necessary for independent, safe and adequate performance of everyday activities. Practical, social and conceptual skills make the concept of adaptive behavior. The aim of this paper is to provide an insight into the existing studies of adaptive behavior in persons with visual impairment. The paper mainly focuses on the research on adaptive behavior in children with visual impairment. The results show that the acquisition of adaptive skills is ...

  3. Responsive Social Positioning Behaviors for Semi-Autonomous Telepresence Robots

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vroon, Jered Hendrik

    2017-01-01

    Social interaction with a mobile robot requires the establishment of appropriate social positioning behaviors. Previous work has focused mostly on general and static rules that can be applied to robotics, such as proxemics. How can we deal effectively and efficiently with the dynamic positioning

  4. Human motion behavior while interacting with an industrial robot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bortot, Dino; Ding, Hao; Antonopolous, Alexandros; Bengler, Klaus

    2012-01-01

    Human workers and industrial robots both have specific strengths within industrial production. Advantageously they complement each other perfectly, which leads to the development of human-robot interaction (HRI) applications. Bringing humans and robots together in the same workspace may lead to potential collisions. The avoidance of such is a central safety requirement. It can be realized with sundry sensor systems, all of them decelerating the robot when the distance to the human decreases alarmingly and applying the emergency stop, when the distance becomes too small. As a consequence, the efficiency of the overall systems suffers, because the robot has high idle times. Optimized path planning algorithms have to be developed to avoid that. The following study investigates human motion behavior in the proximity of an industrial robot. Three different kinds of encounters between the two entities under three robot speed levels are prompted. A motion tracking system is used to capture the motions. Results show, that humans keep an average distance of about 0,5m to the robot, when the encounter occurs. Approximation of the workbenches is influenced by the robot in ten of 15 cases. Furthermore, an increase of participants' walking velocity with higher robot velocities is observed.

  5. An adaptable Boolean net trainable to control a computing robot

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lauria, F. E.; Prevete, R.; Milo, M.; Visco, S.

    1999-01-01

    We discuss a method to implement in a Boolean neural network a Hebbian rule so to obtain an adaptable universal control system. We start by presenting both the Boolean neural net and the Hebbian rule we have considered. Then we discuss, first, the problems arising when the latter is naively implemented in a Boolean neural net, second, the method consenting us to overcome them and the ensuing adaptable Boolean neural net paradigm. Next, we present the adaptable Boolean neural net as an intelligent control system, actually controlling a writing robot, and discuss how to train it in the execution of the elementary arithmetic operations on operands represented by numerals with an arbitrary number of digits

  6. People-Centered Development of a Smart Learning Ecosystem of Adaptive Robots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fischer, Daniel Kjær Bonde; Kristiansen, Jakob; Mariager, Casper

    2019-01-01

    Robots are currently moving out of the laboratory and company floor into more human and social contexts including care, rehabilitation and education. While those robots are usually envisioned as a kind of social interaction partner, we suggest a different approach, where robots become adaptive...

  7. Adaptive Robotic Fabrication for Conditions of Material Inconsistency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nicholas, Paul; Zwierzycki, Mateusz; Clausen Nørgaard, Esben

    2017-01-01

    This paper describes research that addresses the variable behaviour of industrial quality metals and the extension of computational techniques into the fabrication process. It describes the context of robotic incremental sheet metal forming, a freeform method for imparting 3D form onto a 2D thin...... and the fabrication process? Here, two adaptive methods are presented that aim to increase forming accuracy with only a minimum increase in fabrication time, and that maintain ongoing input from the results of the fabrication process. The first method is an online sensor-based strategy and the second method...

  8. Beyond adaptive-critic creative learning for intelligent mobile robots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Xiaoqun; Cao, Ming; Hall, Ernest L.

    2001-10-01

    Intelligent industrial and mobile robots may be considered proven technology in structured environments. Teach programming and supervised learning methods permit solutions to a variety of applications. However, we believe that to extend the operation of these machines to more unstructured environments requires a new learning method. Both unsupervised learning and reinforcement learning are potential candidates for these new tasks. The adaptive critic method has been shown to provide useful approximations or even optimal control policies to non-linear systems. The purpose of this paper is to explore the use of new learning methods that goes beyond the adaptive critic method for unstructured environments. The adaptive critic is a form of reinforcement learning. A critic element provides only high level grading corrections to a cognition module that controls the action module. In the proposed system the critic's grades are modeled and forecasted, so that an anticipated set of sub-grades are available to the cognition model. The forecasting grades are interpolated and are available on the time scale needed by the action model. The success of the system is highly dependent on the accuracy of the forecasted grades and adaptability of the action module. Examples from the guidance of a mobile robot are provided to illustrate the method for simple line following and for the more complex navigation and control in an unstructured environment. The theory presented that is beyond the adaptive critic may be called creative theory. Creative theory is a form of learning that models the highest level of human learning - imagination. The application of the creative theory appears to not only be to mobile robots but also to many other forms of human endeavor such as educational learning and business forecasting. Reinforcement learning such as the adaptive critic may be applied to known problems to aid in the discovery of their solutions. The significance of creative theory is that it

  9. Toward understanding social cues and signals in human-robot interaction: effects of robot gaze and proxemic behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiore, Stephen M; Wiltshire, Travis J; Lobato, Emilio J C; Jentsch, Florian G; Huang, Wesley H; Axelrod, Benjamin

    2013-01-01

    As robots are increasingly deployed in settings requiring social interaction, research is needed to examine the social signals perceived by humans when robots display certain social cues. In this paper, we report a study designed to examine how humans interpret social cues exhibited by robots. We first provide a brief overview of perspectives from social cognition in humans and how these processes are applicable to human-robot interaction (HRI). We then discuss the need to examine the relationship between social cues and signals as a function of the degree to which a robot is perceived as a socially present agent. We describe an experiment in which social cues were manipulated on an iRobot Ava(TM) mobile robotics platform in a hallway navigation scenario. Cues associated with the robot's proxemic behavior were found to significantly affect participant perceptions of the robot's social presence and emotional state while cues associated with the robot's gaze behavior were not found to be significant. Further, regardless of the proxemic behavior, participants attributed more social presence and emotional states to the robot over repeated interactions than when they first interacted with it. Generally, these results indicate the importance for HRI research to consider how social cues expressed by a robot can differentially affect perceptions of the robot's mental states and intentions. The discussion focuses on implications for the design of robotic systems and future directions for research on the relationship between social cues and signals.

  10. Navigasi Berbasis Behavior dan Fuzzy Logic pada Simulasi Robot Bergerak Otonom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rendyansyah

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Mobile robot is the robotic mechanism that is able to moved automatically. The movement of the robot automatically require a navigation system. Navigation is a method for determining the robot motion. In this study, using a method developed robot navigation behavior with fuzzy logic. The behavior of the robot is divided into several modules, such as walking, avoid obstacles, to follow walls, corridors and conditions of u-shape. In this research designed mobile robot simulation in a visual programming. Robot is equipped with seven distance sensor and divided into several groups to test the behavior that is designed, so that the behavior of the robot generate speed and steering control. Based on experiments that have been conducted shows that mobile robot simulation can run smooth on many conditions. This proves that the implementation of the formation of behavior and fuzzy logic techniques on the robot working well

  11. Foraging behavior analysis of swarm robotics system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sakthivelmurugan E.

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Swarm robotics is a number of small robots that are synchronically works together to accomplish a given task. Swarm robotics faces many problems in performing a given task. The problems are pattern formation, aggregation, Chain formation, self-assembly, coordinated movement, hole avoidance, foraging and self-deployment. Foraging is most essential part in swarm robotics. Foraging is the task to discover the item and get back into the shell. The researchers conducted foraging experiments with random-movement of robots and they have end up with unique solutions. Most of the researchers have conducted experiments using the circular arena. The shell is placed at the centre of the arena and environment boundary is well known. In this study, an attempt is made to different strategic movements like straight line approach, parallel line approach, divider approach, expanding square approach, and parallel sweep approach. All these approaches are to be simulated by using player/stage open-source simulation software based on C and C++ programming language in Linux operating system. Finally statistical comparison will be done with task completion time of all these strategies using ANOVA to identify the significant searching strategy.

  12. Autonomous Shepherding Behaviors of Multiple Target Steering Robots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Wonki; Kim, DaeEun

    2017-11-25

    This paper presents a distributed coordination methodology for multi-robot systems, based on nearest-neighbor interactions. Among many interesting tasks that may be performed using swarm robots, we propose a biologically-inspired control law for a shepherding task, whereby a group of external agents drives another group of agents to a desired location. First, we generated sheep-like robots that act like a flock. We assume that each agent is capable of measuring the relative location and velocity to each of its neighbors within a limited sensing area. Then, we designed a control strategy for shepherd-like robots that have information regarding where to go and a steering ability to control the flock, according to the robots' position relative to the flock. We define several independent behavior rules; each agent calculates to what extent it will move by summarizing each rule. The flocking sheep agents detect the steering agents and try to avoid them; this tendency leads to movement of the flock. Each steering agent only needs to focus on guiding the nearest flocking agent to the desired location. Without centralized coordination, multiple steering agents produce an arc formation to control the flock effectively. In addition, we propose a new rule for collecting behavior, whereby a scattered flock or multiple flocks are consolidated. From simulation results with multiple robots, we show that each robot performs actions for the shepherding behavior, and only a few steering agents are needed to control the whole flock. The results are displayed in maps that trace the paths of the flock and steering robots. Performance is evaluated via time cost and path accuracy to demonstrate the effectiveness of this approach.

  13. Adaptive particle filter for localization problem in service robotics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heilig Alexander

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present a statistical approach to the likelihood computation and adaptive resampling algorithm for particle filters using low cost ultrasonic sensors in the context of service robotics. This increases the efficiency of the particle filter in the Monte Carlo Localization problem by means of preventing sample impoverishment and ensuring it converges towards the most likely particle and simultaneously keeping less likely ones by systematic resampling. Proposed algorithms were developed in the ROS framework, simulation was done in Gazebo environment. Experiments using a differential drive mobile platform with 4 ultrasonic sensors in the office environment show that our approach provides strong improvement over particle filters with fixed sample sizes.

  14. Robotic intelligence kernel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruemmer, David J [Idaho Falls, ID

    2009-11-17

    A robot platform includes perceptors, locomotors, and a system controller. The system controller executes a robot intelligence kernel (RIK) that includes a multi-level architecture and a dynamic autonomy structure. The multi-level architecture includes a robot behavior level for defining robot behaviors, that incorporate robot attributes and a cognitive level for defining conduct modules that blend an adaptive interaction between predefined decision functions and the robot behaviors. The dynamic autonomy structure is configured for modifying a transaction capacity between an operator intervention and a robot initiative and may include multiple levels with at least a teleoperation mode configured to maximize the operator intervention and minimize the robot initiative and an autonomous mode configured to minimize the operator intervention and maximize the robot initiative. Within the RIK at least the cognitive level includes the dynamic autonomy structure.

  15. Mathematical model for adaptive control system of ASEA robot at Kennedy Space Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zia, Omar

    1989-01-01

    The dynamic properties and the mathematical model for the adaptive control of the robotic system presently under investigation at Robotic Application and Development Laboratory at Kennedy Space Center are discussed. NASA is currently investigating the use of robotic manipulators for mating and demating of fuel lines to the Space Shuttle Vehicle prior to launch. The Robotic system used as a testbed for this purpose is an ASEA IRB-90 industrial robot with adaptive control capabilities. The system was tested and it's performance with respect to stability was improved by using an analogue force controller. The objective of this research project is to determine the mathematical model of the system operating under force feedback control with varying dynamic internal perturbation in order to provide continuous stable operation under variable load conditions. A series of lumped parameter models are developed. The models include some effects of robot structural dynamics, sensor compliance, and workpiece dynamics.

  16. Autonomous Shepherding Behaviors of Multiple Target Steering Robots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wonki Lee

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a distributed coordination methodology for multi-robot systems, based on nearest-neighbor interactions. Among many interesting tasks that may be performed using swarm robots, we propose a biologically-inspired control law for a shepherding task, whereby a group of external agents drives another group of agents to a desired location. First, we generated sheep-like robots that act like a flock. We assume that each agent is capable of measuring the relative location and velocity to each of its neighbors within a limited sensing area. Then, we designed a control strategy for shepherd-like robots that have information regarding where to go and a steering ability to control the flock, according to the robots’ position relative to the flock. We define several independent behavior rules; each agent calculates to what extent it will move by summarizing each rule. The flocking sheep agents detect the steering agents and try to avoid them; this tendency leads to movement of the flock. Each steering agent only needs to focus on guiding the nearest flocking agent to the desired location. Without centralized coordination, multiple steering agents produce an arc formation to control the flock effectively. In addition, we propose a new rule for collecting behavior, whereby a scattered flock or multiple flocks are consolidated. From simulation results with multiple robots, we show that each robot performs actions for the shepherding behavior, and only a few steering agents are needed to control the whole flock. The results are displayed in maps that trace the paths of the flock and steering robots. Performance is evaluated via time cost and path accuracy to demonstrate the effectiveness of this approach.

  17. An Adaptive Approach for Precise Underwater Vehicle Control in Combined Robot-Diver Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-01

    and Nicosia and Tomei [13] focused on industrial applications involving robotic manipulator arms carrying various loads. The application of...1987. 94 [13] S. Nicosia and P. Tomei, “Model reference adaptive control algorithms for industrial robots ,” Automatica, vol. 20, pp. 635–644, 9... kinematic and dynamic properties,” The International Journal of Robotics Research, vol. 25, pp. 283–296, March 01, 2006. [17] A. Sanei and M. French

  18. An Exploratory Investigation into the Effects of Adaptation in Child-Robot Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salter, Tamie; Michaud, François; Létourneau, Dominic

    The work presented in this paper describes an exploratory investigation into the potential effects of a robot exhibiting an adaptive behaviour in reaction to a child’s interaction. In our laboratory we develop robotic devices for a diverse range of children that differ in age, gender and ability, which includes children that are diagnosed with cognitive difficulties. As all children vary in their personalities and styles of interaction, it would follow that adaptation could bring many benefits. In this abstract we give our initial examination of a series of trials which explore the effects of a fully autonomous rolling robot exhibiting adaptation (through changes in motion and sound) compared to it exhibiting pre-programmed behaviours. We investigate sensor readings on-board the robot that record the level of ‘interaction’ that the robot receives when a child plays with it and also we discuss the results from analysing video footage looking at the social aspect of the trial.

  19. Children's Behavior toward and Understanding of Robotic and Living Dogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melson, Gail F.; Kahn, Peter H., Jr.; Beck, Alan; Friedman, Batya; Roberts, Trace; Garrett, Erik; Gill, Brian T.

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated children's reasoning about and behavioral interactions with a computationally sophisticated robotic dog (Sony's AIBO) compared to a live dog (an Australian Shepherd). Seventy-two children from three age groups (7-9 years, 10-12 years, and 13-15 years) participated in this study. Results showed that more children…

  20. Estimating Position of Mobile Robots From Omnidirectional Vision Using an Adaptive Algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Luyang; Liu, Yun-Hui; Wang, Kai; Fang, Mu

    2015-08-01

    This paper presents a novel and simple adaptive algorithm for estimating the position of a mobile robot with high accuracy in an unknown and unstructured environment by fusing images of an omnidirectional vision system with measurements of odometry and inertial sensors. Based on a new derivation where the omnidirectional projection can be linearly parameterized by the positions of the robot and natural feature points, we propose a novel adaptive algorithm, which is similar to the Slotine-Li algorithm in model-based adaptive control, to estimate the robot's position by using the tracked feature points in image sequence, the robot's velocity, and orientation angles measured by odometry and inertial sensors. It is proved that the adaptive algorithm leads to global exponential convergence of the position estimation errors to zero. Simulations and real-world experiments are performed to demonstrate the performance of the proposed algorithm.

  1. Toward understanding social cues and signals in human–robot interaction: effects of robot gaze and proxemic behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiore, Stephen M.; Wiltshire, Travis J.; Lobato, Emilio J. C.; Jentsch, Florian G.; Huang, Wesley H.; Axelrod, Benjamin

    2013-01-01

    As robots are increasingly deployed in settings requiring social interaction, research is needed to examine the social signals perceived by humans when robots display certain social cues. In this paper, we report a study designed to examine how humans interpret social cues exhibited by robots. We first provide a brief overview of perspectives from social cognition in humans and how these processes are applicable to human–robot interaction (HRI). We then discuss the need to examine the relationship between social cues and signals as a function of the degree to which a robot is perceived as a socially present agent. We describe an experiment in which social cues were manipulated on an iRobot AvaTM mobile robotics platform in a hallway navigation scenario. Cues associated with the robot’s proxemic behavior were found to significantly affect participant perceptions of the robot’s social presence and emotional state while cues associated with the robot’s gaze behavior were not found to be significant. Further, regardless of the proxemic behavior, participants attributed more social presence and emotional states to the robot over repeated interactions than when they first interacted with it. Generally, these results indicate the importance for HRI research to consider how social cues expressed by a robot can differentially affect perceptions of the robot’s mental states and intentions. The discussion focuses on implications for the design of robotic systems and future directions for research on the relationship between social cues and signals. PMID:24348434

  2. Towards understanding social cues and signals in human-robot interaction: Effects of robot gaze and proxemic behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen M. Fiore

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available As robots are increasingly deployed in settings requiring social interaction, research is needed to examine the social signals perceived by humans when robots display certain social cues. In this paper, we report a study designed to examine how humans interpret social cues exhibited by robots. We first provide a brief overview of perspectives from social cognition in humans and how these processes are applicable to human-robot interaction (HRI. We then discuss the need to examine the relationship between social cues and signals as a function of the degree to which a robot is perceived as a socially present agent. We describe an experiment in which social cues were manipulated on an iRobot Ava™ Mobile Robotics Platform in a hallway navigation scenario. Cues associated with the robot’s proxemic behavior were found to significantly affect participant perceptions of the robot’s social presence and emotional state while cues associated with the robot’s gaze behavior were not found to be significant. Further, regardless of the proxemic behavior, participants attributed more social presence and emotional states to the robot over repeated interactions than when they first interacted with it. Generally, these results indicate the importance for HRI research to consider how social cues expressed by a robot can differentially affect perceptions of the robot’s mental states and intentions. The discussion focuses on implications for the design of robotic systems and future directions for research on the relationship between social cues and signals.

  3. Adaptive behavior of children with visual impairment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anđelković Marija

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Adaptive behavior includes a wide range of skills necessary for independent, safe and adequate performance of everyday activities. Practical, social and conceptual skills make the concept of adaptive behavior. The aim of this paper is to provide an insight into the existing studies of adaptive behavior in persons with visual impairment. The paper mainly focuses on the research on adaptive behavior in children with visual impairment. The results show that the acquisition of adaptive skills is mainly low or moderately low in children and youth with visual impairment. Children with visual impairment achieve the worst results in social skills and everyday life skills, while the most acquired are communication skills. Apart from the degree of visual impairment, difficulties in motor development also significantly influence the acquisition of practical and social skills of blind persons and persons with low vision.

  4. Fish and robots swimming together in a water tunnel: robot color and tail-beat frequency influence fish behavior.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Polverino

    Full Text Available The possibility of integrating bioinspired robots in groups of live social animals may constitute a valuable tool to study the basis of social behavior and uncover the fundamental determinants of animal functions and dysfunctions. In this study, we investigate the interactions between individual golden shiners (Notemigonus crysoleucas and robotic fish swimming together in a water tunnel at constant flow velocity. The robotic fish is designed to mimic its live counterpart in the aspect ratio, body shape, dimension, and locomotory pattern. Fish positional preference with respect to the robot is experimentally analyzed as the robot's color pattern and tail-beat frequency are varied. Behavioral observations are corroborated by particle image velocimetry studies aimed at investigating the flow structure behind the robotic fish. Experimental results show that the time spent by golden shiners in the vicinity of the bioinspired robotic fish is the highest when the robot mimics their natural color pattern and beats its tail at the same frequency. In these conditions, fish tend to swim at the same depth of the robotic fish, where the wake from the robotic fish is stronger and hydrodynamic return is most likely to be effective.

  5. Fish and robots swimming together in a water tunnel: robot color and tail-beat frequency influence fish behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polverino, Giovanni; Phamduy, Paul; Porfiri, Maurizio

    2013-01-01

    The possibility of integrating bioinspired robots in groups of live social animals may constitute a valuable tool to study the basis of social behavior and uncover the fundamental determinants of animal functions and dysfunctions. In this study, we investigate the interactions between individual golden shiners (Notemigonus crysoleucas) and robotic fish swimming together in a water tunnel at constant flow velocity. The robotic fish is designed to mimic its live counterpart in the aspect ratio, body shape, dimension, and locomotory pattern. Fish positional preference with respect to the robot is experimentally analyzed as the robot's color pattern and tail-beat frequency are varied. Behavioral observations are corroborated by particle image velocimetry studies aimed at investigating the flow structure behind the robotic fish. Experimental results show that the time spent by golden shiners in the vicinity of the bioinspired robotic fish is the highest when the robot mimics their natural color pattern and beats its tail at the same frequency. In these conditions, fish tend to swim at the same depth of the robotic fish, where the wake from the robotic fish is stronger and hydrodynamic return is most likely to be effective.

  6. Motion based segmentation for robot vision using adapted EM algorithm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhao, Wei; Roos, Nico

    2016-01-01

    Robots operate in a dynamic world in which objects are often moving. The movement of objects may help the robot to segment the objects from the background. The result of the segmentation can subsequently be used to identify the objects. This paper investigates the possibility of segmenting objects

  7. Adaptive Controller Effects on Pilot Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trujillo, Anna C.; Gregory, Irene M.; Hempley, Lucas E.

    2014-01-01

    Adaptive control provides robustness and resilience for highly uncertain, and potentially unpredictable, flight dynamics characteristic. Some of the recent flight experiences of pilot-in-the-loop with an adaptive controller have exhibited unpredicted interactions. In retrospect, this is not surprising once it is realized that there are now two adaptive controllers interacting, the software adaptive control system and the pilot. An experiment was conducted to categorize these interactions on the pilot with an adaptive controller during control surface failures. One of the objectives of this experiment was to determine how the adaptation time of the controller affects pilots. The pitch and roll errors, and stick input increased for increasing adaptation time and during the segment when the adaptive controller was adapting. Not surprisingly, altitude, cross track and angle deviations, and vertical velocity also increase during the failure and then slowly return to pre-failure levels. Subjects may change their behavior even as an adaptive controller is adapting with additional stick inputs. Therefore, the adaptive controller should adapt as fast as possible to minimize flight track errors. This will minimize undesirable interactions between the pilot and the adaptive controller and maintain maneuvering precision.

  8. Implementation of robust adaptive control for robotic manipulator using TMS320C30

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, S. H.

    1996-01-01

    A new adaptive digital control scheme for the robotic manipulator is proposed in this paper. Digital signal processors are used in implementing real time adaptive control algorithms to provide an enhanced motion for robotic manipulators. In the proposed scheme, adaptation laws are derived from the improved Lyapunov second stability analysis based on the adaptive feedforward and feedback controller and PI type time-varying control elements. The control scheme is simple in structure, fast in computation, and suitable for implementation of real-time control. Moreover, this scheme does not require an accurate dynamic modeling, nor values of manipulator parameters and payload. Performance of the adaptive controller is illustrated by simulation and experimental results for a SCARA robot. (author)

  9. Adaptive training algorithm for robot-assisted upper-arm rehabilitation, applicable to individualised and therapeutic human-robot interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chemuturi, Radhika; Amirabdollahian, Farshid; Dautenhahn, Kerstin

    2013-09-28

    Rehabilitation robotics is progressing towards developing robots that can be used as advanced tools to augment the role of a therapist. These robots are capable of not only offering more frequent and more accessible therapies but also providing new insights into treatment effectiveness based on their ability to measure interaction parameters. A requirement for having more advanced therapies is to identify how robots can 'adapt' to each individual's needs at different stages of recovery. Hence, our research focused on developing an adaptive interface for the GENTLE/A rehabilitation system. The interface was based on a lead-lag performance model utilising the interaction between the human and the robot. The goal of the present study was to test the adaptability of the GENTLE/A system to the performance of the user. Point-to-point movements were executed using the HapticMaster (HM) robotic arm, the main component of the GENTLE/A rehabilitation system. The points were displayed as balls on the screen and some of the points also had a real object, providing a test-bed for the human-robot interaction (HRI) experiment. The HM was operated in various modes to test the adaptability of the GENTLE/A system based on the leading/lagging performance of the user. Thirty-two healthy participants took part in the experiment comprising of a training phase followed by the actual-performance phase. The leading or lagging role of the participant could be used successfully to adjust the duration required by that participant to execute point-to-point movements, in various modes of robot operation and under various conditions. The adaptability of the GENTLE/A system was clearly evident from the durations recorded. The regression results showed that the participants required lower execution times with the help from a real object when compared to just a virtual object. The 'reaching away' movements were longer to execute when compared to the 'returning towards' movements irrespective of the

  10. Dynamic Modelling and Adaptive Traction Control for Mobile Robots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Albagul

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Mobile robots have received a great deal of research in recent years. A significant amount of research has been published in many aspects related to mobile robots. Most of the research is devoted to design and develop some control techniques for robot motion and path planning. A large number of researchers have used kinematic models to develop motion control strategy for mobile robots. Their argument and assumption that these models are valid if the robot has low speed, low acceleration and light load. However, dynamic modelling of mobile robots is very important as they are designed to travel at higher speed and perform heavy duty work. This paper presents and discusses a new approach to develop a dynamic model and control strategy for wheeled mobile robot which I modelled as a rigid body that roles on two wheels and a castor. The motion control strategy consists of two levels. The first level is dealing with the dynamic of the system and denoted as ‘Low’ level controller. The second level is developed to take care of path planning and trajectory generation.

  11. Adaptive training of neural networks for control of autonomous mobile robots

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steur, E.; Vromen, T.; Nijmeijer, H.; Fossen, T.I.; Nijmeijer, H.; Pettersen, K.Y.

    2017-01-01

    We present an adaptive training procedure for a spiking neural network, which is used for control of a mobile robot. Because of manufacturing tolerances, any hardware implementation of a spiking neural network has non-identical nodes, which limit the performance of the controller. The adaptive

  12. Biologically inspired control of humanoid robot arms robust and adaptive approaches

    CERN Document Server

    Spiers, Adam; Herrmann, Guido

    2016-01-01

    This book investigates a biologically inspired method of robot arm control, developed with the objective of synthesising human-like motion dynamically, using nonlinear, robust and adaptive control techniques in practical robot systems. The control method caters to a rising interest in humanoid robots and the need for appropriate control schemes to match these systems. Unlike the classic kinematic schemes used in industrial manipulators, the dynamic approaches proposed here promote human-like motion with better exploitation of the robot’s physical structure. This also benefits human-robot interaction. The control schemes proposed in this book are inspired by a wealth of human-motion literature that indicates the drivers of motion to be dynamic, model-based and optimal. Such considerations lend themselves nicely to achievement via nonlinear control techniques without the necessity for extensive and complex biological models. The operational-space method of robot control forms the basis of many of the techniqu...

  13. Decentralized Reinforcement Learning of robot behaviors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leottau, David L.; Ruiz-del-Solar, Javier; Babuska, R.

    2018-01-01

    A multi-agent methodology is proposed for Decentralized Reinforcement Learning (DRL) of individual behaviors in problems where multi-dimensional action spaces are involved. When using this methodology, sub-tasks are learned in parallel by individual agents working toward a common goal. In

  14. Supervisory Adaptive Network-Based Fuzzy Inference System (SANFIS Design for Empirical Test of Mobile Robot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Jen Mon

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available A supervisory Adaptive Network-based Fuzzy Inference System (SANFIS is proposed for the empirical control of a mobile robot. This controller includes an ANFIS controller and a supervisory controller. The ANFIS controller is off-line tuned by an adaptive fuzzy inference system, the supervisory controller is designed to compensate for the approximation error between the ANFIS controller and the ideal controller, and drive the trajectory of the system onto a specified surface (called the sliding surface or switching surface while maintaining the trajectory onto this switching surface continuously to guarantee the system stability. This SANFIS controller can achieve favourable empirical control performance of the mobile robot in the empirical tests of driving the mobile robot with a square path. Practical experimental results demonstrate that the proposed SANFIS can achieve better control performance than that achieved using an ANFIS controller for empirical control of the mobile robot.

  15. A Novel Greeting Selection System for a Culture-Adaptive Humanoid Robot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriele Trovato

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Robots, especially humanoids, are expected to perform human-like actions and adapt to our ways of communication in order to facilitate their acceptance in human society. Among humans, rules of communication change depending on background culture: greetings are a part of communication in which cultural differences are strong. Robots should adapt to these specific differences in order to communicate effectively, being able to select the appropriate manner of greeting for different cultures depending on the social context. In this paper, we present the modelling of social factors that influence greeting choice, and the resulting novel culture-dependent greeting gesture and words selection system. An experiment with German participants was run using the humanoid robot ARMAR-IIIb. Thanks to this system, the robot, after interacting with Germans, can perform greeting gestures appropriate to German culture in addition to a repertoire of greetings appropriate to Japanese culture.

  16. The quadruped robot adaptive control in trotting gait walking on slopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shulong; Ma, Hongxu; Yang, Yu; Wang, Jian

    2017-10-01

    The quadruped robot can be decomposed into a planar seven-link closed kinematic chain in the direction of supporting line and a linear inverted pendulum in normal direction of supporting line. The ground slope can be estimated by using the body attitude information and supporting legs length. The slope degree is used in feedback, to achieve the point of quadruped robot adaptive control walking on slopes. The simulation results verify that the quadruped robot can achieves steady locomotion on the slope with the control strategy proposed in this passage.

  17. Information driven self-organization of complex robotic behaviors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georg Martius

    Full Text Available Information theory is a powerful tool to express principles to drive autonomous systems because it is domain invariant and allows for an intuitive interpretation. This paper studies the use of the predictive information (PI, also called excess entropy or effective measure complexity, of the sensorimotor process as a driving force to generate behavior. We study nonlinear and nonstationary systems and introduce the time-local predicting information (TiPI which allows us to derive exact results together with explicit update rules for the parameters of the controller in the dynamical systems framework. In this way the information principle, formulated at the level of behavior, is translated to the dynamics of the synapses. We underpin our results with a number of case studies with high-dimensional robotic systems. We show the spontaneous cooperativity in a complex physical system with decentralized control. Moreover, a jointly controlled humanoid robot develops a high behavioral variety depending on its physics and the environment it is dynamically embedded into. The behavior can be decomposed into a succession of low-dimensional modes that increasingly explore the behavior space. This is a promising way to avoid the curse of dimensionality which hinders learning systems to scale well.

  18. Adaptive Robotic Fabrication for Conditions of Material Inconsistency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nicholas, Paul; Zwierzycki, Mateusz; Clausen Nørgaard, Esben

    2017-01-01

    This paper describes research that addresses the variable behaviour of industrial quality metals and the extension of computational techniques into the fabrication process. It describes the context of robotic incremental sheet metal forming, a freeform method for imparting 3D form onto a 2D thin ...... is an offline predictive strategy based on machine learning. Rigidisation of thin metal skins......This paper describes research that addresses the variable behaviour of industrial quality metals and the extension of computational techniques into the fabrication process. It describes the context of robotic incremental sheet metal forming, a freeform method for imparting 3D form onto a 2D thin...

  19. Friendly network robotics; Friendly network robotics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    This paper summarizes the research results on the friendly network robotics in fiscal 1996. This research assumes an android robot as an ultimate robot and the future robot system utilizing computer network technology. The robot aiming at human daily work activities in factories or under extreme environments is required to work under usual human work environments. The human robot with similar size, shape and functions to human being is desirable. Such robot having a head with two eyes, two ears and mouth can hold a conversation with human being, can walk with two legs by autonomous adaptive control, and has a behavior intelligence. Remote operation of such robot is also possible through high-speed computer network. As a key technology to use this robot under coexistence with human being, establishment of human coexistent robotics was studied. As network based robotics, use of robots connected with computer networks was also studied. In addition, the R-cube (R{sup 3}) plan (realtime remote control robot technology) was proposed. 82 refs., 86 figs., 12 tabs.

  20. Obstacle avoidance for kinematically redundant robots using an adaptive fuzzy logic algorithm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beheshti, M.T.H.; Tehrani, A.K.

    1999-05-01

    In this paper the Adaptive Fuzzy Logic approach for solving the inverse kinematics of redundant robots in an environment with obstacles is presented. The obstacles are modeled as convex bodies. A fuzzy rule base that is updated via an adaptive law is used to solve the inverse kinematic problem. Additional rules have been introduced to take care of the obstacles avoidance problem. The proposed method has advantages such as high accuracy, simplicity of computations and generality for all redundant robots. Simulation results illustrate much better tracking performance than the dynamic base solution for a given trajectory in cartesian space, while guaranteeing a collision-free trajectory and observation of a mechanical joint limit

  1. Adaptive Visual Face Tracking for an Autonomous Robot

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hoof, Herke; van der Zant, Tijn; Wiering, Marco

    2011-01-01

    Perception is an essential ability for autonomous robots in non-standardized conditions. However, the appearance of objects can change between different conditions. A system visually tracking a target based on its appearance could lose its target in those cases. A tracker learning the appearance of

  2. An Adaptive Game Algorithm for an Autonomous, Mobile Robot

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Søren Tranberg; Bak, Thomas; Risager, Claus

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a field study of a physical ball game for elderly based on an autonomous, mobile robot. The game algorithm is based on Case Based Reasoning and adjusts the game challenge to the player’s mobility skills by registering the spatio-temporal behaviour of the player using an on boa...

  3. Synthesis of adaptive impedance control for bipedal robot mechanisms

    OpenAIRE

    Petrović Milena; Rodić Aleksandar

    2008-01-01

    The paper describes the impedance algorithm in locomotion of humanoid robot with proposed parameter modulation depending on the gate phase. The analysis shows influence of walking speed and foot elevation on regulator's parameters. Chosen criterion cares for footpath tracking and needed energy for that way of walking. The experiments give recommendation for impedance regulator tuning.

  4. A Study on Bipedal and Mobile Robot Behavior Through Modeling and Simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nirmala Nirmala

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this work is to study and analyze mobile robot behavior. In performing this, a framework is adopted and developed for mobile and bipedal robot. The robots are design, build, and run as proceed from the development of mechanical structure, electronics and control integration, and control software application. The behavior of those robots are difficult to be observed and analyzed qualitatively. To evaluate the design and behavior quality, modeling and simulation of robot structure and its task capability is performed. The stepwise procedure to robot behavior study is explained. Behavior cases study are experimented to bipedal robots, transporter robot and Autonomous Guided Vehicle (AGV developed at our institution. The experimentation are conducted on those robots by adjusting their dynamic properties and/or surrounding environment. Validation is performed by comparing the simulation result and the real robot execution. The simulation gives a more idealistic behavior execution rather than realistic one. Adjustments are performed to fine tuning simulation's parameters to provide a more realistic performance.

  5. Combining environment-driven adaptation and task-driven optimisation in evolutionary robotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haasdijk, Evert; Bredeche, Nicolas; Eiben, A E

    2014-01-01

    Embodied evolutionary robotics is a sub-field of evolutionary robotics that employs evolutionary algorithms on the robotic hardware itself, during the operational period, i.e., in an on-line fashion. This enables robotic systems that continuously adapt, and are therefore capable of (re-)adjusting themselves to previously unknown or dynamically changing conditions autonomously, without human oversight. This paper addresses one of the major challenges that such systems face, viz. that the robots must satisfy two sets of requirements. Firstly, they must continue to operate reliably in their environment (viability), and secondly they must competently perform user-specified tasks (usefulness). The solution we propose exploits the fact that evolutionary methods have two basic selection mechanisms-survivor selection and parent selection. This allows evolution to tackle the two sets of requirements separately: survivor selection is driven by the environment and parent selection is based on task-performance. This idea is elaborated in the Multi-Objective aNd open-Ended Evolution (monee) framework, which we experimentally validate. Experiments with robotic swarms of 100 simulated e-pucks show that monee does indeed promote task-driven behaviour without compromising environmental adaptation. We also investigate an extension of the parent selection process with a 'market mechanism' that can ensure equitable distribution of effort over multiple tasks, a particularly pressing issue if the environment promotes specialisation in single tasks.

  6. Combining environment-driven adaptation and task-driven optimisation in evolutionary robotics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evert Haasdijk

    Full Text Available Embodied evolutionary robotics is a sub-field of evolutionary robotics that employs evolutionary algorithms on the robotic hardware itself, during the operational period, i.e., in an on-line fashion. This enables robotic systems that continuously adapt, and are therefore capable of (re-adjusting themselves to previously unknown or dynamically changing conditions autonomously, without human oversight. This paper addresses one of the major challenges that such systems face, viz. that the robots must satisfy two sets of requirements. Firstly, they must continue to operate reliably in their environment (viability, and secondly they must competently perform user-specified tasks (usefulness. The solution we propose exploits the fact that evolutionary methods have two basic selection mechanisms-survivor selection and parent selection. This allows evolution to tackle the two sets of requirements separately: survivor selection is driven by the environment and parent selection is based on task-performance. This idea is elaborated in the Multi-Objective aNd open-Ended Evolution (monee framework, which we experimentally validate. Experiments with robotic swarms of 100 simulated e-pucks show that monee does indeed promote task-driven behaviour without compromising environmental adaptation. We also investigate an extension of the parent selection process with a 'market mechanism' that can ensure equitable distribution of effort over multiple tasks, a particularly pressing issue if the environment promotes specialisation in single tasks.

  7. Model analysis of adaptive car driving behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wewerinke, P.H.

    1996-01-01

    This paper deals with two modeling approaches to car driving. The first one is a system theoretic approach to describe adaptive human driving behavior. The second approach utilizes neural networks. As an illustrative example the overtaking task is considered and modeled in system theoretic terms.

  8. Models of behavioral change and adaptation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rasouli, S.; Timmermans, H.J.P.; Zhang, J.

    2017-01-01

    This chapter explains and summarizes models of behavioral change and adaptation, which have received less application in the life choice analysis associated with urban policy. Related to various life choices, life trajectory events are major decisions with a relatively long-lasting impact, such as

  9. Periodic activations of behaviours and emotional adaptation in behaviour-based robotics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burattini, Ernesto; Rossi, Silvia

    2010-09-01

    The possible modulatory influence of motivations and emotions is of great interest in designing robotic adaptive systems. In this paper, an attempt is made to connect the concept of periodic behaviour activations to emotional modulation, in order to link the variability of behaviours to the circumstances in which they are activated. The impact of emotion is studied, described as timed controlled structures, on simple but conflicting reactive behaviours. Through this approach it is shown that the introduction of such asynchronies in the robot control system may lead to an adaptation in the emergent behaviour without having an explicit action selection mechanism. The emergent behaviours of a simple robot designed with both a parallel and a hierarchical architecture are evaluated and compared.

  10. Fuzzy Adaptation Algorithms’ Control for Robot Manipulators with Uncertainty Modelling Errors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongqing Fan

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel fuzzy control scheme with adaptation algorithms is developed for robot manipulators’ system. At the beginning, one adjustable parameter is introduced in the fuzzy logic system, the robot manipulators system with uncertain nonlinear terms as the master device and a reference model dynamic system as the slave robot system. To overcome the limitations such as online learning computation burden and logic structure in conventional fuzzy logic systems, a parameter should be used in fuzzy logic system, which composes fuzzy logic system with updated parameter laws, and can be formed for a new fashioned adaptation algorithms controller. The error closed-loop dynamical system can be stabilized based on Lyapunov analysis, the number of online learning computation burdens can be reduced greatly, and the different kinds of fuzzy logic systems with fuzzy rules or without any fuzzy rules are also suited. Finally, effectiveness of the proposed approach has been shown in simulation example.

  11. Artificial emotion triggered stochastic behavior transitions with motivational gain effects for multi-objective robot tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dağlarli, Evren; Temeltaş, Hakan

    2007-04-01

    This paper presents artificial emotional system based autonomous robot control architecture. Hidden Markov model developed as mathematical background for stochastic emotional and behavior transitions. Motivation module of architecture considered as behavioral gain effect generator for achieving multi-objective robot tasks. According to emotional and behavioral state transition probabilities, artificial emotions determine sequences of behaviors. Also motivational gain effects of proposed architecture can be observed on the executing behaviors during simulation.

  12. Adaptive Neural Output Feedback Control for Uncertain Robot Manipulators with Input Saturation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rong Mei

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an adaptive neural output feedback control scheme for uncertain robot manipulators with input saturation using the radial basis function neural network (RBFNN and disturbance observer. First, the RBFNN is used to approximate the system uncertainty, and the unknown approximation error of the RBFNN and the time-varying unknown external disturbance of robot manipulators are integrated as a compounded disturbance. Then, the state observer and the disturbance observer are proposed to estimate the unmeasured system state and the unknown compounded disturbance based on RBFNN. At the same time, the adaptation technique is employed to tackle the control input saturation problem. Utilizing the estimate outputs of the RBFNN, the state observer, and the disturbance observer, the adaptive neural output feedback control scheme is developed for robot manipulators using the backstepping technique. The convergence of all closed-loop signals is rigorously proved via Lyapunov analysis and the asymptotically convergent tracking error is obtained under the integrated effect of the system uncertainty, the unmeasured system state, the unknown external disturbance, and the input saturation. Finally, numerical simulation results are presented to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed adaptive neural output feedback control scheme for uncertain robot manipulators.

  13. Goal-recognition-based adaptive brain-computer interface for navigating immersive robotic systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu-Alqumsan, Mohammad; Ebert, Felix; Peer, Angelika

    2017-06-01

    Objective. This work proposes principled strategies for self-adaptations in EEG-based Brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) as a way out of the bandwidth bottleneck resulting from the considerable mismatch between the low-bandwidth interface and the bandwidth-hungry application, and a way to enable fluent and intuitive interaction in embodiment systems. The main focus is laid upon inferring the hidden target goals of users while navigating in a remote environment as a basis for possible adaptations. Approach. To reason about possible user goals, a general user-agnostic Bayesian update rule is devised to be recursively applied upon the arrival of evidences, i.e. user input and user gaze. Experiments were conducted with healthy subjects within robotic embodiment settings to evaluate the proposed method. These experiments varied along three factors: the type of the robot/environment (simulated and physical), the type of the interface (keyboard or BCI), and the way goal recognition (GR) is used to guide a simple shared control (SC) driving scheme. Main results. Our results show that the proposed GR algorithm is able to track and infer the hidden user goals with relatively high precision and recall. Further, the realized SC driving scheme benefits from the output of the GR system and is able to reduce the user effort needed to accomplish the assigned tasks. Despite the fact that the BCI requires higher effort compared to the keyboard conditions, most subjects were able to complete the assigned tasks, and the proposed GR system is additionally shown able to handle the uncertainty in user input during SSVEP-based interaction. The SC application of the belief vector indicates that the benefits of the GR module are more pronounced for BCIs, compared to the keyboard interface. Significance. Being based on intuitive heuristics that model the behavior of the general population during the execution of navigation tasks, the proposed GR method can be used without prior tuning for the

  14. A Basic Architecture of an Autonomous Adaptive System With Conscious-Like Function for a Humanoid Robot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasuo Kinouchi

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available In developing a humanoid robot, there are two major objectives. One is developing a physical robot having body, hands, and feet resembling those of human beings and being able to similarly control them. The other is to develop a control system that works similarly to our brain, to feel, think, act, and learn like ours. In this article, an architecture of a control system with a brain-oriented logical structure for the second objective is proposed. The proposed system autonomously adapts to the environment and implements a clearly defined “consciousness” function, through which both habitual behavior and goal-directed behavior are realized. Consciousness is regarded as a function for effective adaptation at the system-level, based on matching and organizing the individual results of the underlying parallel-processing units. This consciousness is assumed to correspond to how our mind is “aware” when making our moment to moment decisions in our daily life. The binding problem and the basic causes of delay in Libet’s experiment are also explained by capturing awareness in this manner. The goal is set as an image in the system, and efficient actions toward achieving this goal are selected in the goal-directed behavior process. The system is designed as an artificial neural network and aims at achieving consistent and efficient system behavior, through the interaction of highly independent neural nodes. The proposed architecture is based on a two-level design. The first level, which we call the “basic-system,” is an artificial neural network system that realizes consciousness, habitual behavior and explains the binding problem. The second level, which we call the “extended-system,” is an artificial neural network system that realizes goal-directed behavior.

  15. Robotic Fish to Aid Animal Behavior Studies and Informal Science Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phamduy, Paul

    The application of robotic fish in the fields of animal behavior and informal science learning are new and relatively untapped. In the context of animal behavior studies, robotic fish offers a consistent and customizable stimulus that could contribute to dissect the determinants of social behavior. In the realm of informal science learning, robotic fish are gaining momentum for the possibility of educating the general public simultaneously on fish physiology and underwater robotics. In this dissertation, the design and development of a number of robotic fish platforms and prototypes and their application in animal behavioral studies and informal science learning settings are presented. Robotic platforms for animal behavioral studies focused on the utilization replica or same scale prototypes. A novel robotic fish platform, featuring a three-dimensional swimming multi-linked robotic fish, was developed with three control modes varying in the level of robot autonomy offered. This platform was deployed at numerous science festivals and science centers, to obtain data on visitor engagement and experience.

  16. Alignment Condition-Based Robust Adaptive Iterative Learning Control of Uncertain Robot System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guofeng Tong

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes an adaptive iterative learning control strategy integrated with saturation-based robust control for uncertain robot system in presence of modelling uncertainties, unknown parameter, and external disturbance under alignment condition. An important merit is that it achieves adaptive switching of gain matrix both in conventional PD-type feedforward control and robust adaptive control in the iteration domain simultaneously. The analysis of convergence of proposed control law is based on Lyapunov's direct method under alignment initial condition. Simulation results demonstrate the faster learning rate and better robust performance with proposed algorithm by comparing with other existing robust controllers. The actual experiment on three-DOF robot manipulator shows its better practical effectiveness.

  17. Adaptive PID formation control of nonholonomic robots without leader's velocity information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Dongbin; Sun, Weijie; Sun, Zhendong

    2014-03-01

    This paper proposes an adaptive proportional integral derivative (PID) algorithm to solve a formation control problem in the leader-follower framework where the leader robot's velocities are unknown for the follower robots. The main idea is first to design some proper ideal control law for the formation system to obtain a required performance, and then to propose the adaptive PID methodology to approach the ideal controller. As a result, the formation is achieved with much more enhanced robust formation performance. The stability of the closed-loop system is theoretically proved by Lyapunov method. Both numerical simulations and physical vehicle experiments are presented to verify the effectiveness of the proposed adaptive PID algorithm. Copyright © 2013 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Adaptive control of an exoskeleton robot with uncertainties on kinematics and dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brahmi, Brahim; Saad, Maarouf; Ochoa-Luna, Cristobal; Rahman, Mohammad H

    2017-07-01

    In this paper, we propose a new adaptive control technique based on nonlinear sliding mode control (JSTDE) taking into account kinematics and dynamics uncertainties. This approach is applied to an exoskeleton robot with uncertain kinematics and dynamics. The adaptation design is based on Time Delay Estimation (TDE). The proposed strategy does not necessitate the well-defined dynamic and kinematic models of the system robot. The updated laws are designed using Lyapunov-function to solve the adaptation problem systematically, proving the close loop stability and ensuring the convergence asymptotically of the outputs tracking errors. Experiments results show the effectiveness and feasibility of JSTDE technique to deal with the variation of the unknown nonlinear dynamics and kinematics of the exoskeleton model.

  19. Adapting a robotics program to enhance participation and interest in STEM among children with disabilities: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsay, Sally; Hounsell, Kara Grace

    2017-10-01

    Youth with disabilities are under-represented in science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) in school and in the workforce. One encouraging approach to engage youth's interest in STEM is through robotics; however, such programs are mostly for typically developing youth. The purpose of this study was to understand the development and implementation of an adapted robotics program for children and youth with disabilities and their experiences within it. Our mixed methods pilot study (pre- and post-workshop surveys, observations, and interviews) involved 41 participants including: 18 youth (aged 6-13), 12 parents and 11 key informants. The robotics program involved 6, two-hour workshops held at a paediatric hospital. Our findings showed that several adaptations made to the robotics program helped to enhance the participation of children with disabilities. Adaptations addressed the educational/curriculum, cognitive and learning, physical and social needs of the children. In regards to experiences within the adapted hospital program, our findings highlight that children enjoyed the program and learned about computer programming and building robots. Clinicians and educators should consider engaging youth with disabilities in robotics to enhance learning and interest in STEM. Implications for Rehabilitation Clinicians and educators should consider adapting curriculum content and mode of delivery of LEGO ® robotics programs to include youth with disabilities. Appropriate staffing including clinicians and educators who are knowledgeable about youth with disabilities and LEGO ® robotics are needed. Clinicians should consider engaging youth with disabilities in LEGO ® to enhance learning and interest in STEM.

  20. Flow Behavior Around a Fast-Starting Robotic Fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Ganzhong; Currier, Todd; Modarres-Sadeghi, Yahya

    2017-11-01

    A robotic fish is used to study the flow behavior around the body of a fast-starting fish as it experiences a fast-start. The robotic fish is designed and built emulating a Northern Pike, Esox Lucius, which can accelerate at up to 245 m/s2. In previous studies, we had focused on the flow around the tail during the fast-start, by using a tail which acted flexibly in the preparatory stage and rigidly in the propulsive stage. We have extended that study by including the fish body in the experimental setup, where the body can bend into a C-shape, so that the influence of the body motion on the resulting flow around the structure can be understood as well. In the tests, the fish can rotate about a vertical axis, where a multi-axis force sensor measures flow forces acting on the body. Synchronized with the force measurement, flow visualizations using bubble image velocimetry are conducted, and the observed shed vortices are related to the peak forces observed during the maneuver.

  1. The embodiment of cockroach aggregation behavior in a group of micro-robots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garnier, Simon; Jost, Christian; Gautrais, Jacques; Asadpour, Masoud; Caprari, Gilles; Jeanson, Raphaël; Grimal, Anne; Theraulaz, Guy

    2008-01-01

    We report the faithful reproduction of the self-organized aggregation behavior of the German cockroach Blattella germanica with a group of robots. We describe the implementation of the biological model provided by Jeanson et al. in Alice robots, and we compare the behaviors of the cockroaches and the robots using the same experimental and analytical methodology. We show that the aggregation behavior of the German cockroach was successfully transferred to the Alice robot despite strong differences between robots and animals at the perceptual, actuatorial, and computational levels. This article highlights some of the major constraints one may encounter during such a work and proposes general principles to ensure that the behavioral model is accurately transferred to the artificial agents.

  2. Robots show us how to teach them: feedback from robots shapes tutoring behavior during action learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vollmer, Anna-Lisa; Mühlig, Manuel; Steil, Jochen J; Pitsch, Karola; Fritsch, Jannik; Rohlfing, Katharina J; Wrede, Britta

    2014-01-01

    Robot learning by imitation requires the detection of a tutor's action demonstration and its relevant parts. Current approaches implicitly assume a unidirectional transfer of knowledge from tutor to learner. The presented work challenges this predominant assumption based on an extensive user study with an autonomously interacting robot. We show that by providing feedback, a robot learner influences the human tutor's movement demonstrations in the process of action learning. We argue that the robot's feedback strongly shapes how tutors signal what is relevant to an action and thus advocate a paradigm shift in robot action learning research toward truly interactive systems learning in and benefiting from interaction.

  3. Avatar Robot for Crew Performance and Behavioral Health

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This project investigates the effectiveness of using an avatar robotic platform as a crew assistant and a family member substitute. This type of avatar robot is...

  4. Robotics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scheide, A.W.

    1983-01-01

    This article reviews some of the technical areas and history associated with robotics, provides information relative to the formation of a Robotics Industry Committee within the Industry Applications Society (IAS), and describes how all activities relating to robotics will be coordinated within the IEEE. Industrial robots are being used for material handling, processes such as coating and arc welding, and some mechanical and electronics assembly. An industrial robot is defined as a programmable, multifunctional manipulator designed to move material, parts, tools, or specialized devices through variable programmed motions for a variety of tasks. The initial focus of the Robotics Industry Committee will be on the application of robotics systems to the various industries that are represented within the IAS

  5. Adaptive Human-Aware Robot Navigation in Close Proximity to Humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svenstrup, Mikael; Hansen, Søren Tranberg; Andersen, Hans Jørgen

    2011-01-01

    For robots to be able coexist with people in future everyday human environments, they must be able to act in a safe, natural and comfortable way. This work addresses the motion of a mobile robot in an environment, where humans potentially want to interact with it. The designed system consists...... system that uses a potential field to derive motion that respects the personʹs social zones and perceived interest in interaction. The operation of the system is evaluated in a controlled scenario in an open hall environment. It is demonstrated that the robot is able to learn to estimate if a person...... wishes to interact, and that the system is capable of adapting to changing behaviours of the humans in the environment....

  6. A Behavior-Based Approach for Educational Robotics Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Cristoforis, P.; Pedre, S.; Nitsche, M.; Fischer, T.; Pessacg, F.; Di Pietro, C.

    2013-01-01

    Educational robotics proposes the use of robots as a teaching resource that enables inexperienced students to approach topics in fields unrelated to robotics. In recent years, these activities have grown substantially in elementary and secondary school classrooms and also in outreach experiences to interest students in science, technology,…

  7. An Adaptive Multi-Objective Particle Swarm Optimization Algorithm for Multi-Robot Path Planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nizar Hadi Abbas

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses an optimal path planning algorithm based on an Adaptive Multi-Objective Particle Swarm Optimization Algorithm (AMOPSO for two case studies. First case, single robot wants to reach a goal in the static environment that contain two obstacles and two danger source. The second one, is improving the ability for five robots to reach the shortest way. The proposed algorithm solves the optimization problems for the first case by finding the minimum distance from initial to goal position and also ensuring that the generated path has a maximum distance from the danger zones. And for the second case, finding the shortest path for every robot and without any collision between them with the shortest time. In order to evaluate the proposed algorithm in term of finding the best solution, six benchmark test functions are used to make a comparison between AMOPSO and the standard MOPSO. The results show that the AMOPSO has a better ability to get away from local optimums with a quickest convergence than the MOPSO. The simulation results using Matlab 2014a, indicate that this methodology is extremely valuable for every robot in multi-robot framework to discover its own particular proper pa‌th from the start to the destination position with minimum distance and time.

  8. Adaptive Behavior of Children and Adolescents with Visual Impairments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadopoulos, Konstantinos; Metsiou, Katerina; Agaliotis, Ioannis

    2011-01-01

    The present study explored the total adaptive behavior of children and adolescents with visual impairments, as well as their adaptive behavior in each of the domains of Communication, Daily Living Skills, and Socialization. Moreover, the predictors of the performance and developmental delay in adaptive behavior were investigated. Instrumentation…

  9. Emergent adaptive behaviour of GRN-controlled simulated robots in a changing environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yao Yao

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available We developed a bio-inspired robot controller combining an artificial genome with an agent-based control system. The genome encodes a gene regulatory network (GRN that is switched on by environmental cues and, following the rules of transcriptional regulation, provides output signals to actuators. Whereas the genome represents the full encoding of the transcriptional network, the agent-based system mimics the active regulatory network and signal transduction system also present in naturally occurring biological systems. Using such a design that separates the static from the conditionally active part of the gene regulatory network contributes to a better general adaptive behaviour. Here, we have explored the potential of our platform with respect to the evolution of adaptive behaviour, such as preying when food becomes scarce, in a complex and changing environment and show through simulations of swarm robots in an A-life environment that evolution of collective behaviour likely can be attributed to bio-inspired evolutionary processes acting at different levels, from the gene and the genome to the individual robot and robot population.

  10. Emergent adaptive behaviour of GRN-controlled simulated robots in a changing environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Yao; Storme, Veronique; Marchal, Kathleen; Van de Peer, Yves

    2016-01-01

    We developed a bio-inspired robot controller combining an artificial genome with an agent-based control system. The genome encodes a gene regulatory network (GRN) that is switched on by environmental cues and, following the rules of transcriptional regulation, provides output signals to actuators. Whereas the genome represents the full encoding of the transcriptional network, the agent-based system mimics the active regulatory network and signal transduction system also present in naturally occurring biological systems. Using such a design that separates the static from the conditionally active part of the gene regulatory network contributes to a better general adaptive behaviour. Here, we have explored the potential of our platform with respect to the evolution of adaptive behaviour, such as preying when food becomes scarce, in a complex and changing environment and show through simulations of swarm robots in an A-life environment that evolution of collective behaviour likely can be attributed to bio-inspired evolutionary processes acting at different levels, from the gene and the genome to the individual robot and robot population.

  11. Emergent adaptive behaviour of GRN-controlled simulated robots in a changing environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Yao; Storme, Veronique; Marchal, Kathleen

    2016-01-01

    We developed a bio-inspired robot controller combining an artificial genome with an agent-based control system. The genome encodes a gene regulatory network (GRN) that is switched on by environmental cues and, following the rules of transcriptional regulation, provides output signals to actuators. Whereas the genome represents the full encoding of the transcriptional network, the agent-based system mimics the active regulatory network and signal transduction system also present in naturally occurring biological systems. Using such a design that separates the static from the conditionally active part of the gene regulatory network contributes to a better general adaptive behaviour. Here, we have explored the potential of our platform with respect to the evolution of adaptive behaviour, such as preying when food becomes scarce, in a complex and changing environment and show through simulations of swarm robots in an A-life environment that evolution of collective behaviour likely can be attributed to bio-inspired evolutionary processes acting at different levels, from the gene and the genome to the individual robot and robot population. PMID:28028477

  12. Wireless Visual Sensor Network Robots- Based for the Emulation of Collective Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fredy Hernán Martinez Sarmiento

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available We consider the problem of bacterial quorum sensing emulate on small mobile robots. Robots that reflect the behavior of bacteria are designed as mobile wireless camera nodes. They are able to structure a dynamic wireless sensor network. Emulated behavior corresponds to a simplification of bacterial quorum sensing, where the action of a network node is conditioned by the population density of robots(nodes in a given area. The population density reading is done visually using a camera. The robot makes an estimate of the population density of the images, and acts according to this information. The operation of the camera is done with a custom firmware, reducing the complexity of the node without loss of performance. It was noted the route planning and the collective behavior of robots without the use of any other external or local communication. Neither was it necessary to develop a model system, precise state estimation or state feedback.

  13. Robotics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lorino, P; Altwegg, J M

    1985-05-01

    This article, which is aimed at the general reader, examines latest developments in, and the role of, modern robotics. The 7 main sections are sub-divided into 27 papers presented by 30 authors. The sections are as follows: 1) The role of robotics, 2) Robotics in the business world and what it can offer, 3) Study and development, 4) Utilisation, 5) Wages, 6) Conditions for success, and 7) Technological dynamics.

  14. Improving the adaptability of simulated evolutionary swarm robots in dynamically changing environments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yao Yao

    Full Text Available One of the important challenges in the field of evolutionary robotics is the development of systems that can adapt to a changing environment. However, the ability to adapt to unknown and fluctuating environments is not straightforward. Here, we explore the adaptive potential of simulated swarm robots that contain a genomic encoding of a bio-inspired gene regulatory network (GRN. An artificial genome is combined with a flexible agent-based system, representing the activated part of the regulatory network that transduces environmental cues into phenotypic behaviour. Using an artificial life simulation framework that mimics a dynamically changing environment, we show that separating the static from the conditionally active part of the network contributes to a better adaptive behaviour. Furthermore, in contrast with most hitherto developed ANN-based systems that need to re-optimize their complete controller network from scratch each time they are subjected to novel conditions, our system uses its genome to store GRNs whose performance was optimized under a particular environmental condition for a sufficiently long time. When subjected to a new environment, the previous condition-specific GRN might become inactivated, but remains present. This ability to store 'good behaviour' and to disconnect it from the novel rewiring that is essential under a new condition allows faster re-adaptation if any of the previously observed environmental conditions is reencountered. As we show here, applying these evolutionary-based principles leads to accelerated and improved adaptive evolution in a non-stable environment.

  15. Improving the Adaptability of Simulated Evolutionary Swarm Robots in Dynamically Changing Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Yao; Marchal, Kathleen; Van de Peer, Yves

    2014-01-01

    One of the important challenges in the field of evolutionary robotics is the development of systems that can adapt to a changing environment. However, the ability to adapt to unknown and fluctuating environments is not straightforward. Here, we explore the adaptive potential of simulated swarm robots that contain a genomic encoding of a bio-inspired gene regulatory network (GRN). An artificial genome is combined with a flexible agent-based system, representing the activated part of the regulatory network that transduces environmental cues into phenotypic behaviour. Using an artificial life simulation framework that mimics a dynamically changing environment, we show that separating the static from the conditionally active part of the network contributes to a better adaptive behaviour. Furthermore, in contrast with most hitherto developed ANN-based systems that need to re-optimize their complete controller network from scratch each time they are subjected to novel conditions, our system uses its genome to store GRNs whose performance was optimized under a particular environmental condition for a sufficiently long time. When subjected to a new environment, the previous condition-specific GRN might become inactivated, but remains present. This ability to store ‘good behaviour’ and to disconnect it from the novel rewiring that is essential under a new condition allows faster re-adaptation if any of the previously observed environmental conditions is reencountered. As we show here, applying these evolutionary-based principles leads to accelerated and improved adaptive evolution in a non-stable environment. PMID:24599485

  16. Adaptation of sensor morphology: an integrative view of perception from biologically inspired robotics perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurzaman, Surya G.

    2016-01-01

    Sensor morphology, the morphology of a sensing mechanism which plays a role of shaping the desired response from physical stimuli from surroundings to generate signals usable as sensory information, is one of the key common aspects of sensing processes. This paper presents a structured review of researches on bioinspired sensor morphology implemented in robotic systems, and discusses the fundamental design principles. Based on literature review, we propose two key arguments: first, owing to its synthetic nature, biologically inspired robotics approach is a unique and powerful methodology to understand the role of sensor morphology and how it can evolve and adapt to its task and environment. Second, a consideration of an integrative view of perception by looking into multidisciplinary and overarching mechanisms of sensor morphology adaptation across biology and engineering enables us to extract relevant design principles that are important to extend our understanding of the unfinished concepts in sensing and perception. PMID:27499843

  17. Adaptive and Energy Efficient Walking in a Hexapod Robot under Neuromechanical Control and Sensorimotor Learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xiong, Xiaofeng; Wörgötter, Florentin; Manoonpong, Poramate

    2016-01-01

    The control of multilegged animal walking is a neuromechanical process, and to achieve this in an adaptive and energy efficient way is a difficult and challenging problem. This is due to the fact that this process needs in real time: 1) to coordinate very many degrees of freedom of jointed legs; 2......) to generate the proper leg stiffness (i.e., compliance); and 3) to determine joint angles that give rise to particular positions at the endpoints of the legs. To tackle this problem for a robotic application, here we present a neuromechanical controller coupled with sensorimotor learning. The controller...... energy efficient walking, compared to other small legged robots. In addition, this paper also shows that the tight combination of neural control with tunable muscle-like functions, guided by sensory feedback and coupled with sensorimotor learning, is a way forward to better understand and solve adaptive...

  18. Behavioral similarity measurement based on image processing for robots that use imitative learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterpin B., Dante G.; Martinez S., Fernando; Jacinto G., Edwar

    2017-02-01

    In the field of the artificial societies, particularly those are based on memetics, imitative behavior is essential for the development of cultural evolution. Applying this concept for robotics, through imitative learning, a robot can acquire behavioral patterns from another robot. Assuming that the learning process must have an instructor and, at least, an apprentice, the fact to obtain a quantitative measurement for their behavioral similarity, would be potentially useful, especially in artificial social systems focused on cultural evolution. In this paper the motor behavior of both kinds of robots, for two simple tasks, is represented by 2D binary images, which are processed in order to measure their behavioral similarity. The results shown here were obtained comparing some similarity measurement methods for binary images.

  19. Design and Implementation of a Bionic Mimosa Robot with Delicate Leaf Swing Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chung-Liang Chang

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study designed and developed a bionic mimosa robot with delicate leaf swing behaviors. For different swing behaviors, this study developed a variety of situations, in which the bionic mimosa robot would display different postures. The core technologies used were Shape Memory Alloys (SMAs, plastic material, and an intelligent control device. The technology particularly focused on the SMAs memory processing bend mode, directional guidance, and the position of SMAs installed inside the plastic material. Performance analysis and evaluation were conducted using two SMAs for mimosa opening/closing behaviors. Finally, by controlling the mimosa behavior with a micro-controller, the optimal strain swing behavior was realized through fuzzy logic control in order to display the different postures of mimosa under different situations. The proposed method is applicable to micro-bionic robot systems, entertainment robots, biomedical engineering, and architectural aesthetics-related fields in the future.

  20. Novel Adaptive Forward Neural MIMO NARX Model for the Identification of Industrial 3-DOF Robot Arm Kinematics

    OpenAIRE

    Ho Pham Huy Anh; Nguyen Thanh Nam

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, a novel forward adaptive neural MIMO NARX model is used for modelling and identifying the forward kinematics of an industrial 3‐DOF robot arm system. The nonlinear features of the forward kinematics of the industrial robot arm drive are thoroughly modelled based on the forward adaptive neural NARX model‐based identification process using experimental input‐output training data. This paper proposes a novel use of a back propagation (BP) algorithm to generate the forward neural M...

  1. Modeling Adaptive Behavior for Systems Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Jens

    1994-01-01

    Field studies in modern work systems and analysis of recent major accidents have pointed to a need for better models of the adaptive behavior of individuals and organizations operating in a dynamic and highly competitive environment. The paper presents a discussion of some key characteristics.......) The basic difference between the models of system functions used in engineering and design and those evolving from basic research within the various academic disciplines and finally 3.) The models and methods required for closed-loop, feedback system design....

  2. Fuzzy adaptive robust control for space robot considering the effect of the gravity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qin Li

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Space robot is assembled and tested in gravity environment, and completes on-orbit service (OOS in microgravity environment. The kinematic and dynamic characteristic of the robot will change with the variations of gravity in different working condition. Fully considering the change of kinematic and dynamic models caused by the change of gravity environment, a fuzzy adaptive robust control (FARC strategy which is adaptive to these model variations is put forward for trajectory tracking control of space robot. A fuzzy algorithm is employed to approximate the nonlinear uncertainties in the model, adaptive laws of the parameters are constructed, and the approximation error is compensated by using a robust control algorithm. The stability of the control system is guaranteed based on the Lyapunov theory and the trajectory tracking control simulation is performed. The simulation results are compared with the proportional plus derivative (PD controller, and the effectiveness to achieve better trajectory tracking performance under different gravity environment without changing the control parameters and the advantage of the proposed controller are verified.

  3. Adaptive Controller for 6-DOF Parallel Robot Using T-S Fuzzy Inference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xue Jian

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available 6-DOF parallel robot always appears in the form of Stewart platform. It has been widely used in industry for the benefits such as strong structural stiffness, high movement accuracy and so on. Space docking technology makes higher requirements of motion accuracy and dynamic performance to the control method on 6-DOF parallel robot. In this paper, a hydraulic 6-DOF parallel robot was used to simulate the docking process. Based on this point, this paper gave a thorough study on the design of an adaptive controller to eliminate the asymmetric of controlled plant and uncertain load force interference. Takagi-Sugeno (T-S fuzzy inference model was used to build the fuzzy adaptive controller. With T-S model, the controller directly imposes adaptive control signal on the plant to make sure that the output of plant could track the reference model output. The controller has simple structure and is easy to implement. Experiment results show that the controller can eliminate asymmetric and achieve good dynamic performance, and has good robustness to load interference.

  4. Modbus RTU protocol and arduino IO package: A real time implementation of a 3 finger adaptive robot gripper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadun Amirul Syafiq

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, the Modbus RTU protocol has been widely accepted in the application of robotics, communications and industrial control systems due to its simplicity and reliability. With the help of the MATLAB Instrument Control Toolbox, a serial communication between Simulink and a 3 Finger Adaptive Robot Gripper can be realized to demonstrate a grasping functionality. The toolbox includes a “to instrument” and “query instrument” programming blocks that enable the users to create a serial communication with the targeted hardware/robot. Similarly, the Simulink Arduino IO package also offers a real-time feature that enabled it to act as a DAQ device. This paper establishes a real-time robot control by using Modbus RTU and Arduino IO Package for a 3 Finger Adaptive Robot Gripper. The robot communication and grasping performance were successfully implemented and demonstrated. In particular, three (3 different grasping mode via normal, wide and pinch were tested. Moreover, the robot gripper’s feedback data, such as encoder position, motor current and the grasping force were easily measured and acquired in real-time. This certainly essential for future grasping analysis of a 3 Finger Adaptive Robot Gripper.

  5. Adaptive locomotor behavior in larval zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portugues, Ruben; Engert, Florian

    2011-01-01

    In this study we report that larval zebrafish display adaptive locomotor output that can be driven by unexpected visual feedback. We develop a new assay that addresses visuomotor integration in restrained larval zebrafish. The assay involves a closed-loop environment in which the visual feedback a larva receives depends on its own motor output in a way that resembles freely swimming conditions. The experimenter can control the gain of this closed feedback loop, so that following a given motor output the larva experiences more or less visual feedback depending on whether the gain is high or low. We show that increases and decreases in this gain setting result in adaptive changes in behavior that lead to a generalized decrease or increase of motor output, respectively. Our behavioral analysis shows that both the duration and tail beat frequency of individual swim bouts can be modified, as well as the frequency with which bouts are elicited. These changes can be implemented rapidly, following an exposure to a new gain of just 175 ms. In addition, modifications in some behavioral parameters accumulate over tens of seconds and effects last for at least 30 s from trial to trial. These results suggest that larvae establish an internal representation of the visual feedback expected from a given motor output and that the behavioral modifications are driven by an error signal that arises from the discrepancy between this expectation and the actual visual feedback. The assay we develop presents a unique possibility for studying visuomotor integration using imaging techniques available in the larval zebrafish.

  6. Distributed Consensus-Based Robust Adaptive Formation Control for Nonholonomic Mobile Robots with Partial Known Dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhaoxia Peng

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the distributed consensus-based robust adaptive formation control for nonholonomic mobile robots with partially known dynamics. Firstly, multirobot formation control problem has been converted into a state consensus problem. Secondly, the practical control strategies, which incorporate the distributed kinematic controllers and the robust adaptive torque controllers, are designed for solving the formation control problem. Thirdly, the specified reference trajectory for the geometric centroid of the formation is assumed as the trajectory of a virtual leader, whose information is available to only a subset of the followers. Finally, numerical results are provided to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed control approaches.

  7. Multi-robot Cooperation Behavior Decision Based on Psychological Values

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian JIANG

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The method based on psychology concept has been proved to be a successful tool used for human-robot interaction. But its related research in multi-robot cooperation has remained scarce until recent studies. To solve the problem, a decision-making mechanism based on psychological values is presented to be regarded as the basis of the multi-robot cooperation. Robots give birth to psychological values based on the estimations of environment, teammates and themselves. The mapping relationship between psychological values and cooperation tendency threshold values is set up with artificial neural network. Robots can make decision on the bases of these threshold values in cooperation scenes. Experiments show that the multi-robot cooperation method presented in the paper not only can ensure the rationality of robots’ decision-making, but also can ensure the speediness of robots’ decision-making.

  8. Direct model reference adaptive control with application to flexible robots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinvorth, Rodrigo; Kaufman, Howard; Neat, Gregory W.

    1992-01-01

    A modification to a direct command generator tracker-based model reference adaptive control (MRAC) system is suggested in this paper. This modification incorporates a feedforward into the reference model's output as well as the plant's output. Its purpose is to eliminate the bounded model following error present in steady state when previous MRAC systems were used. The algorithm was evaluated using the dynamics for a single-link flexible-joint arm. The results of these simulations show a response with zero steady state model following error. These results encourage further use of MRAC for various types of nonlinear plants.

  9. What happens when a robot favors someone? How a tour guide robot uses gaze behavior to address multiple persons while storytelling about art

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karreman, Daphne Eleonora; Sépulveda Bradford, Gilberto; van Dijk, Elisabeth M.A.G.; Lohse, M.; Evers, Vanessa

    2013-01-01

    We report intermediate results of an ongoing study into the effectiveness of robot gaze behaviors when addressing multiple persons. The work is being carried out as part of the EU FP7 project FROG and concerns the design and evaluation of interactive behaviors of a tour guide robot. Our objective is

  10. Personalizing a Service Robot by Learning Human Habits from Behavioral Footprints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kun Li

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available For a domestic personal robot, personalized services are as important as predesigned tasks, because the robot needs to adjust the home state based on the operator's habits. An operator's habits are composed of cues, behaviors, and rewards. This article introduces behavioral footprints to describe the operator's behaviors in a house, and applies the inverse reinforcement learning technique to extract the operator's habits, represented by a reward function. We implemented the proposed approach with a mobile robot on indoor temperature adjustment, and compared this approach with a baseline method that recorded all the cues and behaviors of the operator. The result shows that the proposed approach allows the robot to reveal the operator's habits accurately and adjust the environment state accordingly.

  11. Self-adaptive robot training of stroke survivors for continuous tracking movements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morasso Pietro

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although robot therapy is progressively becoming an accepted method of treatment for stroke survivors, few studies have investigated how to adapt the robot/subject interaction forces in an automatic way. The paper is a feasibility study of a novel self-adaptive robot controller to be applied with continuous tracking movements. Methods The haptic robot Braccio di Ferro is used, in relation with a tracking task. The proposed control architecture is based on three main modules: 1 a force field generator that combines a non linear attractive field and a viscous field; 2 a performance evaluation module; 3 an adaptive controller. The first module operates in a continuous time fashion; the other two modules operate in an intermittent way and are triggered at the end of the current block of trials. The controller progressively decreases the gain of the force field, within a session, but operates in a non monotonic way between sessions: it remembers the minimum gain achieved in a session and propagates it to the next one, which starts with a block whose gain is greater than the previous one. The initial assistance gains are chosen according to a minimal assistance strategy. The scheme can also be applied with closed eyes in order to enhance the role of proprioception in learning and control. Results The preliminary results with a small group of patients (10 chronic hemiplegic subjects show that the scheme is robust and promotes a statistically significant improvement in performance indicators as well as a recalibration of the visual and proprioceptive channels. The results confirm that the minimally assistive, self-adaptive strategy is well tolerated by severely impaired subjects and is beneficial also for less severe patients. Conclusions The experiments provide detailed information about the stability and robustness of the adaptive controller of robot assistance that could be quite relevant for the design of future large scale

  12. Adaptive control of 5 DOF upper-limb exoskeleton robot with improved safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Hao-Bo; Wang, Jian-Hui

    2013-11-01

    This paper studies an adaptive control strategy for a class of 5 DOF upper-limb exoskeleton robot with a special safety consideration. The safety requirement plays a critical role in the clinical treatment when assisting patients with shoulder, elbow and wrist joint movements. With the objective of assuring the tracking performance of the pre-specified operations, the proposed adaptive controller is firstly designed to be robust to the model uncertainties. To further improve the safety and fault-tolerance in the presence of unknown large parameter variances or even actuator faults, the adaptive controller is on-line updated according to the information provided by an adaptive observer without additional sensors. An output tracking performance is well achieved with a tunable error bound. The experimental example also verifies the effectiveness of the proposed control scheme. © 2013 ISA. Published by ISA. All rights reserved.

  13. Adaptive control of two-wheeled mobile balance robot capable to adapt different surfaces using a novel artificial neural network–based real-time switching dynamic controller

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Unluturk

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In this article, a novel real-time artificial neural network–based adaptable switching dynamic controller is developed and practically implemented. It will be used for real-time control of two-wheeled balance robot which can balance itself upright position on different surfaces. In order to examine the efficiency of the proposed controller, a two-wheeled mobile balance robot is designed and a test platform for experimental setup is made for balance problem on different surfaces. In a developed adaptive controller algorithm which is capable to adapt different surfaces, mean absolute target angle deviation error, mean absolute target displacement deviation error and mean absolute controller output data are employed for surface estimation by using artificial neural network. In a designed two-wheeled mobile balance robot system, robot tilt angle is estimated via Kalman filter from accelerometer and gyroscope sensor signals. Furthermore, a visual robot control interface is developed in C++ software development environment so that robot controller parameters can be changed as desired. In addition, robot balance angle, linear displacement and controller output can be observed online on personal computer. According to the real-time experimental results, the proposed novel type controller gives more effective results than the classic ones.

  14. Influence of robotic shoal size, configuration, and activity on zebrafish behavior in a free-swimming environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butail, Sachit; Polverino, Giovanni; Phamduy, Paul; Del Sette, Fausto; Porfiri, Maurizio

    2014-12-15

    In animal studies, robots have been recently used as a valid tool for testing a wide spectrum of hypotheses. These robots often exploit visual or auditory cues to modulate animal behavior. The propensity of zebrafish, a model organism in biological studies, toward fish with similar color patterns and shape has been leveraged to design biologically inspired robots that successfully attract zebrafish in preference tests. With an aim of extending the application of such robots to field studies, here, we investigate the response of zebrafish to multiple robotic fish swimming at different speeds and in varying arrangements. A soft real-time multi-target tracking and control system remotely steers the robots in circular trajectories during the experimental trials. Our findings indicate a complex behavioral response of zebrafish to biologically inspired robots. More robots produce a significant change in salient measures of stress, with a fast robot swimming alone causing more freezing and erratic activity than two robots swimming slowly together. In addition, fish spend more time in the proximity of a robot when they swim far apart than when the robots swim close to each other. Increase in the number of robots also significantly alters the degree of alignment of fish motion with a robot. Results from this study are expected to advance our understanding of robot perception by live animals and aid in hypothesis-driven studies in unconstrained free-swimming environments. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Dynamic Learning from Adaptive Neural Control of Uncertain Robots with Guaranteed Full-State Tracking Precision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Wang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A dynamic learning method is developed for an uncertain n-link robot with unknown system dynamics, achieving predefined performance attributes on the link angular position and velocity tracking errors. For a known nonsingular initial robotic condition, performance functions and unconstrained transformation errors are employed to prevent the violation of the full-state tracking error constraints. By combining two independent Lyapunov functions and radial basis function (RBF neural network (NN approximator, a novel and simple adaptive neural control scheme is proposed for the dynamics of the unconstrained transformation errors, which guarantees uniformly ultimate boundedness of all the signals in the closed-loop system. In the steady-state control process, RBF NNs are verified to satisfy the partial persistent excitation (PE condition. Subsequently, an appropriate state transformation is adopted to achieve the accurate convergence of neural weight estimates. The corresponding experienced knowledge on unknown robotic dynamics is stored in NNs with constant neural weight values. Using the stored knowledge, a static neural learning controller is developed to improve the full-state tracking performance. A comparative simulation study on a 2-link robot illustrates the effectiveness of the proposed scheme.

  16. Adaptation of a haptic robot in a 3T fMRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snider, Joseph; Plank, Markus; May, Larry; Liu, Thomas T; Poizner, Howard

    2011-10-04

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) provides excellent functional brain imaging via the BOLD signal with advantages including non-ionizing radiation, millimeter spatial accuracy of anatomical and functional data, and nearly real-time analyses. Haptic robots provide precise measurement and control of position and force of a cursor in a reasonably confined space. Here we combine these two technologies to allow precision experiments involving motor control with haptic/tactile environment interaction such as reaching or grasping. The basic idea is to attach an 8 foot end effecter supported in the center to the robot allowing the subject to use the robot, but shielding it and keeping it out of the most extreme part of the magnetic field from the fMRI machine (Figure 1). The Phantom Premium 3.0, 6DoF, high-force robot (SensAble Technologies, Inc.) is an excellent choice for providing force-feedback in virtual reality experiments, but it is inherently non-MR safe, introduces significant noise to the sensitive fMRI equipment, and its electric motors may be affected by the fMRI's strongly varying magnetic field. We have constructed a table and shielding system that allows the robot to be safely introduced into the fMRI environment and limits both the degradation of the fMRI signal by the electrically noisy motors and the degradation of the electric motor performance by the strongly varying magnetic field of the fMRI. With the shield, the signal to noise ratio (SNR: mean signal/noise standard deviation) of the fMRI goes from a baseline of ~380 to ~330, and ~250 without the shielding. The remaining noise appears to be uncorrelated and does not add artifacts to the fMRI of a test sphere (Figure 2). The long, stiff handle allows placement of the robot out of range of the most strongly varying parts of the magnetic field so there is no significant effect of the fMRI on the robot. The effect of the handle on the robot's kinematics is minimal since it is lightweight (~2

  17. Designing interruptive behaviors of a public environmental monitoring robot

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Evers, V.; de Vries, R.; Alvito, P.

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports ongoing research to inform the design of a social robot to monitor levels of pollutant gasses in the air. Next to licensed environmental agents and immobile chemical sensors, mobile technologies such as robotic agents are needed to collect complaints and smell descriptions from

  18. Developing Creative Behavior in Elementary School Students with Robotics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemiro, Jill; Larriva, Cesar; Jawaharlal, Mariappan

    2017-01-01

    The School Robotics Initiative (SRI), a problem-based robotics program for elementary school students, was developed with the objective of reaching students early on to instill an interest in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Math disciplines. The purpose of this exploratory, observational study was to examine how the SRI fosters student…

  19. Evolution of Collective Behaviors for a Real Swarm of Aquatic Surface Robots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, Miguel; Costa, Vasco; Gomes, Jorge; Rodrigues, Tiago; Silva, Fernando; Oliveira, Sancho Moura; Christensen, Anders Lyhne

    2016-01-01

    Swarm robotics is a promising approach for the coordination of large numbers of robots. While previous studies have shown that evolutionary robotics techniques can be applied to obtain robust and efficient self-organized behaviors for robot swarms, most studies have been conducted in simulation, and the few that have been conducted on real robots have been confined to laboratory environments. In this paper, we demonstrate for the first time a swarm robotics system with evolved control successfully operating in a real and uncontrolled environment. We evolve neural network-based controllers in simulation for canonical swarm robotics tasks, namely homing, dispersion, clustering, and monitoring. We then assess the performance of the controllers on a real swarm of up to ten aquatic surface robots. Our results show that the evolved controllers transfer successfully to real robots and achieve a performance similar to the performance obtained in simulation. We validate that the evolved controllers display key properties of swarm intelligence-based control, namely scalability, flexibility, and robustness on the real swarm. We conclude with a proof-of-concept experiment in which the swarm performs a complete environmental monitoring task by combining multiple evolved controllers.

  20. Adaptive Behavior and Problem Behavior in Young Children with Williams Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, Laura J.; Fidler, Deborah J.; Hepburn, Susan L.

    2014-01-01

    The present study compares the adaptive behavior profile of 18 young children with Williams syndrome (WS) and a developmentally matched group of 19 children with developmental disabilities and examines the relationship between adaptive behavior and problem behaviors in WS. Parents completed the Vineland Adaptive Behavioral Scales--Interview…

  1. Adaptive Hybrid Visual Servo Regulation of Mobile Robots Based on Fast Homography Decomposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunfu Wu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available For the monocular camera-based mobile robot system, an adaptive hybrid visual servo regulation algorithm which is based on a fast homography decomposition method is proposed to drive the mobile robot to its desired position and orientation, even when object’s imaging depth and camera’s position extrinsic parameters are unknown. Firstly, the homography’s particular properties caused by mobile robot’s 2-DOF motion are taken into account to induce a fast homography decomposition method. Secondly, the homography matrix and the extracted orientation error, incorporated with the desired view’s single feature point, are utilized to form an error vector and its open-loop error function. Finally, Lyapunov-based techniques are exploited to construct an adaptive regulation control law, followed by the experimental verification. The experimental results show that the proposed fast homography decomposition method is not only simple and efficient, but also highly precise. Meanwhile, the designed control law can well enable mobile robot position and orientation regulation despite the lack of depth information and camera’s position extrinsic parameters.

  2. Optimization of Power Utilization in Multimobile Robot Foraging Behavior Inspired by Honeybees System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Faisul Arif; Ramli, Abd Rahman; Samsudin, Khairulmizam; Hashim, Shaiful Jahari

    2014-01-01

    Deploying large numbers of mobile robots which can interact with each other produces swarm intelligent behavior. However, mobile robots are normally running with finite energy resource, supplied from finite battery. The limitation of energy resource required human intervention for recharging the batteries. The sharing information among the mobile robots would be one of the potentials to overcome the limitation on previously recharging system. A new approach is proposed based on integrated intelligent system inspired by foraging of honeybees applied to multimobile robot scenario. This integrated approach caters for both working and foraging stages for known/unknown power station locations. Swarm mobile robot inspired by honeybee is simulated to explore and identify the power station for battery recharging. The mobile robots will share the location information of the power station with each other. The result showed that mobile robots consume less energy and less time when they are cooperating with each other for foraging process. The optimizing of foraging behavior would result in the mobile robots spending more time to do real work. PMID:24949491

  3. Neuromechanical adaptations during a robotic powered exoskeleton assisted walking session.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramanujam, Arvind; Cirnigliaro, Christopher M; Garbarini, Erica; Asselin, Pierre; Pilkar, Rakesh; Forrest, Gail F

    2017-04-20

    To evaluate gait parameters and neuromuscular profiles of exoskeleton-assisted walking under Max Assist condition during a single-session for; (i) able bodied (AB) individuals walking assisted with (EXO) and without (non-EXO) a powered exoskeleton, (ii) non-ambulatory SCI individuals walking assisted with a powered exoskeleton. Single-session. Motion analysis laboratory. Four AB individuals and four individuals with SCI. Powered lower extremity exoskeleton. Temporal-spatial parameters, kinematics, walking velocity and electromyography data. AB individuals in exoskeleton showed greater stance time and a significant reduction in walking velocity (P exoskeleton movements, they walked with an increased velocity and lowered stance time to resemble that of slow walking. For SCI individuals, mean percent stance time was higher and walking velocity was lower compared to all AB walking conditions (P exoskeleton and moreover with voluntary control there is a greater temporal-spatial response of the lower limbs. Also, there are neuromuscular phasic adaptions for both AB and SCI groups while walking in the exoskeleton that are inconsistent to non-EXO gait muscle activation.

  4. Enhancing Perception with Tactile Object Recognition in Adaptive Grippers for Human–Robot Interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan M. Gandarias

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The use of tactile perception can help first response robotic teams in disaster scenarios, where visibility conditions are often reduced due to the presence of dust, mud, or smoke, distinguishing human limbs from other objects with similar shapes. Here, the integration of the tactile sensor in adaptive grippers is evaluated, measuring the performance of an object recognition task based on deep convolutional neural networks (DCNNs using a flexible sensor mounted in adaptive grippers. A total of 15 classes with 50 tactile images each were trained, including human body parts and common environment objects, in semi-rigid and flexible adaptive grippers based on the fin ray effect. The classifier was compared against the rigid configuration and a support vector machine classifier (SVM. Finally, a two-level output network has been proposed to provide both object-type recognition and human/non-human classification. Sensors in adaptive grippers have a higher number of non-null tactels (up to 37% more, with a lower mean of pressure values (up to 72% less than when using a rigid sensor, with a softer grip, which is needed in physical human–robot interaction (pHRI. A semi-rigid implementation with 95.13% object recognition rate was chosen, even though the human/non-human classification had better results (98.78% with a rigid sensor.

  5. Enhancing Perception with Tactile Object Recognition in Adaptive Grippers for Human-Robot Interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandarias, Juan M; Gómez-de-Gabriel, Jesús M; García-Cerezo, Alfonso J

    2018-02-26

    The use of tactile perception can help first response robotic teams in disaster scenarios, where visibility conditions are often reduced due to the presence of dust, mud, or smoke, distinguishing human limbs from other objects with similar shapes. Here, the integration of the tactile sensor in adaptive grippers is evaluated, measuring the performance of an object recognition task based on deep convolutional neural networks (DCNNs) using a flexible sensor mounted in adaptive grippers. A total of 15 classes with 50 tactile images each were trained, including human body parts and common environment objects, in semi-rigid and flexible adaptive grippers based on the fin ray effect. The classifier was compared against the rigid configuration and a support vector machine classifier (SVM). Finally, a two-level output network has been proposed to provide both object-type recognition and human/non-human classification. Sensors in adaptive grippers have a higher number of non-null tactels (up to 37% more), with a lower mean of pressure values (up to 72% less) than when using a rigid sensor, with a softer grip, which is needed in physical human-robot interaction (pHRI). A semi-rigid implementation with 95.13% object recognition rate was chosen, even though the human/non-human classification had better results (98.78%) with a rigid sensor.

  6. Distributed cerebellar plasticity implements adaptable gain control in a manipulation task: a closed-loop robotic simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesus A Garrido Alcazar

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Adaptable gain regulation is at the core of the forward controller operation performed by the cerebro-cerebellar loops and it allows the intensity of motor acts to be finely tuned in a predictive manner. In order to learn and store information about body-object dynamics and to generate an internal model of movement, the cerebellum is thought to employ long-term synaptic plasticity. LTD at the PF-PC synapse has classically been assumed to subserve this function (Marr, 1969. However, this plasticity alone cannot account for the broad dynamic ranges and time scales of cerebellar adaptation. We therefore tested the role of plasticity distributed over multiple synaptic sites (Gao et al., 2012; Hansel et al., 2001 by generating an analog cerebellar model embedded into a control loop connected to a robotic simulator. The robot used a three-joint arm and performed repetitive fast manipulations with different masses along an 8-shape trajectory. In accordance with biological evidence, the cerebellum model was endowed with both LTD and LTP at the PF-PC, MF-DCN and PC-DCN synapses. This resulted in a network scheme whose effectiveness was extended considerably compared to one including just PF-PC synaptic plasticity. Indeed, the system including distributed plasticity reliably self-adapted to manipulate different masses and to learn the arm-object dynamics over a time course that included fast learning and consolidation, along the lines of what has been observed in behavioral tests. In particular, PF-PC plasticity operated as a time correlator between the actual input state and the system error, while MF-DCN and PC-DCN plasticity played a key role in generating the gain controller. This model suggests that distributed synaptic plasticity allows generation of the complex learning properties of the cerebellum. The incorporation of further plasticity mechanisms and of spiking signal processing will allow this concept to be extended in a more realistic

  7. Fuzzy Logic Based Behavior Fusion for Navigation of an Intelligent Mobile Robot

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李伟; 陈祖舜; 等

    1996-01-01

    This paper presents a new method for behavior fusion control of a mobile robot in uncertain environments.Using behavior fusion by fuzzy logic,a mobile robot is able to directly execute its motion according to range information about environments,acquired by ultrasonic sensors,without the need for trajectory planning.Based on low-level behavior control,an efficient strategy for integrating high-level global planning for robot motion can be formulated,since,in most applications,some information on environments is prior knowledge.A global planner,therefore,only to generate some subgoal positions rather than exact geometric paths.Because such subgoals can be easily removed from or added into the plannes,this strategy reduces computational time for global planning and is flexible for replanning in dynamic environments.Simulation results demonstrate that the proposed strategy can be applied to robot motion in complex and dynamic environments.

  8. Adaptive Tracking and Obstacle Avoidance Control for Mobile Robots with Unknown Sliding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingyue Cui

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available An adaptive control approach is proposed for trajectory tracking and obstacle avoidance for mobile robots with consideration given to unknown sliding. A kinematic model of mobile robots is established in this paper, in which both longitudinal and lateral sliding are considered and processed as three time-varying parameters. A sliding model observer is introduced to estimate the sliding parameters online. A stable tracking control law for this nonholonomic system is proposed to compensate the unknown sliding effect. From Lyapunov-stability analysis, it is proved, regardless of unknown sliding, that tracking errors of the controlled closed-loop system are asymptotically stable, the tracking errors converge to zero outside the obstacle detection region and obstacle avoidance is guaranteed inside the obstacle detection region. The efficiency and robustness of the proposed control system are verified by simulation results.

  9. Assistance dogs provide a useful behavioral model to enrich communicative skills of assistance robots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gácsi, Márta; Szakadát, Sára; Miklósi, Adám

    2013-01-01

    These studies are part of a project aiming to reveal relevant aspects of human-dog interactions, which could serve as a model to design successful human-robot interactions. Presently there are no successfully commercialized assistance robots, however, assistance dogs work efficiently as partners for persons with disabilities. In Study 1, we analyzed the cooperation of 32 assistance dog-owner dyads performing a carrying task. We revealed typical behavior sequences and also differences depending on the dyads' experiences and on whether the owner was a wheelchair user. In Study 2, we investigated dogs' responses to unforeseen difficulties during a retrieving task in two contexts. Dogs displayed specific communicative and displacement behaviors, and a strong commitment to execute the insoluble task. Questionnaire data from Study 3 confirmed that these behaviors could successfully attenuate owners' disappointment. Although owners anticipated the technical competence of future assistance robots to be moderate/high, they could not imagine robots as emotional companions, which negatively affected their acceptance ratings of future robotic assistants. We propose that assistance dogs' cooperative behaviors and problem solving strategies should inspire the development of the relevant functions and social behaviors of assistance robots with limited manual and verbal skills.

  10. Adaptive Shape Kernel-Based Mean Shift Tracker in Robot Vision System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunmei Liu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes an adaptive shape kernel-based mean shift tracker using a single static camera for the robot vision system. The question that we address in this paper is how to construct such a kernel shape that is adaptive to the object shape. We perform nonlinear manifold learning technique to obtain the low-dimensional shape space which is trained by training data with the same view as the tracking video. The proposed kernel searches the shape in the low-dimensional shape space obtained by nonlinear manifold learning technique and constructs the adaptive kernel shape in the high-dimensional shape space. It can improve mean shift tracker performance to track object position and object contour and avoid the background clutter. In the experimental part, we take the walking human as example to validate that our method is accurate and robust to track human position and describe human contour.

  11. Adaptive Shape Kernel-Based Mean Shift Tracker in Robot Vision System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    This paper proposes an adaptive shape kernel-based mean shift tracker using a single static camera for the robot vision system. The question that we address in this paper is how to construct such a kernel shape that is adaptive to the object shape. We perform nonlinear manifold learning technique to obtain the low-dimensional shape space which is trained by training data with the same view as the tracking video. The proposed kernel searches the shape in the low-dimensional shape space obtained by nonlinear manifold learning technique and constructs the adaptive kernel shape in the high-dimensional shape space. It can improve mean shift tracker performance to track object position and object contour and avoid the background clutter. In the experimental part, we take the walking human as example to validate that our method is accurate and robust to track human position and describe human contour. PMID:27379165

  12. The Impact of Robot Tutor Nonverbal Social Behavior on Child Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Kennedy

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Several studies have indicated that interacting with social robots in educational contexts may lead to a greater learning than interactions with computers or virtual agents. As such, an increasing amount of social human–robot interaction research is being conducted in the learning domain, particularly with children. However, it is unclear precisely what social behavior a robot should employ in such interactions. Inspiration can be taken from human–human studies; this often leads to an assumption that the more social behavior an agent utilizes, the better the learning outcome will be. We apply a nonverbal behavior metric to a series of studies in which children are taught how to identify prime numbers by a robot with various behavioral manipulations. We find a trend, which generally agrees with the pedagogy literature, but also that overt nonverbal behavior does not account for all learning differences. We discuss the impact of novelty, child expectations, and responses to social cues to further the understanding of the relationship between robot social behavior and learning. We suggest that the combination of nonverbal behavior and social cue congruency is necessary to facilitate learning.

  13. Adaptive Control for Autonomous Navigation of Mobile Robots Considering Time Delay and Uncertainty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armah, Stephen Kofi

    Autonomous control of mobile robots has attracted considerable attention of researchers in the areas of robotics and autonomous systems during the past decades. One of the goals in the field of mobile robotics is development of platforms that robustly operate in given, partially unknown, or unpredictable environments and offer desired services to humans. Autonomous mobile robots need to be equipped with effective, robust and/or adaptive, navigation control systems. In spite of enormous reported work on autonomous navigation control systems for mobile robots, achieving the goal above is still an open problem. Robustness and reliability of the controlled system can always be improved. The fundamental issues affecting the stability of the control systems include the undesired nonlinear effects introduced by actuator saturation, time delay in the controlled system, and uncertainty in the model. This research work develops robustly stabilizing control systems by investigating and addressing such nonlinear effects through analytical, simulations, and experiments. The control systems are designed to meet specified transient and steady-state specifications. The systems used for this research are ground (Dr Robot X80SV) and aerial (Parrot AR.Drone 2.0) mobile robots. Firstly, an effective autonomous navigation control system is developed for X80SV using logic control by combining 'go-to-goal', 'avoid-obstacle', and 'follow-wall' controllers. A MATLAB robot simulator is developed to implement this control algorithm and experiments are conducted in a typical office environment. The next stage of the research develops an autonomous position (x, y, and z) and attitude (roll, pitch, and yaw) controllers for a quadrotor, and PD-feedback control is used to achieve stabilization. The quadrotor's nonlinear dynamics and kinematics are implemented using MATLAB S-function to generate the state output. Secondly, the white-box and black-box approaches are used to obtain a linearized

  14. Learning to walk with an adaptive gain proportional myoelectric controller for a robotic ankle exoskeleton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koller, Jeffrey R; Jacobs, Daniel A; Ferris, Daniel P; Remy, C David

    2015-11-04

    Robotic ankle exoskeletons can provide assistance to users and reduce metabolic power during walking. Our research group has investigated the use of proportional myoelectric control for controlling robotic ankle exoskeletons. Previously, these controllers have relied on a constant gain to map user's muscle activity to actuation control signals. A constant gain may act as a constraint on the user, so we designed a controller that dynamically adapts the gain to the user's myoelectric amplitude. We hypothesized that an adaptive gain proportional myoelectric controller would reduce metabolic energy expenditure compared to walking with the ankle exoskeleton unpowered because users could choose their preferred control gain. We tested eight healthy subjects walking with the adaptive gain proportional myoelectric controller with bilateral ankle exoskeletons. The adaptive gain was updated each stride such that on average the user's peak muscle activity was mapped to maximal power output of the exoskeleton. All subjects participated in three identical training sessions where they walked on a treadmill for 50 minutes (30 minutes of which the exoskeleton was powered) at 1.2 ms(-1). We calculated and analyzed metabolic energy consumption, muscle recruitment, inverse kinematics, inverse dynamics, and exoskeleton mechanics. Using our controller, subjects achieved a metabolic reduction similar to that seen in previous work in about a third of the training time. The resulting controller gain was lower than that seen in previous work (β=1.50±0.14 versus a constant β=2). The adapted gain allowed users more total ankle joint power than that of unassisted walking, increasing ankle power in exchange for a decrease in hip power. Our findings indicate that humans prefer to walk with greater ankle mechanical power output than their unassisted gait when provided with an ankle exoskeleton using an adaptive controller. This suggests that robotic assistance from an exoskeleton can allow

  15. Robo-AO KP: A new era in robotic adaptive optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riddle, Reed L.; Baranec, Christoph; Law, Nicholas M.; Kulkarni, Shrinivas R.; Duev, Dmitry; Ziegler, Carl; Jensen-Clem, Rebecca M.; Atkinson, Dani Eleanor; Tanner, Angelle M.; Zhang, Celia; Ray, Amy

    2016-01-01

    Robo-AO is the first and only fully automated adaptive optics laser guide star AO instrument. It was developed as an instrument for 1-3m robotic telescopes, in order to take advantage of their availability to pursue large survey programs and target of opportunity observations that aren't possible with other AO systems. Robo-AO is currently the most efficient AO system in existence, and it can achieve an observation rate of 20+ science targets per hour. In more than three years of operations at Palomar Observatory, it has been quite successful, producing technology that is being adapted by other AO systems and robotic telescope projects, as well as several high impact scientific publications. Now, Robo-AO has been selected to take over operation of the Kitt Peak National Observatory 2.1m telescope. This will give Robo-AO KP the opportunity to pursue multiple science programs consisting of several thousand targets each during the three years it will be on the telescope. One-sixth of the observing time will be allocated to the US community through the NOAO TAC process. This presentation will discuss the process adapting Robo-AO to the KPNO 2.1m telescope, the plans for integration and initial operations, and the science operations and programs to be pursued.

  16. Dynamic Behavior Sequencing in a Hybrid Robot Architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-03-01

    robots to represent and execute procedures, scripts , and plans in dynamic environ- ments [24]. Ingrand et al. describe the PRS as the link between the...based language in a similar style to Java that follows a model-based programming approach. A model-based programming approach refers to embedded...refers to the angular orientation of the robot from its initial heading. Therefore, the θ parameter value of zero (0) indicates that the desired

  17. Flowrate behavior and clustering of self-driven robots in a channel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Bo; Sun, Wang-Ping; Li, Ming; Jiang, Rui; Hu, Mao-Bin

    2018-03-01

    In this paper, the collective motion of self-driven robots is studied experimentally and theoretically. In the channel, the flowrate of robots increases with the density linearly, even if the density of the robots tends to 1.0. There is no abrupt drop in the flowrate, similar to the collective motion of ants. We find that the robots will adjust their velocities by a serial of tiny collisions. The speed-adjustment will affect both robots involved in the collision, and will help to maintain a nearly uniform velocity for the robots. As a result, the flowrate drop will disappear. In the motion, the robots neither gather together nor scatter completely. Instead, they form some clusters to move together. These clusters are not stable during the moving process, but their sizes follow a power-law-alike distribution. We propose a theoretical model to simulate this collective motion process, which can reproduce these behaviors well. Analytic results about the flowrate behavior are also consistent with experiments. Project supported by the Key Research and Development Program, China (Grant No. 2016YFC0802508) and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11672289 and 11422221).

  18. Testing Biological Hypotheses with Embodied Robots: Adaptations, Accidents, and By-Products in the Evolution of Vertebrates

    OpenAIRE

    Roberts, Sonia F.; Hirokawa, Jonathan; Rosenblum, Hannah G.; Sakhtah, Hassan; Gutierrez, Andres A.; Porter, Marianne E.; Long, John H.

    2014-01-01

    Evolutionary robotics allows biologists to test hypotheses about extinct animals. In our case, we modeled some of the first vertebrates, jawless fishes, in order to study the evolution of the trait after which vertebrates are named: vertebrae. We tested the hypothesis that vertebrae are an adaptation for enhanced feeding and fleeing performance. We created a population of autonomous embodied robots, Preyro, in which the number of vertebrae, N, were free to evolve. In addition, two other trait...

  19. Affective and behavioral responses to robot-initiated social touch : Towards understanding the opportunities and limitations of physical contact in human-robot interaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willemse, C.J.A.M.; Toet, A.; Erp, J.B.F. van

    2017-01-01

    Social touch forms an important aspect of the human non-verbal communication repertoire, but is often overlooked in human–robot interaction. In this study, we investigated whether robot-initiated touches can induce physiological, emotional, and behavioral responses similar to those reported for

  20. Influences of a Socially Interactive Robot on the Affective Behavior of Young Children with Disabilities. Social Robots Research Reports, Number 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunst, Carl J.; Prior, Jeremy; Hamby, Deborah W.; Trivette, Carol M.

    2013-01-01

    Findings from two studies of 11 young children with autism, Down syndrome, or attention deficit disorders investigating the effects of Popchilla, a socially interactive robot, on the children's affective behavior are reported. The children were observed under two conditions, child-toy interactions and child-robot interactions, and ratings of child…

  1. Affective and Behavioral Responses to Robot-Initiated Social Touch : Toward Understanding the Opportunities and Limitations of Physical Contact in Human–Robot Interaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willemse, Christian J. A. M.; Toet, Alexander; van Erp, Jan B. F.

    2017-01-01

    Social touch forms an important aspect of the human non-verbal communication repertoire, but is often overlooked in human-robot interaction. In this study, we investigated whether robot-initiated touches can induce physiological, emotional, and behavioral responses similar to those reported for

  2. An Adaptive Web-Based Support to e-Education in Robotics and Automation

    Science.gov (United States)

    di Giamberardino, Paolo; Temperini, Marco

    The paper presents the hardware and software architecture of a remote laboratory, with robotics and automation applications, devised to support e-teaching and e-learning activities, at an undergraduate level in computer engineering. The hardware is composed by modular structures, based on the Lego Mindstorms components: they are reasonably sophisticated in terms of functions, pretty easy to use, and sufficiently affordable in terms of cost. Moreover, being the robots intrinsically modular, wrt the number and distribution of sensors and actuators, they are easily and quickly reconfigurable. A web application makes the laboratory and its robots available via internet. The software framework allows the teacher to define, for the course under her/his responsibility, a learning path made of different and differently complex exercises, graduated in terms of the "difficulty" they require to meet and of the "competence" that the solver is supposed to have shown. The learning path of exercises is adapted to the individual learner's progressively growing competence: at any moment, only a subset of the exercises is available (depending on how close their levels of competence and difficulty are to those of the exercises already solved by the learner).

  3. Novel Adaptive Forward Neural MIMO NARX Model for the Identification of Industrial 3-DOF Robot Arm Kinematics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ho Pham Huy Anh

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a novel forward adaptive neural MIMO NARX model is used for modelling and identifying the forward kinematics of an industrial 3-DOF robot arm system. The nonlinear features of the forward kinematics of the industrial robot arm drive are thoroughly modelled based on the forward adaptive neural NARX model-based identification process using experimental input-output training data. This paper proposes a novel use of a back propagation (BP algorithm to generate the forward neural MIMO NARX (FNMN model for the forward kinematics of the industrial 3-DOF robot arm. The results show that the proposed adaptive neural NARX model trained by a Back Propagation learning algorithm yields outstanding performance and perfect accuracy.

  4. Evolving and Controlling Perimeter, Rendezvous, and Foraging Behaviors in a Computation-Free Robot Swarm

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-01

    in extreme environments. Categories and Subject Descriptors I.2.11 [ Artificial Intelligence ]: Distributed Artificial In- telligence—multiagent systems...coherence and coordination; I.2.9 [ Artificial Intelligence ]: Robotics— intelligent vehi- cles Keywords swarm robotics, evolutionary algorithms...collective behaviors. Rubenstein et al. [12] studied how to collectively transport items using a simple control signals and behaviors. Others have looked

  5. Robotics

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    netic induction to detect an object. The development of ... end effector, inclination of object, magnetic and electric fields, etc. The sensors described ... In the case of a robot, the various actuators and motors have to be modelled. The major ...

  6. Robust controller with adaptation within the boundary layer: application to nuclear underwater inspection robot

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Gee Yong; Yoon, Ji Sup; Hong, Dong Hee; Jeong, Jae Hoo

    2002-01-01

    In this paper, the robust control scheme with the improved control performance within the boundary layer is proposed. In the control scheme, the robust controller based on the traditional variable structure control method is modified to have the adaptation within the boundary layer. From this controller, the width of the boundary layer where the robust control input is smoothened out can be given by an appropriate value. But the improve control performance within the boundary layer can be achieved without the so-called control chattering because the role of adaptive control is to compensate for the uncovered portions of the robust control occurred from the continuous approximation within the boundary layer. Simulation tests for circular navigation of an underwater wall-ranging robot developed for inspection of wall surfaces in the research reactor, TRIGA MARK III, confirm the performance improvement

  7. Endogenous Nuclear RNAi Mediates Behavioral Adaptation to Odor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juang, Bi-Tzen; Gu, Chen; Starnes, Linda

    2013-01-01

    , an in vitro substrate of the EGL-4 kinase that promotes adaption, is necessary and sufficient for behavioral adaptation. Thus, environmental stimulation amplifies an endo-siRNA negative feedback loop to dynamically repress cognate gene expression and shape behavior. This class of siRNA may act broadly...

  8. Patient-Centeredness as Physician Behavioral Adaptability to Patient Preferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrard, Valérie; Schmid Mast, Marianne; Jaunin-Stalder, Nicole; Junod Perron, Noëlle; Sommer, Johanna

    2018-05-01

    A physician who communicates in a patient-centered way is a physician who adapts his or her communication style to what each patient needs. In order to do so, the physician has to (1) accurately assess each patient's states and traits (interpersonal accuracy) and (2) possess a behavioral repertoire to choose from in order to actually adapt his or her behavior to different patients (behavioral adaptability). Physician behavioral adaptability describes the change in verbal or nonverbal behavior a physician shows when interacting with patients who have different preferences in terms of how the physician should interact with them. We hypothesized that physician behavioral adaptability to their patients' preferences would lead to better patient outcomes and that physician interpersonal accuracy was positively related to behavioral adaptability. To test these hypotheses, we recruited 61 physicians who completed an interpersonal accuracy test before being videotaped during four consultations with different patients. The 244 participating patients indicated their preferences for their physician's interaction style prior to the consultation and filled in a consultation outcomes questionnaire directly after the consultation. We coded the physician's verbal and nonverbal behavior for each of the consultations and compared it to the patients' preferences to obtain a measure of physician behavioral adaptability. Results partially confirmed our hypotheses in that female physicians who adapted their nonverbal (but not their verbal) behavior had patients who reported more positive consultation outcomes. Moreover, the more female physicians were accurate interpersonally, the more they showed verbal and nonverbal behavioral adaptability. For male physicians, more interpersonal accuracy was linked to less nonverbal adaptability.

  9. Adaptive Control of Exoskeleton Robots for Periodic Assistive Behaviours Based on EMG Feedback Minimisation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peternel, Luka; Noda, Tomoyuki; Petrič, Tadej; Ude, Aleš; Morimoto, Jun; Babič, Jan

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we propose an exoskeleton control method for adaptive learning of assistive joint torque profiles in periodic tasks. We use human muscle activity as feedback to adapt the assistive joint torque behaviour in a way that the muscle activity is minimised. The user can then relax while the exoskeleton takes over the task execution. If the task is altered and the existing assistive behaviour becomes inadequate, the exoskeleton gradually adapts to the new task execution so that the increased muscle activity caused by the new desired task can be reduced. The advantage of the proposed method is that it does not require biomechanical or dynamical models. Our proposed learning system uses Dynamical Movement Primitives (DMPs) as a trajectory generator and parameters of DMPs are modulated using Locally Weighted Regression. Then, the learning system is combined with adaptive oscillators that determine the phase and frequency of motion according to measured Electromyography (EMG) signals. We tested the method with real robot experiments where subjects wearing an elbow exoskeleton had to move an object of an unknown mass according to a predefined reference motion. We further evaluated the proposed approach on a whole-arm exoskeleton to show that it is able to adaptively derive assistive torques even for multiple-joint motion. PMID:26881743

  10. Adaptive Control of Exoskeleton Robots for Periodic Assistive Behaviours Based on EMG Feedback Minimisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peternel, Luka; Noda, Tomoyuki; Petrič, Tadej; Ude, Aleš; Morimoto, Jun; Babič, Jan

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we propose an exoskeleton control method for adaptive learning of assistive joint torque profiles in periodic tasks. We use human muscle activity as feedback to adapt the assistive joint torque behaviour in a way that the muscle activity is minimised. The user can then relax while the exoskeleton takes over the task execution. If the task is altered and the existing assistive behaviour becomes inadequate, the exoskeleton gradually adapts to the new task execution so that the increased muscle activity caused by the new desired task can be reduced. The advantage of the proposed method is that it does not require biomechanical or dynamical models. Our proposed learning system uses Dynamical Movement Primitives (DMPs) as a trajectory generator and parameters of DMPs are modulated using Locally Weighted Regression. Then, the learning system is combined with adaptive oscillators that determine the phase and frequency of motion according to measured Electromyography (EMG) signals. We tested the method with real robot experiments where subjects wearing an elbow exoskeleton had to move an object of an unknown mass according to a predefined reference motion. We further evaluated the proposed approach on a whole-arm exoskeleton to show that it is able to adaptively derive assistive torques even for multiple-joint motion.

  11. Adaptive Control of Exoskeleton Robots for Periodic Assistive Behaviours Based on EMG Feedback Minimisation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luka Peternel

    Full Text Available In this paper we propose an exoskeleton control method for adaptive learning of assistive joint torque profiles in periodic tasks. We use human muscle activity as feedback to adapt the assistive joint torque behaviour in a way that the muscle activity is minimised. The user can then relax while the exoskeleton takes over the task execution. If the task is altered and the existing assistive behaviour becomes inadequate, the exoskeleton gradually adapts to the new task execution so that the increased muscle activity caused by the new desired task can be reduced. The advantage of the proposed method is that it does not require biomechanical or dynamical models. Our proposed learning system uses Dynamical Movement Primitives (DMPs as a trajectory generator and parameters of DMPs are modulated using Locally Weighted Regression. Then, the learning system is combined with adaptive oscillators that determine the phase and frequency of motion according to measured Electromyography (EMG signals. We tested the method with real robot experiments where subjects wearing an elbow exoskeleton had to move an object of an unknown mass according to a predefined reference motion. We further evaluated the proposed approach on a whole-arm exoskeleton to show that it is able to adaptively derive assistive torques even for multiple-joint motion.

  12. Help-Giving Robot Behaviors in Child-Robot Games : Exploring Semantic Free Utterances

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zaga, Cristina; De Vries, Roelof A.J.; Spenkelink, Sem J.; Truong, Khiet P.; Evers, Vanessa

    We present initial findings from an experiment where we used Semantic Free Utterances vocalizations and sounds without semantic content as an alternative to Natural Language in a child-robot collaborative game. We tested (i) if two types of Semantic Free Utterances could be accurately recognized by

  13. Robot Deception and Squirrel Behavior: A Case Study in Bio-inspired Robotics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-08-01

    soccer , and handball (Brault, Bideau, Craig, & Kkulpa, 2010; Dessing & Craig, 2010; Vignais, Kulpa, Craig, Brault, Multon, & Bideau, 2010...Robots , 1 (1), 27-52. Barnes, J. A. (1994). A pack of lies: Towards a sociology of lying. . Cambridge University press. Baron-Cohen, S. (2007). I

  14. Cerebellar-inspired adaptive control of a robot eye actuated by pneumatic artificial muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenz, Alexander; Anderson, Sean R; Pipe, A G; Melhuish, Chris; Dean, Paul; Porrill, John

    2009-12-01

    In this paper, a model of cerebellar function is implemented and evaluated in the control of a robot eye actuated by pneumatic artificial muscles. The investigated control problem is stabilization of the visual image in response to disturbances. This is analogous to the vestibuloocular reflex (VOR) in humans. The cerebellar model is structurally based on the adaptive filter, and the learning rule is computationally analogous to least-mean squares, where parameter adaptation at the parallel fiber/Purkinje cell synapse is driven by the correlation of the sensory error signal (carried by the climbing fiber) and the motor command signal. Convergence of the algorithm is first analyzed in simulation on a model of the robot and then tested online in both one and two degrees of freedom. The results show that this model of neural function successfully works on a real-world problem, providing empirical evidence for validating: 1) the generic cerebellar learning algorithm; 2) the function of the cerebellum in the VOR; and 3) the signal transmission between functional neural components of the VOR.

  15. Heart Motion Prediction in Robotic-Assisted Beating Heart Surgery: A Nonlinear Fast Adaptive Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fan Liang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Off-pump Coronary Artery Bypass Graft (CABG surgery outperforms traditional on-pump surgery because the assisted robotic tools can alleviate the relative motion between the beating heart and robotic tools. Therefore, it is possible for the surgeon to operate on the beating heart and thus lessens post surgery complications for the patients. Due to the highly irregular and non-stationary nature of heart motion, it is critical that the beating heart motion is predicted in the model-based track control procedures. It is technically preferable to model heart motion in a nonlinear way because the characteristic analysis of 3D heart motion data through Bi-spectral analysis and Fourier methods demonstrates the involved nonlinearity of heart motion. We propose an adaptive nonlinear heart motion model based on the Volterra Series in this paper. We also design a fast lattice structure to achieve computational-efficiency for real-time online predictions. We argue that the quadratic term of the Volterra Series can improve the prediction accuracy by covering sharp change points and including the motion with sufficient detail. The experiment results indicate that the adaptive nonlinear heart motion prediction algorithm outperforms the autoregressive (AR and the time-varying Fourier-series models in terms of the root mean square of the prediction error and the prediction error in extreme cases.

  16. A Novel Low-Cost Adaptive Scanner Concept for Mobile Robots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivo Stančić

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available A fundamental problem in mobile robot applications is the need for accurate knowledge of the position of a vehicle for localizing itself and for avoiding obstacles in its path. In the search for a solution to this problem, researchers and engineers have developed different sensors, systems and techniques. Modern mobile robots relay information obtained from a variety of sensors and sophisticated data fusion algorithms. In this paper, a novel concept for a low-cost adaptive scanner based on a projected light pattern is proposed. The main advantage of the proposed system is its adaptivity, which enables the rapid scanning of the robot’s surroundings in search of obstacles and a more detailed scan of a single object to retrieve its surface configuration and perform some limited analyses. This paper addresses the concept behind such a scanner, where a proof-of-concept is achieved using an office DLP projector. During the measurements, the accuracy of the proposed system was tested on obstacles and objects with known configurations. The obtained results are presented and analyzed, and conclusions about the system’s performance and possible improvements are discussed.

  17. Distributed behavior-based control architecture for a wall climbing robot

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nadir Ould Khessal; Shamsudin H.M. Amin . nadir.ok@ieee.org

    1999-01-01

    In the past two decades, Behavior-based AI (Artificial Intelligence) has emerged as a new approach in designing mobile robot control architecture. It stresses on the issues of reactivity, concurrency and real-time control. In this paper we propose a new approach in designing robust intelligent controllers for mobile robot platforms. The Behaviour-based paradigm implemented in a multiprocessing firmware architecture will further enhance parallelism present in the subsumption paradigm itself and increased real-timeness. The paper summarises research done to design a four-legged wall climbing robot. The emphasis will be on the control architecture of the robot based on the Behavior -based paradigm. The robot control architecture is made up of two layers, the locomotion layer and the gait controller layer. The two layers are implemented on a Vesta 68332 processor board running the Behaviour-based kernel, The software is developed using the L programming language, introduced by IS Robotics. The Behaviour-based paradigm is outlined and contrasted with the classical Knowledge-based approach. A description of the distributed architecture is presented followed by a presentation of the Behaviour-based agents for the two layers. (author)

  18. Development and Standardization of the Diagnostic Adaptive Behavior Scale: Application of Item Response Theory to the Assessment of Adaptive Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tassé, Marc J.; Schalock, Robert L.; Thissen, David; Balboni, Giulia; Bersani, Henry, Jr.; Borthwick-Duffy, Sharon A.; Spreat, Scott; Widaman, Keith F.; Zhang, Dalun; Navas, Patricia

    2016-01-01

    The Diagnostic Adaptive Behavior Scale (DABS) was developed using item response theory (IRT) methods and was constructed to provide the most precise and valid adaptive behavior information at or near the cutoff point of making a decision regarding a diagnosis of intellectual disability. The DABS initial item pool consisted of 260 items. Using IRT…

  19. Auto-adaptative Robot-aided Therapy based in 3D Virtual Tasks controlled by a Supervised and Dynamic Neuro-Fuzzy System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Daniel Lledó

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an application formed by a classification method based on the architecture of ART neural network (Adaptive Resonance Theory and the Fuzzy Set Theory to classify physiological reactions in order to automatically and dynamically adapt a robot-assisted rehabilitation therapy to the patient needs, using a three-dimensional task in a virtual reality system. Firstly, the mathematical and structural model of the neuro-fuzzy classification method is described together with the signal and training data acquisition. Then, the virtual designed task with physics behavior and its development procedure are explained. Finally, the general architecture of the experimentation for the auto-adaptive therapy is presented using the classification method with the virtual reality exercise.

  20. Control design for a mobile robot Including tire behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ploeg, J.; Schouten, H.E.; Nijmeijer, H.

    2008-01-01

    In order to support the development process of Advanced Driver Assistance systems for road vehicles, TNO is operating a hardware-in-the-loop test setup. In this facility, called VeHIL, vehicles in the direct neighborhood of the test vehicle are simulated using wheeled mobile robots. Due to the

  1. Control design for a mobile robot including tire behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ploeg, J.; Schouten, H.E.; Nijmeijer, H.

    2008-01-01

    In order to support the development process of Advanced Driver Assistance systems for road vehicles, TNO is operating a hardware-in-the-loop test setup. In this facility, called VeHIL, vehicles in the direct neighborhood of the test vehicle are simulated using wheeled mobile robots. Due to the

  2. Disturbance-Estimated Adaptive Backstepping Sliding Mode Control of a Pneumatic Muscles-Driven Ankle Rehabilitation Robot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingsong Ai

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available A rehabilitation robot plays an important role in relieving the therapists’ burden and helping patients with ankle injuries to perform more accurate and effective rehabilitation training. However, a majority of current ankle rehabilitation robots are rigid and have drawbacks in terms of complex structure, poor flexibility and lack of safety. Taking advantages of pneumatic muscles’ good flexibility and light weight, we developed a novel two degrees of freedom (2-DOF parallel compliant ankle rehabilitation robot actuated by pneumatic muscles (PMs. To solve the PM’s nonlinear characteristics during operation and to tackle the human-robot uncertainties in rehabilitation, an adaptive backstepping sliding mode control (ABS-SMC method is proposed in this paper. The human-robot external disturbance can be estimated by an observer, who is then used to adjust the robot output to accommodate external changes. The system stability is guaranteed by the Lyapunov stability theorem. Experimental results on the compliant ankle rehabilitation robot show that the proposed ABS-SMC is able to estimate the external disturbance online and adjust the control output in real time during operation, resulting in a higher trajectory tracking accuracy and better response performance especially in dynamic conditions.

  3. Disturbance-Estimated Adaptive Backstepping Sliding Mode Control of a Pneumatic Muscles-Driven Ankle Rehabilitation Robot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ai, Qingsong; Zhu, Chengxiang; Zuo, Jie; Meng, Wei; Liu, Quan; Xie, Sheng Q; Yang, Ming

    2017-12-28

    A rehabilitation robot plays an important role in relieving the therapists' burden and helping patients with ankle injuries to perform more accurate and effective rehabilitation training. However, a majority of current ankle rehabilitation robots are rigid and have drawbacks in terms of complex structure, poor flexibility and lack of safety. Taking advantages of pneumatic muscles' good flexibility and light weight, we developed a novel two degrees of freedom (2-DOF) parallel compliant ankle rehabilitation robot actuated by pneumatic muscles (PMs). To solve the PM's nonlinear characteristics during operation and to tackle the human-robot uncertainties in rehabilitation, an adaptive backstepping sliding mode control (ABS-SMC) method is proposed in this paper. The human-robot external disturbance can be estimated by an observer, who is then used to adjust the robot output to accommodate external changes. The system stability is guaranteed by the Lyapunov stability theorem. Experimental results on the compliant ankle rehabilitation robot show that the proposed ABS-SMC is able to estimate the external disturbance online and adjust the control output in real time during operation, resulting in a higher trajectory tracking accuracy and better response performance especially in dynamic conditions.

  4. Leadership Behaviors of Management for Complex Adaptive Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    Leadership Behaviors of Management for Complex Adaptive Systems Systems and Software Technology Conference April 2010 Dr. Suzette S. Johnson...2010 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2010 to 00-00-2010 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Leadership Behaviors of Management for Complex Adaptive...as they evolve – Control is dispersed and decentralized – Simple rules and governance used to direct behavior • Complexity Leadership Theory – Built on

  5. Design and Experimental Development of a Pneumatic Stiffness Adjustable Foot System for Biped Robots Adaptable to Bumps on the Ground

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xizhe Zang

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Walking on rough terrains still remains a challenge that needs to be addressed for biped robots because the unevenness on the ground can easily disrupt the walking stability. This paper proposes a novel foot system with passively adjustable stiffness for biped robots which is adaptable to small-sized bumps on the ground. The robotic foot is developed by attaching eight pneumatic variable stiffness units to the sole separately and symmetrically. Each variable stiffness unit mainly consists of a pneumatic bladder and a mechanical reversing valve. When walking on rough ground, the pneumatic bladders in contact with bumps are compressed, and the corresponding reversing valves are triggered to expel out the air, enabling the pneumatic bladders to adapt to the bumps with low stiffness; while the other pneumatic bladders remain rigid and maintain stable contact with the ground, providing support to the biped robot. The performances of the proposed foot system, including the variable stiffness mechanism, the adaptability on the bumps of different heights, and the application on a biped robot prototype are demonstrated by various experiments.

  6. Investigating positioning and gaze behaviors of social robots : people's preferences, perceptions, and behaviors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Joosse, Michiel Pieter

    2017-01-01

    As technology advances, application areas for robots are no longer limited to the factories where they perform repetitive tasks behind fences. Robots are envisioned to provide services to us in everyday public spaces - in which they will encounter and interact with people. These types of robots can

  7. Dynamical Integration of Language and Behavior in a Recurrent Neural Network for Human--Robot Interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatsuro Yamada

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available To work cooperatively with humans by using language, robots must not only acquire a mapping between language and their behavior but also autonomously utilize the mapping in appropriate contexts of interactive tasks online. To this end, we propose a novel learning method linking language to robot behavior by means of a recurrent neural network. In this method, the network learns from correct examples of the imposed task that are given not as explicitly separated sets of language and behavior but as sequential data constructed from the actual temporal flow of the task. By doing this, the internal dynamics of the network models both language--behavior relationships and the temporal patterns of interaction. Here, ``internal dynamics'' refers to the time development of the system defined on the fixed-dimensional space of the internal states of the context layer. Thus, in the execution phase, by constantly representing where in the interaction context it is as its current state, the network autonomously switches between recognition and generation phases without any explicit signs and utilizes the acquired mapping in appropriate contexts. To evaluate our method, we conducted an experiment in which a robot generates appropriate behavior responding to a human's linguistic instruction. After learning, the network actually formed the attractor structure representing both language--behavior relationships and the task's temporal pattern in its internal dynamics. In the dynamics, language--behavior mapping was achieved by the branching structure. Repetition of human's instruction and robot's behavioral response was represented as the cyclic structure, and besides, waiting to a subsequent instruction was represented as the fixed-point attractor. Thanks to this structure, the robot was able to interact online with a human concerning the given task by autonomously switching phases.

  8. Dynamical Integration of Language and Behavior in a Recurrent Neural Network for Human-Robot Interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Tatsuro; Murata, Shingo; Arie, Hiroaki; Ogata, Tetsuya

    2016-01-01

    To work cooperatively with humans by using language, robots must not only acquire a mapping between language and their behavior but also autonomously utilize the mapping in appropriate contexts of interactive tasks online. To this end, we propose a novel learning method linking language to robot behavior by means of a recurrent neural network. In this method, the network learns from correct examples of the imposed task that are given not as explicitly separated sets of language and behavior but as sequential data constructed from the actual temporal flow of the task. By doing this, the internal dynamics of the network models both language-behavior relationships and the temporal patterns of interaction. Here, "internal dynamics" refers to the time development of the system defined on the fixed-dimensional space of the internal states of the context layer. Thus, in the execution phase, by constantly representing where in the interaction context it is as its current state, the network autonomously switches between recognition and generation phases without any explicit signs and utilizes the acquired mapping in appropriate contexts. To evaluate our method, we conducted an experiment in which a robot generates appropriate behavior responding to a human's linguistic instruction. After learning, the network actually formed the attractor structure representing both language-behavior relationships and the task's temporal pattern in its internal dynamics. In the dynamics, language-behavior mapping was achieved by the branching structure. Repetition of human's instruction and robot's behavioral response was represented as the cyclic structure, and besides, waiting to a subsequent instruction was represented as the fixed-point attractor. Thanks to this structure, the robot was able to interact online with a human concerning the given task by autonomously switching phases.

  9. Engineering the evolution of self-organizing behaviors in swarm robotics: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trianni, Vito; Nolfi, Stefano

    2011-01-01

    Evolutionary robotics (ER) is a powerful approach for the automatic synthesis of robot controllers, as it requires little a priori knowledge about the problem to be solved in order to obtain good solutions. This is particularly true for collective and swarm robotics, in which the desired behavior of the group is an indirect result of the control and communication rules followed by each individual. However, the experimenter must make several arbitrary choices in setting up the evolutionary process, in order to define the correct selective pressures that can lead to the desired results. In some cases, only a deep understanding of the obtained results can point to the critical aspects that constrain the system, which can be later modified in order to re-engineer the evolutionary process towards better solutions. In this article, we discuss the problem of engineering the evolutionary machinery that can lead to the desired result in the swarm robotics context. We also present a case study about self-organizing synchronization in a swarm of robots, in which some arbitrarily chosen properties of the communication system hinder the scalability of the behavior to large groups. We show that by modifying the communication system, artificial evolution can synthesize behaviors that scale properly with the group size.

  10. Rhythm Patterns Interaction - Synchronization Behavior for Human-Robot Joint Action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mörtl, Alexander; Lorenz, Tamara; Hirche, Sandra

    2014-01-01

    Interactive behavior among humans is governed by the dynamics of movement synchronization in a variety of repetitive tasks. This requires the interaction partners to perform for example rhythmic limb swinging or even goal-directed arm movements. Inspired by that essential feature of human interaction, we present a novel concept and design methodology to synthesize goal-directed synchronization behavior for robotic agents in repetitive joint action tasks. The agents’ tasks are described by closed movement trajectories and interpreted as limit cycles, for which instantaneous phase variables are derived based on oscillator theory. Events segmenting the trajectories into multiple primitives are introduced as anchoring points for enhanced synchronization modes. Utilizing both continuous phases and discrete events in a unifying view, we design a continuous dynamical process synchronizing the derived modes. Inverse to the derivation of phases, we also address the generation of goal-directed movements from the behavioral dynamics. The developed concept is implemented to an anthropomorphic robot. For evaluation of the concept an experiment is designed and conducted in which the robot performs a prototypical pick-and-place task jointly with human partners. The effectiveness of the designed behavior is successfully evidenced by objective measures of phase and event synchronization. Feedback gathered from the participants of our exploratory study suggests a subjectively pleasant sense of interaction created by the interactive behavior. The results highlight potential applications of the synchronization concept both in motor coordination among robotic agents and in enhanced social interaction between humanoid agents and humans. PMID:24752212

  11. Adaptive locomotor training on an end-effector gait robot: evaluation of the ground reaction forces in different training conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomelleri, Christopher; Waldner, Andreas; Werner, Cordula; Hesse, Stefan

    2011-01-01

    The main goal of robotic gait rehabilitation is the restoration of independent gait. To achieve this goal different and specific patterns have to be practiced intensively in order to stimulate the learning process of the central nervous system. The gait robot G-EO Systems was designed to allow the repetitive practice of floor walking, stair climbing and stair descending. A novel control strategy allows training in adaptive mode. The force interactions between the foot and the ground were analyzed on 8 healthy volunteers in three different conditions: real floor walking on a treadmill, floor walking on the gait robot in passive mode, floor walking on the gait robot in adaptive mode. The ground reaction forces were measured by a Computer Dyno Graphy (CDG) analysis system. The results show different intensities of the ground reaction force across all of the three conditions. The intensities of force interactions during the adaptive training mode are comparable to the real walking on the treadmill. Slight deviations still occur in regard to the timing pattern of the forces. The adaptive control strategy comes closer to the physiological swing phase than the passive mode and seems to be a promising option for the treatment of gait disorders. Clinical trials will validate the efficacy of this new option in locomotor therapy on the patients. © 2011 IEEE

  12. Distributed multi-robot sensing and tracking: a behavior-based approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parker, L.E.

    1995-01-01

    An important issue that arises in the automation of many large-scale surveillance and reconnaissance tasks is that of tracking the movements of (or maintaining passive contact with) objects navigating in a bounded area of interest. Oftentimes in these problems, the area to be monitored will move over time or will not permit fixed sensors, thus requiring a team of mobile sensors -- or robots -- to monitor the area collectively. In these situations, the robots must not only have mechanisms for determining how to track objects and how to fuse information from neighboring robots, but they must also have distributed control strategies for ensuring that the entire area of interest is continually covered to the greatest extent possible. This paper focuses on the distributed control issue by describing a proposed decentralized control mechanism that allows a team of robots to collectively track and monitor objects in an uncluttered area of interest. The approach is based upon an extension to the ALLIANCE behavior-based architecture that generalizes from the domain of loosely-coupled, independent applications to the domain of strongly cooperative applications, in which the action selection of a robot is dependent upon the actions selected by its teammates. We conclude the paper by describing our ongoing implementation of the proposed approach on a team of four mobile robots

  13. Distributed multi-robot sensing and tracking: a behavior-based approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parker, L.E.

    1995-12-31

    An important issue that arises in the automation of many large-scale surveillance and reconnaissance tasks is that of tracking the movements of (or maintaining passive contact with) objects navigating in a bounded area of interest. Oftentimes in these problems, the area to be monitored will move over time or will not permit fixed sensors, thus requiring a team of mobile sensors -- or robots -- to monitor the area collectively. In these situations, the robots must not only have mechanisms for determining how to track objects and how to fuse information from neighboring robots, but they must also have distributed control strategies for ensuring that the entire area of interest is continually covered to the greatest extent possible. This paper focuses on the distributed control issue by describing a proposed decentralized control mechanism that allows a team of robots to collectively track and monitor objects in an uncluttered area of interest. The approach is based upon an extension to the ALLIANCE behavior-based architecture that generalizes from the domain of loosely-coupled, independent applications to the domain of strongly cooperative applications, in which the action selection of a robot is dependent upon the actions selected by its teammates. We conclude the paper by describing our ongoing implementation of the proposed approach on a team of four mobile robots.

  14. Model reference adaptive control of flexible robots in the presence of sudden load changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinvorth, Rodrigo; Kaufman, Howard; Neat, Gregory

    1991-01-01

    Direct command generator tracker based model reference adaptive control (MRAC) algorithms are applied to the dynamics for a flexible-joint arm in the presence of sudden load changes. Because of the need to satisfy a positive real condition, such MRAC procedures are designed so that a feedforward augmented output follows the reference model output, thus, resulting in an ultimately bounded rather than zero output error. Thus, modifications are suggested and tested that: (1) incorporate feedforward into the reference model's output as well as the plant's output, and (2) incorporate a derivative term into only the process feedforward loop. The results of these simulations give a response with zero steady state model following error, and thus encourage further use of MRAC for more complex flexibile robotic systems.

  15. Mergeable nervous systems for robots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathews, Nithin; Christensen, Anders Lyhne; O'Grady, Rehan; Mondada, Francesco; Dorigo, Marco

    2017-09-12

    Robots have the potential to display a higher degree of lifetime morphological adaptation than natural organisms. By adopting a modular approach, robots with different capabilities, shapes, and sizes could, in theory, construct and reconfigure themselves as required. However, current modular robots have only been able to display a limited range of hardwired behaviors because they rely solely on distributed control. Here, we present robots whose bodies and control systems can merge to form entirely new robots that retain full sensorimotor control. Our control paradigm enables robots to exhibit properties that go beyond those of any existing machine or of any biological organism: the robots we present can merge to form larger bodies with a single centralized controller, split into separate bodies with independent controllers, and self-heal by removing or replacing malfunctioning body parts. This work takes us closer to robots that can autonomously change their size, form and function.Robots that can self-assemble into different morphologies are desired to perform tasks that require different physical capabilities. Mathews et al. design robots whose bodies and control systems can merge and split to form new robots that retain full sensorimotor control and act as a single entity.

  16. An adaptive unscented Kalman filter-based adaptive tracking control for wheeled mobile robots with control constrains in the presence of wheel slipping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingyue Cui

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available A novel control approach is proposed for trajectory tracking of a wheeled mobile robot with unknown wheels’ slipping. The longitudinal and lateral slipping are considered and processed as three time-varying parameters. The adaptive unscented Kalman filter is then designed to estimate the slipping parameters online, an adaptive adjustment of the noise covariances in the estimation process is implemented using a technique of covariance matching in the adaptive unscented Kalman filter context. Considering the practical physical constrains, a stable tracking control law for this robot system is proposed by the backstepping method. Asymptotic stability is guaranteed by Lyapunov stability theory. Control gains are determined online by applying pole placement method. Simulation and real experiment results show the effectiveness and robustness of the proposed control method.

  17. Specifying and testing the design rationale of social robots for behavior change in children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Looije, R.; Neerincx, M.A.; Hindriks, K.V.

    2016-01-01

    We are developing a social robot that helps children with diabetes Type 1 to acquire self-management skills and routines. There is a diversity of Behavior Change Techniques (BCTs) and guidelines that seem to be useful for the development of such support, but it is not yet clear how to work out the

  18. Robotic Oncological Surgery: Technology That's Here to Stay?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HRH Patel

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available A robot functioning in an environment may exhibit various forms of behavior emerge from the interaction with its environment through sense, control and plan activities. Hence, this paper introduces a behaviour selection based navigation and obstacle avoidance algorithm with effective method for adapting robotic behavior according to the environment conditions and the navigated terrain. The developed algorithm enable the robot to select the suitable behavior in real-time to avoid obstacles based on sensory information through visual and ultrasonic sensors utilizing the robot's ability to step over obstacles, and move between surfaces of different heights. In addition, it allows the robot to react in appropriate manner to the changing conditions either by fine-tuning of behaviors or by selecting different set of behaviors to increase the efficiency of the robot over time. The presented approach has been demonstrated on quadruped robot in several different experimental environments and the paper provides an analysis of its performance.

  19. Plants : Adaptive behavior, root-brains, and minimal cognition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Calvo Garzon, Paco; Keijzer, Fred

    Plant intelligence has gone largely unnoticed within the field of animal and human adaptive behavior. In this context, we will introduce current work on plant intelligence as a new set of relevant phenomena that deserves attention and also discuss its potential relevance for the study of adaptive

  20. A multitasking behavioral control system for the Robotic All-Terrain Lunar Exploration Rover (RATLER)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klarer, Paul

    1993-01-01

    An approach for a robotic control system which implements so called 'behavioral' control within a realtime multitasking architecture is proposed. The proposed system would attempt to ameliorate some of the problems noted by some researchers when implementing subsumptive or behavioral control systems, particularly with regard to multiple processor systems and realtime operations. The architecture is designed to allow synchronous operations between various behavior modules by taking advantage of a realtime multitasking system's intertask communications channels, and by implementing each behavior module and each interconnection node as a stand-alone task. The potential advantages of this approach over those previously described in the field are discussed. An implementation of the architecture is planned for a prototype Robotic All Terrain Lunar Exploration Rover (RATLER) currently under development and is briefly described.

  1. Contrasting Web Robot and Human Behaviors with Network Models

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, Kyle; Doran, Derek

    2018-01-01

    The web graph is a commonly-used network representation of the hyperlink structure of a website. A network of similar structure to the web graph, which we call the session graph has properties that reflect the browsing habits of the agents in the web server logs. In this paper, we apply session graphs to compare the activity of humans against web robots or crawlers. Understanding these properties will enable us to improve models of HTTP traffic, which can be used to predict and generate reali...

  2. Temporal Memory Reinforcement Learning for the Autonomous Micro-mobile Robot Based-behavior

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Yujun(杨玉君); Cheng Junshi; Chen Jiapin; Li Xiaohai

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents temporal memory reinforcement learning for the autonomous micro-mobile robot based-behavior. Human being has a memory oblivion process, i.e. the earlier to memorize, the earlier to forget, only the repeated thing can be remembered firmly. Enlightening forms this, and the robot need not memorize all the past states, at the same time economizes the EMS memory space, which is not enough in the MPU of our AMRobot. The proposed algorithm is an extension of the Q-learning, which is an incremental reinforcement learning method. The results of simulation have shown that the algorithm is valid.

  3. Adapting Behavioral Interventions for Social Media Delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waring, Molly E; May, Christine N; Ding, Eric Y; Kunz, Werner H; Hayes, Rashelle; Oleski, Jessica L

    2016-01-01

    Patients are increasingly using online social networks (ie, social media) to connect with other patients and health care professionals—a trend called peer-to-peer health care. Because online social networks provide a means for health care professionals to communicate with patients, and for patients to communicate with each other, an opportunity exists to use social media as a modality to deliver behavioral interventions. Social media-delivered behavioral interventions have the potential to reduce the expense of behavioral interventions by eliminating visits, as well as increase our access to patients by becoming embedded in their social media feeds. Trials of online social network-delivered behavioral interventions have shown promise, but much is unknown about intervention development and methodology. In this paper, we discuss the process by which investigators can translate behavioral interventions for social media delivery. We present a model that describes the steps and decision points in this process, including the necessary training and reporting requirements. We also discuss issues pertinent to social media-delivered interventions, including cost, scalability, and privacy. Finally, we identify areas of research that are needed to optimize this emerging behavioral intervention modality. PMID:26825969

  4. Adapting Behavioral Interventions for Social Media Delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagoto, Sherry; Waring, Molly E; May, Christine N; Ding, Eric Y; Kunz, Werner H; Hayes, Rashelle; Oleski, Jessica L

    2016-01-29

    Patients are increasingly using online social networks (ie, social media) to connect with other patients and health care professionals--a trend called peer-to-peer health care. Because online social networks provide a means for health care professionals to communicate with patients, and for patients to communicate with each other, an opportunity exists to use social media as a modality to deliver behavioral interventions. Social media-delivered behavioral interventions have the potential to reduce the expense of behavioral interventions by eliminating visits, as well as increase our access to patients by becoming embedded in their social media feeds. Trials of online social network-delivered behavioral interventions have shown promise, but much is unknown about intervention development and methodology. In this paper, we discuss the process by which investigators can translate behavioral interventions for social media delivery. We present a model that describes the steps and decision points in this process, including the necessary training and reporting requirements. We also discuss issues pertinent to social media-delivered interventions, including cost, scalability, and privacy. Finally, we identify areas of research that are needed to optimize this emerging behavioral intervention modality.

  5. Executive Function and Adaptive Behavior in Muenke Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarnell, Colin M P; Addissie, Yonit A; Hadley, Donald W; Guillen Sacoto, Maria J; Agochukwu, Nneamaka B; Hart, Rachel A; Wiggs, Edythe A; Platte, Petra; Paelecke, Yvonne; Collmann, Hartmut; Schweitzer, Tilmann; Kruszka, Paul; Muenke, Maximilian

    2015-08-01

    To investigate executive function and adaptive behavior in individuals with Muenke syndrome using validated instruments with a normative population and unaffected siblings as controls. Participants in this cross-sectional study included individuals with Muenke syndrome (P250R mutation in FGFR3) and their mutation-negative siblings. Participants completed validated assessments of executive functioning (Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function [BRIEF]) and adaptive behavior skills (Adaptive Behavior Assessment System, Second Edition [ABAS-II]). Forty-four with a positive FGFR3 mutation, median age 9 years, range 7 months to 52 years were enrolled. In addition, 10 unaffected siblings served as controls (5 males, 5 females; median age, 13 years; range, 3-18 years). For the General Executive Composite scale of the BRIEF, 32.1% of the cohort had scores greater than +1.5 SD, signifying potential clinical significance. For the General Adaptive Composite of the ABAS-II, 28.2% of affected individuals scored in the 3rd-8th percentile of the normative population, and 56.4% were below the average category (General Executive Composite and the ABAS-II General Adaptive Composite. Individuals with Muenke syndrome are at an increased risk for developing adaptive and executive function behavioral changes compared with a normative population and unaffected siblings. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  6. Effectiveness of social behaviors for autonomous wheelchair robot to support elderly people in Japan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masahiro Shiomi

    Full Text Available We developed a wheelchair robot to support the movement of elderly people and specifically implemented two functions to enhance their intention to use it: speaking behavior to convey place/location related information and speed adjustment based on individual preferences. Our study examines how the evaluations of our wheelchair robot differ when compared with human caregivers and a conventional autonomous wheelchair without the two proposed functions in a moving support context. 28 senior citizens participated in the experiment to evaluate three different conditions. Our measurements consisted of questionnaire items and the coding of free-style interview results. Our experimental results revealed that elderly people evaluated our wheelchair robot higher than the wheelchair without the two functions and the human caregivers for some items.

  7. Development of a Dung Beetle Robot and Investigation of Its Dung-Rolling Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jen-Wei Wang

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a bio-inspired dung beetle robot was developed that emulated the dung rolling motion of the dung beetle. Dung beetles, which can roll objects up to 1000 times their own body weight, are one of the strongest insect species in the world. While the locomotion of many insects, such as cockroaches, inchworms, and butterflies, has been studied widely, the locomotion of dung beetles has rarely been given attention. Here, we report on the development of a dung beetle robot made specifically to investigate dung-rolling behavior and to determine and understand the underlying mechanism. Two versions of the robot were built, and the leg trajectories were carefully designed based on kinematic analysis. Cylinder and ball rolling experiments were conducted, and the results showed that the dung beetle robot could successfully and reliably roll objects. This further suggests that the dung beetle robot, with its current morphology, is capable of reliably rolling dung without the need for complex control strategies.

  8. Development of Tremor Suppression Control System Using Adaptive Filter and Its Application to Meal-assist Robot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yano, Ken'ichi; Ohara, Eiichi; Horihata, Satoshi; Aoki, Takaaki; Nishimoto, Yutaka

    A robot that supports independent living by assisting with eating and other activities which use the operator's own hand would be helpful for people suffering from tremors of the hand or any other body part. The proposed system using adaptive filter estimates tremor frequencies with a time-varying property and individual differences online. In this study, the estimated frequency is used to adjusting the tremor suppression filter which insulates the voluntary motion signal from the sensor signal containing tremor components. These system are integrated into the control system of the Meal-Assist Robot. As a result, the developed system makes it possible for the person with a tremor to manipulate the supporting robot without causing operability to deteriorate and without hazards due to improper operation.

  9. Adaptive neural control for dual-arm coordination of humanoid robot with unknown nonlinearities in output mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhi; Chen, Ci; Zhang, Yun; Chen, C L P

    2015-03-01

    To achieve an excellent dual-arm coordination of the humanoid robot, it is essential to deal with the nonlinearities existing in the system dynamics. The literatures so far on the humanoid robot control have a common assumption that the problem of output hysteresis could be ignored. However, in the practical applications, the output hysteresis is widely spread; and its existing limits the motion/force performances of the robotic system. In this paper, an adaptive neural control scheme, which takes the unknown output hysteresis and computational efficiency into account, is presented and investigated. In the controller design, the prior knowledge of system dynamics is assumed to be unknown. The motion error is guaranteed to converge to a small neighborhood of the origin by Lyapunov's stability theory. Simultaneously, the internal force is kept bounded and its error can be made arbitrarily small.

  10. Self-Adaptive Correction of Heading Direction in Stair Climbing for Tracked Mobile Robots Using Visual Servoing Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Peng; Song, Aiguo; Song, Zimo; Liu, Yuqing; Jiang, Guohua; Zhao, Guopu

    2017-02-01

    In this paper, we describe a heading direction correction algorithm for a tracked mobile robot. To save hardware resources as far as possible, the mobile robot’s wrist camera is used as the only sensor, which is rotated to face stairs. An ensemble heading deviation detector is proposed to help the mobile robot correct its heading direction. To improve the generalization ability, a multi-scale Gabor filter is used to process the input image previously. Final deviation result is acquired by applying the majority vote strategy on all the classifiers’ results. The experimental results show that our detector is able to enable the mobile robot to correct its heading direction adaptively while it is climbing the stairs.

  11. Beyond R2D2 - The design of nonverbal interaction behavior optimized for robot-specific morphologies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karreman, Daphne Eleonora

    2016-01-01

    It is likely that in the near future we will meet more and more robots that will perform tasks in social environments, such as shopping malls, airports or museums. However, design guidelines that inform the design of effective nonverbal behavior for robots are scarce. This is surprising since the

  12. You Look Human, But Act Like a Machine: Agent Appearance and Behavior Modulate Different Aspects of Human–Robot Interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulaziz Abubshait

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Gaze following occurs automatically in social interactions, but the degree to which gaze is followed depends on whether an agent is perceived to have a mind, making its behavior socially more relevant for the interaction. Mind perception also modulates the attitudes we have toward others, and determines the degree of empathy, prosociality, and morality invested in social interactions. Seeing mind in others is not exclusive to human agents, but mind can also be ascribed to non-human agents like robots, as long as their appearance and/or behavior allows them to be perceived as intentional beings. Previous studies have shown that human appearance and reliable behavior induce mind perception to robot agents, and positively affect attitudes and performance in human–robot interaction. What has not been investigated so far is whether different triggers of mind perception have an independent or interactive effect on attitudes and performance in human–robot interaction. We examine this question by manipulating agent appearance (human vs. robot and behavior (reliable vs. random within the same paradigm and examine how congruent (human/reliable vs. robot/random versus incongruent (human/random vs. robot/reliable combinations of these triggers affect performance (i.e., gaze following and attitudes (i.e., agent ratings in human–robot interaction. The results show that both appearance and behavior affect human–robot interaction but that the two triggers seem to operate in isolation, with appearance more strongly impacting attitudes, and behavior more strongly affecting performance. The implications of these findings for human–robot interaction are discussed.

  13. You Look Human, But Act Like a Machine: Agent Appearance and Behavior Modulate Different Aspects of Human-Robot Interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abubshait, Abdulaziz; Wiese, Eva

    2017-01-01

    Gaze following occurs automatically in social interactions, but the degree to which gaze is followed depends on whether an agent is perceived to have a mind, making its behavior socially more relevant for the interaction. Mind perception also modulates the attitudes we have toward others, and determines the degree of empathy, prosociality, and morality invested in social interactions. Seeing mind in others is not exclusive to human agents, but mind can also be ascribed to non-human agents like robots, as long as their appearance and/or behavior allows them to be perceived as intentional beings. Previous studies have shown that human appearance and reliable behavior induce mind perception to robot agents, and positively affect attitudes and performance in human-robot interaction. What has not been investigated so far is whether different triggers of mind perception have an independent or interactive effect on attitudes and performance in human-robot interaction. We examine this question by manipulating agent appearance (human vs. robot) and behavior (reliable vs. random) within the same paradigm and examine how congruent (human/reliable vs. robot/random) versus incongruent (human/random vs. robot/reliable) combinations of these triggers affect performance (i.e., gaze following) and attitudes (i.e., agent ratings) in human-robot interaction. The results show that both appearance and behavior affect human-robot interaction but that the two triggers seem to operate in isolation, with appearance more strongly impacting attitudes, and behavior more strongly affecting performance. The implications of these findings for human-robot interaction are discussed.

  14. Generic robot architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruemmer, David J [Idaho Falls, ID; Few, Douglas A [Idaho Falls, ID

    2010-09-21

    The present invention provides methods, computer readable media, and apparatuses for a generic robot architecture providing a framework that is easily portable to a variety of robot platforms and is configured to provide hardware abstractions, abstractions for generic robot attributes, environment abstractions, and robot behaviors. The generic robot architecture includes a hardware abstraction level and a robot abstraction level. The hardware abstraction level is configured for developing hardware abstractions that define, monitor, and control hardware modules available on a robot platform. The robot abstraction level is configured for defining robot attributes and provides a software framework for building robot behaviors from the robot attributes. Each of the robot attributes includes hardware information from at least one hardware abstraction. In addition, each robot attribute is configured to substantially isolate the robot behaviors from the at least one hardware abstraction.

  15. Head Orientation Behavior of Users and Durations in Playful Open-Ended Interactions with an Android Robot

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vlachos, Evgenios; Jochum, Elizabeth Ann; Schärfe, Henrik

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a field-experiment focused on the head orientation behavior of users in short-term dyadic interactions with an android (male) robot in a playful context, as well as on the duration of the interactions. The robotic trials took place in an art exhibition where...... subjects. The findings suggest that androids have the ability to maintain the focus of attention during short-term in-teractions within a playful context. This study provides an insight on how users communicate with an android robot, and on how to design meaningful human robot social interaction for real...

  16. Anomalous human behavior detection: An Adaptive approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leeuwen, C. van; Halma, A.; Schutte, K.

    2013-01-01

    Detection of anomalies (outliers or abnormal instances) is an important element in a range of applications such as fault, fraud, suspicious behavior detection and knowledge discovery. In this article we propose a new method for anomaly detection and performed tested its ability to detect anomalous

  17. Toward understanding social cues and signals in human?robot interaction: effects of robot gaze and proxemic behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Fiore, Stephen M.; Wiltshire, Travis J.; Lobato, Emilio J. C.; Jentsch, Florian G.; Huang, Wesley H.; Axelrod, Benjamin

    2013-01-01

    As robots are increasingly deployed in settings requiring social interaction, research is needed to examine the social signals perceived by humans when robots display certain social cues. In this paper, we report a study designed to examine how humans interpret social cues exhibited by robots. We first provide a brief overview of perspectives from social cognition in humans and how these processes are applicable to human–robot interaction (HRI). We then discuss the need to examine the relatio...

  18. Efficient Active Sensing with Categorized Further Explorations for a Home Behavior-Monitoring Robot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenwei Yu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Mobile robotics is a potential solution to home behavior monitoring for the elderly. For a mobile robot in the real world, there are several types of uncertainties for its perceptions, such as the ambiguity between a target object and the surrounding objects and occlusions by furniture. The problem could be more serious for a home behavior-monitoring system, which aims to accurately recognize the activity of a target person, in spite of these uncertainties. It detects irregularities and categorizes situations requiring further explorations, which strategically maximize the information needed for activity recognition while minimizing the costs. Two schemes of active sensing, based on two irregularity detections, namely, heuristic-based and template-matching-based irregularity detections, were implemented and examined for body contour-based activity recognition. Their time cost and accuracy in activity recognition were evaluated through experiments in both a controlled scenario and a home living scenario. Experiment results showed that the categorized further explorations guided the robot system to sense the target person actively. As a result, with the proposed approach, the robot system has achieved higher accuracy of activity recognition.

  19. STDP-based behavior learning on the TriBot robot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arena, P.; De Fiore, S.; Patané, L.; Pollino, M.; Ventura, C.

    2009-05-01

    This paper describes a correlation-based navigation algorithm, based on an unsupervised learning paradigm for spiking neural networks, called Spike Timing Dependent Plasticity (STDP). This algorithm was implemented on a new bio-inspired hybrid mini-robot called TriBot to learn and increase its behavioral capabilities. In fact correlation based algorithms have been found to explain many basic behaviors in simple animals. The main interesting consequence of STDP is that the system is able to learn high-level sensor features, based on a set of basic reflexes, depending on some low-level sensor inputs. TriBot is composed of 3 modules, the first two being identical and inspired by the Whegs hybrid robot. The peculiar characteristics of the robot consists in the innovative shape of the three-spoke appendages that allow to increase stability of the structure. The last module is composed of two standard legs with 3 degrees of freedom each. Thanks to the cooperation among these modules, TriBot is able to face with irregular terrains overcoming potential deadlock situations, to climb high obstacles compared to its size and to manipulate objects. Robot experiments will be reported to demonstrate the potentiality and the effectiveness of the approach.

  20. Collective Behaviors of Mobile Robots Beyond the Nearest Neighbor Rules With Switching Topology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ning, Boda; Han, Qing-Long; Zuo, Zongyu; Jin, Jiong; Zheng, Jinchuan

    2018-05-01

    This paper is concerned with the collective behaviors of robots beyond the nearest neighbor rules, i.e., dispersion and flocking, when robots interact with others by applying an acute angle test (AAT)-based interaction rule. Different from a conventional nearest neighbor rule or its variations, the AAT-based interaction rule allows interactions with some far-neighbors and excludes unnecessary nearest neighbors. The resulting dispersion and flocking hold the advantages of scalability, connectivity, robustness, and effective area coverage. For the dispersion, a spring-like controller is proposed to achieve collision-free coordination. With switching topology, a new fixed-time consensus-based energy function is developed to guarantee the system stability. An upper bound of settling time for energy consensus is obtained, and a uniform time interval is accordingly set so that energy distribution is conducted in a fair manner. For the flocking, based on a class of generalized potential functions taking nonsmooth switching into account, a new controller is proposed to ensure that the same velocity for all robots is eventually reached. A co-optimizing problem is further investigated to accomplish additional tasks, such as enhancing communication performance, while maintaining the collective behaviors of mobile robots. Simulation results are presented to show the effectiveness of the theoretical results.

  1. Longitudinal Profiles of Adaptive Behavior in Fragile X Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintin, Eve-Marie; Jo, Booil; Lightbody, Amy A.; Hazlett, Heather Cody; Piven, Joseph; Hall, Scott S.; Reiss, Allan L.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine longitudinally the adaptive behavior patterns in fragile X syndrome. METHOD: Caregivers of 275 children and adolescents with fragile X syndrome and 225 typically developing children and adolescents (2–18 years) were interviewed with the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales every 2 to 4 years as part of a prospective longitudinal study. RESULTS: Standard scores of adaptive behavior in people with fragile X syndrome are marked by a significant decline over time in all domains for males and in communication for females. Socialization skills are a relative strength as compared with the other domains for males with fragile X syndrome. Females with fragile X syndrome did not show a discernible pattern of developmental strengths and weaknesses. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first large-scale longitudinal study to show that the acquisition of adaptive behavior slows as individuals with fragile X syndrome age. It is imperative to ensure that assessments of adaptive behavior skills are part of intervention programs focusing on childhood and adolescence in this condition. PMID:25070318

  2. Bureaucratization and Adaptive Behavior in the Higher Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vyacheslav V. Volchik

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper is devoted to researching the economic behavior of individuals in the higher education in the term of increasing bureaucratization. Reasons of bureaucracy and inefficiencies generated by it are considered on the example of the higher education sector. Constant changes in the bureaucratic system requirements need to be adapted in the behavior of actors. The authors highlight approaches to adaptation within the framework of the Austrian school of economics. Austrian approaches to adapt and the adaptive rationality concept in institutional economics are compared. The role of rationality in the process of adaptation is shown in the research. The empirical basis of the study is represented by the transcripts of 50 in-depth interviews conducted in 2015 with students, lecturers and heads of higher education institutions of the Rostov region. The main objective of the interview is the allocation of institutional change in higher education. Bureaucratization was named by respondents as one of the most important changes. The paper systematizes the respondents' answers on the impact of bureaucracy and carries out typology of adapting ways to the formal innovations. Imitating practices as a form of adaptation to the growth of the formal requirements are considered clearly. The authors display the negative impact of this adaptation form to the quality of educational activities and organizational culture.

  3. Symmetric Kullback-Leibler Metric Based Tracking Behaviors for Bioinspired Robotic Eyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hengli; Luo, Jun; Wu, Peng; Xie, Shaorong; Li, Hengyu

    2015-01-01

    A symmetric Kullback-Leibler metric based tracking system, capable of tracking moving targets, is presented for a bionic spherical parallel mechanism to minimize a tracking error function to simulate smooth pursuit of human eyes. More specifically, we propose a real-time moving target tracking algorithm which utilizes spatial histograms taking into account symmetric Kullback-Leibler metric. In the proposed algorithm, the key spatial histograms are extracted and taken into particle filtering framework. Once the target is identified, an image-based control scheme is implemented to drive bionic spherical parallel mechanism such that the identified target is to be tracked at the center of the captured images. Meanwhile, the robot motion information is fed forward to develop an adaptive smooth tracking controller inspired by the Vestibuloocular Reflex mechanism. The proposed tracking system is designed to make the robot track dynamic objects when the robot travels through transmittable terrains, especially bumpy environment. To perform bumpy-resist capability under the condition of violent attitude variation when the robot works in the bumpy environment mentioned, experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness and robustness of our bioinspired tracking system using bionic spherical parallel mechanism inspired by head-eye coordination.

  4. Symmetric Kullback-Leibler Metric Based Tracking Behaviors for Bioinspired Robotic Eyes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hengli Liu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A symmetric Kullback-Leibler metric based tracking system, capable of tracking moving targets, is presented for a bionic spherical parallel mechanism to minimize a tracking error function to simulate smooth pursuit of human eyes. More specifically, we propose a real-time moving target tracking algorithm which utilizes spatial histograms taking into account symmetric Kullback-Leibler metric. In the proposed algorithm, the key spatial histograms are extracted and taken into particle filtering framework. Once the target is identified, an image-based control scheme is implemented to drive bionic spherical parallel mechanism such that the identified target is to be tracked at the center of the captured images. Meanwhile, the robot motion information is fed forward to develop an adaptive smooth tracking controller inspired by the Vestibuloocular Reflex mechanism. The proposed tracking system is designed to make the robot track dynamic objects when the robot travels through transmittable terrains, especially bumpy environment. To perform bumpy-resist capability under the condition of violent attitude variation when the robot works in the bumpy environment mentioned, experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness and robustness of our bioinspired tracking system using bionic spherical parallel mechanism inspired by head-eye coordination.

  5. Dynamic modelling and adaptive robust tracking control of a space robot with two-link flexible manipulators under unknown disturbances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xinxin; Ge, Shuzhi Sam; He, Wei

    2018-04-01

    In this paper, both the closed-form dynamics and adaptive robust tracking control of a space robot with two-link flexible manipulators under unknown disturbances are developed. The dynamic model of the system is described with assumed modes approach and Lagrangian method. The flexible manipulators are represented as Euler-Bernoulli beams. Based on singular perturbation technique, the displacements/joint angles and flexible modes are modelled as slow and fast variables, respectively. A sliding mode control is designed for trajectories tracking of the slow subsystem under unknown but bounded disturbances, and an adaptive sliding mode control is derived for slow subsystem under unknown slowly time-varying disturbances. An optimal linear quadratic regulator method is proposed for the fast subsystem to damp out the vibrations of the flexible manipulators. Theoretical analysis validates the stability of the proposed composite controller. Numerical simulation results demonstrate the performance of the closed-loop flexible space robot system.

  6. Adding memory processing behaviors to the fuzzy behaviorist-based navigation of mobile robots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pin, F.G.; Bender, S.R.

    1996-05-01

    Most fuzzy logic-based reasoning schemes developed for robot control are fully reactive, i.e., the reasoning modules consist of fuzzy rule bases that represent direct mappings from the stimuli provided by the perception systems to the responses implemented by the motion controllers. Due to their totally reactive nature, such reasoning systems can encounter problems such as infinite loops and limit cycles. In this paper, we proposed an approach to remedy these problems by adding a memory and memory-related behaviors to basic reactive systems. Three major types of memory behaviors are addressed: memory creation, memory management, and memory utilization. These are first presented, and examples of their implementation for the recognition of limit cycles during the navigation of an autonomous robot in a priori unknown environments are then discussed.

  7. Behavioral training promotes multiple adaptive processes following acute hearing loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keating, Peter; Rosenior-Patten, Onayomi; Dahmen, Johannes C; Bell, Olivia; King, Andrew J

    2016-03-23

    The brain possesses a remarkable capacity to compensate for changes in inputs resulting from a range of sensory impairments. Developmental studies of sound localization have shown that adaptation to asymmetric hearing loss can be achieved either by reinterpreting altered spatial cues or by relying more on those cues that remain intact. Adaptation to monaural deprivation in adulthood is also possible, but appears to lack such flexibility. Here we show, however, that appropriate behavioral training enables monaurally-deprived adult humans to exploit both of these adaptive processes. Moreover, cortical recordings in ferrets reared with asymmetric hearing loss suggest that these forms of plasticity have distinct neural substrates. An ability to adapt to asymmetric hearing loss using multiple adaptive processes is therefore shared by different species and may persist throughout the lifespan. This highlights the fundamental flexibility of neural systems, and may also point toward novel therapeutic strategies for treating sensory disorders.

  8. Cognitive and sociocultural aspects of robotized technology: innovative processes of adaptation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kvesko, S. B.; Kvesko, B. B.; Kornienko, M. A.; Nikitina, Y. A.; Pankova, N. M.

    2018-05-01

    The paper dwells upon interaction between socio-cultural phenomena and cognitive characteristics of robotized technology. The interdisciplinary approach was employed in order to cast light on the manifold and multilevel identity of scientific advance in terms of robotized technology within the mental realm. Analyzing robotized technology from the viewpoint of its significance for the modern society is one of the upcoming trends in the contemporary scientific realm. The robots under production are capable of interacting with people; this results in a growing necessity for the studies on social status of robotized technological items. Socio-cultural aspect of cognitive robotized technology is reflected in the fact that the nature becomes ‘aware’ of itself via human brain, a human being tends to strives for perfection in their intellectual and moral dimensions.

  9. Reduced short term adaptation to robot generated dynamic environment in children affected by Cerebral Palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masia, Lorenzo; Frascarelli, Flaminia; Morasso, Pietro; Di Rosa, Giuseppe; Petrarca, Maurizio; Castelli, Enrico; Cappa, Paolo

    2011-05-21

    It is known that healthy adults can quickly adapt to a novel dynamic environment, generated by a robotic manipulandum as a structured disturbing force field. We suggest that it may be of clinical interest to evaluate to which extent this kind of motor learning capability is impaired in children affected by cerebal palsy. We adapted the protocol already used with adults, which employs a velocity dependant viscous field, and compared the performance of a group of subjects affected by Cerebral Palsy (CP group, 7 subjects) with a Control group of unimpaired age-matched children. The protocol included a familiarization phase (FA), during which no force was applied, a force field adaptation phase (CF), and a wash-out phase (WO) in which the field was removed. During the CF phase the field was shut down in a number of randomly selected "catch" trials, which were used in order to evaluate the "learning index" for each single subject and the two groups. Lateral deviation, speed and acceleration peaks and average speed were evaluated for each trajectory; a directional analysis was performed in order to inspect the role of the limb's inertial anisotropy in the different experimental phases. During the FA phase the movements of the CP subjects were more curved, displaying greater and variable directional error; over the course of the CF phase both groups showed a decreasing trend in the lateral error and an after-effect at the beginning of the wash-out, but the CP group had a non significant adaptation rate and a lower learning index, suggesting that CP subjects have reduced ability to learn to compensate external force. Moreover, a directional analysis of trajectories confirms that the control group is able to better predict the force field by tuning the kinematic features of the movements along different directions in order to account for the inertial anisotropy of arm. Spatial abnormalities in children affected by cerebral palsy may be related not only to disturbance in

  10. Reduced short term adaptation to robot generated dynamic environment in children affected by Cerebral Palsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Di Rosa Giuseppe

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is known that healthy adults can quickly adapt to a novel dynamic environment, generated by a robotic manipulandum as a structured disturbing force field. We suggest that it may be of clinical interest to evaluate to which extent this kind of motor learning capability is impaired in children affected by cerebal palsy. Methods We adapted the protocol already used with adults, which employs a velocity dependant viscous field, and compared the performance of a group of subjects affected by Cerebral Palsy (CP group, 7 subjects with a Control group of unimpaired age-matched children. The protocol included a familiarization phase (FA, during which no force was applied, a force field adaptation phase (CF, and a wash-out phase (WO in which the field was removed. During the CF phase the field was shut down in a number of randomly selected "catch" trials, which were used in order to evaluate the "learning index" for each single subject and the two groups. Lateral deviation, speed and acceleration peaks and average speed were evaluated for each trajectory; a directional analysis was performed in order to inspect the role of the limb's inertial anisotropy in the different experimental phases. Results During the FA phase the movements of the CP subjects were more curved, displaying greater and variable directional error; over the course of the CF phase both groups showed a decreasing trend in the lateral error and an after-effect at the beginning of the wash-out, but the CP group had a non significant adaptation rate and a lower learning index, suggesting that CP subjects have reduced ability to learn to compensate external force. Moreover, a directional analysis of trajectories confirms that the control group is able to better predict the force field by tuning the kinematic features of the movements along different directions in order to account for the inertial anisotropy of arm. Conclusions Spatial abnormalities in children affected

  11. Adaptive control of penetration and joint following for robotic GTA welding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bahram Mir Sadeghi; Hishamuddin Jamaludin; Iskandar Baharin

    1997-01-01

    A statistical-based method for adaptive control of weld pool penetration and joint following in Tungsten Inert Gas Welding as an approach to process and trajectory control of robotic GTA welding has been designed and simulated. Welding process parameters such as: base current and time, pulse current and time, electrode tip to work piece distance, filler travelling speed, torch speed and work piece thickness were used for finding the equations which describe the interrelationship between the aforementioned variables and penetration depth as well as bead width. The calculation of these equations was developed from the statistical regression analysis of 80 welds deposited using various combinations of welding parameters. For monitoring of the work piece thickness variations, an ultrasonic device was used. In order to control the weld trajectory, a CCD camera was also used. The results showed that the misalignment of the progressive heat affected zone which is adjacent to the weld puddle can be detected, and used for control of the weld trajectory. Also, it was found that scanning of a certain region of the captured image in front of the weld puddle decreases the data processing time drastically

  12. Behavioral and neural Darwinism: selectionist function and mechanism in adaptive behavior dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDowell, J J

    2010-05-01

    An evolutionary theory of behavior dynamics and a theory of neuronal group selection share a common selectionist framework. The theory of behavior dynamics instantiates abstractly the idea that behavior is selected by its consequences. It implements Darwinian principles of selection, reproduction, and mutation to generate adaptive behavior in virtual organisms. The behavior generated by the theory has been shown to be quantitatively indistinguishable from that of live organisms. The theory of neuronal group selection suggests a mechanism whereby the abstract principles of the evolutionary theory may be implemented in the nervous systems of biological organisms. According to this theory, groups of neurons subserving behavior may be selected by synaptic modifications that occur when the consequences of behavior activate value systems in the brain. Together, these theories constitute a framework for a comprehensive account of adaptive behavior that extends from brain function to the behavior of whole organisms in quantitative detail. Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Behavior coordination of mobile robotics using supervisory control of fuzzy discrete event systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayasiri, Awantha; Mann, George K I; Gosine, Raymond G

    2011-10-01

    In order to incorporate the uncertainty and impreciseness present in real-world event-driven asynchronous systems, fuzzy discrete event systems (DESs) (FDESs) have been proposed as an extension to crisp DESs. In this paper, first, we propose an extension to the supervisory control theory of FDES by redefining fuzzy controllable and uncontrollable events. The proposed supervisor is capable of enabling feasible uncontrollable and controllable events with different possibilities. Then, the extended supervisory control framework of FDES is employed to model and control several navigational tasks of a mobile robot using the behavior-based approach. The robot has limited sensory capabilities, and the navigations have been performed in several unmodeled environments. The reactive and deliberative behaviors of the mobile robotic system are weighted through fuzzy uncontrollable and controllable events, respectively. By employing the proposed supervisory controller, a command-fusion-type behavior coordination is achieved. The observability of fuzzy events is incorporated to represent the sensory imprecision. As a systematic analysis of the system, a fuzzy-state-based controllability measure is introduced. The approach is implemented in both simulation and real time. A performance evaluation is performed to quantitatively estimate the validity of the proposed approach over its counterparts.

  14. Static aeroelastic behavior of an adaptive laminated piezoelectric composite wing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisshaar, T. A.; Ehlers, S. M.

    1990-01-01

    The effect of using an adaptive material to modify the static aeroelastic behavior of a uniform wing is examined. The wing structure is idealized as a laminated sandwich structure with piezoelectric layers in the upper and lower skins. A feedback system that senses the wing root loads applies a constant electric field to the piezoelectric actuator. Modification of pure torsional deformaton behavior and pure bending deformation are investigated, as is the case of an anisotropic composite swept wing. The use of piezoelectric actuators to create an adaptive structure is found to alter static aeroelastic behavior in that the proper choice of the feedback gain can increase or decrease the aeroelastic divergence speed. This concept also may be used to actively change the lift effectiveness of a wing. The ability to modify static aeroelastic behavior is limited by physical limitations of the piezoelectric material and the manner in which it is integrated into the parent structure.

  15. Timing sensory integration for robot simulation of autistic behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barakova, E.I.; Chonnaparamutt, W.

    2009-01-01

    The experiments in this paper show that the impact of temporal aspects of sensory integration on the precision of movement is concordant with behavioral studies of sensory integrative dysfunction and autism. Specifically, the simulation predicts that distant grasping will be performed properly by

  16. Experience with the behavior-basedRobot development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marian, Nicolae; Bilberg, Arne

    with children, assists elderly or approaches people in air-ports for helping them on their way, must watch human movements, interpret what their intentions are and act accordingly. The paper gives an introduction of various BBR and their relation with sensors, presents a technique for representing behaviors...

  17. An effective algorithm for approximating adaptive behavior in seasonal environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sainmont, Julie; Andersen, Ken Haste; Thygesen, Uffe Høgsbro

    2015-01-01

    Behavior affects most aspects of ecological processes and rates, and yet modeling frameworks which efficiently predict and incorporate behavioral responses into ecosystem models remain elusive. Behavioral algorithms based on life-time optimization, adaptive dynamics or game theory are unsuited...... for large global models because of their high computational demand. We compare an easily integrated, computationally efficient behavioral algorithm known as Gilliam's rule against the solution from a life-history optimization. The approximation takes into account only the current conditions to optimize...... behavior; the so-called "myopic approximation", "short sighted", or "static optimization". We explore the performance of the myopic approximation with diel vertical migration (DVM) as an example of a daily routine, a behavior with seasonal dependence that trades off predation risk with foraging...

  18. Short-term locomotor adaptation to a robotic ankle exoskeleton does not alter soleus Hoffmann reflex amplitude.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kao, Pei-Chun; Lewis, Cara L; Ferris, Daniel P

    2010-07-26

    To improve design of robotic lower limb exoskeletons for gait rehabilitation, it is critical to identify neural mechanisms that govern locomotor adaptation to robotic assistance. Previously, we demonstrated soleus muscle recruitment decreased by approximately 35% when walking with a pneumatically-powered ankle exoskeleton providing plantar flexor torque under soleus proportional myoelectric control. Since a substantial portion of soleus activation during walking results from the stretch reflex, increased reflex inhibition is one potential mechanism for reducing soleus recruitment when walking with exoskeleton assistance. This is clinically relevant because many neurologically impaired populations have hyperactive stretch reflexes and training to reduce the reflexes could lead to substantial improvements in their motor ability. The purpose of this study was to quantify soleus Hoffmann (H-) reflex responses during powered versus unpowered walking. We tested soleus H-reflex responses in neurologically intact subjects (n=8) that had trained walking with the soleus controlled robotic ankle exoskeleton. Soleus H-reflex was tested at the mid and late stance while subjects walked with the exoskeleton on the treadmill at 1.25 m/s, first without power (first unpowered), then with power (powered), and finally without power again (second unpowered). We also collected joint kinematics and electromyography. When the robotic plantar flexor torque was provided, subjects walked with lower soleus electromyographic (EMG) activation (27-48%) and had concomitant reductions in H-reflex amplitude (12-24%) compared to the first unpowered condition. The H-reflex amplitude in proportion to the background soleus EMG during powered walking was not significantly different from the two unpowered conditions. These findings suggest that the nervous system does not inhibit the soleus H-reflex in response to short-term adaption to exoskeleton assistance. Future studies should determine if the

  19. A Formation Behavior for Large-Scale Micro-Robot Deployment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dudenhoeffer, Donald Dean; Jones, Michael Paul

    2000-12-01

    Micro-robots will soon be available for deployment by the thousands. Consequently, controlling and coordinating a force this large to accomplish a prescribed task is of great interest. This paper describes a flexible architecture for modeling thousands of autonomous agents simultaneously. The agents’ behavior is based on a subsumption architecture in which individual behaviors are prioritized with respect to all others. The primary behavior explored in this work is a group formation behavior based on social potential fields (Reif and Wang 1999). This paper extends the social potential field model by introducing a neutral zone within which other behaviors may exhibit themselves. Previous work with social potential fields has been restricted to models of “perfect” autonomous agents. The paper evaluates the effect of social potential fields in the presence of agent death (failure) and imperfect sensory input.

  20. Sensory Processing Subtypes in Autism: Association with Adaptive Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, Alison E.; Young, Robyn L.; Baker, Amy E. Z.; Angley, Manya T.

    2010-01-01

    Children with autism are frequently observed to experience difficulties in sensory processing. This study examined specific patterns of sensory processing in 54 children with autistic disorder and their association with adaptive behavior. Model-based cluster analysis revealed three distinct sensory processing subtypes in autism. These subtypes…

  1. Adaptive Behavior in Young Children with Neurofibromatosis Type 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bonita P. Klein-Tasman

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Neurofibromatosis-1 is the most common single gene disorder affecting 1 in 3000. In children, it is associated not only with physical features but also with attention and learning problems. Research has identified a downward shift in intellectual functioning as well, but to date, there are no published studies about the everyday adaptive behavior of children with NF1. In this study, parental reports of adaptive behavior of 61 children with NF1 ages 3 through 8 were compared to an unaffected contrast group (n=55 that comprised siblings and community members. Significant group differences in adaptive skills were evident and were largely related to group differences in intellectual functioning. In a subsample of children with average-range intellectual functioning, group differences in parent-reported motor skills were apparent even after controlling statistically for group differences in intellectual functioning. The implications of the findings for the care of children with NF1 are discussed.

  2. Characteristic Symptoms and Adaptive Behaviors of Children with Autism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rauf, N. K.; Haq, A.; Aslam, N.; Anjum, U.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To determine the characteristic symptoms and adaptive behaviors of children with autism, as well as the distribution of autism severity groups across gender. Study Design: Cross-sectional observational study. Place and Duration of Study: Special Education Schools of Rawalpindi and Islamabad, from September 2011 to January 2012. Methodology: Thirty nine children of either gender, aged 3 - 16 years and enrolled in special education schools, fulfilled the DSM-IV-TR criteria of autism. Among those, were identified as meeting the criteria of autism. The childhood autism rating scale-2 (CARS-2) was used to study the characteristics and severity of symptoms of autism. Later, adaptive behavior scale (school edition: 2) ABS-S: 2, was administered on children (n=21) to formulate the level of adaptive functioning. Results: There were 15 boys and 8 girls with mean age of 10.6 +- 2.97 years. They showed marked impairment in verbal communication (mean=3.17 +- 0.90) followed by relating to people (mean=2.75 +- 0.83) and general impression (mean=2.73 +- 0.7). Most of the children showed average to below average adaptive behaviors on number and time (n=19, 90.5%), independent functioning (n=17, 81.0%), self direction (n=17, 81.0%), physical development (n=13, 61.9%), responsibility (n=12, 57.1%) and socialization (n=13, 61.9%) as well as poor to very poor adaptive behaviors on prevocational skill (n=15, 71.4%), language development (n=13, 61.9%) and economic development (n=13, 61.9%). The frequency of boys with autism was more towards moderate to severely impaired spectrum, without gender differences in any symptom associated with autism. Conclusion: Comprehension of the presentation of characteristic symptoms of children with autism will be helpful in devising the indigenous intervention plans that are congruent with the level of adaptive functioning. (author)

  3. The Tactile Ethics of Soft Robotics: Designing Wisely for Human-Robot Interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Thomas; Scheutz, Matthias

    2017-06-01

    Soft robots promise an exciting design trajectory in the field of robotics and human-robot interaction (HRI), promising more adaptive, resilient movement within environments as well as a safer, more sensitive interface for the objects or agents the robot encounters. In particular, tactile HRI is a critical dimension for designers to consider, especially given the onrush of assistive and companion robots into our society. In this article, we propose to surface an important set of ethical challenges for the field of soft robotics to meet. Tactile HRI strongly suggests that soft-bodied robots balance tactile engagement against emotional manipulation, model intimacy on the bonding with a tool not with a person, and deflect users from personally and socially destructive behavior the soft bodies and surfaces could normally entice.

  4. A low-cost, computer-controlled robotic flower system for behavioral experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuusela, Erno; Lämsä, Juho

    2016-04-01

    Human observations during behavioral studies are expensive, time-consuming, and error prone. For this reason, automatization of experiments is highly desirable, as it reduces the risk of human errors and workload. The robotic system we developed is simple and cheap to build and handles feeding and data collection automatically. The system was built using mostly off-the-shelf components and has a novel feeding mechanism that uses servos to perform refill operations. We used the robotic system in two separate behavioral studies with bumblebees (Bombus terrestris): The system was used both for training of the bees and for the experimental data collection. The robotic system was reliable, with no flight in our studies failing due to a technical malfunction. The data recorded were easy to apply for further analysis. The software and the hardware design are open source. The development of cheap open-source prototyping platforms during the recent years has opened up many possibilities in designing of experiments. Automatization not only reduces workload, but also potentially allows experimental designs never done before, such as dynamic experiments, where the system responds to, for example, learning of the animal. We present a complete system with hardware and software, and it can be used as such in various experiments requiring feeders and collection of visitation data. Use of the system is not limited to any particular experimental setup or even species.

  5. Spanish adaptation of the Participatory Behaviors Scale (PBS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Magallares

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to adapt the Participatory Behaviors Scale (PBS and validate the results for use among the Spanish population. Using snowball sampling methodology, 501 individuals from all areas of Spain were selected to participate in the study. The Participatory Behaviors Scale (PBS and questionnaires that measure a sense of community, belief in a just world and Machiavellianism were used to analyze the criterion validity of the adapted scale. A confirmatory factor analysis indicated that the items on the questionnaire fit a second-order model with four factors, which corresponded to the four dimensions proposed by the original authors, namely, disengagement, civil participation, formal political participation and activism. Additionally, it has been found that the scale is related to a sense of community, belief in a just world and Machiavellianism. In light of these results, we concluded that the questionnaire is methodologically valid and can be used by the scientific community to measure participatory behavior.

  6. Value-driven behavior generation for an autonomous mobile ground robot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balakirsky, Stephen B.; Lacaze, Alberto

    2002-07-01

    In this paper, we will describe a value-driven graph search technique that is capable of generating a rich variety of single and multiple vehicle behaviors. The generation of behaviors depends on cost and benefit computations that may involve terrain characteristics, line of sight to enemy positions, and cost, benefit, and risk of traveling on roads. Depending on mission priorities and cost values, real-time planners can autonomously build appropriate behaviors on the fly that include road following, cross-country movement, stealthily movement, formation keeping, and bounding overwatch. This system follows NIST's 4D/RCS architecture, and a discussion of the world model, value judgment, and behavior generation components is provided. In addition, techniques for collapsing a multidimensional model space into a cost space and planning graph constraints are discussed. The work described in this paper has been performed under the Army Research Laboratory's Robotics Demo III program.

  7. Dispersal, behavioral responses and thermal adaptation in Musca domestica

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjaersgaard, Anders; Blackenhorn, Wolf U.; Pertoldi, Cino

    were obtained with flies held for several generations in a laboratory common garden setting, therefore we suggest that exposure to and avoidance of high temperatures under natural conditions has been an important selective agent causing the suggested adaptive differentiation between the populations.......Behavioral traits can have great impact on an organism’s ability to cope with or avoidance of thermal stress, and are therefore of evolutionary importance for thermal adaptation. We compared the morphology, heat resistance, locomotor (walking and flying) activity and flight performance of three...

  8. Intuitive adaptive orientation control of assistive robots for people living with upper limb disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vu, Dinh-Son; Allard, Ulysse Cote; Gosselin, Clement; Routhier, Francois; Gosselin, Benoit; Campeau-Lecours, Alexandre

    2017-07-01

    Robotic assistive devices enhance the autonomy of individuals living with physical disabilities in their day-to-day life. Although the first priority for such devices is safety, they must also be intuitive and efficient from an engineering point of view in order to be adopted by a broad range of users. This is especially true for assistive robotic arms, as they are used for the complex control tasks of daily living. One challenge in the control of such assistive robots is the management of the end-effector orientation which is not always intuitive for the human operator, especially for neophytes. This paper presents a novel orientation control algorithm designed for robotic arms in the context of human-robot interaction. This work aims at making the control of the robot's orientation easier and more intuitive for the user, in particular, individuals living with upper limb disabilities. The performance and intuitiveness of the proposed orientation control algorithm is assessed through two experiments with 25 able-bodied subjects and shown to significantly improve on both aspects.

  9. Control of autonomous robot using neural networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, Adam; Volna, Eva

    2017-07-01

    The aim of the article is to design a method of control of an autonomous robot using artificial neural networks. The introductory part describes control issues from the perspective of autonomous robot navigation and the current mobile robots controlled by neural networks. The core of the article is the design of the controlling neural network, and generation and filtration of the training set using ART1 (Adaptive Resonance Theory). The outcome of the practical part is an assembled Lego Mindstorms EV3 robot solving the problem of avoiding obstacles in space. To verify models of an autonomous robot behavior, a set of experiments was created as well as evaluation criteria. The speed of each motor was adjusted by the controlling neural network with respect to the situation in which the robot was found.

  10. Robot Futures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Anja; Grindsted Nielsen, Sally; Jochum, Elizabeth Ann

    Robots are increasingly used in health care settings, e.g., as homecare assistants and personal companions. One challenge for personal robots in the home is acceptance. We describe an innovative approach to influencing the acceptance of care robots using theatrical performance. Live performance...... is a useful testbed for developing and evaluating what makes robots expressive; it is also a useful platform for designing robot behaviors and dialogue that result in believable characters. Therefore theatre is a valuable testbed for studying human-robot interaction (HRI). We investigate how audiences...... perceive social robots interacting with humans in a future care scenario through a scripted performance. We discuss our methods and initial findings, and outline future work....

  11. Contextual analysis of human non-verbal guide behaviors to inform the development of FROG, the Fun Robotic Outdoor Guide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karreman, Daphne Eleonora; van Dijk, Elisabeth M.A.G.; Evers, Vanessa

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports the first step in a series of studies to design the interaction behaviors of an outdoor robotic guide. We describe and report the use case development carried out to identify effective human tour guide behaviors. In this paper we focus on non-verbal communication cues in gaze,

  12. Creating adaptive web recommendation system based on user behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walek, Bogdan

    2018-01-01

    The paper proposes adaptive web recommendation system based on user behavior. The proposed system uses expert system to evaluating and recommending suitable items of content. Relevant items are subsequently evaluated and filtered based on history of visited items and user´s preferred categories of items. Main parts of the proposed system are presented and described. The proposed recommendation system is verified on specific example.

  13. Robot vision

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hall, E.L.

    1984-01-01

    Almost all industrial robots use internal sensors such as shaft encoders which measure rotary position, or tachometers which measure velocity, to control their motions. Most controllers also provide interface capabilities so that signals from conveyors, machine tools, and the robot itself may be used to accomplish a task. However, advanced external sensors, such as visual sensors, can provide a much greater degree of adaptability for robot control as well as add automatic inspection capabilities to the industrial robot. Visual and other sensors are now being used in fundamental operations such as material processing with immediate inspection, material handling with adaption, arc welding, and complex assembly tasks. A new industry of robot vision has emerged. The application of these systems is an area of great potential

  14. Adaptive behavior of neighboring neurons during adaptation-induced plasticity of orientation tuning in V1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shumikhina Svetlana

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sensory neurons display transient changes of their response properties following prolonged exposure to an appropriate stimulus (adaptation. In adult cat primary visual cortex, orientation-selective neurons shift their preferred orientation after being adapted to a non-preferred orientation. The direction of those shifts, towards (attractive or away (repulsive from the adapter depends mostly on adaptation duration. How the adaptive behavior of a neuron is related to that of its neighbors remains unclear. Results Here we show that in most cases (75%, cells shift their preferred orientation in the same direction as their neighbors. We also found that cells shifting preferred orientation differently from their neighbors (25% display three interesting properties: (i larger variance of absolute shift amplitude, (ii wider tuning bandwidth and (iii larger range of preferred orientations among the cluster of cells. Several response properties of V1 neurons depend on their location within the cortical orientation map. Our results suggest that recording sites with both attractive and repulsive shifts following adaptation may be located in close proximity to iso-orientation domain boundaries or pinwheel centers. Indeed, those regions have a more diverse orientation distribution of local inputs that could account for the three properties above. On the other hand, sites with all cells shifting their preferred orientation in the same direction could be located within iso-orientation domains. Conclusions Our results suggest that the direction and amplitude of orientation preference shifts in V1 depend on location within the orientation map. This anisotropy of adaptation-induced plasticity, comparable to that of the visual cortex itself, could have important implications for our understanding of visual adaptation at the psychophysical level.

  15. Reusable Electronics and Adaptable Communication as Implemented in the Odin Modular Robot

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garcia, Ricardo Franco Mendoza; Lyder, Andreas; Christensen, David Johan

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes the electronics and communication system of Odin, a novel heterogeneous modular robot made of links and joints. The electronics is divided into two printed circuit boards: a General board with reusable components and a Specific board with non-reusable components. While...... electrical signals. The implementations of actuator and power links show that splitting the electronics into General and Specific boards allows rapid development of different types of modules, and an analysis of performance indicates that the communication system is simple, fast and flexible....... As the electronic design reuses approx. 50% of components between two different types of modules, we find it convenient for heterogeneous modular robots where production costs demand a small set of parts. In addition, as the features of the communication system are desirable in modular robots, we think...

  16. Adaptive Strategy for Online Gait Learning Evaluated on the Polymorphic Robotic LocoKit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, David Johan; Larsen, Jørgen Christian; Stoy, Kasper

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents experiments with a morphologyindependent, life-long strategy for online learning of locomotion gaits, performed on a quadruped robot constructed from the LocoKit modular robot. The learning strategy applies a stochastic optimization algorithm to optimize eight open parameters...... of a central pattern generator based gait implementation. We observe that the strategy converges in roughly ten minutes to gaits of similar or higher velocity than a manually designed gait and that the strategy readapts in the event of failed actuators. In future work we plan to study co-learning...

  17. Learning-based adaptive prescribed performance control of postcapture space robot-target combination without inertia identifications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Caisheng; Luo, Jianjun; Dai, Honghua; Bian, Zilin; Yuan, Jianping

    2018-05-01

    In this paper, a novel learning-based adaptive attitude takeover control method is investigated for the postcapture space robot-target combination with guaranteed prescribed performance in the presence of unknown inertial properties and external disturbance. First, a new static prescribed performance controller is developed to guarantee that all the involved attitude tracking errors are uniformly ultimately bounded by quantitatively characterizing the transient and steady-state performance of the combination. Then, a learning-based supplementary adaptive strategy based on adaptive dynamic programming is introduced to improve the tracking performance of static controller in terms of robustness and adaptiveness only utilizing the input/output data of the combination. Compared with the existing works, the prominent advantage is that the unknown inertial properties are not required to identify in the development of learning-based adaptive control law, which dramatically decreases the complexity and difficulty of the relevant controller design. Moreover, the transient and steady-state performance is guaranteed a priori by designer-specialized performance functions without resorting to repeated regulations of the controller parameters. Finally, the three groups of illustrative examples are employed to verify the effectiveness of the proposed control method.

  18. Adaptive Hierarchical Control for the Muscle Strength Training of Stroke Survivors in Robot-Aided Upper-Limb Rehabilitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guozheng Xu

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Muscle strength training for stroke patients is of vital importance for helping survivors to progressively restore muscle strength and improve the performance of their activities in daily living (ADL. An adaptive hierarchical therapy control framework which integrates the patient's real biomechanical state estimation with task-performance quantitative evaluation is proposed. Firstly, a high-level progressive resistive supervisory controller is designed to determine the resistive force base for each training session based on the patient's online task-performance evaluation. Then, a low-level adaptive resistive force triggered controller is presented to further regulate the interactive resistive force corresponding to the patient's real-time biomechanical state – characterized by the patient's bio-damping and bio-stiffness in the course of one training session, so that the patient is challenged in a moderate but engaging and motivating way. Finally, a therapeutic robot system using a Barrett WAM™ compliant manipulator is set up. We recruited eighteen inpatient and outpatient stroke participants who were randomly allocated in experimental (robot-aided and control (conventional physical therapy groups and enrolled for sixteen weeks of progressive resistance training. The preliminary results show that the proposed therapy control strategies can enhance the recovery of strength and motor control ability.

  19. An adaptive PID like controller using mix locally recurrent neural network for robotic manipulator with variable payload.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Richa; Kumar, Vikas; Gaur, Prerna; Mittal, A P

    2016-05-01

    Being complex, non-linear and coupled system, the robotic manipulator cannot be effectively controlled using classical proportional-integral-derivative (PID) controller. To enhance the effectiveness of the conventional PID controller for the nonlinear and uncertain systems, gains of the PID controller should be conservatively tuned and should adapt to the process parameter variations. In this work, a mix locally recurrent neural network (MLRNN) architecture is investigated to mimic a conventional PID controller which consists of at most three hidden nodes which act as proportional, integral and derivative node. The gains of the mix locally recurrent neural network based PID (MLRNNPID) controller scheme are initialized with a newly developed cuckoo search algorithm (CSA) based optimization method rather than assuming randomly. A sequential learning based least square algorithm is then investigated for the on-line adaptation of the gains of MLRNNPID controller. The performance of the proposed controller scheme is tested against the plant parameters uncertainties and external disturbances for both links of the two link robotic manipulator with variable payload (TL-RMWVP). The stability of the proposed controller is analyzed using Lyapunov stability criteria. A performance comparison is carried out among MLRNNPID controller, CSA optimized NNPID (OPTNNPID) controller and CSA optimized conventional PID (OPTPID) controller in order to establish the effectiveness of the MLRNNPID controller. Copyright © 2016 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Information-Fusion Methods Based Simultaneous Localization and Mapping for Robot Adapting to Search and Rescue Postdisaster Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongling Wang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The first application of utilizing unique information-fusion SLAM (IF-SLAM methods is developed for mobile robots performing simultaneous localization and mapping (SLAM adapting to search and rescue (SAR environments in this paper. Several fusion approaches, parallel measurements filtering, exploration trajectories fusing, and combination sensors’ measurements and mobile robots’ trajectories, are proposed. The novel integration particle filter (IPF and optimal improved EKF (IEKF algorithms are derived for information-fusion systems to perform SLAM task in SAR scenarios. The information-fusion architecture consists of multirobots and multisensors (MAM; multiple robots mount on-board laser range finder (LRF sensors, localization sonars, gyro odometry, Kinect-sensor, RGB-D camera, and other proprioceptive sensors. This information-fusion SLAM (IF-SLAM is compared with conventional methods, which indicates that fusion trajectory is more consistent with estimated trajectories and real observation trajectories. The simulations and experiments of SLAM process are conducted in both cluttered indoor environment and outdoor collapsed unstructured scenario, and experimental results validate the effectiveness of the proposed information-fusion methods in improving SLAM performances adapting to SAR scenarios.

  1. A multitasking behavioral control system for the Robotic All Terrain Lunar Exploration Rover (RATLER)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klarer, P.

    1994-01-01

    An alternative methodology for designing an autonomous navigation and control system is discussed. This generalized hybrid system is based on a less sequential and less anthropomorphic approach than that used in the more traditional artificial intelligence (AI) technique. The architecture is designed to allow both synchronous and asynchronous operations between various behavior modules. This is accomplished by intertask communications channels which implement each behavior module and each interconnection node as a stand-alone task. The proposed design architecture allows for construction of hybrid systems which employ both subsumption and traditional AI techniques as well as providing for a teleoperator's interface. Implementation of the architecture is planned for the prototype Robotic All Terrain Lunar Explorer Rover (RATLER) which is described briefly.

  2. Effects of Robot Facial Characteristics and Gender in Persuasive Human-Robot Interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aimi S. Ghazali

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available The growing interest in social robotics makes it relevant to examine the potential of robots as persuasive agents and, more specifically, to examine how robot characteristics influence the way people experience such interactions and comply with the persuasive attempts by robots. The purpose of this research is to identify how the (ostensible gender and the facial characteristics of a robot influence the extent to which people trust it and the psychological reactance they experience from its persuasive attempts. This paper reports a laboratory study where SociBot™, a robot capable of displaying different faces and dynamic social cues, delivered persuasive messages to participants while playing a game. In-game choice behavior was logged, and trust and reactance toward the advisor were measured using questionnaires. Results show that a robotic advisor with upturned eyebrows and lips (features that people tend to trust more in humans is more persuasive, evokes more trust, and less psychological reactance compared to one displaying eyebrows pointing down and lips curled downwards at the edges (facial characteristics typically not trusted in humans. Gender of the robot did not affect trust, but participants experienced higher psychological reactance when interacting with a robot of the opposite gender. Remarkably, mediation analysis showed that liking of the robot fully mediates the influence of facial characteristics on trusting beliefs and psychological reactance. Also, psychological reactance was a strong and reliable predictor of trusting beliefs but not of trusting behavior. These results suggest robots that are intended to influence human behavior should be designed to have facial characteristics we trust in humans and could be personalized to have the same gender as the user. Furthermore, personalization and adaptation techniques designed to make people like the robot more may help ensure they will also trust the robot.

  3. Individualised and adaptive upper limb rehabilitation with industrial robot using dynamic movement primitives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jacob; Sørensen, Anders Stengaard; Christensen, Thomas Søndergaard

    Stroke is a leading cause of serious long-term disability. Post-stroke rehabilitation is a demanding task for the patient and a costly challenge for both society and healthcare systems. We present a novel approach for training of upper extremities after a stroke by utilising an industrial robotic...

  4. A distributed and morphology-independent strategy for adaptive locomotion in self-reconfigurable modular robots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, David Johan; Schultz, Ulrik Pagh; Stoy, Kasper

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we present a distributed reinforcement learning strategy for morphology-independent lifelong gait learning for modular robots. All modules run identical controllers that locally and independently optimize their action selection based on the robot’s velocity as a global, shared reward...

  5. Human adaptive behavior in common pool resource systems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunnar Brandt

    Full Text Available Overexploitation of common-pool resources, resulting from uncooperative harvest behavior, is a major problem in many social-ecological systems. Feedbacks between user behavior and resource productivity induce non-linear dynamics in the harvest and the resource stock that complicate the understanding and the prediction of the co-evolutionary system. With an adaptive model constrained by data from a behavioral economic experiment, we show that users' expectations of future pay-offs vary as a result of the previous harvest experience, the time-horizon, and the ability to communicate. In our model, harvest behavior is a trait that adjusts to continuously changing potential returns according to a trade-off between the users' current harvest and the discounted future productivity of the resource. Given a maximum discount factor, which quantifies the users' perception of future pay-offs, the temporal dynamics of harvest behavior and ecological resource can be predicted. Our results reveal a non-linear relation between the previous harvest and current discount rates, which is most sensitive around a reference harvest level. While higher than expected returns resulting from cooperative harvesting in the past increase the importance of future resource productivity and foster sustainability, harvests below the reference level lead to a downward spiral of increasing overexploitation and disappointing returns.

  6. Adaptive vocal behavior drives perception by echolocation in bats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moss, Cynthia F; Chiu, Chen; Surlykke, Annemarie

    2011-01-01

    Echolocation operates through adaptive sensorimotor systems that collectively enable the bat to localize and track sonar objects as it flies. The features of sonar signals used by a bat to probe its surroundings determine the information available to its acoustic imaging system. In turn, the bat......'s perception of a complex scene guides its active adjustments in the features of subsequent sonar vocalizations. Here, we propose that the bat's active vocal-motor behaviors play directly into its representation of a dynamic auditory scene....

  7. Adapting Cognitive-Behavior Therapy for Insomnia in Cancer Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric S. Zhou

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Insomnia disorder is common in patients undergoing cancer treatment. There is compelling evidence demonstrating that cognitive-behavioral therapy for insomnia (CBT-I should be the initial treatment, but there has been insufficient research has been conducted among cancer patients. This population presents with unique physical and psychosocial health issues that may interfere with standard CBT-I and addressing these issues can play a role in improving treatment adherence and efficacy. We explore potential adaptations that can be made to standard CBT-I for cancer patients. Further research for this growing population is essential.

  8. Driver's behavioral adaptation to adaptive cruise control (ACC): the case of speed and time headway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchi Piccinini, Giulio Francesco; Rodrigues, Carlos Manuel; Leitão, Miguel; Simões, Anabela

    2014-06-01

    The Adaptive Cruise Control is an Advanced Driver Assistance System (ADAS) that allows maintaining given headway and speed, according to settings pre-defined by the users. Despite the potential benefits associated to the utilization of ACC, previous studies warned against negative behavioral adaptations that might occur while driving with the system activated. Unfortunately, up to now, there are no unanimous results about the effects induced by the usage of ACC on speed and time headway to the vehicle in front. Also, few studies were performed including actual users of ACC among the subjects. This research aimed to investigate the effect of the experience gained with ACC on speed and time headway for a group of users of the system. In addition, it explored the impact of ACC usage on speed and time headway for ACC users and regular drivers. A matched sample driving simulator study was planned as a two-way (2×2) repeated measures mixed design, with the experience with ACC as between-subjects factor and the driving condition (with ACC and manually) as within-subjects factor. The results show that the usage of ACC brought a small but not significant reduction of speed and, especially, the maintenance of safer time headways, being the latter result greater for ACC users, probably as a consequence of their experience in using the system. The usage of ACC did not cause any negative behavioral adaptations to the system regarding speed and time headway. Based on this research work, the Adaptive Cruise Control showed the potential to improve road safety for what concerns the speed and the time headway maintained by the drivers. The speed of the surrounding traffic and the minimum time headway settable through the ACC seem to have an important effect on the road safety improvement achievable with the system. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. The Pupillary Orienting Response Predicts Adaptive Behavioral Adjustment after Errors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter R Murphy

    Full Text Available Reaction time (RT is commonly observed to slow down after an error. This post-error slowing (PES has been thought to arise from the strategic adoption of a more cautious response mode following deployment of cognitive control. Recently, an alternative account has suggested that PES results from interference due to an error-evoked orienting response. We investigated whether error-related orienting may in fact be a pre-cursor to adaptive post-error behavioral adjustment when the orienting response resolves before subsequent trial onset. We measured pupil dilation, a prototypical measure of autonomic orienting, during performance of a choice RT task with long inter-stimulus intervals, and found that the trial-by-trial magnitude of the error-evoked pupil response positively predicted both PES magnitude and the likelihood that the following response would be correct. These combined findings suggest that the magnitude of the error-related orienting response predicts an adaptive change of response strategy following errors, and thereby promote a reconciliation of the orienting and adaptive control accounts of PES.

  10. Testing biological hypotheses with embodied robots: adaptations, accidents, and by-products in the evolution of vertebrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia F Roberts

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Evolutionary robotics allows biologists to test hypotheses about extinct animals. We modeled some of the first vertebrates, jawless fishes, in order to study the evolution of the trait after which vertebrates are named: vertebrae. We tested the hypothesis that vertebrae are an adaptation for enhanced feeding and fleeing performance. We created a population of autonomous embodied robots, Preyro, in which the number of vertebrae, N, were free to evolve. In addition, two other traits, the span of the caudal fin, b, and the predator detection threshold, ζ, a proxy for the lateral line sensory system, were also allowed to evolve. These three traits were chosen because they evolved early in vertebrates, are all potentially important in feeding and fleeing, and vary in form among species. Preyro took on individual identities in a given generation as defined by the population’s six diploid genotypes, Gi. Each Gi was a 3-tuple, with each element an integer specifying N, b, and, ζ. The small size of the population allowed for genetic drift to operate in concert with random mutation and mating; the presence of these mechanisms of chance provided an opportunity for N to evolve by accident. The presence of three evolvable traits provided an opportunity for direct selection on b and/or ζ to evolve N as a by-product linked trait correlation. In selection trials, different Gi embodied in Preyro attempted to feed at a light source and then flee to avoid a predator robot in pursuit. The fitness of each Gi was calculated from five different types of performance: speed, acceleration, distance to the light, distance to the predator, and the number of predator escapes initiated. In each generation, we measured the selection differential, the selection gradient, the strength of chance, and the indirect correlation selection gradient. These metrics allowed us to understand the relative contributions of the three mechanisms: direct selection, chance, and indirect

  11. An adaptive scheme for robot localization and mapping with dynamically configurable inter-beacon range measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-González, Arturo; Martinez-de Dios, Jose Ramiro; Ollero, Anibal

    2014-04-25

    This work is motivated by robot-sensor network cooperation techniques where sensor nodes (beacons) are used as landmarks for range-only (RO) simultaneous localization and mapping (SLAM). This paper presents a RO-SLAM scheme that actuates over the measurement gathering process using mechanisms that dynamically modify the rate and variety of measurements that are integrated in the SLAM filter. It includes a measurement gathering module that can be configured to collect direct robot-beacon and inter-beacon measurements with different inter-beacon depth levels and at different rates. It also includes a supervision module that monitors the SLAM performance and dynamically selects the measurement gathering configuration balancing SLAM accuracy and resource consumption. The proposed scheme has been applied to an extended Kalman filter SLAM with auxiliary particle filters for beacon initialization (PF-EKF SLAM) and validated with experiments performed in the CONET Integrated Testbed. It achieved lower map and robot errors (34% and 14%, respectively) than traditional methods with a lower computational burden (16%) and similar beacon energy consumption.

  12. An indirect adaptive neural control of a visual-based quadrotor robot for pursuing a moving target.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirzadeh, Masoud; Amirkhani, Abdollah; Jalali, Aliakbar; Mosavi, Mohammad R

    2015-11-01

    This paper aims to use a visual-based control mechanism to control a quadrotor type aerial robot which is in pursuit of a moving target. The nonlinear nature of a quadrotor, on the one hand, and the difficulty of obtaining an exact model for it, on the other hand, constitute two serious challenges in designing a controller for this UAV. A potential solution for such problems is the use of intelligent control methods such as those that rely on artificial neural networks and other similar approaches. In addition to the two mentioned problems, another problem that emerges due to the moving nature of a target is the uncertainty that exists in the target image. By employing an artificial neural network with a Radial Basis Function (RBF) an indirect adaptive neural controller has been designed for a quadrotor robot in search of a moving target. The results of the simulation for different paths show that the quadrotor has efficiently tracked the moving target. Copyright © 2015 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. A zero phase adaptive fuzzy Kalman filter for physiological tremor suppression in robotically assisted minimally invasive surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sang, Hongqiang; Yang, Chenghao; Liu, Fen; Yun, Jintian; Jin, Guoguang; Chen, Fa

    2016-12-01

    Hand physiological tremor of surgeons can cause vibration at the surgical instrument tip, which may make it difficult for the surgeon to perform fine manipulations of tissue, needles, and sutures. A zero phase adaptive fuzzy Kalman filter (ZPAFKF) is proposed to suppress hand tremor and vibration of a robotic surgical system. The involuntary motion can be reduced by adding a compensating signal that has the same magnitude and frequency but opposite phase with the tremor signal. Simulations and experiments using different filters were performed. Results show that the proposed filter can avoid the loss of useful motion information and time delay, and better suppress minor and varying tremor. The ZPAFKF can provide less error, preferred accuracy, better tremor estimation, and more desirable compensation performance, to suppress hand tremor and decrease vibration at the surgical instrument tip. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Adaptive-Repetitive Visual-Servo Control of Low-Flying Aerial Robots via Uncalibrated High-Flying Cameras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Dejun; Bourne, Joseph R.; Wang, Hesheng; Yim, Woosoon; Leang, Kam K.

    2017-08-01

    This paper presents the design and implementation of an adaptive-repetitive visual-servo control system for a moving high-flying vehicle (HFV) with an uncalibrated camera to monitor, track, and precisely control the movements of a low-flying vehicle (LFV) or mobile ground robot. Applications of this control strategy include the use of high-flying unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) with computer vision for monitoring, controlling, and coordinating the movements of lower altitude agents in areas, for example, where GPS signals may be unreliable or nonexistent. When deployed, a remote operator of the HFV defines the desired trajectory for the LFV in the HFV's camera frame. Due to the circular motion of the HFV, the resulting motion trajectory of the LFV in the image frame can be periodic in time, thus an adaptive-repetitive control system is exploited for regulation and/or trajectory tracking. The adaptive control law is able to handle uncertainties in the camera's intrinsic and extrinsic parameters. The design and stability analysis of the closed-loop control system is presented, where Lyapunov stability is shown. Simulation and experimental results are presented to demonstrate the effectiveness of the method for controlling the movement of a low-flying quadcopter, demonstrating the capabilities of the visual-servo control system for localization (i.e.,, motion capturing) and trajectory tracking control. In fact, results show that the LFV can be commanded to hover in place as well as track a user-defined flower-shaped closed trajectory, while the HFV and camera system circulates above with constant angular velocity. On average, the proposed adaptive-repetitive visual-servo control system reduces the average RMS tracking error by over 77% in the image plane and over 71% in the world frame compared to using just the adaptive visual-servo control law.

  15. HiMoP: A three-component architecture to create more human-acceptable social-assistive robots : Motivational architecture for assistive robots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Lera, Francisco J; Matellán-Olivera, Vicente; Conde-González, Miguel Á; Martín-Rico, Francisco

    2018-05-01

    Generation of autonomous behavior for robots is a general unsolved problem. Users perceive robots as repetitive tools that do not respond to dynamic situations. This research deals with the generation of natural behaviors in assistive service robots for dynamic domestic environments, particularly, a motivational-oriented cognitive architecture to generate more natural behaviors in autonomous robots. The proposed architecture, called HiMoP, is based on three elements: a Hierarchy of needs to define robot drives; a set of Motivational variables connected to robot needs; and a Pool of finite-state machines to run robot behaviors. The first element is inspired in Alderfer's hierarchy of needs, which specifies the variables defined in the motivational component. The pool of finite-state machine implements the available robot actions, and those actions are dynamically selected taking into account the motivational variables and the external stimuli. Thus, the robot is able to exhibit different behaviors even under similar conditions. A customized version of the "Speech Recognition and Audio Detection Test," proposed by the RoboCup Federation, has been used to illustrate how the architecture works and how it dynamically adapts and activates robots behaviors taking into account internal variables and external stimuli.

  16. A Feed-forward Geometrical Compensation and Adaptive Feedback Control Algorithm for Hydraulic Robot Manipulators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Conrad, Finn; Zhou, Jianjun; Gabacik, Andrzej

    1998-01-01

    Invited paper presents a new control algorithm based on feed-forward geometrical compensation strategy combined with adaptive feedback control.......Invited paper presents a new control algorithm based on feed-forward geometrical compensation strategy combined with adaptive feedback control....

  17. Optimized Assistive Human-Robot Interaction Using Reinforcement Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modares, Hamidreza; Ranatunga, Isura; Lewis, Frank L; Popa, Dan O

    2016-03-01

    An intelligent human-robot interaction (HRI) system with adjustable robot behavior is presented. The proposed HRI system assists the human operator to perform a given task with minimum workload demands and optimizes the overall human-robot system performance. Motivated by human factor studies, the presented control structure consists of two control loops. First, a robot-specific neuro-adaptive controller is designed in the inner loop to make the unknown nonlinear robot behave like a prescribed robot impedance model as perceived by a human operator. In contrast to existing neural network and adaptive impedance-based control methods, no information of the task performance or the prescribed robot impedance model parameters is required in the inner loop. Then, a task-specific outer-loop controller is designed to find the optimal parameters of the prescribed robot impedance model to adjust the robot's dynamics to the operator skills and minimize the tracking error. The outer loop includes the human operator, the robot, and the task performance details. The problem of finding the optimal parameters of the prescribed robot impedance model is transformed into a linear quadratic regulator (LQR) problem which minimizes the human effort and optimizes the closed-loop behavior of the HRI system for a given task. To obviate the requirement of the knowledge of the human model, integral reinforcement learning is used to solve the given LQR problem. Simulation results on an x - y table and a robot arm, and experimental implementation results on a PR2 robot confirm the suitability of the proposed method.

  18. Human-Like Behavior of Robot Arms: General Considerations and the Handwriting Task-Part I: Mathematical Description of Human-Like Motion: Distributed Positioning and Virtual Fatigue

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Potkonjak, V.; Tzafestas, S.; Kostic, D.; Djordjevic, G.

    2001-01-01

    This two-part paper is concerned with the analysis and achievement of human-like behavior by robot arms (manipulators). The analysis involves three issues: (i) the resolution of the inverse kinematics problem of redundant robots, (ii) the separation of the end-effector's motion into two components,

  19. Reservoir-based Online Adaptive Forward Models with Neural Control for Complex Locomotion in a Hexapod Robot

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manoonpong, Poramate; Dasgupta, Sakyasingha; Goldschmidt, Dennis

    2014-01-01

    Walking animals show fascinating locomotor abilities and complex behaviors. Biological study has revealed that such complex behaviors is a result of a combination of biomechanics and neural mechanisms. While biomechanics allows for flexibility and a variety of movements, neural mechanisms generate...... locomotion, make predictions, and provide adaptation. Inspired by this finding, we present here an artificial bio-inspired walking system which combines biomechanics (in terms of its body and leg structures) and neural mechanisms. The neural mechanisms consist of 1) central pattern generator-based control...... for generating basic rhythmic patterns and coordinated movements, 2) reservoir-based adaptive forward models with efference copies for sensory prediction as well as state estimation, and 3) searching and elevation control for adapting the movement of an individual leg to deal with different environmental...

  20. Using Sun’s Java Real-Time System to Manage Behavior-Based Mobile Robot Controllers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew McKenzie

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Implementing a robot controller that can effectively manage limited resources in a deterministic, real-time manner is challenging. Behavior-based architectures that decompose autonomy into levels of intelligence are popular due to their robustness but do not provide real-time features that enforce timing constraints or support determinism. We propose an architecture and approach for using the real-time features of the Real-Time Specification for Java (RTSJ in a behavior-based mobile robot controller to show that timing constraints affect performance. This is accomplished by extending a real-time aware architecture that explicitly enumerates timing requirements for each behavior. It is not enough to reduce latency. The usefulness of this approach is demonstrated via an implementation on Solaris 10 and the Sun Java Real-Time System (Java RTS. Experimental results are obtained using a K-team Koala robot performing path following with four composite behaviors. Experiments were conducted using several task period sets in three cases: real-time threads with the real-time garbage collector, real-time threads with the non- real-time garbage collector, and non-real-time threads with the non-real-time garbage collector. Results show that even if latency and determinism are improved, the timing of each individual behavior significantly affects task performance.

  1. Adaptive Control for Revolute Joints Robot Manipulator with Uncertain/Unknown Dynamic Parameters and in Presence of Disturbance in Control Input

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seyed Sakha, Masoud; Shaker, Hamid Reza

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents an effective adaptive controller for revolute joints robot manipulator where the control input is accompanied with a random disturbance (with unknown PSD). It is clear that, disturbance can compromise the overall performance of the system. To cope with this problem, a control...... technique is proposed which uses the concept of exponential practical stability. Unlike other counterparts, the proposed method does not need information such as the physical parameters of robot and gravitational acceleration. The results show that the proposed controller achieves an excellent performance...

  2. ALLIANCE: An architecture for fault tolerant multi-robot cooperation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parker, L.E.

    1995-02-01

    ALLIANCE is a software architecture that facilitates the fault tolerant cooperative control of teams of heterogeneous mobile robots performing missions composed of loosely coupled, largely independent subtasks. ALLIANCE allows teams of robots, each of which possesses a variety of high-level functions that it can perform during a mission, to individually select appropriate actions throughout the mission based on the requirements of the mission, the activities of other robots, the current environmental conditions, and the robot`s own internal states. ALLIANCE is a fully distributed, behavior-based architecture that incorporates the use of mathematically modeled motivations (such as impatience and acquiescence) within each robot to achieve adaptive action selection. Since cooperative robotic teams usually work in dynamic and unpredictable environments, this software architecture allows the robot team members to respond robustly, reliably, flexibly, and coherently to unexpected environmental changes and modifications in the robot team that may occur due to mechanical failure, the learning of new skills, or the addition or removal of robots from the team by human intervention. The feasibility of this architecture is demonstrated in an implementation on a team of mobile robots performing a laboratory version of hazardous waste cleanup.

  3. Adaptation of a robot and tools for dismantling of a gas-cooled reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, C.J.A.; Vibert, C.J.T.

    1989-01-01

    This report details the progress on a research programme to develop the techniques and design necessary to facilitate the use of commercially available industrial manipulator systems and cutting tools in nuclear environments, particularly that envisaged whilst decommissioning a gas-cooled reactor. The technology for the type of control and the machines to perform it already exist in the form of industrial-type robots. Development of the techniques for using these machines in a more operator-sensitive environment, together with the requirements of decontamination and radiation tolerance will enable them to be used in place of expensive purpose-built machines at a considerable cost saving. From this work it was possible to highlight the viability and associated costs of modifying a standard manipulator for use in decommissioning operations

  4. Continuing Robot Skill Learning after Demonstration with Human Feedback

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Argall Brenna D.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Though demonstration-based approaches have been successfully applied to learning a variety of robot behaviors, there do exist some limitations. The ability to continue learning after demonstration, based on execution experience with the learned policy, therefore has proven to be an asset to many demonstration-based learning systems. This paper discusses important considerations for interfaces that provide feedback to adapt and improve demonstrated behaviors. Feedback interfaces developed for two robots with very different motion capabilities - a wheeled mobile robot and high degree-of-freedom humanoid - are highlighted.

  5. The development of an adaptive upper-limb stroke rehabilitation robotic system

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Stroke is the primary cause of adult disability. To support this large population in recovery, robotic technologies are being developed to assist in the delivery of rehabilitation. This paper presents an automated system for a rehabilitation robotic device that guides stroke patients through an upper-limb reaching task. The system uses a decision theoretic model (a partially observable Markov decision process, or POMDP) as its primary engine for decision making. The POMDP allows the system to automatically modify exercise parameters to account for the specific needs and abilities of different individuals, and to use these parameters to take appropriate decisions about stroke rehabilitation exercises. Methods The performance of the system was evaluated by comparing the decisions made by the system with those of a human therapist. A single patient participant was paired up with a therapist participant for the duration of the study, for a total of six sessions. Each session was an hour long and occurred three times a week for two weeks. During each session, three steps were followed: (A) after the system made a decision, the therapist either agreed or disagreed with the decision made; (B) the researcher had the device execute the decision made by the therapist; (C) the patient then performed the reaching exercise. These parts were repeated in the order of A-B-C until the end of the session. Qualitative and quantitative question were asked at the end of each session and at the completion of the study for both participants. Results Overall, the therapist agreed with the system decisions approximately 65% of the time. In general, the therapist thought the system decisions were believable and could envision this system being used in both a clinical and home setting. The patient was satisfied with the system and would use this system as his/her primary method of rehabilitation. Conclusions The data collected in this study can only be used to provide insight into

  6. Sistem Kontrol Robot Arm 5 DOF Berbasis Pengenalan Pola Suara Menggunakan Mel-Frequency Cepstrum Coefficients (MFCC dan Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference System (ANFIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WS Mada Sanjaya

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Telah dilakukan penelitian yang menggambarkan implementasi pengenalan pola suara untuk mengontrol gerak robot arm 5 DoF dalam mengambil dan menyimpan benda. Dalam penelitian ini metode yang digunakan adalah Mel-Frequency Cepstrum Coefficients (MFCC dan Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inferense System (ANFIS. Metode MFCC digunakan untuk ekstraksi ciri sinyal suara, sedangkan ANFIS digunakan sebagai metode pembelajaran untuk pengenalan pola suara. Pada proses pembelajaran ANFIS data latih yang digunakan sebanyak 6 ciri. Data suara terlatih dan data suara tak terlatih digunakan untuk pengujian sistem pengenalan pola suara. Hasil pengujian menunjukkan tingkat keberhasilan, untuk data suara terlatih sebesar 87,77% dan data tak terlatih sebesar 78,53%. Sistem pengenalan pola suara ini telah diaplikasikan dengan baik untuk mengerakan robot arm 5 DoF berbasis mikrokontroler Arduino. Have been implemented of sound pattern recognition to control 5 DoF of Arm Robot to pick and place an object. In this research used Mel-Frequency Cepstrum Coefficients (MFCC and Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Interferense System (ANFIS methods. MFCC method used for features extraction of sound signal, meanwhile ANFIS used to learn sound pattern recognition. On ANFIS method data learning use 6 features. Trained and not trained data used to examine the system of sound pattern identification. The result show the succesfull level, for trained data 87.77% and for not trained data 78.53%. Sound pattern identification system was appliedto controlled 5 DoF arm robot based Arduino microcontroller.

  7. Robot-assisted adaptive training: custom force fields for teaching movement patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patton, James L; Mussa-Ivaldi, Ferdinando A

    2004-04-01

    Based on recent studies of neuro-adaptive control, we tested a new iterative algorithm to generate custom training forces to "trick" subjects into altering their target-directed reaching movements to a prechosen movement as an after-effect of adaptation. The prechosen movement goal, a sinusoidal-shaped path from start to end point, was never explicitly conveyed to the subject. We hypothesized that the adaptation would cause an alteration in the feedforward command that would result in the prechosen movement. Our results showed that when forces were suddenly removed after a training period of 330 movements, trajectories were significantly shifted toward the prechosen movement. However, de-adaptation occurred (i.e., the after-effect "washed out") in the 50-75 movements that followed the removal of the training forces. A second experiment suppressed vision of hand location and found a detectable reduction in the washout of after-effects, suggesting that visual feedback of error critically influences learning. A final experiment demonstrated that after-effects were also present in the neighborhood of training--44% of original directional shift was seen in adjacent, unpracticed movement directions to targets that were 60 degrees different from the targets used for training. These results demonstrate the potential for these methods for teaching motor skills and for neuro-rehabilitation of brain-injured patients. This is a form of "implicit learning," because unlike explicit training methods, subjects learn movements with minimal instructions, no knowledge of, and little attention to the trajectory.

  8. Behavior-Based Approach for the Detection of Land Mines Utilizing off the Shelf Low Cost Autonomous Robot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdel Ilah Nour Alshbatat

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Several countries all of the world are affected by landmines. The presence of mines represents a major threat to lives and causes economic problems. Currently, detecting and clearing mines demand specific expertise with special equipment. In this context, this paper offers the design and development of an intelligent controller which can control and enable the robot to detect mines by means of sensors and of processing the fused information to guide soldiers when passing landmines.  This is accomplished by broken down the overall system into two subsystems: sensor technologies and robotic device. Sensors devices include infrared distance sensor, metal detector, ultrasonic range finder, accelerometer sensor, while the structure of the robot in our case consists mainly  of a commercial  off-the-shelf  parts which  are  available  at  low  costs. The proposed controller is mainly based on creating fuzzy rules that reflect the behaviors of soldier beings in controlling a robot in a well known landmine. Simulation and experimental results are presented her to prove the efficiency of the proposed approach. The results show that the system is able to detect landmines and guide soldiers while crossing mines area.

  9. Low-Back Pain Patients Learn to Adapt Motor Behavior with Adverse Secondary Consequences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dieën, Jaap H.; Flor, Herta; Hodges, Paul W.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT: We hypothesize that changes in motor behavior in individuals with low-back pain are adaptations aimed at minimizing the real or perceived risk of further pain. Through reinforcement learning, pain and subsequent adaptions result in less dynamic motor behavior, leading to increased loading

  10. Variability in Adaptive Behavior in Autism: Evidence for the Importance of Family History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazefsky, Carla A.; Williams, Diane L.; Minshew, Nancy J.

    2008-01-01

    Adaptive behavior in autism is highly variable and strongly related to prognosis. This study explored family history as a potential source of variability in adaptive behavior in autism. Participants included 77 individuals (mean age = 18) with average or better intellectual ability and autism. Parents completed the Family History Interview about…

  11. Understanding real-life website adaptations by investigating the relations between user behavior and user experience

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Graus, M.P.; Willemsen, M.C.; Swelsen, K.J.M.; Ricci, F.; Bontcheva, K.; Conlan, O; Lawless, S

    2015-01-01

    We study how a website adaptation based on segment predictions from click streams affects visitor behavior and user experience. Through statistical analysis we investigate how the adaptation changed actual behavior. Through structural equation modeling of subjective experience we answer why the

  12. Adaptive Skills, Behavior Problems, and Parenting Stress in Mothers of Boys with Fragile X Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarimski, Klaus

    2010-01-01

    The relationship of temperament, atypical behaviors, and adaptive behavior of young boys with Fragile X syndrome on mothers' parenting stress was analyzed. Twenty-six boys with Fragile X syndrome (30-88 months of age) participated. The overall development of the participants was significantly delayed with a specific profile of adaptive behaviors…

  13. Case-Based Behavior Adaptation Using an Inverse Trust Metric

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Jian, Bisantz, and Drury 2000; Muir 1987), about how trust- worthy the robot was behaving. However, this might not be practical in situations that are...5). Carlson, M. S.; Desai, M.; Drury , J. L.; Kwak, H.; and Yanco, H. A. 2014. Identifying factors that influence trust in automated cars and medical...and Drury , C. G. 2000. Foundations for an empirically determined scale of trust in automated systems. International Journal of Cogni- tive Ergonomics

  14. Perception-Link Behavior Model: Supporting a Novel Operator Interface for a Customizable Anthropomorphic Telepresence Robot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Gu

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available A customizable anthropomorphic telepresence robot (CATR is an emerging medium that might have the highest degree of social presence among the existing mediated communication mediums. Unfortunately, there are problems with teleoperating a CATR, and these problems can deteriorate the gesture motion in a CATR. These problems are the disruption during decoupling, discontinuity due to the unstable transmission and jerkiness due to the reactive collision avoidance. From the review, none of the existing interfaces can simultaneously fix all of the problems. Hence, a novel framework with the perception-link behavior model (PLBM was proposed. The PLBM adopts the distributed spatiotemporal representation for all of its input signals. Equipping it with other components, the PLBM can solve the above problems with some limitations. For instance, the PLBM can retrieve missing modalities from its experience during decoupling. Next, the PLBM can handle up to a high level of drop rate in the network connection because it is dealing with gesture style and not pose. For collision prevention, the PLBM can tune the incoming gesture style so that the CATR can deliberately and smoothly avoid a collision. In summary, the framework consists of PLBM being able to increase the user’s presence on a CATR by synthesizing expressive user gestures.

  15. Razor clam to RoboClam: burrowing drag reduction mechanisms and their robotic adaptation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winter, A G; V; Dorsch, D S; Slocum, A H; Hosoi, A E; Deits, R L H

    2014-01-01

    Estimates based on the strength, size, and shape of the Atlantic razor clam (Ensis directus) indicate that the animal's burrow depth should be physically limited to a few centimeters; yet razor clams can dig as deep as 70 cm. By measuring soil deformations around burrowing E. directus, we have found the animal reduces drag by contracting its valves to initially fail, and then fluidize, the surrounding substrate. The characteristic contraction time to achieve fluidization can be calculated directly from soil properties. The geometry of the fluidized zone is dictated by two commonly-measured geotechnical parameters: coefficient of lateral earth pressure and friction angle. Calculations using full ranges for both parameters indicate that the fluidized zone is a local effect, occurring between 1–5 body radii away from the animal. The energy associated with motion through fluidized substrate—characterized by a depth-independent density and viscosity—scales linearly with depth. In contrast, moving through static soil requires energy that scales with depth squared. For E. directus, this translates to a 10X reduction in the energy required to reach observed burrow depths. For engineers, localized fluidization offers a mechanically simple and purely kinematic method to dramatically reduce energy costs associated with digging. This concept is demonstrated with RoboClam, an E. directus-inspired robot. Using a genetic algorithm to find optimal digging kinematics, RoboClam has achieved localized fluidization burrowing performance comparable to that of the animal, with a linear energy-depth relationship, in both idealized granular glass beads and E. directus' native cohesive mudflat habitat. (paper)

  16. Relationships to Social Robots: Towards a Triadic Analysis of Media-oriented Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joachim R. Höflich

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available People are living in relationships not only to other people but also to media, including things and robots. As the theory of media equation suggests, people treat media as if they were real persons. This theoretical perspective is also relevant to the case of human-robot interaction. A distinctive feature of such interaction is that the relation to social robots also depends on the human likeness as an anthropomorphic perspective underlines. But people seem to prefer a certain imperfection; otherwise they feel uncanny. This paper explores the idea of robots as media and people’s relations to them. The paper argues that robots are seen not only in the context of a relationship with a medium but also as a medium that ‘mediates.’ This means that robots connect between the environment and other people, but can also divide them. The paper concludes with a proposed perspective that widens a dyadic model of human-robot-interaction towards a triadic analysis.

  17. Methods in the analysis of mobile robots behavior in unstructured environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondoc, Alina; Dolga, Valer; Gorie, Nina

    2012-11-01

    A mobile robot can be described as a mechatronic system that must execute an application in a working environment. From mechatronic concept, the authors highlight mechatronic system structure based on its secondary function. Mobile robot will move, either in a known environment - structured environment may be described in time by an appropriate mathematical model or in an unfamiliar environment - unstructured - the random aspects prevail. Starting from a point robot must reach a START STOP point in the context of functional constraints imposed on the one hand, the application that, on the other hand, the working environment. The authors focus their presentation on unstructured environment. In this case the evolution of mobile robot is based on obtaining information in the work environment, their processing and integration results in action strategy. Number of sensory elements used is subject to optimization parameter. Starting from a known structure of mobile robot, the authors analyze the possibility of developing a mathematical model variants mathematical contact wheel - ground. It analyzes the various types of soil and the possibility of obtaining a "signature" on it based on sensory information. Theoretical aspects of the problem are compared to experimental results obtained in robot evolution. The mathematical model of the robot system allowed the simulation environment and its evolution in comparison with the experimental results estimated.

  18. Learning Semantics of Gestural Instructions for Human-Robot Collaboration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, Dadhichi; Erkent, Özgür; Piater, Justus

    2018-01-01

    Designed to work safely alongside humans, collaborative robots need to be capable partners in human-robot teams. Besides having key capabilities like detecting gestures, recognizing objects, grasping them, and handing them over, these robots need to seamlessly adapt their behavior for efficient human-robot collaboration. In this context we present the fast, supervised Proactive Incremental Learning (PIL) framework for learning associations between human hand gestures and the intended robotic manipulation actions. With the proactive aspect, the robot is competent to predict the human's intent and perform an action without waiting for an instruction. The incremental aspect enables the robot to learn associations on the fly while performing a task. It is a probabilistic, statistically-driven approach. As a proof of concept, we focus on a table assembly task where the robot assists its human partner. We investigate how the accuracy of gesture detection affects the number of interactions required to complete the task. We also conducted a human-robot interaction study with non-roboticist users comparing a proactive with a reactive robot that waits for instructions. PMID:29615888

  19. ALLIANCE: An architecture for fault tolerant multi-robot cooperation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parker, L.E.

    1995-02-01

    ALLIANCE is a software architecture that facilitates the fault tolerant cooperative control of teams of heterogeneous mobile robots performing missions composed of loosely coupled, largely independent subtasks. ALLIANCE allows teams of robots, each of which possesses a variety of high-level functions that it can perform during a mission, to individually select appropriate actions throughout the mission based on the requirements of the mission, the activities of other robots, the current environmental conditions, and the robot's own internal states. ALLIANCE is a fully distributed, behavior-based architecture that incorporates the use of mathematically modeled motivations (such as impatience and acquiescence) within each robot to achieve adaptive action selection. Since cooperative robotic teams usually work in dynamic and unpredictable environments, this software architecture allows the robot team members to respond robustly, reliably, flexibly, and coherently to unexpected environmental changes and modifications in the robot team that may occur due to mechanical failure, the learning of new skills, or the addition or removal of robots from the team by human intervention. The feasibility of this architecture is demonstrated in an implementation on a team of mobile robots performing a laboratory version of hazardous waste cleanup

  20. Learning Semantics of Gestural Instructions for Human-Robot Collaboration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, Dadhichi; Erkent, Özgür; Piater, Justus

    2018-01-01

    Designed to work safely alongside humans, collaborative robots need to be capable partners in human-robot teams. Besides having key capabilities like detecting gestures, recognizing objects, grasping them, and handing them over, these robots need to seamlessly adapt their behavior for efficient human-robot collaboration. In this context we present the fast, supervised Proactive Incremental Learning (PIL) framework for learning associations between human hand gestures and the intended robotic manipulation actions. With the proactive aspect, the robot is competent to predict the human's intent and perform an action without waiting for an instruction. The incremental aspect enables the robot to learn associations on the fly while performing a task. It is a probabilistic, statistically-driven approach. As a proof of concept, we focus on a table assembly task where the robot assists its human partner. We investigate how the accuracy of gesture detection affects the number of interactions required to complete the task. We also conducted a human-robot interaction study with non-roboticist users comparing a proactive with a reactive robot that waits for instructions.

  1. Physician behavioral adaptability: A model to outstrip a "one size fits all" approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrard, Valérie; Schmid Mast, Marianne

    2015-10-01

    Based on a literature review, we propose a model of physician behavioral adaptability (PBA) with the goal of inspiring new research. PBA means that the physician adapts his or her behavior according to patients' different preferences. The PBA model shows how physicians infer patients' preferences and adapt their interaction behavior from one patient to the other. We claim that patients will benefit from better outcomes if their physicians show behavioral adaptability rather than a "one size fits all" approach. This literature review is based on a literature search of the PsycINFO(®) and MEDLINE(®) databases. The literature review and first results stemming from the authors' research support the validity and viability of parts of the PBA model. There is evidence suggesting that physicians are able to show behavioral flexibility when interacting with their different patients, that a match between patients' preferences and physician behavior is related to better consultation outcomes, and that physician behavioral adaptability is related to better consultation outcomes. Training of physicians' behavioral flexibility and their ability to infer patients' preferences can facilitate physician behavioral adaptability and positive patient outcomes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. [Effects of family cohesion and adaptability on behavioral problems in preschool children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yan-Ni; Xue, Hong-Li; Chen, Qian

    2016-05-01

    To investigate the effects of family cohesion and adaptability on behavioral problems in preschool children. The stratified cluster multistage sampling method was used to perform a questionnaire survey in the parents of 1 284 children aged 3-6 years in the urban area of Lanzhou, China. The general status questionnaire, Conners Child Behavior Checklist (Parent Symptom Question), and Family Adaptability and Cohesion Scale, Second edition, Chinese version (FACESII-CV) were used to investigate behavioral problems and family cohesion and adaptability. The overall detection rate of behavioral problems in preschool children was 17.13%. The children with different types of family cohesion had different detection rates of behavioral problems, and those with free-type family cohesion showed the highest detection rate of behavioral problems (40.2%). The children with different types of family adaptability also had different detection rates of behavioral problems, and those with stiffness type showed the highest detection rate of behavioral problems (25.1%). The behavioral problems in preschool children were negatively correlated with family cohesion and adaptability. During the growth of preschool children, family cohesion and adaptability have certain effects on the mental development of preschool children.

  3. Reconciling White-Box and Black-Box Perspectives on Behavioral Self-adaptation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruni, Roberto; Corradini, Andrea; Gadducci, Fabio

    2015-01-01

    This paper proposes to reconcile two perspectives on behavioral adaptation commonly taken at different stages of the engineering of autonomic computing systems. Requirements engineering activities often take a black-box perspective: A system is considered to be adaptive with respect to an environ......This paper proposes to reconcile two perspectives on behavioral adaptation commonly taken at different stages of the engineering of autonomic computing systems. Requirements engineering activities often take a black-box perspective: A system is considered to be adaptive with respect...... to an environment whenever the system is able to satisfy its goals irrespectively of the environment perturbations. Modeling and programming engineering activities often take a white-box perspective: A system is equipped with suitable adaptation mechanisms and its behavior is classified as adaptive depending...

  4. An Augmented Discrete-Time Approach for Human-Robot Collaboration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peidong Liang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Human-robot collaboration (HRC is a key feature to distinguish the new generation of robots from conventional robots. Relevant HRC topics have been extensively investigated recently in academic institutes and companies to improve human and robot interactive performance. Generally, human motor control regulates human motion adaptively to the external environment with safety, compliance, stability, and efficiency. Inspired by this, we propose an augmented approach to make a robot understand human motion behaviors based on human kinematics and human postural impedance adaptation. Human kinematics is identified by geometry kinematics approach to map human arm configuration as well as stiffness index controlled by hand gesture to anthropomorphic arm. While human arm postural stiffness is estimated and calibrated within robot empirical stability region, human motion is captured by employing a geometry vector approach based on Kinect. A biomimetic controller in discrete-time is employed to make Baxter robot arm imitate human arm behaviors based on Baxter robot dynamics. An object moving task is implemented to validate the performance of proposed methods based on Baxter robot simulator. Results show that the proposed approach to HRC is intuitive, stable, efficient, and compliant, which may have various applications in human-robot collaboration scenarios.

  5. An Adaptable Robot Vision System Performing Manipulation Actions With Flexible Objects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bodenhagen, Leon; Fugl, Andreas R.; Jordt, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    system should be viewed as a library of new technologies that have been proven to work in close to industrial conditions. As a rather basic, but necessary part, we provide a technology for determining the shape of the object when passing on, e. g., a conveyor belt prior to being handled. The main......This paper describes an adaptable system which is able to perform manipulation operations (such as Peg-in-Hole or Laying-Down actions) with flexible objects. As such objects easily change their shape significantly during the execution of an action, traditional strategies, e. g., for solve path......, operating in real-time. Simulations have been used to bootstrap the learning of optimal actions, which are subsequently improved through real-world executions. To achieve reproducible results, we demonstrate this for casted silicone test objects of regular shape. Note to Practitioners-The aim of this work...

  6. Adaptive gaze stabilization through cerebellar internal models in a humanoid robot

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vannucci, Lorenzo; Tolu, Silvia; Falotico, Egidio

    2016-01-01

    Two main classes of reflexes relying on the vestibular system are involved in the stabilization of the human gaze: The vestibulocollic reflex (VCR), which stabilizes the head in space and the vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR), which stabilizes the visual axis to minimize retinal image motion. The VOR...... on the coordination of VCR and VOR and OKR. The model, inspired on neuroscientific cerebellar theories, is provided with learning and adaptation capabilities based on internal models. Tests on a simulated humanoid platform confirm the effectiveness of our approach....... works in conjunction with the opto-kinetic reflex (OKR), which is a visual feedback mechanism for moving the eye at the same speed as the observed scene. Together they keep the image stationary on the retina. In this work we present the first complete model of gaze stabilization based...

  7. Adaptive Iterated Extended Kalman Filter and Its Application to Autonomous Integrated Navigation for Indoor Robot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Xu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available As the core of the integrated navigation system, the data fusion algorithm should be designed seriously. In order to improve the accuracy of data fusion, this work proposed an adaptive iterated extended Kalman (AIEKF which used the noise statistics estimator in the iterated extended Kalman (IEKF, and then AIEKF is used to deal with the nonlinear problem in the inertial navigation systems (INS/wireless sensors networks (WSNs-integrated navigation system. Practical test has been done to evaluate the performance of the proposed method. The results show that the proposed method is effective to reduce the mean root-mean-square error (RMSE of position by about 92.53%, 67.93%, 55.97%, and 30.09% compared with the INS only, WSN, EKF, and IEKF.

  8. Robustly stable adaptive control of a tandem of master-slave robotic manipulators with force reflection by using a multiestimation scheme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibeas, Asier; de la Sen, Manuel

    2006-10-01

    The problem of controlling a tandem of robotic manipulators composing a teleoperation system with force reflection is addressed in this paper. The final objective of this paper is twofold: 1) to design a robust control law capable of ensuring closed-loop stability for robots with uncertainties and 2) to use the so-obtained control law to improve the tracking of each robot to its corresponding reference model in comparison with previously existing controllers when the slave is interacting with the obstacle. In this way, a multiestimation-based adaptive controller is proposed. Thus, the master robot is able to follow more accurately the constrained motion defined by the slave when interacting with an obstacle than when a single-estimation-based controller is used, improving the transparency property of the teleoperation scheme. The closed-loop stability is guaranteed if a minimum residence time, which might be updated online when unknown, between different controller parameterizations is respected. Furthermore, the analysis of the teleoperation and stability capabilities of the overall scheme is carried out. Finally, some simulation examples showing the working of the multiestimation scheme complete this paper.

  9. A quantitative evolutionary theory of adaptive behavior dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDowell, J J

    2013-10-01

    The idea that behavior is selected by its consequences in a process analogous to organic evolution has been discussed for over 100 years. A recently proposed theory instantiates this idea by means of a genetic algorithm that operates on a population of potential behaviors. Behaviors in the population are represented by numbers in decimal integer (phenotypic) and binary bit string (genotypic) forms. One behavior from the population is emitted at random each time tick, after which a new population of potential behaviors is constructed by recombining parent behavior bit strings. If the emitted behavior produced a benefit to the organism, then parents are chosen on the basis of their phenotypic similarity to the emitted behavior; otherwise, they are chosen at random. After parent behavior recombination, the population is subjected to a small amount of mutation by flipping random bits in the population's bit strings. The behavior generated by this process of selection, reproduction, and mutation reaches equilibrium states that conform to every empirically valid equation of matching theory, exactly and without systematic error. These equations are known to describe the behavior of many vertebrate species, including humans, in a variety of experimental, naturalistic, natural, and social environments. The evolutionary theory also generates instantaneous dynamics and patterns of preference change in constantly changing environments that are consistent with the dynamics of live-organism behavior. These findings support the assertion that the world of behavior we observe and measure is generated by evolutionary dynamics. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved

  10. Are vent crab behavioral preferences adaptations for habitat choice?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahms, Hans-Uwe; Tseng, Li-Chun; Hwang, Jiang-Shiou

    2017-01-01

    Hydrothermal vent organisms are adapted to their extreme and patchily distributed habitats. They are expected to have evolved mechanisms that keep them in their specific habitation. Since little is known about the recruitment or habitat selection of HV organisms such as brachyurans, we examined the properties of several hydrothermal vent-associated cues on the behavior of the hydrothermal vent (HV) crab Xenograpsus testudinatus in the laboratory that were contrasted by the offering of non-vent cues. This crab species is endemic and dominates the vent fauna of Turtle Island off the NE coast of Taiwan. HV crabs were separately and in combination offered the following vent-specific cues: (1) sulfuric sediment, (3) air-bubbling, (4) elevated temperature, (5) dead settled zooplankton, (7) other crabs, and (8) shade. The non-vent-specific cues were: (2) quarz sediment, (6) dead fish, (8) light. These cues were provided on either side of a two-choice chamber. The movement of individual crabs was monitored: as initial and final choices, and as the proportion of time the crabs spent in each compartment (resident time). Cues were offered alone and no such cue as a control in the same set-up. Sulfuric sediments and dead fish were significantly more attractive to females, and other crabs irrespective of gender were significantly more attractive to males. When compared to expected distributions, crabs, irrespective of gender, significantly avoided light and tended to select other crabs, air-bubbling, sulfuric sediment, elevated temperature, dead fish, dead zooplankton, and quarz sediments in the order of decreasing importance. Data do not support the hypothesis that dead settled zooplankton was particularly attractive nor that the other gender was selected. A combination of several vent-associated cues (sulfuric sediment, elevated temperature, air-bubbling) facilitated the strongest attraction to the crabs as reflected by all response variables. The 'first choice' responses

  11. Adapting the Behavior Education Program for Preschool Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steed, Elizabeth A.

    2011-01-01

    Behavior Education Program (BEP) is the most researched targeted intervention that is used in schoolwide positive behavior intervention and supports (PBIS). It is a daily check-in and check-out system in which students receive extra attention for positive social behavior throughout their school day. This extra attention is intended to prevent…

  12. Insights into the Social Behavior of Surface and Cave-Dwelling Fish (Poecilia mexicana in Light and Darkness through the Use of a Biomimetic Robot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Bierbach

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Biomimetic robots (BRs are becoming more common in behavioral research and, if they are accepted as conspecifics, allow for new forms of experimental manipulations of social interactions. Nevertheless, it is often not clear which cues emanating from a BR are actually used as communicative signals and how species or populations with different sensory makeups react to specific types of BRs. We herein present results from experiments using two populations of livebearing fishes that differ in their sensory capabilities. In the South of Mexico, surface-dwelling mollies (Poecilia mexicana successfully invaded caves and adapted to dark conditions. While almost without pigment, these cave mollies possess smaller but still functional eyes. Although previous studies found cave mollies to show reduced shoaling preferences with conspecifics in light compared to surface mollies, it is assumed that they possess specialized adaptations to maintain some kind of sociality also in their dark habitats. By testing surface- and cave-dwelling mollies with RoboFish, a BR made for use in laboratory experiments with guppies and sticklebacks, we asked to what extent visual and non-visual cues play a role in their social behavior. Both cave- and surface-dwelling mollies followed the BR as well as a live companion when tested in light. However, when tested in darkness, only surface-dwelling fish were attracted by a live conspecific, whereas cave-dwelling fish were not. Neither cave- nor surface-dwelling mollies were attracted to RoboFish in darkness. This is the first study to use BRs for the investigation of social behavior in mollies and to compare responses to BRs both in light and darkness. As our RoboFish is accepted as conspecific by both used populations of the Atlantic molly only under light conditions but not in darkness, we argue that our replica is providing mostly visual cues.

  13. Brief Report: The Relationship between Language Skills, Adaptive Behavior, and Emotional and Behavior Problems in Pre-Schoolers with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Carlie J.; Yelland, Gregory W.; Taffe, John R.; Gray, Kylie M.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between structural language skills, and communication skills, adaptive behavior, and emotional and behavior problems in pre-school children with autism. Participants were aged 3-5 years with autism (n = 27), and two comparison groups of children with developmental delay without autism (n = 12) and typically…

  14. Adaptive scallop height tool path generation for robot-based incremental sheet metal forming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seim, Patrick; Möllensiep, Dennis; Störkle, Denis Daniel; Thyssen, Lars; Kuhlenkötter, Bernd

    2016-10-01

    Incremental sheet metal forming is an emerging process for the production of individualized products or prototypes in low batch sizes and with short times to market. In these processes, the desired shape is produced by the incremental inward motion of the workpiece-independent forming tool in depth direction and its movement along the contour in lateral direction. Based on this shape production, the tool path generation is a key factor on e.g. the resulting geometric accuracy, the resulting surface quality, and the working time. This paper presents an innovative tool path generation based on a commercial milling CAM package considering the surface quality and working time. This approach offers the ability to define a specific scallop height as an indicator of the surface quality for specific faces of a component. Moreover, it decreases the required working time for the production of the entire component compared to the use of a commercial software package without this adaptive approach. Different forming experiments have been performed to verify the newly developed tool path generation. Mainly, this approach serves to solve the existing conflict of combining the working time and the surface quality within the process of incremental sheet metal forming.

  15. Robots As Intentional Agents: Using Neuroscientific Methods to Make Robots Appear More Social

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Wiese

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Robots are increasingly envisaged as our future cohabitants. However, while considerable progress has been made in recent years in terms of their technological realization, the ability of robots to interact with humans in an intuitive and social way is still quite limited. An important challenge for social robotics is to determine how to design robots that can perceive the user’s needs, feelings, and intentions, and adapt to users over a broad range of cognitive abilities. It is conceivable that if robots were able to adequately demonstrate these skills, humans would eventually accept them as social companions. We argue that the best way to achieve this is using a systematic experimental approach based on behavioral and physiological neuroscience methods such as motion/eye-tracking, electroencephalography, or functional near-infrared spectroscopy embedded in interactive human–robot paradigms. This approach requires understanding how humans interact with each other, how they perform tasks together and how they develop feelings of social connection over time, and using these insights to formulate design principles that make social robots attuned to the workings of the human brain. In this review, we put forward the argument that the likelihood of artificial agents being perceived as social companions can be increased by designing them in a way that they are perceived as intentional agents that activate areas in the human brain involved in social-cognitive processing. We first review literature related to social-cognitive processes and mechanisms involved in human–human interactions, and highlight the importance of perceiving others as intentional agents to activate these social brain areas. We then discuss how attribution of intentionality can positively affect human–robot interaction by (a fostering feelings of social connection, empathy and prosociality, and by (b enhancing performance on joint human–robot tasks. Lastly, we describe

  16. Robots As Intentional Agents: Using Neuroscientific Methods to Make Robots Appear More Social

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiese, Eva; Metta, Giorgio; Wykowska, Agnieszka

    2017-01-01

    Robots are increasingly envisaged as our future cohabitants. However, while considerable progress has been made in recent years in terms of their technological realization, the ability of robots to interact with humans in an intuitive and social way is still quite limited. An important challenge for social robotics is to determine how to design robots that can perceive the user’s needs, feelings, and intentions, and adapt to users over a broad range of cognitive abilities. It is conceivable that if robots were able to adequately demonstrate these skills, humans would eventually accept them as social companions. We argue that the best way to achieve this is using a systematic experimental approach based on behavioral and physiological neuroscience methods such as motion/eye-tracking, electroencephalography, or functional near-infrared spectroscopy embedded in interactive human–robot paradigms. This approach requires understanding how humans interact with each other, how they perform tasks together and how they develop feelings of social connection over time, and using these insights to formulate design principles that make social robots attuned to the workings of the human brain. In this review, we put forward the argument that the likelihood of artificial agents being perceived as social companions can be increased by designing them in a way that they are perceived as intentional agents that activate areas in the human brain involved in social-cognitive processing. We first review literature related to social-cognitive processes and mechanisms involved in human–human interactions, and highlight the importance of perceiving others as intentional agents to activate these social brain areas. We then discuss how attribution of intentionality can positively affect human–robot interaction by (a) fostering feelings of social connection, empathy and prosociality, and by (b) enhancing performance on joint human–robot tasks. Lastly, we describe circumstances under

  17. Robots As Intentional Agents: Using Neuroscientific Methods to Make Robots Appear More Social.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiese, Eva; Metta, Giorgio; Wykowska, Agnieszka

    2017-01-01

    Robots are increasingly envisaged as our future cohabitants. However, while considerable progress has been made in recent years in terms of their technological realization, the ability of robots to interact with humans in an intuitive and social way is still quite limited. An important challenge for social robotics is to determine how to design robots that can perceive the user's needs, feelings, and intentions, and adapt to users over a broad range of cognitive abilities. It is conceivable that if robots were able to adequately demonstrate these skills, humans would eventually accept them as social companions. We argue that the best way to achieve this is using a systematic experimental approach based on behavioral and physiological neuroscience methods such as motion/eye-tracking, electroencephalography, or functional near-infrared spectroscopy embedded in interactive human-robot paradigms. This approach requires understanding how humans interact with each other, how they perform tasks together and how they develop feelings of social connection over time, and using these insights to formulate design principles that make social robots attuned to the workings of the human brain. In this review, we put forward the argument that the likelihood of artificial agents being perceived as social companions can be increased by designing them in a way that they are perceived as intentional agents that activate areas in the human brain involved in social-cognitive processing. We first review literature related to social-cognitive processes and mechanisms involved in human-human interactions, and highlight the importance of perceiving others as intentional agents to activate these social brain areas. We then discuss how attribution of intentionality can positively affect human-robot interaction by (a) fostering feelings of social connection, empathy and prosociality, and by (b) enhancing performance on joint human-robot tasks. Lastly, we describe circumstances under which

  18. Exploratorium: Robots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, Judith, Ed.

    2002-01-01

    This issue of Exploratorium Magazine focuses on the topic robotics. It explains how to make a vibrating robotic bug and features articles on robots. Contents include: (1) "Where Robot Mice and Robot Men Run Round in Robot Towns" (Ray Bradbury); (2) "Robots at Work" (Jake Widman); (3) "Make a Vibrating Robotic Bug" (Modesto Tamez); (4) "The Robot…

  19. The Relation Between Intellectual Functioning and Adaptive Behavior in the Diagnosis of Intellectual Disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tassé, Marc J; Luckasson, Ruth; Schalock, Robert L

    2016-12-01

    Intellectual disability originates during the developmental period and is characterized by significant limitations both in intellectual functioning and in adaptive behavior as expressed in conceptual, social, and practical adaptive skills. In this article, we present a brief history of the diagnostic criteria of intellectual disability for both the DSM-5 and AAIDD. The article also (a) provides an update of the understanding of adaptive behavior, (b) dispels two thinking errors regarding mistaken temporal or causal link between intellectual functioning and adaptive behavior, (c) explains that there is a strong correlational, but no causative, relation between intellectual functioning and adaptive behavior, and (d) asserts that once a question of determining intellectual disability is raised, both intellectual functioning and adaptive behavior are assessed and considered jointly and weighed equally in the diagnosis of intellectual disability. We discuss the problems created by an inaccurate statement that appears in the DSM-5 regarding a causal link between deficits in intellectual functioning and adaptive behavior and propose an immediate revision to remove this erroneous and confounding statement.

  20. Behavioral ecology of captive species: using behavioral adaptations to assess and enhance welfare of nonhuman zoo animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koene, Paul

    2013-01-01

    This project aimed to estimate a species' adaptations in nature and in captivity, assess welfare, suggest environmental changes, and find species characteristics that underlie welfare problems in nonhuman animals in the zoo. First, the current status of zoo animal welfare assessment was reviewed, and the behavioral ecology approach was outlined. In this approach, databases of species characteristics were developed using (a) literature of natural behavior and (b) captive behavior. Species characteristics were grouped in 8 functional behavioral ecological fitness-related categories: space, time, metabolic, safety, reproductive, comfort, social, and information adaptations. Assessments of the strength of behavioral adaptations in relation to environmental demands were made based on the results available from the literature. The databases with literature at the species level were coupled with databases of (c) behavioral observations and (d) welfare assessments under captive conditions. Observation and welfare assessment methods were adapted from the animal on the farm realm and applied to zoo species. It was expected that the comparison of the repertoire of behaviors in natural and captive environments would highlight welfare problems, provide solutions to welfare problems by environmental changes, and identify species characteristics underlying zoo animal welfare problems.

  1. Designing collective behavior in a termite-inspired robot construction team.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werfel, Justin; Petersen, Kirstin; Nagpal, Radhika

    2014-02-14

    Complex systems are characterized by many independent components whose low-level actions produce collective high-level results. Predicting high-level results given low-level rules is a key open challenge; the inverse problem, finding low-level rules that give specific outcomes, is in general still less understood. We present a multi-agent construction system inspired by mound-building termites, solving such an inverse problem. A user specifies a desired structure, and the system automatically generates low-level rules for independent climbing robots that guarantee production of that structure. Robots use only local sensing and coordinate their activity via the shared environment. We demonstrate the approach via a physical realization with three autonomous climbing robots limited to onboard sensing. This work advances the aim of engineering complex systems that achieve specific human-designed goals.

  2. An adaptive randomized trial of dialectical behavior therapy and cognitive behavior therapy for binge-eating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, E Y; Cacioppo, J; Fettich, K; Gallop, R; McCloskey, M S; Olino, T; Zeffiro, T A

    2017-03-01

    Early weak treatment response is one of the few trans-diagnostic, treatment-agnostic predictors of poor outcome following a full treatment course. We sought to improve the outcome of clients with weak initial response to guided self-help cognitive behavior therapy (GSH). One hundred and nine women with binge-eating disorder (BED) or bulimia nervosa (BN) (DSM-IV-TR) received 4 weeks of GSH. Based on their response, they were grouped into: (1) early strong responders who continued GSH (cGSH), and early weak responders randomized to (2) dialectical behavior therapy (DBT), or (3) individual and additional group cognitive behavior therapy (CBT+). Baseline objective binge-eating-day (OBD) frequency was similar between DBT, CBT+ and cGSH. During treatment, OBD frequency reduction was significantly slower in DBT and CBT+ relative to cGSH. Relative to cGSH, OBD frequency was significantly greater at the end of DBT (d = 0.27) and CBT+ (d = 0.31) although these effects were small and within-treatment effects from baseline were large (d = 1.41, 0.95, 1.11, respectively). OBD improvements significantly diminished in all groups during 12 months follow-up but were significantly better sustained in DBT relative to cGSH (d = -0.43). At 6- and 12-month follow-up assessments, DBT, CBT and cGSH did not differ in OBD. Early weak response to GSH may be overcome by additional intensive treatment. Evidence was insufficient to support superiority of either DBT or CBT+ for early weak responders relative to early strong responders in cGSH; both were helpful. Future studies using adaptive designs are needed to assess the use of early response to efficiently deliver care to large heterogeneous client groups.

  3. The Relation between Intellectual Functioning and Adaptive Behavior in the Diagnosis of Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tassé, Marc J.; Luckasson, Ruth; Schalock, Robert L.

    2016-01-01

    Intellectual disability originates during the developmental period and is characterized by significant limitations both in intellectual functioning and in adaptive behavior as expressed in conceptual, social, and practical adaptive skills. In this article, we present a brief history of the diagnostic criteria of intellectual disability for both…

  4. The behavior of adaptive bone-remodeling simulation models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.H. Weinans (Harrie); R. Huiskes (Rik); H.J. Grootenboer

    1992-01-01

    textabstractThe process of adaptive bone remodeling can be described mathematically and simulated in a computer model, integrated with the finite element method. In the model discussed here, cortical and trabecular bone are described as continuous materials with variable density. The remodeling rule

  5. Social cobots: Anticipatory decision-making for collaborative robots incorporating unexpected human behaviors

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Can Görür, O

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available We propose an architecture as a robot’s decision-making mechanism to anticipate a human’s state of mind, and so plan accordingly during a human-robot collaboration task. At the core of the architecture lies a novel stochastic decision...

  6. Design of a Behavior of Robot That Attracts the Interest of the Mildly Demented Elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nihei, Misato; Sakuma, Natsuki; Yabe, Hiroyuki; Kamata, Minoru; Inoue, Takenobu

    2017-01-01

    In this study, using the unexpected intervention overturning the interaction amount of the field and the mental model, an interaction of a robot system that enables sustained nonverbal communication with the mildly demented elderly was proposed and its effectiveness was shown in the group home of the mildly demented elderly.

  7. Avoid, attack or do both? Behavioral and physiological adaptations in natural enemies faced with novel hosts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brown Sam P

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Confronted with well-defended, novel hosts, should an enemy invest in avoidance of these hosts (behavioral adaptation, neutralization of the defensive innovation (physiological adaptation or both? Although simultaneous investment in both adaptations may first appear to be redundant, several empirical studies have suggested a reinforcement of physiological resistance to host defenses with additional avoidance behaviors. To explain this paradox, we develop a mathematical model describing the joint evolution of behavioral and physiological adaptations on the part of natural enemies to their host defenses. Our specific goals are (i to derive the conditions that may favor the simultaneous investment in avoidance and physiological resistance and (ii to study the factors that govern the relative investment in each adaptation mode. Results Our results show that (i a simultaneous investment may be optimal if the fitness costs of the adaptive traits are accelerating and the probability of encountering defended hosts is low. When (i holds, we find that (ii the more that defended hosts are rare and/or spatially aggregated, the more behavioral adaptation is favored. Conclusion Despite their interference, physiological resistance to host defensive innovations and avoidance of these same defenses are two strategies in which it may be optimal for an enemy to invest in simultaneously. The relative allocation to each strategy greatly depends on host spatial structure. We discuss the implications of our findings for the management of invasive plant species and the management of pest resistance to new crop protectants or varieties.

  8. Adaptive Thermal Comfort in Japanese Houses during the Summer Season: Behavioral Adaptation and the Effect of Humidity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hom B. Rijal

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In order to clarify effect of humidity on the room temperatures reported to be comfortable, an occupant thermal comfort and behavior survey was conducted for five summers in the living rooms and bedrooms of residences in the Kanto region of Japan. We have collected 13,525 thermal comfort votes from over 239 residents of 120 homes, together with corresponding measurements of room temperature and humidity of the air. The residents were generally well-satisfied with the thermal environment of their houses, with or without the use of air-conditioning, and thus were well-adapted to their thermal conditions. The humidity was found to have very little direct effect on the comfort temperature. However, the comfort temperature was strongly related to the reported skin moisture. Behavioral adaptation such as window opening and fan use increase air movement and improve thermal comfort.

  9. The adaptive problems of female teenage refugees and their behavioral adjustment methods for coping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mhaidat F

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Fatin Mhaidat Department of Educational Psychology, Faculty of Educational Sciences, The Hashemite University, Zarqa, Jordan Abstract: This study aimed at identifying the levels of adaptive problems among teenage female refugees in the government schools and explored the behavioral methods that were used to cope with the problems. The sample was composed of 220 Syrian female students (seventh to first secondary grades enrolled at government schools within the Zarqa Directorate and who came to Jordan due to the war conditions in their home country. The study used the scale of adaptive problems that consists of four dimensions (depression, anger and hostility, low self-esteem, and feeling insecure and a questionnaire of the behavioral adjustment methods for dealing with the problem of asylum. The results indicated that the Syrian teenage female refugees suffer a moderate degree of adaptation problems, and the positive adjustment methods they have used are more than the negatives. Keywords: adaptive problems, female teenage refugees, behavioral adjustment

  10. Researching Travel Behavior and Adaptability: Using a Virtual Reality Role-Playing Game

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watcharasukarn, Montira; Krumdieck, Susan; Green, Richard; Dantas, Andre

    2011-01-01

    This article describes a virtual reality role-playing game that was developed as a survey tool to collect travel behavior data and explore and monitor travel behavior adaptation. The Advanced Energy and Material Systems Laboratory has designed, developed a prototype, and tested such a game platform survey tool, called Travel Activity Constraint…

  11. Adaptive Characteristics and Suicidal Behavior: A Gender Comparison of Young Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Jon B.; Lamis, Dorian A.

    2007-01-01

    Differences in suicidal behavior and adaptive characteristics were examined in college students with a particular emphasis on gender differences. Participants consisted of 344 undergraduate students who were administered a revised version of the Suicide Behaviors Questionnaire (SBQ), the Expanded Reasons for Living Inventory (RFL), and a…

  12. Adaptation to Elastic Loads and BMI Robot Controls During Rat Locomotion examined with Point-Process GLMs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiguo eSong

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Currently little is known about how a mechanically coupled BMI system’s actions are integrated into ongoing body dynamics. We tested a locomotor task augmented with a BMI system driving a robot mechanically interacting with a rat under three conditions: control locomotion (BL, ‘simple elastic load’ (E and ‘BMI with elastic load’ (BMI/E. The effect of the BMI was to allow compensation of the elastic load as a function of the neural drive. Neurons recorded here were close to one another in cortex, all within a 200 micron diameter horizontal distance of one another. The interactions of these close assemblies of neurons may differ from those among neurons at longer distances in BMI tasks and thus are important to explore. A point process generalized linear model (GLM, was used to examine connectivity at two different binning timescales (1ms vs. 10ms. We used GLM models to fit non-Poisson neural dynamics solely using other neurons’ prior neural activity as covariates. Models at different timescales were compared based on Kolmogorov-Smirnov (KS goodness-of-fit and parsimony. About 15% of cells with non-Poisson firing were well fitted with the neuron-to-neuron models alone. More such cells were fitted at the 1ms binning than 10ms. Positive connection parameters (‘excitation’ ~70% exceeded negative parameters (‘inhibition’ ~30%. Significant connectivity changes in the GLM determined networks of well-fitted neurons occurred between the conditions. However, a common core of connections comprising at least ~15% of connections persisted between any two of the three conditions. Significantly almost twice as many connections were in common between the two load conditions (~27%, compared to between either load condition and the baseline. This local point process GLM identified neural correlation structure and the changes seen across task conditions in the rats in this neural subset may be intrinsic to cortex or due to feedback and input

  13. Adaptive Feeding behavior and functional responses in pelagic copepods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiørboe, Thomas; Saiz, Enrico; Tiselius, Peter

    2018-01-01

    Zooplankton may modify their feeding behavior in response to prey availability and presence of predators with implications to populations of both predators and prey. Optimal foraging theory predicts that such responses result in a type II functional response for passive foragers and a type III re...

  14. A dosimetric comparison of real-time adaptive and non-adaptive radiotherapy: A multi-institutional study encompassing robotic, gimbaled, multileaf collimator and couch tracking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Colvill, Emma; Booth, Jeremy; Nill, Simeon

    2016-01-01

    AND MATERIALS: Ten institutions with robotic(2), gimbaled(2), MLC(4) or couch tracking(2) used common materials including CT and structure sets, motion traces and planning protocols to create a lung and a prostate plan. For each motion trace, the plan was delivered twice to a moving dosimeter; with and without...

  15. Robot Actors, Robot Dramaturgies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jochum, Elizabeth

    This paper considers the use of tele-operated robots in live performance. Robots and performance have long been linked, from the working androids and automata staged in popular exhibitions during the nineteenth century and the robots featured at Cybernetic Serendipity (1968) and the World Expo...

  16. Portraits of self-organization in fish schools interacting with robots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aureli, M.; Fiorilli, F.; Porfiri, M.

    2012-05-01

    In this paper, we propose an enabling computational and theoretical framework for the analysis of experimental instances of collective behavior in response to external stimuli. In particular, this work addresses the characterization of aggregation and interaction phenomena in robot-animal groups through the exemplary analysis of fish schooling in the vicinity of a biomimetic robot. We adapt global observables from statistical mechanics to capture the main features of the shoal collective motion and its response to the robot from experimental observations. We investigate the shoal behavior by using a diffusion mapping analysis performed on these global observables that also informs the definition of relevant portraits of self-organization.

  17. Development of programming techniques for behaviors of nuclear robot in real environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsukune, Hideo; Ogasawara, Tsukasa; Hirukawa, Hirohisa; Kitagaki, Kosei; Onda, Hiromu; Nakamura, Akira

    1999-01-01

    This study aims at establishment of synthetic autonomous technique on nuclear robot for a basic technique to realize remote control and automation of works in a nuclear plant by means of development on action programming function under actual environment. Before 1997 fiscal year, development of manipulation description system due to contact state transition series, development of mechanical assembly work instruction system using contact actuating system, development of new manipulator system with excellent controllability, development of quasi contact point monitoring method, and development of environmental model construction method using range finder and instruction tree, had been conducted. In 1997 fiscal year, probability of nuclear robot, on synthetic autonomous technique was shown by synthesis of many results on action programming planning function into a prototype system under an actual environment obtained by those developments. (G.K.)

  18. Robust Behavior-Based Control for Distributed Multi-Robot Collection Tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    for proximity detection, a color sensor in the gripper, a radio transmit- ter/receiver for communication and data gathering, and an ultrasound /radio...infrared or ultrasound sensors) to the algorithmic (the goals of one robot undoing the work of another, competing goals, etc.). Here we fo- cus on physical...Press: Cambridge, Mas- sachusetts. [17] Richard T. Vaughan, Kasper Sty, Gaurav S. Sukhatme, and Maja J Mataric, \\ Whistling in the dark: Cooperative

  19. Comparison of Behavior-based and Planning Techniques on the Small Robot Maze Exploration Problem

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Slušný, Stanislav; Neruda, Roman; Vidnerová, Petra

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 23, č. 4 (2010), s. 560-567 ISSN 0893-6080. [ICANN 2008. International Conference on Artificial Neural Networks /18./. Prague, 03.09.2008-06.09.2008] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA201/08/1744 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : evolutionary robotic s * neural networks * reinforcement learning * localization Subject RIV: IN - Informatics, Computer Science Impact factor: 1.955, year: 2010

  20. Adaptation of community health worker-delivered behavioral activation for torture survivors in Kurdistan, Iraq.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magidson, J F; Lejuez, C W; Kamal, T; Blevins, E J; Murray, L K; Bass, J K; Bolton, P; Pagoto, S

    2015-12-01

    Growing evidence supports the use of Western therapies for the treatment of depression, trauma, and stress delivered by community health workers (CHWs) in conflict-affected, resource-limited countries. A recent randomized controlled trial (Bolton et al . 2014 a ) supported the efficacy of two CHW-delivered interventions, cognitive processing therapy (CPT) and brief behavioral activation treatment for depression (BATD), for reducing depressive symptoms and functional impairment among torture survivors in the Kurdish region of Iraq. This study describes the adaptation of the CHW-delivered BATD approach delivered in this trial (Bolton et al .2014 a ), informed by the Assessment-Decision-Administration-Production-Topical experts-Integration-Training-Testing (ADAPT-ITT) framework for intervention adaptation (Wingood & DiClemente, 2008). Cultural modifications, adaptations for low-literacy, and tailored training and supervision for non-specialist CHWs are presented, along with two clinical case examples to illustrate delivery of the adapted intervention in this setting. Eleven CHWs, a study psychiatrist, and the CHW clinical supervisor were trained in BATD. The adaptation process followed the ADAPT-ITT framework and was iterative with significant input from the on-site supervisor and CHWs. Modifications were made to fit Kurdish culture, including culturally relevant analogies, use of stickers for behavior monitoring, cultural modifications to behavioral contracts, and including telephone-delivered sessions to enhance feasibility. BATD was delivered by CHWs in a resource-poor, conflict-affected area in Kurdistan, Iraq, with some important modifications, including low-literacy adaptations, increased cultural relevancy of clinical materials, and tailored training and supervision for CHWs. Barriers to implementation, lessons learned, and recommendations for future efforts to adapt behavioral therapies for resource-limited, conflict-affected areas are discussed.

  1. Distance-Based Behaviors for Low-Complexity Control in Multiagent Robotics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierpaoli, Pietro

    Several biological examples show that living organisms cooperate to collectively accomplish tasks impossible for single individuals. More importantly, this coordination is often achieved with a very limited set of information. Inspired by these observations, research on autonomous systems has focused on the development of distributed control techniques for control and guidance of groups of autonomous mobile agents, or robots. From an engineering perspective, when coordination and cooperation is sought in large ensembles of robotic vehicles, a reduction in hardware and algorithms' complexity becomes mandatory from the very early stages of the project design. The research for solutions capable of lowering power consumption, cost and increasing reliability are thus worth investigating. In this work, we studied low-complexity techniques to achieve cohesion and control on swarms of autonomous robots. Starting from an inspiring example with two-agents, we introduced effects of neighbors' relative positions on control of an autonomous agent. The extension of this intuition addressed the control of large ensembles of autonomous vehicles, and was applied in the form of a herding-like technique. To this end, a low-complexity distance-based aggregation protocol was defined. We first showed that our protocol produced a cohesion aggregation among the agent while avoiding inter-agent collisions. Then, a feedback leader-follower architecture was introduced for the control of the swarm. We also described how proximity measures and probability of collisions with neighbors can also be used as source of information in highly populated environments.

  2. Perspectives of construction robots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepanov, M. A.; Gridchin, A. M.

    2018-03-01

    This article is an overview of construction robots features, based on formulating the list of requirements for different types of construction robots in relation to different types of construction works.. It describes a variety of construction works and ways to construct new or to adapt existing robot designs for a construction process. Also, it shows the prospects of AI-controlled machines, implementation of automated control systems and networks on construction sites. In the end, different ways to develop and improve, including ecological aspect, the construction process through the wide robotization, creating of data communication networks and, in perspective, establishing of fully AI-controlled construction complex are formulated.

  3. Soft-Material Robotics

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, L; Nurzaman, SG; Iida, Fumiya

    2017-01-01

    There has been a boost of research activities in robotics using soft materials in the past ten years. It is expected that the use and control of soft materials can help realize robotic systems that are safer, cheaper, and more adaptable than the level that the conventional rigid-material robots can achieve. Contrary to a number of existing review and position papers on soft-material robotics, which mostly present case studies and/or discuss trends and challenges, the review focuses on the fun...

  4. Soft computing in advanced robotics

    CERN Document Server

    Kobayashi, Ichiro; Kim, Euntai

    2014-01-01

    Intelligent system and robotics are inevitably bound up; intelligent robots makes embodiment of system integration by using the intelligent systems. We can figure out that intelligent systems are to cell units, while intelligent robots are to body components. The two technologies have been synchronized in progress. Making leverage of the robotics and intelligent systems, applications cover boundlessly the range from our daily life to space station; manufacturing, healthcare, environment, energy, education, personal assistance, logistics. This book aims at presenting the research results in relevance with intelligent robotics technology. We propose to researchers and practitioners some methods to advance the intelligent systems and apply them to advanced robotics technology. This book consists of 10 contributions that feature mobile robots, robot emotion, electric power steering, multi-agent, fuzzy visual navigation, adaptive network-based fuzzy inference system, swarm EKF localization and inspection robot. Th...

  5. Factors Influencing Maternal Behavioral Adaptability: Maternal Depressive Symptoms and Child Negative Affect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hummel, Alexandra C; Kiel, Elizabeth J

    2016-01-01

    In early childhood, parents play an important role in children's socioemotional development. As such, parent training is a central component of many psychological interventions for young children (Reyno & McGrath, 2006). Maternal depressive symptoms have consistently been linked to maladaptive parenting behaviors (e.g., disengagement, intrusiveness), as well as to lower parent training efficacy in the context of child psychological intervention, suggesting that mothers with higher symptomatology may be less able to be adapt their behavior according to situational demands. The goal of the current study was to examine both maternal and child factors that may influence maternal behavioral adaptability. Ninety-one mothers and their toddlers ( M = 23.93 months, 59% male) participated in a laboratory visit during which children engaged in a variety of novelty episodes designed to elicit individual differences in fear/withdrawal behaviors. Mothers also completed a questionnaire battery. Maternal behavioral adaptability was operationalized as the difference in scores for maternal involvement, comforting, and protective behavior between episodes in which mothers were instructed to refrain from interaction and those in which they were instructed to act naturally. Results indicated that when children displayed high levels of negative affect in the restricted episodes, mothers with higher levels of depressive symptoms were less able to adapt their involved behavior because they exhibited low rates of involvement across episodes regardless of instruction given. The current study serves as an intermediary step in understanding how maternal depressive symptoms may influence daily interactions with their children as well as treatment implementation and outcomes, and provides initial evidence that maternal internalizing symptoms may contribute to lower behavioral adaptability in the context of certain child behaviors due to consistent low involvement.

  6. Architecture for robot intelligence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, II, Richard Alan (Inventor)

    2004-01-01

    An architecture for robot intelligence enables a robot to learn new behaviors and create new behavior sequences autonomously and interact with a dynamically changing environment. Sensory information is mapped onto a Sensory Ego-Sphere (SES) that rapidly identifies important changes in the environment and functions much like short term memory. Behaviors are stored in a DBAM that creates an active map from the robot's current state to a goal state and functions much like long term memory. A dream state converts recent activities stored in the SES and creates or modifies behaviors in the DBAM.

  7. Robotic architectures

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mtshali, M

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In the development of mobile robotic systems, a robotic architecture plays a crucial role in interconnecting all the sub-systems and controlling the system. The design of robotic architectures for mobile autonomous robots is a challenging...

  8. Adaptive Vocational Personality Questionnaire Development and Validation of an adaptive personality questionnaire to analyze the vocational behavior of university students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amparo Gómez-Artiga

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This study presents a personality evaluation instrument adapted to the vocational setting: the Adaptive Vocational Personality Questionnaire (AVPQ. The questionnaire was developed and tested in a sample of 2160 university students in the final years of their degree programs. The purpose of the study is to validate the questionnaire, providing evidence about its internal structure and its usefulness for predicting scores on a criterion scale. A confirmatory factor analysis combined with a cross-validation design was used: the exploratory sample (n = 879 helped to identify the model with the factorial structure that best fit the relations among the items. As expected, this model had two related but clearly separate factors: Adaptive Personality Characteristics (AC with 9 items and Non-Adaptive Personality Characteristics (NAC with 11 items. The validation sample (n =932 was used to test the generalization capacity of this model, which was satisfactory and showed a good reliability index. Regarding its usefulness in predicting proactive job-search behaviors, the results were also satisfactory. The questionnaire and keys are provided, as well as the criteria for calculating the scores on each scale and on the entire questionnaire.

  9. Robot Games for Elderly

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Søren Tranberg

    2011-01-01

    improve a person’s overall health, and this thesis investigates how games based on an autonomous, mobile robot platform, can be used to motivate elderly to move physically while playing. The focus of the investigation is on the development of games for an autonomous, mobile robot based on algorithms using...... spatio-temporal information about player behaviour - more specifically, I investigate three types of games each using a different control strategy. The first game is based on basic robot control which allows the robot to detect and follow a person. A field study in a rehabilitation centre and a nursing....... The robot facilitates interaction, and the study suggests that robot based games potentially can be used for training balance and orientation. The second game consists in an adaptive game algorithm which gradually adjusts the game challenge to the mobility skills of the player based on spatio...

  10. Relationship between Family Adaptability, Cohesion and Adolescent Problem Behaviors: Curvilinearity of Circumplex Model

    OpenAIRE

    Joh, Ju Youn; Kim, Sun; Park, Jun Li; Kim, Yeon Pyo

    2013-01-01

    Background The Family Adaptability and Cohesion Evaluation Scale (FACES) III using the circumplex model has been widely used in investigating family function. However, the criticism of the curvilinear hypothesis of the circumplex model has always been from an empirical point of view. This study examined the relationship between adolescent adaptability, cohesion, and adolescent problem behaviors, and especially testing the consistency of the curvilinear hypotheses with FACES III. Methods We us...

  11. A Human-Robot Co-Manipulation Approach Based on Human Sensorimotor Information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peternel, Luka; Tsagarakis, Nikos; Ajoudani, Arash

    2017-07-01

    This paper aims to improve the interaction and coordination between the human and the robot in cooperative execution of complex, powerful, and dynamic tasks. We propose a novel approach that integrates online information about the human motor function and manipulability properties into the hybrid controller of the assistive robot. Through this human-in-the-loop framework, the robot can adapt to the human motor behavior and provide the appropriate assistive response in different phases of the cooperative task. We experimentally evaluate the proposed approach in two human-robot co-manipulation tasks that require specific complementary behavior from the two agents. Results suggest that the proposed technique, which relies on a minimum degree of task-level pre-programming, can achieve an enhanced physical human-robot interaction performance and deliver appropriate level of assistance to the human operator.

  12. Stochastic adaptation and fold-change detection: from single-cell to population behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leier André

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In cell signaling terminology, adaptation refers to a system's capability of returning to its equilibrium upon a transient response. To achieve this, a network has to be both sensitive and precise. Namely, the system must display a significant output response upon stimulation, and later on return to pre-stimulation levels. If the system settles at the exact same equilibrium, adaptation is said to be 'perfect'. Examples of adaptation mechanisms include temperature regulation, calcium regulation and bacterial chemotaxis. Results We present models of the simplest adaptation architecture, a two-state protein system, in a stochastic setting. Furthermore, we consider differences between individual and collective adaptive behavior, and show how our system displays fold-change detection properties. Our analysis and simulations highlight why adaptation needs to be understood in terms of probability, and not in strict numbers of molecules. Most importantly, selection of appropriate parameters in this simple linear setting may yield populations of cells displaying adaptation, while single cells do not. Conclusions Single cell behavior cannot be inferred from population measurements and, sometimes, collective behavior cannot be determined from the individuals. By consequence, adaptation can many times be considered a purely emergent property of the collective system. This is a clear example where biological ergodicity cannot be assumed, just as is also the case when cell replication rates are not homogeneous, or depend on the cell state. Our analysis shows, for the first time, how ergodicity cannot be taken for granted in simple linear examples either. The latter holds even when cells are considered isolated and devoid of replication capabilities (cell-cycle arrested. We also show how a simple linear adaptation scheme displays fold-change detection properties, and how rupture of ergodicity prevails in scenarios where transitions between

  13. Adaptation behavior of skilled infant bouncers to different spring frequencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olinda Habib Perez

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Infants explore their environments through repetitive movements that are constrained or facilitated by the environmental context. In this study, we evaluated how skilled bouncers adapted to bouncing in systems with four different spring conditions (natural frequencies of 0.9, 1.15, 1.27 and 1.56 Hz. Trunk kinematics and vertical ground reaction forces (VGRFs were recorded from three pre-walking infants (mean age 10.6 ±0.9 months. Bounce frequency, trunk displacement, peak VGRF, percent of time on the ground and time to peak force as a function of time on the ground were analyzed. In addition, infant bounce frequencies were compared to measured oscillations of an inert mass equivalent to each infant’s mass. All infants bounced above the natural frequency of the spring system in all conditions suggesting that they did not behave solely like mass-spring systems. Infants produced asymmetrical VGRF loading patterns suggesting that a timing component, such as bounce frequency, was regulated. Skilled infants consistently increased their bounce frequency as their vertical trunk displacement decreased; however, the mode for regulating bounce frequency differed from infant to infant.

  14. Effects of different kinds of robot feedback

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fischer, Kerstin; Lohan, K. S.; Nehaniv, C.

    2013-01-01

    , we investigate the impact of the robot's learning success on tutors' tutoring strategies. Our results show that only in the condition in which the robot's behavior is socially contingent, the human tutors adjust their behavior to the robot. In the developmentally equally plausible object......In this paper, we investigate to what extent tutors' behavior is influenced by different kinds of robot feedback. In particular, we study the effects of online robot feedback in which the robot responds either contingently to the tutor's social behavior or by tracking the objects presented. Also......-driven condition, in which the robot tracked the objects presented, tutors do not change their behavior significantly, even though in both conditions the robot develops from a prelinguistic stage to producing keywords. Socially contingent robot feedback has thus the potential to influence tutors' behavior over...

  15. Organizational Adaptative Behavior: The Complex Perspective of Individuals-Tasks Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jiang; Sun, Duoyong; Hu, Bin; Zhang, Yu

    Organizations with different organizational structures have different organizational behaviors when responding environmental changes. In this paper, we use a computational model to examine organizational adaptation on four dimensions: Agility, Robustness, Resilience, and Survivability. We analyze the dynamics of organizational adaptation by a simulation study from a complex perspective of the interaction between tasks and individuals in a sales enterprise. The simulation studies in different scenarios show that more flexible communication between employees and less hierarchy level with the suitable centralization can improve organizational adaptation.

  16. A Comparison of Adaptive Behaviors among Mentally Retarded and Normal Individuals: A guide to Prevention and Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leyla Sadros

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Because of the importance of adaptive behaviors in socialand domestic lives, this study aimed at a comparison of various domainsof adaptive behaviors, between mentally retarded and normalindividuals.Methods: A number of 246 normal and 74 mentally retarded individuals(7-18 years of age, mean: 12±3.5 years, participated this study inTehran, Iran. Their adaptive behaviors scores, were obtained using"Adaptive Behavioral Scale, Residential & Community" (ABS-RC: 2,consisting of 18 domains of behavior. The scale was first translatedinto Persian by the professionals and then retranslated into English byanother translator, to ensure content non-distortion.Results: The following domains were significantly lower in mentallyretarded than in normal individuals: independent functioning, economicactivity, language development, number & time, prevocational/vocational activity, self direction, responsibility, socialization,disturbing interpersonal behavior, domestic activity, social engagement,conformity and trustworthiness. No significant difference was documentedin the physical development, stereotype & hyperactive behaviors,sexual behavior as well as self abuse behavior domains, betweenthe two groups.Conclusions: As mentally deficient subjects did worse than normalones in terms of many adaptive behavioral domains, it implies that theadaptive behavioral issues in such people might need a great deal ofattention and intervention. For these retarded people to function betterin their social and residential environment, it would be necessary todevelop their adaptive behaviors. This study may shed light on theimportance of attention to the adaptive behavioral domains of mentallyretarded people and also indicates the necessity of preventive measures,even for normal individuals.

  17. Spatiotemporal Spike Coding of Behavioral Adaptation in the Dorsal Anterior Cingulate Cortex.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laureline Logiaco

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The frontal cortex controls behavioral adaptation in environments governed by complex rules. Many studies have established the relevance of firing rate modulation after informative events signaling whether and how to update the behavioral policy. However, whether the spatiotemporal features of these neuronal activities contribute to encoding imminent behavioral updates remains unclear. We investigated this issue in the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC of monkeys while they adapted their behavior based on their memory of feedback from past choices. We analyzed spike trains of both single units and pairs of simultaneously recorded neurons using an algorithm that emulates different biologically plausible decoding circuits. This method permits the assessment of the performance of both spike-count and spike-timing sensitive decoders. In response to the feedback, single neurons emitted stereotypical spike trains whose temporal structure identified informative events with higher accuracy than mere spike count. The optimal decoding time scale was in the range of 70-200 ms, which is significantly shorter than the memory time scale required by the behavioral task. Importantly, the temporal spiking patterns of single units were predictive of the monkeys' behavioral response time. Furthermore, some features of these spiking patterns often varied between jointly recorded neurons. All together, our results suggest that dACC drives behavioral adaptation through complex spatiotemporal spike coding. They also indicate that downstream networks, which decode dACC feedback signals, are unlikely to act as mere neural integrators.

  18. Spatiotemporal Spike Coding of Behavioral Adaptation in the Dorsal Anterior Cingulate Cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logiaco, Laureline; Quilodran, René; Procyk, Emmanuel; Arleo, Angelo

    2015-08-01

    The frontal cortex controls behavioral adaptation in environments governed by complex rules. Many studies have established the relevance of firing rate modulation after informative events signaling whether and how to update the behavioral policy. However, whether the spatiotemporal features of these neuronal activities contribute to encoding imminent behavioral updates remains unclear. We investigated this issue in the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC) of monkeys while they adapted their behavior based on their memory of feedback from past choices. We analyzed spike trains of both single units and pairs of simultaneously recorded neurons using an algorithm that emulates different biologically plausible decoding circuits. This method permits the assessment of the performance of both spike-count and spike-timing sensitive decoders. In response to the feedback, single neurons emitted stereotypical spike trains whose temporal structure identified informative events with higher accuracy than mere spike count. The optimal decoding time scale was in the range of 70-200 ms, which is significantly shorter than the memory time scale required by the behavioral task. Importantly, the temporal spiking patterns of single units were predictive of the monkeys' behavioral response time. Furthermore, some features of these spiking patterns often varied between jointly recorded neurons. All together, our results suggest that dACC drives behavioral adaptation through complex spatiotemporal spike coding. They also indicate that downstream networks, which decode dACC feedback signals, are unlikely to act as mere neural integrators.

  19. Peer Pressure and Adaptive Behavior Learning: A Study of Adolescents in Gujrat City

    OpenAIRE

    Asma Yunus; Shahzad Khaver Mushtaq; Sobia Qaiser

    2012-01-01

    The study aims at discovering the influences of Peer Pressure on adaptive behavior learning in the adolescents. For the purpose two scales, Adaptive behavior scale (ABS) and Peer Pressure Scale (PPS) were developed to measure both variables. The Sample of the study was purposive in nature and comprised of late adolescents (n=120) i.e. 60 males and 60 females, from Gujrat city. Cronbach alpha was calculated and found to be significant for Peer Pressure Scale(PPS) and its subscales i.e. Belongi...

  20. VisGraB: A Benchmark for Vision-Based Grasping. Paladyn Journal of Behavioral Robotics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kootstra, Gert; Popovic, Mila; Jørgensen, Jimmy Alison

    2012-01-01

    that a large number of grasps can be executed and evaluated while dealing with dynamics and the noise and uncertainty present in the real world images. VisGraB enables a fair comparison among different grasping methods. The user furthermore does not need to deal with robot hardware, focusing on the vision......We present a database and a software tool, VisGraB, for benchmarking of methods for vision-based grasping of unknown objects with no prior object knowledge. The benchmark is a combined real-world and simulated experimental setup. Stereo images of real scenes containing several objects in different...

  1. Fourteen-Month-Olds Adapt Their Imitative Behavior in Light of a Model’s Constraints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kata Gellén

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Rather than reenacting every action they observe, preverbal infants adapt their imitative behavior. Although previous studies have revealed the capability of preverbal infants to imitate selectively, the question about the adaptability of this behavior on an individual level did not attract considerable scientific attention until now. In the current study, we investigated whether 14-month-old infants flexibly alternate their imitative response in accordance with a model’s changing physical constraints in a body-part imitation paradigm. Participants were presented with two novel actions whereby a model illuminated a light-box and turned on a sound-box, either by using her forehead (head touch or by sitting on the apparatus (sit-touch. Each participant observed these tasks in two conditions: once where the model’s hands were occupied and once where her hands were free while executing the head or sit-touch. Participants were more likely to reenact the observed novel behavior when the model had freely chosen to perform it than when she had to do so due to physical constraints. Not only did we replicate a number of previous findings, we show here that preverbal infants adapt their imitative behavior across conditions based on the physical constraints of the model. These results point towards the adaptable nature of imitative behavior also on an individual level. This ability might be one of the building blocks for children for learning their social group’s specific action repertoire.

  2. Delay-induced diversity of firing behavior and ordered chaotic firing in adaptive neuronal networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gong Yubing; Wang Li; Xu Bo

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we study the effect of time delay on the firing behavior and temporal coherence and synchronization in Newman–Watts thermosensitive neuron networks with adaptive coupling. At beginning, the firing exhibit disordered spiking in absence of time delay. As time delay is increased, the neurons exhibit diversity of firing behaviors including bursting with multiple spikes in a burst, spiking, bursting with four, three and two spikes, firing death, and bursting with increasing amplitude. The spiking is the most ordered, exhibiting coherence resonance (CR)-like behavior, and the firing synchronization becomes enhanced with the increase of time delay. As growth rate of coupling strength or network randomness increases, CR-like behavior shifts to smaller time delay and the synchronization of firing increases. These results show that time delay can induce diversity of firing behaviors in adaptive neuronal networks, and can order the chaotic firing by enhancing and optimizing the temporal coherence and enhancing the synchronization of firing. However, the phenomenon of firing death shows that time delay may inhibit the firing of adaptive neuronal networks. These findings provide new insight into the role of time delay in the firing activity of adaptive neuronal networks, and can help to better understand the complex firing phenomena in neural networks.

  3. Behavior and adaptive functioning in adolescents with Down syndrome: specifying targets for intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacola, Lisa M; Hickey, Francis; Howe, Steven R; Esbensen, Anna; Shear, Paula K

    2014-01-01

    Research suggests that adolescents with Down syndrome experience increased behavior problems as compared to age matched peers; however, few studies have examined how these problems relate to adaptive functioning. The primary aim of this study was to characterize behavior in a sample of adolescents with Down syndrome using two widely-used caregiver reports: the Behavioral Assessment System for Children, 2 nd Edition (BASC-2) and Child Behavioral Checklist (CBCL). The clinical utility of the BASC-2 as a measure of behavior and adaptive functioning in adolescents with Down syndrome was also examined. Fifty-two adolescents with Down syndrome between the ages of 12 and 18 (24 males) completed the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test, 4 th Edition (PPVT-IV) as an estimate of cognitive ability. Caregivers completed the BASC-2 and the CBCL for each participant. A significant proportion of the sample was reported to demonstrate behavior problems, particularly related to attention and social participation. The profile of adaptive function was variable, with caregivers most frequently rating impairment in skills related to activities of daily living and functional communication. Caregiver ratings did not differ by gender and were not related to age or estimated cognitive ability. Caregiver ratings of attention problems on the BASC-2 accounted for a significant proportion of variance in Activities of Daily Living ( Adj R 2 = 0.30) , Leadership ( Adj R 2 = 0.30) Functional Communication ( Adj R 2 = 0.28, Adaptability ( Adj R 2 = 0.29), and Social Skills ( Adj R 2 = 0.17). Higher frequencies of symptoms related to social withdrawal added incremental predictive validity for Functional Communication, Leadership, and Social Skills. Convergent validity between the CBCL and BASC-2 was poor when compared with expectations based on the normative sample. Our results confirm and extend previous findings by describing relationships between specific behavior problems and targeted areas of

  4. Behavior and adaptive functioning in adolescents with Down syndrome: specifying targets for intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacola, Lisa M.; Hickey, Francis; Howe, Steven R.; Esbensen, Anna; Shear, Paula K.

    2016-01-01

    Background Research suggests that adolescents with Down syndrome experience increased behavior problems as compared to age matched peers; however, few studies have examined how these problems relate to adaptive functioning. The primary aim of this study was to characterize behavior in a sample of adolescents with Down syndrome using two widely-used caregiver reports: the Behavioral Assessment System for Children, 2nd Edition (BASC-2) and Child Behavioral Checklist (CBCL). The clinical utility of the BASC-2 as a measure of behavior and adaptive functioning in adolescents with Down syndrome was also examined. Methods Fifty-two adolescents with Down syndrome between the ages of 12 and 18 (24 males) completed the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test, 4th Edition (PPVT-IV) as an estimate of cognitive ability. Caregivers completed the BASC-2 and the CBCL for each participant. Results A significant proportion of the sample was reported to demonstrate behavior problems, particularly related to attention and social participation. The profile of adaptive function was variable, with caregivers most frequently rating impairment in skills related to activities of daily living and functional communication. Caregiver ratings did not differ by gender and were not related to age or estimated cognitive ability. Caregiver ratings of attention problems on the BASC-2 accounted for a significant proportion of variance in Activities of Daily Living (Adj R2 = 0.30), Leadership (Adj R2 = 0.30) Functional Communication (Adj R2 = 0.28, Adaptability (Adj R2 = 0.29), and Social Skills (Adj R2 = 0.17). Higher frequencies of symptoms related to social withdrawal added incremental predictive validity for Functional Communication, Leadership, and Social Skills. Convergent validity between the CBCL and BASC-2 was poor when compared with expectations based on the normative sample. Conclusion Our results confirm and extend previous findings by describing relationships between specific behavior problems

  5. The health policy implications of individual adaptive behavior responses to smog pollution in urban China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ban, Jie; Zhou, Lian; Zhang, Yi; Brooke Anderson, G; Li, Tiantian

    2017-09-01

    Smog pollution is a serious public health issue in urban China, where it is associated with public health through a range of respiratory and cardiovascular illnesses. Despite the negative health impacts of smog pollution, individual adaptive behaviors are poorly understood. This knowledge gap hinders the development of effective public policy to support and encourage the adoption of individual adaptive and mitigating behaviors to smog pollution. A questionnaire survey of 1141 randomly sampled individuals in a typical PM 2.5 -polluted Chinese city was designed to establish smog concerns and behavior changes during smog events. The results demonstrate a variety of behavior responses associated with risk perception, experience of smog, age, and gender of respondents. An understanding of these variations is critical to the development of effective public policy and ultimately to the improvement of public health in cities affected by smog. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Fable: Socially Interactive Modular Robot

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Magnússon, Arnþór; Pacheco, Moises; Moghadam, Mikael

    2013-01-01

    Modular robots have a significant potential as user-reconfigurable robotic playware, but often lack sufficient sensing for social interaction. We address this issue with the Fable modular robotic system by exploring the use of smart sensor modules that has a better ability to sense the behavior...

  7. To kill a mockingbird robot

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bartneck, C.; Verbunt, M.N.C.; Mubin, O.; Al Mahmud, A.

    2007-01-01

    Robots are being introduced in our society but their social status is still unclear. A critical issue is if the robot's exhibition of intelligent life-like behavior leads to the users' perception of animacy. The ultimate test for the life-likeness of a robot is to kill it. We therefore conducted an

  8. micROS: a morphable, intelligent and collective robot operating system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xuejun; Dai, Huadong; Yi, Xiaodong; Wang, Yanzhen; Yang, Shaowu; Zhang, Bo; Wang, Zhiyuan; Zhou, Yun; Peng, Xuefeng

    2016-01-01

    Robots are developing in much the same way that personal computers did 40 years ago, and robot operating system is the critical basis. Current robot software is mainly designed for individual robots. We present in this paper the design of micROS, a morphable, intelligent and collective robot operating system for future collective and collaborative robots. We first present the architecture of micROS, including the distributed architecture for collective robot system as a whole and the layered architecture for every single node. We then present the design of autonomous behavior management based on the observe-orient-decide-act cognitive behavior model and the design of collective intelligence including collective perception, collective cognition, collective game and collective dynamics. We also give the design of morphable resource management, which first categorizes robot resources into physical, information, cognitive and social domains, and then achieve morphability based on self-adaptive software technology. We finally deploy micROS on NuBot football robots and achieve significant improvement in real-time performance.

  9. Climate change beliefs, risk perceptions, and adaptation behavior among Midwestern U.S. crop farmers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amber Saylor Mase

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Global climate change presents unique challenges to the resilience of United States agriculture, and farmers and advisors must utilize effective adaptation strategies to be both economically and environmentally sustainable. This study addresses Midwestern U.S. crop farmers’ beliefs about climate change, perceived risks from weather and climate, and attitudes toward adaptation that influence their decisions to adopt adaptation strategies. Analyzing a 2012 survey of nearly 5000 corn farmers across 22 Midwestern U.S. Watersheds, we investigate the most common weather and climate risk management strategies, including purchasing additional crop insurance, implementing conservation practices, and adding new technology. U.S. farmers’ belief in anthropogenic climate change, perceptions of changing weather patterns, climate risks to their farm and attitudes toward adapting are analyzed. Farmers’ perceptions of risk to their own farm, attitudes toward innovation and adaptation attitudes were the most important determinants of adaptation. This study highlights the critical role of risk perceptions in adaptation attitudes as well as behaviors among agriculturalists. Finally, we discuss how these findings could be applied to increase uptake of adaptation strategies and thus resilience of U.S. agriculture to a changing climate.

  10. Automatic Specialization of Modular Robot Limbs

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Modular robotic systems have the potential to be adapted to varying tasks using a single platform and enable customizable robots to be developed faster and more...

  11. Learning motor skills from algorithms to robot experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Kober, Jens

    2014-01-01

    This book presents the state of the art in reinforcement learning applied to robotics both in terms of novel algorithms and applications. It discusses recent approaches that allow robots to learn motor skills and presents tasks that need to take into account the dynamic behavior of the robot and its environment, where a kinematic movement plan is not sufficient. The book illustrates a method that learns to generalize parameterized motor plans which is obtained by imitation or reinforcement learning, by adapting a small set of global parameters, and appropriate kernel-based reinforcement learning algorithms. The presented applications explore highly dynamic tasks and exhibit a very efficient learning process. All proposed approaches have been extensively validated with benchmarks tasks, in simulation, and on real robots. These tasks correspond to sports and games but the presented techniques are also applicable to more mundane household tasks. The book is based on the first author’s doctoral thesis, which wo...

  12. Relationship between Family Adaptability, Cohesion and Adolescent Problem Behaviors: Curvilinearity of Circumplex Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joh, Ju Youn; Kim, Sun; Park, Jun Li

    2013-01-01

    Background The Family Adaptability and Cohesion Evaluation Scale (FACES) III using the circumplex model has been widely used in investigating family function. However, the criticism of the curvilinear hypothesis of the circumplex model has always been from an empirical point of view. This study examined the relationship between adolescent adaptability, cohesion, and adolescent problem behaviors, and especially testing the consistency of the curvilinear hypotheses with FACES III. Methods We used the data from 398 adolescent participants who were in middle school. A self-reported questionnaire was used to evaluate the FACES III and Youth Self Report. Results According to the level of family adaptability, significant differences were evident in internalizing problems (P = 0.014). But, in externalizing problems, the results were not significant (P = 0.305). Also, according to the level of family cohesion, significant differences were in internalizing problems (P = 0.002) and externalizing problems (P = 0.004). Conclusion The relationship between the dimensions of adaptability, cohesion and adolescent problem behaviors was not curvilinear. In other words, adolescents with high adaptability and high cohesion showed low problem behaviors. PMID:23730484

  13. Relationship between Family Adaptability, Cohesion and Adolescent Problem Behaviors: Curvilinearity of Circumplex Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joh, Ju Youn; Kim, Sun; Park, Jun Li; Kim, Yeon Pyo

    2013-05-01

    The Family Adaptability and Cohesion Evaluation Scale (FACES) III using the circumplex model has been widely used in investigating family function. However, the criticism of the curvilinear hypothesis of the circumplex model has always been from an empirical point of view. This study examined the relationship between adolescent adaptability, cohesion, and adolescent problem behaviors, and especially testing the consistency of the curvilinear hypotheses with FACES III. We used the data from 398 adolescent participants who were in middle school. A self-reported questionnaire was used to evaluate the FACES III and Youth Self Report. According to the level of family adaptability, significant differences were evident in internalizing problems (P = 0.014). But, in externalizing problems, the results were not significant (P = 0.305). Also, according to the level of family cohesion, significant differences were in internalizing problems (P = 0.002) and externalizing problems (P = 0.004). The relationship between the dimensions of adaptability, cohesion and adolescent problem behaviors was not curvilinear. In other words, adolescents with high adaptability and high cohesion showed low problem behaviors.

  14. Put Your Robot In, Put Your Robot Out: Sequencing through Programming Robots in Early Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazakoff, Elizabeth R.; Bers, Marina Umaschi

    2014-01-01

    This article examines the impact of programming robots on sequencing ability in early childhood. Thirty-four children (ages 4.5-6.5 years) participated in computer programming activities with a developmentally appropriate tool, CHERP, specifically designed to program a robot's behaviors. The children learned to build and program robots over three…

  15. An embodied biologically constrained model of foraging: from classical and operant conditioning to adaptive real-world behavior in DAC-X.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maffei, Giovanni; Santos-Pata, Diogo; Marcos, Encarni; Sánchez-Fibla, Marti; Verschure, Paul F M J

    2015-12-01

    Animals successfully forage within new environments by learning, simulating and adapting to their surroundings. The functions behind such goal-oriented behavior can be decomposed into 5 top-level objectives: 'how', 'why', 'what', 'where', 'when' (H4W). The paradigms of classical and operant conditioning describe some of the behavioral aspects found in foraging. However, it remains unclear how the organization of their underlying neural principles account for these complex behaviors. We address this problem from the perspective of the Distributed Adaptive Control theory of mind and brain (DAC) that interprets these two paradigms as expressing properties of core functional subsystems of a layered architecture. In particular, we propose DAC-X, a novel cognitive architecture that unifies the theoretical principles of DAC with biologically constrained computational models of several areas of the mammalian brain. DAC-X supports complex foraging strategies through the progressive acquisition, retention and expression of task-dependent information and associated shaping of action, from exploration to goal-oriented deliberation. We benchmark DAC-X using a robot-based hoarding task including the main perceptual and cognitive aspects of animal foraging. We show that efficient goal-oriented behavior results from the interaction of parallel learning mechanisms accounting for motor adaptation, spatial encoding and decision-making. Together, our results suggest that the H4W problem can be solved by DAC-X building on the insights from the study of classical and operant conditioning. Finally, we discuss the advantages and limitations of the proposed biologically constrained and embodied approach towards the study of cognition and the relation of DAC-X to other cognitive architectures. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Implicit attitudes toward violence and their relation to psychopathy, aggression, and socially adaptive behaviors in forensic psychiatric inpatients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwets, Almar J.; Hornsveld, Ruud H J; Muris, Peter; Huijding, Jorg; Kanters, Thijs; Snowden, Robert J.; van Marle, Hjalmar

    2015-01-01

    In order to investigate the relation between implicit attitudes toward violence and different aspects of violent and social behavior in Dutch forensic psychiatric inpatients, an implicit association test was related to measures of psychopathy, aggression, and socially adaptive behaviors. Results

  17. Robot engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Seul

    2006-02-01

    This book deals with robot engineering, giving descriptions of robot's history, current tendency of robot field, work and characteristic of industrial robot, essential merit and vector, application of matrix, analysis of basic vector, expression of Denavit-Hartenberg, robot kinematics such as forward kinematics, inverse kinematics, cases of MATLAB program, and motion kinematics, robot kinetics like moment of inertia, centrifugal force and coriolis power, and Euler-Lagrangian equation course plan, SIMULINK position control of robots.

  18. Robot engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Seul

    2006-02-15

    This book deals with robot engineering, giving descriptions of robot's history, current tendency of robot field, work and characteristic of industrial robot, essential merit and vector, application of matrix, analysis of basic vector, expression of Denavit-Hartenberg, robot kinematics such as forward kinematics, inverse kinematics, cases of MATLAB program, and motion kinematics, robot kinetics like moment of inertia, centrifugal force and coriolis power, and Euler-Lagrangian equation course plan, SIMULINK position control of robots.

  19. Applying computer adaptive testing to optimize online assessment of suicidal behavior: a simulation study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Beurs, D.P.; de Vries, A.L.M.; de Groot, M.H.; de Keijser, J.; Kerkhof, A.J.F.M.

    2014-01-01

    Background: The Internet is used increasingly for both suicide research and prevention. To optimize online assessment of suicidal patients, there is a need for short, good-quality tools to assess elevated risk of future suicidal behavior. Computer adaptive testing (CAT) can be used to reduce

  20. Neurodevelopmental Status and Adaptive Behaviors in Preschool Children with Chronic Kidney Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duquette, Peter J.; Hooper, Stephen R.; Icard, Phil F.; Hower, Sarah J.; Mamak, Eva G.; Wetherington, Crista E.; Gipson, Debbie S.

    2009-01-01

    This study examines the early neurodevelopmental function of infants and preschool children who have chronic kidney disease (CKD). Fifteen patients with CKD are compared to a healthy control group using the "Mullen Scales of Early Learning" (MSEL) and the "Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scale" (VABS). Multivariate analysis reveals…

  1. Mothers' and Fathers' Parenting Styles and Associations with Toddlers' Externalizing, Internalizing, and Adaptive Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinaldi, Christina M.; Howe, Nina

    2012-01-01

    The two primary objectives of the present study were to (a) investigate mothers' and fathers' reports of their own as well as their partner's parenting styles, and (b) assess how mothers' and fathers' parenting styles uniquely and jointly predicted toddlers' externalizing, internalizing, and adaptive behaviors. Fifty-nine mothers and fathers…

  2. Traffic flow impacts of adaptive cruise control deactivation and (Re)activation with cooperative driver behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klunder, G.; Li, M.; Minderhoud, M.

    2009-01-01

    In 2006 in the Netherlands, a field operational test was carried out to study the effect of adaptive cruise control (ACC) and lane departure warning on driver behavior and traffic flow in real traffic. To estimate the effect for larger penetration rates, simulations were needed. For a reliable

  3. Adaptive Interventions and SMART Designs: Application to Child Behavior Research in a Community Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kidwell, Kelley M.; Hyde, Luke W.

    2016-01-01

    Heterogeneity between and within people necessitates the need for sequential personalized interventions to optimize individual outcomes. Personalized or adaptive interventions (AIs) are relevant for diseases and maladaptive behavioral trajectories when one intervention is not curative and success of a subsequent intervention may depend on…

  4. Using Mental Health Consultation to Decrease Disruptive Behaviors in Preschoolers: Adapting an Empirically-Supported Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williford, Amanda P.; Shelton, Terri L.

    2008-01-01

    Background: This study examined the effectiveness of an adaptation of an empirically-supported intervention delivered using mental health consultation to preschoolers who displayed elevated disruptive behaviors. Method: Ninety-six preschoolers, their teachers, and their primary caregivers participated. Children in the intervention group received…

  5. A Systematic Review and Psychometric Evaluation of Adaptive Behavior Scales and Recommendations for Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floyd, Randy G.; Shands, Elizabeth I.; Alfonso, Vincent C.; Phillips, Jessica F.; Autry, Beth K.; Mosteller, Jessica A.; Skinner, Mary; Irby, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    Adaptive behavior scales are vital in assessing children and adolescents who experience a range of disabling conditions in school settings. This article presents the results of an evaluation of the design characteristics, norming, scale characteristics, reliability and validity evidence, and bias identification studies supporting 14…

  6. How the Parent-Child Relationship Affects Externalizing, Internalizing, and Adaptive Behavior Development in Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levenson, Lauren Nicole

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between parent-child relationship characteristics (attachment, involvement, discipline practices, parenting confidence, and relational frustration) and behavioral outcomes (internalizing, externalizing, and adaptive) in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). ASD presents pervasive…

  7. Future Time Perspective as a Predictor of Adolescents' Adaptive Behavior in School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Renato Gil Gomes

    2015-01-01

    Future time perspective (FTP) has been associated with positive outcomes in adolescents' development across different contexts. However, the extent to which FTP influences adaptation needs additional understanding. In this study, we analysed the relationship between FTP and adolescents' behavior in school, as expressed in several indicators of…

  8. Adaptive versus proactive behavior in service recovery: The role of self-managing teams

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, de A.; Ruyter, de J.C.

    2004-01-01

    In this article, we develop a conceptual model of adaptive versus proactive recovery behavior by self-managing teams (SMTs) in service recovery operations. To empirically test the conceptual model a combination of bank employee, customer, and archival data is collected. The results demonstrate

  9. The Relation between Intelligence and Adaptive Behavior: A Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Ryan M.

    2017-01-01

    Intelligence tests and adaptive behavior scales measure vital aspects of the multidimensional nature of human functioning. Assessment of each is a required component in the diagnosis or identification of intellectual disability, and both are frequently used conjointly in the assessment and identification of other developmental disabilities. The…

  10. A Factor-Analytic Study of Adaptive Behavior and Intellectual Functioning in Learning Disabled Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeargan, Dollye R.

    The factorial structure of intellectual functioning and adaptive behavior was examined in 160 learning disabled students (6 to 16 years old). Ss were administered the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Revised (WISC-R) and the Coping Inventory (CI). Factor analysis of WISC-R scores revealed three factors: verbal comprehenson, perceptual…

  11. Adaptive Behavior and Development of Infants and Toddlers with Williams Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca M. Kirchner

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Williams syndrome (WS is a neurodevelopmental disorder that causes deficits in adaptive behavior, difficulties eating and sleeping, cognitive delays, and delayed development. Although researchers have conducted characterizations of children and adults with WS, less is known about young children with this disorder. This study characterizes the developmental and adaptive behavior features of 16 infants and toddlers with WS aged 3 months - 5 years. Data for this project was obtained from 2007-2014, and includes parent report data and standardized developmental testing. Thirty-one percent (31.3% of parents reported that their infant/toddler with WS had sleeping problems and 58.3% reported feeding difficulties. Levels of adaptive behavior were in the Mildly Delayed range as measured by the Adaptive Behavior Assessment System, Second Edition. Self care skills such as feeding or dressing oneself were significantly weaker than skills needed to function in the community, such as recognizing his/her home or throwing away trash. The difficulty with self-care skills is hypothesized to be related to the reported difficulties with eating and sleeping. Motor skills were significantly lower than both cognitive and language skills on the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development, Third Edition. The current study highlights the need for early intervention in these young children across all areas of development, particularly in self-care skills.

  12. The Combined Effects of Adaptive Control and Virtual Reality on Robot-Assisted Fine Hand Motion Rehabilitation in Chronic Stroke Patients: A Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xianwei; Naghdy, Fazel; Naghdy, Golshah; Du, Haiping; Todd, Catherine

    2018-01-01

    Robot-assisted therapy is regarded as an effective and reliable method for the delivery of highly repetitive training that is needed to trigger neuroplasticity following a stroke. However, the lack of fully adaptive assist-as-needed control of the robotic devices and an inadequate immersive virtual environment that can promote active participation during training are obstacles hindering the achievement of better training results with fewer training sessions required. This study thus focuses on these research gaps by combining these 2 key components into a rehabilitation system, with special attention on the rehabilitation of fine hand motion skills. The effectiveness of the proposed system is tested by conducting clinical trials on a chronic stroke patient and verified through clinical evaluation methods by measuring the key kinematic features such as active range of motion (ROM), finger strength, and velocity. By comparing the pretraining and post-training results, the study demonstrates that the proposed method can further enhance the effectiveness of fine hand motion rehabilitation training by improving finger ROM, strength, and coordination. Copyright © 2018 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Survival of falling robots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, Jonathan M.; Arkin, Ronald C.

    1992-01-01

    As mobile robots are used in more uncertain and dangerous environments, it will become important to design them so that they can survive falls. In this paper, we examine a number of mechanisms and strategies that animals use to withstand these potentially catastrophic events and extend them to the design of robots. A brief survey of several aspects of how common cats survive falls provides an understanding of the issues involved in preventing traumatic injury during a falling event. After outlining situations in which robots might fall, a number of factors affecting their survival are described. From this background, several robot design guidelines are derived. These include recommendations for the physical structure of the robot as well as requirements for the robot control architecture. A control architecture is proposed based on reactive control techniques and action-oriented perception that is geared to support this form of survival behavior.

  14. Survival of falling robots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, Jonathan M.; Arkin, Ronald C.

    1992-02-01

    As mobile robots are used in more uncertain and dangerous environments, it will become important to design them so that they can survive falls. In this paper, we examine a number of mechanisms and strategies that animals use to withstand these potentially catastrophic events and extend them to the design of robots. A brief survey of several aspects of how common cats survive falls provides an understanding of the issues involved in preventing traumatic injury during a falling event. After outlining situations in which robots might fall, a number of factors affecting their survival are described. From this background, several robot design guidelines are derived. These include recommendations for the physical structure of the robot as well as requirements for the robot control architecture. A control architecture is proposed based on reactive control techniques and action-oriented perception that is geared to support this form of survival behavior.

  15. Development of programming techniques for behaviors of nuclear robot in real environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsukune, Hideo; Ogasawara, Tsukasa; Hirukawa, Hirohisa; Kitagaki, Kosei; Onda, Hiromu; Nakamura, Akira

    1998-01-01

    Combinations of surface elements needed to determine the position and the posture of a robot have been investigated based on the morphological properties of each object and expressed in a tree form. Here, a way to construct an environment model using the task-directional instructing tree was introduced. Several surface elements to be used for modeling were prioritized taking consideration of the kind of tasks in the tree. This modeling with the instructing tree was found to be an effective method which allows to flexibly respond to severe environments including occlusion and specular reflexion, which often appear in nuclear installation. In addition, pseudo-contact point monitoring method was implemented into ''Takumi'', a sensor-based manipulation system developed in the previous year and the effectiveness of this system was examined through an experiment of putting a seal on a paper with the manipulator, suggesting availability in real working conditions. (M.N.)

  16. Dynamic whole-body robotic manipulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, Yeuhi; Stephens, Benjamin; Murphy, Michael P.; Rizzi, Alfred A.

    2013-05-01

    The creation of dynamic manipulation behaviors for high degree of freedom, mobile robots will allow them to accomplish increasingly difficult tasks in the field. We are investigating how the coordinated use of the body, legs, and integrated manipulator, on a mobile robot, can improve the strength, velocity, and workspace when handling heavy objects. We envision that such a capability would aid in a search and rescue scenario when clearing obstacles from a path or searching a rubble pile quickly. Manipulating heavy objects is especially challenging because the dynamic forces are high and a legged system must coordinate all its degrees of freedom to accomplish tasks while maintaining balance. To accomplish these types of manipulation tasks, we use trajectory optimization techniques to generate feasible open-loop behaviors for our 28 dof quadruped robot (BigDog) by planning trajectories in a 13 dimensional space. We apply the Covariance Matrix Adaptation (CMA) algorithm to solve for trajectories that optimize task performance while also obeying important constraints such as torque and velocity limits, kinematic limits, and center of pressure location. These open-loop behaviors are then used to generate desired feed-forward body forces and foot step locations, which enable tracking on the robot. Some hardware results for cinderblock throwing are demonstrated on the BigDog quadruped platform augmented with a human-arm-like manipulator. The results are analogous to how a human athlete maximizes distance in the discus event by performing a precise sequence of choreographed steps.

  17. Special Issue on Intelligent Robots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Genci Capi

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The research on intelligent robots will produce robots that are able to operate in everyday life environments, to adapt their program according to environment changes, and to cooperate with other team members and humans. Operating in human environments, robots need to process, in real time, a large amount of sensory data—such as vision, laser, microphone—in order to determine the best action. Intelligent algorithms have been successfully applied to link complex sensory data to robot action. This editorial briefly summarizes recent findings in the field of intelligent robots as described in the articles published in this special issue.

  18. A control systems engineering approach for adaptive behavioral interventions: illustration with a fibromyalgia intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deshpande, Sunil; Rivera, Daniel E; Younger, Jarred W; Nandola, Naresh N

    2014-09-01

    The term adaptive intervention has been used in behavioral medicine to describe operationalized and individually tailored strategies for prevention and treatment of chronic, relapsing disorders. Control systems engineering offers an attractive means for designing and implementing adaptive behavioral interventions that feature intensive measurement and frequent decision-making over time. This is illustrated in this paper for the case of a low-dose naltrexone treatment intervention for fibromyalgia. System identification methods from engineering are used to estimate dynamical models from daily diary reports completed by participants. These dynamical models then form part of a model predictive control algorithm which systematically decides on treatment dosages based on measurements obtained under real-life conditions involving noise, disturbances, and uncertainty. The effectiveness and implications of this approach for behavioral interventions (in general) and pain treatment (in particular) are demonstrated using informative simulations.

  19. Associations between risk perception, spontaneous adaptation behavior to heat waves and heatstroke in Guangdong province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tao; Xu, Yan Jun; Zhang, Yong Hui; Yan, Qing Hua; Song, Xiu Ling; Xie, Hui Yan; Luo, Yuan; Rutherford, Shannon; Chu, Cordia; Lin, Hua Liang; Ma, Wen Jun

    2013-10-02

    In many parts of the world, including in China, extreme heat events or heat waves are likely to increase in intensity, frequency, and duration in light of climate change in the next decades. Risk perception and adaptation behaviors are two important components in reducing the health impacts of heat waves, but little is known about their relationships in China. This study aimed to examine the associations between risk perception to heat waves, adaptation behaviors, and heatstroke among the public in Guangdong province, China. A total of 2,183 adult participants were selected using a four-stage sampling method in Guangdong province. From September to November of 2010 each subject was interviewed at home by a well-trained investigator using a structured questionnaire. The information collected included socio-demographic characteristics, risk perception and spontaneous adaptation behaviors during heat wave periods, and heatstroke experience in the last year. Chi-square tests and unconditional logistic regression models were employed to analyze the data. This study found that 14.8%, 65.3% and 19.9% of participants perceived heat waves as a low, moderate or high health risk, respectively. About 99.1% participants employed at least one spontaneous adaptation behavior, and 26.2%, 51.2% and 22.6% respondents employed 7 adaptation behaviors during heat waves, respectively. Individuals with moderate (OR=2.93, 95% CI: 1.38-6.22) or high (OR=10.58, 95% CI: 4.74-23.63) risk perception experienced more heatstroke in the past year than others. Drinking more water and wearing light clothes in urban areas, while decreasing activity as well as wearing light clothes in rural areas were negatively associated with heatstroke. Individuals with high risk perception and employing risks of heatstroke (OR=47.46, 95% CI: 12.82-175.73). There is a large room for improving health risk perception and adaptation capacity to heat waves among the public of Guangdong province. People with higher

  20. Associations between risk perception, spontaneous adaptation behavior to heat waves and heatstroke in Guangdong province, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background In many parts of the world, including in China, extreme heat events or heat waves are likely to increase in intensity, frequency, and duration in light of climate change in the next decades. Risk perception and adaptation behaviors are two important components in reducing the health impacts of heat waves, but little is known about their relationships in China. This study aimed to examine the associations between risk perception to heat waves, adaptation behaviors, and heatstroke among the public in Guangdong province, China. Methods A total of 2,183 adult participants were selected using a four-stage sampling method in Guangdong province. From September to November of 2010 each subject was interviewed at home by a well-trained investigator using a structured questionnaire. The information collected included socio-demographic characteristics, risk perception and spontaneous adaptation behaviors during heat wave periods, and heatstroke experience in the last year. Chi-square tests and unconditional logistic regression models were employed to analyze the data. Results This study found that 14.8%, 65.3% and 19.9% of participants perceived heat waves as a low, moderate or high health risk, respectively. About 99.1% participants employed at least one spontaneous adaptation behavior, and 26.2%, 51.2% and 22.6% respondents employed 7 adaptation behaviors during heat waves, respectively. Individuals with moderate (OR=2.93, 95% CI: 1.38-6.22) or high (OR=10.58, 95% CI: 4.74-23.63) risk perception experienced more heatstroke in the past year than others. Drinking more water and wearing light clothes in urban areas, while decreasing activity as well as wearing light clothes in rural areas were negatively associated with heatstroke. Individuals with high risk perception and employing risks of heatstroke (OR=47.46, 95% CI: 12.82-175.73). Conclusions There is a large room for improving health risk perception and adaptation capacity to heat waves among the public of

  1. Behaviorally Mediated, Warm Adaptation: A Physiological Strategy When Mice Are Allowed to Behaviorally Thermoregulate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laboratory mice housed under standard vivarium conditions with an ambient temperature (Ta) of -22°C are likely to be cold stressed because this Ta is below their thermoneutral zone (TNZ). Mice raised at Tas within the TNZ adapt to the warmer temperatures, developing smaller int...

  2. Do Robot Performance and Behavioral Style affect Human Trust? : A Multi-Method Approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Brule, Rik; Dotsch, Ron; Bijlstra, Gijsbert; Wigboldus, D.H.J.; Haselager, Pim

    2014-01-01

    An important aspect of a robot’s social behavior is to convey the right amount of trustworthiness. Task performance has shown to be an important source for trustworthiness judgments. Here, we argue that factors such as a robot’s behavioral style can play an important role as well. Our approach to

  3. Merge Fuzzy Visual Servoing and GPS-Based Planning to Obtain a Proper Navigation Behavior for a Small Crop-Inspection Robot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bengochea-Guevara, José M; Conesa-Muñoz, Jesus; Andújar, Dionisio; Ribeiro, Angela

    2016-02-24

    The concept of precision agriculture, which proposes farming management adapted to crop variability, has emerged in recent years. To effectively implement precision agriculture, data must be gathered from the field in an automated manner at minimal cost. In this study, a small autonomous field inspection vehicle was developed to minimise the impact of the scouting on the crop and soil compaction. The proposed approach integrates a camera with a GPS receiver to obtain a set of basic behaviours required of an autonomous mobile robot to inspect a crop field with full coverage. A path planner considered the field contour and the crop type to determine the best inspection route. An image-processing method capable of extracting the central crop row under uncontrolled lighting conditions in real time from images acquired with a reflex camera positioned on the front of the robot was developed. Two fuzzy controllers were also designed and developed to achieve vision-guided navigation. A method for detecting the end of a crop row using camera-acquired images was developed. In addition, manoeuvres necessary for the robot to change rows were established. These manoeuvres enabled the robot to autonomously cover the entire crop by following a previously established plan and without stepping on the crop row, which is an essential behaviour for covering crops such as maize without damaging them.

  4. Adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broom, Donald M

    2006-01-01

    The term adaptation is used in biology in three different ways. It may refer to changes which occur at the cell and organ level, or at the individual level, or at the level of gene action and evolutionary processes. Adaptation by cells, especially nerve cells helps in: communication within the body, the distinguishing of stimuli, the avoidance of overload and the conservation of energy. The time course and complexity of these mechanisms varies. Adaptive characters of organisms, including adaptive behaviours, increase fitness so this adaptation is evolutionary. The major part of this paper concerns adaptation by individuals and its relationships to welfare. In complex animals, feed forward control is widely used. Individuals predict problems and adapt by acting before the environmental effect is substantial. Much of adaptation involves brain control and animals have a set of needs, located in the brain and acting largely via motivational mechanisms, to regulate life. Needs may be for resources but are also for actions and stimuli which are part of the mechanism which has evolved to obtain the resources. Hence pigs do not just need food but need to be able to carry out actions like rooting in earth or manipulating materials which are part of foraging behaviour. The welfare of an individual is its state as regards its attempts to cope with its environment. This state includes various adaptive mechanisms including feelings and those which cope with disease. The part of welfare which is concerned with coping with pathology is health. Disease, which implies some significant effect of pathology, always results in poor welfare. Welfare varies over a range from very good, when adaptation is effective and there are feelings of pleasure or contentment, to very poor. A key point concerning the concept of individual adaptation in relation to welfare is that welfare may be good or poor while adaptation is occurring. Some adaptation is very easy and energetically cheap and

  5. ALLIANCE: An architecture for fault tolerant, cooperative control of heterogeneous mobile robots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parker, L.E.

    1995-02-01

    This research addresses the problem of achieving fault tolerant cooperation within small- to medium-sized teams of heterogeneous mobile robots. The author describes a novel behavior-based, fully distributed architecture, called ALLIANCE, that utilizes adaptive action selection to achieve fault tolerant cooperative control in robot missions involving loosely coupled, largely independent tasks. The robots in this architecture possess a variety of high-level functions that they can perform during a mission, and must at all times select an appropriate action based on the requirements of the mission, the activities of other robots, the current environmental conditions, and their own internal states. Since such cooperative teams often work in dynamic and unpredictable environments, the software architecture allows the team members to respond robustly and reliably to unexpected environmental changes and modifications in the robot team that may occur due to mechanical failure, the learning of new skills, or the addition or removal of robots from the team by human intervention. After presenting ALLIANCE, the author describes in detail experimental results of an implementation of this architecture on a team of physical mobile robots performing a cooperative box pushing demonstration. These experiments illustrate the ability of ALLIANCE to achieve adaptive, fault-tolerant cooperative control amidst dynamic changes in the capabilities of the robot team.

  6. Autonomous mobile robot teams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agah, Arvin; Bekey, George A.

    1994-01-01

    This paper describes autonomous mobile robot teams performing tasks in unstructured environments. The behavior and the intelligence of the group is distributed, and the system does not include a central command base or leader. The novel concept of the Tropism-Based Cognitive Architecture is introduced, which is used by the robots in order to produce behavior transforming their sensory information to proper action. The results of a number of simulation experiments are presented. These experiments include worlds where the robot teams must locate, decompose, and gather objects, and defend themselves against hostile predators, while navigating around stationary and mobile obstacles.

  7. Report on results of 1998 regional consortium R and D project. 'Regional consortium energy R and D field' 'R and D of task-adaptive platoon transportation robot system, TRIPTERS'; 1998 nendo task tekigogatagun kosei hanso robot system TRIPTERS no kaihatsu kenkyu (dai 2 nendo) seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    For the purpose of realizing a task-adaptive platoon transportation robot system, R and D were conducted concerning functional modules, platoon transportation control technologies, etc.. In the R and D of a positioning module, measuring accuracy was examined in a stationary state in relation to the two- and three-dimensional instrumentation of a robot by using laser. In the R and D of a module for recognizing environmental state and avoiding obstacles, the steering of an autonomous running vehicle and a method of recognizing its position were examined using a stereo camera, with a steering theory constructed. In the R and D of a standardized robot, a large AGV (automated guided vehicle) and a running control program were prepared, with the validity verified for the hardware and the control method of the robot by the running test. In the R and D of a autonomous and distributed cooperative module and a small imaging module for workspace sensing, the movement of plural robots was simulated, with a simulator developed capable of visually confirming the movement. The experiment of the plural robots proved effectiveness of the clustering. (NEDO)

  8. How Accurate Appraisal of Behavioral Costs and Benefits Guides Adaptive Pain Coping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiebke Gandhi

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Coping with pain is a complex phenomenon encompassing a variety of behavioral responses and a large network of underlying neural circuits. Whether pain coping is adaptive or maladaptive depends on the type of pain (e.g., escapable or inescapable, personal factors (e.g., individual experiences with coping strategies in the past, and situational circumstances. Keeping these factors in mind, costs and benefits of different strategies have to be appraised and will guide behavioral decisions in the face of pain. In this review we present pain coping as an unconscious decision-making process during which accurately evaluated costs and benefits lead to adaptive pain coping behavior. We emphasize the importance of passive coping as an adaptive strategy when dealing with ongoing pain and thus go beyond the common view of passivity as a default state of helplessness. In combination with passive pain coping, we highlight the role of the reward system in reestablishing affective homeostasis and discuss existing evidence on a behavioral and neural level. We further present neural circuits involved in the decision-making process of pain coping when circumstances are ambiguous and, therefore, costs and benefits are difficult to anticipate. Finally, we address the wider implications of this topic by discussing its relevance for chronic pain patients.

  9. Behavioral phenotypes of genetic syndromes with intellectual disability: comparison of adaptive profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Nuovo, Santo; Buono, Serafino

    2011-10-30

    The study of distinctive and consistent behaviors in the most common genetic syndromes with intellectual disability is useful to explain abnormalities or associated psychiatric disorders. The behavioral phenotypes revealed outcomes totally or partially specific for each syndrome. The aim of our study was to compare similarities and differences in the adaptive profiles of the five most frequent genetic syndromes, i.e. Down syndrome, Williams syndrome, Angelman syndrome, Prader-Willi syndrome, and Fragile-X syndrome (fully mutated), taking into account the relation with chronological age and the overall IQ level. The research was carried out using the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scale (beside the Wechsler Intelligence scales to obtain IQ) with a sample of 181 persons (107 males and 74 females) showing genetic syndromes and mental retardation. Syndrome-based groups were matched for chronological age and mental age (excluding the Angelman group, presenting with severe mental retardation). Similarities and differences in the adaptive profiles are described, relating them to IQs and maladaptive behaviors. The results might be useful in obtaining a global index of adjustment for the assessment of intellectual disability level as well as for educational guidance and rehabilitative plans. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Evolution of Signaling in a Multi-Robot System: Categorization and Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ampatzis, Christos; Tuci, Elio; Trianni, Vito; Dorigo, Marco

    We use Evolutionary Robotics to design robot controllers in which decision-making mechanisms to switch from solitary to social behavior are integrated with the mechanisms that underpin the sensory-motor repertoire of the robots. In particular, we study the evolution of behavioral and communicative skills in a categorization task. The individual decision-making structures are based on the integration over time of sensory information. The mechanisms for switching from solitary to social behavior and the ways in which the robots can affect each other's behavior are not predetermined by the experimenter, but are aspects of our model designed by artificial evolution. Our results show that evolved robots manage to cooperate and collectively discriminate between different environments by developing a simple communication protocol based on sound signaling. Communication emerges in the absence of explicit selective pressure coded in the fitness function. The evolution of communication is neither trivial nor obvious; for a meaningful signaling system to evolve, evolution must produce both appropriate signals and appropriate reactions to signals. The use of communication proves to be adaptive for the group, even if, in principle, non-cooperating robots can be equally successful with cooperating robots.

  11. Adaptation

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    building skills, knowledge or networks on adaptation, ... the African partners leading the AfricaAdapt network, together with the UK-based Institute of Development Studies; and ... UNCCD Secretariat, Regional Coordination Unit for Africa, Tunis, Tunisia .... 26 Rural–urban Cooperation on Water Management in the Context of.

  12. Evolutionary Fuzzy Control and Navigation for Two Wheeled Robots Cooperatively Carrying an Object in Unknown Environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juang, Chia-Feng; Lai, Min-Ge; Zeng, Wan-Ting

    2015-09-01

    This paper presents a method that allows two wheeled, mobile robots to navigate unknown environments while cooperatively carrying an object. In the navigation method, a leader robot and a follower robot cooperatively perform either obstacle boundary following (OBF) or target seeking (TS) to reach a destination. The two robots are controlled by fuzzy controllers (FC) whose rules are learned through an adaptive fusion of continuous ant colony optimization and particle swarm optimization (AF-CACPSO), which avoids the time-consuming task of manually designing the controllers. The AF-CACPSO-based evolutionary fuzzy control approach is first applied to the control of a single robot to perform OBF. The learning approach is then applied to achieve cooperative OBF with two robots, where an auxiliary FC designed with the AF-CACPSO is used to control the follower robot. For cooperative TS, a rule for coordination of the two robots is developed. To navigate cooperatively, a cooperative behavior supervisor is introduced to select between cooperative OBF and cooperative TS. The performance of the AF-CACPSO is verified through comparisons with various population-based optimization algorithms for the OBF learning problem. Simulations and experiments verify the effectiveness of the approach for cooperative navigation of two robots.

  13. Robustness of critical points in a complex adaptive system: Effects of hedge behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Yuan; Huang, Ji-Ping

    2013-08-01

    In our recent papers, we have identified a class of phase transitions in the market-directed resource-allocation game, and found that there exists a critical point at which the phase transitions occur. The critical point is given by a certain resource ratio. Here, by performing computer simulations and theoretical analysis, we report that the critical point is robust against various kinds of human hedge behavior where the numbers of herds and contrarians can be varied widely. This means that the critical point can be independent of the total number of participants composed of normal agents, herds and contrarians, under some conditions. This finding means that the critical points we identified in this complex adaptive system (with adaptive agents) may also be an intensive quantity, similar to those revealed in traditional physical systems (with non-adaptive units).

  14. Towards Player’s Affective and Behavioral Visual Cues as drives to Game Adaptation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asteriadis, Stylianos; Shaker, Noor; Karpouzis, Kostas

    2012-01-01

    Recent advances in emotion and affect recognition can play a crucial role in game technology. Moving from the typical game controls to controls generated from free gestures is already in the market. Higher level controls, however, can also be motivated by player’s affective and cognitive behavior...... itself, during gameplay. In this paper, we explore player’s behavior, as captured by computer vision techniques, and player’s details regarding his own experience and profile. The objective of the current research is game adaptation aiming at maximizing player enjoyment. To this aim, the ability to infer...... player engagement and frustration, along with the degree of challenge imposed by the game is explored. The estimated levels of the induced metrics can feed an engine’s artificial intelligence, allowing for game adaptation....

  15. A Novel Adaptive Particle Swarm Optimization Algorithm with Foraging Behavior in Optimization Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Yan

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The method of repeated trial and proofreading is generally used to the convention reducer design, but these methods is low efficiency and the size of the reducer is often large. Aiming the problems, this paper presents an adaptive particle swarm optimization algorithm with foraging behavior, in this method, the bacterial foraging process is introduced into the adaptive particle swarm optimization algorithm, which can provide the function of particle chemotaxis, swarming, reproduction, elimination and dispersal, to improve the ability of local search and avoid premature behavior. By test verification through typical function and the application of the optimization design in the structure of the reducer with discrete and continuous variables, the results are shown that the new algorithm has the advantages of good reliability, strong searching ability and high accuracy. It can be used in engineering design, and has a strong applicability.

  16. Modeling the behavioral substrates of associate learning and memory - Adaptive neural models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chuen-Chien

    1991-01-01

    Three adaptive single-neuron models based on neural analogies of behavior modification episodes are proposed, which attempt to bridge the gap between psychology and neurophysiology. The proposed models capture the predictive nature of Pavlovian conditioning, which is essential to the theory of adaptive/learning systems. The models learn to anticipate the occurrence of a conditioned response before the presence of a reinforcing stimulus when training is complete. Furthermore, each model can find the most nonredundant and earliest predictor of reinforcement. The behavior of the models accounts for several aspects of basic animal learning phenomena in Pavlovian conditioning beyond previous related models. Computer simulations show how well the models fit empirical data from various animal learning paradigms.

  17. Studying Robots Outside the Lab

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blond, Lasse

    and ethnographic studies will enhance understandings of the dynamics of HRI. Furthermore, the paper emphasizes how users and the context of use matters to integration of robots, as it is shown how roboticists are unable to control how their designs are implemented in practice and that the sociality of social...... robots is inscribed by its users in social practice. This paper can be seen as a contribution to studies of long-term HRI. It presents the challenges of robot adaptation in practice and discusses the limitations of the present conceptual understanding of human-robotic relations. The ethnographic data......As more and more robots enter our social world there is a strong need for further field studies of human-robotic interaction. Based on a two-year ethnographic study of the implementation of the South Korean socially assistive robot in Danish elderly care this paper argues that empirical...

  18. The Association of Benefit Finding to Psychosocial and Health Behavior Adaptation Among HIV+ Men and Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Littlewood, Rae A.; Vanable, Peter A.; Carey, Michael P.; Blair, Donald C.

    2008-01-01

    Psychological and behavioral adaptation to HIV is integral to long-term survival. Although most research on coping with HIV has focused on factors associated with poor adaptation, recent research has expanded to include positive concomitants of adaptation, such as benefit finding. This study examined the occurrence of benefit finding among HIV+ men and women and evaluated the potential relevance of benefit finding to positive health behavior and psychosocial adaptation. HIV+ participants (N = 221) recruited during outpatient care completed self-report assessments of benefit finding, social support, depression, HAART adherence, substance use, and physical activity. In a series of multivariate analyses that controlled for demographic and health status variables, benefit finding was associated with lower depression scores, greater social support, and more physical activity, but showed no association to HAART adherence or substance use. The association of benefit finding to depression was partially mediated by differences in social support. Thus, benefit finding may improve psychological adjustment by motivating patients who experience stress-related growth to seek improved social support. PMID:18157689

  19. Emotional intelligence and features of social and psychological adaptation in adolescents with deviant behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Degtyarev A.V.,

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The problem of social-psychological adaptation of adolescents with deviant behavioral today is of particular relevance in relation to the current process of restructuring of educational institutions - the merging of general and specialized schools for adolescents with behavioral problems in a unified educational complexes. In these circumstances it is necessary to find an efficient tool that will simultaneously accelerate the process of adaptation and have a positive preventive effect. In this article, the author shows that such a tool can become the emotional intelligence as a construct that includes various abilities of the emotional sphere. The main hypothesis of the study was that the socio-psychological adaptation of adolescents with deviant behavior has its own characteristics, different from the norm group, and is interconnected with the components of emotional intelligence. The study was conducted on the basis of general education school № 2077 formed by the merger of five educational institutions: the former school № 738, № 703, № 702, № 7 and № 77. The study involved 222 teenagers from 14 to 16 years (111 girls and 111 boys.

  20. Longitudinal Effects of Adaptability on Behavior Problems and Maternal Depression in Families of Adolescents with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Jason K.; Seltzer, Marsha Mailick; Greenberg, Jan S.

    2014-01-01

    Research on families of individuals with autism has tended to focus on child-driven effects utilizing models of stress and coping. The current study used a family-systems perspective to examine whether family-level adaptability promoted beneficial outcomes for mothers and their adolescents with autism over time. Participants were 149 families of children diagnosed with autism who were between the ages of 10 and 22 years during the three-year period examined. Mothers reported on family adaptability, the mother-child relationship, their own depressive symptoms, and the behavior problems of their children at Wave 1, and these factors were used to predict maternal depression and child behavior problems three years later. Family-level adaptability predicted change in both maternal depression and child behavior problems over the study period, above and beyond the contribution of the dyadic mother-child relationship. These associations did not appear to depend upon the intellectual disability status of the individual with autism. Implications for autism, parent mental health, family systems theory, and for intervention with this population are discussed. PMID:21668120

  1. Task oriented evaluation system for maintenance robots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asame, Hajime; Endo, Isao; Kotosaka, Shin-ya; Takata, Shozo; Hiraoka, Hiroyuki; Kohda, Takehisa; Matsumoto, Akihiro; Yamagishi, Kiichiro.

    1994-01-01

    The adaptability evaluation of maintenance robots to autonomous plants has been discussed. In this paper, a new concept of autonomous plant with maintenance robots are introduced, and a framework of autonomous maintenance system is proposed. Then, task-oriented evaluation of robot arms is discussed for evaluating their adaptability to maintenance tasks, and a new criterion called operability is proposed for adaptability evaluation. The task-oriented evaluation system is implemented and applied to structural design of robot arms. Using genetic algorithm, an optimal structure adaptable to a pump disassembly task is obtained. (author)

  2. Social Robots as Embedded Reinforcers of Social Behavior in Children with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Elizabeth S.; Berkovits, Lauren D.; Bernier, Emily P.; Leyzberg, Dan; Shic, Frederick; Paul, Rhea; Scassellati, Brian

    2013-01-01

    In this study we examined the social behaviors of 4- to 12-year-old children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD; N = 24) during three tradic interactions with an adult confederate and an interaction partner, where the interaction partner varied randomly among (1) another adult human, (2) a touchscreen computer game, and (3) a social dinosaur…

  3. Unified Behavior Framework for Reactive Robot Control in Real-Time Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-03-01

    maintain coherent operation in concurrent programs by employing standard communication and synchronization patterns. Some typical ones are: semaphores ...through the semaphore . Signals, whether persistent or transient, are used to communicate between threads as a means of synchronizing their progress...tasks to be decomposed into collections of low-level primitive behaviors, Figure 2.b. This approach takes on the self- contradictory term, reactive

  4. Adolescents Misperceive and Are Influenced By High Status Peers' Health Risk, Deviant, and Adaptive Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helms, Sarah W.; Choukas-Bradley, Sophia; Widman, Laura; Giletta, Matteo; Cohen, Geoffrey L.; Prinstein, Mitchell J.

    2015-01-01

    Most peer influence research examines socialization between adolescents and their best friends. Yet, adolescents also are influenced by popular peers, perhaps due to misperceptions of social norms. This research examined the extent to which out-group and in-group adolescents misperceive the frequencies of peers' deviant, health risk, and adaptive behaviors in different reputation-based peer crowds (Study 1) and the prospective associations between perceptions of high status peers' and adolescents' own substance use over 2.5 years (Study 2). Study 1 examined 235 adolescents' reported deviant (vandalism, theft), health risk (substance use, sexual risk), and adaptive (exercise, studying) behavior, and their perceptions of Jocks', Populars', Burnouts', and Brains' engagement in the same behaviors. Peer nominations identified adolescents in each peer crowd. Jocks and Populars were rated as higher status than Brains and Burnouts. Results indicated that peer crowd stereotypes are caricatures. Misperceptions of high status crowds were dramatic, but for many behaviors, no differences between Populars'/Jocks' and others' actual reported behaviors were revealed. Study 2 assessed 166 adolescents' substance use and their perceptions of popular peers' (i.e., peers high in peer perceived popularity) substance use. Parallel process latent growth analyses revealed that higher perceptions of popular peers' substance use in Grade 9 (intercept) significantly predicted steeper increases in adolescents' own substance use from Grade 9 to 11 (slope). Results from both studies, utilizing different methods, offer evidence to suggest that adolescents misperceive high status peers' risk behaviors, and these misperceptions may predict adolescents' own risk behavior engagement. PMID:25365121

  5. Adolescents misperceive and are influenced by high-status peers' health risk, deviant, and adaptive behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helms, Sarah W; Choukas-Bradley, Sophia; Widman, Laura; Giletta, Matteo; Cohen, Geoffrey L; Prinstein, Mitchell J

    2014-12-01

    Most peer influence research examines socialization between adolescents and their best friends. Yet, adolescents also are influenced by popular peers, perhaps due to misperceptions of social norms. This research examined the extent to which out-group and in-group adolescents misperceive the frequencies of peers' deviant, health risk, and adaptive behaviors in different reputation-based peer crowds (Study 1) and the prospective associations between perceptions of high-status peers' and adolescents' own substance use over 2.5 years (Study 2). Study 1 examined 235 adolescents' reported deviant (vandalism, theft), health risk (substance use, sexual risk), and adaptive (exercise, studying) behavior, and their perceptions of jocks', populars', burnouts', and brains' engagement in the same behaviors. Peer nominations identified adolescents in each peer crowd. Jocks and populars were rated as higher status than brains and burnouts. Results indicated that peer crowd stereotypes are caricatures. Misperceptions of high-status crowds were dramatic, but for many behaviors, no differences between populars'/jocks' and others' actual reported behaviors were revealed. Study 2 assessed 166 adolescents' substance use and their perceptions of popular peers' (i.e., peers high in peer perceived popularity) substance use. Parallel process latent growth analyses revealed that higher perceptions of popular peers' substance use in Grade 9 (intercept) significantly predicted steeper increases in adolescents' own substance use from Grade 9 to 11 (slope). Results from both studies, utilizing different methods, offer evidence to suggest that adolescents misperceive high-status peers' risk behaviors, and these misperceptions may predict adolescents' own risk behavior engagement. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  6. A MIT-Based Nonlinear Adaptive Set-Membership Filter for the Ellipsoidal Estimation of Mobile Robots' States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalei Song

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The adaptive extended set-membership filter (AESMF for nonlinear ellipsoidal estimation suffers a mismatch between real process noise and its set boundaries, which may result in unstable estimation. In this paper, a MIT method-based adaptive set-membership filter, for the optimization of the set boundaries of process noise, is developed and applied to the nonlinear joint estimation of both time-varying states and parameters. As a result of using the proposed MIT-AESMF, the estimation effectiveness and boundary accuracy of traditional AESMF are substantially improved. Simulation results have shown the efficiency and robustness of the proposed method.

  7. Spatiotemporal Aspects of Engagement during Dialogic Storytelling Child–Robot Interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott Heath

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The success of robotic agents in close proximity of humans depends on their capacity to engage in social interactions and maintain these interactions over periods of time that are suitable for learning. A critical requirement is the ability to modify the behavior of the robot contingently to the attentional and social cues signaled by the human. A benchmark challenge for an engaging social robot is that of storytelling. In this paper, we present an exploratory study to investigate dialogic storytelling—storytelling with contingent responses—using a child-friendly robot. The aim of the study was to develop an engaging storytelling robot and to develop metrics for evaluating engagement. Ten children listened to an illustrated story told by a social robot during a science fair. The responses of the robot were adapted during the interaction based on the children’s engagement and touches of the pictures displayed by the robot on a tablet embedded in its torso. During the interaction the robot responded contingently to the child, but only when the robot invited the child to interact. We describe the robot architecture used to implement dialogic storytelling and evaluate the quality of human–robot interaction based on temporal (patterns of touch, touch duration and spatial (motions in the space surrounding the robot metrics. We introduce a novel visualization that emphasizes the temporal dynamics of the interaction and analyze the motions of the children in the space surrounding the robot. The study demonstrates that the interaction through invited contingent responses succeeded in engaging children, although the robot missed some opportunities for contingent interaction and the children had to adapt to the task. We conclude that (i the consideration of both temporal and spatial attributes is fundamental for establishing metrics to estimate levels of engagement in real-time, (ii metrics for engagement are sensitive to both the group and

  8. In Pipe Robot with Hybrid Locomotion System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian Miclauş

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The first part of the paper covers aspects concerning in pipe robots and their components, such as hybrid locomotion systems and the adapting mechanisms used. The second part describes the inspection robot that was developed, which combines tracked and wheeled locomotion (hybrid locomotion. The end of the paper presents the advantages and disadvantages of the proposed robot.

  9. The Two Faces Of Adolescents’ Success With Peers: Adolescent Popularity, Social Adaptation, and Deviant Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Joseph P.; Porter, Maryfrances R.; McFarland, F. Christy; Marsh, Penny; McElhaney, Kathleen Boykin

    2006-01-01

    This study assessed the hypothesis that popularity in adolescence takes on a twofold role, both marking high levels of concurrent psychosocial adaptation, but also predicting increases over time in both positive and negative behaviors sanctioned by peer norms. This hypothesis was tested with multi-method, longitudinal data obtained on a diverse community sample of 185 adolescents. Sociometric popularity data were examined in relation to data from interview-based assessments of attachment security and ego development, observations of mother-adolescent interactions, and repeated self- and peer-report assessments of delinquency and alcohol use. Results indicated that popular adolescents displayed higher concurrent levels of ego development, secure attachment and more adaptive interactions with mothers and best friends. Longitudinal analyses supported a “popularity-socialization” hypothesis, however, in which popular adolescents were more likely to increase in behaviors that receive approval in the peer group (e.g., minor levels of drug use and delinquency) and decrease in behaviors unlikely to be well-received by peers (e.g., hostile behavior with peers). PMID:15892790

  10. Neurocognitive, Social-Behavioral, and Adaptive Functioning in Preschool Children with Mild to Moderate Kidney Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooper, Stephen R.; Gerson, Arlene C.; Johnson, Rebecca J.; Mendley, Susan R.; Shinnar, Shlomo; Lande, Marc B.; Matheson, Matthew B.; Gipson, Debbie S.; Morgenstern, Bruce; Warady, Bradley A.; Furth, Susan L.

    2016-01-01

    Objective The negative impact of End Stage Kidney Disease on cognitive function in children is well established, but no studies have examined the neurocognitive, social-behavioral, and adaptive behavior skills of preschool children with mild to moderate chronic kidney disease (CKD). Methods Participants included 124 preschool children with mild to moderate CKD, ages 12-68 months (median=3.7 years), and an associated mean glomerular filtration rate (GFR) of 50.0 ml/min per 1.73m2. In addition to level of function and percent of participants scoring≥1SD below the test mean, regression models examined the associations between biomarkers of CKD (GFR, anemia, hypertension, seizures, abnormal birth history), and Developmental Level/IQ, attention regulation, and parent ratings of executive functions, social-behavior, and adaptive behaviors. Results Median scores for all measures were in the average range; however, 27% were deemed at-risk for a Developmental Level/IQpreschool children with mild to moderate CKD, but the need for ongoing developmental surveillance in this population remains warranted, particularly for those with abnormal birth histories, seizures, and heightened disease severity. PMID:26890559

  11. Evolutionary robotics

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In evolutionary robotics, a suitable robot control system is developed automatically through evolution due to the interactions between the robot and its environment. It is a complicated task, as the robot and the environment constitute a highly dynamical system. Several methods have been tried by various investigators to ...

  12. Robot Aesthetics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jochum, Elizabeth Ann; Putnam, Lance Jonathan

    This paper considers art-based research practice in robotics through a discussion of our course and relevant research projects in autonomous art. The undergraduate course integrates basic concepts of computer science, robotic art, live performance and aesthetic theory. Through practice...... in robotics research (such as aesthetics, culture and perception), we believe robot aesthetics is an important area for research in contemporary aesthetics....

  13. Filigree Robotics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tamke, Martin; Evers, Henrik Leander; Clausen Nørgaard, Esben

    2016-01-01

    Filigree Robotics experiments with the combination of traditional ceramic craft with robotic fabrication in order to generate a new narrative of fine three-dimensional ceramic ornament for architecture.......Filigree Robotics experiments with the combination of traditional ceramic craft with robotic fabrication in order to generate a new narrative of fine three-dimensional ceramic ornament for architecture....

  14. Adapt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bargatze, L. F.

    2015-12-01

    Active Data Archive Product Tracking (ADAPT) is a collection of software routines that permits one to generate XML metadata files to describe and register data products in support of the NASA Heliophysics Virtual Observatory VxO effort. ADAPT is also a philosophy. The ADAPT concept is to use any and all available metadata associated with scientific data to produce XML metadata descriptions in a consistent, uniform, and organized fashion to provide blanket access to the full complement of data stored on a targeted data server. In this poster, we present an application of ADAPT to describe all of the data products that are stored by using the Common Data File (CDF) format served out by the CDAWEB and SPDF data servers hosted at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. These data servers are the primary repositories for NASA Heliophysics data. For this purpose, the ADAPT routines have been used to generate data resource descriptions by using an XML schema named Space Physics Archive, Search, and Extract (SPASE). SPASE is the designated standard for documenting Heliophysics data products, as adopted by the Heliophysics Data and Model Consortium. The set of SPASE XML resource descriptions produced by ADAPT includes high-level descriptions of numerical data products, display data products, or catalogs and also includes low-level "Granule" descriptions. A SPASE Granule is effectively a universal access metadata resource; a Granule associates an individual data file (e.g. a CDF file) with a "parent" high-level data resource description, assigns a resource identifier to the file, and lists the corresponding assess URL(s). The CDAWEB and SPDF file systems were queried to provide the input required by the ADAPT software to create an initial set of SPASE metadata resource descriptions. Then, the CDAWEB and SPDF data repositories were queried subsequently on a nightly basis and the CDF file lists were checked for any changes such as the occurrence of new, modified, or deleted

  15. Changes in cortical activity associated with adaptive behavior during repeated balance perturbation of unpredictable timing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas eMierau

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The compensation for a sudden balance perturbation, unpracticed and unpredictable in timing and magnitude is accompanied by pronounced postural instability that is suggested to be causal to falls. However, subsequent presentations of an identical perturbation are characterized by a marked decrease of the amplitude of postural reactions; a phenomenon called adaptation or habituation. This study aimed to identify cortical characteristics associated with adaptive behavior during repetitive balance perturbations based on single-trial analyses of the P1 and N1 perturbation-evoked potentials. Thirty-seven young men were exposed to ten transient balance perturbations while balancing on the dominant leg. 32-channel EEG, surface EMG of the ankle plantar flexor muscles and postural sway (i.e. Euclidean distance of the supporting platform were recorded simultaneously. The P1 and N1 potentials were localized and the amplitude/latency was analyzed trial by trial. The best match sources for P1 and N1 potentials were located in the parietal (Brodmann area 5 and midline fronto-central cortex (Brodmann area 6, respectively. The amplitude and latency of the P1 potential remained unchanged over trials. In contrast, a significant adaptation of the N1 amplitude was observed. Similar adaptation effects were found with regard to postural sway and m. peroneus longus EMG activity of the non-dominant (free leg; an indicator reduced muscular co-contraction and/or less temporary bipedal stance to regain stability. Significant but weak correlations were found between N1 amplitude and postural sway as well as EMG activity. These results highlight the important role of the midline fronto-central cortex for adaptive behavior associated with balance control.

  16. Adapting Dialectical Behavior Therapy for the Treatment of Dissociative Identity Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foote, Brad; Van Orden, Kim

    2016-12-31

    Dialectical Behavior Therapy (DBT), created by Marsha Linehan, has been shown to be an effective therapy for the treatment of borderline personality disorder (BPD) and for suicidal and self-harming behavior. Dissociative identity disorder (DID) is a complex post-traumatic disorder which is highly comorbid with BPD, shares a number of clinical features with BPD, and which like BPD features a high degree of suicidality. The DID treatment literature emphasizes the importance of a staged approach, beginning with the creation of a safe therapeutic frame prior to addressing traumatic material; DBT is also a staged treatment, in which behavioral and safety issues are addressed in Stage 1, and trauma work reserved for Stage 2. The authors describe adapting DBT, and especially its techniques for Stage 1 safety work, for work with DID patients. Basic theoretical principles are described and illustrated with a case example.

  17. The Adolescent Behavioral Activation Program: Adapting Behavioral Activation as a Treatment for Depression in Adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCauley, Elizabeth; Gudmundsen, Gretchen; Schloredt, Kelly; Martell, Christopher; Rhew, Isaac; Hubley, Samuel; Dimidjian, Sona

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to examine implementation feasibility and initial treatment outcomes of a behavioral activation (BA) based treatment for adolescent depression, the Adolescent Behavioral Activation Program (A-BAP). A randomized, controlled trial was conducted with 60 clinically referred adolescents with a depressive disorder who were randomized to receive either 14 sessions of A-BAP or uncontrolled evidenced-based practice for depression. The urban sample was 64% female, predominantly Non-Hispanic White (67%), and had an average age of 14.9 years. Measures of depression, global functioning, activation, and avoidance were obtained through clinical interviews and/or through parent and adolescent self-report at preintervention and end of intervention. Intent-to-treat linear mixed effects modeling and logistic regression analysis revealed that both conditions produced statistically significant improvement from pretreatment to end of treatment in depression, global functioning, and activation and avoidance. There were no significant differences across treatment conditions. These findings provide the first step in establishing the efficacy of BA as a treatment for adolescent depression and support the need for ongoing research on BA as a way to enhance the strategies available for treatment of depression in this population.

  18. Intelligent control and adaptive systems; Proceedings of the Meeting, Philadelphia, PA, Nov. 7, 8, 1989

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Guillermo (Editor)

    1990-01-01

    Various papers on intelligent control and adaptive systems are presented. Individual topics addressed include: control architecture for a Mars walking vehicle, representation for error detection and recovery in robot task plans, real-time operating system for robots, execution monitoring of a mobile robot system, statistical mechanics models for motion and force planning, global kinematics for manipulator planning and control, exploration of unknown mechanical assemblies through manipulation, low-level representations for robot vision, harmonic functions for robot path construction, simulation of dual behavior of an autonomous system. Also discussed are: control framework for hand-arm coordination, neural network approach to multivehicle navigation, electronic neural networks for global optimization, neural network for L1 norm linear regression, planning for assembly with robot hands, neural networks in dynamical systems, control design with iterative learning, improved fuzzy process control of spacecraft autonomous rendezvous using a genetic algorithm.

  19. Traveling Robots and Their Cultural Baggage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blond, Lasse

    When social robots are imported from Asia to Europe they bring along with them a cultural luggage consisting of foreign sociotechnical imaginary. The effort to adopt the robot Silbot to Nordic social services exposed unfamiliar and cultural-dependent views of care, cognition, health and human...... nature. Studying Silbot in “the wild” highlighted these issues as well as the human-robot interaction and the adaptation of the robot to real life praxis. The importance of comprehending robots as parts of sociotechnical ensembles is emphasized as well as the observance of how robots are shaped...... by the cultural context in the recipient countries....

  20. An Experiment on Behavior Generalization and the Emergence of Linguistic Compositionality in Evolving Robots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tuci, E.; Ferrauto, T.; Zeschel, A.

    2011-01-01

    Populations of simulated agents controlled by dynamical neural networks are trained by artificial evolution to access linguistic instructions and to execute them by indicating, touching, or moving specific target objects. During training the agent experiences only a subset of all object...... the target object and executing the required action). The comparison between two experimental conditions, in one of which the agents are required to ignore rather than to indicate objects, shows that the composition of the behavioral set significantly influences the development of compositional semantic...

  1. The diagnostic adaptive behavior scale: evaluating its diagnostic sensitivity and specificity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balboni, Giulia; Tassé, Marc J; Schalock, Robert L; Borthwick-Duffy, Sharon A; Spreat, Scott; Thissen, David; Widaman, Keith F; Zhang, Dalun; Navas, Patricia

    2014-11-01

    The Diagnostic Adaptive Behavior Scale (DABS) was constructed with items across three domains--conceptual, social, and practical adaptive skills--and normed on a representative sample of American individuals from 4 to 21 years of age. The DABS was developed to focus its assessment around the decision point for determining the presence or absence of significant limitations of adaptive behavior for the diagnosis of Intellectual Disability (ID). The purpose of this study, which was composed of 125 individuals with and 933 without an ID-related diagnosis, was to determine the ability of the DABS to correctly identify the individuals with and without ID (i.e., sensitivity and specificity). The results indicate that the DABS sensitivity coefficients ranged from 81% to 98%, specificity coefficients ranged from 89% to 91%, and that the Area Under the Receiver Operating Characteristic Curve were excellent or good. These results indicate that the DABS has very good levels of diagnostic efficiency. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  2. Toward cognitive robotics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laird, John E.

    2009-05-01

    Our long-term goal is to develop autonomous robotic systems that have the cognitive abilities of humans, including communication, coordination, adapting to novel situations, and learning through experience. Our approach rests on the recent integration of the Soar cognitive architecture with both virtual and physical robotic systems. Soar has been used to develop a wide variety of knowledge-rich agents for complex virtual environments, including distributed training environments and interactive computer games. For development and testing in robotic virtual environments, Soar interfaces to a variety of robotic simulators and a simple mobile robot. We have recently made significant extensions to Soar that add new memories and new non-symbolic reasoning to Soar's original symbolic processing, which should significantly improve Soar abilities for control of robots. These extensions include episodic memory, semantic memory, reinforcement learning, and mental imagery. Episodic memory and semantic memory support the learning and recalling of prior events and situations as well as facts about the world. Reinforcement learning provides the ability of the system to tune its procedural knowledge - knowledge about how to do things. Mental imagery supports the use of diagrammatic and visual representations that are critical to support spatial reasoning. We speculate on the future of unmanned systems and the need for cognitive robotics to support dynamic instruction and taskability.

  3. Human Behavior & Low Energy Architecture: Linking Environmental Adaptation, Personal Comfort, & Energy Use in the Built Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langevin, Jared

    Truly sustainable buildings serve to enrich the daily sensory experience of their human inhabitants while consuming the least amount of energy possible; yet, building occupants and their environmentally adaptive behaviors remain a poorly characterized variable in even the most "green" building design and operation approaches. This deficiency has been linked to gaps between predicted and actual energy use, as well as to eventual problems with occupant discomfort, productivity losses, and health issues. Going forward, better tools are needed for considering the human-building interaction as a key part of energy efficiency strategies that promote good Indoor Environmental Quality (IEQ) in buildings. This dissertation presents the development and implementation of a Human and Building Interaction Toolkit (HABIT), a framework for the integrated simulation of office occupants' thermally adaptive behaviors, IEQ, and building energy use as part of sustainable building design and operation. Development of HABIT begins with an effort to devise more reliable methods for predicting individual occupants' thermal comfort, considered the driving force behind the behaviors of focus for this project. A long-term field study of thermal comfort and behavior is then presented, and the data it generates are used to develop and validate an agent-based behavior simulation model. Key aspects of the agent-based behavior model are described, and its predictive abilities are shown to compare favorably to those of multiple other behavior modeling options. Finally, the agent-based behavior model is linked with whole building energy simulation in EnergyPlus, forming the full HABIT program. The program is used to evaluate the energy and IEQ impacts of several occupant behavior scenarios in the simulation of a case study office building for the Philadelphia climate. Results indicate that more efficient local heating/cooling options may be paired with wider set point ranges to yield up to 24

  4. Treatment Sequencing for Childhood ADHD: A Multiple-Randomization Study of Adaptive Medication and Behavioral Interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelham, William E; Fabiano, Gregory A; Waxmonsky, James G; Greiner, Andrew R; Gnagy, Elizabeth M; Pelham, William E; Coxe, Stefany; Verley, Jessica; Bhatia, Ira; Hart, Katie; Karch, Kathryn; Konijnendijk, Evelien; Tresco, Katy; Nahum-Shani, Inbal; Murphy, Susan A

    2016-01-01

    Behavioral and pharmacological treatments for children with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) were evaluated to address whether endpoint outcomes are better depending on which treatment is initiated first and, in case of insufficient response to initial treatment, whether increasing dose of initial treatment or adding the other treatment modality is superior. Children with ADHD (ages 5-12, N = 146, 76% male) were treated for 1 school year. Children were randomized to initiate treatment with low doses of either (a) behavioral parent training (8 group sessions) and brief teacher consultation to establish a Daily Report Card or (b) extended-release methylphenidate (equivalent to .15 mg/kg/dose bid). After 8 weeks or at later monthly intervals as necessary, insufficient responders were rerandomized to secondary interventions that either increased the dose/intensity of the initial treatment or added the other treatment modality, with adaptive adjustments monthly as needed to these secondary treatments. The group beginning with behavioral treatment displayed significantly lower rates of observed classroom rule violations (the primary outcome) at study endpoint and tended to have fewer out-of-class disciplinary events. Further, adding medication secondary to initial behavior modification resulted in better outcomes on the primary outcomes and parent/teacher ratings of oppositional behavior than adding behavior modification to initial medication. Normalization rates on teacher and parent ratings were generally high. Parents who began treatment with behavioral parent training had substantially better attendance than those assigned to receive training following medication. Beginning treatment with behavioral intervention produced better outcomes overall than beginning treatment with medication.

  5. Evolutionary Robotics: What, Why, and Where to

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephane eDoncieux

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Evolutionary robotics applies the selection, variation, and heredity principles of natural evolution to the design of robots with embodied intelligence. It can be considered as a subfield of robotics that aims to create more robust and adaptive robots. A pivotal feature of the evolutionary approach is that it considers the whole robot at once, and enables the exploitation of robot features in a holistic manner. Evolutionary robotics can also be seen as an innovative approach to the study of evolution based on a new kind of experimentalism. The use of robots as a substrate can help address questions that are difficult, if not impossible, to investigate through computer simulations or biological studies. In this paper we consider the main achievements of evolutionary robotics, focusing particularly on its contributions to both engineering and biology. We briefly elaborate on methodological issues, review some of the most interesting findings, and discuss important open issues and promising avenues for future work.

  6. Biological Soft Robotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feinberg, Adam W

    2015-01-01

    In nature, nanometer-scale molecular motors are used to generate force within cells for diverse processes from transcription and transport to muscle contraction. This adaptability and scalability across wide temporal, spatial, and force regimes have spurred the development of biological soft robotic systems that seek to mimic and extend these capabilities. This review describes how molecular motors are hierarchically organized into larger-scale structures in order to provide a basic understanding of how these systems work in nature and the complexity and functionality we hope to replicate in biological soft robotics. These span the subcellular scale to macroscale, and this article focuses on the integration of biological components with synthetic materials, coupled with bioinspired robotic design. Key examples include nanoscale molecular motor-powered actuators, microscale bacteria-controlled devices, and macroscale muscle-powered robots that grasp, walk, and swim. Finally, the current challenges and future opportunities in the field are addressed.

  7. The Family in Us: Family History, Family Identity and Self-Reproductive Adaptive Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferring, Dieter

    2017-06-01

    This contribution is an essay about the notion of family identity reflecting shared significant experiences within a family system originating a set of signs used in social communication within and between families. Significant experiences are considered as experiences of events that have an immediate impact on the adaptation of the family in a given socio-ecological and cultural context at a given historical time. It is assumed that family history is stored in a shared "family memory" holding both implicit and explicit knowledge and exerting an influence on the behavior of each family member. This is described as transgenerational family memory being constituted of a system of meaningful signs. The crucial dimension underlying the logic of this essay are the ideas of adaptation as well as self-reproduction of systems.

  8. Introduction to a Special Issue Dialectical Behavior Therapy: Evolution and Adaptations in the 21(st) Century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Alec L

    2015-01-01

    Born from the randomized controlled trial by Linehan and colleagues in 1991, dialectical behavior therapy (DBT) has become the gold standard for treatment of individuals who are suicidal and have borderline personality disorder. In this special issue, we begin with a historical review of DBT provided by the treatment developer herself. We then introduce readers to new, 21(st) century adaptations developed of this treatment modality. In this issue we explore the use of DBT for suicidal adolescents with one paper focusing on Latina teens and their parents, and one focused on the more recently developed walking the middle path skills module. Other papers in this issue include unique adaptations of DBT for eating disorders, and disorders of over-control, as well as trauma in incarcerated male adolescents. We also look at transdiagnostic applications of DBT and finally a comparison of DBT with mentalization-based treatment.

  9. Lasting Adaptations in Social Behavior Produced by Social Disruption and Inhibition of Adult Neurogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opendak, Maya; Offit, Lily; Monari, Patrick; Schoenfeld, Timothy J.; Sonti, Anup N.; Cameron, Heather A.

    2016-01-01

    Research on social instability has focused on its detrimental consequences, but most people are resilient and respond by invoking various coping strategies. To investigate cellular processes underlying such strategies, a dominance hierarchy of rats was formed and then destabilized. Regardless of social position, rats from disrupted hierarchies had fewer new neurons in the hippocampus compared with rats from control cages and those from stable hierarchies. Social disruption produced a preference for familiar over novel conspecifics, a change that did not involve global memory impairments or increased anxiety. Using the neuropeptide oxytocin as a tool to increase neurogenesis in the hippocampus of disrupted rats restored preference for novel conspecifics to predisruption levels. Conversely, reducing the number of new neurons by limited inhibition of adult neurogenesis in naive transgenic GFAP–thymidine kinase rats resulted in social behavior similar to disrupted rats. Together, these results provide novel mechanistic evidence that social disruption shapes behavior in a potentially adaptive way, possibly by reducing adult neurogenesis in the hippocampus. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT To investigate cellular processes underlying adaptation to social instability, a dominance hierarchy of rats was formed and then destabilized. Regardless of social position, rats from disrupted hierarchies had fewer new neurons in the hippocampus compared with rats from control cages and those from stable hierarchies. Unexpectedly, these changes were accompanied by changes in social strategies without evidence of impairments in cognition or anxiety regulation. Restoring adult neurogenesis in disrupted rats using oxytocin and conditionally suppressing the production of new neurons in socially naive GFAP–thymidine kinase rats showed that loss of 6-week-old neurons may be responsible for adaptive changes in social behavior. PMID:27358459

  10. A Compact Magnetic Field-Based Obstacle Detection and Avoidance System for Miniature Spherical Robots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang Wu

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Due to their efficient locomotion and natural tolerance to hazardous environments, spherical robots have wide applications in security surveillance, exploration of unknown territory and emergency response. Numerous studies have been conducted on the driving mechanism, motion planning and trajectory tracking methods of spherical robots, yet very limited studies have been conducted regarding the obstacle avoidance capability of spherical robots. Most of the existing spherical robots rely on the “hit and run” technique, which has been argued to be a reasonable strategy because spherical robots have an inherent ability to recover from collisions. Without protruding components, they will not become stuck and can simply roll back after running into bstacles. However, for small scale spherical robots that contain sensitive surveillance sensors and cannot afford to utilize heavy protective shells, the absence of obstacle avoidance solutions would leave the robot at the mercy of potentially dangerous obstacles. In this paper, a compact magnetic field-based obstacle detection and avoidance system has been developed for miniature spherical robots. It utilizes a passive magnetic field so that the system is both compact and power efficient. The proposed system can detect not only the presence, but also the approaching direction of a ferromagnetic obstacle, therefore, an intelligent avoidance behavior can be generated by adapting the trajectory tracking method with the detection information. Design optimization is conducted to enhance the obstacle detection performance and detailed avoidance strategies are devised. Experimental results are also presented for validation purposes.

  11. Intrinsic interactive reinforcement learning - Using error-related potentials for real world human-robot interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Su Kyoung; Kirchner, Elsa Andrea; Stefes, Arne; Kirchner, Frank

    2017-12-14

    Reinforcement learning (RL) enables robots to learn its optimal behavioral strategy in dynamic environments based on feedback. Explicit human feedback during robot RL is advantageous, since an explicit reward function can be easily adapted. However, it is very demanding and tiresome for a human to continuously and explicitly generate feedback. Therefore, the development of implicit approaches is of high relevance. In this paper, we used an error-related potential (ErrP), an event-related activity in the human electroencephalogram (EEG), as an intrinsically generated implicit feedback (rewards) for RL. Initially we validated our approach with seven subjects in a simulated robot learning scenario. ErrPs were detected online in single trial with a balanced accuracy (bACC) of 91%, which was sufficient to learn to recognize gestures and the correct mapping between human gestures and robot actions in parallel. Finally, we validated our approach in a real robot scenario, in which seven subjects freely chose gestures and the real robot correctly learned the mapping between gestures and actions (ErrP detection (90% bACC)). In this paper, we demonstrated that intrinsically generated EEG-based human feedback in RL can successfully be used to implicitly improve gesture-based robot control during human-robot interaction. We call our approach intrinsic interactive RL.

  12. Vibrational behavior of adaptive aircraft wing structures modelled as composite thin-walled beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, O.; Librescu, L.; Rogers, C. A.

    1992-01-01

    The vibrational behavior of cantilevered aircraft wings modeled as thin-walled beams and incorporating piezoelectric effects is studied. Based on the converse piezoelectric effect, the system of piezoelectric actuators conveniently located on the wing yield the control of its associated vertical and lateral bending eigenfrequencies. The possibility revealed by this study enabling one to increase adaptively the eigenfrequencies of thin-walled cantilevered beams could play a significant role in the control of the dynamic response and flutter of wing and rotor blade structures.

  13. [Neural Mechanisms That Facilitate Adaptive Behavior Based on Acquired Stimulus-Outcome Information].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogawa, Masaaki

    2017-11-01

    In response to changing internal and external situations, we always need to adapt our behavior based on previous experiences, particularly, acquired stimulus-outcome information. The orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), a prefrontal cortical region, is critical for this type of decision-making. The current understanding of the fundamental functions of the OFC has been reviewed by introducing, as an example, how the OFC contributes to the processing of uncertain rewards. Furthermore, the importance of revealing context and temporally specific causal roles of neural circuits including the OFC in decision-making, as well as the techniques to achieve the goal, have been discussed.

  14. The Applied Behavior Analysis Research Paradigm and Single-Subject Designs in Adapted Physical Activity Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haegele, Justin A; Hodge, Samuel Russell

    2015-10-01

    There are basic philosophical and paradigmatic assumptions that guide scholarly research endeavors, including the methods used and the types of questions asked. Through this article, kinesiology faculty and students with interests in adapted physical activity are encouraged to understand the basic assumptions of applied behavior analysis (ABA) methodology for conducting, analyzing, and presenting research of high quality in this paradigm. The purposes of this viewpoint paper are to present information fundamental to understanding the assumptions undergirding research methodology in ABA, describe key aspects of single-subject research designs, and discuss common research designs and data-analysis strategies used in single-subject studies.

  15. Household Adaptive Behavior in Response to Coastal Flood Risk and External Stressors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchanan, M. K.

    2017-12-01

    Approximately forty percent of the world's population sits along ocean coastlines. This urban exposure to flooding is increasing due to population growth and sea level rise resulting from anthropogenic climate change. Recent research improving the characterization of physical hazards from climate change on the coastal zone has helped cities assess their risks. This work includes improving our understanding of the rate and magnitude of sea level rise, the change in distribution of tropical cyclones, and the resulting frequency and severity of flooding on global to local scales. However, the ability of settlements to cope or thrive under changing climate conditions will likely depend on the cooperation and initiative of households, regardless of any governmental efforts to reduce risk. Understanding individuals' likely responses to changing coastal hazards is thus critical for decision-makers to plan for a sustainable future. Individuals may be motivated not only by information regarding emerging flood hazards, but also by cognitive and contextual factors. For governments to develop effective adaptation policies, it is important to understand what factors tend to motivate household adaptation. We apply principles from economics and psychology to investigate how people respond to various existing adaptation options and policies, using a household survey with experiments in New York City neighborhoods affected by Hurricane Sandy. We investigate a comprehensive set of factors that may influence household adaptive behavior. A striking 64% of homeowners and 83% of renters intend to relocate among different plausible future conditions, such as frequent nuisance flooding and the adaptation of peers. This amount is substantial considering the political sensitivity of `retreat' and the lack of regional and federal preparation for large-scale climate-induced migration.

  16. Open Issues in Evolutionary Robotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Fernando; Duarte, Miguel; Correia, Luís; Oliveira, Sancho Moura; Christensen, Anders Lyhne

    2016-01-01

    One of the long-term goals in evolutionary robotics is to be able to automatically synthesize controllers for real autonomous robots based only on a task specification. While a number of studies have shown the applicability of evolutionary robotics techniques for the synthesis of behavioral control, researchers have consistently been faced with a number of issues preventing the widespread adoption of evolutionary robotics for engineering purposes. In this article, we review and discuss the open issues in evolutionary robotics. First, we analyze the benefits and challenges of simulation-based evolution and subsequent deployment of controllers versus evolution on real robotic hardware. Second, we discuss specific evolutionary computation issues that have plagued evolutionary robotics: (1) the bootstrap problem, (2) deception, and (3) the role of genomic encoding and genotype-phenotype mapping in the evolution of controllers for complex tasks. Finally, we address the absence of standard research practices in the field. We also discuss promising avenues of research. Our underlying motivation is the reduction of the current gap between evolutionary robotics and mainstream robotics, and the establishment of evolutionary robotics as a canonical approach for the engineering of autonomous robots.

  17. Adaptive Self-Occlusion Behavior Recognition Based on pLSA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong-bin Tu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Human action recognition is an important area of human action recognition research. Focusing on the problem of self-occlusion in the field of human action recognition, a new adaptive occlusion state behavior recognition approach was presented based on Markov random field and probabilistic Latent Semantic Analysis (pLSA. Firstly, the Markov random field was used to represent the occlusion relationship between human body parts in terms an occlusion state variable by phase space obtained. Then, we proposed a hierarchical area variety model. Finally, we use the topic model of pLSA to recognize the human behavior. Experiments were performed on the KTH, Weizmann, and Humaneva dataset to test and evaluate the proposed method. The compared experiment results showed that what the proposed method can achieve was more effective than the compared methods.

  18. Programming Robots with Associative Memories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Touzet, C.

    1999-01-01

    Today, there are several drawbacks that impede the necessary and much needed use of robot learning techniques in real applications. First, the time needed to achieve the synthesis of any behavior is prohibitive. Second, the robot behavior during the learning phase is by definition bad, it may even be dangerous. Third, except within the lazy learning approach, a new behavior implies a new learning phase. We propose in this paper to use self-organizing maps to encode the non explicit model of the robot-world interaction sampled by the lazy memory, and then generate a robot behavior by means of situations to be achieved, i.e., points on the self-organizing maps. Any behavior can instantaneously be synthesized by the definition of a goal situation. Its performance will be minimal (not evidently bad) and will improve by the mere repetition of the behavior

  19. Programming Robots with Associative Memories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Touzet, C

    1999-07-10

    Today, there are several drawbacks that impede the necessary and much needed use of robot learning techniques in real applications. First, the time needed to achieve the synthesis of any behavior is prohibitive. Second, the robot behavior during the learning phase is "by definition" bad, it may even be dangerous. Third, except within the lazy learning approach, a new behavior implies a new learning phase. We propose in this paper to use self-organizing maps to encode the non explicit model of the robot-world interaction sampled by the lazy memory, and then generate a robot behavior by means of situations to be achieved, i.e., points on the self-organizing maps. Any behavior can instantaneously be synthesized by the definition of a goal situation. Its performance will be minimal (not evidently bad) and will improve by the mere repetition of the behavior.

  20. Model-on-Demand Predictive Control for Nonlinear Hybrid Systems With Application to Adaptive Behavioral Interventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nandola, Naresh N.; Rivera, Daniel E.

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a data-centric modeling and predictive control approach for nonlinear hybrid systems. System identification of hybrid systems represents a challenging problem because model parameters depend on the mode or operating point of the system. The proposed algorithm applies Model-on-Demand (MoD) estimation to generate a local linear approximation of the nonlinear hybrid system at each time step, using a small subset of data selected by an adaptive bandwidth selector. The appeal of the MoD approach lies in the fact that model parameters are estimated based on a current operating point; hence estimation of locations or modes governed by autonomous discrete events is achieved automatically. The local MoD model is then converted into a mixed logical dynamical (MLD) system representation which can be used directly in a model predictive control (MPC) law for hybrid systems using multiple-degree-of-freedom tuning. The effectiveness of the proposed MoD predictive control algorithm for nonlinear hybrid systems is demonstrated on a hypothetical adaptive behavioral intervention problem inspired by Fast Track, a real-life preventive intervention for improving parental function and reducing conduct disorder in at-risk children. Simulation results demonstrate that the proposed algorithm can be useful for adaptive intervention problems exhibiting both nonlinear and hybrid character. PMID:21874087

  1. Adaptive and Context-Aware Reconciliation of Reactive and Pro-active Behavior in Evolving Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trajcevski, Goce; Scheuermann, Peter

    One distinct characteristics of the context-aware systems is their ability to react and adapt to the evolution of the environment, which is often a result of changes in the values of various (possibly correlated) attributes. Based on these changes, reactive systems typically take corrective actions, e.g., adjusting parameters in order to maintain the desired specifications of the system's state. Pro-active systems, on the other hand, may change the mode of interaction with the environment as well as the desired goals of the system. In this paper we describe our (ECA)2 paradigm for reactive behavior with proactive impact and we present our ongoing work and vision for a system that is capable of context-aware adaptation, while ensuring the maintenance of a set of desired behavioral policies. Our main focus is on developing a formalism that provides tools for expressing normal, as well as defeasible and/or exceptional specification. However, at the same time, we insist on a sound semantics and the capability of answering hypothetical "what-if" queries. Towards this end, we introduce the high-level language L_{ EAR} that can be used to describe the dynamics of the problem domain, specify triggers under the (ECA)2 paradigm, and reason about the consequences of the possible evolutions.

  2. Children with Williams syndrome: Developmental trajectories for intellectual abilities, vocabulary abilities, and adaptive behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mervis, Carolyn B; Pitts, C Holley

    2015-06-01

    To examine longitudinal trajectories of intellectual abilities, single-word vocabulary abilities, and adaptive behavior for 76 children with Williams syndrome (WS) aged 4-15 years, we compared their standard scores (SSs) at two time points approximately 3 years apart on the same standardized measures. At the group level, mean SS declined significantly for 8 of the 12 measures and showed a slight (nonsignificant) increase or decrease for 4 measures. However, for most measures significant changes in SS were found for only a small proportion of the children, with some children evidencing significant declines and a smaller proportion evidencing significant increases. Significant SS changes were most common for adaptive behavior. For all measures, the mean magnitude of SS change was smaller for older children (>7.5 years at Time 1) than for younger children (general population peers who earned the same SS at Time 1, there was little evidence either of regression (loss of skills) or stagnation (failure to increase raw scores). The relations of these results to those of previous smaller-sample longitudinal studies of children with WS and the implications of the findings are considered. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Effects of sex and gender on adaptation to space: behavioral health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goel, Namni; Bale, Tracy L; Epperson, C Neill; Kornstein, Susan G; Leon, Gloria R; Palinkas, Lawrence A; Stuster, Jack W; Dinges, David F

    2014-11-01

    This article is part of a larger body of work entitled, "The Impact of Sex and Gender on Adaptation to Space." It was developed in response to a recommendation from the 2011 National Academy of Sciences Decadal Survey, "Recapturing a Future for Space Exploration: Life and Physical Sciences for a New Era," which emphasized the need to fully understand sex and gender differences. In this article, our workgroup-consisting of expert scientists and clinicians from academia and the private sector-investigated and summarized the current body of published and unpublished human research performed to date related to sex- and gender-based differences in behavioral adaptations to human spaceflight. This review identifies sex-related differences in: (1) sleep, circadian rhythms, and neurobehavioral measures; (2) personality, group interactions, and work performance and satisfaction; and (3) stress and clinical disorders. Differences in these areas substantially impact the risks and optimal medical care required by space-faring women. To ensure the health and safety of male and female astronauts during long-duration space missions, it is imperative to understand the influences that sex and gender have on behavioral health changes occurring during spaceflight.

  4. Behavioral Responses of Nursing Home Residents to Visits From a Person with a Dog,a Robot Seal or a Toy Cat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thodberg, Karen; Sørensen, Lisbeth U; Videbech, Poul B

    2016-01-01

    , and gender were collected. We found that the immediate responses to, and interaction with, the visiting animal depended on the type of animal that was brought along. The dog and the interactive robot seal triggered the most interaction, in the form of physical contact (F(2,103) = 7.50, p eye......Previous studies suggest that contact with dogs can positively affect the wellbeing of elderly people in nursing homes, but there is a lack of research investigating the causal pathways of these effects. One such path- way may relate to the behavioral responses of the elderly when interacting...... contact (F(4,151) = 6.26, p

  5. Robotic environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bier, H.H.

    2011-01-01

    Technological and conceptual advances in fields such as artificial intelligence, robotics, and material science have enabled robotic architectural environments to be implemented and tested in the last decade in virtual and physical prototypes. These prototypes are incorporating sensing-actuating

  6. Anomalous brain functional connectivity contributing to poor adaptive behavior in Down syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pujol, Jesus; del Hoyo, Laura; Blanco-Hinojo, Laura; de Sola, Susana; Macià, Dídac; Martínez-Vilavella, Gerard; Amor, Marta; Deus, Joan; Rodríguez, Joan; Farré, Magí; Dierssen, Mara; de la Torre, Rafael

    2015-03-01

    Research in Down syndrome has substantially progressed in the understanding of the effect of gene overexpression at the molecular level, but there is a paucity of information on the ultimate consequences on overall brain functional organization. We have assessed the brain functional status in Down syndrome using functional connectivity MRI. Resting-state whole-brain connectivity degree maps were generated in 20 Down syndrome individuals and 20 control subjects to identify sites showing anomalous synchrony with other areas. A subsequent region-of-interest mapping served to detail the anomalies and to assess their potential contribution to poor adaptive behavior. Down syndrome individuals showed higher regional connectivity in a ventral brain system involving the amygdala/anterior temporal region and the ventral aspect of both the anterior cingulate and frontal cortices. By contrast, lower functional connectivity was identified in dorsal executive networks involving dorsal prefrontal and anterior cingulate cortices and posterior insula. Both functional connectivity increases and decreases contributed to account for patient scoring on adaptive behavior related to communication skills. The data overall suggest a distinctive functional organization with system-specific anomalies associated with reduced adaptive efficiency. Opposite effects were identified on distinct frontal and anterior temporal structures and relative sparing of posterior brain areas, which is generally consistent with Down syndrome cognitive profile. Relevantly, measurable connectivity changes, as a marker of the brain functional anomaly, could have a role in the development of therapeutic strategies addressed to improve the quality of life in Down syndrome individuals. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Swarming Robot Design, Construction and Software Implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolleis, Karl A.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper is presented an overview of the hardware design, construction overview, software design and software implementation for a small, low-cost robot to be used for swarming robot development. In addition to the work done on the robot, a full simulation of the robotic system was developed using Robot Operating System (ROS) and its associated simulation. The eventual use of the robots will be exploration of evolving behaviors via genetic algorithms and builds on the work done at the University of New Mexico Biological Computation Lab.

  8. Healthcare Robotics

    OpenAIRE

    Riek, Laurel D.

    2017-01-01

    Robots have the potential to be a game changer in healthcare: improving health and well-being, filling care gaps, supporting care givers, and aiding health care workers. However, before robots are able to be widely deployed, it is crucial that both the research and industrial communities work together to establish a strong evidence-base for healthcare robotics, and surmount likely adoption barriers. This article presents a broad contextualization of robots in healthcare by identifying key sta...

  9. Adapting cognitive behavioral therapy for psychosis for case managers: increasing access to services in a community mental health agency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montesano, Vicki L; Sivec, Harry J; Munetz, Mark R; Pelton, Jeremy R; Turkington, Douglas

    2014-03-01

    The purpose of this article is twofold: (a) to describe the adaptation of an evidence-based practice and, (b) using a dissemination framework, to describe the process of implementing the practice at a community mental health agency. The authors describe the training concept and dissemination framework of implementing an emerging practice: high-yield cognitive behavioral techniques for psychosis, which is rooted in cognitive behavioral therapy. Thirteen case managers who represented teams from across the agency delivered the adapted practice at a community mental health agency. Implementation required buy in from all stakeholders, communication across disciplines, persistence, and flexibility. It appears that the use of a dissemination framework that is grounded in the literature, yet flexible, eases the process of implementing an adapted practice. Further research focusing on the effectiveness of this approach, along with the impact of implementing a full spectrum of cognitive behavioral therapy services for individuals with persistent psychotic symptoms, based on cognitive behavioral therapy principles, is indicated.

  10. Introduction to humanoid robotics

    CERN Document Server

    Kajita, Shuuji; Harada, Kensuke; Yokoi, Kazuhito

    2014-01-01

    This book is for researchers, engineers, and students who are willing to understand how humanoid robots move and be controlled. The book starts with an overview of the humanoid robotics research history and state of the art. Then it explains the required mathematics and physics such as kinematics of multi-body system, Zero-Moment Point (ZMP) and its relationship with body motion. Biped walking control is discussed in depth, since it is one of the main interests of humanoid robotics. Various topics of the whole body motion generation are also discussed. Finally multi-body dynamics is presented to simulate the complete dynamic behavior of a humanoid robot. Throughout the book, Matlab codes are shown to test the algorithms and to help the reader´s understanding.

  11. Dynamic Behavior of a SCARA Robot by using N-E Method for a Straight Line and Simulation of Motion by using Solidworks and Verification by Matlab/Simulink

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernini Brahim

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available SCARA (Selective Compliant Assembly Robot Arm robot of serial architecture is widely used in assembly operations and operations "pick-place", it has been shown that use of robots improves the accuracy of assembly, and saves assembly time and cost as well. The most important condition for the choice of this kind of robot is the dynamic behavior for a given path, no closed solution for the dynamics of this important robot has been reported. This paper presents the study of the kinematics (forward and inverse by using D-H notation and the dynamics of SCARA robot by using N-E methods. A computer code is developed for trajectory generation by using inverse kinematics, and calculates the variations of the torques of the links for a straight line (path rest to rest between two positions for operation "pick-place". SCARA robot is constructed to achieve “pick-place» operation using SolidWorks software. And verification by Matlab/Simulink. The results of simulations were discussed. An agreement between the two softwares is certainly obtained herein

  12. Industrial Robots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Dean; Harden, Thomas K.

    Robots are mechanical devices that can be programmed to perform some task of manipulation or locomotion under automatic control. This paper discusses: (1) early developments of the robotics industry in the United States; (2) the present structure of the industry; (3) noneconomic factors related to the use of robots; (4) labor considerations…

  13. Self-Organizing Robots

    CERN Document Server

    Murata, Satoshi

    2012-01-01

    It is man’s ongoing hope that a machine could somehow adapt to its environment by reorganizing itself. This is what the notion of self-organizing robots is based on. The theme of this book is to examine the feasibility of creating such robots within the limitations of current mechanical engineering. The topics comprise the following aspects of such a pursuit: the philosophy of design of self-organizing mechanical systems; self-organization in biological systems; the history of self-organizing mechanical systems; a case study of a self-assembling/self-repairing system as an autonomous distributed system; a self-organizing robot that can create its own shape and robotic motion; implementation and instrumentation of self-organizing robots; and the future of self-organizing robots. All topics are illustrated with many up-to-date examples, including those from the authors’ own work. The book does not require advanced knowledge of mathematics to be understood, and will be of great benefit to students in the rob...

  14. Intellectual, Adaptive, and Behavioral Functioning in Children with Urea Cycle Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krivitzky, Lauren; Babikian, Talin; Lee, HyeSeung; Thomas, Nina Hattiangadi; Burk-Paull, Karen L.; Batshaw, Mark L.

    2009-01-01

    Inborn errors of urea synthesis lead to an accumulation of ammonia in blood and brain, and result in high rates of mortality and neurodevelopmental disability. The current study seeks to characterize the cognitive, adaptive, and emotional/behavioral functioning of children with Urea Cycle Disorders (UCDs). These domains were measured through testing and parent questionnaires in 92 children with UCDs (33 neonatal onset, 59 late onset). Results indicate that children who present with neonatal onset have poorer outcome than those who present later in childhood. Approximately half of the children with neonatal onset performed in the range of intellectual disability (ID), including a substantial number (~30%) who were severely impaired. In comparison, only a quarter of the late onset group were in the range of ID. There is also evidence that the UCD group has difficulties in aspects of emotional/behavioral and executive skills domains. In conclusion, children with UCDs present with a wide spectrum of cognitive outcomes. Children with neonatal onset disease have a much higher likelihood of having an intellectual disability, which becomes even more evident with increasing age. However, even children with late onset UCDs demonstrate evidence of neurocognitive and behavioral impairment, particularly in aspects of attention and executive functioning. PMID:19287347

  15. Health problem behaviors in Iranian adolescents: A study of cross-cultural adaptation, reliability, and validity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Ali Eslami

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The main purpose of this study was to assess the factorial validity and reliability of the Iranian versions of the personality and behavior system scales (49 items of the AHDQ (The Adolescent Health and Development Questionnaire and interrelations among them based on Jessor′s PBT (Problem Behavior Theory. Methods: A multi-staged approach was employed. The cross-cultural adaptation was performed according to the internationally recommended methodology, using the following guidelines: translation, back-translation, revision by a committee, and pretest. After modifying and identifying of the best items, a cross-sectional study was conducted to assess the psychometric properties of Persian version using calibration and validation samples of adolescents. Also 113 of them completed it again two weeks later for stability. Results: The findings of the exploratory factor analysis suggested that the 7-factor solution with low self concept, emotional distress, general delinquency, cigarette, hookah, alcohol, and hard drugs use provided a better fitting model. The a range for these identified factors was 0.69 to 0.94, the ICC range was 0.73 to 0.93, and there was a significant difference in mean scores for these instruments in compare between the male normative and detention adolescents. The first and second-order measurement models testing found good model fit for the 7-factor model. Conclusions: Factor analyses provided support of existence internalizing and externalizing problem behavior syndrome. With those qualifications, this model can be applied for studies among Persian adolescents.

  16. Neuromodulatory adaptive combination of correlation-based learning in cerebellum and reward-based learning in basal ganglia for goal-directed behavior control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dasgupta, Sakyasingha; Wörgötter, Florentin; Manoonpong, Poramate

    2014-01-01

    Goal-directed decision making in biological systems is broadly based on associations between conditional and unconditional stimuli. This can be further classified as classical conditioning (correlation-based learning) and operant conditioning (reward-based learning). A number of computational and experimental studies have well established the role of the basal ganglia in reward-based learning, where as the cerebellum plays an important role in developing specific conditioned responses. Although viewed as distinct learning systems, recent animal experiments point toward their complementary role in behavioral learning, and also show the existence of substantial two-way communication between these two brain structures. Based on this notion of co-operative learning, in this paper we hypothesize that the basal ganglia and cerebellar learning systems work in parallel and interact with each other. We envision that such an interaction is influenced by reward modulated heterosynaptic plasticity (RMHP) rule at the thalamus, guiding the overall goal directed behavior. Using a recurrent neural network actor-critic model of the basal ganglia and a feed-forward correlation-based learning model of the cerebellum, we demonstrate that the RMHP rule can effectively balance the outcomes of the two learning systems. This is tested using simulated environments of increasing complexity with a four-wheeled robot in a foraging task in both static and dynamic configurations. Although modeled with a simplified level of biological abstraction, we clearly demonstrate that such a RMHP induced combinatorial learning mechanism, leads to stabler and faster learning of goal-directed behaviors, in comparison to the individual systems. Thus, in this paper we provide a computational model for adaptive combination of the basal ganglia and cerebellum learning systems by way of neuromodulated plasticity for goal-directed decision making in biological and bio-mimetic organisms.

  17. Semiotics and Human-Robot Interaction

    OpenAIRE

    Sequeira, Joao; Ribeiro, M.Isabel

    2007-01-01

    The social barriers that still constrain the use of robots in modern societies will tend to vanish with the sophistication increase of interaction strategies. Communication and interaction between people and robots occurring in a friendly manner and being accessible to everyone, independent of their skills in robotics issues, will certainly foster the breaking of barriers. Socializing behaviors, such as following people, are relatively easy to obtain with current state of the art robotics. Ho...

  18. Robot Mechanisms

    CERN Document Server

    Lenarcic, Jadran; Stanišić, Michael M

    2013-01-01

    This book provides a comprehensive introduction to the area of robot mechanisms, primarily considering industrial manipulators and humanoid arms. The book is intended for both teaching and self-study. Emphasis is given to the fundamentals of kinematic analysis and the design of robot mechanisms. The coverage of topics is untypical. The focus is on robot kinematics. The book creates a balance between theoretical and practical aspects in the development and application of robot mechanisms, and includes the latest achievements and trends in robot science and technology.

  19. Robotics education

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benton, O.

    1984-01-01

    Robotics education courses are rapidly spreading throughout the nation's colleges and universities. Engineering schools are offering robotics courses as part of their mechanical or manufacturing engineering degree program. Two year colleges are developing an Associate Degree in robotics. In addition to regular courses, colleges are offering seminars in robotics and related fields. These seminars draw excellent participation at costs running up to $200 per day for each participant. The last one drew 275 people from Texas to Virginia. Seminars are also offered by trade associations, private consulting firms, and robot vendors. IBM, for example, has the Robotic Assembly Institute in Boca Raton and charges about $1,000 per week for course. This is basically for owners of IBM robots. Education (and training) can be as short as one day or as long as two years. Here is the educational pattern that is developing now

  20. Emotion based human-robot interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berns Karsten

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Human-machine interaction is a major challenge in the development of complex humanoid robots. In addition to verbal communication the use of non-verbal cues such as hand, arm and body gestures or mimics can improve the understanding of the intention of the robot. On the other hand, by perceiving such mechanisms of a human in a typical interaction scenario the humanoid robot can adapt its interaction skills in a better way. In this work, the perception system of two social robots, ROMAN and ROBIN of the RRLAB of the TU Kaiserslautern, is presented in the range of human-robot interaction.