WorldWideScience

Sample records for road tanker design

  1. Environmental tanker design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van der Laan, M.

    1997-01-01

    Accidental oil spills from crude oil tankers have resulted in large changes in the tanker industry. New international regulations have been issued and a large variety of environmental tanker design concepts has been developed to reduce accidental outflow. A systematic analysis of these concepts results in a number of practical principles of outflow reduction. For instance after tank penetration a large portion of the cargo can be kept inside the tank by simple principles; the author has added a new concept in this area: the so-called ECO-Bulkhead. In this dissertation the various principles are combined effectively into one single design methodology, which helps to improve existing tanker concepts and to develop new ones. Both an improved double hull concept (IDH) and a new comprehensive concept, the COBO (Combination Of Basic Objectives) are developed. Their performance is compared to that of a base double hull (BDH) design. Further a mid-deck (MD) design concept is added as a representative of alternative designs. In total, four Very Large Crude Carriers (VLCC) concepts are developed and the results compared: (1) BDH, (2) IDH with smaller wing tanks, (3) MD and (4) COBO. The main differences are found inside the tank region and are related to the different arrangement of cargo and ballast tanks and internal bulkheads. The investigation shows that the accidental outflow is reduced in the Improved DH, and considerably reduced in the COBO design. This result is more remarkable as the building costs of the COBO are lower. The appendices are published in a separate publication. refs

  2. Over-pressure in road tankers; Ueberdrucksicherung an Tankfahrzeugen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frobese, Dirk-Hans; Pape, Harald [Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Braunschweig (Germany)

    2011-08-15

    This work was aimed at determining possible causes of overpressure damages on road tankers. In cooperation with the manufacturers of road tankers, the equipment of road tankers usually used today was, therefore, discussed and possible error sources determined. In measurements performed at two filling stations, real pressure, temperature and volume flow ratios for the loading of a road tanker were recorded. Parallel to it, tests in a cold chamber were carried out to determine the possibility and the general conditions of an icing of the tilting valve and the flame arrester. With these results, scenarios have been worked out which can explain known overpressure damaging events. On the basis of a risk assessment, measures are described how such overpressure damages on road tankers can in future be avoided. (orig.)

  3. Effect of Baffles on the Sloshing in Road Tankers Carrying LPG: A Comparative Numerical Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. L. Bautista-Jacobo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This work presents a comparative numerical study of the effect of using baffles, and its design, on the behavior of sloshing in a partially filled road tanker carrying LPG. Navier-Stokes equations and standard k-ε turbulence model are used to simulate fluid movement; the Volume of Fluid (VOF method is used to track the liquid-gas interface. Velocity distributions, sloshing stabilization times, and contours of turbulent kinetic energy, which are of high importance in choosing the best design of baffles, are shown. The results show sloshing stabilization times of 22 and 21 s for road tankers with cross-shaped (Type I and X-shaped (Type II baffles, respectively, finding lower values of turbulent kinetic energy for Type II design, being, therefore, the best design of baffles for damping of sloshing and vehicle control among studied ones.

  4. Explosion of a road tanker containing liquefied natural gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Planas-Cuchi, E.; Casal, J. [Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya, Catalonia (Spain). CERTEC; Gasulla, N.; Ventosa, A. [Autonomous Government of Catalonia (Spain). General Directorate for Emergencies and Civl Security

    2004-07-01

    The explosion of a road tanker transporting LNG (one person killed, two injured) is studied. The analysis shows that the explosion, which followed a two-step mode as for the failure of the vessel, could have been a boiling liquid expanding vapor explosion (BLEVE). The overpressure and thermal radiation have been estimated and related to the effects observed. Only a relatively small part of the energy released in the explosion was manifested in the pressure wave. The large fragments (the three pieces into which the tank was broken) and the truck motor were ejected at various distances along the tank's main axis. (author)

  5. On Rational Design of Double Hull Tanker Structures against Collision

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paik, Jeom Kee; Chung, Jang Young; Choe, Ich Hung

    1999-01-01

    This paper is a summary of recent research and development in areas related to the design technology for double hull tanker structures against low energy collision, jointly undertaken by the Hyundai Heavy Industries, the American Bureau of Shipping, the Technical University of Denmark and the Pusan...... in the present study were (i) developing a framework for the collision design procedure for double hull tanker structures, (ii) experimental investigation of the structural crashworthiness of the collided vessels in collision or stranding, using double skinned structural models, (iii) validation of the special...... investigation of the energy absorption capability characteristics of a collided double hull VLCC side structure in collision, and (vi) development of a new modified Minorsky method for double hull tanker side structures. The tools developed and the results and insights obtained by the present study should...

  6. Design challenges for large Arctic crude oil tanker

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iyerusalimskiy, A.; Noble, P.

    2008-01-01

    The Vasily Dinkov vessel was delivered by Samsung Heavy Industries shipyard to Russian ship-owner Sovcomflot. It is the largest icebreaking tanker ever built. The vessel was designed and constructed to transport crude oil from the Varandey offshore terminal in the southeastern Barents Sea to a transshipment location near Murmansk, Russia. The vessel is under long-term charter for Naryanmarneftegas, a joint venture of Lukoil and ConocoPhillips. The new ship was constructed strictly to the requirements, specification, and concept design provided by the charterer. The Varandey oil transportation concept and the vessel operational profile resulted in some conflicting requirements, compromising technical solutions, and assumptions yet to be proven in operation. This paper described the design challenges and selected approach to solve the solution to the tanker key design elements. These included the ice transit and other Arctic environmental challenges; open water performance issues; and icebreaking hull structure design challenges associated with modern shipbuilding technology standards and cost efficiency. The principle characteristics of the Vasily Dinkov were first presented and the Varandey crude oil transportation system was also described. Several features have made the Vasily Dinkov the most advanced icebreaking tanker to date, such as the icebreaking concept which has expanded the capability of both traditional icebreaking ships fitted with the icebreaker bow and double acting ships intended to operate astern only in the ice; the largest azimuthal twin screw propulsion plant for the Arctic with highest ice torque capacity ever specified for cargo vessel; and the first customized, automated, asymmetric steering control system designed to improve open water maneuverability and steering stability of podded vessels. It was concluded that the transportation system, the overall vessel concept and many of the vessel features require validation based on operational

  7. THESEUS - achieving maximum possible road transport tanker safety by means of experimental accident simulation; THESEUS - Tankfahrzeuge mit hoechsterreichbarer Sicherheit durch experimentelle Unfallsimulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rompe, K.; Heuser, G.

    1996-03-01

    In spring 1990, the Federal German Minister for Education, Science, Research and Technology (BMBF) commissioned the team from the Federal Institute for Materials Research and Testing (BAM), DEKRA, Daimler-Benz, the Federal Road Research Institute (BASt) with the University of Cologne, Ellinghaus and TUeV Rheinland (project leader) to perform the research project `THESEUS` (the acronym THESEUS comes from the German `Tankfahrzeuge mit hoechst erreichbarer Sicherheit durch experimentelle Unfallsimulation`, which translates as `achieving maximum possible road transport tanker safety by means of experimental accident simulation`). Arting from an analysis of road transport tanker accidents, crash tests and overturn tests were performed and supplemented by investigations of road transport tanker components and accompanying complex calculations of the failure processes. Parallel to this, the static side-tilt stability of road transport tankers was determined on a tilting test platform. The causes of and constructive possibilities for avoiding overturning, which is the most common cause of accidents in which hazardous materials escape, wewre analysed in dynamic driving tests with supplementary computer simulation. Various measures for improving the safety of road transport tankers were determined and subjected to a cost-benefit analysis. (orig.) [Deutsch] Das Bundesministerium fuer Bildung, Wissenschaft, Forschung und Technologie hat seit 1990 das Forschungsproject `THESEUS` (Tankfahrzeuge mit hoechst erreichbarer Sicherheit durch experimentelle Unfallsimulation) der Arbeitsgemeinschaft aus TUeV Rheinland (Federfuehrung), Bundesanstalt fuer Materialforschung und -pruefung (BAM), DEKRA, Daimler Benz, Bundesanstalt fuer Strassenwesen (BASt), Universitaet Koeln und Ellinghaus gefoerdert. Ausgehend von der detaillierten Analyse von 231 Tankfahrzeugunfaellen wurden Tankfahrzeug-Crashversuche und Tankfahrzeug-Umsturzversuche durchgefuehrt. Diese Messungen an kompletten Fahrzeugen

  8. Predictability by recognizable road design. [previously called: Recognizable road design.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2007-01-01

    One of the Sustainable Safety principles is that a road should have a recognizable design and a predictable alignment. If this is the case, road users know how they are expected to behave and what they can expect from other road users, so that crashes may be prevented. For roads to be recognizable,

  9. Transport of liquefied natural gas by tankers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vasiliev, Y N; Mkrtychan, Y S; Tregubov, I A; Belyaev, I G

    1979-03-01

    A survey conducted by the USSR's VNIIgaz indicates that the number of LNG tankers in use and under construction presently exceeds 100, ranging in capacity from 600 to 130,000 m/sup 3/. The annual volume of LNG transported by tanker is expected to reach 50 to 60 billion m/sup 3/ by 1980. VNIIgaz examines (1) the design of present tankers, (2) the differences in gas-transport temperature, insulation, and engines, (3) transport recommendations of various LNG-tanker companies around the world, (4) parameters of some types of commercial diesel engines used for tanker propulsion (fueled by gas and/or heavy fuel oil), (5) relative advantages and disadvantages of diesel engines, and (6) the control system for the main gas diesel of an LNG tanker.

  10. Design for air-to-air refuelling operations; new passenger and tanker aircraft design for AAR scenarios

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, M.O.

    2014-01-01

    Air-to-air refuelling is a way to improve fuel efficiency of the overall transport system without waiting for the improvement of basic aviation technology. To take full advantage of such an operation, both passenger aircraft and tanker aircraft (which deliver required fuel to the passenger aircraft

  11. Gravel Roads: Maintenance and Design Manual

    Science.gov (United States)

    This manual was developed with a major emphasis on the maintenance of gravel roads, including some basic design elements. The purpose of the manual is to provide clear and helpful information for doing a better job of maintaining gravel roads.

  12. Road Service Performance Based On Integrated Road Design Consistency (IC) Along Federal Road F0023

    OpenAIRE

    Zainal Zaffan Farhana; Prasetijo Joewono; Musa Wan Zahidah

    2017-01-01

    Road accidents are one of the world’s largest public health and injury prevention problems. In Malaysia, the west coast area of Malaysia been stated as the highest motorcycle fatalities and road accidents are one of the factors that cause of death and injuries in this country. The most common fatal accident is between a motorcycle and passenger car. The most of the fatal accidents happened on Federal roads with 44 fatal accidents reported, which is equal to 29%. Lacks of road geometric design...

  13. Road Service Performance Based On Integrated Road Design Consistency (IC Along Federal Road F0023

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zainal Zaffan Farhana

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Road accidents are one of the world’s largest public health and injury prevention problems. In Malaysia, the west coast area of Malaysia been stated as the highest motorcycle fatalities and road accidents are one of the factors that cause of death and injuries in this country. The most common fatal accident is between a motorcycle and passenger car. The most of the fatal accidents happened on Federal roads with 44 fatal accidents reported, which is equal to 29%. Lacks of road geometric designs consistency where the drivers make mistakes errors due to the road geometric features causes the accident kept rising in Malaysia. Hence, models are based on operating speed to calculate design consistency of road. The profiles were obtained by continuous speed profile using GPS data. The continuous operating speed profile models were plotted based on operating speed model (85th percentile. The study was conduct at F0023 from km 16 until km 20. The purpose of design consistency is to know the relationship between the operating speed and elements of geometric design on the road. As a result, the integrated design consistency motorcycle and cars along a segment at F0023, the threshold shows poor design quality for motorcycles and cars.

  14. Overview of risk analysis research on tanker groundings and collisions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Preben Terndrup

    1999-01-01

    for evaluation of the oil outlfow performance of alternative tanker designs in the event of a collision or grounding. The present paper is an invited contribution oto the first meeting of the Committee on Evaluating Double Hull Alterntive Tanker Designs held at the National Academy of Sciences' Georgetown...

  15. DESIGNING ROADS IN GRENLAND USING GIS TECHNOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdel A.Z. Barten

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Designing a road in the Arctic (Greenland which stretches 157 km between the towns of Sisimiut and Kangerlussuaq was very challenging. Difficult climatic and geotechnical conditions and presence of permafrost required some in-depth analysis and research. Geotechnical investigations were conducted along the entire route. The investigations included field geological and geophysical studies and survey using aerial photography.Based on the investigations a digital model of the area 2 km Ѕ 170 km was prepared. Using a Novapoint software a detailed geometric model was created which allowed for calculationsof the volume of earthworks and creation of transverse and longitudinal sections of the road. A virtual model of the entire road and a movie were made based on the results of all investigations.

  16. Comparison of residual strength-grounding damage index diagrams for tankers produced by the ALPS/HULL ISFEM and design formula method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Do Kyun Kim

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This study compares the Residual ultimate longitudinal strength – grounding Damage index (R-D diagrams produced by two analysis methods: the ALPS/HULL Intelligent Supersize Finite Element Method (ISFEM and the design formula (modified Paik and Mansour method – used to assess the safety of damaged ships. The comparison includes four types of double-hull oil tankers: Panamax, Aframax, Suezmax and VLCC. The R-D diagrams were calculated for a series of 50 grounding scenarios. The diagrams were efficiently sampled using the Latin Hypercube Sampling (LHS technique and comprehensively analysed based on ship size. Finally, the two methods were compared by statistically analysing the differences between their grounding damage indices and ultimate longitudinal strength predictions. The findings provide a useful example of how to apply the ultimate longitudinal strength analysis method to grounded ships.

  17. Existing Design Trends for Tankers and Bulk Carriers - Design Changes for Improvement of the EEDI in the Future

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Hans Otto Holmegaard; Lützen, Marie

    To get an idea of the reduction in propulsion power and associated emissions by varying the speed and other ship design main parameters, a generic model for parameter studies has been developed. With only a few input parameters of which the maximum deadweight capacity is the primary one, a proposal...

  18. Double hull oil tankers - how effective are they?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keith, V.F.

    1993-01-01

    The groundings of the Exxon Valdez on Bligh Reef in Prince William Sound, spilling more than 10 million gallons of Alaska North Slope crude, and the American Trader off Huntington Beach, spilling almost 400,000 gallons of Alaska North Slope crude, suggest that the construction of oil tankers be re-examined with respect to a design which could reduce both the number and magnitude of oil spills. This paper discusses state-of-the-art tanker technology with respect to spill prevention, effectiveness, and cost. The design features include double hulls, centralized bunker tankers, vacuum-retaining valves, cargo control systems, auxiliary thrusters, electronic charting, and the retransmission of the ship's position. Double hulls provide the highest probability of surviving damage, either from a collision or grounding, with no loss of cargo. Use of double hulls can reduce oil spill incidence by 90 percent in grounding situations and by 75 percent in collisions. The oil spill from the AmericanTrader could have been completely avoided by double hull construction. The arrangement provides spaces below the cargo tanks and on the vessel's sides solely for the carriage of ballast water when the tanker is in ballast condition. These tanks are empty when the tanker is loaded and then also act as the first line of defense in the event of structural damage to the cargo tanks. Tanker design is integrated with port safety measures, including vessel monitoring systems, in this total spill prevention analysis. All aspects of the tanker transportation system are considered

  19. Effects of traffic infrastructure and road design on safe driving

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horst, A.R.A. van der

    2014-01-01

    One of the building blocks of the Dutch success in road safety is the Sustainable Safety approach. This philosophy specifies that road safety should be a design requirement in road traffic with a focus on the use of human characteristics as a starting point, considering both humans’ physical

  20. The Relationship between Road Design and Driving Behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abele, Liva; Møller, Mette

    2011-01-01

    Speed is a substantial factor contributing to road safety. Currently, speed reduction is mainly achieved through law enforcement and the implementation of traffic calming measures. An alternative speed reducing approach is to encourage drivers to voluntarily choose an appropriate driving speed....... Improving road infrastructure safety can be achieved by making roads forgiving and self-explaining. This could be done by clarifying the road design characteristics for each road category. The effect on driver behavior by varying road-shoulders and presence of roadside trees was tested by means of a fixed-driving...... simulator experiment. Speed and lateral position were used as performance indicators. The results indicated that shoulders might not be applied to decrease the speed on the experimental road stretch, but their presence cause drivers to drive closer to the road edge, hence eliminating the probability of head...

  1. Conceptual design and analysis of roads and road construction machinery for initial lunar base operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sines, Jeffrey L.; Banks, Joel; Efatpenah, Keyanoush

    1990-01-01

    Recent developments have made it possible for scientists and engineers to consider returning to the Moon to build a manned lunar base. The base can be used to conduct scientific research, develop new space technology, and utilize the natural resources of the Moon. Areas of the base will be separated, connected by a system of roads that reduce the power requirements of vehicles traveling on them. Feasible road types for the lunar surface were analyzed and a road construction system was designed for initial lunar base operations. A model was also constructed to show the system configuration and key operating features. The alternate designs for the lunar road construction system were developed in four stages: analyze and select a road type; determine operations and machinery needed to produce the road; develop machinery configurations; and develop alternates for several machine components. A compacted lunar soil road was selected for initial lunar base operations. The only machinery required to produce this road were a grader and a compactor. The road construction system consists of a main drive unit which is used for propulsion, a detachable grader assembly, and a towed compactor.

  2. Design Of Overhead Roadway At Road Intersection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raji

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available This project deals with the Design of overhead-roadway located at CHALLENGE junction which is a T-junction. Analysis of the existing conditions was carried out to proffers solution to the cause of the problems occurring due to the vehicle competing for space at this intersection. Before carrying out the analysis a traffic surveys at peak hours for morning 0730 to 0830 am and afternoon 0300 to 0400 pm were conducted using 15 minutes interval. From the analysis it was found out that the peak hour factor and flow rate was 0.88 and 1656pcphpl respectively corresponding to LOS E. This implies that the capacity of the existing road is no longer able to accommodate the traffic flow hence overhead roadway was introduced to improve the efficiency of the intersection. The overhead-roadway is of 140 m length with 7 spans 20 m per span. It consists of a deck slab longitudinal girders cross girders deck beam pier foundation and retailing wall. All structural parts for this Flyover were designed using Staad professional software package and Manual method.

  3. Road design, human behaviour, and road accidents : towards a `learning design community'. Paper presented at the international conference `Road safety in Europe', Birmingham, England, September 9-11, 1996.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wegman, F.C.M.

    1996-01-01

    This paper discusses a number of unsolved problems in the field of road design (i.e. geometric design), human behaviour and road safety, particularly concerning the operationalisation of the existing design principles for a safe road network in terms of concrete road design in existing

  4. 36 CFR 212.51 - Designation of roads, trails, and areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Designation of roads, trails... AGRICULTURE TRAVEL MANAGEMENT Designation of Roads, Trails, and Areas for Motor Vehicle Use § 212.51 Designation of roads, trails, and areas. (a) General. Motor vehicle use on National Forest System roads, on...

  5. 36 CFR 212.56 - Identification of designated roads, trails, and areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... roads, trails, and areas. 212.56 Section 212.56 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE TRAVEL MANAGEMENT Designation of Roads, Trails, and Areas for Motor Vehicle Use § 212.56 Identification of designated roads, trails, and areas. Designated roads, trails, and areas...

  6. Aerodynamic Efficiency Analysis on Modified Drag Generator of Tanker-Ship Using Symmetrical Airfoil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moranova, Starida; Rahmat Hadiyatul A., S. T.; Indra Permana S., S. T.

    2018-04-01

    Time reduction of tanker ship spent in the sea should be applied for solving problems occured in oil and gas distribution, such as the unpunctuality of the distribution and oil spilling. The aerodynamic design for some parts that considered as drag generators is presumed to be one of the solution, utilizing our demand of the increasing speed. This paper suggests two examples of the more-aerodynamic design of a part in the tanker that is considered a drag generator, and reports the value of drag generated from the basic and the suggested aerodynamic designs. The new designs are made by adding the NACA airfoil to the cross section of the drag generator. The scenario is assumed with a 39 km/hour speed of tanker, neglecting the hydrodynamic effects occured in the tanker by cutting it at the waterline which separated the drag between air and water. The results of produced drag in each design are calculated by Computational Fluid Dynamic method.

  7. Leachate storage transport tanker loadout piping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whitlock, R.W.

    1994-01-01

    This report contains schematic drawings for the pipe fittings for the Hanford waste tanks. Included are the modifications to the W-025 trench number-sign 31 leachate loadout piping, and also the modifications to the tanker trailers. The piping was modified to prevent spillage to the environment. The tankers were modified for loading and unloading purposes

  8. Tire-road noise: an experimental study of tire and road design parameters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bekke, Dirk; Wijnant, Ysbrand H.; Weegerink, Thijs; de Boer, Andries

    2013-01-01

    It is widely known that road traffic noise has negative influences on human health. Hence, as tire-road noise is considered to be the most dominant cause of road traffic noise above 30-50 km/h, a lot of research is performed by the two involving industries: road authorities/manufacturers and tire

  9. Hybrid Evolutionary Metaheuristics for Concurrent Multi-Objective Design of Urban Road and Public Transit Networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miandoabchi, Elnaz; Farahani, Reza Zanjirani; Dullaert, Wout; Szeto, W. Y.

    This paper addresses a bi-modal multi-objective discrete urban road network design problem with automobile and bus flow interaction. The problem considers the concurrent urban road and bus network design in which the authorities play a major role in designing bus network topology. The road network

  10. 36 CFR 212.55 - Criteria for designation of roads, trails, and areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... roads, trails, and areas. 212.55 Section 212.55 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE TRAVEL MANAGEMENT Designation of Roads, Trails, and Areas for Motor Vehicle Use § 212.55 Criteria for designation of roads, trails, and areas. (a) General criteria for designation of...

  11. Exploring road design factors influencing tram road safety - Melbourne tram driver focus groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naznin, Farhana; Currie, Graham; Logan, David

    2018-01-01

    Melbourne, Australia has the largest tram/streetcar network in the world including the largest mixed traffic tram operating environment. Therefore, Melbourne tram drivers are responsible for controlling one of the heaviest vehicles on road ranging from shared tram lanes to exclusive tram lanes. In addition to different tram lane configurations, tram drivers need to follow different traffic signal phases at intersections including tram priority signals as well as need to serve passengers at various types of closely spaced tram stops. Despite all these challenges, no research has explored tram driver perceptions of the risk factors on different tram route road design configurations. Therefore, the aim of this study is to investigate how tram drivers' safety perceptions alter along various tram route sections, signal settings and stop configurations. A tram driver focus group approach was adopted for this research involving thirty tram drivers (4 female and 26 male drivers). The tram drivers' age ranged from 29 to 63 years, with an average age of 47.6 years (standard deviation of 10.1 years), and their experience of tram driving ranged from 1.17 to 31 years, with an average experience of 12.5 years (standard deviation of 10.2 years). The participating tram drivers perceived that the raised tram tracks and tramways with raised yellow curbing beside tracks are safer lane priority features on the Melbourne tram network compared to full-time, part-time and mixed traffic tram lanes. They regarded 'hook turns' as a safe form of tram signal priority treatment at intersections and platform tram stops as the safest tram stop design for all passengers among all other tram stop designs in Melbourne. Findings of this research could enhance the understanding of crash risk factors for different tram route features and thus can offer effective planning strategies for transit agencies to improve tram road safety. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Tanker self-help spill recovery systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smedley, J B; Wainwright, J G; Ehman, T K

    1991-12-01

    An investigation was conducted of the circumstances in which oil spills occur from tankers at sea by analyzing available historical oil spill data. A data base of marine oil spills greater than 134 tonnes occurring from 1974 and June 1990, included in an appendix, was among the information analyzed. The analysis showed that marine oil spills of 5,000 tonnes and greater account for 39.4% of the accidents yet 94.7% of the total spilled quantity; 84% of those spills occur in vessels of 20,000 deadweight tonnes and larger. Of spills over 5,000 tonnes, 78.5% occur outside of harbor or pier areas where spill response equipment may not be readily available. Over 50% of spills are caused by groundings or collisions where the vessel crew might be able to respond in mitigating and controlling the outflow of oil. The review suggested that tanker self-help systems warrant serious consideration. Potential self-help systems are described, ranging from additives such as bioremediation, dispersants, and solidifiers to equipment such as portable pumps, booms, and skimmers. Candidate systems were examined in terms of their safety, ease of operation, practicability, and effectiveness. Their possible performance was then assessed for the case of major marine oil spills that have occurred in Canadian waters. Four systems are identified as potential candidates for further evaluation and possible implementation: internal oil transfer, hydrostatic loading, external oil lightering, and contingency planning. A system design is evaluated and its benefits and possible implementation are outlined, based on integration of the preferred attributes of the above four options. Recommendations for implementation are also provided. 28 refs., 6 figs., 33 tabs.

  13. Tire-road noise: an experimental study of tire and road design parameters

    OpenAIRE

    Bekke, Dirk; Wijnant, Ysbrand H.; Weegerink, Thijs; de Boer, Andries

    2013-01-01

    It is widely known that road traffic noise has negative influences on human health. Hence, as tire-road noise is considered to be the most dominant cause of road traffic noise above 30-50 km/h, a lot of research is performed by the two involving industries: road authorities/manufacturers and tire manufacturers. Usually, the parameters influencing exterior tire-road noise are often examined separately, whereas it is the tire-road interaction which obviously causes the actual noise. An integral...

  14. 36 CFR 223.38 - Standards for road design and construction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Provisions § 223.38 Standards for road design and construction. Road construction authorized under timber... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standards for road design and construction. 223.38 Section 223.38 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF...

  15. 36 CFR 1004.10 - Travel on Presidio Trust roads and designated routes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... roads and designated routes. 1004.10 Section 1004.10 Parks, Forests, and Public Property PRESIDIO TRUST VEHICLES AND TRAFFIC SAFETY § 1004.10 Travel on Presidio Trust roads and designated routes. (a) Operating a motor vehicle is prohibited except on Presidio Trust roads and in parking areas. (b) The following are...

  16. GIS tools for analyzing accidents and road design: A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Satria, R.

    2016-07-01

    A significant unexpected outcome of transportation systems is road accidents with injuries and loss of lives. In recent years, the number of studies about the tools for analyzing accidents and road design has increased considerably. Among these tools, Geographical Information Systems (GIS) stand out for their ability to perform complex spatial analyses. However, sometimes the GIS, has been used only as a geographical database to store and represent data about accidents and road characteristics. It has also been used to represent the results of statistical studies of accidents but, these statistical studies have not been carried out with GIS. Owing to its integrated statistical-analysis capabilities GIS provides several advantages. First, it allows a more careful and accurate data selection, screening and reduction. Also, it allows a spatial analysis of the results in pre and post-processing. Second, GIS allows the development of spatial statistics that rely on geographically-referenced data. In this paper, several GIS tools used to model accidents have been examined. The understanding of these tools will help the analyst to make a better decision about which tool could be applied in each particular condition and context. (Author)

  17. 36 CFR 4.10 - Travel on park roads and designated routes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Travel on park roads and... THE INTERIOR VEHICLES AND TRAFFIC SAFETY § 4.10 Travel on park roads and designated routes. (a) Operating a motor vehicle is prohibited except on park roads, in parking areas and on routes and areas...

  18. Reliability-based optimization design of geosynthetic reinforced road embankment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-07-01

    Road embankments are typically large earth structures, the construction of which requires for large amounts of competent fill soil. In order to limit costs, the utilization of geosynthetics in road embankments allows for construction of steep slopes ...

  19. Modeling an impact of road geometric design on vehicle energy consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luin, Blaž; Petelin, Stojan; Al-Mansour, Fouad

    2017-11-01

    Some roads connect traffic origins and destinations directly, some use winding, indirect routes. Indirect connections result in longer distances driven and increased fuel consumption. A similar effect is observed on congested roads and mountain roads with many changes in altitude. Therefore a framework to assess road networks based on energy consumption is proposed. It has been shown that road geometry has significant impact on overall traffic energy consumption and emissions. The methodology presented in the paper analyzes impact of traffic volume, shares of vehicle classes, road network configuration on the energy used by the vehicles. It can be used to optimize energy consumption with efficient traffic management and to choose optimum new road in the design phase. This is especially important as the energy consumed by the vehicles shortly after construction supersedes the energy spent for the road construction.

  20. Oil coastal tanker maintenance and availability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldsztejn, Eduardo; Gomez Haedo, Juan Carlos [Government' s Oil Company of Uruguay (ANCAP), Montivideo (Uruguay)

    2008-07-01

    ANCAP (Government's Oil Company of Uruguay) owns a 4000 DWT oil coastal tanker which is mainly used for oil transport in the River Plate, Uruguay and Parana rivers. Availability of the ship is critical because of shortage of available vessels in the region. Full maximum draught of the vessel is 4m , so it can navigate in very shallow waters as it is the case of some places in the Uruguay and Parana rivers. Although the ship was built in 1979, it is a complete double hull, powered by two twin main engines and propellers. Since 1994, several changes in maintenance management have been introduced, in order to increase the availability, thus increasing the total oil volume yearly transported. These changes affected several maintenance items and they also included a modification in the design of part of the cargo tank floors of the ship. As a result of these changes, an increase of 60% of the oil derivatives volume transported yearly was achieved. In this paper, some of the important improvements on maintenance practises and management are described, together with a quantification of their influence on vessel's availability and overall maintenance costs. (author)

  1. An outer approximation method for the road network design problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asadi Bagloee, Saeed; Sarvi, Majid

    2018-01-01

    Best investment in the road infrastructure or the network design is perceived as a fundamental and benchmark problem in transportation. Given a set of candidate road projects with associated costs, finding the best subset with respect to a limited budget is known as a bilevel Discrete Network Design Problem (DNDP) of NP-hard computationally complexity. We engage with the complexity with a hybrid exact-heuristic methodology based on a two-stage relaxation as follows: (i) the bilevel feature is relaxed to a single-level problem by taking the network performance function of the upper level into the user equilibrium traffic assignment problem (UE-TAP) in the lower level as a constraint. It results in a mixed-integer nonlinear programming (MINLP) problem which is then solved using the Outer Approximation (OA) algorithm (ii) we further relax the multi-commodity UE-TAP to a single-commodity MILP problem, that is, the multiple OD pairs are aggregated to a single OD pair. This methodology has two main advantages: (i) the method is proven to be highly efficient to solve the DNDP for a large-sized network of Winnipeg, Canada. The results suggest that within a limited number of iterations (as termination criterion), global optimum solutions are quickly reached in most of the cases; otherwise, good solutions (close to global optimum solutions) are found in early iterations. Comparative analysis of the networks of Gao and Sioux-Falls shows that for such a non-exact method the global optimum solutions are found in fewer iterations than those found in some analytically exact algorithms in the literature. (ii) Integration of the objective function among the constraints provides a commensurate capability to tackle the multi-objective (or multi-criteria) DNDP as well.

  2. The liquefied natural gas infrastructure and tanker fleet sizing problem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koza, David Franz; Røpke, Stefan; Molas, Anna Boleda

    2017-01-01

    We consider a strategic infrastructure and tanker fleet sizing problem in the liquefied natural gas business. The goal is to minimize long-term on-shore infrastructure and tanker investment cost combined with interrelated expected cost for operating the tanker fleet. A non-linear arc-based model...

  3. Forest access roads: design, maintenance, and soil loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd W. Swift

    1988-01-01

    The Regional Guide for,the South (United States Department of Agriculture 1984b) recognizes that roads and skid trails are the major sources of sediment from forestry-related activities. The overall environmental impact statement for Region 8 (United States Department of Agriculture 1984a) estimates an existing national forest road network of 56,300 km (3 1,000 miles)...

  4. An introduction to the integrated design of surface mine haul roads

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thompson, R.J.; Visser, A.T. [University of Pretoria, Pretoria (South Africa). Dept. of Mining Engineering

    1997-12-01

    The world-wide expansion of surface mining has led to the development of very large off-highway trucks currently capable of hauling layloads in excess of 160 t. Typical axle loads ranging from 110 t to 170 t are applied to haul roads that have been, at best, empirically designed on the premise of `satisfactory` or `failed`, both in terms of structure and function of the road. The use of these empirical pavement design techniques will prove inadequate when high axle loads are encountered. Not only will the maintenance costs of existing haul roads of inadequate thickness increase, but vehicle operating and maintenance costs will also increase prohibitively. Under these conditions there is thus a clearly defined need for improved construction and management techniques for flexible mine haulage roads, appropriate for the wheel loads of vehicles now in use. The aim of this paper is to introduce developments in haul road structural, functional and maintenance design and management which overcome the limitations associated with the previously empirical design techniques and to show how these developments are combined into an integrated design strategy combining construction techniques, available material and road maintenance equipment with hauler choice to realise a reduction in haulage and road maintenance costs. Future contributions will enumerate on the fundamental haul road structural, functional and maintenance design and management research from which these developments originated. 7 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  5. Minimizing total costs of forest roads with computer-aided design ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    imum total road costs, while conforming to design specifications, environmental ..... quality, and enhancing fish and wildlife habitat, an appropriate design ..... Soil, Water and Timber Management: Forest Engineering Solutions in Response to.

  6. Low-head air stripper treats oil tanker ballast water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldman, M.

    1992-01-01

    Prototype tests conducted during the winter of 1989/90 have successfully demonstrated an economical design for air stripping volatile hydrocarbons from oily tanker ballast water. The prototype air stripper, developed for Alyeska's Ballast Water Treatment (BWT) facility in Valdez, Alaska, ran continuously for three months with an average removal of 88% of the incoming volatile organics. Initially designed to remove oil and grease compounds from tanker ballast water, the BWT system has been upgraded to a three-step process to comply with new, stringent regulations. The BWT biological oxidation process enhances the growth of bacteria present in the incoming ballast water through nutrient addition, aeration, and recirculation within a complete-mixed bioreactor. The average removal of BETX is over 95%, however, occassional upsets required the placement of a polishing air stripper downstream of the aeration tanks. Packed-tower air stripping was investigated but deemed economically unfeasible for a facility that would only occasionally be used. Twelve feet of excess gravity head in the existing BWT hydraulic gradeline were employed to drive the air stripper feed. This limited the stripper packing depth to 8 feet and imposed constraints on the design of the inlet water and air distributors. Water distribution, air flow, temperature effects, and fouling from constituents in the ballast water were investigated. The prototype was operated under water and air flow conditions similar to those specified for the full-scale unit, and at a range of test conditions above and below the normal design conditions

  7. Conceptual design report, TWRS Privatization Phase I, site development and roads, subproject W-505

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, G.

    1997-01-01

    This document includes Conceptual Design Report (CDR) for the site development, construction of new roads and improvements at existing road intersections, habitat mitigation, roadway lighting, and construction power needed for the construction of two Private Contractor (PC) Facilities. Approximately 50 hectare (124 acres) land parcel, east of the Grout Facility, is planned for the PC facilities

  8. Road design and environment : best practice on self-explaining and forgiving roads. Deliverable D3 of the RiPCORD-iSEREST project (Road Infrastructure Safety Protection - Core-Research and Development for Road Safety in Europe; Increasing safety and reliability of secondary roads for a sustainable Surface Transport).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Matena, S. Louwerse, W. Schermers, G. Vaneerdewegh, P. Pokorny, P. Gaitanidou, L. Elvik, R. & Cardoso, J.

    2009-01-01

    Main objective of work-package 3 of Ripcord-lserest was to collect information on best practices concerning the design of self-explaining and forgiving roads. In order to gain an overview on existing practises on road categorisation and the layout of typical rural roads a questionnaire survey had

  9. 36 CFR 212.57 - Monitoring of effects of motor vehicle use on designated roads and trails and in designated areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... motor vehicle use on designated roads and trails and in designated areas. 212.57 Section 212.57 Parks... Roads, Trails, and Areas for Motor Vehicle Use § 212.57 Monitoring of effects of motor vehicle use on designated roads and trails and in designated areas. For each administrative unit of the National Forest...

  10. Tanker spills Norwegian crude oil off Shetlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    This paper reports that crude oil was spilling last week from the U.S. owned Braer tanker after the 89,000 dwt vessel ran aground on the south end of Scotland's Shetland Islands. Workers were trying to assess the extent of damage to the tanker, shoreline, and wildlife after the January 5 accident. Braer's cargo amounted to 607,000 bbl of Norwegian oil bound for Canada. Braer loaded its cargo and sailed January 3 from Den norske stats oljeselskap AS's Mongstad, Norway, terminal with crude from Gullfaks field in the Norwegian North Sea. The $11 million shipment was destined for Ultramar Canada Inc.'s 125,000 b/d refinery at St. Romuald, Que

  11. Fear patterns: a new approach to designing road safety advertisements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Algie, Jennifer; Rossiter, John R

    2010-01-01

    This research studies fear patterns within fear appeal anti-speeding television commercials. A pattern of fear is the sequence of fear arousal and fear reduction, if any, that is felt by the viewing audience when exposed to a fear appeal advertisement. Many road safety advertisers use fear appeals, such as "shock" advertising, that result in fear arousal, leaving the viewer feeling extremely tense. The moment-to-moment reactions of young drivers to 12 road safety commercials are gauged using a dynamic, temporal measure of fear. The fear patterns generated from each ad are analyzed and a new perspective on creating fear appeal road safety advertisements, with an emphasis on fear-relief, fear-partial relief, and fear-only patterns, is discussed.

  12. Tanker traffic off Newfoundland worries fishermen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reid, W.

    2002-01-01

    Tanker traffic offshore in Placentia Bay, Newfoundland has increased considerably, where approximately 300 tankers show up yearly to load up at the oil refinery located in the nearby village of Come By Chance. On numerous occasions, fishermen busy pulling gear over the gunwales looked up only to be faced with an approaching superstructure just emerging from the fog, leaving barely enough time for the fishermen to get out of the way. Fog does not help the situation, often reducing visibility to less than one kilometre approximately 187 days yearly. Fishermen are reluctant to avoid shipping lanes, as some of the best grounds are located in the vicinity. A few close calls and one accident were briefly described. Requests have been made for the pilots bringing large ships into dock to board farther out at sea to avoid the danger of collision. It was mentioned that another factor could be crew members on some ships unable to speak English. Fishermen are not happy that results from ship inspections are not posted on the Web as is the case in the United States. An environmentalist has also requested that an ocean-going-tug be used for towing tankers in trouble out of the way to prevent an ecological disaster

  13. Vuosaari Harbour Road Tunnel Traffic Management and Incident Detection System Design Issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caj Holm

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Helsinki is constructing in Vuosaari a new modem and effectivecargo harbour. All cargo harbour activities will be concentratedthere. The total project includes the harbour, a logisticsarea, traffic connections (road, railway and fairway and aBusiness Park. The road connection goes through the Porvarinlahtiroad tunnel. The harbour will commence operatingin 2008. This paper gives an oveTView of the tunnel design phasefunctional studies and risk analysis tunnel incident detectionsystem design issues and some specific environmental featuresof the tunnel.

  14. Fuel-cell-propelled submarine-tanker-system study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Court, K.E.; Kumm, W.H.; O'Callaghan, J.E.

    1982-06-01

    This report provides a systems analysis of a commercial Arctic Ocean submarine tanker system to carry fossil energy to markets. The submarine is to be propelled by a modular Phosphoric Acid Fuel Cell system. The power level is 20 Megawatts. The DOE developed electric utility type fuel cell will be fueled with methanol. Oxidant will be provided from a liquid oxygen tank carried onboard. The twin screw submarine tanker design is sized at 165,000 deadweight tons and the study includes costs and an economic analysis of the transport system of 6 ships. The route will be under the polar icecap from a loading terminal located off Prudhoe Bay, Alaska to a transshipment facility postulated to be in a Norwegian fjord. The system throughput of the gas-fed methanol cargo will be 450,000 barrels per day. The total delivered cost of the methanol including well head purchase price of natural gas, methanol production, and shipping would be $25/bbl from Alaska to the US East Coast. Of this, the shipping cost is $6.80/bbl. All costs in 1981 dollars

  15. Antisideslip and Antirollover Safety Speed Controller Design for Vehicle on Curved Road

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo Lie

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available When the drivers cannot be aware of the existing of forthcoming curved roads and fail to regulate their safety speeds accordingly, sideslip or rollover may occur with high probability. The antisideslip and antirollover control of vehicle on curved road in automatic highway systems is studied. The safety speed warning system is set before entering the curved road firstly. The speed adhesion control is adopted to shorten the braking distance while decelerating and to guarantee the safety speed. The velocity controller when decelerating on the straight path and the posture controller when driving on curved road are designed, respectively, utilizing integral backstepping technology. Simulation results demonstrate that this control system is characterized by quick and precise tracking and global stability. Consequently, it is able to avoid the dangerous operating conditions, such as sideslip and rollover, and guarantee the safety and directional stability when driving on curved road.

  16. Road structural elements temperature trends diagnostics using sensory system of own design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudak, Juraj; Gaspar, Gabriel; Sedivy, Stefan; Pepucha, Lubomir; Florkova, Zuzana

    2017-09-01

    A considerable funds is spent for the roads maintenance in large areas during the winter. The road maintenance is significantly affected by the temperature change of the road structure. In remote locations may occur a situation, when it is not clear whether the sanding is actually needed because the lack of information on road conditions. In these cases, the actual road conditions are investigated by a personal inspection or by sending out a gritting vehicle. Here, however, is a risk of unnecessary trip the sanding vehicle. This situation is economically and environmentally unfavorable. The proposed system solves the problem of measuring the temperature profile of the road and the utilization of the predictive model to determine the future development trend of temperature. The system was technically designed as a set of sensors to monitor environmental values such as the temperature of the road, ambient temperature, relative air humidity, solar radiation and atmospheric pressure at the measuring point. An important part of the proposal is prediction model which based on the inputs from sensors and historical measurements can, with some probability, predict temperature trends at the measuring point. The proposed system addresses the economic and environmental aspects of winter road maintenance.

  17. Assessing the 'system' in safe systems-based road designs: using cognitive work analysis to evaluate intersection designs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornelissen, M; Salmon, P M; Stanton, N A; McClure, R

    2015-01-01

    While a safe systems approach has long been acknowledged as the underlying philosophy of contemporary road safety strategies, systemic applications are sparse. This article argues that systems-based methods from the discipline of Ergonomics have a key role to play in road transport design and evaluation. To demonstrate, the Cognitive Work Analysis framework was used to evaluate two road designs - a traditional Melbourne intersection and a cut-through design for future intersections based on road safety safe systems principles. The results demonstrate that, although the cut-through intersection appears different in layout from the traditional intersection, system constraints are not markedly different. Furthermore, the analyses demonstrated that redistribution of constraints in the cut-through intersection resulted in emergent behaviour, which was not anticipated and could prove problematic. Further, based on the lack of understanding of emergent behaviour, similar design induced problems are apparent across both intersections. Specifically, incompatibilities between infrastructure, vehicles and different road users were not dealt with by the proposed design changes. The importance of applying systems methods in the design and evaluation of road transport systems is discussed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. A New Method for Haul Road Design in Open-Pit Mines to Support Efficient Truck Haulage Operations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jieun Baek

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The design of a haul road for an open-pit mine can significantly affect the cost associated with hauling ore and waste to the surface. This study proposes a new method for haul road design in open-pit mines to support efficient truck haulage operations. The road layout in open-pit mines was optimized by using raster-based least-cost path analysis, and the resulting zigzag road sections were simplified by applying the Douglas-Peucker algorithm. In addition, the road layout was modified by reflecting the radius of curvature suggested in the road design guides. Finally, a three-dimensional model reflecting the results of the road design was created by combining the road layout modification result with the slope of the open-pit mine and the bench design result. The application of the proposed method to an area containing gold deposits made it possible to design a haul road for open-pit mines such that it supported efficient truck haulage operations; furthermore, the time required for truck movement along the road could be estimated. The proposed method is expected to be useful for planning and designing open-pit mines and to facilitate the improvement of the road design function of existing mining software applications.

  19. Infrastructure design & road safety : OECD Workshop B3 (Infrastructure design and road safety) for CEE's and NIS held on 15th-18th November 1994, Prague (Czech Republic). Part 2: Lectures.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2012-01-01

    The workshop 'Infrastructure design and road safety ' was one of the initiatives which the OECO Steering Committee for Road Transport Research developed with the aim of exchanging information in the road transport sector, in order to respond to the urgent needs expressed by Central and Eastern

  20. Predicting the effectiveness of road safety campaigns through alternative research designs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamos, Giannis; Nathanail, Eftihia

    2016-12-01

    A large number of road safety communication campaigns have been designed and implemented in the recent years; however their explicit impact on driving behavior and road accident rates has been estimated in a rather low proportion. Based on the findings of the evaluation of three road safety communication campaigns addressing the issues of drinking and driving, seat belt usage, and driving fatigue, this paper applies different types of research designs (i.e., experimental, quasi-experimental, and non-experimental designs), when estimating the effectiveness of road safety campaigns, implements a cross-design assessment, and conducts a cross-campaign evaluation. An integrated evaluation plan was developed, taking into account the structure of evaluation questions, the definition of measurable variables, the separation of the target audience into intervention (exposed to the campaign) and control (not exposed to the campaign) groups, the selection of alternative research designs, and the appropriate data collection methods and techniques. Evaluating the implementation of different research designs in estimating the effectiveness of road safety campaigns, results showed that the separate pre-post samples design demonstrated better predictability than other designs, especially in data obtained from the intervention group after the realization of the campaign. The more constructs that were added to the independent variables, the higher the values of the predictability were. The construct that most affects behavior is intention, whereas the rest of the constructs have a lower impact on behavior. This is particularly significant in the Health Belief Model (HBM). On the other hand, behavioral beliefs, normative beliefs, and descriptive norms, are significant parameters for predicting intention according to the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB). The theoretical and applied implications of alternative research designs and their applicability in the evaluation of road safety

  1. The Sound of the Road, and other imaginative musings on urban mobility design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lanng, Ditte Bendix

    and possibilities of our mundane transit sites, and ask how we can identify and articulate design potentials for such sites as great sensory and social public spaces. This is what happened in the fall of 2012, when, as part of the course, Theories of the Network City, for students at the urban design master......If you drive at the right speed along the Melody Road of Gunma in Japan, grooves cut into the concrete surface allow you to play the tune “Memories of Summer” with your car and the road as the hybrid instrument. Such a design intervention could occasion us to reconsider the properties...

  2. Anticipatory research for the design of a sustainable and safe road traffic system.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oppe, S.

    1993-01-01

    The new policy in the Netherlands is attempting to build a traffic system, based on clear design concepts and rules about how to use it. Such a system should be sustainable and safe. The design characteristics of the roads should be relevant to their functions. It should be clear which vehicles are

  3. New geometric design consistency model based on operating speed profiles for road safety evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camacho-Torregrosa, Francisco J; Pérez-Zuriaga, Ana M; Campoy-Ungría, J Manuel; García-García, Alfredo

    2013-12-01

    To assist in the on-going effort to reduce road fatalities as much as possible, this paper presents a new methodology to evaluate road safety in both the design and redesign stages of two-lane rural highways. This methodology is based on the analysis of road geometric design consistency, a value which will be a surrogate measure of the safety level of the two-lane rural road segment. The consistency model presented in this paper is based on the consideration of continuous operating speed profiles. The models used for their construction were obtained by using an innovative GPS-data collection method that is based on continuous operating speed profiles recorded from individual drivers. This new methodology allowed the researchers to observe the actual behavior of drivers and to develop more accurate operating speed models than was previously possible with spot-speed data collection, thereby enabling a more accurate approximation to the real phenomenon and thus a better consistency measurement. Operating speed profiles were built for 33 Spanish two-lane rural road segments, and several consistency measurements based on the global and local operating speed were checked. The final consistency model takes into account not only the global dispersion of the operating speed, but also some indexes that consider both local speed decelerations and speeds over posted speeds as well. For the development of the consistency model, the crash frequency for each study site was considered, which allowed estimating the number of crashes on a road segment by means of the calculation of its geometric design consistency. Consequently, the presented consistency evaluation method is a promising innovative tool that can be used as a surrogate measure to estimate the safety of a road segment. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Methods for investigating the relationship between accidents, road user behaviour and road design standards. Annex III to SWOV-report `Safety effects of road design standards', R-94-7 (see C 2838 (IRRD 866221).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maycock, G. & Summersgill, I.

    1995-01-01

    This volume is one of the annexes to a main report on safety effects of road design standards which was compiled by SWOV in collaboration with other European partners, in 1993-1994. For the covering abstract of the report or the report itself, see C 2838. This annex summarises the alternative

  5. Leaking tankers: how much oil was spilled?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simecek-Beatty, D. A.; Lehr, W. J.; Lankford, J. F.

    1997-01-01

    A model to estimate leak rates from tankers has been developed for use in emergency situations when more direct oil-loss estimation methods are not available. The model includes algorithms for gravity outflow and air and water ingestion. Three laboratory tests were conducted using fresh water and canola oil to evaluate the model output. Comparison with results from the laboratory experiments indicate good correlation of model results with measured data. However, it is not yet possible in the case of very large crude carriers to answer the question 'how much oil was spilled?' Sensitivity analysis and further laboratory testing were suggested to determine the effect of factors such as: pressure vacuum relief valves that prevent cavitation in the event of tank puncture; changing outside water levels due to wave and tidal action; tank and hole dimensions; and the amount and density of the product.10 refs., 4 figs

  6. Design and development of driving simulator scenarios for road validation studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dols Ruiz, J.F.

    2016-07-01

    In recent years, the number of road-based studies using driving simulators is growing significantly. This allows evaluating controlled situations that otherwise would require disproportionate observations in time and/or cost. The Institute of Design and Manufacturing (IDF) of the Polytechnic University of Valencia (UPV) has developed, in collaboration with the Engineering Research Group Highway (GIIC) of the UPV, a low cost simulator that allows rapid implementation and effectively a new methodology for validation studies of different roads through the implementation in the simulator scenarios of existing roads. This methodology allows the development of new scenarios based on the analysis of a layers-file system. Each layer includes different information from the road, such as mapping, geometry, signaling, aerial photos, etc. The creation of the simulated scenario is very fast based on the geometric design software, making it easier to consulting firms using the system that can evaluate and audit a particular route, obtaining reliable conclusions at minimal cost, even if the road is not actually built. This paper describes the basic structure of the layers generated for developing scenarios and guidelines for the implementation thereof. Finally the application of this methodology to a case of success will be described. (Author)

  7. Comparative Study of Flexible Pavement Designs for New Road in Great Britain and Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Basri, Hanafi

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this article is to compare the design methods for flexible pavements for new roads and overlays between two countries, Great Britain and Indonesia.Pavement design procedures provide a structure that can be accepted in a specific environmental condition and able to satisfy the anticipated traffic loading. There are many factors influencing the thickness design of pavement, such as pavement materials, traffic load and climatic conditions, there is no doubt that the method of pa...

  8. Toward using tire-road contact stresses in pavement design and analysis

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    De Beer, Morris

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available pavement design. Four different tire models were used to represent a single tire type in order to demonstrate its effect on road pavement response of a typical South African pavement structure. Only applied vertical stress was used for the analyses...

  9. Developing design methods of concrete mix with microsilica additives for road construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dmitrienko, Vladimir; Shrivel, Igor; Kokunko, Irina; Pashkova, Olga

    2017-10-01

    Based on the laboratory test results, regression equations having standard cone and concrete strength, to determine the available amount of cement, water and microsilica were obtained. The joint solution of these equations allowed the researchers to develop the algorithm of designing heavy concrete compositions with microsilica additives for road construction.

  10. Fusion reactor design: On the road to commercialization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulcinski, G.L.

    1984-01-01

    The worldwide effort in fusion is now approximately 2 billion dollars per year and over 12 billion dollars has been invested since 1951 in developing this energy source for the 21st century. A vital component of the past efforts in fusion research has been the conceptual design activities performed by scientists and engineers around the world. Almost 80 such major designs of Tokamak, Mirror, Laser and Ion Beam Reactors have been published and this article discusses how recent conceptual designs have afftected our perception of future fusion reactor performance. (orig.) [de

  11. History of Road Design Standards in LADOTD : Research Project Capsule

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-01

    According to the Louisiana Statewide Transportation Plan, Louisianas highway : network is comprised of over 60,000 miles, of which over 16,000 miles are : maintained by the state. The roadways were designed and constructed : according to the desig...

  12. Design of LQG Controller for Active Suspension without Considering Road Input Signals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Pang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available As the road conditions are completely unknown in the design of a suspension controller, an improved linear quadratic and Gaussian distributed (LQG controller is proposed for active suspension system without considering road input signals. The main purpose is to optimize the vehicle body acceleration, pitching angular acceleration, displacement of suspension system, and tire dynamic deflection comprehensively. Meanwhile, it will extend the applicability of the LQG controller. Firstly, the half-vehicle and road input mathematical models of an active suspension system are established, with the weight coefficients of each evaluating indicator optimized by using genetic algorithm (GA. Then, a simulation model is built in Matlab/Simulink environment. Finally, a comparison of simulation is conducted to illustrate that the proposed LQG controller can obtain the better comprehensive performance of vehicle suspension system and improve riding comfort and handling safety compared to the conventional one.

  13. Ultimate strength performance of tankers associated with industry corrosion addition practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Do Kyun

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In the ship and offshore structure design, age-related problems such as corrosion damage, local denting, and fatigue damage are important factors to be considered in building a reliable structure as they have a significant influence on the residual structural capacity. In shipping, corrosion addition methods are widely adopted in structural design to prevent structural capacity degradation. The present study focuses on the historical trend of corrosion addition rules for ship structural design and investigates their effects on the ultimate strength performance such as hull girder and stiffened panel of double hull oil tankers. Three types of rules based on corrosion addition models, namely historic corrosion rules (pre-CSR, Common Structural Rules (CSR, and harmonised Common Structural Rules (CSRH are considered and compared with two other corrosion models namely UGS model, suggested by the Union of Greek Shipowners (UGS, and Time-Dependent Corrosion Wastage Model (TDCWM. To identify the general trend in the effects of corrosion damage on the ultimate longitudinal strength performance, the corrosion addition rules are applied to four representative sizes of double hull oil tankers namely Panamax, Aframax, Suezmax, and VLCC. The results are helpful in understanding the trend of corrosion additions for tanker structures

  14. Ultimate strength performance of tankers associated with industry corrosion addition practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Do Kyun Kim

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In the ship and offshore structure design, age-related problems such as corrosion damage, local denting, and fatigue damage are important factors to be considered in building a reliable structure as they have a significant influence on the residual structural capacity. In shipping, corrosion addition methods are widely adopted in structural design to prevent structural capacity degradation. The present study focuses on the historical trend of corrosion addition rules for ship structural design and investigates their effects on the ultimate strength performance such as hull girder and stiffened panel of double hull oil tankers. Three types of rules based on corrosion addition models, namely historic corrosion rules (pre-CSR, Common Structural Rules (CSR, and harmonised Common Structural Rules (CSRH are considered and compared with two other corrosion models namely UGS model, suggested by the Union of Greek Shipowners (UGS, and Time-Dependent Corrosion Wastage Model (TDCWM. To identify the general trend in the effects of corrosion damage on the ultimate longitudinal strength performance, the corrosion addition rules are applied to four representative sizes of double hull oil tankers namely Panamax, Aframax, Suezmax, and VLCC. The results are helpful in understanding the trend of corrosion additions for tanker structures.

  15. Road Materials and Pavement Design, 30 May 2017

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    De Beer, Morris

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available and Pavement Design Vol. 18, Issue 1 2017 http://www.tandfonline.com/toc/trmp20/18/1?nav=tocList Editorial board EDITORS-IN-CHIEF Hervé Di Benedetto - University of Lyon / ENTPE, Vaulx-en-Velin, France Andrew Charles Collop - De Montfort University...

  16. Road Materials and Pavement Design volume 17(2)

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    De Beer, Morris

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Materials and Pavement Design Volume 17, 2016 - Issue 2 Editorial Board Page ebi | Published online: 03 Oct 2016  http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/14680629.2016.1244475 Editors-in-Chief Hervé DI BENEDETTO - University of Lyon/ENTPE, Vaulx-en-Velin, France...

  17. Safety standards for express roads : research in the framework of the European research project Safety Standards for Road Design and Redesign SAFESTAR, Workpackages 3.4.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hummel, T.

    1999-01-01

    The objective of the SAFESTAR project is the formulation of design standards or recommendations exclusively based on safety arguments. Workpackage 3 (WP3) of SAFESTAR, of which this report is the concluding report, should result in design recommendations for single and dual-carriageway express roads

  18. Designation and verification of road markings detection and guidance method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Runze; Jian, Yabin; Li, Xiyuan; Shang, Yonghong; Wang, Jing; Zhang, JingChuan

    2018-01-01

    With the rapid development of China's space industry, digitization and intelligent is the tendency of the future. This report is present a foundation research about guidance system which based on the HSV color space. With the help of these research which will help to design the automatic navigation and parking system for the frock transport car and the infrared lamp homogeneity intelligent test equipment. The drive mode, steer mode as well as the navigation method was selected. In consideration of the practicability, it was determined to use the front-wheel-steering chassis. The steering mechanism was controlled by the stepping motors, and it is guided by Machine Vision. The optimization and calibration of the steering mechanism was made. A mathematical model was built and the objective functions was constructed for the steering mechanism. The extraction method of the steering line was studied and the motion controller was designed and optimized. The theory of HSV, RGB color space and analysis of the testing result will be discussed Using the function library OPENCV on the Linux system to fulfill the camera calibration. Based on the HSV color space to design the guidance algorithm.

  19. SWOT analysis for safer carriage of bulk liquid chemicals in tankers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arslan, Ozcan; Er, Ismail Deha

    2008-06-15

    The application of strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats (SWOT) analysis to formulation of strategy concerned with the safe carriage of bulk liquid chemicals in maritime tankers was examined in this study. A qualitative investigation using SWOT analysis has been implemented successfully for ships that are designed to carry liquid chemicals in bulk. The originality of this study lies in the use of SWOT analysis as a management tool to formulate strategic action plans for ship management companies, ship masters and officers for the carriage of dangerous goods in bulk. With this transportation-based SWOT analysis, efforts were made to explore the ways and means of converting possible threats into opportunities, and changing weaknesses into strengths; and strategic plans of action were developed for safer tanker operation.

  20. Road Materials and Pavement Design Volume 17(1)

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    De Beer, Morris

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Materials and Pavement Design Volume 17, 2016 - Issue 1 Editorial Board Page ebi | Published online: 03 Oct 2016  http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/14680629.2016.1244475 Editors-in-Chief Hervé DI BENEDETTO - University of Lyon/ENTPE, Vaulx-en-Velin, France... Andrew Charles COLLOP - De Montfort University, Leicester, UK William G. BUTTLAR - University of Missouri, Urbana-Champaign, USA Editor-in-Chief at Large Jorge B. Sousa - Consulpav, Oeiras, Portugal Associate Editors Morris de Beer - CSIR Built...

  1. The road safety audit and road safety inspection.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2007-01-01

    A road safety audit (RSA) and a road safety inspection (RSI) are used to test the safety level of the road infrastructure. The RSA tests the design of new roads or the reconstruction of existing roads, whereas the RSI is used for testing existing roads. An RSA, therefore, aims to 'improve' the road

  2. AN ANALYSIS OF RISK EVENTS IN THE OIL-TANKER MAINTENANCE BUSINESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roque Rabechini Junior

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This work presents the results of an investigation into risk events and their respective causes, carried out in ship maintenance undertakings in the logistical sector of the Brazilian oil industry. Its theoretical, conceptual positioning lies in those aspects related to risk management of the undertakings as instruments of support in decision making by executives in the tanker-maintenance business. The case-study method was used as an alternative methodology with a qualitative approach of an exploratory nature and, for the presentation of data, a descriptive format was chosen. Through the analysis of 75 risk events in projects of tanker docking it was possible to extract eight of the greatest relevance. The risk analysis facilitated the identification of actions aimed at their mitigation. As a conclusion it was possible to propose a risk-framework model in four categories, HSE (health, safety and the environment, technicians, externalities and management, designed to provide tanker-docking business executives and administrators, with evidence of actions to assist in their decision-making processes. Finally, the authors identified proposals for further study as well as showing the principal limitations of the study.

  3. Road-map design for thorium-uranium breeding recycle in PWR - 031

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shengyi, Si

    2010-01-01

    The paper was focused on designing a road-map to finally approach sustainable Thorium-Uranium ( 232 Th- 233 U) Breeding Recycle in current PWR, without any other change to the fuel lattice and the core internals, but substituting the UOX pellet with Thorium-based pellet. At first, the paper presented some insights to the inherence of Thorium-Uranium fuel conversion or breeding in PWR based on the neutronics theory and revealed the prerequisites for Thorium-Uranium fuel in PWR to achieve sustainable Breeding Recycle; And then, various Thorium-based fuels were designed and examined, and the calculation results further validated the above theoretical deductions; Based on the above theoretical analysis and calculation results, a road-map for sustainable Thorium-Uranium breeding recycle in PWR was outlined finally. (authors)

  4. An optimal pole-matching observer design for estimating tyre-road friction force

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faraji, Mohammad; Johari Majd, Vahid; Saghafi, Behrooz; Sojoodi, Mahdi

    2010-10-01

    In this paper, considering the dynamical model of tyre-road contacts, we design a nonlinear observer for the on-line estimation of tyre-road friction force using the average lumped LuGre model without any simplification. The design is the extension of a previously offered observer to allow a muchmore realistic estimation by considering the effect of the rolling resistance and a term related to the relative velocity in the observer. Our aim is not to introduce a new friction model, but to present a more accurate nonlinear observer for the assumed model. We derive linear matrix equality conditions to obtain an observer gain with minimum pole mismatch for the desired observer error dynamic system. We prove the convergence of the observer for the non-simplified model. Finally, we compare the performance of the proposed observer with that of the previously mentioned nonlinear observer, which shows significant improvement in the accuracy of estimation.

  5. Armenia - Rural Road Rehabilitation

    Data.gov (United States)

    Millennium Challenge Corporation — The key research questions guiding our design of the RRRP evaluation are: • Did rehabilitating roads affect the quality of roads? • Did rehabilitating roads improve...

  6. Determinants of the property damage costs of tanker accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Talley, W.K.

    1999-01-01

    This study investigates determinants of the vessel, oil cargo spillage, and other-property damage costs of tanker accidents. Tobit estimation of a three-equation recursive model suggests that, among types of tanker accidents, fire/explosion accidents incur the largest vessel damage costs, but the smallest oil cargo spillage costs. Alternatively, grounding accidents incur the smallest vessel damage costs, but the largest oil cargo spillage costs, reflecting the difficulty of controlling oil cargo spillage subsequent to such accidents. Also, oil cargo spillage costs are lower for US flag tanker accidents. A dollar of vessel damage cost increases other-property damage cost by 0.06 dollars, whereas a dollar of oil cargo spillage increases this cost by 1.55 dollars

  7. 33 CFR 157.410 - Emergency lightering requirements for oil tankers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION RULES FOR THE PROTECTION OF THE MARINE ENVIRONMENT RELATING TO TANK... Petroleum Oils § 157.410 Emergency lightering requirements for oil tankers. Each oil tanker, to which this...

  8. A Model for Prediction of Propulsion Power and Emissions – Tankers and Bulk Carriers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lützen, Marie; Kristensen, Hans Otto Holmegaard

    To get an idea of the reduction in propulsion power and associated emissions by varying the speed and other ship design main parameters, a generic model for parameter studies of tankers and bulk carriers has been developed. With only a few input parameters of which the maximum deadweight capacity...... is the primary input a proposal for the main dimensions is made. Based on these dimensions and other ship particulars which are determined by the program the necessary installed propulsion power can be calculated. By adjusting the vessel design, i.e. the suggested main dimensions, and varying the speed...

  9. Roads and associated structures: infrastructure impacts, vulnerabilities and design considerations for future climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tighe, S.L.; Lapp, D.

    2009-01-01

    This paper provides a summary of the findings from the literature scan, directed at identifying engineering literature that relates to road and associated infrastructure vulnerabilities in light of climate change. The scan was carried out over the course of several weeks in late 2007/early 2008. Although many Canadian transportation agencies are thinking about the potential vulnerabilities and associated engineering impacts, very few agencies have completed any formal analysis at this time. A few agencies currently have some on-going activities that are expected to be completed in 2008, but the majority have not started to examine the engineering aspects of how the change will need to be addressed in design, construction and maintenance. Although climate change and it's impact on transportation and specifically roads and associated structures is appearing in various reports and documents across Canada, available detailed information on engineering impacts was limited to nonexistent. This paper includes a brief introduction and background on climate change in general and the related predicted impacts on road infrastructure and associated structures, with primary focus on bridges. These sections are followed by project scope and objectives and methodology of assessment. The summary of findings provides some more specific details and has been prepared using available public agency documents that were located during the aforementioned search. Finally a few closing comments are provided. (author)

  10. 78 FR 50335 - Double Hull Tanker Escorts on the Waters of Prince William Sound, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-19

    ...-AB96 Double Hull Tanker Escorts on the Waters of Prince William Sound, Alaska AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS... mandates two tug escorts for double hull tankers over 5,000 gross tons transporting oil in bulk in PWS. The... tug escort requirements apply to certain double hull tankers. DATES: This interim rule is effective...

  11. Towards using tire-road contact stresses in pavement design and analysis

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    De Beer, Morris

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available stream_source_info De Beer_2012.pdf.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 79981 Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 stream_name De Beer_2012.pdf.txt Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 Towards Using Tire...-Road Contact Stresses in Pavement Design and Analysis M. De Beer*, J. W. Maina, Y. van Rensburg, J. M. Greben mbeer@csir.co.za CSIR Built Environment P O Box 395 Pretoria 0001 South Africa Presented at the September 2011 Meeting...

  12. Microbial quality of drinking water from groundtanks and tankers at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Drinking water quality was investigated at source and corresponding point-of-use in 2 peri-urban areas receiving drinking water either by communal water tanker or by delivery directly from the distribution system to household-based groundtanks with taps. Water quality variables measured were heterotrophic bacteria, total ...

  13. Microbial quality of drinking water from groundtanks and tankers at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-09-23

    Sep 23, 2013 ... A lack of infrastructure, coupled .... munity tankers and its relationship to health outcomes in light of water quality ... delivery, taps at the eThekwini Water and Sanitation laboratory ... relationship between drinking water quality, health, hygiene ... over a 2-week period from the point-of-use and source of each.

  14. Roadside infrastructure for safer European roads: D08 European best practice for roadside design: guidelines for maintenance and operations of roadside infrastructure. Project RISER, European Community

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Andersson, J.; Lanner, G.; Wink, W.; Halleman, B.; Naing, C.L.; Thomson, R.; Fagerlind, H.; Dupre, G.; Bisson, O.; Carcia, J.M.; Lopez, F.; Papi, J.; Martinez, A.V.; Amengual, A.; Valtonen, J.; Kelkka, M.; Goose, U.; Klootwijk, C.W.; Hoogvelt, B.; Horst, A.R.A. van der; Ridder, S. de; Hoschopf, H.; Hill, J.

    2006-01-01

    Maintenance and operations of road safety equipment and infrastructure ensure that all safety related elements of the road system are operating as they were designed, tested, and approved. Maintenance of road equipment should not only be considered as the repair of broken or damaged equipment, but

  15. Traffic signal design and simulation for vulnerable road users safety and bus preemption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lo, Shih-Ching; Huang, Hsieh-Chu

    2015-01-01

    Mostly, pedestrian car accidents occurred at a signalized interaction is because pedestrians cannot across the intersection safely within the green light. From the viewpoint of pedestrian, there might have two reasons. The first one is pedestrians cannot speed up to across the intersection, such as the elders. The other reason is pedestrians do not sense that the signal phase is going to change and their right-of-way is going to be lost. Developing signal logic to protect pedestrian, who is crossing an intersection is the first purpose of this study. In addition, to improve the reliability and reduce delay of public transportation service is the second purpose. Therefore, bus preemption is also considered in the designed signal logic. In this study, the traffic data of the intersection of Chong-Qing North Road and Min-Zu West Road, Taipei, Taiwan, is employed to calibrate and validate the signal logic by simulation. VISSIM 5.20, which is a microscopic traffic simulation software, is employed to simulate the signal logic. From the simulated results, the signal logic presented in this study can protect pedestrians crossing the intersection successfully. The design of bus preemption can reduce the average delay. However, the pedestrian safety and bus preemption signal will influence the average delay of cars largely. Thus, whether applying the pedestrian safety and bus preemption signal logic to an intersection or not should be evaluated carefully

  16. Traffic signal design and simulation for vulnerable road users safety and bus preemption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lo, Shih-Ching; Huang, Hsieh-Chu [Department of Transportation Technology and Logistics Management, Chung Hua University, No. 707, Sec. 2, WuFu Rd., Hsinchu, 300, Taiwan (China)

    2015-01-22

    Mostly, pedestrian car accidents occurred at a signalized interaction is because pedestrians cannot across the intersection safely within the green light. From the viewpoint of pedestrian, there might have two reasons. The first one is pedestrians cannot speed up to across the intersection, such as the elders. The other reason is pedestrians do not sense that the signal phase is going to change and their right-of-way is going to be lost. Developing signal logic to protect pedestrian, who is crossing an intersection is the first purpose of this study. In addition, to improve the reliability and reduce delay of public transportation service is the second purpose. Therefore, bus preemption is also considered in the designed signal logic. In this study, the traffic data of the intersection of Chong-Qing North Road and Min-Zu West Road, Taipei, Taiwan, is employed to calibrate and validate the signal logic by simulation. VISSIM 5.20, which is a microscopic traffic simulation software, is employed to simulate the signal logic. From the simulated results, the signal logic presented in this study can protect pedestrians crossing the intersection successfully. The design of bus preemption can reduce the average delay. However, the pedestrian safety and bus preemption signal will influence the average delay of cars largely. Thus, whether applying the pedestrian safety and bus preemption signal logic to an intersection or not should be evaluated carefully.

  17. Risk reduction in road and rail LPG transportation bij passive fire protection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Molag e.a., M. (Menso)

    2009-01-01

    The potential reduction of risk in LPG (Liquified Petroleum Gas) road transport due to the adoption of passive fire protectionswas investigated. Experimental data available for small scale vessels fully engulfed by a fire were extended to real scale road and rail tankers through a finite elements

  18. Risk reduction in road and rail LPG transportation by passive fire protection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paltrinieri, N.; Landucci, G.; Molag, M.; Bonvicini, S.; Spadoni, G.; Cozzani, V.

    2009-01-01

    The potential reduction of risk in LPG (Liquefied Petroleum Gas) road transport due to the adoption of passive fire protections was investigated. Experimental data available for small scale vessels fully engulfed by a fire were extended to real scale road and rail tankers through a finite elements

  19. On the utilization of hydrological modelling for road drainage design under climate and land use change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalantari, Zahra; Briel, Annemarie; Lyon, Steve W; Olofsson, Bo; Folkeson, Lennart

    2014-03-15

    Road drainage structures are often designed using methods that do not consider process-based representations of a landscape's hydrological response. This may create inadequately sized structures as coupled land cover and climate changes can lead to an amplified hydrological response. This study aims to quantify potential increases of runoff in response to future extreme rain events in a 61 km(2) catchment (40% forested) in southwest Sweden using a physically-based hydrological modelling approach. We simulate peak discharge and water level (stage) at two types of pipe bridges and one culvert, both of which are commonly used at Swedish road/stream intersections, under combined forest clear-cutting and future climate scenarios for 2050 and 2100. The frequency of changes in peak flow and water level varies with time (seasonality) and storm size. These changes indicate that the magnitude of peak flow and the runoff response are highly correlated to season rather than storm size. In all scenarios considered, the dimensions of the current culvert are insufficient to handle the increase in water level estimated using a physically-based modelling approach. It also appears that the water level at the pipe bridges changes differently depending on the size and timing of the storm events. The findings of the present study and the approach put forward should be considered when planning investigations on and maintenance for areas at risk of high water flows. In addition, the research highlights the utility of physically-based hydrological models to identify the appropriateness of road drainage structure dimensioning. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Strategy and design of Innovation Policy Road Mapping for a waste biorefinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rama Mohan, S

    2016-09-01

    Looming energy crisis, climate change concerns coupled with decreasing fossil fuel resources has garnered significant global attention toward development of alternative, renewable, carbon-neutral and eco-friendly fuels to fulfil burgeoning energy demands. Waste utilization and its management are being pursued with renewed interest due to the gamut of biobased products it can offer apart from providing enough energy to meet a major fraction of the world's energy demand. Biorefining is the sustainable processing of biomass into a spectrum of marketable products and energy. Integrating all components of waste treatment culminating into biobased products and energy recovery in a single integrated waste biorefinery is self sufficient, highly sustainable and is very beneficial. Designing systematic innovation policies are essential for development and commercialization of new technologies in this important futuristic research area. This communication explores Innovation Policy Road Mapping (IPRM) methodology available in the literature and applies it to design integrated waste biorefinery. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Climate Projection Data base for Roads - CliPDaR: Design a guideline for a transnational database of downscaled climate projection data for road impact models - within the Conference's of European Directors of Roads (CEDR) TRANSNATIONAL ROAD RESEARCH PROG

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matulla, Christoph; Namyslo, Joachim; Fuchs, Tobias; Türk, Konrad

    2013-04-01

    The European road sector is vulnerable to extreme weather phenomena, which can cause large socio-economic losses. Almost every year there occur several weather triggered events (like heavy precipitation, floods, landslides, high winds, snow and ice, heat or cold waves, etc.), that disrupt transportation, knock out power lines, cut off populated regions from the outside and so on. So, in order to avoid imbalances in the supply of vital goods to people as well as to prevent negative impacts on health and life of people travelling by car it is essential to know present and future threats to roads. Climate change might increase future threats to roads. CliPDaR focuses on parts of the European road network and contributes, based on the current body of knowledge, to the establishment of guidelines helping to decide which methods and scenarios to apply for the estimation of future climate change based challenges in the field of road maintenance. Based on regional scale climate change projections specific road-impact models are applied in order to support protection measures. In recent years, it has been recognised that it is essential to assess the uncertainty and reliability of given climate projections by using ensemble approaches and downscaling methods. A huge amount of scientific work has been done to evaluate these approaches with regard to reliability and usefulness for investigations on possible impacts of climate changes. CliPDaR is going to collect the existing approaches and methodologies in European countries, discuss their differences and - in close cooperation with the road owners - develops a common line on future applications of climate projection data to road impact models. As such, the project will focus on reviewing and assessing existing regional climate change projections regarding transnational highway transport needs. The final project report will include recommendations how the findings of CliPDaR may support the decision processes of European

  2. Design, Modelling, and Implementation of a Fuzzy Controller for an Intelligent Road Signaling System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Manuel Lozano Domínguez

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Crossing points are not always 100% visible for drivers due to different factors (e.g., poor road maintenance, occlusion of vertical signs, and adverse weather conditions. USA estimated in 2015 the number of traffic accidents involving pedestrians and vehicles in 70,000 of whom 5,376 resulted in deceased people. To contribute in this field, this paper presents the design, implementation, and testing of a smart prototype system applied to pedestrian crossings—not regulated by semaphores—which try to reduce the accident rate on roads. The hardware and software system consists of a set of autonomous, intelligent, and wireless low-cost devices that generate a visual warning barrier perceived by drivers from a suitable distance when pedestrians traverse a crosswalk. In this way, drivers can reduce the speed of their vehicles and stop safely. The system’s intelligence is carried out by a fuzzy controller that performs sensory fusion at both low level and high level with various types of sensors from local and neighboring devices. The tests conducted have determined an average success of 94.64% and a precision of 100%, thus corresponding with a very good test according to a ROC analysis. As a result, the system proposed has been patented and extended to international PCT.

  3. Express roads in Europe : research in the framework of the European research project Safety Standards for Road Design and Redesign SAFESTAR, Workpackages 3.2 & 3.3.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schagen, I.N.L.G. van

    1999-01-01

    Express roads are a rather miscellaneous road category hierarchically situated between motorways and ordinary single carriageway interurban roads. In general, the safety record of express roads is bad, in particular when compared to motorways. Nevertheless, they exist, and they will continue to

  4. The application of the multi-criteria analysis in evaluating of the road designs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuzović Ljubiša T.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of the suitability of applying multi-criteria ranking of road design variants places the emphasis on the danger of fixing the ranking results, by the impact of subjective factors, in the process of determining relevant criteria and their relative weights. This danger is illustrated using two real examples. In the first example, subjective factors did not have a decisive influence since all of the most significant technical exploitation economic and ecological indicators, determined in the appropriate study and project documentation, were taken into account while determining relevant criteria and their relative weights. In the second example, subjective factors had a more decisive influence since all of the most significant technical exploitation economic and ecological indicators, determined in the appropriate study and project documentation, were not taken into account while determining relevant criteria and their relative weights.

  5. KC-46A Tanker Modernization (KC-46A)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    Program Startup Workshop with the assistance from Defense Acquisition University at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio. July 8 - 10, 2013: The KC-46A...Selected Acquisition Report (SAR) RCS: DD-A&T(Q&A)823-387 KC-46A Tanker Modernization (KC-46A) As of FY 2017 President’s Budget Defense Acquisition ...Deliveries and Expenditures 48 Operating and Support Cost 49 Common Acronyms and Abbreviations for MDAP Programs Acq O&M - Acquisition

  6. A Road Map for Knowledge Management Systems Design Using Axiomatic Design Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Houshmand Mahmoud

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Successful design and implementation of knowledge management systems have been the main concern of many researchers. It has been reported that more than 50% of knowledge management systems have failed, therefore, it is required to seek for a new and comprehensive scientific approach to design and implement it. In the design and implementation of a knowledge management system, it is required to know ’what we want to achieve’ and ’how and by what processes we will achieve it’. A literature review conducted and axiomatic design theory selected for this purpose. For the first time, this paper develops a conceptual design of knowledge management systems by means of a hierarchical structure, composed of ’Functional Requirements’ (FRs, ’Design Parameters’ (DPs, and ’Process Variables’ (PVs. The intersection of several studies conducted in the field of knowledge management systems has been used to design the knowledge management model. It reveals that six essential bases of knowledge management are organizational culture, organizational structure, human resources, management and leadership, information technology, and the external environment of the organization; that are represented as top DPs in the structure of the model. These essential factors are decomposed to lower levels by means of zigzagging. The model implemented in Tehran Urban and Suburban Railway Operation Corporation (TUSROC and the results were very promising. The most important result of this study is a roadmap to design successful and efficient knowledge management systems.

  7. Trends in oil spills from tanker ships 1995-2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huijer, K.

    2005-01-01

    The trends in oil spills around the world over from 1995 to 2004 were examined and analyzed for possible influences on spill volumes and frequencies for incidents of 3 spill size classes. The International Tanker Owners Pollution Federation (ITOPF) has maintained a database since 1974 of all oil spills from tankers, combined carriers and barges. The number of oil spills has decreased significantly in the last 30 years despite a steady increase in maritime oil trade since the 1980s. The recent trends were identified by causes, locations, oil type, and shipping legislation. The causes include ship loading/discharging, bunkering, collisions, groundings, hull failures and fires. The types of oil spilt include bunker, crude, cargo fuel, white product and some unknowns. It was concluded that the decline in oil spills is due to a range of initiatives taken by governments and the shipping industry rather than any one factor. Some notable influences towards reduced number of spills include: the international convention for the prevention of pollution from ships of 1972, as modified by the Protocol of 1978; the international convention for the safety of life at sea of 1974; and the Oil Pollution Act of 1990. Results of investigations into the causes of spills serve the purpose of informing the international process to further prevent and reduce marine oil pollution due to tankers. 7 refs., 5 tabs., 12 figs

  8. Longitudinal Research on Aging Drivers (LongROAD): study design and methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guohua; Eby, David W; Santos, Robert; Mielenz, Thelma J; Molnar, Lisa J; Strogatz, David; Betz, Marian E; DiGuiseppi, Carolyn; Ryan, Lindsay H; Jones, Vanya; Pitts, Samantha I; Hill, Linda L; DiMaggio, Charles J; LeBlanc, David; Andrews, Howard F

    2017-12-01

    As an important indicator of mobility, driving confers a host of social and health benefits to older adults. Despite the importance of safe mobility as the population ages, longitudinal data are lacking about the natural history and determinants of driving safety in older adults. The Longitudinal Research on Aging Drivers (LongROAD) project is a multisite prospective cohort study designed to generate empirical data for understanding the role of medical, behavioral, environmental and technological factors in driving safety during the process of aging. A total of 2990 active drivers aged 65-79 years at baseline have been recruited through primary care clinics or health care systems in five study sites located in California, Colorado, Maryland, Michigan, and New York. Consented participants were assessed at baseline with standardized research protocols and instruments, including vehicle inspection, functional performance tests, and "brown-bag review" of medications. The primary vehicle of each participant was instrumented with a small data collection device that records detailed driving data whenever the vehicle is operating and detects when a participant is driving. Annual follow-up is being conducted for up to three years with a telephone questionnaire at 12 and 36 months and in-person assessment at 24 months. Medical records are reviewed annually to collect information on clinical diagnoses and healthcare utilization. Driving records, including crashes and violations, are collected annually from state motor vehicle departments. Pilot testing was conducted on 56 volunteers during March-May 2015. Recruitment and enrollment were completed between July 2015 and March 2017. Results of the LongROAD project will generate much-needed evidence for formulating public policy and developing intervention programs to maintain safe mobility while ensuring well-being for older adults.

  9. Infrastructure design & road safety : OECD Workshop B3 (Infrastructure design and road safety) for CEE's and NIS held on 15th-18th November 1994, Prague (Czech Republic). Part 1: Summaries, conclusions and recommendations, and statements from Central and Eastern European countries.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2012-01-01

    The workshop 'Infrastructure design and road safety ' was one of the initiatives which the OECO Steering Committee for Road Transport Research developed with the aim of exchanging information in the road transport sector, in order to respond to the urgent needs expressed by Central and Eastern

  10. Analysis of dangerous area of single berth oil tanker operations based on CFD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Lina; Zhu, Faxin; Lu, Jinshu; Wu, Wenfeng; Zhang, Min; Zheng, Hailin

    2018-04-01

    Based on the single process in the liquid cargo tanker berths in the state as the research object, we analyzed the single berth oil tanker in the process of VOCs diffusion theory, built network model of VOCs diffusion with Gambit preprocessor, set up the simulation boundary conditions and simulated the five detection point sources in specific factors under the influence of VOCs concentration change with time by using Fluent software. We analyzed the dangerous area of single berth oil tanker operations through the diffusion of VOCs, so as to ensure the safe operation of oil tanker.

  11. Modelling tyre-road contact stresses in pavement design and analysis

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Maina, JW

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available between rolling tyres and the road structure it needs to be durable so as to withstand current traffic loading and hence contact stresses, given the environmental forces also acting on it. For road infrastructure to perform as expected, it is important...

  12. Applying the dynamic cone penetrometer (DCP) design method to low volume roads

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Paige-Green, P

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The Dynamic Cone Penetrometer (DCP) has been in use since the 1950s for various applications in pavement investigation. During the 1980s, Kleyn and Van Zyl described a method for upgrading unsealed roads to light sealed road standard based...

  13. The market and the economics of large oil tankers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golomer, O.

    1996-01-01

    The document aims to assist decision makers in the tanker industry to make effective management strategies for the future deployment of Very Large Crude Carriers (VLCC) in a time of financial uncertainty and environmental awareness. The VLCC market is described and the factors influencing decision-makers are discussed. Financial considerations including shipping assets and company financial security are reviewed together with the financial implications of operating VLCCs. Environmental pressures, such as international regulations an oil pollution reduction measures are then discussed. The document closes with a review of decision-making for shipowning companies in this complex milieu. (UK)

  14. Design of Green Cold Chain Networks for Imported Fresh Agri-Products in Belt and Road Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Fang

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The development of Belt and Road has seen a boom of imported fresh agri-products in China. This stimulates the growth of refrigerated transport, which accounts for much more carbon emissions than traditional transport. Designing a sustainable cold chain network is of vital importance from both financial and environmental perspectives. In this research, a multi-objective linear programming model is proposed for green cold chain design for multiple imported fresh agri-products in China to balance between the two competing goals—the total cost and carbon emissions. The effect of the outdoor air temperature on the carbon emissions of transportation and maintaining distribution centers is considered. By applying the ε-constraint method, the multi-objective model is solved. Numerical examples derived from the scenario of imported fresh-agri products in China are conducted to shed light on green cold chain design under Belt and Road development.

  15. Computer aided modeling of soil mix designs to predict characteristics and properties of stabilized road bases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-07-01

    "Considerable data exists for soils that were tested and documented, both for native properties and : properties with pozzolan stabilization. While the data exists there was no database for the Nebraska : Department of Roads to retrieve this data for...

  16. Optimum use of air tankers in initial attack: selection, basing, and transfer rules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis E. Greulich; William G. O' Regan

    1982-01-01

    Fire managers face two interrelated problems in deciding the most efficient use of air tankers: where best to base them, and how best to reallocate them each day in anticipation of fire occurrence. A computerized model based on a mixed integer linear program can help in assigning air tankers throughout the fire season. The model was tested using information from...

  17. Comparison of Heat Insulations for Cryogenic Tankers Using Analytical and Numerical Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramón Miralbés Buil

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presented a methodology for the design of heat insulations used in cryogenic tankers. This insulation usually comprises a combination of vacuum and perlite or vacuum and superinsulation. Concretely, it is a methodology to obtain the temperatures, heat fluxes, and so forth. Using analytical tools has been established, which is based on the equivalence with an electric circuit, and on numerical tools using finite elements. Results obtained with both methods are then compared. In addition, the influence of the outer finish of the external part, due to the effect of the solar radiation, is analyzed too, and the equations to determine the maximum time available to transport the cryogenic liquid have been established. All these aspects are applied to a specific cryogenic commercial vehicle.

  18. Design-Build-Finance in the US: The case of iROX, I-75 Road Expansion Project

    OpenAIRE

    Forcael,E; Ellis, JR,R; Jaramillo,F

    2011-01-01

    This project is part of the Interstate 75 road expansion, located in Southwest Florida and consisted of an expansion from four to six lanes along a 30-mile stretch. The paper presents a design, build and finance (DBF) approach applied to a US highway. This work focuses on the financial structure of the project, which did not include a concession (operation); the bidding procedure, which took into account an interesting bid evaluation criterion and; project management matters. The information ...

  19. Seismic evaluation and upgrading design of overhead roads between reactor buildings of WWER-1000 MW type NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jordanov, M.J.; Stoyanov, G.S.; Geshanov, I.H.; Kirilov, K.P.; Schuetz, W.

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents results obtained during the study of overhead roads between Reactor Building (RB) of WWER-1000 MW NPP and possible measures for their seismic upgrade. The main objective of this project is to evaluate the behavior of overhead roads under site-specific seismic loading and to determine whether this structure satisfies current international safety regulations, followed by development of upgrading concepts. Overhead roads are pre-cast RC structure, which can be divided to separate substructures. They comprise of pedestrian gallery and pipeline box, connecting reactor buildings with auxiliary building. They are mounted at approximately 10 m above ground level. The overhead roads are evaluated for Review Level Earthquake (RLE) as seismic category II structures. As seismic input motion is RLE, free field response spectra anchored to 0.2 g PGA are used with 0.5 scaling factor. Soil-Structure Interaction effects are taken into account through equivalent soil springs with frequency adjusted stiffness. In order to meet the objective of the project a technical design specification is developed for conformance with International, US and Bulgarian standards and codes, taking into account site specific conditions. The general approach is consistent with up-to-date practice for evaluation and upgrade of nuclear power plant facilities. The separate steps comprising the overall fulfillment of project's major objectives may be summarized as follows: study of all available data for initial design and as built conditions, creation of 3-D detailed finite element models for as-built structure, determination of dynamic characteristics, evaluation of adequacy of initial design under new seismic loading (calculation of D/C ratios for structural members and connections, evaluation of embedment lengths for embedded parts and rebars, deformation evaluation, stability checks), development of upgrading concepts for enhancement, verification of capability of upgraded structure

  20. Lane Changing Trajectory Planning and Tracking Controller Design for Intelligent Vehicle Running on Curved Road

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lie Guo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available To enhance the active safety and realize the autonomy of intelligent vehicle on highway curved road, a lane changing trajectory is planned and tracked for lane changing maneuver on curved road. The kinematics model of the intelligent vehicle with nonholonomic constraint feature and the tracking error model are established firstly. The longitudinal and lateral coupling and the difference of curvature radius between the outside and inside lane are taken into account, which is helpful to enhance the authenticity of desired lane changing trajectory on curved road. Then the trajectory tracking controller of closed-loop control structure is derived using integral backstepping method to construct a new virtual variable. The Lyapunov theory is applied to analyze the stability of the proposed tracking controller. Simulation results demonstrate that this controller can guarantee the convergences of both the relative position tracking errors and the position tracking synchronization.

  1. Selecting Tanker Steaming Speeds under Uncertainty: A Rule-Based Bayesian Reasoning Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.S.F. Abdul Rahman

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In the tanker industry, there are a lot of uncertain conditions that tanker companies have to deal with. For example, the global financial crisis and economic recession, the increase of bunker fuel prices and global climate change. Such conditions have forced tanker companies to change tankers speed from full speed to slow speed, extra slow speed and super slow speed. Due to such conditions, the objective of this paper is to present a methodology for determining vessel speeds of tankers that minimize the cost of the vessels under such conditions. The four levels of vessel speed in the tanker industry will be investigated and will incorporate a number of uncertain conditions. This will be done by developing a scientific model using a rule-based Bayesian reasoning method. The proposed model has produced 96 rules that can be used as guidance in the decision making process. Such results help tanker companies to determine the appropriate vessel speed to be used in a dynamic operational environmental.

  2. Environmental impact of oil transportation by tankers, pipelines, railway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsitskishvili, M.S.; Chelidze, M.A.; Kaviladze, I.; Chkhartishvili, A.G.; Tsitskishvili, L.B.; Ninua, T.L.; Kordzaxia, G.I.; Gavasheli, L.; Petriashvili, E.T.; Alania, M.L.; Gigolashvili, Sh.Z.; Kordzakhia, M.O.; Chankotadze, P.

    2005-01-01

    Full text : Considering all types of risks (technical, operational, natural hazards (e.g. geo-hazards) and third party intrusion), the underground pipelines constructed in accordance with the international standards are the most safe and reliable system for oil transportation. Statistical data provided by CONCAWE and US Department of Transportation confirms that the pipeline related spills are rare and mainly related to the old pipelines. Georgia's experience yet confirms the general sound guess that the situation in our countries is not the same as in western Europe or USA and accordingly the CONCAWE statistical data can not be applied mechanically. Two spills (although small and manageable), during the recent 4 years and some discovered illegal hot-taps on the Baku-Supsa pipeline indicate that the issue of third party intrusion risks is much higher in the region and well organized security system is required to protect the pipeline from intentional damage. Of course the pipeline system can not function isolated and it is integrated with the other systems of oil transportation, mainly with off-shore terminals and tankers. The most significant of the recorded pollution damages are related to the tanker collisions (like Prestige and Exxon Valdez cases). The basic fact, which we would like to stress, is that the environmental risks related to the tanker collisions are much higher for such confined or semi-confined systems as Black and Caspian seas. The overloading of the Black Sea transportation capacity and especially its limiting narrow point - the Bosporus will inevitably lead in future to the implementation of the restrictive measures limiting transportation of oil by tankers in the Black Sea. Therefore, the role of the BTC pipeline as major transportation system will increase significantly. We consider that responsibility of the scientific society is to facilitate this process as soon as the BTC pipeline is functional. The railway transportation of oil is quite

  3. Oil-tanker waste-disposal practices: A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    In the spring of 1991, the Environmental Protection Agency, Region 10 (EPA), launched an investigation into tanker waste disposal practices for vessels discharging ballast water at the Alyeska Pipeline Services Company's Ballast Water Treatment (BWT) facility and marine terminal in Valdez, Alaska. It had been alleged that the Exxon Shipping Company was transferring 'toxic wastes originating in California' to Valdez. In response, EPA decided to examine all waste streams generated on board and determine what the fate of these wastes were in addition to investigating the Exxon specific charges. An extensive Information Request was generated and sent to the shipping companies that operate vessels transporting Alaska North Slope Crude. Findings included information on cargo and fuel tank washings, cleaning agents, and engine room waste

  4. Nature preservation acceptance model applied to tanker oil spill simulations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis-Hansen, Peter; Ditlevsen, Ove Dalager

    2003-01-01

    is exemplified by a study of oil spills due to simulated tanker collisions in the Danish straits. It is found that the distribution of the oil spill volume per spill is well represented by an exponential distribution both in Oeresund and in Great Belt. When applied in the Poisson model, a risk profile reasonably...... acceptance criterion for the pollution of the environment. This NPWI acceptance criterion is applied to the oil spill example....... be defined in a similar way as the so-called Life Quality Index defined by Nathwani et al [Nathwani JS, Lind NC, Padey MD. Affordable safety by choice: the life quality method. Institute for Risk Research, University of Waterloo; Waterloo (Ontario, Canada):1997], and can be used to quantify the risk...

  5. The environmental management of oil tanker routes in UK waters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Owen, J. [University of Wales, Cardiff (United Kingdom). Dept. of Maritime Studies and International Transport

    1999-09-01

    The recent Haven, Aegean Sea and Sea Empress incidents have highlighted the need for protective measures against the risks posed by the shipping industry to the UK coast. This is particularly the case in the vicinity of environmentally sensitive areas. The principal objectives of this paper are to investigate the state of environmental management of tanker traffic in the UK by putting the geography of shipping into its environmental context. Regional traffic levels, accident rates, oil spills, and their potential consequences upon the environment have been summarised via a risk assessment which also considers coastal sensitivity. An assessment of measures available at international level then sets the scene for a review of marine traffic management schemes in operation around the UK. The state of management and its approaches are also discussed and a number of recommendations put forward during marine conferences in the last twelve months are considered.

  6. The environmental management of oil tanker routes in UK waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Owen, J.

    1999-01-01

    The recent Haven, Aegean Sea and Sea Empress incidents have highlighted the need for protective measures against the risks posed by the shipping industry to the UK coast. This is particularly the case in the vicinity of environmentally sensitive areas. The principal objectives of this paper are to investigate the state of environmental management of tanker traffic in the UK by putting the geography of shipping into its environmental context. Regional traffic levels, accident rates, oil spills, and their potential consequences upon the environment have been summarised via a risk assessment which also considers coastal sensitivity. An assessment of measures available at international level then sets the scene for a review of marine traffic management schemes in operation around the UK. The state of management and its approaches are also discussed and a number of recommendations put forward during marine conferences in the last twelve months are considered

  7. Design of a noise action plan based on a road traffic noise map

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ausejo, M.; Tabacchi, M.; Recuero, M.; Asensio, C.; Pagan Munoz, R.; Pavón, I.

    2011-01-01

    According to European Directive 2002/49/CE, EU state members had to compile a strategic noise map no later than 30 June 2007 and a corresponding action plan no later than 18 July 2008 for all agglomerations with more than 250,000 inhabitants and for all major airports, roads and railways. A study on

  8. Optimum design of sustainable sealed low volume roads using the Dynamic Cone Penetrometer (DCP)

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Paige-Green, P

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available in a reduction in the need to import large quantities of virgin material. Appropriate testing with the simple DCP test device can be used to assess the in situ conditions including material quality and moisture regimes along the road alignment...

  9. Analysis on tank truck accidents involved in road hazardous materials transportation in china.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Xiaoyan; Yan, Ying; Li, Xiaonan; Xie, Chenjiang; Wang, Lihua

    2014-01-01

    Due to the sheer size and capacity of the tanker and the properties of cargo transported in the tank, hazmat tanker accidents are more disastrous than other types of vehicle accidents. The aim of this study was to provide a current survey on the situation of accidents involving tankers transporting hazardous materials in China. Detailed descriptions of 708 tanker accidents associated with hazmat transportation in China from 2004 to 2011 were analyzed to identify causes, location, types, time of occurrence, hazard class for materials involved, consequences, and the corresponding probability. Hazmat tanker accidents mainly occurred in eastern (38.1%) and southwest China (12.3%). The most frequent hazmat tanker accidents involved classes 2, 3, and 8. The predominant accident types were rollover (29.10%), run-off-the-road (16.67%), and rear-end collisions (13.28%), with a high likelihood of a large spill occurring. About 55.93% of the accidents occurred on freeways and class 1 roads, with the spill percentage reaching 75.00% and the proportion of spills that occurred in the total accidents amounting to 77.82%, of which 61.72% are considered large spills. The month with the highest accident probability was July (12.29%), and most crashes occurred during the early morning (4:00-6:00 a.m.) and midday (10:00 a.m.-12:00 p.m.) hours, 19.63% versus 16.10%. Human-related errors (73.8%) and vehicle-related defects (19.6%) were the primary reasons for hazmat tanker crashes. The most common outcomes of a hazmat tanker accident was a spill without further events (55.51%), followed by a release with fire (7.77%), and release with an explosion (2.54%). The safety situation of China's hazmat tanker transportation is grim. Such accidents not only have high spill percentages and consistently large spills but they can also cause serious consequences, such as fires and explosions. Improving the training of drivers and the quality of vehicles, deploying roll stability aids, enhancing

  10. Lane Departure System Design using with IR Camera for Night-time Road Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osman Onur Akırmak

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Today, one of the largest areas of research and development in the automobile industry is road safety. Many deaths and injuries occur every year on public roads from accidents caused by sleepy drivers, that technology could have been used to prevent. Lane detection at night-time is an important issue in driving assistance systems. This paper deals with vision-based lane detection and tracking at night-time. This project consists of a research and development of an algorithm for automotive systems to detect the departure of vehicle from out of lane. Once the situation is detected, a warning is issued to the driver with sound and visual message through “Head Up Display” (HUD system. The lane departure is detected through the images obtained from a single IR camera, which identifies the departure at a satisfactory accuracy via improved quality of video stream. Our experimental results and accuracy evaluation show that our algorithm has good precision and our detecting method is suitable for night-time road conditions.

  11. Safety effects of road design standards in Europe. Contribution to the International Symposium on Highway Geometric Design Practices, Session on Safety and Human Factors Considerations, Boston, Massachusetts, August 30 - September 1, 1995.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wegman, F.C.M. & Slop, M.

    1996-01-01

    This paper deals with the result of a study carried out for the European Commission by the SWOV Institute for Road Safety Research, in co-operation with a number of other European institutes, and which was reported in 1994. The title of the study is "Safety Effects of Road Design Standards." The

  12. Design and testing of an innovative measurement device for tyre-road contact forces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheli, F.; Braghin, F.; Brusarosco, M.; Mancosu, F.; Sabbioni, E.

    2011-08-01

    The measurement of tyre-road contact forces is the first step towards the development of new control systems for improving vehicle safety and performances. Tyre-road contact forces measurement systems are very expensive and significantly modify the unsprung masses of the vehicle as well as the rotational inertia of the tyres. Thus, vehicle dynamics results are significantly affected. As a consequence, the measured contact forces do not correspond to the contact forces under real working conditions. A new low-cost tyre-road contact forces measurement system is proposed in this paper that can be applied to passenger cars. Its working principle is based on the measurement of three deformations of the wheel rim through strain gauges. The tyre-rim assembly is thus turned into a sensor for tyre-road contact forces. The influence of the strain gauges position onto the measurement results has been assessed through finite element simulations and experimental tests. It has been proven that, for a large variety of rims, the strain gauge position that leads to high signal-to-noise ratios is almost the same. A dynamic calibration procedure has been developed in order to allow the reconstruction of contact force and torque components once per wheel turn. The capability of the developed device to correctly estimate tyre-road contact forces has been assessed, in a first stage, through indoor laboratory experimental test on an MTS Flat-Trac ® testing machine. Results show that the implemented measuring system allows to reconstruct contact forces once per wheel turn with a precision that is comparable to that of existing high-cost measurement systems. Subsequently, outdoor tests with a vehicle having all four wheels equipped with the developed measuring device have also been performed. Reliability of the measurements provided by the developed sensor has been assessed by comparing the global measured longitudinal/lateral forces and the product of the measured longitudinal

  13. Global Vigilance, Reach, and Power? Made Possible only with a Robust Tanker Capability

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Uyehata, Stephen

    2005-01-01

    ...). Therefore, the CCs should place aerial refueling capability and the recapitalization of the multiple tanker fleets at the top of their integrated priority lists and should also take sufficient...

  14. A Study on Safety and Risk Assessment of Dangerous Cargo Operations in Oil/Chemical Tankers

    OpenAIRE

    Cenk ŞAKAR; Yusuf ZORBA

    2017-01-01

    The safety and risk assessment of dangerous cargo operations in oil and chemical tankers is a necessary process to prevent possible accidents during these operations. Fire and explosion are the major accidents encountered in tanker operations. In this study, a model was constructed through the Fuzzy Bayes Network Method for the probabilistic relationships between the causes of fire and explosion accidents that could occur during the tank cleaning process. The study is composed of two stages. ...

  15. Miscellaneous Roads

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This data set contains roadway centerlines for miscellanous roads, a catch-all category for all road types not present in the other DNR derived products. These road...

  16. Handbook for the design, construction and maintenance of mine haulage roads. Manual para el diseno, construccion y mantenimiento de pista mineras

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ayala Carcedo, F J; Ortiz, D U.F.P.; Lopez, J C; Rodriguez Ortiz, J M; Kraemer, H C; Val, M M.A.D.

    1986-01-01

    The publication gives some easy guide-lines for the design and execution of surface mine roads, and their auxiliary elements, within the technical possibilities and equipment normally available in mining operations. A methodology for the mining haulage is proposed, taking into consideration the geometric and functional conditions of the surface mine haulage road and the vehicles used. 25 refs., 58 figs., 31 tabs., 10 photos.

  17. Numerical study of the thermal behavior of a new deicing road structure design with energy harvesting capabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Touz, Nicolas; Dumoulin, Jean

    2015-04-01

    Facing the heavy organisational, financial and environmental constraints imposed by usual winter maintenance salting operations, pavement engineers have been led to look for alternative solutions to avoid ice or snow deposit at pavements surface. Among the solutions, one is self-de-icing heating pavements, for which two technologies have been developed so far: one is based on embedded coils circulating a heated calorific fluid under the pavement surface; the other one relies on the use of embedded resistant electric wires. The use and operation of such systems in the world is still limited and was only confined to small road stretches or specific applications, such as bridges which are particularly sensitive to frost. One of the most significant "coil technology" example in Europe is the SERSO-System (Solar Energy recovery from road surfaces) built in 1994, on a Switzerland bridge. Many of these experiences are referenced in the technical literature, which provides state-of-the art papers (see for instance Eugster) and useful detailed information dealing with the construction and operational management of such installation. The present study is taking part of the Forever Open Road Concept addressed by the R5G: 5th Generation Road [1], one of the major project supported by IFSTTAR. It considers a different design of self-de-icing road that simplify its mode of construction and maintenance, compared to the two technologies mentioned above. It should also be noted that similar to pavements instrumented with coils, such structure could be used in the reversible way to capture the solar energy at the pavement surface during sunny days and store it, to either warm the pavement at a later stage or for exogenous needs (e.g. contribution to domestic hot water). To complete our study we also considered the use of semi-transparent pavement course wearing in place of the traditional opaque one. In the present study, a 2D model was developed using FEM approach. It combines 2

  18. Develop preliminary engineering design and study the benefits of providing an access to the Indiana toll road at State Road 327 near Orland, IN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-05

    A new toll road exit is proposed at the intersection of I-80/90 and SR 327 in Orland, : Indiana. The new exit is needed to facilitate travel for a proposed manufacturing plant to be : established on a 500-acre site east of SR 327 and south of I-80/90...

  19. Technical Proposal for Loading 3000 Gallon Crude Oil Samples from Field Terminal to Sandia Pressurized Tanker to Support US DOE/DOT Crude Oil Characterization Research Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lord, David; Allen, Raymond

    2016-10-01

    Sandia National Laboratories is seeking access to crude oil samples for a research project evaluating crude oil combustion properties in large-scale tests at Sandia National Laboratories in Albuquerque, NM. Samples must be collected from a source location and transported to Albuquerque in a tanker that complies with all applicable regulations for transportation of crude oil over public roadways. Moreover, the samples must not gain or lose any components, to include dissolved gases, from the point of loading through the time of combustion at the Sandia testing facility. In order to achieve this, Sandia designed and is currently procuring a custom tanker that utilizes water displacement in order to achieve these performance requirements. The water displacement procedure is modeled after the GPA 2174 standard “Obtaining Liquid Hydrocarbons Samples for Analysis by Gas Chromatography” (GPA 2014) that is used routinely by crude oil analytical laboratories for capturing and testing condensates and “live” crude oils, though it is practiced at the liter scale in most applications. The Sandia testing requires 3,000 gallons of crude. As such, the water displacement method will be upscaled and implemented in a custom tanker. This report describes the loading process for acquiring a ~3,000 gallon crude oil sample from commercial process piping containing single phase liquid crude oil at nominally 50-100 psig. This document contains a general description of the process (Section 2), detailed loading procedure (Section 3) and associated oil testing protocols (Section 4).

  20. Research and design of the structure of information support of road transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. G. Kozlov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The main issue is to study the interaction between the system of road transport and security of its information systems. The mechanism of this interaction is studied only on the basis of studies of the learning process. These two interacting systems through training react to each other. Due to the strong correlation between these two systems offer the development of the basics of management information support to carry out complex, without violating the integrity of the systems. As the methods of research used methods of system analysis and probability theory. The criteria for the study of the interaction of systems: full-scale technological and economic indicators. By the technological parameters include: completeness of use of the system (load, and performance of information security; to full-scale - the cost of labor, energy, materials; to the economic - the cost, payback, profit, profit. The stages of the development of the structure of information support: the definition of objectives; study of the problems and the choice of solution to the problem; agreed solutions (thematic plan; approval of decisions; Management and Implementation; verification of the effectiveness of decisions. Established shortcomings in the existing system of information support of decentralization processes interrelated technical planning; territorial, institutional and administrative divisions of organizations taking interdependent solutions; the lack of control most of the organizations operating information support for road transport; incomplete information of the absolute majority of publishing houses in the needs of motorists; duplication of the work of many publishers. There are two mechanisms of control information management system. Control enhances performance management system, improves the output characteristics of the system.

  1. ERGONOMICS AND ROAD SAFETY

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    BROOKHUIS, K; BROWN, [No Value

    1992-01-01

    Modifications to the design of vehicles and road infrastructures have improved road safety significantly over the past decades, but all such developments depend upon user acceptance and institutional backing for their success. New R&D programmes combining ergonomic and engineering approaches are

  2. Utilisation of VOC in Diesel Engines. Ignition and combustion of VOC released in crude oil tankers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melhus, Oeyvin

    2002-01-01

    The emission of VOC (Volatile Organic Compound) is a significant source of hydrocarbon pollution. In Norway, the offshore oil industry represents a major source. This emission represents both an energy loss and an environmental problem. Gas tankers have used boil-off gas from the cargo tanks as fuel for some time. However, for the current VOC project a new fuel injection concept is designed for tankers to take advantage of the energy present in the VOC evaporated from crude oil. The VOC is mixed with inert gas in these tankers, and thus the utilisation of this gas represents new challenges. The VOC project uses the concept of ''Condensate Diesel Process'' with pilot ignition. An experimental study of ignition and combustion of VOC Fuels reported here was initiated by the time it was decided to start a pilot project converting propulsion engines in shuttle tankers to use VOC Fuel. It is an experimental study carried out at the Marine Technology Centre (MTS). The objective was to study ignition and combustion of the chosen process in comparison with an ordinary diesel process. The experimental results have been discussed and compared with theoretical considerations of injection, ignition and combustion. For experiments on combustion, a rapid compression machine ''DyFo'' was redesigned to use VOC Fuel. The DyFo test rig was initially designed to study ignition and early combustion of spark ignited homogeneous gas/air charges. To study the ignition and early combustion of VOC Fuel injected at high pressure and ignited by pilot diesel fuel, a redesign was necessary. An important feature of the DyFo, is the visualisation of the combustion. The advantage of the DyFo test rig over an engine, is its simplicity and controllability. In an engine the visualisation would suffer from combustion deposits disturbing the view through the quartz glasses, making the images more difficult to interpret. The simplicity is on the other side a drawback. Correct thermal conditions inside

  3. Transporting US oil imports: The impact of oil spill legislation on the tanker market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rowland, P.J.

    1992-05-01

    The Oil Pollution Act of 1990 (''OPA'') and an even more problematic array of State pollution laws have raised the cost, and risk, of carrying oil into and out of the US. This report, prepared under contract to the US Department of energy's Office of Domestic and International Policy, examines the impact of Federal and State oil spill legislation on the tanker market. It reviews the role of marine transportation in US oil supply, explores the OPA and State oil spill laws, studies reactions to OPA in the tanker and tank barge industries and in related industries such as insurance and ship finance, and finally, discusses the likely developments in the years ahead. US waterborne oil imports amounted to 6.5 million B/D in 1991, three-quarters of which was crude oil. Imports will rise by almost 3 million B/D by 2000 according to US Department of energy forecasts, with most of the crude oil growth after 1995. Tanker demand will grow even faster: most of the US imports and the increased traffic to other world consuming regions will be on long-haul trades. Both the number of US port calls by tankers and the volume of offshore lightering will grow. Every aspect of the tanker industry's behavior is affected by OPA and a variety of State pollution laws

  4. Transporting US oil imports: The impact of oil spill legislation on the tanker market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rowland, P.J. (Rowland (P.) Associates (United States))

    1992-05-01

    The Oil Pollution Act of 1990 ( OPA'') and an even more problematic array of State pollution laws have raised the cost, and risk, of carrying oil into and out of the US. This report, prepared under contract to the US Department of energy's Office of Domestic and International Policy, examines the impact of Federal and State oil spill legislation on the tanker market. It reviews the role of marine transportation in US oil supply, explores the OPA and State oil spill laws, studies reactions to OPA in the tanker and tank barge industries and in related industries such as insurance and ship finance, and finally, discusses the likely developments in the years ahead. US waterborne oil imports amounted to 6.5 million B/D in 1991, three-quarters of which was crude oil. Imports will rise by almost 3 million B/D by 2000 according to US Department of energy forecasts, with most of the crude oil growth after 1995. Tanker demand will grow even faster: most of the US imports and the increased traffic to other world consuming regions will be on long-haul trades. Both the number of US port calls by tankers and the volume of offshore lightering will grow. Every aspect of the tanker industry's behavior is affected by OPA and a variety of State pollution laws.

  5. U.S. oil spill law to cause growing tanker problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Price, R.B.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on tanker owners which face a growing dilemma on the issue of oil spill liability. The U.S. Oil Pollution Act, passed last year in the wake of the March 1989 Exxon Valdez oil spill, was intended to reduce risk of and damage from such accidents. However, in addition to phasing in double hulls on most tankers operating in U.S. waters, the law substantially increases shipowner's liability for spills. And the federal law does not preempt state liability laws, which in most cases amount to unlimited liability for spill cleanup. Rather than face potentially unlimited liability in the event of a spill, tanker owners worldwide are exercising a number of options to shield themselves. Some of those options could increase the potential for oil spills, industry officials warn. The act also threatens to shatter the international alliance among shippers. A report by Drewry Shipping Consultants Ltd., London, says the law could have a devastating effect on operating practices. Tanker owners and operators have voiced the most opposition to the new spill law and the shackles it places on them. Now the industry that insures tankers has spoken up about is increased liability, and it too may launch a boycott

  6. Design Optimization of Steering Mechanisms for Articulated Off-Road Vehicles Based on Genetic Algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Zhou

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Two cylinders arranged symmetrically on a frame have become a major form of steering mechanism for articulated off-road vehicles (AORVs. However, the differences of stroke and arm lead to pressure fluctuation, vibration noise, and a waste of torque. In this paper, the differences of stroke and arm are reduced based on a genetic algorithm (GA. First, the mathematical model of the steering mechanism is put forward. Then, the difference of stroke and arm are optimized using a GA. Finally, a FW50GLwheel loader is used as an example to demonstrate the proposed GA-based optimization method, and its effectiveness is verified by means of automatic dynamic analysis of mechanical systems (ADAMS. The stroke difference of the steering hydraulic cylinders was reduced by 92% and the arm difference reached a decrease of 78% through GA optimization, in comparison with unoptimized structures. The simulation result shows that the steering mechanism optimized by GA behaved better than by previous methods.

  7. Design and Implementation of a Cloud Computing Adoption Decision Tool: Generating a Cloud Road

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bildosola, Iñaki; Río-Belver, Rosa; Cilleruelo, Ernesto; Garechana, Gaizka

    2015-01-01

    Migrating to cloud computing is one of the current enterprise challenges. This technology provides a new paradigm based on “on-demand payment” for information and communication technologies. In this sense, the small and medium enterprise is supposed to be the most interested, since initial investments are avoided and the technology allows gradual implementation. However, even if the characteristics and capacities have been widely discussed, entry into the cloud is still lacking in terms of practical, real frameworks. This paper aims at filling this gap, presenting a real tool already implemented and tested, which can be used as a cloud computing adoption decision tool. This tool uses diagnosis based on specific questions to gather the required information and subsequently provide the user with valuable information to deploy the business within the cloud, specifically in the form of Software as a Service (SaaS) solutions. This information allows the decision makers to generate their particular Cloud Road. A pilot study has been carried out with enterprises at a local level with a two-fold objective: to ascertain the degree of knowledge on cloud computing and to identify the most interesting business areas and their related tools for this technology. As expected, the results show high interest and low knowledge on this subject and the tool presented aims to readdress this mismatch, insofar as possible. PMID:26230400

  8. Design and Implementation of a Cloud Computing Adoption Decision Tool: Generating a Cloud Road.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iñaki Bildosola

    Full Text Available Migrating to cloud computing is one of the current enterprise challenges. This technology provides a new paradigm based on "on-demand payment" for information and communication technologies. In this sense, the small and medium enterprise is supposed to be the most interested, since initial investments are avoided and the technology allows gradual implementation. However, even if the characteristics and capacities have been widely discussed, entry into the cloud is still lacking in terms of practical, real frameworks. This paper aims at filling this gap, presenting a real tool already implemented and tested, which can be used as a cloud computing adoption decision tool. This tool uses diagnosis based on specific questions to gather the required information and subsequently provide the user with valuable information to deploy the business within the cloud, specifically in the form of Software as a Service (SaaS solutions. This information allows the decision makers to generate their particular Cloud Road. A pilot study has been carried out with enterprises at a local level with a two-fold objective: to ascertain the degree of knowledge on cloud computing and to identify the most interesting business areas and their related tools for this technology. As expected, the results show high interest and low knowledge on this subject and the tool presented aims to readdress this mismatch, insofar as possible.

  9. Design and Implementation of a Cloud Computing Adoption Decision Tool: Generating a Cloud Road.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bildosola, Iñaki; Río-Belver, Rosa; Cilleruelo, Ernesto; Garechana, Gaizka

    2015-01-01

    Migrating to cloud computing is one of the current enterprise challenges. This technology provides a new paradigm based on "on-demand payment" for information and communication technologies. In this sense, the small and medium enterprise is supposed to be the most interested, since initial investments are avoided and the technology allows gradual implementation. However, even if the characteristics and capacities have been widely discussed, entry into the cloud is still lacking in terms of practical, real frameworks. This paper aims at filling this gap, presenting a real tool already implemented and tested, which can be used as a cloud computing adoption decision tool. This tool uses diagnosis based on specific questions to gather the required information and subsequently provide the user with valuable information to deploy the business within the cloud, specifically in the form of Software as a Service (SaaS) solutions. This information allows the decision makers to generate their particular Cloud Road. A pilot study has been carried out with enterprises at a local level with a two-fold objective: to ascertain the degree of knowledge on cloud computing and to identify the most interesting business areas and their related tools for this technology. As expected, the results show high interest and low knowledge on this subject and the tool presented aims to readdress this mismatch, insofar as possible.

  10. Design of Frost Resistant Pavement Structure Based on Road Weather Stations (RWSs Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Audrius Vaitkus

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Frost is a decisive factor influencing pavement performance in cold countries. In the EU, millions of euros are spent annually on winter maintenance. About one-third of the maintenance budget is allocated to rehabilitation due to the negative impact of frost. The negative effect of frost is restricted by using non-frost-susceptible materials within the frost zone and regulating water accumulation. However, experience shows that the thickness of constructed pavement structure is often inadequate and that frost penetrates into the subgrade of frost-susceptible materials. The aim of this paper is to introduce the thickness calculation approach of the frost resistant pavement structure using road weather station (RWS data. The subgrade susceptibility to frost and the number of equivalent single axle loads (ESALs are considered as factors too. The calculated thickness of the frost resistant pavement structure is corrected according to the specific local conditions. After performing a statistical analysis of 2012–2014 data pertaining to 26 RWSs, Lithuania was divided into four regions according to the maximum frost depths, where the maximum values depending on RWS location varied from 110.4 cm to 179.1 cm.

  11. Statistical analysis of road-vehicle-driver interaction as an enabler to designing behavioural models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chakravarty, T; Chowdhury, A; Ghose, A; Bhaumik, C; Balamuralidhar, P

    2014-01-01

    Telematics form an important technology enabler for intelligent transportation systems. By deploying on-board diagnostic devices, the signatures of vehicle vibration along with its location and time are recorded. Detailed analyses of the collected signatures offer deep insights into the state of the objects under study. Towards that objective, we carried out experiments by deploying telematics device in one of the office bus that ferries employees to office and back. Data is being collected from 3-axis accelerometer, GPS, speed and the time for all the journeys. In this paper, we present initial results of the above exercise by applying statistical methods to derive information through systematic analysis of the data collected over four months. It is demonstrated that the higher order derivative of the measured Z axis acceleration samples display the properties Weibull distribution when the time axis is replaced by the amplitude of such processed acceleration data. Such an observation offers us a method to predict future behaviour where deviations from prediction are classified as context-based aberrations or progressive degradation of the system. In addition we capture the relationship between speed of the vehicle and median of the jerk energy samples using regression analysis. Such results offer an opportunity to develop a robust method to model road-vehicle interaction thereby enabling us to predict such like driving behaviour and condition based maintenance etc

  12. Road safety performance indicators for the interurban road network.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yannis, G. Weijermars, W.A.M. Gitelman, V. Vis, M. Chazirisa, A. Papadimitriou, E. & Lima Azevedo, C.

    2013-01-01

    Various road safety performance indicators (SPIs) have been proposed for different road safety research areas, mainly as regards driver behaviour (e.g. seat belt use, alcohol, drugs, etc.) and vehicles (e.g. passive safety); however, no SPIs for the road network and design have been developed. The

  13. The optimum support design selection by using AHP method for the main haulage road in WLC Tuncbilek colliery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yavuz, M.; Iphar, M.; Once, G.

    2008-03-15

    The engineers can frequently encounter with the situation to select the optimum option among the alternatives related with mining operations. The optimum choice can be selected by the experienced engineers taking into consideration their judgement and intuition. However, decision-making methods can offer to the engineers to support their optimum selection for a particular application in the scientific way. The Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) is one of the multi attribute decision-making (MADM) methods utilizing structured pair-wise comparisons. This paper presents an application of the AHP method to the selection of the optimum support design for the main transport road, which has been planned for deep coal seam panels of Western Lignite Corporation (WLC) Tuncbilek in Turkeiy. The methodology considers eight main objectives, namely: four different displacement values for determined history locations, factor of safety (FOS), cost, labour and applicability factor for the selection of support design. The displacements and stress values were obtained by using the finite difference program FLAC(3D) as the numerical studies have been widely used by the engineers examining the response of any opening in underground, in advance. After carrying out several numerical models for different support design, the AHP method was incorporated to evaluate these support designs according to the pre-determined criteria. The result of this study shows that such AHP application can assist the engineers to effectively evaluate the support system alternatives for an underground mine.

  14. Design and Research of Service Platform for Protection and Dissemination of Cultural Heritage Resources of The Silk Road in the Territory of China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, L.; Zhang, W.; Zeng, S. J.; Na, W.; Yang, H.; Huang, J.; Tan, X. D.; Sun, Z. J.

    2015-08-01

    The Silk Road, a major traffic route across the Eurasia continent, has been a convergence for the exchange, communication and dissemination of various cultures such as nations, materials, religions and arts for more than two thousand years. And the cultural heritage along the long and complicate route has been also attractive. In recent years, the Silk Road - the Road Network along the Chang'an-Tianshan Mountain has been listed in the Directory of World Cultural Heritage. The rare and rich cultural resources along the Silk Road, especially those in the territory of China, have attracted attentions of the world. This article describes the research ideas, methods, processes and results of the planning design on the internet-based dissemination services platform system for cultural heritage resources. First of all, it has defined the targeting for dissemination services and the research methods applied for the Silk Road heritage resources, based on scientific and objective spatial measurement and research on history and geography, to carry on the excavation of values of cultural resource for the target users. Then, with the front-end art exhibit by means of innovative IT, time and space maps of cultural heritage resources, interactive graphics display, panoramic three-dimensional virtual tour, and the Silk Road topics as the main features, a comprehensive and multi-angle cultural resources dissemination services platform is built. The research core of the platform is a demand-oriented system design on the basis of cultural resources and features as the fundamental, the value of contemporary manifestation as the foundation, and cultural dissemination and service as a starting point. This platform has achieved, temporal context generalization, interest profiles extension, online and offline adaptation, and other prominent innovations. On the basis of routes heritage resource protection and dissemination services with complex relationship between time and space, and the

  15. Safety at sea: oil spills, the tanker business and international regulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Golomer, Olivier

    1994-02-01

    The tanker industry has been assailed in recent years with regulations, inspections, and many, many criticisms. The official objective of these pressures - the preservation of the environment from oil spills and oil contamination - is praiseworthy. However, many of these measures have proved inefficient or have led to ludicrous situations due in large part to them being targeted on crisis situations. Instead of emergency regulations spurred by sporadic disasters, both the tanker industry and protection of the environment need a set of economic instruments relying on a systematic assessment of risks. This paper focuses on these issues in the Very Large Crude Carrier segment of the tanker business. We start with a description of the industry and the actors in place, and then review the measures and policies adopted so far and their influence on the industry, especially in relation to freight rates. By analogy with other industries, a comprehensive approach to environmental hazards is then proposed. (Author)

  16. Operability Guidelines For Product Tanker In Heavy Weather In The Adriatic Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mudronja Luka

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents operability guidelines for seafarers on a product tanker which navigates in the Adriatic Sea during heavy weather. Tanker route starts from the Otranto strait in the south to the island Krk in the north of Adriatic Sea. Heavy weather is caused by south wind called jugo (blowing from E-SE to SS-E, sirocco family. Operability guidelines are given based on an operability criteria platform for presenting ship seakeeping characteristics. Operability criteria considered in this paper are propeller emergence, deck wetness and bow acceleration of a product tanker. Limiting values of mentioned criteria determine sustainable speed. Heavy weather is described by extreme sea state of 7.5 m wave height. Wave spectrum used in this paper is Tabain spectrum which is developed specifically for Adriatic Sea. Seafarer's approach of decisions making in extreme weather is also shown and servers as a guideline for further research of the authors.

  17. Research on configuration of railway self-equipped tanker based on minimum cost maximum flow model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yuefang; Gan, Chunhui; Shen, Tingting

    2017-05-01

    In the study of the configuration of the tanker of chemical logistics park, the minimum cost maximum flow model is adopted. Firstly, the transport capacity of the park loading and unloading area and the transportation demand of the dangerous goods are taken as the constraint condition of the model; then the transport arc capacity, the transport arc flow and the transport arc edge weight are determined in the transportation network diagram; finally, the software calculations. The calculation results show that the configuration issue of the tankers can be effectively solved by the minimum cost maximum flow model, which has theoretical and practical application value for tanker management of railway transportation of dangerous goods in the chemical logistics park.

  18. Road density

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Road density is generally highly correlated with amount of developed land cover. High road densities usually indicate high levels of ecological disturbance. More...

  19. Strabo's roads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bekker-Nielsen, Tønnes

    2017-01-01

    in the Geography, and the world-view, of Strabo. Strabo did not take much interest in roads as artefacts or monuments, in the technology of road construction, or in the mythological and historical background of individual roads. He is primarily interested in roads from a functional point of view. For the general......To ancient geographers, roads were important not only as arteries of communication, but also as sources of information, since mileages measured along the Roman highways were among the very few precise distances available to the ancient geographer. This chapter explores the place of roads...... or the statesman, roads provide routes of communication; for the systematic geographer, they provide measured distances and directions. Through case studies of Spain, Gaul, Italy, Greece and Anatolia, this chapter attempts to reach a better understanding of the place of roads in Strabo’s universe, especially two...

  20. Road Closures

    Data.gov (United States)

    Montgomery County of Maryland — This is an up to date map of current road closures in Montgomery County.This dataset is updated every few minutes from the Department of Transportation road closure...

  1. 33 CFR 165.1709 - Security Zones: Liquefied Natural Gas Tanker Transits and Operations at Phillips Petroleum LNG...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Gas Tanker Transits and Operations at Phillips Petroleum LNG Pier, Cook Inlet, AK. 165.1709 Section...: Liquefied Natural Gas Tanker Transits and Operations at Phillips Petroleum LNG Pier, Cook Inlet, AK. (a... and outbound transits through Cook Inlet, Alaska between the Phillips Petroleum LNG Pier, 60°40′43″ N...

  2. Architecture design study and technology road map for the Planet Formation Imager (PFI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monnier, John D.; Ireland, Michael J.; Kraus, Stefan; Baron, Fabien; Creech-Eakman, Michelle; Dong, Ruobing; Isella, Andrea; Merand, Antoine; Michael, Ernest; Minardi, Stefano; Mozurkewich, David; Petrov, Romain; Rinehart, Stephen; ten Brummelaar, Theo; Vasisht, Gautam; Wishnow, Ed; Young, John; Zhu, Zhaohuan

    2016-08-01

    of PFI, including the potential to resolve protoplanetary disks in emission lines to measure planet masses using position-velocity diagrams. We advocate for a specific technology road map in order to reduce the current cost driver (telescopes) and to validate high accuracy fringe tracking and high dynamic range imaging at L, M band. In conclusion, no technology show-stoppers have been identified for PFI to date, however there is high potential for breakthroughs in medium-aperture (4-m class) telescopes architecture that could reduce the cost of PFI by a factor of 2 or more.

  3. Safety effects of road design standards : a study commissioned by the European Commission DG VII of the situation in the European Union.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruyters, H.G.J.C.M. Slop, M. & Wegman, F.C.M. (eds.)

    1994-01-01

    This report describes the results of a study carried out for the European Union. The report uses the safety principle that: (i) proper road design is crucial to prevent human errors in traffic; and (ii) less human errors will result in less accidents. The study contains the following parts: (1)

  4. Design Study for an Actively Terrain-Adaptive Off-Road Vehicle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-06-03

    of a particular leg type outside the context of the entire system. To be a more valid selection criteria for the leg type alone, the metabolic system...type leg. However, nature has designed several multi-ton animals with mammal type legs including large dinosaurs (which may have also been cold blooded

  5. Off-road sampling reveals a different grassland bird community than roadside sampling: implications for survey design and estimates to guide conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Troy I. Wellicome

    2014-06-01

    concern. Our results highlight the need to develop appropriate corrections for bias in estimates derived from roadside sampling, and the need to design surveys that sample bird communities across a more representative cross-section of the landscape, both near and far from roads.

  6. Access Bridge Design Measures for Safety Increase of the Road Infrastructure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomas Micunek

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Solid barriers represent danger for the driver in case of traffic lane escape. This threat can be represented by a drainage ditch culvert face. The access bridge is not usually conspicuous enough near the traffic lane so that the driver could ditch and crash this barrier in case of an exceptional situation such as avoidance manoeuvres. This work deals with a technical solution of access bridges with an integrated deformation zone which was designed on the ground of a detailed analysis of current types of the construction. The new technical solution was proved by means of a numerical simulation of passenger car impact and compared with the current design of culvert faces.

  7. Analytical Model for Passing Sight Distance Design Criteria of Two-Lane Roads in Sri Lanka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mampearachchi W. K.

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available For a safe overtaking manoeuvre on two-lane highways, drivers need a sufficient sight distance along the roadway, but it depends on the traffic environment. To provide an adequate Passing Sight Distance (PSD, a number of models have been proposed since the initial model introduced by American Association of State Highways and Transport Officials (AASHTO in 1954. It is a current design practice in Sri Lanka as well, however, not validated for local traffic conditions. This paper will present an alternative PSD model and an evaluation of AASHTO model for national highway design. Experiment was based on GPS data collection. In conclusion, PSD demand was satisfied by AASHTO PSD under mix traffic conditions, but not the safety concerns for speeds greater than 80 km/h, while alternative model successful for all speeds.

  8. Computational Modelling in Development of a Design Procedure for Concrete Road

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Novotný

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The computational modelling plays a decisive part in development of a new design procedure for concrete pavement by quantifying impacts of individual design factors. In the present paper, the emphasis is placed on the modelling of a structural response of the jointed concrete pavement as a system of interacting rectangular slabs transferring wheel loads into an elastic layered subgrade. The finite element plate analysis is combined with the assumption of a linear contact stress variation over triangular elements of the contact region division. The linking forces are introduced to model the load transfer across the joints. The unknown contact stress nodal intensities as well as unknown linking forces are determined in an iterative way to fulfil slab/foundation and slab/slab contact conditions. The temperature effects are also considered and space is reserved for modelling of inelastic and additional environmental effects. It is pointed out that pavement design should be based on full data of pavement stressing, in contradiction to procedures accounting only for the axle load induced stresses.

  9. Design, simulation, and prototype production of a through the road parallel hybrid electric motorcycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asaei, Behzad; Habibidoost, Mahdi

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Design, simulation, and manufacturing of a hybrid electric motorcycle are explained. • The electric machine is mounted in the front wheel hub of an ordinary motorcycle. • Two different energy control strategy are implemented. • The simulation results show that the motorcycle performance is improved. • The acceleration is improved and the fuel consumption and pollutions are decreased. - Abstract: In this paper, design, simulation, and conversion of a normal motorcycle to a Hybrid Electric Motorcycle (HEM) is described. At first, a simple model designed and simulated using ADVISOR2002. Then, the controller schematic and its optimized control strategy are described. A 125 cc ICE motorcycle is selected and converted into a HEM. A brushless DC (BLDC) motor assembled in the front wheel and a normal internal combustion engine in the rear wheel propel the motorcycle. The nominal powers are 6.6 kW and 500 W for the ICE and BLDC respectively. The original motorcycle has a Continuous Variable Transmission (CVT) that is the best choice for a HEM power transmission because it can operate in the automatic handling mode and has high efficiency. Moreover, by using the CVT, the ICE can be started while motorcycle is running. Finally, three operating modes of HEM, two implemented energy control strategies, and HEM engine control system by servomotors, and LCD display are explained

  10. Dissolved petroleum hydrocarbons along the oil tanker route in the southern Bay of Bengal

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Topgi, R; Noronha, R; Fondekar, S.P.; SenGupta, R

    Concentrations of dissolved petroleum hydrocarbons during 3 cruises (Nos. 51, 66 and 68) of R V Gaveshani, along the oil tanker route, in the southern Bay of Bengal at 0, 10 and 20 m were 19.95 + or - 3.38, 16.78 + or - 2.53 and 13.45 + or - 2.17 mu...

  11. Proteolysis produced within biofilms of bacterial isolates from raw milk tankers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teh, Koon Hoong; Flint, Steve; Palmer, Jon; Andrewes, Paul; Bremer, Phil; Lindsay, Denise

    2012-06-15

    In this study, six bacterial isolates that produced thermo-resistant enzymes isolated from the internal surfaces of raw milk tankers were evaluated for their ability to produce proteolysis within either single culture biofilms or co-culture biofilms. Biofilms were formed in an in vitro model system that simulated the upper internal surface of a raw milk tanker during a typical summer's day of milk collection in New Zealand. The bacterial isolates were further evaluated for their ability to form biofilms at 25, 30 and 37°C. Mutual and competitive effects were observed in some of the co-culture biofilms, with all isolates being able to form biofilms in either single culture or co-culture at the three temperatures. The proteolysis was also evaluated in both biofilms and corresponding planktonic cultures. The proteolysis per cell decreased as the temperature of incubation (20-37°C) increased. Furthermore, mutualistic interactions in terms of proteolysis were observed when cultures were grown as co-culture biofilms. This is the first study to show that proteolytic enzymes can be produced in biofilms on the internal surfaces of raw milk tankers. This has important implications for the cleaning and the temperature control of raw milk transport tankers. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Road Infrastructure Safety Management in Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budzynski, Marcin; Jamroz, Kazimierz; Kustra, Wojciech; Michalski, Lech; Gaca, Stanislaw

    2017-10-01

    The objective of road safety infrastructure management is to ensure that when roads are planned, designed, built and used road risks can be identified, assessed and mitigated. Road transport safety is significantly less developed than that of rail, water and air transport. The average individual risk of being a fatality in relation to the distance covered is thirty times higher in road transport that in the other modes. This is mainly because the different modes have a different approach to safety management and to the use of risk management methods and tools. In recent years Poland has had one of the European Union’s highest road death numbers. In 2016 there were 3026 fatalities on Polish roads with 40,766 injuries. Protecting road users from the risk of injury and death should be given top priority. While Poland’s national and regional road safety programmes address this problem and are instrumental in systematically reducing the number of casualties, the effects are far from the expectations. Modern approaches to safety focus on three integrated elements: infrastructure measures, safety management and safety culture. Due to its complexity, the process of road safety management requires modern tools to help with identifying road user risks, assess and evaluate the safety of road infrastructure and select effective measures to improve road safety. One possible tool for tackling this problem is the risk-based method for road infrastructure safety management. European Union Directive 2008/96/EC regulates and proposes a list of tools for managing road infrastructure safety. Road safety tools look at two criteria: the life cycle of a road structure and the process of risk management. Risk can be minimized through the application of the proposed interventions during design process as reasonable. The proposed methods of risk management bring together two stages: risk assessment and risk response occurring within the analyzed road structure (road network, road

  13. Spatial Pattern and Regional Relevance Analysis of the Maritime Silk Road Shipping Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naixia Mou

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Under the strategy of “One Belt and One Road”, this paper explores the spatial pattern and the status quo of regional trade relevance of the Maritime Silk Road shipping network. Based on complex network theory, a topological structure map of shipping networks for containers, tankers, and bulk carriers was constructed, and the spatial characteristics of shipping networks were analyzed. Using the mode of spatial arrangement and the Herfindahl–Hirschman Index, this paper further analyzes the traffic flow pattern of regional trade of three kinds of goods. It is shown that the shipping network of containers, tankers and bulk carriers are unevenly distributed and have regional agglomeration phenomena. There is a strong correlation between the interior of the region and the adjacent areas, and the port competition is fierce. Among them, the container ships network is the most competitive in the region, while the competitiveness of the tankers network is relatively the lowest. The inter-regional correlation is weak, and a few transit hub ports have obvious competitive advantages. The ports in Northeast Asia and Southeast Asia are the most significant. The research results combined with the Maritime Silk Road policy can provide reference for port construction, route optimization, and coordinated development of regional trade, which will help to save time and cost of marine transportation, reduce energy consumption, and promote the sustainable development of marine environment and regional trade on the Maritime Silk Road.

  14. Comparative analysis among deterministic and stochastic collision damage models for oil tanker and bulk carrier reliability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Campanile

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The incidence of collision damage models on oil tanker and bulk carrier reliability is investigated considering the IACS deterministic model against GOALDS/IMO database statistics for collision events, substantiating the probabilistic model. Statistical properties of hull girder residual strength are determined by Monte Carlo simulation, based on random generation of damage dimensions and a modified form of incremental-iterative method, to account for neutral axis rotation and equilibrium of horizontal bending moment, due to cross-section asymmetry after collision events. Reliability analysis is performed, to investigate the incidence of collision penetration depth and height statistical properties on hull girder sagging/hogging failure probabilities. Besides, the incidence of corrosion on hull girder residual strength and reliability is also discussed, focussing on gross, hull girder net and local net scantlings, respectively. The ISSC double hull oil tanker and single side bulk carrier, assumed as test cases in the ISSC 2012 report, are taken as reference ships.

  15. Structural maintenance planning based on historical data of corroded deck plates of tankers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garbatov, Y.; Guedes Soares, C.

    2009-01-01

    A probabilistic maintenance and repair analysis of tanker deck plates subjected to general corrosion is presented. The decisions about when to perform maintenance and repair on the structure are studied. Different practical scenarios are analyzed and optimum repair times are proposed. The optimum repair age and intervals are defined based on the statistical analysis of operational data using the Weibull model and some assumptions about the inspection and time needed for repair. The total cost is calculated in normalized form.

  16. Tanker for the transport of very low temperature liquids at atmospheric pressure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Messer, E S

    1968-02-08

    This tanker for the transport of very low temperature liquids, especially liquefied methane or natural gas, has a large capacity reservoir insulated on the outside. A second reservoir in the bottom of the hull, below the main reservoir, collects liquid leaking out from the main reservoir and is equipped with a drain pipe. The pipe serving to fill and to empty the main reservoir passes through this second reservoir. (4 claims)

  17. An Investigation of the Bomber and Tanker Mating Process in the Single Integrated Operations Plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-03-01

    REFUELING C LOCATIONS ARE OPTIMIZED TO MAXIMIZE BOKSER ENTRY POINT C FUEL. BOMBER, TANKER, AND FRI DATA ARE INPUTS TO THlE C PROGRAM, AND THE INDIVIDUAL...NOTluI 50 UEAD(3.,E,1ND=I0)PRULAT(I).PRULONCI),PRICAP(I) COTOSO I$ NOPRlmI-1 TASm4 44. C C FOR EACH BOKSER TRACK, ASSIGN THE APPROPRIATE At mIN 0r C

  18. [A review of the firefighting techniques used on the tanker 'Mega Borg' explosion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Driscoll, J.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reviews the events leading up to the explosion and fire of the Mega Borg, a Norwegian tanker which exploded in the Gulf of Mexico in June of 1990. It briefly discusses the fire fighting strategy used to cool the ship prior to foam application and the types of equipment used. It also briefly discusses the lightering operation and the cargo recovery and dewatering operations which took place after the fire was extinguished

  19. Self-tuning control algorithm design for vehicle adaptive cruise control system through real-time estimation of vehicle parameters and road grade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzbanrad, Javad; Tahbaz-zadeh Moghaddam, Iman

    2016-09-01

    The main purpose of this paper is to design a self-tuning control algorithm for an adaptive cruise control (ACC) system that can adapt its behaviour to variations of vehicle dynamics and uncertain road grade. To this aim, short-time linear quadratic form (STLQF) estimation technique is developed so as to track simultaneously the trend of the time-varying parameters of vehicle longitudinal dynamics with a small delay. These parameters are vehicle mass, road grade and aerodynamic drag-area coefficient. Next, the values of estimated parameters are used to tune the throttle and brake control inputs and to regulate the throttle/brake switching logic that governs the throttle and brake switching. The performance of the designed STLQF-based self-tuning control (STLQF-STC) algorithm for ACC system is compared with the conventional method based on fixed control structure regarding the speed/distance tracking control modes. Simulation results show that the proposed control algorithm improves the performance of throttle and brake controllers, providing more comfort while travelling, enhancing driving safety and giving a satisfactory performance in the presence of different payloads and road grade variations.

  20. Effects of Common Structural Rules on hull-girder reliability of an Aframax oil tanker

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parunov, Josko; Guedes Soares, C.

    2008-01-01

    This paper aims at quantifying the changes in notional reliability levels that result from redesigning an existing Aframax tanker to comply with the Common Structural Rules (CSR) for double-hull oil tankers. The probability of structural failure is calculated using the first-order reliability method. The evaluation of the wave-induced load effects that occur during long-term operation of the ship in the seaway is carried out in accordance with the International Association of Classification Societies (IACS)-recommended procedure, while transfer functions are calculated using the sink-source 3D linear method. The still-water loads are defined on the basis of a statistical analysis of loading conditions from the loading manual. The ultimate collapse bending moment of the midship cross section, which is used as the basis for the reliability formulation, is evaluated by progressive collapse analysis and by a single-step procedure according to CSR. The reliability assessment is performed for 'as-built' and 'corroded' states of the existing ship and a reinforced ship complying with CSR. It is shown that the hull-girder failure probability of an Aframax tanker is reduced several times due to the reinforcements according to CSR. Sensitivity analysis and a parametric study are performed to investigate the variability of results with the change of parameters of pertinent random variables within their plausible ranges. Finally, differences between load combination approaches by Ferry-Borges and Castanheta method and Turkstra's rule are investigated

  1. Road Edge of Pavement, Pavement Condition Ratings and Maintenance Designations per Street Centerline. Updated frequently by Public Works Streets Division, Published in 2006, 1:1200 (1in=100ft) scale, City of Asheville Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Local Govt | GIS Inventory — Road Edge of Pavement dataset current as of 2006. Pavement Condition Ratings and Maintenance Designations per Street Centerline. Updated frequently by Public Works...

  2. Verification of road databases using multiple road models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziems, Marcel; Rottensteiner, Franz; Heipke, Christian

    2017-08-01

    In this paper a new approach for automatic road database verification based on remote sensing images is presented. In contrast to existing methods, the applicability of the new approach is not restricted to specific road types, context areas or geographic regions. This is achieved by combining several state-of-the-art road detection and road verification approaches that work well under different circumstances. Each one serves as an independent module representing a unique road model and a specific processing strategy. All modules provide independent solutions for the verification problem of each road object stored in the database in form of two probability distributions, the first one for the state of a database object (correct or incorrect), and a second one for the state of the underlying road model (applicable or not applicable). In accordance with the Dempster-Shafer Theory, both distributions are mapped to a new state space comprising the classes correct, incorrect and unknown. Statistical reasoning is applied to obtain the optimal state of a road object. A comparison with state-of-the-art road detection approaches using benchmark datasets shows that in general the proposed approach provides results with larger completeness. Additional experiments reveal that based on the proposed method a highly reliable semi-automatic approach for road data base verification can be designed.

  3. GPS Roads

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This data set contains a 1:100,000 scale vector digital representation of all interstate highways, all US highways, most of the state highways, and some county roads...

  4. Major Roads

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This data set contains roadway centerlines for major roads (interstates and trunk highways) found on the USGS 1:24,000 mapping series. These roadways are current...

  5. Louisiana ESI: ROADS (Road Lines)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains the state maintained primary and secondary road network of Louisiana. Vector lines in the data set represent Interstates, U.S. Highways, and...

  6. Distributed road assessment system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beer, N. Reginald; Paglieroni, David W

    2014-03-25

    A system that detects damage on or below the surface of a paved structure or pavement is provided. A distributed road assessment system includes road assessment pods and a road assessment server. Each road assessment pod includes a ground-penetrating radar antenna array and a detection system that detects road damage from the return signals as the vehicle on which the pod is mounted travels down a road. Each road assessment pod transmits to the road assessment server occurrence information describing each occurrence of road damage that is newly detected on a current scan of a road. The road assessment server maintains a road damage database of occurrence information describing the previously detected occurrences of road damage. After the road assessment server receives occurrence information for newly detected occurrences of road damage for a portion of a road, the road assessment server determines which newly detected occurrences correspond to which previously detected occurrences of road damage.

  7. Defilade, Stationary Target and Moving Target Embankment, Low Water Crossing, and Course Road Designs for Soil Loss Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-11-01

    Avenue Urbana , IL 61801-4797 Final report Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Prepared for U.S. Army Corps of Engineers...allow validation of each structure’s effectiveness. Approach A research team consisting of members from the University of Illinois, Urbana ...and preferential drainage channel. Furthermore, dry weather conditions on unimproved ERDC/CERL TR-06-31 4 roads generate large volumes of airborne

  8. Energy Efficiency for Military Aircraft and Operations: Surveillance, Reconnaissance, Tanker

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-06-01

    M.E. & DOE, R.H., � Aerodynamic Design Studies of Conventional & Unconventional Wings with winglets �, AIAA-2006-3460. 25th Applied Aero Conference...The results have been correlated into reliable �first-order� non-D form using aerodynamic efficiency and range parameter terms from the Breguet Range...of MTOW, X = 14077 nm, Ref.2. This � aerodynamic � efficiency is held constant over the applicable flight envelope region of interest. Fig.5.8.4

  9. Road-Cleaning Device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, Harry T.

    2014-01-01

    Roadways are literally soaked with petrochemical byproducts, oils, gasoline, and other volatile substances that eventually run off into sewers and end up in rivers, waterways, and other undesirable places. Can the roads be cleaned of these wastes, with their proper disposal? Can vehicles, robots, or other devices be designed that could be driven…

  10. Self-explaining roads

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horst, A.R.A. van der; Kaptein, N.

    1999-01-01

    As a means to a sustainable safe traffic environment the concept of Self-Explaining Roads (SER) has been developed. The SER concept advocates a traffic environment that elicits safe driving behaviour simply by its design. In order to support safe driving behaviour and appropriate speed choice,

  11. Transporting US oil imports: The impact of oil spill legislation on the tanker market. Draft final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rowland, P.J. [Rowland (P.) Associates (United States)

    1992-05-01

    The Oil Pollution Act of 1990 (``OPA``) and an even more problematic array of State pollution laws have raised the cost, and risk, of carrying oil into and out of the US. This report, prepared under contract to the US Department of energy`s Office of Domestic and International Policy, examines the impact of Federal and State oil spill legislation on the tanker market. It reviews the role of marine transportation in US oil supply, explores the OPA and State oil spill laws, studies reactions to OPA in the tanker and tank barge industries and in related industries such as insurance and ship finance, and finally, discusses the likely developments in the years ahead. US waterborne oil imports amounted to 6.5 million B/D in 1991, three-quarters of which was crude oil. Imports will rise by almost 3 million B/D by 2000 according to US Department of energy forecasts, with most of the crude oil growth after 1995. Tanker demand will grow even faster: most of the US imports and the increased traffic to other world consuming regions will be on long-haul trades. Both the number of US port calls by tankers and the volume of offshore lightering will grow. Every aspect of the tanker industry`s behavior is affected by OPA and a variety of State pollution laws.

  12. The Use of Simulators in Rules of the Road Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-01

    RoAoLMSR s llil>oal yacht s llil>oal yacht Tanker132k Tanker132k T anker!IO< Tug Barge Pushing Sand Tug Barge Pushing Sand on Starbo ... I 40...Boat Pilot Vessel Powe1Boat Cabin Cruiser Sailboat Yacht Sailboat Yacht Smoke Float Smoke Float Smoke Float Smoke Float Tanker 132k Tanker...2 Sailboat Yacht Smoke Float 2 Smoke Float 3 Smoke Float 4 Tanker 132k 2 Tanker 40k Tanker BOk T onker lnlond 2 Trawling trawling 2 Tug3

  13. Corrosion testing on crude oil tankers and other product carriers by means of acoustic emission (AE)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lackner, Gerald [TUV Austria, Deutschstrasse 10, 1230 Wien (Austria); Tscheliesnig, Peter [TUV Austria, Deutschstrasse 10, 1230 Wien (Austria)

    2004-07-01

    In the last decades a lot of maritime disasters with crude oil tankers occurred (e.g. Exxon- Valdez, Erika, Prestige). Every accident led to extreme pollution with horrible consequences not only for the environment but also for the life of the inhabitants of the affected coasts. Although most of these accidents were caused by human errors, the material degradation of the ship hull due to corrosion played an important role. Acoustic emission (AE) is already used to detect and discriminate the stage of corrosion of structures located on land. A consortium consisting of experienced partners from the fields of ship building and classification as well as from AE testing and equipment manufacturing started to investigate the feasibility of this testing technique for its application on oil tankers. The aim of the research project funded by the European Commission is to develop an on-line corrosion monitoring technique based on a permanent installation of AE sensors as well as a spot testing technique during stops in harbors or at anchorages using mobile equipment. Since the project was started, a lot of lab tests as well as background measurements were done on different types of tankers up to a size of 35.000 dead weight tons (DWT). The gathered data were evaluated with a frequency domain based pattern recognition system and it was possible to distinguish the AE signals related to corrosion from those signals, which were emitted by the structure due to the harsh environment on sea (background noise). Together with the oncoming developments of the AE equipment and the improvement of the data base, this project will lead to an important breakthrough for the safe shipping of hazardous products like crude oil. (authors)

  14. Economic impacts of oil spills: Spill unit costs for tankers, pipelines, refineries, and offshore facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The impacts of oil spills -- ranging from the large, widely publicized Exxon Valdez tanker incident to smaller pipeline and refinery spills -- have been costly to both the oil industry and the public. For example, the estimated costs to Exxon of the Valdez tanker spill are on the order of $4 billion, including $2.8 billion (in 1993 dollars) for direct cleanup costs and $1.125 billion (in 1992 dollars) for settlement of damages claims caused by the spill. Application of contingent valuation costs and civil lawsuits pending in the State of Alaska could raise these costs appreciably. Even the costs of the much smaller 1991 oil spill at Texaco's refinery near Anacortes, Washington led to costs of $8 to 9 million. As a result, inexpensive waming, response and remediation technologies could lower oil spin costs, helping both the oil industry, the associated marine industries, and the environment. One means for reducing the impact and costs of oil spills is to undertake research and development on key aspects of the oil spill prevention, warming, and response and remediation systems. To target these funds to their best use, it is important to have sound data on the nature and size of spills, their likely occurrence and their unit costs. This information could then allow scarce R ampersand D dollars to be spent on areas and activities having the largest impact. This report is intended to provide the ''unit cost'' portion of this crucial information. The report examines the three key components of the US oil supply system, namely, tankers and barges; pipelines and refineries; and offshore production facilities. The specific purpose of the study was to establish the unit costs of oil spills. By manipulating this key information into a larger matrix that includes the size and frequency of occurrence of oil spills, it will be possible' to estimate the likely future impacts, costs, and sources of oil spills

  15. Some fundamental definitions of the elastic parameters for homogenous isotropic linear materials in road design and analysis

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    De Beer, Morris

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available - wave and ρ the material density. The elastic moduli P-wave modulus, M, is defined so that M = K + 4µ / 3 and M can then be determined by Equation 11, with a known speed Vp P MV 2 ρ = (11) It should however also... gas (such as air within compacted road materials), the adiabatic bulk modulus KS is approximately given by pKS κ= (4) Where: κ is the adiabatic index, (sometimes calledγ ); p is the pressure. In a fluid (such as moisture...

  16. The Erika tanker shipwreck, one year later. synthesis; Naufrage du petrolier Erika, un an apres. synthese

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-12-01

    In december 1999 the Erika tanker shipwreck broke along the Brittany coast leading to the most important sea pollution by hydrocarbons, since the Amoco-Cadiz. One year after this accident the Ministry of the territory management and of the environment takes stock on the actions carried on after the shipwreck: the management of the POLMAR fund, the shoreline cleaning, the land and water ecosystems restoration, the wastes storage and processing, the ecological consequences. A special part is devoted to the maritime transport regulations and safety and to the victims compensation. (A.L.B.)

  17. The Iron Triangle Manifested: U.S. Air Force Tanker Lease 2001-2005 Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Simply put, Air Force leaders never said they even needed the tankers until they woke up one morning and saw a pile of money on the table. —Eric Miller...this assessment, stating the KC–135 could fly well past the turn of the century.5 Responding to the GAO report, the Air Force formed a team of its...concerns were manageable.6 The team predicted fleet sustainment costs would grow $20 million each year due to increases in depot maintenance hours and

  18. Effect of the Road Environment on Road Safety in Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budzynski, Marcin; Jamroz, Kazimierz; Antoniuk, Marcin

    2017-10-01

    Run-off-road accidents tend to be very severe because when a vehicle leaves the road, it will often crash into a solid obstacle (tree, pole, supports, front wall of a culvert, barrier). A statistical analysis of the data shows that Poland’s main roadside hazard is trees and the severity of vehicles striking a tree in a run-off-road crash. The risks are particularly high in north-west Poland with many of the roads lined up with trees. Because of the existing rural road cross-sections, i.e. having trees directly on road edge followed immediately by drainage ditches, vulnerable road users are prevented from using shoulders and made to use the roadway. With no legal definition of the road safety zone in Polish regulations, attempts to remove roadside trees lead to major conflicts with environmental stakeholders. This is why a compromise should be sought between the safety of road users and protection of the natural environment and the aesthetics of the road experience. Rather than just cut the trees, other road safety measures should be used where possible to treat the hazardous spots by securing trees and obstacles and through speed management. Accidents that are directly related to the road environment fall into the following categories: hitting a tree, hitting a barrier, hitting a utility pole or sign, vehicle rollover on the shoulder, vehicle rollover on slopes or in ditch. The main consequence of a roadside hazard is not the likelihood of an accident itself but of its severity. Poland’s roadside accident severity is primarily the result of poor design or operation of road infrastructure. This comes as a consequence of a lack of regulations or poorly defined regulations and failure to comply with road safety standards. The new analytical model was designed as a combination of the different factors and one that will serve as a comprehensive model. It was assumed that it will describe the effect of the roadside on the number of accidents and their consequences

  19. Road works

    CERN Multimedia

    GS Department

    2010-01-01

    From Monday 11 October until Friday 29 October 2010, the flow of traffic will be disrupted by road works at the roundabout in front of Restaurant No. 2; The number of spaces available in the car park in front of Rest. No. 2 will be reduced. Thank you for your understanding during this period. GS/SEM Group

  20. Private Roads

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoef, Erik T.

    2007-01-01

    This paper studies the efficiency impacts of private toll roads in initially untolled networks. The analysis allows for capacity and toll choice by private operators, and endogenizes entry and therewith the degree of competition, distinguishing and allowing for both parallel and serial competition.

  1. Tracking an Oil Tanker Collision and Spilled Oils in the East China Sea Using Multisensor Day and Night Satellite Imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Shaojie; Lu, Yingcheng; Liu, Yongxue; Wang, Mengqiu; Hu, Chuanmin

    2018-04-01

    Satellite remote sensing is well known to play a critical role in monitoring marine accidents such as oil spills, yet the recent SANCHI oil tanker collision event in January 2018 in the East China Sea indicates that traditional techniques using synthetic aperture radar or daytime optical imagery could not provide timely and adequate coverage. In this study, we show the unprecedented value of Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) Nightfire product and Day/Night Band data in tracking the oil tanker's drifting pathway and locations when all other means are not as effective for the same purpose. Such pathway and locations can also be reproduced with a numerical model, with root-mean-square error of days of the tanker's sinking reveals much larger oil spill area (>350 km2) than previous reports, the impact of the spilled condensate oil on the marine environment requires further research.

  2. The Development of Mathematical Prediction Model to Predict Resilient Modulus for Natural Soil Stabilized by Pofa-Opc Additive for the Use in Unpaved Road Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamil, Y. M. R.; Bakar, I. H.

    2016-07-01

    Resilient Modulus (Mr) is considered one of the most important parameters in the design of road structure. This paper describes the development of the mathematical model to predict resilient modulus of organic soil stabilized by the mix of Palm Oil Fuel Ash - Ordinary Portland Cement (POFA-OPC) soil stabilization additives. It aims to optimize the use of the use of POFA in soil stabilization. The optimization models enable to eliminate the arbitrary selection and its associated disadvantages in determination of the optimum additive proportion. The model was developed based on Scheffe regression theory. The mix proportions of the samples in the experiment were adopted from similar studies reported in the literature Twenty five samples were designed, prepared and then characterized for each mix proportion based on the MR in 28 days curing. The results are used to develop the mathematical prediction model. The model was statistically analyzed and verified for its adequacy and validity using F-test.

  3. A new arrangement with nonlinear sidewalls for tanker ship storage panels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ketabdari, M. J.; Saghi, H.

    2013-03-01

    Sloshing phenomenon in a moving container is a complicated free surface flow problem. It has a wide range of engineering applications, especially in tanker ships and Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) carriers. When the tank in these vehicles is partially filled, it is essential to be able to evaluate the fluid dynamic loads on tank perimeter. Different geometric shapes such as rectangular, cylindrical, elliptical, spherical and circular conical have been suggested for ship storage tanks by previous researchers. In this paper a numerical model is developed based on incompressible and inviscid fluid motion for the liquid sloshing phenomenon. The coupled BEM-FEM is used to solve the governing equations and nonlinear free surface boundary conditions. The results are validated for rectangular container using data obtained for a horizontal periodic sway motion. Using the results of this model a new arrangement of trapezoidal shapes with quadratic sidewalls is suggested for tanker ship storage panels. The suggested geometric shape not only has a maximum surrounded tank volume to the constant available volume, but also reduces the sloshing effects more efficiently than the existing geometric shapes.

  4. Risk Assessment in Financial Feasibility of Tanker Project Using Monte Carlo Simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Badrus Zaman

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Every ship project would not be apart from risk and uncertainty issues. The inappropriate risk assessment process would have long-term impact, such as financial loss. Thus, risk and uncertainties analysis would be a very important process in financial feasibility determination of the project. This study analyzes the financial feasibility of 17,500 LTDW tanker project. Risk and uncertainty are two differentiated terminologies in this study, where risk focuses on operational risk due to shipbuilding process nonconformity to shipowner finance, while uncertainty focuses on variable costs that affect project cash flows. There are three funding scenarios in this study, where the percentage of funding with own capital and bank loan in scenario 1 is 100% : 0%, scenario 2 is 75% : 25%, and scenario 3 is 50% : 50%. Monte Carlo simulation method was applied to simulate the acceptance criteria, such as net present value (NPV, internal rate of return (IRR, payback period (PP, and profitability index (PI. The results of simulation show that 17,500 LTDW tanker project funding by scenario 1, 2 and 3 are feasible to run, where probability of each acceptance criteria was greater than 50%. Charter rate being the most sensitive uncertainty over project's financial feasibility parameters.

  5. A Study on Safety and Risk Assessment of Dangerous Cargo Operations in Oil/Chemical Tankers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cenk ŞAKAR

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The safety and risk assessment of dangerous cargo operations in oil and chemical tankers is a necessary process to prevent possible accidents during these operations. Fire and explosion are the major accidents encountered in tanker operations. In this study, a model was constructed through the Fuzzy Bayes Network Method for the probabilistic relationships between the causes of fire and explosion accidents that could occur during the tank cleaning process. The study is composed of two stages. Firstly, the variables that are the subject of the problem and that constitute the graphical structure of the Bayes Networks are identified. Then, expert opinion was sought as the statistical data on accident reports were not recorded properly while identifying the conditional probability of the relationships between the variables. Linguistic variables whose fuzzy membership functions were identified were used in detecting the probabilities. The findings of the sensitivity test revealed that the major reasons that could lead to fire and explosion during the tank cleaning process are ignition sources, reaction and safety culture.

  6. Performance standards of road safety management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Čabarkapa Milenko R.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Road safety management controlling means the process of finding out the information whether the road safety is improving in a measure to achieve the objectives. The process of control consists of three basic elements: definition of performances and standards, measurement of current performances and comparison with the set standards, and improvement of current performances, if they deviate from the set standards. The performance standards of road safety management system are focused on a performances measurement, in terms of their design and characteristics, in order to support the performances improvement of road safety system and thus, ultimately, improve the road safety. Defining the performance standards of road safety management system, except that determines the design of the system for performances measurement, directly sets requirements whose fulfillment will produce a road safety improvement. The road safety management system, based on the performance standards of road safety, with a focus on results, will produce the continuous improvement of road safety, achieving the long-term 'vision zero', the philosophy of road safety, that human life and health take priority over mobility and other traffic objectives of the road traffic.

  7. 5 CFR 930.107 - Waiver of road test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Waiver of road test. 930.107 Section 930....107 Waiver of road test. Under the following conditions, OPM or an agency head or his or her designated representative may waive the road test: (a) OPM waives the road test requirement for operators of...

  8. An instrument for the measurement of road surface reflection properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Corell, Dennis Dan; Sørensen, K.

    2017-01-01

    Road surface reflection data in the form of standard r-tables serve as input for design calculations of road lighting installations on traffic roads. However, in several countries the use of the standard r-tables has not been verified by measurement in a long period of time, while the types of road...

  9. Road user behaviour changes following a self-explaining roads intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackie, Hamish W; Charlton, Samuel G; Baas, Peter H; Villasenor, Pablo C

    2013-01-01

    The self-explaining roads (SER) approach uses road designs that evoke correct expectations and driving behaviours from road users to create a safe and user-friendly road network. Following the implementation of an SER process and retrofitting of local and collector roads in a suburb within Auckland City, lower speeds on local roads and less variation in speed on both local and collector roads were achieved, along with a closer match between actual and perceived safe speeds. Preliminary analyses of crash data shows that the project has resulted in a 30% reduction crash numbers and an 86% reduction in crash costs per annum, since the road changes were completed. In order to further understand the outcomes from this project, a study was carried out to measure the effects of the SER intervention on the activity and behaviour of all road users. Video was collected over nine separate days, at nine different locations, both before and after SER construction. Road user behaviour categories were developed for all potential road users at different location types and then used to code the video data. Following SER construction, on local roads there was a relatively higher proportion of pedestrians, less uniformity in vehicle lane keeping and less indicating by motorists along with less through traffic, reflecting a more informal/low speed local road environment. Pedestrians were less constrained on local roads following SER construction, possibly reflecting a perceptually safer and more user-friendly environment. These behaviours were not generally evident on collector roads, a trend also shown by the previous study of speed changes. Given that one of the objectives of SER is to match road user behaviour with functionally different road categories, the road user behaviour differences demonstrated on different road types within the SER trial area provides further reinforcement of a successful SER trial. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Tanker milk variability according to farm feeding practices: vitamins A and E, carotenoids, color, and terpenoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agabriel, C; Cornu, A; Journal, C; Sibra, C; Grolier, P; Martin, B

    2007-10-01

    The aim of this work was to study the variability in the composition of bulk milk mixtures of fat-soluble compounds (vitamins A and E, carotenoids, and terpenoids) and assess the links with milk production conditions. Milk from 10 collection trips in the French department of the Haute-Loire (10 to 36 herds per trip) was sampled in the tanker twice during the winter period and 3 times during the grazing season. The collection trips differed in their altitude (440 to 1,150 m) and the forage system (grass or based on corn silage). Vitamins A and E, carotenoids, and terpenoids of the 50 tanker loads of milk were analyzed. Data of milk production conditions in the 204 farms made it possible to constitute indicators for the collection trip and to define 50 mean herds. The relationships between mean herd characteristics (breed, stage of lactation, and feed) and milk characteristics were investigated. The constituents of tanker loads of milk were comparable to those observed in milk produced by groups of animals receiving contrasting diets (rich in concentrate or corn silage vs. pasture). The characteristics of the milk differed according to the period; those produced at grazing were more yellow (1.02 +/- 0.4; mean of difference) and richer in beta-carotene, lutein, vitamin E (2.0 +/- 1.2, 0.23 +/- 0.12, and 6.1 +/- 5.0 mug/g of fat, respectively), and sesquiterpenes (2.7 +/- 2.5) than winter. The variations observed for beta-carotene, lutein, and vitamin E were linked to the proportion of grazed grass or grass silage in the forage (r = 0.66, 0.69, and 0.51, respectively), unlike the vitamin A content. During grazing, 20 of the 32 terpenoids identified were associated with the proportion of permanent grassland available for grazing or cut. These results show that feeding is an effective way to modify the quality of dairy products, even in the case of bulk tank milk mixtures. Dairy plants could market different milks, which would contain specific compositions.

  11. Road safety performance indicators for the interurban road network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yannis, George; Weijermars, Wendy; Gitelman, Victoria; Vis, Martijn; Chaziris, Antonis; Papadimitriou, Eleonora; Azevedo, Carlos Lima

    2013-11-01

    Various road safety performance indicators (SPIs) have been proposed for different road safety research areas, mainly as regards driver behaviour (e.g. seat belt use, alcohol, drugs, etc.) and vehicles (e.g. passive safety); however, no SPIs for the road network and design have been developed. The objective of this research is the development of an SPI for the road network, to be used as a benchmark for cross-region comparisons. The developed SPI essentially makes a comparison of the existing road network to the theoretically required one, defined as one which meets some minimum requirements with respect to road safety. This paper presents a theoretical concept for the determination of this SPI as well as a translation of this theory into a practical method. Also, the method is applied in a number of pilot countries namely the Netherlands, Portugal, Greece and Israel. The results show that the SPI could be efficiently calculated in all countries, despite some differences in the data sources. In general, the calculated overall SPI scores were realistic and ranged from 81 to 94%, with the exception of Greece where the SPI was relatively lower (67%). However, the SPI should be considered as a first attempt to determine the safety level of the road network. The proposed method has some limitations and could be further improved. The paper presents directions for further research to further develop the SPI. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Road pricing policy implementation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vonk Noordegraaf, D.M.

    2016-01-01

    Urban areas suffer from the negative externalities of road transport like congested road networks, air pollution and road traffic accidents. A measure to reduce these negative externalities is road pricing, meaning policies that impose direct charges on road use (Jones and Hervik, 1992). Since the

  13. Modeling road-tyre noise

    OpenAIRE

    Martins, Mário M. Abreu; Santos, Luís Picado; Freitas, Elisabete F.

    2008-01-01

    The growing awareness by the broader public of the consequences to health and wellbeing due to road noise has led to a growing number of legal requirements being produced to deal with this matter, both in the design of new or assessment of existing infrastructure. In this article the purpose is to make an up-to-date review of existing studies being carried out to deliver models for predicting noise produced from tyre-road contact, taking account of different methodological appr...

  14. Unified Tanker Survey and Inspection Regime in Terms of Reducing Psychophysical Strain of the Crew

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toni Bielić

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper focuses on analysis of the effect of various surveys and inspections on the psychophysical behaviour of the crew. After analysing the scope and the extent of each regime, the authors identified more than 60% of surveys overlapping each other. Furthermore, the results of the survey conducted among seafarers indicate that the present method of carrying out ship surveys and inspections have a negative effect on the psychophysical condition of the crew. Therefore, a new method of tanker inspections has been proposed in order to reduce the psychophysical strain of the crew. The proposed method would minimise the annual duration of the inspections up to 30% and improve inspection time coordination without compromising quality and safety of the ships.

  15. Assessing the damage caused by the oil spill from the tanker Erika

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delache, X.; Erhard-Cassegrain, A.

    2001-07-01

    In December 1999, France was faced with a large-scale marine and ecological disaster following the accident involving the oil tanker Erika which split in two before sinking off the coast of Brittany (western France). This disaster had significant impacts on the coastal environment, affecting 400 km of shoreline. Very different aspects need to be considered in order to assess the damage caused, for which suitable methodologies must be used. Expenditure incurred on emergency and remedial measures to prepare for the 2000 summer season can easily be identified. The main effect of the disaster was ecological: a wide variety of habitats and species, and in particular many protected areas were affected. In addition, economic activities were seriously disrupted, especially tourism, fishing and shellfish production. However, it is harder to assess the economic losses incurred since a large number of short-term and long-term factors were affected. (author)

  16. Transporting US oil imports: The impact of oil spill legislation on the tanker market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-06-01

    This report looks at the impact of the Oil Pollution Act of 1990 and the developing State oil spill regulations on the tanker and coastal barge markets, and at the implications for the future of the U.S. seaborne petroleum trades. The analysis relied on a dual approach. Because much of the legislation, both State and Federal, is still evolving--particularly with respect to implementing regulations--as yet there can be no definitive assessment of its impact. Consequently a quantitative analysis of fleets, trades, and vessel movements, was complemented by extensive interviews. Discussions have been held with oil companies large and small, shipowners, charterers, insurance companies, classification societies, and a variety of public and private institutions active in the maritime industry. All interviews were conducted in confidence: no individual views are identified in the report. (AT)

  17. Analisis Potensi Kebangkrutan PT. Berlian Laju Tanker, Tbk. dengan Menggunakan Altman’s Z Score

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iswandi Iswandi

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available PT. Berlian Laju Tanker, Tbk. (BLTA is a company engaged in the ocean transportation services listed on the Indonesia Stock Exchange and the Singapore Stock Exchange. In 2009 and 2010 BLTA experienced a net loss. At the end of 2011 the company rocked the financial markets in Indonesia and Singapore being unable to meet financial obligations to financial institutions and corporate bondholders. Given such conditions until the end of August 2012 BLTA can not submit audited financial statement of year 2011 to the authorities of stock exchange and public. By using the 2007 to 2010 audited financial statements and June 2011 inhouse financial statement were analyzed using Altman's Z score model can be known that since 2007 BLTA produce a Z score were classified bankruptcy. Investors should analyze the financial condition by using Z Score in order to minimized shareholders and bondholders potential losses.

  18. Road Anomalies Detection System Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Nuno; Shah, Vaibhav; Soares, João; Rodrigues, Helena

    2018-06-21

    Anomalies on road pavement cause discomfort to drivers and passengers, and may cause mechanical failure or even accidents. Governments spend millions of Euros every year on road maintenance, often causing traffic jams and congestion on urban roads on a daily basis. This paper analyses the difference between the deployment of a road anomalies detection and identification system in a “conditioned” and a real world setup, where the system performed worse compared to the “conditioned” setup. It also presents a system performance analysis based on the analysis of the training data sets; on the analysis of the attributes complexity, through the application of PCA techniques; and on the analysis of the attributes in the context of each anomaly type, using acceleration standard deviation attributes to observe how different anomalies classes are distributed in the Cartesian coordinates system. Overall, in this paper, we describe the main insights on road anomalies detection challenges to support the design and deployment of a new iteration of our system towards the deployment of a road anomaly detection service to provide information about roads condition to drivers and government entities.

  19. Factors contributing to amphibian road mortality in a wetland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haijun GU, Qiang DAI, Qian WANG, Yuezhao WANG

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available To understand road characteristics and landscape features associated with high road mortality of amphibians in Zoige Wetland National Nature Reserve, we surveyed road mortality along four major roads after rainfall in May and September 2007. Road mortality of three species, Rana kukunoris, Nanorana pleskei and Bufo minshanicus, was surveyed across 225 transects (115 in May and 110 in September. Transects were 100 m long and repeated every two kilometers along the four major roads. We used model averaging to assess factors that might determine amphibian road mortality. We recorded an average of 24.6 amphibian road mortalities per kilometer in May and 19.2 in September. Among road characteristics, road width was positively associated with road morality for R. kukunori and B. minshanicus. Traffic volume also increased the road mortality of B. minshanicus in September. Of the landscape features measured, area proportions of three types of grassland (wet, mesic and dry within 1 km of the roads, particularly that of wet grassland, significantly increased road mortality for R. kukunori and total mortality across all three species. To most effectively reduce road mortality of amphibians in the Zoige wetlands, we suggest better road design such as avoiding wet grasslands, minimizing road width, underground passes and traffic control measures. The implementation of public transit in the area would reduce traffic volume, and hence mortality [Current Zoology 57 (6: 768–774, 2011].

  20. Defilade, Stationary Target and Moving Target Embankment, Low Water Crossing, and Course Road Designs for Soil Loss Prevention

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Svendsen, Niels G; Kalita, Prasanta K; Gebhart, Dick L; Denight, Michael L

    2006-01-01

    .... Additionally, incorporating sustainability into the range designs should remain a high priority to meet environmental compliance regulations and provide a durable long-lasting structure useful...

  1. Multifractal cross-correlations between crude oil and tanker freight rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Feier; Miao, Yuqi; Tian, Kang; Ding, Xiaoxu; Li, Tingyi

    2017-05-01

    Analysis of crude oil price and tanker freight rate volatility attract more attention as the mechanism is not only the basis of industrialization but also a vital role in economics, especially after the year 2008 when financial crisis notably blew the maritime transportation. In this paper, we studied the cross-correlations between the West Texas International crude oil (WTI) and Baltic Exchange Dirty Tanker Index (BDTI) employing the Multifractal Detrended Cross-Correlation Analysis (MF-DCCA). Empirical results show that the degree of short-term cross-correlation is higher than that in the long term and that the strength of multifractality after financial crisis is larger than that before. Moreover, the components of multifractal spectrum are quantified with the finite-size effect taken into consideration and an improved method in terms of constructing the surrogated time series provided. Numerical results show that the multifractality is generated mostly from the nonlinear and the fat-tailed probability distribution (PDF) part. Also, it is apparent that the PDF part changes a lot after the financial crisis. The research is contributory to risk management by providing various instructions for participants in shipping markets. Our main contribution is that we investigated both the multifractal features and the origin of multifractality and provided confirming evidence of multifractality through numerical results while applying quantitative analysis based on MF-DCCA; furthermore, the research is contributory to risk management since it provides instructions in both economic market and stock market simultaneously. However, constructing the surrogated series in order to obtain consistence seems less convincing which requires further discussion and attempts.

  2. An instrument for the measurement of road surface reflection properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Corell, Dennis Dan; Sørensen, K.

    2017-01-01

    surfaces in use have changed - for instance to road surface types with less noise from wheel passages. Because of this, a co-operation between the road administrations of the Nordic countries (abbreviated NMF) decided to construct a portable instrument to be used on selections of traffic roads within......Road surface reflection data in the form of standard r-tables serve as input for design calculations of road lighting installations on traffic roads. However, in several countries the use of the standard r-tables has not been verified by measurement in a long period of time, while the types of road...

  3. Using endemic road features to create self-explaining roads and reduce vehicle speeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlton, Samuel G; Mackie, Hamish W; Baas, Peter H; Hay, Karen; Menezes, Miguel; Dixon, Claire

    2010-11-01

    This paper describes a project undertaken to establish a self-explaining roads (SER) design programme on existing streets in an urban area. The methodology focussed on developing a process to identify functional road categories and designs based on endemic road characteristics taken from functional exemplars in the study area. The study area was divided into two sections, one to receive SER treatments designed to maximise visual differences between road categories, and a matched control area to remain untreated for purposes of comparison. The SER design for local roads included increased landscaping and community islands to limit forward visibility, and removal of road markings to create a visually distinct road environment. In comparison, roads categorised as collectors received increased delineation, addition of cycle lanes, and improved amenity for pedestrians. Speed data collected 3 months after implementation showed a significant reduction in vehicle speeds on local roads and increased homogeneity of speeds on both local and collector roads. The objective speed data, combined with residents' speed choice ratings, indicated that the project was successful in creating two discriminably different road categories. 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Spatial analysis of private tanker water markets in Jordan: Using a hydroeconomic multi-agent model to simulate non-observed water transfers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klassert, Christian; Yoon, Jim; Gawel, Erik; Sigel, Katja; Klauer, Bernd; Talozi, Samer; Lachaut, Thibaut; Selby, Philip; Knox, Stephen; Gorelick, Steven; Tilmant, Amaury; Harou, Julien; Mustafa, Daanish; Medellin-Azuara, Josue; Rajsekhar, Deepthi; Avisse, Nicolas; Zhang, Hua

    2017-04-01

    The country of Jordan is characterized by severe water scarcity and deficient public water supply networks. To address these issues, Jordan's water sector authorities have adopted a water rationing scheme implemented by interrupting piped water supply for several days per week. As in many arid countries around the world, this has led to the emergence of private markets of small-scale providers, delivering water via tanker trucks. On the one hand, these markets play a crucial role in meeting residential and commercial water demands by balancing the shortcomings of the public supply system. On the other hand, providers partially rely on illegal abstractions from rural ground and surface water sources, thereby circumventing regulatory efforts to conserve these resources. Private tanker water markets, therefore, provide a substantial contribution to consumer welfare while jeopardizing freshwater resource sustainability. Thus, a better understanding of these markets is of great importance for the formulation of policy interventions pursuing freshwater sustainability in a socially acceptable manner. Direct assessments of the size of these markets or their responses to policy interventions are, however, impeded by their partially illegal nature and the resulting lack of available information. To overcome this data collection challenge, we use a hydroeconomic multi-agent model developed in the Jordan Water Project to indirectly simulate country-wide tanker water market activities on the basis of demand and supply estimates. The demand for tanker water is conceptualized as a residual demand, remaining after a water user has depleted all available cheap and qualitatively reliable piped water. It is derived from residential and commercial demand functions on the basis of survey data. Tanker water supply is determined by farm simulation models calculating the groundwater pumping cost and the agricultural opportunity cost of tanker water. Finally, a spatial market algorithm

  5. SR-71B - in Flight with F-18 Chase Aircraft - View from Air Force Tanker

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-01-01

    NASA 831, an SR-71B operated by the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, cruises over the Mojave Desert with an F/A-18 Hornet flying safety chase. They were photographed on a 1996 mission from an Air Force refueling tanker The F/A-18 Hornet is used primarily as a safety chase and support aircraft at Dryden. As support aircraft, the F-18s are used for safety chase, pilot proficiency and aerial photography. Two SR-71 aircraft have been used by NASA as testbeds for high-speed and high-altitude aeronautical research. The aircraft, an SR-71A and an SR-71B pilot trainer aircraft, have been based here at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. They were transferred to NASA after the U.S. Air Force program was cancelled. As research platforms, the aircraft can cruise at Mach 3 for more than one hour. For thermal experiments, this can produce heat soak temperatures of over 600 degrees Fahrenheit (F). This operating environment makes these aircraft excellent platforms to carry out research and experiments in a variety of areas -- aerodynamics, propulsion, structures, thermal protection materials, high-speed and high-temperature instrumentation, atmospheric studies, and sonic boom characterization. The SR-71 was used in a program to study ways of reducing sonic booms or over pressures that are heard on the ground, much like sharp thunderclaps, when an aircraft exceeds the speed of sound. Data from this Sonic Boom Mitigation Study could eventually lead to aircraft designs that would reduce the 'peak' overpressures of sonic booms and minimize the startling affect they produce on the ground. One of the first major experiments to be flown in the NASA SR-71 program was a laser air data collection system. It used laser light instead of air pressure to produce airspeed and attitude reference data, such as angle of attack and sideslip, which are normally obtained with small tubes and vanes extending into the airstream. One of Dryden's SR-71s was used

  6. PROPOSAL OF VOIVODESHIP ROAD SAFETY IMPROVEMENT PROGRAMME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz SZCZURASZEK

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The article presents a proposal of the ‘GAMBIT KUJAWSKO-POMORSKI’ Road Safety Improvement Programme. The main idea of the Programme is to establish and initiate systems that will be responsible for the most important areas of activity within road safety, including road safety control, supervision, and management systems in the whole Voivodeship. In total, the creation and start of nine such systems has been proposed, namely: the Road Safety Management, the Integrated Road Rescue Service, the Personnel Continuing Education, the Hazardous Road Behaviour Monitoring, the Social Education for Safe Behaviour on Road, the Teaching Personnel Improvement, the Area Development and Planning Process Improvement, the Road Infrastructure Design Quality Improvement, and the Road and Traffic Management Process Efficiency Improvement. The basic aim of each system has been discussed as well as the most important tasks implemented as its part. The Road Safety Improvement Programme for the Kujawsko-Pomorskie Voivodeship presented in this article is a part of the National Road Safety Programme 2013-2020. Moreover, it is not only an original programme in Poland, but also a universal project that may be adapted for other voivodeships as well.

  7. Defilade, Stationary Target and Moving Target Embankment, Low Water Crossing, and Course Road Designs for Soil Loss Prevention

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Svendsen, Niels G; Kalita, Prasanta K; Gebhart, Dick L; Denight, Michael L

    2006-01-01

    ... for military training requirements. This report proposes several new range structure designs to begin the iterative process of developing new range edifices that reduce soil loss, control erosion, promote sustainability, and enhance training...

  8. Road safety audit tools, procedures, and experiences : a literature review and recommendations : research in the framework of the European research project Safety Standards for Road Design and Redesign SAFESTAR, Workpackage 8.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooi, R.M. van der

    1999-01-01

    This report describes tools and procedures established in different countries which apply Road Safety Audits (RSA). These RSAs are utilized to identify potential safety problems and they concentrate on safety measures to overcome these problems. This technique is used to detect possible safety

  9. Road Safety Data, Collection, Transfer and Analysis DaCoTa. Workpackage 3, Data Warehouse: Deliverable 3.7: Design and development of the road safety data warehouse – Final Report.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yannis, G. Evgenikos, P. Aarts, L. Kars, V. & Berg, T. van den

    2015-01-01

    During the last two decades, the systematic efforts for gathering and harmonising road accident data at the European level have led to a significant upgrade and enhancement of the CARE database. Moreover, important data collection and harmonization efforts have provided very useful results as

  10. When paradigms collide at the road rail interface: evaluation of a sociotechnical systems theory design toolkit for cognitive work analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Read, Gemma J M; Salmon, Paul M; Lenné, Michael G

    2016-09-01

    The Cognitive Work Analysis Design Toolkit (CWA-DT) is a recently developed approach that provides guidance and tools to assist in applying the outputs of CWA to design processes to incorporate the values and principles of sociotechnical systems theory. In this paper, the CWA-DT is evaluated based on an application to improve safety at rail level crossings. The evaluation considered the extent to which the CWA-DT met pre-defined methodological criteria and aligned with sociotechnical values and principles. Both process and outcome measures were taken based on the ratings of workshop participants and human factors experts. Overall, workshop participants were positive about the process and indicated that it met the methodological criteria and sociotechnical values. However, expert ratings suggested that the CWA-DT achieved only limited success in producing RLX designs that fully aligned with the sociotechnical approach. Discussion about the appropriateness of the sociotechnical approach in a public safety context is provided. Practitioner Summary: Human factors and ergonomics practitioners need evidence of the effectiveness of methods. A design toolkit for cognitive work analysis, incorporating values and principles from sociotechnical systems theory, was applied to create innovative designs for rail level crossings. Evaluation results based on the application are provided and discussed.

  11. Resource Roads demonstration project : final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-07-15

    British Columbia's vast network of resource roads are considered to be amongst the most dangerous, high-risk workplaces in the province. Resource roads, also known as industrial roads, forest service roads, or petroleum development roads, present several unique safety challenges as workplaces. They are built for the purpose of access, egress and transport of materials, resources, equipment and people. However, the lack the same diligence of enforcement and a consistent design, construction, maintenance and standard for use as public highways or municipal roads. There are also safety challenges related to public use of resource roads. This report presented a project, called ResourceRoads by WorkSafe BC that focused on the organization and implementation of a management structure that would provide a system of coordination and a process of compliance for the users of the defined road systems. The project was based on information gathered in two forest districts of Prince George and the South Peace Forest Districts. A committee consisting of the actual owner of the road and other users was formed. The report presented a history of British Columbia's resource road system, and discussed resource roads as industrial workplaces and worksites, as well as resource road fatality statistics. The demonstration project was outlined in terms of project leadership; scope; strategic objectives; project purpose; performance objectives; project communication; demonstration areas; and project stages. Project fundamentals and project findings were also presented along with recommendations and responses to the Auditor General report and the Forest Safety Ombudsman report. It was concluded that potential uses of new technologies for resource road vehicles should be reviewed. tabs., figs.

  12. Recombinant and epitope-based vaccines on the road to the market and implications for vaccine design and production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyarzún, Patricio; Kobe, Bostjan

    2016-03-03

    Novel vaccination approaches based on rational design of B- and T-cell epitopes - epitope-based vaccines - are making progress in the clinical trial pipeline. The epitope-focused recombinant protein-based malaria vaccine (termed RTS,S) is a next-generation approach that successfully reached phase-III trials, and will potentially become the first commercial vaccine against a human parasitic disease. Progress made on methods such as recombinant DNA technology, advanced cell-culture techniques, immunoinformatics and rational design of immunogens are driving the development of these novel concepts. Synthetic recombinant proteins comprising both B- and T-cell epitopes can be efficiently produced through modern biotechnology and bioprocessing methods, and can enable the induction of large repertoires of immune specificities. In particular, the inclusion of appropriate CD4+ T-cell epitopes is increasingly considered a key vaccine component to elicit robust immune responses, as suggested by results coming from HIV-1 clinical trials. In silico strategies for vaccine design are under active development to address genetic variation in pathogens and several broadly protective "universal" influenza and HIV-1 vaccines are currently at different stages of clinical trials. Other methods focus on improving population coverage in target populations by rationally considering specificity and prevalence of the HLA proteins, though a proof-of-concept in humans has not been demonstrated yet. Overall, we expect immunoinformatics and bioprocessing methods to become a central part of the next-generation epitope-based vaccine development and production process.

  13. Risk Analysis Of Collision Between Passenger Ferry And Chemical Tanker In The Western Zone Of The Baltic Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Przywarty Marcin

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents assumptions and process of the forming of a risk assessment model for collision between a passenger ferry departing from or approaching port of Świnoujście and a chemical tanker carrying a dangerous cargo. In order to assess navigational safety on the basis of data obtained from AIS system, were prepared probabilistic domains of ships, which made it possible to estimate number of navigational incidents as well as their spatial distribution, that consequently allowed to determine potentially dangerous areas. The next phase was formulation of a simulative model intended for the calculating of probability of collision between the ferry and chemical tanker as well as the determining of characteristic scenarios for such collision. This paper presents also an analysis of consequences of the collision with taking into consideration a damage of cargo tanks.

  14. From tankers to tissues : tracking the degradation and fate of oil discharges in Port Valdez, Alaska

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Payne, J.R.; Braddock, J.F.; Bailey, J.; Ka'aihue, L.; Kuckertz, T.H.; Short, J.W.; Driskell, W.B.

    2005-01-01

    An average of 9 million gallons per day of oil-contaminated ballast water off loaded from tankers are treated at the Alyeska Pipeline Service Company Ballast Water Treatment Facility at the terminus of the Trans-Alaska Pipeline in Port Valdez, Alaska. This paper focuses on the results of 2 Prince William Sound Regional Citizens' Advisory Council monitoring programs which detail changes in the chemical composition of treated ballast water as it moves from tankers through the facility and subsequently traces the effluent hydrocarbons into the receiving environment of Port Valdez. The treatment facility involves gravity separation tanks, dissolved air flotation cells and biological treatment tanks. Effluent containing traces of volatile aromatics, including benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylenes, low levels of oil, saturated hydrocarbons and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons is being continuously discharged to Port Valdez. Because of the extremely large average flow rate, low concentrations in the effluent can add up to a significant mass discharge. Samples from the facility were collected on 3 occasions. In March 2004, a limited pilot series of composite samples were collected from the effluent and the effluent to Port Valdez from a sampling port in the Fan/Meter Building. Second-round samples were collected from a wider suite of locations. A BIORATE assay study was completed during September 2004 and January 2005 field programs to measure degradation rates. The largest hydrocarbon pollution sources detected in samples from Port Valdez stations are correlated with an oil spill mishap at the terminal in 1994 and a sheen event in 1997. Apart from these events, concentrations from petrogenic sources are usually near or below the detection limits of the analytic methods used. However, on a routine basis, oil signals attributed to the facility effluent are detectable in mussel tissues at both Alyeska Marine Terminal and Gold Creek stations, and in sediments at Alyeska

  15. Dynamics of vehicle-road coupled system

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, Shaopu; Li, Shaohua

    2015-01-01

    Vehicle dynamics and road dynamics are usually considered to be two largely independent subjects. In vehicle dynamics, road surface roughness is generally regarded as random excitation of the vehicle, while in road dynamics, the vehicle is generally regarded as a moving load acting on the pavement. This book suggests a new research concept to integrate the vehicle and the road system with the help of a tire model, and establishes a cross-subject research framework dubbed vehicle-pavement coupled system dynamics. In this context, the dynamics of the vehicle, road and the vehicle-road coupled system are investigated by means of theoretical analysis, numerical simulations and field tests. This book will be a valuable resource for university professors, graduate students and engineers majoring in automotive design, mechanical engineering, highway engineering and other related areas. Shaopu Yang is a professor and deputy president of Shijiazhuang Tiedao University, China; Liqun Chen is a professor at Shanghai Univ...

  16. Road traffic injury on rural roads in Tanzania: measuring the effectiveness of a road safety program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, Karen; Jinadasa, Deepani; Maegga, Bertha; Guerrero, Alejandro

    2015-01-01

    Road traffic injuries (RTIs) are a major public health burden, especially in low- and middle-income countries. There is limited data on RTIs in low-volume, rural African settings. This study attempted to survey all individuals living in households within 200 m of two low-volume rural roads in Tanzania and to collect data on RTIs. Local communities and users of the Bago to Talawanda road (intervention site) and Kikaro to Mihuga road (control site) were targeted and received an intensive program of road safety measures tailored using the crash characteristics of the baseline sample. Demographic data on all household members were collected, and those individuals who suffered an RTI in the previous 3 months had comprehensive information collected about the crash characteristics and the socioeconomic impact. The follow-up data collection occurred nine months after the baseline data were collected. The majority of crashes that caused an RTI involved a motorcycle (71%) and the majority of victims were male (82%) with an average age of 27. Injuries to the legs (55%) were most common and the average length of time away from normal activity was 27 (±33) days. RTI incidence at the intervention site increased during the course of the study (incidence before vs. incidence after) and was unchanged in the community control (incidence before vs. incidence after). The incidence of RTIs in the low-volume rural setting is unacceptably high and most commonly associated with motorcycles. The change in incidence is unreliable due to logistic restraints of the project and more research is needed to quantify the impact of various RTI prevention strategies in this setting. This study provides insight into road traffic injuries on low-volume rural roads, areas where very little research has been captured. Additionally, it provides a replicable study design for those interested in collecting similar data on low-volume rural roads.

  17. Design of dual-road transportable portal monitoring system for visible light and gamma-ray imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karnowski, Thomas P.; Cunningham, Mark F.; Goddard, James S.; Cheriyadat, Anil M.; Hornback, Donald E.; Fabris, Lorenzo; Kerekes, Ryan A.; Ziock, Klaus-Peter; Bradley, E. Craig; Chesser, J.; Marchant, W.

    2010-04-01

    The use of radiation sensors as portal monitors is increasing due to heightened concerns over the smuggling of fissile material. Transportable systems that can detect significant quantities of fissile material that might be present in vehicular traffic are of particular interest, especially if they can be rapidly deployed to different locations. To serve this application, we have constructed a rapid-deployment portal monitor that uses visible-light and gamma-ray imaging to allow simultaneous monitoring of multiple lanes of traffic from the side of a roadway. The system operation uses machine vision methods on the visible-light images to detect vehicles as they enter and exit the field of view and to measure their position in each frame. The visible-light and gamma-ray cameras are synchronized which allows the gamma-ray imager to harvest gamma-ray data specific to each vehicle, integrating its radiation signature for the entire time that it is in the field of view. Thus our system creates vehicle-specific radiation signatures and avoids source confusion problems that plague non-imaging approaches to the same problem. Our current prototype instrument was designed for measurement of upto five lanes of freeway traffic with a pair of instruments, one on either side of the roadway. Stereoscopic cameras are used with a third "alignment" camera for motion compensation and are mounted on a 50' deployable mast. In this paper we discuss the design considerations for the machine-vision system, the algorithms used for vehicle detection and position estimates, and the overall architecture of the system. We also discuss system calibration for rapid deployment. We conclude with notes on preliminary performance and deployment.

  18. Design of Dual-Road Transportable Portal Monitoring System for Visible Light and Gamma-Ray Imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karnowski, Thomas Paul; Cunningham, Mark F.; Goddard, James Samuel Jr.; Cheriyadat, Anil M.; Hornback, Donald Eric; Fabris, Lorenzo; Kerekes, Ryan A.; Ziock, Klaus-Peter; Bradley, Eric Craig; Chesser, Joel B.; Marchant, William

    2010-01-01

    The use of radiation sensors as portal monitors is increasing due to heightened concerns over the smuggling of fissile material. Transportable systems that can detect significant quantities of fissile material that might be present in vehicular traffic are of particular interest, especially if they can be rapidly deployed to different locations. To serve this application, we have constructed a rapid-deployment portal monitor that uses visible-light and gamma-ray imaging to allow simultaneous monitoring of multiple lanes of traffic from the side of a roadway. The system operation uses machine vision methods on the visible-light images to detect vehicles as they enter and exit the field of view and to measure their position in each frame. The visible-light and gamma-ray cameras are synchronized which allows the gamma-ray imager to harvest gamma-ray data specific to each vehicle, integrating its radiation signature for the entire time that it is in the field of view. Thus our system creates vehicle-specific radiation signatures and avoids source confusion problems that plague non-imaging approaches to the same problem. Our current prototype instrument was designed for measurement of upto five lanes of freeway traffic with a pair of instruments, one on either side of the roadway. Stereoscopic cameras are used with a third alignment camera for motion compensation and are mounted on a 50 deployable mast. In this paper we discuss the design considerations for the machine-vision system, the algorithms used for vehicle detection and position estimates, and the overall architecture of the system. We also discuss system calibration for rapid deployment. We conclude with notes on preliminary performance and deployment.

  19. Environmental law issues: Offshore oil and gas activities and tanker transportation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chapman, P.M.

    1991-01-01

    The environmental law issues that arise from offshore oil/gas activities and petroleum transport are reviewed, focusing on marine oil pollution and especially on the issues surrounding accidental spills. Some observations are offered on the context of these issues, namely on the risks of oil spills, the difficulty of spill response in the ocean and on shorelines, and the possible environmental damage. Environmental control of petroleum operations is discussed with reference to Canadian regulation, the primary source of which is the Oil and Gas Production and Conservation Act. These regulations require developmental approval for offshore operations, formulation of plans for foreseeable spill emergencies, and compensation to those affected by spills, notably those in the fishing industry. Ship-source oil pollution and spill compensation is discussed with reference to international agreements and the Canada Shipping Act. Some problems and trends with oil spill compensation and recovery for environmental damage are noted in such areas as tanker ship standards, cleanup capabilities, and inadequacy of spill penalties and compensation. 18 refs., 1 fig

  20. A safer road environment for cyclists. Proefschrift Technische Universiteit Delft TUD.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schepers, P.

    2013-01-01

    This thesis focuses on the question of how the road environment (road design and network characteristics) affects road safety for cyclists through effects on risk and exposure to risk. In this thesis, the term ‘road design’ is used to denote the location level (e.g. intersection design) while the

  1. Gravel road stabilisation of Ehnsjoevaegen, Hallstavik[Using fly ash]; Skogsbilvaegsrenovering av Ehnsjoevaegen, Hallstavik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macsik, Josef; Svedberg, Bo [Ecoloop, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2006-03-15

    Fly ash in geotechnical applications has stabilising, isolating, low permeability and hardening effect. Fly ash can be used in road constructions with low bearing capacity, as well as on top cover material on landfills. The aim of the project was to build a road section with fly ash stabilised gravel, based on laboratory studies, and follow up technical and environmental aspect during the first year after stabilisation. The overall aim of this project was to evaluate fly ash from Holmen Paper, Hallstavik, from technical and environmental point of view in a gravel road construction. A gravel road, Ehnsjoevaegen, was stabilised with fly ash during autumn 2004. This road was a low priority road. The fly ash stabilised road section was 1300 m long. Gravel from the road Ehnsjoevaegen was stabilised and investigated in a laboratory study. Leachability of metals and geotechnical aspects were investigated. The laboratory study showed that fly ash stabilised gravel has high shear strength, however its thawing resistance is not fully acceptable. Additives of cement or merit are needed in order to increase its thawing resistance. The actual road section is not going to be used during thawing period and no additives were used. The test road is divided into different sections including a reference section. The road stabilisation work was conducted with gravel transported to Ehnsjoevaegen from off site and not with gravel from the site. Fly ash was tipped off on a levelled road, followed by tipping of gravel. Mixing fly ash and gravel was done on site by a road scraper. After the mixing the road was gravelled with 0,1 m graded gravel. In this project the fly ash had low water content. In order to get optimal compaction water was added from a tanker supplying water before compacted with a compactor. Results from the pilot test shows that fly ash stabilised gravel can be tipped, mixed and compacted effectively. Tipping can be optimised if fly ash and gravel is mixed in a mixer

  2. 36 CFR 261.54 - National Forest System roads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false National Forest System roads... PROHIBITIONS Prohibitions in Areas Designated by Order § 261.54 National Forest System roads. When provided by...) Use by any type of traffic prohibited by the order. (c) Using a road for commercial hauling without a...

  3. Research related to roads in USDA experimental forests [Chapter 16

    Science.gov (United States)

    W. J. Elliot; P. J. Edwards; R. B. Foltz

    2014-01-01

    Forest roads are essential in experimental forests and rangelands (EFRs) to allow researchers and the public access to research sites and for fire suppression, timber extraction, and fuel management. Sediment from roads can adversely impact watershed health. Since the 1930s, the design and management of forest roads has addressed both access issues and watershed health...

  4. Recommendations for the development and application of Evaluation Tools for road infrastructure safety management in the EU. Road Infrastructure Safety Management Evaluation Tools (RISMET), Deliverable No. 7.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schermers, G. Cardoso, J. Elvik, R. Weller, G. Dietze, M. Reurings, M. Azeredo, S. & Charman, S.

    2014-01-01

    “ERA-NET ROAD — Coordination and Implementation of Road Research in Europe” was a Coordination Action funded by the 6th Framework Programme of the EC. The partners in the 2009 ERA-NET ROAD (ENR) Safety at the heart of road design initiative were the United Kingdom, Finland, Netherlands, Sweden,

  5. Treatment conditions for the removal of contaminants from road runoff

    OpenAIRE

    Hallberg, Magnus

    2007-01-01

    The pollutant load in road runoff is related to traffic densities and road maintenance activities. Inurbanised areas treatment of road runoff is common and often considered necessary. The pollutantsare partitioned between the particulate and dissolved matter. However, the contaminantstend to have an affinity to the particulate material. Sedimentation, the predominant treatmentmethod for road runoff uses various types of ponds. Design tools used for stormwater treatmentsystems are based on ext...

  6. Future Roads Near Streams

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Roads are a source of auto related pollutants (e.g. gasoline, oil and other engine fluids). When roads are near streams, rain can wash these pollutants directly into...

  7. Roads Near Streams

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Roads are a source of auto related pollutants (e.g. gasoline, oil and other engine fluids). When roads are near streams, rain can wash these pollutants directly into...

  8. Future Road Density

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Road density is generally highly correlated with amount of developed land cover. High road densities usually indicate high levels of ecological disturbance. More...

  9. VT Road Centerline

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata)(User Guide)(Symbology layer files: aotclass_only.lyr aotclass_surfacetyp.lyr)The Vermont Road Centerline data layer (TransRoad_RDS) contains all...

  10. Were freak waves involved in the sinking of the Tanker "Prestige"?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Lechuga

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the possible involvement of freak, rogue or giant waves in the damage suffered by the Tanker Prestige, which eventually led to its sinking. By reason of their very characteristics, giant waves are hard to record. Their more or less sudden appearance makes them fairly elusive objects, except for the consequences they produce. However, some hints with regard to the probability of their occurrence can be derived from considering how close the maritime weather of the area of interest is to the situation which is optimal for their generation. This paper takes into account the wave field in the area and at the time of the Prestige accident and investigates how near or how far the wave field was to the instability conditions that are favourable to the generation of freak waves in the different approximations. This paper explores mostly the modulation instability which is one of the most common mechanisms to produce freak waves: it leads to the decomposition of an initially homogeneous train of Stokes waves firstly into a series of groups of waves, whose envelope then produces the so-called "solitons", that then collapse in the form of a giant wave. This mechanism mainly occurs in deep waters. Zakharov studied it in 1968 and, independently, Benjamin and Feir analysed it in 1967. This paper proves that the wave field was conspicuously two dimensional with two main wave components travelling in directions almost orthogonal to each other. This means that the wave field was well outside the instability domain. Therefore it is concluded that freak waves were very unlikely generated and it is improbable that they were responsible for the accident.

  11. Atlantic Canada : recipe for ruin, loophole in Canadian tanker laws questioned

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reid, W.

    2001-01-01

    During a storm in December 2000, the captain of a leaking supertanker named the Eastern Power requested permission to dock his 339-metre ship at Come by Chance in Newfoundland. The request was denied by Transport Canada and the barge carrying 1.9 million barrels of oil had to ride out the storm just outside Canada's 200-mile limit. The concern was that the hull might split and spill huge amounts of oil. The Eastern Power has only one hull and is twice the age that the Prevention of Pollution from Ships considers reasonable for the lifespan of a vessel. Tankers built after 1993 are required to have an inside and an outside frame in order to enter Canadian waters. Those that are not double hulled and built before 1993 will be phased out by 2015. The spokesman for Transport Canada explained that the concern regarding the Eastern Power was for the Canadian environment. Owners are responsible for making sure that their ships do not risk our environment. An added precaution requires that all ships radio the Canadian Coast Guard 24 hours before reaching the 200-mile limit to report on their course, destination and seaworthiness. While Transport Canada makes the ultimate decision on entry, it shares the information with the Department of National Defense, Environment Canada and the coast guard. In this case, the crew of the Eastern Power was able to pump cargo into a safer tank and repaired the rupture. It was then given permission to dock at Come By Chance, but it instead headed for the Caribbean. Newfoundland is still recovering from the collapse of the cod fishery and is trying to build an eco-tourism industry given that its Atlantic offshore is a marine ecological treasure. Environmentalists view some of the present marine laws, or lack of laws, as a gateway to a disaster which could wipe out some water fowl species and further reduce fish stocks. 1 fig

  12. The oil spill modelling in the Sea of Japan: application to the tanker 'Nakhodka' 1997 incident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varlamov, S.M.; Yoon, J.-H.; Hirose, N.; Kawamura, H.

    1998-01-01

    In January 1997 the Russian tanker 'NAKHODKA' spilled into the Sea of Japan about 5000 tons of heavy fuel oil type C. Most of it reached the coast of Japan and damaged the environment. This incident forced the development of the operational system for the prediction of oil spills in the Sea of Japan. As a part of this system the model for oil spill modelling is presented. The modelled climatological sea currents were used in these simulators, generated by the three-dimensional primitive ocean circulation model with 10-minute horizontal resolution and 19 vertical levels. The model was forced by climatological atmospheric winds and heat fluxes. The wind currents in the upper sea layer were estimated by the wind data of ECMWF with 6 hours time and 0.5625-degree spatial resolution. The vertical structure of the total currents was interpolated using both wind driven currents and the climatological model currents data at the model levels. The oil spill was modelled with the particle tracking techniques. The model included the advection by currents, random diffusion, the buoyancy effect and the parameterisation of oil evaporation, biodegradation and beaching. For the deep sea the parameterisation of diffusion depends from the stratification, taken from the ocean circulation model output. The results demonstrated the defined relation with the observed propagation of the oil along the coast of Japan and highlighted the most important directions for the model development. The main is the realisation of the model for the real-time simulations and forecasts of the ocean currents with the fine resolution in the upper layer of the Sea of Japan. (author)

  13. Overload road damage model

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Roux, MP

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Not only do overloaded vehicles pose an increased safety risk on the road (reduced stability and braking efficiency etc.), but they also accelerate the rate of deterioration of the road network and increase road maintenance costs, which in turn...

  14. FEATURES ROAD SAFETY AUDIT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Abramova

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Development of the road network, increasing motorization of the population significantly increase the risk of accidents. Experts in the field of traffic are developing methods to reduce the probability of accidents. The ways of solving the problems of road safety audit at various stages of the «life» of roads are considered.

  15. Simulating partially illegal markets of private tanker water providers on the country level: A multi-agent, hydroeconomic case-study of Jordan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klassert, C. J. A.; Yoon, J.; Gawel, E.; Klauer, B.; Sigel, K.; Talozi, S.; Lachaut, T.; Selby, P. D.; Knox, S.; Gorelick, S.; Tilmant, A.; Harou, J. J.; Mustafa, D.; Medellin-Azuara, J.; Rajsekhar, D.; Avisse, N.; Zhang, H.

    2016-12-01

    In arid countries around the world, markets of private small-scale water providers, mostly delivering water via tanker trucks, have emerged to balance the shortcomings of public water supply systems. While these markets can provide substantial contributions to meeting customers' water demands, they often partially rely on illegal water abstractions, thus imposing an unregulated and unmonitored strain on ground and surface water resources. Despite their important impacts on water users' welfare and resource sustainability, these markets are still poorly understood. We use a multi-agent, hydroeconomic simulation model, developed as part of the Jordan Water Project, to investigate the role of these markets in a country-wide case-study of Jordan. Jordan's water sector is characterized by a severe and growing scarcity of water resources, high intermittency in the public water network, and a strongly increasing demand due to an unprecedented refugee crisis. The tanker water market serves an important role in providing water from rural wells to households and commercial enterprises, especially during supply interruptions. In order to overcome the lack of direct data about this partially illegal market, we simulate demand and supply for tanker water. The demand for tanker water is conceptualized as a residual demand, remaining after a water user has depleted all available cheap and qualitatively reliable piped water. It is derived from residential and commercial demand functions on the basis of survey data. Tanker water supply is determined by farm simulation models calculating the groundwater pumping cost and the agricultural opportunity cost of tanker water. A market algorithm is then used to match rural supplies with users' demands, accounting for survey data on tanker operators' transport costs and profit expectations. The model is used to gain insights into the size of the tanker markets in all 89 subdistricts of Jordan and their responsiveness to various policy

  16. Investigation of impact phenomena on the marine structures: Part I - On the behaviour of thin-walled double bottom tanker during rock-structure interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prabowo, A. R.; Cho, H. J.; Byeon, J. H.; Bae, D. M.; Sohn, J. M.

    2018-01-01

    Predicted loads, such as crew, cargo, and structure have been applied as main inputs during ship design and analysis. However, unexpected events on the sea has high possibility to deliver remarkable losses for ship, industry, and environment. Previous oil spill incident by the Exxon Valdez in Alaska is the perfect example which an environmental damage and industry loss are initiated by an impact phenomenon on the ship, i.e. grounding. Even though hull arrangement has adopted double hull system, grounding may threaten ship safety in various scenarios. This situation pushes society to demand sustainable investigation for impact phenomena on water transportation mode to update understanding in the phenomenon and ensure structural safety during ship operation. This work aimed to study structural behaviour of chemical tanker as a marine structure under impact, namely ship grounding. Bottom raking case was considered to be calculated by virtual experiment. The study was performed using nonlinear finite element (FE) method and an idealised geometry of seabed rock would be deployed to be hard obstruction. Observation on the selected crashworthiness criteria, i.e. internal energy and crushing force indicated that as advanced penetration occurred on the ship structure, the absorbed strain energy continued to increase, while major fluctuation appeared during the initial contact between obstruction and ship happened. Damage extent of several structural members during the crushing process was shown, which concluded that the bottom plating had the largest severity in forms of tearing mode among of all members on the bottom structure.

  17. How long do the dead survive on the road? Carcass persistence probability and implications for road-kill monitoring surveys.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara M Santos

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Road mortality is probably the best-known and visible impact of roads upon wildlife. Although several factors influence road-kill counts, carcass persistence time is considered the most important determinant underlying underestimates of road mortality. The present study aims to describe and model carcass persistence variability on the road for different taxonomic groups under different environmental conditions throughout the year; and also to assess the effect of sampling frequency on the relative variation in road-kill estimates registered within a survey. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Daily surveys of road-killed vertebrates were conducted over one year along four road sections with different traffic volumes. Survival analysis was then used to i describe carcass persistence timings for overall and for specific animal groups; ii assess optimal sampling designs according to research objectives; and iii model the influence of road, animal and weather factors on carcass persistence probabilities. Most animal carcasses persisted on the road for the first day only, with some groups disappearing at very high rates. The advisable periodicity of road monitoring that minimizes bias in road mortality estimates is daily monitoring for bats (in the morning and lizards (in the afternoon, daily monitoring for toads, small birds, small mammals, snakes, salamanders, and lagomorphs; 1 day-interval (alternate days for large birds, birds of prey, hedgehogs, and freshwater turtles; and 2 day-interval for carnivores. Multiple factors influenced the persistence probabilities of vertebrate carcasses on the road. Overall, the persistence was much lower for small animals, on roads with lower traffic volumes, for carcasses located on road lanes, and during humid conditions and high temperatures during the wet season and dry seasons, respectively. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: The guidance given here on monitoring frequencies is particularly relevant to provide

  18. How long do the dead survive on the road? Carcass persistence probability and implications for road-kill monitoring surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Sara M; Carvalho, Filipe; Mira, António

    2011-01-01

    Road mortality is probably the best-known and visible impact of roads upon wildlife. Although several factors influence road-kill counts, carcass persistence time is considered the most important determinant underlying underestimates of road mortality. The present study aims to describe and model carcass persistence variability on the road for different taxonomic groups under different environmental conditions throughout the year; and also to assess the effect of sampling frequency on the relative variation in road-kill estimates registered within a survey. Daily surveys of road-killed vertebrates were conducted over one year along four road sections with different traffic volumes. Survival analysis was then used to i) describe carcass persistence timings for overall and for specific animal groups; ii) assess optimal sampling designs according to research objectives; and iii) model the influence of road, animal and weather factors on carcass persistence probabilities. Most animal carcasses persisted on the road for the first day only, with some groups disappearing at very high rates. The advisable periodicity of road monitoring that minimizes bias in road mortality estimates is daily monitoring for bats (in the morning) and lizards (in the afternoon), daily monitoring for toads, small birds, small mammals, snakes, salamanders, and lagomorphs; 1 day-interval (alternate days) for large birds, birds of prey, hedgehogs, and freshwater turtles; and 2 day-interval for carnivores. Multiple factors influenced the persistence probabilities of vertebrate carcasses on the road. Overall, the persistence was much lower for small animals, on roads with lower traffic volumes, for carcasses located on road lanes, and during humid conditions and high temperatures during the wet season and dry seasons, respectively. The guidance given here on monitoring frequencies is particularly relevant to provide conservation and transportation agencies with accurate numbers of road

  19. Economic impacts of oil spills: Spill unit costs for tankers, pipelines, refineries, and offshore facilities. [Task 1, Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-10-15

    The impacts of oil spills -- ranging from the large, widely publicized Exxon Valdez tanker incident to smaller pipeline and refinery spills -- have been costly to both the oil industry and the public. For example, the estimated costs to Exxon of the Valdez tanker spill are on the order of $4 billion, including $2.8 billion (in 1993 dollars) for direct cleanup costs and $1.125 billion (in 1992 dollars) for settlement of damages claims caused by the spill. Application of contingent valuation costs and civil lawsuits pending in the State of Alaska could raise these costs appreciably. Even the costs of the much smaller 1991 oil spill at Texaco`s refinery near Anacortes, Washington led to costs of $8 to 9 million. As a result, inexpensive waming, response and remediation technologies could lower oil spin costs, helping both the oil industry, the associated marine industries, and the environment. One means for reducing the impact and costs of oil spills is to undertake research and development on key aspects of the oil spill prevention, warming, and response and remediation systems. To target these funds to their best use, it is important to have sound data on the nature and size of spills, their likely occurrence and their unit costs. This information could then allow scarce R&D dollars to be spent on areas and activities having the largest impact. This report is intended to provide the ``unit cost`` portion of this crucial information. The report examines the three key components of the US oil supply system, namely, tankers and barges; pipelines and refineries; and offshore production facilities. The specific purpose of the study was to establish the unit costs of oil spills. By manipulating this key information into a larger matrix that includes the size and frequency of occurrence of oil spills, it will be possible` to estimate the likely future impacts, costs, and sources of oil spills.

  20. Privatization by Other Means: Social Power, Tankers and Techno-Assemblages of Water Supply in Amman, Jordan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustafa, D.

    2016-12-01

    Combined piped and tanker based water supply systems have become a ubiquitous feature of urban waterscapes in the global South. Jordanian water sector, and Amman in particular has been a recipient of considerable international financial and technical assistance over the past decades. The international assistance has coupled with the Jordanian state's own pro-market ideological stance, and its political compulsions to spawn a techno-social assemblage of water supply that represents a hybrid state and commercial water supply system. I present the results of a field study in Amman, Jordan on water tankers and water users to understand the techno-political underpinnings of the hybrid system and its impact on differential access to water. I explore how Actor Network Theory (ANT) based analysis of tankers, suction pumps and piped water system and their materiality may explain differential access to water. But that exploration is inflected by a larger political ecological concern with questions of power and discourses about citizenship and claim making on the state. I find that ANT based focus on water technologies, while ontologically fertile, and epistemologically innovative, is nevertheless politically barren. Much richer political insights are to be gained from structural and post-structurally based investigations of the discursive and material drivers of the techno-social assemblages of water supply. The technologies don't just neutrally impact water access, but seem to almost intentionally favour the powerful over the powerless. Surely the political agency must not reside in inanimate technologies but in the social actors and structures that fashion those technologies, and configure them such to reinforce geographies of power. I call for a renewed focus on social power and how its impact on lived geographies is mediated by technology.

  1. Roads Belong In the Urban Landscape

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clemmensen, Thomas Juel

    2012-01-01

    In spite of being an essential part of the system of automobility and as such playing an important role in the development of urban landscapes, road networks seldom attracts much attention among architects involved in the planning and design of urban landscapes. One reason is probably found...... in the dominance of the zoning approach to planning, where road planning easily becomes isolated and reduced to a matter of traffic regulation and transport economy. Another possible reason could be, as suggested by the Australian landscape architect Christopher Sawyer, that road networks like other...... as landscape architects engage with road networks in profound ways, which moves beyond the purely visual and pictorial? Is it possible to conceptually (re)locate road networks in the landscape? The paper will address these questions by discussing different understandings of landscape and its relation...

  2. Road lighting fundamentals, technology and application

    CERN Document Server

    van Bommel, Wout

    2015-01-01

    This book outlines the underlying principles on which modern road lighting is based, and provides the reader with knowledge of how these principles should be applied in practice. It offers a completely fresh approach to the subject, reflecting how the technology of road lighting has progressed to keep up with the changes in lamp technology, especially in solid state light sources, and the increasing awareness of energy use and environmental issues. The book is divided into three parts. Part One describes lighting of open roads, with chapters discussing visual performance and comfort (including the effects of mesopic vision and age), and international standards and recommendations for road lighting. Lighting equipment is introduced; specifically lamps and luminaires in terms of their practical properties and features, but also the road surface and its characteristics. A chapter on Lighting Design makes the link between theory and practice, providing the reader with the knowledge needed for effective lighting d...

  3. Scaling roads and wildlife: The Cinderella principle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bissonette, J.A.

    2002-01-01

    It is clear that a reduction in both direct and indirect effects of roads and road networks must be the goal of management agencies. However, increased permeability of roaded landscapes can only be achieved by up-front planning and subsequent mitigative actions. The key is to understand that roads must be made permeable to the movement of animals. More profoundly, ecosystem services, i.e., clean water, clean air, uncontaminated soil, natural landscapes, recreation opportunities, abundant wildlife, and life sustaining ecological processes must not be seriously impacted. In other words, quality of life as measured by ecosystem services should be a major component of the planning process when roads are constructed or improved. Mitigative structures exist to increase permeability of roads. Wildlife overpasses and underpasses, often referred to as ecoducts or green bridges, with associated structures to enable larger animals to exit the road right of way, e.g., earthen escape ramps (BISSONETTE and HAMMER, 2001), various culvert designs for smaller animals including badger pipes and amphibian and reptile tunnels, and fish ladders are but a small sampling of the structures already in place around the world. What is needed is attention to the big picture. Landscapes need to be reconnected and made more permeable. Responsible agencies and organizations need to be aggressive about promoting mitigations and a conservation ethic into road planning. Only with a broad based effort between a concerned public, a database to work from, and a willingness of responsible agencies, will the now very large virtual footprint of roads and road networks be reduced to more closely approximate the physical footprint. By embracing the Cinderella Principle of making the virtual shoe fit more closely the actual physical footprint of roads, we will be able to achieve a closer connection with ecological harmony with its resultant effect of abundant wildlife.

  4. Estimation of Road Friction Coefficient in Different Road Conditions Based on Vehicle Braking Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, You-Qun; Li, Hai-Qing; Lin, Fen; Wang, Jian; Ji, Xue-Wu

    2017-07-01

    The accurate estimation of road friction coefficient in the active safety control system has become increasingly prominent. Most previous studies on road friction estimation have only used vehicle longitudinal or lateral dynamics and often ignored the load transfer, which tends to cause inaccurate of the actual road friction coefficient. A novel method considering load transfer of front and rear axles is proposed to estimate road friction coefficient based on braking dynamic model of two-wheeled vehicle. Sliding mode control technique is used to build the ideal braking torque controller, which control target is to control the actual wheel slip ratio of front and rear wheels tracking the ideal wheel slip ratio. In order to eliminate the chattering problem of the sliding mode controller, integral switching surface is used to design the sliding mode surface. A second order linear extended state observer is designed to observe road friction coefficient based on wheel speed and braking torque of front and rear wheels. The proposed road friction coefficient estimation schemes are evaluated by simulation in ADAMS/Car. The results show that the estimated values can well agree with the actual values in different road conditions. The observer can estimate road friction coefficient exactly in real-time and resist external disturbance. The proposed research provides a novel method to estimate road friction coefficient with strong robustness and more accurate.

  5. Road Safety Education in a Science Course: Evaluation of "Science and the Road."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Paul L.

    1989-01-01

    A traffic safety instructional package--"Science and the Road"--was assessed. It was designed by the Road Traffic Authority of Victoria (Australia) for use in tenth-grade science courses. Evaluation findings resulted in revision of the unit and implementation of more inservice courses for teachers lacking relevant biology and physics…

  6. Effects of roads on survival of San Clemente Island foxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snow, N.P.; Andelt, William F.; Stanley, T.R.; Resnik, J.R.; Munson, L.

    2012-01-01

    Roads generate a variety of influences on wildlife populations; however, little is known about the effects of roads on endemic wildlife on islands. Specifically, road-kills of island foxes (Urocyon littoralis) on San Clemente Island (SCI), Channel Islands, California, USA are a concern for resource managers. To determine the effects of roads on island foxes, we radiocollared foxes using a 3-tiered sampling design to represent the entire population in the study area, a sub-population near roads, and a sub-population away from roads on SCI. We examined annual survival rates using nest-survival models, causes of mortalities, and movements for each sample. We found the population had high annual survival (0.90), although survival declined with use of road habitat, particularly for intermediate-aged foxes. Foxes living near roads suffered lower annual survival (0.76), resulting from high frequencies of road-kills (7 of 11 mortalities). Foxes living away from roads had the highest annual survival (0.97). Road-kill was the most prominent cause of mortality detected on SCI, which we estimated as killing 3-8% of the population in the study area annually. Based on movements, we were unable to detect any responses by foxes that minimized their risks from roads. The probabilities of road-kills increased with use of the road habitat, volume of traffic, and decreasing road sinuosity. We recommend that managers should attempt to reduce road-kills by deterring or excluding foxes from entering roads, and attempting to modify behaviors of motorists to be vigilant for foxes. ?? 2011 The Wildlife Society.

  7. Drawing Road Networks with Mental Maps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Shih-Syun; Lin, Chao-Hung; Hu, Yan-Jhang; Lee, Tong-Yee

    2014-09-01

    Tourist and destination maps are thematic maps designed to represent specific themes in maps. The road network topologies in these maps are generally more important than the geometric accuracy of roads. A road network warping method is proposed to facilitate map generation and improve theme representation in maps. The basic idea is deforming a road network to meet a user-specified mental map while an optimization process is performed to propagate distortions originating from road network warping. To generate a map, the proposed method includes algorithms for estimating road significance and for deforming a road network according to various geometric and aesthetic constraints. The proposed method can produce an iconic mark of a theme from a road network and meet a user-specified mental map. Therefore, the resulting map can serve as a tourist or destination map that not only provides visual aids for route planning and navigation tasks, but also visually emphasizes the presentation of a theme in a map for the purpose of advertising. In the experiments, the demonstrations of map generations show that our method enables map generation systems to generate deformed tourist and destination maps efficiently.

  8. Vehicle speed control using road bumps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. A. O. Salau

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Road bumps play a crucial role in enforcing speed limits, thereby preventing overspeeding of vehicles. It significantly contributes to the overall road safety objective through the prevention of accidents that lead to deaths of pedestrians and damage of vehicles. Despite the importance of road bumps, very little research has been done to investigate into their design. While documentation exists on quantitative descriptions of road bumps, they offer little guidance to decision making. This work presents a unique approach to solving road bumps design problems. The results of our study reveal three important road bumps variables that influence the control of vehicle speeds. The key variables are bump height, bump width, and effective distance between two consecutive road bumps. Since vehicle speed control is the ultimate aim of this study the relationship between vehicle speed and other variables earlier mentioned is established. Vehicle speed is defined as the product of frequency at which a vehicle is moving over road bumps and the sum of effective distance between two consecutive road bumps. In the determination of bump height we assume a conical shaped curve for analysis as a matter of research strategy. Based on this, two stages of motion were analysed. The first concerns the motion over the bump itself while the second relates to the motion between two consecutive road bumps. Fourier series was then used to formulate a holistic equation that combines these two stages. We used trigonometric functions to model the behaviour of the first stage while with the second stage giving a functional value of zero since no changes in height are observed. We carried out vibration analysis to determine the effect of road bumps on a vehicular system. Arising from this a model component is referred to as an isolation factor. This offers guidance to the safe frequency at which vehicles could travel over road bumps. The work appears to contribute to knowledge

  9. Modelos de perfil de velocidad para evaluación de consistencia del trazado en carreteras de la provincia de Villa Clara, Cuba Speed profile models for evaluation of design consistency in road of the province of Villa Clara, Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    René A. García Depestre

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Entre los aspectos relativos a la carretera que influyen en la accidentalidad, tiene un gran peso el diseño geométrico, internacionalmente el método más empleado para la evaluación del diseño es a partir de la consistencia del trazado con modelos de perfil de velocidades de operación. Cuba no cuenta con modelos propios que consideren las características de las carreteras y los conductores, por lo que es necesario desarrollar modelos de predicción de velocidades para la evaluación de la consistencia del trazado. El desarrollo de modelos de predicción del perfil de velocidades de operación para diferentes condiciones de alineación en carreteras rurales de dos carriles en el contexto de Cuba, se efectúa a partir de características geométricas y velocidades puntuales, con análisis estadístico de las principales variables que relacionan la velocidad con el diseño. Una vez desarrollados los modelos, se aplican a un tramo de carretera declarado como tramo de concentración de accidentes (TCA de la provincia de Villa Clara localizada en la región central de Cuba, los resultados obtenidos confirman la validez de los modelos desarrollados para determinar los perfiles de velocidad de operación y de esta forma, evaluar la consistencia del trazado, con el objetivo de detectar los lugares de mayores dificultades con relación al trazado.Among the aspects that influence road accidents, geometric design is the most relevant. The most used method for evaluating the design all over the world is based on the design consistency with speed profile models of operation. Cuba does not have proprietary models that consider the characteristics of the roads and drivers, so it is necessary to develop predictive models for the evaluation of design consistency. The development of operating speed profile prediction models for different alignment conditions on rural roads with two lanes in the context of Cuba is made from the geometric characteristics and

  10. Road Transport Entrepreneurs and Road Transportation Revolution ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Toshiba

    upon a massive road-building programme throughout the colony. The rapid expansion ..... transportation problems of his textile customers and palm produce producers and ... unflinching loyalty and solidarity with their illustrious son, General.

  11. Cost, performance, and esthetic impacts of an experimental forest road in Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rulon B. Gardner

    1978-01-01

    An experimental logging road designed to minimize environmental and esthetic impact was constructed in northwest Montana. The road was single-lane (14-foot finished surface, 3-foot ditch), constructed along the contour. Esthetically, the single-lane experimental road was judged far superior to existing roads on the forest.

  12. The role of the water tankers market in water stressed semi-arid urban areas:Implications on water quality and economic burden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constantine, Kinda; Massoud, May; Alameddine, Ibrahim; El-Fadel, Mutasem

    2017-03-01

    Population growth and development are associated with increased water demand that often exceeds the capacity of existing resources, resulting in water shortages, particularly in urban areas, where more than 60% of the world's population resides. In many developing communities, shortages often force households to depend on water tankers amongst other potential sources for the delivery of water for domestic and/or potable use. While water tankers have become an integral part of the water supply system in many countries, the sector is often unregulated and operates with little governmental supervision. Users are invariably unaware of the origin or the quality of purchased water. In an effort to better assess this sector, a field survey of water vending wells and tankers coupled with a water quality sampling and analysis program was implemented in a pilot semi-arid urban area (Beirut, Lebanon) to shed light on the environmental and socio-economic impacts of the water tanker sector. Total dissolved solids (TDS), chloride (Cl - ), and microbial loads exceeded drinking water quality standards. While TDS and Cl - levels were mostly due to saltwater intrusion in coastal wells, tankers were found to be a significant source of total coliforms. Delivered water costs varied depending on the tanker size, the quality of the distributed water, and pre-treatment used, with a markup of nearly 8-24 folds of the public water supply and an equivalent economic burden of 16% of the average household income excluding environmental externalities of water quality. The study concludes with a management framework towards consumer protection under integrated supply and demand side measures. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Energy efficiency estimation of a steam powered LNG tanker using normal operating data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinha Rajendra Prasad

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A ship’s energy efficiency performance is generally estimated by conducting special sea trials of few hours under very controlled environmental conditions of calm sea, standard draft and optimum trim. This indicator is then used as the benchmark for future reference of the ship’s Energy Efficiency Performance (EEP. In practice, however, for greater part of operating life the ship operates in conditions which are far removed from original sea trial conditions and therefore comparing energy performance with benchmark performance indicator is not truly valid. In such situations a higher fuel consumption reading from the ship fuel meter may not be a true indicator of poor machinery performance or dirty underwater hull. Most likely, the reasons for higher fuel consumption may lie in factors other than the condition of hull and machinery, such as head wind, current, low load operations or incorrect trim [1]. Thus a better and more accurate approach to determine energy efficiency of the ship attributable only to main machinery and underwater hull condition will be to filter out the influence of all spurious and non-standard operating conditions from the ship’s fuel consumption [2]. The author in this paper identifies parameters of a suitable filter to be used on the daily report data of a typical LNG tanker of 33000 kW shaft power to remove effects of spurious and non-standard ship operations on its fuel consumption. The filtered daily report data has been then used to estimate actual fuel efficiency of the ship and compared with the sea trials benchmark performance. Results obtained using data filter show closer agreement with the benchmark EEP than obtained from the monthly mini trials . The data filtering method proposed in this paper has the advantage of using the actual operational data of the ship and thus saving cost of conducting special sea trials to estimate ship EEP. The agreement between estimated results and special sea trials EEP is

  14. Reliability Based Ship Structural Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dogliani, M.; Østergaard, C.; Parmentier, G.

    1996-01-01

    This paper deals with the development of different methods that allow the reliability-based design of ship structures to be transferred from the area of research to the systematic application in current design. It summarises the achievements of a three-year collaborative research project dealing...... with developments of models of load effects and of structural collapse adopted in reliability formulations which aim at calibrating partial safety factors for ship structural design. New probabilistic models of still-water load effects are developed both for tankers and for containerships. New results are presented...... structure of several tankers and containerships. The results of the reliability analysis were the basis for the definition of a target safety level which was used to asses the partial safety factors suitable for in a new design rules format to be adopted in modern ship structural design. Finally...

  15. Automatic Road Centerline Extraction from Imagery Using Road GPS Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuqing Cao

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Road centerline extraction from imagery constitutes a key element in numerous geospatial applications, which has been addressed through a variety of approaches. However, most of the existing methods are not capable of dealing with challenges such as different road shapes, complex scenes, and variable resolutions. This paper presents a novel method for road centerline extraction from imagery in a fully automatic approach that addresses the aforementioned challenges by exploiting road GPS data. The proposed method combines road color feature with road GPS data to detect road centerline seed points. After global alignment of road GPS data, a novel road centerline extraction algorithm is developed to extract each individual road centerline in local regions. Through road connection, road centerline network is generated as the final output. Extensive experiments demonstrate that our proposed method can rapidly and accurately extract road centerline from remotely sensed imagery.

  16. How Effective Is Road Mitigation at Reducing Road-Kill? A Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rytwinski, Trina; Soanes, Kylie; Jaeger, Jochen A G; Fahrig, Lenore; Findlay, C Scott; Houlahan, Jeff; van der Ree, Rodney; van der Grift, Edgar A

    2016-01-01

    Road traffic kills hundreds of millions of animals every year, posing a critical threat to the populations of many species. To address this problem there are more than forty types of road mitigation measures available that aim to reduce wildlife mortality on roads (road-kill). For road planners, deciding on what mitigation method to use has been problematic because there is little good information about the relative effectiveness of these measures in reducing road-kill, and the costs of these measures vary greatly. We conducted a meta-analysis using data from 50 studies that quantified the relationship between road-kill and a mitigation measure designed to reduce road-kill. Overall, mitigation measures reduce road-kill by 40% compared to controls. Fences, with or without crossing structures, reduce road-kill by 54%. We found no detectable effect on road-kill of crossing structures without fencing. We found that comparatively expensive mitigation measures reduce large mammal road-kill much more than inexpensive measures. For example, the combination of fencing and crossing structures led to an 83% reduction in road-kill of large mammals, compared to a 57% reduction for animal detection systems, and only a 1% for wildlife reflectors. We suggest that inexpensive measures such as reflectors should not be used until and unless their effectiveness is tested using a high-quality experimental approach. Our meta-analysis also highlights the fact that there are insufficient data to answer many of the most pressing questions that road planners ask about the effectiveness of road mitigation measures, such as whether other less common mitigation measures (e.g., measures to reduce traffic volume and/or speed) reduce road mortality, or to what extent the attributes of crossing structures and fences influence their effectiveness. To improve evaluations of mitigation effectiveness, studies should incorporate data collection before the mitigation is applied, and we recommend a

  17. How Effective Is Road Mitigation at Reducing Road-Kill? A Meta-Analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trina Rytwinski

    Full Text Available Road traffic kills hundreds of millions of animals every year, posing a critical threat to the populations of many species. To address this problem there are more than forty types of road mitigation measures available that aim to reduce wildlife mortality on roads (road-kill. For road planners, deciding on what mitigation method to use has been problematic because there is little good information about the relative effectiveness of these measures in reducing road-kill, and the costs of these measures vary greatly. We conducted a meta-analysis using data from 50 studies that quantified the relationship between road-kill and a mitigation measure designed to reduce road-kill. Overall, mitigation measures reduce road-kill by 40% compared to controls. Fences, with or without crossing structures, reduce road-kill by 54%. We found no detectable effect on road-kill of crossing structures without fencing. We found that comparatively expensive mitigation measures reduce large mammal road-kill much more than inexpensive measures. For example, the combination of fencing and crossing structures led to an 83% reduction in road-kill of large mammals, compared to a 57% reduction for animal detection systems, and only a 1% for wildlife reflectors. We suggest that inexpensive measures such as reflectors should not be used until and unless their effectiveness is tested using a high-quality experimental approach. Our meta-analysis also highlights the fact that there are insufficient data to answer many of the most pressing questions that road planners ask about the effectiveness of road mitigation measures, such as whether other less common mitigation measures (e.g., measures to reduce traffic volume and/or speed reduce road mortality, or to what extent the attributes of crossing structures and fences influence their effectiveness. To improve evaluations of mitigation effectiveness, studies should incorporate data collection before the mitigation is applied, and we

  18. How Effective Is Road Mitigation at Reducing Road-Kill? A Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rytwinski, Trina; Soanes, Kylie; Jaeger, Jochen A. G.; Fahrig, Lenore; Findlay, C. Scott; Houlahan, Jeff; van der Ree, Rodney; van der Grift, Edgar A

    2016-01-01

    Road traffic kills hundreds of millions of animals every year, posing a critical threat to the populations of many species. To address this problem there are more than forty types of road mitigation measures available that aim to reduce wildlife mortality on roads (road-kill). For road planners, deciding on what mitigation method to use has been problematic because there is little good information about the relative effectiveness of these measures in reducing road-kill, and the costs of these measures vary greatly. We conducted a meta-analysis using data from 50 studies that quantified the relationship between road-kill and a mitigation measure designed to reduce road-kill. Overall, mitigation measures reduce road-kill by 40% compared to controls. Fences, with or without crossing structures, reduce road-kill by 54%. We found no detectable effect on road-kill of crossing structures without fencing. We found that comparatively expensive mitigation measures reduce large mammal road-kill much more than inexpensive measures. For example, the combination of fencing and crossing structures led to an 83% reduction in road-kill of large mammals, compared to a 57% reduction for animal detection systems, and only a 1% for wildlife reflectors. We suggest that inexpensive measures such as reflectors should not be used until and unless their effectiveness is tested using a high-quality experimental approach. Our meta-analysis also highlights the fact that there are insufficient data to answer many of the most pressing questions that road planners ask about the effectiveness of road mitigation measures, such as whether other less common mitigation measures (e.g., measures to reduce traffic volume and/or speed) reduce road mortality, or to what extent the attributes of crossing structures and fences influence their effectiveness. To improve evaluations of mitigation effectiveness, studies should incorporate data collection before the mitigation is applied, and we recommend a

  19. Modeling Residential Water Consumption in Amman: The Role of Intermittency, Storage, and Pricing for Piped and Tanker Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Klassert

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Jordan faces an archetypal combination of high water scarcity, with a per capita water availability of around 150 m3 per year significantly below the absolute scarcity threshold of 500 m3, and strong population growth, especially due to the Syrian refugee crisis. A transition to more sustainable water consumption patterns will likely require Jordan’s water authorities to rely more strongly on water demand management in the future. We conduct a case study of the effects of pricing policies, using an agent-based model of household water consumption in Jordan’s capital Amman, in order to analyze the distribution of burdens imposed by demand-side policies across society. Amman’s households face highly intermittent piped water supply, leading them to supplement it with water from storage tanks and informal private tanker operators. Using a detailed data set of the distribution of supply durations across Amman, our model can derive the demand for additional tanker water. We find that integrating these different supply sources into our model causes demand-side policies to have strongly heterogeneous effects across districts and income groups. This highlights the importance of a disaggregated perspective on water policy impacts in order to identify and potentially mitigate excessive burdens.

  20. SUNRA - a sustainability rating system framework for National Road Administrations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sowerby, Chris; Langstraat, James; Harmer, Clare

    National Road Administrations (NRAs) across Europe strive to improve the performance of their road networks. This improvement has been underpinned by significant research in the optimisation of road planning, design, construction and maintenance, which has enhanced the understanding of the social......, environmental and economic aspects of managing a road network. Whilst there is common understanding in some aspects of sustainability there is not a common understanding of sustainability as a whole and thus how to benchmark and improve overall performance. The Sustainability: National Road Administrations...

  1. Assessing impacts of roads: application of a standard assessment protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duniway, Michael C.; Herrick, Jeffrey E.

    2013-01-01

    Adaptive management of road networks depends on timely data that accurately reflect the impacts those systems are having on ecosystem processes and associated services. In the absence of reliable data, land managers are left with little more than observations and perceptions to support management decisions of road-associated disturbances. Roads can negatively impact the soil, hydrologic, plant, and animal processes on which virtually all ecosystem services depend. The Interpreting Indicators of Rangeland Health (IIRH) protocol is a qualitative method that has been demonstrated to be effective in characterizing impacts of roads. The goal of this study were to develop, describe, and test an approach for using IIRH to systematically evaluate road impacts across large, diverse arid and semiarid landscapes. We developed a stratified random sampling approach to plot selection based on ecological potential, road inventory data, and image interpretation of road impacts. The test application on a semiarid landscape in southern New Mexico, United States, demonstrates that the approach developed is sensitive to road impacts across a broad range of ecological sites but that not all the types of stratification were useful. Ecological site and road inventory strata accounted for significant variability in the functioning of ecological processes but stratification based on apparent impact did not. Analysis of the repeatability of IIRH applied to road plots indicates that the method is repeatable but consensus evaluations based on multiple observers should be used to minimize risk of bias. Landscape-scale analysis of impacts by roads of contrasting designs (maintained dirt or gravel roads vs. non- or infrequently maintained roads) suggests that future travel management plans for the study area should consider concentrating traffic on fewer roads that are well designed and maintained. Application of the approach by land managers will likely provide important insights into

  2. Trajectory of a road vehicle during road maintenance

    OpenAIRE

    Stachová Darina

    2017-01-01

    Consider a vehicle moving on a road whose usage over time creates an uneven surface on the road. Road unevenness that we encounter on surface communications often arises as a consequence of dynamical effects of moving vehicles, of weather changes, and due to road construction works. This article concerns with mathematical modeling of the trajectory of a road vehicle moving on such a surface during the course of road maintenance.

  3. Fiscal 1997 survey report. Subtask 5 (hydrogen utilization worldwide clean energy system technology) (WE-NET) (development of hydrogen transportation/storage technology. 2. development of the liquid hydrogen transportation tanker); 1997 nendo seika hokokusho. Suiso riyo kokusai clean energy system gijutsu (WE-NET) subtask 5 suiso yuso chozo gijutsu no kaihatsu dai 2 hen ekitai suiso yuso tanker no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    Technology development is being conducted for construction of the long distance transportation tanker of large quantity liquid hydrogen. In fiscal 1997, test pieces of thermal insulating materials to be planned for fiscal 1998 were designed and studied. The purpose of the test is to confirm thermal insulating performance and behaviors of each material under the temperature of liquid hydrogen. The inside of the outer tank of the experimental equipment was held at vacuum of 10{sup -6} to 10{sup -7} Torr to exclude thermal convection effects and evaluate only heat coming from heater through the test piece. The heat from the heater at the lower part of the test piece is through the test piece and makes the liquid hydrogen of the upper tank evaporate. Thermal conductivity of the test piece is calculated from the evaporation quantity. As to PUF (polyurethane foam) panels, studied were reformation preventive measures, influential evaluation of the side transfer heat quantity, and the time required for vacuuming. In the vacuum panel, study subjects were extracted on the selection of core materials, reformation preventive measures, deterioration with age, the practical manufacturing method of experimental panels, etc. As to the super insulation, subjects were studied on the performance measuring method/accuracy, measures against heat transfer from the inside of the experimental equipment, control of the vacuum degree, etc. 10 refs., 45 figs., 6 tabs.

  4. What is vision Hampton Roads?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    What is Vision Hampton Roads? : Vision Hampton Roads is... : A regionwide economic development strategy based on the collective strengths of all : localities of Hampton Roads, created with the input of business, academia, nonprofits, : government,...

  5. Road crash costs.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2010-01-01

    Road crashes result in all kinds of social costs, such as medical costs, production loss, human losses, property damage, settlement costs and costs due to congestion. Studies into road crash costs and their trends are carried out quite regularly. In 2009, the costs amounted to € 12.5 billion, or

  6. Mayan Forest Road Projects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Conde, Dalia Amor

    2008-01-01

    Road-building projects in the Mayan Biosphere Reserve to connect Mexico and Guatemala were subjected to a cost-benefit evaluation. Up to an estimated 311,000 hectares of jaguar habitat were found to be at risk of deforestation due to these projects. Some of the projects were shown to have negativ...... of continued conservation rather than road development....

  7. Road diet informational guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-01

    A classic Road Diet converts an existing four-lane undivided roadway segment to a three-lane segment consisting of two : through lanes and a center two-way left turn lane (TWLTL). A Road Diet improves safety by including a protected left-turn lane : ...

  8. Road pricing and road safety : possible effects on road safety of 23 variants of road pricing.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eenink, R.G. Dijkstra, A. Wijnen, W. & Janssen, S.T.M.C.

    2007-01-01

    The Nouwen Committee (National Platform Paying Differently for Mobility) advised the Cabinet in 2005 about the introduction of a system of road pricing. Part of this advice consisted of a calculation of the expected road safety effects of such a system. In a letter to the Minister of Transport, SWOV

  9. ENHANCEMENT OF ROAD SAFETY THROUGH MORE EFFECTIVE ROAD AND TRAFFIC MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz SZCZURASZEK

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available To make the policy aimed at mitigating the risk of road incidents more effective, Poland should see the introduction of the more efficient road and traffic management. In November 2008 the European Parliament and the European Council published the Directive on "infrastructure safety management" which provides guidance on the procedures for carrying impact assessments of traffic safety, traffic safety audits, safety management on the road network and monitoring traffic safety in Member States. In this article, the authors have proposed a systemic approach to road and traffic management, involving the implementation of consistent procedures that should include regular revisions of roads, eliminating hazardous sites, speed management, as well as the approval and implementation of traffic organization designs.

  10. 3D Tyre/Road pavement contact stress measurements

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    De Beer, Morris

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The CSIR’s proprietary Stress-in-Motion (SIM) measurements provide rational descriptions of 1D, 2D and 3D tyre/road pavement stresses for: Road pavement design testing and evaluation, as well as tyre design, testing and evaluation....

  11. eRoads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Connolly, David

    vehicles enable more renewable electricity to be integrated onto the electricity grid. This is particularly evident in 2050, since the price of fossil fuels increases while the price of renewable electricity and batteries decreases. Finally, the electric road scenarios can facilitate more reductions......This study compares electric roads with oil (petrol and diesel) and battery electric vehicles, using Denmark as a case study. Electric roads can reduce the cost of electric vehicles by supplying them with electricity directly from the road rather than via a battery for long-distance journeys....... In this paper, an electric road scenario is compared to both an oil and battery electric vehicle scenario using the 2010 Danish energy system, but for two sets of costs: one set based on historical costs from the year 2010 and one based on projected costs for the year 2050. The results indicate that electric...

  12. Access road reclamation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manson, T.; Blok, M.

    1997-01-01

    A general review of the measures involved in restoring abandoned access road sites in British Columbia was presented. Permits and licences are needed for the use of crown land for roads used by the petroleum and natural gas industry for exploration activities. However, the regulatory framework for road site reclamation is not well developed. The nature of access road reclamation is very site-specific. Some of the issues that are considered for all reclamation projects include slope stability, water control, revegetation, soil rehabilitation, access management and monitoring. The primary objective of reclaiming access road sites is to return the site to conditions that are equal or better than pre-disturbance conditions. Restoration measures must be approved by BC Environment and by the Department of Fisheries and Oceans where federal fisheries responsibilities are involved. 54 refs., 5 tabs., 3 figs

  13. Introduction to the marine transportation of bulk LNG and the design of LNG carriers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, J J

    1974-03-01

    The marine transportation of bulk LNG is expected to expand considerably in the near future to help supply the continuous and growing demand for energy predicted for the U.S., Japan, and Western Europe. The number of new LNG tankers required to provide for these markets is estimated to be at least 50 new 4.4 million ft/sup 3/ tankers by 1980. The standard LNG tanker size is expected to increase to 7.06 million ft/sup 3/ within 5 yr. In selecting a particular tanker system, prospective ship-owners may have to consider such factors as national and international subsidies, shipyard limitations, and the trend to build certain specialized tanker components in areas other than in the shipyard. This work separation could help reduce tanker construction cost and time--especially important when several ships are to be constructed. Containment techniques available for construction of the cargo tanks include the self-supporting and the integrated designs, with the most economical provided by systems carrying LNG as a bulk cargo slightly subcooled below its boiling temperature at near-atmospheric pressure. All designs must fulfill the requirements for maintaining the approved temperature over the entire hull structure, preventing excess heat leaks into the cargo, providing tight liquid containment of the cargo, controlling the conditions inside and outside, and providing the proper facilities for safe loading and unloading. Materials of construction range from a combination of various grades of mild steel for the hull to the highest grades of aluminum alloys and nickel steels for the tank areas. Insulation includes polyurethane foam, silicon-coated perlite, and balsa wood used with fiberglass, polyurethane foam, or mineral wool. The insulation materials and arrangement must be waterproof, fire-resistant, and suitable to withstand the forces imposed on them. Finally, the tankers must include the proper equipment for LNG handling, pumping, and boiloff control.

  14. Road Infrastructure and Road User’s Satisfactions: A Case Study of Motorway Route 7, Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suanmali Suthathip

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of tourism in Thailand relies on the development of appropriate infrastructure. Road access is the key infrastructure issue for tourist destinations throughout Thailand. Each year Thailand has welcomed over 15 million travelers, accounted approximately 7% of GDP. To support tourist activities, variety types of transportation modes have designed. However, road transportation is one of the most effective modes that connect most places together. Beside high-standard vehicles, road is another mechanism that derive comfort and safety of travelling. For this reason, Motorway networks were initiated and constructed to support high speed traffic with high safety and standard. Motorway route 7 is one of major motorway networks that lies between major cities and tourist landmarks. To raise the road standard could be the key to support tourist industry and economic growth. The road developments may not be precise and accurate without knowing the needs from road users’. Therefore, a questionnaire is developed and distributed to 890 randomly selected road users along Motorway route 7. Factor analysis and t-test are employed to analyze the factors affecting road users’ satisfaction and to compare the satisfaction level between both inbound and outbound travelers.

  15. Risk Factors for Road Transport-Related Injury among Pedestrians in Rural Ghana: Implications for Road Safety Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teye-Kwadjo, Enoch

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: Injuries and mortality resulting from pedestrian road traffic crashes are a major public health problem in Ghana. This study investigated risk factors for road transport-related injury among pedestrians in rural Ghana. Design: Case study design using qualitative data. Method: In-depth interviews were conducted with pedestrians.…

  16. Assessing the damage caused by the oil spill from the tanker Erika; Erika: elements d'evaluation des dommages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delache, X.; Erhard-Cassegrain, A

    2001-07-01

    In December 1999, France was faced with a large-scale marine and ecological disaster following the accident involving the oil tanker Erika which split in two before sinking off the coast of Brittany (western France). This disaster had significant impacts on the coastal environment, affecting 400 km of shoreline. Very different aspects need to be considered in order to assess the damage caused, for which suitable methodologies must be used. Expenditure incurred on emergency and remedial measures to prepare for the 2000 summer season can easily be identified. The main effect of the disaster was ecological: a wide variety of habitats and species, and in particular many protected areas were affected. In addition, economic activities were seriously disrupted, especially tourism, fishing and shellfish production. However, it is harder to assess the economic losses incurred since a large number of short-term and long-term factors were affected. (author)

  17. Functionality of road safety devices – identification and analysis of factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeliński Łukasz

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Road safety devices are designed to protect road users from the risk of injury or death. The principal type of restraint is the safety barrier. Deployed on sites with the highest risk of run-off-road accidents, safety barriers are mostly found on bridges, flyovers, central reservations, and on road edges which have fixed obstacles next to them. If properly designed and installed, safety barriers just as other road safety devices, should meet a number of functional features. This report analyses factors which may deteriorate functionality, ways to prevent this from happening and the thresholds for loss of road safety device functionality.

  18. Investigation of road network features and safety performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xuesong; Wu, Xingwei; Abdel-Aty, Mohamed; Tremont, Paul J

    2013-07-01

    The analysis of road network designs can provide useful information to transportation planners as they seek to improve the safety of road networks. The objectives of this study were to compare and define the effective road network indices and to analyze the relationship between road network structure and traffic safety at the level of the Traffic Analysis Zone (TAZ). One problem in comparing different road networks is establishing criteria that can be used to scale networks in terms of their structures. Based on data from Orange and Hillsborough Counties in Florida, road network structural properties within TAZs were scaled using 3 indices: Closeness Centrality, Betweenness Centrality, and Meshedness Coefficient. The Meshedness Coefficient performed best in capturing the structural features of the road network. Bayesian Conditional Autoregressive (CAR) models were developed to assess the safety of various network configurations as measured by total crashes, crashes on state roads, and crashes on local roads. The models' results showed that crash frequencies on local roads were closely related to factors within the TAZs (e.g., zonal network structure, TAZ population), while crash frequencies on state roads were closely related to the road and traffic features of state roads. For the safety effects of different networks, the Grid type was associated with the highest frequency of crashes, followed by the Mixed type, the Loops & Lollipops type, and the Sparse type. This study shows that it is possible to develop a quantitative scale for structural properties of a road network, and to use that scale to calculate the relationships between network structural properties and safety. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Road traffic crashes and risk groups in India: Analysis, interpretations, and prevention strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raj V. Ponnaluri

    2012-03-01

    Recommended prevention strategies include: developing a road accident recording system and an access management policy; integrating safety into corridor design and road construction; undertaking capacity-building efforts; and expanding emergency response services.

  20. Batteries for electric road vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodenough, John B; Braga, M Helena

    2018-01-15

    The dependence of modern society on the energy stored in a fossil fuel is not sustainable. An immediate challenge is to eliminate the polluting gases emitted from the roads of the world by replacing road vehicles powered by the internal combustion engine with those powered by rechargeable batteries. These batteries must be safe and competitive in cost, performance, driving range between charges, and convenience. The competitive performance of an electric car has been demonstrated, but the cost of fabrication, management to ensure safety, and a short cycle life have prevented large-scale penetration of the all-electric road vehicle into the market. Low-cost, safe all-solid-state cells from which dendrite-free alkali-metal anodes can be plated are now available; they have an operating temperature range from -20 °C to 80 °C and they permit the design of novel high-capacity, high-voltage cathodes providing fast charge/discharge rates. Scale-up to large multicell batteries is feasible.

  1. Design aspects and conservation of roads in the saving of energy; Aspectos de diseno y conservacion de carreteras en el ahorro de energia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez Cajun, Carlos S; Aguerrebere Salido, Roberto [Instituto Mexicano del Transporte, Queretaro (Mexico)

    1993-12-31

    In this paper the effects that on the fuel consumption the roads have for their slopes and roughness are presented. A mathematical model is presented which shows the relationship between the slope, the roughness coefficient and the required power to overcome the corresponding resistance; the former in order to predict the fuel consumption and therefore, the potential level of energy saving corresponding to this item. [Espanol] En este trabajo se presentan los efectos que sobre consumo de combustible se tienen, debido a las pendientes y rugosidades de las carreteras. Se presenta un modelo matematico que muestra la relacion entre la pendiente, el coeficiente de rodamiento y la potencia requerida para vencer las resistencias correspondientes; lo anterior con el fin de predecir el consumo de combustible y, por lo tanto, los niveles potenciales de ahorro de energia correspondientes a este rubro.

  2. Design aspects and conservation of roads in the saving of energy; Aspectos de diseno y conservacion de carreteras en el ahorro de energia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez Cajun, Carlos S.; Aguerrebere Salido, Roberto [Instituto Mexicano del Transporte, Queretaro (Mexico)

    1992-12-31

    In this paper the effects that on the fuel consumption the roads have for their slopes and roughness are presented. A mathematical model is presented which shows the relationship between the slope, the roughness coefficient and the required power to overcome the corresponding resistance; the former in order to predict the fuel consumption and therefore, the potential level of energy saving corresponding to this item. [Espanol] En este trabajo se presentan los efectos que sobre consumo de combustible se tienen, debido a las pendientes y rugosidades de las carreteras. Se presenta un modelo matematico que muestra la relacion entre la pendiente, el coeficiente de rodamiento y la potencia requerida para vencer las resistencias correspondientes; lo anterior con el fin de predecir el consumo de combustible y, por lo tanto, los niveles potenciales de ahorro de energia correspondientes a este rubro.

  3. Characteristics of public roads operation

    OpenAIRE

    Pryimak, V.; Kyiashko, I.

    2009-01-01

    Characteristics of public roads operation have been considered and factors influencing TEC of public roads that go via urban areas have been determined. There have been revealed contradictions in the normative-legal base concerning maintenance of public roads and municipal roads that merge into them.

  4. In–Service Road Safety Audits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Mendoza–Díaz

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available A road safety audit is a formal analysis that seeks to guarantee that an existing or future road fulfills optimal safety criteria, conducted by a team of experts who se members are independent of the road project. It can be carried out in one, several or all of the stages of the project (planning, design, construction, before opening the road to traffic, and operation. The development and implementation of a road safety audit process is one of the strategies that have been applied in Mexico in recent years to reduce road accidents and their associated consequences. The objective of this work is to present the procedures that have been developed and applied in Mexico, as well as the benefits and problems that have been encountered. The application of those procedures to a specific case is also shown. Emphasis is made in the audit of high ways in the operation stage, which is the type that greater application and development has had in Mexico.

  5. Rapid road repair vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mara, Leo M.

    1998-01-01

    Disclosed is a rapid road repair vehicle capable of moving over a surface to be repaired at near normal posted traffic speeds to scan for and find an the high rate of speed, imperfections in the pavement surface, prepare the surface imperfection for repair by air pressure and vacuum cleaning, applying a correct amount of the correct patching material to effect the repair, smooth the resulting repaired surface, and catalog the location and quality of the repairs for maintenance records of the road surface. The rapid road repair vehicle can repair surface imperfections at lower cost, improved quality, at a higher rate of speed than was was heretofor possible, with significantly reduced exposure to safety and health hazards associated with this kind of road repair activities in the past.

  6. Competitiveness in Road Transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borgström, Benedikte; Gammelgaard, Britta; Bruun, Poul

    Road transport is an important sector, connecting time and space of production and consumption. Its market conditions has changed. The EU single market implementation has increased price pressure due to supply of low cost road freight transport from counties with lower cost structures. Changes...... in the market also encourage strategic development of some road hauliers into providers of unique services. Such road haulier strategic development contributes to efficiency and effectiveness in basically all business sectors of EU. Little research is available of such strategic and operational management....... In this paper we will explore that knowledge gap and analyze what value proposition(s) and capabilities can transform potential cost disadvantages of acting in a market that includes both high- and low-cost-country actors? And in conceptual terminology, how are capabilities deployed and developed to construct...

  7. Hydrologically Connected Road Segments

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — Link it ArcGIS Item is HERE.The connectivity layer was created to assist municipalities in preparing for the forthcoming DEC Municipal Roads General Permit in 2018....

  8. Unsurfaced Road Maintenance Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-12-01

    This draft manual describes an unsurfaced road maintenance management system for use on military installations. This system is available in either a manual or computerized mode (Micro PAVER). The maintenance standards prescribed should protect Govern...

  9. Seerley Road Fire Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    A barn caught fire at on Seerley Road, Indianapolis. Five storage drums believed to contain metallic potassium were involved in the fire. EPA will perform additional sampling as part of removal operations and safe offsite transportation.

  10. State Forest Roads

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — ArcView shape file of roads administered by the Commissioner of Natural Resources to provide access to lands administered by the Division of Forestry. Most, but not...

  11. Australian road rules

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-02-01

    *These are national-level rules. Australian Road Rules - 2009 Version, Part 18, Division 1, Rule 300 "Use of Mobile Phones" describes restrictions of mobile phone use while driving. The rule basically states that drivers cannot make or receive calls ...

  12. Taos County Roads

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Vector line shapefile under the stewardship of the Taos County Planning Department depicting roads in Taos County, New Mexico. Originally under the Emergency...

  13. Township Administered Roads

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This data set contains roadway centerlines for township administered roads found on the USGS 1:24,000 mapping series. In some areas, these roadways are current...

  14. Kilburn High Road Revisited

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Capineri

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Drawing on John Agnew’s (1987 theoretical framework for the analysis of place (location, locale and sense of place and on Doreen Massey’s (1991 interpretation of Kilburn High Road (London, the contribution develops an analysis of the notion of place in the case study of Kilburn High Road by comparing the semantics emerging from Doreen Massey’s interpretation of Kilburn High Road in the late Nineties with those from a selection of noisy and unstructured volunteered geographic information collected from Flickr photos and Tweets harvested in 2014–2015. The comparison shows how sense of place is dynamic and changing over time and explores Kilburn High Road through the categories of location, locale and sense of place derived from the qualitative analysis of VGI content and annotations. The contribution shows how VGI can contribute to discovering the unique relationship between people and place which takes the form given by Doreen Massey to Kilburn High Road and then moves on to the many forms given by people experiencing Kilburn High Road through a photo, a Tweet or a simple narrative. Finally, the paper suggests that the analysis of VGI content can contribute to detect the relevant features of street life, from infrastructure to citizens’ perceptions, which should be taken into account for a more human-centered approach in planning or service management.

  15. Road grip test in Arjeplog

    OpenAIRE

    Engström, Niclas; Andrén, Henrik; Nybacka, Mikael; Fransson, Lennart; Larsson, Roland

    2008-01-01

    The Swedish road administration sees a need to improve the road grip estimation capacity for the Swedish road system. The challenge is to find methods to measure road grip fast and reliable. There where six different system types at the tests in Arjeplog, three continuous, two system measuring road grip through deceleration and one system based on GPS and accelerometers. Two system types used air craft runway tires. The other systems used either studded winter tires or friction winter tires. ...

  16. Development of a novel filling technique. Loading bulk particulate materials into tankers or processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farnish, R.J.; Berry, R.; Bradley, M. [Greenwich Univ., Chatham Maritime, Kent (United Kingdom). Wolfson Centre for Bulk Solids Handling Technology

    2008-07-01

    The majority of industrial dosing or filling operations demand high filling rates and often good repeatability of discharges. For coarse, free-flowing materials the issues of obtaining a high degree of filling efficiency are substantially less challenging than for less free-flowing or cohesive bulk particulates. Typical equipment arrangements for achieving a controlled (often dual rate) discharge of particles into a relatively small capacity container (flask, sack or big bag) often rely on either a mechanical extraction of material from a buffer (screw feeders) or the manipulation of a constricting arrangement to achieve a turn down in discharge rate. Where less freeflowing or very fine particles are being handled, the introduction of air into the powder is invariably used to modify the bulk condition of the material to a condition where discharge can be initiated and supported (typical examples being powder feed to an impeller packer, or discharge of powder into a rail or road wagon). This article will therefore report on some recent research that has been undertaken by The Wolfson Centre for Bulk Solids Handling Technology, University of Greenwich. (orig.)

  17. Road map for photovoltaic electricity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-02-01

    This road map aims at highlighting industrial, technological and social challenges, at elaborating comprehensive visions, at highlighting technological locks, and at outlining research needs for the photovoltaic sector. It considers the following sector components: preparation of photo-sensitive materials, manufacturing of photovoltaic cells, manufacturing of photovoltaic arrays, design and manufacturing of electric equipment to control photovoltaic arrays and to connect them to the grid. It highlights the demand for photovoltaic installations, analyzes the value chain, proposes a vision of the sector by 2050 and defines target for 2020, discusses needs for demonstration and experimentation

  18. Who is in control of road safety? A STAMP control structure analysis of the road transport system in Queensland, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmon, Paul M; Read, Gemma J M; Stevens, Nicholas J

    2016-11-01

    Despite significant progress, road trauma continues to represent a global safety issue. In Queensland (Qld), Australia, there is currently a focus on preventing the 'fatal five' behaviours underpinning road trauma (drug and drink driving, distraction, seat belt wearing, speeding, and fatigue), along with an emphasis on a shared responsibility for road safety that spans road users, vehicle manufacturers, designers, policy makers etc. The aim of this article is to clarify who shares the responsibility for road safety in Qld and to determine what control measures are enacted to prevent the fatal five behaviours. This is achieved through the presentation of a control structure model that depicts the actors and organisations within the Qld road transport system along with the control and feedback relationships that exist between them. Validated through a Delphi study, the model shows a diverse set of actors and organisations who share the responsibility for road safety that goes beyond those discussed in road safety policies and strategies. The analysis also shows that, compared to other safety critical domains, there are less formal control structures in road transport and that opportunities exist to add new controls and strengthen existing ones. Relationships that influence rather than control are also prominent. Finally, when compared to other safety critical domains, the strength of road safety controls is brought into question. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Alcohol and hospitalized road traffic injuries in the Philippines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Lydia R; Ruiz, Roberto Andres Llanes

    2014-09-01

    Each year, there are approximately 1.24 million deaths due to road traffic injuries, the majority of which occur in low- and middle-income countries. Since 2008, 35 countries have passed legislation to implement road safety strategies. However, many countries have yet to pass comprehensive legislation while others lack adequate enforcement of current policies. The annual global mortality rate due to road trauma remains unacceptably high and reflects the need for governments to prioritize the passage and implementation of road safety legislation. Alcohol is a leading risk factor for road trauma globally and the leading cause of death and disability in the Western Pacific region. Despite the overwhelming evidence that strict enforcement of drunk-driving policies can lead to a drastic reduction in alcohol-related road incidents, many countries in the Western Pacific lack sufficient data that could facilitate the design of appropriate drunk-driving interventions. This paper provides an analysis of the current status of policies and attitudes related to alcohol and road injuries throughout the Western Pacific region, with a specific focus on the Philippines. Following the passage of drunk-driving legislation in 2013, a medical records review of alcohol-related road trauma patients in Manila Doctors Hospital was conducted. The findings of this pilot project further highlight the pervasive problem of missing or unreliable data regarding alcohol's role in road trauma. Assessing the burden of drunk driving is an important step in designing effective interventions and systematically changing attitudes about driving under the influence.

  20. Directly observed road safety compliance by Motor Cycle Riders ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To assess the extent of compliance with road safety regulations by motorcycle riders following a five year road safety campaign in Naivasha town, Kenya. Design: A cross sectional study. Setting: Naivasha town, Nakuru county, Kenya. Results: A total of 9,280 MCs ferrying 13,733 people were observed. Less than ...

  1. Cold Regions Issues for Off-Road Autonomous Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-04-01

    the operation of off-road autonomous vehicles . Low-temperature effects on lubricants, materials, and batteries can impair a robot’s ability to operate...demanding that off-road autonomous vehicles must be designed for and tested in cold regions if they are expected to operate there successfully.

  2. Assessment of Quality of Asphalt Concrete used in Road ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    OLUWASOGO

    to layers beneath without compromising durability. The premature failure of road pavement shortly after construction or rehabilitation without meeting its designed life span has become a major challenge to highway engineers, contractors and the government in Nigeria. A study carried out by Federal Road Safety Corps of ...

  3. Fish passage at road crossings: an annotated bibliography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynette Anderson; Mason. Bryant

    1980-01-01

    A report of special interest to fishery biologists, resource managers, hydrologists, and road engineers, this bibliography lists publications pertinent to road crossings of salmon and trout streams. Topics include bridge and culvert installation, design criteria, mechanics, hydraulics, and economics, as well as their biological effects.

  4. Causes of road traffic accidents in Juba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akway M. Cham

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Road traffic accidents (RTAs are a major cause of death and disability in South Sudan. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether violation of traffic rules is the main cause of RTAs. Method: A cross sectional study design was used with quantitative data covering January – December 2014. The main objective of the research was to understand the epidemiology of RTAs in order to develop preventive measures. A total of 1725cases from road RTAs data were extracted from the directorate of traffic police Central Equatoria state Juba and Juba teaching hospital. Results: Most (99.5% of the RTA drivers were not under the influence of alcohol. Most accidents were caused by male drivers (99%. The highest number of RTAs took place in August (11%. Drivers of private vehicles caused most accidents (37%. Most drivers (46% were aged 20-30 years. RTAs occurred most often on city roads (89.83%. Conclusion: This leads us to conclude that a comprehensive safety system is needed that are premised on the idea of community-based awareness of traffic rules and safety regulations. Resources are limited so there is a need to harness local resources including the local community. More efforts are needed to improve road safety education among the youth/integrate safety into road design.

  5. All-terrain vehicle fatalities on paved roads, unpaved roads, and off-road: Evidence for informed roadway safety warnings and legislation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denning, Gerene M; Jennissen, Charles A

    2016-05-18

    All-terrain vehicles (ATVs) are designed for off-highway use only, and many of their features create increased risk with roadway travel. Over half of all ATV-related fatalities occur on roadways, and nonfatal roadway crashes result in more serious injuries than those off the road. A number of jurisdictions have passed or have considered legislation allowing ATVs on public roadways, sometimes limiting them to those unpaved, arguing that they are safe for ATVs. However, no studies have determined the epidemiology of ATV-related fatalities on different road surface types. The objective of the study was to compare ATV-related deaths on paved versus unpaved roads and to contrast them with off-road fatalities. Retrospective descriptive and multivariable analyses were performed using U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission fatality data from 1982 through 2012. After 1998, ATV-related deaths increased at twice the rate on paved versus unpaved roads. Still, 42% of all roadway deaths during the study period occurred on unpaved surfaces. States varied considerably, ranging from 18% to 79% of their ATV-related roadway deaths occurring on unpaved roads. Paved road crashes were more likely than those on unpaved surfaces to involve males, adolescents and younger adults, passengers, and collisions with other vehicles. Both the pattern of other vehicles involved in collisions and which vehicle hit the other were different for the 2 road types. Alcohol use was higher, helmet use was lower, and head injuries were more likely in paved versus unpaved roadway crashes. However, head injuries still occurred in 76% of fatalities on unpaved roads. Helmets were associated with lower proportions of head injuries among riders, regardless of road surface type. Relative to off-road crashes, both paved and unpaved roads were more likely to involve collisions with another vehicle. The vast majority of roadway crashes, however, did not involve a traffic collision on either paved or unpaved roads

  6. Influence of Climatic Factors on the Efficiency of Disposal Metal- Hydride Unit for the Double-Fuel Low-Speed Internal Combustion Engine of Gas Tankers

    OpenAIRE

    Cherednichenko, Oleksandr Costyntunovich; Tkach, Mykhaylo Romanovich

    2017-01-01

    Contemporary tendencies in the development of ship power engineering have been analyzed. Consideration was given to the specific features of the transportation of liquefied natural gas by gas tankers. The prospects of utilization of the secondary energy resources of marine double-fuel low-speed diesel engines were defined. The metal hydride units of a continuous action were offered for this purpose. The need for the estimation of the influence of climatic factors on the efficiency of disposal...

  7. Treatment of bilge and oily drain water of tankers and current measures against combustible oil gas discharge; Tanker no biruji yudakusui shori oyobi kanensei sekiyu gas haishutsu taiskau no genjo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agatsuma, Y.

    1996-07-25

    This paper describes the current actual conditions on treatment of bilge discharged from engine area and oily drain water from cargo area of tankers. Clean bilge among various bilges discharged from engine area such as vapor drain, fresh water, rainwater, seawater and condensed water is directly dumped into the sea after temporary storage in a clean tank. Oily bilge is produced mainly by mixing of clean bilge and leakage oil from main engines and various auxiliaries. Oily bilge is dumped into the sea under comparative monitoring of the bilge quality with the dumping standard by oil concentration monitoring and control equipment after the primary treatment in a treatment tank and the secondary treatment in a bilge separator. Oily drain water from cargo area contains water ballast for cargo oil tanks, wash water for tanks and lines, and bilge produced in pump room. The oily drain water is dumped under a specific condition. However, water ballast for specific ballast tanks is excluded from the oily drain water. 2 figs.

  8. White noise excitation of road vehicle structures

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Road vehicle structures are modelled as mechanical systems ... in detail and recommendations for the choice of the design parameters are given. 2. ..... where q˙ζ denotes the noise intensity of ˙ζ(t) and δ(τ) is the Dirac distribution. Assuming.

  9. Nearest Neighbor Queries in Road Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Christian Søndergaard; Kolar, Jan; Pedersen, Torben Bach

    2003-01-01

    in road networks. Such queries may be of use in many services. Specifically, we present an easily implementable data model that serves well as a foundation for such queries. We also present the design of a prototype system that implements the queries based on the data model. The algorithm used...

  10. The in situ measurement of road reflection.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schreuder, D.A.

    1994-01-01

    This paper describes a procedure that has been designed to measure P(0;0), P(2;0) and P(1;90), the three values that are the basis for the C1-C2 system for measuring road reflection of light. The system was proposed in The Netherlands, and subsequently adopted by the CIE as an alternative to the

  11. Gravel roads management : volume 1, gravel roads management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    This report establishes procedures for managing dirt and gravel roads, with a primary focus on smaller agencies, such as Wyoming counties, that must manage their roads with very limited resources. The report strives, first, to guide and assist smalle...

  12. Gravel roads management : volume 2, gravel roads management : implementation guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-01

    This report establishes procedures for managing dirt and gravel roads, with a primary focus on smaller agencies, such as Wyoming counties, that must manage their roads with very limited resources. The report strives, first, to guide and assist smalle...

  13. Gravel roads management : volume 3, gravel roads management : programming guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    This report establishes procedures for managing dirt and gravel roads, with a primary focus on smaller agencies, such as Wyoming counties, that must manage their roads with very limited resources. The report strives, first, to guide and assist smalle...

  14. Quantification of carbon footprint of urban roads via life cycle assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mao, Ruichang; Duan, Huabo; Dong, Dan

    2017-01-01

    assessment method. For given years (ranged from 2004 to 2013), various activities of urban roads (e.g. newly planned road construction, maintenance of road in use, and road renovation and demolition) have been examined in this study. The results show that the total carbon footprint from urban roads...... in Shenzhen was 260 (±20) thousand tons CO2e in 2013. The major contributor was the materials use (embodied impact) from newly constructed roads, which accounts for 52.3% of the total carbon footprint, followed by the maintenance stage (24.3%). The eco-design process of road construction plays a vital role...... studies attempted to examine the impacts from transport infrastructure, especially at a city or country level. This paper, taking Shenzhen in China (a fast developing megacity) as the case study, is specially designed to quantify the carbon footprint of the urban roads by using streamlined life cycle...

  15. 25 CFR 170.2 - What is the IRR Program and BIA Road Maintenance Program policy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What is the IRR Program and BIA Road Maintenance Program... and BIA Road Maintenance Program policy? (a) It is the policy of the Secretary of the Interior and the... designed to enable Indian tribes to participate in all contractible IRR and BIA Road Maintenance programs...

  16. Experiment in democracy: The citizen oversight council as a means of mitigating environmental impacts of terminal and tanker operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ginsburg, P.; Sterling, S.; Gottehrer, S.

    1993-01-01

    In 1987, a handful of people from the small fishing community of Cordova, Alaska, coalesced around concern over the risks of oil-related pollution and oil spills in Prince William Sound posed by the trans-Alaska pipeline terminal and tanker operations in neighboring Valdez. The Cordova group sent an emissary to Alyeska Pipeline Service Company, which operates the Valdez Marine Terminal on behalf of its seven oil company owners. The emissary asked Alyeska to consider forming a citizen group to advise Alyeska on environmental issues of local or regional concern. Alyeska listened but rejected the idea. In March 1989, the Exxon Valdez ran aground on Bligh Reef. Alyeska's owners, acting principally at the behest of majority owner, British Petroleum, soon effected sweeping change in Alyeska's management. The change in management, with Jim Hermiller as president, produced a change in Alyeska's attitude toward the citizen advisory group proposal, and not long afterward Alyeska formed the Alyeska Citizen Advisory Committee. Over the next year that group evolved into what is now called the Prince William Sound Regional Citizens' Advisory Council, or RCAC. The Prince William Sound Regional Citizens' Advisory Council is a national experiment in providing citizens a voice in corporate decisions that affect them and their communities. This paper recounts the story of RCAC's formation and evolution, the group's mission under both federal law and its contract with Alyeska, and the hallmarks of its achievements and challenges to date

  17. Health complaints among subjects involved in oil cleanup operations during oil spillage from a Greek tanker "Tasman Spirit".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meo, Sultan Ayoub; Al-Drees, Abdul Majeed; Rasheed, Shahzad; Meo, Imran Mu; Al-Saadi, Muslim M; Ghani, Hamza A; Alkandari, Jasem Ramadan

    2009-01-01

    Oil spillage in the sea water is a disaster for marine life and humans in the vicinity. The study aimed at investigating health complaints among subjects involved in oil cleanup operations during a spillage from a Greek oil tanker "Tasman Spirit". The project was conducted under the supervision of the Department of Physiology, College of Medicine, King Khalid University Hospital, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. The study concerned the respiratory and general health complaints in 50 apparently healthy, non-smoking male workers exposed to crude oil during oil cleanup operations. The exposed group was matched with a similar number of male, non-smoking controls. The health complaints were evaluated based on a comprehensive interview. The subjects involved in oil cleanup operations had significantly higher rates of health complaints including cough (38%), runny nose (36%), eye irritation/redness (32%), sore throat (28%), headache (28%), nausea (24%) and general illness (18%), compared to their matched controls. Air pollution due to crude oil spillage into sea water may cause respiratory and general health complaints in workers involved in oil cleanup operations.

  18. Application of Bayesian Belief networks to the human reliability analysis of an oil tanker operation focusing on collision accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martins, Marcelo Ramos; Maturana, Marcos Coelho

    2013-01-01

    During the last three decades, several techniques have been developed for the quantitative study of human reliability. In the 1980s, techniques were developed to model systems by means of binary trees, which did not allow for the representation of the context in which human actions occur. Thus, these techniques cannot model the representation of individuals, their interrelationships, and the dynamics of a system. These issues make the improvement of methods for Human Reliability Analysis (HRA) a pressing need. To eliminate or at least attenuate these limitations, some authors have proposed modeling systems using Bayesian Belief Networks (BBNs). The application of these tools is expected to address many of the deficiencies in current approaches to modeling human actions with binary trees. This paper presents a methodology based on BBN for analyzing human reliability and applies this method to the operation of an oil tanker, focusing on the risk of collision accidents. The obtained model was used to determine the most likely sequence of hazardous events and thus isolate critical activities in the operation of the ship to study Internal Factors (IFs), Skills, and Management and Organizational Factors (MOFs) that should receive more attention for risk reduction.

  19. AN INVESTIGATION ON THE FOREST ROAD PLANNING AND ROAD GROUND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hafız Hulusi ACAR

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available It is required that the capital used for construction of road must be technical, economical and used in its location. For this reason, the projects must be prepared for forest roads and all operations belong to roads must be guided according to these projects. In this investigation, available forest road network plan and constructed forest roads were investigated at the point of view technical and forest transportation. After this, it were studied to reach the highest exploitation rate as can as possible. Available forest road density were found as 11.9 m/ha in forest areas for Yesiltepe District. In this condition, exploitation rate was 78 %. After that, optimum forest road network were planned and road density were reached to 22 m/ha and exploitation rate to 86 %. Directed sample method were used from taking soil sample methods and samples were took in mixed system. According to results of the experiments, available forest roads were found in a good degree at the point of view endurance, pressing and transportation capacity. With these results, it is aimed to reach higher exploitation rate with given attention to landslide areas during planning of forest roads on the mountain areas such as Black Sea Region. For this reason, required importance must be given to planning of truck and logging roads. Ground analysis must be done and took care before during planning process of forest road network.

  20. Improving and optimising road pricing in Copenhagen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Otto Anker; Larsen, Marie Karen

    2008-01-01

    though quite a number of proposed charging systems have been examined only a few pricing strategies have been investigated. This paper deals with the optimisation of different designs for a road pricing system in the Greater Copenhagen area with respect to temporal and spatial differentiation......The question whether to introduce toll rings or road pricing in Copenhagen has been discussed intensively during the last 10 years. The main results of previous analyses are that none of the systems would make a positive contribution at present, when considered from a socio-economic view. Even...... of the pricing levels. A detailed transport model was used to describe the demand effects. The model was based on data from a real test of road pricing on 500 car drivers. The paper compares the price systems with regard to traffic effects and generalised costs for users and society. It is shown how important...

  1. Where the rubber meets the road

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carter, R.A.

    1998-12-01

    The basic principles of haul-road design are well-known by most mine operators. Build a road with the proper surface, crown, width, and grade, and production will likely benefit while operating costs may come down. Likewise, the elements of tire maintenance are familiar throughout the industry. Choose the right compound for the application, keep the haul roads in good shape, maintain proper tire inflation, and you can reasonably expect truck tires to wear evenly and predictably throughout their useful lives. What is not so apparent is the interplay between these two important areas of mine operation and the benefits that can accrue from increased attention to their needs. This interaction and its effects on cost and service life are discussed. 5 figs.

  2. Kansas Road Centerline Fle (KRCF)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — This version of the Kansas Road Centerline File (0801) represents the first effort to create a statewide roads layer from best available data sources. KGS integrated...

  3. POROUS STRUCTURE OF ROAD CONCRETE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. K. Pshembaev

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Having a great number of concrete structure classifications it is recommended to specify the following three principal types: microstructure – cement stone structure; mesostructure – structure of cement-sand mortar in concrete; macrostucture – two-component system that consists of mortar and coarse aggregate. Every mentioned-above structure has its own specific features which are related to the conditions of their formation. Thus, microstructure of cement stone can be characterized by such structural components as crystal intergrowth, tobermorite gel, incompletely hydrated cement grains and porous space. The most important technological factors that influence on formation of cement stone microstructure are chemical and mineralogical cement composition, its grinding fineness, water-cement ratio and curing condition. Specific cement stone microstructure is formed due to interrelation of these factors. Cement stone is a capillary-porous body that consists of various solid phases represented predominantly by sub-microcrystals of colloidal dispersion. The sub-microcrystals are able adsorptively, osmotically and structurally to withhold (to bind some amount of moisture. Protection of road concrete as a capillary-porous body is considered as one of the topical issues. The problem is solved with the help of primary and secondary protection methods. Methods of primary protection are used at the stage of designing, preparation and placing of concrete. Methods of secondary protection are applied at the operational stage of road concrete pavement. The paper considers structures of concrete solid phase and characteristics of its porous space. Causes of pore initiation, their shapes, dimensions and arrangement in the concrete are presented in the paper. The highest hazard for road concrete lies in penetration of aggressive liquid in it and moisture transfer in the cured concrete. Water permeability of concrete characterizes its filtration factor which

  4. New innovative educational method to prevent accidents involving young road users (aged 15-24 – European Road Safety Tunes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jankowska-Karpa Dagmara

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents a new teaching method designed to improve road safety among young road users. Developed under “European Road Safety Tunes”, this international project was cofunded by EU DG MOVE. Its main aim is to improve road safety and minimize the number of road accidents, injuries and fatalities among road users who are 15-24 years old. The Safety Tunes method contains a series of workshops addressed to young vocational school students: cyclists, moped and motor riders and car drivers. The workshops incorporate peer and emotive education, and delivery of road safety related messages through different types of artistic forms. The topics tackled during class address awareness of possible risks and risk-behaviour, prevention of distraction and reduction in young fatalities and serious injuries on the road. All actions within the project are evaluated, both in terms of the impact of the workshops on students’ attitudes towards road safety problems and in terms of process assessment.

  5. Weather and road capacity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Thomas Christian

    2014-01-01

    The paper presents estimations of the effect of bad weather on the observed speed on a Danish highway section; Køge Bugt Motorvejen. The paper concludes that weather, primarily precipitation and snow, has a clear negative effect on speed when the road is not in hypercongestion mode. Furthermore...

  6. The Road Home

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Shaughnessy, Molly

    2016-01-01

    "Children have the potential to create a world we cannot imagine. This is our hope." In choosing Montessori, O'Shaughnessy says that we are choosing the road less traveled. We are choosing education as an aid to life. We are choosing an approach that respects the innate and unique potential of each child and that calls upon us to serve…

  7. Eyes on the Road

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    One of the first lessons new drivers learn is to keep their eyes on the road. Unfortunately, cell phones and other electronic devices are causing many drivers to lose their focus, and sometimes their lives. In this podcast, Rebecca Naumann discusses the dangers of distracted driving.

  8. Tyre and road wear prediction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lupker, H.A.

    2003-01-01

    Both tyre wear and road polishing are complex phenomenon, which are obviously strongly related; the energy that polishes the road is the energy that wears the tyre. The both depend non-linearly on numerous parameters, like materials used, vehicle and road usage, environmental conditions (i.e.

  9. EDITORIAL ROAD SAFETY IN KENYA

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    data for the purpose of legal prosecution and insurance claims. The accident data P41 form filled at the Police Stations are collated and forwarded to the Roads Department, Ministry of Roads and Public. Works for further processing and analysis (1, 12). The. Roads Department analyses the information in order to determine:.

  10. Constitution of the forest road evaluation form for Turkish forestry

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-10-19

    Oct 19, 2009 ... Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) was used to define the significance rates at the step of factor evaluation. .... Risk of landslides by high hillside slopes. 7.04 .... Designation of timber extraction routes in a GIS using road.

  11. Road dust emissions from paved roads measured using different mobile systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirjola, Liisa; Johansson, Christer; Kupiainen, Kaarle; Stojiljkovic, Ana; Karlsson, Hans; Hussein, Tareq

    2010-12-01

    Very few real-world measurements of road dust suspension have been performed to date. This study compares two different techniques (referred to as Sniffer and Emma) to measure road dust emissions. The main differences between the systems are the construction of the inlet, different instruments for recording particulate matter (PM) levels, and different loads on the wheel axes (the weight of Sniffer was much higher than that of Emma). Both systems showed substantial small-scale variations of emission levels along the road, likely depending on-road surface conditions. The variations observed correlated quite well, and the discrepancies are likely a result of variations in dust load on the road surface perpendicular to the driving direction that cause variations in the measurements depending on slightly different paths driven by the two vehicles. Both systems showed a substantial influence on the emission levels depending on the type of tire used. The summer tire showed much lower suspension than the winter tires (one nonstudded and one studded). However, the relative importance of the nonstudded versus studded tire was rather different. For the ratio of studded/nonstudded, Emma shows higher values on all road sections compared with Sniffer. Both techniques showed increased emission levels with increasing vehicle speed. When the speed increased from 50 to 80 km hr(-1), the relative concentrations increased by 30-170% depending on the tire type and dust load. However, for road sections that were very dirty, Sniffer showed a much higher relative increase in the emission level with the nonstudded tire. Sniffer's absolute concentrations were mostly higher than Emma's. Possible reasons for the differences are discussed in the paper. Both systems can be used for studying relative road dust emissions and for designing air quality management strategies.

  12. The fundamental diagram : a macroscopic traffic flow model. Paper and shortened version presented to the OECD Symposium on Methods for determining geometric road design standards 1976, Helsingor, Denmark, 10-12 May 1976.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Botma, H.

    1976-01-01

    In the theory and models of traffic-flow the emphasis lies on the interaction between vehicles, based on the characteristics of the road, the drivers and vehicles, and not on the interaction between a single vehicle and the road. Three levels of models, arranged in the order of increasing detail can

  13. Exploring schema-driven differences in situation awareness between road users: an on-road study of driver, cyclist and motorcyclist situation awareness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmon, Paul M; Lenne, Michael G; Walker, Guy H; Stanton, Neville A; Filtness, Ashleigh

    2014-01-01

    Collisions between different road users make a substantial contribution to road trauma. Although evidence suggests that different road users interpret the same road situations differently, it is not clear how road users' situation awareness differs, nor is it clear which differences might lead to conflicts. This article presents the findings from an on-road study conducted to examine driver, motorcyclist and cyclist situation awareness in different road environments. The findings suggest that, in addition to minor differences in the structure of different road users' situation awareness (i.e. amount of information and how it is integrated), the actual content of situation awareness in terms of road user schemata, the resulting interaction with the world and the information underpinning situation awareness is markedly different. Further examination indicates that the differences are likely to be compatible along arterial roads, shopping strips and at roundabouts, but that they may create conflicts between different road users at intersections. Interventions designed to support compatible situation awareness and behaviour between different road users are discussed.

  14. Is road safety management linked to road safety performance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadimitriou, Eleonora; Yannis, George

    2013-10-01

    This research aims to explore the relationship between road safety management and road safety performance at country level. For that purpose, an appropriate theoretical framework is selected, namely the 'SUNflower' pyramid, which describes road safety management systems in terms of a five-level hierarchy: (i) structure and culture, (ii) programmes and measures, (iii) 'intermediate' outcomes'--safety performance indicators (SPIs), (iv) final outcomes--fatalities and injuries, and (v) social costs. For each layer of the pyramid, a composite indicator is implemented, on the basis of data for 30 European countries. Especially as regards road safety management indicators, these are estimated on the basis of Categorical Principal Component Analysis upon the responses of a dedicated road safety management questionnaire, jointly created and dispatched by the ETSC/PIN group and the 'DaCoTA' research project. Then, quasi-Poisson models and Beta regression models are developed for linking road safety management indicators and other indicators (i.e. background characteristics, SPIs) with road safety performance. In this context, different indicators of road safety performance are explored: mortality and fatality rates, percentage reduction in fatalities over a given period, a composite indicator of road safety final outcomes, and a composite indicator of 'intermediate' outcomes (SPIs). The results of the analyses suggest that road safety management can be described on the basis of three composite indicators: "vision and strategy", "budget, evaluation and reporting", and "measurement of road user attitudes and behaviours". Moreover, no direct statistical relationship could be established between road safety management indicators and final outcomes. However, a statistical relationship was found between road safety management and 'intermediate' outcomes, which were in turn found to affect 'final' outcomes, confirming the SUNflower approach on the consecutive effect of each layer

  15. ROAD TRANSPORT ACCIDENTS IN NIGERIA AND THE ROLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olasunkanmi Oriola AKINYEMI

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of road traffic accidents revealed that most accidents are as a result of drivers’ errors. Over the years, active safety systems (ASS were devised in vehicle to reduce the high level of road accidents, caused by human errors, leading to death and injuries.This study however evaluated the impacts of ASS inclusions into vehicles in Nigeria road transportation network. The objectives was to measure how ASS contributed to making driving safer and enhanced transport safety. Road accident data were collected, for a period of eleven years, from Lagos State Ministry of Economic Planning and Budget, Central Office of Statistics. Quantitative analysis of the retrospective accident was conducted by computing the proportion of yearly number of vehicles involved in road accident to the total number of vehicles for each year. Results of the analysis showed that the proportion of vehicles involved in road accidents decreased from 16 in 1996 to 0.89 in 2006, the injured persons reduced from 15.58 in 1998 to 0.3 in 2006 and the death rate diminished from 4.45 in 1998 to 0.1 in 2006. These represented 94.4%, 95% and 95% improvement respectively on road traffic safety. It can therefore be concluded that the inclusions of ASS into design of modern vehicles had improved road safety in Nigeria automotive industry.

  16. Environmentally friendly road construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.I. Essawy

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Environmental pollution is a major problem in developing countries like Egypt. Reuse of waste polymers is considered an attractive solution for environmental white pollution and reducing of the costs of road pavement and maintenance. This research aims to prepare environmentally friendly hot mix asphalt (HMA for paving using some industrial wastes as polypropylene and polyester fibers. The solid materials in the mix include normal and highly porous aggregates. 5% and 10% of waste polymers by weight of the asphalt were used to prepare special binders. The samples were tested for their physical properties, chemical properties, aging, scanning electron microscopy (SEM and thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA. The results revealed that the prepared HMA using 5% of waste polymer had high performance as compared to the ordinary one and the waste polymer could be used in road construction.

  17. Assessing Road Traffic Expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Silva

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Road traffic is a problem which is increasing in cities with large population. Unrelated to this fact the number of portable and wearable devices has also been increasing throughout the population of most countries. With this advent, the capacity to monitor and register data about people habits and locations as well as more complex data such as intensity and strength of movements has created an opportunity to contribute to the general wealth and comfort within these environments. Ambient Intelligence and Intelligent Decision Making processes can benefit from the knowledge gathered by these devices to improve decisions on everyday tasks such as deciding navigation routes by car, bicycle or other means of transportation and avoiding route perils. The concept of computational sustainability may also be applied to this problem. Current applications in this area demonstrate the usefulness of real time system that inform the user of certain conditions in the surrounding area. On the other hand, the approach presented in this work aims to describe models and approaches to automatically identify current states of traffic inside cities and use methods from computer science to improve overall comfort and the sustainability of road traffic both with the user and the environment in mind. Such objective is delivered by analyzing real time contributions from those mobile ubiquitous devices to identifying problematic situations and areas under a defined criteria that have significant influence towards a sustainable use of the road transport infrastructure.

  18. A study on the design and production of shadow puppets animation under the cultural background of "the Belt and Road" - Centering on the original work of shadow and image

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yuan; Jia, Yingxue; Yang, Hui

    2018-05-01

    "The Belt and Road" initiative is a national strategy of China to promote modernization construction. The Silk Road is not only a channel of business exchange, but also the artery in Sino-foreign cultural exchange. By promoting culture first, using China's shadow puppets animation production forms as a reference, using animation production techniques, depicting the two masters' pursuing of dharma to show the communication and exchange of Buddhist culture in ancient Silk Road, the original work seeks innovative expression methods in digital media production forms and animation processing and reveals the art and human style and features of China, Japan and India authentically.

  19. Parameterizing road construction in route-based road weather models: can ground-penetrating radar provide any answers?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hammond, D S; Chapman, L; Thornes, J E

    2011-01-01

    A ground-penetrating radar (GPR) survey of a 32 km mixed urban and rural study route is undertaken to assess the usefulness of GPR as a tool for parameterizing road construction in a route-based road weather forecast model. It is shown that GPR can easily identify even the smallest of bridges along the route, which previous thermal mapping surveys have identified as thermal singularities with implications for winter road maintenance. Using individual GPR traces measured at each forecast point along the route, an inflexion point detection algorithm attempts to identify the depth of the uppermost subsurface layers at each forecast point for use in a road weather model instead of existing ordinal road-type classifications. This approach has the potential to allow high resolution modelling of road construction and bridge decks on a scale previously not possible within a road weather model, but initial results reveal that significant future research will be required to unlock the full potential that this technology can bring to the road weather industry. (technical design note)

  20. Spatial Resolution Effect on Forest Road Gradient Calculation and Erosion Modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, L.; Elliot, W.

    2017-12-01

    Road erosion is one of the main sediment sources in a forest watershed and should be properly evaluated. With the help of GIS technology, road topography can be determined and soil loss can be predicted at a watershed scale. As a vector geographical feature, the road gradient should be calculated following road direction rather than hillslope direction. This calculation might be difficult with a coarse (30-m) DEM which only provides the underlying topography information. This study was designed to explore the effect of road segmentation and DEM resolution on the road gradient calculation and erosion prediction at a watershed scale. The Water Erosion Prediction Project (WEPP) model was run on road segments of 9 lengths ranging from 40m to 200m. Road gradient was calculated from three DEM data sets: 1m LiDAR, and 10m and 30m USGS DEMs. The 1m LiDAR DEM calculated gradients were very close to the field observed road gradients, so we assumed the 1m LiDAR DEM predicted the true road gradient. The results revealed that longer road segments skipped detail topographical undulations and resulted in lower road gradients. Coarser DEMs computed steeper road gradients as larger grid cells covered more adjacent areas outside road resulting in larger elevation differences. Field surveyed results also revealed that coarser DEM might result in more gradient deviation in a curved road segment when it passes through a convex or concave slope. As road segment length increased, the gradient difference between three DEMs was reduced. There were no significant differences between road gradients of different segment lengths and DEM resolution when segments were longer than 100m. For long segments, the 10m DEM calculated road gradient was similar to the 1m LiDAR gradient. When evaluating the effects of road segment length, the predicted erosion rate decreased with increasing length when road gradient was less than 3%. In cases where the road gradients exceed 3% and rill erosion dominates

  1. Nonfatal road traffic injuries: can road safety campaigns prevent hazardous behavior? An Italian experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zampetti, R; Messina, G; Quercioli, C; Vencia, F; Genco, L; Di Bartolomeo, L; Nante, N

    2013-01-01

    Road traffic injuries are a widespread problem and are very difficult to prevent. The purpose of this study was to verify whether intensive versus basic road safety education programs are associated with different incidence and severity of nonfatal road injuries. The study had an ecological design and involved Local Health Authority One (LHA1) in Salerno, Italy, which includes 20 municipalities. Data on nonfatal road injuries occurring in the periods June to August 2003 and June to August 2008 were obtained from trained operators through the information system of the emergency department. All 20 municipalities received a basic community road safety education program (publicity campaign using bill-posting, brochures, mass media communication with press conferences, articles in local papers, radio and television interviews, and a dedicated LHA1 web site), and 12 municipalities also received an intensive education campaign (in secondary schools, community conferences, and activities organized by police and firefighters). The incidence and severity of nonfatal road traffic injuries were compared between June to August 2003 (before the campaign) and June to August 2008. The total number of injuries in all 20 municipalities in 2003 and 2008 was 907 and 755, respectively. The incidence of injuries decreased in the study period both in the 8 municipalities where only the basic campaign was run (difference in incidence = -0.4; P = .053) and in the 12 municipalities where the intensive campaign was implemented (difference in incidence = -0.5; P road safety education. This does not mean that such campaigns are useless (they are important to raise awareness) but that they should be supplemented with complementary activities in order to be really effective.

  2. Pedestrian Safety in Road Traffic in Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budzynski, Marcin; Jamroz, Kazimierz; Mackun, Tomasz

    2017-10-01

    Every third road accident in Poland involves a pedestrian as a participant or, most of the time, a casualty. Pedestrian accidents are usually the result of complex situations and the outcome of a number of factors related to driver and pedestrian behaviour and road infrastructure. Safety depends largely on how well the traffic condition is perceived and on visibility in traffic. The paper presents the results of analyses of methodologies for systematic studies of pedestrian behaviour and pedestrian-driver relations. The effects of the location of the site, type of cross-section and other selected parameters on pedestrian and driver behaviour are demonstrated. The analyses showed that pedestrians are most often put at risk by too long pedestrian crossings, vehicles going too fast around pedestrian crossings, lack of proper sight distance and poorly lit or unlit pedestrian crossings. The reason for such defective infrastructure is that planners, designers, contractors and maintenance services are not receiving any support from design, marking and maintenance regulations for pedestrian traffic. In addition, the Road Traffic Law is not restrictive enough when it comes to drivers’ obligations towards pedestrian safety. Polish design regulations allow long pedestrian crossings up to four lanes in one direction or three lanes in two directions irrespective of traffic control and speed limits. Pedestrian crossings should be kept at a maximum of three lanes. There is nothing in the design regulations about the required driver-pedestrian sight distance. Neither does the Road Traffic Law help engineers with that. It is legal to park vehicles within 10 m of a pedestrian crossing which does not guarantee the necessary sight distance. Drivers must be able to see a pedestrian waiting or stepping onto the crossing from a distance that will help them come to a stop safely. It is safer to follow the principle of providing adequate pedestrian sight distance. Recommendations for

  3. [Adolescents, risk situations and road safety].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meneses Falcón, Carmen; Gil García, Eugenia; Romo Avilés, Nuria

    2010-09-01

    Describe the risk behaviour relationships with road safety in adolescents. Cross-sectional descriptive study. Madrid and Andalusia Regions, representative samples. The sample included 3,612 in secondary school pupils from Madrid (n=1708) and Andalusia (n=1904). The survey was carried out during May and June 2007. The data collected included sociodemographic areas (age, sex, grade, father's profession, birth place, etc.) and risk situation and behaviour (risk behaviour as driver or passenger). 16.2% of the adolescents have been involved in a dangerous situation with motorcycles during the last year. 16.7% never use a helmet when riding a motorcycle and 62% do not wear one when riding a bicycle on the road; 17.4% frequently ride a motorcycle over the speed limit and 24.5% when driving a car. There are significant differences regarding sex, grade and region (Madrid or Andalusia). There are four factors which explain 62% of the variance: drug factor, speed factor, security factor and passenger factor. Two of these have twice the probability of having a dangerous situation when riding a motorcycle: drug factor (OR=1.96; 95% CI, 1.77-2.18) and the speed factor ((OR=2.13; 95% CI, 1.92-2.36). Adolescents in higher grades and living in Andalusia were less road safety conscious. This pattern should be taken into account when designing preventive actions in Road Safety Education. 2009 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  4. Drawing road networks with focus regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haunert, Jan-Henrik; Sering, Leon

    2011-12-01

    Mobile users of maps typically need detailed information about their surroundings plus some context information about remote places. In order to avoid that the map partly gets too dense, cartographers have designed mapping functions that enlarge a user-defined focus region--such functions are sometimes called fish-eye projections. The extra map space occupied by the enlarged focus region is compensated by distorting other parts of the map. We argue that, in a map showing a network of roads relevant to the user, distortion should preferably take place in those areas where the network is sparse. Therefore, we do not apply a predefined mapping function. Instead, we consider the road network as a graph whose edges are the road segments. We compute a new spatial mapping with a graph-based optimization approach, minimizing the square sum of distortions at edges. Our optimization method is based on a convex quadratic program (CQP); CQPs can be solved in polynomial time. Important requirements on the output map are expressed as linear inequalities. In particular, we show how to forbid edge crossings. We have implemented our method in a prototype tool. For instances of different sizes, our method generated output maps that were far less distorted than those generated with a predefined fish-eye projection. Future work is needed to automate the selection of roads relevant to the user. Furthermore, we aim at fast heuristics for application in real-time systems. © 2011 IEEE

  5. Improving drivers' knowledge of road rules using digital games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qing; Tay, Richard

    2014-04-01

    Although a proficient knowledge of the road rules is important to safe driving, many drivers do not retain the knowledge acquired after they have obtained their licenses. Hence, more innovative and appealing methods are needed to improve drivers' knowledge of the road rules. This study examines the effect of game based learning on drivers' knowledge acquisition and retention. We find that playing an entertaining game that is designed to impart knowledge of the road rules not only improves players' knowledge but also helps them retain such knowledge. Hence, learning by gaming appears to be a promising learning approach for driver education. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. The future of road safety: A worldwide perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fred Wegman

    2017-03-01

    The future of road safety is uncertain and definitely not the same for all regions of the world. Countries with a mature road safety approach and an ambition to make further progress are expected to move in the direction of a pro-active approach: a Safe System approach. It is reported that many LMIC, meanwhile, are on the brink of designing road safety strategies and implementing action plans. The international community is willing to support LMIC, but LMIC cannot simply copy successful HIC strategies because local circumstances differ. The principles of successful HIC strategies are applicable, but the priorities and action plans should take root in and align with local conditions.

  7. Rationale for statistical characteristics of road safety parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dormidontova Tatiana

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available When making engineering decisions at the stage of designing auto-roads and man-made structures it is necessary to take into account the statistical variability of physical and mechanical characteristics of the used materials as well as the different effects on the structures. Thus the rationale for the statistical characteristics of the parameters that determine the reliability of roads and man-made engineering facilities is of particular importance.There are many factors to be considered while designing roads, such as natural climatic factors, the accidental effects of the operating loads, the strength and deformation characteristics of the materials, the geometric parameters of the structure, etc. which affect the strength characteristics of roads and man-made structures. The rationale for statistical characteristics of the parameters can help an engineer assess the reliability of the decision and the economic risk, as well as avoid making mistakes in the design of roads and man-made structures.However, some statistical characteristics of the parameters that define the reliability of a road and man-made structures play a key role in the design. These are the visibility distance in daytime for the peak curve, variation coefficient of radial acceleration, the reliability of visibility distance and other parameters.

  8. Design of durability test protocol for vehicular fuel cell systems operated in power-follow mode based on statistical results of on-road data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Liangfei; Reimer, Uwe; Li, Jianqiu; Huang, Haiyan; Hu, Zunyan; Jiang, Hongliang; Janßen, Holger; Ouyang, Minggao; Lehnert, Werner

    2018-02-01

    City buses using polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cells are considered to be the most likely fuel cell vehicles to be commercialized in China. The technical specifications of the fuel cell systems (FCSs) these buses are equipped with will differ based on the powertrain configurations and vehicle control strategies, but can generally be classified into the power-follow and soft-run modes. Each mode imposes different levels of electrochemical stress on the fuel cells. Evaluating the aging behavior of fuel cell stacks under the conditions encountered in fuel cell buses requires new durability test protocols based on statistical results obtained during actual driving tests. In this study, we propose a systematic design method for fuel cell durability test protocols that correspond to the power-follow mode based on three parameters for different fuel cell load ranges. The powertrain configurations and control strategy are described herein, followed by a presentation of the statistical data for the duty cycles of FCSs in one city bus in the demonstration project. Assessment protocols are presented based on the statistical results using mathematical optimization methods, and are compared to existing protocols with respect to common factors, such as time at open circuit voltage and root-mean-square power.

  9. Safer Roads: Comparisons Between Road Assessment Program and Composite Road Safety Index Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Razelan Intan Suhana

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In most countries, crash statistics have becoming very crucial in evaluating road’s safety level. In Malaysia, these data are very important in deciding crash-prone areas known as black spot where specific road improvements plan will be proposed. However due to the unavailability of reliable crash data in many developing countries, appropriate road maintenance measures are facing great troubles. In light of that, several proactive methods in defining road’s safety level such as Road Assessment Program (RAP have emerged. This research aim to compare two proactive methods that have been tested in Malaysian roads ; road assessment program and road environment risk index which was developed based on composite index theory in defining road’s safety level. Composite road environment risk index was combining several crucial environment indicators, assigning weight and aggregating the individual index together to form a single value representing the road’s safety level. Based on the results, it can be concluded that both road assessment program and composite road environment risk index are contradicted in six different ways such as type of speed used, type of analysis used and their final outcomes. However, with an aim to promote safer roads, these two methods can be used concurrently as the outcomes in both methods seems to fulfil each other’s gap very well.

  10. Identification of Hazardous Road Locations on the basis of jerks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agerholm, Niels; Jensen, Robin; Andersen, Camilla Sloth

    The dark figures for the Danish traffic safety have increased for decades and are now around 91%. As the Hazardous Road Location (HRL) identification, a cornerstone in the traffic safety work, is based on the registered accidents, the identification is increasingly more random and uncertain...... on data from three months of driving by 380 cars, which is equivalent to a distance of 1.9 million km. This indicates that concentrations of decelerations are located where there are high traffic volumes, but not that the design and furniture of the road on the location can explain an HRL. This also...... indicates that concentrations of jerks can be found where the road has safety problems or is inappropriately designed. This is supported by literature dealing with this topic. On the other hand, jerks are very sensitive to unevenness in the road surface, and data from these locations must be removed...

  11. On the road to metallic nanoparticles by rational design: bridging the gap between atomic-level theoretical modeling and reality by total scattering experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasai, Binay; Wilson, A. R.; Wiley, B. J.; Ren, Y.; Petkov, Valeri

    2015-10-01

    The extent to which current theoretical modeling alone can reveal real-world metallic nanoparticles (NPs) at the atomic level was scrutinized and demonstrated to be insufficient and how it can be improved by using a pragmatic approach involving straightforward experiments is shown. In particular, 4 to 6 nm in size silica supported Au100-xPdx (x = 30, 46 and 58) explored for catalytic applications is characterized structurally by total scattering experiments including high-energy synchrotron X-ray diffraction (XRD) coupled to atomic pair distribution function (PDF) analysis. Atomic-level models for the NPs are built by molecular dynamics simulations based on the archetypal for current theoretical modeling Sutton-Chen (SC) method. Models are matched against independent experimental data and are demonstrated to be inaccurate unless their theoretical foundation, i.e. the SC method, is supplemented with basic yet crucial information on the length and strength of metal-to-metal bonds and, when necessary, structural disorder in the actual NPs studied. An atomic PDF-based approach for accessing such information and implementing it in theoretical modeling is put forward. For completeness, the approach is concisely demonstrated on 15 nm in size water-dispersed Au particles explored for bio-medical applications and 16 nm in size hexane-dispersed Fe48Pd52 particles explored for magnetic applications as well. It is argued that when ``tuned up'' against experiments relevant to metals and alloys confined to nanoscale dimensions, such as total scattering coupled to atomic PDF analysis, rather than by mere intuition and/or against data for the respective solids, atomic-level theoretical modeling can provide a sound understanding of the synthesis-structure-property relationships in real-world metallic NPs. Ultimately this can help advance nanoscience and technology a step closer to producing metallic NPs by rational design.The extent to which current theoretical modeling alone can

  12. Gender Stereotypes among Road Users

    OpenAIRE

    Kabalevskaya, Alexandra I.

    2013-01-01

    This article analyzes the mechanism of stereotyping as exemplified by gender stereotypes of road users. Gender stereotypes are not only viewed as an a priori image of a percept, but also examined ‘in action’ — at the very moment of their actualization with road users. In the paper we have identified the content of road users’ gender stereotypes; analyzed the behaviour of male and female drivers, pinpointing a number of gender-specific behavioural features; demonstrated that male and female dr...

  13. Gender stereotypes among road users

    OpenAIRE

    Dontsov, Alexander; Kabalevskaya, Alexandra

    2013-01-01

    This article analyzes the mechanism of stereotyping as exemplified by gender stereotypes of road users. Gender stereotypes are not only viewed as an a priori image of a percept, but also examined ‘in action’ at the very moment of their actualization with road users. In the paper we have identified the content of road users’ gender stereotypes; analyzed the behaviour of male and female drivers, pinpointing a number of gender-specific behavioural features; demonstrated that male and female driv...

  14. Information technology road map 2015

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-09-01

    This book introduces information technology road map 2015 with presentation, process, plan and conclusion of it. It also has introduction of IT road map by field : information technology road map 2015 on the next-generation of semiconductor, display, light emitting diode and light industry, home network and home electronic appliances, digital TV and broadcasting, radio technology, satellite communications, mobile communication for the next-generation, BcN field, software, computer for the next-generation and security of knowledge information.

  15. Identifying unstable sites on logging roads

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. M. Rice; J. Lewis

    1986-01-01

    Logging roads are an important source of forestry-related erosion. The amount of erosion on a forest road is determined by the interaction between how the road is constructed and maintained and the environment in which it is built. The roads in this study were constructed with large bulldozers, and most excavated material was sidecast. The roads studied were...

  16. Using road markings as a continuous cue for speed choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlton, Samuel G; Starkey, Nicola J; Malhotra, Neha

    2018-08-01

    The potential for using road markings to indicate speed limits was investigated in a driving simulator over the course of two sessions. Two types of experimental road markings, an "Attentional" set designed to provide visually distinct cues to indicate speed limits of 60, 80 and 100 km/h, and a "Perceptual" set designed to also affect drivers' perception of speed, were compared to a standard undifferentiated set of markings. Participants (n = 20 per group) were assigned to one of four experimental groups (Attentional-Explicit, Attentional-Implicit, Perceptual-Explicit, Perceptual-Implicit) or a Control group (n = 22; standard road markings). The Explicit groups were instructed about the meaning of the road markings while those in the Implicit and Control groups did not receive any explanation. Participants drove five 10 km simulated roads containing three speed zones (60, 80 and 100 km/h) during the first session. The participants returned to the laboratory approximately 3 days later to drive five more trials including roads they had not seen before, a trial that included a secondary task, and a trial where speed signs were removed and only markings were present. The findings indicated that both types of road markings improved drivers' compliance with speed limits compared to the control group, but that explicit instruction as to the meaning of the markings was needed to realise their full benefit. Although previous research has indicated the benefit of road markings used as warnings to indicate speed reductions in advance of horizontal or vertical curves, the findings of the present experiment also suggest that systematically associating road markings with specific speed limits may be a useful way to improve speed limit compliance and increase speed homogeneity. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  17. Climate Change and Roads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chinowsky, P.; Arndt, Channing

    2012-01-01

    to estimate the impact of individual climate stressors on road infrastructure in Mozambique. Through these models, stressor–response functions are introduced that quantify the cost impact of a specific stressor based on the intensity of the stressor and the type of infrastructure it is affecting. Utilizing...... four climate projection scenarios, the paper details how climate change response decisions may cost the Mozambican government in terms of maintenance costs and long-term roadstock inventory reduction. Through this approach the paper details how a 14% reduction in inventory loss can be achieved through...

  18. Road Traffic Injuries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Zheng-guo

    2005-01-01

    @@ As everybody knows that automobiles have been greatly changing our life. However, everything has two sides, motor vehicles have also caused a huge number of people's deaths, injuries and property damage. Traffic crashes are perhaps the number one public health problem in developed countries [1]. In the United States, pre-retirement years of life lost in traffic crashes are more than that of the two combined leading diseases: cancer and heart disease [1]. Today road traffic crash (RTC) ranks 11th in leading cause of death and accounts for 2.1% of all deaths globally.

  19. Distributed Road Grade Estimation for Heavy Duty Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sahlholm, Per

    2011-07-01

    An increasing need for goods and passenger transportation drives continued worldwide growth in traffic. As traffic increases environmental concerns, traffic safety, and cost efficiency become ever more important. Advancements in microelectronics open the possibility to address these issues through new advanced driver assistance systems. Applications such as predictive cruise control, automated gearbox control, predictive front lighting control, and hybrid vehicle state-of-charge control decrease the energy consumption of vehicles and increase the safety. These control systems can benefit significantly from preview road grade information. This information is currently obtained using specialized survey vehicles, and is not widely available. This thesis proposes new methods to obtain road grade information using on-board sensors. The task of creating road grade maps is addressed by the proposal of a framework where vehicles using a road network collect the necessary data for estimating the road grade. The estimation can then be carried out locally in the vehicle, or in the presence of a communication link to the infrastructure, centrally. In either case the accuracy of the map increases over time, and costly road surveys can be avoided. This thesis presents a new distributed method for creating accurate road grade maps for vehicle control applications. Standard heavy duty vehicles in normal operation are used to collect measurements. Estimates from multiple passes along a road segment are merged to form a road grade map, which improves each time a vehicle retraces a route. The design and implementation of the road grade estimator are described, and the performance is experimentally evaluated using real vehicles. Three different grade estimation methods, based on different assumption on the road grade signal, are proposed and compared. They all use data from sensors that are standard equipment in heavy duty vehicles. Measurements of the vehicle speed and the engine

  20. Report of the Chief Inspector of Marine Accidents into the grounding of the tanker Sea Empress at Milford Haven between 15 and 21 February 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    The motor tanker, Sea Empress, was loaded with cargo of 130,018 tonnes of light crude oil when she went aground while entering the harbour at Milford Haven in the United Kingdom on 15th February 1996. About 2,500 tonnes of crude oil were released from damaged cargo tanks when the vessel first grounded. In preparation for a lightening operation, the Sea Empress was first manoeuvred into deeper water then, on 17th February, turned in order to be re-anchored head to wind in the deteriorating weather conditions. Control was lost and the vessel grounded again. Over the next four days the tanker went aground on a number of occasions before being successfully re-floated, taken to a berth within the Haven and the remainder of the cargo discharged. A further 69,300 tonnes of oil were lost to the sea over the period of salvage. The initial grounding and the salvage operation are analysed. The cause of the initial grounding was found to be pilot error. In addition to the bad weather, the lack of tugs of sufficient power and manoeuvrability, and inadequate understanding of the local tidal currents have been identified as the factors which extended the time taken to carry out the salvage operation. Recommendations are made in the light of the findings. (UK)

  1. Road profile estimation of city roads using DTPS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qi; McDaniel, J. Gregory; Sun, Nian X.; Wang, Ming L.

    2013-04-01

    This work presents a non-destructive and non-contact acoustic sensing approach for measuring road profile of road and bridge deck with vehicles running at normal speed without stopping traffic. This approach uses an instantaneous and real-time dynamic tire pressure sensor (DTPS) that can measure dynamic response of the tire-road interaction and increases the efficiency of currently used road profile measuring systems with vehicle body-mounted profilers and axle-mounted accelerometers. In this work, a prototype of real-time DTPS system has been developed and demonstrated on a testing van at speeds from 5 to 80 miles per hour (mph). A data analysis algorithm has been developed to remove axle dynamic motions from the measured DTPS data and to find the transfer function between dynamic tire pressure change and the road profile. Field test has been performed to estimate road profiles. The road profile resolution is approximately 5 to 10 cm in width and sensitivity is 0. 3 cm for the height road surface features at driving speeds of 5 to 80 mph.

  2. Transport roads on peatland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jonsson, G

    1984-01-01

    Laboratory tests have given good experiences to develop the technology of building transport roads for truck on peat bogs. The experiences can be summarized in the following points: The bearing capacity can be increased 15-20 times by mixing down, to the depth of 0,5 m, a mixture of gypsum and T-lime. high bearing surface capacity has been achieved at laboratory tests by mixing sulfonated lignin/sodiumbichromate or cement into peat. These mixtures can take a load of 610 kPa will be tested in the field. An ordinary base machine can be used with some modifications for the new technique. Costs for building roads and stores with the new technique can save 6 MSEK/year in Sweden. Remainig problems at full scale tests are: Testroads should be built to get knowledge of settlement, bearing capacity cost of maintenance etc. Heavy metals pollution. Machinery for transportation and admixture of the stabilizing agents must be deloped. By experience a good mixture between firm soil and peat is difficult to achieve. Technique and dimensioning to make a soft mixture ought to be studied.

  3. Emissions of road transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maekelae, K.; Tuominen, A.

    2001-01-01

    Information on the emissions and energy consumption of different vehicles per transported amount of goods has up to last years been minimal. The unit emissions mean the amount of harmful compounds in the flue gases of a vehicle per service, time or energy unit. National three-year MOBILE 2-research program, started in 1999, determines the unit emissions of all the traffic sectors in Finland. VTT Building and Transport mainly carry out the research, but the Institute of Transportation Engineering of the Tampere University of Technology (TTKK) is responsible for a part of the research. The objective of the project is to create common rules for the determination of unit emissions values, and to determine the best possible values for Finnish conditions. Unit emission data is mainly needed for evaluation of the environmental impacts of production plants and other activities containing transportation of commodities. At the web sites of VTT Building and Transport there are about 60 pages of text and tables (about 4000 values) on unit emissions. The URL of the pages is http://www.vtt.fi/rte/projects/lipastoe/index.htm. These web pages present data on all the transportation sectors (road, railroad, water and air transportation), most of the materials concerning road transportation. Following compounds and values are included: CO, HC, NO x , particulates, SO 2 , CO 2 and energy consumption. Methane and nitrous oxide emissions values have also been presented

  4. Mine haul road fugitive dust emission and exposure characterisation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thompson, R.J.; Visser, A.T. [University of Pretoria, Pretoria (South Africa). Dept. of Mining Engineering

    2001-03-01

    Excessive dust generation from mine haul roads is a problem common to most surface coal mining operations. Optimal wearing course material selection parameters reduce, but do not toally eliminate the potential to produce dust. For existing operations, which may not have optimally designed and maintained roads, the problem of identifying the haul road dust defect, quantifying its impact on both safety and health and assigning priorities within the constraints of limited capital and manpower is problematic. This is reflected in the fact that most surface mine operators agree dust-free roads are desirable, but find it difficult to translate this into cost-effective betterment activities. The aim of this paper is to describe fugitive dust emission and exposure characteristics associated with ultra-heavy mine haul trucks running on unpaved mine haul roads. Models are described which enable mines to assess the likely dustiness of their chosen haul road material as a function of surface loading of fines, traffic types and volume, together with various material parameters. By combining these models with the results of quantitative exposure profiling, a mine can, in conjunction with the assessment, determine the most cost- and safety-effective haul road dust management strategy. 18 refs., 10 figs., 2 tabs.

  5. Considering Variable Road Geometry in Adaptive Vehicle Speed Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinping Yan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Adaptive vehicle speed control is critical for developing Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS. Vehicle speed control considering variable road geometry has become a hotspot in ADAS research. In this paper, first, an exploration of intrinsic relationship between vehicle operation and road geometry is made. Secondly, a collaborative vehicle coupling model, a road geometry model, and an AVSC, which can respond to variable road geometry in advance, are developed. Then, based on H∞ control method and the minimum energy principle, a performance index is specified by a cost function for the proposed AVSC, which can explicitly consider variable road geometry in its optimization process. The proposed AVSC is designed by the Hamilton-Jacobi Inequality (HJI. Finally, simulations are carried out by combining the vehicle model with the road geometry model, in an aim of minimizing the performance index of the AVSC. Analyses of the simulation results indicate that the proposed AVSC can automatically and effectively regulate speed according to variable road geometry. It is believed that the proposed AVSC can be used to improve the economy, comfort, and safety effects of current ADAS.

  6. Research on Dynamic Optimization for Road-friendly Vehicle Suspension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu Yongjie

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The heavy vehicle brings large dynamic loads to the road surface, which would reduce vehicle ride comfort and shorten road service life. The structure characteristic of heavy vehicle suspension has a significant impact on vehicle performance. Based on the D'Alembert principle, the dynamics models of independent and integral balanced suspension are proposed considering mass and inertia of balancing rod. The sprung mass acceleration and the tire dynamic force for two kinds of balanced suspension and the traditional quarter vehicle model are compared in frequency-domain and time-domain respectively. It is concluded that a quarter vehicle model simplified for balanced suspension could be used to evaluate the ride comfort of vehicle well, but it has some limitations in assessing the vehicle road-friendliness. Then, the sprung mass acceleration and the road damage coefficients are also analyzed under different vehicle design and running parameters at detail. Some conclusions are obtained: low suspension stiffness, high suspension damping and low tire stiffness are all favorable to improve vehicle performance; there is a saturation range of suspension damping enhancing vehicle performance; improving the road surface roughness and avoiding the no-load running are two effective methods to accomplish the better ride comfort and road-friendliness. The suspension stiffness and damping parameters are chosen for optimal parameters matching of road friendliness based on the approximation optimization method.

  7. 2013 Tanker Vessel Density

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Automatic Identification Systems (AIS) are a navigation safety device that transmits and monitors the location and characteristics of many vessels in U.S. and...

  8. Adaptive Hybrid Control of Vehicle Semiactive Suspension Based on Road Profile Estimation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yechen Qin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A new road estimation based suspension hybrid control strategy is proposed. Its aim is to adaptively change control gains to improve both ride comfort and road handling with the constraint of rattle space. To achieve this, analytical expressions for ride comfort, road handling, and rattle space with respect to road input are derived based on the hybrid control, and the problem is transformed into a MOOP (Multiobjective Optimization Problem and has been solved by NSGA-II (Nondominated Sorting Genetic Algorithm-II. A new road estimation and classification method, which is based on ANFIS (Adaptive Neurofuzzy Inference System and wavelet transforms, is then presented as a means of detecting the road profile level, and a Kalman filter is designed for observing unknown states. The results of simulations conducted with random road excitation show that the efficiency of the proposed control strategy compares favourably to that of a passive system.

  9. 25 CFR 170.405 - Can tribal transportation planning funds be used for road construction and other projects?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... INTERIOR LAND AND WATER INDIAN RESERVATION ROADS PROGRAM Planning, Design, and Construction of Indian... funds be used for road construction and other projects? Yes, any tribe can request to have its planning... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Can tribal transportation planning funds be used for road...

  10. 77 FR 3123 - Special Regulations, Areas of the National Park System, Cape Hatteras National Seashore-Off-Road...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-23

    ..., Areas of the National Park System, Cape Hatteras National Seashore--Off-Road Vehicle Management AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This rule designates off-road vehicle (ORV... operation of motor vehicles off of roads within areas [[Page 3124

  11. Improving road safety: Experiences from the Netherlands

    OpenAIRE

    Hagenzieker, M.P.

    2012-01-01

    Dr. Hagenzieker's research and education activities focus on the road safety effects of the transport system, with particular interest in road user behaviour aspects. Her PhD-research was on the effects of rewards on road user behaviour.

  12. Road safety in developing countries.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schreuder, D.A.

    1991-01-01

    This paper presents a classification of countries (developing and developed alike), divided into two main categories: an economical and historical entry. When road safety problems are placed into the economical context, it then appears that, among other things: (1) The road safety problem in the

  13. Road geometry as a factor for musculoskeletal injuries due to road traffic accidents in Sub-Himalayan State of Himachal Pradesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunil Kumar Raina

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Road traffic accidents (RTAs kill 1.25 million people each year and injure between 20 and 50 million more people with many incurring a disability as a result of their injury. The road environment (design and geometry can affect driver speed choice, thereby increasing chances of accidents.Materials and Methods: Patients attending tertiary care center for musculoskeletal injuries after an RTA were enrolled in the study. The data were collected using a standard questionnaire. The details on the geometry of the road (type of road; highway or other, metaled or nonmetaled, straight, and curved were obtaine through inspection wherever possible. Results: Majority of the RTAs occurred on state highways (n = 154/313, 49.7% followed by national highways (NH (n = 94/313, 30%. Link roads account for comparatively less number (n = 65/313, 20.7% of cases. Majority of the accidents occurred on metaled road (n = 268, 85.6%; however, the association of different vehicles involved in RTA with the condition of road was not found to be significant statistically (P > 0.5. Further, the majority of the RTA occurred on straight roads (n = 204, 65.1%. Conclusion: Road geometry is an important factor in RTAs as drivers generally tend to choose their speed based on their perception of the appropriate speed for the road geometry.

  14. Noise Costs from Road Transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margorínová, Martina; Trojanová, Mária; Decký, Martin; Remišová, Eva

    2018-06-01

    Building and improving road infrastructure in Slovakia is currently influenced by the amount of state funding. Therefore, it is necessary to determine the effectiveness of each proposed solution of road project, which is based on life-cycle costs. Besides capital costs, social costs are also important, which valued the negative impacts due to road construction and operation on road users, the environment, and the population living in the affected area. Some components of social costs have shortcomings in quantifying and valuating, which need to be resolved. The one of important components which affects human health and the value of an area, and have some shortcomings are noise costs. Improvement of this component will lead to more accurate valuation of economic efficiency of roads.

  15. Gender Stereotypes among Road Users

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kabalevskaya, Alexandra I.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes the mechanism of stereotyping as exemplified by gender stereotypes of road users. Gender stereotypes are not only viewed as an a priori image of a percept, but also examined ‘in action’ — at the very moment of their actualization with road users. In the paper we have identified the content of road users’ gender stereotypes; analyzed the behaviour of male and female drivers, pinpointing a number of gender-specific behavioural features; demonstrated that male and female driving differ from each other in terms of speed, intensity and roughness; and identified the conditions and mechanisms underlying the actualization of gender stereotypes. Based on video and audio materials, we have found that drivers’ gender-specific behavioural features are perceivable to road users: such features trigger the actualization of gender stereotypes as attributive schemes, which determine the interaction between road users, while also laying the foundation for gender stereotypes.

  16. Road Signs: Geosemiotics and Human Mobility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hamid, Salmiah Binti Abdul

    In order to provide an overview of the state-of-the-art developments, this thesis presents a theoretical lens that is used to anchor the subjects of the studies of ‘people’, ‘road signs’ and ‘built environment’ through the theories of geosemiotics and mobility. The fields of geosemiotics and mobi......In order to provide an overview of the state-of-the-art developments, this thesis presents a theoretical lens that is used to anchor the subjects of the studies of ‘people’, ‘road signs’ and ‘built environment’ through the theories of geosemiotics and mobility. The fields of geosemiotics...... and mobility are important aspects of this research; they provide another theoretical challenge in the form of merging these two disciplines in the analysis in order to enhance a dialogue between the fields of urban design and graphic design practices. Thus, the interrelation between the two theories will help...... to answer the question of whether road signs have significant impact on human behaviour when moving in an urban environment. Selected cities in Denmark and Scotland were used as study areas in this research project. The methods were conducted within urban settings as well as controlled settings...

  17. A General Overview of Electric Road Vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lamblin, Veronique

    2018-01-01

    In July 2017 Nicolas Hulot, the French Minister of Ecological and Inclusive Transition, presented a climate plan featuring an end to electricity generation from coal by 2022, a reduction in the nuclear component of electricity supply by one third, a total ban on the sale of petrol or diesel cars by 2040 and an incentive scheme designed gradually to remove polluting vehicles from the roads. Other European partners are following suit and promoting the spread of electric vehicles (Norway, Germany, Netherlands etc.). Yet is this the panacea that will meet the targets for greenhouse gas reduction in the battle against climate change? Futuribles examines the question in this issue with two articles: the first of these by Pierre Bonnaure, above, assesses the forces driving the spread of electric cars and the impediments to that process; this second article by Veronique Lamblin offers a general over - view of electric road vehicles (passenger cars, heavy good vehicles, bicycles etc.) throughout the world. (author)

  18. Joint road safety operations in tunnels and open roads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adesiyun, Adewole; Avenoso, Antonio; Dionelis, Kallistratos; Cela, Liljana; Nicodème, Christophe; Goger, Thierry; Polidori, Carlo

    2017-09-01

    The objective of the ECOROADS project is to overcome the barrier established by the formal interpretation of the two Directives 2008/96/EC and 2004/54/EC, which in practice do not allow the same Road Safety Audits/Inspections to be performed inside tunnels. The projects aims at the establishment of a common enhanced approach to road infrastructure and tunnel safety management by using the concepts and criteria of the Directive 2008/96/CE on road infrastructure safety management and the results of related European Commission (EC) funded projects. ECOROADS has already implemented an analysis of national practices regarding Road Safety Inspections (RSI), two Workshops with the stakeholders, and an exchange of best practices between European tunnel experts and road safety professionals, which led to the definition of common agreed safety procedures. In the second phase of the project, different groups of experts and observers applied the above common procedures by inspecting five European road sections featuring both open roads and tunnels in Belgium, Albania, Germany, Serbia and Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia. This paper shows the feedback of the 5 joint safety operations and how they are being used for a set of - recommendations and guidelines for the application of the RSA and RSI concepts within the tunnel safety operations.

  19. GIS Data Based Automatic High-Fidelity 3D Road Network Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jie; Shen, Yuzhong

    2011-01-01

    3D road models are widely used in many computer applications such as racing games and driving simulations_ However, almost all high-fidelity 3D road models were generated manually by professional artists at the expense of intensive labor. There are very few existing methods for automatically generating 3D high-fidelity road networks, especially those existing in the real world. This paper presents a novel approach thai can automatically produce 3D high-fidelity road network models from real 2D road GIS data that mainly contain road. centerline in formation. The proposed method first builds parametric representations of the road centerlines through segmentation and fitting . A basic set of civil engineering rules (e.g., cross slope, superelevation, grade) for road design are then selected in order to generate realistic road surfaces in compliance with these rules. While the proposed method applies to any types of roads, this paper mainly addresses automatic generation of complex traffic interchanges and intersections which are the most sophisticated elements in the road networks

  20. Accident risk and factors regarding non-motorised road users

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agerholm, Niels; Andersen, Camilla Sloth

    2015-01-01

    Almost half of all traffic fatalities worldwide are non-motorised road users (NMRUs). In Denmark, the number has increased with about 30%. NMRUs consist of about 63% of the injured in the Danish traffic. Much has been done to reduce the number of injured NMRUs with counterparts, while little effort...... is put into the reduction of the vast majority of the accidents, NMRU single accidents, which are about 90% of all injured NMRUs. There are no efficient tools available to reduce this number. A significantly better designed, maintained, and illuminated road network would most likely help. However......, that is expensive and not possible for most road authorities. Despite this, the challenges with NMRUs in single accidents need more attention, if road safety is to be improved. The situation in Denmark is more than likely the case in many other countries as well; although the documentation is scarce....

  1. Coal transportation road damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burtraw, D.; Harrison, K.; Pawlowski, J.A.

    1994-01-01

    Heavy trucks are primarily responsible for pavement damage to the nation's highways. In this paper we evaluate the pavement damage caused by coal trucks. We analyze the chief source of pavement damage (vehicle weight per axle, not total vehicle weight) and the chief cost involved (the periodic overlay that is required when a road's surface becomes worn). This analysis is presented in two stages. In the first section we present a synopsis of current economic theory including simple versions of the formulas that can be: used to calculate costs of pavement wear. In the second section we apply this theory to a specific example proximate to the reference environment for the Fuel Cycle Study in New Mexico in order to provide a numerical measure of the magnitude of the costs

  2. Road safety in practice

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    On the 23 and 25 September come and test your driving skills and your reflexes on the two days of road safety in practice! To conclude the poster and article campaign on this topic which started last year, CERN now comes to the practical part with demonstrations, like a spectacular overturning test, information stands, where you can meet safety personnel from France, Switzerland and CERN, and discussions & debates. Come to ... ... the Meyrin site on 23 September: - From 8:30 hrs, stands and demonstrations on the parking site Cèdres, behind the Restaurant no. 1. - From 9:30 hrs, discussions and debates in the main auditorium. ... the Prévessin site on 25 September: - From 8:30 hrs, stands and demonstrations on the parking site of the building 866. - From 14:00 hrs, discussions and debates in the AB auditorium, building 864.

  3. Calibration of the inertial consistency index to assess road safety on horizontal curves of two-lane rural roads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llopis-Castelló, David; Camacho-Torregrosa, Francisco Javier; García, Alfredo

    2018-05-26

    One of every four road fatalities occurs on horizontal curves of two-lane rural roads. To this regard, many studies have been undertaken to analyze the crash risk on this road element. Most of them were based on the concept of geometric design consistency, which can be defined as how drivers' expectancies and road behavior relate. However, none of these studies included a variable which represents and estimates drivers' expectancies. This research presents a new local consistency model based on the Inertial Consistency Index (ICI). This consistency parameter is defined as the difference between the inertial operating speed, which represents drivers' expectations, and the operating speed, which represents road behavior. The inertial operating speed was defined as the weighted average operating speed of the preceding road section. In this way, different lengths, periods of time, and weighting distributions were studied to identify how the inertial operating speed should be calculated. As a result, drivers' expectancies should be estimated considering 15 s along the segment and a linear weighting distribution. This was consistent with drivers' expectancies acquirement process, which is closely related to Short-Term Memory. A Safety Performance Function was proposed to predict the number of crashes on a horizontal curve and consistency thresholds were defined based on the ICI. To this regard, the crash rate increased as the ICI increased. Finally, the proposed consistency model was compared with previous models. As a conclusion, the new Inertial Consistency Index allowed a more accurate estimation of the number of crashes and a better assessment of the consistency level on horizontal curves. Therefore, highway engineers have a new tool to identify where road crashes are more likely to occur during the design stage of both new two-lane rural roads and improvements of existing highways. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. COLUROUTE : a mobile gonio-reflectometer to characterize the road surface photometry

    OpenAIRE

    MUZET, Valérie; PAUMIER, Jean Luc; GUILLARD, Yannick

    2008-01-01

    Designing a lighting installation involves accounting for site-specific geometric parameters and photometric characteristics of both the light sources and the road surface. The standard tool for characterizing road surface photometry is the reduced luminance coefficient table (or R-table), as defined in the 70's by the CIE. However, recent studies have shown that these tables are no longer representative. In this context, measuring road photometry is necessary for optimizing a lighting ins...

  5. Road safety and road traffic accidents in Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    Mansuri, Farah A.; Al-Zalabani, Abdulmohsen H.; Zalat, Marwa M.; Qabshawi, Reem I.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To identify the changing trends and crucial preventive approaches to road traffic accidents (RTAs) adopted in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) over the last 2.5 decades, and to analyze aspects previously overlooked. Methods: This systematic review was based on evidence of RTAs in KSA. All articles published during the last 25 years on road traffic accident in KSA were analyzed. This study was carried out from December 2013 to May 2014 in the Department of Family and Community Med...

  6. Road Transportable Analytical Laboratory system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finger, S.M.; Keith, V.F.; Spertzel, R.O.; De Avila, J.C.; O'Donnell, M.; Vann, R.L.

    1993-09-01

    This developmental effort clearly shows that a Road Transportable Analytical Laboratory System is a worthwhile and achievable goal. The RTAL is designed to fully analyze (radioanalytes, and organic and inorganic chemical analytes) 20 samples per day at the highest levels of quality assurance and quality control. It dramatically reduces the turnaround time for environmental sample analysis from 45 days (at a central commercial laboratory) to 1 day. At the same time each RTAL system will save the DOE over $12 million per year in sample analysis costs compared to the costs at a central commercial laboratory. If RTAL systems were used at the eight largest DOE facilities (at Hanford, Savannah River, Fernald, Oak Ridge, Idaho, Rocky Flats, Los Alamos, and the Nevada Test Site), the annual savings would be $96,589,000. The DOE's internal study of sample analysis needs projects 130,000 environmental samples requiring analysis in FY 1994, clearly supporting the need for the RTAL system. The cost and time savings achievable with the RTAL system will accelerate and improve the efficiency of cleanup and remediation operations throughout the DOE complex

  7. [Prevention of road accidents in the road haulage field].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosso, G L; Zanelli, R; Corino, P; Bruno, S

    2007-01-01

    Every year many traffic accidents with fatal outcomes occur in our Country. According to the recent indications of the European Agency for Safety and Health at Work, the Piedmont region has financed the plan: Prevention of road accidents in the road haulage field. The aims of the plan are to stimulate transport companies to the target of road safety and to improve and enforce sanitary surveillance, in order to improve the safety on road haulage and to prevent traffic injuries. the plan foresees, over a period of two years, a few encounters with all the interested parties (companies, police forces, labour unions etc). During those encounters we have to give a questionnaire for evaluating the companies' knowledge about the problem and we have to choose a common plan with the aim of improving road safety. The Piedmont regional plan recalls the need to increase the attention to numerous and diversified hazards for safety on road haulage. It also imposes the choice of measures that include: risk assessment, health education, technical and environmental prevention, sanitary surveillance and clinical interventions (diagnosis and rehabilitation of occupational accidents).

  8. Road Network Selection Based on Road Hierarchical Structure Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HE Haiwei

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available A new road network selection method based on hierarchical structure is studied. Firstly, road network is built as strokes which are then classified into hierarchical collections according to the criteria of betweenness centrality value (BC value. Secondly, the hierarchical structure of the strokes is enhanced using structural characteristic identification technique. Thirdly, the importance calculation model was established according to the relationships among the hierarchical structure of the strokes. Finally, the importance values of strokes are got supported with the model's hierarchical calculation, and with which the road network is selected. Tests are done to verify the advantage of this method by comparing it with other common stroke-oriented methods using three kinds of typical road network data. Comparision of the results show that this method had few need to semantic data, and could eliminate the negative influence of edge strokes caused by the criteria of BC value well. So, it is better to maintain the global hierarchical structure of road network, and suitable to meet with the selection of various kinds of road network at the same time.

  9. The hybrid electric vehicle revolution, off road

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wood, B.E. [ePower Technologies (United States)

    2004-07-01

    In this presentation the author presents concepts and details of hybrid vehicles in general, including their benefits, then describes off-road hybrid vehicles. Hybrid vehicles have been experimented with for over a century. Demonstrator vehicles include a diesel-electric tractor, an electric lawn tractor, a hybrid snow thrower, and a hybrid wheel loader. A duty cycle for the loader is shown with battery-assisted acceleration, and regenerative braking. Both of these keep the size of the engine small, the loads on it less variable, thus improving fuel economy. A hybrid excavator and its duty cycle is shown. A fuel cell lift truck that is currently in design is illustrated. The author then describes the possibilities of the hydrogen economy where sourcing and infrastructure are yet to be demonstrated on a commercial scale. The author predicts that off-road hydrogen fuel cell vehicles will be commercially viable five years before on-road applications. The author predicts hydrogen sourced from biogas, photovoltaics, and wind power. tabs, figs.

  10. A road safety course with a difference!

    CERN Document Server

    2008-01-01

    Are you feeling brave? Then why not sign up for a road safety session. 10 to 14 November is road safety week at CERN and the Touring Club Suisse (TCS) will be in the Main Building, 500, with several hair-raising activities to try. If you walk into the foyer of building 500 between 10 and 14 November you might, at first glance, think that you have walked into a fairground. But the machines designed to spin you upside down and slide you also are actually part of CERN’s road safety week. Every day during the week there will six sessions each lasting about an hour where you can try out a series of exhilarating activities. If you are feeling brave enough you could try and get yourself out of the crash simulator. Not as easy as it sounds - after being spun over several times you can experience what it’s like to try and escape from an overturned car - dangling upside down attached only by your seatbelt! During the course instructors from the Touring Club Suisse (TC...

  11. AUTOMATIC ROAD GAP DETECTION USING FUZZY INFERENCE SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Hashemi

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Automatic feature extraction from aerial and satellite images is a high-level data processing which is still one of the most important research topics of the field. In this area, most of the researches are focused on the early step of road detection, where road tracking methods, morphological analysis, dynamic programming and snakes, multi-scale and multi-resolution methods, stereoscopic and multi-temporal analysis, hyper spectral experiments, are some of the mature methods in this field. Although most researches are focused on detection algorithms, none of them can extract road network perfectly. On the other hand, post processing algorithms accentuated on the refining of road detection results, are not developed as well. In this article, the main is to design an intelligent method to detect and compensate road gaps remained on the early result of road detection algorithms. The proposed algorithm consists of five main steps as follow: 1 Short gap coverage: In this step, a multi-scale morphological is designed that covers short gaps in a hierarchical scheme. 2 Long gap detection: In this step, the long gaps, could not be covered in the previous stage, are detected using a fuzzy inference system. for this reason, a knowledge base consisting of some expert rules are designed which are fired on some gap candidates of the road detection results. 3 Long gap coverage: In this stage, detected long gaps are compensated by two strategies of linear and polynomials for this reason, shorter gaps are filled by line fitting while longer ones are compensated by polynomials.4 Accuracy assessment: In order to evaluate the obtained results, some accuracy assessment criteria are proposed. These criteria are obtained by comparing the obtained results with truly compensated ones produced by a human expert. The complete evaluation of the obtained results whit their technical discussions are the materials of the full paper.

  12. Automatic Road Gap Detection Using Fuzzy Inference System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashemi, S.; Valadan Zoej, M. J.; Mokhtarzadeh, M.

    2011-09-01

    Automatic feature extraction from aerial and satellite images is a high-level data processing which is still one of the most important research topics of the field. In this area, most of the researches are focused on the early step of road detection, where road tracking methods, morphological analysis, dynamic programming and snakes, multi-scale and multi-resolution methods, stereoscopic and multi-temporal analysis, hyper spectral experiments, are some of the mature methods in this field. Although most researches are focused on detection algorithms, none of them can extract road network perfectly. On the other hand, post processing algorithms accentuated on the refining of road detection results, are not developed as well. In this article, the main is to design an intelligent method to detect and compensate road gaps remained on the early result of road detection algorithms. The proposed algorithm consists of five main steps as follow: 1) Short gap coverage: In this step, a multi-scale morphological is designed that covers short gaps in a hierarchical scheme. 2) Long gap detection: In this step, the long gaps, could not be covered in the previous stage, are detected using a fuzzy inference system. for this reason, a knowledge base consisting of some expert rules are designed which are fired on some gap candidates of the road detection results. 3) Long gap coverage: In this stage, detected long gaps are compensated by two strategies of linear and polynomials for this reason, shorter gaps are filled by line fitting while longer ones are compensated by polynomials.4) Accuracy assessment: In order to evaluate the obtained results, some accuracy assessment criteria are proposed. These criteria are obtained by comparing the obtained results with truly compensated ones produced by a human expert. The complete evaluation of the obtained results whit their technical discussions are the materials of the full paper.

  13. Exploring delay causes of road construction projects in

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Remon F. Aziz

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Construction delays are a common phenomenon in civil engineering projects in Egypt including road construction projects. Therefore, it is essential to study and analyze causes of road construction delays. This paper studied a list of construction delay causes gathered from literature having different types of construction, different countries, different periods and different numbers of delay causes and delay groups. A questionnaire and personal interviews have formed the basis of this paper listing 293 delay causes. The questionnaire survey was distributed to 500 construction participants and 389 were received who represent consultants, contractors and site/design engineers excluding the owner representing the government in road projects as one party only. Relative Importance Index (RII is calculated and according to the highest values the top twenty and the least twenty delay causes of construction projects in Egypt are determined. A case study is analyzed and compared to the most important delay causes in the paper. The test results reveal good correlation of causes and groups between contractors and site/design engineers and between consultants and site design engineers and a somewhat low correlation between contractors and consultants. So there are no root causes that can be taking for granted to be most or least effective delay causes. Proposed model for predicting actual road construction project duration was developed; a real case study tested the accuracy of proposed model. According to the analysis of case study, the most contributing causes and groups to delays were discussed, and some future recommendations were proposed in order to control and minimize delays in road construction projects. These findings can be helpful for project managers to mitigate the road construction delays in Egypt. In order to effectively overcome the road construction delays in developing countries, suggestions are made for fundamental and large

  14. Transportation and utilization of aggregates for road construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fladvad, Marit; Wigum, Børge Johannes; Aurstad, Joralf

    2017-04-01

    Road construction relies on non-renewable aggregate resources as the main construction material. Sources for high-quality aggregate resources are scattered, and requirements for aggregate quality can cause long transport distances between quarry and road construction site. In European countries, the average aggregate consumption per capita is 5 tonnes per year (European Aggregates Association, 2016), while the corresponding figure for Norway is 11 tonnes (Neeb, 2015). Half the Norwegian aggregate production (sand, gravel and crushed rock) is used for road construction. In Norway, aggregate resources have been considered abundant. However, stricter requirement for aggregate quality, and increased concern for sustainability and environmental issues have spurred focus on reduction of transport lengths through better utilization of local aggregate materials. In this research project, information about pavement design and aggregate quality requirements were gathered from a questionnaire sent to selected experts from the World Road Organization (PIARC), European Committee for Standardization (CEN), and Nordic Road Association (NVF). The gathered data was compared to identify differences and similarities for aggregate use in the participating countries. Further, the data was compared to known data from Norway regarding: - amount of aggregates required for a road structure - aggregate transport lengths and related costs A total of 18 countries participated in the survey, represented by either road authorities, research institutions, or contractors. There are large variations in practice for aggregate use among the represented countries, and the selection of countries is sufficient to illustrate a variety in pavement designs, aggregate sizes, and quality requirements for road construction. There are considerable differences in both pavement thickness and aggregate sizes used in the studied countries. Total thicknesses for pavement structures varies from 220 mm to 2400 mm

  15. Road safety audits: The way forward

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Labuschagne, FJJ

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The South African Road Safety Manual (SARSM) was published in 1999 and includes guidelines on road safety audits (RSA). The development of SARSM was a proactive process for improving the road environment with respect to road safety but was never...

  16. Recognizablility of rural roads in the Netherlands.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aarts, L.T. & Davidse, R.J.

    2008-01-01

    In the Netherlands, the Sustainable Safety vision is an important guide in improving road safety. It is considered that the road environment shouldconform to the expectations of road users in order to prevent errors thatcould lead to road crashes. These expectations are based on the characteristics

  17. 30 CFR 817.151 - Primary roads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Primary roads. 817.151 Section 817.151 Mineral... roads. Primary roads shall meet the requirements of § 817.150 and the additional requirements of this section. (a) Certification. The construction or reconstruction of primary roads shall be certified in a...

  18. 30 CFR 816.151 - Primary roads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Primary roads. 816.151 Section 816.151 Mineral... roads. Primary roads shall meet the requirements of section 816.150 and the additional requirements of this section. (a) Certification. The construction or reconstruction of primary roads shall be certified...

  19. 25 CFR 265.3 - Roads prohibited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Roads prohibited. 265.3 Section 265.3 Indians BUREAU OF... ON INDIAN RESERVATIONS § 265.3 Roads prohibited. (a) Within the boundaries of this officially... highways, roads, truck trails, work roads, and all other types of ways constructed to make possible the...

  20. Curry County E-911 Roads

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Line attributes denoting all street centerlines in Curry County. Dataset includes all centerlines for all county maintained roads, all state and federal highways,and...

  1. Appropriate roads for rural access

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Paige-Green, P

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available be reduced, the result remains environmentally unsustainable. Low cost but appropriate techniques for upgrading these roads cost-effectively to sealed standards have been implemented in many countries recently. These techniques optimize the use of local...

  2. The Dilemma of Mountain Roads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mountain roads and trails are proliferating throughout developing Southeast Asia with severe but largely unrecognized long-term consequences related to effects of landslides and surface erosion on communities and downstream resources.

  3. DOT Basemap Roads - All Types

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This data set contains roadway centerlines for roads found on the USGS 1:24,000 mapping series. Those roadways that are Interstate, Trunk Highway, or CSAH (county...

  4. 2013 CERN Road Race

    CERN Document Server

    Klaus Hanke

    2013-01-01

    The 2013 annual CERN Road Race will be held on Wednesday 18 September at 6.15 p.m.   The 5.5 km race takes place over 3 laps of a 1.8 km circuit in the West Area of the Meyrin site, and is open to everyone working at CERN and their families. There are runners of all speeds, with times ranging from under 17 to over 34 minutes, and the race is run on a handicap basis, by staggering the starting times so that (in theory) all runners finish together. Children (< 15 years) have their own race over 1 lap of 1.8 km. As usual, there will be a “best family” challenge (judged on best parent and best child). Trophies are awarded in the usual men’s, women’s and veterans’ categories, and there is a challenge for the best age/performance. Every adult will receive a souvenir prize, financed by a registration fee of 10 CHF. Children enter free (each child will receive a medal). More information, and the online entry form, can be found here.

  5. 2013 CERN Road Race

    CERN Document Server

    Klaus Hanke

    2013-01-01

    The 2013 edition of the annual CERN Road Race will be held on Wednesday 18 September at 18.15.   The 5.5 km race takes place over 3 laps of a 1.8 km circuit in the West Area of the Meyrin site, and is open to everyone working at CERN and their families. There are runners of all speeds, with times ranging from under 17 to over 34 minutes, and the race is run on a handicap basis, by staggering the starting times so that (in theory) all runners finish together. Children (< 15 years) have their own race over 1 lap of 1.8 km. As usual, there will be a “best family” challenge (judged on best parent + best child). Trophies are awarded in the usual men’s, women’s and veterans’ categories, and there is a challenge for the best age/performance. Every adult will receive a souvenir prize, financed by a registration fee of 10 CHF. Children enter free (each child will receive a medal). More information, and the online entry form, can be found at: htt...

  6. Using Incomplete Information for Complete Weight Annotation of Road Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Bin; Kaul, Manohar; Jensen, Christian Søndergaard

    2014-01-01

    to solve the problem. Specifically, the problem is modeled as a regression problem and solved by minimizing a judiciously designed objective function that takes into account the topology of the road network. In particular, the use of weighted PageRank values of edges is explored for assigning appropriate...... weights to all edges, and the property of directional adjacency of edges is also taken into account to assign weights. Empirical studies with weights capturing travel time and GHG emissions on two road networks (Skagen, Denmark, and North Jutland, Denmark) offer insight into the design properties...

  7. Using Incomplete Information for Complete Weight Annotation of Road Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Bin; Kaul, Manohar; Jensen, Christian S.

    2014-01-01

    ground-truth travel cost. A general framework is proposed to solve the problem. Specifically, the problem is modeled as a regression problem and solved by minimizing a judiciously designed objective function that takes into account the topology of the road network. In particular, the use of weighted Page......Rank values of edges is explored for assigning appropriate weights to all edges, and the property of directional adjacency of edges is also taken into account to assign weights. Empirical studies with weights capturing travel time and GHG emissions on two road networks offer insight into the design properties...

  8. How effective is road mitigation at reducing road-kill? A meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rytwinski, Trina; Soanes, Kylie; Jaeger, Jochen A.G.; Fahrig, Lenore; Findlay, C.S.; Houlahan, Jeff; Ree, van der Rodney; Grift, van der Edgar A.

    2016-01-01

    Road traffic kills hundreds of millions of animals every year, posing a critical threat to the populations of many species. To address this problem there are more than forty types of road mitigation measures available that aim to reduce wildlife mortality on roads (road-kill). For road planners,

  9. Innovation as Road Safety Felicitator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahoo, S.; Mitra, A.; Kumar, J.; Sahoo, B.

    2018-03-01

    Transportation via Roads should only be used for safely commuting from one place to another. In 2015, when 1.5 Million people, across the Globe started out on a journey, it was meant to be their last. The Global Status Report on Road Safety, 2015, reflected this data from 180 countries as road traffic deaths, worldwide. In India, more than 1.37 Lakh[4] people were victims of road accidents in 2013 alone. That number is more than the number of Indians killed in all the wars put together. With these disturbing facts in mind, we found out some key ambiguities in the Indian Road Traffic Management systems like the non-adaptive nature to fluctuating traffic, pedestrians and motor vehicles not adhering to the traffic norms strictly, to name a few. Introduction of simple systems would greatly erase the effects of this silent epidemic and our Project aims to achieve the same. It would introduce a pair of Barricade systems to cautiously separate the pedestrians and motor vehicles to minimise road mishaps to the extent possible. Exceptional situations like that of an Ambulance or any emergency vehicles will be taken care off by the use of RFID tags to monitor the movement of the Barricades. The varied traffic scenario can be guided properly by using the ADS-B (Automatic Detection System-Broadcast) for monitoring traffic density according to the time and place.

  10. Tourist Assessment of Croatian Roads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joso Vurdelja

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available As environmentally clean industry and as the most significantworld industry regarding the number of employees and theimpact on the social and economic development of a countTy,tourism represents an extremely important social and economicbranch for Croatia.As a functional unit of the mutually interweaving socialand economic relations, tourism is a complex phenomenonwhose development depends on a number of compatible factorsout of which the transport infrastructure is considered to bethe most obvious and almost the most significant one, i.e. thefirst among the equal. This is primarily true for road traffic infrastructure,since road trai!Sportation of tourists by passengercars, buses and motorcycles accounts for more than 90 percentof the overall tourist journeys in Croatia.The topic of this paper is precisely, among other things, thetourist assessment of the Croatian road network by means ofthe so-called econometric model regarding the contribution ofa certain road route to the overall tourist traffic.Practical implementation of the elaborated problematicshould result in the improvement of road infrastructure eitherby constructing new motonvays and/or roads, or by reconstructionand/or modernisation of the existing traffic routes.

  11. Cultural Resource Investigations for a Multipurpose Haul Road on the Idaho National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brenda R. Pace; Cameron Brizzee; Hollie Gilbert; Clayton Marler; Julie Braun Williams

    2010-08-01

    The U. S. Department of Energy, Idaho Operations Office is considering options for construction of a multipurpose haul road to transport materials and wastes between the Materials and Fuels Complex (MFC) and other Idaho National Laboratory (INL) Site facilities. The proposed road will be closed to the public and designed for limited year-round use. Two primary options are under consideration: a new route south of the existing T-25 power line road and an upgrade to road T-24. In the Spring of 2010, archaeological field surveys and initial coordination and field reconnaissance with representatives from the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes were completed to identify any resources that may be adversely affected by the proposed road construction and to develop recommendations to protect any listed or eligible for listing on the National Register of Historic Places. The investigations showed that 24 archaeological resources and one historic marker are located in the area of potential effects for road construction and operation south of the T-25 powerline road and 27archaeological resources are located in the area of potential effects for road construction and operation along road T-24. Generalized tribal concerns regarding protection of natural resources were also documented in both road corridors. This report outlines recommendations for additional investigations and protective measures that can be implemented to minimize adverse impacts to the identified resources.

  12. PROPOSAL OF VOIVODESHIP ROAD SAFETY IMPROVEMENT PROGRAMME

    OpenAIRE

    Tomasz SZCZURASZEK; Jan KEMPA

    2016-01-01

    The article presents a proposal of the ‘GAMBIT KUJAWSKO-POMORSKI’ Road Safety Improvement Programme. The main idea of the Programme is to establish and initiate systems that will be responsible for the most important areas of activity within road safety, including road safety control, supervision, and management systems in the whole Voivodeship. In total, the creation and start of nine such systems has been proposed, namely: the Road Safety Management, the Integrated Road Rescue Service, the ...

  13. Detection and Extraction of Roads from High Resolution Satellites Images with Dynamic Programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benzouai, Siham; Smara, Youcef

    2010-12-01

    The advent of satellite images allows now a regular and a fast digitizing and update of geographic data, especially roads which are very useful for Geographic Information Systems (GIS) applications such as transportation, urban pollution, geomarketing, etc. For this, several studies have been conducted to automate roads extraction in order to minimize the manual processes [4]. In this work, we are interested in roads extraction from satellite imagery with high spatial resolution (at best equal to 10 m). The method is semi automatic and follows a linear approach where road is considered as a linear object. As roads extraction is a pattern recognition problem, it is useful, above all, to characterize roads. After, we realize a pre-processing by applying an Infinite Size Edge Filter -ISEF- and processing method based on dynamic programming concept, in particular, Fishler algorithm designed by F*.

  14. An overview of road damages due to flooding: Case study in Kedah state, Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Muhd Shahril Nizam; Ghani, Abdul Naser Abdul

    2017-10-01

    Flooding occurs frequently in many countries including Malaysia. Floods in Malaysia are usually due to heavy and prolonged rainfall, uncontrolled development, and drainage systems that are not being monitored. Road damage due to flooding event can cause huge expenditures for the post-flooding rehabilitation and maintenance. The required maintenance and rehabilitation could upset the original life cycle cost estimations. Data on road statistics were obtained from the Highway Planning Division, Ministry of Works Malaysia and data on flooding was collected from the Department of Irrigation and Drainage Malaysia for events between 2012 and 2015. The pilot sites were selected based on its historical cases of floods that caused road damages in Kedah. The pilot site indicated that the impact of flooding on road infrastructures systems can be used to plan better road design and maintenances. It also revealed that it costs more than RM 1 million to reinstate roads damaged by flooding in a typical district annually.

  15. Road Transportable Analytical Laboratory (RTAL) system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The goal of this contractual effort is the development and demonstration of a Road Transportable Analytical Laboratory (RTAL) system to meet the unique needs of the Department of Energy (DOE) for rapid, accurate analysis of a wide variety of hazardous and radioactive contaminants in soil, groundwater, and surface waters. This laboratory system will be designed to provide the field and laboratory analytical equipment necessary to detect and quantify radionuclides, organics, heavy metals and other inorganics, and explosive materials. The planned laboratory system will consist of a set of individual laboratory modules deployable independently or as an interconnected group to meet each DOE site's specific needs

  16. Effects of logging road removal on suspended sediment loads and turbidity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randy D. Klein; Vicki Ozaki

    2017-01-01

    Poorly designed and unmaintained logging roads pose serious risks to aquatic ecosystems through sediment delivery from stream crossing failures and landslides. Redwood National Park (RNP) in northern coastal California has been implementing a restoration program for almost four decades, focused primarily on removing (decommissioning) abandoned logging roads on former...

  17. Technology transfer of large aggregate mix base [LAMBS] on Johannesburg roads.

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Horak, E

    1994-10-01

    Full Text Available [LAMBS] for which new mix design procedures had been developed. An early focus of this research was the constructability issues associated with this road building material. The superior performance of LAMBS was validated by means of accelerated road tests...

  18. Relationship between accidents and road user behaviour : an integral research programme.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noordzij, P. & Horst, A.R.A. van der

    1993-01-01

    The analysis of accident statistics and the study of road user behaviour are the traditional methods of road safety research. Neither of these involve direct observation of accidents. A research programme has been designed in order to: (1) gain insight into the generation process of traffic

  19. Relationship between accidents and road user behaviour : an integral research programme.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noordzij, P.C. & Horst, A.R.A. van der

    1996-01-01

    The analysis of accident statistics and the study of road user behaviour are the traditional methods of road safety research. Neither of these involve direct observation of accidents. A research programme has been designed to gain insight in the generation process of traffic accidents as well as to

  20. Overview of approaches to sustain forest productivity during forest road development and timber harvesting activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles R. Blinn; Rick Dahlamn; James A. Mattson; Michael A. Thompson

    1999-01-01

    Various approaches are available to minimize impacts on forest productivity during forest road building and timber harvesting activities. These approaches include a variety of practices and technologies. They include practices such as reducing road and trail development, using designated trails, and leaving slash at the stump on nutrient deficient sites. Technology...

  1. Road safety and road traffic accidents in Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansuri, Farah A.; Al-Zalabani, Abdulmohsen H.; Zalat, Marwa M.; Qabshawi, Reem I.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To identify the changing trends and crucial preventive approaches to road traffic accidents (RTAs) adopted in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) over the last 2.5 decades, and to analyze aspects previously overlooked. Methods: This systematic review was based on evidence of RTAs in KSA. All articles published during the last 25 years on road traffic accident in KSA were analyzed. This study was carried out from December 2013 to May 2014 in the Department of Family and Community Medicine, Taibah University, Al-Madinah Al-Munawwarah, KSA. Results: Road traffic accidents accounted for 83.4% of all trauma admissions in 1984-1989, and no such overall trend was studied thereafter. The most frequently injured body regions as reported in the latest studies were head and neck, followed by upper and lower extremities, which was found to be opposite to that of the studies reported earlier. Hospital data showed an 8% non-significant increase in road accident mortalities in contrast to police records of a 27% significant reduction during the years 2005-2010. Excessive speeding was the most common cause reported in all recent and past studies. Conclusion: Disparity was common in the type of reporting of RTAs, outcome measures, and possible causes over a period of 2.5 decade. All research exclusively looked into the drivers’ faults. A sentinel surveillance of road crashes should be kept in place in the secondary and tertiary care hospitals for all regions of KSA. PMID:25828277

  2. Community Road Safety Initiatives for the Minerals Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim Horberry

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Major companies in the minerals industry are increasingly recognizing that their operations have an impact in the wider community. Regarding transportation issues, this impact extends beyond purely the safety of company vehicle fleets to consideration of Community Road Safety (CRS concerns, which address the driving, walking, and riding practices of community members in a locale with increased heavy vehicle traffic. Our assessment here of national and international trends in approaches to road safety awareness and associated road safety strategies is meant to inform companies in the minerals industry of developments that can influence the design of their road safety initiatives. The review begins by considering the overall road safety context and the dominant “safe systems” framework employed internationally. Thereafter, it considers what is typically included in CRS initiatives for the minerals industry. Three case studies are then presented to highlight approaches that feature exemplary collaboration, design, implementation, or impact. Thereafter, we analyze lessons learnt by key researchers and practitioners in the CRS field. Finally, we conclude that best CRS practices for the minerals industry rely on eleven factors, including for example collaboration with local entities and stepwise implementation.

  3. Real-time 3D reconstruction of road curvature in far look-ahead distance from analysis of image sequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behringer, Reinhold

    1995-12-01

    A system for visual road recognition in far look-ahead distance, implemented in the autonomous road vehicle VaMP (a passenger car), is described. Visual cues of a road in a video image are the bright lane markings and the edges formed at the road borders. In a distance of more than 100 m, the most relevant road cue is the homogeneous road area, limited by the two border edges. These cues can be detected by the image processing module KRONOS applying edge detection techniques and areal 2D segmentation based on resolution triangles (analogous to a resolution pyramid). An estimation process performs an update of a state vector, which describes spatial road shape and vehicle orientation relative to the road. This state vector is estimated every 40 ms by exploiting knowledge about the vehicle movement (spatio-temporal model of vehicle dynamics) and the road design rules (clothoidal segments). Kalman filter techniques are applied to obtain an optimal estimate of the state vector by evaluating the measurements of the road border positions in the image sequence taken by a set of CCD cameras. The road consists of segments with piecewise constant curvature parameters. The borders between these segments can be detected by applying methods which have been developed for detection of discontinuities during time-discrete measurements. The road recognition system has been tested in autonomous rides with VaMP on public Autobahnen in real traffic at speeds up to 130 km/h.

  4. A Few Large Roads or Many Small Ones? How to Accommodate Growth in Vehicle Numbers to Minimise Impacts on Wildlife

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, Jonathan R.; Lunney, Daniel; Callaghan, John; McAlpine, Clive A.

    2014-01-01

    Roads and vehicular traffic are among the most pervasive of threats to biodiversity because they fragmenting habitat, increasing mortality and opening up new areas for the exploitation of natural resources. However, the number of vehicles on roads is increasing rapidly and this is likely to continue into the future, putting increased pressure on wildlife populations. Consequently, a major challenge is the planning of road networks to accommodate increased numbers of vehicles, while minimising impacts on wildlife. Nonetheless, we currently have few principles for guiding decisions on road network planning to reduce impacts on wildlife in real landscapes. We addressed this issue by developing an approach for quantifying the impact on wildlife mortality of two alternative mechanisms for accommodating growth in vehicle numbers: (1) increasing the number of roads, and (2) increasing traffic volumes on existing roads. We applied this approach to a koala (Phascolarctos cinereus) population in eastern Australia and quantified the relative impact of each strategy on mortality. We show that, in most cases, accommodating growth in traffic through increases in volumes on existing roads has a lower impact than building new roads. An exception is where the existing road network has very low road density, but very high traffic volumes on each road. These findings have important implications for how we design road networks to reduce their impacts on biodiversity. PMID:24646891

  5. A few large roads or many small ones? How to accommodate growth in vehicle numbers to minimise impacts on wildlife.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan R Rhodes

    Full Text Available Roads and vehicular traffic are among the most pervasive of threats to biodiversity because they fragmenting habitat, increasing mortality and opening up new areas for the exploitation of natural resources. However, the number of vehicles on roads is increasing rapidly and this is likely to continue into the future, putting increased pressure on wildlife populations. Consequently, a major challenge is the planning of road networks to accommodate increased numbers of vehicles, while minimising impacts on wildlife. Nonetheless, we currently have few principles for guiding decisions on road network planning to reduce impacts on wildlife in real landscapes. We addressed this issue by developing an approach for quantifying the impact on wildlife mortality of two alternative mechanisms for accommodating growth in vehicle numbers: (1 increasing the number of roads, and (2 increasing traffic volumes on existing roads. We applied this approach to a koala (Phascolarctos cinereus population in eastern Australia and quantified the relative impact of each strategy on mortality. We show that, in most cases, accommodating growth in traffic through increases in volumes on existing roads has a lower impact than building new roads. An exception is where the existing road network has very low road density, but very high traffic volumes on each road. These findings have important implications for how we design road networks to reduce their impacts on biodiversity.

  6. A few large roads or many small ones? How to accommodate growth in vehicle numbers to minimise impacts on wildlife.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, Jonathan R; Lunney, Daniel; Callaghan, John; McAlpine, Clive A

    2014-01-01

    Roads and vehicular traffic are among the most pervasive of threats to biodiversity because they fragmenting habitat, increasing mortality and opening up new areas for the exploitation of natural resources. However, the number of vehicles on roads is increasing rapidly and this is likely to continue into the future, putting increased pressure on wildlife populations. Consequently, a major challenge is the planning of road networks to accommodate increased numbers of vehicles, while minimising impacts on wildlife. Nonetheless, we currently have few principles for guiding decisions on road network planning to reduce impacts on wildlife in real landscapes. We addressed this issue by developing an approach for quantifying the impact on wildlife mortality of two alternative mechanisms for accommodating growth in vehicle numbers: (1) increasing the number of roads, and (2) increasing traffic volumes on existing roads. We applied this approach to a koala (Phascolarctos cinereus) population in eastern Australia and quantified the relative impact of each strategy on mortality. We show that, in most cases, accommodating growth in traffic through increases in volumes on existing roads has a lower impact than building new roads. An exception is where the existing road network has very low road density, but very high traffic volumes on each road. These findings have important implications for how we design road networks to reduce their impacts on biodiversity.

  7. How Effective Is Road Mitigation at Reducing Road-Kill? A Meta-Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Rytwinski, Trina; Soanes, Kylie; Jaeger, Jochen A. G.; Fahrig, Lenore; Findlay, C. Scott; Houlahan, Jeff; van der Ree, Rodney; van der Grift, Edgar A

    2016-01-01

    Road traffic kills hundreds of millions of animals every year, posing a critical threat to the populations of many species. To address this problem there are more than forty types of road mitigation measures available that aim to reduce wildlife mortality on roads (road-kill). For road planners, deciding on what mitigation method to use has been problematic because there is little good information about the relative effectiveness of these measures in reducing road-kill, and the costs of these...

  8. Road Nail: Experimental Solar Powered Intelligent Road Marking System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samardžija, Dragan; Teslić, Nikola; Todorović, Branislav M.; Kovač, Erne; Isailović, Đorđe; Miladinović, Bojan

    2012-03-01

    Driving in low visibility conditions (night time, fog or heavy precipitation) is particularly challenging task with an increased probability of traffic accidents and possible injuries. Road Nail is a solar powered intelligent road marking system of wirelessly networked signaling devices that improve driver safety in low visibility conditions along hazardous roadways. Nails or signaling devices are autonomous nodes with capability to accumulate energy, exchange wireless messages, detect approaching vehicles and emit signalization light. We have built an experimental test-bed that consists of 20 nodes and a cellular gateway. Implementation details of the above system, including extensive measurements and performance evaluations in realistic field deployments are presented. A novel distributed network topology discovery scheme is proposed which integrates both sensor and wireless communication aspects, where nodes act autonomously. Finally, integration of the Road Nail system with the cellular network and the Internet is described.

  9. Road safety analysis on Achmad Yani frontage road Surabaya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machsus; Prayogo, I.; Chomaedhi; Hayati, D. W.; Utanaka, A.

    2017-11-01

    This research discusses road safety analysis on the operation of frontage road on the west side of Achmad Yani Road Surabaya. This research began by conducting survey on secondary data of traffic accidents. In addition, primary data survey was conducted to obtain traffic data, geometric road data, and other supporting data at the study site along the west side frontage of Ahmad Yani Road Surabaya. Devices used in this research include camera, handy cam, speed gun, counters of vehicles, rolling meter, computer and others. In outline, the stages to conduct this research are divided into 4 stages, namely 1.the preparation stage, 2.data collection and processing, 3. analysis and discussion, and 4. conclusion. The results of this study showed that the accident characteristics of the frontage road are (i) 3 accidents occured per month, (ii) motorcycles was accounted for the largest proportion of accidents which amounted to 74.6 percent, (iii) there were 3 accident victims per month, and (iv) material losses per month worths 1.2 million. The accident rate in 2016 was 0.04 crashes per one million vehicle travels per kilometer, while during 2 months in 2017 it was 0.15 accidents per one million vehicle travels per kilometer. Black spot area of accident is located on Sta 2 + 800 to 2 + 900 which is in front of Graha Pena building and DBL Arena. The high rate of accidents is influenced by the speed of the vehicle which 85 percentile exceeds the speed limit of 40km per hour.

  10. Agricultural vehicles and rural road safety: tackling a persistent problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaarsma, Catharinus F; De Vries, Jasper R

    2014-01-01

    Crashes involving agricultural vehicles (AVs) on public roads are an increasing road safety problem. We aim to analyze developments in the appearance and severity of these accidents, identify influencing factors, and draw lessons for possible interventions for accident prevention within the context of modern mechanized agriculture. To analyze developments in the appearance of accidents we use a subset of accidents with AVs involved on public roads in The Netherlands aggregated per year for 1987-2010. To identify and explore preventive measures we use an in-depth study of the Dutch Safety Board. With a study of international literature we put our findings in a wider context. During this time span, Dutch annual averages show 15 registered fatal accidents involving AVs, 93 with hospitalization and 137 with slight injuries. For nonfatal accidents, the numbers are decreasing over time. This decrease is proportionate to the reduction in the total number of traffic victims. For fatalities, however, the number is stable, increasing its proportion in all traffic fatalities from 1 in 1987 to 2 percent in 2010. Related to the number of inhabitants, this number is 2 times the value in the UK and 3 times the value in the United States. Influencing factors can be related to the 3 road system components (AV, driver, and infrastructure). Weak points for AVs are the view from the driver's seat, visibility at night, permitted vehicle width, and crash aggressivity (large kinetic energy of the AV) that is transferred to other road users in case of a collision. Important factors identified for the driver are poor risk perception and high risk acceptance, in combination with speeding, dysfunctional use such as the use of AVs as modes of transport to and from school, and driving on public roads without protecting or removing protruding and sharp components. For infrastructure, the focus is on road design and separation of AVs from other motor vehicles. Lessons to be learned follow from

  11. Teale Major Roads

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — California Spatial Information System (CaSIL) is a project designed to improve access to geo-spatial and geo-spatial related data information throughout the state of...

  12. Automated Systems for Road Safety control in a Developing World ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An Automated system was finally designed and developed for road safety control. This Automated system is believed to have the capacity to minimize or eliminate the problems identified in this study on traffic control in a developing world. Key words: drivers, traffic situation information, accident causation, FRSC ...

  13. The Road Side Unit for the A270 Test Site

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Passchier, I.; Driessen, B.J.F.; Heijligers, B.M.R.; Netten, B.D.; Schackmann, P.P.M.

    2011-01-01

    The design and implementation of the Road Side Unit for the A270 Test Site is presented. It consists of a sensor platform and V2I communication platform with full coverage of the test site. A service platform enables applications to make use of these facilities. The RSU will be used both for the

  14. How traffic law enforcement can contribute to safer roads.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adminaite, D. Jost, G. Stipdonk, H. & Ward, H.

    2016-01-01

    Exceeding speed limits, drink or distracted driving and failure to wear a seat belt are still the leading causes of death and serious injury on European roads. Despite legislation designed to prevent all four, many drivers involved in fatal traffic collisions clearly failed to comply with one or

  15. Simulating autonomous driving styles: Accelerations for three road profiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karjanto Juffrizal

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a new experimental approach to simulate projected autonomous driving styles based on the accelerations at three road profiles. This study was focused on the determination of ranges of accelerations in triaxial direction to simulate the autonomous driving experience. A special device, known as the Automatic Acceleration and Data controller (AUTOAccD, has been developed to guide the designated driver to accomplish the selected accelerations based on the road profiles and the intended driving styles namely assertive, defensive and light rail transit (LRT. Experimental investigations have been carried out at three different road profiles (junction, speed hump, and corner with two designated drivers with five trials on each condition. A driving style with the accelerations of LRT has also been included in this study as it is significant to the present methodology because the autonomous car is predicted to accelerate like an LRT, in such a way that it enables the users to conduct activities such as working on a laptop, using personal devices or eating and drinking while travelling. The results demonstrated that 92 out of 110 trials of the intended accelerations for autonomous driving styles could be achieved and simulated on the real road by the designated drivers. The differences between the two designated drivers were negligible, and the rates of succeeding in realizing the intended accelerations were high. The present approach in simulating autonomous driving styles focusing on accelerations can be used as a tool for experimental setup involving autonomous driving experience and acceptance.

  16. Relationship between use of mobile phone and road traffic accident ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: Car telephone use has increased against the background of rapid escalation in general mobile phone services and use. The study was designed to determine the relationship between the use of mobile phone while driving and the incidence of road traffic accident amongst motorists in Zaria. Method: The study ...

  17. Study of monolithic prestressed reinforced concrete overhead road.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ya.I. Kovalchyk

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Results of inspection and testing of monolithic prestressed reinforced concrete road trestle built in Kyiv are considered. The analysis of the gained results has shown that parametres correspond to the requirements of current standards on design of bridges.

  18. Material and component road map

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korea Industrial Technology Foundation Editorial Department

    2007-09-01

    This book is comprised of two parts. One is divided into five chapters, which deals with summary of environment-friendly coloring technology, industry tendency of environment-friendly coloring technology, industry analysis and vision of environment-friendly coloring technology, analysis on core technology for environment-friendly coloring technology, with eco-friendly water paint and painting skill and eco-friendly surface treatment skill using electrochemical process. The other is divided into five chapters, which handles outline of display printing technology road map market trends of display painting, analysis and vision of display painting deduction of core-technology for display painting and analysis of core-technology for display painting. It has Diagrams for eco-friendly coloring technology road map and core-technology display painting road map.

  19. Is vertebrate mortality correlated to potential permeability by underpasses along low-traffic roads?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado, Juan D; Morelli, Federico; Arroyo, Natalia L; Durán, Jorge; Rodríguez, Alexandra; Rosal, Antonio; Palenzuela, María Del Valle; Rodríguez, Jesús D G P

    2018-09-01

    Road permeability to animal movements depends among several factors on structures which, integrated in the road design, operate as safe conducts to mitigate vehicle collision and barrier effects. There is abundant evidence that wildlife makes use of such structures as safe passages to cross roads. We analyzed the spatial relationship between road drainage elements (N = 253; mostly culverts) as potential faunal underpasses, and mortality due to vehicle collisions in two seasons and on four relatively low-traffic roads (roads, identifying and characterizing all potential underpasses. Overall frequencies of casualties and spatial distribution were highly variable both within and among these roads. We obtained an estimation of potential permeability for the different roads. We detected, located and described a wide supply and a very variable pattern of drainage culverts and other underpasses, with differences among roads in passage attributes potentially affecting permeability for wildlife, such as spatial arrangement, number, density (frequency or concentration of passages) and dimensions. We used Mantel tests to assess spatial congruence of passages and road-killed animals. We applied generalized linear mixed models fitted by maximum likelihood through Akaike Information Criterion to explain the variation in the distance of the 238 casualties to the nearest underpasses, with road transect and season as random factors, and traffic intensity, speed and vertebrate class as fixed effects. Both road-killed animals and underpass distribution followed aggregated patterns, and casualties were not significantly related to underpasses along any of the 4 roads. There were no differences in distance of casualties to the nearest underpass for the three vertebrate classes. Although existing underpasses were abundant, we could not correlate potential permeability with reduced mortality along these roads, and other factors potentially affecting roadkill aggregations should be

  20. CFD analysis for road vehicles - case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugen Mihai NEGRUS

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This is a case study on the influence of the lower part of road vehicles on the global drag characteristics. Reducing overall drag by redesigning the lower part of the road vehicles has a potential of almost 20% in the overall drag breakdown, mainly due to the viscous effects and the fluidic interaction of the flow under the car with the typical bluff body flow pattern behind the vehicle. A special parameterization is proposed for the global shape of the sedan car, with respect to the lower part of the body, taking into account most of the specificities of the system. For such a complex interaction, CFD analysis is probably the only efficient tool in order to assess specific design parameterization of a generic car shape. Building on the credibility of such instruments is one of the major goals of this paper. Also, with respect to a target sedan car configuration, examples of successful design strategies are presented. Based on the CFD results, possible strategies to be used in order to reduce viscous drag and global drag characteristics are proposed.

  1. Autonomous emergency braking systems adapted to snowy road conditions improve drivers' perceived safety and trust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koglbauer, Ioana; Holzinger, Jürgen; Eichberger, Arno; Lex, Cornelia

    2018-04-03

    This study investigated drivers' evaluation of a conventional autonomous emergency braking (AEB) system on high and reduced tire-road friction and compared these results to those of an AEB system adaptive to the reduced tire-road friction by earlier braking. Current automated systems such as the AEB do not adapt the vehicle control strategy to the road friction; for example, on snowy roads. Because winter precipitation is associated with a 19% increase in traffic crashes and a 13% increase in injuries compared to dry conditions, the potential of conventional AEB to prevent collisions could be significantly improved by including friction in the control algorithm. Whereas adaption is not legally required for a conventional AEB system, higher automated functions will have to adapt to the current tire-road friction because human drivers will not be required to monitor the driving environment at all times. For automated driving functions to be used, high levels of perceived safety and trust of occupants have to be reached with new systems. The application case of an AEB is used to investigate drivers' evaluation depending on the road condition in order to gain knowledge for the design of future driving functions. In a driving simulator, the conventional, nonadaptive AEB was evaluated on dry roads with high friction (μ = 1) and on snowy roads with reduced friction (μ = 0.3). In addition, an AEB system adapted to road friction was designed for this study and compared with the conventional AEB on snowy roads with reduced friction. Ninety-six drivers (48 males, 48 females) assigned to 5 age groups (20-29, 30-39, 40-49, 50-59, and 60-75 years) drove with AEB in the simulator. The drivers observed and evaluated the AEB's braking actions in response to an imminent rear-end collision at an intersection. The results show that drivers' safety and trust in the conventional AEB were significantly lower on snowy roads, and the nonadaptive autonomous braking strategy was

  2. The potential for spills and leaks of hydraulic fracturing related fluids on well sites and from road incidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clancy, Sarah; Worrall, Fred; Davies, Richard; Gluyas, Jon

    2017-04-01

    recovered. The most common cause of leakage each year is equipment failure; these results highlight the need for good regulation and maintenance onsite. The UK's Institute of Directors suggests several shale gas production scenarios for the UK and how this would influence truck movement. One of their scenarios suggests the development of well pads with 10-wells and 40 laterals (one well pad with 10 well each with 4 laterals). This type of well pad would be projected to use 544,000 m3 of water, which would generate between 11155-31288 truck movements over 20 years, or 6.1-17.1 per day if averaged over 5 years. Dairy farmers in the UK produce 11 million m3 of milk a year, which if the tanker has a capacity of 30 m3, equates to approximately 366667 milk tanker journeys a year. This study assesses the number of road incidents and milk tanker spills and predicts the likelihood of such events for fluids involved in hydraulic fracturing.

  3. Carbon Nanomaterials for Road Construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaporotskova Irina Vladimirovna

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The requirement of developing and modernizing the roads in Russia and in the Volgograd region in particular, is based on need of expanding the directions of scientific research on road and transport complexes. They have to be aimed at the development of the theory of transport streams, traffic safety increase, and, first of all, at the application of original methods of road development and modernization, introduction of modern technologies and road-building materials.On the basis of the analysis of the plans for transportation sphere development in the Volgograd region assuming the need to apply the new technologies allowing to create qualitative paving, the authors propose the technology of creating a heavy-duty paving with the use of carbon nanomaterial. The knowledge on strengthening the characteristics of carbon nanotubes is a unique material for nanotechnology development which allowed to assume the analysis of general information about asphalt concrete. The analysis showed that carbon nanotubes can be used for improvement of operational characteristics of asphalt concrete, and it is possible to carry out additives of nanotubes in hot as well as in cold bitumen. The article contains the basic principles of creation of the new road material received by means of bitumen reinforcing by carbon nanotubes. The structures received by the offered technique binding on the basis of the bitumens modified by carbon nanomaterial can be used for coverings and bases on highways of all categories in all road and climatic zones of Russia. The technical result consists in increasing the durability and elasticity of the received asphalt covering, and also the increase of water resistance, heat resistance and frost resistance, the expansion of temperature range of its laying in the field of negative temperatures.

  4. Virtual testing of speed reduction schemes on urban collector roads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domenichini, Lorenzo; Branzi, Valentina; Meocci, Monica

    2018-01-01

    Urban collector roads are complex driving environments often encompassing both the mobility and the access road functions. In these conditions motorized traffic and vulnerable road users compete continually. Speed reduction measures may play a relevant role in these contexts, provided that such measures are also designed in compliance with the driver's capabilities and expectations. The paper describes a test procedure using driving simulation experiments, designed to evaluate the reconfiguration project of Via Pistoiese, an urban road collector located in Florence (Italy). The road improvement design consisted of several engineering treatments aimed to reduce and homogenize the driving speed, as well as to manage the co-existence of the different road users and mainly to protect pedestrians. The main focus of the research was to understand if the drivers' behaviour was according to the design hypothesis before the safety treatments are implemented in the real world. Due to the multiple engineering treatments included in the reconfiguration project, the evaluation of the overall safety effectiveness of the project rather than the single treatment safety impact was the main concern of the research study. In addition, the study aimed to assess the usefulness of the considered testing method to understand how to integrate road design with drivers' performances, especially in heterogeneous traffic environments where drivers' behaviour plays a decisive role in the success of the proposed design solutions. Fifty-eight participants drove through two immersive virtual environments, reproducing the existing configuration and the project reconfiguration, while data relating to different driving aspects were collected. Two analyses were performed. The first was focused on the analysis of the mean speed profiles and revealed that the considered engineering treatments are able to control the speeding behaviour without providing a too high discomfort to the drivers. The second

  5. Accident prediction models for rural junctions on four European countries. Road Infrastructure Safety Management Evaluation Tools (RISMET), Deliverable No. 6.1.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Azeredo Lopes, S. de & Lourenço Cardoso, J.

    2014-01-01

    The "Road Infrastructure Safety Management Evaluation Tools (RISMET)" project targets objective A (Development of evaluation tools) of the Joint Call for Proposals for Safety at the Heart of Road Design ("The Call"). This project aims at developing suitable road safety engineering evaluation tools

  6. Self-compacting concrete mixtures for road BUILDING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tran Tuan My

    2012-10-01

    Therefore, effective concrete road pavements require self-compacting though non-segregating concrete mixtures to comply with the pre-set values of their properties, namely, bending and compressive strength, corrosion resistance, freeze resistance, etc. Acting in cooperation with Department of Technology of Binders and Concretes of MSUCE, NIIMosstroy developed and examined a self-compacting cast concrete mixture designated for durable monolithic road pavements. The composition in question was generated by adding a multi-component modifier into the mix. The modifier was composed of a hyperplasticiser, active (structureless fine and crystalline silica, and a concrete hardening control agent.

  7. Dynamic Eigenvalue Problem of Concrete Slab Road Surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawlak, Urszula; Szczecina, Michał

    2017-10-01

    The paper presents an analysis of the dynamic eigenvalue problem of concrete slab road surface. A sample concrete slab was modelled using Autodesk Robot Structural Analysis software and calculated with Finite Element Method. The slab was set on a one-parameter elastic subsoil, for which the modulus of elasticity was separately calculated. The eigen frequencies and eigenvectors (as maximal vertical nodal displacements) were presented. On the basis of the results of calculations, some basic recommendations for designers of concrete road surfaces were offered.

  8. Building lunar roads - An overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutledge, Bennett

    The problems involved in constructing lunar roads are explored. The main challenges are airlessness, low gravity, and solar effects, especially temperature extremes. Also involved are the expense of delivering equipment and material to the job site (especially for bridges and other structures), obtaining skilled labor, and providing maintenance. The lunar road will most likely be gravel, but with the size of the material closer to cobblestone to reduce scattering. They will probably be very winding, even on the flats, and feature numerous bridges and some cuts. This traffic will be mostly automatic or teleoperated cargo carriers with a handful of shirtsleeve-pressurized 'passenger cars' large enough to live in for several days.

  9. PUBLIC ACCEPTANCE OF ROAD-USER CHARGING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neil THORPE

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses upon public attitudes to and public acceptance of road-user charging as an effective means of managing travel demand, with the overall aim of identifying the characteristics of key interest groups, the kinds of attitudes they hold and their preferences for the distribution of the benefits of generated net revenues and released roadspace. It is argued that this knowledge can play a pivotal role in the design of road-user charging systems that satisfy two important criteria – namely, that they are capable of achieving their stated objectives and are generally acceptable to the public. A case-study of three toll-rings used for revenue generation by the Norwegian cities of Bergen, Oslo and Trondheim is selected, where a team of Norwegian interviewers administered a computer-based survey to a total of 756 respondents. Results of the analyses of the attitudinal data collected raise concerns about the approach of introducing initially low levels of road-use charge, designed to have negligible impacts on travel behaviour but to raise revenues to fund necessary improvements to public transport, both to familiarise private car-users with the principles of a pay-as-you-go system of charging and hopefully to reduce levels of public opposition prior to the introduction of the longer term objective of higher charges for traffic restraint. The timescale over which charges are increased may be crucial in terms of balancing a resistance to change in the longer term against the credibility of a system whose objectives are modified in the relatively short-term. The key conclusion from the first Stated Preference exercise is that there is a high degree of consensus among individuals on the importance of investing significant amounts of net revenues in new road infrastructure as well as improved public transport. The second Stated Preference exercise highlights respondents' concerns that the benefits in improved network performance achieved by a

  10. PHOTOGRAMMETRIC TECHNIQUES FOR ROAD SURFACE ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Knyaz

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The quality and condition of a road surface is of great importance for convenience and safety of driving. So the investigations of the behaviour of road materials in laboratory conditions and monitoring of existing roads are widely fulfilled for controlling a geometric parameters and detecting defects in the road surface. Photogrammetry as accurate non-contact measuring method provides powerful means for solving different tasks in road surface reconstruction and analysis. The range of dimensions concerned in road surface analysis can have great variation from tenths of millimetre to hundreds meters and more. So a set of techniques is needed to meet all requirements of road parameters estimation. Two photogrammetric techniques for road surface analysis are presented: for accurate measuring of road pavement and for road surface reconstruction based on imagery obtained from unmanned aerial vehicle. The first technique uses photogrammetric system based on structured light for fast and accurate surface 3D reconstruction and it allows analysing the characteristics of road texture and monitoring the pavement behaviour. The second technique provides dense 3D model road suitable for road macro parameters estimation.

  11. Naturalistic validation of an on-road driving test of older drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ott, Brian R; Papandonatos, George D; Davis, Jennifer D; Barco, Peggy P

    2012-08-01

    The objective was to compare a standardized road test to naturalistic driving by older people who may have cognitive impairment to define improvements that could potentially enhance the validity of road testing in this population. Road testing has been widely adapted as a tool to assess driving competence of older people who may be at risk for unsafe driving because of dementia; however, the validity of this approach has not been rigorously evaluated. For 2 weeks, 80 older drivers (38 healthy elders and 42 with cognitive impairment) who passed a standardized road test were video recorded in their own vehicles. Using a standardized rating scale, 4 hr of video was rated by a driving instructor. The authors examine weighting of individual road test items to form global impressions and to compare road test and naturalistic driving using factor analyses of these two assessments. The road test score was unidimensional, reflecting a major factor related to awareness of signage and traffic behavior. Naturalistic driving reflected two factors related to lane keeping as well as traffic behavior. Maintenance of proper lane is an important dimension of driving safety that appears to be relatively underemphasized during the highly supervised procedures of the standardized road test. Road testing in this population could be improved by standardized designs that emphasize lane keeping and that include self-directed driving. Additional information should be sought from observers in the community as well as crash evidence when advising older drivers who may be cognitively impaired.

  12. Habitat or matrix: which is more relevant to predict road-kill of vertebrates?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bueno, C; Sousa, C O M; Freitas, S R

    2015-11-01

    We believe that in tropics we need a community approach to evaluate road impacts on wildlife, and thus, suggest mitigation measures for groups of species instead a focal-species approach. Understanding which landscape characteristics indicate road-kill events may also provide models that can be applied in other regions. We intend to evaluate if habitat or matrix is more relevant to predict road-kill events for a group of species. Our hypothesis is: more permeable matrix is the most relevant factor to explain road-kill events. To test this hypothesis, we chose vertebrates as the studied assemblage and a highway crossing in an Atlantic Forest region in southeastern Brazil as the study site. Logistic regression models were designed using presence/absence of road-kill events as dependent variables and landscape characteristics as independent variables, which were selected by Akaike's Information Criterion. We considered a set of candidate models containing four types of simple regression models: Habitat effect model; Matrix types effect models; Highway effect model; and, Reference models (intercept and buffer distance). Almost three hundred road-kills and 70 species were recorded. River proximity and herbaceous vegetation cover, both matrix effect models, were associated to most road-killed vertebrate groups. Matrix was more relevant than habitat to predict road-kill of vertebrates. The association between river proximity and road-kill indicates that rivers may be a preferential route for most species. We discuss multi-species mitigation measures and implications to movement ecology and conservation strategies.

  13. Naturalistic Validation of an On-Road Driving Test of Older Drivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ott, Brian R.; Papandonatos, George D.; Davis, Jennifer D.; Barco, Peggy P.

    2013-01-01

    Objective The objective was to compare a standardized road test to naturalistic driving by older people who may have cognitive impairment to define improvements that could potentially enhance the validity of road testing in this population. Background Road testing has been widely adapted as a tool to assess driving competence of older people who may be at risk for unsafe driving because of dementia; however, the validity of this approach has not been rigorously evaluated. Method For 2 weeks, 80 older drivers (38 healthy elders and 42 with cognitive impairment) who passed a standardized road test were video recorded in their own vehicles. Using a standardized rating scale, 4 hr of video was rated by a driving instructor. The authors examine weighting of individual road test items to form global impressions and to compare road test and naturalistic driving using factor analyses of these two assessments. Results The road test score was unidimensional, reflecting a major factor related to awareness of signage and traffic behavior. Naturalistic driving reflected two factors related to lane keeping as well as traffic behavior. Conclusion Maintenance of proper lane is an important dimension of driving safety that appears to be relatively underemphasized during the highly supervised procedures of the standardized road test. Application Road testing in this population could be improved by standardized designs that emphasize lane keeping and that include self-directed driving. Additional information should be sought from observers in the community as well as crash evidence when advising older drivers who may be cognitively impaired. PMID:22908688

  14. Road dust from pavement wear and traction sanding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kupiainen, K.

    2007-07-01

    Vehicles affect the concentrations of ambient airborne particles through exhaust emissions, but particles are also formed in the mechanical processes in the tire-road interface, brakes, and engine. Particles deposited on or in the vicinity of the road may be re-entrained, or resuspended, into air through vehicle-induced turbulence and shearing stress of the tires. A commonly used term for these particles is 'road dust'. The processes affecting road dust emissions are complex and currently not well known. Road dust has been acknowledged as a dominant source of PM10 especially during spring in the sub-arctic urban areas, e.g. in Scandinavia, Finland, North America and Japan. The high proportion of road dust in sub-arctic regions of the world has been linked to the snowy winter conditions that make it necessary to use traction control methods. Traction control methods include dispersion of traction sand, melting of ice with brine solutions, and equipping the tires with either metal studs (studded winter tires), snow chains, or special tire design (friction tires). Several of these methods enhance the formation of mineral particles from pavement wear and/or from traction sand that accumulate in the road environment during winter. When snow and ice melt and surfaces dry out, traffic-induced turbulence makes some of the particles airborne. A general aim of this study was to study processes and factors underlying and affecting the formation and emissions of road dust from paved road surfaces. Special emphasis was placed on studying particle formation and sources during tire road interaction, especially when different applications of traction control, namely traction sanding and/or winter tires were in use. Respirable particles with aerodynamic diameter below 10 micrometers (PM10) have been the main concern, but other size ranges and particle size distributions were also studied. The following specific research questions were addressed: (i) How do traction

  15. A Modelling Framework for estimating Road Segment Based On-Board Vehicle Emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin-Jun, Yu; Ya-Lan, Liu; Yu-Huan, Ren; Zhong-Ren, Peng; Meng, Liu Meng

    2014-01-01

    Traditional traffic emission inventory models aim to provide overall emissions at regional level which cannot meet planners' demand for detailed and accurate traffic emissions information at the road segment level. Therefore, a road segment-based emission model for estimating light duty vehicle emissions is proposed, where floating car technology is used to collect information of traffic condition of roads. The employed analysis framework consists of three major modules: the Average Speed and the Average Acceleration Module (ASAAM), the Traffic Flow Estimation Module (TFEM) and the Traffic Emission Module (TEM). The ASAAM is used to obtain the average speed and the average acceleration of the fleet on each road segment using FCD. The TFEM is designed to estimate the traffic flow of each road segment in a given period, based on the speed-flow relationship and traffic flow spatial distribution. Finally, the TEM estimates emissions from each road segment, based on the results of previous two modules. Hourly on-road light-duty vehicle emissions for each road segment in Shenzhen's traffic network are obtained using this analysis framework. The temporal-spatial distribution patterns of the pollutant emissions of road segments are also summarized. The results show high emission road segments cluster in several important regions in Shenzhen. Also, road segments emit more emissions during rush hours than other periods. The presented case study demonstrates that the proposed approach is feasible and easy-to-use to help planners make informed decisions by providing detailed road segment-based emission information

  16. Driving behaviors and on-duty road accidents: a French case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fort, Emmanuel; Chiron, Mireille; Davezies, Philippe; Bergeret, Alain; Charbotel, Barbara

    2013-01-01

    A case-control study was carried out to identify driving behaviors associated with the risk of on-duty road accident and to compare driving behaviors according to the type of journey (on duty, commuting, and private) for on-duty road accident victims. Cases were recruited from the Rhône Road Trauma Registry between January 2004 and October 2005 and were on duty at the time of the accident. Control subjects were recruited from the electoral rolls of the case subjects' constituencies of residence. Cases' and controls' driving behavior data were collected by self-administered questionnaire. A logistic regression was performed to identify behavioral risk factors for on-duty road accidents, taking into account age, sex, place of residence, road accident risk exposure, socio-occupational category, and type of road user. A second analysis focused specifically on the case subjects, comparing their self-assessed usual behaviors according to the type of journey. Significant factors for multivariate analysis of on-duty road accidents were female gender, history of on-duty road accidents during the previous 10 years, severe time pressure at work, and driving a vehicle not belonging to the driver. On-duty road accident victims reported behavioral risk factors more frequently in relation to driving for work than driving for private reasons or commuting: nonsystematic seat belt use, cell phone use at least once daily while driving, and history of accidents with injury during the previous 10 years. This study provides knowledge on behavioral risk factors for on-duty road accidents and differences in behavior according to the type of journey for subjects who have been on-duty road accident victims. These results will be useful for the design of on-duty road risk prevention.

  17. MANAGEMENT PROGRAMS ROAD REPAIR WORKS OF THE ROADS NETWORK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Вікторія Василівна ІГНАТЮК

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses the model and algorithm optimization program of road repair works, with limited funds. Features introduction program for calculating rational level detection repair costs for the period of the program, which allows dos evolve a desired operating condition of the pavement.

  18. Marketization trajectories in the Danish road and park sectors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindholst, Andrej Christian; Hansen, Morten Balle; Petersen, Ole Helby

    2016-01-01

    (as providers of maintenance services) in the municipal road and park sectors in Denmark over the past 30 years. The study draws theoretically on historical institutionalism as an interpretive framework and empirically on findings from earlier research, register data from municipal accounts as well...... as new survey data. Findings – Marketization within the road and park sectors has historically taken place through gradual changes, in particular by processes of layering and displacement, which has added up to substantial transformations in both sectors. Transformations relate to the levels of private...... sector involvement, the purpose of using private contractors, the extent of competition and the design of contractual arrangements. The road sector has been a frontrunner in this marketization process, while the park sector increasingly has been “catching up.” Originality/value – The paper contributes...

  19. Numerical investigation of road salt impact on an urban wellfield.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bester, M L; Frind, E O; Molson, J W; Rudolph, D L

    2006-01-01

    The impact of road salt on a wellfield in a complex glacial moraine aquifer system is studied by numerical simulation. The moraine underlies an extensive urban and industrial landscape, which draws its water supply from >20 wellfields, several of which are approaching or have exceeded the drinking water limit for chloride. The study investigates the mechanisms of road salt infiltration, storage, and transport in the subsurface and assesses the effectiveness of mitigation measures designed to reduce the impact. The three-dimensional transport model accounts for increases in salt loading, as well as growth of the urbanized area and road network over the past 50 years. The simulations, which focus on one impacted wellfield, show chloride plumes originating mainly at arterial roads and migrating through aquitard windows into the water supply aquifers. The results suggest that the aquifer system contains a large and heterogeneously distributed mass of chloride and that concentrations in the aquifer can be substantially higher than the concentrations in the well water. Future impact scenarios indicate that although the system responds rapidly to reductions in salt loading, the residual chloride mass may take decades to flush out, even if road salting were discontinued. The implications with respect to urban wellfields in typical snow-belt areas are discussed.

  20. Landslide susceptibility and risk assessment: specificities for road networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellicani, Roberta; Argentiero, Ilenia; Parisi, Alessandro; Spilotro, Giuseppe

    2017-04-01

    hazard, which is a function of the return time, due to the lack of temporal data, was evaluated as a function of the landslide intensity (velocity and areal extent) and susceptibility. The direct consequences of instability on the roads were defined by combining exposure and vulnerability in a matrix. Exposure was evaluated in terms of amount of traffic, which was calculated along each road stretch, connecting two or more urban areas, as a function of the average of population of each centers. Vulnerability, which expresses the degree of damage, was assessed in function of the presence of criticalities along roads, which were ranked according to the severity of damages and type of performed reparation works. The consequences, combined with the hazard levels, allowed to assess the landslide risk, classified in low, medium and high levels. The risk map highlighted that about the 30% (392 km) of the examined road corridors is affected by high risk levels. The comparison between the risk map and the landslide inventory recognized along roads has also revealed that the 49.5% of landslides affects sections where the risk was evaluated high. The obtained risk classification of the roads represents a support for decision making and allows to identify the priorities for designing appropriate landslide mitigation plans.

  1. An expert-based approach to forest road network planning by combining Delphi and spatial multi-criteria evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayati, Elyas; Majnounian, Baris; Abdi, Ehsan; Sessions, John; Makhdoum, Majid

    2013-02-01

    Changes in forest landscapes resulting from road construction have increased remarkably in the last few years. On the other hand, the sustainable management of forest resources can only be achieved through a well-organized road network. In order to minimize the environmental impacts of forest roads, forest road managers must design the road network efficiently and environmentally as well. Efficient planning methodologies can assist forest road managers in considering the technical, economic, and environmental factors that affect forest road planning. This paper describes a three-stage methodology using the Delphi method for selecting the important criteria, the Analytic Hierarchy Process for obtaining the relative importance of the criteria, and finally, a spatial multi-criteria evaluation in a geographic information system (GIS) environment for identifying the lowest-impact road network alternative. Results of the Delphi method revealed that ground slope, lithology, distance from stream network, distance from faults, landslide susceptibility, erosion susceptibility, geology, and soil texture are the most important criteria for forest road planning in the study area. The suitability map for road planning was then obtained by combining the fuzzy map layers of these criteria with respect to their weights. Nine road network alternatives were designed using PEGGER, an ArcView GIS extension, and finally, their values were extracted from the suitability map. Results showed that the methodology was useful for identifying road that met environmental and cost considerations. Based on this work, we suggest future work in forest road planning using multi-criteria evaluation and decision making be considered in other regions and that the road planning criteria identified in this study may be useful.

  2. Distraction-related road traffic collisions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    drivers involved in road traffic collisions (RTC) were using mobile phones. Our study supports ... while driving. Keywords: Distraction, prevention, road traffic collision, mobile phone. ..... keeps us connected with others with great advantages.

  3. VT Data - E911 Road Centerlines

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) EmergencyE911_RDS was originally derived from RDSnn (now called TransRoad_RDS). "Zero-length ranges" in the ROADS layer pertain to grand-fathered...

  4. 2004 road traffic crashes in Queensland

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-05-01

    This report presents an overview of reported road traffic crashes in Queensland during : 2004 in the context of the previous five years based on data contained in the Queensland : Road Crash Information System maintained by the Department of Transpor...

  5. Honduras - Transportation and Farm to Market Roads

    Data.gov (United States)

    Millennium Challenge Corporation — The evaluation of the Transport Project and Farm to Market Roads Activity aimed to answer whether or not improved conditions throughout the road network: • Lowered...

  6. DNR State Forest Roads - WHEELS Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — Roads administered by the Commissioner of Natural Resources to provide access to lands administered by the Division of Forestry. These roads are generally open to...

  7. Introducing Dual Suspension System in Road Vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Imtiaz Hussain; Jawaid Daudpoto; Ali Asghar Memon

    2013-01-01

    The main objective of suspension system is to reduce the motions of the vehicle body with respect to road disturbances. The conventional suspension systems in road vehicles use passive elements such as springs and dampers to suppress the vibrations induced by the irregularities in the road. But these conventional suspension systems can suppress vibrations to a certain limit. This paper presents a novel idea to improve the ride quality of roads vehicles without compromising vehicle?s stability...

  8. Trismus: An unusual presentation following road accident

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thakur Jagdeep

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Trismus due to trauma usually follows road accidents leading to massive faciomaxillary injury. In the literature there is no report of a foreign body causing trismus following a road accident, this rare case is an exception. We present a case of isolated presentation of trismus following a road accident. This case report stresses on the thorough evaluation of patients presenting with trismus following a road accident.

  9. Salt on roads and the environment (VB)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hessberg, Philipp von; Jørgensen, Michael Søgaard

    2000-01-01

    This report descripes the extent of use of salt on roads in Denmark and the environmental consequences of this. Alternative strategies for reducing the risk of greasy roads and different ways of alleviating the vegetation are also discussed.The different consequences for the environment...... that this report discusses are:- The ground water.- Lakes and streams.- Plants and trees along roads.The consequences for the economy through usage of salt on roads has not been carried out....

  10. Road transport of LWR spent fuel in the Federal Republic of Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bach, R.

    1987-01-01

    Since 1967, when fuel from LWRs was first transported by road from the Kahl reactor in the Federal Republic of Germany to the Eurochemic reprocessing plant in Belgium, a total of more than 400 road transports have been performed without any adverse effect on the environment. In the beginning, road transport was the dominant mode. However, in recent years large capacity rail flasks with a weight ranging from 80 to 110 tonnes have been put into service in order to cope with the increasing demand of transport services and to replace existing smaller flasks designed primarily for road transport. Therefore, the number of spent fuel transports by road has declined. However, road transport of heavy flasks from reactor sites without a direct rail link to a nearby rail terminal has become an important task and a number of special problems have had to be solved. The following items are discussed, with special emphasis placed on heavy load transports by road from the reactor to a nearby rail terminal: design of road transport equipment to meet the requirements of the national traffic law; application of technical and administrative procedures to meet the IAEA Regulations; transport restrictions due to overload/oversize; transfer of the flask from the reactor to the transport vehicle; handling of the flask at the rail terminal; turn-around inspection and periodic maintenance of equipment to ensure safe performance of transport; and physical protection during transport and handling at rail terminals. (author). 4 figs

  11. A Spatially Explicit Method to Assess the Economic Suitability of a Forest Road Network for Timber Harvest in Steep Terrain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leo Gallus Bont

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Despite relatively high road density in the forests of Switzerland, a large percentage of that road network does not fulfill best practice requirements. Before upgrading or rebuilding the road network, harvesting planners must first determine which areas have insufficient access. Traditional assessment methods tend to only report specific values such as road density. However, those values do not identify the exact parcels or areas that are inaccessible. Here, we present a model that assesses the economic suitability of each timbered parcel for wood-harvesting operations, including tree-felling and processing, and off- and on-road transport (hauling, based on the existing road network. The entire wood supply chain from forest (standing trees to a virtual pile at the border of the planning unit was captured. This method was particularly designed for steep terrain and was tested in the Canton of Grisons in Switzerland. Compared with classical approaches, such as the road density concept, which only deliver average values, this new method enables planners to assess the development of a road network in a spatially explicit manner and to easily identify the reason and the location of shortcomings in the road network. Moreover, while other related spatially explicit approaches focus only on harvesting operations, the assessment method proposed here also includes limitations (road standards of the road network.

  12. Distributed modeling for road authorities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luiten, G.T.; Bõhms, H.M.; Nederveen, S. van; Bektas, E.

    2013-01-01

    A great challenge for road authorities is to improve the effectiveness and efficiency of their core processes by improving data exchange and sharing using new technologies such as building information modeling (BIM). BIM has already been successfully implemented in other sectors, such as

  13. Road pricing, luftforurening og eksternalitetsomkostninger

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Steen Solvang; Ketzel, Matthias; Andersen, Mikael Skou

    Rapporten bidrager til at styrke det faglige grundlag for at kunne reducere luftforureningens konsekvenser for folkesundheden igennem den måde som prisstrukturen for road pricing indrettes på. Der er gennemført en analyse af, hvordan prisstrukturen kan differentieres i sted og tid, således...

  14. Functional requirements of road lighting.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schreuder, D.A.

    1975-01-01

    The functional, technical and visual requirements for public lighting are discussed. The improvement of the presentation of information to the road user is the main functional requirement. The visual requirements can be deduced from the functional requirement of enabling drivers to follow the

  15. Prioritizing Road Treatments using the Geomorphic Roads Analysis and Inventory Package (GRAIP) to Improve Watershed Conditions in the Wall Creek Watershed, Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, K. T.; Black, T.; Clifton, C.; Luce, C.; McCune, S.; Nelson, N.

    2010-12-01

    Wall Creek, tributary to the North Fork John Day River in eastern Oregon, was identified as a priority watershed by the Umatilla National Forest for restoration in 2002. Most streams in this 518 km2 multi-ownership watershed are designated critical habitat for threatened steelhead. Eight streams are listed on the Oregon 303(d) list for elevated temperatures and excess sedimentation. Over 1000 km of public and private roads in the watershed present a major source of potential water quality and habitat impairment. We conducted a watershed-wide inventory of roads using the Geomorphic Roads Analysis and Inventory Package (GRAIP) in 2009 to quantify sediment contributions from roads to streams. GRAIP is a field and GIS-based model developed by the Forest Service Rocky Mountain Research Station and Utah State University that georeferences and quantifies road hydrologic connectivity, sediment production and delivery, mass wasting, and risk of diversion and plugging at stream crossings. Field survey and modeling produced data for 6,473 drainage locations on 726 km of road (most of the publically owned roads) quantifying the location and mass of sediment produced and delivered to streams. Findings indicate a relatively small subset of roads deliver the majority of road-produced fine sediment; 12 percent of the road length delivers 90 percent of the total fine sediment to streams. Overall fine sediment production in the watershed is relatively low (with an estimated background erosion rate of 518,000 kg/yr for the watershed) and sediment produced and delivered from the road system appears to be a modest addition. Road surfaces produce approximately 81,455 kg of fine sediment per year, with 20,976 kg/year delivered to the stream network. Fifty-nine gullies were observed, 41 of which received road runoff. Sixteen road-related landslides were also observed. The excavated volume of these features totals 3,922,000 kg which is equivalent to 175 years of fine sediment delivery at

  16. Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Volf, Mette

    This publication is unique in its demystification and operationalization of the complex and elusive nature of the design process. The publication portrays the designer’s daily work and the creative process, which the designer is a part of. Apart from displaying the designer’s work methods...... and design parameters, the publication shows examples from renowned Danish design firms. Through these examples the reader gets an insight into the designer’s reality....

  17. Safety impacts of rural road construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-02-01

    Crash data in Kentucky show that the fatal crash rate on two-lane rural roads is substantially higher than on any other type of road. Improvements have been proposed at some locations on this type of road which involve either upgrading the existing t...

  18. Forest road erosion control using multiobjective optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthew Thompson; John Sessions; Kevin Boston; Arne Skaugset; David Tomberlin

    2010-01-01

    Forest roads are associated with accelerated erosion and can be a major source of sediment delivery to streams, which can degrade aquatic habitat. Controlling road-related erosion therefore remains an important issue for forest stewardship. Managers are faced with the task to develop efficient road management strategies to achieve conflicting environmental and economic...

  19. Guidelines for upgrading of low volume roads

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Division of Roads

    1993-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this manual is to provide guidelines on the upgrading of gravel low volume roads to roads and maintenance personnel of road authorities of all sizes. Low volume is, for the purpose of this document, defined to be less than 500...

  20. 49 CFR 391.31 - Road test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Road test. 391.31 Section 391.31 Transportation... COMBINATION VEHICLE (LCV) DRIVER INSTRUCTORS Tests § 391.31 Road test. (a) Except as provided in subpart G, a person shall not drive a commercial motor vehicle unless he/she has first successfully completed a road...