WorldWideScience

Sample records for road safety research

  1. Road safety: Knowledge, research and policy.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koornstra, M.J.

    1986-01-01

    The Dutch Institute for Road Safety Research SWOV is one of the very few institutes that is dedicated solely to the safety aspect of road traffic. In the nearly 25 years of its existence SWOV has contributed relatively much to the theoretical notions and methods of analysis. An overview is given of

  2. Empirical Bayes methods in road safety research.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vogelesang, R.A.W.

    1997-01-01

    Road safety research is a wonderful combination of counting fatal accidents and using a toolkit containing prior, posterior, overdispersed Poisson, negative binomial and Gamma distributions, together with positive and negative regression effects, shrinkage estimators and fiercy debates concerning th

  3. Multilevel analysis in road safety research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupont, Emmanuelle; Papadimitriou, Eleonora; Martensen, Heike; Yannis, George

    2013-11-01

    Hierarchical structures in road safety data are receiving increasing attention in the literature and multilevel (ML) models are proposed for appropriately handling the resulting dependences among the observations. However, so far no empirical synthesis exists of the actual added value of ML modelling techniques as compared to other modelling approaches. This paper summarizes the statistical and conceptual background and motivations for multilevel analyses in road safety research. It then provides a review of several ML analyses applied to aggregate and disaggregate (accident) data. In each case, the relevance of ML modelling techniques is assessed by examining whether ML model formulations (i) allow improving the fit of the model to the data, (ii) allow identifying and explaining random variation at specific levels of the hierarchy considered, and (iii) yield different (more correct) conclusions than single-level model formulations with respect to the significance of the parameter estimates. The evidence reviewed offers different conclusions depending on whether the analysis concerns aggregate data or disaggregate data. In the first case, the application of ML analysis techniques appears straightforward and relevant. The studies based on disaggregate accident data, on the other hand, offer mixed findings: computational problems can be encountered, and ML applications are not systematically necessary. The general recommendation concerning disaggregate accident data is to proceed to a preliminary investigation of the necessity of ML analyses and of the additional information to be expected from their application.

  4. Emerging research methods and their application to road safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarko, Andrew; Boyle, Linda Ng; Montella, Alfonso

    2013-12-01

    The study of road safety has seen great strides over the past few decades with advances in analytical methods and research tools that allow researchers to provide insights into the complex interactions of the driver, vehicle, and roadway. Data collection methods range from traditional traffic and roadway sensors to instrumented vehicles and driving simulators, capable of providing detailed data on both the normal driving conditions and the circumstances surrounding a safety critical event. In September 2011, the Third International Conference on Road Safety and Simulation was held in Indianapolis, Indiana, USA, which was hosted by the Purdue University Center for Road Safety and sponsored by the Transportation Research Board and its three committees: ANB20 Safety Data, Analysis and Evaluation, AND30 Simulation and Measurement of Vehicle and Operator Performance, and ABJ95 Visualization in Transportation. The conference brought together two hundred researchers from all over the world demonstrating some of the latest research methods to quantify crash causality and associations, and model road safety. This special issue is a collection of 14 papers that were presented at the conference and then peer-reviewed through this journal. These papers showcase the types of analytical tools needed to examine various crash types, the use of naturalistic and on-road data to validate the use of surrogate measures of safety, and the value of driving simulators to examine high-risk situations.

  5. The history of road safety research : a quantitative approach.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hagenzieker, M.P. Commandeur, J.J.F. & Bijleveld, F.D.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we provide a global description in quantitative terms, of the developments in road safety research from the early 1900’s until 2010. To this end, electronic databases have been searched and papers matching search criteria were selected for analysis. Word and co-word frequencies of key-

  6. Development in road safety research. Closing lecture at the International Seminar "Recent developments in road safety research", The Hague, 20 November 1986.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Asmussen, E.

    1986-01-01

    On November 20, 1986 an international seminar on "Recent developments in road safety research" was held in The Hague on the occasion of the departure of Prof. Asmussen as director of the Dutch Institute for Road Safety Research SWOV (see IRRD 800967). In this report the closing lecture is presented.

  7. ROAD SAFETY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    Every year a lot of people are killed or injured in road accidents.How can we make the roads safer?Remember the following traffic rules. When you ride a bike,keep to the right side of the road.Don't cross the road or turn left at a red traffic light.Give a hand signal if you want to turn or stop. Before crossing the road,stop and look both ways,right and left.If the road is

  8. Road Safety

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Every day we all use roads. We walk on them. We walk eitheralong the pavement (人行道)or across the road. If we are careless, wecan cause accidents.Accidents often happen when people arecrossing the road. Here is some advice.

  9. Is road safety management linked to road safety performance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadimitriou, Eleonora; Yannis, George

    2013-10-01

    This research aims to explore the relationship between road safety management and road safety performance at country level. For that purpose, an appropriate theoretical framework is selected, namely the 'SUNflower' pyramid, which describes road safety management systems in terms of a five-level hierarchy: (i) structure and culture, (ii) programmes and measures, (iii) 'intermediate' outcomes'--safety performance indicators (SPIs), (iv) final outcomes--fatalities and injuries, and (v) social costs. For each layer of the pyramid, a composite indicator is implemented, on the basis of data for 30 European countries. Especially as regards road safety management indicators, these are estimated on the basis of Categorical Principal Component Analysis upon the responses of a dedicated road safety management questionnaire, jointly created and dispatched by the ETSC/PIN group and the 'DaCoTA' research project. Then, quasi-Poisson models and Beta regression models are developed for linking road safety management indicators and other indicators (i.e. background characteristics, SPIs) with road safety performance. In this context, different indicators of road safety performance are explored: mortality and fatality rates, percentage reduction in fatalities over a given period, a composite indicator of road safety final outcomes, and a composite indicator of 'intermediate' outcomes (SPIs). The results of the analyses suggest that road safety management can be described on the basis of three composite indicators: "vision and strategy", "budget, evaluation and reporting", and "measurement of road user attitudes and behaviours". Moreover, no direct statistical relationship could be established between road safety management indicators and final outcomes. However, a statistical relationship was found between road safety management and 'intermediate' outcomes, which were in turn found to affect 'final' outcomes, confirming the SUNflower approach on the consecutive effect of each layer.

  10. Improving road safety: Experiences from the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hagenzieker, M.P.

    2012-01-01

    Dr. Hagenzieker's research and education activities focus on the road safety effects of the transport system, with particular interest in road user behaviour aspects. Her PhD-research was on the effects of rewards on road user behaviour.

  11. The road safety audit and road safety inspection.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2007-01-01

    A road safety audit (RSA) and a road safety inspection (RSI) are used to test the safety level of the road infrastructure. The RSA tests the design of new roads or the reconstruction of existing roads, whereas the RSI is used for testing existing roads. An RSA, therefore, aims to 'improve' the road

  12. The road safety audit and road safety inspection.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2007-01-01

    A road safety audit (RSA) and a road safety inspection (RSI) are used to test the safety level of the road infrastructure. The RSA tests the design of new roads or the reconstruction of existing roads, whereas the RSI is used for testing existing roads. An RSA, therefore, aims to 'improve' the road

  13. Road safety performance indicators for the interurban road network.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yannis, G. Weijermars, W.A.M. Gitelman, V. Vis, M. Chazirisa, A. Papadimitriou, E. & Lima Azevedo, C.

    2013-01-01

    Various road safety performance indicators (SPIs) have been proposed for different road safety research areas, mainly as regards driver behaviour (e.g. seat belt use, alcohol, drugs, etc.) and vehicles (e.g. passive safety); however, no SPIs for the road network and design have been developed. The o

  14. Road safety performance indicators for the interurban road network.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yannis, G. Weijermars, W.A.M. Gitelman, V. Vis, M. Chazirisa, A. Papadimitriou, E. & Lima Azevedo, C.

    2013-01-01

    Various road safety performance indicators (SPIs) have been proposed for different road safety research areas, mainly as regards driver behaviour (e.g. seat belt use, alcohol, drugs, etc.) and vehicles (e.g. passive safety); however, no SPIs for the road network and design have been developed. The o

  15. FEATURES ROAD SAFETY AUDIT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Abramova

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Development of the road network, increasing motorization of the population significantly increase the risk of accidents. Experts in the field of traffic are developing methods to reduce the probability of accidents. The ways of solving the problems of road safety audit at various stages of the «life» of roads are considered.

  16. Relationships between road safety, safety measures and external factors : a scan of the literature in view of model development and topics for further research.

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this literature scan is to examine where literature on the effect of external factors and road safety measures on road safety exists and where it is lacking. This scan will help us to decide which factors to include in a comprehensive road safety model as SWOV is working on, and at the same time identifies promising future research topics. The report is divided into two main road safety topics; firstly, the external influences which are not directly related to road safety manag...

  17. Predicting the effectiveness of road safety campaigns through alternative research designs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamos, Giannis; Nathanail, Eftihia

    2016-12-01

    A large number of road safety communication campaigns have been designed and implemented in the recent years; however their explicit impact on driving behavior and road accident rates has been estimated in a rather low proportion. Based on the findings of the evaluation of three road safety communication campaigns addressing the issues of drinking and driving, seat belt usage, and driving fatigue, this paper applies different types of research designs (i.e., experimental, quasi-experimental, and non-experimental designs), when estimating the effectiveness of road safety campaigns, implements a cross-design assessment, and conducts a cross-campaign evaluation. An integrated evaluation plan was developed, taking into account the structure of evaluation questions, the definition of measurable variables, the separation of the target audience into intervention (exposed to the campaign) and control (not exposed to the campaign) groups, the selection of alternative research designs, and the appropriate data collection methods and techniques. Evaluating the implementation of different research designs in estimating the effectiveness of road safety campaigns, results showed that the separate pre-post samples design demonstrated better predictability than other designs, especially in data obtained from the intervention group after the realization of the campaign. The more constructs that were added to the independent variables, the higher the values of the predictability were. The construct that most affects behavior is intention, whereas the rest of the constructs have a lower impact on behavior. This is particularly significant in the Health Belief Model (HBM). On the other hand, behavioral beliefs, normative beliefs, and descriptive norms, are significant parameters for predicting intention according to the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB). The theoretical and applied implications of alternative research designs and their applicability in the evaluation of road safety

  18. The way ahead : recent developments in road safety research. A Liber Amicorum dedicated to Professor Erik Asmussen : proceedings of the International Seminar on Recent Developments in Road Safety Research, held at Koninklijk Conservatorium, The Hague, 20 November 1986.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    1986-01-01

    This liber amicorum is dedicated to Prof. E. Asmussen on his retirement from the SWOV. It contains papers by a number of authorities in the road safety research and policy field for the International Seminar on Recent Developments in Road Safety Research, held on 20 November 1986 in the Hague.

  19. Roads to Safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauer, Ezra

    1991-01-01

    Contends that the level of safety built into roads is largely unpremeditated and that roads and highways are not as safe as they might be. Discusses practices, standards, and deficiencies in highway and traffic safety related to geometric design and traffic engineering. Recommends increased transportation engineering professionalism and public…

  20. Extending the road safety research and development capacity in Morocco : a joint CNPAC, SWOV and RDW initiative.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schermers, G. Hagenzieker, M. Vliet, A. van & Hengel, J. ten

    2015-01-01

    During the Moroccan trade mission to the Netherlands in March 2013, a delegation of the Moroccan Ministry of Infrastructure and Transport and the National Committee for the Prevention of Road Traffic Accidents (CNPAC) visited the Dutch Institute for Road Safety Research (SWOV), the Dutch vehicle and

  1. Extending the road safety research and development capacity in Morocco : a joint CNPAC, SWOV and RDW initiative.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schermers, G. Hagenzieker, M. Vliet, A. van & Hengel, J. ten

    2015-01-01

    During the Moroccan trade mission to the Netherlands in March 2013, a delegation of the Moroccan Ministry of Infrastructure and Transport and the National Committee for the Prevention of Road Traffic Accidents (CNPAC) visited the Dutch Institute for Road Safety Research (SWOV), the Dutch vehicle and

  2. Express roads in Europe : research in the framework of the European research project Safety Standards for Road Design and Redesign SAFESTAR, Workpackages 3.2 & 3.3.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schagen, I.N.L.G. van

    1999-01-01

    Express roads are a rather miscellaneous road category hierarchically situated between motorways and ordinary single carriageway interurban roads. In general, the safety record of express roads is bad, in particular when compared to motorways. Nevertheless, they exist, and they will continue to

  3. Express roads in Europe : research in the framework of the European research project Safety Standards for Road Design and Redesign SAFESTAR, Workpackages 3.2 & 3.3.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schagen, I.N.L.G. van

    1999-01-01

    Express roads are a rather miscellaneous road category hierarchically situated between motorways and ordinary single carriageway interurban roads. In general, the safety record of express roads is bad, in particular when compared to motorways. Nevertheless, they exist, and they will continue to exis

  4. Methods for the analysis of contingency tables in road safety research : contribution to NATO Advanced Study Institute: Contingency table analysis technique for road safety Studies, Sogesta Conference Center, Urbino, Italy 18-29 June 1979.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oppe, S.

    1979-01-01

    A course on contingency table analysis for road safety studies seems to be rather specialistic. To investigate whether or not this subject matter is worth to be selected as a subject for an ASI-meeting, it is important to know the nature of the data in road safety research. Moreover it is necessary

  5. Road works and road safety.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2008-01-01

    Roadworks can cause dangerous situations for both road users and road workers. In the period 2000-2009, 2% of all registered fatal crashes in the Netherlands took place at roadworks. In addition, roadworks seem to increase the crash rate. Lorries are relatively often involved in crashes at roadworks

  6. Road works and road safety.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2008-01-01

    Roadworks can cause dangerous situations for both road users and road workers. In the period 2000-2009, 2% of all registered fatal crashes in the Netherlands took place at roadworks. In addition, roadworks seem to increase the crash rate. Lorries are relatively often involved in crashes at

  7. Safety standards for express roads : research in the framework of the European research project Safety Standards for Road Design and Redesign SAFESTAR, Workpackages 3.4.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hummel, T.

    1999-01-01

    The objective of the SAFESTAR project is the formulation of design standards or recommendations exclusively based on safety arguments. Workpackage 3 (WP3) of SAFESTAR, of which this report is the concluding report, should result in design recommendations for single and dual-carriageway express roads

  8. Criteria for roadside safety of motorways and express roads : a proposal for road authorities in the framework of the European research project Safety Standards for Road Design and Redesign SAFESTAR, Workpackage 1.2.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoon, C.C.

    1999-01-01

    To protect occupants of vehicles that leave the road from serious injuries, safe roadsides and medians are important. This report describes the way to make safe roadsides by means of obstacle-free zones, slopes, frangible poles, crash cushions and safety barriers. The research performed here aims to

  9. Crash data quality for road safety research: Current state and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imprialou, Marianna; Quddus, Mohammed

    2017-03-02

    Crash databases are one of the primary data sources for road safety research. Therefore, their quality is fundamental for the accuracy of crash analyses and, consequently the design of effective countermeasures. Although crash data often suffer from correctness and completeness issues, these are rarely discussed or addressed in crash analyses. Crash reports aim to answer the five "W" questions (i.e. When?, Where?, What?, Who? and Why?) of each crash by including a range of attributes. This paper reviews current literature on the state of crash data quality for each of these questions separately. The most serious data quality issues appear to be: inaccuracies in crash location and time, difficulties in data linkage (e.g. with traffic data) due to inconsistencies in databases, severity misclassification, inaccuracies and incompleteness of involved users' demographics and inaccurate identification of crash contributory factors. It is shown that the extent and the severity of data quality issues are not equal between attributes and the level of impact in road safety analyses is not yet entirely known. This paper highlights areas that require further research and provides some suggestions for the development of intelligent crash reporting systems.

  10. Editorial safety science special issue road safety management.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wegman, F.C.M. & Hagezieker, M.P.

    2014-01-01

    The articles presented in this Special Issue on Road Safety Management represent an illustration of the growing interest in policy-related research in the area of road safety. The complex nature of this type of research combined with the observation that scientific journals pay limited attention to

  11. Supervising road safety in Peru

    OpenAIRE

    Sagástegui, Freddy; Abogado, Adjuntía para el Medio Ambiente, Servicios Públicos y Pueblos Indígenas, Defensoría del Pueblo. Lima, Perú.

    2010-01-01

    In this article some problems in road safety are described, which have been detected by the Ombudsman of Peru, as part of its role of public administration supervisor, amongst these problems we mention: lack of and inadequate elaboration of the statistics on road traffic accidents, the inconsistency of the National Council for Road Security and the lack of responsibility of the local and regional governments reflected by the lack of application of the National Plan of Road Safety. facing ...

  12. Road safety in practice

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    On the 23 and 25 September come and test your driving skills and your reflexes on the two days of road safety in practice! To conclude the poster and article campaign on this topic which started last year, CERN now comes to the practical part with demonstrations, like a spectacular overturning test, information stands, where you can meet safety personnel from France, Switzerland and CERN, and discussions & debates. Come to ... ... the Meyrin site on 23 September: - From 8:30 hrs, stands and demonstrations on the parking site Cèdres, behind the Restaurant no. 1. - From 9:30 hrs, discussions and debates in the main auditorium. ... the Prévessin site on 25 September: - From 8:30 hrs, stands and demonstrations on the parking site of the building 866. - From 14:00 hrs, discussions and debates in the AB auditorium, building 864.

  13. Road safety performance indicators for the interurban road network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yannis, George; Weijermars, Wendy; Gitelman, Victoria; Vis, Martijn; Chaziris, Antonis; Papadimitriou, Eleonora; Azevedo, Carlos Lima

    2013-11-01

    Various road safety performance indicators (SPIs) have been proposed for different road safety research areas, mainly as regards driver behaviour (e.g. seat belt use, alcohol, drugs, etc.) and vehicles (e.g. passive safety); however, no SPIs for the road network and design have been developed. The objective of this research is the development of an SPI for the road network, to be used as a benchmark for cross-region comparisons. The developed SPI essentially makes a comparison of the existing road network to the theoretically required one, defined as one which meets some minimum requirements with respect to road safety. This paper presents a theoretical concept for the determination of this SPI as well as a translation of this theory into a practical method. Also, the method is applied in a number of pilot countries namely the Netherlands, Portugal, Greece and Israel. The results show that the SPI could be efficiently calculated in all countries, despite some differences in the data sources. In general, the calculated overall SPI scores were realistic and ranged from 81 to 94%, with the exception of Greece where the SPI was relatively lower (67%). However, the SPI should be considered as a first attempt to determine the safety level of the road network. The proposed method has some limitations and could be further improved. The paper presents directions for further research to further develop the SPI.

  14. Understanding public attitudes to road-user safety – literature review: final report road safety research report no. 112.

    OpenAIRE

    Musselwhite, C.; Avineri, E.; Fulcher, E; Goodwin, P.; Susilo, Y.

    2010-01-01

    Context and scope: \\ud – The literature reviewed in this report is primarily UK based and published post 2000. \\ud – In total, 72 articles have been reviewed in-depth and represent a mixture of qualitative, quantitative and mixed methodology primary research and a variety of reviews (see Appendix 2). \\ud – A wider definition of attitudes was incorporated to include a variety of psychosocial variables, such as social norms, risk, identity and impression management, pro-social behaviour, habit,...

  15. Road safety in developing countries.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schreuder, D.A.

    1991-01-01

    This paper presents a classification of countries (developing and developed alike), divided into two main categories: an economical and historical entry. When road safety problems are placed into the economical context, it then appears that, among other things: (1) The road safety problem in the ind

  16. Multivariate nonlinear time series modeling of exposure and risk in road safety research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bijleveld, F.; Commandeur, J.; Montfort, van K.; Koopman, S.J.

    2010-01-01

    A multivariate non-linear time series model for road safety data is presented. The model is applied in a case-study into the development of a yearly time series of numbers of fatal accidents (inside and outside urban areas) and numbers of kilometres driven by motor vehicles in the Netherlands betwee

  17. In–Service Road Safety Audits

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    A. Mendoza–Díaz; E. Abarca–Pérez; A.G. Centeno–Saad

    2009-01-01

    A road safety audit is a formal analysis that seeks to guarantee that an existing or future road fulfills optimal safety criteria, conducted by a team of experts who se members are independent of the road project...

  18. Road accidents at night in the Netherlands : a national analysis according to official road accident data. Contribution to OECD Research Group TS 3 on Improving Road Safety at Night.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harris, S.

    1979-01-01

    The questionnaire about night-time accident data of the OECD Research Group TS 3 on Improving Road Safety at Night was filled in for the Netherlands. Thereafter a national analysis was written, using the already completed accident data questionnaire. Guidelines for the contents and presentation fo

  19. Road Safety: The Vital but Neglected Subject.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollins, Patsy

    1989-01-01

    Teacher training students (N=153) in England were surveyed about road safety education. Attitudes of students about their preparation for teaching road safety, ways of integrating road safety into the primary and secondary curriculum, and obstacles to teaching road safety in schools are discussed. (IAH)

  20. Road safety audit tools, procedures, and experiences : a literature review and recommendations : research in the framework of the European research project Safety Standards for Road Design and Redesign SAFESTAR, Workpackage 8.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooi, R.M. van der

    1999-01-01

    This report describes tools and procedures established in different countries which apply Road Safety Audits (RSA). These RSAs are utilized to identify potential safety problems and they concentrate on safety measures to overcome these problems. This technique is used to detect possible safety hazar

  1. Road safety audit tools, procedures, and experiences : a literature review and recommendations : research in the framework of the European research project Safety Standards for Road Design and Redesign SAFESTAR, Workpackage 8.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooi, R.M. van der

    1999-01-01

    This report describes tools and procedures established in different countries which apply Road Safety Audits (RSA). These RSAs are utilized to identify potential safety problems and they concentrate on safety measures to overcome these problems. This technique is used to detect possible safety hazar

  2. Road safety audits: The way forward

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Labuschagne, FJJ

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available formally implemented in South Africa. This paper assesses recent international developments pertaining to road safety auditing and reports on a review of the experience by road safety practitioners in South Africa. It concludes with recommendations...

  3. The contribution of on-road studies of road user behaviour to improving road safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenné, Michael G

    2013-09-01

    For over 40 years transport safety researchers have been using methods of vehicle instrumentation to gain greater insights into the factors that contribute to road user crash risk and the associated crash factors. In the previous decade in particular the widespread availability of lower cost and more advanced methods of vehicle instrumentation and recording technologies are supporting the increasing number of on-road research studies worldwide. The design of these studies ranges from multi-method studies using instrumented test vehicles and defined driving routes, to field operational tests, through to much larger and more naturalistic studies. It is timely to assess the utility of these methods for studying the influences of driver characteristics and states, the design and operation of the road system, and the influences of in-vehicle technologies on behaviour and safety for various road user groups. This special issue considers the extent to which on-road studies using vehicle instrumentation have been used to advance knowledge across these areas of road safety research. The papers included in this issue illustrate how research using instrumented test vehicles continues to generate new knowledge, and how the larger scale United States and European naturalistic and field operational test studies are providing a wealth of data about road user behaviour in real traffic. This is balanced with a number of studies that present methodological developments in data collection and analysis methods that, while promising, need further validation. The use of on-road methods to accurately describe the behaviours occurring in everyday real-world conditions, to quantify risks for safety critical events, and an improved understanding of the factors that contribute to risk, clearly has huge potential to promote further road trauma reductions.

  4. Road lighting for safety.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schreuder, D.A.

    2000-01-01

    This book is aimed at broad readership, not especially at lighting experts. Lighting is presented as a system, as part of the public highway. Much attention is paid to subjects not greatly covered in the specialist literature, such as environmental aspects, traffic safety, crime prevention, and the

  5. Road lighting for safety.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schreuder, D.A.

    2000-01-01

    This book is aimed at broad readership, not especially at lighting experts. Lighting is presented as a system, as part of the public highway. Much attention is paid to subjects not greatly covered in the specialist literature, such as environmental aspects, traffic safety, crime prevention, and the

  6. Road safety issues for bus transport management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cafiso, Salvatore; Di Graziano, Alessandro; Pappalardo, Giuseppina

    2013-11-01

    Because of the low percentage of crashes involving buses and the assumption that public transport improves road safety by reducing vehicular traffic, public interest in bus safety is not as great as that in the safety of other types of vehicles. It is possible that less attention is paid to the significance of crashes involving buses because the safety level of bus systems is considered to be adequate. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the knowledge and perceptions of bus managers with respect to safety issues and the potential effectiveness of various technologies in achieving higher safety standards. Bus managers were asked to give their opinions on safety issues related to drivers (training, skills, performance evaluation and behaviour), vehicles (maintenance and advanced devices) and roads (road and traffic safety issues) in response to a research survey. Kendall's algorithm was used to evaluate the level of concordance. The results showed that the majority of the proposed items were considered to have great potential for improving bus safety. The data indicated that in the experience of the participants, passenger unloading and pedestrians crossing near bus stops are the most dangerous actions with respect to vulnerable users. The final results of the investigation showed that start inhibition, automatic door opening, and the materials and internal architecture of buses were considered the items most strongly related to bus passenger safety. Brake assistance and vehicle monitoring systems were also considered to be very effective. With the exception of driver assistance systems for passenger and pedestrian safety, the perceptions of the importance of other driver assistance systems for vehicle monitoring and bus safety were not unanimous among the bus company managers who participated in this survey. The study results showed that the introduction of new technologies is perceived as an important factor in improving bus safety, but a better understanding

  7. Mobility management and road safety.

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Mobility management stands for organizing 'smart travel' and focuses on reducing the amount of car mobility (particularly during peak hours) by stimulating travellers to refrain from travelling (telecommuting), to travel at a different time of day (avoiding peak hours) or to choose a different means of transport. Mobility management should result in, for instance, improved accessibility and less environmental impact; road safety is hardly mentioned as an objective. Mobility management can inc...

  8. Road safety and simulation conferences: an interdisciplinary network for safer roads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benedetto, Andrea; Calvi, Alessandro

    2014-06-01

    From 23rd to 25th October 2013 more than 300 researchers attended the 4th International Conference on Road Safety and Simulation (RSS 2013) in Rome, Italy, hosted by the Inter Universities Research Centre for Road Safety (CRISS) at the Department of Engineering of Roma Tre University. The aim of the Conference was to create a common interdisciplinary arena for researchers and professionals involved in road safety, facilitate the exchange of know-how and progress in the last advanced techniques, methods and tools and their applications to safety analysis. This special issue highlights some of the research presented at the Conference.

  9. Measuring (un)safety of roads.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2009-01-01

    Measuring the safety level of a road is difficult. First of all you have to know how many crashes have occurred on a road. Various units of measurement are used for this: the absolute number of crashes per road, the number of crashes per road length, and the number of crashes per distance travelled.

  10. Measuring (un)safety of roads.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2009-01-01

    Measuring the safety level of a road is difficult. First of all you have to know how many crashes have occurred on a road. Various units of measurement are used for this: the absolute number of crashes per road, the number of crashes per road length, and the number of crashes per distance travelled.

  11. Safety performance indicators for the road network.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weijermars, W. Gitelman, V. Papadimitriou, E. Lima De & Azevedo, C.

    2010-01-01

    Within the 6th FP European project SafetyNet, a team has worked on the development of Safety Performance Indicators (SPIs) on seven road safety related areas. These SPIs reflect the operational conditions of the road traffic system that influence the system's safety performance. SPIs were developed

  12. Automatic speed management systems : great safety potential ? Paper presented at the Fourth European workshop on Recent Developments in Road Safety Research, October 22-23, 1991 at Bundesanstalt für Strassenwesen (BASt) Bergisch Gladbach, Germany.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oei, H.-l.

    1991-01-01

    A description is given of a speed management project in the Netherlands, carried out and evaluated by SWOV Institute for Road Safety Research. The following hypotheses form the basis of the four experiments conducted on two-lane rural roads with a speed limit of 80 km/h: (1) Drivers will comply to t

  13. Road Safety Audit RSA : best practice guidelines, qualification for auditors and 'programming'. Deliverable D4 of the RiPCORD-iSEREST project (Road Infrastructure Safety Protection - Core-Research and Development for Road Safety in Europe; Increasing safety and reliability of secondary roads for a sustainable Surface Transport).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Matena, S. Weber, R. Huber, C.A. Hruby, Z. Pokorny, P. Gaitanidou, E. Vaneerdewegh, P. Strnad, B. Cardoso, J. Schermers, G. & Elvik, R.

    2009-01-01

    This report contains 'best practice' guidelines for road safety audits (RSA) and summarises practices which have been successfully applied in European countries or abroad. The goals of this report are to inform the reader on the reasons why carrying out audits is beneficial and how to successfully c

  14. Road Safety Audit RSA : best practice guidelines, qualification for auditors and 'programming'. Deliverable D4 of the RiPCORD-iSEREST project (Road Infrastructure Safety Protection - Core-Research and Development for Road Safety in Europe; Increasing safety and reliability of secondary roads for a sustainable Surface Transport).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Matena, S. Weber, R. Huber, C.A. Hruby, Z. Pokorny, P. Gaitanidou, E. Vaneerdewegh, P. Strnad, B. Cardoso, J. Schermers, G. & Elvik, R.

    2009-01-01

    This report contains 'best practice' guidelines for road safety audits (RSA) and summarises practices which have been successfully applied in European countries or abroad. The goals of this report are to inform the reader on the reasons why carrying out audits is beneficial and how to successfully

  15. Road Safety Audit RSA : best practice guidelines, qualification for auditors and 'programming'. Deliverable D4 of the RiPCORD-iSEREST project (Road Infrastructure Safety Protection - Core-Research and Development for Road Safety in Europe; Increasing safety and reliability of secondary roads for a sustainable Surface Transport).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Matena, S. Weber, R. Huber, C.A. Hruby, Z. Pokorny, P. Gaitanidou, E. Vaneerdewegh, P. Strnad, B. Cardoso, J. Schermers, G. & Elvik, R.

    2009-01-01

    This report contains 'best practice' guidelines for road safety audits (RSA) and summarises practices which have been successfully applied in European countries or abroad. The goals of this report are to inform the reader on the reasons why carrying out audits is beneficial and how to successfully c

  16. Safety effects of road design standards in Europe.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wegman, F.C.M. & Slop, M.

    2003-01-01

    This paper deals with the result of a study carried out for the European Commission by the SWOV Institute for Road Safety Research, in cooperation with a number of other European institutes, and which was reported in 1994. The title of the study is "Safety Effects of Road Design Standards." The aims

  17. Safety effects of road design standards in Europe.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wegman, F.C.M. & Slop, M.

    2003-01-01

    This paper deals with the result of a study carried out for the European Commission by the SWOV Institute for Road Safety Research, in cooperation with a number of other European institutes, and which was reported in 1994. The title of the study is "Safety Effects of Road Design Standards." The aims

  18. Road safety: take it seriously

    CERN Multimedia

    Antonella Del Rosso

    2015-01-01

    Around 50 road accidents happen every year at CERN. Cyclists, drivers and pedestrians must pay attention to their behaviour at all times to ensure that this doesn’t become an even more serious problem. Even if the Laboratory’s sites are not exactly downtown Shanghai, all road users need to make a little effort. So let’s do it!   Life at CERN: let’s stick to accumulating scientific data rather than road accidents! (Cartoon by Cian O'Luanaigh) Despite a dedicated Safety Code in force since 1990, “traffic-calming” measures put in place last year, several reminders in the Bulletin and frequent safety campaigns, the number of accidents, particularly those involving cyclists, has remained high since 2008. Luckily, no-one has been seriously injured but it is more and more frequent to experience near misses or actual accidents, whether in a car or on a bike. Incivilities, excessive speeding (also for bikes!) and answering ...

  19. INTELLIGENT SPEED ADAPTATION (ISA AND ROAD SAFETY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.L. OEI, M.Sc.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available An ISA system consists of GPS to determine the car's position, a CD-ROM in the car containing information of a road network including the prevailing speed limit of each road section, and feedback to the driver. Experiments in Sweden are testing several options, from warning the driver to a resisting force exerted by the accelerator pedal that can be countered by the driver. In the Netherlands the system intervenes so the limit cannot be exceeded. Experiments in Sweden have recently been concluded and an evaluation is in progress. In the Netherlands the project was concluded early 2001. The field experiments so far mainly concern the measure of acceptance of the system(s by the public. Several simulation studies have also been conducted. Little is known as yet from practical research of the effects of ISA on road safety, though a large safety potential is assumed. For the Dutch situation, based on the assumption that all passenger cars are fitted with ISA and an assumed speed distribution as the result of ISA, a theoretical calculation is made of the effects of ISA on speed and safety. The result is an estimated reduction of road casualties of 25 to 30%. Further, the assumed speed distribution is validated with field measurements of the experiment in the city of Tilburg. The result is that the measured average speed of the speed distribution fits quite well with the calculated average speed.

  20. Ranking EU progress on road safety : 10th road safety Performance Index (PIN) report.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adminaite, D. Jost, G. Stipdonk, H. & Ward, H.

    2016-01-01

    In 2010, the European Union renewed its commitment to improve road safety by setting a target of reducing road deaths by 50% by 2020, compared to 2010 levels. This target followed an earlier target set in 2001 to halve road deaths by 2010. 2015 was the second consecutive poor year for road safety; 2

  1. The Use of Theatre Tours in Road Safety Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powney, Janet; And Others

    The Scottish Road Safety Campaign and the Road Safety Council of Wales have made a large investment in theater tours as a method of providing road safety education. This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of a road safety message delivered by a theater group, Road Safety Officers (RSOs), or, teachers for pupils in upper secondary classes.…

  2. A trail to a safer country : conceptual approaches to road safety policies. On behalf of the Ministry of Transport and Public Works, Transport Research Centre TRC.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulder, J.A.G. & Wegman, F.C.M.

    2000-01-01

    In all countries of the world, people are trying to improve road safety. In road safety literature, however, there are many indications that road safety improvements are moving slowly. Several causes are given for this: (1) the political priority is relatively low; and (2) it is not well-known how,

  3. International comparability of road safety data.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2007-01-01

    Many countries compare the level of their road safety with other countries as an impulse for developing road safety policy. This, however, is by no means easy. The absolute numbers of crashes or casualties can not simply be compared, but must be related to the number of inhabitants of a country or t

  4. Learning Road Safety Skills in the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Freddy Jackson; Gillard, Duncan

    2009-01-01

    This case study demonstrates the effectiveness of a classroom based learning programme in the acquisition of road safety skills. The participant, a child with severe learning disabilities, was taught road safety behaviours in the classroom with the aid of photograph cards. When he had mastered these skills in the classroom, he returned to the…

  5. Wildland road removal: research needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    T. Adam Switalski; John A. Bissonette; Tom H. Deluca; Charles H. Luce; Mary Ann Madej

    2003-01-01

    Wildland road removal is a common practice across the U.S. and in some parts of Canada. The main types of road removal include ripping, stream crossing restoration, and full recontour. Road removal creates a short-term disturbance that may temporarily increase sediment loss. However, research and long-term monitoring have shown that road removal both reduces erosion...

  6. The art of regression modeling in road safety

    CERN Document Server

    Hauer, Ezra

    2015-01-01

    This unique book explains how to fashion useful regression models from commonly available data to erect models essential for evidence-based road safety management and research. Composed from techniques and best practices presented over many years of lectures and workshops, The Art of Regression Modeling in Road Safety illustrates that fruitful modeling cannot be done without substantive knowledge about the modeled phenomenon. Class-tested in courses and workshops across North America, the book is ideal for professionals, researchers, university professors, and graduate students with an interest in, or responsibilities related to, road safety. This book also: · Presents for the first time a powerful analytical tool for road safety researchers and practitioners · Includes problems and solutions in each chapter as well as data and spreadsheets for running models and PowerPoint presentation slides · Features pedagogy well-suited for graduate courses and workshops including problems, solutions, and PowerPoint p...

  7. How to make more cycling good for road safety?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wegman, F.C.M. Zhang, F. & Dijkstra, A.

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses the current level of the road safety problems of cycling and cyclists, why cyclists run relatively high risks, and why cyclists may be considered as "vulnerable road users". This paper is based on peer-reviewed research which give some idea how to reduce the number of cyclist ca

  8. How to make more cycling good for road safety?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wegman, F.C.M. Zhang, F. & Dijkstra, A.

    2013-01-01

    This paper discusses the current level of the road safety problems of cycling and cyclists, why cyclists run relatively high risks, and why cyclists may be considered as ‘vulnerable road users’. This paper is based on peer-reviewed research which give some idea how to reduce the number of cyclist ca

  9. How to make more cycling good for road safety?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wegman, F.C.M. Zhang, F. & Dijkstra, A.

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses the current level of the road safety problems of cycling and cyclists, why cyclists run relatively high risks, and why cyclists may be considered as "vulnerable road users". This paper is based on peer-reviewed research which give some idea how to reduce the number of cyclist

  10. Development of the European Road Safety Knowledge System.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yannis, G. Thomas, P. Muhlrad, N. Martensen, H. Aarts, L.T. Evgenikos, P. & Papadimitriou, E.

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this paper is the presentation of the European Road Safety Knowledge System, which was developed within the DaCoTA research project of the 7th Framework Programme of the European Commission. This knowledge system includes a number of components, concerning data and tools, road safet

  11. Recommendations for the development and application of Evaluation Tools for road infrastructure safety management in the EU. Road Infrastructure Safety Management Evaluation Tools (RISMET), Deliverable No. 7.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schermers, G. Cardoso, J. Elvik, R. Weller, G. Dietze, M. Reurings, M. Azeredo, S. & Charman, S.

    2014-01-01

    “ERA-NET ROAD — Coordination and Implementation of Road Research in Europe” was a Coordination Action funded by the 6th Framework Programme of the EC. The partners in the 2009 ERA-NET ROAD (ENR) Safety at the heart of road design initiative were the United Kingdom, Finland, Netherlands, Sweden, Germ

  12. ROAD ACCIDENT AND SAFETY STUDY IN SYLHET REGION OF BANGLADESH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. K. BANIK

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Roads, highways and streets are fundamental infrastructure facilities to provide the transportation for passenger travel and goods movement from one place to another in Sylhet, north–eastern division of Bangladesh with rapid growth of road vehicle, being comparatively developed economic tourist prone area faces severe road traffic accident. Such severe road accidents cause harsh safety hazards on the roads of Sylhet area. This research work presents an overview of the road traffic accident and degraded road safety situation in Sylhet zone which in particular, discusses the key road accident problem characteristics identifying the hazardous roads and spots, most responsible vehicles and related components, conditions of drivers and pedestrians, most victims of accident, effects of accident on society, safety priorities and options available in Sylhet. In this regard, a comprehensive questionnaire survey was conducted on the concerned groups of transportation and detailed accident data was collected from a popular local newspaper. Analysis of the study reveals that Dhaka- Sylhet highway is the most hazardous in road basis and Sylhet Sador thana is the most vulnerable in thana basis in Sylhet region.

  13. A comprehensive conceptual framework for road safety strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, B P; Anund, A; Falkmer, T

    2016-05-01

    Road safety strategies (generally called Strategic Highway Safety Plans in the USA) provide essential guidance for actions to improve road safety, but often lack a conceptual framework that is comprehensive, systems theory based, and underpinned by evidence from research and practice. This paper aims to incorporate all components, policy tools by which they are changed, and the general interactions between them. A framework of nine mutually interacting components that contribute to crashes and ten generic policy tools which can be applied to reduce the outcomes of these crashes was developed and used to assess 58 road safety strategies from 22 countries across 15 years. The work identifies the policy tools that are most and least widely applied to components, highlighting the potential for improvements to any individual road safety strategy, and the potential strengths and weaknesses of road safety strategies in general. The framework also provides guidance for the development of new road safety strategies, identifying potential consequences of policy tool based measures with regard to exposure and risk, useful for both mobility and safety objectives.

  14. Traffic accidents and road surface skidding resistance : an investigation into the statistical relationship between the skidding resistance of the road surface and relative road risk. Summary of the research report of Sub-committee V of the Working Group on Tyres, Road Surfaces and Skidding Accidents of the Institute for Road Safety Research, SWOV

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schlösser, L.H.M

    1975-01-01

    This study forms part of an extended research programme of the Working Group on Tyres, Road-surfaces and Skidding accidents. According to the terms of reference a statistical relationship had to be established between the skidding resistance of a road-surface and the number of accidents per million

  15. Analysis of traffic safety at road works.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weijermars, W. & Spittje, H.

    2010-01-01

    Road works create a risk, both to road workers and drivers. SWOV conducted research into 58 severe crashes to gain more insight into the causes of crashes at work zones. Finally, 50 work-zones were visited to obtain more insight into (1) the extent to which the Dutch guidelines for safe road works a

  16. The use of yellow longitudinal markings on roads with two-directional traffic. Contribution to OECD Research Group TS 304 "Improving road safety at night".

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schreuder, D.A.

    1978-01-01

    The question is posed whether the application of a colour difference for the central line on the road is the best solution available for the coding of the categories of road. It has been proposed to apply yellow centre lines on roads with two-way traffic and white centre lines on roads with one-wa

  17. Road design and environment : best practice on self-explaining and forgiving roads. Deliverable D3 of the RiPCORD-iSEREST project (Road Infrastructure Safety Protection - Core-Research and Development for Road Safety in Europe; Increasing safety and reliability of secondary roads for a sustainable Surface Transport).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Matena, S. Louwerse, W. Schermers, G. Vaneerdewegh, P. Pokorny, P. Gaitanidou, L. Elvik, R. & Cardoso, J.

    2009-01-01

    Main objective of work-package 3 of Ripcord-lserest was to collect information on best practices concerning the design of self-explaining and forgiving roads. In order to gain an overview on existing practises on road categorisation and the layout of typical rural roads a questionnaire survey had

  18. Road design and environment : best practice on self-explaining and forgiving roads. Deliverable D3 of the RiPCORD-iSEREST project (Road Infrastructure Safety Protection - Core-Research and Development for Road Safety in Europe; Increasing safety and reliability of secondary roads for a sustainable Surface Transport).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Matena, S. Louwerse, W. Schermers, G. Vaneerdewegh, P. Pokorny, P. Gaitanidou, L. Elvik, R. & Cardoso, J.

    2009-01-01

    Main objective of work-package 3 of Ripcord-lserest was to collect information on best practices concerning the design of self-explaining and forgiving roads. In order to gain an overview on existing practises on road categorisation and the layout of typical rural roads a questionnaire survey had be

  19. BRICS: opportunities to improve road safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyder, Adnan A; Vecino-Ortiz, Andres I

    2014-06-01

    Brazil, the Russian Federation, India, China and South Africa--the countries known as BRICS--are currently undergoing a deep epidemiological transition that is mainly driven by rapid economic growth and technological change. The changes being observed in the distribution of the burden of diseases and injuries--such as recent increases in the incidence of road traffic injuries--are matters of concern. BRICS may need stronger institutional capacity to address such changes in a timely way. In this paper, we present data on road traffic injuries in BRICS and illustrate the enormous challenge that these countries currently face in reducing the incidence of such injuries. There is an urgent need to improve road safety indicators in every country constituting BRICS. It is imperative for BRICS to invest in system-wide road safety interventions and reduce the mortality and morbidity from road traffic injuries.

  20. Road safety performance indicators : country profiles. SafetyNet, Building the European Road Safety Observatory, Workpackage 3, Deliverable 3.7b.

    OpenAIRE

    Riguelle, F. Eksler, V. Holló, P. Vis, M. Gitelman, V. Assum, T. & Rackliff, L.

    2009-01-01

    The EC 6th Framework Integrated Project SafetyNet aims to accelerate the availability and use of harmonised road safety data in Europe. Having such data available throughout Europe would be tremendously beneficial for road safety, since it would enable the evaluation of road safety measures, the comparison of road safety status within and between countries, and the accelerated sharing of best practice in road safety policy. One of the macroscopic road safety related areas that SafetyNet focus...

  1. Tools for road infrastructure safety management in poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kustra Wojciech

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Road safety can be improved by implementing principles of road safety infrastructure management (RIS on the network of European roads as adopted in the Directive. The document recommends that member states should use tried and tested tools for road safety management such as: road safety impact assessment (RIA, road safety audit (RSA, safety management on existing road networks including road safety ranking (RSM and road safety inspection (RSI. The objective of the methods is to help road authorities to take rational decisions in the area of road safety and road infrastructure safety and understand the consequences occurring in the particular phases of road life cycle. To help with assessing the impact of a road project on the safety of related roads, a method was developed for long-term forecasts of accidents and accident cost estimation as well as a risk classification to identify risks that are not acceptable risks. With regard to road safety audits and road safety inspection, a set of principles was developed to identify risks and the basic classification of mistakes and omissions.

  2. Benchmarking road safety performances of countries.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wegman, F.C.M. & Oppe, S.

    2014-01-01

    In order to obtain political interest in road safety problems and to learn from other countries’ ‘good practices’, it is often helpful to compare one’s own safety situation with that of other countries. In a number of projects tools have been developed for such comparisons. These tools range from si

  3. Towards a Czech Road Safety Information System : a feasibility study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Craen, S. de & Wegman, F.

    2003-01-01

    The Czech Republic aims at improving its road safety and in the last years it achieved significant successes in reducing the number of road traffic casualties. Increasingly, road safety measures have to be taken in an effor to lower the number of accidents. A Road Safety Information System (RSIS), w

  4. Good practices on cost - effective road infrastructure safety investments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yannis, George; Papadimitriou, Eleonora; Evgenikos, Petros; Dragomanovits, Anastasios

    2016-12-01

    The paper presents the findings of a research project aiming to quantify and subsequently classify several infrastructure-related road safety measures, based on the international experience attained through extensive and selected literature review and additionally on a full consultation process including questionnaire surveys addressed to experts and relevant workshops. Initially, a review of selected research reports was carried out and an exhaustive list of road safety infrastructure investments covering all types of infrastructure was compiled. Individual investments were classified according to the infrastructure investment area and the type of investment and were thereafter analysed on the basis of key safety components. These investments were subsequently ranked in relation to their safety effects and implementation costs and on the basis of this ranking, a set of five most promising investments was selected for an in-depth analysis. The results suggest that the overall cost effectiveness of a road safety infrastructure investment is not always in direct correlation with the safety effect and is recommended that cost-benefit ratios and safety effects are always examined in conjunction with each other in order to identify the optimum solution for a specific road safety problem in specific conditions and with specific objectives.

  5. Opportunities for knowledge translation in the decade of road traffic safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Della Rocca, Gregory J; Dunbar, Robert P; Burgess, Andrew R; Smith, Matthew J

    2014-01-01

    The United Nations has identified road traffic safety as an important objective for the decade 2011-2020. It has implemented a 5-tiered program: improving health care services, improving management of road safety, improving road network safety, improving vehicular safety, and improving road safety legislation. A small body of practical research has been generated by the medical and surgical (including orthopaedic) communities regarding the road traffic safety, but a substantial amount of work remains to be performed. This article will review published research in each of the 5 tiers of the Decade of Action for Road Traffic Safety and will identify areas where research is insufficient or absent, such that new research programming and funding can be developed.

  6. Road safety 'results focus' - ready to launch?

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Labuschagne, FJJ

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available of the estimates of the social cost of crashes. Similarly, ‘final outcomes’ is assessed on the level of availability of credible data on road traffic fatalities, injuries and damages. Intermediate outcomes are typical measures such as ‘’average traffic speeds... legislative framework exposing the necessary quality concomitant with the capacity to effectively manage crash risk factors, e.g. speeding, drink driving, novice driver, vehicle fitness, etc. Thirdly, securing funding for the development of road safety...

  7. In–Service Road Safety Audits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Mendoza–Díaz

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available A road safety audit is a formal analysis that seeks to guarantee that an existing or future road fulfills optimal safety criteria, conducted by a team of experts who se members are independent of the road project. It can be carried out in one, several or all of the stages of the project (planning, design, construction, before opening the road to traffic, and operation. The development and implementation of a road safety audit process is one of the strategies that have been applied in Mexico in recent years to reduce road accidents and their associated consequences. The objective of this work is to present the procedures that have been developed and applied in Mexico, as well as the benefits and problems that have been encountered. The application of those procedures to a specific case is also shown. Emphasis is made in the audit of high ways in the operation stage, which is the type that greater application and development has had in Mexico.

  8. Headway times and road safety.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2007-01-01

    In road traffic, the advice is to maintain a minimum distance of two seconds to the vehicle in front. This headway time is based on the reaction time of drivers under various circumstances. A headway time of two seconds is sufficient for the majority of drivers to prevent a rear-end collision with

  9. Road safety campaign is a great success

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    Rolf Heuer, the next Director-General of CERN, and Sigurd Lettow, the Director of Finance and Human Resources (photo below), completed all the tests of the CERN road safety campaign under the supervision of TCS instructors. The road safety campaign, which took place in the Main Building during the week of 10 November, attracted large numbers of participants. More than 300 CERN personnel and users took part in, and in some cases were literally bowled over by, the activities set up by instructors from the TCS (Touring Club Suisse). The campaign’s aim was to raise driver awareness of several aspects of road safety, including speed, use of mobile phones at the wheel, pedestrian priority, unlawful parking and driving with a valid licence. The campaign was an unqualified success! Even CERN’s directors joined in, testing their own reactions as drivers on the various pieces of apparatus in place.

  10. Community Road Safety Initiatives for the Minerals Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim Horberry

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Major companies in the minerals industry are increasingly recognizing that their operations have an impact in the wider community. Regarding transportation issues, this impact extends beyond purely the safety of company vehicle fleets to consideration of Community Road Safety (CRS concerns, which address the driving, walking, and riding practices of community members in a locale with increased heavy vehicle traffic. Our assessment here of national and international trends in approaches to road safety awareness and associated road safety strategies is meant to inform companies in the minerals industry of developments that can influence the design of their road safety initiatives. The review begins by considering the overall road safety context and the dominant “safe systems” framework employed internationally. Thereafter, it considers what is typically included in CRS initiatives for the minerals industry. Three case studies are then presented to highlight approaches that feature exemplary collaboration, design, implementation, or impact. Thereafter, we analyze lessons learnt by key researchers and practitioners in the CRS field. Finally, we conclude that best CRS practices for the minerals industry rely on eleven factors, including for example collaboration with local entities and stepwise implementation.

  11. Quantifying safety benefit of winter road maintenance: accident frequency modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usman, Taimur; Fu, Liping; Miranda-Moreno, Luis F

    2010-11-01

    This research presents a modeling approach to investigate the association of the accident frequency during a snow storm event with road surface conditions, visibility and other influencing factors controlling for traffic exposure. The results have the premise to be applied for evaluating different maintenance strategies using safety as a performance measure. As part of this approach, this research introduces a road surface condition index as a surrogate measure of the commonly used friction measure to capture different road surface conditions. Data from various data sources, such as weather, road condition observations, traffic counts and accidents, are integrated and used to test three event-based models including the Negative Binomial model, the generalized NB model and the zero inflated NB model. These models are compared for their capability to explain differences in accident frequencies between individual snow storms. It was found that the generalized NB model best fits the data, and is most capable of capturing heterogeneity other than excess zeros. Among the main results, it was found that the road surface condition index was statistically significant influencing the accident occurrence. This research is the first showing the empirical relationship between safety and road surface conditions at a disaggregate level (event-based), making it feasible to quantify the safety benefits of alternative maintenance goals and methods.

  12. Putting road safety awareness into practice

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    To round off the series of articles and posters published as part of its road safety awareness campaign, CERN is organising two information and demonstration open days on 23 and 25 September. Can you brake in time ? Did you know that you are 21 times more at risk of being killed if you are not wearing a seat belt in the event of your car rolling over? All your questions on road safety will be answered at two special days that are being organized on 23 and 25 September. You will also be able to test your reflexes and your knowledge by taking part in demonstrations. The CERN Management attaches high priority to an improvement in safety standards on the Laboratory's roads. These two open days have been arranged to round off the road safety awareness and highway courtesy campaign which was launched last year. They are intended to provide us with an opportunity, through a more "hands-on" approach, of heightening our awareness of the risks associated with road traffic, of the legislation in force, and above all t...

  13. Evidence-based and data-driven road safety management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fred Wegman

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Over the past decades, road safety in highly-motorised countries has made significant progress. Although we have a fair understanding of the reasons for this progress, we don't have conclusive evidence for this. A new generation of road safety management approaches has entered road safety, starting when countries decided to guide themselves by setting quantitative targets (e.g. 50% less casualties in ten years' time. Setting realistic targets, designing strategies and action plans to achieve these targets and monitoring progress have resulted in more scientific research to support decision-making on these topics. Three subjects are key in this new approach of evidence-based and data-driven road safety management: ex-post and ex-ante evaluation of both individual interventions and intervention packages in road safety strategies, and transferability (external validity of the research results. In this article, we explore these subjects based on recent experiences in four jurisdictions (Western Australia, the Netherlands, Sweden and Switzerland. All four apply similar approaches and tools; differences are considered marginal. It is concluded that policy-making and political decisions were influenced to a great extent by the results of analysis and research. Nevertheless, to compensate for a relatively weak theoretical basis and to improve the power of this new approach, a number of issues will need further research. This includes ex-post and ex-ante evaluation, a better understanding of extrapolation of historical trends and the transferability of research results. This new approach cannot be realized without high-quality road safety data. Good data and knowledge are indispensable for this new and very promising approach.

  14. The rewards of road safety

    CERN Document Server

    Anaïs Schaeffer

    2012-01-01

    In May, the HSE Unit launched a cycling safety campaign at CERN over three days during which members of the Unit and representatives of the Swiss Office for Accident Prevention and the Touring Club Suisse reminded people of the basic safety rules to which they should adhere when riding a bike. A competition was held to encourage people to be self-critical and to highlight best practice.    On 14 June, a month and 273 participants later, 40 lucky contestants received winners' prizes in a low-key reception at Restaurant 2. Among the prizes were "safety packs" containing a fluorescent jacket, arm-bands and a water-bottle, cycle helmets and two brand new bikes. More proof, if any were needed, that safety and prevention form a winning combination!  

  15. Fear patterns: a new approach to designing road safety advertisements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Algie, Jennifer; Rossiter, John R

    2010-01-01

    This research studies fear patterns within fear appeal anti-speeding television commercials. A pattern of fear is the sequence of fear arousal and fear reduction, if any, that is felt by the viewing audience when exposed to a fear appeal advertisement. Many road safety advertisers use fear appeals, such as "shock" advertising, that result in fear arousal, leaving the viewer feeling extremely tense. The moment-to-moment reactions of young drivers to 12 road safety commercials are gauged using a dynamic, temporal measure of fear. The fear patterns generated from each ad are analyzed and a new perspective on creating fear appeal road safety advertisements, with an emphasis on fear-relief, fear-partial relief, and fear-only patterns, is discussed.

  16. Cyclists and road safety in the Netherlands.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Welleman, A.G. & Dijkstra, A.

    1987-01-01

    The bicycle contributes substantially to the mobility of the Dutch people, presumably more so than in any other European country. Nearly every group of the population makes us of the bicycle on a larger scale, both in urban and rural areas. The cyclists have their specific road safety problems. Aft

  17. Pricing road safety into the market.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wittink, R.D.

    1997-01-01

    The author considers the opportunities offered by marketing in the field of road safety. Marketing is defined as an approach which takes into account social, cultural, economic, political and legal developments and offers a solution. Examples are given in the transport field where the needs of the u

  18. The road safety of motorway tunnels.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2009-01-01

    This fact sheet discusses the safety of motorway tunnels in the Netherlands. Broadly speaking, it is not certain whether crashes in the Netherlands are relatively more frequent in tunnels than on open road stretches. However, there are certain factors that increase the risk in tunnels, such as the p

  19. Mass-media information campaigns about road safety. [previously known as: Public information about road safety.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2009-01-01

    In the Netherlands, public information is often used as an instrument to improve road safety. The purpose of each public information campaign is a voluntary and lasting change in traffic behaviour. This requires road users to have sufficient knowledge about a problem and to adapt their behaviour. Go

  20. Mass-media information campaigns about road safety. [previously known as: Public information about road safety.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2009-01-01

    In the Netherlands, public information is often used as an instrument to improve road safety. The purpose of each public information campaign is a voluntary and lasting change in traffic behaviour. This requires road users to have sufficient knowledge about a problem and to adapt their behaviour.

  1. Road safety and road traffic accidents in Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansuri, Farah A.; Al-Zalabani, Abdulmohsen H.; Zalat, Marwa M.; Qabshawi, Reem I.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To identify the changing trends and crucial preventive approaches to road traffic accidents (RTAs) adopted in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) over the last 2.5 decades, and to analyze aspects previously overlooked. Methods: This systematic review was based on evidence of RTAs in KSA. All articles published during the last 25 years on road traffic accident in KSA were analyzed. This study was carried out from December 2013 to May 2014 in the Department of Family and Community Medicine, Taibah University, Al-Madinah Al-Munawwarah, KSA. Results: Road traffic accidents accounted for 83.4% of all trauma admissions in 1984-1989, and no such overall trend was studied thereafter. The most frequently injured body regions as reported in the latest studies were head and neck, followed by upper and lower extremities, which was found to be opposite to that of the studies reported earlier. Hospital data showed an 8% non-significant increase in road accident mortalities in contrast to police records of a 27% significant reduction during the years 2005-2010. Excessive speeding was the most common cause reported in all recent and past studies. Conclusion: Disparity was common in the type of reporting of RTAs, outcome measures, and possible causes over a period of 2.5 decade. All research exclusively looked into the drivers’ faults. A sentinel surveillance of road crashes should be kept in place in the secondary and tertiary care hospitals for all regions of KSA. PMID:25828277

  2. Vision Zero--a road safety policy innovation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belin, Matts-Åke; Tillgren, Per; Vedung, Evert

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to examine Sweden's Vision Zero road safety policy. In particular, the paper focuses on how safety issues were framed, which decisions were made, and what are the distinctive features of Vision Zero. The analysis reveals that the decision by the Swedish Parliament to adopt Vision Zero as Sweden's road safety policy was a radical innovation. The policy is different in kind from traditional traffic safety policy with regard to problem formulation, its view on responsibility, its requirements for the safety of road users, and the ultimate objective of road safety work. The paper briefly examines the implications of these findings for national and global road safety efforts that aspire to achieving innovative road safety policies in line with the Decade of Action for Road Safety 2011-2020, declared by the United Nations General Assembly in March 2010.

  3. does road safety projects relate to community capacity building?

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    Key words: AARSI road safety projects, capacity building, capacity building ... key stakeholders on road safety in Nigeria in order to complement the ... challenges the notion that practitioners and community programmes should .... Federal Road Safety Commission-FRSC and Lagos State Traffic Management .... perspective.

  4. Analysis of road safety management systems in Europe.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muhlrad, N. Vallet, G. Butler, I. Gitelman, V. Doveh, E. Dupont, E. Thomas, P. Talbot, R. Papadimitriou, E. Yannis, G. Persia, L. Giustiniani, G. Machata, K. & Bax, C.A.

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this paper is the analysis of road safety management in European countries and the identification of “good practice”. A road safety management investigation model was created, based on several “good practice” criteria. Road safety management systems have been thoroughly investigated

  5. Road Safety Barriers, the Need and Influence on Road Traffic Accidents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butāns, Ž.; Gross, K. A.; Gridnevs, A.; Karzubova, E.

    2015-11-01

    Constantly increasing intensity of road traffic and the allowed speed limits seem to impose stronger requirements on road infrastructure and use of road safety systems. One of the ways to improve road safety is the use of road restraint systems. Road safety barriers allow not only reducing the number of road traffic accidents, but also lowering the severity of accidents. The paper provides information on the technical requirements of road safety barriers. Various types of road safety barriers and their selection criteria for different types of road sections are discussed. The article views an example of a road traffic accident, which is also modelled by PC-Crash computer program. The given example reflects a road accident mechanism in case of a car-to-barrier collision, and provides information about the typical damage to the car and the barrier. The paper describes an impact of the road safety barrier type and its presence on the road traffic accident mechanism. Implementation and maintenance costs of different barrier types are viewed. The article presents a discussion on the necessity to use road safety barriers, as well as their optimal choice.

  6. A road safety course with a difference!

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    Are you feeling brave? Then why not sign up for a road safety session. 10 to 14 November is road safety week at CERN and the Touring Club Suisse (TCS) will be in the Main Building, 500, with several hair-raising activities to try. If you walk into the foyer of building 500 between 10 and 14 November you might, at first glance, think that you have walked into a fairground. But the machines designed to spin you upside down and slide you also are actually part of CERN’s road safety week. Every day during the week there will six sessions each lasting about an hour where you can try out a series of exhilarating activities. If you are feeling brave enough you could try and get yourself out of the crash simulator. Not as easy as it sounds - after being spun over several times you can experience what it’s like to try and escape from an overturned car - dangling upside down attached only by your seatbelt! During the course instructors from the Touring Club Suisse (TC...

  7. Analytic choices in road safety evaluation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elvik, Rune

    2012-01-01

    Conducting rigorous before-and-after studies is essential for improving knowledge regarding the effects of road safety measures. However, state-of-the-art approaches like the empirical Bayes or fully Bayesian techniques cannot always be applied, as the data required by these approaches may....... The choice of comparison group when there is more than one candidate. It is found that the choices made with respect to these points can greatly influence the estimates of safety effects in before-and-after studies. Two second-best techniques (i.e. techniques other than the empirical Bayes approach...

  8. How to make more cycling good for road safety?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wegman, Fred; Zhang, Fan; Dijkstra, Atze

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses the current level of the road safety problems of cycling and cyclists, why cyclists run relatively high risks, and why cyclists may be considered as 'vulnerable road users'. This paper is based on peer-reviewed research which give some idea how to reduce the number of cyclist casualties. However, this research is rather limited and the results cannot (easily) be transferred from one setting or country to another: generalization of results should only be done with the utmost care, if it is to be done at all. Interventions to reduce cyclist casualties worldwide seem to be of an incidental nature; that is to say, they are implemented in a rather isolated way. In a Safe System approach, such as the Dutch Sustainable Safety vision, the inherent risks of traffic are dealt with in a systematic, proactive way. We illustrate how this approach is especially effective for vulnerable road users, such as cyclists. Finally, the paper addresses the question of whether it is possible to make more cycling good for road safety. We conclude that when the number of cyclists increases, the number of fatalities may increase, but will not necessarily do so, and the outcome is dependent on specific conditions. There is strong evidence that well-designed bicycle facilities-physically separated networks-reduce risks for cyclists, and therefore have an impact on the net safety result, for example if car-kilometres are substituted by bicycle kilometres. Policies to support cycling should incorporate these findings in order to make more cycling good for road safety.

  9. New Innovative Ethical Principles in Increasing Road Safety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Miletić

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Research Question (RQ: Future managers are faced daily with a variety of ethical dilemmas in traffic that need to be balanced by the interests of all participants. The question is whether a new innovative model of ethical principles could be developed that would increase road safety.Purpose: The a im is to raise the level of social responsibility and relationship of participants in traffic as well as warn all participants on the importance of safety. In addition, the purpose is to share suggestions to other researchers for further research studies in the area of increasing traffic safety.Method: We carried out a quantitative study (survey among first year post-graduate students studying at a higher education school focused on quality management in south-eastern Slovenia. The article presents five different ethical scenarios.Results: The participants have very similar views on judging individual ethical dilemmas. The desire to increase road safety, have led to new useful suggestions for further study of innovative new ethical principles in the field of safety, such as: no death victims annually, adequate road infrastructure, improved vehicle technology, video surveillance systems, and so on.Organization: Relevant authorities should promote models of ethical thinking and the introduction of codes of conduct at an early age. As such, the state, police, rescuers, fire departments, hospitals, and so on, would have fewer deaths due to serious traffic accidents.Society: By taking these results and further research suggestions into account, society would gain a new model that would be based on zero accidents annually.Originality: Research in the field of ethics and innovative ethical principles of traffic safety is limited. The article presents practical examples of ethical and moral decision-making that we encounter in daily traffic. But nothing much is done to make it better ("every day the same story".Limitations/Future Research: The research study

  10. Mainstreaming road safety in the regional integration of the East ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Keywords: Road safety, road traffic injuries, regional integration, East African ... regions having the lowest rates of the registered motorised vehicles which were ..... passengers are found to be the most vulnerable groups at risk of RTIs in the ...

  11. Targeted road safety programmes : a promising approach in road safety. Paper presented at `the second conference on Asian road safety', Beijing, October 28-31, 1996.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wegman, F.C.M.

    1996-01-01

    This paper gives a broad overview on targeted road safety programmes, mainly based on the activities of a so-called OECD scientific expert group, whose report has been published in 1994 (see C 2845 S (IRRD 864087). Examples of targeted road safety programmes are given in some more detail of Finland,

  12. Valuation of road safety effects in cost-benefit analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijnen, Wim; Wesemann, Paul; de Blaeij, Arianne

    2009-11-01

    Cost-benefit analysis is a common method for evaluating the social economic impact of transport projects, and in many of these projects the saving of human lives is an issue. This implies, within the framework of cost-benefit analysis, that a monetary value should be attached to saving human lives. This paper discusses the 'Value of a Statistical Life' (VoSL), a concept that is often used for monetising safety effects, in the context of road safety. Firstly, the concept of 'willingness to pay' for road safety and its relation to the VoSL are explained. The VoSL approach will be compared to other approaches to monetise safety effects, in particular the human capital approach and 'quality adjusted life years'. Secondly, methods to estimate the VoSL and their applicability to road safety will be discussed. Thirdly, the paper reviews the VoSL estimates that have been found in scientific research and compares them with the values that are used in policy evaluations. Finally, a VoSL study in the Netherlands will be presented as a case study, and its applicability in policy evaluation will be illustrated.

  13. Development of Strategic Goals of Road Safety Management: A Case Study of Montenegro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milenko Čabarkapa

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Evaluation of the results of road safety management at the national level is carried out with a number of predefined indicators. These, predefined indicators should be measurable objectives of road safety management. They are set by national road safety strategies. This paper presents the control implementation of the Strategy to improve road safety in Montenegro for the period 2010-2019. The research showed that the five-year objectives of the National Strategy were achieved in the first years and significantly surmounted. This efficiency is achieved for two main reasons: the development of road safety management, and setting an unambitious, easily attainable goal. These findings are indicators that generally and globally set goals of reducing traffic fatalities cannot comprise at the same time national objectives in all countries. In this context, the methodological improvements of setting national strategic objectives established by the evidences on the national traffic safety issue are proposed.

  14. Road safety performance indicators : country profiles. SafetyNet, Building the European Road Safety Observatory, Workpackage 3, Deliverable 3.7b.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Riguelle, F. Eksler, V. Holló, P. Morsink, P. Gent, A. van Gitelman, V. Assum, T. & Rackliff, L.

    2009-01-01

    The EC 6th Framework Integrated Project SafetyNet aims to accelerate the availability and use of harmonised road safety data in Europe. Having such data available throughout Europe would be tremendously beneficial for road safety, since it would enable the evaluation of road safety measures, the com

  15. Road safety performance indicators : country profiles. SafetyNet, Building the European Road Safety Observatory, Workpackage 3, Deliverable 3.7b.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Riguelle, F. Eksler, V. Holló, P. Morsink, P. Gent, A. van Gitelman, V. Assum, T. & Rackliff, L.

    2009-01-01

    The EC 6th Framework Integrated Project SafetyNet aims to accelerate the availability and use of harmonised road safety data in Europe. Having such data available throughout Europe would be tremendously beneficial for road safety, since it would enable the evaluation of road safety measures, the

  16. Note on evaluating safety performance of road infrastructure to motivate safety competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Sangjin

    2016-01-01

    Road infrastructures are usually developed and maintained by governments or public sectors. There is no competitor in the market of their jurisdiction. This monopolic feature discourages road authorities from improving the level of safety with proactive motivation. This study suggests how to apply a principle of competition for roads, in particular by means of performance evaluation. It first discusses why road infrastructure has been slow in safety oriented development and management in respect of its business model. Then it suggests some practical ways of how to promote road safety between road authorities, particularly by evaluating safety performance of road infrastructure. These are summarized as decision of safety performance indicators, classification of spatial boundaries, data collection, evaluation, and reporting. Some consideration points are also discussed to make safety performance evaluation on road infrastructure lead to better road safety management.

  17. The driver, the road, the rules … and the rest? A systems-based approach to young driver road safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott-Parker, B; Goode, N; Salmon, P

    2015-01-01

    The persistent overrepresentation of young drivers in road crashes is universally recognised. A multitude of factors influencing their behaviour and safety have been identified through methods including crash analyses, simulated and naturalistic driving studies, and self-report measures. Across the globe numerous, diverse, countermeasures have been implemented; the design of the vast majority of these has been informed by a driver-centric approach. An alternative approach gaining popularity in transport safety is the systems approach which considers not only the characteristics of the individual, but also the decisions and actions of other actors within the road transport system, along with the interactions amongst them. This paper argues that for substantial improvements to be made in young driver road safety, what has been learnt from driver-centric research needs to be integrated into a systems approach, thus providing a holistic appraisal of the young driver road safety problem. Only then will more effective opportunities and avenues for intervention be realised.

  18. Family climate for road safety: a new concept and measure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taubman-Ben-Ari, Orit; Katz-Ben-Ami, Liat

    2013-05-01

    This research adapted the workplace concept of safety climate to the domain of safe driving, defining a new construct of "family climate for road safety". Four studies were conducted in Israel with the aim of developing and validating a multidimensional instrument to assess this construct among young drivers. Study 1 (n=632) focused on developing the Family Climate for Road Safety Scale (FCRSS), a self-report scale assessing the family climate by means of seven aspects of the parent-child relationship: Modeling, Feedback, Communication, Monitoring, Noncommitment, Messages, and Limits. Significant differences were found between young men and women on all factors. In addition, significant associations were found between the FCRSS factors on the one hand, and the reported frequency of risky driving and personal commitment to safety on the other. Studies 2-4 confirmed the factorial structure of the FCRSS and the reliability of its factors, adding to its criterion and convergent validity. Study 2 (n=178) yielded significant associations between the scale and young drivers' perception of their parents as involved, encouraging autonomy, and providing warmth; Study 3 (n=117) revealed significant associations between the scale and youngsters' reported proneness to take risks while driving, as well as significant associations between the factors and various dimensions of family functioning; and Study 4 (n=156) found associations between the FCRSS factors and both driving styles (risky, angry, anxious, careful) and family cohesion and adaptability. The discussion deals with the validity and utility of the concept of family climate for road safety and its measurement, addressing the practical implications for road safety.

  19. Case study: the Argentina Road Safety Project: lessons learned for the decade of action for road safety, 2011-2020.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raffo, Veronica; Bliss, Tony; Shotten, Marc; Sleet, David; Blanchard, Claire

    2013-12-01

    This case study of the Argentina Road Safety Project demonstrates how the application of World Bank road safety project guidelines focused on institution building can accelerate knowledge transfer, scale up investment and improve the focus on results. The case study highlights road safety as a development priority and outlines World Bank initiatives addressing the implementation of the World Report on Road Traffic Injury's recommendations and the subsequent launch of the Decade of Action for Road Safety, from 2011-2020. The case study emphasizes the vital role played by the lead agency in ensuring sustainable road safety improvements and promoting the shift to a 'Safe System' approach, which necessitated the strengthening of all elements of the road safety management system. It summarizes road safety performance and institutional initiatives in Argentina leading up to the preparation and implementation of the project. We describe the project's development objectives, financing arrangements, specific components and investment staging. Finally, we discuss its innovative features and lessons learned, and present a set of supplementary guidelines, both to assist multilateral development banks and their clients with future road safety initiatives, and to encourage better linkages between the health and transportation sectors supporting them.

  20. Development of a British Road Safety Education Support Materials Curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouck, Linda H.

    Road safety education needs to be a vital component in the school curriculum. This paper describes a planned road safety education support materials curriculum developed to aid educators in the Wiltshire County (England) primary schools. Teaching strategies include topic webs, lecture, class discussion, group activities, and investigative learning…

  1. Road network safety evaluation using Bayesian hierarchical joint model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jie; Huang, Helai

    2016-05-01

    Safety and efficiency are commonly regarded as two significant performance indicators of transportation systems. In practice, road network planning has focused on road capacity and transport efficiency whereas the safety level of a road network has received little attention in the planning stage. This study develops a Bayesian hierarchical joint model for road network safety evaluation to help planners take traffic safety into account when planning a road network. The proposed model establishes relationships between road network risk and micro-level variables related to road entities and traffic volume, as well as socioeconomic, trip generation and network density variables at macro level which are generally used for long term transportation plans. In addition, network spatial correlation between intersections and their connected road segments is also considered in the model. A road network is elaborately selected in order to compare the proposed hierarchical joint model with a previous joint model and a negative binomial model. According to the results of the model comparison, the hierarchical joint model outperforms the joint model and negative binomial model in terms of the goodness-of-fit and predictive performance, which indicates the reasonableness of considering the hierarchical data structure in crash prediction and analysis. Moreover, both random effects at the TAZ level and the spatial correlation between intersections and their adjacent segments are found to be significant, supporting the employment of the hierarchical joint model as an alternative in road-network-level safety modeling as well.

  2. Investigation of road network features and safety performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xuesong; Wu, Xingwei; Abdel-Aty, Mohamed; Tremont, Paul J

    2013-07-01

    The analysis of road network designs can provide useful information to transportation planners as they seek to improve the safety of road networks. The objectives of this study were to compare and define the effective road network indices and to analyze the relationship between road network structure and traffic safety at the level of the Traffic Analysis Zone (TAZ). One problem in comparing different road networks is establishing criteria that can be used to scale networks in terms of their structures. Based on data from Orange and Hillsborough Counties in Florida, road network structural properties within TAZs were scaled using 3 indices: Closeness Centrality, Betweenness Centrality, and Meshedness Coefficient. The Meshedness Coefficient performed best in capturing the structural features of the road network. Bayesian Conditional Autoregressive (CAR) models were developed to assess the safety of various network configurations as measured by total crashes, crashes on state roads, and crashes on local roads. The models' results showed that crash frequencies on local roads were closely related to factors within the TAZs (e.g., zonal network structure, TAZ population), while crash frequencies on state roads were closely related to the road and traffic features of state roads. For the safety effects of different networks, the Grid type was associated with the highest frequency of crashes, followed by the Mixed type, the Loops & Lollipops type, and the Sparse type. This study shows that it is possible to develop a quantitative scale for structural properties of a road network, and to use that scale to calculate the relationships between network structural properties and safety.

  3. A review of models relevant to road safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, B P; Newstead, S; Anund, A; Shu, C C; Falkmer, T

    2015-01-01

    It is estimated that more than 1.2 million people die worldwide as a result of road traffic crashes and some 50 million are injured per annum. At present some Western countries' road safety strategies and countermeasures claim to have developed into 'Safe Systems' models to address the effects of road related crashes. Well-constructed models encourage effective strategies to improve road safety. This review aimed to identify and summarise concise descriptions, or 'models' of safety. The review covers information from a wide variety of fields and contexts including transport, occupational safety, food industry, education, construction and health. The information from 2620 candidate references were selected and summarised in 121 examples of different types of model and contents. The language of safety models and systems was found to be inconsistent. Each model provided additional information regarding style, purpose, complexity and diversity. In total, seven types of models were identified. The categorisation of models was done on a high level with a variation of details in each group and without a complete, simple and rational description. The models identified in this review are likely to be adaptable to road safety and some of them have previously been used. None of systems theory, safety management systems, the risk management approach, or safety culture was commonly or thoroughly applied to road safety. It is concluded that these approaches have the potential to reduce road trauma.

  4. ENHANCEMENT OF ROAD SAFETY THROUGH MORE EFFECTIVE ROAD AND TRAFFIC MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz SZCZURASZEK

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available To make the policy aimed at mitigating the risk of road incidents more effective, Poland should see the introduction of the more efficient road and traffic management. In November 2008 the European Parliament and the European Council published the Directive on "infrastructure safety management" which provides guidance on the procedures for carrying impact assessments of traffic safety, traffic safety audits, safety management on the road network and monitoring traffic safety in Member States. In this article, the authors have proposed a systemic approach to road and traffic management, involving the implementation of consistent procedures that should include regular revisions of roads, eliminating hazardous sites, speed management, as well as the approval and implementation of traffic organization designs.

  5. Road Safety Data, Collection, Transfer and Analysis DaCoTa. Workpackage 4, Decision Support: Deliverable 4.2: Forecasting road traffic fatalities in European countries : model definition and first results.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broughton, J. Knowles, J. Bijleveld, F.D. Commandeur, J. Antoniou, C. Papadimitriou, E. Yannis, G. Lassarre, S. Dupont, E. Martensen, H. Hermans, E. Bartolome, J. Giustianni, G. Shingo, D. & Perez, C. & Martensen, H. & Dupont, E. (Eds.)

    2012-01-01

    The aim of WP4 is to bridge the gap between research and policy to enable knowledge-based road safety management. To support road safety decision makers, this Work Package will: (1) exploit the data available for analysis by providing forecasts of the road safety situation in the different member

  6. Advancing sustainable safety : National Road Safety Outlook for 2005-2020.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wegman, F.C.M. & Aarts, L.T. (eds.)

    2006-01-01

    Advancing Sustainable Safety: National Road Safety Outlook for 2005-2020 is the follow-up to Naar een duurzaam veilig wegverkeer [Towards sustainably safe road traffic] (Koornstra et al., 1992). Advancing Sustainable Safety is a critique of Sustainable Safety. In this advanced version, adaptations

  7. A Review of Strategies to Promote Road Safety in Rich Developing Countries: the Gcc Countries Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khair Jadaan

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Road safety policies, strategies and action plans, along with trends in road traffic injuries (RTIs in the oil-rich Gulf Cooperative Council (GCC countries were examined to appraise their road safety work with an overall objective of identifying key measures and initiatives that would reduce RTA and their resulting consequences in these countries. Data on RTIs was obtained from police and from vital statistics and was analyzed. Research papers, policy documents, and strategies, obtained from relevant stakeholders in the six GCC countries, were reviewed and discussed. Traffic Safety Programs and action plans, which were the most fundamental documents in the development of the GCC countries’ road safety policies and strategies, were reviewed. Policy documents on road safety and traffic related issues were searched on the websites of related authorities. Published research on road safety in GCC countries was searched using available databases. Analysis of accident data shows that the fatality rates in all the GCC countries are much higher than developed countries with good safety records. The six administrations started the fundamental traffic safety programs to combat the increase in RTIs, with some succeeding in reducing RTI rates by implementing vast road safety improvements. However, RTIs increased again mainly because of increasing traffic volume and high-risk driving behavior. Developing and implementing national road safety strategies in some GCC countries was successful in reducing the RTI rates. The road safety situation in the six GCC countries was assessed showing high crash and fatality rates compared to developed countries. Most GCC countries still suffer from sustainable increase in traffic crashes despite the efforts to reduce their magnitude and severity. Some of these countries have developed and implemented national road safety strategies, while countries like Oman still need to develop such a long-term strategy. Following the

  8. The future of road safety: A worldwide perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fred Wegman

    2017-03-01

    The future of road safety is uncertain and definitely not the same for all regions of the world. Countries with a mature road safety approach and an ambition to make further progress are expected to move in the direction of a pro-active approach: a Safe System approach. It is reported that many LMIC, meanwhile, are on the brink of designing road safety strategies and implementing action plans. The international community is willing to support LMIC, but LMIC cannot simply copy successful HIC strategies because local circumstances differ. The principles of successful HIC strategies are applicable, but the priorities and action plans should take root in and align with local conditions.

  9. 3D GIS BASED EVALUATION OF THE AVAILABLE SIGHT DISTANCE TO ASSESS SAFETY OF URBAN ROADS

    OpenAIRE

    Bassani, M.; Grasso, N.; Piras, M.

    2015-01-01

    The available sight distance (ASD) in front of the driver to detect possible conflicts with unexpected obstacles is fundamental for traffic safety. In the last 20 years, road design software (RDS) has been continuously updated with dedicated modules to estimate ASD, thus assessing the quality of project from a safety point of view. Unfortunately, the evaluation of ASD still represents an issue in the case of existing road, and the object of discussion in the research community. To avoid probl...

  10. The Road to Total Earthquake Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frohlich, Cliff

    Cinna Lomnitz is possibly the most distinguished earthquake seismologist in all of Central and South America. Among many other credentials, Lomnitz has personally experienced the shaking and devastation that accompanied no fewer than five major earthquakes—Chile, 1939; Kern County, California, 1952; Chile, 1960; Caracas,Venezuela, 1967; and Mexico City, 1985. Thus he clearly has much to teach someone like myself, who has never even actually felt a real earthquake.What is this slim book? The Road to Total Earthquake Safety summarizes Lomnitz's May 1999 presentation at the Seventh Mallet-Milne Lecture, sponsored by the Society for Earthquake and Civil Engineering Dynamics. His arguments are motivated by the damage that occurred in three earthquakes—Mexico City, 1985; Loma Prieta, California, 1989; and Kobe, Japan, 1995. All three quakes occurred in regions where earthquakes are common. Yet in all three some of the worst damage occurred in structures located a significant distance from the epicenter and engineered specifically to resist earthquakes. Some of the damage also indicated that the structures failed because they had experienced considerable rotational or twisting motion. Clearly, Lomnitz argues, there must be fundamental flaws in the usually accepted models explaining how earthquakes generate strong motions, and how we should design resistant structures.

  11. Workplace road safety risk management: An investigation into Australian practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warmerdam, Amanda; Newnam, Sharon; Sheppard, Dianne; Griffin, Mark; Stevenson, Mark

    2017-01-01

    In Australia, more than 30% of the traffic volume can be attributed to work-related vehicles. Although work-related driver safety has been given increasing attention in the scientific literature, it is uncertain how well this knowledge has been translated into practice in industry. It is also unclear how current practice in industry can inform scientific knowledge. The aim of the research was to use a benchmarking tool developed by the National Road Safety Partnership Program to assess industry maturity in relation to risk management practices. A total of 83 managers from a range of small, medium and large organisations were recruited through the Victorian Work Authority. Semi-structured interviews aimed at eliciting information on current organisational practices, as well as policy and procedures around work-related driving were conducted and the data mapped onto the benchmarking tool. Overall, the results demonstrated varying levels of maturity of risk management practices across organisations, highlighting the need to build accountability within organisations, improve communication practices, improve journey management, reduce vehicle-related risk, improve driver competency through an effective workplace road safety management program and review organisational incident and infringement management. The findings of the study have important implications for industry and highlight the need to review current risk management practices.

  12. Arrive alive: road safety in Kenya and South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamont, Mark; Lee, Rebekah

    2015-04-01

    This article is among the first historical considerations of road safety in Africa. It argues that race and class, as colonial dualisms, analytically frame two defining moments in the development of African automobility and its infrastructure-"Africanization" in the first decade of Kenya's political independence from Britain, 1963-75, and democratization in postapartheid South Africa. We argue that recent road safety interventions in both countries exemplify an "epidemiological turn" influenced by public health constructions of the HIV/AIDS epidemic. African states' framing of road safety in behaviorist terms has obscured larger debates around redressing the historical legacies of racialized access to roads and the technopolitics of African automobility. Civic involvement in road safety initiatives has tended to be limited, although the specter of road carnage has entered into the public imagination, largely through the death of high profile Africans. However, some African road users continue to pursue alternative, and often culturally embedded, strategies to mitigate the dangers posed by life "on the road."

  13. Agricultural Vehicles and Rural Road Safety: tackling a persistent problem

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jaarsma, C.F.; Vries, de J.R.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Crashes involving agricultural vehicles (AVs) on public roads are an increasing road safety problem. We aim to analyze developments in the appearance and severity of these accidents, to identify influencing factors and to draw lessons for possible interventions for accident prevention with

  14. Road accident rates: strategies and programmes for improving road traffic safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goniewicz, K; Goniewicz, M; Pawłowski, W; Fiedor, P

    2016-08-01

    Nowadays, the problem of road accident rates is one of the most important health and social policy issues concerning the countries in all continents. Each year, nearly 1.3 million people worldwide lose their life on roads, and 20-50 million sustain severe injuries, the majority of which require long-term treatment. The objective of the study was to identify the most frequent, constantly occurring causes of road accidents, as well as outline actions constituting a basis for the strategies and programmes aiming at improving traffic safety on local and global levels. Comparative analysis of literature concerning road safety was performed, confirming that although road accidents had a varied and frequently complex background, their causes have changed only to a small degree over the years. The causes include: lack of control and enforcement concerning implementation of traffic regulation (primarily driving at excessive speed, driving under the influence of alcohol, and not respecting the rights of other road users (mainly pedestrians and cyclists), lack of appropriate infrastructure and unroadworthy vehicles. The number of fatal accidents and severe injuries, resulting from road accidents, may be reduced through applying an integrated approach to safety on roads. The strategies and programmes for improving road traffic should include the following measures: reducing the risk of exposure to an accident, prevention of accidents, reduction in bodily injuries sustained in accidents, and reduction of the effects of injuries by improvement of post-accident medical care.

  15. Road Safety Effects of Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) Systems: a Call for Evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vecino-Ortiz, Andres I; Hyder, Adnan A

    2015-10-01

    Road injuries are an important cause of global mortality especially in low- and middle-income countries. While these countries undergo major urban transformations, an integral part of their development has often been the implementation of mass transportation systems, including Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) systems. However, the net effect of BRT systems on road safety is still unclear, and while there is reason to believe that BRT systems improve safety, very few available empirical studies have tested this hypothesis using observational data. Furthermore, the existing evidence is mixed and sparse. This paper reviews the available literature on the links of BRT systems and road safety and calls for more research to strengthen the body of evidence on the effect of BRT systems on road safety  in the future.

  16. Road Safety Education in a Science Course: Evaluation of "Science and the Road."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Paul L.

    1989-01-01

    A traffic safety instructional package--"Science and the Road"--was assessed. It was designed by the Road Traffic Authority of Victoria (Australia) for use in tenth-grade science courses. Evaluation findings resulted in revision of the unit and implementation of more inservice courses for teachers lacking relevant biology and physics…

  17. The effect of using road safety equipment and systems and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of using road safety equipment and systems and determine their role on the ... signs and marks, inhibiting rules, safer vehicles, driver familiar with the rules. ... 0 and 100 and prioritize different levels were expressed in terms of risk.

  18. Determinants and Stakeholders Influencing Children's Road Safety Education

    OpenAIRE

    Alonso Plá, Francisco Manuel; Esteban Martínez, Cristina; Useche, Sergio A.; Manso Pérez, Violeta

    2016-01-01

    Road safety education is, widely, the best base and the greatest assurance of the future in terms of road safety prevention and promotion. Nowadays, RSE constitutes one of the main growing concerns in terms of complimentary education in many countries, taking into account, among other factors, the high rates of accidents that affect the health and welfare of childhood and adolescence. Furthermore, it is a necessity for the community health to create, train, encourage and lead positives attitu...

  19. Automatic road traffic safety management system in urban areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oskarbski Jacek

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Traffic incidents and accidents contribute to decreasing levels of transport system reliability and safety. Traffic management and emergency systems on the road, using, among others, automatic detection, video surveillance, communication technologies and institutional solutions improve the organization of the work of various departments involved in traffic and safety management. Automation of incident management helps to reduce the time of a rescue operation as well as of the normalization of the flow of traffic after completion of a rescue operation, which also affects the reduction of the risk of secondary accidents and contributes to reducing their severity. The paper presents the possibility of including city traffic departments in the process of incident management. The results of research on the automatic incident detection in cities are also presented.

  20. A tool for safety evaluations of road improvements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peltola, Harri; Rajamäki, Riikka; Luoma, Juha

    2013-11-01

    Road safety impact assessments are requested in general, and the directive on road infrastructure safety management makes them compulsory for Member States of the European Union. However, there is no widely used, science-based safety evaluation tool available. We demonstrate a safety evaluation tool called TARVA. It uses EB safety predictions as the basis for selecting locations for implementing road-safety improvements and provides estimates of safety benefits of selected improvements. Comparing different road accident prediction methods, we demonstrate that the most accurate estimates are produced by EB models, followed by simple accident prediction models, the same average number of accidents for every entity and accident record only. Consequently, advanced model-based estimates should be used. Furthermore, we demonstrate regional comparisons that benefit substantially from such tools. Comparisons between districts have revealed significant differences. However, comparisons like these produce useful improvement ideas only after taking into account the differences in road characteristics between areas. Estimates on crash modification factors can be transferred from other countries but their benefit is greatly limited if the number of target accidents is not properly predicted. Our experience suggests that making predictions and evaluations using the same principle and tools will remarkably improve the quality and comparability of safety estimations.

  1. INFLUENCE OF PLANNING, ORGANIZATIONAL CHARACTERISTICS AND REGULATION ON ROAD TRAFFIC SAFETY OF PEDESTRIANS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. M. Kuharenok

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents results of research on planning, organizational characteristics and regulation modes at  the regulated pedestrian crossings, located out of crossroads in the street and road network of Minsk. Some regularities pertaining to the influence of the investigated characteristics on road traffic safety of pedestrians are revealed in the paper. Practical offers on increase of road traffic safety of pedestrians in the Republic of Belarus have been developed on the basis of the executed investigations and cited in the paper. 

  2. Intelligent Speed Adaptation (ISA) and Road Safety.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oei, H.L. & Polak, P.H.

    2002-01-01

    An ISA system consists of GPS to determine the car's position, a CD-ROM in the car containing information of a road network including the prevailing speed limit of each road section, and feedback to the driver, Experiments in Sweden are testing several options, from warning the driver, to resisting

  3. Intelligent Speed Adaptation (ISA) and Road Safety.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oei, H.L. & Polak, P.H.

    2002-01-01

    An ISA system consists of GPS to determine the car's position, a CD-ROM in the car containing information of a road network including the prevailing speed limit of each road section, and feedback to the driver, Experiments in Sweden are testing several options, from warning the driver, to resisting

  4. Persuasive appeals in road safety communication campaigns: Theoretical frameworks and practical implications from the analysis of a decade of road safety campaign materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guttman, Nurit

    2015-11-01

    Communication campaigns are employed as an important tool to promote road safety practices. Researchers maintain road safety communication campaigns are more effective when their persuasive appeals, which are central to their communicative strategy, are based on explicit theoretical frameworks. This study's main objectives were to develop a detailed categorization of persuasive appeals used in road safety communication campaigns that differentiate between appeals that appear to be similar but differ conceptually, and to indicate the advantages, limitations and ethical issues associated with each type, drawing on behavior change theories. Materials from over 300 campaigns were obtained from 41 countries, mainly using road safety organizations' websites. Drawing on the literature, five types of main approaches were identified, and the analysis yielded a more detailed categorizations of appeals within these general categories. The analysis points to advantages, limitations, ethical issues and challenges in using different types of appeals. The discussion summarizes challenges in designing persuasive-appeals for road safety communication campaigns. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Reprint of "Persuasive appeals in road safety communication campaigns: Theoretical frameworks and practical implications from the analysis of a decade of road safety campaign materials".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guttman, Nurit

    2016-12-01

    Communication campaigns are employed as an important tool to promote road safety practices. Researchers maintain road safety communication campaigns are more effective when their persuasive appeals, which are central to their communicative strategy, are based on explicit theoretical frameworks. This study's main objectives were to develop a detailed categorization of persuasive appeals used in road safety communication campaigns that differentiate between appeals that appear to be similar but differ conceptually, and to indicate the advantages, limitations and ethical issues associated with each type, drawing on behavior change theories. Materials from over 300 campaigns were obtained from 41 countries, mainly using road safety organizations' websites. Drawing on the literature, five types of main approaches were identified, and the analysis yielded a more detailed categorizations of appeals within these general categories. The analysis points to advantages, limitations, ethical issues and challenges in using different types of appeals. The discussion summarizes challenges in designing persuasive-appeals for road safety communication campaigns. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Snelheid en verkeersonveiligheid in de Noordse landen : covernota bij het rapport van G. Nilsson et al. `Speed and safety : research results from the Nordic countries', Swedish Road and Traffic Research Institute, 1990.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oei, H.-l.

    1990-01-01

    The speed of motor vehicles is a main subject for policy, for road administrators, for the police and for research. The Swedish Road and Traffic Research Institute VTI has made a literature review on this subject. In this cover note this literature review is commented. Results of an earlier study a

  7. Hotspots identification and ranking for road safety improvement: an alternative approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coll, Bronagh; Moutari, Salissou; Marshall, Adele H

    2013-10-01

    During the last decade, the concept of composite performance index, brought from economic and business statistics, has become a popular practice in the field of road safety, namely for the identification and classification of worst performing areas or time slots also known as hotspots. The overall quality of a composite index depends upon the complexity of phenomena of interest as well as the relevance of the methodological approach used to aggregate the various indicators into a single composite index. However, current aggregation methods used to estimate the composite road safety performance index suffer from various deficiencies at both the theoretical and operational level; these include the correlation and compensability between indicators, the weighting of the indicators as well as their high "degree of freedom" which enables one to readily manipulate them to produce desired outcomes (Munda and Nardo, 2003, 2005, 2009). The objective of this study is to contribute to the ongoing research effort on the estimation of road safety composite index for hotspots' identification and ranking. The aggregation method for constructing the composite road safety performance index introduced in this paper, strives to minimize the aforementioned deficiencies of the current approaches. Furthermore, this new method can be viewed as an intelligent decision support system for road safety performance evaluation, in order to prioritize interventions for road safety improvement.

  8. SmartRoads: training Indonesian workers to become road safety ambassadors in industrial and community settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montero, Kerry; Spencer, Graham; Ariens, Bernadette

    2012-06-01

    This paper reports on a programme to improve road safety awareness in an industrial community in the vicinity of Jakarta, in Indonesia. Adapting the model of a successful community and school-based programme in Victoria, in Australia, and using a peer education approach, 16 employees of a major manufacturing company were trained to implement road safety education programmes amongst their peers. Specific target groups for the educators were colleagues, schools and the local community. Over 2 days the employees, from areas as diverse as production, public relations, personnel services, administration and management, learned about road safety facts, causes of traffic casualties, prevention approaches and peer education strategies. They explored and developed strategies to use with their respective target groups and practised health education skills. The newly trained workers received certificates to acknowledge them as 'SmartRoads Ambassadors' and, with follow-up support and development, became road safety educators with a commitment and responsibility to deliver education to their respective work and local communities. This paper argues that the model has potential to provide an effective and locally relevant response to road safety issues in similar communities.

  9. Rural casualty crashes on the Kings Highway: A new approach for road safety studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alian, Sahar; Baker, R G V; Wood, Stephen

    2016-10-01

    This paper will consider the contribution that changes in road geometry and driver visual information make to the incidence and distribution of road casualties in different driving environments. This relationship will be explored specifically for the Kings Highway, a major arterial road connecting Queanbeyan with coastal southern New South Wales, Australia. It introduces and suggests a new empirical approach of plotting crashes with road segmentation, calculating sinuosity indices and grades as key features of road geometry, and critical visual points as a behavioural component of road curvature, within a GIS context. It is an approach that might be used when detailed road geometry data is not available. The visualisation and segmentation approach in this research might be used for summarising crash rates and road geometry factors, and for comparing day/night and eastbound/westbound driving conditions. The results suggest some early interpretations for detailed road safety studies that might be considered at local or national levels. The rate of crashes increases according to changes in road geometry factors during the day and for eastbound travel. This is not the case for night driving where the incidence of crashes is similar on both straight and curved roads segments due to the headlight effect and limited background visual field. Crash clusters at day-time may be due to the stronger effect of road geometry (e.g. combination of curvature and vertical grade) on driver behaviour travelling eastbound. The outcomes suggest that it might be essential to consider the effect of environmental factors in any road safety and crash analysis studies.

  10. A conceptual framework for road safety and mobility applied to cycling safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schepers, Paul; Hagenzieker, Marjan; Methorst, Rob; van Wee, Bert; Wegman, Fred

    2014-01-01

    Scientific literature lacks a model which combines exposure to risk, risk, and the relationship between them. This paper presents a conceptual road safety framework comprising mutually interacting factors for exposure to risk resulting from travel behaviour (volumes, modal split, and distribution of traffic over time and space) and for risk (crash and injury risk). The framework's three determinants for travel behaviour are locations of activities; resistances (generalized transport costs); needs, opportunities, and abilities. Crash and injury risks are modelled by the three 'safety pillars': infrastructure, road users and the vehicles they use. Creating a link in the framework between risk and exposure is important because of the 'non-linear relationship' between them, i.e. risk tends to decrease as exposure increases. Furthermore, 'perceived' risk (a type of travel resistance) plays a role in mode choice, i.e. the perception that a certain type of vehicle is unsafe can be a deterrent to its use. This paper uses theories to explain how the elements in the model interact. Cycling is an area where governments typically have goals for both mobility and safety. To exemplify application of the model, the paper uses the framework to link research on cycling (safety) to land use and infrastructure. The model's value lies in its ability to identify potential consequences of measures and policies for both exposure and risk. This is important from a scientific perspective and for policy makers who often have objectives for both mobility and safety.

  11. Road safety management : from the national to the local level.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muhlrad, N. & Wittink, R.D.

    1997-01-01

    While road safety action require a strong will and explicit policies at the national or central level, some types of measures or programmes are more relevant or easier to implement when applied at the local level. The present chapter aims at defining local safety action, identifying the actors in ch

  12. Distinguishing traffic modes in analysing road safety development.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stipdonk, H. & Berends, E.

    2008-01-01

    Changes in mobility influence road safety. The effects of safety measures may even be overshadowed by the effects of temporary mobility fluctuations. Usually mobility is corrected for by defining risk as the ratio between fatalities and mobility. Due to lack of sufficient data, mobility is often

  13. Road Safety Data, Collection, Transfer and Analysis DaCoTa. Workpackage 4, Decision Support: Deliverable 4.9: Developing a road safety index.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bax, C.A. Wesemann, P. Gitelman, V. Shen, Y. Goldenbeld, C. Hermans, E. Doveh, E. Hakkert, S. Wegman, F.C.M. & Aarts, L.T.

    2015-01-01

    Road safety is a major social aim. The countries that perform best in road safety base their most effective policies on an evidence-based, scientific approach. Countries may learn to improve road safety from their own experiences but also from systematic comparison with other countries. This study a

  14. The quantifying of road safety developments. Paper presented at the International Conference 'Road Safety in Europe', Birmingham, September 9-11, 1996.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koornstra, M.J.

    1996-01-01

    The evaluation of the effectiveness of road safety policies and measures must be based on quantative information in road safety developments and the relevant variables that influence that development. However, the concept of road safety itself is not well defined theoretically and quantatively. This

  15. Road Safety Data, Collection, Transfer and Analysis DaCoTa. Workpackage 4, Decision Support: Deliverable 4.9: Developing a road safety index.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bax, C.A. Wesemann, P. Gitelman, V. Shen, Y. Goldenbeld, C. Hermans, E. Doveh, E. Hakkert, S. Wegman, F.C.M. & Aarts, L.T.

    2015-01-01

    Road safety is a major social aim. The countries that perform best in road safety base their most effective policies on an evidence-based, scientific approach. Countries may learn to improve road safety from their own experiences but also from systematic comparison with other countries. This study

  16. Road Safety Data, Collection, Transfer and Analysis DaCoTa. Workpackage 4, Decision Support: Deliverable 4.9: Developing a road safety index.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bax, C.A. Wesemann, P. Gitelman, V. Shen, Y. Goldenbeld, C. Hermans, E. Doveh, E. Hakkert, S. Wegman, F.C.M. & Aarts, L.T.

    2015-01-01

    Road safety is a major social aim. The countries that perform best in road safety base their most effective policies on an evidence-based, scientific approach. Countries may learn to improve road safety from their own experiences but also from systematic comparison with other countries. This study a

  17. Modeling of dynamic vehicle-road interactions for safety-related road evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orfila, O; Coiret, A; Do, M T; Mammar, S

    2010-11-01

    Usually, road safety is assessed by following adequate highway geometric design standards and can be controlled later by measurement and expertise. Nevertheless, interactions between vehicle dynamics and road characteristics cannot be simultaneously analyzed for these two means of safety evaluation. In this study, an analytical method based on road/vehicle physical interactions applied to road diagnosis is proposed. Vehicle "point" and "bicycle" models are used in this first approach. French highway geometric design standards and a statistical method are presented and evaluated on a real curve case. The proposed numerical criterion, for the "bicycle" model, is then compared to these two classical methods for the considered road section. Its advantages are that it takes into account several combined parameters, that road defects are precisely localized and that it provides hierarchically classified solutions to the road managers. After this comparison step, further improvements should be focused on the modeling of successive curves and on the improvement of the informations given to the road manager.

  18. An update on the association between setting quantified road safety targets and road fatality reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allsop, Richard E; Sze, N N; Wong, S C

    2011-05-01

    This note is intended to rectify estimates provided in a previous paper (Wong et al., 2006) of the short-term effectiveness in terms of road fatality reduction of the setting of quantified road safety targets using data from 14 OECD countries during the period 1980-1999. This work is important in measuring the association between target setting and road safety improvement, because such targets are intended to serve as a useful tool to motivate timely road safety measures by the road authorities and others. The estimates to be rectified were based on before-and-after analysis using a comparison group of countries for each country that had set a target. This note first provides a correction to the qualification test for the inclusion of a country in any particular comparison group. It then presents the numerical effects of this correction on the estimates of the effectiveness of setting quantified road safety targets, both in individual countries and across the whole group of countries that set targets in the relevant period. Finally, impacts on the findings of the previous paper are discussed, with the conclusion that the changes in those of the numerical estimates that are affected do not alter the main message of the paper.

  19. Revitalizing Nuclear Safety Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Academy of Sciences - National Research Council, Washington, DC.

    This report covers the general issues involved in nuclear safety research and points out the areas needing detailed consideration. Topics included are: (1) "Principles of Nuclear Safety Research" (examining who should fund, who should conduct, and who should set the agenda for nuclear safety research); (2) "Elements of a Future…

  20. A methodology for improving road safety by novel infrastructural and invehicle technology combinations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiethoff, M.; Brookhuis, K.A.; De Waard, D.; Marchau, V.A.W.J.; Walta, L.; Wenzel, G.; De Brucker, K.; Macharis, C.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Still too many deaths and injuries are a result of road safety limitations within Europe. Road safety measures aimed to change the road environment to reduce the risks on driver errors and to reduce the seriousness of the effects of driver errors are expected to increase road safety. A

  1. Driving behaviours, traffic risk and road safety: comparative study between Malaysia and Singapore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Saif ur Rehman; Khalifah, Zainab Binti; Munir, Yasin; Islam, Talat; Nazir, Tahira; Khan, Hashim

    2015-01-01

    The present study aims to investigate differences in road safety attitude, driver behaviour and traffic risk perception between Malaysia and Singapore. A questionnaire-based survey was conducted among a sample of Singaporean (n = 187) and Malaysian (n = 313) road users. The data was analysed using confirmatory factor analysis and structural equation modelling applied to measure comparative fit indices of Malaysian and Singaporean respondents. The results show that the perceived traffic risk of Malaysian respondents is higher than Singaporean counterparts. Moreover, the structural equation modelling has confirmed perceived traffic risk performing the role of full mediation between perceived driving skills and perceived road safety for both the countries, while perceived traffic skills was found to perform the role of partial mediation between aggression and anxiety, on one hand, and road safety, on the other hand, in Malaysia and Singapore. In addition, in both countries, a weak correlation between perceived driving skills, aggression and anxiety with perceived road safety was found, while a strong correlation exists with traffic risk perception. The findings of this study have been discussed in terms of theoretical, practical and conceptual implications for both scholars and policy-makers to better understand the young drivers' attitude and behaviour relationship towards road safety measures with a view to future research.

  2. Road safety: A Public Health Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amrita Kansal

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Road Traffic Injuries (RTIs are the eighth leading cause of death globally, and the leading cause of death among young people aged 15–29 years.  Current trends suggest that by 2030 road traffic deaths will become the fifth leading cause of death unless urgent action is taken (1.  India accounts for about 10% of road crash fatalities worldwide, causing approximately 140,000 deaths and almost a million of serious injuries each year (2. As per the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries and Risk Factors study- 2010, RTIs are the eighth leading cause of Disability Adjusted Life Years (DALYs in India. It is significant to note that RTIs were not among the top ten lists of DALYs in India in 1990 and has appeared in 2010 (3. 

  3. Road Safety in India: A Systems Approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wegman, F.C.M.

    2013-01-01

    A recent estimate (WHO, 2013) suggests that worldwide 1.24 million people per year are killed in traffic. This is based on official figures, and this official figure is probably an underestimation. A large majority (92%) of road fatalities occur in the low and middle income countries that have 72% o

  4. Road safety and trade and industry.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2014-01-01

    Trade and industry mostly experience the negative consequences of crashes, but sometimes the consequences are positive. The negative consequences of road traffic crashes include loss of personnel and damage to vehicles. Some other industries, such as damage repair companies, on the other hand, deriv

  5. Functionality of road safety devices – identification and analysis of factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeliński Łukasz

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Road safety devices are designed to protect road users from the risk of injury or death. The principal type of restraint is the safety barrier. Deployed on sites with the highest risk of run-off-road accidents, safety barriers are mostly found on bridges, flyovers, central reservations, and on road edges which have fixed obstacles next to them. If properly designed and installed, safety barriers just as other road safety devices, should meet a number of functional features. This report analyses factors which may deteriorate functionality, ways to prevent this from happening and the thresholds for loss of road safety device functionality.

  6. Drivers Recall and Attitudes Towards Road Safety Advertising

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel José Fonseca

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to analyse Portuguese drivers recall and attitudes towards road safety advertising campaigns. Through a quantitative method the authors used a sample of Portuguese drivers. More than a half of the subjects didn’t recall any road safety advertising campaign. The appeals that most influenced driving behaviour were moderate speed and use of seatbelt. The dramatic approach was the one that had most impact, and the death of familiars of the driver the consequence that most influenced drivers. DOI: 10.5585/remark.v9i2.2112

  7. Road safety: serious injuries remain a major unsolved problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Ben; Cameron, Peter A; Fitzgerald, Mark C; Judson, Rodney T; Teague, Warwick; Lyons, Ronan A; Gabbe, Belinda J

    2017-09-18

    To investigate temporal trends in the incidence, mortality, disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs), and costs of health loss caused by serious road traffic injury. A retrospective review of data from the population-based Victorian State Trauma Registry and the National Coronial Information System on road traffic-related deaths (pre- and in-hospital) and major trauma (Injury Severity Score > 12) during 2007-2015.Main outcomes and measures: Temporal trends in the incidence of road traffic-related major trauma, mortality, DALYs, and costs of health loss, by road user type. There were 8066 hospitalised road traffic major trauma cases and 2588 road traffic fatalities in Victoria over the 9-year study period. There was no change in the incidence of hospitalised major trauma for motor vehicle occupants (incidence rate ratio [IRR] per year, 1.00; 95% CI, 0.99-1.01; P = 0.70), motorcyclists (IRR, 0.99; 95% CI, 0.97-1.01; P = 0.45) or pedestrians (IRR, 1.00; 95% CI, 0.97-1.02; P = 0.73), but the incidence for pedal cyclists increased 8% per year (IRR, 1.08; 95% CI; 1.05-1.10; P injuries exceeded $14 billion during 2007-2015, although the cost per patient declined for all road user groups. As serious injury rates have not declined, current road safety targets will be difficult to meet. Greater attention to preventing serious injury is needed, as is further investment in road safety, particularly for pedal cyclists.

  8. System theory and safety models in Swedish, UK, Dutch and Australian road safety strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, B P; Anund, A; Falkmer, T

    2015-01-01

    Road safety strategies represent interventions on a complex social technical system level. An understanding of a theoretical basis and description is required for strategies to be structured and developed. Road safety strategies are described as systems, but have not been related to the theory, principles and basis by which systems have been developed and analysed. Recently, road safety strategies, which have been employed for many years in different countries, have moved to a 'vision zero', or 'safe system' style. The aim of this study was to analyse the successful Swedish, United Kingdom and Dutch road safety strategies against the older, and newer, Australian road safety strategies, with respect to their foundations in system theory and safety models. Analysis of the strategies against these foundations could indicate potential improvements. The content of four modern cases of road safety strategy was compared against each other, reviewed against scientific systems theory and reviewed against types of safety model. The strategies contained substantial similarities, but were different in terms of fundamental constructs and principles, with limited theoretical basis. The results indicate that the modern strategies do not include essential aspects of systems theory that describe relationships and interdependencies between key components. The description of these strategies as systems is therefore not well founded and deserves further development.

  9. The effect of a road safety educational program for kindergarten children on their parents' behavior and knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Bassat, Tamar; Avnieli, Shani

    2016-10-01

    Road safety education for children is one of the most important means for raising awareness of road safety and for educating children to behave safely as pedestrians, bicycle riders, and vehicle passengers. The current research presents a novel attempt to examine the effect of a unique road safety educational program for kindergarten children on a secondary target group-the parents. The program, named the "Zahav Bagan" program (ZBP), is presented at kindergartens once a week during the entire academic year. It is conducted by senior citizen volunteers and is part of the formal education of the children. The main purpose of the current study was to compare the behavior, awareness, and knowledge about child road safety, of two groups of parents-those whose children participated in the ZBP group, and those whose children did not; this latter group was the control group. A telephone-based survey was conducted using a sample of 76 ZBP parents and 59 control group parents. Results of the survey showed no effect of ZBP on parents' knowledge of child road safety law and recommendations, but more importantly, the results did show a significant effect in terms of parents' observance of safe behavior and in their awareness of road safety in everyday life. These results confirm the importance of educational programs on road safety, especially as triggers and reminders to children and to their parents, to act as cautious road users. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. A method to assess road safety of planned infrastructure : case study of Maastricht in the framework of the European research project DUMAS, Workpackage 9.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sluis, J. van der & Janssen, S.T.M.C.

    2001-01-01

    This case study of Maastricht was part of Workpackage 9 ‘Town studies’ of the research project Developing Urban Management And Safety (DUMAS), commissioned by the European Commission. One of the main objectives of DUMAS was to develop an assessment framework to encourage the use of objective measure

  11. A method to assess road safety of planned infrastructure : case study of Maastricht in the framework of the European research project DUMAS, Workpackage 9.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sluis, J. van der & Janssen, S.T.M.C.

    2001-01-01

    This case study of Maastricht was part of Workpackage 9 ‘Town studies’ of the research project Developing Urban Management And Safety (DUMAS), commissioned by the European Commission. One of the main objectives of DUMAS was to develop an assessment framework to encourage the use of objective

  12. Who is in control of road safety? A STAMP control structure analysis of the road transport system in Queensland, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmon, Paul M; Read, Gemma J M; Stevens, Nicholas J

    2016-11-01

    Despite significant progress, road trauma continues to represent a global safety issue. In Queensland (Qld), Australia, there is currently a focus on preventing the 'fatal five' behaviours underpinning road trauma (drug and drink driving, distraction, seat belt wearing, speeding, and fatigue), along with an emphasis on a shared responsibility for road safety that spans road users, vehicle manufacturers, designers, policy makers etc. The aim of this article is to clarify who shares the responsibility for road safety in Qld and to determine what control measures are enacted to prevent the fatal five behaviours. This is achieved through the presentation of a control structure model that depicts the actors and organisations within the Qld road transport system along with the control and feedback relationships that exist between them. Validated through a Delphi study, the model shows a diverse set of actors and organisations who share the responsibility for road safety that goes beyond those discussed in road safety policies and strategies. The analysis also shows that, compared to other safety critical domains, there are less formal control structures in road transport and that opportunities exist to add new controls and strengthen existing ones. Relationships that influence rather than control are also prominent. Finally, when compared to other safety critical domains, the strength of road safety controls is brought into question.

  13. Fatalism and its implications for risky road use and receptiveness to safety messages: a qualitative investigation in Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayani, A; King, M J; Fleiter, J J

    2012-12-01

    Given the increasing vehicle numbers and expanding road construction in developing countries, the importance of safe road user behaviour is critical. Road traffic crashes (RTCs) are a significant problem in Pakistan; however, the factors that contribute to RTCs in Pakistan are not well researched. Fatalistic beliefs are a potential barrier to the enhancement of road safety, especially participation in health-promoting and injury prevention behaviours, and also contribute to risk taking. Fatalistic beliefs relating to road safety have been found in some developing countries, although research is scarce and indicates that the nature and extent of fatalism differs in each country. Qualitative research was undertaken with a range of drivers, religious orators, police and policy makers to explore associations between fatalism, risky road use and associated issues. Findings indicate that fatalistic beliefs are pervasive in Pakistan, are strongly linked with religion, present a likely barrier to road safety messages and contribute to risky road use. Fatalism appears to be a default attribution of RTC and the intensity of belief in fate surpasses the kinds of fatalism noted in the limited existing literature. These findings have importance to developing road safety countermeasures in countries where fatalistic beliefs are strong.

  14. Mechanized Off-Road Equipment Safety. Module SH-17. Safety and Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Center for Occupational Research and Development, Inc., Waco, TX.

    This student module on mechanized off-road equipment safety is one of 50 modules concerned with job safety and health. This module aims to encourage the development of a positive approach to safety as it concerns the heavy equipment industry. Following the introduction, 15 objectives (each keyed to a page in the text) the student is expected to…

  15. Internationalisation in Road Transport of Goods in Norway: Safety Outcomes, Risk Factors and Policy Implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tor-Olav Nævestad

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The European Union (EU promotes a gradual lifting of restrictions on foreign hauliers involved in domestic road transport of goods (cabotage, and liberalization of the current road cabotage rules may further increase the proportion of foreign heavy goods vehicles (HGVs on Norwegian roads. The aims of the present study are to: (1 Examine the safety outcomes of increasing internationalisation in (Norwegian road transport of goods; and (2 Discuss the importance of potential risk factors related to increasing proportions of foreign HGVs on Norwegian roads. We use four data sources to shed light on the aims. Results show that foreign HGVs account for 6% of the average domestic transport in Norway, and 11% of the HGVs involved in personal injury accidents. Additionally, foreign HGVs have a three times higher risk of single vehicle accidents, and twice the risk of head-on collisions. Foreign HGV drivers also seem more likely to trigger fatal accidents. We conclude that two risk factors seem to be important: (1 experience with/competence on Norwegian roads and (2 winter driving. Thus, the safety challenge is not that the drivers are foreign, but that they to some extent lack experience with, and competence on, the Norwegian road networks and the challenges that these roads may pose (e.g., narrow roads with high gradients, many curves, snow and ice. Previous research from other countries has also found that lacking experience with national road networks is an important risk factor. Given our results on risk factors, we may hypothesize that if foreign HGV drivers get more experience and education on Norwegian driving conditions, then increased internationalization could perhaps be of less concern in road safety. When discussing the higher accident risk and lower experience of foreign HGV drivers in Norway, it is important to note that the reason for foreign HGV drivers, working for foreign hauliers, to drive in Norway is that there are customers of the

  16. Fuel safety research 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uetsuka, Hiroshi (ed.) [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    2000-07-01

    In April 1999, the Fuel Safety Research Laboratory was newly established as a result of reorganization of the Nuclear Safety Research Center, JAERI. The laboratory was organized by combining three laboratories, the Reactivity Accident Laboratory, the Fuel Reliability Laboratory, and a part of the Sever Accident Research Laboratory. Consequently, the Fuel Safety Research Laboratory is now in charge of all the fuel safety research in JAERI. Various types of experimental and analytical researches are conducted in the laboratory by using the unique facilities such as the Nuclear Safety Research Reactor (NSRR), the Japan Material Testing Reactor (JMTR), the Japan Research Reactor 3 (JRR-3) and hot cells in JAERI. The laboratory consists of five research groups corresponding to each research fields. They are; (a) Research group of fuel behavior under the reactivity initiated accident conditions (RIA group). (b) Research group of fuel behavior under the loss-of-coolant accident conditions (LOCA group). (c) Research group of fuel behavior under the normal operation conditions (JMTR/BOCA group). (d) Research group of fuel behavior analysis (FEMAXI group). (e) Research group of FP release/transport behavior from irradiated fuel (VEGA group). This report summarizes the outline of research activities and major outcomes of the research executed in 1999 in the Fuel Safety Research Laboratory. (author)

  17. Road safety in a globalised and more sustainable world: current issues and future challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniels, Stijn; Risser, Ralf

    2014-01-01

    Although many countries have had considerable success in reducing traffic injuries over recent decades, there are still some fundamental problems in this area. At the same time, there is increasing focus on road safety research and policy development in the context of globalisation, sustainability, liveability and health. This special section presents a selection of papers that were presented at the annual ICTCT workshop held on the 8th and 9th of November 2012 in Hasselt, Belgium, and accepted for publication in Accident Analysis and Prevention following the journal's reviewing procedure. The aim of the ICTCT workshop was to analyse road safety facts, data and visions for the future in the wider context of current issues and future challenges in road safety.

  18. International comparisons of road safety using Singular Value Decomposition.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oppe, S.

    2001-01-01

    There is a general interest in the comparison of road safety developments in different countries. Comparisons have been made, based on absolute levels of accident or fatality risk or on the rate of change of functions regarding risk, the number of accidents, fatalities or injuries over time. Such co

  19. International orientation on methodologies for modelling developments in road safety.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reurings, M.C.B. & Commandeur, J.J.F.

    2007-01-01

    This report gives an overview of the models developed in countries other than the Netherlands to evaluate past developments in road traffic safety and to obtain estimates of these developments in the future. These models include classical linear regression and loglinear models as applied in Great Br

  20. A review of international sources for road safety measures assessment.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yannis, G. Weijermars, W. & Kauppila, J.

    2012-01-01

    The efficiency assessment of road safety measures is considered to be an extremely useful tool in decision making; in particular, cost-benefit and cost-effectiveness analyses are carried out in several countries, in a more or less systematic way. The objective of this paper is to present findings fr

  1. An observational study of road safety around selected primary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    the selected schools for road safety features such as location of schools, presence of “school”, “child crossing” and. “speed limit” ... of vehicles, poor land use and networking, lack of separation of ... is the fact that it exposes children to the risk of.

  2. SUNflowerNext : towards a composite road safety performance index.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wegman, F.C.M. Commandeur, J.J.F. Doveh, E. Eksler, V. Gitelman, V. Hakkert, A.S. Lynam, D. & Oppe, S.

    2008-01-01

    One of the aims of international cooperation in the field of road safety is to make oneself familiar with performances and progress in other countries and to understand if and how these can be of guidance to policymaking, in an adapted form if appropriate. Comparisons can be a starting point to lear

  3. A statistical analysis of the impact of advertising signs on road safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yannis, George; Papadimitriou, Eleonora; Papantoniou, Panagiotis; Voulgari, Chrisoula

    2013-01-01

    This research aims to investigate the impact of advertising signs on road safety. An exhaustive review of international literature was carried out on the effect of advertising signs on driver behaviour and safety. Moreover, a before-and-after statistical analysis with control groups was applied on several road sites with different characteristics in the Athens metropolitan area, in Greece, in order to investigate the correlation between the placement or removal of advertising signs and the related occurrence of road accidents. Road accident data for the 'before' and 'after' periods on the test sites and the control sites were extracted from the database of the Hellenic Statistical Authority, and the selected 'before' and 'after' periods vary from 2.5 to 6 years. The statistical analysis shows no statistical correlation between road accidents and advertising signs in none of the nine sites examined, as the confidence intervals of the estimated safety effects are non-significant at 95% confidence level. This can be explained by the fact that, in the examined road sites, drivers are overloaded with information (traffic signs, directions signs, labels of shops, pedestrians and other vehicles, etc.) so that the additional information load from advertising signs may not further distract them.

  4. 3D GIS BASED EVALUATION OF THE AVAILABLE SIGHT DISTANCE TO ASSESS SAFETY OF URBAN ROADS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Bassani

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The available sight distance (ASD in front of the driver to detect possible conflicts with unexpected obstacles is fundamental for traffic safety. In the last 20 years, road design software (RDS has been continuously updated with dedicated modules to estimate ASD, thus assessing the quality of project from a safety point of view. Unfortunately, the evaluation of ASD still represents an issue in the case of existing road, and the object of discussion in the research community. To avoid problems related to the limitation associated with the use of digital terrain models typically employed in RDS, the Geographic Information Systems (GIS software can use digital surface models (DSM which are more flexible in the modelling of sight obstruction due to vegetation, street furniture, and vertical surfaces largely diffused in urbanized areas. The paper deals with the evaluation of GIS in the estimation of ASD in a typical urban road where the density of sight obstruction along the roadside is relatively high. The work explores the case study of a collector road in the city of Turin (Italy. Results confirm the potentiality of GIS software in capturing the complex morphology of the urban environment, thus confirming that GIS could become an important analysis tool for road engineers in the field of road safety. The investigation here described is part of the Pro-VISION Project (funded in 2014 by the Regione Piemonte, Italy.

  5. Book review The Handbook of Road Safety Measures, Rune Elvik and Truls Vaa (eds.).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wegman, F.C.M.

    2004-01-01

    What effect does a road safety measure have on the number of casualties, what are the costs, and are there any side effects to be mentioned? The Norwegian researchers Rune Elvik and Truls Vaa have tried to answer these elementary questions. They have done this in a handbook of more than 1000 pages.

  6. The Road to Food Safety and Sanitation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    @@ Food is one of the most essential substance factors for human being. And safety and sanitation is one of the most important requirements for food without doubt. Every consumer likes to enjoy the safest supplies of food products in the world.

  7. A trail to a safer country : conceptual approaches to road safety policy.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulder, J.A.G. & Wegman, F.C.M.

    2004-01-01

    Everywhere in the world people are trying to improve road safety. In road safety literature, however, there are many indications that road safety improvements are moving slowly. Several causes are given for this: firstly, the political priority is relatively low; secondly that it is not well-known h

  8. Influences on Young Children's Knowledge: The Case of Road Safety Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cullen, Joy

    1998-01-01

    Argues that effective road safety education for young children needs to incorporate constructivist and socio-cultural perspectives on learning. Excerpts interviews with young children highlighting the variety of influences affecting children's road safety knowledge and examination of a road safety curriculum to illustrate the value of a dual…

  9. How does a modal shift from short car trips to cycling affect road safety?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schepers, J. P.; Heinen, E.

    Governments aim to promote a shift from car to bicycle, but concerns about road safety seem to represent an important argument against this encouragement. This study examines the road safety impact of a modal shift from short car trips to cycling in Dutch municipalities. The road safety effect is

  10. Building Safety Road Maps Based on Difference of Judgment of Road Users by their Smartphone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viet Chau Dang

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Recently, there has been a growing demand and interest in developing methods for analyzing smartphone logs to extract traffic safety information. Because the log is high time resolution and closely related to user activities but fragmentary and myopic, it is difficult for currently available collision probability based quantitative risk assessment methods to create traffic safety maps automatically from the driving log which require all of concrete information about a collision for example, size of vehicle, speed of pedestrian. This paper proposes a computable risk measurement method for building traffic safety maps with the logs of different users' driving, which does not discuss collision probability. The proposal is designed to compute differences in the recognition of the road environment among road users mathematically. Drivers differ in their recognition, judgment, and handling of a given situation. Suppose that a difference in recognition among users in the same situation is a signal of danger. This signal is easy to calculate by Poisson process. Each user's recognition of road environment and the safety map integrated from the collection of the recognition are generated fully automated. A real-world experiment was carried out, and the results show that the assumption and the proposed method succeeded in generating an accurate and effective traffic safety map.

  11. ROAD TRAFFIC SAFETY AUDIT AT LOCAL OBJECT OF MINSK ROADWAY NETWORK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. V. Kapsky

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available population of the Republic. Quality of the road traffic or its specific characteristics can be quantitatively estimated  in terms of losses and by that we understand social and economic value of non-obligatory expenses in road traffic. That is why any decision on road traffic organization must be estimated and optimized in accordance with its loss minimization criterion (accidental, economic and ecological.Research and Development Centre for Road Traffic at the BNTU Branch - “Research Division” has developed loss methodology in road traffic for  conflict objects – roads crossings and speed cushions. Such approach has made it possible to compare two alternative options for organization of road traffic at conflict objects. The paper considers an example of selection and substantiation of the accepted decision for an uncontrolled  T-junction with closely located pedestrian crossing in the Ya. Kolas Street, Building 12, Minsk. Planning and organizational and technical measures that increase road traffic safety and decrease economic and ecological losses have been developed on the basis of the executed investigations. The investigations and analysis of the existing conditions of the road traffic at the uncontrolled Ya.Kolas Street –Ya.Kolas off-street junction have revealed that the rate of total losses in the road traffic constitutes   nearly 92,000 c.u./year, including accidental losses – 7,900 c.u./year. Realization of the developed measures will permit to reduce the rate of accidental losses at pedestrian crossing approximately by 4,400 c.u./year with reduction of accidents by 50–55 %

  12. Gender effects in young road users on road safety attitudes, behaviours and risk perception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierluigi Cordellieri

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, we investigated gender-related effects on road safety attitudesin 2,681 young drivers (1,458 males, 54.4%; aged 18-22 who filled out several scales assessing attitudes towards road safety issues, driving behaviour in specific hypothetical situations, accident risk perception, and concerns about such a risk. We focused only on young drivers to better understand the role of gender in road safety attitudes in a period of life in which risky behaviours are widespread for males and females. Indeed, there is still no agreement as to the nature of these gender differences. According to some authors, the effects of gender on being involved in a crash due to driving skills are either non-existent or largely explained by differences in alcohol consumption. In our study, we found gender differences in road safety attitudes (i.e., negative attitude toward traffic rules and risky driving; negative attitude towards drugs and alcohol and tolerance toward speeding and in driver behaviour (i.e., errors in inattentive driving and driving violations. This result is consistent in all drivers coming from nine different European countries. Our analyses yielded an important finding concerning risk perception. The results indicate that the level of risk perception during driving is the same for males and females. However, these two groups differ in the level of concern about this risk, with males being less concerned about the risk of a road accident. This suggests that the main difference between these two groups is not strictly related to judgment of the perceived risk probability but rather to the level of concern experienced about the consequences of the risk. This difference between risk perception and worry could explain differences in the frequency of car accidents in the two groups. The present findings may provide new insights for the development of gender-based prevention programs.

  13. Safer roads in Chad : recommendations for low-cost road safety measures in Chad. On behalf of The World Bank, International Bank for Reconstruction and Development.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sluis, J. van der

    2002-01-01

    In the framework of the National Transport Support Project, SWOV provided local experts in Chad with technical assistance on road safety. The assistance focused on the development of a comprehensive road safety strategy and physical road safety improvements on urban and inter-urban roads. The proble

  14. Road safety alerting system with radar and GPS cooperation in a VANET environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santamaria, Amilcare Francesco; Sottile, Cesare; De Rango, Floriano; Voznak, Miroslav

    2014-05-01

    New applications in wireless environments are increasing and keeping even more interests from the developer companies and researchers. In particular, in these last few years the government and institutional organization for road safety spent a lot of resources and money to promote Vehicular Ad-Hoc Network (VANET) technology, also car manufactures are giving a lot of contributions on this field as well. In our paper, we propose an innovative system to increase road safety, matching the requests of the market allowing a cooperation between on-board devices. The vehicles are equipped with On Board Unit (OBU) and On Board Radar Unit (OBRU), which can spread alerting messages around the network regarding warning and dangerous situations exploiting IEEE802.llp standard. Vehicles move along roads observing the environment, traffic and road conditions, and vehicles parameters as well. These information can be elaborated and shared between neighbors, Road Side Unit (RSU)s and, of course, with Internet, allowing inter-system communications exploiting an Road Traffic Manager (RTM). Radar systems task it the detection of the environment in order to increase the knowledge of current conditions of the roads, for example it is important to identify obstacles, road accidents, dangerous situations and so on. Once detected exploiting onboard devices, such as Global Position System (GPS) receiver it is possible to know the exact location of the caught event and after a data elaboration the information is spread along the network. Once the drivers are advised, they can make some precautionary actions such as reduction of traveling speed or modification of current road path. In this work the routing algorithms, which have the main goal to rapidly disseminate information, are also been investigated.

  15. Predictors of road crossing safety in pedestrians with Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chin-Hsien; Ou, Yang-Kun; Wu, Ruey-Meei; Liu, Yung-Ching

    2013-03-01

    Road-crossing safety is an important issue in an aging society. Information regarding the risk of crossing the street to pedestrians with Parkinson's disease (PD) is limited. To assess the risk and predictors of unsafe crossing behaviors in patients with PD, we compared 31 pedestrians with mild-to-moderate PD to 50 age/gender/education-matched controls using a battery of cognitive, visual, and motor tests. With a simulated simple street-crossing situation, we determined the remaining time and safety margin for each participant in different traffic situations, including variable motor vehicle speed, time gap, and time of the day. Odds ratios (ORs) were estimated by logistic regression models. We found that pedestrians with PD were more vulnerable to traffic accidents than controls (OR 1.61 [1.28-2.02], P=0.01). The risk of crossing road correlated in a dose-dependent manner with the severity of PD, based on both Hoehn and Yahr (H&Y) stages and unified Parkinson's disease rating scale (UPDRS) motor scores (OR 1.13 for each increasing point of UPDSR, Psafety errors, rather than executive function. Environmental factors, such as fast approaching motor vehicle speed (OR 4.50 [2.92-6.95], Proad-crossing safety. Future large sample studies are needed to confirm our findings. Training programs or portable stimulator devices that compensate for the visual-spatial disabilities of PD patients are required to improve road safety for PD patients.

  16. Promoting public health messages: Should we move beyond fear-evoking appeals in road safety?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Ioni M; Watson, Barry; White, Katherine M; Tay, Richard

    2007-01-01

    Road traffic injury is one of the most significant global public health issues of the 21st century. The extent to which negative, fear-evoking messages represent effective persuasive strategies remains a contentious public and empirical issue. Nevertheless, negative, fear-based appeals represent a frequently used approach in Australasian road safety advertising. The authors conducted a series of focus groups with 16 licensed drivers to explore the potential utility of appeals to emotions other than fear. More specifically, they sought to explore the utility of positive emotional appeals, such as those incorporating humor. The themes emerging from the qualitative analysis suggested that both emotion and the provision of strategies are key components contributing to the overall persuasiveness of a road safety advertisement. Overall, it appears there is support for researchers and health advertising practitioners to provide further attention to the role that positive emotional appeals might play in future campaigns.

  17. Road safety engineering: an effective tool in the fight against whiplash injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navin, F; Zein, S; Felipe, E

    2000-03-01

    Road safety engineering can play an integral part in the prevention of whiplash injuries. While improvements to vehicle design can reduce the severity of whiplash injuries when a crash occurs, improvements to road safety can prevent whiplash-inducing crashes from occurring in the first place. Whiplash injuries are most commonly associated with rear end crashes. Unfortunately, rear end crashes are also the most common type of crash at urban signalized intersections, where the majority of crashes occur in British Columbia, Canada. The Insurance Corporation of British Columbia (ICBC), through the road improvement program, has been funding road improvements in order to reduce the frequency of collisions at high crash locations in British Columbia. Several road safety engineering countermeasures specifically targeted at rear end collisions have been researched and deployed. These countermeasures include simple and affordable solutions such as signal visibility enhancements, as well as complex and expensive solutions such as intersection geometric upgrades. When appropriately used, these countermeasures have proven to be extremely cost-effective in reducing the frequency of rear end collisions. Widespread application of signal visibility enhancements is now being pursued to further decrease the risk of rear end collisions and whiplash injuries. Costs are the direct cost of the ICBC portion of the investment and benefits are only those associated with reduced insurance claims over a 2-year period.

  18. The implications of the relative risk for road mortality on road safety programmes in Qatar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Consunji, Rafael J; Peralta, Ruben R; Al-Thani, Hassan; Latifi, Rifat

    2015-04-01

    The epidemiology of road deaths and in particular the relative risk for road mortality (RRRM) in Qatar has not been fully defined. This study will analyse and compare the proportionate mortality and age-specific death rates from road traffic injuries (RTIs) and make recommendations for targeted injury prevention programmes for road safety in Qatar. Data from the Qatar Statistics Authority (QSA), for the year 2010, was collected and analysed. All deaths classified as 'ICD-10 (V89) Motor- or Nonmotor-Vehicle, Accident Type of Vehicle Unspecified' were included. There were 247 RTI related deaths in Qatar in 2010. An overall death rate was computed at 14.4 deaths per 100 000 population. The RRRM varied over 10 times among different populations with Qatari males (QM) having an increased RRRM from 10 years of age, those aged 20-29 years had the highest RRRM of 10.2. The lowest RRRM was for Qatari females who did not have a single reported road fatality in 2010. Populations with a significantly elevated RRRM (ie, RRRM>1.0) were non-Qatari men older than 50 years and Qatari males from the age of 10 onward. Proven and definite programmes must be implemented to reduce these unnecessary deaths among the populations at the highest risk. Multidisciplinary approaches must be implemented and their efficacy evaluated.

  19. Safety in traffic for vulnerable military road users

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandar J. Bulajić

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The Army of Serbia, as a relatively closed system, regulates the field of traffic safety; however, during peacetime, general rules apply to all participants in traffic circulation. The Republic of Serbia is in the group of countries with a high number of road fatalities. The level of traffic safety in the Serbian Army has been on constant increase since 2000, although the relevant transport authorities in the military are not yet satisfied with the achieved level (even one lost life is too much. The increase can be deceptive, since if we take into account the substantial reduction in vehicle use due to various factors in the last few years (poor financial situation in the country as well as in the military, under-investment in the purchase of new vehicles, purchase of transportation services, fewer drivers drafted and more vehicles driven by trained officers, etc., it is not surprising that there are fewer accidents and fewer road deaths and injuries among military personnel. This paper aims at approaching the problem of pedestrian safety as a segment of road safety and at making an educational impact on all members of the military, because they all participate in traffic daily, if not as drivers or passengers, then certainly in large numbers as pedestrians. The basis of this paper is aimed at shedding light on the causes of pedestrian road fatalities due to their mistakes, i. e. 'negligence' of the participants in car accidents with the participation of pedestrians, as well as at proposing measures to reduce and prevent traffic accidents with pedestrians.

  20. Universal Safety Distance Alert Device for Road Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matic Virant

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Driving with too short of a safety distance is a common problem in road traffic, often with traffic accidents as a consequence. Research has identified a lack of vehicle-mountable devices for alerting the drivers of trailing vehicles about keeping a sufficient safe distance. The principal requirements for such a device were defined. A conceptual study was performed in order to select the components for the integration of the device. Based on the results of this study, a working prototype of a flexible, self-contained device was designed, built and tested. The device is intended to be mounted on the rear of a vehicle. It uses radar as the primary distance sensor, assisted with a GPS receiver for velocity measurement. A Raspberry Pi single-board computer is used for data acquisition and processing. The alerts are shown on an LED-matrix display mounted on the rear of the host vehicle. The device software is written in Python and provides automatic operation without requiring any user intervention. The tests have shown that the device is usable on almost any motor vehicle and performs reliably in simulated and real traffic. The open issues and possibilities for future improvements are presented in the Discussion.

  1. Fuel safety research 2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uetsuka, Hiroshi (ed.) [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    2002-11-01

    The Fuel Safety Research Laboratory is in charge of research activity which covers almost research items related to fuel safety of water reactor in JAERI. Various types of experimental and analytical researches are being conducted by using some unique facilities such as the Nuclear Safety Research Reactor (NSRR), the Japan Material Testing Reactor (JMTR), the Japan Research Reactor 3 (JRR-3) and the Reactor Fuel Examination Facility (RFEF) of JAERI. The research to confirm the safety of high burn-up fuel and MOX fuel under accident conditions is the most important item among them. The laboratory consists of following five research groups corresponding to each research fields; Research group of fuel behavior under the reactivity initiated accident conditions (RIA group). Research group of fuel behavior under the loss-of-coolant accident conditions (LOCA group). Research group of fuel behavior under the normal operation conditions (JMTR/BOCA group). Research group of fuel behavior analysis (FEMAXI group). Research group of radionuclides release and transport behavior from irradiated fuel under severe accident conditions (VEGA group). The research conducted in the year 2001 produced many important data and information. They are, for example, the fuel behavior data under BWR power oscillation conditions in the NSRR, the data on failure-bearing capability of hydrided cladding under LOCA conditions and the FP release data at very high temperature in steam which simulate the reactor core condition during severe accidents. This report summarizes the outline of research activities and major outcomes of the research executed in 2001 in the Fuel Safety Research Laboratory. (author)

  2. Road safety performance indicators : updated country comparisons. SafetyNet, Building the European Road Safety Observatory, Workpackage 3, Deliverable 3.11a.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Riguelle, F. Eksler, V. Holló, P. Vis, M. Gitelman, V. Assum, T. & Rackliff, L.

    2009-01-01

    This report presents an overview of recent figures of chosen safety performance indicators of 29 European countries – the 27 EU member states, complemented with Norway and Switzerland. The comparison is done for five road safety performance indicators in the following areas: alcohol and drugs,

  3. Inroads into Equestrian Safety: Rider-Reported Factors Contributing to Horse-Related Accidents and Near Misses on Australian Roads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Kirrilly; Matthews, Chelsea

    2015-07-22

    Horse riding and horse-related interactions are inherently dangerous. When they occur on public roads, the risk profile of equestrian activities is complicated by interactions with other road users. Research has identified speed, proximity, visibility, conspicuity and mutual misunderstanding as factors contributing to accidents and near misses. However, little is known about their significance or incidence in Australia. To explore road safety issues amongst Australian equestrians, we conducted an online survey. More than half of all riders (52%) reported having experienced at least one accident or near miss in the 12 months prior to the survey. Whilst our findings confirm the factors identified overseas, we also identified issues around rider misunderstanding of road rules and driver misunderstanding of rider hand signals. Of particular concern, we also found reports of potentially dangerous rider-directed road rage. We identify several areas for potential safety intervention including (1) identifying equestrians as vulnerable road users and horses as sentient decision-making vehicles (2) harmonising laws regarding passing horses, (3) mandating personal protective equipment, (4) improving road signage, (5) comprehensive data collection, (6) developing mutual understanding amongst road-users, (7) safer road design and alternative riding spaces; and (8) increasing investment in horse-related safety initiatives.

  4. Inroads into Equestrian Safety: Rider-Reported Factors Contributing to Horse-Related Accidents and Near Misses on Australian Roads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirrilly Thompson

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Horse riding and horse-related interactions are inherently dangerous. When they occur on public roads, the risk profile of equestrian activities is complicated by interactions with other road users. Research has identified speed, proximity, visibility, conspicuity and mutual misunderstanding as factors contributing to accidents and near misses. However, little is known about their significance or incidence in Australia. To explore road safety issues amongst Australian equestrians, we conducted an online survey. More than half of all riders (52% reported having experienced at least one accident or near miss in the 12 months prior to the survey. Whilst our findings confirm the factors identified overseas, we also identified issues around rider misunderstanding of road rules and driver misunderstanding of rider hand signals. Of particular concern, we also found reports of potentially dangerous rider-directed road rage. We identify several areas for potential safety intervention including (1 identifying equestrians as vulnerable road users and horses as sentient decision-making vehicles (2 harmonising laws regarding passing horses, (3 mandating personal protective equipment, (4 improving road signage, (5 comprehensive data collection, (6 developing mutual understanding amongst road-users, (7 safer road design and alternative riding spaces; and (8 increasing investment in horse-related safety initiatives.

  5. New geometric design consistency model based on operating speed profiles for road safety evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camacho-Torregrosa, Francisco J; Pérez-Zuriaga, Ana M; Campoy-Ungría, J Manuel; García-García, Alfredo

    2013-12-01

    To assist in the on-going effort to reduce road fatalities as much as possible, this paper presents a new methodology to evaluate road safety in both the design and redesign stages of two-lane rural highways. This methodology is based on the analysis of road geometric design consistency, a value which will be a surrogate measure of the safety level of the two-lane rural road segment. The consistency model presented in this paper is based on the consideration of continuous operating speed profiles. The models used for their construction were obtained by using an innovative GPS-data collection method that is based on continuous operating speed profiles recorded from individual drivers. This new methodology allowed the researchers to observe the actual behavior of drivers and to develop more accurate operating speed models than was previously possible with spot-speed data collection, thereby enabling a more accurate approximation to the real phenomenon and thus a better consistency measurement. Operating speed profiles were built for 33 Spanish two-lane rural road segments, and several consistency measurements based on the global and local operating speed were checked. The final consistency model takes into account not only the global dispersion of the operating speed, but also some indexes that consider both local speed decelerations and speeds over posted speeds as well. For the development of the consistency model, the crash frequency for each study site was considered, which allowed estimating the number of crashes on a road segment by means of the calculation of its geometric design consistency. Consequently, the presented consistency evaluation method is a promising innovative tool that can be used as a surrogate measure to estimate the safety of a road segment.

  6. Road safety in low income countries:relevance of experience from high income countries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DineshMohan; GeetamTiwari

    1999-01-01

    Objective:To review the state of the art on important issues concerning road safety in less motorized countries(LMC).Methods:International literature and experiences were analysed to focus on the countermeasures that would be most effective in LMCs.Results:Road safety policies in hight motorized countries(HMC)have evolved over the last fifty years with a great deal of input from research and academicsituations and problems in those countries.Even the standards instituted for vehicles are based on the traffic patterns and types of crashes that are more prevalent in those societies.We have to accept the fact that safety has to be promoted in LMCs within the existing conditions.These include low per-capita incomes,presence of mixed traffic,low capacity for capital intensive infrastructure,and different law enforcenent capabilities.Pedestrians,bicyclists and motorized two-wheeler riders will remain dominant on LMC roads for many decades.When the HMC policies and designs are transferred to societies which have much lower per capita incomes,then these policies and designs have poor success rates.While a few LMCs can experience high growth rates for some periods,most of the other countries will continue to function as LMCs for quite some time to come.Conclusions:A much stronger effort at research,development and innovation is needed in LMCs.Each coutry must establish a department f road safety with adequate funds and staffed by specially trained professionals.International cooperation in the area of road safety should focus on exchange of scientific principles.experiences of successes and failures,and in scientific training of a large nuber of professionals in the LMCs.

  7. When winning counts : traffic law enforcement and road safety targets for the year 2000.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wegman, F.C.M. & Goldenbeld, C.

    1996-01-01

    The Dutch government has set the following quantitative targets for road safety: a 25 per cent reduction in the number of road deaths and injuries by the year 2000 (compared with 1985 levels). In order to bring these road safety targets within reach in the short term, it is argued that large-scale

  8. Improving the effectiveness of road safety campaigns: Current and new practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamara Hoekstra

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The evaluation of campaigns aimed at improving road safety is still the exception rather than the rule. Because of this, ineffective campaigns and campaign techniques are allowed to continue to be utilised without question, while new methods of behaviour modification are often ignored. Therefore, the necessity and advantages of formally evaluating road safety campaign efforts are discussed. This article also describes the pros and cons of some of the more common campaign strategies and introduces a number of new methods that show a great deal of promise for the purpose of road safety campaigns. In order to infuse the field of road safety campaigning with such new insights into road user behaviour and behavioural modification, one should look beyond the confines of road safety campaign standards and learn from the knowledge gained in other disciplines such as economics and social psychology. These new insights are discussed in terms of their implications for the future of road safety campaigns.

  9. Implementation scenarios and further research priorities regarding forgiving and self-explaining roads. IN-SAFETY Workpackage 5: Implementation priorities and policy recommendations, Deliverable 5.3.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Macharis, C. Verbeke, A. Brucker, K. de Gelová, E. Weinberger, J. & Vašek, J.

    2009-01-01

    In this deliverable a multi-actor multi-criteria analysis (MAMCA) is performed for the strategic evaluation of a number of innovative systems contributing to the creation of a more forgiving and self-explaining road environment. This deliverable also formulates a number of guidelines aimed at making

  10. Road traffic safety in conjunction with in-vehicle ITS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darja TOPOLŠEK

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Interest in Intelligent Transportation Systems comes from the problems caused by traffic congestion, road accidents and air pollution. Traffic congestion continues to grow worldwide as a result of increased motorization, population growth, changes in population density and urbanization. Interest in ITS can also be attributed to reducing road accidents and increasing traffic safety. The most common causes for road accidents are excessive speed, inattentive driving and ignorance of the right-of-way rules. To eliminate these causes, experience, knowledge of traffic regulations and a new car are not enough – vehicle safety systems have to take part as well. Therefore, the European Union issued a directive on the installation of intelligent systems, whose functions are active support during driving, warning the driver in dangerous situations and alerting passengers of the car in case of irregularities in motor function or actions carried out by the driver that may cause danger, such as swerving while falling asleep. These systems help drivers to avoid accidents, and in the event of a collision, an emergency call is automatically made. Furthermore, they can be used to regulate traffic patterns or to reduce engine performance, which would reduce pollution. With these benefits in mind, the EU has indicated to the automotive industry that installation of these new Intelligent Transportation Systems should be mandatory in their new vehicles.

  11. [Smoking while driving and its consequences on road safety].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangiaracina, G; Palumbo, L

    2007-01-01

    The study was focused on the risk assessment of distraction of smoking habits while driving vehicles. We have compared the results with the data about driving distraction using mobile phone without voice devices. We video-recorded 10 smokers, 4 male and 6 female, smoking while driving a car The average of measured driving distraction of smokers is about 12 seconds. It means to cover a distance of 160 metres with a speed of 50 Km/h. Comparing to the use of mobile phone, the data of driving distraction show a duration of 10.6 seconds, that means to cover a distance of 150 metres at the speed of 50 Km/h. This result suggest that cigarette smoking produces a remarkable risk for road safety, more than the mobile phone use. In addiction to the conditions that produce a considerable driving distraction of smokers, we underline a demonstrated shortage of oxygen, the presence of carbon monoxide and hight concentration offine particulate in the air breathed inside the vehicle. We also consider another aspect related to smoking habits while driving vehicles: the environmental damage. In fact throwing cigarette outside, while the vehicle is moving, is the prevalent reason of setting fire to the edge of the road. This study proposes to make changes in the laws and regulation on road safety in order to fine smokers behaviour during vehicle driving. Furthermore it seems necessary to promote public information about those risks among people.

  12. Improvement of driving safety in road traffic system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Ke-Ping; Gao Zi-You

    2005-01-01

    A road traffic system is a complex system in which humans participate directly. In this system, human factors play a very important role. In this paper, a kind of control signal is designated at a given site (i.e., signal point) of the road. Under the effect of the control signal, the drivers will decrease their velocities when their vehicles pass the signal point. Our aim is to transit the traffic flow states from disorder to order, and then improve the traffic safety.We have tested this technique for the two-lane traffic model that is based on the deterministic Nagel-Schreckenberg (NaSch) traffic model. The simulation results indicate that the traffic flow states can be transited from disorder to order. Different order states can be observed in the system, and these states are safer.

  13. Linking road accident data to other files : an integrated road accident recordkeeping system. Contribution in Proceedings of Seminar P 'Road Safety' held at the 14th PTHC Summer Annual Meeting, University of Sussex, England, from 14-17 July 1986. Volume P 284, p. 55-86.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harris, S.

    1986-01-01

    The road accident data which the police collect is of great value to road safety research and is used extensively. This data increases greatly in value if it can be linked to other files which contain more detailed information on exposure. Linking road accident data to other files results in what we

  14. Road safety and road traffic accidents in Saudi Arabia. A systematic review of existing evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansuri, Farah A; Al-Zalabani, Abdulmohsen H; Zalat, Marwa M; Qabshawi, Reem I

    2015-04-01

    To identify the changing trends and crucial preventive approaches to road traffic accidents (RTAs) adopted in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) over the last 2.5 decades, and to analyze aspects previously overlooked. This systematic review was based on evidence of RTAs in KSA. All articles published during the last 25 years on road traffic accident in KSA were analyzed. This study was carried out from December 2013 to May 2014 in the Department of Family and Community Medicine, Taibah University, Al-Madinah Al-Munawwarah, KSA. Road traffic accidents accounted for 83.4% of all trauma admissions in 1984-1989, and no such overall trend was studied thereafter. The most frequently injured body regions as reported in the latest studies were head and neck, followed by upper and lower extremities, which was found to be opposite to that of the studies reported earlier. Hospital data showed an 8% non-significant increase in road accident mortalities in contrast to police records of a 27% significant reduction during the years 2005-2010. Excessive speeding was the most common cause reported in all recent and past studies. Disparity was common in the type of reporting of RTAs, outcome measures, and possible causes over a period of 2.5 decade. All research exclusively looked into the drivers' faults. A sentinel surveillance of road crashes should be kept in place in the secondary and tertiary care hospitals for all regions of KSA.

  15. Investigation of the impact of low cost traffic engineering measures on road safety in urban areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yannis, George; Kondyli, Alexandra; Georgopoulou, Xenia

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigates the impact of low cost traffic engineering measures (LCTEMs) on the improvement of road safety in urban areas. A number of such measures were considered, such as speed humps, woonerfs, raised intersections and other traffic calming measures, which have been implemented on one-way, one-lane roads in the Municipality of Neo Psychiko in the Greater Athens Area. Data were analysed using the before-and-after safety analysis methodology with large control group. The selected control group comprised of two Municipalities in the Athens Greater Area, which present similar road network and land use characteristics with the area considered. The application of the methodology showed that the total number of crashes presented a statistically significant reduction, which can be possibly attributed to the introduction of LCTEMs. This reduction concerns passenger cars and single-vehicle crashes and is possibly due to the behavioural improvement of drivers of 25 years old or more. The results of this research are very useful for the identification of the appropriate low cost traffic engineering countermeasures for road safety problems in urban areas.

  16. Qualitative study to explore stakeholder perceptions related to road safety in Hyderabad, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tetali, Shailaja; Lakshmi, J K; Gupta, Shivam; Gururaj, G; Wadhwaniya, Shirin; Hyder, Adnan A

    2013-12-01

    The Bloomberg Philanthropies Global Road Safety Programme in India focuses on reduction of drink driving and increase in helmet usage in the city of Hyderabad. During the early stages of implementation, perceptions of stakeholders on road safety were explored as part of the monitoring and evaluation process for a better understanding of areas for improving road safety in Hyderabad. Fifteen in-depth interviews with government officials, subject experts, and road traffic injury victims, and four focus group discussions with trauma surgeons, medical interns, nurses, and taxi drivers were conducted, analysed manually, and presented as themes. Respondents found Hyderabad unsafe for road-users. Factors such as inadequate traffic laws, gaps in enforcement, lack of awareness, lack of political will, poor road engineering, and high-risk road users were identified as threats to road safety. The responsibility for road safety was assigned to both individual road-users and the government, with the former bearing the responsibility for safe traffic behaviour, and the latter for infrastructure provision and enforcement of regulations. The establishment of a lead agency to co-ordinate awareness generation, better road engineering, and stricter enforcement of traffic laws with economic and non-economic penalties for suboptimal traffic behaviour, could facilitate improved road safety in Hyderabad.

  17. 基于PDCA循环的道路旅客运输企业安全管理研究%The research of road passenger transportation enterprise safety management base on PDCA cycle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏鸿文; 赵侃; 刘梦雅; 张霞

    2014-01-01

    道路旅客运输是危险性高、易发生事故的行业,是国家安全生产专项治理重点行业之一。本文将全面质量管理的PDCA循环运用于道路旅客运输企业安全管理,探讨道路旅客运输业安全管理的办法与操作过程,规范道路旅客运输企业安全管理。%Road passenger transportation is of high dangers and high accidents, it is the key industries of special projects of national safety production.This paper discusses the application of the PDCA cycle in Total Quality Management to the safety management of road passenger transportation enterprise, and discuss the method and operating process of the safety management of road passenger transportation, in order to regu-late the safety management of road passenger transportation enterprise.

  18. The use of efficiency assessment tools : solutions to barriers : Workpackage 3 of the European research project ROSEBUD (Road Safety and Environmental Cost-Benefit and Cost-Effectiveness Analysis for Use in Decision-making).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hakkert, A.S. & Wesemann, P. (eds.)

    2005-01-01

    In road safety, as in most other fields, efficiency is an important criterion in political and professional decision making. Efficiency Assessment Tools (EATs) like Cost Benefit Analysis and Cost Effectiveness Analysis are available to help choose the policy which gives the highest return on investm

  19. The concept of a sustainable safe road traffic system : a new vision for road safety policy in The Netherlands.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wegman, F.C.M.

    1997-01-01

    The Dutch Government has set the following quantitative targets for road safety: a 25 per cent reduction in the number of road deaths and injuries by the year 2000 (compared with 1985 levels) and a further reduction of 50% and 40% respectively by the year 2010 (compared with 1986 levels). Various

  20. Engineering Safety : With applications to fire safety design of buildings and road tunnels

    OpenAIRE

    Bjelland, Henrik

    2013-01-01

    A continuously changing and increasingly complex society leads to new challenges in safety design. Modern buildings and road tunnels are being packed with new technology that creates new failure modes, multiple subsystem interactions and tight couplings between different socio-technical systems. Meanwhile, safety is largely designed into these systems using prescriptive design rules that have evolved through reactions to accidents in systems with limited resemblance to moder...

  1. Benchmarking road safety of U.S. states: a DEA-based Malmquist productivity index approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egilmez, Gokhan; McAvoy, Deborah

    2013-04-01

    In this study, a DEA based Malmquist index model was developed to assess the relative efficiency and productivity of U.S. states in decreasing the number of road fatalities. Even though the national trend in fatal crashes has reached to the lowest level since 1949 (Traffic Safety Annual Assessment Highlights, 2010), a state-by-state analysis and comparison has not been studied considering other characteristics of the holistic national road safety assessment problem in any work in the literature or organizational reports. In this study, a DEA based Malmquist index model was developed to assess the relative efficiency and productivity of 50 U.S. states in reducing the number of fatal crashes. The single output, fatal crashes, and five inputs were aggregated into single road safety score and utilized in the DEA-based Malmquist index mathematical model. The period of 2002-2008 was considered due to data availability for the inputs and the output considered. According to the results, there is a slight negative productivity (an average of -0.2 percent productivity) observed in the U.S. on minimizing the number of fatal crashes along with an average of 2.1 percent efficiency decline and 1.8 percent technological improvement. The productivity in reducing the fatal crashes can only be attributed to the technological growth since there is a negative efficiency growth is occurred. It can be concluded that even though there is a declining trend observed in the fatality rates, the efficiency of states in utilizing societal and economical resources towards the goal of zero fatality is not still efficient. More effective policy making towards increasing safety belt usage and better utilization of safety expenditures to improve road condition are derived as the key areas to focus on for state highway safety agencies from the scope of current research.

  2. Safety effects of road design standards in Europe. Contribution to the International Symposium on Highway Geometric Design Practices, Session on Safety and Human Factors Considerations, Boston, Massachusetts, August 30 - September 1, 1995.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wegman, F.C.M. & Slop, M.

    1996-01-01

    This paper deals with the result of a study carried out for the European Commission by the SWOV Institute for Road Safety Research, in co-operation with a number of other European institutes, and which was reported in 1994. The title of the study is "Safety Effects of Road Design Standards." The aim

  3. Safety effects of road design standards in Europe. Contribution to the International Symposium on Highway Geometric Design Practices, Session on Safety and Human Factors Considerations, Boston, Massachusetts, August 30 - September 1, 1995.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wegman, F.C.M. & Slop, M.

    1996-01-01

    This paper deals with the result of a study carried out for the European Commission by the SWOV Institute for Road Safety Research, in co-operation with a number of other European institutes, and which was reported in 1994. The title of the study is "Safety Effects of Road Design Standards." The aim

  4. A RE-ASSESSMENT OF OLDER DRIVERS AS A ROAD SAFETY RISK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jim LANGFORD

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Older drivers are frequently viewed as overly represented in crashes, particularly when crash involvement per distance travelled is considered. This perception has led to a call for tighter licensing conditions for older drivers, a policy which inevitably results in mobility restrictions for at least some drivers. However there is a growing body of research evidence which shows that as a group, older drivers represent no greater road risk than drivers from other age groups once different levels of driving activity are taken into account. This paper has examined aspects of older drivers' fitness to drive based on survey data and off-road and on-road driving performance from a sample of 905 New Zealand older drivers. The results show that policies which target all older drivers and lead to licensing and mobility restrictions cannot be justified from a safety basis.

  5. A conceptual framework for road safety and mobility applied to cycling safety

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schepers, P.; Hagenzieker, M.P.; Methorst, R.; Van Wee, G.P.; Wegman, F.C.M.

    2013-01-01

    Scientific literature lacks a model which combines exposure to risk, risk, and the relationship between them. This paper presents a conceptual road safety framework comprising mutually interacting factors for exposure to risk resulting from travel behaviour (volumes, modal split, and distribution of

  6. A conceptual framework for road safety and mobility applied to cycling safety.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schepers, P. Hagenzieker, M. Methorst, R. Wee, B. van & Wegman, F.C.M.

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a conceptual road safety framework comprising factors for risk (crash and injury risk), and for exposure to risk resulting from travel behaviour (volumes, modal split, and distribution of traffic over time and space). The model’s value lies in its ability to identify potential ef

  7. A conceptual framework for road safety and mobility applied to cycling safety.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schepers, P. Hagenzieker, M. Methorst, R. Wee, B. van & Wegman, F.C.M.

    2013-01-01

    Scientific literature lacks a model which combines exposure to risk, risk, and the relationship between them. This paper presents a conceptual road safety framework comprising mutually interacting factors for exposure to risk resulting from travel behaviour (volumes, modal split, and distribution of

  8. A conceptual framework for road safety and mobility applied to cycling safety

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schepers, P.; Hagenzieker, M.P.; Methorst, R.; Van Wee, G.P.; Wegman, F.C.M.

    2013-01-01

    Scientific literature lacks a model which combines exposure to risk, risk, and the relationship between them. This paper presents a conceptual road safety framework comprising mutually interacting factors for exposure to risk resulting from travel behaviour (volumes, modal split, and distribution of

  9. A conceptual framework for road safety and mobility applied to cycling safety.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schepers, P. Hagenzieker, M. Methorst, R. Wee, B. van & Wegman, F.C.M.

    2013-01-01

    Scientific literature lacks a model which combines exposure to risk, risk, and the relationship between them. This paper presents a conceptual road safety framework comprising mutually interacting factors for exposure to risk resulting from travel behaviour (volumes, modal split, and distribution of

  10. Brochure "towards a sustainable safe traffic system in the Netherlands : National Road Safety Investigation 1990-2010".

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    SWOV Institute for Road Safety Research

    1995-01-01

    The Netherlands is one of the safety countries on earth when it comes to traffic on the road. Nevertheless, the Dutch government has set road safety targets: 50% fewer fatalities and 40% fewer hospital admissions resulting from road accidents by the year 2010. The SWOV Institute for Road Safety Rese

  11. Road Safety Related Behaviours of Romanian Young People

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucia Maria LOTREAN

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The objective of this study was to assess the behaviors with risk for road traffic injuries among Romanian young people. Material and Method: Self-administered questionnaires were completed by the study sample consisting of 1598 junior high school students, senior high school students and university students aged 11-24 years from both urban and rural areas of two counties (Cluj and Hunedora of Romania. Results: The results show that around 80% of the junior high school students and more than 90% of the senior high school students and university students who go by bike do not wear helmets or use them rarely when they are cycling. Seatbelts are used more frequently than the helmets, but still more than one third of the junior high school students and senior high school students and a quarter of the university students do not use seatbelts or use them rarely. In the month previous the survey around one quarter of the students travelled in a car whose driver used alcohol before driving. Moreover, 15% of the university students who drove recognized that, at least once during their life, they did this after they used alcohol. Conclusions: The results indicate that comprehensive actions must be developed in order to prevent road traffic injuries among Romanian young people. They must include educational programs for youngsters and parents as well as adoption and enforcement of legislative measures and technical actions, which promote road safety.

  12. Combined research effort on aggregate road materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuznetsova, Elena; Hoff, Inge; Willy Danielsen, Svein; Wigum, Børge Johannes; Fladvad, Marit; Rieksts, Karlis; Loranger, Benoit; Barbieri, Diego

    2017-04-01

    In European countries, the average aggregate consumption per capita is 5 tons per year (European Aggregates Association 2016), while the corresponding number in Norway is 11 tons (Neeb 2015). Due to the increased demand for sand and gravel for construction purposes, e.g. in road construction, the last decade has seen a significant trend towards the use of crushed rock aggregates. Neeb (2015) reports that half of the Norwegian aggregate production (sand, gravel and crushed rock) is used for road construction, and 33 % of the overall sold tonnage of crushed rock is exported. This resource has been more and more preferred over sand and gravel due to the significant technological development of its process and utilization phase. In Norway, the development and implementation of crushed aggregate technology has been the main approach to solve natural resource scarcity (Danielsen and Kuznetsova 2015). In order to reduce aggregates transportation, it is aimed to use local aggregates and aggregates processed from rock excavations, tunneling, road cuts, etc. One issue focused in this research is the influence from blasting and processing on the final quality of the crushed aggregates, specifically relating to the properties for road construction purposes. It is therefor crucial to plan utilization of available materials for use in different road layers following the same production line. New developments and improved availability of mobile crushing and screening equipment could produce more sustainable and profitable sources of good quality aggregate materials from small volume deposits in proximity to construction sites. One of the biggest challenges today to use these materials is that the pavement design manual sets rigid requirements for pavement layers. Four research projects are being conducted in Norway to improve the use of local materials for road construction. Four aspects are to be covered by the research: a) geological characteristics of the materials, their b

  13. A study on urban road traffic safety based on matter element analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Qizhou; Zhou, Zhuping; Sun, Xu

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines a new evaluation of urban road traffic safety based on a matter element analysis, avoiding the difficulties found in other traffic safety evaluations. The issue of urban road traffic safety has been investigated through the matter element analysis theory. The chief aim of the present work is to investigate the features of urban road traffic safety. Emphasis was placed on the construction of a criterion function by which traffic safety achieved a hierarchical system of objectives to be evaluated. The matter element analysis theory was used to create the comprehensive appraisal model of urban road traffic safety. The technique was used to employ a newly developed and versatile matter element analysis algorithm. The matter element matrix solves the uncertainty and incompatibility of the evaluated factors used to assess urban road traffic safety. The application results showed the superiority of the evaluation model and a didactic example was included to illustrate the computational procedure.

  14. Linking road accident data to other files : an integrated road accident recordkeeping system. Contribution in Proceedings of Seminar P 'Road Safety' held at the 14th PTHC Summer Annual Meeting, University of Sussex, England, from 14-17 July 1986. Volume P 284, p. 55-86.

    OpenAIRE

    Harris, S.

    1986-01-01

    The road accident data which the police collect is of great value to road safety research and is used extensively. This data increases greatly in value if it can be linked to other files which contain more detailed information on exposure. Linking road accident data to other files results in what we call an Integrated Road Accident Recordkeeping System in -which the combined value of the linked files is greater than that of the sum of their individual values.

  15. Impact of an adequate road environment on the safety of non-motorised road users

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ribbens, H

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available ) among these vulnerable road users (VRUs) have always been high and in 2004, they constituted about 41% i.e. 5 309 of the 12 727 road fatalities on South African roads. Non-motorised road users (NMRUs) comprise a variety of road users, mostly pedestrians...

  16. Road safety and bicycle usage impacts of unbundling vehicular and cycle traffic in Dutch urban networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schepers, Paul; Heinen, Eva; Methorst, Rob; Wegman, Fred

    2013-01-01

    Bicycle-motor vehicle crashes are concentrated along distributor roads where cyclists are exposed to greater volumes of high-speed motorists than they would experience on access roads. This study examined the road safety impact of network-level separation of vehicular and cycle traffic in Dutch urba

  17. Road safety and bicycle usage impacts of unbundling vehicular and cycle traffic in Dutch urban networks.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schepers, P. Heinen, E. Methorst, R. & Wegman, F.

    2015-01-01

    Bicycle-motor vehicle crashes are concentrated along distributor roads where cyclists are exposed to greater volumes of high-speed motorists than they would experience on access roads. This study examined the road safety impact of network-level separation of vehicular and cycle traffic in Dutch urba

  18. [Exploratory study of road safety in Brazzaville and Pointe-Noire in Republic of the Congo].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batala Mpondo, Georges; Bouanga, Marianne; Saya, Yvette Marie Clarisse; Maurice, Pierre; Burigusa, Guillaume

    2014-01-01

    Although road accidents in the Congo are reaching alarming levels (2,720 accidents in 2010 and 3,126 accidents in 2011), especially with the massive arrival of "Jakarta" mopeds, no evaluation has been conducted to identify and understand the factors responsible for this problem. This article reports the results of an exploratory study conducted in Brazzaville and Pointe-Noire based on information collected from existing documents and by semidirective questionnaire of people from various sectors able to elucidate the problem of road safety. Using William Haddon's matrix, the parameters investigated were : road user behaviour ; environmental and technological factors ; characteristics of road accident victims ; quality of care ; intervention times and organization of prevention. This study demonstrated the absence of a road safety policy in Congo. It also showed that the main factors responsible for road accidents are behavioural (failure to wear safety belts, failure to comply with road signs, fatigue, use of a telephone while driving, etc.), followed by environmental and technological factors (insufficient traffic lights, absence of sidewalks, disorganized occupation of roads, general state of vehicles). This study shows that, in order to improve road safety in the Congo, it is essential to promote the development of national road safety policies and an action plan, intervention on the determinants of road accidents, and a change of road user behaviours (compulsory use of safety belts, ban on the use of a telephone and smoking while driving, etc.). Effective organization of the management of road accident victims and allocation of a budget to implement a road safety policy are also necessary.

  19. A disaggregate model for quantifying the safety effects of winter road maintenance activities at an operational level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usman, Taimur; Fu, Liping; Miranda-Moreno, Luis F

    2012-09-01

    This research presents a disaggregated modeling approach for investigating the link between winter road collision occurrence, weather, road surface conditions, traffic exposure, temporal trends and site-specific effects. This approach is unique as it allows for quantification of the safety effects of different winter road maintenance activities at an operational level. Different collision frequency models are calibrated using hourly data collected from 31 different highway routes across Ontario, Canada. It is found that factors such as visibility, precipitation intensity, air temperature, wind speed, exposure, month of the winter season, and storm hour have statistically significant effects on winter road safety. Most importantly, road surface conditions are identified as one of the major contributing factors, representing the first contribution showing the empirical relationship between safety and road surface conditions at such a disaggregate level. The applicability of the modeling framework is demonstrated using several examples, such as quantification of the benefits of alternative maintenance operations and evaluation of the effects of different service standards using safety as a performance measure.

  20. The likelihood of achieving quantified road safety targets: a binary logistic regression model for possible factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sze, N N; Wong, S C; Lee, C Y

    2014-12-01

    In past several decades, many countries have set quantified road safety targets to motivate transport authorities to develop systematic road safety strategies and measures and facilitate the achievement of continuous road safety improvement. Studies have been conducted to evaluate the association between the setting of quantified road safety targets and road fatality reduction, in both the short and long run, by comparing road fatalities before and after the implementation of a quantified road safety target. However, not much work has been done to evaluate whether the quantified road safety targets are actually achieved. In this study, we used a binary logistic regression model to examine the factors - including vehicle ownership, fatality rate, and national income, in addition to level of ambition and duration of target - that contribute to a target's success. We analyzed 55 quantified road safety targets set by 29 countries from 1981 to 2009, and the results indicate that targets that are in progress and with lower level of ambitions had a higher likelihood of eventually being achieved. Moreover, possible interaction effects on the association between level of ambition and the likelihood of success are also revealed.

  1. 公路隧道穿越煤矿采空区的安全控制措施研究%Research on safety control measures in goaf of coal mines through road tunnels

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    睢向国

    2012-01-01

    Combining with relative examples, the paper analyzes the hidden hazards in the goal of coal mines through road tunnels, points out re- spective safety protection measures, and points out some precautions in the safety management in the construction through goafs of coal mines, so as to realize the safe construction at road tunnels.%结合相关实例,分析了公路隧道穿越煤矿采空区的安全隐患,并提出了相应的安全防护措施,指出穿越采空区施工安全管理的注意事项,以期实现道路隧道的安全施工。

  2. Road safety forecasts in five European countries using structural time series models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antoniou, Constantinos; Papadimitriou, Eleonora; Yannis, George

    2014-01-01

    Modeling road safety development is a complex task and needs to consider both the quantifiable impact of specific parameters as well as the underlying trends that cannot always be measured or observed. The objective of this research is to apply structural time series models for obtaining reliable medium- to long-term forecasts of road traffic fatality risk using data from 5 countries with different characteristics from all over Europe (Cyprus, Greece, Hungary, Norway, and Switzerland). Two structural time series models are considered: (1) the local linear trend model and the (2) latent risk time series model. Furthermore, a structured decision tree for the selection of the applicable model for each situation (developed within the Road Safety Data, Collection, Transfer and Analysis [DaCoTA] research project, cofunded by the European Commission) is outlined. First, the fatality and exposure data that are used for the development of the models are presented and explored. Then, the modeling process is presented, including the model selection process, introduction of intervention variables, and development of mobility scenarios. The forecasts using the developed models appear to be realistic and within acceptable confidence intervals. The proposed methodology is proved to be very efficient for handling different cases of data availability and quality, providing an appropriate alternative from the family of structural time series models in each country. A concluding section providing perspectives and directions for future research is presented.

  3. Data requirements for traffic safety research and policy : report presented to the 1979 Road Research Symposium on Safety of Pedestrians and Cyclists, Session IV "Data requirements and evaluation procedures", OECD Headquarters Paris 14 - 16 May 1979.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noordzij, P.C.

    1979-01-01

    Data requirements differ depending on the stage of the process of planning, implementation and evaluation of countermeasures. The stages referred to in this paper are presented below; (1) selection of priority problem areas; (2) description and analysis of problems; (3) research on accident

  4. Best practices in road safety : handbook for measures at the country level.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schagen, I.N.L.G. van & Machata, K.

    2010-01-01

    This handbook contains a large variety of road safety measures from throughout Europe. The goal of SUPREME was to collect, analyse, summarise and publish best practices in road safety in the Member States of the European Union, as well as in Switzerland and Norway. This document is a collection of b

  5. The Strategy to Align Road Safety Education to the Further Education and Training Band Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malan, Lianne; van Dijk, Gerda; Fourie, David

    2016-01-01

    Road safety education is a complex phenomenon which should be viewed holistically if taken into account the interconnectedness of education, infrastructure and enforcement. Effective road safety education is specifically important for learners in the Further Education and Training (FET) band, as they are active contributors to a community. The…

  6. Trend road safety measures : international course on transportation and road engineering in developing countries. Two-year postgraduate Diploma and M.Sc. programme.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    1991-01-01

    This course focuses mainly on traffic and transport in developing countries, and deals primarily with matters of infrastructure. Road safety and road safety problems are closely related to the construction and operation of the road network. (See also C 1341 - C1346).

  7. Evaluating performance of a Lead Road Safety Agency (LRSA) in a low-income country: a case study from Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatti, Junaid A; Ahmed, Aizaz

    2014-01-01

    The World Health Organization recommends identifying a Lead Road Safety Agency (LRSA) within the government to coordinate preventive interventions. As LRSAs in developing countries have rarely been evaluated, this case study describes the performance of the LRSA of Pakistan with respect to the World Bank criteria. The designated LRSA, the National Road Safety Secretariat, was put into operation in 2006 and worked for about two years with World Bank funding. The agency had a stand-alone structure headed by an experienced road safety specialist during the first year only and faced difficulty in recruiting other required experts. The LRSA drafted the first National Road Safety Plan, including strategic review of road safety and existing legislation, articulated multisectorial collaboration nationally and provincially, and collected traffic injury data in some districts. Its progress was halted by its dissolution because of funding problems. Currently, two agencies specialising in traffic enforcement and transport research respectively are fulfilling LRSA functions on an ad-hoc basis. Results suggest that sustainability and consistency of LRSAs in developing countries like Pakistan may only be ensured if they are legally protected, inter-ministerial, have permanent funding and are provided with the required expertise through international cooperation, so they can perform their required functions effectively.

  8. Increase the Safety of Road Traffic Accidents by Applying Clustering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kos Goran

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In terms of continual increase of number of traffic accidents and alarming trend of increasing number of traffic accidents with catastrophic consequences for human life and health, it is necessary to actively research and develop methods to combat these trends. One of the measures is the implementation of advanced information systems in existing traffic environment. Accidents clusters, as databases of traffic accidents, introduce a new dimension in traffic systems in the form of experience, providing information on current accidents and the ones that have previously occurred in a given period. This paper proposes a new approach to predictive management of traffic processes, based on the collection of data in real time and is based on accidents clusters. The modern traffic information services collects road traffic status data from a wide variety of traffic sensing systems using modern ICT technologies, creating the most accurate road traffic situation awareness achieved so far. Road traffic situation awareness enhanced by accident clusters' data can be visualized and distributed in various ways (including the forms of dynamic heat maps and on various information platforms, suiting the requirements of the end-users. Accent is placed on their significant features that are based on additional knowledge about existing traffic processes and distribution of important traffic information in order to prevent and reduce traffic accidents.

  9. Optimism about safety and group-serving interpretations of safety among pedestrians and cyclists in relation to road use in general and under low light conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, M J; Wood, J M; Lacherez, P F; Marszalek, R P

    2012-01-01

    Drivers are known to be optimistic about their risk of crash involvement, believing that they are less likely to be involved in a crash than other drivers. However, little comparative research has been conducted among other road users. In addition, optimism about crash risk is conceptualised as applying only to an individual's assessment of his or her personal risk of crash involvement. The possibility that the self-serving nature of optimism about safety might be generalised to the group-level as a cyclist or a pedestrian, i.e., becoming group-serving rather than self-serving, has been overlooked in relation to road safety. This study analysed a subset of data collected as part of a larger research project on the visibility of pedestrians, cyclists and road workers, focusing on a set of questionnaire items administered to 406 pedestrians, 838 cyclists and 622 drivers. The items related to safety in various scenarios involving drivers, pedestrians and cyclists, allowing predictions to be derived about group differences in agreement with items based on the assumption that the results would exhibit group-serving bias. Analysis of the responses indicated that specific hypotheses about group-serving interpretations of safety and responsibility were supported in 22 of the 26 comparisons. When the nine comparisons relevant to low lighting conditions were considered separately, seven were found to be supported. The findings of the research have implications for public education and for the likely acceptance of messages which are inconsistent with current assumptions and expectations of pedestrians and cyclists. They also suggest that research into group-serving interpretations of safety, even for temporary roles rather than enduring groups, could be fruitful. Further, there is an implication that gains in safety can be made by better educating road users about the limitations of their visibility and the ramifications of this for their own road safety, particularly in low

  10. The Road Traffic Injuries Research Network: a decade of research capacity strengthening in low- and middle-income countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyder, Adnan A; Norton, Robyn; Pérez-Núñez, Ricardo; Mojarro-Iñiguez, Francisco R; Peden, Margie; Kobusingye, Olive

    2016-02-27

    Road traffic crashes have been an increasing threat to the wellbeing of road users worldwide; an unacceptably high number of people die or become disabled from them. While high-income countries have successfully implemented effective interventions to help reduce the burden of road traffic injuries (RTIs) in their countries, low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) have not yet achieved similar results. Both scientific research and capacity development have proven to be useful for preventing RTIs in high-income countries. In 1999, a group of leading researchers from different countries decided to join efforts to help promote research on RTIs and develop the capacity of professionals from LMICs. This translated into the creation of the Road Traffic Injuries Research Network (RTIRN) - a partnership of over 1,100 road safety professionals from 114 countries collaborating to facilitate reductions in the burden of RTIs in LMICs by identifying and promoting effective, evidenced-based interventions and supporting research capacity building in road safety research in LMICs. This article presents the work that RTIRN has done over more than a decade, including production of a dozen scientific papers, support of nearly 100 researchers, training of nearly 1,000 people and 35 scholarships granted to researchers from LMICs to attend world conferences, as well as lessons learnt and future challenges to maximize its work.

  11. Simulation of safety: a review of the state of the art in road safety simulation modelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, William; Sobhani, Amir; Lenné, Michael G; Sarvi, Majid

    2014-05-01

    Recent decades have seen considerable growth in computer capabilities, data collection technology and communication mediums. This growth has had considerable impact on our ability to replicate driver behaviour and understand the processes involved in failures in the traffic system. From time to time it is necessary to assess the level of development as a basis of determining how far we have come. This paper sets out to assess the state of the art in the use of computer models to simulate and assess the level of safety in existing and future traffic systems. It reviews developments in the area of road safety simulation models. In particular, it reviews computer models of driver and vehicle behaviour within a road context. It focuses on stochastic numerical models of traffic behaviour and how reliable these are in estimating levels of safety on the traffic network. Models of this type are commonly used in the assessment of traffic systems for capacity, delay and general performance. Adding safety to this assessment regime may allow more comprehensive assessment of future traffic systems. To date the models have focused primarily on vehicular traffic that is, cars and heavy vehicles. It has been shown that these models have potential in measuring the level of conflict on parts of the network and the measure of conflict correlated well with crash statistics. Interest in the prediction of crashes and crash severity is growing and new models are focusing on the continuum of general traffic conditions, conflict, severe conflict, crash and severe crashes. The paper also explores the general data types used to develop, calibrate and validate these models. Recent technological development in in-vehicle data collection, driver simulators and machine learning offers considerable potential for improving the behavioural base, rigour and application of road safety simulation models. The paper closes with some indication of areas of future development.

  12. An Evaluation of the Added Value of Co-Design in the Development of an Educational Game for Road Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    All, Anissa; Van Looy, Jan; Castellar, Elena Patricia Nuñez

    2013-01-01

    This study explores the added value of co-design in addition to other innovation research methods in the process of developing a serious game design document for a road safety game. The sessions aimed at exploring 4 aspects of a location-based game experience: themes, game mechanics, mobile phone applications and locations for mini-games. In…

  13. State-space based analysis and forecasting of macroscopic road safety trends in Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antoniou, Constantinos; Yannis, George

    2013-11-01

    In this paper, macroscopic road safety trends in Greece are analyzed using state-space models and data for 52 years (1960-2011). Seemingly unrelated time series equations (SUTSE) models are developed first, followed by richer latent risk time-series (LRT) models. As reliable estimates of vehicle-kilometers are not available for Greece, the number of vehicles in circulation is used as a proxy to the exposure. Alternative considered models are presented and discussed, including diagnostics for the assessment of their model quality and recommendations for further enrichment of this model. Important interventions were incorporated in the models developed (1986 financial crisis, 1991 old-car exchange scheme, 1996 new road fatality definition) and found statistically significant. Furthermore, the forecasting results using data up to 2008 were compared with final actual data (2009-2011) indicating that the models perform properly, even in unusual situations, like the current strong financial crisis in Greece. Forecasting results up to 2020 are also presented and compared with the forecasts of a model that explicitly considers the currently on-going recession. Modeling the recession, and assuming that it will end by 2013, results in more reasonable estimates of risk and vehicle-kilometers for the 2020 horizon. This research demonstrates the benefits of using advanced state-space modeling techniques for modeling macroscopic road safety trends, such as allowing the explicit modeling of interventions. The challenges associated with the application of such state-of-the-art models for macroscopic phenomena, such as traffic fatalities in a region or country, are also highlighted. Furthermore, it is demonstrated that it is possible to apply such complex models using the relatively short time-series that are available in macroscopic road safety analysis.

  14. Road safety impacts of the motorcycle in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vasconcellos, Eduardo Alcântara

    2013-01-01

    Brazil has had high indices of traffic injuries and deaths since the 1950s, mostly related to the increasing and irresponsible use of the automobile. Upon approval of the Brazilian Transit Code (CTB) in 1997, traffic injuries and deaths began to diminish, despite an increase in vehicle fleet size, a phenomenon that had never occurred previously. Concurrently, starting in 1991 and with a great intensity after 1996, there has been a sizeable increase in motorcycle production and use, facilitated and encouraged by public officials. Between 1995 and 2000 annual sales figures for motorcycles doubled and reached 2 million units in 2008. Traffic deaths associated with motorcycles increased exponentially, rising from 725 in 2006 to 10,143 in 2010, eliminating the advances gained by the CTB in reducing auto-related injuries. This article analyses the process and its impacts on road safety. The first part summarises the main public policy decisions related to the theme. Part two analyses changes in traffic safety after the introduction of this new technology. Part three looks at the possible political, economic and social motives that lie behind this process. The final part suggests solutions to the great prejudice caused to society and the nation.

  15. Road Safety Data, Collection, Transfer and Analysis DaCoTa. Deliverable 0.1: Final project report.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thomas, P. Hill, J. Morris, A.P. Welsh, R. Talbot, R. Muhlrad, N. Vallet, G. Yannis, G. Papadimitriou, E. Evgenikos, P. Dupont, E. Martensen, H. Hermitte, T. Bos, N. & Aarts, L.

    2015-01-01

    The European Road Safety Observatory was established European Commission and first announced in the 2001 Transport White Paper1. It was further developed in the 2003 Road Safety Action Plan 2 where the Commission announced it was to establish a new European Road Safety Observatory (ERSO) to "co-ordi

  16. 76 FR 53827 - Safety Zone; Big Sioux River From the Military Road Bridge North Sioux City to the Confluence of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-30

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Big Sioux River From the Military Road... for the temporary safety zone restricting navigation on the Big Sioux River from the Military Road... rule extends the existing temporary safety zone on the Big Sioux River from the Military Road Bridge...

  17. Road Safety Data, Collection, Transfer and Analysis DaCoTa. Deliverable 0.1: Final project report.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thomas, P. Hill, J. Morris, A.P. Welsh, R. Talbot, R. Muhlrad, N. Vallet, G. Yannis, G. Papadimitriou, E. Evgenikos, P. Dupont, E. Martensen, H. Hermitte, T. Bos, N. & Aarts, L.

    2015-01-01

    The European Road Safety Observatory was established European Commission and first announced in the 2001 Transport White Paper1. It was further developed in the 2003 Road Safety Action Plan 2 where the Commission announced it was to establish a new European Road Safety Observatory (ERSO) to "co-ordi

  18. Antisideslip and Antirollover Safety Speed Controller Design for Vehicle on Curved Road

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo Lie

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available When the drivers cannot be aware of the existing of forthcoming curved roads and fail to regulate their safety speeds accordingly, sideslip or rollover may occur with high probability. The antisideslip and antirollover control of vehicle on curved road in automatic highway systems is studied. The safety speed warning system is set before entering the curved road firstly. The speed adhesion control is adopted to shorten the braking distance while decelerating and to guarantee the safety speed. The velocity controller when decelerating on the straight path and the posture controller when driving on curved road are designed, respectively, utilizing integral backstepping technology. Simulation results demonstrate that this control system is characterized by quick and precise tracking and global stability. Consequently, it is able to avoid the dangerous operating conditions, such as sideslip and rollover, and guarantee the safety and directional stability when driving on curved road.

  19. Effect of joint mechanism on vehicle redirectional capability of water-filled road safety barrier systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiyahuddin, M I; Thambiratnam, D P; Gu, Y T

    2014-10-01

    Portable water-filled barriers (PWFBs) are roadside appurtenances that prevent vehicles from penetrating into temporary construction zones on roadways. PWFBs are required to satisfy the strict regulations for vehicle re-direction in tests. However, many of the current PWFBs fail to re-direct the vehicle at high speeds due to the inability of the joints to provide appropriate stiffness. The joint mechanism hence plays a crucial role in the performance of a PWFB system at high speed impacts. This paper investigates the desired features of the joint mechanism in a PWFB system that can re-direct vehicles at high speeds, while limiting the lateral displacement to acceptable limits. A rectangular "wall" representative of a 30m long barrier system was modeled and a novel method of joining adjacent road barriers was introduced through appropriate pin-joint connections. The impact response of the barrier "wall" and the vehicle was obtained and the results show that a rotational stiffness of 3000kNm/rad at the joints seems to provide the desired features of the PWFB system to re-direct impacting vehicles and restrict the lateral deflection. These research findings will be useful to safety engineers and road barrier designers in developing a new generation of PWFBs for increased road safety.

  20. Attitudinal segmentaion of drivers in Pakistan: The potential for effective road safety campaigns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batool, Zahara; Carsten, Oliver

    2017-06-06

    Deviant driving behaviors are considered as the main cause of Road Traffic Accidents in Pakistan. This research is founded on the premise that driving behaviors are mediated by attitudinal and motivational factors. It advocates that rather than simply aggregating drivers' responses or a-priori classification of them based on their personal characteristics, adoption of segmentation technique is more useful to look at multiple factors provoking aberrant driving behavior in combination and not just in isolation. For this, the study generated an Attitudinal Questionnaire, inspired by the Ajzen's Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB: Ajzen, 1991), and extended violation-scale of modified Driver Behavior Questionnaire (DBQ: Lawton et al., 1997). Attitudinal and behavioral items are first factor analyzed. Then, cluster analysis is performed on extracted attitudinal factors which classified sample driving population into four relatively homogenous and distinct groups of drivers. The results demonstrated the explanatory utility of the market segmentation approach to systematically relate the interaction between attitudes, behaviors and socio-demographic characteristics of drivers. It is concluded that the approach is successful in distinguishing safe drivers from unsafe driver and therefore, can legitimately form the basis of road safety interventions. Finally, the findings are used to recommend targeted information-based road safety solutions with a focus on the diverse characteristics of each of the identified segments. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Safety or efficiency?: strategies and conflicting interests in Belgian road-safety policy, 1920-1940.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Donald

    2015-04-01

    After World War I, automobile ownership became a mass phenomenon in Belgium, as in most other industrialized countries. Unfortunately, road-casualty figures soon followed. By the mid-1930s, traffic accidents had become the main cause of accidental deaths. There was clearly a need for a renewed road-safety policy. Public authorities in Belgium, however, were suspiciously reluctant to take new measures. While there was a public outcry for more severe regulation of motorized traffic and several MPs backed bills to this effect, motoring associations lobbied against traffic legislation reforms. In order to understand the Belgian government's hesitation, this article looks at the key strategies of the actors involved in the decision-making process concerning traffic policy. Such strategies included, among others: the creation of detailed traffic-accident statistics, revision of traffic legislation, and support for mass traffic-education campaigns. Eventually, public officials stepped in and created a new technocratic traffic regime in the 1930s, yet their prime concern was not road-user safety, but the efficiency of traffic streams.

  2. Prospects for nuclear safety research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beckjord, E.S.

    1995-04-01

    This document is the text of a paper presented by Eric S. Beckjord (Director, Nuclear Regulatory Research/NRC) at the 22nd Water Reactor Safety Meeting in Bethesda, MD in October 1994. The following topics are briefly reviewed: (1) Reactor vessel research, (2) Probabilistic risk assessment, (3) Direct containment heating, (4) Advanced LWR research, (5) Nuclear energy prospects in the US, and (6) Future nuclear safety research. Subtopics within the last category include economics, waste disposal, and health and safety.

  3. Road design, human behaviour, and road accidents : towards a `learning design community'. Paper presented at the international conference `Road safety in Europe', Birmingham, England, September 9-11, 1996.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wegman, F.C.M.

    1996-01-01

    This paper discusses a number of unsolved problems in the field of road design (i.e. geometric design), human behaviour and road safety, particularly concerning the operationalisation of the existing design principles for a safe road network in terms of concrete road design in existing circumstances

  4. The relationship between traffic volume and road safety on the secondary road network : a literature review.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duivenvoorden, K.

    2010-01-01

    On motorways, congestion is a well-known traffic problem. On the secondary road network, the same problem arises when traffic volume increases and the driven speed decreases. At certain times of day, roads get congested and the number of interactions between road users increases. In general, higher

  5. Road safety development in Europe: a decade of changes (2001-2010).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Yongjun; Hermans, Elke; Bao, Qiong; Brijs, Tom; Wets, Geert

    2013-11-01

    To evaluate the road safety development of a country over time, the percentage change in the number of road fatalities is traditionally the main indicator. However, simply considering the reduction in the road fatalities may not correctly reflect the real improvement in road safety because the transport circumstances of a country underlying the road fatalities also change every year. In this study, we present a new way for measuring the road safety performance change over time, which is to use the technique of data envelopment analysis (DEA) and the Malmquist productivity index. In doing so, we can not only focus on the evolution of road safety final outcomes within a given period, but also take the changes of different measures of exposure in the same period into account. In the application, the DEA-based Malmquist productivity index (DEA-MI) is used to measure the extent to which the EU countries have improved their road safety performance over the period 2001-2010. More objective and insightful results are obtained compared to the ones based on the traditional indicator. The results show considerable road safety progress in most of the Member States during these ten years, and the fatality risk rather than the fatality number on Europe's roads has actually been reduced by approximately half. However, the situation differed considerably from country to country. The decomposition of the DEA-MI into 'efficiency change' and 'technical change' further reveals that the bulk of the improvement during the last decade was attained through the adoption of productivity-enhancing new technologies throughout the road transport sector in Europe, rather than through the relatively underperforming countries catching up with those best-performing ones.

  6. On statistical inference in time series analysis of the evolution of road safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Commandeur, Jacques J F; Bijleveld, Frits D; Bergel-Hayat, Ruth; Antoniou, Constantinos; Yannis, George; Papadimitriou, Eleonora

    2013-11-01

    Data collected for building a road safety observatory usually include observations made sequentially through time. Examples of such data, called time series data, include annual (or monthly) number of road traffic accidents, traffic fatalities or vehicle kilometers driven in a country, as well as the corresponding values of safety performance indicators (e.g., data on speeding, seat belt use, alcohol use, etc.). Some commonly used statistical techniques imply assumptions that are often violated by the special properties of time series data, namely serial dependency among disturbances associated with the observations. The first objective of this paper is to demonstrate the impact of such violations to the applicability of standard methods of statistical inference, which leads to an under or overestimation of the standard error and consequently may produce erroneous inferences. Moreover, having established the adverse consequences of ignoring serial dependency issues, the paper aims to describe rigorous statistical techniques used to overcome them. In particular, appropriate time series analysis techniques of varying complexity are employed to describe the development over time, relating the accident-occurrences to explanatory factors such as exposure measures or safety performance indicators, and forecasting the development into the near future. Traditional regression models (whether they are linear, generalized linear or nonlinear) are shown not to naturally capture the inherent dependencies in time series data. Dedicated time series analysis techniques, such as the ARMA-type and DRAG approaches are discussed next, followed by structural time series models, which are a subclass of state space methods. The paper concludes with general recommendations and practice guidelines for the use of time series models in road safety research. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Speed management on local government managed roadsresearch, recommendations and guidelines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Budzyński Marcin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Commissioned by the National Road Safety Council Secretariat, the project “Guidelines for speed management on local government managed roads” studied car driver behaviour when subjected to selected speed management measures such as: local speed restrictions, surveillance, traffic calming and restricted speed areas. In addition, analyses were conducted on the impact of selected measures on the level of road safety. The behaviour was assessed by studying the changes in speed parameters (statistical characteristics for the particular speed management measures or their absence. The road safety level was measured by comparing the level before and after the implementation of the particular speed management measure, taking trends into account. The paper presents the results of the research, along with recommendations for speed management guidelines.

  8. Implementing, monitoring, evaluating, and updating a road safety programme : contribution to the Best in Europe 2003 Conference of the European Transport Safety Council: Targeted Road Safety Programmes in the EU, Brussels, June 10, 2003.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wegman, F.C.M.

    2004-01-01

    In all EU countries, attempts are being made to promote road safety, and each country has its own approach. This contribution examines the implementation of road safety programmes, their monitoring and evaluation, and their updating. For analyzing policy implementation, monitoring and evaluation, a

  9. Implementing, monitoring, evaluating, and updating a road safety programme : contribution to the Best in Europe 2003 Conference of the European Transport Safety Council: Targeted Road Safety Programmes in the EU, Brussels, June 10, 2003.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wegman, F.C.M.

    2004-01-01

    In all EU countries, attempts are being made to promote road safety, and each country has its own approach. This contribution examines the implementation of road safety programmes, their monitoring and evaluation, and their updating. For analyzing policy implementation, monitoring and evaluation, a

  10. Influence of professional drivers' personality traits on road traffic safety: case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Živković, Snežana; Nikolić, Vesna; Markič, Mirko

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present basic elements of the research directed at identifying and determining the personality traits of professional drivers that affect safe, secure and enjoyable ride on public roads. A quantitative method has been used here, whereas data were acquired from a questionnaire based on a sample of 59 professional drivers. Determining personality traits of professional drivers that are in correlation with a safe and pleasant ride on the roads has been enabled by applying the five-factor model of personality ('Big Five') and the Personality Inventory NEO-PI. From these results it was concluded that safe operation of the vehicle in traffic involves the successful 'conduct' of oneself, which recognises the importance of certain personality traits of professional drivers for traffic safety and the need for appropriate professional selection in the case of employment of professional drivers. Research results implicate development of educational programmes aimed at achieving harmony of psychological, physical and sensory health, that is, programmes for permanent informing, educating and training professional drivers for defensive driving. The research opens the way for new research tasks that should help in creating a specific structure of curricula that can be used in a variety of transportation companies and enterprises to improve general and public safety.

  11. An educational intervention in road safety among children and teenagers in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treviño-Siller, S; Pacheco-Magaña, L E; Bonilla-Fernández, P; Rueda-Neria, C; Arenas-Monreal, L

    2017-02-17

    The purpose of this article is to describe a public school-based educational intervention (EI) designed to increase knowledge, improve attitudes, and change practices related to road safety. We used a mixed-methods evaluation of a road traffic safety baseline diagnosis conducted in 4 public schools, 2 primary and 2 secondary. Research was organized into 4 phases: (1) diagnosis, (2) EI design, (3) implementation, and (4) evaluation. We used convenience sampling (n = 219 students) across schools and applied a pre-/posttest design based on quantitative and qualitative data. The former related to surveys on road safety experiences, knowledge, attitudes, and practice and the latter to observation checklists, community mapping, ethnography, and focus groups. To compare pre-post scores, we used multilevel mixed-effect ordinal logistic regressions. We developed data matrices, field notes, and systematized community mapping. We also transcribed focus group discussions, generated categories, and carried out thematic analysis. Ethnography indicated poor sidewalk conditions, no helmet or seat belt use, overcrowded public transportation, and no traffic lights or proper signals. Pedestrians did not use sidewalks and crossed streets unsafely. Subsequent to the intervention, however, the study population showed significant changes in their knowledge, practices, and attitudes. They identified road traffic incidents (RTIs) as the first cause of death among children and youth, and most understood that the solution to the problem was incumbent upon each and every individual. They also displayed increased perceptions of danger in practices such as traveling on overcrowded public transportation, failing to wear seat belts in cars and helmets on motorcycles, crossing the street while using mobile phones or playing with friends, and riding with drunk drivers. Changes varied according to gender, and students reported being able to carry out safe practices only when they were in control of

  12. Breath and Urine Alcohol Level Analysis to Increase Student Awareness of Road Safety.

    OpenAIRE

    Daly, Kim

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this project was to increase student’s awareness of road safety and the relationship between alcohol and driving. This was carried out in conjunction with the Garda Road Safety Unit and the DIT interdisciplinary project known as CARS, College Awareness of Road Safety. This project was carried out last year by another student therefore the aim this year was to build and expand on the work that had been done so far. Increasing the student’s awareness was achieved by speaking to class...

  13. Overview of resulting tools, guidelines, and instruments. IN-SAFETY Workpackage 3: New models, tools and guidelines for road safety assessment, Deliverable 3.4.

    OpenAIRE

    Dijkstra, A. Bald, S. Benz, T. & Gaitanidou, E. (eds.)

    2009-01-01

    Road safety will most probably be influenced by introducing Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS) or Intelligent Vehicle Safety Systems (IVSS). The effects of these systems on road safety can be assessed in different ways. This document gives a short overview of methodologies which allow for assessing road safety effects (Chapter 2), This Deliverable gives an overview of the outcome of work package 3 of IN-SAFETY. Two methodologies have basically been applied: • simulation model • risk an...

  14. Road safety management by objectives: a critical analysis of the Norwegian approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elvik, Rune

    2008-05-01

    The Norwegian Public Roads Administration has developed a comprehensive system of road safety management by objectives. A broad set of objectives regarding road user behaviour, vehicle safety standards and the safety of roads has been formulated as part of the National Transport Plan for the term 2010--2019. These objectives have been derived from an overall objective of reducing the number of killed or seriously injured road users by 50% before the year 2020. This paper describes the system and provides a critical analysis of it. Factors that influence the effectiveness of management by objectives are identified. It is concluded that while the system of management by objectives developed in Norway has a number of attractive characteristics it also has a number of weak points that may limit its effectiveness. It is therefore by no means certain that the objective of reducing fatalities and serious injuries by 50% will be realised.

  15. Experimental road signs in a simulated environment research programme – experiment procedures and assumptions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kruszewski Mikołaj

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The application of experimental signs on public roads may cause some risks due to driver misunderstanding or misinterpretation, especially when seen for the first time. To minimize this risk, driver reaction and sign understanding can be tested in a safe and relatively cheap simulation-based environment. The consortium running the project “Experimental road marking and its effect on road user behaviour” suggested a similar methodology. The project included a simulation-based research program. The consortium proposed a set of experimental signs which have a strong potential for improving road safety and traffic conditions. The paper outlines the simulation-based research programme involving experimental signs and a proposed experiment procedure. Simulation scenarios and procedures were selected to achieve the required message and goals of implementation. In addition, an analysis is proposed of the factors and indicators of each sign and its effects.

  16. Evaluation of Policy Implementation at Norm Strategy Criteria Procedure Safety Management System that Influence the Safety Culture in Building Construction, Housing, Waterworks, Road and Bridge Project in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusuf Latief

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Unideal Safety culture in Indonesia requires an evaluation of policy implementation refers to the construction safety regulation, Ministry Regulation 05/PRT/2014. Out of Norms, Standards, Procedures and Criteria (NSPK, we only have Norms and Procedure. As for Standard and Criteria are still being planned. This research on building, housing, water resource, roads and bridges construction at the Ministry of General Works and Housing resulted in having significant relation between safety policy implementation dimension (Monitoring and sanction / penalty and safety culture dimensions (behavior, safety cost, policy, leadership, man, and strategy. Recommendations for policy improvement are obtained from review and implementation strategy of the significant relation between safety policy implementation dimension and safety culture dimensions.

  17. Benchmarking road safety performance: Identifying a meaningful reference (best-in-class).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Faan; Wu, Jiaorong; Chen, Xiaohong; Wang, Jianjun; Wang, Di

    2016-01-01

    For road safety improvement, comparing and benchmarking performance are widely advocated as the emerging and preferred approaches. However, there is currently no universally agreed upon approach for the process of road safety benchmarking, and performing the practice successfully is by no means easy. This is especially true for the two core activities of which: (1) developing a set of road safety performance indicators (SPIs) and combining them into a composite index; and (2) identifying a meaningful reference (best-in-class), one which has already obtained outstanding road safety practices. To this end, a scientific technique that can combine the multi-dimensional safety performance indicators (SPIs) into an overall index, and subsequently can identify the 'best-in-class' is urgently required. In this paper, the Entropy-embedded RSR (Rank-sum ratio), an innovative, scientific and systematic methodology is investigated with the aim of conducting the above two core tasks in an integrative and concise procedure, more specifically in a 'one-stop' way. Using a combination of results from other methods (e.g. the SUNflower approach) and other measures (e.g. Human Development Index) as a relevant reference, a given set of European countries are robustly ranked and grouped into several classes based on the composite Road Safety Index. Within each class the 'best-in-class' is then identified. By benchmarking road safety performance, the results serve to promote best practice, encourage the adoption of successful road safety strategies and measures and, more importantly, inspire the kind of political leadership needed to create a road transport system that maximizes safety.

  18. On statistical inference in time series analysis of the evolution of road safety.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Commandeur, J.J.F. Bijleveld, F.D. Bergel-Hayat, R. Antoniou, C. Yannis, G. & Papadimitriou, E.

    2013-01-01

    Data collected for building a road safety observatory usually include observations made sequentially through time. Examples of such data, called time series data, include annual (or monthly) number of road traffic accidents, traffic fatalities or vehicle kilometers driven in a country, as well as th

  19. Towards a national road safety strategy for South Africa : The Inception Report.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wegman, F.C.M. Schermers, G. & Schagen, I.N.L.G. van

    2015-01-01

    According to a recent WHO study (2013), South Africa has a mortality rate of 31.9 per 100 000 population ranking it 177th of the 182 countries participating in the study. The Road Traffic Management Corporation (RTMC) is the lead agency for road safety matters in South Africa. Its overall goal is to

  20. Use of mobile phones while driving : effects on road safety : a literature review.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dragutinovic, N. & Twisk, D.A.M.

    2006-01-01

    The use of mobile phones while driving has become a road safety concern and has been the focus of various behavioural studies. This literature review analyses studies published in the period 1999-2005, and include simulator studies, closed-track studies and studies on the real road. Although studies

  1. Testing the safety level of a road network : contribution to the XXIIth PIARC World Road Congress, 19-25 October 2003, Durban, South Africa.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, A.

    2004-01-01

    The safest roads in a road network are motorways and local streets with traffic calming. Most of the accidents occur on the other roads, which form the larger part of the network. So for safety reasons motorized traffic should be encouraged to use motorways and should be discouraged to use local str

  2. Ward based community road safety performance benchmarking, monitoring and intervention programmes in the City of Johannesburg

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ribbens, H

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available benchmarking, monitoring and intervention programme. Community road safety needs in the respective wards are articulated through the ward councillor. The rationale is that the community exactly knows where these problem areas are, because they suffer as a...

  3. Cognitive functioning differentially predicts different dimensions of older drivers' on-road safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aksan, Nazan; Anderson, Steve W; Dawson, Jeffrey; Uc, Ergun; Rizzo, Matthew

    2015-02-01

    The extent to which deficits in specific cognitive domains contribute to older drivers' safety risk in complex real-world driving tasks is not well understood. We selected 148 drivers older than 70 years of age both with and without neurodegenerative diseases (Alzheimer disease-AD and Parkinson disease-PD) from an existing driving database of older adults. Participant assessments included on-road driving safety and cognitive functioning in visuospatial construction, speed of processing, memory, and executive functioning. The standardized on-road drive test was designed to examine multiple facets of older driver safety including navigation performance (e.g., following a route, identifying landmarks), safety errors while concurrently performing secondary navigation tasks ("on-task" safety errors), and safety errors in the absence of any secondary navigation tasks ("baseline" safety errors). The inter-correlations of these outcome measures were fair to moderate supporting their distinctiveness. Participants with diseases performed worse than the healthy aging group on all driving measures and differences between those with AD and PD were minimal. In multivariate analyses, different domains of cognitive functioning predicted distinct facets of driver safety on road. Memory and set-shifting predicted performance in navigation-related secondary tasks, speed of processing predicted on-task safety errors, and visuospatial construction predicted baseline safety errors. These findings support broad assessments of cognitive functioning to inform decisions regarding older driver safety on the road and suggest navigation performance may be useful in evaluating older driver fitness and restrictions in licensing.

  4. A review of the effect of traffic and weather characteristics on road safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theofilatos, Athanasios; Yannis, George

    2014-11-01

    Taking into consideration the increasing availability of real-time traffic data and stimulated by the importance of proactive safety management, this paper attempts to provide a review of the effect of traffic and weather characteristics on road safety, identify the gaps and discuss the needs for further research. Despite the existence of generally mixed evidence on the effect of traffic parameters, a few patterns can be observed. For instance, traffic flow seems to have a non-linear relationship with accident rates, even though some studies suggest linear relationship with accidents. On the other hand, increased speed limits have found to have a straightforward positive relationship with accident occurrence. Regarding weather effects, the effect of precipitation is quite consistent and leads generally to increased accident frequency but does not seem to have a consistent effect on severity. The impact of other weather parameters on safety, such as visibility, wind speed and temperature is not found straightforward so far. The increasing use of real-time data not only makes easier to identify the safety impact of traffic and weather characteristics, but most importantly makes possible the identification of their combined effect. The more systematic use of these real-time data may address several of the research gaps identified in this research.

  5. Equine road user safety: public attitudes, understandings and beliefs from a qualitative study in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Catherine; Musselwhite, Charles B A

    2011-11-01

    Horse riders represent a significant group of vulnerable road user and are involved in a number of accidents and near misses on the road. Despite this horse riders have received little attention both in terms of academic research and transport policy. Based on literature on vulnerable road user safety, including attitudes to road user safety and behaviour of drivers and their relationship with cyclists and motorcyclists, this paper examines the attitudes and reported behaviour of drivers and horse riders. A total of 46 participants took part in six focus groups divided into four groups of drivers with little or no horse riding experience and two groups of frequent horse riders. Each group investigated five key topic areas stemming from the literature review on vulnerable road users including hazard perception, risk perception, emotion, attitudes to sharing the road and empathy. It was found that drivers and horse riders are not always aware of the same hazards in the road and that this may lead drivers to under-estimate the risk when encountering horses. Drivers often had good intentions to overtake horses safely, but were unaware of how vulnerable passing very wide and slow made them feel until they had begun the manoeuvre and hence quickly reduced such feelings either by speeding up or cutting in too soon. However, other than this, drivers had good skills when encountering horses. But these skills could be impeded by frustration when encountering a slow moving horse which was further compounded by a feeling, mainly by younger drivers, that horse riding was for leisure and as such should not get in the way of necessary work journeys. There is a need for drivers to be more aware of the potential hazards a horse rider faces on the road and these could be achieved through inducing empathy amongst drivers for horse riders, creating nudges for drivers in the environment and better education for drivers.

  6. Innovative Programs to Raise Road User Awareness in Puerto Rico Supporting the Decade of Action for Road Safety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamín Colucci

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The Governor of Puerto Rico signed in 2011 a Proclamation supporting the Decade of Action for Road Safety: 2011-2020 in conjunction with a worldwide initiative approved by the United Nations General Assembly aimed to establish action plans to reduce the alarming 1.3 million fatalities and the 50 million major injuries and disability related crashes. This timely proclamation calls attention to the existing alarming traffic collisions in the Puerto Rico's 26,866 centerline-km highway network. In this paper, innovative programs that have been demonstrated to be successful in Puerto Rico during the first two years of the Decade of Action for Road Safety are presented along with their impacts on raising awareness regarding crash prevention and reducing fatalities in the existing highway network. Testimonies from road user victims, victimizer, leaders and administrators of profit and nonprofit organizations are noted for assessing the program. A future five-year action plan for raising road user awareness is also prepared to address the governor's proclamation for improving traffic safety.

  7. The future of road safety : a worldwide perspective.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wegman, F.C.M.

    2016-01-01

    Estimates by the World Health Organization suggest that, on a yearly basis, road crashes kill 1.25 million people–nearly 3400 road fatalities per day–and injure up to 50 million. Traffic injuries are not equally spread over the world, however; some countries are hit harder than others, and the chanc

  8. Road lighting and traffic safety : a functional approach.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schreuder, D.A.

    1970-01-01

    Requirements to be made on the traffic facilities in order to reduce the number of night-time accidents are covered. Traffic facilities include apart from public lighting and road lighting by means of headlamps of vehicles, also road markings and signs, marker lights, catadioptric devices and others

  9. Determining quantitative road safety targets by applying statistical prediction techniques and a multi-stage adjustment procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittenberg, P; Sever, K; Knoth, S; Sahin, N; Bondarenko, J

    2013-01-01

    Due to substantial progress made in road safety in the last ten years, the European Union (EU) renewed the ambitious agreement of halving the number of persons killed on the roads within the next decade. In this paper we develop a method that aims at finding an optimal target for each nation, in terms of being as achievable as possible, and with the cumulative EU target being reached. Targets as an important component in road safety policy are given as reduction rate or as absolute number of road traffic deaths. Determination of these quantitative road safety targets (QRST) is done by a top-down approach, formalized in a multi-stage adjustment procedure. Different QRST are derived under consideration of recent research. The paper presents a method to break the national target further down to regional targets in case of the German Federal States. Generalized linear models are fitted to data in the period 1991-2010. Our model selection procedure chooses various models for the EU and solely log-linear models for the German Federal States. If the proposed targets for the EU Member States are attained, the sum of fatalities should not exceed the total value of 15,465 per year by 2020. Both, the mean level and the range of mortality rates within the EU could be lowered from 28-113 in 2010 to 17-41 per million inhabitants in 2020. This study provides an alternative to the determination of safety targets by political commitments only, taking the history of road fatalities trends and population into consideration.

  10. Developing a Theoretical Framework for Road Safety Performance Indicators and a Methodology for Creating a Performance Index

    OpenAIRE

    HERMANS, Elke; Brijs, Tom; Wets, Geert

    2008-01-01

    This report deals with road safety performance indicators. Three main objectives are postulated. First, to introduce the concept of road safety performance indicators. This involves summarising essential information on indicators in general and road safety performance indicators in particular. Second, to develop a set of (best needed and best available) safety performance indicators. The selection of these indicators results from the elaboration of the theoretical framework. Th...

  11. The quality of life in residential areas : an introduction to a film made by the Foundation for Film and Science, in co-operation with the Institute for Road Safety Research SWOV, supported by the Royal Dutch Touring Club ANWB. Paper presented at the 13th AIT/FIA/PIARC International Study Week on Traffic Engineering and Safety, Montreux, 11-16 September 1978.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    1978-01-01

    The films purpose is to review what is known about housing-quality social activities and road safety. These aspects constitute the so-called quality of life in residential areas. The possible influence is examined of several principles of urban planning on the quality of life in residential areas. T

  12. The quality of life in residential areas : an introduction to a film made by the Foundation for Film and Science, in co-operation with the Institute for Road Safety Research SWOV, supported by the Royal Dutch Touring Club ANWB. Paper presented at the 13th AIT/FIA/PIARC International Study Week on Traffic Engineering and Safety, Montreux, 11-16 September 1978.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    1978-01-01

    The films purpose is to review what is known about housing-quality social activities and road safety. These aspects constitute the so-called quality of life in residential areas. The possible influence is examined of several principles of urban planning on the quality of life in residential areas.

  13. Nuclear safety research master plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ha, Jae Joo; Yang, J. U.; Jun, Y. S. and others

    2001-06-01

    The SRMP (Safety Research Master Plan) is established to cope with the changes of nuclear industry environments. The tech. tree is developed according to the accident progress of the nuclear reactor. The 11 research fields are derived to cover the necessary technologies to ensure the safety of nuclear reactors. Based on the developed tech. tree, the following four main research fields are derived as the main safety research areas: 1. Integrated nuclear safety enhancement, 2. Thermal hydraulic experiment and assessment, 3. Severe accident management and experiment, and 4. The integrity of equipment and structure. The research frame and strategies are also recommended to enhance the efficiency of research activity, and to extend the applicability of research output.

  14. IMPROVEMENT OF TRAFFIC SAFETY BY ROAD-VEHICLE COOPERATIVE SMART CRUISE SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akio HOSAKA

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Hopes have been pinned on the development of intelligent systems for road traffic as a way of solving road traffic safety and other such issues. To be sure, work is moving ahead with the incorporation of intelligent systems into automobiles but, with automobiles alone, there are limits in areas such as environment recognition. Compensation for the limits imposed by automobiles can be provided by the support given to environment recognition and related areas of road infrastructure. This paper examines the special features of vehicles and road infrastructure, and describes what role is played by roads and what role is played by vehicles. On the basis of the observations made, road-vehicle cooperative support systems called “smart cruise systems”, which are currently being developed, will be introduced and the expected effects of these systems will be outlined.

  15. Estimation real number of road accident casualties. SafetyNet, Building the European Road Safety Observatory, Deliverable D.1.15 : final report on task 1.5.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broughton, J. Amoros, E. Bos, N.M. Evgenikos, P. Hoeglinger, S. Holló, P. Pérez, C. & Tecl, J.

    2009-01-01

    The objective of Task 1.5 of the SafetyNet IP has been to estimate the actual numbers of road accident casualties in Europe from the CARE database by addressing two issues: • the under-reporting in national accident databases and • the differences between countries of the definitions used to

  16. Road Safety Data, Collection, Transfer and Analysis DaCoTa. Deliverable 1.6: Final Report of WP1 – road safety policy.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muhlrad, N. Papadimitriou, E. & Yannis, G.

    2015-01-01

    The ‘Policy’ Work Package of DaCoTA was designed to fill in the gap in knowledge on road safety policy making processes, their institutional framework and the data, methods and technical tools needed to base policy formulation and adoption on scientifically-established evidence. More specifically, i

  17. Modeling accident frequency in Denmark for improving road safety

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyckegaard, Allan; Hels, Tove; Kaplan, Sigal

    Traffic accidents result in huge costs to society in terms of death, injury, lost productivity, and property damage. The main objective of the current study is the development of an accident frequency model that predicts the expected number of accidents on a given road segment, provided...... concerning police recorded accidents, link characteristics of the road network, traffic volumes from the national transport models are merged to estimate the model. Spatial correlation between road sections is taken into account for correcting for unobserved correlation between contiguous locations....

  18. The Status of Road Safety in Iran during 2001 – 2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. J. Jafari

    2013-08-01

    .Result: The results revealed that during the period of 6 years, death toll has been increased by 9 deaths per 100000 person of the population. Moreover, application of seat belt and safety helmet has been increased by 20% and 18%, respectively. It also indicated that the number of motorists and the length of paved roads have been increased by 20%, and 10%, respectively. The net income per capita has also grown from 5884 US$ to 7968 US$ and the life expectancy has gone up from 68.9 years to 70.9 years, the percentage of the literate population has grown by 2% (from 76% to 78% and the human development index has increased from 0.721 to 0.759. The results of the present study showed that the increased level of death toll per 10000 vehicles and the increased level (% of seat belt as well as helmet application, paved roads, urbanization, the net income per capita, life expectancy, literacy and human development index were statistically significant and R2 coefficient for this factors was 0.84, 0.9, 0.994, 0.9, 0.97, 0.82, 0.69 and 0.84 respectively. .Conclusion: According to result of the present study, roads safety were not in an appropriate level. The roads safety status can be determined using road safety indicators to be applied for road safety promotion.

  19. An economic evaluation of incremental resources to road safety programmes in New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guria, J

    1999-01-01

    Road crashes are related to the level of traffic, road and weather conditions, and most importantly, road user behaviour, which is a function of the level of enforcement, education and advertising campaigns. Safety programmes such as enforcement and advertising campaigns against drink-driving, speeding or seatbelt wearing aim to improve road user behaviour, and thereby to reduce the number and severity of crashes. This paper estimates incremental safety outcomes of these programmes over time and compares them with their resource costs. Due to the common outcome of several programmes, it is difficult to identify the effects of individual programmes. This paper tries to separate out the effects of non-roading safety programmes as a group from roading improvements. The analysis shows that safety programmes in New Zealand produce high incremental returns. Given that the crash risks in New Zealand are high in comparison with most other OECD countries, there is considerable scope for improvements to be made. The high incremental benefit/cost ratio over time supports this view and indicates that the investment in safety programmes is well below the optimal level.

  20. Research on Lorry Road User Charging Scheme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Sui

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In the 2011-2015 Business Plan, a lorry road user charging scheme has been planned to implement by the Coalition Government by 2014. This study will describe the possible impacts of such a system on the road haulage sector and the ways in which logistics providers might utilize different operating practices and technology to improve their operational performance under such circumstances in the UK. And this essay will cover the possible uses for Intelligent Transport Systems and new working practices using specific case study examples. Finally, the impacts of LRUC and several feasible countermeasures will be discussed in the following text.

  1. Case Study on Economic Return on Investments for Safety and Emergency Lighting in Road Tunnels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferdinando Salata

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available While planning a double-hole road tunnel with a length higher than one km, it is important to pay attention to the safety factor if an accident occurs. If there is a power outage, in order to avoid critical situations that could jeopardize the safety of the people present (facilitating the stream coming out from the tunnel and the arrival of the emergency personnel, it is really important to guarantee uninterrupted lighting of roadways, mandatory emergency lay-bys, and ways of escape. Uninterrupted service of the lighting systems supply must be guaranteed, in accordance with the current regulations, through the exertion of UPS (Uninterruptible Power Supply and power units. During tunnel construction, such devices represent a cost that must be amortized. In this case study, which takes into consideration a section of a road tunnel characterized by emergency lay-bys and ways of escape, emergency and security lighting were planned and installation and management costs were evaluated. The goal of this research was the creation of a cash flow thanks to the energy generated by photovoltaic panels, in a way that the service life of the system (25 years coincided with the amortization of the costs of the backup electrical equipment installation (complying with the regulations. The possibility of over-dimensioning the UPS and providing it with a proper photovoltaic panel surface (235 kWp to generate and exchange electric energy with the grid was taken into consideration.

  2. Status of road safety and possibilities of improvement in Nepal : a study of Muglin-Kathmandu section of Prithvi Highway

    OpenAIRE

    Duwadi, Bhola

    2015-01-01

    Road traffic accident has been a major challenge in Prithivi highway to ensure travel safety. A heterogeneous traffic mix sharing the road with vulnerable road users as well as unsafe road infrastructure and vehicles that are in poor condition contributed to the high fatality rates in this busiest highway in Nepal. The objective of the study was mainly to: identify the various causes of road accidents in the Prithivi highway, examine the factors that how people perceive various aspects of roa...

  3. A new approach and first steps to strengthen trauma management and road safety in North Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogar Lajos

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Vietnam, the number of road traffic accidents increased dramatically which is a major threat for the national health system. Reliable data on the magnitude of traffic accidents as well as the current management of victims is missing. Our multistep international cooperation project aims to (1 identify local needs and knowledge related to trauma management, to (2 assess basic behavioural patterns and attitudes of road users in order to (3 establish a school-based educational programme and trauma courses for doctors. Methods and results As part of a European Union co-financed cooperation, two European and one Vietnamese university set up three action lines (Trauma and Emergency Courses, school-based education programs, public awareness campaigns. Specific contents of the activities were derived from a literature search, a questionnaire pilot-study and by panel consensus technique. After adjustment to local capabilities (equipment, infrastructure, etc. these were implemented within a professional network of hospitals, schools, public and media institutions. The literature research and questionnaire results from 1 000 young road users indicates that for pedestrian and two-wheelers accidents, low compliance with traffic regulations and high prevalence of risk-taking behaviour dominate Vietnam's road traffic environment. A school-based educational program (4 hrs/month was set up using teachers who were trained on road safety issues. Also, major parts of the public awareness campaigns (i.e. broadcasts, media conferences reflected these topics. From panel discussions and Delphi-technique, diagnosis and early treatment of severe head trauma and internal haemorrhage were identified as topics of highest interest for doctors therefore representing key topics of the Trauma and Emergency Courses. Conclusion Knowledge on behaviour and attitudes of road users in Vietnam as well as on local infrastructure and effective networks is essential

  4. Rationale for statistical characteristics of road safety parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dormidontova Tatiana

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available When making engineering decisions at the stage of designing auto-roads and man-made structures it is necessary to take into account the statistical variability of physical and mechanical characteristics of the used materials as well as the different effects on the structures. Thus the rationale for the statistical characteristics of the parameters that determine the reliability of roads and man-made engineering facilities is of particular importance.There are many factors to be considered while designing roads, such as natural climatic factors, the accidental effects of the operating loads, the strength and deformation characteristics of the materials, the geometric parameters of the structure, etc. which affect the strength characteristics of roads and man-made structures. The rationale for statistical characteristics of the parameters can help an engineer assess the reliability of the decision and the economic risk, as well as avoid making mistakes in the design of roads and man-made structures.However, some statistical characteristics of the parameters that define the reliability of a road and man-made structures play a key role in the design. These are the visibility distance in daytime for the peak curve, variation coefficient of radial acceleration, the reliability of visibility distance and other parameters.

  5. A Quantitative introduction of physical safety measures for realising buildings above roads and railway tracks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Suddle, S.I.; Ale, B.J.M.; Weerheijm, J.; Waarts, P.H.

    2006-01-01

    Buildings above roads and railways are examples of multiple use of space. Safety is one of the critical issues for such projects. This paer will propose effects of safety measures for multiple use of space projects for critical scenarios i.e. fires, explosions, release of toxic substances and mechan

  6. A quantitative introduction of physical safety measures for realising buildings above roads and railway tracks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Suddle, S.I.; Ale, B.J.M.; Waarts, P.H.; Weerheijm, J.

    2003-01-01

    Buildings above roads and railways are examples of multiple use of space. Safety is one of the critical issues for such projects. This paper will propose effects of safety measures for multiple use of space projects for critical scenarios i.e. fires, explosions, release of toxic substances and mecha

  7. A Quantitative introduction of physical safety measures for realising buildings above roads and railway tracks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Suddle, S.I.; Ale, B.J.M.; Weerheijm, J.; Waarts, P.H.

    2006-01-01

    Buildings above roads and railways are examples of multiple use of space. Safety is one of the critical issues for such projects. This paer will propose effects of safety measures for multiple use of space projects for critical scenarios i.e. fires, explosions, release of toxic substances and mechan

  8. A quantitative introduction of physical safety measures for realising buildings above roads and railway tracks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Suddle, S.I.; Ale, B.J.M.; Waarts, P.H.; Weerheijm, J.

    2003-01-01

    Buildings above roads and railways are examples of multiple use of space. Safety is one of the critical issues for such projects. This paper will propose effects of safety measures for multiple use of space projects for critical scenarios i.e. fires, explosions, release of toxic substances and mecha

  9. Overview of resulting tools, guidelines, and instruments. IN-SAFETY Workpackage 3: New models, tools and guidelines for road safety assessment, Deliverable 3.4.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, A. Bald, S. Benz, T. & Gaitanidou, E. (eds.)

    2009-01-01

    Road safety will most probably be influenced by introducing Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS) or Intelligent Vehicle Safety Systems (IVSS). The effects of these systems on road safety can be assessed in different ways. This document gives a short overview of methodologies which allow for ass

  10. 76 FR 38013 - Safety Zone; Big Sioux River From the Military Road Bridge North Sioux City to the Confluence of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-29

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Big Sioux River From the Military Road... area is a safety zone: All waters of the Big Sioux River from the Military Road Bridge, North Sioux...: Temporary final rule. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard is establishing a temporary safety zone...

  11. How does a modal shift from short car trips to cycling affect road safety?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schepers, J P; Heinen, E

    2013-01-01

    Governments aim to promote a shift from car to bicycle, but concerns about road safety seem to represent an important argument against this encouragement. This study examines the road safety impact of a modal shift from short car trips to cycling in Dutch municipalities. The road safety effect is estimated using Accident Prediction Models (APMs) that account for the non-linearity of risk. APMs are developed utilizing Negative Binomial regression. This study is the first to develop APMs using crash and mobility data from municipalities, and utilizing these models to estimate the effects of changing modal splits of current car and bicycle use to modal splits that actually exist in these municipalities. The results suggest that, under conditions such as in Dutch municipalities, transferring short trips made by cars to bicycles does not change the number of fatalities, but increases the number of serious road injuries. The neutral effect on fatalities, despite the high fatality risk for cyclists, can be explained by there being fewer cars on the road to pose a risk to others, the shorter length of bicycle trips compared to the car trips they replace, and the "safety in numbers" phenomenon. The rise in the number of serious road injuries is due wholly to the high number of cycling crashes with no other vehicle involved. The effect of a modal shift is dependent on the age of the population in which the shift is concentrated, and can be influenced by measures affecting cyclists' injury risk.

  12. 78 FR 36192 - National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) Traumatic Injury Research and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-17

    ... CONTACT: Dawn Castillo, NIOSH, Division of Safety Research, Mailstop H-1900, 1095 Willowdale Road, Morgantown, West Virginia 26505-2888. Ms. Castillo may be contacted at (304) 285- 5894 or Email at DCastillo...

  13. Inter-national benchmarking of road safety: State of the art

    OpenAIRE

    Shen, Yongjun; HERMANS, Elke; Bao, Qiong; Brijs, Tom; Wets, Geert; Wang, Wuhong

    2015-01-01

    Road traffic injuries and fatalities have nowadays been recognized as one of the most important public health issues that requires concerted efforts for effective and sustainable prevention. Given the fact that more and more countries are taking steps to improve their road safety situation, there is a growing need for these countries to work together more closely, because there are quite a number of common problems that can be identified in close cooperation, and improvement can be expected b...

  14. Inter-national Benchmarking of Road Safety: State of the Art

    OpenAIRE

    Shen, Yongjun; HERMANS, Elke; Brijs, Tom; Wets, Geert

    2013-01-01

    Road traffic injuries and fatalities have nowadays been recognized as one of the most important public health issues that requires concerted efforts for effective and sustainable prevention. Given the fact that more and more countries are taking steps to improve their road safety situation, there is a growing need for these countries to work together more closely, because there are quite a number of common problems that can be identified in close cooperation, and improvement can be expected b...

  15. The relationship between road safety and congestion on motorways : a literature review of potential effects.

    OpenAIRE

    Marchesini, P. & Weijermars, W.A.M.

    2010-01-01

    Mobility has been increasing significantly in the last few decades and will continue to increase. On road stretches which have insufficient capacity, traffic becomes congested. Traffic congestion has a negative impact on the economy and on the quality of people’s lives. Road users experience delay and stress, and environmental pollution increases. The effects of traffic congestion on traffic safety, however, are less obvious. This literature review investigates the relationship between conges...

  16. Improving accuracy in road safety data exchange for navigation systems: European Union Location Framework Transportation Pilot

    OpenAIRE

    BORZACCHIELLO MARIA TERESA; BOGUSLAWSKI RAYMOND; Pignatelli, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    In the near future, the travel experience for drivers will radically change from what they were used to a decade ago: advanced safety systems will guide drivers and help reduce road accidents; built-in vehicle sensors will detect road and traffic conditions and adapt the behaviour of the vehicle; automatic control of the engine will enable the reduction of emissions and contribute to the objective of decarbonisation of transport. All this will be possible thanks to the application of Informat...

  17. Improvement of Road Safety using Geospatial open data and collaborative users information

    OpenAIRE

    Gómez Castaño, José; Cabrera García, Juan José

    2016-01-01

    This project solve the problem of warning to drivers in advance to take precautions when they are approaching a road risk. This notice cannot be sent too close or too far and it is made by icons, text and audio. The main goal is to use geospatial information in a collaborative way to improve road safety taken relevant information from vehicles, cyclists andpedestrians.

  18. Road safety risk evaluation and target setting using data envelopment analysis and its extensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Yongjun; Hermans, Elke; Brijs, Tom; Wets, Geert; Vanhoof, Koen

    2012-09-01

    Currently, comparison between countries in terms of their road safety performance is widely conducted in order to better understand one's own safety situation and to learn from those best-performing countries by indicating practical targets and formulating action programmes. In this respect, crash data such as the number of road fatalities and casualties are mostly investigated. However, the absolute numbers are not directly comparable between countries. Therefore, the concept of risk, which is defined as the ratio of road safety outcomes and some measure of exposure (e.g., the population size, the number of registered vehicles, or distance travelled), is often used in the context of benchmarking. Nevertheless, these risk indicators are not consistent in most cases. In other words, countries may have different evaluation results or ranking positions using different exposure information. In this study, data envelopment analysis (DEA) as a performance measurement technique is investigated to provide an overall perspective on a country's road safety situation, and further assess whether the road safety outcomes registered in a country correspond to the numbers that can be expected based on the level of exposure. In doing so, three model extensions are considered, which are the DEA based road safety model (DEA-RS), the cross-efficiency method, and the categorical DEA model. Using the measures of exposure to risk as the model's input and the number of road fatalities as output, an overall road safety efficiency score is computed for the 27 European Union (EU) countries based on the DEA-RS model, and the ranking of countries in accordance with their cross-efficiency scores is evaluated. Furthermore, after applying clustering analysis to group countries with inherent similarity in their practices, the categorical DEA-RS model is adopted to identify best-performing and underperforming countries in each cluster, as well as the reference sets or benchmarks for those

  19. Willingness to use mobile application for smartphone for improving road safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardamone, Angelo Stephen; Eboli, Laura; Forciniti, Carmen; Mazzulla, Gabriella

    2016-01-01

    In the last few years mobile devices have reached a large amount of consumers in both developed and high-growth world economies. In 2013, 97% of the Italian population owns a mobile phone, and 62% owns a smartphone. Application software for mobile devices is largely proposed to consumers, and several mobile applications were oriented toward the improvement of road safety and road accident risk reduction. In this paper, we describe the results of a survey oriented to preventively investigate on the willingness to receive and/or to give information about road condition by means of mobile devices. Road users were informed about the characteristics of a mobile application, and then they were invited to complete a questionnaire. Experimental data were used for capturing road user attitudes toward the use of the smartphone to improve road safety, and to establish the preferences for the different features of the proposed mobile application. To this end, we choose to use the ordered probit model methodology. We demonstrate that the adopted methodology accounts for the differential impacts of the willingness to receive and/or to give information about road conditions on the overall willingness to receive and/or to give information through an application software for mobile devices.

  20. Individual differences in drivers' cognitive processing of road safety messages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaye, Sherrie-Anne; White, Melanie J; Lewis, Ioni M

    2013-01-01

    acceptance measures. As predicted, the degree of initial processing of the content of the social gain-framed message mediated the relationship between the reward sensitive trait and message effectiveness. Initial processing of the physical loss-framed message partially mediated the relationship between the punishment sensitive trait and both message effectiveness and behavioural intention ratings. These results show that reward sensitivity and punishment sensitivity traits influence cognitive processing of gain-framed and loss-framed message content, respectively, and subsequently, message effectiveness and behavioural intention ratings. Specifically, a range of road safety messages (i.e., gain-frame and loss-frame messages) could be designed which align with the processing biases associated with personality and which would target those individuals who are sensitive to rewards and those who are sensitive to punishments. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Road safety in Canada : 2001 facing the challenge : proceedings of the National Road Safety Symposium, February 13-16, 1994, Toronto, Ontario, organized by the Safety Coordinating Advisory Council of the Transportation Association of Canada TAC and the Canadian Council of Motor Transport Administrators CCMTA.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Landry, P. Simpson, H.M. & Smith, G. (prep.) Wegman, F.C.M. Dussault, C. Wilson, C. & Wilson, F.

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of the Symposium was to: identify issues and challenges for the effective delivery of road safety programs relating to the road user, the road, and the vehicles; foster greater awareness of existing efforts within the road safety community; and, encourage and support stakeholders. This p

  2. Meeting the management challenges of the Decade of Action for Road Safety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tony Bliss

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available In low- and middle-income countries, the high price paid for mobility in terms of human loss and suffering is forecast to rise to unprecedented levels. More than 50 million deaths and 500 million serious injuries on the world's roads can be projected with some certainty over the first 50 years of the 21st century, unless sustained new initiatives are taken. This paper addresses the emergence of road safety as a development priority over the last decade and the management challenges facing the planned global response aimed at bringing road safety outcomes in developing countries under control. It outlines the decade of advocacy that created the UN Decade of Action for Road Safety 2011–2020 and related Global Plan, and highlights the concern that over the coming decade low and middle income countries will face considerable management challenges in successfully implementing related measures and sustaining their delivery. The paper discusses new road safety management tools that have been developed by the World Bank and ISO to provide assistance to countries and organizations within an integrated framework that ensures that measures taken are properly sequenced and adjusted to their absorptive and learning capacities. It concludes that strengthened institutions and the accelerated knowledge creation and transfer central to this, plus scaled-up investment and increased international cooperation and development aid are critical to the successful achievement of the Global Plan's ambitious goal.

  3. Multivariate time series analysis of SafetyNet data. SafetyNet, Building the European Road Safety Observatory, Workpackage 7, Deliverable 7.7.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Commandeur, J.J.F. Bijleveld, F.D. & Bergel, R.

    2009-01-01

    This deliverable provides an application of theories and methods documented in Deliverables 7.4 and 7.5 of work package 7 of the SafetyNet project. In this deliverable, use of select analysis techniques is demonstrated through real world road safety analysis problems, using aggregate data which may

  4. [The decade of action for road safety in Medellin, Colombia, to 2015].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrera-Arana, Gustavo; Velásquez-Osorio, Natalia

    2015-01-01

    Road safety (RS) is key in the study and intervention of human mobility. It is a determining priority in international public health and in the development of communities and nations. The declaration of a global RS crisis in the 1990s by the United Nations urged the social, political and technical processes to propose the Decade of Action for Road Safety 2010-2020 (DARS). The DARS has a global action plan structured around five pillars; the first refers to institutional management. The article describes the background, framework, evidence, and effects of poor management during first half of the DARS in Medellin, Colombia up to 2015.

  5. Relationships amongst psychological determinants, risk behaviour, and road crashes of young adolescent pedestrians and cyclists : implications for road safety education programmes.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Twisk, D.A.M. Commandeur, J.J.F. Vlakveld, W.P. Shope, J.T. & Kok, G.

    2015-01-01

    Road safety education (RSE) assumes that psychological determinants predict risk behaviour, and subsequently that risky road behaviour predicts crash involvement. This study examined the validity of this assumption, by analysing these relationships in two age groups of teen cyclists and pedestrians:

  6. 25 years TNO Road-Vehicles Research Institute

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    1995-01-01

    Since the founding of the TNO Road-Vehicles Research Institute 25years ago, the institute has managed to develop a leading position in automotive research in several disciplines. A steady growth of the institute during the first 20 years has turned into a strong growth during the last 5 years. A

  7. Awareness and practice of road safety measures among undergraduate medical students in a South Indian state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkarni, Vaman; Kanchan, Tanuj; Palanivel, C; Papanna, M K; Kumar, Nithin; Unnikrishnan, B

    2013-05-01

    The UN general assembly has declared 2011-2020 as the "Decade of Action for Road Safety". The declaration holds significance because road traffic accidents (RTAs) have become a major cause of morbidity and mortality, especially among the adults and middle aged individuals who constitute economically most productive age groups of society. The importance of knowledge and practice of road safety measures needs to be emphasized in the prevention of RTAs. The present study is aimed to assess the knowledge and practice of road safety measures among the students of a medical college in coastal, South India. A total of 260 medical students were included in this cross-sectional study. A semi-structured questionnaire was used to collect the relevant information from the participants. The data collected was analyzed using SPSS version 11.5. Out of the 260 participants, 149 (57.3%) were females and 111 (42.7%) were males. The overall awareness on road safety measures was slightly higher among females (20.6%) than males (19.9%). The participants had significantly low awareness with regard to alcohol and driving (4.2%), use of seat belts (20%) and use of mobile phones without hands free device (6.1%). The participants had a better knowledge about traffic signs and more than half of them identified all the signs correctly. With regard to the road safety practices, 25% were involved in drunken driving in the past one year. The practice of using mobile phones with hands free devices while driving was admitted by 20% of them. Nearly two-third participants (68%) admitted to have crossed speed limits on multiple occasions. Observations of the study emphasize on the need to generate awareness among medical students through training and IEC activities to curb the epidemic of RTAs.

  8. Use of speed profile as surrogate measure: Effect of traffic calming devices on crosstown road safety performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Ana Tsui; García, Alfredo

    2013-12-01

    Urban road safety management is usually characterized by the lack of sufficient, good quality crash data and low budgets to obtain it even though many traffic accidents occur there. For example, 54 percent of road crashes in Spain take place in urban areas, and 10 percent of urban fatal crashes occur on crosstown roads, which are rural roads that traverse small communities. Traffic calming measures (TCMs) are often implemented on these parts of rural roads that traverse small communities in order to reduce both the frequency and severity of crashes by lowering speeds, but evaluation of their effectiveness has been limited. The objective of this study was to develop a methodology using continuous speed profiles to evaluate the safety effectiveness of TCMs on crosstown roads as part of an integrated system in the absence of historical data. Given the strong relationship between speed and crash experience, safety performance can be related to speed. Consequently, speed can be used indirectly as a surrogate safety measure in the absence of crash and speed data. Two indexes were defined in this study as surrogate safety measures based on the continuous speed profile: Ra and Ea. Ra represents the absolute accumulated speed variations relative to the average speed and is inversely related to accumulated speed uniformity; and Ea represents the accumulated speed variations above the speed limit and is directly related to accumulated speeding. Naturalistic data were collected using GPS trackers for 12 scenarios with different TCM spacings. Then, the indexes were applied to individual observed speed profiles (individual analysis) as well as the operating speed profile (global analysis). The values obtained from individual and global analysis were statistically different. Spacing lower than 110m, which was found optimal from previous research, did not allow drivers to modify their speeds as the accumulated speed uniformity was quite similar regardless of the average operating

  9. Driver’s Attitudes about the Impact of Caffeine and Energy Drinks on Road Traffic Safety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalibor Pešić

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Large amounts of energy drinks and caffeine, which is the main ingredient of energy drinks, produce a negative effect on the drivers, and therefore affect traffic safety.In order to determine the attitudes of drivers toward the impact of energy drinks and caffeine, a research was conducted using a questionnaire form and the targeted group of the survey were drivers. The research was conducted in the City of Belgrade in December 2012. There were 420 survey papers distributed to drivers of different age groups of which 412 were returned. The survey was completely anonymous and consisted of two parts. The first part was related to basic demographic information about the respondents and it had 8 closed type questions. These questions were responded by circling one of the offered answers. The second part of the survey referred to determining the driver’s attitudes about energy drinks and caffeine. The second part consisted of 26 questions and respondents were to use a five-level scale in order to show to what extent they agree or disagree with any of the listed statements.The results show that energy drinks are consumed mostly by young people, less than 25 years old. The effect of caffeine on gender is statistically significant. Headache is the reason why caffeine (25% is consumed more than energy drinks (8%.Major impact of energy drinks and caffeine on road safety indicates a required activity in this area such as education.

  10. Application of classification algorithms for analysis of road safety risk factor dependencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Oh Hoon; Rhee, Wonjong; Yoon, Yoonjin

    2015-02-01

    Transportation continues to be an integral part of modern life, and the importance of road traffic safety cannot be overstated. Consequently, recent road traffic safety studies have focused on analysis of risk factors that impact fatality and injury level (severity) of traffic accidents. While some of the risk factors, such as drug use and drinking, are widely known to affect severity, an accurate modeling of their influences is still an open research topic. Furthermore, there are innumerable risk factors that are waiting to be discovered or analyzed. A promising approach is to investigate historical traffic accident data that have been collected in the past decades. This study inspects traffic accident reports that have been accumulated by the California Highway Patrol (CHP) since 1973 for which each accident report contains around 100 data fields. Among them, we investigate 25 fields between 2004 and 2010 that are most relevant to car accidents. Using two classification methods, the Naive Bayes classifier and the decision tree classifier, the relative importance of the data fields, i.e., risk factors, is revealed with respect to the resulting severity level. Performances of the classifiers are compared to each other and a binary logistic regression model is used as the basis for the comparisons. Some of the high-ranking risk factors are found to be strongly dependent on each other, and their incremental gains on estimating or modeling severity level are evaluated quantitatively. The analysis shows that only a handful of the risk factors in the data dominate the severity level and that dependency among the top risk factors is an imperative trait to consider for an accurate analysis.

  11. The Dutch road to a high level of cycling safety.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schepers, P. Twisk, D. Fishman, E. Fyhri, A. & Jensen, A.

    2015-01-01

    Many governments attempt to improve cycling safety to reduce the number of bicycle crashes and encourage cycling. The Netherlands is a world leader in bicycle use and safety. This paper explores how the Netherlands achieved an 80% reduction in the number of cyclists killed (predominantly bicycle–mot

  12. The Dutch road to a high level of cycling safety.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schepers, P. Twisk, D.A.M. Fishman, E. Fyhri, A. & Jensen, A.

    2014-01-01

    Many governments attempt to improve cycling safety to reduce the number of bicycle crashes and encourage people to take up cycling. The Netherlands is a world leader in bicycle use and safety. This paper explores how the Netherlands achieved an 80% reduction in the number of cyclists killed (predomi

  13. The Dutch road to a high level of cycling safety.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schepers, P. Twisk, D. Fishman, E. Fyhri, A. & Jensen, A.

    2015-01-01

    Many governments attempt to improve cycling safety to reduce the number of bicycle crashes and encourage cycling. The Netherlands is a world leader in bicycle use and safety. This paper explores how the Netherlands achieved an 80% reduction in the number of cyclists killed (predominantly

  14. The Dutch road to a high level of cycling safety.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schepers, P. Twisk, D.A.M. Fishman, E. Fyhri, A. & Jensen, A.

    2016-01-01

    Many governments attempt to improve cycling safety to reduce the number of bicycle crashes and encourage cycling. The Netherlands is a world leader in bicycle use and safety. This paper explores how the Netherlands achieved an 80% reduction in the number of cyclists killed (predominantly

  15. The Dutch road to a high level of cycling safety.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schepers, P. Twisk, D.A.M. Fishman, E. Fyhri, A. & Jensen, A.

    2014-01-01

    Many governments attempt to improve cycling safety to reduce the number of bicycle crashes and encourage people to take up cycling. The Netherlands is a world leader in bicycle use and safety. This paper explores how the Netherlands achieved an 80% reduction in the number of cyclists killed

  16. A road safety performance indicator for vehicle fleet compatibility.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Christoph, M. Vis, M.A. Rackliff, L. & Stipdonk, H.

    2013-01-01

    This paper discusses the development and the application of a safety performance indicator which measures the intrinsic safety of a country's vehicle fleet related to fleet composition. The indicator takes into account both the ‘relative severity’ of individual collisions between different vehicle t

  17. Road safety perspectives among employees of a multinational corporation in urban India: local context for global injury prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacoby, Sara F; Winston, Flaura K; Richmond, Therese S

    2017-01-24

    In rapidly developing economies, like urban India, where road traffic injury rates are among the world's highest, the corporate workplace offers a non-traditional venue for road safety interventions. In partnership with a major multinational corporation (MNC) with a large Indian workforce, this study aimed to elicit local employee perspectives on road safety to inform a global corporate health platform. The safety attitudes and behaviours of 75 employees were collected through self-report survey and focus groups in the MNC offices in Bangalore and Pune. Analysis of these data uncovered incongruity between employee knowledge of safety strategies and their enacted safety behaviours and identified local preference for interventions and policy-level actions. The methods modelled by this study offer a straightforward approach for eliciting employee perspective for local road safety interventions that fit within a global strategy to improve employee health. Study findings suggest that MNCs can employ a range of strategies to improve the road traffic safety of their employees in settings like urban India including: implementing corporate traffic safety policy, making local infrastructure changes to improve road and traffic conditions, advocating for road safety with government partners and providing employees with education and access to safety equipment and safe transportation options.

  18. The Road Safety Information System RIS : a tool for decision makers. Lecture for the Russian-Swedish seminar on traffic safety, Moscow, June 18, 1996.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wesemann, P. & Brouwer, M.

    1996-01-01

    The subject of this lecture is the use of knowledge in the preparation and evaluation of road safety policy. The following subjects will be dealt with: the organisation of Dutch road safety policy; the type of knowledge that can enhance the effectiveness of this policy; the set-up of the developed R

  19. Physical and psychological consequences of serious road traffic injuries, Deliverable 7.2 of the H2020 project SafetyCube (Safety CaUsation, Benefits and Efficiency).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weijermars, W.A.M. Meunier, J.-C. Bos, N. Perez, C. Hours, M. Johannsen, H. Barnes, J. Brown, L. Quigley, C. Filtness, A. Perez, C. Olabarria, M. Duran, X. Hours, M. Martin, J. Bauer, R. & Johannsen, H.

    2017-01-01

    SafetyCube aims to develop an innovative road safety Decision Support System (DSS) that will enable policy-makers and stakeholders to select the most appropriate strategies, measures and cost-effective approaches to reduce casualties of all road user types and all severities. Work Package 7 of Safet

  20. Physical and psychological consequences of serious road traffic injuries, Deliverable 7.2 of the H2020 project SafetyCube (Safety CaUsation, Benefits and Efficiency).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weijermars, W.A.M. Meunier, J.-C. Bos, N. Perez, C. Hours, M. Johannsen, H. Barnes, J. Brown, L. Quigley, C. Filtness, A. Perez, C. Olabarria, M. Duran, X. Hours, M. Martin, J. Bauer, R. & Johannsen, H.

    2017-01-01

    SafetyCube aims to develop an innovative road safety Decision Support System (DSS) that will enable policy-makers and stakeholders to select the most appropriate strategies, measures and cost-effective approaches to reduce casualties of all road user types and all severities. Work Package 7 of

  1. Review of Ireland’s Road Safety Strategy. On behalf of Department of the Environment and Local Government, Ireland.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wegman, F.C.M.

    2003-01-01

    SWOV has been requested to carry out a review of Ireland's Road Safety Strategy. This review should pay attention to three aspects: (1) review developments and progress made under the current National Road Safety Strategy 1998-2002; (2) place Ireland's performance in an appropriate international con

  2. 76 FR 2829 - Safety Zone, Brandon Road Lock and Dam to Lake Michigan Including Des Plaines River, Chicago...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-18

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 Safety Zone, Brandon Road Lock and Dam to Lake Michigan Including Des Plaines River, Chicago Sanitary and Ship Canal, Chicago River, and Calumet-Saganashkee Channel, Chicago... will enforce a segment of the Safety Zone; Brandon Road Lock and Dam to Lake Michigan including...

  3. 75 FR 64147 - Safety Zone, Brandon Road Lock and Dam to Lake Michigan Including Des Plaines River, Chicago...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-19

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 Safety Zone, Brandon Road Lock and Dam to Lake Michigan Including Des Plaines River, Chicago Sanitary and Ship Canal, Chicago River, and Calumet-Saganashkee Channel, Chicago... will enforce a segment of the Safety Zone; Brandon Road Lock and Dam to Lake Michigan including...

  4. 78 FR 36091 - Safety Zone, Brandon Road Lock and Dam to Lake Michigan Including Des Plaines River, Chicago...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-17

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 Safety Zone, Brandon Road Lock and Dam to Lake Michigan Including Des Plaines River, Chicago Sanitary and Ship Canal, Chicago River, and Calumet-Saganashkee Channel, Chicago... will enforce a segment of the Safety Zone; Brandon Road Lock and Dam to Lake Michigan including...

  5. 77 FR 25595 - Safety Zone, Brandon Road Lock and Dam to Lake Michigan Including Des Plaines River, Chicago...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-01

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 Safety Zone, Brandon Road Lock and Dam to Lake Michigan Including Des Plaines River, Chicago Sanitary and Ship Canal, Chicago River, and Calumet-Saganashkee Channel, Chicago... will enforce a segment of the Safety Zone; Brandon Road Lock and Dam to Lake Michigan including...

  6. 76 FR 65609 - Safety Zone, Brandon Road Lock and Dam to Lake Michigan Including Des Plaines River, Chicago...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-24

    ... CFR Part 165 Safety Zone, Brandon Road Lock and Dam to Lake Michigan Including Des Plaines River, Chicago Sanitary and Ship Canal, Chicago River, and Calumet-Saganashkee Channel, Chicago, IL AGENCY: Coast... of the Safety Zone; Brandon Road Lock and Dam to Lake Michigan including Des Plaines River,...

  7. 77 FR 60044 - Safety Zone, Brandon Road Lock and Dam to Lake Michigan Including Des Plaines River, Chicago...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-02

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone, Brandon Road Lock and Dam to Lake Michigan Including Des Plaines River, Chicago Sanitary and Ship Canal, Chicago River, and Calumet-Saganashkee Channel... Guard will enforce a segment of the Safety Zone; Brandon Road Lock and Dam to Lake Michigan...

  8. 75 FR 26094 - Safety Zone, Brandon Road Lock and Dam to Lake Michigan including Des Plaines River, Chicago...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-11

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone, Brandon Road Lock and Dam to Lake Michigan including Des Plaines River, Chicago Sanitary and Ship Canal, Chicago River, and Calumet-Saganashkee Channel...: The Coast Guard is establishing a temporary safety zone from Brandon Road Lock and Dam to...

  9. 78 FR 17099 - Safety Zone, Brandon Road Lock and Dam to Lake Michigan including Des Plaines River, Chicago...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-20

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone, Brandon Road Lock and Dam to Lake Michigan including Des Plaines River, Chicago Sanitary and Ship Canal, Chicago River, and Calumet-Saganashkee Channel... Guard will enforce a segment of the Safety Zone; Brandon Road Lock and Dam to Lake Michigan...

  10. 76 FR 78161 - Safety Zone, Brandon Road Lock and Dam to Lake Michigan Including Des Plaines River, Chicago...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-16

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 Safety Zone, Brandon Road Lock and Dam to Lake Michigan Including Des Plaines River, Chicago Sanitary and Ship Canal, Chicago River, and Calumet-Saganashkee Channel, Chicago... will enforce a segment of the Safety Zone; Brandon Road Lock and Dam to Lake Michigan including...

  11. 75 FR 73966 - Safety Zone, Brandon Road Lock and Dam to Lake Michigan Including Des Plaines River, Chicago...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-30

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 Safety Zone, Brandon Road Lock and Dam to Lake Michigan Including Des Plaines River, Chicago Sanitary and Ship Canal, Chicago River, and Calumet-Saganashkee Channel, Chicago... will enforce a segment of the Safety Zone; Brandon Road Lock and Dam to Lake Michigan including...

  12. 77 FR 35854 - Safety Zone, Brandon Road Lock and Dam to Lake Michigan Including Des Plaines River, Chicago...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-15

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 Safety Zone, Brandon Road Lock and Dam to Lake Michigan Including Des Plaines River, Chicago Sanitary and Ship Canal, Chicago River, and Calumet-Saganashkee Channel, Chicago... will enforce a segment of the Safety Zone; Brandon Road Lock and Dam to Lake Michigan including...

  13. 78 FR 40635 - Safety Zone; Brandon Road Lock and Dam to Lake Michigan Including Des Plaines River, Chicago...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-08

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 Safety Zone; Brandon Road Lock and Dam to Lake Michigan Including Des Plaines River, Chicago Sanitary and Ship Canal, Chicago River, and Calumet-Saganashkee Channel, Chicago... will enforce a segment of the Safety Zone; Brandon Road Lock and Dam to Lake Michigan including...

  14. 76 FR 63199 - Safety Zone, Brandon Road Lock and Dam to Lake Michigan Including Des Plaines River, Chicago...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-12

    ... No. USCG-2011-0228] Safety Zone, Brandon Road Lock and Dam to Lake Michigan Including Des Plaines River, Chicago Sanitary and Ship Canal, Chicago River, and Calumet-Saganashkee Channel, Chicago, IL... enforce a segment of the Safety Zone; Brandon Road Lock and Dam to Lake Michigan including Des...

  15. 75 FR 64673 - Safety Zone, Brandon Road Lock and, Dam to Lake Michigan Including Des Plaines River, Chicago...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-20

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 Safety Zone, Brandon Road Lock and, Dam to Lake Michigan Including Des Plaines River, Chicago Sanitary and Ship Canal, Chicago River, and Calumet-Saganashkee Channel, Chicago... will enforce a segment of the Safety Zone, Brandon Road Lock and Dam to Lake Michigan including...

  16. 77 FR 65478 - Safety Zone, Brandon Road Lock and Dam to Lake Michigan including Des Plaines River, Chicago...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-29

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone, Brandon Road Lock and Dam to Lake Michigan including Des Plaines River, Chicago Sanitary and Ship Canal, Chicago River, and Calumet-Saganashkee Channel... Guard will enforce a segment of the Safety Zone; Brandon Road Lock and Dam to Lake Michigan...

  17. 78 FR 49684 - Safety Zone, Brandon Road Lock and Dam to Lake Michigan Including Des Plaines River, Chicago...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-15

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone, Brandon Road Lock and Dam to Lake Michigan Including Des Plaines River, Chicago Sanitary and Ship Canal, Chicago River, and Calumet-Saganashkee Channel... Guard will enforce a segment of the Safety Zone; Brandon Road Lock and Dam to Lake Michigan...

  18. 78 FR 65874 - Safety Zone, Brandon Road Lock and Dam to Lake Michigan Including Des Plaines River, Chicago...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-04

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone, Brandon Road Lock and Dam to Lake Michigan Including Des Plaines River, Chicago Sanitary and Ship Canal, Chicago River, and Calumet-Saganashkee Channel... Guard will enforce a segment of the Safety Zone; Brandon Road Lock and Dam to Lake Michigan...

  19. 78 FR 4071 - Safety Zone, Brandon Road Lock and Dam to Lake Michigan Including Des Plaines River, Chicago...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-18

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone, Brandon Road Lock and Dam to Lake Michigan Including Des Plaines River, Chicago Sanitary and Ship Canal, Chicago River, and Calumet-Saganashkee Channel... Guard will enforce a segment of the Safety Zone; Brandon Road Lock and Dam to Lake Michigan...

  20. 76 FR 23524 - Safety Zone, Brandon Road Lock and Dam to Lake Michigan Including Des Plaines River, Chicago...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-27

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone, Brandon Road Lock and Dam to Lake Michigan Including Des Plaines River, Chicago Sanitary and Ship Canal, Chicago River, and Calumet-Saganashkee Channel... proposes to establish a permanent safety zone from Brandon Road Lock and Dam to Lake Michigan....

  1. 78 FR 36092 - Safety Zone; Brandon Road Lock and Dam to Lake Michigan Including Des Plaines River, Chicago...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-17

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 Safety Zone; Brandon Road Lock and Dam to Lake Michigan Including Des Plaines River, Chicago Sanitary and Ship Canal, Chicago River, and Calumet-Saganashkee Channel, Chicago... will enforce a segment of the Safety Zone; Brandon Road Lock and Dam to Lake Michigan including...

  2. 75 FR 52462 - Safety Zone, Brandon Road Lock and Dam to Lake Michigan Including Des Plaines River, Chicago...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-26

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 Safety Zone, Brandon Road Lock and Dam to Lake Michigan Including Des Plaines River, Chicago Sanitary and Ship Canal, Chicago River, and Calumet-Saganashkee Channel, Chicago... will enforce a segment of the Safety Zone; Brandon Road Lock and Dam to Lake Michigan including...

  3. 77 FR 20295 - Safety Zone, Brandon Road Lock and Dam to Lake Michigan including Des Plaines River, Chicago...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-04

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 Safety Zone, Brandon Road Lock and Dam to Lake Michigan including Des Plaines River, Chicago Sanitary and Ship Canal, Chicago River, and Calumet-Saganashkee Channel, Chicago... will enforce a segment of the Safety Zone; Brandon Road Lock and Dam to Lake Michigan including...

  4. Supervisando la seguridad vial en el Perú Supervising road safety in Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Freddy Sagástegui

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo se describe algunos problemas en seguridad vial que la Defensoría del Pueblo del Perú, en su trabajo como ente supervisor de la administración pública ha detectado, entre esos problemas se mencionan a: la escasa y mala elaboración de estadísticas de accidentes de tránsito; la inconsistencia del Consejo Nacional de Seguridad Vial y la irresponsabilidad de los gobiernos regionales y locales por su falta de aplicación del Plan Nacional de Seguridad Vial. Ante ello, la Defensoría del Pueblo sugiere que el Estado desarrolle un sistema estadístico riguroso, que fortalezca al Consejo Nacional de Seguridad Vial y que los diferentes sectores del Estado desarrollen el mencionado Plan Nacional.In this article some problems in road safety are described, which have been detected by the Ombudsman of Peru, as part of its role of public administration supervisor, amongst these problems we mention: lack of and inadequate elaboration of the statistics on road traffic accidents, the inconsistency of the National Council for Road Security and the lack of responsibility of the local and regional governments reflected by the lack of application of the National Plan of Road Safety. Facing this, the Ombudsman suggests that the State develops a rigorous statistical system, strengthens the National Council of Road Safety and that the different sectors of the government develop the mentioned National Plan.

  5. The Dutch approach to road safety : towards a sustainable safe road traffic system.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wegman, F.C.M.

    2006-01-01

    From the introduction process of Sustainable Safety specific lessons have been learned to be at least supportive or were even a prerequisite, for successful action. Intelligent ways to commit stakeholders have to be found a major one. Sustainable Safety forms an integral part of Dutch transport an

  6. Road safety - threats and opportunities for poor countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobusingye, Olive C

    2004-12-01

    Chances are that everyone reading this will either have lost a close friend, relative, or work colleague in a road traffic crash in the last couple of years. Chances are, the reports said it was an "accident". There might even have been police reports giving the "cause of the accident." Now, think about the meaning of the word "accident" - most people would agree it is an unpredictable event, one for which you could not possibly have prepared - it just happened. Now, think again. Can we predict what will happen when a cyclist's unprotected head hits the concrete at 100 kms an hour? Can we predict what will happen when a powerful car races down a road a few meters away from the entrance of a primary school, just as the kids are leaving school? Can we predict what will happen when a matatu (commuter mini bus) driver gets behind the wheel at dusk, after a few bottles of alcohol, heading for a destination six hours away? And can we predict what will happen when a mosquito bites a baby, just after feeding on a person sick from malaria? Well - chances are, the first three scenarios will be called accidental, and the last one will be targeted for prevention! The truth is, all four are perfectly predictable, and preventable. The more than 3,200 persons dying on the world's road every day have become predictable - we know they will happen, we know where they will happen, and what kind of people will be involved. Yet the majority of communities and governments still call them accidental, and make no concrete provision for their prevention.

  7. Progress of nuclear safety research. 2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anoda, Yoshinari; Sasajima, Hideo; Nishiyama, Yutaka (eds.) [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment] [and others

    2001-10-01

    JAERI is conducting nuclear safety research primarily at the Nuclear Safety Research Center in close cooperation with the related departments in accordance with the Long Term Plan for Development and Utilization of Nuclear Energy or the Safety Research Annual Plan issued by the Japanese government. The safety research at JAERI concerns the engineering safety of nuclear power plants and nuclear fuel cycle facilities, and radioactive waste management as well as advanced technology for safety improvement or assessment. Also, JAERI has conducted international collaboration to share the information on common global issues of nuclear safety. This report summarizes the nuclear safety research activities of JAERI from April 1999 through March 2001. (author)

  8. Road Environment for Traffic Safety and the Countermeasures%道路环境对交通安全的影响及对策

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王志刚

    2015-01-01

    Traffic safety, involving many factors such as people, vehicles and roads and environment. In recent years, because of various reasons make the relevant units and personnel will be more focus on peo-ple,vehicles and roads that a number of factors,on the road traffic environment without too much consid-eration and research. In-depth study of road traffic environment, is advantageous to the road traffic safety, through the research and analysis,it is concluded that the influence on traffic safety and road traffic environ-ment solutions,is of great significance in preventing road traffic safety accidents. At the same time provide guarantee for people's life and property safety, for the construction of socialist harmonious society is of great help.%交通安全,涉及到人、车以及道路和环境等很多因素.近年来,因为各种原因使得有关单位以及人员将更多的将精力放在人、车、道路这几个因素上,对道路交通环境没有过多的考虑和研究.深入研究道路交通环境,有利于道路交通的安全,文章通过对其的研究和分析,得出有关道路交通环境对交通安全的影响和解决措施,对于防止道路交通安全事故具有重要意义.同时为人们的生命财产的安全提供保障、对构建社会主义和谐社会具有很大帮助.

  9. JUSTIFICATION OF MEASURES TO IMPROVE QUALITY AND ROAD SAFETY AT REGIONAL ARTERIAL STREET IN MINSK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. N. Kuzmenko

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents results pertaining to investigations of traffic conditions and intensity of traffic and pedestrian flows, calculations on loading level of objects located in the Makayonka Street, Minsk. The objects constitute transport regional development which presupposes reconstruction of regional arterial street with due account of infrastructure improvement,   residential  construction and  construction  of  multi-purpose  complex  with   shopping,  entertainment,   wellness  and business centers. In addition to this it is planned to construct a two-level underground parking, a two-level interchange at intersection of the Filimonova Street and Nezavisimosty Avenue due to an increase of traffic load at adjacent neighboring street and road network. An analysis on the current traffic management and calculation for distribution of the existing and prospective traffic load levels after implementation of appropriate measures to improve quality as a whole and road safety as well has been carried out in the paper. Determination of loading levels for a street and road network has been carried out while taking into account an intensity of traffic flows in order to evaluate various options for road traffic organization. Variants for planning of road junctions, road traffic organization and traffic signalization (including coordinated passing of  transport facilities have been developed in the paper. All this will contribute to improvement of quality and road safety in the investigated street with due consideration of further development of the region and overbuilding of the existing housing system in the Makayonka Streets and increase of its transport importance in the Minsk street and road network.

  10. A longitudinal study of an intervention to improve road safety climate: climate as an organizational boundary spanner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naveh, Eitan; Katz-Navon, Tal

    2015-01-01

    This study presents and tests an intervention to enhance organizational climate and expands existing conceptualization of organizational climate to include its influence on employee behaviors outside the organization's physical boundaries. In addition, by integrating the literatures of climate and work-family interface, the study explored climate spillover and crossover from work to the home domain. Focusing on an applied practical problem within organizations, we investigated the example of road safety climate and employees' and their families' driving, using a longitudinal study design of road safety intervention versus control groups. Results demonstrated that the intervention increased road safety climate and decreased the number of traffic violation tickets and that road safety climate mediated the relationship between the intervention and the number of traffic violation tickets. Road safety climate spilled over to the family domain but did not cross over to influence family members' driving.

  11. Road safety effects of porous asphalt: a systematic review of evaluation studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elvik, R.; Greibe, Poul

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents a systematic review of studies that have evaluated the effects on road safety of porous asphalt. Porous asphalt is widely used on motorways in Europe, mainly in order to reduce traffic noise and increase road capacity. A meta-analysis was made of six studies, containing a total...... of eighteen estimates of the effect of porous asphalt on accident rates. No clear effect on road safety of porous asphalt was found. All summary estimates of effect indicated very small changes in accident rates and very few were statistically significant at conventional levels. Studies that have evaluated...... the effects of porous asphalt on nine different risk factors associated with accident occurrence were also reviewed. It was found that four of the risk factors were favourably influenced by porous asphalt, three were adversely influenced, and two were not influenced by porous asphalt. The net impact...

  12. Road safety effects of porous asphalt: a systematic review of evaluation studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elvik, R.; Greibe, Poul

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents a systematic review of studies that have evaluated the effects on road safety of porous asphalt. Porous asphalt is widely used on motorways in Europe, mainly in order to reduce traffic noise and increase road capacity. A meta-analysis was made of six studies, containing a total...... of eighteen estimates of the effect of porous asphalt on accident rates. No clear effect on road safety of porous asphalt was found. All summary estimates of effect indicated very small changes in accident rates and very few were statistically significant at conventional levels. Studies that have evaluated...... the effects of porous asphalt on nine different risk factors associated with accident occurrence were also reviewed. It was found that four of the risk factors were favourably influenced by porous asphalt, three were adversely influenced, and two were not influenced by porous asphalt. The net impact...

  13. Application of viability theory for road vehicle active safety during cornering manoeuvres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandanjon, P.-O.; Coiret, A.; Lorino, T.

    2014-02-01

    Viability theory proposes geometric metaphors in addition to classical ordinary differential equation analysis. In this paper, advantages of applying viability theory to road safety domain are presented. The exact issue is to determine if, from an initial state of a vehicle/road/driver system, a soft controls strategy is compatible with a safe driving sequence. The case of a car negotiating a curve is considered. The application of the viability theory to this issue offers the advantage to avoid classical full computing of the system. Instead of that, it consists on verifying that the states and the controls belong to a subset called the viability kernel. The construction and the use of the viability kernel for a vehicle system dynamic is proposed by using support vector machines algorithm. Then, the applicability of this theory is demonstrated through experimental tests. This innovative application of the viability theory to vehicle dynamics with road safety concerns could benefit to robust embedded warning systems.

  14. Road Safety in Puglia Region La sicurezza stradale in Puglia: stato di fatto e ipotesi di intervento

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierpaolo Bonerba

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The increasing amount of traffic on the Italian road system and the number of road accidents has put the attention of the road safety problem at European, National and Regional levels. The Italian Govern with the National Plan of Road Safety (PNSS 1999 defined the strategies for road safety and to reduce road accidents. The Puglia Region with the Regional Law 18/2004 instituted the Centre for Monitoring Road Safety (CReMSS, whose issue is to collect data about road incidents and accidents, to define potential risks and to improve road infrastructure. The CReMSS has defined an integrated monitoring centre for road safety and accident prevention, and constitute a central resource and information management centre. The main Puglia Region strategy on road safety is roads safer for everyone and the key targets is to reduce the number of people killed or seriously injured in road accidents. The Cremss publishes reports on road safety issues and detailed statistics on Puglia Region road traffic. CReMSS is also involved in road safety publicity campaign and surveys that monitor attitudes to key road safety issues. The present situation in Puglia region demonstrates an allarming situation as from 2006 the number of accidents has not reduced, and from the 2000 the number of accidents almost duplicates (from 5.883 in 2000 to 11.776 in 2007; the number of people killed went from 374 to 366 and the number of people injured from 9.866 to 19.652. For this reason the role of CReMSS is central and really important. The general objective that Puglia Region took has been the implementation of a monitoring centre to analyse and prevent road accidents with a specific target of the RegionalTerritory. The overall strategy underlying the actions undertaken by the Puglia Region is, as a main goal, the building of a new road safety culture to solicit attendance from the local authority, the region, other bodies dealing with the road network, schools and citizen

  15. Recommended research on LNG safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carpenter, H.J.; Gilmore, F.R.

    1981-03-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) is conducting research on the safety and other environmental aspects of liquefied energy gases including liquefied natural gas (LNG). The effort reported here was conducted as part of the planning for further research into the safety aspects of transporting and storing LNG, with primary emphasis on public safety. Although the modern LNG industry has enjoyed excellent success in providing for safe operations, significant questions remain on the part of many, the expressions of which were intensified with the addition of marine-based LNG import terminals. Public safety with regard to large-scale importation of this fuel has received widespread attention in the US Congress, state legislatures, county and city governments, and from various individuals and public groups, with coverage in all the news media, including books published on the subject. The safety concerns have centered around the consequences to the public of a large spill of the cryogenic liquid from an ocean tanker or a larger storage tank, either of which might hold as much as 125,000 m/sup 3/ of LNG.

  16. In-Vehicle Safety System Performance Depending on the Quality of Road Markings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anđelko Ščukanec

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available During driving one of the basic tasks of the driver is to followthe traffic route in such a way as not to endanger in the processother traffic participants. In order to improve the drivingsafety, the manufacturers install new safety systems in the cars.Thus, the safety system !LAS (Involuntary Lane-crossing AlertSystem warns the drivers of the unintended and incorrectcrossing of the full or broken line during driving. The properfunctioning of !LAS requires high quality road markings on thecarriageway in order to allow the mentioned safety system toidentify them on time and correctly. Road markings can be definedas a set of longitudinal and transversal lines, signs andsymbols, the combination of which designs the surfaces on thetraffic infrastructure. They represent a part of the whole trafficsignalization and cannot be replaced by other markings or regulations.The road markings have the task of visually guiding thedriver, allowing the drivers to be able to forecast the route oftheir safe movement. Every crossing of the full or broken line atspeeds higher than 80 km/h and without an activated indicatoris identified by !LAS and the driver is warned by the vibration ofthe driver seat. Road markings are the best aid in side, i. e.transversal locating of the vehicle and they influence directly theoperation of the safety system !LAS during driving.

  17. A mathematical theory for related long term developments of road traffic and safety.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oppe, S. & Koornstra, M. J.

    1990-01-01

    This article presents and discusses an adoptive evolution model for forecasting long term developments in road safety. It takes into account both traffic growth and human adaptation. Earlier parsimonious models such as those used here are also discussed, and shown to predict trends in accident rates

  18. Benchmarking road safety: lessons to learn from a data envelopment analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermans, Elke; Brijs, Tom; Wets, Geert; Vanhoof, Koen

    2009-01-01

    Road safety performance indicators (SPI) have recently been proposed as a useful instrument in comparing countries on the performance of different risk aspects of their road safety system. In this respect, SPIs should be actionable, i.e. they should provide clear directions for policymakers about what action is needed and which priorities should be set in order to improve a country's road safety level in the most efficient way. This paper aims at contributing to this issue by proposing a computational model based on data envelopment analysis (DEA). Based on the model output, the good and bad aspects of road safety are identified for each country. Moreover, targets and priorities for policy actions can be set. As our data set contains 21 European countries for which a separate, best possible model is constructed, a number of country-specific policy actions can be recommended. Conclusions are drawn regarding the following performance indicators: alcohol and drugs, speed, protective systems, vehicle, infrastructure and trauma management. For each country that performs relatively poor, a particular country will be assigned as a useful benchmark.

  19. Tire use and road safety : background to policy recommendations for new EU measures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, S.; Schmeitz, A.J.C.; Akkermans, L.

    2015-01-01

    TNO and TML performed a study commissioned by the European Commission regarding what measures on a European level can be taken in relation to the use of tyres to improve road safety. The study considers the use of Winter tyres, tread depth requirements, tyre inflation pressure maintenance and tyre

  20. Road safety effect of obligatory eye test for 45 year olds and older.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2006-01-01

    Some years ago, the introduction of an obligatory eye test for drivers 45 years old and older was (once more) brought to discussion. We expect that the introduction of such a measure will only have a very slight positive effect on road safety. This measure, in which only visual acuity is tested, wil

  1. Tire use and road safety : background to policy recommendations for new EU measures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, S.; Schmeitz, A.J.C.; Akkermans, L.

    2015-01-01

    TNO and TML performed a study commissioned by the European Commission regarding what measures on a European level can be taken in relation to the use of tyres to improve road safety. The study considers the use of Winter tyres, tread depth requirements, tyre inflation pressure maintenance and tyre a

  2. Alcohol abuse, road traffic and safety on the site

    CERN Multimedia

    DSU Department

    2008-01-01

    In the light of the serious road accident that occurred on 3 February 2008, you are reminded that: the legal blood alcohol limit in force under the Host States’ traffic regulations (0.5 g per 1000 ml of blood) also applies on the CERN site; the consumption of alcohol is forbidden during working hours and is only tolerated in the restaurants at certain times, unless an exception is granted for special events; failure to observe these rules may result in disciplinary action by the Organization, independently of any sanctions that may be applicable pursuant to the road traffic regulations of the Host State concerned. Furthermore, the Reception and Access Control Service, the site guards and the Fire Brigade have been instructed to stop any driver in an obvious state of intoxication and to ask him to abandon his vehicle on the spot. In case of disagreement, they may also suggest that he submits to a voluntary blood alcohol level test at the CERN Medical Service or Fire Brigade...

  3. Heterogeneous treatment effects of speed cameras on road safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Haojie; Graham, Daniel J

    2016-12-01

    This paper analyses how the effects of fixed speed cameras on road casualties vary across sites with different characteristics and evaluates the criteria for selecting camera sites. A total of 771 camera sites and 4787 potential control sites are observed for a period of 9 years across England. Site characteristics such as road class, crash history and site length are combined into a single index, referred to as a propensity score. We first estimate the average effect at each camera site using propensity score matching. The effects are then estimated as a function of propensity scores using local polynomial regression. The results show that the reduction in personal injury collisions ranges from 10% to 40% whilst the average effect is 25.9%, indicating that the effects of speed cameras are not uniform across camera sites and are dependent on site characteristics, as measured by propensity scores. We further evaluate the criteria for selecting camera sites in the UK by comparing the effects at camera sites meeting and not meeting the criteria. The results show that camera sites which meet the criteria perform better in reducing casualties, implying the current site selection criteria are rational.

  4. Alcohol abuse, road traffic and safety on the site

    CERN Document Server

    DSU Department

    2008-01-01

    In the light of the serious road accident that occurred on 3 February 2008, you are reminded that: the legal blood alcohol limit in force under the Host States’ traffic regulations (0.5 g per 1000 ml of blood) also applies on the CERN site; the consumption of alcohol is forbidden during working hours and is only tolerated in the restaurants at certain times, unless an exception is granted for special events; failure to observe these rules may result in disciplinary action by the Organization, independently of any sanctions that may be applicable pursuant to the road traffic regulations of the Host State concerned. Furthermore, the Reception and Access Control Service, the site guards and the Fire Brigade have been instructed to stop any driver in an obvious state of intoxication and to ask him to abandon his vehicle on the spot. In case of disagreement, they may also suggest that he submits to a voluntary blood alcohol level test at the CERN Medical Service or Fire Brigade...

  5. Large-scale road safety programmes in low- and middle-income countries: an opportunity to generate evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyder, Adnan A; Allen, Katharine A; Peters, David H; Chandran, Aruna; Bishai, David

    2013-01-01

    The growing burden of road traffic injuries, which kill over 1.2 million people yearly, falls mostly on low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Despite this, evidence generation on the effectiveness of road safety interventions in LMIC settings remains scarce. This paper explores a scientific approach for evaluating road safety programmes in LMICs and introduces such a road safety multi-country initiative, the Road Safety in 10 Countries Project (RS-10). By building on existing evaluation frameworks, we develop a scientific approach for evaluating large-scale road safety programmes in LMIC settings. This also draws on '13 lessons' of large-scale programme evaluation: defining the evaluation scope; selecting study sites; maintaining objectivity; developing an impact model; utilising multiple data sources; using multiple analytic techniques; maximising external validity; ensuring an appropriate time frame; the importance of flexibility and a stepwise approach; continuous monitoring; providing feedback to implementers, policy-makers; promoting the uptake of evaluation results; and understanding evaluation costs. The use of relatively new approaches for evaluation of real-world programmes allows for the production of relevant knowledge. The RS-10 project affords an important opportunity to scientifically test these approaches for a real-world, large-scale road safety evaluation and generate new knowledge for the field of road safety.

  6. Analysis Methodology Proposal of Dust Palliative Products on Unpaved Roads to Improve Road Safety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Julián Rivera

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available One of the main causes of accidents on secondary unpaved roads is the inadequate visibility originatedby the dust particles suspended in the air because of the vehicles. This brings along a significantenvironmental damage to people, animals and plants of the area, a permanent deterioration because ofthe loss of material and therefore a need for more conservation. In order to diminish this problem, thereare different types of products in the market, with various origins and forms of application. Theseproducts have shown diverse results in different investigations, given that they have a reduced fieldapplication regarding soil typologies, and which are not commonly the same in the different studies.Hence, empirically based decision making about palliative products and their doze is not advisable.Laboratory tests, on the other hand, should be made to determine the effect of the combination soil/product/doze. The situation described has been studied from the LEMaC, Road Investigation Centerfrom the National Technological University of Argentina, and it has been proposed an adapted testmethodology. The present work is based on the results of that experience.

  7. Roads

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — This dataset shows the roads within and near Delaware Water Gap NRA taken from 1:4800 scale mapping that was done for the original land acquisition period (1967)...

  8. A road safety performance indicator for vehicle fleet compatibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christoph, Michiel; Vis, Martijn Alexander; Rackliff, Lucy; Stipdonk, Henk

    2013-11-01

    This paper discusses the development and the application of a safety performance indicator which measures the intrinsic safety of a country's vehicle fleet related to fleet composition. The indicator takes into account both the 'relative severity' of individual collisions between different vehicle types, and the share of those vehicle types within a country's fleet. The relative severity is a measure for the personal damage that can be expected from a collision between two vehicles of any type, relative to that of a collision between passenger cars. It is shown how this number can be calculated using vehicle mass only. A sensitivity analysis is performed to study the dependence of the indicator on parameter values and basic assumptions made. The indicator is easy to apply and satisfies the requirements for appropriate safety performance indicators. It was developed in such a way that it specifically scores the intrinsic safety of a fleet due to its composition, without being influenced by other factors, like helmet wearing. For the sake of simplicity, and since the required data is available throughout Europe, the indicator was applied to the relative share of three of the main vehicle types: passenger cars, heavy goods vehicles and motorcycles. Using the vehicle fleet data from 13EU Member States and Norway, the indicator was used to rank the countries' safety performance. The UK was found to perform best in terms of its fleet composition (value is 1.07), while Greece has the worst performance with the highest indicator value (1.41).

  9. An evaluation of the effectiveness of televised road safety messages in Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blantari, Jones; Asiamah, Godfried; Appiah, Noble; Mock, Charles

    2005-03-01

    The goal was to evaluate the effectiveness of recent televised advertisements conducted by the National Road Safety Commission in Ghana. These concerned speeding and alcohol-impaired driving and were targeted towards commercial drivers. Focus group discussions were conducted with 50 commercial drivers in four cities. Discussions addressed coverage, clarity and appropriateness of messages, including suggestions for improvements. Most discussants indicated that the messages were clear and appropriate. Television reached all participants in this urban group. However, they felt that other modes of communication, such as flyers and radio, should also be used to reach drivers who did not own televisions. A particular problem was language. The advertisements had been in English and Akan (the most common vernacular language). Participants wanted the messages diversified into more of the major Ghanaian languages. Some participants were unclear on the behaviour that the advertisements were telling viewers to take. Participants advocated greater involvement by police in road safety and called for laws banning the sale of alcohol at bus stations. The advertisements reached and were understood by most of the target audience. Opportunities for strengthening the messages included using other media; increasing the number of languages; and stressing the change in behaviour being recommended. Overall road safety activities would be strengthened by increasing accompanying law enforcement activities related to speed and alcohol-impaired driving. To the authors' knowledge this is the first formal evaluation of a road safety social marketing programme in a low-income sub-Saharan African country. This evaluation will hopefully assist Ghana and other similar countries in strengthening road safety work.

  10. Research of Road Traffic Facilities System Based on GIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu-Jian

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to improve the labor efficiency and economic benefit of road traffic facilities system and reduce resource waste, a scheme of road traffic facilities system based on GIS is provided in this paper. In the new scheme, firstly, we proposed Visual C++ embedding MapX component to program for the visualization of data and function analysis of space, and constructed core table in database and established property database and space database to improve efficiency; then we put forward the system function of traditional traffic facilities such as data collection, construction and management of engineering and so on. The results show that the system can ensure the safety and smooth of traffic than ever.

  11. Hydrogen Safety Training for Researchers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aceves, Salvador M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Petitpas, Guillaume [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Ross, Timothy O. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Switzer, Vernon [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2010-08-03

    LLNL has been conducting hydrogen research for more than 50 years, starting with national security applications and continuing with hydrogen energy research. For many of these years, LLNL was designated as the pressure safety training facility for the whole DOE complex and other government institutions such as NASA. Many technicians and researchers visited LLNL to receive appropriate training on many aspects of pressure safety, including hydrogen technology, cryogenics, leak detection, and vacuum technology. The national security hydrogen and high-pressure research conducted at LLNL demanded unique testing facilities, and these were built with funding from DOE Defense Programs. These facilities include a high pressure laboratory equipped with 4 hydrogencompatible test cells, each rated for 80,000 psi, and 4 pounds of TNT equivalent stored energy. LLNL also has a high explosive test facility (Site 300) for high-energy experiments with many pounds of TNT equivalent and many kilograms of hydrogen. Experiments in Site 300 are typically conducted in outdoor firing tables and monitored from the safety of a bunker. The remote location of this facility protects employees and property from any hazard. These unique facilities and the expertise necessary to operate them are now being made available for hydrogen energy research through the development of training materials that may contribute to safe operation within the many institutions working for the hydrogen program.

  12. Safety relevance of vision research and theory.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koornstra, M.J.

    1993-01-01

    This article discusses the importance of drivers' visual perception to road safety. Evidence is provided to show that the visual perception of a person who is moving at high speed can be seriously affected by both poor visibility and defective eyesight. The point is made that the human eye and mind

  13. The uses of exposure and risk in road safety studies.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hakkert, A.S. & Braimaister, L.

    2002-01-01

    This report explores the theoretical possibilities of defining exposure and risk, discusses the problems associated with the use of exposure and risk, and gives examples of various safety studies in which use is made of exposure and risk indicators. The report sets out with a definition of the three

  14. Traffic Safety of Older Drivers in Various Types of Road Intersections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomaž Tollazzi

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available In industrialized countries people over 50 years of age represent a rapidly growing part of population. Their lifestyle is also becoming more active, which means that the percentage of older drivers in the population of all drivers is also increasing. Many different studies have shown that elderly drivers are more frequently involved in specific types of accidents, especially at intersections. In the past 15 years there was a trend of increasing popularity of roundabouts in Slovenia. Their introduction was generally supported by the arguments of increased traffic-flow capacity and traffic safety as well. The studies on which these arguments are based were performed with an “ideal” type of driver in mind; the one that fully understands new rules and reacts correctly in all situations that may occur at such intersections, where there are no light signals to guide them. An elderly person does not necessarily conform to that ideal and if the percentage of elderly drivers became significant, the premises of the above mentioned studies may not be correct anymore which in turn implies that their results could also be questioned. The present study concentrated on the evaluation of traffic safety of elderly drivers, at various types of intersection, from their own perspective. Various statistical analyses of obtained data were performed. The most important finding was that we may claim, with high degree of probability, that the average person of the age of over 60 feels more unsafe at double-lane roundabouts than they would feel had the same intersection been equipped with traffic lights. Elderly traffic participants will always cause more accidents or participate in them due to hazardous factors. Challenge, arising from many different studies and researches, is in studying what measures and solutions can reduce the risk for elderly participants. KEYWORDS: traffic safety, road intersections, roundabouts, elderly people, older drivers

  15. Reminder: Alcohol abuse, road traffic and safety on the site

    CERN Multimedia

    HSE Unit

    2011-01-01

    You are reminded that: - the legal blood alcohol limit in force under the Host States’ traffic regulations (0.5 g per 1000 ml of blood) also applies on the CERN site; - the consumption of alcohol is forbidden during working hours and is only tolerated in the restaurants at certain times, unless an exception is granted for special events (Operational Circular No. 8); - failure to observe these rules may result in disciplinary action by the Organization, independently of any sanctions that may be applicable pursuant to the road traffic regulations of the Host State concerned. Furthermore, the Reception and Access Control Service, the site guards and the Fire Brigade have been instructed to stop any driver in an obvious state of intoxication and to ask him/her to abandon the vehicle on the spot. In case of disagreement, they may also suggest that he/she submits to a voluntary blood alcohol level test at the CERN Medical Service or Fire Brigade. They will also stop and question any obviously intoxicate...

  16. Overview of traffic safety aspects and design in road tunnels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shy Bassan

    2016-07-01

    Drivers in road tunnels generally reduce their speed and increase their lateral position from the right tunnel wall while driving. In shorter tunnels, with reduced driving speed, driver vigilance may be more robust without being hindered by dull driving, which is more common in longer tunnels. Still, in spite of driver alertness, crash rates in tunnels occur due to the tunnel's unusual driving environment. Crash rates are lower in the tunnel inner zone due to driver alertness, especially after passing the transition zone and acclimating to the tunnel environment. The number of crashes, however, is higher along zone 4 (tunnel inner zone, which is the principal zone, as it covers longer driving distance. According to most studies, short tunnels were found to exhibit higher crash rates than long tunnels because the entrance zones incorporate higher crash rates, compared with the midzones; nonetheless, longer unidirectional (freeway and multilane tunnels with higher design speed, entail lower driver alertness and diminished concentration due to relatively monotonous driving in spite of a tunnel's closed environment.

  17. 谈公路交通安全保障技术%On safety guarantee technique of road transportation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨杰; 温佳宇

    2016-01-01

    Combining with the new tendency of the road construction,the paper analyzes the factors for the traffic accidents from people,vehicle and automobiles in the aspect of the raod traffic accidents,and points out the traffic safety guarantee measures from the road safety design,traffic safety evaluation and road traffic safety improvement,so as to ensure the road traffic safety in China.%结合公路建设新形势,从公路交通事故形态入手,通过对人、车、道路等方面交通事故诱因分析,从公路安全设计、交通安全评价和道路交通安全改善三个方面提出了交通安全保障措施,以保证我国公路交通安全。

  18. Prioritizing Roads Safety Based on the Quasi-Induced Exposure Method and Utilization of the Analytical Hierarchy Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sajad rezaei

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Safety analysis of the roads through the accident rates which is one of the widely used tools has been resulted from the direct exposure method which is based on the ratio of the vehicle-kilometers traveled and vehicle-travel time. However, due to some fundamental flaws in its theories and difficulties in gaining access to the data required such as traffic volume, distance and duration of the trip, and various problems in determining the exposure in a specific time, place, and individual categories, there is a need for an algorithm for prioritizing the road safety so that with a new exposure method, the problems of the previous approaches would be resolved. In this way, an efficient application may lead to have more realistic comparisons and the new method would be applicable to a wider range of time, place, and individual categories. Therefore, an algorithm was introduced to prioritize the safety of roads using the quasi-induced exposure method and utilizing the analytical hierarchy process. For this research, 11 provinces of Iran were chosen as case study locations. A rural accidents database was created for these provinces, the validity of quasi-induced exposure method for Iran’s accidents database was explored, and the involvement ratio for different characteristics of the drivers and the vehicles was measured. Results showed that the quasi-induced exposure method was valid in determining the real exposure in the provinces under study. Results also showed a significant difference in the prioritization based on the new and traditional approaches. This difference mostly would stem from the perspective of the quasi-induced exposure method in determining the exposure, opinion of experts, and the quantity of accidents data. Overall, the results for this research showed that prioritization based on the new approach is more comprehensive and reliable compared to the prioritization in the traditional approach which is dependent on various

  19. Child pedestrian safety knowledge, behaviour and road injury in Cape Town, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koekemoer, Karin; Van Gesselleen, Megan; Van Niekerk, Ashley; Govender, Rajen; Van As, Arjan Bastiaan

    2017-02-01

    Pedestrian injuries are a leading cause of death among South African children, and young children residing in low-income communities are more at risk, due to various factors such as inadequate road infrastructure, exposure to traffic due to reliance on walking as a means of transport, and lack of supervision. This study used a cross-sectional, non-randomized self-report survey to assess pedestrian safety knowledge, road-crossing behaviour and pedestrian injuries of primary school children in selected low-income settings in Cape Town. The survey focused on three primary schools that had joined the Safe Kids Worldwide Model School Zone Project and was administered to 536 children aged 6-15 years, in their home language of isiXhosa. Descriptive and bivariate analyses as well as multivariate regression analyses were conducted to investigate potential predictor variables for pedestrian collision severity and unsafe road-crossing behaviour. Walking was the sole form of travel for 81% of the children, with a large proportion regularly walking unsupervised. Children who walk to or from school alone were younger and reported riskier road-crossing behaviour, although children who walk accompanied tended to have higher pedestrian collision severity. "Negligent Behaviour" related to road-crossing was significantly associated with higher pedestrian collision severity, with predictors of "Negligent Behaviour" including the lack of pedestrian safety knowledge and greater exposure to traffic in terms of time spent walking. More than half of the reported pedestrian collisions involved a bicycle, and older boys (10-15 years) were most at risk of experiencing a severe pedestrian injury. The findings substantiate emerging evidence that children in low-income settings are at greater risk for child pedestrian injury, and emphasise the need for evidence-based safety promotion and injury prevention interventions in these settings.

  20. The Moscow and Brasilia Declarations on road safety - a parallel between two moments in health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavarino, Roberto Victor

    2016-12-01

    Two high-level multisectoral global conferences on road traffic safety (Moscow, 2009 and Brasilia, 2015), held under the auspices of the United Nations, adopted formal declarations on both occasions. Given the potential of these documents to establish positions, propose guidelines, policies and legal frameworks, this paper compares these charters, in order to identify the emphases, expectations and horizons indicated at each moment, highlighting their health-related items. We describe the WHO's involvement with road safety, considering the ways this relationship signaled the health sector's connection with the theme. We present both conferences and their respective declarations, comparing health issues addressed. We conclude that Brasilia reinforces Moscow and, in addition to contributions expected from the health sector (data, notification, post-trauma care), the implications of the sector have increased, particularly with regard to health promotion, the call for intersectoral collaboration, equity and sustainability aspects, influenced by the United Nations 2030 Agenda.

  1. Functional safety for road vehicles new challenges and solutions for e-mobility and automated driving

    CERN Document Server

    Ross, Hans-Leo

    2016-01-01

    This book highlights the current challenges for engineers involved in product development and the associated changes in procedure they make necessary. Methods for systematically analyzing the requirements for safety and security mechanisms are described using examples of how they are implemented in software and hardware, and how their effectiveness can be demonstrated in terms of functional and design safety are discussed. Given today’s new E-mobility and automated driving approaches, new challenges are arising and further issues concerning “Road Vehicle Safety” and “Road Traffic Safety” have to be resolved. To address the growing complexity of vehicle functions, as well as the increasing need to accommodate interdisciplinary project teams, previous development approaches now have to be reconsidered, and system engineering approaches and proven management systems need to be supplemented or wholly redefined. The book presents a continuous system development process, starting with the basic requiremen...

  2. Monitoring road safety in an information-wired environment: the case of Piedmont

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvie Occelli

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Today, Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs are an essential determinant of urban change. They make it possible to build new Socio-Technical Systems (STS where the knowledge flow initiated by the interactions of ICT-enabled nodes has a crucial role. This contribution illustrates examples of these systems. Reference is made to the Piedmont Region, where a socio-technical system had to be established in order to support the monitoring of the regional road safety policy. The contribution is divided into two main parts. First, insights for developing the STS are given and an overview of the road safety planning issues in Piedmont is presented; there then follows a description of the STS and an account of its regional application and installation.

  3. Sustainable road safety in The Netherlands : contribution to the conference `Traffic safety in the future', Aalborg, Denmark, August 24-25, 1998.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wegman, F.C.M.

    1998-01-01

    The Dutch Government has set the following quantitative targets for road safety: a 25 per cent reduction in the number of road deaths and injuries by the year 2000 (compared with 1985 levels) and a further reduction of 50% and 40% respectively by the year 2010 (compared with 1986 levels). Various

  4. Computing what the public wants: some issues in road safety cost-benefit analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauer, Ezra

    2011-01-01

    In road safety, as in other fields, cost-benefit analysis (CBA) is used to justify the investment of public money and to establish priority between projects. It amounts to a computation by which 'few' - the CB analysts - aim to determine what the 'many' - those on behalf of which the choice is to be made - would choose. The question is whether there are grounds to believe that the tool fits the aim. I argue that the CBA tool is deficient. First, because estimates of the value of statistical life and injury on which the CBA computation rests are all over the place, inconsistent with the value of time estimates, and government guidance on the matter appears to be arbitrary. Second, because the premises of New Welfare Economics on which the CBA is founded apply only in circumstances which, in road safety, are rare. Third, because the CBA requires the computation of present values which must be questioned when the discounting is of future lives and of time. Because time savings are valued too highly when compared to life and because discounting tends to unjustifiably diminish the value of lives saved in the future, the CBA tends to bias decisions against investment in road safety.

  5. The Webquest and educational innovation in the field of Road Safety Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa María GOIG MARTÍNEZ

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The Road Safety Education in the early ages can be implemented through stories, workshops, Kids’ corner, playgrounds, school outings, psychomotor activities. However, it is important to emphasize the role of Information Technologies and Communication in the enrichment of the proposed class in relation to road safety education, taking them as a resource, in our context, the Webquest. Not forgetting the need to continue working with children related to real situations in their life experiences Driver Education, as the real world should never be displaced by the virtual world in any case, especially bearing in mind that this is Stage of Education. The overall objective of this paper is to confirm that the Webquest is a real opportunity to innovate in the field of road safety education, providing learning experiencies to students consistent with and complement from the stage of primary education. The methodology, quantitative and qualitative, was developed through the application of a questionnaire, interview, documentary analysis and triangulation, and ending with the analysis of the data. One of the conclusions states that the Webquest is a resource that provides us with the teaching-learning process and increases motivation in both students and educators.

  6. Analysis of Traffic Safety Factors at Level Rail-Road Crossings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomislav Mlinarić

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyses the main factors of traffic safety andreliabilityat level crossings. The number and causes of accidentsare stated, that result from ignorance, insufficient training ofthe traffic participants, their ilnsponsibility and insufficient orincomplete legislation, as well as from insufficiently professionaland scientifically not serious enough approach to solvingthis cardinal problem in road and railway traffic. Based on theanalysis the causes are determined and solutions proposed, aswell as more efficient methods to improve safety and reduce thenumber of traffic accidents at level crossings.

  7. Intelligent transportation systems dependable vehicular communications for improved road safety

    CERN Document Server

    Ferreira, Joaquim; Fonseca, José

    2016-01-01

    This book presents cutting-edge work on the most challenging research issues concerning intelligent transportation systems (ITS), introducing selected, highly relevant advanced research on scheduling and real-time communication for vehicular networks, as well as fault tolerance, test beds and simulations for ITS. The authors define new architectures that support cooperative sensing in ITS and offer guidance for the development of a reference end-to-end implementation. The presented results allow advanced traffic and travel management strategies to be formulated on the basis of reliable and real-time input data. The effectiveness of these new strategies, together with the proposed systems, is assessed in field trials and via simulations. The chapters in this book detail new research findings, algorithms, protocols, and the development of an implementation platform for ITS that merges and integrates heterogeneous data sources into a common system. In addition, they provide a set of advanced tools for the contro...

  8. Towards the development of a scientifically accountable, comprehensive and integrated national road traffic safety databank in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mynhardt, DC

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Transport Conference, CSIR Convention Centre, Pretoria, 7-10 July 2014 Towards the development of a scientifically accountable, comprehensive and integrated national road traffic safety databank in South Africa D. C. MYNHARDT Council for Scientific...

  9. Evaluating the safety risk of roadside features for rural two-lane roads using reliability analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalayer, Mohammad; Zhou, Huaguo

    2016-08-01

    The severity of roadway departure crashes mainly depends on the roadside features, including the sideslope, fixed-object density, offset from fixed objects, and shoulder width. Common engineering countermeasures to improve roadside safety include: cross section improvements, hazard removal or modification, and delineation. It is not always feasible to maintain an object-free and smooth roadside clear zone as recommended in design guidelines. Currently, clear zone width and sideslope are used to determine roadside hazard ratings (RHRs) to quantify the roadside safety of rural two-lane roadways on a seven-point pictorial scale. Since these two variables are continuous and can be treated as random, probabilistic analysis can be applied as an alternative method to address existing uncertainties. Specifically, using reliability analysis, it is possible to quantify roadside safety levels by treating the clear zone width and sideslope as two continuous, rather than discrete, variables. The objective of this manuscript is to present a new approach for defining the reliability index for measuring roadside safety on rural two-lane roads. To evaluate the proposed approach, we gathered five years (2009-2013) of Illinois run-off-road (ROR) crash data and identified the roadside features (i.e., clear zone widths and sideslopes) of 4500 300ft roadway segments. Based on the obtained results, we confirm that reliability indices can serve as indicators to gauge safety levels, such that the greater the reliability index value, the lower the ROR crash rate.

  10. The effectiveness of road safety education : a literature review.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dragutinovic, N. & Twisk, D.A.M.

    2007-01-01

    This literature review of traffic education programmes addresses the current practice in evaluation research, the effectiveness of programmes and their constituting components and the differences and similarities with other fields of education. The study leads to a number of conclusions which can be

  11. Impact of texting on young drivers' behavior and safety on urban and rural roads through a simulation experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yannis, George; Laiou, Alexandra; Papantoniou, Panagiotis; Christoforou, Charalambos

    2014-06-01

    This research aims to investigate the impact of texting on the behavior and safety of young drivers on urban and rural roads. A driving simulator experiment was carried out in which 34 young participants drove in different driving scenarios; specifically, driving in good weather, in raining conditions, in daylight and in night were examined. Lognormal regression methods were used to investigate the influence of texting as well as various other parameters on the mean speed and mean reaction time. Binary logistic methods were used to investigate the influence of texting use as well as various other parameters in the probability of an accident. It appears that texting leads to statistically significant decrease of the mean speed and increase of the mean reaction time in urban and rural road environment. Simultaneously, it leads to an increased accident probability due to driver distraction and delayed reaction at the moment of the incident. It appeared that drivers using mobile phones with a touch screen present different driving behavior with respect to their speed, however, they had an even higher probability of being involved in an accident. The analysis of the distracted driving performance of drivers who are texting while driving may allow for the identification of measures for the improvement of driving performance (e.g., restrictive measures, training and licensing, information campaigns). The identification of some of the parameters that have an impact on the behavior and safety of young drivers concerning texting and the consequent results can be exploited by policy decision makers in future efforts for the improvement of road safety. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Organizational culture, safety culture, and safety performance at research facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, William S.

    2000-07-30

    Organizational culture surveys of research facilities conducted several years ago and archival occupational injury reports were used to determine whether differences in safety performance are related to general organizational factors or to ''safety culture'' as reflected in specific safety-related dimensions. From among the organizations surveyed, a pair of facilities was chosen that were similar in size and scientific mission while differing on indices of work-related injuries. There were reliable differences in organizational style between the facilities, especially among workers in environment, safety, and health functions; differences between the facilities (and among job categories) on the safety scale were more modest and less regular.

  13. Implementing the European Road Safety Observatory (ERSO) in the SafetyNet project.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thomas, P. Morris, A. Yannis, G. Evgenikos, P. Lejeune, P. Duchamp, G. Vis, M. Vallet, G. Jahi, H. Dupont, E. & Martensen, H.

    2009-01-01

    In 2004 there were over 43,000 people who were killed on the roads of the 25 member states of the European Union (EU), additionally around 3.3 million people were injured. The costs to society exceeded EUR 180 billion which is around twice the annual budget of the European Commission and 2 per cent

  14. MOTOR VEHICLE SAFETY RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Stepanov

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The issues of vehicle safety are considered. The methodology of approach to analyzing and solving the problem of safety management of vehicles and overall traffic is offered. The distinctive features of organization and management of vehicle safety are shown. There has been drawn a conclusion that the methodological approach to solving traffic safety problems is reduced to selection and classification of safety needs.

  15. Stated preference in the valuation of interurban road safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzi, Luis I; Ortúzar, Juan de Dios

    2003-01-01

    In Chile, as in most less-developed nations, if life savings are valued at all the human capital approach is used in a rather non-consistent fashion. As part of a 5-year research project on the value of transport externalities, a stated preference (SP) experiment was carried out in order to assess the value of a statistical life for Chilean interurban motorways. Interviewees had to choose among different routes for a hypothetical trip, based on the following attributes: travel time, toll charge and level of risk. The results of our experiment show that people were sensitive to the risk variable, thus "stating" a preference for safer routes. Several models were estimated with linear and non-linear utility specifications, and also incorporating the effects of socio-economic variables in a novel and interesting fashion. We were able to estimate subjective values of time consistent with previous values obtained in the country and reasonably looking values (in comparison to Chilean prices and foreign experience) of a statistical life. The paper discusses the experimental design, data collection and analysis, with emphasis on the role of lexicographic individuals that are a feature of SP studies that has not been carefully explored in the literature. We also present our modelling results and compare our derived values (of time and of a statistical life) with values found previously and/or elsewhere.

  16. THE APPLICATION OF TELEMATIC TECHNOLOGIES IN SLOVAKIA – THE POSSIBILITY OF IMPROVING ROAD SAFETY IN THE SLOVAK REPUBLIC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ľubomír ČERNICKÝ

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Life on the road with all its aftermath and consequences works as a big triangle: driver-road-car. The main cause of road accidents is driver who can´t cope with increase of traffic density and with more and more powerful cars. Increasing number of new vehicles on our roads shows certain economic power of Slovakia and improving standard of living. The annual growth of more than seventy thousand new cars has as a result overcrowded Slovakian road network. Because of this, there is a special attention given to road traffic safety and its various factor at the present not only in our country, but also in the European Union. By joining the European Union we are committed to achieve standards in all areas that are comparable with European developed countries. In our paper we would analyze accident rate of traffic in recent years in Slovakia and design telematic measures to reduce it.

  17. The comparison of road safety survey answers between web-panel and face-to-face; Dutch results of SARTRE-4 survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldenbeld, C; de Craen, S

    2013-09-01

    In the Netherlands, a comparison of an online and a face-to-face sample of car drivers was made to study differences on a number of selected questions from the SARTRE-4 road safety survey. Contrary to expectations, there was no indication that online respondents were more likely to come from higher educated or more privileged social groups. Confirming earlier research, the results indicated that online respondents were less inclined to give socially desirable answers and were less inclined to use more extreme ratings in their opinions about measures. Contrary to expectations, face-to-face respondents did not tend to give more positive answers in judgment of road safety measures. Weighting to make samples comparable on gender, age, and education had almost no effect on outcomes. The implications for a transition from face-to-face survey to online panel method are discussed. Copyright © 2013 National Safety Council and Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Culture related to road traffic safety: a comparison of eight countries using two conceptualizations of culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordfjærn, Trond; Şimşekoğlu, Özlem; Rundmo, Torbjorn

    2014-01-01

    The majority of previous cross-country studies of human factors relevant to traffic safety have not operationalized and measured culture. Also studies in this vein have mostly been carried out in Europe and the United States. The aim of the study was to examine country cluster differences, based on the Culture's Consequences framework, in road traffic risk perception, attitudes towards traffic safety and driver behaviour in samples from Norway, Russia, India, Ghana, Tanzania, Uganda, Turkey and Iran. An additional aim was to examine cluster differences in road traffic culture as symbol use and to investigate whether this theoretical cultural framework predicts risk perception, attitudes towards traffic safety and driver behaviour in the country clusters. The sample consisted of a total of 2418 individuals who were obtained by convenience sampling in the different countries. The countries segmented into four Culture's Consequences clusters; Norway, Russia and India, Sub-Saharan Africa, and Near East countries. The findings showed that Norwegians reported overall safer attitudes towards traffic safety and driver behaviour than the remaining country clusters. Individuals in Africa reported the highest risk perception. The countries also differed substantially in road traffic culture as symbol use. Contrary to established cultural theory, prediction models revealed that cultural factors were stronger predictors of driver behaviour than of risk perception. Also, the social cognitive risk constructs (i.e. risk perception and attitudes) solely explained variance in driver behaviour in the Norwegian and Russia/India clusters. Previous empirical efforts, which aimed to demonstrate that culture is important for the risk perception criterion, may have focused on a criterion variable that is not strongly related to driver behaviour. Furthermore, countermeasures aimed to influence social cognition may have stronger applicability in countries with a more individualistic western

  19. Road cross-section. Annex VI to SWOV-report `Safety effects of road design standards', R-94-7 (see C 2838 (IRRD 866221).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Michalski, L.

    1995-01-01

    This volume is one of the annexes to a main report on safety effects of road design standards which was compiled by SWOV in collaboration with other European partners, in 1993-1994. For the covering abstract of the report or the report itself, see C 2838. The main objective of the project presented

  20. CRASH - Community Road Accident System Homepage : feasibility study on a European Road Safety Information System, financially supported by the European Commission.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer, M. Poppe, F. Blokpoel, A. & Kars, V.

    2000-01-01

    This report is the result of a feasibility study, financially supported by the European Commission. The study investigated the possibilities for the development and maintenance of a European Road Safety Information System with relevant and internationally comparable information. Recommendations on h

  1. Road safety activities in The Netherlands : experiences with strategies in the national level. Paper presented at the Workshop on Organization and Coördination of Road Safety Activities on the National Level, Benesov, CSFR, 506 October 1992.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wesemann, P.

    1992-01-01

    This paper begins by describing the road safety development in the Netherlands in 1950-1990. It appears that the death risk has declined steadily since 1950. The descending risk curve can be attributed to the Dutch safety policy, for instance, in the fields of: (1) infrastructure; and (2) police enf

  2. Vehicular-networking- and road-weather-related research in Sodankylä

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukuvaara, Timo; Mäenpää, Kari; Ylitalo, Riika

    2016-10-01

    Vehicular-networking- and especially safety-related wireless vehicular services have been under intensive research for almost a decade now. Only in recent years has road weather information also been acknowledged to play an important role when aiming to reduce traffic accidents and fatalities via intelligent transport systems (ITSs). Part of the progress can be seen as a result of the Finnish Meteorological Institute's (FMI) long-term research work in Sodankylä within the topic, originally started in 2006. Within multiple research projects, the FMI Arctic Research Centre has been developing wireless vehicular networking and road weather services, in co-operation with the FMI meteorological services team in Helsinki. At the beginning the wireless communication was conducted with traditional Wi-Fi type local area networking, but during the development the system has evolved into a hybrid communication system of a combined vehicular ad hoc networking (VANET) system with special IEEE 802.11p protocol and supporting cellular networking based on a commercial 3G network, not forgetting support for Wi-Fi-based devices also. For piloting purposes and further research, we have established a special combined road weather station (RWS) and roadside unit (RSU), to interact with vehicles as a service hotspot. In the RWS-RSU we have chosen to build support to all major approaches, IEEE 802.11, traditional Wi-Fi and cellular 3G. We employ road weather systems of FMI, along with RWS and vehicle data gathered from vehicles, in the up-to-date localized weather data delivered in real time. IEEE 802.11p vehicular networking is supported with Wi-Fi and 3G communications. This paper briefly introduces the research work related to vehicular networking and road weather services conducted in Sodankylä, as well as the research project involved in this work. The current status of instrumentation, available services and capabilities are presented in order to formulate a clear general view of

  3. A game of Chinese whispers in Malaysia: contextual analysis of child road safety education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puvanachandra, Prasanthi; Kulanthayan, Subramaniam; Hyder, Adnan A

    2012-11-01

    In 2006, the Malaysian government began implementing road safety education (RSE) programs in primary schools, involving numerous stakeholders. We interviewed 19 stakeholders. Thematic analysis led to the identification of four themes: road traffic injuries (RTIs) among children in Malaysia, the role of RSE, factors affecting successful implementation, and intersectoral involvement. The latter was identified as a significant strength of the overall approach to implementation, and is one of the first examples in Malaysia and in the region of such an approach. Lack of official documentation surrounding ownership, funding responsibilities, and roles among the various sectors led to resistance from some groups. Although we know from scientific studies what works in terms of reducing RTIs, the more important question is how such interventions can be successfully and sustainably implemented, particularly in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC). The results of this study permit stronger understanding of issues surrounding the implementation of RTI interventions in LMIC.

  4. Commercial motorcycle drivers' perceptions of risk and road safety in urban Nigeria: an explorative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanusi, Adebayo Adesola; Emmelin, Maria

    2015-01-01

    Road traffic injury is a great public health challenge with an emerging trend of increasing rates and high mortality involving commercial motorcycles in Nigeria. A qualitative approach was used with 10 in-depth interviews conducted to explore the risk perceptions of commercial motorcyclists in Ibadan, Nigeria. The data analysis using manifest and latent content analysis resulted in an overarching theme: inadequate structures and internalised norms prevent change. The three themes leading to the overarching theme are: risk-taking as generally acceptable; risk-taking as an intrinsic part of occupation; and risk-taking as a way to make ends meet. The study suggests that there is a great need for adequate regulation as regards training and licensing of riders. Also the need to tighten enforcement of traffic rules is paramount to road safety in Nigeria.

  5. RESEARCH ON THE HIGH PERFORMANCE COMPOSITE ROAD CONCRETE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Ordinary concrete presents short service life when used for building and repairing high-grade road with heavy traffic due to its large brittleness, poor bending flexibility and serious shrinkage on drying. In this paper,a new kind of high performance concrete has been designed by means of combination of organic, inorganic material as well as metal material.The research and application have shown that this new concrete can significantly counteract the deficiency of ordinary concrete and give excellent mechanical properties and pavement performances. The application of this new kind of concrete is of great social and economic significance.

  6. Health-risk behaviors related to road safety among adolescent students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharma Rahul

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Injuries are now a major cause of death and disability among the adolescents in the world. Road accidents are the main cause of death of young men worldwide. Objective : To study health-risk behavior related to road safety amongst adolescent students in south Delhi and its epidemiological correlates. Study Design : Cross-sectional study. Setting : Three schools and two colleges in south Delhi. Participants: Five hundred fifty adolescent students aged 14-19 years selected by cluster sampling. Statistical Analysis : Proportions, Chi-square test, multivariate logistic regression. Results : More than half (52.4% reported ′not always′ wearing a seat belt. About 72.1% (300 of two-wheeler riders reported ′not always′ and 23.3% (97 reported ′never′ wearing a helmet. Nearly 20% (91 students rode with a driver who had alcohol before driving, and 37.3% (185 subjects had driven with a driver not possessing a driving license, in the past 30 days. Such ′road-hazard′ behaviors were found to be significantly more in males and in lower-age groups. Logistic regression analysis revealed that the significant correlates of such behaviors were gender of the respondent and living status of the parents. Almost 77.5% (426 of the respondents were ′at risk′ as far as behaviors related to safety on roads are concerned. Conclusion : The results should evoke earnest responses from the government, policy makers and all personnel concerned with adolescent welfare on how best to reduce the extent of this preventable problem.

  7. World health day - 7th april, 2004 "road safety is no accident"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S C Saxena

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available In 1948, the First World Health Assembly called for the creation of a "World Health Day". Since 1950, World Health Day has been celebrated on the 7th of April of each year. The objective of World Health Day is to raise global awareness of a specific health theme to highlight a priority area of concern for the World Health Organization (WHO. The Day serves as a launch for a long-term advocacy program for which activities will be undertaken and resources provided well beyond 7th April.To Celebrate the theme of this year "Road Safety is No accident", on 7th April 2004 around the globle, hundreds of organizations hosted events to help raise awareness about road traffic injuries, their grave consequences and enormous casts to society. They alsocontributed to spreading the message that such injuries can be prevented.In 1948, the First World Health Assembly called for the creation of a "World Health Day". Since 1950, World Health Day has been celebrated on the 7th of April of each year. The objective of World Health Day is to raise global awareness of a specific health theme to highlight a priority area of concern for the World Health Organization (WHO. The Day serves as a launch for a long-term advocacy program for which activities will be undertaken and resources provided well beyond 7th April.To Celebrate the theme of this year "Road Safety is No accident", on 7th April 2004 around the globle, hundreds of organizations hosted events to help raise awareness about road traffic injuries, their grave consequences and enormous casts to society. They alsocontributed to spreading the message that such injuries can be prevented.t '            ■The accident is defined as unexpected, unplanned event envolving injury, disability or death. The accidents occur in almost all countries. The most alarming fact is that accidents kill more young trained adults between 15-24 years of age group of males, mainly among two wheelers. All sorts of accidents

  8. The contribution of family climate for road safety and social environment to the reported driving behavior of young drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taubman-Ben-Ari, Orit; Katz-Ben-Ami, Liat

    2012-07-01

    Two studies examined the contribution of the new concept of "family climate for road safety" and several aspects of the social environment to the driving behavior of young drivers. Study 1 (n=120) investigated the effect of the seven dimensions of the family climate for road safety - Modeling, Feedback, Communication, Monitoring, Noncommitment, Messages, and Limits - as well as a general tendency to conform to authority, and peer pressure. Study 2 (n=154) examined the dimensions of family climate for road safety and perceived popularity of reckless driving among peers. The findings indicate associations both between the familial and the social aspects, and between these variables and driving styles, willingness to take risks while driving, reckless driving habits, and personal commitment to safe driving. Positive aspects of the parent-child relationship and high levels of conformity to authority were related to greater endorsement of the careful driving style, whereas family's noncommitment to safety, higher peer pressure, and lower conformity to authority were associated with greater endorsement of the reckless driving style. In addition, positive aspects of the family climate for road safety and lower perceived popularity of reckless driving among friends were associated with more personal commitment to safe driving and a lower tendency for risky driving. The discussion stresses the need to look at the complex set of antecedents of reckless driving among young drivers and addresses the practical implications of the findings for road safety. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Identification of road user related risk factors, Deliverable 5.1 of the H2020 project SafetyCube (Safety CaUsation, Benefits and Efficiency).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Filtness, A. & Papadimitriou, E. (Eds.) Leskovšek, B. Focant, N. Martensen, H. Sgarra, V. Usami, D.S. Soteropoulos, A. Stadlbauer, S. Theofilatos, A. Yannis, G. Ziakopoulos, A. Diamandouros, K. Durso, C. Goldenbeld, C. Loenis, B. Schermers, G. Petegem, J.-H. van Elvik, R. Hesjevoll, I.S. Quigley, C. & Papazikou, E.

    2017-01-01

    The present Deliverable (D5.1) describes the identification and evaluation of infrastructure related risk factors. It outlines the results of Task 5.1 of WP5 of SafetyCube, which aimed to identify and evaluate infrastructure related risk factors and related road safety problems by (i) presenting a

  10. Safety and accessibility effects of code modifications and traffic calming of an arterial road.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leden, Lars; Wikström, Per-Erik; Gårder, Per; Rosander, Peter

    2006-05-01

    The European Road E12 through the community center of Storuman, Sweden was reconstructed in 1999 and 2000. Pedestrian walkways, traffic islands, chicanes of a type referred to as "Danish buns", a roundabout and a two-directional cycle track along the E12 were installed. The purpose of the reconstruction was to improve safety for pedestrians and bicyclists, primarily for children, the elderly and the disabled, and to reduce the barrier effect of the E12 thoroughfare. In May 2000, the code governing the conduct of drivers at marked crosswalks in Sweden became stricter to improve safety and mobility for pedestrians. The combined effect of reconstructions and change of code was analyzed. Traffic behavior was studied at the intersection where the roundabout was constructed. Yield behavior towards pedestrians changed significantly. The difference was even greater with respect to yielding to child bicyclists - from 6% before to 84% after - even though the code change only related to pedestrians. Crash data analysis suggests a minor increase in fall injuries after reconstructions and change of code. Measures of speed, behavioral studies, questionnaires, face-to-face interviews and crash data analysis suggest that safety has increased not only along the E12 but also along adjacent roads. The final conclusion is that a bypass is not needed in a case like Storuman. Traffic calming of the main arterial through the town seems sufficient.

  11. Nuclear Safety Research Department annual report 2000

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Majborn, B.; Nielsen, Sven Poul; Damkjær, A.

    2001-01-01

    The report presents a summary of the work of the Nuclear Safety Research Department in 2000. The department's research and development activities were organized in two research programmes: "Radiation Protection and Reactor Safety" and "Radioecology andTracer Studies". In addtion the department...

  12. Nuclear Safety Research Department annual report 2001

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Majborn, B.; Damkjær, A.; Nielsen, Sven Poul

    2002-01-01

    The report presents a summary of the work of the Nuclear Safety Research Department in 2001. The department's research and development activities were organized in two research programmes: "Radiation Protection and Reactor Safety" and "Radioecology andTracer Studies". In addition the department...

  13. Safety management of complex research operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, W. J.

    1981-01-01

    Complex research and technology operations present many varied potential hazards which must be addressed in a disciplined independent safety review and approval process. The research and technology effort at the Lewis Research Center is divided into programmatic areas of aeronautics, space and energy. Potential hazards vary from high energy fuels to hydrocarbon fuels, high pressure systems to high voltage systems, toxic chemicals to radioactive materials and high speed rotating machinery to high powered lasers. A Safety Permit System presently covers about 600 potentially hazardous operations. The Safety Management Program described in this paper is believed to be a major factor in maintaining an excellent safety record at the Lewis Research Center.

  14. GUIDELINES FOR THE CONSTRUCTION OF THE IT ROAD SAFETY MANAGEMENT SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacek CHMIELEWSKI

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the role, need and idea of implementing an IT system to manage road safety, which is a proposal of the practical implementation of the Gambit programme elements prepared for the Kujawsko-Pomorskie Voivodeship. The usefulness of constructing the system has been presented, together with its users, the proposed content and possibility of its funding. The whole article has been summarised by outlining the opportunities and threats that may occur in the course of system implementation.

  15. The recent dramatic decline in road mortality in France: how drivers' attitudes towards road traffic safety changed between 2001 and 2004 in the GAZEL cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constant, A; Salmi, L R; Lafont, S; Chiron, M; Lagarde, Emmanuel

    2008-10-01

    A very significant decline in the number of road casualties has been observed recently in France, concomitantly with a dramatic increase in law enforcement. The aim of this study was (i) to assess changes in attitudes about road traffic accident (RTA) prevention initiatives in France from 2001 to 2004 and (ii) to identify factors associated with an increase in positive attitudes towards RTA prevention initiatives. In 2001 and 2004, 9216 participants reported their attitudes towards traffic safety using the same self-administered Driving Behaviour and Road Safety Questionnaire. Sociodemographic, psychological and behavioural data were also available. The mean change in scores analysis showed that support for relaxing existing regulations decreased significantly during this period, while support for heightened enforcement and stricter regulations showed some decrease but remained high overall, especially concerning blood alcohol content and speed controls. Multivariate analyses suggest that highly educated drivers changed their attitudes towards road safety regulations more than other categories. Our results suggest that increased traffic law enforcement measures led to increasing support for current restrictions. Even if support for additional traffic law enforcement began to wane slightly in 2004, a large part of our population remained in favour of strengthening law enforcement related to speeding and drunk driving.

  16. Safety; interactions of the various factors of the vehicles, infrastructure, driver, environment system. Contribution to XVII World Road Congress, Sydney, Australia, 8-15 October 1983, question III: Inter-urban roads and motorways, p. 352-354, Permanent International Association of Road Congresses, Paris, 1983.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wegman, F.C.M.

    1983-01-01

    In the Netherlands there are plans to set up a data bank which will contain data for pursuing a national road safety policy. This will enable the nation- wide developments in the sphere of road safety and dangers to road users to be monitored (monitoring function) and to pinpoint specific subjects

  17. Safety at Work : Research Methodology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beurden, van K. (Karin); Boer, de J. (Johannes); Brinks, G. (Ger); Goering-Zaburnenko, T. (Tatiana); Houten, van Y. (Ynze); Teeuw, W. (Wouter)

    2012-01-01

    In this document, we provide the methodological background for the Safety atWork project. This document combines several project deliverables as defined inthe overall project plan: validation techniques and methods (D5.1.1), performanceindicators for safety at work (D5.1.2), personal protection equi

  18. Evaluation of a five-year Bloomberg Global Road Safety Program in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, S; Hoe, C; Özkan, T; Lajunen, T J; Vursavas, F; Sener, S; Hyder, A A

    2017-03-01

    Turkey was included in the Bloomberg Philanthropies funded Global Road Safety Program (2010-14) with Ankara and Afyonkarahisar (Afyon) selected for interventions to manage speed and encourage seat-belt use. The objectives of this study are to present the monitoring and evaluation findings of seat-belt use and speed in Afyon and Ankara over the five years and to assess overall impact of the program on road traffic injury, and death rates in Turkey. Quasi-experimental before after without comparison. In collaboration with the Middle East Technical University, roadside observations and interviews were coupled with secondary data to monitor changes in risk factors and outcomes at the two intervention sites. The percentage of seat-belt use among drivers and front-seat passengers in Afyon and Ankara increased significantly between 2010 and 2014 with increased self-reported use and preceded by an increase in tickets (fines) for not using seat belts. There were uneven improvements in speed reduction. In Afyon, the average speed increased significantly from 46.3 km/h in 2012 to about 52.7 km/h in 2014 on roads where the speed limits were 50 km/h. In Ankara, the average speed remained less than 55 km/h during the program period (range: 50-54 km/h; P evaluation program, with suitable controls. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  19. Head-on crashes on two-way interurban roads: a public health concern in road safety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Olabarria

    2015-09-01

    Conclusions: This study allowed the characterization of crashes and drivers involved in head-on crashes on two-way interurban roads. The lower probability observed on roads with median strips point to these measures as an effective way to reduce these collisions

  20. Development of road safety performance indicators for trauma management in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gitelman, Victoria; Auerbach, Kerstin; Doveh, Etti

    2013-11-01

    Trauma management (TM) covers two types of medical treatment: the initial one provided by Emergency Medical Services (EMS) and a further one provided by permanent medical facilities. There is a consensus in the professional literature that to reduce the severity and the number of road crash victims, the TM system should provide rapid and adequate initial care of injury, combined with sufficient further treatment at a hospital or trauma centre. Recognizing the important role of TM for reducing road crash injury outcome, it was decided, within the EU funded SafetyNet project, to develop road safety performance indicators (SPIs) which would characterize the level of TM systems' performance in European countries and enable country comparisons. The concept of TM SPIs was developed based on a literature study of performance indicators in TM, a survey of available practices in Europe and data availability examinations. A set of TM SPIs was introduced including 14 indicators which characterize five issues such as: availability of EMS stations; availability and composition of EMS medical staff; availability and composition of EMS transportation units; characteristics of the EMS response time, and availability of trauma beds in permanent medical facilities. Basic information on the TM systems was collected in close cooperation with the national expert group. A dataset with TM SPIs for 21 countries was created. It was demonstrated that the countries can be compared using selected TM SPIs. Moreover, a more general comparison of the TM systems' performance in the countries is possible, using multiple ranking and statistical weighting techniques. By both methods, final estimates were received enabling the recognition of groups of countries with similar levels of the TM system's performance. The results of various trials were consistent as to the recognition of countries with high or low level of the TM systems' performance, where in grouping countries with intermediate levels of

  1. Progress of nuclear safety research. 2002

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anoda, Yoshinari; Kudo, Tamotsu; Tobita, Tohru (eds.) [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment] (and others)

    2002-11-01

    JAERI is conducting nuclear safety research primarily at the Nuclear Safety Research Center in close cooperation with the related departments in accordance with the Long Term Plan for Development and Utilization of Nuclear Energy and Annual Plan for Safety Research issued by the Japanese government. The fields of conducting safety research at JAERI are the engineering safety of nuclear power plants and nuclear fuel cycle facilities, and radioactive waste management as well as advanced technology for safety improvement or assessment. Also, JAERI has conducted international collaboration to share the information on common global issues of nuclear safety and to supplement own research. Moreover, when accidents occurred at nuclear facilities, JAERI has taken a responsible role by providing technical experts and investigation for assistance to the government or local public body. This report summarizes the nuclear safety research activities of JAERI from April 2000 through April 2002 and utilized facilities. This report also summarizes the examination of the ruptured pipe performed for assistance to the Nuclear and Industrial Safety Agency (NISA) for investigation of the accident at the Hamaoka Nuclear Power Station Unit-1 on November, 2001. (author)

  2. Trends in traffic fatalities in Mexico: examining progress on the decade of action for road safety 2011-2020.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cervantes-Trejo, Arturo; Leenen, Iwin; Fabila-Carrasco, John Stewart; Rojas-Vargas, Roy

    2016-11-01

    We explore demographic, temporal and geographic patterns of 256,588 road traffic fatalities from 1998 to 2013 in Mexico, in context of UN´s decade of action for road safety 2010-2020 (DARS). Combined traffic mortality data and population counts were analyzed using mixed-effects logistic regression, distinguishing sex-age groups, vulnerable and protected road users, and municipal size. Rapid growth from 1998 to 2008 in traffic mortality rates has been reversed since 2009. Most deaths averted are among young male protected road users (reduction of 0.95 fatalities per 100,000 per year in males 12-49). In spite of a steady decrease over the full study period, mortality rates remain high in vulnerable road users over 50, with a high mortality rate of 26 per 100,000 males over 75 years in 2013. Progress on the reduction of deaths advances in Mexico, in line with DARS targets. National road safety efforts require strengthening. Initiatives should target vulnerable road users, specifically adults >50 years in urban areas. Strengthening of drink driving programs aimed at young drivers/occupants is promising.

  3. Operationalizing an orthopedic action plan for the decade of road traffic safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harmer, Luke; Schemitsch, Emil H

    2014-01-01

    The decade of action for road traffic safety provides orthopaedic surgeons with an opportunity to contribute to policy that will improve the ability to deliver trauma care. In the previous 2 decades outcomes for orthopaedic trauma patients have improved significantly. The decade of action for road traffic safety will bring attention and funding to trauma related endeavors. The challenge before orthopaedic surgeons and orthopaedic trauma societies is to provide delivery mechanisms so that clinical care can reach populations around the globe. Organizing orthopaedic trauma care into care delivery value chains provides a tool for understanding how efficiency can be gained over the entire cycle of care from emergent management through rehabilitation and revision surgery when needed. Integrated practice units allow orthopaedic surgeons to collaborate with other trauma specialists to provide integrated care and exploit the areas of natural overlap to create trauma care systems that optimize communication for surgeons and simplify follow up for patients. By using these tools orthopaedic surgeons can deliver excellent trauma care to populations around the world.

  4. A cooperative transponder system for improved traffic safety, localizing road users in the 5 GHz band

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaffer, B.; Kalverkamp, G.; Chaabane, M.; Biebl, E. M.

    2012-09-01

    We present a multi-user cooperative mobile transponder system which enables cars to localize pedestrians, bicyclists and other road users in order to improve traffic safety. The system operates at a center frequency of 5.768 GHz, offering the ability to test precision localization technology at frequencies close to the newly designated automotive safety related bands around 5.9 GHz. By carrying out a roundtrip time of flight measurement, the sensor can determine the distance from the onboard localization unit of a car to a road user who is equipped with an active transponder, employing the idea of a secondary radar and pulse compression. The onboard unit sends out a pseudo noise coded interrogation pulse, which is answered by one or more transponders after a short waiting time. Each transponder uses a different waiting time in order to allow for time division multiple access. We present the system setup as well as range measurement results, achieving an accuracy up to centimeters for the distance measurement and a range in the order of hundred meters. We also discuss the effect of clock drift and offset on distance accuracy for different waiting times and show how the system can be improved to further increase precision in a multiuser environment.

  5. Traffic signal design and simulation for vulnerable road users safety and bus preemption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Shih-Ching; Huang, Hsieh-Chu

    2015-01-01

    Mostly, pedestrian car accidents occurred at a signalized interaction is because pedestrians cannot across the intersection safely within the green light. From the viewpoint of pedestrian, there might have two reasons. The first one is pedestrians cannot speed up to across the intersection, such as the elders. The other reason is pedestrians do not sense that the signal phase is going to change and their right-of-way is going to be lost. Developing signal logic to protect pedestrian, who is crossing an intersection is the first purpose of this study. In addition, to improve the reliability and reduce delay of public transportation service is the second purpose. Therefore, bus preemption is also considered in the designed signal logic. In this study, the traffic data of the intersection of Chong-Qing North Road and Min-Zu West Road, Taipei, Taiwan, is employed to calibrate and validate the signal logic by simulation. VISSIM 5.20, which is a microscopic traffic simulation software, is employed to simulate the signal logic. From the simulated results, the signal logic presented in this study can protect pedestrians crossing the intersection successfully. The design of bus preemption can reduce the average delay. However, the pedestrian safety and bus preemption signal will influence the average delay of cars largely. Thus, whether applying the pedestrian safety and bus preemption signal logic to an intersection or not should be evaluated carefully.

  6. Attitude change in youths after being exposed to different road safety interventions in two Mexican cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Híjar, Martha; Pérez-Núñez, Ricardo; Santoyo-Castillo, Dzoara; Lunnen, Jeffrey C; Chandran, Aruna; Celis, Alfredo; Carmona-Lozano, Socorro

    2013-12-01

    To assess the reach of three different types of road safety interventions (social marketing, education and law enforcement) implemented as part of the Iniciativa Mexicana de Seguridad Vial y Prevención de Lesiones en el Tránsito (Mexican Initiative for Road Safety and the Prevention of Road Traffic Injuries) among youth in two Mexican cities (Guadalajara-Zapopan, Jalisco and León, Guanajuato), and to examine students' self-reported attitude change after being exposed to these interventions. A cross-sectional design was utilized to evaluate the reach of the city-wide interventions among a random sample of public and private high school and college students from October to December 2011. A total of 5,114 students completed a self-administered questionnaire. In both cities, students reported a greater exposure to social marketing (73% in Guadalajara-Zapopan and 64% in León) as compared to educational interventions (29.3% in León and 21.6% in Guadalajara-Zapopan) and law enforcement activities (~12% in both). Among respondents, self-reported attitude change was higher after being exposed to educational interventions than law enforcement. Social marketing yielded the lowest prevalence of self-reported attitude change. Our results show a potential moderate impact, measured as self-reported attitude change, resulting from the three intervention approaches under study. Future studies should address the intensity of exposure as well as the translation of attitude change into safer behaviors. Information generated by this study could be useful for local authorities in the intervention areas to inform their activities. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Resident Research Fundamentals Course Human Research Curves in the Road

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-27

    Division may pay for your basic journal publishing charges (to include costs for tables and black and white photos). We cannot pay for reprints. If you...SGS R&D: Tri-Service Nursing Research Program (TSNRP): Defense Medical Research & Development Program (DMROP): NIH; Congressionally Directed...30 days before final clearance Is required to publish/present your materials. If you have any questions or concerns. please contact the S9 CRD

  8. Methodology to develop crash modification functions for road safety treatments with fully specified and hierarchical models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yongsheng; Persaud, Bhagwant

    2014-09-01

    Crash modification factors (CMFs) for road safety treatments are developed as multiplicative factors that are used to reflect the expected changes in safety performance associated with changes in highway design and/or the traffic control features. However, current CMFs have methodological drawbacks. For example, variability with application circumstance is not well understood, and, as important, correlation is not addressed when several CMFs are applied multiplicatively. These issues can be addressed by developing safety performance functions (SPFs) with components of crash modification functions (CM-Functions), an approach that includes all CMF related variables, along with others, while capturing quantitative and other effects of factors and accounting for cross-factor correlations. CM-Functions can capture the safety impact of factors through a continuous and quantitative approach, avoiding the problematic categorical analysis that is often used to capture CMF variability. There are two formulations to develop such SPFs with CM-Function components - fully specified models and hierarchical models. Based on sample datasets from two Canadian cities, both approaches are investigated in this paper. While both model formulations yielded promising results and reasonable CM-Functions, the hierarchical model was found to be more suitable in retaining homogeneity of first-level SPFs, while addressing CM-Functions in sub-level modeling. In addition, hierarchical models better capture the correlations between different impact factors.

  9. Microsurfacing – An Eco-Efficient Tool for Road Safety and Pavement Maintenance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajesh S. Gujar

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available With the development of infrastructure, in rapidly developing modern era, frequent maintenance of existing infrastructure, especially roads is of prime importance.  Microsurfacing is a preventive maintenance technique (preventative maintenance strategy aims at producing the most cost-effective improvements in pavement quality and life involving three to six millimeter sized bitumen aggregate treated with a special emulsion.  The layer is neatly laid down on road section requiring maintenance.  This paper aims at focusing on the contributions made by researchers on Microsurfacing as a tool for pavement maintenance and repair.  Although the technique is finding its place in Indian sub-continents little late, but nevertheless it is universally considered as an inevitable tool as far as preventive pavement maintenance is concerned and should be used to extend life of the underlying pavement

  10. From technological acceptability to appropriation by users: methodological steps for device assessment in road safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bordel, Stéphanie; Somat, Alain; Barbeau, Hervé; Anceaux, Françoise; Greffeuille, Catherine; Menguy, Gaëlle; Pacaux, Marie-Pierre; Subirats, Peggy; Terrade, Florence; Gallenne, Marie-Line

    2014-06-01

    This article presents the methodology developed within the framework of the research project SARI (Automated Road Surveillance for Driver and Administrator Information). This methodology is based on the logic of action research. The article presents the different stages in the development of technological innovation addressing vehicle control loss when driving on a curve. The results observed in speed reduction illustrate that no matter how optimal an innovation may be technologically speaking, it is only as effective as it is acceptable from a user standpoint. This acceptability can only be obtained if the technology is developed by engineers in liaison with social science specialists.

  11. Development of road safety in some European countries and the USA : a theoretical and quantitative mathematical analysis. Paper presented to the Conference "Road Safety in Europe", Gothenburg, Sweden, 12-14 October, 1988.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koornstra, M.J.

    1988-01-01

    The development of traffic and traffic safety over long periods is viewed as long- term change in system structure and output in the context of self- organizing and learning systems. Relevant changes in the traffic system are foremost expressed by growth of traffic volume as a result of road enlarge

  12. Road Safety Data, Collection, Transfer and Analysis DaCoTa. Workpackage 4, Decision Support: Deliverable 4.1: Consultation of a panel of experts on the needs for data and technical tools in road safety policy-making.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dupont, E. Martensen, H. Papadimitriou, E. Yannis, G. Muhlrad, N. Jähi, H. Vallet, G. Giustiniani, G. Tripodi, A. Usami, D. Bax, C. Wijnen, W. Schöne, M.-L. Machata, K. Buttle, I. Zysinska, M. Talbot, R. Gitelman, V. & Hakkert, S.

    2015-01-01

    In a co-production of DaCoTA WP1 and DaCoTA WP4, an Experts Panel was created and a consultation was launched for the preliminary assessment of knowledge, data and analysis needs within road safety management. The objective of the consultation of this Experts Panel was the assessment of current need

  13. The effects of `non-infrastructural' measures to improve the safety of vulnerable road users : a review of international findings, prepared for the OECD Scientific Expert Group "Safety of vulnerable road users".

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hagenzieker, M.P.

    1997-01-01

    This report reviews the evaluated effects of what can be called `non-infrastructural measures' to improve the safety of vulnerable road users. Three selected areas are discussed: education and training, measures to enhance visibility and conspecuity, and protective devices for bicyclists. Other type

  14. Cooperation and organization in decision making : a more decisive road safety policy ? : results from a multiple case study in the Netherlands.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bax, C.

    2005-01-01

    This study examines the administrative processes that led to the implementation of road safety measures in Dutch Regional Traffic and Transport Plans. The design of the study is a multiple case study in six regions in the Netherlands. The road safety policy is evaluated by looking at the effectivene

  15. 33 CFR 165.T09-0166 - Safety Zone, Brandon Road Lock and Dam to Lake Michigan including Des Plaines River, Chicago...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Safety Zone, Brandon Road Lock and Dam to Lake Michigan including Des Plaines River, Chicago Sanitary and Ship Canal, Chicago River... Areas Ninth Coast Guard District § 165.T09-0166 Safety Zone, Brandon Road Lock and Dam to Lake...

  16. Cooperation and organization in decision making : a more decisive road safety policy ? : results from a multiple case study in the Netherlands.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bax, C.

    2005-01-01

    This study examines the administrative processes that led to the implementation of road safety measures in Dutch Regional Traffic and Transport Plans. The design of the study is a multiple case study in six regions in the Netherlands. The road safety policy is evaluated by looking at the

  17. The conference "Road Safety in Europe", held in Bergisch Gladbach, Germany, September 21-23, 1998. Theme: Recommendations for speed management strategies and policies.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Draskóczy, M. Mocsári, T. Risser, R. Lehner, U. Várhelyi, A. Mäkinen, T. Oei, H.-l. & Comte, S.

    1999-01-01

    At the conference "Road Safety Europe" held in Bergisch Gladbach, Germany, September 21-23, 1998, one of the themes was "Speed management and road safety - EU-project MASTER". Five of the papers presented within this framework were: Present speeds and speed management methods in Europe (Draskóczy, M

  18. The effect of road network patterns on pedestrian safety: A zone-based Bayesian spatial modeling approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Qiang; Xu, Pengpeng; Pei, Xin; Wong, S C; Yao, Danya

    2017-02-01

    Pedestrian safety is increasingly recognized as a major public health concern. Extensive safety studies have been conducted to examine the influence of multiple variables on the occurrence of pedestrian-vehicle crashes. However, the explicit relationship between pedestrian safety and road network characteristics remains unknown. This study particularly focused on the role of different road network patterns on the occurrence of crashes involving pedestrians. A global integration index via space syntax was introduced to quantify the topological structures of road networks. The Bayesian Poisson-lognormal (PLN) models with conditional autoregressive (CAR) prior were then developed via three different proximity structures: contiguity, geometry-centroid distance, and road network connectivity. The models were also compared with the PLN counterpart without spatial correlation effects. The analysis was based on a comprehensive crash dataset from 131 selected traffic analysis zones in Hong Kong. The results indicated that higher global integration was associated with more pedestrian-vehicle crashes; the irregular pattern network was proved to be safest in terms of pedestrian crash occurrences, whereas the grid pattern was the least safe; the CAR model with a neighborhood structure based on road network connectivity was found to outperform in model goodness-of-fit, implying the importance of accurately accounting for spatial correlation when modeling spatially aggregated crash data.

  19. Robust, Optimal, Predictive, and Integrated Road Traffic Control: Research proposal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van de Weg, G.S.; Hegyi, A.; Hoogendoorn, S.P.

    2014-01-01

    The development of control strategies for traffic lights, ramp metering installations, and variable speed limits to improve the throughput of road traffic networks can contribute to a more efficient use of road networks. In this project, a hierarchical controller will be developed for the improvemen

  20. Survival in fatal road crashes: body mass index, gender, and safety belt use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivak, Michael; Schoettle, Brandon; Rupp, Jonathan

    2010-02-01

    This study evaluated the associations of body mass index (BMI), gender, and use of safety belts with the survival of drivers involved in fatal road crashes. The census data of all U.S. fatal crashes that did not involve pedestrians, bicyclists, or motorcyclists were examined for an 11-year period. If involved in a crash with one or more fatalities, the odds of female drivers being among the fatalities are 1.28 times higher than those of male drivers, and the odds of unbelted drivers being among the fatalities are 5.43 times higher than those of belted drivers. The relationship of survivability to BMI depends on the gender and safety belt use of the driver. For male drivers, increased BMI appears beneficial when safety belts are used but detrimental when not used. For belted female drivers, normal BMI is associated with the lowest odds of being killed, and both increased and decreased BMIs increase the odds. For unbelted female drivers, no reliable trends were present among the BMI categories.

  1. Life cycle assessment of a road safety product made with virgin and recycled HDPE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simões, Carla L; Xará, Susana M; Bernardo, C A

    2011-04-01

    The present study aims at evaluating the potential environmental impact of using recycled high-density polyethylene (HDPE) in the production of an anti-glare lamella (AGL), a road safety device currently manufactured from virgin (not recycled) polymer. The impact was evaluated using the life cycle assessment (LCA) technique and comparing two alternative systems: current AGL, manufactured from virgin HDPE, and optional AGL, made with recycled HDPE obtained from post-consumer packages. The AGL manufacturing phase was found to be responsible for most of the impacts in both systems, with the production of the raw material being the largest contributor for that phase. The present study makes a contribution to the problem of developing value-added products made from post-consumer polymeric recyclates.

  2. Pregnant woman and road safety: experimental crash test with post mortem human subject.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delotte, Jerome; Behr, Michel; Thollon, Lionel; Arnoux, Pierre-Jean; Baque, Patrick; Bongain, Andre; Brunet, Christian

    2008-05-01

    Trauma affect between 3 and 7% of all pregnancies in industrialized countries, and the leading cause of these traumas is car crashes. The difficulty to appreciate physiologic and anatomic changes occurring during pregnancy explain that majority of studies were not based on anatomical data. We present a protocol to create a realistic anatomical model of pregnant woman using a post mortem human subject (PMHS). We inserted a physical model of the gravid uterus into the pelvis of a PMHS. 3D acceleration sensors were placed on the subject to measure the acceleration on different body segments. We simulated three frontal impact situations at 20 km/h between two average European cars. Two main kinematics events were identified as possible causes of injuries: lap belt loading and backrest impact. Cadaver experiments provide one interesting complementary approach to study injury mechanisms related to road accidents involving pregnant women. This anatomical accuracy makes it possible to progress in the field of safety devices.

  3. Addressing the implementation gap in global road safety: exploring features of an effective response and introducing a 10-country program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyder, Adnan A; Allen, Katharine A; Di Pietro, Gayle; Adriazola, Claudia A; Sobel, Rochelle; Larson, Kelly; Peden, Margie

    2012-06-01

    Yearly, more than 1.2 million people are killed by road traffic injuries (RTIs) around the globe, and another 20 to 50 million are injured. The global burden of RTIs is predicted to rise. We explored the need for concerted action for global road safety and propose characteristics of an effective response to the gap in addressing RTIs. We propose that a successful response includes domains such as strong political will, capacity building, use of evidence-based interventions, rigorous evaluation, increased global funding, multisectoral action, and sustainability. We also present a case study of the global Road Safety in 10 Countries project, which is a new, 5-year, multipartner initiative to address the burden of RTIs in 10 low- and middle-income countries.

  4. Status of criticality safety research at NUCEF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakajima, Ken [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1998-03-01

    Two critical facilities, named STACY (Static Experiment Critical Facility) and TRACY (Transient Experiment Critical Facility), at the Nuclear Fuel Cycle Safety Engineering Research Facility (NUCEF) started their hot operations in 1995. Since then, basic experimental data for criticality safety research have been accumulated using STACY, and supercritical experiments for the study of criticality accident in a reprocessing plant have been performed using TRACY. In this paper, the outline of those critical facilities and the main results of TRACY experiments are presented. (author)

  5. Cost-benefit analysis of road safety measures: applicability and controversies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elvik, R

    2001-01-01

    This paper discusses the applicability of cost-benefit analysis as an aid to policy making for road safety measures. A framework for assessing the applicability of cost-benefit analysis is developed. Five main types of criticism of cost-benefit analysis are identified: 1. rejecting the basic principles of cost-benefit analysis as not applicable to road safety, 2. excluding some types of issues from the scope of calculation of costs and benefits, 3. setting policy objectives that are not amenable to cost-benefit analysis, 4. rejecting the need for maintaining a separation between policy objectives and policy programmes as required for cost-benefit analysis, and 5. rejecting, or denying the possibility of ever obtaining, acceptably valid and reliable economic valuations of the consequences of alternative policy programmes. It is concluded that rejecting the basic principles of cost-benefit analysis is a difficult position to defend, since these principles are simply a re-statement in economic terms of very general principles of rational choice. These principles are part of the normative basis of all formal techniques designed to aid policy making as well as the democratic system of government. Everybody, including those who advocate the use of cost-benefit analysis, agree that some issues are unsuitable for cost-benefit analysis, in particular those that involve basic human rights and fairness in distribution. There may, however, be disagreement with respect to the perception of a specific policy issue in terms of whether it is mainly about rights and fairness or mainly about the effective use of policy instruments to solve a social problem. Politicians may be tempted to set policy objectives that are ill suited for cost-benefit analysis, but this does not imply that cost-benefit analysis makes unreasonable assumptions. Perhaps the most important issue for the applicability of cost-benefit analysis is whether people in general have sufficiently well ordered

  6. Economic evaluation of road safety measures : contribution to the 117th ECMT Round Table, 26 and 27 October 2000, Paris.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wesemann, P.

    2001-01-01

    A great deal of effort is still needed to improve road safety in Europe. As well as assigning responsibilities and a systematic approach, optimum use of available resources is also required. For this last item, knowledge, methods and techniques developed by the economic sciences can be used. Firstly

  7. SUNflower : a comparative study of the development of road safety in Sweden, the United Kingdom, and the Netherlands.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koornstra, M.J. Lynam, D. Nilsson, G. Noordzij, P.C. Petterson, H.-E. Wegman, F.C.M. & Wouters, P.I.J.

    2003-01-01

    The road safety performance of different countries within Europe varies substantially. The three countries with the lowest accident levels are Sweden, United Kingdom, and the Netherlands (described here as the SUN countries). The aim of this study is to determine the underlying elements in the curre

  8. Economic evaluation of road safety measures : contribution to the 117th ECMT Round Table, 26 and 27 October 2000, Paris.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wesemann, P.

    2001-01-01

    A great deal of effort is still needed to improve road safety in Europe. As well as assigning responsibilities and a systematic approach, optimum use of available resources is also required. For this last item, knowledge, methods and techniques developed by the economic sciences can be used.

  9. Five road safety education programmes for young adolescent pedestrians and cyclists : a multi-programme evaluation in a field setting.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Twisk, D.A.M. Vlakveld, W.P. Commandeur, J.J.F. Shope, J.T. & Kok, G.

    2014-01-01

    A practical approach was developed to assess and compare the effects of five short road safety education (RSE) programmes for young adolescents that does not rely on injury or crash data but uses self reported behaviour. Questionnaires were administered just before and about one month after particip

  10. The influence of weather conditions on road safety : an assessment of the effect of precipitation and temperature.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bijleveld, F.D. & Churchill, T.

    2009-01-01

    The influence of changes in extreme weather conditions is often identified as a cause of fluctuations in road safety and the resulting numbers of crashes and casualties. This report focuses on an analysis of the aggregate, accumulated effect of weather conditions (precipitation and temperature) on t

  11. Five road safety education programmes for young adolescent pedestrians and cyclists : a multi-programme evaluation in a field setting.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Twisk, D.A.M. Vlakveld, W.P. Commandeur, J.J.F. Shope, J.T. & Kok, G.

    2014-01-01

    A practical approach was developed to assess and compare the effects of five short road safety education (RSE) programmes for young adolescents that does not rely on injury or crash data but uses self reported behaviour. Questionnaires were administered just before and about one month after

  12. De waardering van bespaarde verkeersdoden : covernota bij het proefschrift ‘The value of a statistical life in road safety'.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wesemann, P. Blaeij, A.T. de & Rietveld, P.

    2005-01-01

    The valuation of casualties saved; Memorandum with the PhD thesis ‘The value of a statistical life in road safety'. Crashes cause all kinds of social costs, among which immaterial damage. Immaterial damage, also called ‘human losses', is defined by the loss of quality of life for victims and their n

  13. The Climate Change-Road Safety-Economy Nexus: A System Dynamics Approach to Understanding Complex Interdependencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Alirezaei

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Road accidents have the highest externality costs to society and to the economy, even when compared to the externality damages associated with air emissions and oil dependency. Road safety is one of the most complicated topics, which involves many interdependencies, and so, a sufficiently thorough analysis of roadway safety will require a novel system-based approach in which the associated feedback relationships and causal effects are given appropriate consideration. The factors affecting accident frequency and severity are highly dependent on economic parameters, environmental factors and weather conditions. In this study, we try to use a system dynamics modeling approach to model the climate change-road safety-economy nexus, thereby investigating the complex interactions among these important areas by tracking how they affect each other over time. For this purpose, five sub-models are developed to model each aspect of the overall nexus and to interact with each other to simulate the overall system. As a result, this comprehensive model can provide a platform for policy makers to test the effectiveness of different policy scenarios to reduce the negative consequences of traffic accidents and improve road safety.

  14. Assessment of Road Infrastructures Pertaining to Malaysian Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samsuddin Norshakina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Road Infrastructures contribute towards many severe accidents and it needs supervision as to improve road safety levels. The numbers of fatalities have increased annually and road authority should seriously consider conducting programs or activities to periodically monitor, restore of improve road infrastructure. Implementation of road safety audits may reduce fatalities among road users and maintain road safety at acceptable standards. This paper is aimed to discuss the aspects of road infrastructure in Malaysia. The research signifies the impact of road hazards during the observations and the impact of road infrastructure types on road accidents. The F050 (Jalan Kluang-Batu Pahat road case study showed that infrastructure risk is closely related with number of accident. As the infrastructure risk increase, the number of road accidents also increase. It was also found that different road zones along Jalan Kluang-Batu Pahat showed different level of intersection volume due to number of road intersection. Thus, it is hoped that by implementing continuous assessment on road infrastructures, it might be able to reduce road accidents and fatalities among drives and the community.

  15. RiskSOAP: Introducing and applying a methodology of risk self-awareness in road tunnel safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatzimichailidou, Maria Mikela; Dokas, Ioannis M

    2016-05-01

    Complex socio-technical systems, such as road tunnels, can be designed and developed with more or less elements that can either positively or negatively affect the capability of their agents to recognise imminent threats or vulnerabilities that possibly lead to accidents. This capability is called risk Situation Awareness (SA) provision. Having as a motive the introduction of better tools for designing and developing systems that are self-aware of their vulnerabilities and react to prevent accidents and losses, this paper introduces the Risk Situation Awareness Provision (RiskSOAP) methodology to the field of road tunnel safety, as a means to measure this capability in this kind of systems. The main objective is to test the soundness and the applicability of RiskSOAP to infrastructure, which is advanced in terms of technology, human integration, and minimum number of safety requirements imposed by international bodies. RiskSOAP is applied to a specific road tunnel in Greece and the accompanying indicator is calculated twice, once for the tunnel design as defined by updated European safety standards and once for the 'as-is' tunnel composition, which complies with the necessary safety requirements, but calls for enhancing safety according to what EU and PIARC further suggest. The derived values indicate the extent to which each tunnel version is capable of comprehending its threats and vulnerabilities based on its elements. The former tunnel version seems to be more enhanced both in terms of it risk awareness capability and safety as well. Another interesting finding is that despite the advanced tunnel safety specifications, there is still room for enriching the safe design and maintenance of the road tunnel.

  16. 道路安全工作的问题、策略和前景%ROAD SAFETY WORK-PROBLEMS, STRATEGIES AND VISIONS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kare Bumar

    2002-01-01

    The road safety situation in the countries around the world looks very different depending on which country that is studied. Some countries such as the Netherlands, sweden and UK, have excellent history and record. The industrialised world has 60% of the cars but only 15% of the road traffic fatalities. Others are considerably less advanced and show high risks and large number of fatalities. The developing world has only 40% of the cars but 85% of the road traffic fatalities. The general ambition should be to reduce the total number of persons killed on the roads by increasing road safety especially in those countries with lower road safety and with negative road safety trends. One way of approaching a road safety strategy is to use what in industry is often called benchmarking. That means that good safety experiences are used as models for countries with lower safety level. There fore this presentation will focus on the more advanced countries from road safety point of view, using primarily Sweden as an example. Which are the road safety strategies the leading countries are planning to follow during the coming decade? Which are the visions, the targets,the priority problems and the specific measures these countries plan to implement? Could these ideas be transformed to other less developed countries in the world? The presentation starts with a historical review where the importance for society of an efficient transport is stressed. The road safety problems we are facing today can be traced back to the development of transport. The risks in the various modes of road transport are described and compared with other trans port risks using the European Union as an example. Three levels of problems are discussed-the first, second and third order problems. It is pointed out that the second (e. g. education, enforcement) and third order problems (e. g. management, vision and targets) are often overlooked. In most societies road safety problems create a

  17. Research and implementation of road monitoring GIS system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jia; Wu, Jianping; Yi, Min

    2007-06-01

    Based on the analysis of the shortcomings of the traditional video monitoring system, the paper presents an efficient road monitoring system based on GIS technology, named Road Monitoring GIS (RMGIS) System. The basic framework of the system modules is set out. The key technology and implementation of the special function are highlighted put forward. The paper takes a new interpretation of the buffer zone, topological network, geocoding and explains the construct method of some mathematical model. Advanced functions such as road topological network, moving object database and adaptive image recognition are also explored and studied in a certain extent. Now the system has been successfully applied to the road management in Shanghai urban area, some intelligent function will be implemented in the follow-up project.

  18. Evaluated road safety media campaigns : an overview of 265 evaluated campaigns and some meta-analysis on accidents. Guarding Automobile Drivers through Guidance Education and Technology GADGET project, Deliverable 4.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Delhomme, P. (co-ord.) Vaa, T. Meyer, T. Goldenbeld, C. Järmark, S. Christie, N. & Rehnova, V.

    2000-01-01

    This report presents a research project on `evaluated road safety campaigns', funded by the European Commission under the Transport RDT Programme of the EU's Fourth Framework Programme. The project's main objectives were to: (1) collect a large international sample of campaign evaluations; (2) accur

  19. Is my country safer than others ? : a comparison of road safety data between different countries. Paper presented to the PIARC XIXth World Road Congress, Marrakesh, Morocco, 22-28 September 1991.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harris, S. & Wegman, F.C.M.

    1992-01-01

    Countries compare their road safety as they do their economies, namely to see if they are better than others. The OECD has recently started an "International Road Traffic and Accident Database (IRTAD)" as a permanent measuring instrument. It contains, per country, annual figures, since the mid-seven

  20. Road Safety Data, Collection, Transfer and Analysis DaCoTa. Workpackage 6, Driver Behaviour Monitoring through Naturalistic Driving: Deliverable 6.4: Naturalistic Driving for monitoring safety performance indicators and exposure: considerations for implementation.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schagen, I.N.L.G. van & Reed, S.

    2015-01-01

    DaCoTA was a Collaborative Project under the European Seventh Framework Programme that aimed to develop tools and methodologies to support road safety policy and further extend and enhance the European Road Safety Observatory (ERSO). One of the Work Packages in DaCoTA, WP6, focused on the usefulness

  1. Road Safety Data, Collection, Transfer and Analysis DaCoTa. Workpackage 6, Driver Behaviour Monitoring through Naturalistic Driving: Deliverable 6.4: Naturalistic Driving for monitoring safety performance indicators and exposure: considerations for implementation.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schagen, I.N.L.G. van & Reed, S.

    2015-01-01

    DaCoTA was a Collaborative Project under the European Seventh Framework Programme that aimed to develop tools and methodologies to support road safety policy and further extend and enhance the European Road Safety Observatory (ERSO). One of the Work Packages in DaCoTA, WP6, focused on the usefulness

  2. Classification Of Road Accidents From The Perspective Of Vehicle Safety Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jirovský Václav

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Modern road accident investigation and database structures are focused on accident analysis and classification from the point of view of the accident itself. The presented article offers a new approach, which will describe the accident from the point of view of integrated safety vehicle systems. Seven main categories have been defined to specify the level of importance of automated system intervention. One of the proposed categories is a new approach to defining the collision probability of an ego-vehicle with another object. This approach focuses on determining a 2-D reaction space, which describes all possible positions of the vehicle or other moving object in the specified amount of time in the future. This is to be used for defining the probability of the vehicles interacting - when the intersection of two reaction spaces exists, an action has to be taken on the side of ego-vehicle. The currently used 1-D quantity of TTC (time-to-collision can be superseded by the new reaction space variable. Such new quantity, whose basic idea is described in the article, enables the option of counting not only with necessary braking time, but mitigation by changing direction is then easily feasible. Finally, transparent classification measures of a probable accident are proposed. Their application is highly effective not only during basic accident comparison, but also for an on-board safety system.

  3. Effect of static electronic advertising signs on road safety: an experimental case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izadpanah, Pedram; Omrani, Reza; Koo, Sheldon; Hadayeghi, Ali

    2014-01-01

    As technology continues to advance, the outdoor advertising industry is taking advantage of electronic signs, some of which are static electronic signs (SES), with the ability to automatically change the message shown on the sign at regular intervals. Studies indicate that SES has a negative impact on the drivers' visual attention and on vehicle control. However, the actual effects of the SES on the number of collisions have been difficult to prove conclusively. The objective of this article is to generate a clear understanding of the safety impacts of SES on the number collisions by conducting a before-and-after analysis with comparison groups. The analysis was based on a total of 10 SES along the Highway 27 and the Gardiner Expressway of the city of Toronto. The results of the before-and-after study revealed that there was not enough evidence to suggest that these signs have any impact on road safety along the adjacent roadway sections at a 95% confidence interval. The same results were obtained by comparing collisions that occurred during daylight and artificial light.

  4. The influence of economic incentives linked to road safety indicators on accidents: the case of toll concessions in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rangel, Thais; Vassallo, José Manuel; Herraiz, Israel

    2013-10-01

    The goal of this paper is to evaluate whether the incentives incorporated in toll highway concession contracts in order to encourage private operators to adopt measures to reduce accidents are actually effective at improving safety. To this end, we implemented negative binomial regression models using information about highway characteristics and accident data from toll highway concessions in Spain from 2007 to 2009. Our results show that even though road safety is highly influenced by variables that are not managed by the contractor, such as the annual average daily traffic (AADT), the percentage of heavy vehicles on the highway, number of lanes, number of intersections and average speed; the implementation of these incentives has a positive influence on the reduction of accidents and injuries. Consequently, this measure seems to be an effective way of improving safety performance in road networks.

  5. Nuclear Safety Research Department annual report 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Majborn, B.; Damkjaer, A.; Nielsen, S.P.; Nonboel, E

    2001-08-01

    The report presents a summary of the work of the Nuclear Safety Research Department in 2000. The department's research and development activities were organized in two research programmes: 'Radiation Protection and Reactor Safety' and 'Radioecology and Tracer Studies'. In addition the department was responsible for the tasks 'Applied Health Physics and Emergency Preparedness', 'Dosimetry', 'Environmental Monitoring', and Irradiation and Isotope Services'. Lists of publications, committee memberships and staff members are included. (au)

  6. ROAD TRAFFIC SAFETY AUDIT AT LOCAL OBJECT OF MINSK ROADWAY NETWORK

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    D. V. Kapsky; D. V. Mozalevsky; V. N. Kuzmenko; A. V. Korzhova; A. S. Polkhovskaya; E. N. Kostiukovich; N. V. Ariushevskaya

    2015-01-01

    population of the Republic. Quality of the road traffic or its specific characteristics can be quantitatively estimated in terms of losses and by that we understand social and economic value of non-obligatory expenses in road traffic...

  7. Practices, attitudes and perceptions toward road safety in yerevan, republic of armenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chekijian, Sharon Anoush; Truzyan, Nune

    2012-01-01

    : To determine knowledge and attitudes regarding traffic safety devices, measures, and legislation in the general population in Yerevan, Republic of Armenia. : We conducted a baseline random digit dial fixed line telephone verbal survey of Yerevan households in April 2009 with a follow-up survey in May 2010. Survey domains included restraint use, motor vehicle crash experiences, and attitudes regarding traffic safety. : In the initial survey, of 2137 numbers dialed, 436 persons were reached and 390 (90%) agreed to participate. Of survey respondents, 90% percent of household cars had seatbelts, while 47% had airbags. Twenty-four percent always or usually wore a seatbelt when driving, 21% wore a belt as a passenger. 39% were unaware of child restraints. Of the 61% who were aware of child restraints, only 32% had ever used one. A follow-up survey was conducted one year later after enforcement efforts were increased. In the follow-up survey, 81% percent always or usually wore a seatbelt when driving, and 69% wore a belt as a passenger. There was no significant increase of awareness or use of child restraints in the follow-up survey. : Although cars in Yerevan have seat belts, the majority of drivers and passengers prior to the intervention did not use them. Knowledge and use of child restraints was poor. The follow-up survey conducted after an enforcement campaign was underway in Yerevan showed that improved enforcement greatly increased awareness and compliance with current legislation. This study provides vital baseline information for the formulation of future policy. It also highlights the need for a multi-dimensional road traffic safety initiative through public educational campaigns, enforcement of current laws, and development of novel prevention policies and regulations.

  8. Stakeholder Safety in Information Systems Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.H. Barbour

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Information Communication Technology (ICT researchers adapt and use tools from reference and cognate disciplines. This application of existing tools outside the context of their development has implications beyond the immediate problem context. ICT researchers have access to a wide variety of data sources including newer ones, such as the Internet, that may bring unexpected outcomes. ICT research can impact on researchers, their institutions and the researched in unexpected ways. People so affected are the stakeholders in ICT research activities. Reputations, welfare and property may be put at risk by unplanned events described in this paper. Legal aspects of ICT research are broadly identified and linked to the tort of negligence. The Social Research Association’s Code for researcher safety is described and its application extended to include the Internet as a potential data source. A common set of underlying ethical principles is identified suggesting that the ICT researcher can refine particular research protocols for specific social contexts.

  9. Global bike share: What the data tells us about road safety

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fishman, E.; Schepers, J.P.

    Introduction Bike share has emerged as a rapidly growing mode of transport in over 800 cities globally, up from just a handful in the 1990s. Some analysts had forecast a rise in the number of bicycle crashes after the introduction of bike share, but empirical research on bike share safety is rare.

  10. Driver’s Attitudes about the Impact of Caffeine and Energy Drinks on Road Traffic Safety

    OpenAIRE

    Dalibor Pešić; Boris Antić; Davor Brčić; Jelica Davidović

    2015-01-01

    Large amounts of energy drinks and caffeine, which is the main ingredient of energy drinks, produce a negative effect on the drivers, and therefore affect traffic safety.In order to determine the attitudes of drivers toward the impact of energy drinks and caffeine, a research was conducted using a questionnaire form and the targeted group of the survey were drivers. The research was conducted in the City of Belgrade in December 2012. There were 420 survey papers distributed to drivers of diff...

  11. Engaging the Somali community in the road safety agenda: a process evaluation from the London borough of Hounslow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christie, Nicola; Sleney, Judith; Ahmed, Fatima; Knight, Elisabeth

    2012-08-01

    In the UK the most disadvantaged in society are more likely than those more affluent to be injured or killed in a road traffic collision and therefore it is a major cause of health inequality. There is a strong link between ethnicity, deprivation and injury. Whilst national road traffic injury data does not collect ethnic origin the London accident and analysis group does in terms of broad categories such as 'white', 'black' and 'Asian'. Analysis of this data revealed the over-representation of child pedestrian casualties from a 'black' ethnic origin. This information led road safety practitioners in one London borough to map child pedestrian casualties against census data which identified the Somali community as being particularly at risk of being involved in a road traffic collision. Working with the community they sought to discuss and address road safety issues and introduced practical evidence based approaches such as child pedestrian training. The process evaluation of the project used a qualitative approach and showed that engaging with community partners and working across organisational boundaries was a useful strategy to gain an understanding of the Somali community. A bottom approach provided the community with a sense of control and involvement which appears to add value in terms of reducing the sense of powerlessness that marginalised communities often feel. In terms of evaluation, small projects like these, lend themselves to a qualitative process evaluation though it has to be accepted that the strength of this evidence may be regarded as weak. Where possible routine injury data needs to take into account ethnicity which is a known risk factor for road casualty involvement which needs to be continually monitored.

  12. Road Safety Data, Collection, Transfer and Analysis DaCoTa. Factsheet Traffic safety basic facts 2010 : urban areas.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pace, J.-F. López de Cozar, E. Pérez-Fuster, P. Sanmartín, J. Yannis, G. Evgenikos, P. Argyropoulou, E. Papantoniou, P. Broughton, J. Knowles, J. Brandstaetter, C. Candappa, N. Christoph, M. Vis, M. Haddak, M. Moutengou, E. & Kirk, A.

    2012-01-01

    In 2008, 13.502 people were killed in traffic accidents on urban roads in the EU-19. This is 38% of all traffic accident fatalities in 2008. In the last decade, urban road fatalities have reduced by a quarter (25,7%), while the total number of fatalities has reduced by almost a third (31,5%). (Autho

  13. Reactor Safety Research: Semiannual report, January-June 1986: Reactor Safety Research Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1987-05-01

    Sandia National Laboratories is conducting, under USNRC sponsorship, phenomenological research related to the safety of commercial nuclear power reactors. The research includes experiments to simulate the phenomenology of accident conditions and the development of analytical models, verified by experiment, which can be used to predict reactor and safety systems performance behavior under abnormal conditions. The objective of this work is to provide NRC requisite data bases and analytical methods to (1) identify and define safety issues, (2) understand the progression of risk-significant accident sequences, and (3) conduct safety assessments. The collective NRC-sponsored effort at Sandia National Laboratories is directed at enhancing the technology base supporting licensing decisions.

  14. Exploring the diffusion of tweets designed to raise the road safety agenda in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albalawi, Yousef A; Sixsmith, Jane

    2016-06-01

    This study demonstrates the importance of understanding the diffusion process in social media such as Twitter as an example of the relationship between new media platforms and health promotion interventions. Evidence-informed tweets were developed, pilot tested and distributed to all followers of the Ministry of Health's Twitter account with the aim of influencing the agenda on road safety in Saudi Arabia. The dissemination pattern and influence of this health communication was assessed. We collected 70 tweets into two groups (29 intervention tweets and 41 additional supported tweets) extracted from the Tweetreach data set and then analysed them using Microsoft Excel and SPSS.Using the concept of innovation/imitation as defined in the Bass Model, we classified retweeting by direct followers as innovation and retweeting by users who were not followers as imitation. In the study, we identify an informative indicator of successful diffusion and propose a novel procedure to measure innovation/imitation coefficients (p and q). We also provided a statistical procedure for evaluating tweet adoption by innovators (influentials) and imitators. In addition, we also assessed the use of message design tools for new media messages. The resulting information can be used to improve public health and health promotion interventions at the levels of planning, design, implementation and evaluation.

  15. Young Females' Attention towards Road Safety Images: An ERP Study of the Revised Reinforcement Sensitivity Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaye, Sherrie-Anne; White, Melanie J; Lewis, Ioni

    2017-08-24

    This study examined whether reward and punishment sensitivities, as conceptualised by Gray and McNaughton's revised Reinforcement Sensitivity Theory (RST), influenced young female drivers' attention towards a series of positive and negative anti-speeding advertisement images. Young females' increasing crash risk is associated with their engagement in risky behaviours which, in turn, has been associated with a stronger Behavioural Approach System (BAS; sensitive to rewards). It was predicted that individuals with a stronger BAS would elicit larger N100 and N200 mean amplitudes (reflecting greater attention) towards the positive images. Similar associations were predicted in relation to the Fight-Flight-Freeze System (FFFS; sensitive to punishments) for negative images. Twenty-four female drivers (17-25 years; final N = 16) completed Corr-Cooper's (2013) RST-Personality Questionnaire, prior to undergoing an Event-Related Potential computerised visual task (i.e., oddball paradigm) which comprised positive, negative, and neutral images as targets against checkerboard image distractors. Contrary to expectations, individuals with a stronger BAS (Reward Reactivity and Impulsivity) demonstrated significantly larger N200 mean amplitudes on presentation of the negative images than those with weaker a BAS, at the Cz electrode site. No other significant RST effects were found. These findings provide some preliminary objective support for the use of negative emotion-based road safety advertisements for young females. Further, this study provides support for using psychophysiological measures to enhance understanding of traffic injury persuasion.

  16. Implicit attitudes and road safety behaviors. The helmet-use case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledesma, Rubén D; Tosi, Jeremías; Poó, Fernando M; Montes, Silvana A; López, Soledad S

    2015-06-01

    We studied the role of implicit attitudes on road safety behaviors. We also explored the methodological benefits of using implicit measures to complement conventional self-reporting instruments. The results suggest that: (a) implicit attitudes are capable of predicting observed differences in the use of protective devices (helmet use); (b) implicit attitudes correlate with the emotional component of the explicit attitudes (e.g., perception of comfort-discomfort), but appear to be independent of the more cognitive components (e.g., perceived benefits); (c) the emotional component of the explicit attitudes appears to be the major predictor of behavior; and (d) implicit measures seem to be more robust against social desirability biases, while explicit measure are more sensitive to such bias. We conclude that indirect and automatic measures serve as an important complement to conventional direct measures (self-reports) because they provide information on psychological processes that are qualitatively different (implicit) and can also be more robust when it comes to response bias. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. SHORTCOMINGS IN ROAD ACCIDENT DATA IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES, IDENTIFICATION AND CORRECTION: A CASE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamil A. NAJI, Dr.

    2000-01-01

    Estimating the actual percentage of unreported data in road accidents and casualties is very useful for any further research in road accidents and safety in Yemen. It will also help in dealing with official data and results from previous studies.

  18. Advanced research workshop: nuclear materials safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jardine, L J; Moshkov, M M

    1999-01-28

    The Advanced Research Workshop (ARW) on Nuclear Materials Safety held June 8-10, 1998, in St. Petersburg, Russia, was attended by 27 Russian experts from 14 different Russian organizations, seven European experts from six different organizations, and 14 U.S. experts from seven different organizations. The ARW was conducted at the State Education Center (SEC), a former Minatom nuclear training center in St. Petersburg. Thirty-three technical presentations were made using simultaneous translations. These presentations are reprinted in this volume as a formal ARW Proceedings in the NATO Science Series. The representative technical papers contained here cover nuclear material safety topics on the storage and disposition of excess plutonium and high enriched uranium (HEU) fissile materials, including vitrification, mixed oxide (MOX) fuel fabrication, plutonium ceramics, reprocessing, geologic disposal, transportation, and Russian regulatory processes. This ARW completed discussions by experts of the nuclear materials safety topics that were not covered in the previous, companion ARW on Nuclear Materials Safety held in Amarillo, Texas, in March 1997. These two workshops, when viewed together as a set, have addressed most nuclear material aspects of the storage and disposition operations required for excess HEU and plutonium. As a result, specific experts in nuclear materials safety have been identified, know each other from their participation in t he two ARW interactions, and have developed a partial consensus and dialogue on the most urgent nuclear materials safety topics to be addressed in a formal bilateral program on t he subject. A strong basis now exists for maintaining and developing a continuing dialogue between Russian, European, and U.S. experts in nuclear materials safety that will improve the safety of future nuclear materials operations in all the countries involved because of t he positive synergistic effects of focusing these diverse backgrounds of

  19. Distinguishing between Rural and Urban Road Segment Traffic Safety Based on Zero-Inflated Negative Binomial Regression Models

    OpenAIRE

    Xuedong Yan; Bin Wang; Meiwu An; Cuiping Zhang

    2012-01-01

    In this study, the traffic crash rate, total crash frequency, and injury and fatal crash frequency were taken into consideration for distinguishing between rural and urban road segment safety. The GIS-based crash data during four and half years in Pikes Peak Area, US were applied for the analyses. The comparative statistical results show that the crash rates in rural segments are consistently lower than urban segments. Further, the regression results based on Zero-Inflated Negative Binomial (...

  20. Country Guidelines for the Conduct of Road Safety Management Capacity Reviews and the Specification of Lead Agency Reforms, Investment Strategies and Safe System Projects

    OpenAIRE

    Bliss, Tony; Breen, Jeanne

    2009-01-01

    The World Health Organization (WHO) and the World Bank jointly issued the world report on road traffic injury prevention on world health day 2004, dedicated by the WHO to the improvement of global road safety. The report's publication signaled a growing concern in the global community about the scale of the health losses associated with escalating motorization and a recognition that urgent...