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Sample records for rna dna hybrid

  1. Conformational Selection and Induced Fit for RNA Polymerase and RNA/DNA Hybrid Backtracked Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haifeng eChen

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available RNA polymerase catalyzes transcription with a high fidelity. If DNA/RNA mismatch or DNA damage occurs downstream, a backtracked RNA polymerase can proofread this situation. However, the backtracked mechanism is still poorly understood. Here we have performed multiple explicit-solvent molecular dynamics (MD simulations on bound and apo DNA/RNA hybrid to study backtracked recognition. MD simulations at room temperature suggest that specific electrostatic interactions play key roles in the backtracked recognition between the polymerase and DNA/RNA hybrid. Kinetics analysis at high temperature shows that bound and apo DNA/RNA hybrid unfold via a two-state process. Both kinetics and free energy landscape analyses indicate that bound DNA/RNA hybrid folds in the order of DNA/RNA contracting, the tertiary folding and polymerase binding. The predicted Φ-values suggest that C7, G9, dC12, dC15 and dT16 are key bases for the backtracked recognition of DNA/RNA hybrid. The average RMSD values between the bound structures and the corresponding apo ones and Kolmogorov-Smirnov (KS P test analyses indicate that the recognition between DNA/RNA hybrid and polymerase might follow an induced fit mechanism for DNA/RNA hybrid and conformation selection for polymerase. Furthermore, this method could be used to relative studies of specific recognition between nucleic acid and protein.

  2. Fluorescent in situ hybridization of mitochondrial DNA and RNA

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Alán, Lukáš; Zelenka, Jaroslav; Ježek, Jan; Dlasková, Andrea; Ježek, Petr

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 57, č. 4 (2010), s. 403-408 ISSN 0001-527X R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP302/10/0346; GA ČR GPP304/10/P204; GA AV ČR KJB500110902 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : mitochondrial DNA and RNA * nucleoids of mitochondrial DNA * molecular beacon fluorescent hybridization probes Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 1.234, year: 2010

  3. File list: Oth.ALL.10.DNA-RNA_hybrids.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Oth.ALL.10.DNA-RNA_hybrids.AllCell sacCer3 TFs and others DNA-RNA hybrids All cell ...types http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/sacCer3/assembled/Oth.ALL.10.DNA-RNA_hybrids.AllCell.bed ...

  4. File list: Oth.ALL.50.DNA-RNA_hybrids.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Oth.ALL.50.DNA-RNA_hybrids.AllCell sacCer3 TFs and others DNA-RNA hybrids All cell ...types http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/sacCer3/assembled/Oth.ALL.50.DNA-RNA_hybrids.AllCell.bed ...

  5. File list: Oth.Unc.20.DNA-RNA_hybrids.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Oth.Unc.20.DNA-RNA_hybrids.AllCell sacCer3 TFs and others DNA-RNA hybrids Unclassif...ied http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/sacCer3/assembled/Oth.Unc.20.DNA-RNA_hybrids.AllCell.bed ...

  6. File list: Oth.ALL.05.DNA-RNA_hybrids.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Oth.ALL.05.DNA-RNA_hybrids.AllCell sacCer3 TFs and others DNA-RNA hybrids All cell ...types http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/sacCer3/assembled/Oth.ALL.05.DNA-RNA_hybrids.AllCell.bed ...

  7. File list: Oth.Unc.50.DNA-RNA_hybrids.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Oth.Unc.50.DNA-RNA_hybrids.AllCell sacCer3 TFs and others DNA-RNA hybrids Unclassif...ied http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/sacCer3/assembled/Oth.Unc.50.DNA-RNA_hybrids.AllCell.bed ...

  8. File list: Oth.YSt.05.DNA-RNA_hybrids.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Oth.YSt.05.DNA-RNA_hybrids.AllCell sacCer3 TFs and others DNA-RNA hybrids Yeast str...ain http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/sacCer3/assembled/Oth.YSt.05.DNA-RNA_hybrids.AllCell.bed ...

  9. File list: Oth.Unc.10.DNA-RNA_hybrids.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Oth.Unc.10.DNA-RNA_hybrids.AllCell sacCer3 TFs and others DNA-RNA hybrids Unclassif...ied http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/sacCer3/assembled/Oth.Unc.10.DNA-RNA_hybrids.AllCell.bed ...

  10. File list: Oth.YSt.50.DNA-RNA_hybrids.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Oth.YSt.50.DNA-RNA_hybrids.AllCell sacCer3 TFs and others DNA-RNA hybrids Yeast str...ain http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/sacCer3/assembled/Oth.YSt.50.DNA-RNA_hybrids.AllCell.bed ...

  11. File list: Oth.Unc.05.DNA-RNA_hybrids.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Oth.Unc.05.DNA-RNA_hybrids.AllCell sacCer3 TFs and others DNA-RNA hybrids Unclassif...ied http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/sacCer3/assembled/Oth.Unc.05.DNA-RNA_hybrids.AllCell.bed ...

  12. File list: Oth.ALL.20.DNA-RNA_hybrids.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Oth.ALL.20.DNA-RNA_hybrids.AllCell sacCer3 TFs and others DNA-RNA hybrids All cell ...types http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/sacCer3/assembled/Oth.ALL.20.DNA-RNA_hybrids.AllCell.bed ...

  13. File list: Oth.YSt.20.DNA-RNA_hybrids.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Oth.YSt.20.DNA-RNA_hybrids.AllCell sacCer3 TFs and others DNA-RNA hybrids Yeast str...ain http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/sacCer3/assembled/Oth.YSt.20.DNA-RNA_hybrids.AllCell.bed ...

  14. File list: Oth.YSt.10.DNA-RNA_hybrids.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Oth.YSt.10.DNA-RNA_hybrids.AllCell sacCer3 TFs and others DNA-RNA hybrids Yeast str...ain http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/sacCer3/assembled/Oth.YSt.10.DNA-RNA_hybrids.AllCell.bed ...

  15. DNA/RNA hybrid substrates modulate the catalytic activity of purified AID.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdouni, Hala S; King, Justin J; Ghorbani, Atefeh; Fifield, Heather; Berghuis, Lesley; Larijani, Mani

    2018-01-01

    Activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID) converts cytidine to uridine at Immunoglobulin (Ig) loci, initiating somatic hypermutation and class switching of antibodies. In vitro, AID acts on single stranded DNA (ssDNA), but neither double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) oligonucleotides nor RNA, and it is believed that transcription is the in vivo generator of ssDNA targeted by AID. It is also known that the Ig loci, particularly the switch (S) regions targeted by AID are rich in transcription-generated DNA/RNA hybrids. Here, we examined the binding and catalytic behavior of purified AID on DNA/RNA hybrid substrates bearing either random sequences or GC-rich sequences simulating Ig S regions. If substrates were made up of a random sequence, AID preferred substrates composed entirely of DNA over DNA/RNA hybrids. In contrast, if substrates were composed of S region sequences, AID preferred to mutate DNA/RNA hybrids over substrates composed entirely of DNA. Accordingly, AID exhibited a significantly higher affinity for binding DNA/RNA hybrid substrates composed specifically of S region sequences, than any other substrates composed of DNA. Thus, in the absence of any other cellular processes or factors, AID itself favors binding and mutating DNA/RNA hybrids composed of S region sequences. AID:DNA/RNA complex formation and supporting mutational analyses suggest that recognition of DNA/RNA hybrids is an inherent structural property of AID. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. File list: Oth.NoD.50.DNA-RNA_hybrids.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Oth.NoD.50.DNA-RNA_hybrids.AllCell sacCer3 TFs and others DNA-RNA hybrids No descri...ption http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/sacCer3/assembled/Oth.NoD.50.DNA-RNA_hybrids.AllCell.bed ...

  17. File list: Oth.NoD.20.DNA-RNA_hybrids.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Oth.NoD.20.DNA-RNA_hybrids.AllCell sacCer3 TFs and others DNA-RNA hybrids No descri...ption http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/sacCer3/assembled/Oth.NoD.20.DNA-RNA_hybrids.AllCell.bed ...

  18. File list: Oth.NoD.10.DNA-RNA_hybrids.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Oth.NoD.10.DNA-RNA_hybrids.AllCell sacCer3 TFs and others DNA-RNA hybrids No descri...ption http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/sacCer3/assembled/Oth.NoD.10.DNA-RNA_hybrids.AllCell.bed ...

  19. File list: Oth.NoD.05.DNA-RNA_hybrids.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Oth.NoD.05.DNA-RNA_hybrids.AllCell sacCer3 TFs and others DNA-RNA hybrids No descri...ption http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/sacCer3/assembled/Oth.NoD.05.DNA-RNA_hybrids.AllCell.bed ...

  20. The Smc5/6 complex regulates the yeast Mph1 helicase at RNA-DNA hybrid-mediated DNA damage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lafuente-Barquero, Juan; Luke-Glaser, Sarah; Graf, Marco

    2017-01-01

    of Fanconi anemia protein M (FANCM), is required for cell viability in the absence of RNase H enzymes. The integrity of the Mph1 helicase domain is crucial to prevent the accumulation of RNA-DNA hybrids and RNA-DNA hybrid-dependent DNA damage, as determined by Rad52 foci. Mph1 forms foci when RNA-DNA hybrids...

  1. Charge transfer through DNA/DNA duplexes and DNA/RNA hybrids: complex theoretical and experimental studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kratochvílová, Irena; Vala, Martin; Weiter, Martin; Špérová, Miroslava; Schneider, Bohdan; Páv, Ondřej; Šebera, Jakub; Rosenberg, Ivan; Sychrovský, Vladimír

    2013-01-01

    Oligonucleotides conduct electric charge via various mechanisms and their characterization and understanding is a very important and complicated task. In this work, experimental (temperature dependent steady state fluorescence spectroscopy, time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy) and theoretical (Density Functional Theory) approaches were combined to study charge transfer processes in short DNA/DNA and RNA/DNA duplexes with virtually equivalent sequences. The experimental results were consistent with the theoretical model - the delocalized nature of HOMO orbitals and holes, base stacking, electronic coupling and conformational flexibility formed the conditions for more effective short distance charge transfer processes in RNA/DNA hybrids. RNA/DNA and DNA/DNA charge transfer properties were strongly connected with temperature affected structural changes of molecular systems - charge transfer could be used as a probe of even tiny changes of molecular structures and settings. © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Atomistic details of the molecular recognition of DNA-RNA hybrid ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    conformations corresponding to typical A- and B-type nucleic acids and the .... protein chains and five base pairs in DNA-RNA hybrid ... employed to treat the long range electrostatic interac- .... The solvent accessible surface areas (SASA) of.

  3. Electrokinetically-controlled RNA-DNA hybridization assay for foodborne pathogens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weng, X.; Jiang, H.; Li, D.

    2012-01-01

    We have developed a microfluidic chip for use in an RNA-DNA hybridization assay for foodborne pathogens. Automatic sequential reagent dispensing and washing was realized with a programmable DC voltage sequencer. Signal detection was achieved with a miniaturized optical detection module. Salmonella and Listeria monocytogenes bacteria in different concentrations were quantitatively determined by this RNA-DNA hybridization assay in the microfluidic chip. The detection limit for the Salmonella and Listeria monocytogenes bacteria is 10 3 to 10 4 CFU mL -1 . The method excels by a significant reduction in the consumption of sample and reagent, and a short assay time. This automatic-operating microfluidic RNA-DNA hybridization assay is promising for on-site pathogen detection. (author)

  4. Efficient DNA ligation in DNA–RNA hybrid helices by Chlorella virus DNA ligase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohman, Gregory J. S.; Zhang, Yinhua; Zhelkovsky, Alexander M.; Cantor, Eric J.; Evans, Thomas C.

    2014-01-01

    Single-stranded DNA molecules (ssDNA) annealed to an RNA splint are notoriously poor substrates for DNA ligases. Herein we report the unexpectedly efficient ligation of RNA-splinted DNA by Chlorella virus DNA ligase (PBCV-1 DNA ligase). PBCV-1 DNA ligase ligated ssDNA splinted by RNA with kcat ≈ 8 x 10−3 s−1 and KM DNA ligase produced only 5′-adenylylated DNA with a 20-fold lower kcat and a KM ≈ 300 nM. The rate of ligation increased with addition of Mn2+, but was strongly inhibited by concentrations of NaCl >100 mM. Abortive adenylylation was suppressed at low ATP concentrations (8, leading to increased product yields. The ligation reaction was rapid for a broad range of substrate sequences, but was relatively slower for substrates with a 5′-phosphorylated dC or dG residue on the 3′ side of the ligation junction. Nevertheless, PBCV-1 DNA ligase ligated all sequences tested with 10-fold less enzyme and 15-fold shorter incubation times than required when using T4 DNA ligase. Furthermore, this ligase was used in a ligation-based detection assay system to show increased sensitivity over T4 DNA ligase in the specific detection of a target mRNA. PMID:24203707

  5. Hybridization change of DNA and nuclear RNA synthesized immediately after ionizing irradiation in spleen cells isolated from 615 mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meng Ziqiang

    1986-01-01

    DNA hybridization with nuclear RNA(nRNA) synthesized immediately after 60 Co Gamma-irradiation in the spleen cells freshly isolated from inbred line 615 mice was investigated, using the technique of Gillespie and Spiegelman. In RNA/DNA hybridization percentage experiment, it was showed that the hybridization of normal DNA with labelled nRNA synthesized in irradiated cells reached the saturation point at a much faster rate than with labelled normal nRNA. The hybridization percentage of nRNA synthesized in irradiated cells was higher than that of normal nRNA during the different reaction time before the saturation point of DNA with nRNA synthesized in irradiated cells, but it was lower than that of normal nRNA after the zone of high repetitive DNA sequences was stimulated, however, the transcription of some base sequences in the zone of low repetitive DNA sequences was seriously inhibited. Measurements of the exhaustion rates of pulse-labelled nRNA were carried out as described by Greene and Flickinger Biochim. In these studies, pulse-labelled nRNA synthesized in unirradiated and irradiated cells were compared by exhausion with DNA at hybridization time of 4 or 24 hours, When the hybridization time was 4 hours, the nRNA synthesized in irradiated cells displayed a faster exhaustion rate than the control nRNA. But if the hybridization time was 24 hours, the exhaustion rate of nRNA synthesized in irradiated cells reduced. These results demostrated that Gamma-irradiation changed the proportion of transcription of some nRNA species and implayed that the sensitivities of the transcription activeties of the different repetitive DNA sequences to Gamma-irradiation were different, and so were the transcription activeties of the different base sequences in the same repetitive DNA sequences

  6. Mechanism and manipulation of DNA:RNA hybrid G-quadruplex formation in transcription of G-rich DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jia-yu; Zheng, Ke-wei; Xiao, Shan; Hao, Yu-hua; Tan, Zheng

    2014-01-29

    We recently reported that a DNA:RNA hybrid G-quadruplex (HQ) forms during transcription of DNA that bears two or more tandem guanine tracts (G-tract) on the nontemplate strand. Putative HQ-forming sequences are enriched in the nearby 1000 nt region right downstream of transcription start sites in the nontemplate strand of warm-blooded animals, and HQ regulates transcription under both in vitro and in vivo conditions. Therefore, knowledge of the mechanism of HQ formation is important for understanding the biological function of HQ as well as for manipulating gene expression by targeting HQ. In this work, we studied the mechanism of HQ formation using an in vitro T7 transcription model. We show that RNA synthesis initially produces an R-loop, a DNA:RNA heteroduplex formed by a nascent RNA transcript and the template DNA strand. In the following round of transcription, the RNA in the R-loop is displaced, releasing the RNA in single-stranded form (ssRNA). Then the G-tracts in the RNA can jointly form HQ with those in the nontemplate DNA strand. We demonstrate that the structural cascade R-loop → ssRNA → HQ offers opportunities to intercept HQ formation, which may provide a potential method to manipulate gene expression.

  7. Guanine is indispensable for immunoglobulin switch region RNA-DNA hybrid formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mizuta, Ryushin; Mizuta, Midori; Kitamura, Daisuke

    2005-01-01

    It is suggested that the formation of the switch (S) region RNA-DNA hybrid and the subsequent generation of higher-order chromatin structures including R-loop initiate a class switch recombination of the immunoglobulin gene. The primary factor of this recombination is the S-region derived noncoding RNA. However, the biochemical character of this guanine-rich (G-rich) transcript is poorly understood. The present study was performed to analyze the structure of this G-rich RNA using atomic force microscope (AFM). The in vitro transcribed S-region RNA was spread on a mica plate, air-dried and observed by non-contact mode AFM in air. The G-rich transcripts tend to aggregate on the template DNA and to generate a higher-order RNA-DNA complex. However, the transcripts that incorporated guanine analogues as substitutes for guanine neither aggregated nor generated higher-order structures. Incorporation of guanine analogues in transcribes RNA partially disrupts hydrogen bonds related to guanine, such as Watson-Crick GC-base pair and Hoogsteen bond GG-base pair. Thus, aggregation of S-region RNA and generation of the higher-order RNA-DNA complex are attributed to hydrogen bonds of guanine. (author)

  8. Preparation of fluorescent-dye-labeled cDNA from RNA for microarray hybridization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ares, Manuel

    2014-01-01

    This protocol describes how to prepare fluorescently labeled cDNA for hybridization to microarrays. It consists of two steps: first, a mixture of anchored oligo(dT) and random hexamers is used to prime amine-modified cDNA synthesis by reverse transcriptase using a modified deoxynucleotide with a reactive amine group (aminoallyl-dUTP) and an RNA sample as a template. Second, the cDNA is purified and exchanged into bicarbonate buffer so that the amine groups in the cDNA react with the dye N-hydroxysuccinimide (NHS) esters, covalently joining the dye to the cDNA. The dye-coupled cDNA is purified again, and the amount of dye incorporated per microgram of cDNA is determined.

  9. Recognition of RNA by amide modified backbone nucleic acids: molecular dynamics simulations of DNA-RNA hybrids in aqueous solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nina, Mafalda; Fonné-Pfister, Raymonde; Beaudegnies, Renaud; Chekatt, Habiba; Jung, Pierre M J; Murphy-Kessabi, Fiona; De Mesmaeker, Alain; Wendeborn, Sebastian

    2005-04-27

    Thermodynamic and structural properties of a chemically modified DNA-RNA hybrid in which a phosphodiester linkage is replaced by a neutral amide-3 linkage (3'-CH(2)-CONH-5') were investigated using UV melting experiments, molecular dynamics simulations in explicit water, and continuum solvent models. van't Hoff analysis of the experimental UV melting curves suggests that the significant increase of the thermodynamic stability of a 15-mer DNA-RNA with seven alternated amide-3 modifications (+11 degrees C) is mainly due to an increased binding enthalpy. To further evaluate the origin in the observed affinities differences, the electrostatic contribution to the binding free energy was calculated by solving the Poisson-Boltzmann equation numerically. The nonelectrostatic contribution was estimated as the product of a hydrophobic surface tension coefficient and the surface area that is buried upon double strand formation. Structures were taken from 10 ns molecular dynamics simulations computed in a consistent fashion using explicit solvent, counterions, and the particle-mesh Ewald procedure. The present preliminary thermodynamic study suggests that the favorable binding free energy of the amide-3 DNA single strand to the complementary RNA is equally driven by electrostatic and nonpolar contributions to the binding compared to their natural analogues. In addition, molecular dynamics simulations in explicit water were performed on an amide-3 DNA single strand and the corresponding natural DNA. Results from the conformations cluster analysis of the simulated amide-3 DNA single strand ensembles suggest that the 25% of the population sampled within 10 ns has a pre-organized conformation where the sugar C3' endo pucker is favored at the 3'-flanking nucleotides. These structural and thermodynamic features contribute to the understanding of the observed increased affinities of the amide-3 DNA-RNA hybrids at the microscopic level.

  10. Enzymatic Amplification of DNA/RNA Hybrid Molecular Beacon Signaling in Nucleic Acid Detection

    OpenAIRE

    Jacroux, Thomas; Rieck, Daniel C.; Cui, Rong; Ouyang, Yexin; Dong, Wen-Ji

    2012-01-01

    A rapid assay operable under isothermal or non-isothermal conditions is described wherein the sensitivity of a typical molecular beacon (MB) system is improved by utilizing thermostable RNase H to enzymatically cleave an MB comprised of a DNA stem and RNA loop (R/D-MB). Upon hybridization of the R/D-MB to target DNA, there was a modest increase in fluorescence intensity (~5.7x above background) due to an opening of the probe and concomitant reduction in the Förster resonance energy transfer e...

  11. Mycobacterium smegmatis Lhr Is a DNA-dependent ATPase and a 3'-to-5' DNA translocase and helicase that prefers to unwind 3'-tailed RNA:DNA hybrids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ordonez, Heather; Shuman, Stewart

    2013-05-17

    We are interested in the distinctive roster of helicases of Mycobacterium, a genus of the phylum Actinobacteria that includes the human pathogen Mycobacterium tuberculosis and its avirulent relative Mycobacterium smegmatis. Here, we identify and characterize M. smegmatis Lhr as the exemplar of a novel clade of superfamily II helicases, by virtue of its biochemical specificities and signature domain organization. Lhr is a 1507-amino acid monomeric nucleic acid-dependent ATPase that uses the energy of ATP hydrolysis to drive unidirectional 3'-to-5' translocation along single strand DNA and to unwind duplexes en route. The ATPase is more active in the presence of calcium than magnesium. ATP hydrolysis is triggered by either single strand DNA or single strand RNA, yet the apparent affinity for a DNA activator is 11-fold higher than for an RNA strand of identical size and nucleobase sequence. Lhr is 8-fold better at unwinding an RNA:DNA hybrid than it is at displacing a DNA:DNA duplex of identical nucleobase sequence. The truncated derivative Lhr-(1-856) is an autonomous ATPase, 3'-to-5' translocase, and RNA:DNA helicase. Lhr-(1-856) is 100-fold better RNA:DNA helicase than DNA:DNA helicase. Lhr homologs are found in bacteria representing eight different phyla, being especially prevalent in Actinobacteria (including M. tuberculosis) and Proteobacteria (including Escherichia coli).

  12. Inclusion of methoxy groups inverts the thermodynamic stabilities of DNA-RNA hybrid duplexes: A molecular dynamics simulation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suresh, Gorle; Priyakumar, U Deva

    2015-09-01

    Modified nucleic acids have found profound applications in nucleic acid based technologies such as antisense and antiviral therapies. Previous studies on chemically modified nucleic acids have suggested that modifications incorporated in furanose sugar especially at 2'-position attribute special properties to nucleic acids when compared to other modifications. 2'-O-methyl modification to deoxyribose sugars of DNA-RNA hybrids is one such modification that increases nucleic acid stability and has become an attractive class of compounds for potential antisense applications. It has been reported that modification of DNA strands with 2'-O-methyl group reverses the thermodynamic stability of DNA-RNA hybrid duplexes. Molecular dynamics simulations have been performed on two hybrid duplexes (DR and RD) which differ from each other and 2'-O-methyl modified counterparts to investigate the effect of 2'-O-methyl modification on their duplex stability. The results obtained suggest that the modification drives the conformations of both the hybrid duplexes towards A-RNA like conformation. The modified hybrid duplexes exhibit significantly contrasting dynamics and hydration patterns compared to respective parent duplexes. In line with the experimental results, the relative binding free energies suggest that the introduced modifications stabilize the less stable DR hybrid, but destabilize the more stable RD duplex. Binding free energy calculations suggest that the increased hydrophobicity is primarily responsible for the reversal of thermodynamic stability of hybrid duplexes. Free energy component analysis further provides insights into the stability of modified duplexes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Synthesis and structural characterization of piperazino-modified DNA that favours hybridization towards DNA over RNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skov, Joan; Bryld, Torsten; Lindegaard, Dorthe

    2011-01-01

    We report the synthesis of two C4'-modified DNA analogues and characterize their structural impact on dsDNA duplexes. The 4'-C-piperazinomethyl modification stabilizes dsDNA by up to 5°C per incorporation. Extension of the modification with a butanoyl-linked pyrene increases the dsDNA stabilizati...

  14. In situ DNA-RNA hybridization using in vitro 125I-labeled ribosomal RNA of higher plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Seiichi; Kikuchi, Tadatoshi; Ishida, M.R.; Tanaka, Ryuso.

    1975-01-01

    In situ hybridization using 125 I-labeled ribosomal RNA was applied to plant cells. Cytoplasmic 25 s rRNA, which was eluted from acrylamide gels after electrophoretic separation, was labeled in vitro with carrier-free 125 I and hybridized with the interphase nuclei in root tips of Vicia faba. In most of the preparations, the nucleoli were more heavily labeled than the other regions within nuclei, and several types of grain distribution were observed on the nucleoli. From these results, it was confirmed that in situ hybridization using 125 I-labeled rRNA can be used very effectively to detect the annealing sites of different molecular species of rRNA within the nuclei of plant cells, for which it is not as easy to obtain high specific radioactive rRNA in vivo as it is in the case of cultured animal cells. (auth.)

  15. RNA/DNA Hybrid Interactome Identifies DXH9 as a Molecular Player in Transcriptional Termination and R-Loop-Associated DNA Damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cristini, Agnese; Groh, Matthias; Kristiansen, Maiken S; Gromak, Natalia

    2018-05-08

    R-loops comprise an RNA/DNA hybrid and displaced single-stranded DNA. They play important biological roles and are implicated in pathology. Even so, proteins recognizing these structures are largely undefined. Using affinity purification with the S9.6 antibody coupled to mass spectrometry, we defined the RNA/DNA hybrid interactome in HeLa cells. This consists of known R-loop-associated factors SRSF1, FACT, and Top1, and yet uncharacterized interactors, including helicases, RNA processing, DNA repair, and chromatin factors. We validate specific examples of these interactors and characterize their involvement in R-loop biology. A top candidate DHX9 helicase promotes R-loop suppression and transcriptional termination. DHX9 interacts with PARP1, and both proteins prevent R-loop-associated DNA damage. DHX9 and other interactome helicases are overexpressed in cancer, linking R-loop-mediated DNA damage and disease. Our RNA/DNA hybrid interactome provides a powerful resource to study R-loop biology in health and disease. Copyright © 2018 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Import of desired nucleic acid sequences using addressing motif of mitochondrial ribosomal 5S-rRNA for fluorescent in vivo hybridization of mitochondrial DNA and RNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zelenka, Jaroslav; Alán, Lukáš; Jabůrek, Martin; Ježek, Petr

    2014-04-01

    Based on the matrix-addressing sequence of mitochondrial ribosomal 5S-rRNA (termed MAM), which is naturally imported into mitochondria, we have constructed an import system for in vivo targeting of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) or mt-mRNA, in order to provide fluorescence hybridization of the desired sequences. Thus DNA oligonucleotides were constructed, containing the 5'-flanked T7 RNA polymerase promoter. After in vitro transcription and fluorescent labeling with Alexa Fluor(®) 488 or 647 dye, we obtained the fluorescent "L-ND5 probe" containing MAM and exemplar cargo, i.e., annealing sequence to a short portion of ND5 mRNA and to the light-strand mtDNA complementary to the heavy strand nd5 mt gene (5'-end 21 base pair sequence). For mitochondrial in vivo fluorescent hybridization, HepG2 cells were treated with dequalinium micelles, containing the fluorescent probes, bringing the probes proximally to the mitochondrial outer membrane and to the natural import system. A verification of import into the mitochondrial matrix of cultured HepG2 cells was provided by confocal microscopy colocalizations. Transfections using lipofectamine or probes without 5S-rRNA addressing MAM sequence or with MAM only were ineffective. Alternatively, the same DNA oligonucleotides with 5'-CACC overhang (substituting T7 promoter) were transcribed from the tetracycline-inducible pENTRH1/TO vector in human embryonic kidney T-REx®-293 cells, while mitochondrial matrix localization after import of the resulting unlabeled RNA was detected by PCR. The MAM-containing probe was then enriched by three-order of magnitude over the natural ND5 mRNA in the mitochondrial matrix. In conclusion, we present a proof-of-principle for mitochondrial in vivo hybridization and mitochondrial nucleic acid import.

  17. A RNA-DNA Hybrid Aptamer for Nanoparticle-Based Prostate Tumor Targeted Drug Delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John C. Leach

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The side effects of radio- and chemo-therapy pose long-term challenges on a cancer patient’s health. It is, therefore, highly desirable to develop more effective therapies that can specifically target carcinoma cells without damaging normal and healthy cells. Tremendous efforts have been made in the past to develop targeted drug delivery systems for solid cancer treatment. In this study, a new aptamer, A10-3-J1, which recognizes the extracellular domain of the prostate specific membrane antigen (PSMA, was designed. A super paramagnetic iron oxide nanoparticle-aptamer-doxorubicin (SPIO-Apt-Dox was fabricated and employed as a targeted drug delivery platform for cancer therapy. This DNA RNA hybridized aptamer antitumor agent was able to enhance the cytotoxicity of targeted cells while minimizing collateral damage to non-targeted cells. This SPIO-Apt-Dox nanoparticle has specificity to PSMA+ prostate cancer cells. Aptamer inhibited nonspecific uptake of membrane-permeable doxorubic to the non-target cells, leading to reduced untargeted cytotoxicity and endocytic uptake while enhancing targeted cytotoxicity and endocytic uptake. The experimental results indicate that the drug delivery platform can yield statistically significant effectiveness being more cytotoxic to the targeted cells as opposed to the non-targeted cells.

  18. Identification of Persistent RNA-DNA Hybrid Structures within the Origin of Replication of Human Cytomegalovirus

    OpenAIRE

    Prichard, Mark N.; Jairath, Sanju; Penfold, Mark E. T.; Jeor, Stephen St.; Bohlman, Marlene C.; Pari, Gregory S.

    1998-01-01

    Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) lytic-phase DNA replication initiates at the cis-acting origin of replication, oriLyt. oriLyt is a structurally complex region containing repeat elements and transcription factor binding sites. We identified two site-specific alkali-labile regions within oriLyt which flank an alkali-resistant DNA segment. These alkali-sensitive regions were the result of the degradation of two RNA species embedded within oriLyt and covalently linked to viral DNA. The virus-associa...

  19. HDOCK: a web server for protein–protein and protein–DNA/RNA docking based on a hybrid strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Yumeng; Zhang, Di; Zhou, Pei; Li, Botong

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Protein–protein and protein–DNA/RNA interactions play a fundamental role in a variety of biological processes. Determining the complex structures of these interactions is valuable, in which molecular docking has played an important role. To automatically make use of the binding information from the PDB in docking, here we have presented HDOCK, a novel web server of our hybrid docking algorithm of template-based modeling and free docking, in which cases with misleading templates can be rescued by the free docking protocol. The server supports protein–protein and protein–DNA/RNA docking and accepts both sequence and structure inputs for proteins. The docking process is fast and consumes about 10–20 min for a docking run. Tested on the cases with weakly homologous complexes of server. The HDOCK web server is available at http://hdock.phys.hust.edu.cn/. PMID:28521030

  20. HDOCK: a web server for protein-protein and protein-DNA/RNA docking based on a hybrid strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Yumeng; Zhang, Di; Zhou, Pei; Li, Botong; Huang, Sheng-You

    2017-07-03

    Protein-protein and protein-DNA/RNA interactions play a fundamental role in a variety of biological processes. Determining the complex structures of these interactions is valuable, in which molecular docking has played an important role. To automatically make use of the binding information from the PDB in docking, here we have presented HDOCK, a novel web server of our hybrid docking algorithm of template-based modeling and free docking, in which cases with misleading templates can be rescued by the free docking protocol. The server supports protein-protein and protein-DNA/RNA docking and accepts both sequence and structure inputs for proteins. The docking process is fast and consumes about 10-20 min for a docking run. Tested on the cases with weakly homologous complexes of server. The HDOCK web server is available at http://hdock.phys.hust.edu.cn/. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  1. Parallel characterization of anaerobic toluene- and ethylbenzene-degrading microbial consortia by PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis, RNA-DNA membrane hybridization, and DNA microarray technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koizumi, Yoshikazu; Kelly, John J.; Nakagawa, Tatsunori; Urakawa, Hidetoshi; El-Fantroussi, Said; Al-Muzaini, Saleh; Fukui, Manabu; Urushigawa, Yoshikuni; Stahl, David A.

    2002-01-01

    A mesophilic toluene-degrading consortium (TDC) and an ethylbenzene-degrading consortium (EDC) were established under sulfate-reducing conditions. These consortia were first characterized by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) fingerprinting of PCR-amplified 16S rRNA gene fragments, followed by sequencing. The sequences of the major bands (T-1 and E-2) belonging to TDC and EDC, respectively, were affiliated with the family Desulfobacteriaceae. Another major band from EDC (E-1) was related to an uncultured non-sulfate-reducing soil bacterium. Oligonucleotide probes specific for the 16S rRNAs of target organisms corresponding to T-1, E-1, and E-2 were designed, and hybridization conditions were optimized for two analytical formats, membrane and DNA microarray hybridization. Both formats were used to characterize the TDC and EDC, and the results of both were consistent with DGGE analysis. In order to assess the utility of the microarray format for analysis of environmental samples, oil-contaminated sediments from the coast of Kuwait were analyzed. The DNA microarray successfully detected bacterial nucleic acids from these samples, but probes targeting specific groups of sulfate-reducing bacteria did not give positive signals. The results of this study demonstrate the limitations and the potential utility of DNA microarrays for microbial community analysis.

  2. Genome-Wide Spectra of Transcription Insertions and Deletions Reveal That Slippage Depends on RNA:DNA Hybrid Complementarity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traverse, Charles C; Ochman, Howard

    2017-08-29

    Advances in sequencing technologies have enabled direct quantification of genome-wide errors that occur during RNA transcription. These errors occur at rates that are orders of magnitude higher than rates during DNA replication, but due to technical difficulties such measurements have been limited to single-base substitutions and have not yet quantified the scope of transcription insertions and deletions. Previous reporter gene assay findings suggested that transcription indels are produced exclusively by elongation complex slippage at homopolymeric runs, so we enumerated indels across the protein-coding transcriptomes of Escherichia coli and Buchnera aphidicola , which differ widely in their genomic base compositions and incidence of repeat regions. As anticipated from prior assays, transcription insertions prevailed in homopolymeric runs of A and T; however, transcription deletions arose in much more complex sequences and were rarely associated with homopolymeric runs. By reconstructing the relocated positions of the elongation complex as inferred from the sequences inserted or deleted during transcription, we show that continuation of transcription after slippage hinges on the degree of nucleotide complementarity within the RNA:DNA hybrid at the new DNA template location. IMPORTANCE The high level of mistakes generated during transcription can result in the accumulation of malfunctioning and misfolded proteins which can alter global gene regulation and in the expenditure of energy to degrade these nonfunctional proteins. The transcriptome-wide occurrence of base substitutions has been elucidated in bacteria, but information on transcription insertions and deletions-errors that potentially have more dire effects on protein function-is limited to reporter gene constructs. Here, we capture the transcriptome-wide spectrum of insertions and deletions in Escherichia coli and Buchnera aphidicola and show that they occur at rates approaching those of base substitutions

  3. The communication of endogenous biomolecules (RNA, DNA, protein, hormone) via graft union might play key roles in the new traits formation of graft hybrids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, I.A.; Ghazal, L.; Arsalan, M.H.; Siddiqui, M.F.

    2018-01-01

    Plant graft hybridization is a fact of a sexual hybridization in which heritable changes trigger by grafting, it can produce hereditable variation types desired by breeders and can be used as a new method for germplasm innovation. This paper aimed to discuss new phenotypic variations such as phenotypic diversity and polyploidy formation discovered in recent years, new evidence supporting genetic material exchange between the rootstock and scion, and the timeliness, direction, and genetic stability of trait formation induced by graft hybridization. The unresolved mechanisms of trait variation were also discussed, and the relationship with exchange of chloroplast DNA (cpDNA) genetic information, horizontal gene transfer events of chloroplast and mitochondria, miRNA-mediated post-transcriptional regulation, and pressure-driven trait variations from graft hybridization were performed to clarify the relevant questions. Finally, the future research trend and key questions of graft hybridization were identified. Three clear conclusions for graft hybridization are presented: the new traits of graft hybrids have stable genetic characteristics and can be controlled via selection different genetic plant by grafting, and the products of graft hybrids were safer than those of transgenic plants. (author)

  4. Cloning the human lysozyme cDNA: Inverted Alu repeat in the mRNA and in situ hybridization for macrophages and Paneth cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, L.P.; Keshav, S.; Gordon, S.

    1988-01-01

    Lysozyme is a major secretory product of human and rodent macrophages and a useful marker for myelomonocytic cells. Based on the known human lysozyme amino acid sequence, oligonucleotides were synthesized and used as probes to screen a phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate-treated U937 cDNA library. A full-length human lysozyme cDNA clone, pHL-2, was obtained and characterized. Sequence analysis shows that human lysozyme, like chicken lysozyme, has in 18-amino-acid-long signal peptide, but unlike the chicken lysozyme cDNA, the human lysozyme cDNA has a >1-kilobase-long 3' nontranslated sequence. Interestingly, within this 3' region, an inverted repeat of the Alu family of repetitive sequences was discovered. In RNA blot analyses, DNA probes prepared from pHL-2 can be used to detect lysozyme mRNA not only from human but also from mouse and rat. Moreover, by in situ hybridization, complementary RNA transcripts have been used as probes to detect lysozyme mRNA in mouse macrophages and Paneth cells. This human lysozyme cDNA clone is therefore likely to be a useful molecular probe for studying macrophage distribution and gene expression

  5. Co-transcriptional formation of DNA:RNA hybrid G-quadruplex and potential function as constitutional cis element for transcription control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Ke-wei; Xiao, Shan; Liu, Jia-quan; Zhang, Jia-yu; Hao, Yu-hua; Tan, Zheng

    2013-05-01

    G-quadruplex formation in genomic DNA is considered to regulate transcription. Previous investigations almost exclusively focused on intramolecular G-quadruplexes formed by DNA carrying four or more G-tracts, and structure formation has rarely been studied in physiologically relevant processes. Here, we report an almost entirely neglected, but actually much more prevalent form of G-quadruplexes, DNA:RNA hybrid G-quadruplexes (HQ) that forms in transcription. HQ formation requires as few as two G-tracts instead of four on a non-template DNA strand. Potential HQ sequences (PHQS) are present in >97% of human genes, with an average of 73 PHQSs per gene. HQ modulates transcription under both in vitro and in vivo conditions. Transcriptomal analysis of human tissues implies that maximal gene expression may be limited by the number of PHQS in genes. These features suggest that HQs may play fundamental roles in transcription regulation and other transcription-mediated processes.

  6. Phosphate-methylated DNA aimed at HIV-1 RNA loops and integrated DNA inhibits viral infectivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buck, H. M.; Koole, L. H.; van Genderen, M. H.; Smit, L.; Geelen, J. L.; Jurriaans, S.; Goudsmit, J.

    1990-01-01

    Phosphate-methylated DNA hybridizes strongly and specifically to natural DNA and RNA. Hybridization to single-stranded and double-stranded DNA leads to site-selective blocking of replication and transcription. Phosphate-methylated DNA was used to interrupt the life cycle of the human

  7. Mycobacterium smegmatis HelY Is an RNA-Activated ATPase/dATPase and 3'-to-5' Helicase That Unwinds 3'-Tailed RNA Duplexes and RNA:DNA Hybrids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uson, Maria Loressa; Ordonez, Heather; Shuman, Stewart

    2015-10-01

    Mycobacteria have a large and distinctive ensemble of DNA helicases that function in DNA replication, repair, and recombination. Little is known about the roster of RNA helicases in mycobacteria or their roles in RNA transactions. The 912-amino-acid Mycobacterium smegmatis HelY (MSMEG_3885) protein is a bacterial homolog of the Mtr4 and Ski2 helicases that regulate RNA 3' processing and turnover by the eukaryal exosome. Here we characterize HelY as an RNA-stimulated ATPase/dATPase and an ATP/dATP-dependent 3'-to-5' helicase. HelY requires a 3' single-strand RNA tail (a loading RNA strand) to displace the complementary strand of a tailed RNA:RNA or RNA:DNA duplex. The findings that HelY ATPase is unresponsive to a DNA polynucleotide cofactor and that HelY is unable to unwind a 3'-tailed duplex in which the loading strand is DNA distinguish HelY from other mycobacterial nucleoside triphosphatases/helicases characterized previously. The biochemical properties of HelY, which resemble those of Mtr4/Ski2, hint at a role for HelY in mycobacterial RNA catabolism. RNA helicases play crucial roles in transcription, RNA processing, and translation by virtue of their ability to alter RNA secondary structure or remodel RNA-protein interactions. In eukarya, the RNA helicases Mtr4 and Ski2 regulate RNA 3' resection by the exosome. Mycobacterium smegmatis HelY, a bacterial homolog of Mtr4/Ski2, is characterized here as a unidirectional helicase, powered by RNA-dependent ATP/dATP hydrolysis, that tracks 3' to 5' along a loading RNA strand to displace the complementary strand of a tailed RNA:RNA or RNA:DNA duplex. The biochemical properties of HelY suggest a role in bacterial RNA transactions. HelY homologs are present in pathogenic mycobacteria (e.g., M. tuberculosis and M. leprae) and are widely prevalent in Actinobacteria and Cyanobacteria but occur sporadically elsewhere in the bacterial domain. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  8. Simultaneous Detection of CDC Category "A" DNA and RNA Bioterrorism Agents by Use of Multiplex PCR & RT-PCR Enzyme Hybridization Assays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly J. Henrickson

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Assays to simultaneously detect multiple potential agents of bioterrorism are limited. Two multiplex PCR and RT-PCR enzyme hybridization assays (mPCR-EHA, mRT-PCR-EHA were developed to simultaneously detect many of the CDC category “A” bioterrorism agents. The “Bio T” DNA assay was developed to detect: Variola major (VM, Bacillus anthracis (BA, Yersinia pestis (YP, Francisella tularensis (FT and Varicella zoster virus (VZV. The “Bio T” RNA assay (mRT-PCR-EHA was developed to detect: Ebola virus (Ebola, Lassa fever virus (Lassa, Rift Valley fever (RVF, Hantavirus Sin Nombre species (HSN and dengue virus (serotypes 1-4. Sensitivity and specificity of the 2 assays were tested by using genomic DNA, recombinant plasmid positive controls, RNA transcripts controls, surrogate (spiked clinical samples and common respiratory pathogens. The analytical sensitivity (limit of detection (LOD of the DNA asssay for genomic DNA was 1×100~1×102 copies/mL for BA, FT and YP. The LOD for VZV whole organism was 1×10-2 TCID50/mL. The LOD for recombinant controls ranged from 1×102~1×103copies/mL for BA, FT, YP and VM. The RNA assay demonstrated LOD for RNA transcript controls of 1×104~1×106 copies/mL without extraction and 1×105~1×106 copies/mL with extraction for Ebola, RVF, Lassa and HSN. The LOD for dengue whole organisms was ~1×10-4 dilution for dengue 1 and 2, 1×104 LD50/mL and 1×102 LD50/mL for dengue 3 and 4. The LOD without extraction for recombinant plasmid DNA controls was ~1×103 copies/mL (1.5 input copies/reaction for Ebola, RVF, Lassa and HSN. No cross-reactivity of primers and probes used in both assays was detected with common respiratory pathogens or between targeted analytes. Clinical sensitivity was estimated using 264 surrogate clinical samples tested with the BioT DNA assay and 549 samples tested with the BioT RNA assay. The clinical specificity is 99.6% and 99.8% for BioT DNA assay and BioT RNA assay, respectively. The

  9. Evaluation of the efficacy of the four tests (p16 immunochemistry, PCR, DNA and RNA In situ Hybridization) to evaluate a Human Papillomavirus infection in head and neck cancers: a cohort of 348 French squamous cell carcinomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Augustin, Jérémy; Outh-Gauer, Sophie; Mandavit, Marion; Gasne, Cassandre; Grard, Ophélie; Denize, Thomas; Nervo, Marine; Mirghani, Haïtham; Laccourreye, Ollivier; Bonfils, Pierre; Bruneval, Patrick; Veyer, David; Péré, Hélène; Tartour, Eric; Badoual, Cécile

    2018-04-20

    It is now established that HPV plays a role in the development of a subset of head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCCs), notably oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs). However, it is not clear which test one should use to detect HPV in oropharyngeal (OP) and non-OP SCCs. In this study, using 348 HNSCCs (126 OP SCCs and 222 non-OP SCCs), we evaluated diagnostic performances of different HPV tests in OP and non-OP SCCs: PCR, p16 immunostaining, in situ hybridization targeting DNA (DNA-CISH) and RNA (RNA-CISH), combined p16 + DNA-CISH, and combined p16 + RNA-CISH. HPV DNA (PCR) was detected in 26% of all tumors (44% of OP SCCs and 17% of non-OP SCCs). For OP SCCs, RNA-CISH was the most sensitive standalone test (88%), but p16 + RNA-CISH was even more sensitive (95%). Specificities were the same for RNA-CISH and DNA-CISH (97%) but it was better for p16 + RNA-CISH (100%). For non-OP SCCs, all tests had sensitivities below 50%, and RNA-CISH, DNA-CISH and p16 + DNA-CISH had respectively 100%, 97% and 99% specificities. As a standalone test, RNA-CISH is the most performant assay to detect HPV in OP SCCs, and combined p16 + RNA-CISH test slightly improves its performances. However, RNA-CISH has the advantage of being one single test. Like p16 and DNA-CISH, RNA-CISH performances are poor in non-OP SCCs to detect HPV, and combining tests does not improve performances. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  10. Application of a Novel and Automated Branched DNA in Situ Hybridization Method for the Rapid and Sensitive Localization of mRNA Molecules in Plant Tissues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew J. Bowling

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Premise of the study: A novel branched DNA detection technology, RNAscope in situ hybridization (ISH, originally developed for use on human clinical and animal tissues, was adapted for use in plant tissue in an attempt to overcome some of the limitations associated with traditional ISH assays. Methods and Results: Zea mays leaf tissue was formaldehyde fixed and paraffin embedded (FFPE and then probed with the RNAscope ISH assay for two endogenous genes, phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK. Results from both manual and automated methods showed tissue- and cell-specific mRNA localization patterns expected from these well-studied genes. Conclusions: RNAscope ISH is a sensitive method that generates high-quality, easily interpretable results from FFPE plant tissues. Automation of the RNAscope method on the Ventana Discovery Ultra platform allows significant advantages for repeatability, reduction in variability, and flexibility of workflow processes.

  11. Genetic relatedness of orbiviruses by RNA-RNA blot hybridization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bodkin, D.K.

    1985-01-01

    RNA-RNA blot hybridization was developed in order to identify type-specific genes among double-stranded (ds) RNA viruses, to assess the genetic relatedness of dsRNA viruses and to classify new strains. Viral dsRNA segments were electrophoresed through 10% polyacrylamide gels, transferred to membranes, and hybridized to [5' 32 P]-pCp labeled genomic RNA from a related strain. Hybridization was performed at 52 0 C, 50% formamide, 5X SSC. Under these conditions heterologous RNA species must share ≥ 74% sequence homology in order to form stable dsRNA hybrids. Cognate genes of nine members of the Palyam serogroup of orbiviruses were identified and their sequence relatedness to the prototype. Palyam virus, was determined. Reciprocal blot hybridizations were performed using radiolabeled genomic RNA of all members of the Palyam serogroup. Unique and variant genes were identified by lack of cross-homology or by weak homology between segments. Since genes 2 and 6 exhibited the highest degree of sequence variability, response to the vertebrate immune system may be a major cause of sequence divergence among members of a single serogroup. Changuinola serogroup isolates were compared by dot-blot hybridization, while Colorado tick fever (CTF) serogroup isolates were compared by the RNA-RNA blot hybridization procedure described for reovirus and Palyam serogroup isolates. Preliminary blot hybridization data were also obtained on the relatedness of members of different Orbivirus serogroups

  12. Studies on the effects of persistent RNA priming on DNA replication and genomic stability

    OpenAIRE

    Stuckey, Ruth

    2014-01-01

    [EN]: DNA replication and transcription take place on the same DNA template, and the correct interplay between these processes ensures faithful genome duplication. DNA replication must be highly coordinated with other cell cycle events, such as segregation of fully replicated DNA in order to maintain genomic integrity. Transcription generates RNA:DNA hybrids, transient intermediate structures that are degraded by the ribonuclease H (RNaseH) class of enzymes. RNA:DNA hybrids can form R-loops, ...

  13. RNA Study Using DNA Nanotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tadakuma, Hisashi; Masubuchi, Takeya; Ueda, Takuya

    2016-01-01

    Transcription is one of the fundamental steps of gene expression, where RNA polymerases (RNAPs) bind to their template genes and make RNAs. In addition to RNAP and the template gene, many molecules such as transcription factors are involved. The interaction and the effect of these factors depend on the geometry. Molecular layout of these factors, RNAP and gene is thus important. DNA nanotechnology is a promising technology that allows controlling of the molecular layout in the range of nanometer to micrometer scale with nanometer resolution; thus, it is expected to expand the RNA study beyond the current limit. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. (α,α-dimethyl)glycyl (dmg) PNAs: achiral PNA analogs that form stronger hybrids with cDNA relative to isosequential RNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gourishankar, Aland; Ganesh, Krishna N

    2012-01-01

    The design and facile synthesis of sterically constrained new analogs of PNA having gem-dimethyl substitutions on glycine (dmg-PNA-T) is presented. The PNA oligomers [aminoethyl dimethylglycyl (aedmg) and aminopropyl dimethylglycyl (apdmg)] synthesized from the monomers 6 and 12) effected remarkable stabilization of homothyminePNA(2):homoadenine DNA/RNA triplexes and mixed base sequence duplexes with target cDNA or RNA. They show a higher binding to DNA relative to that with isosequential RNA. This may be a structural consequence of the sterically rigid gem-dimethyl group, imposing a pre-organized conformation favorable for complex formation with cDNA. The results complement our previous work that had demonstrated that cyclohexanyl-PNAs favor binding with cRNA compared with cDNA and imply that the biophysical and structural properties of PNAs can be directed by introduction of the right rigidity in PNA backbone devoid of chirality. This approach of tweaking selectivity in binding of PNA constructs by installing gem-dimethyl substitution in PNA backbone can be extended to further fine-tuning by similar substitution in the aminoethyl segment as well either individually or in conjunction with present substitution.

  15. Kinetics of spontaneous displacement of RNA from heteroduplexes by DNA.

    OpenAIRE

    Landgraf, R; Ramamurthi, K S; Sigman, D S

    1996-01-01

    We have used R-loop formation and direct hybridization techniques to analyze the kinetics by which RNA is displaced from a heteroduplex by DNA of identical sequence. Using random walk simulations we were able to calculate the step times for a single displacement reaction. For RNA with a GC content of 57-60% the data indicate an RNA exchange probability of 50.06%, which is indicative of a modest destabilization of the heteroduplex compared with a DNA duplex in the presence of magnesium. The av...

  16. Electrokinetic acceleration of DNA hybridization in microsystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Kin Fong; Wang, Yun-Hsiang; Chen, Huai-Yi; Sun, Jia-Hong; Cheng, Ji-Yen

    2015-06-01

    In this work, electrokinetic acceleration of DNA hybridization was investigated by different combinations of frequencies and amplitudes of actuating electric signals. Because the frequencies from low to high can induce different kinds of electrokinetic forces, i.e., electroosmotic to electrothermal forces, this work provides an in-depth investigation of electrokinetic enhanced hybridization. Concentric circular Cr/Au microelectrodes of 350 µm in diameter were fabricated on a glass substrate and probe DNA was immobilized on the electrode surface. Target DNA labeled with fluorescent dyes suspending in solution was then applied to the electrode. Different electrokinetic forces were induced by the application of different electric signals to the circular microelectrodes. Local microfluidic vortexes were generated to increase the collision efficiency between the target DNA suspending in solution and probe DNA immobilized on the electrode surface. DNA hybridization on the electrode surface could be accelerated by the electrokinetic forces. The level of hybridization was represented by the fluorescent signal intensity ratio. Results revealed that such 5-min dynamic hybridization increased 4.5 fold of signal intensity ratio as compared to a 1-h static hybridization. Moreover, dynamic hybridization was found to have better differentiation ability between specific and non-specific target DNA. This study provides a strategy to accelerate DNA hybridization in microsystems. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Electrical potential-assisted DNA hybridization. How to mitigate electrostatics for surface DNA hybridization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tymoczko, Jakub; Schuhmann, Wolfgang; Gebala, Magdalena

    2014-12-24

    Surface-confined DNA hybridization reactions are sensitive to the number and identity of DNA capture probes and experimental conditions such as the nature and the ionic strength of the electrolyte solution. When the surface probe density is high or the concentration of bulk ions is much lower than the concentration of ions within the DNA layer, hybridization is significantly slowed down or does not proceed at all. However, high-density DNA monolayers are attractive for designing high-sensitivity DNA sensors. Thus, circumventing sluggish DNA hybridization on such interfaces allows a high surface concentration of target DNA and improved signal/noise ratio. We present potential-assisted hybridization as a strategy in which an external voltage is applied to the ssDNA-modified interface during the hybridization process. Results show that a significant enhancement of hybridization can be achieved using this approach.

  18. Programmed self-assembly of DNA/RNA for biomedical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Pengfei

    Three self-assembly strategies were utilized for assembly of novel functional DNA/RNA nanostructures. RNA-DNA hybrid origami method was developed to fabricate nano-objects (ribbon, rectangle, and triangle) with precisely controlled geometry. Unlike conventional DNA origami which use long DNA single strand as scaffold, a long RNA single strand was used instead, which was folded by short DNA single strands (staples) into prescribed objects through sequence specific hybridization between RNA and DNA. Single stranded tiles (SST) and RNA-DNA hybrid origami were utilized to fabricate a variety of barcode-like nanostructures with unique patterns by expanding a plain rectangle via introducing spacers (10-bp dsDNA segment) between parallel duplexes. Finally, complex 2D array and 3D polyhedrons with multiple patterns within one structure were assembled from simple DNA motifs. Two demonstrations of biomedical applications of DNA nanotechnology were presented. Firstly, lambda-DNA was used as template to direct the fabrication of multi-component magnetic nanoparticle chains. Nuclear magnetic relaxation (NMR) characterization showed superb magnetic relaxativity of the nanoparticle chains which have large potential to be utilized as MRI contrast agents. Secondly, DNA nanotechnology was introduced into the conformational study of a routinely used catalytic DNAzyme, the RNA-cleaving 10-23 DNAzyme. The relative angle between two flanking duplexes of the catalytic core was determined (94.8°), which shall be able to provide a clue to further understanding of the cleaving mechanism of this DNAzyme from a conformational perspective.

  19. A lncRNA to repair DNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lukas, Jiri; Altmeyer, Matthias

    2015-01-01

    Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) have emerged as regulators of various biological processes, but to which extent lncRNAs play a role in genome integrity maintenance is not well understood. In this issue of EMBO Reports, Sharma et al [1] identify the DNA damage-induced lncRNA DDSR1 as an integral...... player of the DNA damage response (DDR). DDSR1 has both an early role by modulating repair pathway choices, and a later function when it regulates gene expression. Sharma et al [1] thus uncover a dual role for a hitherto uncharacterized lncRNA during the cellular response to DNA damage....

  20. Dramatically improved RNA in situ hybridization signals using LNA-modified probes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Rune; Nielsen, Peter Stein; Jensen, Torben Heick

    2005-01-01

    . This increases the thermal stability of hybrids formed with RNA. The LNA-based probes detect specific RNAs in fixed yeast cells with an efficiency far better than conventional DNA oligonucleotide probes of the same sequence. Using this probe design, we were also able to detect poly(A)+ RNA accumulation within......In situ detection of RNA by hybridization with complementary probes is a powerful technique. Probe design is a critical parameter in successful target detection. We have evaluated the efficiency of fluorescent DNA oligonucleotides modified to contain locked nucleic acid (LNA) residues...

  1. Interaction of sulforaphane with DNA and RNA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farzaneh Abassi Joozdani

    Full Text Available Sulforaphane (SFN is an isothiocyanate found in cruciferous vegetables with anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant and anti-cancer activities. However, the antioxidant and anticancer mechanism of sulforaphane is not well understood. In the present research, we reported binding modes, binding constants and stability of SFN-DNA and -RNA complexes by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR and UV-Visible spectroscopic methods. Spectroscopic evidence showed DNA intercalation with some degree of groove binding. SFN binds minor and major grooves of DNA and backbone phosphate (PO2, while RNA binding is through G, U, A bases with some degree of SFN-phosphate (PO2 interaction. Overall binding constants were estimated to be K(SFN-DNA=3.01 (± 0.035×10(4 M(-1 and K(SFN-RNA= 6.63 (±0.042×10(3 M(-1. At high SFN concentration (SFN/RNA = 1/1, DNA conformation changed from B to A occurred, while RNA remained in A-family structure.

  2. DNA hybridization sensing for cytogenetic analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kwasny, Dorota; Dapra, Johannes; Brøgger, Anna Line

    2013-01-01

    are rearrangements between two chromosome arms that results in two derivative chromosomes having a mixed DNA sequence. The current detection method is a Fluorescent In situ Hybridization, which requires a use of expensive, fluorescently labeled probes that target the DNA sequences of two chromosomes involved...... in the translocation (Kwasny et al., 2012). We have developed a new double hybridization assay that allows for sorting of the DNA chromosomal fragments into separate compartment, moreover allowing for detection of the translocation. To detect the translocation it is necessary to determine that the two DNA sequences...... forming a derivative chromosome are connected, which is achieved by two subsequent hybridization steps. The first example of the translocation detection was presented on lab-on-a-disc using fluorescently labeled DNA fragments, representing the derivative chromosome (Brøgger et al., 2012). To allow...

  3. Detection of Hepatitis B virus DNA and Hepatitis δ virus RNA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smedile, A.; Chiaberge, E.; Brunetto, M.R.; Negro, F.; Baldi, M.; Lavarini, C.; Maran, E.

    1987-01-01

    The recent availability of DNA probes of the Hepatitis B Virus DNA (HBV-DNA) and of Hepatitis Delta Virus RNA (HDV-RNA) allows the application of nucleic acid hybridization techniques to solve a variety of clinical problems. DNA probes of HBV-DNA and HDV-RNA are labeled by nick translation using 32 P or biotinylated nucleotides and hybridized to filters containing test nucleic acids. Complementary sequences are identified and the degree of blackening of the film at autoradiography or the enzymatic staining of the filter is proportional to the amount of viral nucleic acid hybridized to the probe and present in the sample. These procedures allow rapid examination of multiple specimens and are sensitive and reproducible. Viral nucleic acids can be measured quantitatively and their quantity correlates with the infectivity of sera titered in experimentally infected animals

  4. Circular RNA (circRNA) was an important bridge in the switch from the RNA world to the DNA world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soslau, Gerald

    2018-06-14

    osmolarity. Circular RNA, circRNA, is proposed as a critical stable RNA molecule that served as the genetic precursor for the switch to DNA and the replication of circRNA by a rolling circle mechanism gave rise to the RNA complexity required for the genetic functions of the cell. The replicating ribocyte would have required protein synthesis as well as RNA replication and a model for non-coded and primordial coded protein synthesis is proposed. Finally, the switch from the RNA to the DNA world would have involved the synthesis of an RNA:DNA hybrid prior to the formation of dsDNA. If the hybrid was a circular molecule that ultimately yielded a circular dsDNA molecule, it could predict that the primordial DNA cell would evolve into a bacterial cell with a single circular chromosome. One would hope that continued speculation of the origin of life will spur new directions of research that may never fully answer the questions of the past but add to our ability to regulate potentially harmful biological events in the present and in the future. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Mechanisms of Surface-Mediated DNA Hybridization

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Single-molecule total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy was employed in conjunction with resonance energy transfer (RET) to observe the dynamic behavior of donor-labeled ssDNA at the interface between aqueous solution and a solid surface decorated with complementary acceptor-labeled ssDNA. At least 100 000 molecular trajectories were determined for both complementary strands and negative control ssDNA. RET was used to identify trajectory segments corresponding to the hybridized state. The vast majority of molecules from solution adsorbed nonspecifically to the surface, where a brief two-dimensional search was performed with a 7% chance of hybridization. Successful hybridization events occurred with a characteristic search time of ∼0.1 s, and unsuccessful searches resulted in desorption from the surface, ultimately repeating the adsorption and search process. Hybridization was reversible, and two distinct modes of melting (i.e., dehybridization) were observed, corresponding to long-lived (∼15 s) and short-lived (∼1.4 s) hybridized time intervals. A strand that melted back onto the surface could rehybridize after a brief search or desorb from the interface. These mechanistic observations provide guidance for technologies that involve DNA interactions in the near-surface region, suggesting a need to design surfaces that both enhance the complex multidimensional search process and stabilize the hybridized state. PMID:24708278

  6. DNA-DNA hybridization determined in micro-wells using covalent attachment of DNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, H.; Angen, Øystein; Mutters, R.

    2000-01-01

    The present study was aimed at reducing the time and labour used to perform DNA-DNA hybridizations for classification of bacteria at the species level. A micro-well-format DNA hybridization method was developed and validated. DNA extractions were performed by a small-scale method and DNA...... was sheared mechanically into fragments of between 400 and 700 bases. The hybridization conditions were calibrated according to DNA similarities obtained by the spectrophotometric method using strains within the family Pasteurellaceae, Optimal conditions were obtained with 300 ng DNA added per well and bound...... by covalent attachment to NucleoLink. Hybridization was performed with 500 ng DNA, 5% (w/w) of which was labelled with photo-activatable biotin (competitive hybridization) for 2.5 h at 65 degrees C in 2 x SSC followed by stringent washing with 2 x SSC at the same temperature. The criteria for acceptance...

  7. DNA and RNA Quadruplex-Binding Proteins

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Brázda, Václav; Haroniková, Lucia; Liao, J.C.C.; Fojta, Miroslav

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 15, č. 10 (2014), s. 17493-17517 E-ISSN 1422-0067 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GBP206/12/G151 Institutional support: RVO:68081707 Keywords : DNA quadruplex * RNA quadruplex * telomere Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 2.862, year: 2014

  8. Chromogenic In Situ Hybridization and p16/Ki67 Dual Staining on Formalin-Fixed Paraffin-Embedded Cervical Specimens: Correlation with HPV-DNA Test, E6/E7 mRNA Test, and Potential Clinical Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Zappacosta

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Although HPV-DNA test and E6/E7 mRNA analyses remain the current standard for the confirmation of human papillomavirus (HPV infections in cytological specimens, no universally adopted techniques exist for the detection of HPV in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded samples. Particularly, in routine laboratories, molecular assays are still time-consuming and would require a high level of expertise. In this study, we investigated the possible use of a novel HPV tyramide-based chromogenic in situ hybridization (CISH technology to locate HPV on tissue specimens. Then, we evaluate the potential usefulness of p16INK4a/Ki-67 double stain on histological samples, to identify cervical cells expressing HPV E6/E7 oncogenes. In our series, CISH showed a clear signal in 95.2% of the specimens and reached a sensitivity of 86.5%. CISH positivity always matched with HPV-DNA positivity, while 100% of cases with punctated signal joined with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 2 or worse (CIN2+. p16/Ki67 immunohistochemistry gave an interpretable result in 100% of the cases. The use of dual stain significantly increased the agreement between pathologists, which reached 100%. Concordance between dual stain and E6/E7 mRNA test was 89%. In our series, both CISH and p16INK4a/Ki67 dual stain demonstrated high grade of performances. In particular, CISH would help to distinguish episomal from integrated HPV, in order to allow conclusions regarding the prognosis of the lesion, while p16INK4a/Ki67 dual stain approach would confer a high level of standardization to the diagnostic procedure.

  9. Chromogenic In Situ Hybridization and p16/Ki67 Dual Staining on Formalin-Fixed Paraffin-Embedded Cervical Specimens: Correlation with HPV-DNA Test, E6/E7 mRNA Test, and Potential Clinical Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zappacosta, Roberta; Colasante, Antonella; Viola, Patrizia; D'Antuono, Tommaso; Lattanzio, Giuseppe; Capanna, Serena; Gatta, Daniela Maria Pia; Rosini, Sandra

    2013-01-01

    Although HPV-DNA test and E6/E7 mRNA analyses remain the current standard for the confirmation of human papillomavirus (HPV) infections in cytological specimens, no universally adopted techniques exist for the detection of HPV in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded samples. Particularly, in routine laboratories, molecular assays are still time-consuming and would require a high level of expertise. In this study, we investigated the possible use of a novel HPV tyramide-based chromogenic in situ hybridization (CISH) technology to locate HPV on tissue specimens. Then, we evaluate the potential usefulness of p16INK4a/Ki-67 double stain on histological samples, to identify cervical cells expressing HPV E6/E7 oncogenes. In our series, CISH showed a clear signal in 95.2% of the specimens and reached a sensitivity of 86.5%. CISH positivity always matched with HPV-DNA positivity, while 100% of cases with punctated signal joined with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 2 or worse (CIN2+). p16/Ki67 immunohistochemistry gave an interpretable result in 100% of the cases. The use of dual stain significantly increased the agreement between pathologists, which reached 100%. Concordance between dual stain and E6/E7 mRNA test was 89%. In our series, both CISH and p16INK4a/Ki67 dual stain demonstrated high grade of performances. In particular, CISH would help to distinguish episomal from integrated HPV, in order to allow conclusions regarding the prognosis of the lesion, while p16INK4a/Ki67 dual stain approach would confer a high level of standardization to the diagnostic procedure. PMID:24369532

  10. A novel rat genomic simple repeat DNA with RNA-homology shows triplex (H-DNA)-like structure and tissue-specific RNA expression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dey, Indranil; Rath, Pramod C.

    2005-01-01

    Mammalian genome contains a wide variety of repetitive DNA sequences of relatively unknown function. We report a novel 227 bp simple repeat DNA (3.3 DNA) with a d {(GA) 7 A (AG) 7 } dinucleotide mirror repeat from the rat (Rattus norvegicus) genome. 3.3 DNA showed 75-85% homology with several eukaryotic mRNAs due to (GA/CU) n dinucleotide repeats by nBlast search and a dispersed distribution in the rat genome by Southern blot hybridization with [ 32 P]3.3 DNA. The d {(GA) 7 A (AG) 7 } mirror repeat formed a triplex (H-DNA)-like structure in vitro. Two large RNAs of 9.1 and 7.5 kb were detected by [ 32 P]3.3 DNA in rat brain by Northern blot hybridization indicating expression of such simple sequence repeats at RNA level in vivo. Further, several cDNAs were isolated from a rat cDNA library by [ 32 P]3.3 DNA probe. Three such cDNAs showed tissue-specific RNA expression in rat. pRT 4.1 cDNA showed strong expression of a 2.39 kb RNA in brain and spleen, pRT 5.5 cDNA showed strong expression of a 2.8 kb RNA in brain and a 3.9 kb RNA in lungs, and pRT 11.4 cDNA showed weak expression of a 2.4 kb RNA in lungs. Thus, genomic simple sequence repeats containing d (GA/CT) n dinucleotides are transcriptionally expressed and regulated in rat tissues. Such d (GA/CT) n dinucleotide repeats may form structural elements (e.g., triplex) which may be sites for functional regulation of genomic coding sequences as well as RNAs. This may be a general function of such transcriptionally active simple sequence repeats widely dispersed in mammalian genome

  11. Comparison of HPV detection technologies: Hybrid capture 2, PreTect HPV-Proofer and analysis of HPV DNA viral load in HPV16, HPV18 and HPV33 E6/E7 mRNA positive specimens.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Keegan, Helen

    2012-02-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) testing using molecular methods in liquid based cytology (LBC) specimens may be useful as an adjunct to cervical screening by cytology. We compared the positivity rate of the commercially available HPV DNA method hybrid capture 2 (hc2) and the commercially available E6\\/E7 mRNA method PreTect HPV-Proofer in cytological specimens (n=299). LBC specimens collected (n=299) represented the following cervical cytological disease categories: Normal (n=60), borderline nuclear abnormalities (BNA) (n=34), CIN1 (n=121), CIN2 (n=60), CIN3 (n=24). Overall, 69% (205\\/299) of the cases were positive by hc2 and 38% (112\\/299) of the cases were positive by PreTect HPV-Proofer. Concordance rates between the two tests were highest in the high-grade cytology cases (CIN2: 67% and CIN3: 83%) and the normal cytology cases (88%) and lowest in the BNA and CIN1 categories (56% and 52%). HPV DNA viral load analyses were carried out on HPV16 (n=55), HPV18 (n=9) and HPV33 (n=13) samples that were positive by PreTect HPV-Proofer. The sensitivity and specificity of PreTect HPV-Proofer and the hc2 DNA test for the detection of high-grade cytology (i.e. CIN2+) were 71.4% and 75.8% vs 100% and 43.7%, respectively. The relatively low detection rate observed by PreTect HPV-Proofer in the whole range of cytological positive cases, combined with a relatively higher specificity and PPV, suggests that PreTect HPV-Proofer may be more useful than hc2 for triage and in predicting high-grade disease.

  12. Northern blots: capillary transfer of RNA from agarose gels and filter hybridization using standard stringency conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rio, Donald C

    2015-03-02

    In this protocol, an RNA sample, fractionated by gel electrophoresis, is transferred from the gel onto a membrane by capillary transfer. Short-wave UV light is used to fix the transferred RNA to the membrane. The membrane is then pretreated to block nonspecific probe-binding sites, and hybridization of the immobilized RNA to a (32)P-labeled DNA or RNA probe specific for the mRNA of interest is performed. Finally, the membrane is washed and subjected to autoradiography or phosphorimaging. Because exposure to UV cross-links the RNA to the membrane, the membrane can be stripped and hybridized with other probes. The procedure is suitable for detecting poly(A)(+)-selected mRNA or mRNA in total cellular RNA if the target transcript is relatively abundant. Using DNA or RNA probes labeled to 1 × 10(8)-10 × 10(8) cpm/µg, it should be possible to detect ∼5 pg of a specific RNA. © 2015 Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.

  13. Effect of sample storage time on detection of hybridization signals in Checkerboard DNA-DNA hybridization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    do Nascimento, Cássio; Muller, Katia; Sato, Sandra; Albuquerque Junior, Rubens Ferreira

    2012-04-01

    Long-term sample storage can affect the intensity of the hybridization signals provided by molecular diagnostic methods that use chemiluminescent detection. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of different storage times on the hybridization signals of 13 bacterial species detected by the Checkerboard DNA-DNA hybridization method using whole-genomic DNA probes. Ninety-six subgingival biofilm samples were collected from 36 healthy subjects, and the intensity of hybridization signals was evaluated at 4 different time periods: (1) immediately after collecting (n = 24) and (2) after storage at -20 °C for 6 months (n = 24), (3) for 12 months (n = 24), and (4) for 24 months (n = 24). The intensity of hybridization signals obtained from groups 1 and 2 were significantly higher than in the other groups (p  0.05). The Checkerboard DNA-DNA hybridization method was suitable to detect hybridization signals from all groups evaluated, and the intensity of signals decreased significantly after long periods of sample storage.

  14. Automated DNA electrophoresis, hybridization and detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zapolski, E.J.; Gersten, D.M.; Golab, T.J.; Ledley, R.S.

    1986-01-01

    A fully automated, computer controlled system for nucleic acid hybridization analysis has been devised and constructed. In practice, DNA is digested with restriction endonuclease enzyme(s) and loaded into the system by pipette; 32 P-labelled nucleic acid probe(s) is loaded into the nine hybridization chambers. Instructions for all the steps in the automated process are specified by answering questions that appear on the computer screen at the start of the experiment. Subsequent steps are performed automatically. The system performs horizontal electrophoresis in agarose gel, fixed the fragments to a solid phase matrix, denatures, neutralizes, prehybridizes, hybridizes, washes, dries and detects the radioactivity according to the specifications given by the operator. The results, printed out at the end, give the positions on the matrix to which radioactivity remains hybridized following stringent washing

  15. Appendix: a solution hybridization assay to detect radioactive globin messenger RNA nucleotide sequences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ross, J

    1976-09-15

    In view of the sensitivity and specificity of the solution hybridization assay for unlabeled globin mRNA a similar technique has been devised to detect radioactive globin mRNA sequences with unlabeled globin cDNA. Several properties of the hybridization reaction are presented since RNA kinetic experiments reported recently depend on the validity of this assay. Data on hybridization analysis of (/sup 3/H)RNA from mouse fetal liver or erythroleukemia cell cytoplasm are presented. These data indicate that the excess cDNA solution assay for radioactive globin mRNA detection is specific for globin mRNA sequences. It can be performed rapidly and is highly reproducible from experiment. It is at least 500-fold less sensitive than the assay for unlabeled globin mRNA, due to the RNAase backgrounds of 0.05 to 0.15 %. However, this limitation has not affected kinetic experiments with non-dividing fetal liver erythroid cells, which synthesize relatively large quantities of globin mRNA.

  16. The Spectral Properties and Photostability of DNA, RNA and Oligonucleotides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kudrya, V.Yu.; Yashchuk, V.M.

    2012-01-01

    The present work discusses the results of comparative investigations of the optical absorption, luminescence, and photostability of the biomacromolecules (DNA, RNA), as well as synthetic poly- and oligonucleotides. The separate nucleotides in DNA and RNA are examined as almost independent absorbing centers. It is confirmed that the main triplet excitons traps responsible for the DNA phosphorescence emission are AT-complexes in DNA. In contrast to DNA, the main triplet excitons traps in RNA are adenosine bases. These bases are the most photostable against UV-irradiation as compared with all other nucleotides in both DNA and RNA. The fact of the photostability of adenosine bases and the AT-complex provides the existence of the DNA/RNA self-protection mechanisms against a damage caused by UV-irradiation. It is found the deoxyribonucleotides are more photostable than the corresponding ribonucleotides. So, the results presented here show that DNA is more photostable than RNA.

  17. Clinical strains of acinetobacter classified by DNA-DNA hybridization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tjernberg, I.; Ursing, J.

    1989-01-01

    A collection of Acinetobacter strains consisting of 168 consecutive clinical strains and 30 type and reference strains was studied by DNA-DNA hybridization and a few phenotypic tests. The field strains could be allotted to 13 DNA groups. By means of reference strains ten of these could be identified with groups described by Bouvet and Grimont (1986), while three groups were new; they were given the numbers 13-15. The type strain of A. radioresistens- recently described by Nishimura et al. (1988) - was shown to be a member of DNA group 12, which comprised 31 clinical isolates. Of the 19 strains of A. junii, eight showed hemolytic acitivity on sheep and human blood agar and an additional four strains on human blood agar only. Strains of this species have previously been regarded as non-hemolytic. Reciprocal DNA pairing data for the reference strains of the DNA gropus were treated by UPGMA clustering. The reference strains for A. calcoaceticus, A. baumannii and DNA groups 3 and 13 formed a cluster with about 70% relatedness within the cluster. Other DNA groups joined at levels below 60%. (author)

  18. Clinical strains of acinetobacter classified by DNA-DNA hybridization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tjernberg, I; Ursing, J [Department of Medical Microbiology, University of Lund, Malmoe General Hospital, Malmoe (Sweden)

    1989-01-01

    A collection of Acinetobacter strains consisting of 168 consecutive clinical strains and 30 type and reference strains was studied by DNA-DNA hybridization and a few phenotypic tests. The field strains could be allotted to 13 DNA groups. By means of reference strains ten of these could be identified with groups described by Bouvet and Grimont (1986), while three groups were new; they were given the numbers 13-15. The type strain of A. radioresistens- recently described by Nishimura et al. (1988) - was shown to be a member of DNA group 12, which comprised 31 clinical isolates. Of the 19 strains of A. junii, eight showed hemolytic acitivity on sheep and human blood agar and an additional four strains on human blood agar only. Strains of this species have previously been regarded as non-hemolytic. Reciprocal DNA pairing data for the reference strains of the DNA gropus were treated by UPGMA clustering. The reference strains for A. calcoaceticus, A. baumannii and DNA groups 3 and 13 formed a cluster with about 70% relatedness within the cluster. Other DNA groups joined at levels below 60%. (author).

  19. Phylogenetic Analysis of Shewanella Strains by DNA Relatedness Derived from Whole Genome Microarray DNA-DNA Hybridization and Comparisons with Other Methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Liyou; Yi, T.Y.; Van Nostrand, Joy; Zhou, Jizhong

    2010-01-01

    Phylogenetic analyses were done for the Shewanella strains isolated from Baltic Sea (38 strains), US DOE Hanford Uranium bioremediation site (Hanford Reach of the Columbia River (HRCR), 11 strains), Pacific Ocean and Hawaiian sediments (8 strains), and strains from other resources (16 strains) with three out group strains, Rhodopseudomonas palustris, Clostridium cellulolyticum, and Thermoanaerobacter ethanolicus X514, using DNA relatedness derived from WCGA-based DNA-DNA hybridizations, sequence similarities of 16S rRNA gene and gyrB gene, and sequence similarities of 6 loci of Shewanella genome selected from a shared gene list of the Shewanella strains with whole genome sequenced based on the average nucleotide identity of them (ANI). The phylogenetic trees based on 16S rRNA and gyrB gene sequences, and DNA relatedness derived from WCGA hybridizations of the tested Shewanella strains share exactly the same sub-clusters with very few exceptions, in which the strains were basically grouped by species. However, the phylogenetic analysis based on DNA relatedness derived from WCGA hybridizations dramatically increased the differentiation resolution at species and strains level within Shewanella genus. When the tree based on DNA relatedness derived from WCGA hybridizations was compared to the tree based on the combined sequences of the selected functional genes (6 loci), we found that the resolutions of both methods are similar, but the clustering of the tree based on DNA relatedness derived from WMGA hybridizations was clearer. These results indicate that WCGA-based DNA-DNA hybridization is an idea alternative of conventional DNA-DNA hybridization methods and it is superior to the phylogenetics methods based on sequence similarities of single genes. Detailed analysis is being performed for the re-classification of the strains examined.

  20. Phylogenetic Analysis of Shewanella Strains by DNA Relatedness Derived from Whole Genome Microarray DNA-DNA Hybridization and Comparison with Other Methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Liyou; Yi, T. Y.; Van Nostrand, Joy; Zhou, Jizhong

    2010-05-17

    Phylogenetic analyses were done for the Shewanella strains isolated from Baltic Sea (38 strains), US DOE Hanford Uranium bioremediation site [Hanford Reach of the Columbia River (HRCR), 11 strains], Pacific Ocean and Hawaiian sediments (8 strains), and strains from other resources (16 strains) with three out group strains, Rhodopseudomonas palustris, Clostridium cellulolyticum, and Thermoanaerobacter ethanolicus X514, using DNA relatedness derived from WCGA-based DNA-DNA hybridizations, sequence similarities of 16S rRNA gene and gyrB gene, and sequence similarities of 6 loci of Shewanella genome selected from a shared gene list of the Shewanella strains with whole genome sequenced based on the average nucleotide identity of them (ANI). The phylogenetic trees based on 16S rRNA and gyrB gene sequences, and DNA relatedness derived from WCGA hybridizations of the tested Shewanella strains share exactly the same sub-clusters with very few exceptions, in which the strains were basically grouped by species. However, the phylogenetic analysis based on DNA relatedness derived from WCGA hybridizations dramatically increased the differentiation resolution at species and strains level within Shewanella genus. When the tree based on DNA relatedness derived from WCGA hybridizations was compared to the tree based on the combined sequences of the selected functional genes (6 loci), we found that the resolutions of both methods are similar, but the clustering of the tree based on DNA relatedness derived from WMGA hybridizations was clearer. These results indicate that WCGA-based DNA-DNA hybridization is an idea alternative of conventional DNA-DNA hybridization methods and it is superior to the phylogenetics methods based on sequence similarities of single genes. Detailed analysis is being performed for the re-classification of the strains examined.

  1. Transcription and recombination: when RNA meets DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilera, Andrés; Gaillard, Hélène

    2014-08-01

    A particularly relevant phenomenon in cell physiology and proliferation is the fact that spontaneous mitotic recombination is strongly enhanced by transcription. The most accepted view is that transcription increases the occurrence of double-strand breaks and/or single-stranded DNA gaps that are repaired by recombination. Most breaks would arise as a consequence of the impact that transcription has on replication fork progression, provoking its stalling and/or breakage. Here, we discuss the mechanisms responsible for the cross talk between transcription and recombination, with emphasis on (1) the transcription-replication conflicts as the main source of recombinogenic DNA breaks, and (2) the formation of cotranscriptional R-loops as a major cause of such breaks. The new emerging questions and perspectives are discussed on the basis of the interference between transcription and replication, as well as the way RNA influences genome dynamics. Copyright © 2014 Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press; all rights reserved.

  2. Detection of hepatitis A virus by hybridization with single-stranded RNA probes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xi, J.; Estes, M.K.; Metcalf, T.G.

    1987-01-01

    An improved method of dot-blot hybridization to detect hepatitis A virus (HAV) was developed with single-stranded RNA (ssRNA) probes. Radioactive and nonradioactive ssRNA probes were generated by in vitro transcription of HAV templates inserted into the plasmid pGEM-1. 32 P-labeled ssRNA probes were at least eightfold more sensitive than the 32 P-labeled double-stranded cDNA counterparts, whereas biotin-labeled ssRNA probes showed a sensitivity comparable with that of the 32 P-labeled double-stranded cDNA counterparts. Hybridization of HAV with the ssRNA probes at high stringency revealed specific reactions with a high signal-to-noise ratio. The differential hybridization reactions seen with probes of positive and negative sense (compared with HAV genomic RNA) were used to detect HAV in clinical and field samples. A positive/negative ratio was introduced as an indicator that permitted an semiquantitative expression of a positive HAV reaction. Good agreement of this indicator was observed with normal stool samples and with HAV-seeded samples. By using this system, HAV was detected in estuarine and freshwater samples collected from a sewage-polluted bayou in Houston and a saltwater tributary of Galveston Bay

  3. Control of DNA hybridization by photoswitchable molecular glue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dohno, Chikara; Nakatani, Kazuhiko

    2011-12-01

    Hybridization of DNA is one of the most intriguing events in molecular recognition and is essential for living matter to inherit life beyond generations. In addition to the function of DNA as genetic material, DNA hybridization is a key to control the function of DNA-based materials in nanoscience. Since the hybridization of two single stranded DNAs is a thermodynamically favorable process, dissociation of the once formed DNA duplex is normally unattainable under isothermal conditions. As the progress of DNA-based nanoscience, methodology to control the DNA hybridization process has become increasingly important. Besides many reports using the chemically modified DNA for the regulation of hybridization, we focused our attention on the use of a small ligand as the molecular glue for the DNA. In 2001, we reported the first designed molecule that strongly and specifically bound to the mismatched base pairs in double stranded DNA. Further studies on the mismatch binding molecules provided us a key discovery of a novel mode of the binding of a mismatch binding ligand that induced the base flipping. With these findings we proposed the concept of molecular glue for DNA for the unidirectional control of DNA hybridization and, eventually photoswitchable molecular glue for DNA, which enabled the bidirectional control of hybridization under photoirradiation. In this tutorial review, we describe in detail how we integrated the mismatch binding ligand into photoswitchable molecular glue for DNA, and the application and perspective in DNA-based nanoscience.

  4. RNA-directed DNA methylation: Mechanisms and functions

    KAUST Repository

    Mahfouz, Magdy M.

    2010-01-01

    Epigenetic RNA based gene silencing mechanisms play a major role in genome stability and control of gene expression. Transcriptional gene silencing via RNA-directed DNA methylation (RdDM) guides the epigenetic regulation of the genome in response

  5. Ultra-sensitive DNA assay based on single-molecule detection coupled with fluorescent quantum dot-labeling and its application to determination of messenger RNA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Li; Li Xincang; Li Lu; Wang Jinxing; Jin Wenrui

    2011-01-01

    An ultra-sensitive single-molecule detection (SMD) method for quantification of DNA using total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy (TIRFM) coupled with fluorescent quantum dot (QD)-labeling was developed. In this method, the target DNA (tDNA) was captured by the capture DNA immobilized on the silanized coverslip blocked with ethanolamine and bovine serum albumin. Then, the QD-labeled probe DNA was hybridized to the tDNA. Ten fluorescent images of the QD-labeled sandwich DNA hybrids on the coverslip were taken by a high-sensitive CCD. The tDNA was quantified by counting the bright spots on the images using a calibration curve. The LOD of the method was 1 x 10 -14 mol L -1 . Several key factors, including image acquirement, fluorescence probe, substrate preparation, noise elimination from solutions and glass coverslips, and nonspecific adsorption and binding of solution-phase detection probes were discussed in detail. The method could be applied to quantify messenger RNA (mRNA) in cells. In order to determine mRNA, double-stranded RNA-DNA hybrids consisting of mRNA and corresponding cDNA were synthesized from the cellular mRNA template using reverse transcription in the presence of reverse transcriptase. After removing the mRNA in the double-stranded hybrids using ribonuclease, cDNA was quantified using the SMD-based TIRFM. Osteopontin mRNA in decidual stromal cells was chosen as the model analyte.

  6. Ultra-sensitive DNA assay based on single-molecule detection coupled with fluorescent quantum dot-labeling and its application to determination of messenger RNA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Li [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Shandong University, Jinan 250100 (China); Li Xincang [School of Life Sciences, Shandong University, Jinan 250100 (China); Li Lu [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Shandong University, Jinan 250100 (China); Wang Jinxing [School of Life Sciences, Shandong University, Jinan 250100 (China); Jin Wenrui, E-mail: jwr@sdu.edu.cn [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Shandong University, Jinan 250100 (China)

    2011-01-24

    An ultra-sensitive single-molecule detection (SMD) method for quantification of DNA using total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy (TIRFM) coupled with fluorescent quantum dot (QD)-labeling was developed. In this method, the target DNA (tDNA) was captured by the capture DNA immobilized on the silanized coverslip blocked with ethanolamine and bovine serum albumin. Then, the QD-labeled probe DNA was hybridized to the tDNA. Ten fluorescent images of the QD-labeled sandwich DNA hybrids on the coverslip were taken by a high-sensitive CCD. The tDNA was quantified by counting the bright spots on the images using a calibration curve. The LOD of the method was 1 x 10{sup -14} mol L{sup -1}. Several key factors, including image acquirement, fluorescence probe, substrate preparation, noise elimination from solutions and glass coverslips, and nonspecific adsorption and binding of solution-phase detection probes were discussed in detail. The method could be applied to quantify messenger RNA (mRNA) in cells. In order to determine mRNA, double-stranded RNA-DNA hybrids consisting of mRNA and corresponding cDNA were synthesized from the cellular mRNA template using reverse transcription in the presence of reverse transcriptase. After removing the mRNA in the double-stranded hybrids using ribonuclease, cDNA was quantified using the SMD-based TIRFM. Osteopontin mRNA in decidual stromal cells was chosen as the model analyte.

  7. Drosophila interspecific hybrids phenocopy piRNA-pathway mutants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erin S Kelleher

    Full Text Available The Piwi-interacting RNA (piRNA pathway defends the germline of animals from the deleterious activity of selfish transposable elements (TEs through small-RNA mediated silencing. Adaptation to novel invasive TEs is proposed to occur by incorporating their sequences into the piRNA pool that females produce and deposit into their eggs, which then propagates immunity against specific TEs to future generations. In support of this model, the F1 offspring of crosses between strains of the same Drosophila species sometimes suffer from germline derepression of paternally inherited TE families, caused by a failure of the maternal strain to produce the piRNAs necessary for their regulation. However, many protein components of the Drosophila piRNA pathway exhibit signatures of positive selection, suggesting that they also contribute to the evolution of host genome defense. Here we investigate piRNA pathway function and TE regulation in the F1 hybrids of interspecific crosses between D. melanogaster and D. simulans and compare them with intraspecific control crosses of D. melanogaster. We confirm previous reports showing that intraspecific crosses are characterized by derepression of paternally inherited TE families that are rare or absent from the maternal genome and piRNA pool, consistent with the role of maternally deposited piRNAs in shaping TE silencing. In contrast to the intraspecific cross, we discover that interspecific hybrids are characterized by widespread derepression of both maternally and paternally inherited TE families. Furthermore, the pattern of derepression of TE families in interspecific hybrids cannot be attributed to their paucity or absence from the piRNA pool of the maternal species. Rather, we demonstrate that interspecific hybrids closely resemble piRNA effector-protein mutants in both TE misregulation and aberrant piRNA production. We suggest that TE derepression in interspecific hybrids largely reflects adaptive divergence of piRNA

  8. Imaging of RNA in situ hybridization by atomic force microscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kalle, W.H.J.; Macville, M.V.E.; van de Corput, M.P.C.; de Grooth, B.G.; Tanke, H.J.; Raap, A.K.

    In this study we investigated the possibility of imaging internal cellular molecules after cytochemical detection with atomic force microscopy (AFM). To this end, rat 9G and HeLa cells were hybridized with haptenized probes for 28S ribosomal RNA, human elongation factor mRNA and cytomegalovirus

  9. Isolation of Microarray-Grade Total RNA, MicroRNA, and DNA from a Single PAXgene Blood RNA Tube

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kruhøffer, Mogens; Andersen, Lars Dyrskjøt; Voss, Thorsten

    2007-01-01

    We have developed a procedure for isolation of microRNA and genomic DNA in addition to total RNA from whole blood stabilized in PAXgene Blood RNA tubes. The procedure is based on automatic extraction on a BioRobot MDx and includes isolation of DNA from a fraction of the stabilized blood...... and recovery of small RNA species that are otherwise lost. The procedure presented here is suitable for large-scale experiments and is amenable to further automation. Procured total RNA and DNA was tested using Affymetrix Expression and single-nucleotide polymorphism GeneChips, respectively, and isolated micro......RNA was tested using spotted locked nucleic acid-based microarrays. We conclude that the yield and quality of total RNA, microRNA, and DNA from a single PAXgene blood RNA tube is sufficient for downstream microarray analysis....

  10. Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization for MicroRNA Detection in Archived Oral Cancer Tissues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zonggao Shi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The noncoding RNA designated as microRNA (miRNA is a large group of small single-stranded regulatory RNA and has generated wide-spread interest in human disease studies. To facilitate delineating the role of microRNAs in cancer pathology, we sought to explore the feasibility of detecting microRNA expression in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE tissues. Using FFPE materials, we have compared fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH procedures to detect miR-146a with (a different synthetic probes: regular custom DNA oligonucleotides versus locked nucleic acid (LNA incorporated DNA oligonucleotides; (b different reporters for the probes: biotin versus digoxigenin (DIG; (c different visualization: traditional versus tyramide signal amplification (TSA system; (d different blocking reagents for endogenous peroxidase. Finally, we performed miR-146a FISH on a commercially available oral cancer tissue microarray, which contains 40 cases of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC and 10 cases of normal epithelia from the human oral cavity. A sample FISH protocol for detecting miR-146a is provided. In summary, we have established reliable in situ hybridization procedures for detecting the expression of microRNA in FFPE oral cancer tissues. This method is an important tool for studies on the involvement of microRNA in oral cancer pathology and may have potential prognostic or diagnostic value.

  11. Hybrid male sterility is caused by mitochondrial DNA deletion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashida, Kenji; Kohno, Shigeru

    2009-07-01

    Although it is known that the hybrid male mouse is sterile just like any other animal's heterogametic sex, the reason why only the male germ cells are impaired has yet to be discovered. TdT-mediated dUTP nick end labeling assay using a confocal fluorescence microscope and DNA fragmentation assay of hybrid testis indicated destruction of the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) rather than the nuclear DNA. Previously we reported that maternal mtDNA inheritance is through selective sperm mtDNA elimination based on the sperm factor and two egg factors, and expression of these three factors was recognized in the hybrid testis. It was thereby assumed that mtDNA destruction caused by the expression of maternal mtDNA inheritance system in male germ cells is implicated in the hybrid male sterility of mice.

  12. Performance of ProEx C and PreTect HPV-Proofer E6/E7 mRNA tests in comparison with the hybrid capture 2 HPV DNA test for triaging ASCUS and LSIL cytology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alaghehbandan, Reza; Fontaine, Daniel; Bentley, James; Escott, Nicholas; Ghatage, Prafull; Lear, Adrian; Coutlee, Francois; Ratnam, Samuel

    2013-09-01

    The clinical usefulness of the ProEx C (Becton Dickinson) and PreTect HPV-Proofer E6/E7 mRNA tests (Proofer; Norchip) for the triage of ASCUS and LSIL cytology was determined in comparison with the Hybrid Capture 2 HPV DNA test (HC2; Qiagen). The study population consisted of women with a history of abnormal cytology referred to colposcopy. Histology-confirmed CIN 2+ served as the disease endpoint. The study was based on 1,360 women (mean age 30.7 years), of whom 380 had CIN 2+. Among 315 with ASCUS (CIN 2+, n = 67), the sensitivities of ProEx C, Proofer, and HC2 to detect CIN 2+ were, 71.6, 71.6, and 95.5%, respectively, with a corresponding specificity of 74.6, 74.2, and 35.1%. Among 363 with LSIL (CIN 2+, n = 108), the sensitivities of ProEx C, Proofer, and HC2 were, 67.6, 74.1, and 96.3%, respectively, with a corresponding specificity of 60, 68.2, and 18.4%. Among 225 HC2-positive ASCUS (CIN 2+, n = 64), 105 tested positive by ProEx C, reducing colposcopy referral by 53.3% and detecting 71.9% of CIN 2+; Proofer was positive in 112/225, reducing colposcopy referral by 50.2% and detecting 75.0% of CIN 2+. Among 312 HC2-positive LSIL (CIN 2+, n = 104), 160 tested positive by ProEx C, reducing coloposcopy referral by 48.7% and detecting 66.3% of CIN 2+; Proofer was positive in 159/312, reducing colposcopy referral by 49.0% and detecting 75.0% of CIN 2+. In conclusion, both ProEx C and Proofer have a similar performance profile with a significantly higher specificity but lower sensitivity than HC2 for the detection of CIN 2+. Consequently, although they can reduce colposcopy referral, they will miss a proportion of CIN 2+ cases. This is a major limitation and should be taken into account if these tests are considered for ASCUS or LSIL triage. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc., a Wiley company.

  13. A rapid and efficient branched DNA hybridization assay to titer lentiviral vectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, Ayyappan; Xie, Jinger; Joshi, Sarasijam; Harden, Paul; Davies, Joan; Hermiston, Terry

    2008-11-01

    A robust assay to titer lentiviral vectors is imperative to qualifying their use in drug discovery, target validation and clinical applications. In this study, a novel branched DNA based hybridization assay was developed to titer lentiviral vectors by quantifying viral RNA genome copy numbers from viral lysates without having to purify viral RNA, and this approach was compared with other non-functional (p24 protein ELISA and viral RT-qPCR) and a functional method (reporter gene expression) used commonly. The RT-qPCR method requires purification of viral RNA and the accuracy of titration therefore depends on the efficiency of purification; this requirement is ameliorated in the hybridization assay as RNA is measured directly in viral lysates. The present study indicates that the hybridization based titration assay performed on viral lysates was more accurate and has additional advantages of being rapid, robust and not dependent on transduction efficiency in different cell types.

  14. RADIA: RNA and DNA integrated analysis for somatic mutation detection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amie J Radenbaugh

    Full Text Available The detection of somatic single nucleotide variants is a crucial component to the characterization of the cancer genome. Mutation calling algorithms thus far have focused on comparing the normal and tumor genomes from the same individual. In recent years, it has become routine for projects like The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA to also sequence the tumor RNA. Here we present RADIA (RNA and DNA Integrated Analysis, a novel computational method combining the patient-matched normal and tumor DNA with the tumor RNA to detect somatic mutations. The inclusion of the RNA increases the power to detect somatic mutations, especially at low DNA allelic frequencies. By integrating an individual's DNA and RNA, we are able to detect mutations that would otherwise be missed by traditional algorithms that examine only the DNA. We demonstrate high sensitivity (84% and very high precision (98% and 99% for RADIA in patient data from endometrial carcinoma and lung adenocarcinoma from TCGA. Mutations with both high DNA and RNA read support have the highest validation rate of over 99%. We also introduce a simulation package that spikes in artificial mutations to patient data, rather than simulating sequencing data from a reference genome. We evaluate sensitivity on the simulation data and demonstrate our ability to rescue back mutations at low DNA allelic frequencies by including the RNA. Finally, we highlight mutations in important cancer genes that were rescued due to the incorporation of the RNA.

  15. Involvement of DNA topoisomerase I in transcription of human ribosomal RNA genes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, H.; Wang, J.C.; Liu, L.F.

    1988-01-01

    Treatment of HeLa cells with a DNA topoisomerase I-specific inhibitor, camptothecin, results in rapid cessation of the synthesis of the 45S rRNA precursor. The inhibition of rRNA synthesis is reversible following drug removal and correlates with the presence of camptothecin-trapped topoisomerase I-DNA abortive complexes, which can be detected as topoisomerase I-linked DNA breaks upon lysis with sodium dodecyl sulfate. These breaks were found to be concentrated within the transcribed region of human rRNA genes. No such sites can be detected in the inactive human rRNA genes in mouse-human hybrid cells, suggesting a preferential association of topoisomerase I with actively transcribed genes. The distribution of RNA polymerase molecules along the transcription unit of human rRNA genes in camptothecin-treated HeLa cells, as assayed by nuclear run-on transcription, shows a graded decrease of the RNA polymerase density toward the 3' end of the transcription unit; the density is minimally affected near the 5' start of the transcription unit. These results suggest that DNA topoisomerase I is normally involved in the elongation step of transcription, especially when the transcripts are long, and that camptothecin interferes with this role

  16. A microfabricated hybrid device for DNA sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shaorong

    2003-11-01

    We have created a hybrid device of a microfabricated round-channel twin-T injector incorporated with a separation capillary in order to extend the straight separation distance for high speed and long readlength DNA sequencing. Semicircular grooves on glass wafers are obtained using a photomask with a narrow line-width and a standard isotropic photolithographic etching process. Round channels are made when two etched wafers are face-to-face aligned and bonded. A two-mask fabrication process has been developed to make channels of two different diameters. The twin-T injector is formed by the smaller channels whose diameter matches the bore of the separation capillary, and the "usual" separation channel, now called the connection channel, is formed by the larger ones whose diameter matches the outer diameter of the separation capillary. The separation capillary is inserted through the connection channel all the way to the twin-T injector to allow the capillary bore flush with the twin-T injector channels. The total dead-volume of the connection is estimated to be approximately 5 pL. To demonstrate the efficiency of this hybrid device, we have performed four-color DNA sequencing on it. Using a 200 microm twin-T injector coupled with a separation capillary of 20 cm effective separation distance, we have obtained readlengths of 800 plus bases at an accuracy of 98.5% in 56 min, compared to about 650 bases in 100 min on a conventional 40 cm long capillary sequencing machine under similar conditions. At an increased separation field strength and using a diluted sieving matrix, the separation time has been reduced to 20 min with a readlength of 700 bases at 98.5% base-calling accuracy.

  17. A plasmonic colorimetric strategy for visual miRNA detection based on hybridization chain reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Jie; Wang, Jingsheng; Guo, Jinyang; Gao, Huiguang; Han, Kun; Jiang, Chengmin; Miao, Peng

    2016-08-01

    In this work, a novel colorimetric strategy for miRNA analysis is proposed based on hybridization chain reaction (HCR)-mediated localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) variation of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs). miRNA in the sample to be tested is able to release HCR initiator from a solid interface to AgNPs colloid system by toehold exchange-mediated strand displacement, which then triggers the consumption of fuel strands with single-stranded tails for HCR. The final produced long nicked double-stranded DNA loses the ability to protect AgNPs from salt-induced aggregation. The stability variation of the colloid system can then be monitored by recording corresponding UV-vis spectrum and initial miRNA level is thus determined. This sensing system involves only four DNA strands which is quite simple. The practical utility is confirmed to be excellent by employing different biological samples.

  18. Exciton-controlled fluorescence: application to hybridization-sensitive fluorescent DNA probe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okamoto, Akimitsu; Ikeda, Shuji; Kubota, Takeshi; Yuki, Mizue; Yanagisawa, Hiroyuki

    2009-01-01

    A hybridization-sensitive fluorescent probe has been designed for nucleic acid detection, using the concept of fluorescence quenching caused by the intramolecular excitonic interaction of fluorescence dyes. We synthesized a doubly thiazole orange-labeled nucleotide showing high fluorescence intensity for a hybrid with the target nucleic acid and effective quenching for the single-stranded state. This exciton-controlled fluorescent probe was applied to living HeLa cells using microinjection to visualize intracellular mRNA localization. Immediately after injection of the probe into the cell, fluorescence was observed from the probe hybridizing with the target RNA. This fluorescence rapidly decreased upon addition of a competitor DNA. Multicoloring of this probe resulted in the simple simultaneous detection of plural target nucleic acid sequences. This probe realized a large, rapid, reversible change in fluorescence intensity in sensitive response to the amount of target nucleic acid, and facilitated spatiotemporal monitoring of the behavior of intracellular RNA.

  19. DNA hybridization sensor based on pentacene thin film transistor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jung-Min; Jha, Sandeep Kumar; Chand, Rohit; Lee, Dong-Hoon; Kim, Yong-Sang

    2011-01-15

    A DNA hybridization sensor using pentacene thin film transistors (TFTs) is an excellent candidate for disposable sensor applications due to their low-cost fabrication process and fast detection. We fabricated pentacene TFTs on glass substrate for the sensing of DNA hybridization. The ss-DNA (polyA/polyT) or ds-DNA (polyA/polyT hybrid) were immobilized directly on the surface of the pentacene, producing a dramatic change in the electrical properties of the devices. The electrical characteristics of devices were studied as a function of DNA immobilization, single-stranded vs. double-stranded DNA, DNA length and concentration. The TFT device was further tested for detection of λ-phage genomic DNA using probe hybridization. Based on these results, we propose that a "label-free" detection technique for DNA hybridization is possible through direct measurement of electrical properties of DNA-immobilized pentacene TFTs. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Hybridization Properties of RNA Containing 8-Methoxyguanosine and 8-Benzyloxyguanosine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Sylwester Baranowski

    Full Text Available Modified nucleobase analogues can serve as powerful tools for changing physicochemical and biological properties of DNA or RNA. Guanosine derivatives containing bulky substituents at 8 position are known to adopt syn conformation of N-glycoside bond. On the contrary, in RNA the anti conformation is predominant in Watson-Crick base pairing. In this paper two 8-substituted guanosine derivatives, 8-methoxyguanosine and 8-benzyloxyguanosine, were synthesized and incorporated into oligoribonucleotides to investigate their influence on the thermodynamic stability of RNA duplexes. The methoxy and benzyloxy substituents are electron-donating groups, decreasing the rate of depurination in the monomers, as confirmed by N-glycoside bond stability assessments. Thermodynamic stability studies indicated that substitution of guanosine by 8-methoxy- or 8-benzyloxyguanosine significantly decreased the thermodynamic stability of RNA duplexes. Moreover, the presence of 8-substituted guanosine derivatives decreased mismatch discrimination. Circular dichroism spectra of modified RNA duplexes exhibited patterns typical for A-RNA geometry.

  1. RNA-DNA Differences Are Generated in Human Cells within Seconds after RNA Exits Polymerase II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel X. Wang

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available RNA sequences are expected to be identical to their corresponding DNA sequences. Here, we found all 12 types of RNA-DNA sequence differences (RDDs in nascent RNA. Our results show that RDDs begin to occur in RNA chains ∼55 nt from the RNA polymerase II (Pol II active site. These RDDs occur so soon after transcription that they are incompatible with known deaminase-mediated RNA-editing mechanisms. Moreover, the 55 nt delay in appearance indicates that they do not arise during RNA synthesis by Pol II or as a direct consequence of modified base incorporation. Preliminary data suggest that RDD and R-loop formations may be coupled. These findings identify sequence substitution as an early step in cotranscriptional RNA processing.

  2. DNA:DNA hybridization studies on the pink-pigmented facultative methylotrophs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hood, D W; Dow, C S; Green, P N

    1987-03-01

    The genomic relatedness among 36 strains of pink-pigmented facultatively methylotrophic bacteria (PPFMs) was estimated by determination of DNA base composition and by DNA:DNA hybridization studies. A reproducible hybridization system was developed for the rapid analysis of multiple DNA samples. Results indicated that the PPFMs comprise four major and several minor homology groups, and that they should remain grouped in a single genus, Methylobacterium.

  3. A bio-hybrid DNA rotor-stator nanoengine that moves along predefined tracks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valero, Julián; Pal, Nibedita; Dhakal, Soma; Walter, Nils G; Famulok, Michael

    2018-06-01

    Biological motors are highly complex protein assemblies that generate linear or rotary motion, powered by chemical energy. Synthetic motors based on DNA nanostructures, bio-hybrid designs or synthetic organic chemistry have been assembled. However, unidirectionally rotating biomimetic wheel motors with rotor-stator units that consume chemical energy are elusive. Here, we report a bio-hybrid nanoengine consisting of a catalytic stator that unidirectionally rotates an interlocked DNA wheel, powered by NTP hydrolysis. The engine consists of an engineered T7 RNA polymerase (T7RNAP-ZIF) attached to a dsDNA nanoring that is catenated to a rigid rotating dsDNA wheel. The wheel motor produces long, repetitive RNA transcripts that remain attached to the engine and are used to guide its movement along predefined ssDNA tracks arranged on a DNA nanotube. The simplicity of the design renders this walking nanoengine adaptable to other biological nanoarchitectures, facilitating the construction of complex bio-hybrid structures that achieve NTP-driven locomotion.

  4. Detection of DNA hybridizations using solid-state nanopores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balagurusamy, Venkat S K; Weinger, Paul; Sean Ling, Xinsheng

    2010-01-01

    We report an experimental study of using DNA translocation through solid-state nanopores to detect the sequential arrangement of two double-stranded 12-mer hybridization segments on a single-stranded DNA molecule. The sample DNA is a trimer molecule formed by hybridizing three single-stranded oligonucleotides. A polystyrene bead is attached to the end of the trimer DNA, providing a mechanism in slowing down the translocation and suppressing the thermal diffusion, thereby allowing the detection of short features of DNA by standard patch-clamp electronics. The electrical signature of the translocation of a trimer molecule through a nanopore has been identified successfully in the temporal traces of ionic current. The results reported here represent the first successful attempt in using a solid-state nanopore as an ionic scanning device in resolving individual hybridization segments (or 'probes') on a DNA molecule.

  5. Detection of DNA hybridizations using solid-state nanopores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balagurusamy, Venkat S K; Weinger, Paul; Sean Ling, Xinsheng, E-mail: Xinsheng_Ling@brown.edu [Department of Physics, Brown University, Providence, RI 02912 (United States)

    2010-08-20

    We report an experimental study of using DNA translocation through solid-state nanopores to detect the sequential arrangement of two double-stranded 12-mer hybridization segments on a single-stranded DNA molecule. The sample DNA is a trimer molecule formed by hybridizing three single-stranded oligonucleotides. A polystyrene bead is attached to the end of the trimer DNA, providing a mechanism in slowing down the translocation and suppressing the thermal diffusion, thereby allowing the detection of short features of DNA by standard patch-clamp electronics. The electrical signature of the translocation of a trimer molecule through a nanopore has been identified successfully in the temporal traces of ionic current. The results reported here represent the first successful attempt in using a solid-state nanopore as an ionic scanning device in resolving individual hybridization segments (or 'probes') on a DNA molecule.

  6. Size and Base Composition of RNA in Supercoiled Plasmid DNA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Peter H.; Boyer, Herbert W.; Helinski, Donald R.

    1973-01-01

    The average size and base composition of the covalently integrated RNA segment in supercoiled ColE1 DNA synthesized in Escherichia coli in the presence of chloramphenicol (CM-ColE1 DNA) have been determined by two independent methods. The two approaches yielded similar results, indicating that the RNA segment in CM-ColE1 DNA contains GMP at the 5′ end and comprises on the average 25 to 26 ribonucleotides with a base composition of 10-11 G, 3 A, 5-6 C, and 6-7 U. PMID:4359488

  7. Hybridization thermodynamics of DNA bound to gold nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lang, Brian

    2010-01-01

    Isothermal Titration Calorimetry (ITC) was used to study the thermodynamics of hybridization on DNA-functionalized colloidal gold nanoparticles. When compared to the thermodynamics of hybridization of DNA that is free in solution, the differences in the values of the Gibbs free energy of reaction, Δ r G o , the enthalpy, Δ r H o , and entropy, Δ r S o , were small. The change in Δ r G o between the free and bound states was always positive but with statistical significance outside the 95% confidence interval, implying the free DNA is slightly more stable than when in the bound state. Additionally, ITC was also able to reveal information about the binding stoichiometry of the hybridization reactions on the DNA-functionalized gold nanoparticles, and indicates that there is a significant fraction of the DNA on gold nanoparticle surface that is unavailable for DNA hybridization. Furthermore, the fraction of available DNA is dependent on the spacer group on the DNA that is used to span the gold surface from that to the probe DNA.

  8. Comparison of kDNA PCR-hybridization assay with three PCR methods for canines visceral Leishmaniasis diagnosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pilatti, Marcia M.; Andrade, Antero S.R. [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)], e-mail: marciapilatti@yahoo.com.br, e-mail: antero@cdtn.br; Ferreira, Sidney A. [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Parasitologia], e-mail: saninoalmeida@gmail.com

    2009-07-01

    The sensitivity of the kDNA PCR-Hybridization assay, which uses radioactive DNA probes (labeled with {sup 32}P), was compared with three conventional PCR methods used for canine visceral leishmaniasis diagnosis. All PCR methods had two steps: a first amplification followed by hybridization or by a new amplification (nested or semi nested). Two methods (kDNA PCR-Hybridization and kDNA snPCR) used primers addressed to kinetoplast minicircles and the other two methods to the coding (LnPCR) and intergenic noncoding regions (ITS-1 nPCR) of the ribosomal rRNA genes. The comparison was accomplished in two groups of 23 infected dogs using samples collected by the conjunctival swab procedure. In the Group 1 the DNA was extracted from cotton swabs by phenol-chloroform and in Group 2 by boiling. The most efficient PCR methods in the Group 1 were those based on kDNA targets. The kDNA PCR-Hybridization was able to detect parasites in 22/23 dogs (95.6%) and in 40/46 samples (86.9%). The kDNA snPCR was positive for 21/23 dogs (91.3%) and for 40/46 samples (86.9%). The positivities of the kDNA based methods were significantly higher than the positivities verified for the methods based on ribosomal rRNA genes (p<0.05). In the Group 2 the kDNA PCR- Hybridization showed a better performance detecting parasites in 18/23 dogs (78.3%) and in 31/46 samples (67.4%), significantly higher than the other three methods (p<0.05). The higher sensitivity of the minicircle kDNA based assays reported by others was confirmed in this study and kDNA PCR-Hybridization showed the best sensitivity among the assays evaluated. (author)

  9. Comparison of kDNA PCR-hybridization assay with three PCR methods for canines visceral Leishmaniasis diagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pilatti, Marcia M.; Andrade, Antero S.R.; Ferreira, Sidney A.

    2009-01-01

    The sensitivity of the kDNA PCR-Hybridization assay, which uses radioactive DNA probes (labeled with 32 P), was compared with three conventional PCR methods used for canine visceral leishmaniasis diagnosis. All PCR methods had two steps: a first amplification followed by hybridization or by a new amplification (nested or semi nested). Two methods (kDNA PCR-Hybridization and kDNA snPCR) used primers addressed to kinetoplast minicircles and the other two methods to the coding (LnPCR) and intergenic noncoding regions (ITS-1 nPCR) of the ribosomal rRNA genes. The comparison was accomplished in two groups of 23 infected dogs using samples collected by the conjunctival swab procedure. In the Group 1 the DNA was extracted from cotton swabs by phenol-chloroform and in Group 2 by boiling. The most efficient PCR methods in the Group 1 were those based on kDNA targets. The kDNA PCR-Hybridization was able to detect parasites in 22/23 dogs (95.6%) and in 40/46 samples (86.9%). The kDNA snPCR was positive for 21/23 dogs (91.3%) and for 40/46 samples (86.9%). The positivities of the kDNA based methods were significantly higher than the positivities verified for the methods based on ribosomal rRNA genes (p<0.05). In the Group 2 the kDNA PCR- Hybridization showed a better performance detecting parasites in 18/23 dogs (78.3%) and in 31/46 samples (67.4%), significantly higher than the other three methods (p<0.05). The higher sensitivity of the minicircle kDNA based assays reported by others was confirmed in this study and kDNA PCR-Hybridization showed the best sensitivity among the assays evaluated. (author)

  10. HAMDA: Hybrid Approach for MiRNA-Disease Association prediction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xing; Niu, Ya-Wei; Wang, Guang-Hui; Yan, Gui-Ying

    2017-12-01

    For decades, enormous experimental researches have collectively indicated that microRNA (miRNA) could play indispensable roles in many critical biological processes and thus also the pathogenesis of human complex diseases. Whereas the resource and time cost required in traditional biology experiments are expensive, more and more attentions have been paid to the development of effective and feasible computational methods for predicting potential associations between disease and miRNA. In this study, we developed a computational model of Hybrid Approach for MiRNA-Disease Association prediction (HAMDA), which involved the hybrid graph-based recommendation algorithm, to reveal novel miRNA-disease associations by integrating experimentally verified miRNA-disease associations, disease semantic similarity, miRNA functional similarity, and Gaussian interaction profile kernel similarity into a recommendation algorithm. HAMDA took not only network structure and information propagation but also node attribution into consideration, resulting in a satisfactory prediction performance. Specifically, HAMDA obtained AUCs of 0.9035 and 0.8395 in the frameworks of global and local leave-one-out cross validation, respectively. Meanwhile, HAMDA also achieved good performance with AUC of 0.8965 ± 0.0012 in 5-fold cross validation. Additionally, we conducted case studies about three important human cancers for performance evaluation of HAMDA. As a result, 90% (Lymphoma), 86% (Prostate Cancer) and 92% (Kidney Cancer) of top 50 predicted miRNAs were confirmed by recent experiment literature, which showed the reliable prediction ability of HAMDA. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. An improved method for RNA isolation and cDNA library construction from immature seeds of Jatropha curcas L

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaur Jatinder

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background RNA quality and quantity is sometimes unsuitable for cDNA library construction, from plant seeds rich in oil, polysaccharides and other secondary metabolites. Seeds of jatropha (Jatropha curcas L. are rich in fatty acids/lipids, storage proteins, polysaccharides, and a number of other secondary metabolites that could either bind and/or co-precipitate with RNA, making it unsuitable for downstream applications. Existing RNA isolation methods and commercial kits often fail to deliver high-quality total RNA from immature jatropha seeds for poly(A+ RNA purification and cDNA synthesis. Findings A protocol has been developed for isolating good quality total RNA from immature jatropha seeds, whereby a combination of the CTAB based RNA extraction method and a silica column of a commercial plant RNA extraction kit is used. The extraction time was reduced from two days to about 3 hours and the RNA was suitable for poly(A+ RNA purification, cDNA synthesis, cDNA library construction, RT-PCR, and Northern hybridization. Based on sequence information from selected clones and amplified PCR product, the cDNA library seems to be a good source of full-length jatropha genes. The method was equally effective for isolating RNA from mustard and rice seeds. Conclusions This is a simple CTAB + silica column method to extract high quality RNA from oil rich immature jatropha seeds that is suitable for several downstream applications. This method takes less time for RNA extraction and is equally effective for other tissues where the quality and quantity of RNA is highly interfered by the presence of fatty acids, polysaccharides and polyphenols.

  12. Isolation of RNA for dot hybridization by heparin-DNase I treatment of whole cell lysate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krawczyk, Z; Wu, C

    1987-08-15

    We have developed a new procedure for the rapid preparation of undegraded total RNA from cultured cells for specific quantitation by dot blotting analysis. Pelleted cells are resuspended in hypotonic solution containing a ribonuclease inhibitor and heparin and disrupted by freeze-thaw. Heparin is employed as an agent for nuclear lysis, dissociation of chromosomal protein, and release of mRNA from rough endoplasmic reticulum. We eliminate chromosomal DNA by digestion with DNase I and denature the RNA in the lysate with formaldehyde. After centrifugation to remove debris, the supernatant is used directly for dot blotting. All manipulations are performed in the same microfuge tube and recovery of RNA is quantitative. The procedure is especially useful for processing large numbers of samples. We illustrate its versatility by analysis of specific RNAs in Drosophila, rat, and human cell lines. In reconstruction experiments, less than 80 molecules per cell of a small RNA (beta-globin) can be detected under highly stringent hybridization conditions, using only moderately labeled double-stranded plasmid DNA probes and short film exposures.

  13. Building a Phylogenetic Tree of the Human and Ape Superfamily Using DNA-DNA Hybridization Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maier, Caroline Alexander

    2004-01-01

    The study describes the process of DNA-DNA hybridization and the history of its use by Sibley and Alquist in simple, straightforward, and interesting language that students easily understand to create their own phylogenetic tree of the hominoid superfamily. They calibrate the DNA clock and use it to estimate the divergence dates of the various…

  14. Oxidatively generated DNA/RNA damage in psychological stress states

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Anders

    2013-01-01

    age-related somatic disorders. The overall aim of the PhD project was to investigate the relation between psychopathology, psychological stress, stress hormone secretion and oxidatively generated DNA and RNA damage, as measured by the urinary excretion of markers of whole-body DNA/RNA oxidation (8...... between the 24 h urinary cortisol excretion and the excretion of 8-oxodG/8-oxoGuo, determined in the same samples. Collectively, the studies could not confirm an association between psychological stress and oxidative stress on nucleic acids. Systemic oxidatively generated DNA/RNA damage was increased......Both non-pathological psychological stress states and mental disorders are associated with molecular, cellular and epidemiological signs of accelerated aging. Oxidative stress on nucleic acids is a critical component of cellular and organismal aging, and a suggested pathogenic mechanism in several...

  15. Influence of thermodynamically unfavorable secondary structures on DNA hybridization kinetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hata, Hiroaki; Kitajima, Tetsuro

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Nucleic acid secondary structure plays an important role in nucleic acid–nucleic acid recognition/hybridization processes, and is also a vital consideration in DNA nanotechnology. Although the influence of stable secondary structures on hybridization kinetics has been characterized, unstable secondary structures, which show positive ΔG° with self-folding, can also form, and their effects have not been systematically investigated. Such thermodynamically unfavorable secondary structures should not be ignored in DNA hybridization kinetics, especially under isothermal conditions. Here, we report that positive ΔG° secondary structures can change the hybridization rate by two-orders of magnitude, despite the fact that their hybridization obeyed second-order reaction kinetics. The temperature dependence of hybridization rates showed non-Arrhenius behavior; thus, their hybridization is considered to be nucleation limited. We derived a model describing how ΔG° positive secondary structures affect hybridization kinetics in stopped-flow experiments with 47 pairs of oligonucleotides. The calculated hybridization rates, which were based on the model, quantitatively agreed with the experimental rate constant. PMID:29220504

  16. Dendrimer-based biosensor for chemiluminescent detection of DNA hybridization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, P.; Hun, X.; Qing, H.

    2011-01-01

    We report on a highly sensitive chemiluminescent (CL) biosensor for the sequence-specific detection of DNA using a novel bio barcode DNA probe modified with gold nanoparticles that were covered with a dendrimer. The modified probe is composed of gold nanoparticles, a dendrimer, the CL reagent, and the DNA. The capture probe DNA was immobilized on magnetic beads covered with gold. It first hybridizes with the target DNA and then with one terminal end of the signal DNA on the barcoded DNA probe. CL was generated by adding H 2 O 2 and Co(II) ions as the catalyst. The immobilization of dendrimer onto the gold nanoparticles can significantly enhance sensitivity and gives a detection limit of 6 fmol L -1 of target DNA. (author)

  17. DNA Origami-Graphene Hybrid Nanopore for DNA Detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barati Farimani, Amir; Dibaeinia, Payam; Aluru, Narayana R

    2017-01-11

    DNA origami nanostructures can be used to functionalize solid-state nanopores for single molecule studies. In this study, we characterized a nanopore in a DNA origami-graphene heterostructure for DNA detection. The DNA origami nanopore is functionalized with a specific nucleotide type at the edge of the pore. Using extensive molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, we computed and analyzed the ionic conductivity of nanopores in heterostructures carpeted with one or two layers of DNA origami on graphene. We demonstrate that a nanopore in DNA origami-graphene gives rise to distinguishable dwell times for the four DNA base types, whereas for a nanopore in bare graphene, the dwell time is almost the same for all types of bases. The specific interactions (hydrogen bonds) between DNA origami and the translocating DNA strand yield different residence times and ionic currents. We also conclude that the speed of DNA translocation decreases due to the friction between the dangling bases at the pore mouth and the sequencing DNA strands.

  18. Microcantilver-based DNA hybridization sensors for Salmonella identification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlo Ricciardi

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The detection of pathogenic microorganisms in foods remains a challenging since the safety of foodstuffs has to be ensured by the food producing companies. Conventional methods for the detection and identification of bacteria mainly rely on specific microbiological and biochemical identification. Biomolecular methods, are commonly used as a support for traditional techniques, thanks to their high sensitivity, specificity and not excessive costs. However, new methods like biosensors for example, can be an exciting alternative to the more traditional tecniques for the detection of pathogens in food. In this study we report Salmonella enterica serotype Enteritidis DNA detection through a novel class of label-free biosensors: microcantilevers (MCs. In general, MCs can operate as a microbalance and is used to detect the mass of the entities anchored to the cantilever surface using the decrease in the resonant frequency. We use DNA hybridization as model reaction system and for this reason, specific single stranded probe DNA of the pathogen and three different DNA targets (single-stranded complementary DNA, PCR product and serial dilutions of DNA extracted from S. Enteritidis strains were applied. Two protocols were reported in order to allow the probe immobilization on cantilever surface: i MC surface was functionalized with 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane and glutaraldehyde and an amino-modified DNA probe was used; ii gold-coated sensors and thiolated DNA probes were used in order to generate a covalent bonding (Th-Au. For the first one, measures after hybridization with the PCR product showed related frequency shift 10 times higher than hybridization with complementary probe and detectable signals were obtained at the concentrations of 103 and 106 cfu/mL after hybridization with bacterial DNA. There are currently optimizations of the second protocol, where preliminary results have shown to be more uniform and therefore more precise within each of the

  19. Ratiometric FRET-based detection of DNA and micro-RNA in solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matveeva, Evgenia G.; Gryczynski, Zygmunt; Stewart, Donald R.; Gryczynski, Ignacy

    2009-01-01

    A ratiometric method for detecting DNA oligomers in bulk solution based on Foerster resonance energy transfer (FRET) is described. The two fluorescence signals (green and red), originating from Cy3 (donor, green) and Cy5 (acceptor, red) labels, are simultaneously detected from the pre-hybridized Cy3oligomerY:Cy5oligomerX system. The ratio of red to green intensities is sensitive to the presence of the single-stranded complimentary oligomer, which replaces single-stranded Cy3oligomerY in the donor:acceptor complex and perturbs the FRET. The detection scheme is generally applicable to the detection of DNA and RNA, and particularly micro-RNA. The proposed method is applicable to various double-stranded various lengths targets (manipulation of the sample preparation conditions, such as temperature, incubation time, denaturizing agent, may be needed).

  20. Cloning and characterization of DNA complementary to the canine distemper virus mRNA encoding matrix, phosphoprotein, and nucleocapsid protein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rozenblatt, S.; Eizenberg, O.; Englund, G.; Bellini, W.J.

    1985-01-01

    Double-stranded cDNA synthesized from total polyadenylate-containing mRNA, extracted from monkey kidney cells infected with canine distemper virus (CDV), has been cloned into the PstI site of Escherichia coli plasmid pBR322. Clones containing canine distemper virus DNA were identified by hybridization to a canine distemper virus-specific, 32 P-labeled cDNA. Four specific clones containing different classes of sequences have been identified. The cloned plasmids contain inserts of 800 (clone 44-80), 960 (clone 74-16), 1700 (clone 364), and 950 (clone 40-9) base pairs. The sizes of the mRNA species complementary to these inserts are 1500, 1850, 1850 and 2500 nucleotides, respectively, as determined by the Northern technique. Three of the cloned DNA fragments were further identified as the reverse transcripts of the mRNA coding for the matrix, phosphoprotein, and nucleocapsid protein of CDV

  1. Cloning and characterization of DNA complementary to the canine distemper virus mRNA encoding matrix, phosphoprotein, and nucleocapsid protein

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rozenblatt, S.; Eizenberg, O.; Englund, G.; Bellini, W.J.

    1985-02-01

    Double-stranded cDNA synthesized from total polyadenylate-containing mRNA, extracted from monkey kidney cells infected with canine distemper virus (CDV), has been cloned into the PstI site of Escherichia coli plasmid pBR322. Clones containing canine distemper virus DNA were identified by hybridization to a canine distemper virus-specific, /sup 32/P-labeled cDNA. Four specific clones containing different classes of sequences have been identified. The cloned plasmids contain inserts of 800 (clone 44-80), 960 (clone 74-16), 1700 (clone 364), and 950 (clone 40-9) base pairs. The sizes of the mRNA species complementary to these inserts are 1500, 1850, 1850 and 2500 nucleotides, respectively, as determined by the Northern technique. Three of the cloned DNA fragments were further identified as the reverse transcripts of the mRNA coding for the matrix, phosphoprotein, and nucleocapsid protein of CDV.

  2. Increased systemic oxidatively generated DNA and RNA damage in schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Anders; Brødbæk, Kasper; Fink-Jensen, Anders

    2013-01-01

    such as cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes and dementia. We determined the urinary excretion of markers of systemic Deoxyribonucleic Acid (DNA) and Ribonucleic Acid (RNA) oxidation, 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2'-deoxyguanosine and 8-oxo-7,8-dihydroguanosine, respectively, in 40 schizophrenia patients and 40 age- and sex...

  3. DNA?RNA: What Do Students Think the Arrow Means?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, L. Kate; Fisk, J. Nick; Newman, Dina L.

    2014-01-01

    The central dogma of molecular biology, a model that has remained intact for decades, describes the transfer of genetic information from DNA to protein though an RNA intermediate. While recent work has illustrated many exceptions to the central dogma, it is still a common model used to describe and study the relationship between genes and protein…

  4. RNA-DNA sequence differences spell genetic code ambiguities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentin, Thomas; Nielsen, Michael L

    2013-01-01

    A recent paper in Science by Li et al. 2011(1) reports widespread sequence differences in the human transcriptome between RNAs and their encoding genes termed RNA-DNA differences (RDDs). The findings could add a new layer of complexity to gene expression but the study has been criticized. ...

  5. DNA/RNA-based formulations for treatment of breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Zhaolu; Zeng, Xianghui

    2017-12-01

    To develop a successful formulation for the gene therapy of breast cancer, an effective therapeutic nucleic acid and a proper delivery system are essential. Increased understanding of breast cancer, and developments in biotechnology, material science and nanotechnology have provided a major impetus in the development of effective formulations for the gene therapy of breast cancer. Areas covered: We discuss DNA/RNA-based formulations that can inhibit the growth of breast cancer cells and control the progress of breast cancer. Targets for the gene therapy of breast cancer, DNA/RNA-based therapeutics and delivery systems are summarized. And examples of successful DNA/RNA-based formulations for breast cancer gene therapy are reviewed. Expert opinion: Several challenges remain in developing effective DNA/RNA-based formulations for treatment of breast cancer. Firstly, most of the currently utilized targets are not effective enough as monotherapy for breast cancer. Secondly, the requirements for co-delivery system make the preparation of formulation more complicated. Thirdly, nanoparticles with the modification of tumor-targeting ligands could be more unstable in circulation and normal tissues. Lastly, immune responses against the viral vectors are unfavorable for the gene therapy of breast cancer because of the damage to the host and the impaired therapeutic ability.

  6. Accurate quantification of microRNA via single strand displacement reaction on DNA origami motif.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Zhu

    Full Text Available DNA origami is an emerging technology that assembles hundreds of staple strands and one single-strand DNA into certain nanopattern. It has been widely used in various fields including detection of biological molecules such as DNA, RNA and proteins. MicroRNAs (miRNAs play important roles in post-transcriptional gene repression as well as many other biological processes such as cell growth and differentiation. Alterations of miRNAs' expression contribute to many human diseases. However, it is still a challenge to quantitatively detect miRNAs by origami technology. In this study, we developed a novel approach based on streptavidin and quantum dots binding complex (STV-QDs labeled single strand displacement reaction on DNA origami to quantitatively detect the concentration of miRNAs. We illustrated a linear relationship between the concentration of an exemplary miRNA as miRNA-133 and the STV-QDs hybridization efficiency; the results demonstrated that it is an accurate nano-scale miRNA quantifier motif. In addition, both symmetrical rectangular motif and asymmetrical China-map motif were tested. With significant linearity in both motifs, our experiments suggested that DNA Origami motif with arbitrary shape can be utilized in this method. Since this DNA origami-based method we developed owns the unique advantages of simple, time-and-material-saving, potentially multi-targets testing in one motif and relatively accurate for certain impurity samples as counted directly by atomic force microscopy rather than fluorescence signal detection, it may be widely used in quantification of miRNAs.

  7. Accurate Quantification of microRNA via Single Strand Displacement Reaction on DNA Origami Motif

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, Jingyu; Li, Weidong; Li, Sheng; Zhu, Hongxin; Yang, Lun; Zhang, Aiping; He, Lin; Li, Can

    2013-01-01

    DNA origami is an emerging technology that assembles hundreds of staple strands and one single-strand DNA into certain nanopattern. It has been widely used in various fields including detection of biological molecules such as DNA, RNA and proteins. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play important roles in post-transcriptional gene repression as well as many other biological processes such as cell growth and differentiation. Alterations of miRNAs' expression contribute to many human diseases. However, it is still a challenge to quantitatively detect miRNAs by origami technology. In this study, we developed a novel approach based on streptavidin and quantum dots binding complex (STV-QDs) labeled single strand displacement reaction on DNA origami to quantitatively detect the concentration of miRNAs. We illustrated a linear relationship between the concentration of an exemplary miRNA as miRNA-133 and the STV-QDs hybridization efficiency; the results demonstrated that it is an accurate nano-scale miRNA quantifier motif. In addition, both symmetrical rectangular motif and asymmetrical China-map motif were tested. With significant linearity in both motifs, our experiments suggested that DNA Origami motif with arbitrary shape can be utilized in this method. Since this DNA origami-based method we developed owns the unique advantages of simple, time-and-material-saving, potentially multi-targets testing in one motif and relatively accurate for certain impurity samples as counted directly by atomic force microscopy rather than fluorescence signal detection, it may be widely used in quantification of miRNAs. PMID:23990889

  8. Accurate quantification of microRNA via single strand displacement reaction on DNA origami motif.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jie; Feng, Xiaolu; Lou, Jingyu; Li, Weidong; Li, Sheng; Zhu, Hongxin; Yang, Lun; Zhang, Aiping; He, Lin; Li, Can

    2013-01-01

    DNA origami is an emerging technology that assembles hundreds of staple strands and one single-strand DNA into certain nanopattern. It has been widely used in various fields including detection of biological molecules such as DNA, RNA and proteins. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play important roles in post-transcriptional gene repression as well as many other biological processes such as cell growth and differentiation. Alterations of miRNAs' expression contribute to many human diseases. However, it is still a challenge to quantitatively detect miRNAs by origami technology. In this study, we developed a novel approach based on streptavidin and quantum dots binding complex (STV-QDs) labeled single strand displacement reaction on DNA origami to quantitatively detect the concentration of miRNAs. We illustrated a linear relationship between the concentration of an exemplary miRNA as miRNA-133 and the STV-QDs hybridization efficiency; the results demonstrated that it is an accurate nano-scale miRNA quantifier motif. In addition, both symmetrical rectangular motif and asymmetrical China-map motif were tested. With significant linearity in both motifs, our experiments suggested that DNA Origami motif with arbitrary shape can be utilized in this method. Since this DNA origami-based method we developed owns the unique advantages of simple, time-and-material-saving, potentially multi-targets testing in one motif and relatively accurate for certain impurity samples as counted directly by atomic force microscopy rather than fluorescence signal detection, it may be widely used in quantification of miRNAs.

  9. Combined histochemical staining, RNA amplification, regional, and single cell cDNA analysis within the hippocampus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginsberg, Stephen D; Che, Shaoli

    2004-08-01

    The use of five histochemical stains (cresyl violet, thionin, hematoxylin & eosin, silver stain, and acridine orange) was evaluated in combination with an expression profiling paradigm that included regional and single cell analyses within the hippocampus of post-mortem human brains and adult mice. Adjacent serial sections of human and mouse hippocampus were labeled by histochemistry or neurofilament immunocytochemistry. These tissue sections were used as starting material for regional and single cell microdissection followed by a newly developed RNA amplification procedure (terminal continuation (TC) RNA amplification) and subsequent hybridization to custom-designed cDNA arrays. Results indicated equivalent levels of global hybridization signal intensity and relative expression levels for individual genes for hippocampi stained by cresyl violet, thionin, and hematoxylin & eosin, and neurofilament immunocytochemistry. Moreover, no significant differences existed between the Nissl stains and neurofilament immunocytochemistry for individual CA1 neurons obtained via laser capture microdissection. In contrast, a marked decrement was observed in adjacent hippocampal sections stained for silver stain and acridine orange, both at the level of the regional dissection and at the CA1 neuron population level. Observations made on the cDNA array platform were validated by real-time qPCR using primers directed against beta-actin and glyceraldehyde-3 phosphate dehydrogenase. Thus, this report demonstrated the utility of using specific Nissl stains, but not stains that bind RNA species directly, in both human and mouse brain tissues at the regional and cellular level for state-of-the-art molecular fingerprinting studies.

  10. DNA hybridization on membrane-modified carbon electrodes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kouřilová, Alena; Babkina, S. S.; Cahová, Kateřina; Havran, Luděk; Jelen, František; Paleček, Emil; Fojta, Miroslav

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 38, - (2005), s. 2493-2507 ISSN 0003-2719 R&D Projects: GA MPO(CZ) 1H-PK/42; GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA4004402; GA AV ČR(CZ) IBS5004355 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50040507 Keywords : DNA hybridization * electrochemical DNA sensor * nitrocellulose membrane Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 1.036, year: 2005

  11. Relationships between 16S-23S rRNA gene internal transcribed spacer DNA and genomic DNA similarities in the taxonomy of phototrophic bacteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okamura, K; Hisada, T; Takata, K; Hiraishi, A

    2013-01-01

    Rapid and accurate identification of microbial species is essential task in microbiology and biotechnology. In prokaryotic systematics, genomic DNA-DNA hybridization is the ultimate tool to determine genetic relationships among bacterial strains at the species level. However, a practical problem in this assay is that the experimental procedure is laborious and time-consuming. In recent years, information on the 16S-23S rRNA gene internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region has been used to classify bacterial strains at the species and intraspecies levels. It is unclear how much information on the ITS region can reflect the genome that contain it. In this study, therefore, we evaluate the quantitative relationship between ITS DNA and entire genomic DNA similarities. For this, we determined ITS sequences of several species of anoxygenic phototrophic bacteria belonging to the order Rhizobiales, and compared with DNA-DNA relatedness among these species. There was a high correlation between the two genetic markers. Based on the regression analysis of this relationship, 70% DNA-DNA relatedness corresponded to 92% ITS sequence similarity. This suggests the usefulness of the ITS sequence similarity as a criterion for determining the genospecies of the phototrophic bacteria. To avoid the effects of polymorphism bias of ITS on similarities, PCR products from all loci of ITS were used directly as genetic probes for comparison. The results of ITS DNA-DNA hybridization coincided well with those of genomic DNA-DNA relatedness. These collective data indicate that the whole ITS DNA-DNA similarity can be used as an alternative to genomic DNA-DNA similarity.

  12. Effects of humic substances on fluorometric DNA quantification and DNA hybridization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bachoon, DS; Otero, E; Hodson, RE

    2001-01-01

    DNA extracts from sediment and water samples are often contaminated with coextracted humic-like impurities, Estuarine humic substances and vascular plant extract were used to evaluate the effect of the presence of such impurities on DNA hybridization and quantification. The presence of humic

  13. Archaeal RNA polymerase arrests transcription at DNA lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gehring, Alexandra M; Santangelo, Thomas J

    2017-01-01

    Transcription elongation is not uniform and transcription is often hindered by protein-bound factors or DNA lesions that limit translocation and impair catalysis. Despite the high degree of sequence and structural homology of the multi-subunit RNA polymerases (RNAP), substantial differences in response to DNA lesions have been reported. Archaea encode only a single RNAP with striking structural conservation with eukaryotic RNAP II (Pol II). Here, we demonstrate that the archaeal RNAP from Thermococcus kodakarensis is sensitive to a variety of DNA lesions that pause and arrest RNAP at or adjacent to the site of DNA damage. DNA damage only halts elongation when present in the template strand, and the damage often results in RNAP arresting such that the lesion would be encapsulated with the transcription elongation complex. The strand-specific halt to archaeal transcription elongation on modified templates is supportive of RNAP recognizing DNA damage and potentially initiating DNA repair through a process akin to the well-described transcription-coupled DNA repair (TCR) pathways in Bacteria and Eukarya.

  14. RNA Imaging with Multiplexed Error Robust Fluorescence in situ Hybridization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moffitt, Jeffrey R.; Zhuang, Xiaowei

    2016-01-01

    Quantitative measurements of both the copy number and spatial distribution of large fractions of the transcriptome in single-cells could revolutionize our understanding of a variety of cellular and tissue behaviors in both healthy and diseased states. Single-molecule Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization (smFISH)—an approach where individual RNAs are labeled with fluorescent probes and imaged in their native cellular and tissue context—provides both the copy number and spatial context of RNAs but has been limited in the number of RNA species that can be measured simultaneously. Here we describe Multiplexed Error Robust Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization (MERFISH), a massively parallelized form of smFISH that can image and identify hundreds to thousands of different RNA species simultaneously with high accuracy in individual cells in their native spatial context. We provide detailed protocols on all aspects of MERFISH, including probe design, data collection, and data analysis to allow interested laboratories to perform MERFISH measurements themselves. PMID:27241748

  15. Nucleic acids in mummified plant seeds: screening of twelve specimens by gel-electrophoresis, molecular hybridization and DNA cloning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rollo, F; La Marca, A; Amici, A

    1987-02-01

    Twelve seed specimens of varying ages and from different archaeological sites were analyzed for the presence of polymerized DNA and RNA. Amongst the samples tested, one of Vitis vinifera from an archaeological site in Iran (2,000-3,000 B.C.) was found to be completely devoid of nucleic acids. Zea mais seeds of Precolumbial age from Peru (about 800 A.D.) contained depolymerized DNA and RNA. Samples of Vitis vinifera and Rubus sp. from a Lombard archaeological site (800 A.D.) as well as radiocarbon dated seeds from the site of the "Spring Sanctuary" near Metaponto (I-IV century B.C.) were found to contain polymerized DNA and rRNA bands. However the electrophoretic properties of the rRNAs in one case and hybridization experiments performed with cloned seed DNA in the other, clearly demonstrated that the polymerized nucleic acids were not of plant origin.

  16. Crystal Structure of a CRISPR RNA-guided Surveillance Complex Bound to a ssDNA Target

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mulepati, Sabin [Johns Hopkins Univ., Baltimore, MD (United States); Heroux, Annie; Bailey, Scott [Johns Hopkins Univ., Baltimore, MD (United States)

    2014-09-19

    In prokaryotes, RNA derived from type I and type III CRISPR loci direct large ribonucleoprotein complexes to destroy invading bacteriophage and plasmids. In Escherichia coli, this 405-kilodalton complex is called Cascade. We report the crystal structure of Cascade bound to a single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) target at a resolution of 3.03 angstroms. The structure reveals that the CRISPR RNA and target strands do not form a double helix but instead adopt an underwound ribbon-like structure. This noncanonical structure is facilitated by rotation of every sixth nucleotide out of the RNA-DNA hybrid and is stabilized by the highly interlocked organization of protein subunits. These studies provide insight into both the assembly and the activity of this complex and suggest a mechanism to enforce fidelity of target binding.

  17. Identification of DNA viruses by membrane filter hybridization.

    OpenAIRE

    Stålhandske, P; Pettersson, U

    1982-01-01

    The use of membrane filter hybridization for the identification of DNA viruses is described. We designed and used a procedure for identification of herpes simplex virus. This method can discriminate between herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2 in a simple way.

  18. Influence of DNA treatments on Southern blot hybridization analysis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-06-03

    Jun 3, 2008 ... DNA samples obtained by a non-phenol/chloroform isolation method, from three races of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici ... Key words: Fusarium oxysporum, DIG-IGS Probe, Southern hybridization. INTRODUCTION .... Detection of Fusarium spp in plants with monoclonal antibody. Ann. Phytopathol.

  19. RNA-directed DNA methylation: Mechanisms and functions

    KAUST Repository

    Mahfouz, Magdy M.

    2010-07-01

    Epigenetic RNA based gene silencing mechanisms play a major role in genome stability and control of gene expression. Transcriptional gene silencing via RNA-directed DNA methylation (RdDM) guides the epigenetic regulation of the genome in response to disease states, growth, developmental and stress signals. RdDM machinery is composed of proteins that produce and modify 24-nt- long siRNAs, recruit the RdDM complex to genomic targets, methylate DNA and remodel chromatin. The final DNA methylation pattern is determined by either DNA methyltransferase alone or by the combined action of DNA methyltransferases and demethylases. The dynamic interaction between RdDM and demethylases may render the plant epigenome plastic to growth, developmental, and environmental cues. The epigenome plasticity may allow the plant genome to assume many epigenomes and to have the right epigenome at the right time in response to intracellular or extracellular stimuli. This review discusses recent advances in RdDM research and considers future perspectives.

  20. Electrochemical DNA Hybridization Sensors Based on Conducting Polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Md. Mahbubur; Li, Xiao-Bo; Lopa, Nasrin Siraj; Ahn, Sang Jung; Lee, Jae-Joon

    2015-01-01

    Conducting polymers (CPs) are a group of polymeric materials that have attracted considerable attention because of their unique electronic, chemical, and biochemical properties. This is reflected in their use in a wide range of potential applications, including light-emitting diodes, anti-static coating, electrochromic materials, solar cells, chemical sensors, biosensors, and drug-release systems. Electrochemical DNA sensors based on CPs can be used in numerous areas related to human health. This review summarizes the recent progress made in the development and use of CP-based electrochemical DNA hybridization sensors. We discuss the distinct properties of CPs with respect to their use in the immobilization of probe DNA on electrode surfaces, and we describe the immobilization techniques used for developing DNA hybridization sensors together with the various transduction methods employed. In the concluding part of this review, we present some of the challenges faced in the use of CP-based DNA hybridization sensors, as well as a future perspective. PMID:25664436

  1. Electrochemical DNA Hybridization Sensors Based on Conducting Polymers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Mahbubur Rahman

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Conducting polymers (CPs are a group of polymeric materials that have attracted considerable attention because of their unique electronic, chemical, and biochemical properties. This is reflected in their use in a wide range of potential applications, including light-emitting diodes, anti-static coating, electrochromic materials, solar cells, chemical sensors, biosensors, and drug-release systems. Electrochemical DNA sensors based on CPs can be used in numerous areas related to human health. This review summarizes the recent progress made in the development and use of CP-based electrochemical DNA hybridization sensors. We discuss the distinct properties of CPs with respect to their use in the immobilization of probe DNA on electrode surfaces, and we describe the immobilization techniques used for developing DNA hybridization sensors together with the various transduction methods employed. In the concluding part of this review, we present some of the challenges faced in the use of CP-based DNA hybridization sensors, as well as a future perspective.

  2. Nanostructured ZnO-based biosensor: DNA immobilization and hybridization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Mishaal Mohammed

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available An electrochemical DNA biosensor was successfully fabricated by using (3-aminopropyl triethoxysilane (APTES with zinc oxide (ZnO nanorods synthesized using microwave-assisted chemical bath deposition method on thermally oxidized SiO2 thin films. The structural quality and morphology of the ZnO nanorods were determined by employing scanning electron microscopy (SEM and X-ray diffraction (XRD, which show a hexagonal wurtzite structure with a preferred orientation along the (101 direction. The surface of the SiO2 thin films was chemically modified with ZnO. Label-free detection DNA immobilization and hybridization were performed using potassium hexacyanoferrate with cyclic voltammetry (CV measurements. The capacitance, permittivity, and conductivity profiles of the fabricated sensor clearly indicate DNA immobilization and hybridization. Results show that the capacitance values of bare, ZnO- modified surface immobilization, and target DNA hybridization were 46×10−12F, 47×10−8F, 27μF, and 17μF, respectively, at 1Hz. The permittivity measurement increased from 3.94×103 to 251×103 and 165×103 at the frequency range of approximately 200 to 1Hz for bare and DNA immobilization and hybridization, respectively. The measured conductivity values for the bare, ZnO, immobilized, and hybridization device were 2.4×10−9, 10×10−8, 1.6×10−7, and 1.3×10−7Scm−1, respectively. Keywords: Zinc oxide, Biosensor, Capacitance, Permittivity, Conductivity

  3. Fluorescent nucleobases as tools for studying DNA and RNA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Wang; Chan, Ke Min; Kool, Eric T.

    2017-11-01

    Understanding the diversity of dynamic structures and functions of DNA and RNA in biology requires tools that can selectively and intimately probe these biomolecules. Synthetic fluorescent nucleobases that can be incorporated into nucleic acids alongside their natural counterparts have emerged as a powerful class of molecular reporters of location and environment. They are enabling new basic insights into DNA and RNA, and are facilitating a broad range of new technologies with chemical, biological and biomedical applications. In this Review, we will present a brief history of the development of fluorescent nucleobases and explore their utility as tools for addressing questions in biophysics, biochemistry and biology of nucleic acids. We provide chemical insights into the two main classes of these compounds: canonical and non-canonical nucleobases. A point-by-point discussion of the advantages and disadvantages of both types of fluorescent nucleobases is made, along with a perspective into the future challenges and outlook for this burgeoning field.

  4. Multilayer DNA Origami Packed on Hexagonal and Hybrid Lattices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ke, Yonggang; Voigt, Niels Vinther; Shih, William M.

    2012-01-01

    “Scaffolded DNA origami” has been proven to be a powerful and efficient approach to construct two-dimensional or three-dimensional objects with great complexity. Multilayer DNA origami has been demonstrated with helices packing along either honeycomb-lattice geometry or square-lattice geometry....... Here we report successful folding of multilayer DNA origami with helices arranged on a close-packed hexagonal lattice. This arrangement yields a higher density of helical packing and therefore higher resolution of spatial addressing than has been shown previously. We also demonstrate hybrid multilayer...... DNA origami with honeycomb-lattice, square-lattice, and hexagonal-lattice packing of helices all in one design. The availability of hexagonal close-packing of helices extends our ability to build complex structures using DNA nanotechnology....

  5. Multilayer DNA origami packed on hexagonal and hybrid lattices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ke, Yonggang; Voigt, Niels V; Gothelf, Kurt V; Shih, William M

    2012-01-25

    "Scaffolded DNA origami" has been proven to be a powerful and efficient approach to construct two-dimensional or three-dimensional objects with great complexity. Multilayer DNA origami has been demonstrated with helices packing along either honeycomb-lattice geometry or square-lattice geometry. Here we report successful folding of multilayer DNA origami with helices arranged on a close-packed hexagonal lattice. This arrangement yields a higher density of helical packing and therefore higher resolution of spatial addressing than has been shown previously. We also demonstrate hybrid multilayer DNA origami with honeycomb-lattice, square-lattice, and hexagonal-lattice packing of helices all in one design. The availability of hexagonal close-packing of helices extends our ability to build complex structures using DNA nanotechnology. © 2011 American Chemical Society

  6. DNARNA: What Do Students Think the Arrow Means?

    OpenAIRE

    Wright, L. Kate; Fisk, J. Nick; Newman, Dina L.

    2014-01-01

    The central dogma of molecular biology, a model that has remained intact for decades, describes the transfer of genetic information from DNA to protein though an RNA intermediate. While recent work has illustrated many exceptions to the central dogma, it is still a common model used to describe and study the relationship between genes and protein products. We investigated understanding of central dogma concepts and found that students are not primed to think about information when presented w...

  7. Quantum confinement in hydrogen bond of DNA and RNA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dos Santos, C S; Filho, E Drigo; Ricotta, R M

    2015-01-01

    The hydrogen bond is a fundamental ingredient to stabilize the DNA and RNA macromolecules. The main contribution of this work is to describe quantitatively this interaction as a consequence of the quantum confinement of the hydrogen. The results for the free and confined system are compared with experimental data. The formalism to compute the energy gap of the vibration motion used to identify the spectrum lines is the Variational Method allied to Supersymmetric Quantum Mechanics. (papert)

  8. Application of DNA-DNA colony hybridization to the detection of catabolic genotypes in environmental samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sayler, G.S.; Shields, M.S.; Tedford, E.T.; Breen, A.; Hooper, S.W.; Sirotkin, K.M.; Davis, J.W.

    1985-01-01

    The application of preexisting DNA hybridization techniques was investigated for potential in determining populations of specific gene sequences in environmental samples. Cross-hybridizations among two degradative plasmids, TOL and NAH, and two cloning vehicles, pLAFR1 and RSF1010, were determined. The detection limits for the TOL plasmid against a nonhomologous plasmid-bearing bacterial background was ascertained. The colony hybridization technique allowed detection of one colony containing TOL plasmid among 10(6) Escherichia coli colonies of nonhomologous DNA. Comparisons between population estimates derived from growth on selective substrates and from hybridizations were examined. Findings indicated that standard sole carbon source enumeration procedures for degradative populations lead to overestimations due to nonspecific growth of other bacteria on the microcontaminant carbon sources present in the media. Population estimates based on the selective growth of a microcosm population on two aromatic substrates (toluene and naphthalene) and estimates derived from DNA-DNA colony hybridizations, using the TOL or NAH plasmid as a probe, corresponded with estimates of substrate mineralization rates and past exposure to environmental contaminants. The applications of such techniques are hoped to eventually allow enumeration of any specific gene sequences in the environment, including both anabolic and catabolic genes. In addition, this procedure should prove useful in monitoring recombinant DNA clones released into environmental situations

  9. Branched-DNA signal amplification combined with paper chromatography hybridization assay and used in hepatitis B virus DNA detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu, F.Z.; Liu, L.X.; Wang, W.Q.; Sun, S. H.; Liu, L.B.

    2002-01-01

    Nucleic acids detection method is vital to the clinical pathogen diagnosis. The established method can be classified into target direct amplification and signal amplification format according to the target DNA or RNA being directly amplified or not. Those methods have advantages and disadvantages respectively in the clinical application. In the United States of American, branched-DNA as a strong signal amplifier is broadly used in the quantification of the nucleic acids. To gain satisfied sensitivity, some expensive label molecular and instruments should be adopted. Personnel should be special trained to perform. Hence, those can't be widely carried out in the Third World. To avoid those disadvantages, we used the branched-DNA amplifier in the paper chromatography hybridization assay. Methods: Branched DNA signal amplifier and series of probes complementary to the nucleic acid sequence of hepatitis B virus (HBV) have been synthesized. HBV-DNA or it's capture probe were immobilized on the high flow nitrocellulose strip. Having loaded at one end of the strip in turn, probes or HBV-DNA in the hybridization solution migrate to the opposite end of the strip by capillary forces and hybridizes to the immobilized DNA. The branched-DNA signal amplifier and probe labeled with biotin or 32P were then loaded. Through streptavidin-alkaline phosphatase (SA-AP) conjugate and NBT/BCIP ( the specific chromogenic substrate of AP) or autoradiography, the result can be visualized by color reaction or image production on the X-ray film. Results: The sensitivity of this HBV-DNA detection method used probe labeled with biotin and 32P are 1ng and 10pg. The method using the probe labeled with biotin is simple and rapid (2h) without depending on special instruments, it also avoids the pollution of EtBr which can lead to tumor. And the method using the probe labeled with 32P is simple and sensitive, with the exception of long time autoradiography and the inconvenient isotopic disposal

  10. An Engineered Kinetic Amplification Mechanism for Single Nucleotide Variant Discrimination by DNA Hybridization Probes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Sherry Xi; Seelig, Georg

    2016-04-20

    Even a single-nucleotide difference between the sequences of two otherwise identical biological nucleic acids can have dramatic functional consequences. Here, we use model-guided reaction pathway engineering to quantitatively improve the performance of selective hybridization probes in recognizing single nucleotide variants (SNVs). Specifically, we build a detection system that combines discrimination by competition with DNA strand displacement-based catalytic amplification. We show, both mathematically and experimentally, that the single nucleotide selectivity of such a system in binding to single-stranded DNA and RNA is quadratically better than discrimination due to competitive hybridization alone. As an additional benefit the integrated circuit inherits the property of amplification and provides at least 10-fold better sensitivity than standard hybridization probes. Moreover, we demonstrate how the detection mechanism can be tuned such that the detection reaction is agnostic to the position of the SNV within the target sequence. in contrast, prior strand displacement-based probes designed for kinetic discrimination are highly sensitive to position effects. We apply our system to reliably discriminate between different members of the let-7 microRNA family that differ in only a single base position. Our results demonstrate the power of systematic reaction network design to quantitatively improve biotechnology.

  11. DNA structure in human RNA polymerase II promoters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Anders Gorm; Baldi, Pierre; Chauvin, Yves

    1998-01-01

    with a very low level of sequence similarity. The sequences, which include both TATA-containing and TATA-less promoters, are aligned by hidden Markov models. Using three different models of sequence-derived DNA bendability, the aligned promoters display a common structural profile with bendability being low...... protein in a manner reminiscent of DNA in a nucleosome. This notion is further supported by the finding that the periodic bendability is caused mainly by the complementary triplet pairs CAG/CTG and GGC/GCC, which previously have been found to correlate with nucleosome positioning. We present models where......The fact that DNA three-dimensional structure is important for transcriptional regulation begs the question of whether eukaryotic promoters contain general structural features independently of what genes they control. We present an analysis of a large set of human RNA polymerase II promoters...

  12. The RNA World: Life Before DNA and Protein

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joyce, Gerald F.

    1993-01-01

    All of the life that is known, all organisms that exist on Earth today or are known to have existed on Earth in the past, are of the same life form: a life form based on DNA and protein. It does not necessarily have to be that way. Why not have two competing life forms on this planet? Why not have biology as we know it and some other biology that occupies its own distinct niche? Yet that is not how evolution has played out. From microbes living on the surface of antarctic ice to tube worms lying near the deep-sea hydrothermal vents, all known organisms on this planet are of the same biology. Looking at the single known biology on Earth, it is clear that this biology could not have simply sprung forth from the primordial soup. The biological system that is the basis for all known. life is far too complicated to have arisen spontaneously. This brings us to the notion that something else something simpler, must have preceded life based on DNA and protein. One suggestion that has gained considerable acceptance over the past decade is that DNA and protein-based life was preceded by RNA-based life in a period referred to as the 'RNA world'. Even an RNA-based life form would have been fairly complicated - not as complicated as our own DNA- and protein-based life form - but far too complicated, according to prevailing scientific thinking, to have arisen spontaneously from the primordial soup. Thus, it has been argued that something else must have preceded RNA-based life, or even that there was a succession of life forms leading from the primordial soup to RNA-based life. The experimental evidence to support this conjecture is not strong because, after all, the origin of life was a historical event that left no direct physical record. However, based on indirect evidence in both the geological record and the phylogenetic record of evolutionary history on earth, it is possible to reconstruct a rough picture of what life was like before DNA and protein.

  13. Characterization of Actinomyces with genomic DNA fingerprints and rRNA gene probes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowden, G; Johnson, J; Schachtele, C

    1993-08-01

    Cellular DNA from 25 Actinomyces naeslundii and Actinomyces viscosus strains belonging to the 7 taxonomic clusters of Fillery et al. (1978) and several unclustered strains was obtained by enzymatic and N-lauroylsarcosine/guanidine isothiocyanate treatment of whole cells, followed by extraction of the nucleic acid. The DNA samples were digested with restriction endonucleases BamHI or PvuII, and agarose gel electrophoresis was used to obtain DNA fingerprints. The DNA fragments were subjected to Southern blot hybridization with a digoxigenin-labeled cDNA probe transcribed from Escherichia coli 16S and 23S rRNA. The patterns of bands from genomic (DNA fingerprints) and rDNA fingerprints (ribotypes) were used for comparison between the taxonomic cluster strains and strains within clusters. Representative strains from each taxonomic cluster provided different BamHI DNA fingerprints and ribotype patterns with 3 to 9 distinct bands. Some strains within a cluster showed identical ribotype patterns with both endonucleases (A. naeslundii B120 and A. naeslundii B102 from cluster 3), while others showed the same pattern with BamHI but a different pattern with PvuII (A. naeslundii ATCC 12104 and 398A from cluster 5). A viscosus ATCC 15987 (cluster 7) and its parent strain T6 yielded identical fingerprint and ribotype patterns. The genomic diversity revealed by DNA fingerprinting and ribotyping demonstrates that these techniques, which do not require phenotypic expression, are suited for study of the oral ecology of the Actinomyces, and for epidemiological tracking of specific Actinomyces strains associated with caries lesions and sites of periodontal destruction.

  14. Techniques of DNA hybridization detect small numbers of mycobacteria with no cross-hybridization with non-mycobacterial respiratory organisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shoemaker, S.A.; Fisher, J.H.; Scoggin, C.H.

    1985-01-01

    The traditional methods used in identifying mycobacteria, such as acid-fast bacillus stains and culture, are often time-consuming, insensitive, and nonspecific. As part of an ongoing program to improve diagnosis and characterization of mycobacteria, the authors have found that deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) hybridization techniques using isotopically labeled, single-stranded, total DNA can be used to detect as little as 10(-4) micrograms of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTb) DNA. This amount of DNA represents approximately 2 X 10(4) genomes. They have also shown the MTb DNA is sufficiently different from the DNA of non-mycobacterial microorganisms such that cross-hybridization with MTb DNA does not occur under the hybridization conditions employed. The authors speculate that DNA hybridization techniques may allow the rapid, sensitive, and specific identification of mycobacteria

  15. Conflict RNA modification, host-parasite co-evolution, and the origins of DNA and DNA-binding proteins1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaughlin, Paul J; Keegan, Liam P

    2014-08-01

    Nearly 150 different enzymatically modified forms of the four canonical residues in RNA have been identified. For instance, enzymes of the ADAR (adenosine deaminase acting on RNA) family convert adenosine residues into inosine in cellular dsRNAs. Recent findings show that DNA endonuclease V enzymes have undergone an evolutionary transition from cleaving 3' to deoxyinosine in DNA and ssDNA to cleaving 3' to inosine in dsRNA and ssRNA in humans. Recent work on dsRNA-binding domains of ADARs and other proteins also shows that a degree of sequence specificity is achieved by direct readout in the minor groove. However, the level of sequence specificity observed is much less than that of DNA major groove-binding helix-turn-helix proteins. We suggest that the evolution of DNA-binding proteins following the RNA to DNA genome transition represents the major advantage that DNA genomes have over RNA genomes. We propose that a hypothetical RNA modification, a RRAR (ribose reductase acting on genomic dsRNA) produced the first stretches of DNA in RNA genomes. We discuss why this is the most satisfactory explanation for the origin of DNA. The evolution of this RNA modification and later steps to DNA genomes are likely to have been driven by cellular genome co-evolution with viruses and intragenomic parasites. RNA modifications continue to be involved in host-virus conflicts; in vertebrates, edited cellular dsRNAs with inosine-uracil base pairs appear to be recognized as self RNA and to suppress activation of innate immune sensors that detect viral dsRNA.

  16. Radioactive and enzymatic cloned cDNA probes for bovine enteric coronavirus detection by molecular hybridization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collomb, J.; Finance, C.; Alabouch, S.; Laporte, J.

    1992-01-01

    Genomic RNA of F15 strain bovine enteric coronavirus (BECV) was cloned in E. coli. Three clones (174, 160, PG 78), selected in the cDNA library, including a large portion of the nucleocapsid (N), matrix (M) and peplomeric (S) protein genes , were used as probes for a slot blot hybridization assay. Two probe labelling techniques were compared, radiolabelling with 32 P and enzymatic labelling through covalent linkage to peroxidase and chemiluminescence detection. The radioactive probe 174 detected as little as 1 to 3 pg of viral RNA, while the less sensitive enzymatic probe could not reveal more than 100 pg of RNA. No significant detection amplification was achieved when a mixture of the three probes was used. Probe 174 allowed specific identification for BECV. No hybridization was noticed either with rotaviruses or even with other antigenically unrelated members of the family Coronaviridae such as transmissible gastroenteritis virus. The test proved valid for detection of BECV in the supernatant of infected HRT-18 cells: genomic RNA could be detected after direct spotting of samples, but prior nucleic acid extraction after proteinase K treatment improved virus detection. BECV diagnosis in faecal samples using enzymatic probe was compared with conventional diagnostic methods. (authors)

  17. Radioactive and enzymatic cloned cDNA probes for bovine enteric coronavirus detection by molecular hybridization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collomb, J; Finance, C; Alabouch, S [Lab. de Microbiologie Moleculaire, Faculte des Sciences Pharmaceutiques et Biologiques, Univ. de Nancy I, Nancy (France); Laporte, J [Station de Virologie et d' Immunologie Moleculaires, INRA, Jouy-en-Josas (France)

    1992-01-01

    Genomic RNA of F15 strain bovine enteric coronavirus (BECV) was cloned in E. coli. Three clones (174, 160, PG 78), selected in the cDNA library, including a large portion of the nucleocapsid (N), matrix (M) and peplomeric (S) protein genes , were used as probes for a slot blot hybridization assay. Two probe labelling techniques were compared, radiolabeled with [sup 32]P and enzymatic labeled through covalent linkage to peroxidase for chemiluminescence detection. The radioactive probe 174 detected as little as 1-3 pg of viral RNA, while the less sensitive enzymatic probe could not reveal more than 100 pg of RNA. No significant detection amplification was achieved when a mixture of the three probes was used. Probe 174 allowed specific identification for BECV. No hybridization was noticed either with rotaviruses or even with other antigenically unrelated members of the family Coronaviridae such as transmissible gastroenteritis virus. The test proved valid for detection of BECV in the supernatant of infected HRT-18 cells: genomic RNA could be detected after direct spotting of samples, but prior nucleic acid extraction after proteinase K treatment improved virus detection. BECV diagnosis in fecal samples using enzymatic probe was compared with conventional diagnostic methods. (authors).

  18. DNARNA: What Do Students Think the Arrow Means?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisk, J. Nick; Newman, Dina L.

    2014-01-01

    The central dogma of molecular biology, a model that has remained intact for decades, describes the transfer of genetic information from DNA to protein though an RNA intermediate. While recent work has illustrated many exceptions to the central dogma, it is still a common model used to describe and study the relationship between genes and protein products. We investigated understanding of central dogma concepts and found that students are not primed to think about information when presented with the canonical figure of the central dogma. We also uncovered conceptual errors in student interpretation of the meaning of the transcription arrow in the central dogma representation; 36% of students (n = 128; all undergraduate levels) described transcription as a chemical conversion of DNA into RNA or suggested that RNA existed before the process of transcription began. Interviews confirm that students with weak conceptual understanding of information flow find inappropriate meaning in the canonical representation of central dogma. Therefore, we suggest that use of this representation during instruction can be counterproductive unless educators are explicit about the underlying meaning. PMID:26086664

  19. DNARNA: What Do Students Think the Arrow Means?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, L Kate; Fisk, J Nick; Newman, Dina L

    2014-01-01

    The central dogma of molecular biology, a model that has remained intact for decades, describes the transfer of genetic information from DNA to protein though an RNA intermediate. While recent work has illustrated many exceptions to the central dogma, it is still a common model used to describe and study the relationship between genes and protein products. We investigated understanding of central dogma concepts and found that students are not primed to think about information when presented with the canonical figure of the central dogma. We also uncovered conceptual errors in student interpretation of the meaning of the transcription arrow in the central dogma representation; 36% of students (n = 128; all undergraduate levels) described transcription as a chemical conversion of DNA into RNA or suggested that RNA existed before the process of transcription began. Interviews confirm that students with weak conceptual understanding of information flow find inappropriate meaning in the canonical representation of central dogma. Therefore, we suggest that use of this representation during instruction can be counterproductive unless educators are explicit about the underlying meaning. © 2014 L. K. Wright et al. CBE—Life Sciences Education © 2014 The American Society for Cell Biology. This article is distributed by The American Society for Cell Biology under license from the author(s). It is available to the public under an Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike 3.0 Unported Creative Commons License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0).

  20. Label-Free Potentiometry for Detecting DNA Hybridization Using Peptide Nucleic Acid and DNA Probes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuji Miyahara

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Peptide nucleic acid (PNA has outstanding affinity over DNA for complementary nucleic acid sequences by forming a PNA-DNA heterodimer upon hybridization via Watson-Crick base-pairing. To verify whether PNA probes on an electrode surface enhance sensitivity for potentiometric DNA detection or not, we conducted a comparative study on the hybridization of PNA and DNA probes on the surface of a 10-channel gold electrodes microarray. Changes in the charge density as a result of hybridization at the solution/electrode interface on the self-assembled monolayer (SAM-formed microelectrodes were directly transformed into potentiometric signals using a high input impedance electrometer. The charge readout allows label-free, reagent-less, and multi-parallel detection of target oligonucleotides without any optical assistance. The differences in the probe lengths between 15- to 22-mer dramatically influenced on the sensitivity of the PNA and DNA sensors. Molecular type of the capturing probe did not affect the degree of potential shift. Theoretical model for charged rod-like duplex using the Gouy-Chapman equation indicates the dominant effect of electrostatic attractive forces between anionic DNA and underlying electrode at the electrolyte/electrode interface in the potentiometry.

  1. Label-Free Potentiometry for Detecting DNA Hybridization Using Peptide Nucleic Acid and DNA Probes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goda, Tatsuro; Singi, Ankit Balram; Maeda, Yasuhiro; Matsumoto, Akira; Torimura, Masaki; Aoki, Hiroshi; Miyahara, Yuji

    2013-01-01

    Peptide nucleic acid (PNA) has outstanding affinity over DNA for complementary nucleic acid sequences by forming a PNA-DNA heterodimer upon hybridization via Watson-Crick base-pairing. To verify whether PNA probes on an electrode surface enhance sensitivity for potentiometric DNA detection or not, we conducted a comparative study on the hybridization of PNA and DNA probes on the surface of a 10-channel gold electrodes microarray. Changes in the charge density as a result of hybridization at the solution/electrode interface on the self-assembled monolayer (SAM)-formed microelectrodes were directly transformed into potentiometric signals using a high input impedance electrometer. The charge readout allows label-free, reagent-less, and multi-parallel detection of target oligonucleotides without any optical assistance. The differences in the probe lengths between 15- to 22-mer dramatically influenced on the sensitivity of the PNA and DNA sensors. Molecular type of the capturing probe did not affect the degree of potential shift. Theoretical model for charged rod-like duplex using the Gouy-Chapman equation indicates the dominant effect of electrostatic attractive forces between anionic DNA and underlying electrode at the electrolyte/electrode interface in the potentiometry. PMID:23435052

  2. Ultrasensitive FRET-based DNA sensor using PNA/DNA hybridization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Lan-Hee; Ahn, Dong June; Koo, Eunhae

    2016-12-01

    In the diagnosis of genetic diseases, rapid and highly sensitive DNA detection is crucial. Therefore, many strategies for detecting target DNA have been developed, including electrical, optical, and mechanical methods. Herein, a highly sensitive FRET based sensor was developed by using PNA (Peptide Nucleic Acid) probe and QD, in which red color QDs are hybridized with capture probes, reporter probes and target DNAs by EDC-NHS coupling. The hybridized probe with target DNA gives off fluorescent signal due to the energy transfer from QD to Cy5 dye in the reporter probe. Compared to the conventional DNA sensor using DNA probes, the DNA sensor using PNA probes shows higher FRET factor and efficiency due to the higher reactivity between PNA and target DNA. In addition, to elicit the effect of the distance between the donor and the acceptor, we have investigated two types of the reporter probes having Cy5 dyes attached at the different positions of the reporter probes. Results show that the shorter the distance between QDs and Cy5s, the stronger the signal intensity. Furthermore, based on the fluorescence microscopy images using microcapillary chips, the FRET signal is enhanced to be up to 276% times stronger than the signal obtained using the cuvette by the fluorescence spectrometer. These results suggest that the PNA probe system conjugated with QDs can be used as ultrasensitive DNA nanosensors. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  3. DNA hybridization kinetics: zippering, internal displacement and sequence dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouldridge, Thomas E; Sulc, Petr; Romano, Flavio; Doye, Jonathan P K; Louis, Ard A

    2013-10-01

    Although the thermodynamics of DNA hybridization is generally well established, the kinetics of this classic transition is less well understood. Providing such understanding has new urgency because DNA nanotechnology often depends critically on binding rates. Here, we explore DNA oligomer hybridization kinetics using a coarse-grained model. Strand association proceeds through a complex set of intermediate states, with successful binding events initiated by a few metastable base-pairing interactions, followed by zippering of the remaining bonds. But despite reasonably strong interstrand interactions, initial contacts frequently dissociate because typical configurations in which they form differ from typical states of similar enthalpy in the double-stranded equilibrium ensemble. Initial contacts must be stabilized by two or three base pairs before full zippering is likely, resulting in negative effective activation enthalpies. Non-Arrhenius behavior arises because the number of base pairs required for nucleation increases with temperature. In addition, we observe two alternative pathways-pseudoknot and inchworm internal displacement-through which misaligned duplexes can rearrange to form duplexes. These pathways accelerate hybridization. Our results explain why experimentally observed association rates of GC-rich oligomers are higher than rates of AT- rich equivalents, and more generally demonstrate how association rates can be modulated by sequence choice.

  4. Organophosphonate functionalized silicon nanowires for DNA hybridization studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pedone, Daniel; Cattani Scholz, Anna; Birner, Stefan; Abstreiter, Gerhard [WSI, TU Muenchen (Germany); Dubey, Manish; Schwartz, Jeffrey [Princeton University, NJ (United States); Tornow, Marc [IHT, TU Braunschweig (Germany)

    2007-07-01

    Semiconductor nanowire field effect devices have great appeal for label-free sensing applications due to their sensitivity to surface potential changes that may originate from charged adsorbates. In addition to requiring high sensitivity, suitable passivation and functionalization of the semiconductor surface is obligatory. We have fabricated both freely suspended and oxide-supported silicon nanowires from Silicon-on-Insulator substrates using standard nanopatterning methods (EBL, RIE) and sacrificial oxide layer etching. Subsequent to nanofabrication, the devices were first coated with an hydroxyalkylphosphonate monolayer and then bound via bifunctional linker groups to single stranded DNA or PNA oligonucleotides, respectively. We investigated DNA hybridization on such functionalized nanowires using a difference resistance setup, where subtracting the reference signal from a second wire could be used to exclude most non-specific effects. A net change in surface potential on the order of a few mV could be detected upon addition of the complementary DNA strand. This surface potential change corresponds to the hybridization of about 10{sup 10}cm{sup -2} probe strands according to our model calculations that takes into account the entire hybrid system in electrolyte solution.

  5. DNA methylation of miRNA coding sequences putatively associated with childhood obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansego, M L; Garcia-Lacarte, M; Milagro, F I; Marti, A; Martinez, J A

    2017-02-01

    Epigenetic mechanisms may be involved in obesity onset and its consequences. The aim of the present study was to evaluate whether DNA methylation status in microRNA (miRNA) coding regions is associated with childhood obesity. DNA isolated from white blood cells of 24 children (identification sample: 12 obese and 12 non-obese) from the Grupo Navarro de Obesidad Infantil study was hybridized in a 450 K methylation microarray. Several CpGs whose DNA methylation levels were statistically different between obese and non-obese were validated by MassArray® in 95 children (validation sample) from the same study. Microarray analysis identified 16 differentially methylated CpGs between both groups (6 hypermethylated and 10 hypomethylated). DNA methylation levels in miR-1203, miR-412 and miR-216A coding regions significantly correlated with body mass index standard deviation score (BMI-SDS) and explained up to 40% of the variation of BMI-SDS. The network analysis identified 19 well-defined obesity-relevant biological pathways from the KEGG database. MassArray® validation identified three regions located in or near miR-1203, miR-412 and miR-216A coding regions differentially methylated between obese and non-obese children. The current work identified three CpG sites located in coding regions of three miRNAs (miR-1203, miR-412 and miR-216A) that were differentially methylated between obese and non-obese children, suggesting a role of miRNA epigenetic regulation in childhood obesity. © 2016 World Obesity Federation.

  6. Electrochemical Branched-DNA Assay for Polymerase Chain Reaction-Free Detection and Quantification of Oncogenes in Messenger RNA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Ai Cheng; Dai, Ziyu; Chen, Baowei; Wu, Hong; Wang, Jun; Zhang, Aiguo; Zhang, Lurong; Lim, Tit-Meng; Lin, Yuehe

    2008-12-01

    We describe a novel electrochemical branched-DNA (bDNA) assay for polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-free detection and quantification of p185 BCR-ABL leukemia fusion transcript in the population of messenger RNA (mRNA) extracted from cell lines. The bDNA amplifier carrying high loading of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) tracers was used to amplify targets signal. The targets were captured on microplate well surfaces through cooperative sandwich hybridization prior to the labeling of bDNA. The activity of captured ALP was monitored by square-wave voltammetric (SWV) analysis of the electroactive enzymatic product in the presence of 1-napthyl-phosphate. The specificity and sensitivity of assay enabled direct detection of target transcript in as little as 4.6 ng mRNA without PCR amplification. In combination with the use of a well-quantified standard, the electrochemical bDNA assay was capable of direct use for a PCR-free quantitative analysis of target transcript in total mRNA population. The approach thus provides a simple, sensitive, accurate and quantitative tool alternate to the RQ-PCR for early disease diagnosis.

  7. From Rising Bubble to RNA/DNA and Bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marks, Roman; Cieszyńska, Agata; Wereszka, Marzena; Borkowski, Wojciech

    2017-04-01

    In this study we have focused on the movement of rising bubbles in a salty water body. Experiments reviled that free buoyancy movement of bubbles forces displacement of ions, located on the outer side of the bubble wall curvatures. During the short moment of bubble passage, all ions in the vicinity of rising bubble, are separated into anions that are gathered on the bubble upper half sphere and cations that slip along the bottom concave half-sphere of a bubble and develop a sub-bubble vortex. The principle of ions separation bases on the differences in displacement resistance. In this way, relatively heavier and larger, thus more resistant to displacement anions are gathered on the rising bubble upper half sphere, while smaller and lighter cations are assembled on the bottom half sphere and within the sub-bubble vortex. The acceleration of motion generates antiparallel rotary of bi-ionic domains, what implies that anions rotate in clockwise (CW) and cationic in counter-clockwise (CCW) direction. Then, both rotational systems may undergo splicing and extreme condensing by bi-pirouette narrowing of rotary. It is suggested that such double helix motion of bi-ionic domains creates RNA/DNA molecules. Finally, when the bubble reaches the water surface it burst and the preprocessed RNA/DNA matter is ejected into the droplets. Since that stage, droplet is suspended in positively charged troposphere, thus the cationic domain is located in the droplet center, whilst negative ions are attracted to configure the outer areola. According to above, the present study implies that the rising bubbles in salty waters may incept synergistic processing of matter resulting in its rotational/spherical organization that led to assembly of RNA/DNA molecules and bacteria cells.

  8. Systemic oxidatively generated DNA/RNA damage in clinical depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jorgensen, Anders; Krogh, Jesper; Miskowiak, Kamilla

    2013-01-01

    oxidatively generated DNA and RNA damage, 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2-deoxyguanosine (8-oxodG) and 8-oxo-7,8-dihydroguanosine (8-oxoGuo), respectively, were determined in healthy controls (N=28), moderately depressed, non-medicated patients (N=26) and severely depressed patients eligible for electroconvulsive therapy...... for trend=0.004). The 8-oxoGuo excretion was further increased after clinically effective ECT compared with pre-ECT values (P=0.006). There were no differences in 8-oxodG excretion between the groups or pre- vs. post-ECT. LIMITATIONS: Small sample size and the inclusion of both unipolar and bipolar patients...

  9. Voltammetry of osmium-modified DNA at a mercury film electrode application in detecting DNA hybridization

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kostečka, Pavel; Havran, Luděk; Pivoňková, Hana; Fojta, Miroslav

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 63, 1-2 (2004), s. 245-248 ISSN 1567-5394 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA4004108; GA AV ČR KJB4004302 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5004920 Keywords : osmium * DNA hybridization * mercury film electrode Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 2.261, year: 2004

  10. Mixed DNA/Oligo(ethylene glycol) Functionalized Gold Surface Improve DNA Hybridization in Complex Media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, C.; Gamble, L.; Grainger, D.; Castner, D.

    2006-01-01

    Reliable, direct 'sample-to-answer' capture of nucleic acid targets from complex media would greatly improve existing capabilities of DNA microarrays and biosensors. This goal has proven elusive for many current nucleic acid detection technologies attempting to produce assay results directly from complex real-world samples, including food, tissue, and environmental materials. In this study, we have investigated mixed self-assembled thiolated single-strand DNA (ssDNA) monolayers containing a short thiolated oligo(ethylene glycol) (OEG) surface diluent on gold surfaces to improve the specific capture of DNA targets from complex media. Both surface composition and orientation of these mixed DNA monolayers were characterized with x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and near-edge x-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS). XPS results from sequentially adsorbed ssDNA/OEG monolayers on gold indicate that thiolated OEG diluent molecules first incorporate into the thiolated ssDNA monolayer and, upon longer OEG exposures, competitively displace adsorbed ssDNA molecules from the gold surface. NEXAFS polarization dependence results (followed by monitoring the N 1s→π* transition) indicate that adsorbed thiolated ssDNA nucleotide base-ring structures in the mixed ssDNA monolayers are oriented more parallel to the gold surface compared to DNA bases in pure ssDNA monolayers. This supports ssDNA oligomer reorientation towards a more upright position upon OEG mixed adlayer incorporation. DNA target hybridization on mixed ssDNA probe/OEG monolayers was monitored by surface plasmon resonance (SPR). Improvements in specific target capture for these ssDNA probe surfaces due to incorporation of the OEG diluent were demonstrated using two model biosensing assays, DNA target capture from complete bovine serum and from salmon genomic DNA mixtures. SPR results demonstrate that OEG incorporation into the ssDNA adlayer improves surface resistance to both nonspecific DNA and protein

  11. The fidelity of reverse transcription differs in reactions primed with RNA versus DNA primers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oude Essink, B. B.; Berkhout, B.

    1999-01-01

    Reverse transcriptase enzymes (RT) convert single-stranded retroviral RNA genomes into double-stranded DNA. The RT enzyme can use both RNA and DNA primers, the former being used exclusively during initiation of minus- and plus-strand synthesis. Initiation of minus-strand DNA synthesis occurs by

  12. Sets of RNA repeated tags and hybridization-sensitive fluorescent probes for distinct images of RNA in a living cell.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takeshi Kubota

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Imaging the behavior of RNA in a living cell is a powerful means for understanding RNA functions and acquiring spatiotemporal information in a single cell. For more distinct RNA imaging in a living cell, a more effective chemical method to fluorescently label RNA is now required. In addition, development of the technology labeling with different colors for different RNA would make it easier to analyze plural RNA strands expressing in a cell. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Tag technology for RNA imaging in a living cell has been developed based on the unique chemical functions of exciton-controlled hybridization-sensitive oligonucleotide (ECHO probes. Repetitions of selected 18-nucleotide RNA tags were incorporated into the mRNA 3'-UTR. Pairs with complementary ECHO probes exhibited hybridization-sensitive fluorescence emission for the mRNA expressed in a living cell. The mRNA in a nucleus was detected clearly as fluorescent puncta, and the images of the expression of two mRNAs were obtained independently and simultaneously with two orthogonal tag-probe pairs. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: A compact and repeated label has been developed for RNA imaging in a living cell, based on the photochemistry of ECHO probes. The pairs of an 18-nt RNA tag and the complementary ECHO probes are highly thermostable, sequence-specifically emissive, and orthogonal to each other. The nucleotide length necessary for one tag sequence is much shorter compared with conventional tag technologies, resulting in easy preparation of the tag sequences with a larger number of repeats for more distinct RNA imaging.

  13. Physical localization and DNA methylation of 45S rRNA gene loci in Jatropha curcas L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiyun Gong

    Full Text Available In eukaryotes, 45S rRNA genes are arranged in tandem arrays of repeat units, and not all copies are transcribed during mitosis. DNA methylation is considered to be an epigenetic marker for rDNA activation. Here, we established a clear and accurate karyogram for Jatropha curcas L. The chromosomal formula was found to be 2n=2x=22=12m+10 sm. We found that the 45S rDNA loci were located at the termini of chromosomes 7 and 9 in J. curcas. The distribution of 45S rDNA has no significant difference in J. curcas from different sources. Based on the hybridization signal patterns, there were two forms of rDNA - dispersed and condensed. The dispersed type of signals appeared during interphase and prophase, while the condensed types appeared during different stages of mitosis. DNA methylation analysis showed that when 45S rDNA stronger signals were dispersed and connected to the nucleolus, DNA methylation levels were lower at interphase and prophase. However, when the 45S rDNA loci were condensed, especially during metaphase, they showed different forms of DNA methylation.

  14. Physical Localization and DNA Methylation of 45S rRNA Gene Loci in Jatropha curcas L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Zhiyun; Xue, Chao; Zhang, Mingliang; Guo, Rui; Zhou, Yong; Shi, Guoxin

    2013-01-01

    In eukaryotes, 45S rRNA genes are arranged in tandem arrays of repeat units, and not all copies are transcribed during mitosis. DNA methylation is considered to be an epigenetic marker for rDNA activation. Here, we established a clear and accurate karyogram for Jatropha curcas L. The chromosomal formula was found to be 2n = 2x = 22 = 12m+10sm. We found that the 45S rDNA loci were located at the termini of chromosomes 7 and 9 in J. curcas. The distribution of 45S rDNA has no significant difference in J. curcas from different sources. Based on the hybridization signal patterns, there were two forms of rDNA - dispersed and condensed. The dispersed type of signals appeared during interphase and prophase, while the condensed types appeared during different stages of mitosis. DNA methylation analysis showed that when 45S rDNA stronger signals were dispersed and connected to the nucleolus, DNA methylation levels were lower at interphase and prophase. However, when the 45S rDNA loci were condensed, especially during metaphase, they showed different forms of DNA methylation. PMID:24386362

  15. DNA-Damage Response RNA-Binding Proteins (DDRBPs): Perspectives from a New Class of Proteins and Their RNA Targets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutertre, Martin; Vagner, Stéphan

    2017-10-27

    Upon DNA damage, cells trigger an early DNA-damage response (DDR) involving DNA repair and cell cycle checkpoints, and late responses involving gene expression regulation that determine cell fate. Screens for genes involved in the DDR have found many RNA-binding proteins (RBPs), while screens for novel RBPs have identified DDR proteins. An increasing number of RBPs are involved in early and/or late DDR. We propose to call this new class of actors of the DDR, which contain an RNA-binding activity, DNA-damage response RNA-binding proteins (DDRBPs). We then discuss how DDRBPs contribute not only to gene expression regulation in the late DDR but also to early DDR signaling, DNA repair, and chromatin modifications at DNA-damage sites through interactions with both long and short noncoding RNAs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Determination of chromium combined with DNA, RNA and protein in chromium-rich brewer's yeast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ding Wenjun; Qian Qinfang; Hou Xiaolin; Feng Weiyue; Chai Zhifang

    2000-01-01

    The contents of chromium in the DNA, RNA and protein fractions separated from chromium-rich and normal brewer's yeast were determined with the neutron activation analysis in order to study the combination of Cr with DNA, RNA and protein in chromium-rich brewer's yeast. The results showed that the extracting rats and concentrations of DNA, RNA and protein had no significant difference in two types of yeast, but the chromium contents of DNA, RNA and protein in the chromium-rich yeast were significantly higher than those in the normal. In addition, the content of chromium in DNA was much higher than that in RNA and protein, which indicated that the inorganic chromium compounds entered into the yeast cell, during the yeast cultivation in the culture medium containing chromium were converted into organic chromium compounds combined with DNA, RNA and protein

  17. DNA and RNA nanobiotechnologies in medicine diagnosis and treatment of diseases

    CERN Document Server

    Erdmann, Volker A

    2014-01-01

    This book covers the design and synthesis of DNA and RNA nanostructures with the aim of using them for drug deliveries, for genetic immunization, for metabolite and nucleic acid detection, gene regulation, and siRNA delivery for cancer treatment.

  18. Fluorescent quenching-based quantitative detection of specific DNA/RNA using a BODIPY® FL-labeled probe or primer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurata, Shinya; Kanagawa, Takahiro; Yamada, Kazutaka; Torimura, Masaki; Yokomaku, Toyokazu; Kamagata, Yoichi; Kurane, Ryuichiro

    2001-01-01

    We have developed a simple method for the quantitative detection of specific DNA or RNA molecules based on the finding that BODIPY® FL fluorescence was quenched by its interaction with a uniquely positioned guanine. This approach makes use of an oligonucleotide probe or primer containing a BODIPY® FL-modified cytosine at its 5′-end. When such a probe was hybridized with a target DNA, its fluorescence was quenched by the guanine in the target, complementary to the modified cytosine, and the quench rate was proportional to the amount of target DNA. This widely applicable technique will be used directly with larger samples or in conjunction with the polymerase chain reaction to quantify small DNA samples. PMID:11239011

  19. Regulatory mechanisms of RNA function: emerging roles of DNA repair enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jobert, Laure; Nilsen, Hilde

    2014-07-01

    The acquisition of an appropriate set of chemical modifications is required in order to establish correct structure of RNA molecules, and essential for their function. Modification of RNA bases affects RNA maturation, RNA processing, RNA quality control, and protein translation. Some RNA modifications are directly involved in the regulation of these processes. RNA epigenetics is emerging as a mechanism to achieve dynamic regulation of RNA function. Other modifications may prevent or be a signal for degradation. All types of RNA species are subject to processing or degradation, and numerous cellular mechanisms are involved. Unexpectedly, several studies during the last decade have established a connection between DNA and RNA surveillance mechanisms in eukaryotes. Several proteins that respond to DNA damage, either to process or to signal the presence of damaged DNA, have been shown to participate in RNA quality control, turnover or processing. Some enzymes that repair DNA damage may also process modified RNA substrates. In this review, we give an overview of the DNA repair proteins that function in RNA metabolism. We also discuss the roles of two base excision repair enzymes, SMUG1 and APE1, in RNA quality control.

  20. Role of the CCA bulge of prohead RNA of bacteriophage ø29 in DNA packaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Wei; Morais, Marc C; Anderson, Dwight L; Jardine, Paul J; Grimes, Shelley

    2008-11-14

    The oligomeric ring of prohead RNA (pRNA) is an essential component of the ATP-driven DNA packaging motor of bacteriophage ø29. The A-helix of pRNA binds the DNA translocating ATPase gp16 (gene product 16) and the CCA bulge in this helix is essential for DNA packaging in vitro. Mutation of the bulge by base substitution or deletion showed that the size of the bulge, rather than its sequence, is primary in DNA packaging activity. Proheads reconstituted with CCA bulge mutant pRNAs bound the packaging ATPase gp16 and the packaging substrate DNA-gp3, although DNA translocation was not detected with several mutants. Prohead/bulge-mutant pRNA complexes with low packaging activity had a higher rate of ATP hydrolysis per base pair of DNA packaged than proheads with wild-type pRNA. Cryoelectron microscopy three-dimensional reconstruction of proheads reconstituted with a CCA deletion pRNA showed that the protruding pRNA spokes of the motor occupy a different position relative to the head when compared to particles with wild-type pRNA. Therefore, the CCA bulge seems to dictate the orientation of the pRNA spokes. The conformational changes observed for this mutant pRNA may affect gp16 conformation and/or subsequent ATPase-DNA interaction and, consequently, explain the decreased packaging activity observed for CCA mutants.

  1. Isolation and characterization of human glycophorin A cDNA clones by a synthetic oligonucleotide approach: nucleotide sequence and mRNA structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siebert, P.D.; Fukuda, M.

    1986-01-01

    In an effort to understand the relationships among and the regulation of human glycophorins, the authors have isolated and characterized several glycophorin A-specific cDNA clones obtained from a human erythroleukemic K562 cell cDNA library. This was accomplished by using mixed synthetic oligonucleotides, corresponding to various regions of the known amino acid sequence, to prime the synthesis of the cDNA as well as to screen the cDNA library. They also used synthetic oligonucleotides to sequence the largest of the glycophorin cDNAs. The nucleotide sequence obtained suggests the presence of a potential leader peptide, consistent with the membrane localization of this glycoprotein. Examination of the structure of glycophorin mRNA by blot hybridization revealed the existence of several electrophoretically distinct mRNAs numbering three or four, depending on the size of the glycophorin cDNA used as a hybridization probe. The smaller cDNA hybridized to three mRNAs of approximately 2.8, 1.7, and 1.0 kilobases. In contrast, the larger cDNA hybridized to an additional mRNA of approximately 0.6 kilobases. Further examination of the relationships between these multiple mRNAs by blot hybridization was conducted with the use of exact-sequence oligonucleotide probes constructed from various regions of the cDNA representing portions of the amino acid sequence of glycophorin A with or without known homology with glycophorin B. In total, the results obtained are consistent with the hypothesis that the three larger mRNAs represent glycophorin A gene transcripts and that the smallest (0.6 kilobase) mRNA may be specific for glycophorin B

  2. The effects of storage temperature and duration of blood samples on DNA and RNA qualities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Lien-Hung; Lin, Pei-Hsien; Tsai, Kuo-Wang; Wang, Liang-Jen; Huang, Ying-Hsien; Kuo, Ho-Chang; Li, Sung-Chou

    2017-01-01

    DNA and RNA samples from blood are the common examination target for non-invasive physical tests and/or biomedical studies. Since high-quality DNA and RNA samples guarantee the correctness of these tests and/or studies, we investigated the effects of storage temperature and storage duration of whole blood on DNA and RNA qualities. Subjects were enrolled to donate blood samples which were stored for different durations and at different temperatures, followed by the examinations on RNA quality, qPCR, DNA quality and DNA methylation. For RNA, we observed obvious quality decline with storage duration longer than 24 hours. Storage at low temperature does not keep RNA samples from degradation. And, storing whole blood samples in freezer dramatically damage RNA. For DNA, quality decline was not observed even with storage duration for 15 days. However, DNA methylation significantly altered with storage duration longer than three days. Storage duration within 24 hours is critical for collecting high-quality RNA samples for next-generation sequencing (NGS) assays (RIN≧8). If microarray assays are expected (RIN≧7), storage duration within 32 hours is acceptable. Although DNA is resistant within 15 days when kept in whole blood, DNA quantity dramatically decreases owing to WBC lysis. In addition, duration for more than three days significantly alter DNA methylation status, globally and locally. Our result provides a reference for dealing with blood samples.

  3. Quantification of organellar DNA and RNA using real-time PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weihe, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    Quantitative (real-time) polymerase chain reaction (PCR) allows the measurement of relative organellar gene copy numbers as well as transcript abundance of individual mitochondrial or plastidial genes. Requiring only minute amounts of total DNA or RNA, the described method can replace traditional analyses like Southern or Northern hybridization which require large amounts of organellar nucleic acids and usually provide only semiquantitative data. Here we describe prerequisites, reaction conditions, and data analysis principles, which should be applicable for a wide range of plant species and experimental situations where comparative and precise determination of gene copy numbers or transcript abundance is requested. Sequences of amplification primers for qPCR of organellar genes from Arabidopsis are provided.

  4. Mechanism of duplex DNA destabilization by RNA-guided Cas9 nuclease during target interrogation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mekler, Vladimir; Minakhin, Leonid; Severinov, Konstantin

    2017-05-23

    The prokaryotic clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)-associated 9 (Cas9) endonuclease cleaves double-stranded DNA sequences specified by guide RNA molecules and flanked by a protospacer adjacent motif (PAM) and is widely used for genome editing in various organisms. The RNA-programmed Cas9 locates the target site by scanning genomic DNA. We sought to elucidate the mechanism of initial DNA interrogation steps that precede the pairing of target DNA with guide RNA. Using fluorometric and biochemical assays, we studied Cas9/guide RNA complexes with model DNA substrates that mimicked early intermediates on the pathway to the final Cas9/guide RNA-DNA complex. The results show that Cas9/guide RNA binding to PAM favors separation of a few PAM-proximal protospacer base pairs allowing initial target interrogation by guide RNA. The duplex destabilization is mediated, in part, by Cas9/guide RNA affinity for unpaired segments of nontarget strand DNA close to PAM. Furthermore, our data indicate that the entry of double-stranded DNA beyond a short threshold distance from PAM into the Cas9/single-guide RNA (sgRNA) interior is hindered. We suggest that the interactions unfavorable for duplex DNA binding promote DNA bending in the PAM-proximal region during early steps of Cas9/guide RNA-DNA complex formation, thus additionally destabilizing the protospacer duplex. The mechanism that emerges from our analysis explains how the Cas9/sgRNA complex is able to locate the correct target sequence efficiently while interrogating numerous nontarget sequences associated with correct PAMs.

  5. Detection of DNA fingerprints of cultivated rice by hybridization with a human minisatellite DNA probe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dallas, J.F.

    1988-01-01

    A human minisatellite DNA probe detects several restriction fragment length polymorphisms in cultivars of Asian and African rice. Certain fragments appear to be inherited in a Mendelian fashion and may represent unlinked loci. The hybridization patterns appear to be cultivar-specific and largely unchanged after the regeneration of plants from tissue culture. The results suggest that these regions of the rice genome may be used to generate cultivar-specific DNA fingerprints. The demonstration of similarity between a human minisatellite sequence and polymorphic regions in the rice genome suggests that such regions also occur in the genomes of many other plant species

  6. Enzyme-free electrochemical detection of microRNA-21 using immobilized hairpin probes and a target-triggered hybridization chain reaction amplification strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Hongying; Bei, Xiaoqiong; Xia, Qiuting; Fu, Yan; Zhang, Shi; Liu, Maochuan; Fan, Kai; Zhang, Mingzhen; Yang, Yong

    2016-01-01

    We describe a sensitive enzyme-free bioassay for the determination of microRNA-21. It is based on a combination of target-triggered hybridization chain reaction, tagging with CdTe quantum dots (QDs), and anodic stripping voltammetry. Firstly, a thiolated capture hairpin probe SH-HP1 was immobilized on the surface of a gold electrode. HP1 unfolds in the presence of microRNA-21. If hairpin probe 2 (HP2) is present, a HP1-HP2 complex will be formed which possesses an exposed stem of HP2, and microRNA is released in parallel. The released microRNA-21 triggers a hybridization chain reaction and this leads to form an exposed DNA segment of HP2 and cycle use microRNA-21. With the aid of assistant DNA A1 and A2, the exposed DNA segment of HP2 progressed to a long double strand. The strand is rich in CdTe QDs with the help of QDs-A1. Then, the attached QDs were dissolved with HNO 3 to give dissolved Cd(II) ions. Finally, the corresponding electrochemical current response of Cd(II) is monitored by anodic stripping voltammetry and used to quantify the concentration of microRNA-21. More microRNA-21 participated in this reaction increases the number of CdTe QDs, which results in increased electrochemical current. Thus, an ultrasensitive detection of microRNA-21 is accomplished by anodic stripping voltammetry. This gene assay displays a detection limit as low as 33 aM. It can discriminate between complementary DNA sequence and single-base mismatched DNA, indicating its high specificity. (author)

  7. DNA interrogation by the CRISPR RNA-guided endonuclease Cas9

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sternberg, Samuel H.; Redding, Sy; Jinek, Martin; Greene, Eric C.; Doudna, Jennifer A.

    2014-03-01

    The clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)-associated enzyme Cas9 is an RNA-guided endonuclease that uses RNA-DNA base-pairing to target foreign DNA in bacteria. Cas9-guide RNA complexes are also effective genome engineering agents in animals and plants. Here we use single-molecule and bulk biochemical experiments to determine how Cas9-RNA interrogates DNA to find specific cleavage sites. We show that both binding and cleavage of DNA by Cas9-RNA require recognition of a short trinucleotide protospacer adjacent motif (PAM). Non-target DNA binding affinity scales with PAM density, and sequences fully complementary to the guide RNA but lacking a nearby PAM are ignored by Cas9-RNA. Competition assays provide evidence that DNA strand separation and RNA-DNA heteroduplex formation initiate at the PAM and proceed directionally towards the distal end of the target sequence. Furthermore, PAM interactions trigger Cas9 catalytic activity. These results reveal how Cas9 uses PAM recognition to quickly identify potential target sites while scanning large DNA molecules, and to regulate scission of double-stranded DNA.

  8. DNA interrogation by the CRISPR RNA-guided endonuclease Cas9.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sternberg, Samuel H; Redding, Sy; Jinek, Martin; Greene, Eric C; Doudna, Jennifer A

    2014-03-06

    The clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)-associated enzyme Cas9 is an RNA-guided endonuclease that uses RNA-DNA base-pairing to target foreign DNA in bacteria. Cas9-guide RNA complexes are also effective genome engineering agents in animals and plants. Here we use single-molecule and bulk biochemical experiments to determine how Cas9-RNA interrogates DNA to find specific cleavage sites. We show that both binding and cleavage of DNA by Cas9-RNA require recognition of a short trinucleotide protospacer adjacent motif (PAM). Non-target DNA binding affinity scales with PAM density, and sequences fully complementary to the guide RNA but lacking a nearby PAM are ignored by Cas9-RNA. Competition assays provide evidence that DNA strand separation and RNA-DNA heteroduplex formation initiate at the PAM and proceed directionally towards the distal end of the target sequence. Furthermore, PAM interactions trigger Cas9 catalytic activity. These results reveal how Cas9 uses PAM recognition to quickly identify potential target sites while scanning large DNA molecules, and to regulate scission of double-stranded DNA.

  9. Cloning of cDNA sequences of a progestin-regulated mRNA from MCF7 human breast cancer cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chalbos, D; Westley, B; Alibert, C; Rochefort, H

    1986-01-24

    A cDNA clone corresponding to an mRNA regulated by the progestin R5020, has been isolated by differential screening of a cDNA library from the MCF7 breast cancer cell line, which contains estrogen and progesterone receptors. This probe hybridized with a single species of poly A + RNA of 8-kb molecular weight as shown by Northern blot analysis and could also be used to total RNA preparation. This recombinant cone hybridized specifically to an mRNA coding for a 250,000 daltons protein when translated in vitro. This protein was identical to the 250 kDa progestin-regulated protein that the authors previously described as shown by immunoprecipitation with specific rabbit polyclonal antibodies. Dose-response curve and specificity studies show that the accumulation of the Pg8 mRNA and that of the 250-kDa protein was increased by 5 to 30-fold following progestin treatment and that this effect was mediated by the progesterone receptor. Time course of induction indicated that the accumulation of mRNA was rapid and preceded that of the protein. This is the first report on a cloned cDNA probe of progestin-regulated mRNA in human cell lines.

  10. Thermal stability of DNA quadruplex-duplex hybrids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Kah Wai; Khong, Zi Jian; Phan, Anh Tuân

    2014-01-14

    DNA has the capacity to adopt several distinct structural forms, such as duplex and quadruplex helices, which have been implicated in cellular processes and shown to exhibit important functional properties. Quadruplex-duplex hybrids, generated from the juxtaposition of these two structural elements, could find applications in therapeutics and nanotechnology. Here we used NMR and CD spectroscopy to investigate the thermal stability of two classes of quadruplex-duplex hybrids comprising fundamentally distinct modes of duplex and quadruplex connectivity: Construct I involves the coaxial orientation of the duplex and quadruplex helices with continual base stacking across the two components; Construct II involves the orthogonal orientation of the duplex and quadruplex helices with no base stacking between the two components. We have found that for both constructs, the stability of the quadruplex generally increases with the length of the stem-loop incorporated, with respect to quadruplexes comprising nonstructured loops of the same length, which showed a continuous drop in stability with increasing loop length. The stability of these complexes, particularly Construct I, can be substantially influenced by the base-pair steps proximal to the quadruplex-duplex junction. Bulges at the junction are largely detrimental to the adoption of the desired G-quadruplex topology for Construct I but not for Construct II. These findings should facilitate future design and prediction of quadruplex-duplex hybrids.

  11. Identification of pathogenic Nocardia species by reverse line blot hybridization targeting the 16S rRNA and 16S-23S rRNA gene spacer regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Meng; Kong, Fanrong; Sorrell, Tania C; Cao, Yongyan; Lee, Ok Cha; Liu, Ying; Sintchenko, Vitali; Chen, Sharon C A

    2010-02-01

    Although 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis is employed most often for the definitive identification of Nocardia species, alternate molecular methods and polymorphisms in other gene targets have also enabled species determinations. We evaluated a combined Nocardia PCR-based reverse line blot (RLB) hybridization assay based on 16S and 16S-23S rRNA gene spacer region polymorphisms to identify 12 American Type Culture Collection and 123 clinical Nocardia isolates representing 14 species; results were compared with results from 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Thirteen 16S rRNA gene-based (two group-specific and 11 species-specific) and five 16S-23S spacer-targeted (two taxon-specific and three species-specific) probes were utilized. 16S rRNA gene-based probes correctly identified 124 of 135 isolates (sensitivity, 92%) but were unable to identify Nocardia paucivorans strains (n = 10 strains) and a Nocardia asteroides isolate with a novel 16S rRNA gene sequence. Nocardia farcinica and Nocardia cyriacigeorgica strains were identified by the sequential use of an N. farcinica-"negative" probe and a combined N. farcinica/N. cyriacigeorgica probe. The assay specificity was high (99%) except for weak cross-reactivity between the Nocardia brasiliensis probe with the Nocardia thailandica DNA product; however, cross-hybridization with closely related nontarget species may occur. The incorporation of 16S-23S rRNA gene spacer-based probes enabled the identification of all N. paucivorans strains. The overall sensitivity using both probe sets was >99%. Both N. farcinica-specific 16S-23S rRNA gene spacer-directed probes were required to identify all N. farcinica stains by using this probe set. The study demonstrates the utility of a combined PCR/RLB assay for the identification of clinically relevant Nocardia species and its potential for studying subtypes of N. farcinica. Where species assignment is ambiguous or not possible, 16S rRNA gene sequencing is recommended.

  12. ACVP-14: Next-Generation Multiplex vRNA and vDNA Lineage Specific In Situ Hybridization Detection With Immunohisto-Fluorescence or Chromogen in the Same Tissue Section with Quantitative Image Analysis in Fixed Tissues from Virally Infected Specimens | Frederick National Laboratory for Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Tissue Analysis Core within the AIDS and Cancer Virus Program will process, embed and perform microtomy on fixed tissue samples presented in ethanol. HIV/SIVin situhybridization for detection of vRNA and vDNA will be performed using the next-gene

  13. Increased mRNA expression of a laminin-binding protein in human colon carcinoma: Complete sequence of a full-length cDNA encoding the protein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yow, Hsiukang; Wong, Jau Min; Chen, Hai Shiene; Lee, C.; Steele, G.D. Jr.; Chen, Lanbo

    1988-01-01

    Reliable markers to distinguish human colon carcinoma from normal colonic epithelium are needed particularly for poorly differentiated tumors where no useful marker is currently available. To search for markers the authors constructed cDNA libraries from human colon carcinoma cell lines and screened for clones that hybridize to a greater degree with mRNAs of colon carcinomas than with their normal counterparts. Here they report one such cDNA clone that hybridizes with a 1.2-kilobase (kb) mRNA, the level of which is ∼9-fold greater in colon carcinoma than in adjacent normal colonic epithelium. Blot hybridization of total RNA from a variety of human colon carcinoma cell lines shows that the level of this 1.2-kb mRNA in poorly differentiated colon carcinomas is as high as or higher than that in well-differentiated carcinomas. Molecular cloning and complete sequencing of cDNA corresponding to the full-length open reading frame of this 1.2-kb mRNA unexpectedly show it to contain all the partial cDNA sequence encoding 135 amino acid residues previously reported for a human laminin receptor. The deduced amino acid sequence suggests that this putative laminin-binding protein from human colon carcinomas consists of 295 amino acid residues with interesting features. There is an unusual C-terminal 70-amino acid segment, which is trypsin-resistant and highly negatively charged

  14. Nonparametric testing for DNA copy number induced differential mRNA gene expression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Wieringen, W.N.; van de Wiel, M.A.

    2009-01-01

    The central dogma of molecular biology relates DNA with mRNA. Array CGH measures DNA copy number and gene expression microarrays measure the amount of mRNA. Methods that integrate data from these two platforms may uncover meaningful biological relationships that further our understanding of cancer.

  15. Towards Defined DNA and RNA Delivery Vehicles Using Nucleic Acid Nanotechnology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Okholm, Anders Hauge; Schaffert, David Henning; Kjems, Jørgen

    2014-01-01

    Both DNA and RNA nanostructures show exceptional programmability, modularity, and self-assembly ability. Using DNA or RNA molecules it is possible to assemble monodisperse particles that are homogeneous in size and shape and with identical positioning of surface modifications. For therapeutic app...

  16. Cleavage of influenza RNA by using a human PUF-based artificial RNA-binding protein–staphylococcal nuclease hybrid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mori, Tomoaki; Nakamura, Kento; Masaoka, Keisuke; Fujita, Yusuke; Morisada, Ryosuke; Mori, Koichi; Tobimatsu, Takamasa; Sera, Takashi

    2016-01-01

    Various viruses infect animals and humans and cause a variety of diseases, including cancer. However, effective methodologies to prevent virus infection have not yet been established. Therefore, development of technologies to inactivate viruses is highly desired. We have already demonstrated that cleavage of a DNA virus genome was effective to prevent its replication. Here, we expanded this methodology to RNA viruses. In the present study, we used staphylococcal nuclease (SNase) instead of the PIN domain (PilT N-terminus) of human SMG6 as an RNA-cleavage domain and fused the SNase to a human Pumilio/fem-3 binding factor (PUF)-based artificial RNA-binding protein to construct an artificial RNA restriction enzyme with enhanced RNA-cleavage rates for influenzavirus. The resulting SNase-fusion nuclease cleaved influenza RNA at rates 120-fold greater than the corresponding PIN-fusion nuclease. The cleaving ability of the PIN-fusion nuclease was not improved even though the linker moiety between the PUF and RNA-cleavage domain was changed. Gel shift assays revealed that the RNA-binding properties of the PUF derivative used was not as good as wild type PUF. Improvement of the binding properties or the design method will allow the SNase-fusion nuclease to cleave an RNA target in mammalian animal cells and/or organisms. - Highlights: • A novel RNA restriction enzyme using SNase was developed tor cleave viral RNA. • Our enzyme cleaved influenza RNA with rates >120-fold higher rates a PIN-fusion one. • Our artificial enzyme with the L5 linker showed the highest RNA cleavage rate. • Our artificial enzyme site-selectively cleaved influenza RNA in vitro.

  17. Signal-off Electrochemiluminescence Biosensor Based on Phi29 DNA Polymerase Mediated Strand Displacement Amplification for MicroRNA Detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Anyi; Gui, Guo-Feng; Zhuo, Ying; Chai, Ya-Qin; Xiang, Yun; Yuan, Ruo

    2015-06-16

    A target induced cycling strand displacement amplification (SDA) mediated by phi29 DNA polymerase (phi29) was first investigated and applied in a signal-off electrochemiluminescence (ECL) biosensor for microRNA (miRNA) detection. Herein, the target miRNA triggered the phi29-mediated SDA which could produce amounts of single-stranded DNA (assistant probe) with accurate and comprehensive nucleotide sequence. Then, the assistant probe hybridized with the capture probe and the ferrocene-labeled probe (Fc-probe) to form a ternary "Y" structure for ECL signal quenching by ferrocene. Therefore, the ECL intensity would decrease with increasing concentration of the target miRNA, and the sensitivity of biosensor would be promoted on account of the efficient signal amplification of the target induced cycling reaction. Besides, a self-enhanced Ru(II) ECL system was designed to obtain a stable and strong initial signal to further improve the sensitivity. The ECL assay for miRNA-21 detection is developed with excellent sensitivity of a concentration variation from 10 aM to 1.0 pM and limit of detection down to 3.3 aM.

  18. Structure and assembly of the essential RNA ring component of a viral DNA packaging motor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Fang; Lu, Changrui; Zhao, Wei; Rajashankar, Kanagalaghatta R; Anderson, Dwight L; Jardine, Paul J; Grimes, Shelley; Ke, Ailong

    2011-05-03

    Prohead RNA (pRNA) is an essential component in the assembly and operation of the powerful bacteriophage 29 DNA packaging motor. The pRNA forms a multimeric ring via intermolecular base-pairing interactions between protomers that serves to guide the assembly of the ring ATPase that drives DNA packaging. Here we report the quaternary structure of this rare multimeric RNA at 3.5 Å resolution, crystallized as tetrameric rings. Strong quaternary interactions and the inherent flexibility helped rationalize how free pRNA is able to adopt multiple oligomerization states in solution. These characteristics also allowed excellent fitting of the crystallographic pRNA protomers into previous prohead/pRNA cryo-EM reconstructions, supporting the presence of a pentameric, but not hexameric, pRNA ring in the context of the DNA packaging motor. The pentameric pRNA ring anchors itself directly to the phage prohead by interacting specifically with the fivefold symmetric capsid structures that surround the head-tail connector portal. From these contacts, five RNA superhelices project from the pRNA ring, where they serve as scaffolds for binding and assembly of the ring ATPase, and possibly mediate communication between motor components. Construction of structure-based designer pRNAs with little sequence similarity to the wild-type pRNA were shown to fully support the packaging of 29 DNA.

  19. Good quality Vitis RNA obtained from an adapted DNA isolation protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Baiges

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Grapevine is a woody plant, whose high carbohydrate and phenolic compound contents usually interferes with nucleic acid isolation. After we tried several protocols for isolating RNA from the Vitis rootstock Richter- 110 (R-110 with little or no success, we adapted a method reported to be satisfactory for grapevine DNA isolation, to extract RNA. With slight protocol modifications, we succeeded to obtain polysaccharide- and phenolic-free RNA preparations from all vegetative tissues, without excessive sample handling. RNA isolated by the reported method permitted to obtain highly pure mRNA (messenger RNA to construct a cDNA (complementary DNA library and allowed gene transcription analysis by reverse Northern, which guarantees RNA integrity. This method may also be suitable for other plant species with high polysaccharide or phenolic contents.

  20. A populational survey of 45S rDNA polymorphism in the Jefferson salamander Ambystoma jeffersonianum revealed by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinzhong FU

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The chromosomal localization of 45S ribosomal RNA genes in Ambystoma jeffersonianum was determined by fluorescence in situ hybridization with 18S rDNA fragment as a probe (FISH-rDNA. Our results revealed the presence of rDNA polymorphism among A.jeffersonianum populations in terms of number, location and FISH signal intensity on the chromosomes. Nine rDNA cytotypes were found in ten geographically isolated populations and most of them contained derivative rDNA sites. Our preliminary study provides strong indication of karyotypic diversification of A.jeffersonianum that is demonstrated by intraspecific variation of 45S rDNA cytotypes. rDNA cytotype polymorphism has been described in many other caudate amphibians. We predict that habitat isolation, low dispersal ability and decline of effective population size could facilitate the fixation and accumulation of variable rDNA cytotypes during their chromosome evolution.

  1. One-pot preparation of mRNA/cDNA display by a novel and versatile puromycin-linker DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mochizuki, Yuki; Biyani, Manish; Tsuji-Ueno, Sachika; Suzuki, Miho; Nishigaki, Koichi; Husimi, Yuzuru; Nemoto, Naoto

    2011-09-12

    A rapid, easy, and robust preparation method for mRNA/cDNA display using a newly designed puromycin-linker DNA is presented. The new linker is structurally simple, easy to synthesize, and cost-effective for use in "in vitro peptide and protein selection". An introduction of RNase T1 nuclease site to the new linker facilitates the easy recovery of mRNA/cDNA displayed protein by an improvement of the efficiency of ligating the linker to mRNAs and efficient release of mRNA/cDNA displayed protein from the solid-phase (magnetic bead). For application demonstration, affinity selections were successfully performed. Furthermore, we introduced a "one-pot" preparation protocol to perform mRNA display easy. Unlike conventional approaches that require tedious and downstream multistep process including purification, this protocol will make the mRNA/cDNA display methods more practical and convenient and also facilitate the development of next-generation, high-throughput mRNA/cDNA display systems amenable to automation.

  2. Tracking fungal community responses to maize plants by DNA- and RNA-based pyrosequencing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eiko E Kuramae

    Full Text Available We assessed soil fungal diversity and community structure at two sampling times (t1 = 47 days and t2 = 104 days of plant age in pots associated with four maize cultivars, including two genetically modified (GM cultivars by high-throughput pyrosequencing of the 18S rRNA gene using DNA and RNA templates. We detected no significant differences in soil fungal diversity and community structure associated with different plant cultivars. However, DNA-based analyses yielded lower fungal OTU richness as compared to RNA-based analyses. Clear differences in fungal community structure were also observed in relation to sampling time and the nucleic acid pool targeted (DNA versus RNA. The most abundant soil fungi, as recovered by DNA-based methods, did not necessary represent the most "active" fungi (as recovered via RNA. Interestingly, RNA-derived community compositions at t1 were highly similar to DNA-derived communities at t2, based on presence/absence measures of OTUs. We recovered large proportions of fungal sequences belonging to arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and Basidiomycota, especially at the RNA level, suggesting that these important and potentially beneficial fungi are not affected by the plant cultivars nor by GM traits (Bt toxin production. Our results suggest that even though DNA- and RNA-derived soil fungal communities can be very different at a given time, RNA composition may have a predictive power of fungal community development through time.

  3. Nerve growth factor mRNA in brain: localization by in situ hybridization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rennert, P.D.; Heinrich, G.

    1986-01-01

    Nerve Growth Factor is a 118 amino acid polypeptide that plays an important role in the differentiation and survival of neurons. The recent discovery that a mRNA that encodes beta Nerve Growth Factor is present in brain suggests that the Nerve Growth Factor gene may not only regulate gene expression of peripheral but also of central neurons. To identify the site(s) of Nerve Growth Factor mRNA production in the brain and to determine which cells express the Nerve Growth Factor gene, the technique of in situ hybridization was employed. A 32P-labeled RNA probe complementary to Nerve Growth Factor mRNA hybridized to cells in the stratum granulosum of the dentate gyrus and the stratum pyramidale of the hippocampus. These observations identify for the first time cellular sites of Nerve Growth Factor gene expression in the central nervous system, and suggest that Nerve Growth Factor mRNA is produced by neurons

  4. Infantile presentation of the mtDNA A3243G tRNA(Leu (UUR)) mutation.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Okhuijsen-Kroes, E.J.; Trijbels, J.M.F.; Sengers, R.C.A.; Mariman, E.C.M.; Heuvel, L.P.W.J. van den; Wendel, U.A.H.; Koch, G.; Smeitink, J.A.M.

    2001-01-01

    Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) disorders are clinically very heterogeneous, ranging from single organ involvement to severe multisystem disease. One of the most frequently observed mtDNA mutations is the A-to-G transition at position 3243 of the tRNA(Leu (UUR)) gene. This mutation is often related to

  5. Simple surface modification of poly(dimethylsiloxane) for DNA hybridization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jinwen; Voelcker, Nicolas H.; Ellis, Amanda V.

    2010-01-01

    Here, we present a simple chemical modification of poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) by curing a mixture of 2 wt% undecylenic acid (UDA) in PDMS prepolymer on a gold-coated glass slide. This gold slide had been previously pretreated with a self-assembled hydrophilic monolayer of 3-mercaptopropionic acid (MPA). During curing of the UDA∕PDMS prepolymer, the hydrophilic UDA carboxyl moieties diffuses toward the hydrophilic MPA carboxyl moieties on the gold surface. This diffusion of the UDA within the PDMS prepolymer to the surface is a direct result of surface energy minimization. Once completely cured, the PDMS is peeled off the gold substrate, thereby exposing the interfacial carboxyl groups. These groups are then available for subsequent attachment of 5′-amino terminated DNA oligonucleotides via amide linkages. Our results show that the covalently tethered oligonucleotides can successfully capture fluorescein-labeled complementary oligonucleotides via hybridization, which are visualized using fluorescence microscopy. PMID:21264061

  6. The strategies of DNA immobilization and hybridization detection mechanism in the construction of electrochemical DNA sensor: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jahwarhar Izuan Abdul Rashid

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, electrochemical deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA sensor has recently emerged as promising alternative clinical diagnostic devices especially for infectious disease by exploiting DNA recognition events and converting them into an electrochemical signal. This is because the existing DNA diagnostic method possesses certain drawbacks such as time-consuming, expensive, laborious, low selectivity and sensitivity. DNA immobilization strategies and mechanism of electrochemical detection are two the most important aspects that should be considered before developing highly selective and sensitive electrochemical DNA sensor. Here, we focus on some recent strategies for DNA probes immobilization on the surface of electrochemical transducer such as adsorption, covalent bonding and Avidin/Streptavidin-Biotin interaction on the electrode surface for specific interaction with its complementary DNA target. A numerous approach for DNA hybridization detection based electrochemical technique that frequently used including direct DNA electrochemical detection and label based electrochemical (redox-active indicator, enzyme label and nanoparticles were also discussed in aiming to provide general guide for the design of electrochemical DNA sensor. We also discussed the challenges and suggestions to improve the application of electrochemical DNA sensor at point-care setting. Keywords: Electrochemical DNA sensor, DNA immobilization, DNA hybridization, Electrochemical mechanism

  7. Viral evasion of intracellular DNA and RNA sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Ying Kai; Gack, Michaela U.

    2016-01-01

    The co-evolution of viruses with their hosts has led to the emergence of viral pathogens that are adept at evading or actively suppressing host immunity. Pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) are key components of antiviral immunity that detect conserved molecular features of viral pathogens and initiate signalling that results in the expression of antiviral genes. In this Review, we discuss the strategies that viruses use to escape immune surveillance by key intracellular sensors of viral RNA or DNA, with a focus on RIG-I-like receptors (RLRs), cyclic GMP–AMP synthase (cGAS) and interferon-γ (IFNγ)-inducible protein 16 (IFI16). Such viral strategies include the sequestration or modification of viral nucleic acids, interference with specific post-translational modifications of PRRs or their adaptor proteins, the degradation or cleavage of PRRs or their adaptors, and the sequestration or relocalization of PRRs. An understanding of viral immune-evasion mechanisms at the molecular level may guide the development of vaccines and antivirals. PMID:27174148

  8. UV-LEDs Efficiently Inactivate DNA and RNA Coliphages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alyaa M. Zyara

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available UV-LEDs are a new method of disinfecting drinking water. Some viruses are very resistant to UV and the efficiency of UV-LEDs to disinfect them needs to be studied. Drinking water was disinfected with UV-LEDs after spiking the water with MS2 and four UV- and/or Cl-resistant coliphages belonging to RNA or DNA coliphages isolated from municipal wastewater. UV-LEDs operating at a wavelength of 270 nm for 2 min with 120 mW of irradiation caused 0.93–2.73 Log10-reductions of coliphages tested in a reactor of a 5.2 L volume. Irradiation time of 10 min in the same system increased the Log10-reductions to 4.30–5.16. Traditional mercury UV (Hg-UV lamp at a 254 nm wavelength caused 0.67–4.08 Log10-reductions in 2 min and 4.56–7.21 Log10-reductions in 10 min in 10 mL of water. All coliphages tested except MS2 achieved 4 Log10-reductions with UV-LEDs at a dose that corresponded to 70 mWs/cm2 using Hg-UV. Thus, UV-LEDs are a promising method of disinfecting UV- and/or Cl-resistant viruses.

  9. The interplay between polymerase organization and nucleosome occupancy along DNA : How dynamic roadblocks on the DNA induce the formation of RNA polymerase pelotons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Berg, A.A.

    2017-01-01

    During transcription RNA polymerase (RNAP) moves along a DNA molecule to copy the information on the DNA to an RNA molecule. Many textbook pictures show an RNAP sliding along empty DNA, but in reality it is crowded on the DNA and RNAP competes for space with many proteins such as other RNAP’s and

  10. Sequence-specific RNA Photocleavage by Single-stranded DNA in Presence of Riboflavin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yongyun; Chen, Gangyi; Yuan, Yi; Li, Na; Dong, Juan; Huang, Xin; Cui, Xin; Tang, Zhuo

    2015-10-01

    Constant efforts have been made to develop new method to realize sequence-specific RNA degradation, which could cause inhibition of the expression of targeted gene. Herein, by using an unmodified short DNA oligonucleotide for sequence recognition and endogenic small molecue, vitamin B2 (riboflavin) as photosensitizer, we report a simple strategy to realize the sequence-specific photocleavage of targeted RNA. The DNA strand is complimentary to the target sequence to form DNA/RNA duplex containing a G•U wobble in the middle. The cleavage reaction goes through oxidative elimination mechanism at the nucleoside downstream of U of the G•U wobble in duplex to obtain unnatural RNA terminal, and the whole process is under tight control by using light as switch, which means the cleavage could be carried out according to specific spatial and temporal requirements. The biocompatibility of this method makes the DNA strand in combination with riboflavin a promising molecular tool for RNA manipulation.

  11. Altered minor-groove hydrogen bonds in DNA block transcription elongation by T7 RNA polymerase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanasova, Marina; Goeldi, Silvan; Meyer, Fabian; Hanawalt, Philip C; Spivak, Graciela; Sturla, Shana J

    2015-05-26

    DNA transcription depends upon the highly efficient and selective function of RNA polymerases (RNAPs). Modifications in the template DNA can impact the progression of RNA synthesis, and a number of DNA adducts, as well as abasic sites, arrest or stall transcription. Nonetheless, data are needed to understand why certain modifications to the structure of DNA bases stall RNA polymerases while others are efficiently bypassed. In this study, we evaluate the impact that alterations in dNTP/rNTP base-pair geometry have on transcription. T7 RNA polymerase was used to study transcription over modified purines and pyrimidines with altered H-bonding capacities. The results suggest that introducing wobble base-pairs into the DNA:RNA heteroduplex interferes with transcriptional elongation and stalls RNA polymerase. However, transcriptional stalling is not observed if mismatched base-pairs do not H-bond. Together, these studies show that RNAP is able to discriminate mismatches resulting in wobble base-pairs, and suggest that, in cases of modifications with minor steric impact, DNA:RNA heteroduplex geometry could serve as a controlling factor for initiating transcription-coupled DNA repair. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Human papillomavirus mRNA and DNA testing in women with atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Louise T; Dehlendorff, Christian; Junge, Jette

    2016-01-01

    In this prospective cohort study, we compared the performance of human papillomavirus (HPV) mRNA and DNA testing of women with atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASC-US) during cervical cancer screening. Using a nationwide Danish pathology register, we identified women aged 30......-65 years with ASC-US during 2005-2011 who were tested for HPV16/18/31/33/45 mRNA using PreTect HPV-Proofer (n = 3,226) or for high-risk HPV (hrHPV) DNA using Hybrid Capture 2 (HC2) (n = 9,405) or Linear Array HPV-Genotyping test (LA) (n = 1,533). Women with ≥1 subsequent examination in the register (n = 13...... those testing HC2 negative (3.2% [95% CI: 2.2-4.2%] versus 0.5% [95% CI: 0.3-0.7%]). Patterns were similar after 18 months and 5 years'; follow-up; for CIN2+ and cancer as outcomes; across all age groups; and when comparing mRNA testing to hrHPV DNA testing using LA. In conclusion, the HPV16...

  13. Alternative splicing of human elastin mRNA indicated by sequence analysis of cloned genomic and complementary DNA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Indik, Z.; Yeh, H.; Ornstein-goldstein, N.; Sheppard, P.; Anderson, N.; Rosenbloom, J.C.; Peltonen, L.; Rosenbloom, J.

    1987-01-01

    Poly(A) + RNA, isolated from a single 7-mo fetal human aorta, was used to synthesize cDNA by the RNase H method, and the cDNA was inserted into λgt10. Recombinant phage containing elastin sequences were identified by hybridization with cloned, exon-containing fragments of the human elastin gene. Three clones containing inserts of 3.3, 2.7, and 2.3 kilobases were selected for further analysis. Three overlapping clones containing 17.8 kilobases of the human elastin gene were also isolated from genomic libraries. Complete sequence analysis of the six clones demonstrated that: (i) the cDNA encompassed the entire translated portion of the mRNA encoding 786 amino acids, including several unusual hydrophilic amino acid sequences not previously identified in porcine tropoelastin, (ii) exons encoding either hydrophobic or crosslinking domains in the protein alternated in the gene, and (iii) a great abundance of Alu repetitive sequences occurred throughout the introns. The data also indicated substantial alternative splicing of the mRNA. These results suggest the potential for significant variation in the precise molecular structure of the elastic fiber in the human population

  14. RNA polymerase II transcriptional fidelity control and its functional interplay with DNA modifications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Liang; Wang, Wei; Chong, Jenny; Shin, Ji Hyun; Xu, Jun; Wang, Dong

    2016-01-01

    Accurate genetic information transfer is essential for life. As a key enzyme involved in the first step of gene expression, RNA polymerase II (Pol II) must maintain high transcriptional fidelity while it reads along DNA template and synthesizes RNA transcript in a stepwise manner during transcription elongation. DNA lesions or modifications may lead to significant changes in transcriptional fidelity or transcription elongation dynamics. In this review, we will summarize recent progress towards understanding the molecular basis of RNA Pol II transcriptional fidelity control and impacts of DNA lesions and modifications on Pol II transcription elongation. PMID:26392149

  15. Counting molecules in cell-free DNA and single cells RNA

    OpenAIRE

    Karlsson, Kasper

    2016-01-01

    The field of Molecular Biology got started in earnest with the discovery of the molecular structure of DNA. This lead to a surge of interest into the relationships between DNA, RNA and proteins, and to the development of fundamental tools for manipulating those substances, such as cutting, ligating, amplifying, visualizing and size-selecting DNA. With these tools at hand it was possible to begin sequencing DNA, a process that took a leap forward in 2005 with the advent of Next Generation Sequ...

  16. An RNA polymerase II-and AGO4-associated protein acts in RNA-directed DNA methylation

    KAUST Repository

    Gao, Zhihuan

    2010-04-21

    DNA methylation is an important epigenetic mark in many eukaryotes. In plants, 24-nucleotide small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) bound to the effector protein, Argonaute 4 (AGO4), can direct de novo DNA methylation by the methyltransferase DRM2 (refs 2, 4-6). Here we report a new regulator of RNA-directed DNA methylation (RdDM) in Arabidopsis: RDM1. Loss-of-function mutations in the RDM1 gene impair the accumulation of 24-nucleotide siRNAs, reduce DNA methylation, and release transcriptional gene silencing at RdDM target loci. RDM1 encodes a small protein that seems to bind single-stranded methyl DNA, and associates and co-localizes with RNA polymerase II (Pol II, also known as NRPB), AGO4 and DRM2 in the nucleus. Our results indicate that RDM1 is a component of the RdDM effector complex and may have a role in linking siRNA production with pre-existing or de novo cytosine methylation. Our results also indicate that, although RDM1 and Pol V (also known as NRPE) may function together at some RdDM target sites in the peri-nucleolar siRNA processing centre, Pol II rather than Pol V is associated with the RdDM effector complex at target sites in the nucleoplasm. © 2010 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.

  17. Localization of insulin receptor mRNA in rat brain by in situ hybridization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marks, J.L.; Porte, D. Jr.; Stahl, W.L.; Baskin, D.G.

    1990-01-01

    Insulin receptor mRNA was demonstrated in rat brain slices by in situ hybridization with three 35 S-oligonucleotide probes and contact film autoradiography. Specificity was confirmed by showing that (a) excess unlabeled probe abolished the signal, (b) an oligonucleotide probe for rat neuropeptide Y mRNA showed a different distribution of hybridization signal, and (c) the distribution of insulin receptor binding was consistent with the distribution of insulin receptor mRNA. Insulin receptor mRNA was most abundant in the granule cell layers of the olfactory bulb, cerebellum and dentate gyrus, in the pyramidal cell body layers of the pyriform cortex and hippocampus, in the choroid plexus and in the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus

  18. Charge transport through DNA/DNA duplexes and DNA/RNA hybrids: complex mechanism study

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kratochvílová, Irena; Vala, M.; Weiter, M.; Špérová, M.; Schneider, Bohdan; Páv, Ondřej; Šebera, Jakub; Rosenberg, Ivan; Sychrovský, Vladimír

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 20, č. 1 (2013), s. 9-9 ISSN 1211-5894. [Discussions in Structural Molecular Biology. Annual Meeting of the Czech Society for Structural Biology /11./. 14.03.2013-16.03.2013, Nové Hrady] Institutional support: RVO:61388963 ; RVO:68378271 ; RVO:86652036 Keywords : charge transport * fluorescence spectroscopy * DFT Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry

  19. Modified method for combined DNA and RNA isolation from peanut and other oil seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang, Phat M; Chen, Charles Y

    2013-02-01

    Isolation of good quality RNA and DNA from seeds is difficult due to high levels of polysaccharides, polyphenols, and lipids that can degrade or co-precipitate with nucleic acids. Standard RNA extraction methods utilizing guanidinium-phenol-chloroform extraction has not shown to be successful. RNA isolation from plant seeds is a prerequisite for many seed specific gene expression studies and DNA is necessary in marker-assisted selection and other genetic studies. We describe a modified method to isolate both RNA and DNA from the same seed tissue and have been successful with several oil seeds including peanut, soybean, sunflower, canola, and oil radish. An additional LiCl precipitation step was added to isolate both RNA and DNA from the same seed tissues. High quality nucleic acids were observed based on A(260)/A(280) and A(260)/A(230) ratios above 2.0 and distinct bands on gel-electrophoresis. RNA was shown to be suitable for reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction based on actin or 60S ribosomal primer amplification and DNA was shown to have a single band on gel-electrophoresis analysis. This result shows that RNA and DNA isolated using this method can be appropriate for molecular studies in peanut and other oil containing seeds.

  20. Expression of a serine protease (motopsin PRSS12) mRNA in the mouse brain: in situ hybridization histochemical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iijima, N; Tanaka, M; Mitsui, S; Yamamura, Y; Yamaguchi, N; Ibata, Y

    1999-03-20

    Serine proteases are considered to play several important roles in the brain. In an attempt to find novel brain-specific serine proteases (BSSPs), motopsin (PRSS-12) was cloned from a mouse brain cDNA library by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Northern blot analysis demonstrated that the postnatal 10-day mouse brain contained the most amount of motopsin mRNA. At this developmental stage, in situ hybridization histochemistry showed that motopsin mRNA was specifically expressed in the following regions: cerebral cortical layers II/III, V and VIb, endopiriform cortex and the limbic system, particularly in the CA1 region of the hippocampal formation. In addition, in the brainstem, the oculomotor nucleus, trochlear nucleus, mecencephalic and motor nuclei of trigeminal nerve (N), abducens nucleus, facial nucleus, nucleus of the raphe pontis, dorsoral motor nucleus of vagal N, hypoglossal nucleus and ambiguus nucleus showed motopsin mRNA expression. Expression was also found in the anterior horn of the spinal cord. The above findings strongly suggest that neurons in almost all motor nuclei, particularly in the brainstem and spinal cord, express motopsin mRNA, and that motopsin seems to have a close relation to the functional role of efferent neurons. Copyright 1999 Elsevier Science B.V.

  1. Cutis laxa: reduced elastin gene expression in skin fibroblast cultures as determined by hybridizations with a homologous cDNA and an exon 1-specific oligonucleotide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olsen, D.R.; Fazio, M.J.; Shamban, A.T.; Rosenbloom, J.; Uitto, J.

    1988-01-01

    Fibroblast cultures were established from six patients with cutis laxa, and elastin gene expression was analyzed by RNA hybridizations with a 2.5-kilobase human elastin cDNA or an exon 1-specific 35-base oligomer. Northern analyses using either probe detected mRNA transcripts of ∼ 3.5 kilobases, and no qualitative difference between the control and cutis laxa mRNAs was detected. However, quantitation of the elastin mRNA abundance by slot blot hybridizations revealed markedly reduced levels in all cutis laxa cell strains. Assuming equal translational activity of the control and cutix laxa mRNAs, the reduced mRNA levels could result in diminished elastin production, providing an explanation for the paucity of elastic fibers in the skin and other tissues in cutis laxa

  2. Ratiometric FRET-based detection of DNA and micro-RNA on the surface using TIRF detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matveeva, Evgenia G.; Gryczynski, Zygmunt; Stewart, Donald R.; Gryczynski, Ignacy

    2010-01-01

    A new FRET-based method for the ratiometric detection of DNA oligomers on a surface using TIRF detection mode is reported. The dual-labeled system consisting of two hybridized oligomers, Cy3oligoY:Cy5oligoX was immobilized on the surface, and the total internal reflection fluorescence (TIRF) was used to detect emission signals from the surface. Two signals, green and red, which originated from the green donor Cy3 and the red acceptor Cy5, have been simultaneously detected. When the target single-stranded complimentary oligomer was present in the solution, this oligomer replaced the Cy3oligoY in the donor:acceptor complex on the surface and the ratio of red-to-green signal was dramatically changed. This detection scheme is generally applicable to the detection of DNA or RNA on a surface.

  3. DNA and RNA Synthesis in Animal Cells in Culture--Methods for Use in Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godsell, P. M.; Balls, M.

    1973-01-01

    Describes the experimental procedures used for detecting DNA and RNA synthesis in xenopus cells by autoradiography. The method described is suitable for senior high school laboratory classes or biology projects, if supervised by a teacher qualified to handle radioisotopes. (JR)

  4. Molecular-Sized DNA or RNA Sequencing Machine | NCI Technology Transfer Center | TTC

    Science.gov (United States)

    The National Cancer Institute's Gene Regulation and Chromosome Biology Laboratory is seeking statements of capability or interest from parties interested in collaborative research to co-develop a molecular-sized DNA or RNA sequencing machine.

  5. Probing of miniPEGγ-PNA-DNA Hybrid Duplex Stability with AFM Force Spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, Samrat; Armitage, Bruce A; Lyubchenko, Yuri L

    2016-03-15

    Peptide nucleic acids (PNA) are synthetic polymers, the neutral peptide backbone of which provides elevated stability to PNA-PNA and PNA-DNA hybrid duplexes. It was demonstrated that incorporation of diethylene glycol (miniPEG) at the γ position of the peptide backbone increased the thermal stability of the hybrid duplexes (Sahu, B. et al. J. Org. Chem. 2011, 76, 5614-5627). Here, we applied atomic force microscopy (AFM) based single molecule force spectroscopy and dynamic force spectroscopy (DFS) to test the strength and stability of the hybrid 10 bp duplex. This hybrid duplex consisted of miniPEGγ-PNA and DNA of the same length (γ(MP)PNA-DNA), which we compared to a DNA duplex with a homologous sequence. AFM force spectroscopy data obtained at the same conditions showed that the γ(MP)PNA-DNA hybrid is more stable than the DNA counterpart, 65 ± 15 pN vs 47 ± 15 pN, respectively. The DFS measurements performed in a range of pulling speeds analyzed in the framework of the Bell-Evans approach yielded a dissociation constant, koff ≈ 0.030 ± 0.01 s⁻¹ for γ(MP)PNA-DNA hybrid duplex vs 0.375 ± 0.18 s⁻¹ for the DNA-DNA duplex suggesting that the hybrid duplex is much more stable. Correlating the high affinity of γ(MP)PNA-DNA to slow dissociation kinetics is consistent with prior bulk characterization by surface plasmon resonance. Given the growing interest in γ(MP)PNA as well as other synthetic DNA analogues, the use of single molecule experiments along with computational analysis of force spectroscopy data will provide direct characterization of various modifications as well as higher order structures such as triplexes and quadruplexes.

  6. Detection of DNA hybridization using graphene-coated black phosphorus surface plasmon resonance sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, Sarika; Verma, Alka; Raikwar, S.; Prajapati, Y. K.; Saini, J. P.

    2018-05-01

    In this paper, graphene-coated black phosphorus at the metal surface for the detection of DNA hybridization event is numerically demonstrated. The strategy consists of placing the sensing medium on top of black phosphorus-graphene-coated SPR which interfaces with phosphate-buffered saline solution carrying single-stranded DNA. Upon hybridization with its complementary DNA, desorption of the nanostructures takes place and thus enables the sensitive detection of the DNA hybridization event. The proposed sensor exhibits a sensitivity (125 ο/RIU), detection accuracy (0.95) and quality factor (13.62 RIU-1) for complementary DNA. In comparison with other reported papers, our suggested sensor provides much better performance. Thus, this label-free DNA detection platform should spur off new interest towards the use of black phosphorus-graphene-coated SPR interfaces.

  7. How Severely Is DNA Quantification Hampered by RNA Co-extraction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Ignacio; Remm, Matthieu; Frasquilho, Sonia; Betsou, Fay; Mathieson, William

    2015-10-01

    The optional RNase digest that is part of many DNA extraction protocols is often omitted, either because RNase is not provided in the kit or because users do not want to risk contaminating their laboratory. Consequently, co-eluting RNA can become a "contaminant" of unknown magnitude in a DNA extraction. We extracted DNA from liver, lung, kidney, and heart tissues and established that 28-52% of the "DNA" as assessed by spectrophotometry is actually RNA (depending on tissue type). Including an RNase digest in the extraction protocol reduced 260:280 purity ratios. Co-eluting RNA drives an overestimation of DNA yield when quantification is carried out using OD 260 nm spectrophotometry, or becomes an unquantified contaminant when spectrofluorometry is used for DNA quantification. This situation is potentially incompatible with the best practice guidelines for biobanks issued by organizations such as the International Society for Biological and Environmental Repositories, which state that biospecimens should be accurately characterized in terms of their identity, purity, concentration, and integrity. Consequently, we conclude that an RNase digest must be included in DNA extractions if pure DNA is required. We also discuss the implications of unquantified RNA contamination in DNA samples in the context of laboratory accreditation schemes.

  8. A universal colorimetry for nucleic acids and aptamer-specific ligands detection based on DNA hybridization amplification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shuang; Shang, Xinxin; Liu, Jia; Wang, Yujie; Guo, Yingshu; You, Jinmao

    2017-07-01

    We present a universal amplified-colorimetric for detecting nucleic acid targets or aptamer-specific ligand targets based on gold nanoparticle-DNA (GNP-DNA) hybridization chain reaction (HCR). The universal arrays consisted of capture probe and hairpin DNA-GNP. First, capture probe recognized target specificity and released the initiator sequence. Then dispersed hairpin DNA modified GNPs were cross-linked to form aggregates through HCR events triggered by initiator sequence. As the aggregates accumulate, a significant red-to purple color change can be easily visualized by the naked eye. We used miRNA target sequence (miRNA-203) and aptamer-specific ligand (ATP) as target molecules for this proof-of-concept experiment. Initiator sequence (DNA2) was released from the capture probe (MNP/DNA1/2 conjugates) under the strong competitiveness of miRNA-203. Hairpin DNA (H1 and H2) can be complementary with the help of initiator DNA2 to form GNP-H1/GNP-H2 aggregates. The absorption ratio (A 620 /A 520 ) values of solutions were a sensitive function of miRNA-203 concentration covering from 1.0 × 10 -11  M to 9.0 × 10 -10  M, and as low as 1.0 × 10 -11  M could be detected. At the same time, the color changed from light wine red to purple and then to light blue have occurred in the solution. For ATP, initiator sequence (5'-end of DNA3) was released from the capture probe (DNA3) under the strong combination of aptamer-ATP. The present colorimetric for specific detection of ATP exhibited good sensitivity and 1.0 × 10 -8  M ATP could be detected. The proposed strategy also showed good performances for qualitative analysis and quantitative analysis of intracellular nucleic acids and aptamer-specific ligands. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Localization of mRNA in vertebrate axonal compartments by in situ hybridization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sotelo-Silveira, José Roberto; Calliari, Aldo; Kun, Alejandra; Elizondo, Victoria; Canclini, Lucía; Sotelo, José Roberto

    2011-01-01

    The conclusive demonstration of RNA in vertebrate axons by in situ hybridization (ISH) has been elusive. We review the most important reasons for difficulties, including low concentration of axonal RNAs, localization in specific cortical domains, and the need to isolate axons. We demonstrate the importance of axon micro-dissection to obtain a whole mount perspective of mRNA distribution in the axonal territory. We describe a protocol to perform fluorescent ISH in isolated axons and guidelines for the preservation of structural and molecular integrity of cortical RNA-containing domains (e.g., Periaxoplasmic Ribosomal Plaques, or PARPs) in isolated axoplasm.

  10. Chromosomal Localization of DNA Amplifications in Neuroblastoma Tumors Using cDNA Microarray Comparative Genomic Hybridization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben Beheshti

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Conventional comparative genomic hybridization (CGH profiling of neuroblastomas has identified many genomic aberrations, although the limited resolution has precluded a precise localization of sequences of interest within amplicons. To map high copy number genomic gains in clinically matched stage IV neuroblastomas, CGH analysis using a 19,200-feature cDNA microarray was used. A dedicated (freely available algorithm was developed for rapid in silico determination of chromosomal localizations of microarray cDNA targets, and for generation of an ideogram-type profile of copy number changes. Using these methodologies, novel gene amplifications undetectable by chromosome CGH were identified, and larger MYCN amplicon sizes (in one tumor up to 6 Mb than those previously reported in neuroblastoma were identified. The genes HPCAL1, LPIN1/KIAA0188, NAG, and NSE1/LOC151354 were found to be coamplified with MYCN. To determine whether stage IV primary tumors could be further subclassified based on their genomic copy number profiles, hierarchical clustering was performed. Cluster analysis of microarray CGH data identified three groups: 1 no amplifications evident, 2 a small MYCN amplicon as the only detectable imbalance, and 3 a large MYCN amplicon with additional gene amplifications. Application of CGH to cDNA microarray targets will help to determine both the variation of amplicon size and help better define amplification-dependent and independent pathways of progression in neuroblastoma.

  11. An RNA Domain Imparts Specificity and Selectivity to a Viral DNA Packaging Motor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Wei; Jardine, Paul J.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT During assembly, double-stranded DNA viruses, including bacteriophages and herpesviruses, utilize a powerful molecular motor to package their genomic DNA into a preformed viral capsid. An integral component of the packaging motor in the Bacillus subtilis bacteriophage ϕ29 is a viral genome-encoded pentameric ring of RNA (prohead RNA [pRNA]). pRNA is a 174-base transcript comprised of two domains, domains I and II. Early studies initially isolated a 120-base form (domain I only) that retains high biological activity in vitro; hence, no function could be assigned to domain II. Here we define a role for this domain in the packaging process. DNA packaging using restriction digests of ϕ29 DNA showed that motors with the 174-base pRNA supported the correct polarity of DNA packaging, selectively packaging the DNA left end. In contrast, motors containing the 120-base pRNA had compromised specificity, packaging both left- and right-end fragments. The presence of domain II also provides selectivity in competition assays with genomes from related phages. Furthermore, motors with the 174-base pRNA were restrictive, in that they packaged only one DNA fragment into the head, whereas motors with the 120-base pRNA packaged several fragments into the head, indicating multiple initiation events. These results show that domain II imparts specificity and stringency to the motor during the packaging initiation events that precede DNA translocation. Heteromeric rings of pRNA demonstrated that one or two copies of domain II were sufficient to impart this selectivity/stringency. Although ϕ29 differs from other double-stranded DNA phages in having an RNA motor component, the function provided by pRNA is carried on the motor protein components in other phages. IMPORTANCE During virus assembly, genome packaging involves the delivery of newly synthesized viral nucleic acid into a protein shell. In the double-stranded DNA phages and herpesviruses, this is accomplished by a powerful

  12. An RNA Domain Imparts Specificity and Selectivity to a Viral DNA Packaging Motor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Wei; Jardine, Paul J; Grimes, Shelley

    2015-12-01

    During assembly, double-stranded DNA viruses, including bacteriophages and herpesviruses, utilize a powerful molecular motor to package their genomic DNA into a preformed viral capsid. An integral component of the packaging motor in the Bacillus subtilis bacteriophage ϕ29 is a viral genome-encoded pentameric ring of RNA (prohead RNA [pRNA]). pRNA is a 174-base transcript comprised of two domains, domains I and II. Early studies initially isolated a 120-base form (domain I only) that retains high biological activity in vitro; hence, no function could be assigned to domain II. Here we define a role for this domain in the packaging process. DNA packaging using restriction digests of ϕ29 DNA showed that motors with the 174-base pRNA supported the correct polarity of DNA packaging, selectively packaging the DNA left end. In contrast, motors containing the 120-base pRNA had compromised specificity, packaging both left- and right-end fragments. The presence of domain II also provides selectivity in competition assays with genomes from related phages. Furthermore, motors with the 174-base pRNA were restrictive, in that they packaged only one DNA fragment into the head, whereas motors with the 120-base pRNA packaged several fragments into the head, indicating multiple initiation events. These results show that domain II imparts specificity and stringency to the motor during the packaging initiation events that precede DNA translocation. Heteromeric rings of pRNA demonstrated that one or two copies of domain II were sufficient to impart this selectivity/stringency. Although ϕ29 differs from other double-stranded DNA phages in having an RNA motor component, the function provided by pRNA is carried on the motor protein components in other phages. During virus assembly, genome packaging involves the delivery of newly synthesized viral nucleic acid into a protein shell. In the double-stranded DNA phages and herpesviruses, this is accomplished by a powerful molecular motor

  13. An archaeal CRISPR type III-B system exhibiting distinctive RNA targeting features and mediating dual RNA and DNA interference

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peng, Wenfang; Feng, Mingxia; Feng, Xu

    2015-01-01

    CRISPR-Cas systems provide a small RNA-based mechanism to defend against invasive genetic elements in archaea and bacteria. To investigate the in vivo mechanism of RNA interference by two type III-B systems (Cmr-α and Cmr-β) in Sulfolobus islandicus, a genetic assay was developed using plasmids...... carrying an artificial mini-CRISPR (AC) locus with a single spacer. After pAC plasmids were introduced into different strains, Northern analyses confirmed that mature crRNAs were produced from the plasmid-borne CRISPR loci, which then guided gene silencing to target gene expression. Spacer mutagenesis....... islandicus Cmr-α mediated transcription-dependent DNA interference, the Cmr-α constitutes the first CRISPR system exhibiting dual targeting of RNA and DNA....

  14. A DNA origami nanorobot controlled by nucleic acid hybridization

    KAUST Repository

    Torelli, Emanuela

    2014-03-20

    A prototype for a DNA origami nanorobot is designed, produced, and tested. The cylindrical nanorobot (diameter of 14 nm and length of 48 nm) with a switchable flap, is able to respond to an external stimulus and reacts by a physical switch from a disarmed to an armed configuration able to deliver a cellular compatible message. In the tested design the robot weapon is a nucleic acid fully contained in the inner of the tube and linked to a single point of the internal face of the flap. Upon actuation the nanorobot moves the flap extracting the nucleic acid that assembles into a hemin/G-quadruplex horseradish peroxidase mimicking DNAzyme catalyzing a colorimetric reaction or chemiluminescence generation. The actuation switch is triggered by an external nucleic acid (target) that interacts with a complementary nucleic acid that is beard externally by the nanorobot (probe). Hybridization of probe and target produces a localized structural change that results in flap opening. The flap movement is studied on a two-dimensional prototype origami using Förster resonance energy transfer and is shown to be triggered by a variety of targets, including natural RNAs. The nanorobot has potential for in vivo biosensing and intelligent delivery of biological activators. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. A DNA origami nanorobot controlled by nucleic acid hybridization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torelli, Emanuela; Marini, Monica; Palmano, Sabrina; Piantanida, Luca; Polano, Cesare; Scarpellini, Alice; Lazzarino, Marco; Firrao, Giuseppe

    2014-07-23

    A prototype for a DNA origami nanorobot is designed, produced, and tested. The cylindrical nanorobot (diameter of 14 nm and length of 48 nm) with a switchable flap, is able to respond to an external stimulus and reacts by a physical switch from a disarmed to an armed configuration able to deliver a cellular compatible message. In the tested design the robot weapon is a nucleic acid fully contained in the inner of the tube and linked to a single point of the internal face of the flap. Upon actuation the nanorobot moves the flap extracting the nucleic acid that assembles into a hemin/G-quadruplex horseradish peroxidase mimicking DNAzyme catalyzing a colorimetric reaction or chemiluminescence generation. The actuation switch is triggered by an external nucleic acid (target) that interacts with a complementary nucleic acid that is beard externally by the nanorobot (probe). Hybridization of probe and target produces a localized structural change that results in flap opening. The flap movement is studied on a two-dimensional prototype origami using Förster resonance energy transfer and is shown to be triggered by a variety of targets, including natural RNAs. The nanorobot has potential for in vivo biosensing and intelligent delivery of biological activators. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Surface density dependence of PCR amplicon hybridization on PNA/DNA probe layers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yao, Danfeng; Kim, Junyoung; Yu, Fang

    2005-01-01

    at an intermediate sodium concentration (approximately 100 mM). These effects were mainly ascribed to the electrostatic cross talk among the hybridized DNA molecules and the secondary structure of PCR amplicons. For the negatively charged DNA probes, the hybridization reaction was subjected additionally to the DNA....../DNA electrostatic barrier, particularly in lower ionic strength range (e.g., 10 approximately 150 mM Na(+)). The electrostatic cross talk was shown to be largely reduced if the PNA probe layer was sufficiently diluted by following a strategic templated immobilization method. As a consequence, a pseudo...

  17. Preservation of RNA and DNA from mammal samples under field conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camacho-Sanchez, Miguel; Burraco, Pablo; Gomez-Mestre, Ivan; Leonard, Jennifer A

    2013-07-01

    Ecological and conservation genetics require sampling of organisms in the wild. Appropriate preservation of the collected samples, usually by cryostorage, is key to the quality of the genetic data obtained. Nevertheless, cryopreservation in the field to ensure RNA and DNA stability is not always possible. We compared several nucleic acid preservation solutions appropriate for field sampling and tested them on rat (Rattus rattus) blood, ear and tail tip, liver, brain and muscle. We compared the efficacy of a nucleic acid preservation (NAP) buffer for DNA preservation against 95% ethanol and Longmire buffer, and for RNA preservation against RNAlater (Qiagen) and Longmire buffer, under simulated field conditions. For DNA, the NAP buffer was slightly better than cryopreservation or 95% ethanol, but high molecular weight DNA was preserved in all conditions. The NAP buffer preserved RNA as well as RNAlater. Liver yielded the best RNA and DNA quantity and quality; thus, liver should be the tissue preferentially collected from euthanized animals. We also show that DNA persists in nonpreserved muscle tissue for at least 1 week at ambient temperature, although degradation is noticeable in a matter of hours. When cryopreservation is not possible, the NAP buffer is an economical alternative for RNA preservation at ambient temperature for at least 2 months and DNA preservation for at least 10 months. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Genetic selection and DNA sequences of 4.5S RNA homologs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brown, S; Thon, G; Tolentino, E

    1989-01-01

    A general strategy for cloning the functional homologs of an Escherichia coli gene was used to clone homologs of 4.5S RNA from other bacteria. The genes encoding these homologs were selected by their ability to complement a deletion of the gene for 4.5S RNA. DNA sequences of the regions encoding...

  19. Expression of proto-oncogenes in non-Hodgkin's lymphomas by in situ hybridization with biotinylated DNA probes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamatani, Kiyohiro; Yoshida, Kuniko; Abe, Masumi; Shimaoka, Katsutaro; Shiku, Hiroshi; Akiyama, Mitoshi; Kondo, Hisayoshi.

    1989-11-01

    Expression of six proto-oncogenes (fos, myc, myb, Ki-ras, Ha-ras, and N-ras) in 43 cases of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma was analyzed by means of in situ hybridization. Biotinylated DNA probes of the six oncogenes and those of the immunoglobulin H-chain (IgH) gene and the T cell receptor β-chain (TCRβ) gene were used. The results of in situ hybridization performed under blind conditions by IgH and TCRβ gene probes were compatible with those of typing by cell surface markers. The nuclear protein-related proto-oncogenes, fos myc, and myb, were expressed in about 70 % - 80 % of all cases regardless of phenotypes, histology or histologic grade. On the contrary, genes of the ras family were expressed in fewer cases except for the Ki-ras gene which was more frequently expressed by cases of the T cell immunophenotype with a high malignancy grade. The results of dot hybridization with RNA extracted from some cases were compatible with those of in situ hybridization, further demonstrating the specificity of in situ hybridization. (author)

  20. SINE transcription by RNA polymerase III is suppressed by histone methylation but not by DNA methylation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varshney, Dhaval; Vavrova-Anderson, Jana; Oler, Andrew J.; Cowling, Victoria H.; Cairns, Bradley R.; White, Robert J.

    2015-01-01

    Short interspersed nuclear elements (SINEs), such as Alu, spread by retrotransposition, which requires their transcripts to be copied into DNA and then inserted into new chromosomal sites. This can lead to genetic damage through insertional mutagenesis and chromosomal rearrangements between non-allelic SINEs at distinct loci. SINE DNA is heavily methylated and this was thought to suppress its accessibility and transcription, thereby protecting against retrotransposition. Here we provide several lines of evidence that methylated SINE DNA is occupied by RNA polymerase III, including the use of high-throughput bisulphite sequencing of ChIP DNA. We find that loss of DNA methylation has little effect on accessibility of SINEs to transcription machinery or their expression in vivo. In contrast, a histone methyltransferase inhibitor selectively promotes SINE expression and occupancy by RNA polymerase III. The data suggest that methylation of histones rather than DNA plays a dominant role in suppressing SINE transcription. PMID:25798578

  1. Ddx19 links mRNA nuclear export with progression of transcription and replication and suppresses genomic instability upon DNA damage in proliferating cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodroj, Dana; Serhal, Kamar; Maiorano, Domenico

    2017-09-03

    The DEAD-box Helicase 19 (Ddx19) gene codes for an RNA helicase involved in both mRNA (mRNA) export from the nucleus into the cytoplasm and in mRNA translation. In unperturbed cells, Ddx19 localizes in the cytoplasm and at the cytoplasmic face of the nuclear pore. Here we review recent findings related to an additional Ddx19 function in the nucleus in resolving RNA:DNA hybrids (R-loops) generated during collision between transcription and replication, and upon DNA damage. Activation of a DNA damage response pathway dependent upon the ATR kinase, a major regulator of replication fork progression, stimulates translocation of the Ddx19 protein from the cytoplasm into the nucleus. Only nuclear Ddx19 is competent to resolve R-loops, and down regulation of Ddx19 expression induces DNA double strand breaks only in proliferating cells. Overall these observations put forward Ddx19 as an important novel mediator of the crosstalk between transcription and replication.

  2. Label-free detection of DNA hybridization using carbon nanotube network field-effect transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Star, Alexander; Tu, Eugene; Niemann, Joseph; Gabriel, Jean-Christophe P.; Joiner, C. Steve; Valcke, Christian

    2006-01-01

    We report carbon nanotube network field-effect transistors (NTNFETs) that function as selective detectors of DNA immobilization and hybridization. NTNFETs with immobilized synthetic oligonucleotides have been shown to specifically recognize target DNA sequences, including H63D single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) discrimination in the HFE gene, responsible for hereditary hemochromatosis. The electronic responses of NTNFETs upon single-stranded DNA immobilization and subsequent DNA hybridization events were confirmed by using fluorescence-labeled oligonucleotides and then were further explored for label-free DNA detection at picomolar to micromolar concentrations. We have also observed a strong effect of DNA counterions on the electronic response, thus suggesting a charge-based mechanism of DNA detection using NTNFET devices. Implementation of label-free electronic detection assays using NTNFETs constitutes an important step toward low-cost, low-complexity, highly sensitive and accurate molecular diagnostics. hemochromatosis | SNP | biosensor

  3. Sequencing of megabase plus DNA by hybridization: Method development ENT. Final technical progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crkvenjakov, R.; Drmanac, R.

    1991-01-31

    Sequencing by hybridization (SBH) is the only sequencing method based on the experimental determination of the content of oligonucleotide sequences. The data acquisition relies on the natural process of base pairing. It is possible to determine the content of complementary oligosequences in the target DNA by the process of hybridization with oligonucleotide probes of known sequences.

  4. The chemical structure of DNA sequence signals for RNA transcription

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, D. G.; Dayhoff, M. O.

    1982-01-01

    The proposed recognition sites for RNA transcription for E. coli NRA polymerase, bacteriophage T7 RNA polymerase, and eukaryotic RNA polymerase Pol II are evaluated in the light of the requirements for efficient recognition. It is shown that although there is good experimental evidence that specific nucleic acid sequence patterns are involved in transcriptional regulation in bacteria and bacterial viruses, among the sequences now available, only in the case of the promoters recognized by bacteriophage T7 polymerase does it seem likely that the pattern is sufficient. It is concluded that the eukaryotic pattern that is investigated is not restrictive enough to serve as a recognition site.

  5. An Approach to Detect and Study DNA Double-Strand Break Repair by Transcript RNA Using a Spliced-Antisense RNA Template.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keskin, Havva; Storici, Francesca

    2018-01-01

    A double-strand break (DSB) is one of the most dangerous DNA lesion, and its repair is crucial for genome stability. Homologous recombination is considered the safest way to repair a DNA DSB and requires an identical or nearly identical DNA template, such as a sister chromatid or a homologous chromosome for accurate repair. Can transcript RNA serve as donor template for DSB repair? Here, we describe an approach that we developed to detect and study DNA repair by transcript RNA. Key features of the method are: (i) use of antisense (noncoding) RNA as template for DSB repair by RNA, (ii) use of intron splicing to distinguish the sequence of the RNA template from that of the DNA that generates the RNA template, and (iii) use of a trans and cis system to study how RNA repairs a DSB in homologous but distant DNA or in its own DNA, respectively. This chapter provides details on how to use a spliced-antisense RNA template to detect and study DSB repair by RNA in trans or cis in yeast cells. Our approach for detection of DSB repair by RNA in cells can be applied to cell types other than yeast, such as bacteria, mammalian cells, or other eukaryotic cells. © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. p38-MK2 signaling axis regulates RNA metabolism after UV-light-induced DNA damage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borisova, Marina E; Voigt, Andrea; Tollenaere, Maxim A X

    2018-01-01

    quantitative phosphoproteomics and protein kinase inhibition to provide a systems view on protein phosphorylation patterns induced by UV light and uncover the dependencies of phosphorylation events on the canonical DNA damage signaling by ATM/ATR and the p38 MAP kinase pathway. We identify RNA-binding proteins......Ultraviolet (UV) light radiation induces the formation of bulky photoproducts in the DNA that globally affect transcription and splicing. However, the signaling pathways and mechanisms that link UV-light-induced DNA damage to changes in RNA metabolism remain poorly understood. Here we employ...

  7. Non-Covalent Fluorescent Labeling of Hairpin DNA Probe Coupled with Hybridization Chain Reaction for Sensitive DNA Detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Luna; Zhang, Yonghua; Li, Junling; Gao, Qiang; Qi, Honglan; Zhang, Chengxiao

    2016-04-01

    An enzyme-free signal amplification-based assay for DNA detection was developed using fluorescent hairpin DNA probes coupled with hybridization chain reaction (HCR). The hairpin DNAs were designed to contain abasic sites in the stem moiety. Non-covalent labeling of the hairpin DNAs was achieved when a fluorescent ligand was bound to the abasic sites through hydrogen bonding with the orphan cytosine present on the complementary strand, accompanied by quench of ligand fluorescence. As a result, the resultant probes, the complex formed between the hairpin DNA and ligand, showed almost no fluorescence. Upon hybridization with target DNA, the probe underwent a dehybridization of the stem moiety containing an abasic site. The release of ligand from the abasic site to the solution resulted in an effective fluorescent enhancement, which can be used as a signal. Compared with a sensing system without HCR, a 20-fold increase in the sensitivity was achieved using the sensing system with HCR. The fluorescent intensity of the sensing system increased with the increase in target DNA concentration from 0.5 nM to 100 nM. A single mismatched target ss-DNA could be effectively discriminated from complementary target DNA. Genotyping of a G/C single-nucleotide polymorphism of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) products was successfully demonstrated with the sensing system. Therefore, integrating HCR strategy with non-covalent labeling of fluorescent hairpin DNA probes provides a sensitive and cost-effective DNA assay. © The Author(s) 2016.

  8. Absolute and direct microRNA quantification using DNA-gold nanoparticle probes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degliangeli, Federica; Kshirsagar, Prakash; Brunetti, Virgilio; Pompa, Pier Paolo; Fiammengo, Roberto

    2014-02-12

    DNA-gold nanoparticle probes are implemented in a simple strategy for direct microRNA (miRNA) quantification. Fluorescently labeled DNA-probe strands are immobilized on PEGylated gold nanoparticles (AuNPs). In the presence of target miRNA, DNA-RNA heteroduplexes are formed and become substrate for the endonuclease DSN (duplex-specific nuclease). Enzymatic hydrolysis of the DNA strands yields a fluorescence signal due to diffusion of the fluorophores away from the gold surface. We show that the molecular design of our DNA-AuNP probes, with the DNA strands immobilized on top of the PEG-based passivation layer, results in nearly unaltered enzymatic activity toward immobilized heteroduplexes compared to substrates free in solution. The assay, developed in a real-time format, allows absolute quantification of as little as 0.2 fmol of miR-203. We also show the application of the assay for direct quantification of cancer-related miR-203 and miR-21 in samples of extracted total RNA from cell cultures. The possibility of direct and absolute quantification may significantly advance the use of microRNAs as biomarkers in the clinical praxis.

  9. Measuring DNA hybridization using fluorescent DNA-stabilized silver clusters to investigate mismatch effects on therapeutic oligonucleotides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Bruin, Donny; Bossert, Nelli; Aartsma-Rus, Annemieke; Bouwmeester, Dirk

    2018-04-06

    Short nucleic acid oligomers have found a wide range of applications in experimental physics, biology and medicine, and show potential for the treatment of acquired and genetic diseases. These applications rely heavily on the predictability of hybridization through Watson-Crick base pairing to allow positioning on a nanometer scale, as well as binding to the target transcripts, but also off-target binding to transcripts with partial homology. These effects are of particular importance in the development of therapeutic oligonucleotides, where off-target effects caused by the binding of mismatched sequences need to be avoided. We employ a novel method of probing DNA hybridization using optically active DNA-stabilized silver clusters (Ag-DNA) to measure binding efficiencies through a change in fluorescence intensity. In this way we can determine their location-specific sensitivity to individual mismatches in the sequence. The results reveal a strong dependence of the hybridization on the location of the mismatch, whereby mismatches close to the edges and center show a relatively minor impact. In parallel, we propose a simple model for calculating the annealing ratios of mismatched DNA sequences, which supports our experimental results. The primary result shown in this work is a demonstration of a novel technique to measure DNA hybridization using fluorescent Ag-DNA. With this technique, we investigated the effect of mismatches on the hybridization efficiency, and found a significant dependence on the location of individual mismatches. These effects are strongly influenced by the length of the used oligonucleotides. The novel probe method based on fluorescent Ag-DNA functions as a reliable tool in measuring this behavior. As a secondary result, we formulated a simple model that is consistent with the experimental data.

  10. Tail-labelling of DNA probes using modified deoxynucleotide triphosphates and terminal deoxynucleotidyl tranferase. Application in electrochemical DNA hybridization and protein-DNA binding assays

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Horáková Brázdilová, Petra; Macíčková-Cahová, Hana; Pivoňková, Hana; Špaček, Jan; Havran, Luděk; Hocek, Michal; Fojta, Miroslav

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 9, č. 5 (2011), s. 1366-1371 ISSN 1477-0520 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LC06035; GA MŠk(CZ) LC512; GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA400040901 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50040507; CEZ:AV0Z50040702; CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : DNA tail- labelling * protein-DNA binding * DNA hybridization Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 3.696, year: 2011

  11. DNA-inorganic hybrid nanovaccine for cancer immunotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Guizhi; Liu, Yijing; Yang, Xiangyu; Kim, Young-Hwa; Zhang, Huimin; Jia, Rui; Liao, Hsien-Shun; Jin, Albert; Lin, Jing; Aronova, Maria; Leapman, Richard; Nie, Zhihong; Niu, Gang; Chen, Xiaoyuan

    2016-03-01

    Cancer evolves to evade or compromise the surveillance of the immune system, and cancer immunotherapy aims to harness the immune system in order to inhibit cancer development. Unmethylated CpG dinucleotide-containing oligonucleotides (CpG), a class of potent adjuvants that activate the toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9) located in the endolysosome of many antigen-presenting cells (APCs), are promising for cancer immunotherapy. However, clinical application of synthetic CpG confronts many challenges such as suboptimal delivery into APCs, unfavorable pharmacokinetics caused by limited biostability and short in vivo half-life, and side effects associated with leaking of CpG into the systemic circulation. Here we present DNA-inorganic hybrid nanovaccines (hNVs) for efficient uptake into APCs, prolonged tumor retention, and potent immunostimulation and cancer immunotherapy. hNVs were self-assembled from concatemer CpG analogs and magnesium pyrophosphate (Mg2PPi). Mg2PPi renders hNVs resistant to nuclease degradation and thermal denaturation, both of which are demanding characteristics for effective vaccination and the storage and transportation of vaccines. Fluorophore-labeled hNVs were tracked to be efficiently internalized into the endolysosomes of APCs, where Mg2PPi was dissolved in an acidic environment and thus CpG analogs were exposed to hNVs. Internalized hNVs in APCs led to (1) elevated secretion of proinflammatory factors, and (2) elevated expression of co-stimulatory factors. Compared with molecular CpG, hNVs dramatically prolonged the tissue retention of CpG analogs and reduced splenomegaly, a common side effect of CpG. In a melanoma mouse model, two injections of hNVs significantly inhibited the tumor growth and outperformed the molecular CpG. These results suggest hNVs are promising for cancer immunotherapy.Cancer evolves to evade or compromise the surveillance of the immune system, and cancer immunotherapy aims to harness the immune system in order to inhibit

  12. Localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) study of DNA hybridization at single nanoparticle transducers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, T.; Jahr, N.; Jatschka, J.; Csaki, A.; Stranik, O.; Fritzsche, W.

    2013-01-01

    The effect of DNA–DNA interaction on the localized surface plasmon resonance of single 80 nm gold nanoparticles is studied. Therefore, both the attachment of the capture DNA strands at the particle surface and the sequence-specific DNA binding (hybridization) of analyte DNA to the immobilized capture DNA is subject of investigations. The influence of substrate attachment chemistry, the packing density of DNA as controlled by an assisting layer of smaller molecules, and the distance as increased by a linker on the LSPR efficiency is investigated. The resulting changes in signal can be related to a higher hybridization efficiency of the analyte DNA to the immobilized capture DNA. The subsequent attachment of additional DNA strands to this system is studied, which allows for a multiple step detection of binding and an elucidation of the resulting resonance shifts. The detection limit was determined for the utilized DNA system by incubation with various concentration of analyte DNA. Although the method allows for a marker-free detection, we show that additional markers such as 20 nm gold particle labels increase the signal and thereby the sensitivity significantly. The study of resonance shift for various DNA lengths revealed that the resonance shift per base is stronger for shorter DNA molecules (20 bases) as compared to longer ones (46 bases).

  13. Molecular dynamics simulations of electrostatics and hydration distributions around RNA and DNA motifs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marlowe, Ashley E.; Singh, Abhishek; Semichaevsky, Andrey V.; Yingling, Yaroslava G.

    2009-03-01

    Nucleic acid nanoparticles can self-assembly through the formation of complementary loop-loop interactions or stem-stem interactions. Presence and concentration of ions can significantly affect the self-assembly process and the stability of the nanostructure. In this presentation we use explicit molecular dynamics simulations to examine the variations in cationic distributions and hydration environment around DNA and RNA helices and loop-loop interactions. Our simulations show that the potassium and sodium ionic distributions are different around RNA and DNA motifs which could be indicative of ion mediated relative stability of loop-loop complexes. Moreover in RNA loop-loop motifs ions are consistently present and exchanged through a distinct electronegative channel. We will also show how we used the specific RNA loop-loop motif to design a RNA hexagonal nanoparticle.

  14. In situ hybridization studies of hepatitis A viral RNA in patients with acute hepatitis A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, M; Goldin, R D; Ladva, S [Department of Histopathology, St. Mary' s Hospital Medical School, Imperial College of Science, Technology and Medicine, London (United Kingdom); Scheuer, P J [Department of Histopathology, Royal Free Hospital and School of Medicine, London (United Kingdom); Thomas, H C [Department of Medicine, St. Mary' s Hospital Medical School, Imperial College of Science, Technology and Medicine, London (United Kingdom)

    1994-01-01

    In situ hybridization with oligonucleotide probes has been used to localise hepatitis A virus RNA genomic sequences in formalin-fixed and routinely processed human liver biopsies from three patients. Using radiolabelled Sulphur-35 antisense probes, viral genomic sequences were found in all three cases, but signal intensity was greatest in cases 1 and 2 with fulminant hepatitis, and was minimal in the third case of resolving hepatitis biopsied 2 months after acute illness. Localisation showed the viral RNA to be present in hepatocytes, sinusoidal cells and inflammatory cells in and around the portal tracts. Both cases showed signal in similar cell types, but the distribution of staining was predominantly periportal in case 1, whereas lobular staining was more apparent in case 2. Hybridization with sense polarity probes failed to detect any evidence of replicative intermediates of antigenomic viral RNA. The presence of hepatitis A RNA in phagocytic cells was confirmed using immunohistochemistryfor a macrophage marker, CD68, combined with in situ hybridization. In all cases the signal was predominantly cytoplasmic, and this was confirmed with the use of tritiated probes. (au).

  15. In situ hybridization studies of hepatitis A viral RNA in patients with acute hepatitis A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, M.; Goldin, R.D.; Ladva, S.; Scheuer, P.J.; Thomas, H.C.

    1994-01-01

    In situ hybridization with oligonucleotide probes has been used to localise hepatitis A virus RNA genomic sequences in formalin-fixed and routinely processed human liver biopsies from three patients. Using radiolabelled Sulphur-35 antisense probes, viral genomic sequences were found in all three cases, but signal intensity was greatest in cases 1 and 2 with fulminant hepatitis, and was minimal in the third case of resolving hepatitis biopsied 2 months after acute illness. Localisation showed the viral RNA to be present in hepatocytes, sinusoidal cells and inflammatory cells in and around the portal tracts. Both cases showed signal in similar cell types, but the distribution of staining was predominantly periportal in case 1, whereas lobular staining was more apparent in case 2. Hybridization with sense polarity probes failed to detect any evidence of replicative intermediates of antigenomic viral RNA. The presence of hepatitis A RNA in phagocytic cells was confirmed using immunohistochemistryfor a macrophage marker, CD68, combined with in situ hybridization. In all cases the signal was predominantly cytoplasmic, and this was confirmed with the use of tritiated probes. (au)

  16. Highly selective and sensitive detection of miRNA based on toehold-mediated strand displacement reaction and DNA tetrahedron substrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wei; Jiang, Wei; Ding, Yongshun; Wang, Lei

    2015-09-15

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play important roles in a variety of biological processes and have been regarded as tumor biomarkers in cancer diagnosis and prognosis. In this work, a single-molecule counting method for miRNA analysis was proposed based on toehold-mediated strand displacement reaction (SDR) and DNA tetrahedron substrate. Firstly, a specially designed DNA tetrahedron was assembled with a hairpin at one of the vertex, which has an overhanging toehold domain. Then, the DNA tetrahedron was immobilized on the epoxy-functional glass slide by epoxy-amine reaction, forming a DNA tetrahedron substrate. Next, the target miRNA perhybridized with the toehold domain and initiated a strand displacement reaction along with the unfolding of the hairpin, realizing the selective recognization of miRNA. Finally, a biotin labeled detection DNA was hybridized with the new emerging single strand and the streptavidin coated QDs were used as fluorescent probes. Fluorescent images were acquired via epi-fluorescence microscopy, the numbers of fluorescence dots were counted one by one for quantification. The detection limit is 5 fM, which displayed an excellent sensitivity. Moreover, the proposed method which can accurately be identified the target miRNA among its family members, demonstrated an admirable selectivity. Furthermore, miRNA analysis in total RNA samples from human lung tissues was performed, suggesting the feasibility of this method for quantitative detection of miRNA in biomedical research and early clinical diagnostics. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Non-invasive aneuploidy detection using free fetal DNA and RNA in maternal plasma: recent progress and future possibilities.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Go, A.T.; Vugt, J.M.G. van; Oudejans, C.B.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Cell-free fetal DNA (cff DNA) and RNA can be detected in maternal plasma and used for non-invasive prenatal diagnostics. Recent technical advances have led to a drastic change in the clinical applicability and potential uses of free fetal DNA and RNA. This review summarizes the latest

  18. Simulating movement of tRNA through the ribosome during hybrid-state formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitford, Paul C; Sanbonmatsu, Karissa Y

    2013-09-28

    Biomolecular simulations provide a means for exploring the relationship between flexibility, energetics, structure, and function. With the availability of atomic models from X-ray crystallography and cryoelectron microscopy (cryo-EM), and rapid increases in computing capacity, it is now possible to apply molecular dynamics (MD) simulations to large biomolecular machines, and systematically partition the factors that contribute to function. A large biomolecular complex for which atomic models are available is the ribosome. In the cell, the ribosome reads messenger RNA (mRNA) in order to synthesize proteins. During this essential process, the ribosome undergoes a wide range of conformational rearrangements. One of the most poorly understood transitions is translocation: the process by which transfer RNA (tRNA) molecules move between binding sites inside of the ribosome. The first step of translocation is the adoption of a "hybrid" configuration by the tRNAs, which is accompanied by large-scale rotations in the ribosomal subunits. To illuminate the relationship between these rearrangements, we apply MD simulations using a multi-basin structure-based (SMOG) model, together with targeted molecular dynamics protocols. From 120 simulated transitions, we demonstrate the viability of a particular route during P/E hybrid-state formation, where there is asynchronous movement along rotation and tRNA coordinates. These simulations not only suggest an ordering of events, but they highlight atomic interactions that may influence the kinetics of hybrid-state formation. From these simulations, we also identify steric features (H74 and surrounding residues) encountered during the hybrid transition, and observe that flexibility of the single-stranded 3'-CCA tail is essential for it to reach the endpoint. Together, these simulations provide a set of structural and energetic signatures that suggest strategies for modulating the physical-chemical properties of protein synthesis by the

  19. Mismatch discrimination of lipidated DNA and LNA-probes (LiNAs) in hybridization-controlled liposome assembly

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Ulla; Vogel, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    Assays for mismatch discrimination and detection of single nucleotide variations by hybridization-controlled assembly of liposomes, which do not require tedious surface chemistry, are versatile for both DNA and RNA targets. We report herein a comprehensive study on different DNA and LNA (locked...... assay in the context of mismatch discrimination and SNP detection are presented. The advantages of membrane-anchored LiNA-probes compared to chemically attached probes on solid nanoparticles (e.g. gold nanoparticles) are described. Key functionalities such as non-covalent attachment of LiNA probes...... without the need for long spacers and the inherent mobility of membrane-anchored probes in lipid-bilayer membranes will be described for several different probe designs....

  20. An efficient enzyme-powered micromotor device fabricated by cyclic alternate hybridization assembly for DNA detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Shizhe; Zhang, Xueqing; Xie, Yuzhe; Wu, Jie; Ju, Huangxian

    2017-07-06

    An efficient enzyme-powered micromotor device was fabricated by assembling multiple layers of catalase on the inner surface of a poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene and sodium 4-styrenesulfonate)/Au microtube (PEDOT-PSS/Au). The catalase assembly was achieved by programmed DNA hybridization, which was performed by immobilizing a designed sandwich DNA structure as the sensing unit on the PEDOT-PSS/Au, and then alternately hybridizing with two assisting DNA to bind the enzyme for efficient motor motion. The micromotor device showed unique features of good reproducibility, stability and motion performance. Under optimal conditions, it showed a speed of 420 μm s -1 in 2% H 2 O 2 and even 51 μm s -1 in 0.25% H 2 O 2 . In the presence of target DNA, the sensing unit hybridized with target DNA to release the multi-layer DNA as well as the multi-catalase, resulting in a decrease of the motion speed. By using the speed as a signal, the micromotor device could detect DNA from 10 nM to 1 μM. The proposed micromotor device along with the cyclic alternate DNA hybridization assembly technique provided a new path to fabricate efficient and versatile micromotors, which would be an exceptional tool for rapid and simple detection of biomolecules.

  1. 16S rRNA Gene Sequence Analysis of Drinking Water Using RNA and DNA Extracts as Targets for Clone Library Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    The bacterial composition of chlorinated drinking water was analyzed using 16S rRNA gene clone libraries derived from DNA extracts of 12 samples and compared to clone libraries previously generated using RNA extracts from the same samples. Phylogenetic analysis of 761 DNA-based ...

  2. The use of carrier RNA to enhance DNA extraction from microfluidic-based silica monoliths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Kirsty J; Thain, Lauren; Docker, Peter T; Dyer, Charlotte E; Greenman, John; Greenway, Gillian M; Haswell, Stephen J

    2009-10-12

    DNA extraction was carried out on silica-based monoliths within a microfluidic device. Solid-phase DNA extraction methodology was applied in which the DNA binds to silica in the presence of a chaotropic salt, such as guanidine hydrochloride, and is eluted in a low ionic strength solution, such as water. The addition of poly-A carrier RNA to the chaotropic salt solution resulted in a marked increase in the effective amount of DNA that could be recovered (25ng) compared to the absence of RNA (5ng) using the silica-based monolith. These findings confirm that techniques utilising nucleic acid carrier molecules can enhance DNA extraction methodologies in microfluidic applications.

  3. Traveling Rocky Roads: The Consequences of Transcription-Blocking DNA Lesions on RNA Polymerase II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steurer, Barbara; Marteijn, Jurgen A

    2017-10-27

    The faithful transcription of eukaryotic genes by RNA polymerase II (RNAP2) is crucial for proper cell function and tissue homeostasis. However, transcription-blocking DNA lesions of both endogenous and environmental origin continuously challenge the progression of elongating RNAP2. The stalling of RNAP2 on a transcription-blocking lesion triggers a series of highly regulated events, including RNAP2 processing to make the lesion accessible for DNA repair, R-loop-mediated DNA damage signaling, and the initiation of transcription-coupled DNA repair. The correct execution and coordination of these processes is vital for resuming transcription following the successful repair of transcription-blocking lesions. Here, we outline recent insights into the molecular consequences of RNAP2 stalling on transcription-blocking DNA lesions and how these lesions are resolved to restore mRNA synthesis. Copyright © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  4. Sensitive detection of mercury and copper ions by fluorescent DNA/Ag nanoclusters in guanine-rich DNA hybridization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Jun; Ling, Jian; Zhang, Xiu-Qing; Bai, Hui-Ping; Zheng, Liyan; Cao, Qiu-E; Ding, Zhong-Tao

    2015-02-25

    In this work, we designed a new fluorescent oligonucleotides-stabilized silver nanoclusters (DNA/AgNCs) probe for sensitive detection of mercury and copper ions. This probe contains two tailored DNA sequence. One is a signal probe contains a cytosine-rich sequence template for AgNCs synthesis and link sequence at both ends. The other is a guanine-rich sequence for signal enhancement and link sequence complementary to the link sequence of the signal probe. After hybridization, the fluorescence of hybridized double-strand DNA/AgNCs is 200-fold enhanced based on the fluorescence enhancement effect of DNA/AgNCs in proximity of guanine-rich DNA sequence. The double-strand DNA/AgNCs probe is brighter and stable than that of single-strand DNA/AgNCs, and more importantly, can be used as novel fluorescent probes for detecting mercury and copper ions. Mercury and copper ions in the range of 6.0-160.0 and 6-240 nM, can be linearly detected with the detection limits of 2.1 and 3.4 nM, respectively. Our results indicated that the analytical parameters of the method for mercury and copper ions detection are much better than which using a single-strand DNA/AgNCs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Multiway study of hybridization in nanoscale semiconductor labeled DNA based on fluorescence resonance energy transfer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gholami, Somayeh; Kompany Zare, Mohsen

    2013-01-01

    donor-QD acceptor) upon hybridization with a label free target was monitored by two-dimensional photoluminescence excitation spectroscopy (2D-PLE). Detection of a target oligonucleotide strand, using sandwiched nanoassembly in a separation-free format, was performed with the appearance of a new feature...... and model based analysis of 2D-PLE data was implemented by means of PAR-AFAC and hard trilinear decomposition (HTD), allowing to fit a proper model for FRET-based sandwich DNA hybridization systems. This study is the first successful application of a multiway chemometric technique to consider FRET based DNA...... hybridization in sandwiched nanoassemblies. A multi-equilibria model was properly fitted to the data and confirmed there is a competition between ternary and binary complex formation. Equilibrium constants of DNA hybridization in sandwiched nanoassemblies were estimated for the first time. Equilibrium constants...

  6. Use of molecular hybridization to explore genetic relationships. Progress report, July 1, 1974--March 31, 1975

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atwood, K.C.

    1975-01-01

    Progress is reported on DNA distribution in pygmy chimpanzees, mountain gorillas, Catarrhine monkeys, baboons, spider monkeys, and marmosets; chromosome mapping of human 5S RNA using 3 H or 125 I labelled RNA; hybridization of 125 I-RNA to chromosomes in mice; mapping of low-multiplicity genes by hybridization in situ; technical improvements in iodination of RNA; formation of RNA aggregates; genetics of DNA and RNA in Drosophila; and x-radioinduced chromosomal aberrations in Drosophila. (U.S.)

  7. Effect of secondary structure on the thermodynamics and kinetics of PNA hybridization to DNA hairpins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kushon, S A; Jordan, J P; Seifert, J L

    2001-01-01

    The binding of a series of PNA and DNA probes to a group of unusually stable DNA hairpins of the tetraloop motif has been observed using absorbance hypochromicity (ABS), circular dichroism (CD), and a colorimetric assay for PNA/DNA duplex detection. These results indicate that both stable PNA...... structures in both target and probe molecules are shown to depress the melting temperatures and free energies of the probe-target duplexes. Kinetic analysis of hybridization yields reaction rates that are up to 160-fold slower than hybridization between two unstructured strands. The thermodynamic and kinetic...

  8. Restriction endonuclease analysis of chloroplast DNA in interspecies somatic Hybrids of Petunia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, A; Cocking, E C; Bovenberg, W A; Kool, A J

    1982-12-01

    Restriction endonuclease cleavage pattern analysis of chloroplast DNA (cpDNA) of three different interspecific somatic hybrid plants revealed that the cytoplasms of the hybrids contained only cpDNA of P. parodii. The somatic hybrid plants analysed were those between P. parodii (wild type) + P. hybrida (wild type); P. parodii (wild type)+P. inflata (cytoplasmic albino mutant); P. parodii (wild type) + P. parviflora (nuclear albino mutant). The presence of only P. parodii chloroplasts in the somatic hybrid of P. parodii + P. inflata is possibly due to the stringent selection used for somatic hybrid production. However, in the case of the two other somatic hybrids P. parodii + P. hybrida and P. parodii + P. parviflora it was not possible to determine whether the presence of only P. parodii chloroplasts in these somatic hybrid plants was due to the nature of the selection schemes used or simply occurred by chance. The relevance of such somatic hybrid material for the study of genomic-cytoplasmic interaction is discussed, as well as the use of restriction endonuclease fragment patterns for the analysis of taxonomic and evolutionary inter-relationships in the genus Petunia.

  9. Microfluidic Arrayed Lab-On-A-Chip for Electrochemical Capacitive Detection of DNA Hybridization Events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Yoav, Hadar; Dykstra, Peter H; Bentley, William E; Ghodssi, Reza

    2017-01-01

    A microfluidic electrochemical lab-on-a-chip (LOC) device for DNA hybridization detection has been developed. The device comprises a 3 × 3 array of microelectrodes integrated with a dual layer microfluidic valved manipulation system that provides controlled and automated capabilities for high throughput analysis of microliter volume samples. The surface of the microelectrodes is functionalized with single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) probes which enable specific detection of complementary ssDNA targets. These targets are detected by a capacitive technique which measures dielectric variation at the microelectrode-electrolyte interface due to DNA hybridization events. A quantitative analysis of the hybridization events is carried out based on a sensing modeling that includes detailed analysis of energy storage and dissipation components. By calculating these components during hybridization events the device is able to demonstrate specific and dose response sensing characteristics. The developed microfluidic LOC for DNA hybridization detection offers a technology for real-time and label-free assessment of genetic markers outside of laboratory settings, such as at the point-of-care or in-field environmental monitoring.

  10. Phylogenetic analysis of subgenus vigna species using nuclear ribosomal RNA ITS: evidence of hybridization among Vigna unguiculata subspecies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijaykumar, Archana; Saini, Ajay; Jawali, Narendra

    2010-01-01

    Molecular phylogeny among species belonging to subgenus Vigna (genus Vigna) was inferred based on internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequences of 18S-5.8S-26S ribosomal RNA gene unit. Analysis showed a total of 356 polymorphic sites of which approximately 80% were parsimony informative. Phylogenetic reconstruction by neighbor joining and maximum parsimony methods placed the 57 Vigna accessions (belonging to 15 species) into 5 major clades. Five species viz. Vigna heterophylla, Vigna pubigera, Vigna parkeri, Vigna laurentii, and Vigna gracilis whose position in the subgenus was previously not known were placed in the section Vigna. A single accession (Vigna unguiculata ssp. tenuis, NI 1637) harbored 2 intragenomic ITS variants, indicative of 2 different types of ribosomal DNA (rDNA) repeat units. ITS variant type-I was close to ITS from V. unguiculata ssp. pubescens, whereas type-II was close to V. unguiculata ssp. tenuis. Transcript analysis clearly demonstrates that in accession NI 1637, rDNA repeat units with only type-II ITS variants are transcriptionally active. Evidence from sequence analysis (of 5.8S, ITS1, and ITS2) and secondary structure analysis (of ITS1 and ITS2) indicates that the type-I ITS variant probably does not belong to the pseudogenic rDNA repeat units. The results from phylogenetic and transcript analysis suggest that the rDNA units with the type-I ITS may have introgressed as a result of hybridization (between ssp. tenuis and ssp. pubescens); however, it has been epigenetically silenced. The results also demonstrate differential evolution of ITS sequence among wild and cultivated forms of V. unguiculata.

  11. Using Protein Dimers to Maximize the Protein Hybridization Efficiency with Multisite DNA Origami Scaffolds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vikash Verma

    Full Text Available DNA origami provides a versatile platform for conducting 'architecture-function' analysis to determine how the nanoscale organization of multiple copies of a protein component within a multi-protein machine affects its overall function. Such analysis requires that the copy number of protein molecules bound to the origami scaffold exactly matches the desired number, and that it is uniform over an entire scaffold population. This requirement is challenging to satisfy for origami scaffolds with many protein hybridization sites, because it requires the successful completion of multiple, independent hybridization reactions. Here, we show that a cleavable dimerization domain on the hybridizing protein can be used to multiplex hybridization reactions on an origami scaffold. This strategy yields nearly 100% hybridization efficiency on a 6-site scaffold even when using low protein concentration and short incubation time. It can also be developed further to enable reliable patterning of a large number of molecules on DNA origami for architecture-function analysis.

  12. Using Protein Dimers to Maximize the Protein Hybridization Efficiency with Multisite DNA Origami Scaffolds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Vikash; Mallik, Leena; Hariadi, Rizal F.; Sivaramakrishnan, Sivaraj; Skiniotis, Georgios; Joglekar, Ajit P.

    2015-01-01

    DNA origami provides a versatile platform for conducting ‘architecture-function’ analysis to determine how the nanoscale organization of multiple copies of a protein component within a multi-protein machine affects its overall function. Such analysis requires that the copy number of protein molecules bound to the origami scaffold exactly matches the desired number, and that it is uniform over an entire scaffold population. This requirement is challenging to satisfy for origami scaffolds with many protein hybridization sites, because it requires the successful completion of multiple, independent hybridization reactions. Here, we show that a cleavable dimerization domain on the hybridizing protein can be used to multiplex hybridization reactions on an origami scaffold. This strategy yields nearly 100% hybridization efficiency on a 6-site scaffold even when using low protein concentration and short incubation time. It can also be developed further to enable reliable patterning of a large number of molecules on DNA origami for architecture-function analysis. PMID:26348722

  13. The chromosomal constitution of fish hybrid lineage revealed by 5S rDNA FISH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chun; Ye, Lihai; Chen, Yiyi; Xiao, Jun; Wu, Yanhong; Tao, Min; Xiao, Yamei; Liu, Shaojun

    2015-12-03

    The establishment of the bisexual fertile fish hybrid lineage including the allodiploid and allotetraploid hybrids, from interspecific hybridization of red crucian carp (Carassius auratus red var. 2n = 100, 2n = AA) (♀) × common carp (Cyprinus carpio L. 2n = 100, 2n = BB) (♂), provided a good platform to investigate genetic relationship between the parents and their hybrid progenies. The chromosomal inheritance of diploid and allotetraploid hybrid progenies in successive generations, was studied by applying 5S rDNA fluorescence in situ hybridization. Signals of 5S rDNA distinguished the chromosomal constitution of common carp (B-genome) from red crucian carp (A-genome), in which two strong signals were observed on the first submetacentric chromosome, while no major signal was found in common carp. After fish hybridization, one strong signal of 5S rDNA was detected in the same locus on the chromosome of diploid hybrids. As expected, two strong signals were observed in 4nF3 tetraploid hybrids offspring and it is worth mentioning that two strong signals were detected in a separating bivalent of a primary spermatocyte in 4nF3. Furthermore, the mitosis of heterozygous chromosomes was shown normal and stable with blastular tissue histological studies. We revealed that 5S rDNA signal can be applied to discern A-genome from B-genome, and that 5S rDNA bearing chromosomes can be stably passed down in successive generations. Our work provided a significant method in fish breeding and this is important for studies in fish evolutionary biology.

  14. Photolithographic Synthesis of High-Density DNA and RNA Arrays on Flexible, Transparent, and Easily Subdivided Plastic Substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holden, Matthew T; Carter, Matthew C D; Wu, Cheng-Hsien; Wolfer, Jamison; Codner, Eric; Sussman, Michael R; Lynn, David M; Smith, Lloyd M

    2015-11-17

    The photolithographic fabrication of high-density DNA and RNA arrays on flexible and transparent plastic substrates is reported. The substrates are thin sheets of poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) coated with cross-linked polymer multilayers that present hydroxyl groups suitable for conventional phosphoramidite-based nucleic acid synthesis. We demonstrate that by modifying array synthesis procedures to accommodate the physical and chemical properties of these materials, it is possible to synthesize plastic-backed oligonucleotide arrays with feature sizes as small as 14 μm × 14 μm and feature densities in excess of 125 000/cm(2), similar to specifications attainable using rigid substrates such as glass or glassy carbon. These plastic-backed arrays are tolerant to a wide range of hybridization temperatures, and improved synthetic procedures are described that enable the fabrication of arrays with sequences up to 50 nucleotides in length. These arrays hybridize with S/N ratios comparable to those fabricated on otherwise identical arrays prepared on glass or glassy carbon. This platform supports the enzymatic synthesis of RNA arrays and proof-of-concept experiments are presented showing that the arrays can be readily subdivided into smaller arrays (or "millichips") using common laboratory-scale laser cutting tools. These results expand the utility of oligonucleotide arrays fabricated on plastic substrates and open the door to new applications for these important bioanalytical tools.

  15. Applications of DNA hybrids in biobased medicine and materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, Qing

    2018-01-01

    In de wetenschappelijke wereld betekent DNA veel meer dan een genetische informatiedrager. Ingenieuze geesten hebben haar structuurinformatie geopenbaard en hebben daarmee in alle opzichten unieke toepassingen gebruikt. DNA kan bijvoorbeeld worden geprogrammeerd in vooraf ontworpen vormen. Deze

  16. Mechanistic profiling of the siRNA delivery dynamics of lipid-polymer hybrid nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colombo, Stefano; Cun, Dongmei; Remaut, Katrien; Bunker, Matt; Zhang, Jianxin; Martin-Bertelsen, Birte; Yaghmur, Anan; Braeckmans, Kevin; Nielsen, Hanne M; Foged, Camilla

    2015-03-10

    Understanding the delivery dynamics of nucleic acid nanocarriers is fundamental to improve their design for therapeutic applications. We investigated the carrier structure-function relationship of lipid-polymer hybrid nanoparticles (LPNs) consisting of poly(DL-lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) nanocarriers modified with the cationic lipid dioleoyltrimethyl-ammoniumpropane (DOTAP). A library of siRNA-loaded LPNs was prepared by systematically varying the nitrogen-to-phosphate (N/P) ratio. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) and cryo-transmission electron microscopy (cryo-TEM) combined with small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) and confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) studies suggested that the siRNA-loaded LPNs are characterized by a core-shell structure consisting of a PLGA matrix core coated with lamellar DOTAP structures with siRNA localized both in the core and in the shell. Release studies in buffer and serum-containing medium combined with in vitro gene silencing and quantification of intracellular siRNA suggested that this self-assembling core-shell structure influences the siRNA release kinetics and the delivery dynamics. A main delivery mechanism appears to be mediated via the release of transfection-competent siRNA-DOTAP lipoplexes from the LPNs. Based on these results, we suggest a model for the nanostructural characteristics of the LPNs, in which the siRNA is organized in lamellar superficial assemblies and/or as complexes entrapped in the polymeric matrix. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Ultrasensitive electrochemical detection of microRNA-21 combining layered nanostructure of oxidized single-walled carbon nanotubes and nanodiamonds by hybridization chain reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lingzhi; Song, Chao; Zhang, Zhang; Yang, Juan; Zhou, Lili; Zhang, Xing; Xie, Guoming

    2015-08-15

    Measurement of microRNA (miRNA) levels in body fluids is a crucial tool for the early diagnosis and prognosis of cancers. In this study, we developed an electrochemical assay to detect miRNA-21 by fabricating the electrode with layer-by-layer assembly of oxidized single-walled carbon nanotubes and nanodiamonds. Tetrahedron-structured probes with free-standing probe on the top served as receptors to hybridize with target miRNA directly. The probes were immobilized on the deposited gold nanoparticles through a well-established strong Au-S bond. The electrochemical signal was mainly derived from an ultrasensitive pattern by combining hybridization chain reaction with DNA-functionalized AuNPs, which provided DNAzyme to catalyze H2O2 reduction. Differential pulse voltammetry was applied to record the electrochemical signals, which was increased linearly with the target miRNA-21, and the linear detection range was 10 fM to 1.0 nM. The limit of detection reached 1.95 fM (S/N=3), and the proposed biosensor exhibited good reproducibility and stability, as well as high sensitivity. Hence, this biosensor has a promising potential in clinical application. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Hypochlorite-induced damage to DNA, RNA, and polynucleotides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hawkins, Clare Louise; Davies, Michael Jonathan

    2002-01-01

    favored exocyclic amines. EPR experiments have also provided evidence for the rapid addition of pyrimidine-derived nitrogen-centered radicals to other nucleobases to give dimers and the oxidation of DNA by radicals derived from preformed nucleoside chloramines. Direct reaction of HOCl with plasmid DNA...... on the nature of the nucleobase on which they are formed, with chloramines formed from ring heterocyclic amine groups being less stable than those formed on exocyclic amines (RNH2 groups). Evidence is presented for chlorine transfer from the former, kinetically favored, sites to the more thermodynamically...

  19. The cutting edges in DNA repair, licensing, and fidelity: DNA and RNA repair nucleases sculpt DNA to measure twice, cut once.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsutakawa, Susan E; Lafrance-Vanasse, Julien; Tainer, John A

    2014-07-01

    To avoid genome instability, DNA repair nucleases must precisely target the correct damaged substrate before they are licensed to incise. Damage identification is a challenge for all DNA damage response proteins, but especially for nucleases that cut the DNA and necessarily create a cleaved DNA repair intermediate, likely more toxic than the initial damage. How do these enzymes achieve exquisite specificity without specific sequence recognition or, in some cases, without a non-canonical DNA nucleotide? Combined structural, biochemical, and biological analyses of repair nucleases are revealing their molecular tools for damage verification and safeguarding against inadvertent incision. Surprisingly, these enzymes also often act on RNA, which deserves more attention. Here, we review protein-DNA structures for nucleases involved in replication, base excision repair, mismatch repair, double strand break repair (DSBR), and telomere maintenance: apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease 1 (APE1), Endonuclease IV (Nfo), tyrosyl DNA phosphodiesterase (TDP2), UV Damage endonuclease (UVDE), very short patch repair endonuclease (Vsr), Endonuclease V (Nfi), Flap endonuclease 1 (FEN1), exonuclease 1 (Exo1), RNase T and Meiotic recombination 11 (Mre11). DNA and RNA structure-sensing nucleases are essential to life with roles in DNA replication, repair, and transcription. Increasingly these enzymes are employed as advanced tools for synthetic biology and as targets for cancer prognosis and interventions. Currently their structural biology is most fully illuminated for DNA repair, which is also essential to life. How DNA repair enzymes maintain genome fidelity is one of the DNA double helix secrets missed by James Watson and Francis Crick, that is only now being illuminated though structural biology and mutational analyses. Structures reveal motifs for repair nucleases and mechanisms whereby these enzymes follow the old carpenter adage: measure twice, cut once. Furthermore, to measure

  20. RNA epitranscriptomics: Regulation of infection of RNA and DNA viruses by N6 -methyladenosine (m6 A).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Brandon; Gao, Shou-Jiang

    2018-04-26

    N 6 -methyladenosine (m 6 A) was discovered 4 decades ago. However, the functions of m 6 A and the cellular machinery that regulates its changes have just been revealed in the last few years. m 6 A is an abundant internal mRNA modification on cellular RNA and is implicated in diverse cellular functions. Recent works have demonstrated the presence of m 6 A in the genomes of RNA viruses and transcripts of a DNA virus with either a proviral or antiviral role. Here, we first summarize what is known about the m 6 A "writers," "erasers," "readers," and "antireaders" as well as the role of m 6 A in mRNA metabolism. We then review how the replications of numerous viruses are enhanced and restricted by m 6 A with emphasis on the oncogenic DNA virus, Kaposi sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV), whose m 6 A epitranscriptome was recently mapped. In the context of KSHV, m 6 A and the reader protein YTHDF2 acts as an antiviral mechanism during viral lytic replication. During viral latency, KSHV alters m 6 A on genes that are implicated in cellular transformation and viral latency. Lastly, we discuss future studies that are important to further delineate the functions of m 6 A in KSHV latent and lytic replication and KSHV-induced oncogenesis. Copyright © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. The emergence of DNA in the RNA world: an in silico simulation study of genetic takeover.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Wentao; Yu, Chunwu; Zhang, Wentao; Wu, Sanmao; Feng, Yu

    2015-12-07

    It is now popularly accepted that there was an "RNA world" in early evolution of life. This idea has a direct consequence that later on there should have been a takeover of genetic material - RNA by DNA. However, since genetic material carries genetic information, the "source code" of all living activities, it is actually reasonable to question the plausibility of such a "revolutionary" transition. Due to our inability to model relevant "primitive living systems" in reality, it is as yet impossible to explore the plausibility and mechanisms of the "genetic takeover" by experiments. Here we investigated this issue by computer simulation using a Monte-Carlo method. It shows that an RNA-by-DNA genetic takeover may be triggered by the emergence of a nucleotide reductase ribozyme with a moderate activity in a pure RNA system. The transition is unstable and limited in scale (i.e., cannot spread in the population), but can get strengthened and globalized if certain parameters are changed against RNA (i.e., in favor of DNA). In relation to the subsequent evolution, an advanced system with a larger genome, which uses DNA as genetic material and RNA as functional material, is modeled - the system cannot sustain if the nucleotide reductase ribozyme is "turned off" (thus, DNA cannot be synthesized). Moreover, the advanced system cannot sustain if only DNA's stability, template suitability or replication fidelity (any of the three) is turned down to the level of RNA's. Genetic takeover should be plausible. In the RNA world, such a takeover may have been triggered by the emergence of some ribozyme favoring the formation of deoxynucleotides. The transition may initially have been "weak", but could have been reinforced by environmental changes unfavorable to RNA (such as temperature or pH rise), and would have ultimately become irreversible accompanying the genome's enlargement. Several virtues of DNA (versus RNA) - higher stability against hydrolysis, greater suitability as

  2. Distribution of 45S rDNA in Modern Rose Cultivars (Rosa hybrida), Rosa rugosa, and Their Interspecific Hybrids Revealed by Fluorescence in situ Hybridization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Xiao-Liu; Xu, Ting-Liang; Wang, Jing; Luo, Le; Yu, Chao; Dong, Gui-Min; Pan, Hui-Tang; Zhang, Qi-Xiang

    2016-01-01

    To elucidate the evolutionary dynamics of the location and number of rDNA loci in the process of polyploidization in the genus Rosa, we examined 45S rDNA sites in the chromosomes of 6 modern rose cultivars (R. hybrida), 5 R. rugosa cultivars, and 20 hybrid progenies by fluorescence in situ hybridization. Variation in the number of rDNA sites in parents and their interspecific hybrids was detected. As expected, 4 rDNA sites were observed in the genomes of 4 modern rose cultivars, while 3 hybridization sites were observed in the 2 others. Two expected rDNA sites were found in 2 R. rugosa cultivars, while in the other 3 R. rugosa cultivars 4 sites were present. Among the 20 R. hybrida × R. rugosa offspring, 13 carried the expected number of rDNA sites, and 1 had 6 hybridization sites, which exceeded the expected number by far. The other 6 offspring had either 2 or 3 hybridization sites, which was less than expected. Differences in the number of rDNA loci were observed in interspecific offspring, indicating that rDNA loci exhibit instability after distant hybridization events. Abnormal chromosome pairing may be the main factor explaining the variation in rDNA sites during polyploidization. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  3. Sensitive electrochemical monitoring of nucleic acids coupling DNA nanostructures with hybridization chain reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhuang, Junyang; Fu, Libing; Xu, Mingdi; Yang, Huanghao; Chen, Guonan; Tang, Dianping

    2013-01-01

    Graphical abstract: -- Highlights: •A new signal-on metallobioassay was developed for detection of nucleic acids. •Target-triggered long-range self-assembled DNA nanostructures are used for amplification of electronic signal. •Hybridization chain reaction is utilized for construction of long-range DNA nanostructures. -- Abstract: Methods based on metal nanotags have been developed for metallobioassay of nucleic acids, but most involve complicated labeling or stripping procedures and are unsuitable for routine use. Herein, we report the proof-of-concept of a novel and label-free metallobioassay for ultrasensitive electronic determination of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-related gene fragments at an ultralow concentration based on target-triggered long-range self-assembled DNA nanostructures and DNA-based hybridization chain reaction (HCR). The signal is amplified by silver nanotags on the DNA duplex. The assay mainly consists of capture probe, detection probe, and two different DNA hairpins. In the presence of target DNA, the capture probe immobilized on the sensor sandwiches target DNA with the 3′ end of detection probe. Another exposed part of detection probe at the 5′ end opens two alternating DNA hairpins in turn, and propagates a chain reaction of hybridization events to form a nicked double-helix. Finally, numerous silver nanotags are immobilized onto the long-range DNA nanostructures, each of which produces a strong electronic signal within the applied potentials. Under optimal conditions, the target-triggered long-range DNA nanostructures present good electrochemical behaviors for the detection of HIV DNA at a concentration as low as 0.5 fM. Importantly, the outstanding sensitivity can make this approach a promising scheme for development of next-generation DNA sensors without the need of enzyme labeling or fluorophore labeling

  4. ZnO Nanoparticles Protect RNA from Degradation Better than DNA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayden McCall

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Gene therapy and RNA delivery require a nanoparticle (NP to stabilize these nucleic acids when administered in vivo. The presence of degradative hydrolytic enzymes within these environments limits the nucleic acids’ pharmacologic activity. This study compared the effects of nanoscale ZnO and MgO in the protection afforded to DNA and RNA from degradation by DNase, serum or tumor homogenate. For double-stranded plasmid DNA degradation by DNase, our results suggest that the presence of MgO NP can protect DNA from DNase digestion at an elevated temperature (65 °C, a biochemical activity not present in ZnO NP-containing samples at any temperature. In this case, intact DNA was remarkably present for MgO NP after ethidium bromide staining and agarose gel electrophoresis where these same stained DNA bands were notably absent for ZnO NP. Anticancer RNA, polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid (poly I:C is now considered an anti-metastatic RNA targeting agent and as such there is great interest in its delivery by NP. For it to function, the NP must protect it from degradation in serum and the tumor environment. Surprisingly, ZnO NP protected the RNA from degradation in either serum-containing media or melanoma tumor homogenate after gel electrophoretic analysis, whereas the band was much more diminished in the presence of MgO. For both MgO and ZnO NP, buffer-dependent rescue from degradation occurred. These data suggest a fundamental difference in the ability of MgO and ZnO NP to stabilize nucleic acids with implications for DNA and RNA delivery and therapy.

  5. Building of RNA and DNA double helices into electron density

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pavelčík, F.; Schneider, Bohdan

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 64, č. 6 (2008), s. 620-626 ISSN 0907-4449 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC512 Grant - others:VEGA(SK) 1/2333/05; NSF(US) DBI0110076 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : RNA * double helix * x-ray crystallography Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 2.943, year: 2008

  6. An efficient algorithm for the stochastic simulation of the hybridization of DNA to microarrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurenzi Ian J

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although oligonucleotide microarray technology is ubiquitous in genomic research, reproducibility and standardization of expression measurements still concern many researchers. Cross-hybridization between microarray probes and non-target ssDNA has been implicated as a primary factor in sensitivity and selectivity loss. Since hybridization is a chemical process, it may be modeled at a population-level using a combination of material balance equations and thermodynamics. However, the hybridization reaction network may be exceptionally large for commercial arrays, which often possess at least one reporter per transcript. Quantification of the kinetics and equilibrium of exceptionally large chemical systems of this type is numerically infeasible with customary approaches. Results In this paper, we present a robust and computationally efficient algorithm for the simulation of hybridization processes underlying microarray assays. Our method may be utilized to identify the extent to which nucleic acid targets (e.g. cDNA will cross-hybridize with probes, and by extension, characterize probe robustnessusing the information specified by MAGE-TAB. Using this algorithm, we characterize cross-hybridization in a modified commercial microarray assay. Conclusions By integrating stochastic simulation with thermodynamic prediction tools for DNA hybridization, one may robustly and rapidly characterize of the selectivity of a proposed microarray design at the probe and "system" levels. Our code is available at http://www.laurenzi.net.

  7. Novel extraction strategy of ribosomal RNA and genomic DNA from cheese for PCR-based investigations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonaïti, Catherine; Parayre, Sandrine; Irlinger, Françoise

    2006-03-15

    Cheese microorganisms, such as bacteria and fungi, constitute a complex ecosystem that plays a central role in cheeses ripening. The molecular study of cheese microbial diversity and activity is essential but the extraction of high quality nucleic acid may be problematic: the cheese samples are characterised by a strong buffering capacity which negatively influenced the yield of the extracted rRNA. The objective of this study is to develop an effective method for the direct and simultaneous isolation of yeast and bacterial ribosomal RNA and genomic DNA from the same cheese samples. DNA isolation was based on a protocol used for nucleic acids isolation from anaerobic digestor, without preliminary washing step with the combined use of the action of chaotropic agent (acid guanidinium thiocyanate), detergents (SDS, N-lauroylsarcosine), chelating agent (EDTA) and a mechanical method (bead beating system). The DNA purification was carried out by two washing steps of phenol-chloroform. RNA was isolated successfully after the second acid extraction step by recovering it from the phenolic phase of the first acid extraction. The novel method yielded pure preparation of undegraded RNA accessible for reverse transcription-PCR. The extraction protocol of genomic DNA and rRNA was applicable to complex ecosystem of different cheese matrices.

  8. The Cold Shock Domain of YB-1 Segregates RNA from DNA by Non-Bonded Interactions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladislav Kljashtorny

    Full Text Available The human YB-1 protein plays multiple cellular roles, of which many are dictated by its binding to RNA and DNA through its Cold Shock Domain (CSD. Using molecular dynamics simulation approaches validated by experimental assays, the YB1 CSD was found to interact with nucleic acids in a sequence-dependent manner and with a higher affinity for RNA than DNA. The binding properties of the YB1 CSD were close to those observed for the related bacterial Cold Shock Proteins (CSP, albeit some differences in sequence specificity. The results provide insights in the molecular mechanisms whereby YB-1 interacts with nucleic acids.

  9. Binding of transcription termination protein nun to nascent RNA and template DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watnick, R S; Gottesman, M E

    1999-12-17

    The amino-terminal arginine-rich motif of coliphage HK022 Nun binds phage lambda nascent transcript, whereas the carboxyl-terminal domain interacts with RNA polymerase (RNAP) and blocks transcription elongation. RNA binding is inhibited by zinc (Zn2+) and stimulated by Escherichia coli NusA. To study these interactions, the Nun carboxyl terminus was extended by a cysteine residue conjugated to a photochemical cross-linker. The carboxyl terminus contacted NusA and made Zn2+-dependent intramolecular contacts. When Nun was added to a paused transcription elongation complex, it cross-linked to the DNA template. Nun may arrest transcription by anchoring RNAP to DNA.

  10. The NBS1-Treacle complex controls ribosomal RNA transcription in response to DNA damage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Dorthe H; Hari, Flurina; Clapperton, Julie A

    2014-01-01

    Chromosome breakage elicits transient silencing of ribosomal RNA synthesis, but the mechanisms involved remained elusive. Here we discover an in trans signalling mechanism that triggers pan-nuclear silencing of rRNA transcription in response to DNA damage. This is associated with transient...... recruitment of the Nijmegen breakage syndrome protein 1 (NBS1), a central regulator of DNA damage responses, into the nucleoli. We further identify TCOF1 (also known as Treacle), a nucleolar factor implicated in ribosome biogenesis and mutated in Treacher Collins syndrome, as an interaction partner of NBS1...

  11. A DNA sequence obtained by replacement of the dopamine RNA aptamer bases is not an aptamer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Álvarez-Martos, Isabel; Ferapontova, Elena E

    2017-08-05

    A unique specificity of the aptamer-ligand biorecognition and binding facilitates bioanalysis and biosensor development, contributing to discrimination of structurally related molecules, such as dopamine and other catecholamine neurotransmitters. The aptamer sequence capable of specific binding of dopamine is a 57 nucleotides long RNA sequence reported in 1997 (Biochemistry, 1997, 36, 9726). Later, it was suggested that the DNA homologue of the RNA aptamer retains the specificity of dopamine binding (Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun., 2009, 388, 732). Here, we show that the DNA sequence obtained by the replacement of the RNA aptamer bases for their DNA analogues is not able of specific biorecognition of dopamine, in contrast to the original RNA aptamer sequence. This DNA sequence binds dopamine and structurally related catecholamine neurotransmitters non-specifically, as any DNA sequence, and, thus, is not an aptamer and cannot be used neither for in vivo nor in situ analysis of dopamine in the presence of structurally related neurotransmitters. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. A whole-mount in situ hybridization method for microRNA detection in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andachi, Yoshiki; Kohara, Yuji

    2016-07-01

    Whole-mount in situ hybridization (WISH) is an outstanding method to decipher the spatiotemporal expression patterns of microRNAs (miRNAs) and provides important clues for elucidating their functions. The first WISH method for miRNA detection was developed in zebrafish. Although this method was quickly adapted for other vertebrates and fruit flies, WISH analysis has not been successfully used to detect miRNAs in Caenorhabditis elegans Here, we show a novel WISH method for miRNA detection in C. elegans Using this method, mir-1 miRNA was detected in the body-wall muscle where the expression and roles of mir-1 miRNA have been previously elucidated. Application of the method to let-7 family miRNAs, let-7, mir-48, mir-84, and mir-241, revealed their distinct but partially overlapping expression patterns, indicating that miRNAs sharing a short common sequence were distinguishably detected. In pash-1 mutants that were depleted of mature miRNAs, signals of mir-48 miRNA were greatly reduced, suggesting that mature miRNAs were detected by the method. These results demonstrate the validity of WISH to detect mature miRNAs in C. elegans. © 2016 Andachi and Kohara; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press for the RNA Society.

  13. Circularly polarized luminescence of helically assembled pyrene π-stacks on RNA and DNA duplexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Mitsunobu; Ota, Fuyuki; Takada, Tadao; Akagi, Kazuo; Yamana, Kazushige

    2018-05-01

    In this report, we describe the circularly polarized luminescence (CPL) of the RNA duplexes having one to four 2'-O-pyrene modified uridines (Upy) and the DNA duplexes having two, four, and six pyrene modified non-nucleosidic linkers (Py). Both the pyrene π-stack arrays formed on the RNA and DNA double helical structures exhibited pyrene excimer fluorescence. In the pyrene-modified RNA systems, the RNA duplex having four Upys gives CPL emission with g lum value of <0.01 at 480 nm. The structure of pyrene stacks on the RNA duplex may be rigidly regulated with increase in the Upy domains, which resulted in the CPL emission. In the DNA systems, the pyrene-modified duplexes containing two and four Pys exhibited CPL emission with g lum values of <0.001 at 505 nm. The pyrene π-stack arrays presented here show CPL emission. However, the g lum values are relatively small when compared with our previous system consisting of the pyrene-zipper arrays on RNA. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. DNA fingerprinting of Kentucky bluegrass cultivars and hybrids

    Science.gov (United States)

    As a high polyploidy, apomictic, self-incompatible, perennial grass, Kentucky bluegrass has such complex genetic architecture that conducting standard Mendelian genetic selection is currently impossible. One large hurdle is the inability to differentiate true hybrids from other apomictic progenies....

  15. Multilayer DNA Origami Packed on Hexagonal and Hybrid Lattices

    OpenAIRE

    Ke, Yonggang; Voigt, Niels V.; Gothelf, Kurt V.; Shih, William M.

    2012-01-01

    “Scaffolded DNA origami” has been proven to be a powerful and efficient approach to construct two-dimensional or three-dimensional objects with great complexity. Multilayer DNA origami has been demonstrated with helices packing along either honeycomb-lattice geometry or square-lattice geometry. Here we report successful folding of multilayer DNA origami with helices arranged on a close-packed hexagonal lattice. This arrangement yields a higher density of helical packing and therefore higher r...

  16. Differential Immuno-Reactivity to Genomic DNA, RNA and Mitochondrial DNA is Associated with Auto-Immunity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vilena V. Ivanova

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Circulating auto-reactive antibodies are hallmark features of auto-immune diseases, however little is known with respect to the specificity of such bio-markers. In the present study, we investigated the specificity of anti-nucleic acid antibodies in the blood of subjects with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE and healthy controls. Methods: Sera from 12 SLE cases and 8 controls were evaluated for immuno-reactivity to purified RNA, DNA and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA by enzyme-linked immuno-sorbent assay (ELISA. Results: As expected, immuno-reactivity to total nucleic acids was significantly higher in subjects with SLE when compared to healthy controls, however a clear distinction was observed among the various nucleic acid sub-types, with sera from SLE subjects displaying the greatest immuno-reactivity to RNA followed by mtDNA and then total DNA. Conclusion: The identification of auto-reactive antibodies can serve as highly sensitive biomarkers, although their specificity may not always allow diagnostic certainty. The knowledge that auto-antibodies in subjects with SLE display differential immuno-reactivity may help to improve existing diagnostics and may lead to a better understanding of the pathogenesis of auto-immune disorders.

  17. Non coding RNA: sequence-specific guide for chromatin modification and DNA damage signaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofia eFrancia

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Chromatin conformation shapes the environment in which our genome is transcribed into RNA. Transcription is a source of DNA damage, thus it often occurs concomitantly to DNA damage signaling. Growing amounts of evidence suggest that different types of RNAs can, independently from their protein-coding properties, directly affect chromatin conformation, transcription and splicing, as well as promote the activation of the DNA damage response (DDR and DNA repair. Therefore, transcription paradoxically functions to both threaten and safeguard genome integrity. On the other hand, DNA damage signaling is known to modulate chromatin to suppress transcription of the surrounding genetic unit. It is thus intriguing to understand how transcription can modulate DDR signaling while, in turn, DDR signaling represses transcription of chromatin around the DNA lesion. An unexpected player in this field is the RNA interference (RNAi machinery, which play roles in transcription, splicing and chromatin modulation in several organisms. Non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs and several protein factors involved in the RNAi pathway are well known master regulators of chromatin while only recent reports suggest that ncRNAs are involved in DDR signaling and homology-mediated DNA repair. Here, we discuss the experimental evidence supporting the idea that ncRNAs act at the genomic loci from which they are transcribed to modulate chromatin, DDR signaling and DNA repair.

  18. The effect of tissue decalcification on mRNA retention within bone for in-situ hybridization studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, L; Freemont, A J; Hoyland, J A

    1993-06-01

    Tissue decalcification is a routine part of the preparation of bone tissue for histological studies. Although in-situ hybridization has been employed to localize mRNA of collagenous and non-collagenous bone related proteins in skeletal tissue, little is known regarding the effects of decalcifying agents on mRNA retention within tissue. In this study in-situ hybridization using an oligonucleotide probe (i.e. a poly d(T) probe) to detect total messenger RNA has been employed to investigate the effects of the decalcifying agents nitric acid, formic acid and EDTA on mRNA retention compared to undeacalcified tissue. The results show that formalin fixation and EDTA decalcification preserve substantial amounts of mRNA within the tissue. In particular, this study illustrates that it is possible to perform in-situ hybridization on formalin fixed decalcified paraffin embedded tissue.

  19. Photoluminescence Enhancement of Poly(3-methylthiophene Nanowires upon Length Variable DNA Hybridization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingyuan Huang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of low-dimensional inorganic or organic nanomaterials has advantages for DNA and protein recognition due to their sensitivity, accuracy, and physical size matching. In this research, poly(3-methylthiophene (P3MT nanowires (NWs are electrochemically prepared with dopant followed by functionalization with probe DNA (pDNA sequence through electrostatic interaction. Various lengths of pDNA sequences (10-, 20- and 30-mer are conjugated to the P3MT NWs respectively followed with hybridization with their complementary target DNA (tDNA sequences. The nanoscale photoluminescence (PL properties of the P3MT NWs are studied throughout the whole process at solid state. In addition, the correlation between the PL enhancement and the double helix DNA with various lengths is demonstrated.

  20. A Novel Method for Rapid Hybridization of DNA to a Solid Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettersson, Erik; Ahmadian, Afshin; Ståhl, Patrik L.

    2013-01-01

    Here we present a novel approach entitled Magnetic Forced Hybridization (MFH) that provides the means for efficient and direct hybridization of target nucleic acids to complementary probes immobilized on a glass surface in less than 15 seconds at ambient temperature. In addition, detection is carried out instantly since the beads become visible on the surface. The concept of MFH was tested for quality control of array manufacturing, and was combined with a multiplex competitive hybridization (MUCH) approach for typing of Human Papilloma Virus (HPV). Magnetic Forced Hybridization of bead-DNA constructs to a surface achieves a significant reduction in diagnostic testing time. In addition, readout of results by visual inspection of the unassisted eye eliminates the need for additional expensive instrumentation. The method uses the same set of beads throughout the whole process of manipulating and washing DNA constructs prior to detection, as in the actual detection step itself. PMID:23950946

  1. DNA-dispersed graphene/NiO hybrid materials for highly sensitive non-enzymatic glucose sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lv Wei; Jin Fengmin; Guo Quangui; Yang Quanhong; Kang Feiyu

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► We investigated the potential of GNS/NiO/DNA hybrid used as a nonenzymatic sensor. ► DNA is a highly efficient disperse agent for GNS/NiO hybrid than ionic surfactants. ► GNS/NiO/DNA hybrid shows fast electron transfer in the electrochemical reaction. ► GNS/NiO/DNA hybrid shows good detection performance towards glucose. - Abstract: We demonstrate graphene nanosheet/NiO hybrids (GNS/NiO) as the active material for high-performance non-enzymatic glucose sensors. Such sensors are fabricated by DNA-dispersed GNS/NiO suspension deposited on glassy carbon electrodes. ss-DNA shows strong dispersing ability for the GNS/NiO hybrid materials resulting in stable water-dispersible GNS/NiO/DNA hybrids with fully separated layers. The GNS/NiO/DNA hybrids show enhanced electron transfer in the electrocatalytic reaction process, and accordingly, such hybrids modified electrodes show good sensing performance towards glucose and are characterized by large detection ranges, short response periods, low detection limit and high sensitivity and stability.

  2. Novel targeted siRNA-loaded hybrid nanoparticles: preparation, characterization and in vitro evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dim, Nneka; Perepelyuk, Maryna; Gomes, Olukayode; Thangavel, Chellappagounder; Liu, Yi; Den, Robert; Lakshmikuttyamma, Ashakumary; Shoyele, Sunday A

    2015-09-26

    siRNAs have a high potential for silencing critical molecular pathways that are pathogenic. Nevertheless, their clinical application has been limited by a lack of effective and safe nanotechnology-based delivery system that allows a controlled and safe transfection to cytosol of targeted cells without the associated adverse effects. Our group recently reported a very effective and safe hybrid nanoparticle delivery system composing human IgG and poloxamer-188 for siRNA delivery to cancer cells. However, these nanoparticles need to be optimized in terms of particle size, loading capacity and encapsulation efficiency. In the present study, we explored the effects of certain production parameters on particle size, loading capacity and encapsulation efficiency. Further, to make these nanoparticles more specific in their delivery of siRNA, we conjugated anti-NTSR1-mAb to the surface of these nanoparticles to target NTSR1-overexpressing cancer cells. The mechanism of siRNA release from these antiNTSR1-mAb functionalized nanoparticles was also elucidated. It was demonstrated that the concentration of human IgG in the starting nanoprecipitation medium and the rotation speed of the magnetic stirrer influenced the encapsulation efficiency, loading capacity and the size of the nanoparticles produced. We also successfully transformed these nanoparticles into actively targeted nanoparticles by functionalizing with anti-NTSR1-mAb to specifically target NTSR1-overexpressing cancer cells, hence able to avoid undesired accumulation in normal cells. The mechanism of siRNA release from these nanoparticles was elucidated to be by Fickian diffusion. Using flow cytometry and fluorescence microscopy, we were able to confirm the active involvement of NTSR1 in the uptake of these anti-NTSR1-mAb functionalized hybrid nanoparticles by lung adenocarcinoma cells. This hybrid nanoparticle delivery system can be used as a platform technology for intracellular delivery of siRNAs to NTSR1

  3. DNA hybridization evidence for the Australasian affinity of the American marsupial Dromiciops australis.

    OpenAIRE

    Kirsch, J A; Dickerman, A W; Reig, O A; Springer, M S

    1991-01-01

    DNA hybridization was used to compare representatives of the major groups of marsupials and a eutherian outgroup. Because of the large genetic distances separating marsupial families, trees were calculated from normalized percentages of hybridization; thermal-melting statistics, however, gave identical topologies for the well-supported clades. The most notable results were the association of the only extant microbiotheriid, Dromiciops australis, an American marsupial, with the Australasian Di...

  4. Different modes of interaction by TIAR and HuR with target RNA and DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Henry S; Wilce, Matthew C J; Yoga, Yano M K; Pendini, Nicole R; Gunzburg, Menachem J; Cowieson, Nathan P; Wilson, Gerald M; Williams, Bryan R G; Gorospe, Myriam; Wilce, Jacqueline A

    2011-02-01

    TIAR and HuR are mRNA-binding proteins that play important roles in the regulation of translation. They both possess three RNA recognition motifs (RRMs) and bind to AU-rich elements (AREs), with seemingly overlapping specificity. Here we show using SPR that TIAR and HuR bind to both U-rich and AU-rich RNA in the nanomolar range, with higher overall affinity for U-rich RNA. However, the higher affinity for U-rich sequences is mainly due to faster association with U-rich RNA, which we propose is a reflection of the higher probability of association. Differences between TIAR and HuR are observed in their modes of binding to RNA. TIAR is able to bind deoxy-oligonucleotides with nanomolar affinity, whereas HuR affinity is reduced to a micromolar level. Studies with U-rich DNA reveal that TIAR binding depends less on the 2'-hydroxyl group of RNA than HuR binding. Finally we show that SAXS data, recorded for the first two domains of TIAR in complex with RNA, are more consistent with a flexible, elongated shape and not the compact shape that the first two domains of Hu proteins adopt upon binding to RNA. We thus propose that these triple-RRM proteins, which compete for the same binding sites in cells, interact with their targets in fundamentally different ways.

  5. Colloidal Au-enhanced surface plasmon resonance imaging: application in a DNA hybridization process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manera, M G; Spadavecchia, J; Taurino, A; Rella, R

    2010-01-01

    The detection of the DNA hybridization mechanism using monodispersed gold nanoparticles as labels is an interesting alternative to increase the sensitivity of the SPR imaging technique. DNA-modified Au nanoparticles (DNA-Au NPs) containing single-stranded (ss) portions of DNA were prepared by monitoring their monolayer formation by UV–vis spectroscopy. The hybridization process between specific thio-oligonucleotides immobilized on the DNA–Au NPs and the corresponding complementary strands is reported and compared with the traditional hybridization process on properly self-assembled thin gold films deposited on glass substrates. A remarkable signal amplification is observed, following the incorporation of colloidal Au into a SPR biosensing experiment, resulting in an increased SPR response to DNA–DNA interactions. In particular Fusarium thiolated DNA (5'HS poly(T) 15 ATC CCT CAA AAA CTG CCG CT-3) and trichothecenes complementary DNA (5'-AGC GGC AGT TTT TGA GGG AT-3') sequences have been explored due to their possible application to agro-industry for the control of food quality

  6. Femtomolar detection of single mismatches by discriminant analysis of DNA hybridization events using gold nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xingyi; Sim, Sang Jun

    2013-03-21

    Even though DNA-based nanosensors have been demonstrated for quantitative detection of analytes and diseases, hybridization events have never been numerically investigated for further understanding of DNA mediated interactions. Here, we developed a nanoscale platform with well-designed capture and detection gold nanoprobes to precisely evaluate the hybridization events. The capture gold nanoprobes were mono-laid on glass and the detection probes were fabricated via a novel competitive conjugation method. The two kinds of probes combined in a suitable orientation following the hybridization with the target. We found that hybridization efficiency was markedly dependent on electrostatic interactions between DNA strands, which can be tailored by adjusting the salt concentration of the incubation solution. Due to the much lower stability of the double helix formed by mismatches, the hybridization efficiencies of single mismatched (MMT) and perfectly matched DNA (PMT) were different. Therefore, we obtained an optimized salt concentration that allowed for discrimination of MMT from PMT without stringent control of temperature or pH. The results indicated this to be an ultrasensitive and precise nanosensor for the diagnosis of genetic diseases.

  7. A novel SERRS sandwich-hybridization assay to detect specific DNA target.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cécile Feuillie

    Full Text Available In this study, we have applied Surface Enhanced Resonance Raman Scattering (SERRS technology to the specific detection of DNA. We present an innovative SERRS sandwich-hybridization assay that allows specific DNA detection without any enzymatic amplification, such as is the case with Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR. In some substrates, such as ancient or processed remains, enzymatic amplification fails due to DNA alteration (degradation, chemical modification or to the presence of inhibitors. Consequently, the development of a non-enzymatic method, allowing specific DNA detection, could avoid long, expensive and inconclusive amplification trials. Here, we report the proof of concept of a SERRS sandwich-hybridization assay that leads to the detection of a specific chamois DNA. This SERRS assay reveals its potential as a non-enzymatic alternative technology to DNA amplification methods (particularly the PCR method with several applications for species detection. As the amount and type of damage highly depend on the preservation conditions, the present SERRS assay would enlarge the range of samples suitable for DNA analysis and ultimately would provide exciting new opportunities for the investigation of ancient DNA in the fields of evolutionary biology and molecular ecology, and of altered DNA in food frauds detection and forensics.

  8. Mixing of maize and wheat genomic DNA by somatic hybridization in regenerated sterile maize plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szarka, B.; Göntér, I.; Molnár-Láng, M.; Mórocz, S.; Dudits, D.

    2002-07-01

    Intergeneric somatic hybridization was performed between albino maize ( Zea mays L.) protoplasts and mesophyll protoplasts of wheat ( Triticum aestivum L.) by polyethylene glycol (PEG) treatments. None of the parental protoplasts were able to produce green plants without fusion. The maize cells regenerated only rudimentary albino plantlets of limited viability, and the wheat mesophyll protoplasts were unable to divide. PEG-mediated fusion treatments resulted in hybrid cells with mixed cytoplasm. Six months after fusion green embryogenic calli were selected as putative hybrids. The first-regenerates were discovered as aborted embryos. Regeneration of intact, green, maize-like plants needed 6 months of further subcultures on hormone-free medium. These plants were sterile, although had both male and female flowers. The cytological analysis of cells from callus tissues and root tips revealed 56 chromosomes, but intact wheat chromosomes were not observed. Using total DNA from hybrid plants, three RAPD primer combinations produced bands resembling the wheat profile. Genomic in situ hybridization (GISH) using total wheat DNA as a probe revealed the presence of wheat DNA islands in the maize chromosomal background. The increased viability and the restored green color were the most-significant new traits as compared to the original maize parent. Other intermediate morphological traits of plants with hybrid origin were not found.

  9. Correlation between ultraviolet survival and DNA repair efficiency in mouse cell hybrids and their parent lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Limbosch, S.

    1982-01-01

    Three hybrid cell lines formed between mouse lymphoma (LS) and mouse fibroblasts (A9) have been tested for their capacity to perform unscheduled DNA synthesis; their recovery characteristics after uv irradiation have also been studied to determine if DNA repair is implicated in the high survival observed in one hybrid (clone 3). The results of these investigations indicate that hybrid clone 3 was distinguishable from the more uv sensitive parental and other hybrid cell lines by its higher uv-induced unscheduled DNA synthesis, its greater clonogenic survival in plateau phase, and its faster recovery when maintained in conditioned medium after irradiation. The simultaneous increase of these three properties in hybrid clone 3 suggest that, by three different approaches, we have evidenced the same molecular process, a process involved in the elimination of potentially lethal damage, most probably the excision repair pathway. This report also shows that the low efficiency in excision repair in the parent line A9 is probably not due to deletion but rather to repression of the relevant gene(s) and that somatic cell hybridization can result in a stimulation of a previously poorly expressed repair process

  10. Anomeric 2'-Deoxycytidines and Silver Ions: Hybrid Base Pairs with Greatly Enhanced Stability and Efficient DNA Mismatch Detection with α-dC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Xiurong; Seela, Frank

    2017-09-04

    α-d-Nucleosides are rare in nature but can develop fascinating properties when incorporated into DNA. This work reports on the first silver-mediated base pair constructed from two anomeric nucleosides: α-dC and β-dC. The hybrid base pair was integrated into the DNA and DNA/RNA double helix. A 12-mer duplex with α-dC and β-dC pair exhibits a higher thermal stability (T m =43 °C) than that incorporating the β-dC-Ag + -β-dC homo pair (T m =34 °C). Furthermore, α-dC shows excellent mismatch discrimination for DNA single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP). All four SNPs were identified on the basis of large T m value differences measured in the presence of silver ions. High resolution melting was not required. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Northern and Southern blot analysis of human RNA and DNA in autopsy material

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, S; Rygaard, K; Asnaes, S

    1992-01-01

    was obtained less than two days postmortem. Histological examination showing slight or no autolysis and the presence of ribosomal bands after gel electrophoresis were both indicative parameters of RNA preservation. DNA was appropriate for Southern blotting when the tissue was obtained less than three to five...

  12. Junk DNA and the long non-coding RNA twist in cancer genetics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H. Ling (Hui); K. Vincent; M. Pichler; R. Fodde (Riccardo); I. Berindan-Neagoe (Ioana); F.J. Slack (Frank); G.A. Calin (George)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractThe central dogma of molecular biology states that the flow of genetic information moves from DNA to RNA to protein. However, in the last decade this dogma has been challenged by new findings on non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) such as microRNAs (miRNAs). More recently, long non-coding RNAs

  13. DNA and RNA analysis of blood and muscle from bodies with variable postmortem intervals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jakob; Lesnikova, Iana; Funder, Anette Mariane Daa

    2014-01-01

    The breakdown of DNA and RNA in decomposing human tissue represents a major obstacle for postmortem forensic molecular analysis. This study investigated the feasibility of performing PCR-based molecular analysis of blood and muscle tissue from 45 autopsy cases with defined postmortem intervals...... for postmortem forensic molecular analysis as well as for retrospective research projects based on archived FFPE specimens....

  14. Traveling Rocky Roads: The Consequences of Transcription-Blocking DNA Lesions on RNA Polymerase II

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B. Steurer (Barbara); J.A. Marteijn (Jurgen)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractThe faithful transcription of eukaryotic genes by RNA polymerase II (RNAP2) is crucial for proper cell function and tissue homeostasis. However, transcription-blocking DNA lesions of both endogenous and environmental origin continuously challenge the progression of elongating RNAP2. The

  15. Development of species-specific rDNA probes for Giardia by multiple fluorescent in situ hybridization combined with immunocytochemical identification of cyst wall antigens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erlandsen, Stanley L; Jarroll, Edward; Wallis, Peter; van Keulen, Harry

    2005-08-01

    In this study, we describe the development of fluorescent oligonucleotide probes to variable regions in the small subunit of 16S rRNA in three distinct Giardia species. Sense and antisense probes (17-22 mer) to variable regions 1, 3, and 8 were labeled with digoxygenin or selected fluorochomes (FluorX, Cy3, or Cy5). Optimal results were obtained with fluorochome-labeled oligonucleotides for detection of rRNA in Giardia cysts. Specificity of fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) was shown using RNase digestion and high stringency to diminish the hybridization signal, and oligonucleotide probes for rRNA in Giardia lamblia, Giardia muris, and Giardia ardeae were shown to specifically stain rRNA only within cysts or trophozoites of those species. The fluorescent oligonucleotide specific for rRNA in human isolates of Giardia was positive for ten different strains. A method for simultaneous FISH detection of cysts using fluorescent antibody (genotype marker) and two oligonucleotide probes (species marker) permitted visualization of G. lamblia and G. muris cysts in the same preparation. Testing of an environmental water sample revealed the presence of FISH-positive G. lamblia cysts with a specific rDNA probe for rRNA, while negative cysts were presumed to be of animal or bird origin.

  16. [Effect of metalaxyl on the synthesis of RNA, DNA and protein in Phytophthora nicotianae].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wollgiehn, R; Bräutigam, E; Schumann, B; Erge, D

    1984-01-01

    Metalaxyl is used to control diseases caused by fungi of the order of the Perenosporales. We investigated the action of this fungicid eon nucleic acid and protein synthesis in liquid cultures of Phytophthora nicotianae. The uptake of 32P, 3H-uridine, 3H-thymidine and 14C-leucine as precursors of nuclei acid and protein synthesis by the mycelium was not inhibited by metalaxyl. RNA synthesis as indicated by 3H-uridine incorporation was strongly inhibited (about 80%) by 0.5 micrograms/ml of metalaxyl. The inhibition was visible already few minutes after addition of the toxicant. Since the inhibition of incorporation of 3H-thymidine into DNA and of 14C-leucine into protein became significant 2-3 hours later, we conclude that metalaxyl primarily interfers with RNA synthesis. Synthesis of ribosomal RNA is more affected (more than 90%) than that of tRNA (about 55%) and poly(A)-containing RNA. Since in the presence of actinomycin, in contrast to metalaxyl, protein synthesis is inhibited immediately as a consequence of complete inhibition of RNA synthesis and of the short life-time of mRNA, it is also evident that mRNA synthesis is less strongly inhibited, at least during the early period of metalaxyl action. The molecular mechanism of metalaxyl inhibition of the transcription process remains open. The fungicide did not inhibit the activity of a partially purified RNA polymerase isolated from the fungus. On the other hand, the RNA synthesis (14C-UTP-incorporation) by a cell homogenate and by isolated nuclear fractions was inhibited significantly. Possibilities of the molecular action of metalaxyl are discussed. The RNA synthesis of some plant systems (cell cultures of Lycopersicon peruvianum, isolated nuclei from the same cell cultures, purified RNA polymerase from Spinacia oleracea chloroplasts) was not inhibited by metalaxyl, not even at high concentrations.

  17. Localization of glucocorticoid receptor mRNA in the male rat brain by in situ hybridization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aronsson, M.; Fuxe, K.; Dong, Y.; Agnati, L.F.; Okret, S.; Gustafsson, J.A.

    1988-01-01

    The localization and distribution of mRNA encoding the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) was investigated in tissue sections of the adult male rat brain by in situ hybridization and RNA blot analysis. GR mRNA levels were measured by quantitative autoradiography with 35S- and 32P-labeled RNA probes, respectively. Strong labeling was observed within the pyramidal nerve cells of the CA1 and CA2 areas of the hippocampal formation, in the granular cells of the dentate gyrus, in the parvocellular nerve cells of the paraventricular hypothalamic nucleus, and in the cells of the arcuate nucleus, especially the parvocellular part. Moderate labeling of a large number of nerve cells was observed within layers II, III, and VI of the neocortex and in many thalamic nuclei, especially the anterior and ventral nuclear groups as well as several midline nuclei. Within the cerebellar cortex, strong labeling was observed all over the granular layer. In the lower brainstem, strong labeling was found within the entire locus coeruleus and within the mesencephalic raphe nuclei rich in noradrenaline and 5-hydroxytryptamine cell bodies, respectively. A close correlation was found between the distribution of GR mRNA and the distribution of previously described GR immunoreactivity. These studies open the possibility of obtaining additional information on in vivo regulation of GR synthesis and how the brain may alter its sensitivity to circulating glucocorticoids

  18. 18S Ribosomal RNA Evaluation as Preanalytical Quality Control for Animal DNA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cory Ann Leonard

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The 18S ribosomal RNA (rRNA gene is present in all eukaryotic cells. In this study, we evaluated the use of this gene to verify the presence of PCR-amplifiable host (animal DNA as an indicator of sufficient sample quality for quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR analysis. We compared (i samples from various animal species, tissues, and sample types, including swabs; (ii multiple DNA extraction methods; and (iii both fresh and formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE samples. Results showed that 18S ribosomal RNA gene amplification was possible from all tissue samples evaluated, including avian, reptile, and FFPE samples and most swab samples. A single swine rectal swab, which showed sufficient DNA quantity and the demonstrated lack of PCR inhibitors, nonetheless was negative by 18S qPCR. Such a sample specifically illustrates the improvement of determination of sample integrity afforded by inclusion of 18S rRNA gene qPCR analysis in addition to spectrophotometric analysis and the use of internal controls for PCR inhibition. Other possible applications for the described 18S rRNA qPCR are preselection of optimal tissue specimens for studies or preliminary screening of archived samples prior to acceptance for biobanking projects.

  19. Cell-associated HIV DNA measured early during infection has prognostic value independent of serum HIV RNA measured concomitantly

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Katzenstein, Terese L; Oliveri, Roberto S; Benfield, Thomas

    2002-01-01

    Using data from the Danish AIDS Cohort of HIV-infected homosexual men established in the 1980s, the prognostic value of early HIV DNA loads was evaluated. In addition to DNA measurements, concomitant serum HIV RNA levels, CD4 cell counts and CCR5 genotypes were determined. The patients were divided...... of serum HIV RNA (p normal allele (p

  20. RNA/DNA co-analysis from human skin and contact traces – results of a sixth collaborative EDNAP exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haas, C; Hanson, E; Banemann, R

    2015-01-01

    The European DNA profiling group (EDNAP) organized a sixth collaborative exercise on RNA/DNA co-analysis for body fluid/tissue identification and STR profiling. The task was to identify skin samples/contact traces using specific RNA biomarkers and test three housekeeping genes for their suitabili...

  1. RNA and DNA Targeting by a Reconstituted Thermus thermophilus Type III-A CRISPR-Cas System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tina Y; Iavarone, Anthony T; Doudna, Jennifer A

    2017-01-01

    CRISPR-Cas (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats-CRISPR-associated) systems are RNA-guided adaptive immunity pathways used by bacteria and archaea to defend against phages and plasmids. Type III-A systems use a multisubunit interference complex called Csm, containing Cas proteins and a CRISPR RNA (crRNA) to target cognate nucleic acids. The Csm complex is intriguing in that it mediates RNA-guided targeting of both RNA and transcriptionally active DNA, but the mechanism is not well understood. Here, we overexpressed the five components of the Thermus thermophilus (T. thermophilus) Type III-A Csm complex (TthCsm) with a defined crRNA sequence, and purified intact TthCsm complexes from E. coli cells. The complexes were thermophilic, targeting complementary ssRNA more efficiently at 65°C than at 37°C. Sequence-independent, endonucleolytic cleavage of single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) by TthCsm was triggered by recognition of a complementary ssRNA, and required a lack of complementarity between the first 8 nucleotides (5' tag) of the crRNA and the 3' flanking region of the ssRNA. Mutation of the histidine-aspartate (HD) nuclease domain of the TthCsm subunit, Cas10/Csm1, abolished DNA cleavage. Activation of DNA cleavage was dependent on RNA binding but not cleavage. This leads to a model in which binding of an ssRNA target to the Csm complex would stimulate cleavage of exposed ssDNA in the cell, such as could occur when the RNA polymerase unwinds double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) during transcription. Our findings establish an amenable, thermostable system for more in-depth investigation of the targeting mechanism using structural biology methods, such as cryo-electron microscopy and x-ray crystallography.

  2. RNA and DNA Targeting by a Reconstituted Thermus thermophilus Type III-A CRISPR-Cas System.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tina Y Liu

    Full Text Available CRISPR-Cas (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats-CRISPR-associated systems are RNA-guided adaptive immunity pathways used by bacteria and archaea to defend against phages and plasmids. Type III-A systems use a multisubunit interference complex called Csm, containing Cas proteins and a CRISPR RNA (crRNA to target cognate nucleic acids. The Csm complex is intriguing in that it mediates RNA-guided targeting of both RNA and transcriptionally active DNA, but the mechanism is not well understood. Here, we overexpressed the five components of the Thermus thermophilus (T. thermophilus Type III-A Csm complex (TthCsm with a defined crRNA sequence, and purified intact TthCsm complexes from E. coli cells. The complexes were thermophilic, targeting complementary ssRNA more efficiently at 65°C than at 37°C. Sequence-independent, endonucleolytic cleavage of single-stranded DNA (ssDNA by TthCsm was triggered by recognition of a complementary ssRNA, and required a lack of complementarity between the first 8 nucleotides (5' tag of the crRNA and the 3' flanking region of the ssRNA. Mutation of the histidine-aspartate (HD nuclease domain of the TthCsm subunit, Cas10/Csm1, abolished DNA cleavage. Activation of DNA cleavage was dependent on RNA binding but not cleavage. This leads to a model in which binding of an ssRNA target to the Csm complex would stimulate cleavage of exposed ssDNA in the cell, such as could occur when the RNA polymerase unwinds double-stranded DNA (dsDNA during transcription. Our findings establish an amenable, thermostable system for more in-depth investigation of the targeting mechanism using structural biology methods, such as cryo-electron microscopy and x-ray crystallography.

  3. Mechanistic profiling of the siRNA delivery dynamics of lipid-polymer hybrid nanoparticles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Colombo, Stefano; Cun, Dongmei; Remaut, Katrien

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the delivery dynamics of nucleic acid nanocarriers is fundamental to improve their design for therapeutic applications. We investigated the carrier structure-function relationship of lipid-polymer hybrid nanoparticles (LPNs) consisting of poly(dl-lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) nano...... of transfection-competent siRNA-DOTAP lipoplexes from the LPNs. Based on these results, we suggest a model for the nanostructural characteristics of the LPNs, in which the siRNA is organized in lamellar superficial assemblies and/or as complexes entrapped in the polymeric matrix.......Understanding the delivery dynamics of nucleic acid nanocarriers is fundamental to improve their design for therapeutic applications. We investigated the carrier structure-function relationship of lipid-polymer hybrid nanoparticles (LPNs) consisting of poly(dl-lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA......) nanocarriers modified with the cationic lipid dioleoyltrimethyl-ammoniumpropane (DOTAP). A library of siRNA-loaded LPNs was prepared by systematically varying the nitrogen-to-phosphate (N/P) ratio. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) and cryo-transmission electron microscopy (cryo-TEM) combined with small angle X...

  4. A Protein Complex Required for Polymerase V Transcripts and RNA- Directed DNA Methylation in Arabidopsis

    KAUST Repository

    Law, Julie A.

    2010-05-01

    DNA methylation is an epigenetic modification associated with gene silencing. In Arabidopsis, DNA methylation is established by DOMAINS REARRANGED METHYLTRANSFERASE 2 (DRM2), which is targeted by small interfering RNAs through a pathway termed RNA-directed DNA methylation (RdDM) [1, 2]. Recently, RdDM was shown to require intergenic noncoding (IGN) transcripts that are dependent on the Pol V polymerase. These transcripts are proposed to function as scaffolds for the recruitment of downstream RdDM proteins, including DRM2, to loci that produce both siRNAs and IGN transcripts [3]. However, the mechanism(s) through which Pol V is targeted to specific genomic loci remains largely unknown. Through affinity purification of two known RdDM components, DEFECTIVE IN RNA-DIRECTED DNA METHYLATION 1 (DRD1) [4] and DEFECTIVE IN MERISTEM SILENCING 3 (DMS3) [5, 6], we found that they copurify with each other and with a novel protein, RNA-DIRECTED DNA METHYLATION 1 (RDM1), forming a complex we term DDR. We also found that DRD1 copurified with Pol V subunits and that RDM1, like DRD1 [3] and DMS3 [7], is required for the production of Pol V-dependent transcripts. These results suggest that the DDR complex acts in RdDM at a step upstream of the recruitment or activation of Pol V. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. A Protein Complex Required for Polymerase V Transcripts and RNA- Directed DNA Methylation in Arabidopsis

    KAUST Repository

    Law, Julie A.; Ausí n, Israel; Johnson, Lianna M.; Vashisht, Ajay  A Amar; Zhu, Jian-Kang; Wohlschlegel, James  A A.; Jacobsen, Steven E.

    2010-01-01

    DNA methylation is an epigenetic modification associated with gene silencing. In Arabidopsis, DNA methylation is established by DOMAINS REARRANGED METHYLTRANSFERASE 2 (DRM2), which is targeted by small interfering RNAs through a pathway termed RNA-directed DNA methylation (RdDM) [1, 2]. Recently, RdDM was shown to require intergenic noncoding (IGN) transcripts that are dependent on the Pol V polymerase. These transcripts are proposed to function as scaffolds for the recruitment of downstream RdDM proteins, including DRM2, to loci that produce both siRNAs and IGN transcripts [3]. However, the mechanism(s) through which Pol V is targeted to specific genomic loci remains largely unknown. Through affinity purification of two known RdDM components, DEFECTIVE IN RNA-DIRECTED DNA METHYLATION 1 (DRD1) [4] and DEFECTIVE IN MERISTEM SILENCING 3 (DMS3) [5, 6], we found that they copurify with each other and with a novel protein, RNA-DIRECTED DNA METHYLATION 1 (RDM1), forming a complex we term DDR. We also found that DRD1 copurified with Pol V subunits and that RDM1, like DRD1 [3] and DMS3 [7], is required for the production of Pol V-dependent transcripts. These results suggest that the DDR complex acts in RdDM at a step upstream of the recruitment or activation of Pol V. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Inhibition of Hepatitis B virus cccDNA replication by siRNA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Guiqiu; Gu Hongxi; Li Di; Xu Weizhen

    2007-01-01

    The development of an effective therapy for Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is still a challenge. Progress in RNA interference (RNAi) has shed slight on developing a new anti-HBV strategy. Here, we present a series of experiments showing a significant reduction in HBV transcripts and replication intermediates in HepG2.2.15 cells by vector-based siRNA targeted nuclear localization signal (NLS) region. More importantly, we showed that siRNA1 markedly inhibited HBV covalently closed circular DNA (cccDNA) replication. Our results indicated that HBV NLS may serve as a novel RNAi target to combat HBV infection, which can enhance anti-HBV efficacy and overcome the drawbacks of current therapies

  7. Improving Griffith's protocol for co-extraction of microbial DNA and RNA in adsorptive soils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paulin, Mélanie Marie; Nicolaisen, Mette Haubjerg; Jacobsen, Carsten Suhr

    2013-01-01

    Quantification of microbial gene expression is increasingly being used to study key functions in soil microbial communities, yet major limitations still exist for efficient extraction of nucleic acids, especially RNA for transcript analysis, from this complex matrix. We present an improved......-time PCR on both the RNA (after conversion to cDNA) and the DNA fraction of the extracts. Non-adsorptive soils were characterized by low clay content and/or high phosphate content, whereas adsorptive soils had clay contents above 20% and/or a strong presence of divalent Ca in combination with high p......H. Modifications to the co-extraction protocol improved nucleic acid extraction efficiency from all adsorptive soils and were successfully validated by DGGE analysis of the indigenous community based on 16S rRNA gene and transcripts in soils representing low biomass and/or high clay content. This new approach...

  8. Ultrasensitive Detection of RNA and DNA Viruses Simultaneously Using Duplex UNDP-PCR Assay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zengguo; Zhang, Xiujuan; Zhao, Xiaomin; Du, Qian; Chang, Lingling; Tong, Dewen

    2015-01-01

    Mixed infection of multiple viruses is common in modern intensive pig rearing. However, there are no methods available to detect DNA and RNA viruses in the same reaction system in preclinical level. In this study, we aimed to develop a duplex ultrasensitive nanoparticle DNA probe-based PCR assay (duplex UNDP-PCR) that was able to simultaneously detect DNA and RNA viruses in the same reaction system. PCV2 and TGEV are selected as representatives of the two different types of viruses. PCV2 DNA and TGEV RNA were simultaneously released from the serum sample by boiling with lysis buffer, then magnetic beads and gold nanoparticles coated with single and/or duplex specific probes for TGEV and PCV2 were added to form a sandwich-like complex with nucleic acids released from viruses. After magnetic separation, DNA barcodes specific for PCV2 and TGEV were eluted using DTT and characterized by specific PCR assay for specific DNA barcodes subsequently. The duplex UNDP-PCR showed similar sensitivity as that of single UNDP-PCR and was able to detect 20 copies each of PCV2 and TGEV in the serum, showing approximately 250-fold more sensitivity than conventional duplex PCR/RT-PCR assays. No cross-reaction was observed with other viruses. The positive detection rate of single MMPs- and duplex MMPs-based duplex UNDP-PCR was identical, with 29.6% for PCV2, 9.3% for TGEV and 3.7% for PCV2 and TGEV mixed infection. This duplex UNDP-PCR assay could detect TGEV (RNA virus) and PCV2 (DNA virus) from large-scale serum samples simultaneously without the need for DNA/RNA extraction, purification and reverse transcription of RNA, and showed a significantly increased positive detection rate for PCV2 (29%) and TGEV (11.7%) preclinical infection than conventional duplex PCR/RT-PCR. Therefore, the established duplex UNDP-PCR is a rapid and economical detection method, exhibiting high sensitivity, specificity and reproducibility. PMID:26544710

  9. Ultrasensitive Detection of RNA and DNA Viruses Simultaneously Using Duplex UNDP-PCR Assay.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Huang

    Full Text Available Mixed infection of multiple viruses is common in modern intensive pig rearing. However, there are no methods available to detect DNA and RNA viruses in the same reaction system in preclinical level. In this study, we aimed to develop a duplex ultrasensitive nanoparticle DNA probe-based PCR assay (duplex UNDP-PCR that was able to simultaneously detect DNA and RNA viruses in the same reaction system. PCV2 and TGEV are selected as representatives of the two different types of viruses. PCV2 DNA and TGEV RNA were simultaneously released from the serum sample by boiling with lysis buffer, then magnetic beads and gold nanoparticles coated with single and/or duplex specific probes for TGEV and PCV2 were added to form a sandwich-like complex with nucleic acids released from viruses. After magnetic separation, DNA barcodes specific for PCV2 and TGEV were eluted using DTT and characterized by specific PCR assay for specific DNA barcodes subsequently. The duplex UNDP-PCR showed similar sensitivity as that of single UNDP-PCR and was able to detect 20 copies each of PCV2 and TGEV in the serum, showing approximately 250-fold more sensitivity than conventional duplex PCR/RT-PCR assays. No cross-reaction was observed with other viruses. The positive detection rate of single MMPs- and duplex MMPs-based duplex UNDP-PCR was identical, with 29.6% for PCV2, 9.3% for TGEV and 3.7% for PCV2 and TGEV mixed infection. This duplex UNDP-PCR assay could detect TGEV (RNA virus and PCV2 (DNA virus from large-scale serum samples simultaneously without the need for DNA/RNA extraction, purification and reverse transcription of RNA, and showed a significantly increased positive detection rate for PCV2 (29% and TGEV (11.7% preclinical infection than conventional duplex PCR/RT-PCR. Therefore, the established duplex UNDP-PCR is a rapid and economical detection method, exhibiting high sensitivity, specificity and reproducibility.

  10. Ultrasensitive Detection of RNA and DNA Viruses Simultaneously Using Duplex UNDP-PCR Assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yong; Xing, Na; Wang, Zengguo; Zhang, Xiujuan; Zhao, Xiaomin; Du, Qian; Chang, Lingling; Tong, Dewen

    2015-01-01

    Mixed infection of multiple viruses is common in modern intensive pig rearing. However, there are no methods available to detect DNA and RNA viruses in the same reaction system in preclinical level. In this study, we aimed to develop a duplex ultrasensitive nanoparticle DNA probe-based PCR assay (duplex UNDP-PCR) that was able to simultaneously detect DNA and RNA viruses in the same reaction system. PCV2 and TGEV are selected as representatives of the two different types of viruses. PCV2 DNA and TGEV RNA were simultaneously released from the serum sample by boiling with lysis buffer, then magnetic beads and gold nanoparticles coated with single and/or duplex specific probes for TGEV and PCV2 were added to form a sandwich-like complex with nucleic acids released from viruses. After magnetic separation, DNA barcodes specific for PCV2 and TGEV were eluted using DTT and characterized by specific PCR assay for specific DNA barcodes subsequently. The duplex UNDP-PCR showed similar sensitivity as that of single UNDP-PCR and was able to detect 20 copies each of PCV2 and TGEV in the serum, showing approximately 250-fold more sensitivity than conventional duplex PCR/RT-PCR assays. No cross-reaction was observed with other viruses. The positive detection rate of single MMPs- and duplex MMPs-based duplex UNDP-PCR was identical, with 29.6% for PCV2, 9.3% for TGEV and 3.7% for PCV2 and TGEV mixed infection. This duplex UNDP-PCR assay could detect TGEV (RNA virus) and PCV2 (DNA virus) from large-scale serum samples simultaneously without the need for DNA/RNA extraction, purification and reverse transcription of RNA, and showed a significantly increased positive detection rate for PCV2 (29%) and TGEV (11.7%) preclinical infection than conventional duplex PCR/RT-PCR. Therefore, the established duplex UNDP-PCR is a rapid and economical detection method, exhibiting high sensitivity, specificity and reproducibility.

  11. Genetic determinants of PAM-dependent DNA targeting and pre-crRNA processing in Sulfolobus islandicus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peng, Wenfang; Li, Huan; Hallstrøm, Søren

    2013-01-01

    -adjacent motif (PAM)-dependent DNA targeting activity and mature CRISPR RNA (crRNA) production in this organism, mutants deleting individual genes of the type IA system or removing each of other Cas modules were constructed. Characterization of these mutants revealed that Cas7, Cas5, Cas6, Cas3' and Cas3......" are essential for PAM-dependent DNA targeting activity, whereas Csa5, along with all other Cas modules, is dispensable for the targeting in the crenarchaeon. Cas6 is implicated as the only enzyme for pre-crRNA processing and the crRNA maturation is independent of the DNA targeting activity. Importantly, we show...

  12. Multiply osmium-labeled reporter probes for electrochemical DNA hybridization assays: detection of trinucleotide repeats

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Fojta, Miroslav; Havran, Luděk; Kizek, René; Paleček, Emil

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 20, č. 5 (2004), s. 985-994 ISSN 0956-5663 R&D Projects: GA MPO 1H-PK/42; GA AV ČR IAA4004108; GA AV ČR IBS5004355; GA AV ČR KJB4004302; GA AV ČR KSK4055109 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5004920 Keywords : electrochemical sensors * DNA hybridization * DNA labeling Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 3.251, year: 2004

  13. Quantum Point Contact Single-Nucleotide Conductance for DNA and RNA Sequence Identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afsari, Sepideh; Korshoj, Lee E; Abel, Gary R; Khan, Sajida; Chatterjee, Anushree; Nagpal, Prashant

    2017-11-28

    Several nanoscale electronic methods have been proposed for high-throughput single-molecule nucleic acid sequence identification. While many studies display a large ensemble of measurements as "electronic fingerprints" with some promise for distinguishing the DNA and RNA nucleobases (adenine, guanine, cytosine, thymine, and uracil), important metrics such as accuracy and confidence of base calling fall well below the current genomic methods. Issues such as unreliable metal-molecule junction formation, variation of nucleotide conformations, insufficient differences between the molecular orbitals responsible for single-nucleotide conduction, and lack of rigorous base calling algorithms lead to overlapping nanoelectronic measurements and poor nucleotide discrimination, especially at low coverage on single molecules. Here, we demonstrate a technique for reproducible conductance measurements on conformation-constrained single nucleotides and an advanced algorithmic approach for distinguishing the nucleobases. Our quantum point contact single-nucleotide conductance sequencing (QPICS) method uses combed and electrostatically bound single DNA and RNA nucleotides on a self-assembled monolayer of cysteamine molecules. We demonstrate that by varying the applied bias and pH conditions, molecular conductance can be switched ON and OFF, leading to reversible nucleotide perturbation for electronic recognition (NPER). We utilize NPER as a method to achieve >99.7% accuracy for DNA and RNA base calling at low molecular coverage (∼12×) using unbiased single measurements on DNA/RNA nucleotides, which represents a significant advance compared to existing sequencing methods. These results demonstrate the potential for utilizing simple surface modifications and existing biochemical moieties in individual nucleobases for a reliable, direct, single-molecule, nanoelectronic DNA and RNA nucleotide identification method for sequencing.

  14. Detection of TTV-DNA in PBMC using digoxigenin labelled probe by in situ hybridization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Yang; Qi Qige

    2002-01-01

    To determine TTV-DNA in PBMC in patients with viral hepatitis, a study of in situ hybridization using digoxigenin labelled probe by PCR method to the TTV ORF1 region was performed on PBMC. Results showed that the detection rate of TTV-DNA using double-stranded probe in TTV-DNA positive group in sera was 58.06 (18/31), and the detection rate of TTV-DNA using double-stranded probe in TTV-DNA negative group in sera was 27.59 (8/29). For TTV-DNA positive group detected by double- stranded probe, then we use negative- stranded probe to detect their replication. The detection rate was 22.2%(4/18). Conclusions: TTV can infect PBMC and replicate in PBMC

  15. Determination of chromium combined with DNA, RNA and proteins in chromium-rich brewer's yeast by NAA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ding, W.J.; Qian, Q.F.; Hou, X.L.; Feng, W.Y.; Chai, Z.F.

    2000-01-01

    The content of chromium in the DNA, RNA and protein fractions separated from chromium-rich and normal brewer's yeast was determined by neutron activation analysis (NAA). Our results show that the extracted relative amounts and concentrations of DNA, RNA and proteins have no significant difference for two types of yeast, but the chromium content in DNA, RNA and proteins fractions extracted from the chromium-rich yeast are substantially higher than those from the normal. In addition, the concentration of chromium in DNA is much higher than that in RNA and proteins. It is evident that the inorganic chromium compounds can enter the yeast cell during the yeast cultivation in the chromium-containing culture medium and are converted into organic chromium species, which are combined with DNA, RNA and proteins. (author)

  16. JNSViewer-A JavaScript-based Nucleotide Sequence Viewer for DNA/RNA secondary structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Jieming; Li, Xi; Dong, Min; Graham, Mitchell; Yadav, Nehul; Liang, Chun

    2017-01-01

    Many tools are available for visualizing RNA or DNA secondary structures, but there is scarce implementation in JavaScript that provides seamless integration with the increasingly popular web computational platforms. We have developed JNSViewer, a highly interactive web service, which is bundled with several popular tools for DNA/RNA secondary structure prediction and can provide precise and interactive correspondence among nucleotides, dot-bracket data, secondary structure graphs, and genic annotations. In JNSViewer, users can perform RNA secondary structure predictions with different programs and settings, add customized genic annotations in GFF format to structure graphs, search for specific linear motifs, and extract relevant structure graphs of sub-sequences. JNSViewer also allows users to choose a transcript or specific segment of Arabidopsis thaliana genome sequences and predict the corresponding secondary structure. Popular genome browsers (i.e., JBrowse and BrowserGenome) were integrated into JNSViewer to provide powerful visualizations of chromosomal locations, genic annotations, and secondary structures. In addition, we used StructureFold with default settings to predict some RNA structures for Arabidopsis by incorporating in vivo high-throughput RNA structure profiling data and stored the results in our web server, which might be a useful resource for RNA secondary structure studies in plants. JNSViewer is available at http://bioinfolab.miamioh.edu/jnsviewer/index.html.

  17. JNSViewer—A JavaScript-based Nucleotide Sequence Viewer for DNA/RNA secondary structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Min; Graham, Mitchell; Yadav, Nehul

    2017-01-01

    Many tools are available for visualizing RNA or DNA secondary structures, but there is scarce implementation in JavaScript that provides seamless integration with the increasingly popular web computational platforms. We have developed JNSViewer, a highly interactive web service, which is bundled with several popular tools for DNA/RNA secondary structure prediction and can provide precise and interactive correspondence among nucleotides, dot-bracket data, secondary structure graphs, and genic annotations. In JNSViewer, users can perform RNA secondary structure predictions with different programs and settings, add customized genic annotations in GFF format to structure graphs, search for specific linear motifs, and extract relevant structure graphs of sub-sequences. JNSViewer also allows users to choose a transcript or specific segment of Arabidopsis thaliana genome sequences and predict the corresponding secondary structure. Popular genome browsers (i.e., JBrowse and BrowserGenome) were integrated into JNSViewer to provide powerful visualizations of chromosomal locations, genic annotations, and secondary structures. In addition, we used StructureFold with default settings to predict some RNA structures for Arabidopsis by incorporating in vivo high-throughput RNA structure profiling data and stored the results in our web server, which might be a useful resource for RNA secondary structure studies in plants. JNSViewer is available at http://bioinfolab.miamioh.edu/jnsviewer/index.html. PMID:28582416

  18. JNSViewer-A JavaScript-based Nucleotide Sequence Viewer for DNA/RNA secondary structures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jieming Shi

    Full Text Available Many tools are available for visualizing RNA or DNA secondary structures, but there is scarce implementation in JavaScript that provides seamless integration with the increasingly popular web computational platforms. We have developed JNSViewer, a highly interactive web service, which is bundled with several popular tools for DNA/RNA secondary structure prediction and can provide precise and interactive correspondence among nucleotides, dot-bracket data, secondary structure graphs, and genic annotations. In JNSViewer, users can perform RNA secondary structure predictions with different programs and settings, add customized genic annotations in GFF format to structure graphs, search for specific linear motifs, and extract relevant structure graphs of sub-sequences. JNSViewer also allows users to choose a transcript or specific segment of Arabidopsis thaliana genome sequences and predict the corresponding secondary structure. Popular genome browsers (i.e., JBrowse and BrowserGenome were integrated into JNSViewer to provide powerful visualizations of chromosomal locations, genic annotations, and secondary structures. In addition, we used StructureFold with default settings to predict some RNA structures for Arabidopsis by incorporating in vivo high-throughput RNA structure profiling data and stored the results in our web server, which might be a useful resource for RNA secondary structure studies in plants. JNSViewer is available at http://bioinfolab.miamioh.edu/jnsviewer/index.html.

  19. 3' RNA ligase mediated rapid amplification of cDNA ends for validating viroid induced cleavage at the 3' extremity of the host mRNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adkar-Purushothama, Charith Raj; Bru, Pierrick; Perreault, Jean-Pierre

    2017-12-01

    5' RNA ligase-mediated rapid amplification of cDNA ends (5' RLM-RACE) is a widely-accepted method for the validation of direct cleavage of a target gene by a microRNA (miRNA) and viroid-derived small RNA (vd-sRNA). However, this method cannot be used if cleavage takes place in the 3' extremity of the target RNA, as this gives insufficient sequence length to design nested PCR primers for 5' RLM RACE. To overcome this hurdle, we have developed 3' RNA ligase-mediated rapid amplification of cDNA ends (3' RLM RACE). In this method, an oligonucleotide adapter having 5' adenylated and 3' blocked is ligated to the 3' end of the cleaved RNA followed by PCR amplification using gene specific primers. In other words, in 3' RLM RACE, 3' end is mapped using 5' fragment instead of small 3' fragment. The method developed here was verified by examining the bioinformatics predicted and parallel analysis of RNA ends (PARE) proved cleavage sites of chloride channel protein CLC-b-like mRNA in Potato spindle tuber viroid infected tomato plants. The 3' RLM RACE developed in this study has the potential to validate the miRNA and vd-sRNA mediated cleavage of mRNAs at its 3' untranslated region (3' UTR). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Hybrid-hybrid matrix structural refinement of a DNA three-way junction from 3D NOESY-NOESY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thiviyanathan, Varatharasa; Luxon, Bruce A.; Leontis, Neocles B.; Illangasekare, Nishantha; Donne, David G.; Gorenstein, David G.

    1999-01-01

    Homonuclear 3D NOESY-NOESY has shown great promise for the structural refinement of large biomolecules. A computationally efficient hybrid-hybrid relaxation matrix refinement methodology, using 3D NOESY-NOESY data, was used to refine the structure of a DNA three-way junction having two unpaired bases at the branch point of the junction. The NMR data and the relaxation matrix refinement confirm that the DNA three-way junction exists in a folded conformation with two of the helical stems stacked upon each other. The third unstacked stem extends away from the junction, forming an acute angle (∼60 deg.) with the stacked stems. The two unpaired bases are stacked upon each other and are exposed to the solvent. Helical parameters for the bases in all three strands show slight deviations from typical values expected for right-handed B-form DNA. Inter-nucleotide imino-imino NOEs between the bases at the branch point of the junction show that the junction region is well defined. The helical stems show mobility (± 20 deg.) indicating dynamic processes around the junction region. The unstacked helical stem adjacent to the unpaired bases shows greater mobility compared to the other two stems. The results from this study indicate that the 3D hybrid-hybrid matrix MORASS refinement methodology, by combining the spectral dispersion of 3D NOESY-NOESY and the computational efficiency of 2D refinement programs, provides an accurate and robust means for structure determination of large biomolecules. Our results also indicate that the 3D MORASS method gives higher quality structures compared to the 2D complete relaxation matrix refinement method

  1. MicroRNA Detection by Whole-Mount In Situ Hybridization in C. elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andachi, Yoshiki; Kohara, Yuji

    2018-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) loaded on argonaute proteins guide RNA-induced silencing complexes to target mRNAs. An excellent method to decipher the spatiotemporal expression patterns of miRNAs is whole-mount in situ hybridization (WISH), which has been successfully used in vertebrate embryos but still remains unavailable for many animal species. Here, we describe a WISH method for miRNA detection in Caenorhabditis elegans at both embryonic and post-embryonic stages. Strategies devised for detection include fixation of animals with carbodiimide at a high temperature and subsequent partial digestion of the fixed animals with an extremely high concentration of proteinase. WISH signals are visualized by staining with a chromogenic substrate or a fluorescent dye.

  2. High-throughput screening of suppression subtractive hybridization cDNA libraries using DNA microarray analysis

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van den Berg, N

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Efficient construction of cDNA libraries enriched for differentially expressed transcripts is an important first step in many biological investigations. We present a quantitative procedure for screening cDNA libraries constructed by suppression...

  3. Molecular modeling of cationic porphyrin-anthraquinone hybrids as DNA topoisomerase IIβ inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arba, Muhammad; Ruslin; Ihsan, Sunandar; Tri Wahyudi, Setyanto; Tjahjono, Daryono H

    2017-12-01

    Human DNA Topoisomerase II has been regarded as a promising target in anticancer drug discovery. In the present study, we designed six porphyrin-anthraquinone hybrids bearing pyrazole or pyridine group as meso substituents and evaluated their potentials as DNA Topoisomerase IIβ inhibitor. First, we investigated the binding orientation of porphyrin hybrids into DNA topoisomerase IIβ employing AutoDock 4.2 and then performed 20-ns molecular dynamics simulations to see the dynamic stability of each porphyrin-Topo IIβ complex using Amber 14. We found that the binding of porphyrin hybrids occured through intercalation and groove binding mode in addition interaction with the amino acid residues constituting the active cavity of Topo IIβ. Each porphyrin-Topo IIβ complex was stabilized during 20-ns dynamics simulations. The MM-PBSA free energy calculation shows that the binding affinities of porphyrin hybrids were modified with the number of meso substituent. Interestingly, the affinity of all porphyrin hybrids to Topo IIβ was stronger than that of native ligand (EVP), indicating the potential of the designed porphyrin to be considered in experimental research. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Structure of the Cpf1 endonuclease R-loop complex after target DNA cleavage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stella, Stefano; Alcón, Pablo; Montoya, Guillermo

    2017-01-01

    involved in DNA unwinding to form a CRISPR RNA (crRNA)-DNA hybrid and a displaced DNA strand. The protospacer adjacent motif (PAM) is recognized by the PAM-interacting domain. The loop-lysine helix-loop motif in this domain contains three conserved lysine residues that are inserted in a dentate manner...... and the crRNA-DNA hybrid, avoiding DNA re-annealing. Mutations in key residues reveal a mechanism linking the PAM and DNA nuclease sites. Analysis of the Cpf1 structures proposes a singular working model of RNA-guided DNA cleavage, suggesting new avenues for redesign of Cpf1....

  5. Applying Mesoporous Silica SBA-15 in Electrochemical Detection of DNA Hybridization

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Josypčuk, Oksana; Fojta, Miroslav; Daňhel, Aleš; Josypčuk, Bohdan

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 28, č. 8 (2016), s. 1860-1864 ISSN 1040-0397 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP206/11/1638 Institutional support: RVO:68081707 ; RVO:61388955 Keywords : voltammetry * sensor DNA hybridization * mesoporous silica Subject RIV: CG - Electrochemistry Impact factor: 2.851, year: 2016

  6. Modeling Hybridization Kinetics of Gene Probes in a DNA Biochip Using FEMLAB

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munir, Ahsan; Waseem, Hassan; Williams, Maggie R.; Stedtfeld, Robert D.; Gulari, Erdogan; Tiedje, James M.; Hashsham, Syed A.

    2017-01-01

    Microfluidic DNA biochips capable of detecting specific DNA sequences are useful in medical diagnostics, drug discovery, food safety monitoring and agriculture. They are used as miniaturized platforms for analysis of nucleic acids-based biomarkers. Binding kinetics between immobilized single stranded DNA on the surface and its complementary strand present in the sample are of interest. To achieve optimal sensitivity with minimum sample size and rapid hybridization, ability to predict the kinetics of hybridization based on the thermodynamic characteristics of the probe is crucial. In this study, a computer aided numerical model for the design and optimization of a flow-through biochip was developed using a finite element technique packaged software tool (FEMLAB; package included in COMSOL Multiphysics) to simulate the transport of DNA through a microfluidic chamber to the reaction surface. The model accounts for fluid flow, convection and diffusion in the channel and on the reaction surface. Concentration, association rate constant, dissociation rate constant, recirculation flow rate, and temperature were key parameters affecting the rate of hybridization. The model predicted the kinetic profile and signal intensities of eighteen 20-mer probes targeting vancomycin resistance genes (VRGs). Predicted signal intensities and hybridization kinetics strongly correlated with experimental data in the biochip (R2 = 0.8131). PMID:28555058

  7. Modeling Hybridization Kinetics of Gene Probes in a DNA Biochip Using FEMLAB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahsan Munir

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Microfluidic DNA biochips capable of detecting specific DNA sequences are useful in medical diagnostics, drug discovery, food safety monitoring and agriculture. They are used as miniaturized platforms for analysis of nucleic acids-based biomarkers. Binding kinetics between immobilized single stranded DNA on the surface and its complementary strand present in the sample are of interest. To achieve optimal sensitivity with minimum sample size and rapid hybridization, ability to predict the kinetics of hybridization based on the thermodynamic characteristics of the probe is crucial. In this study, a computer aided numerical model for the design and optimization of a flow-through biochip was developed using a finite element technique packaged software tool (FEMLAB; package included in COMSOL Multiphysics to simulate the transport of DNA through a microfluidic chamber to the reaction surface. The model accounts for fluid flow, convection and diffusion in the channel and on the reaction surface. Concentration, association rate constant, dissociation rate constant, recirculation flow rate, and temperature were key parameters affecting the rate of hybridization. The model predicted the kinetic profile and signal intensities of eighteen 20-mer probes targeting vancomycin resistance genes (VRGs. Predicted signal intensities and hybridization kinetics strongly correlated with experimental data in the biochip (R2 = 0.8131.

  8. Parental DNA methylation states are associated with heterosis in epigenetic hybrids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lauss, Kathrin; Wardenaar, René; Oka, Rurika; van Hulten, Marieke H A; Guryev, Victor; Keurentjes, Joost J B; Stam, Maike; Johannes, Frank

    Despite the importance and wide exploitation of heterosis in commercial crop breeding, the molecular mechanisms behind this phenomenon are not completely understood. Recent studies have implicated changes in DNA methylation and small RNAs in hybrid performance, however, it remains unclear whether

  9. Parental DNA methylation states are associated with heterosis in epigenetic hybrids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lauss, K.; Wardenaar, R.; Oka, R.; van Hulten, M.H.A.; Guryev, V.; Keurentjes, J.J.B.; Stam, M.; Johannes, F.

    Despite the importance and wide exploitation of heterosis in commercial crop breeding, the molecular mechanisms behind this phenomenon are not completely understood. Recent studies have implicated changes in DNA methylation and small RNAs in hybrid performance; however, it remains unclear whether

  10. Parental DNA methylation states are associated with heterosis in epigenetic hybrids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lauss, Kathrin; Wardenaar, R.; Oka, Rurika; Hulten, M.H.A.; Guryev, Victor; Keurentjes, J.J.B.; Stam, Maike; Johannes, Frank

    2018-01-01

    Despite the importance and wide exploitation of heterosis in commercial crop breeding, the molecular mechanisms behind this phenomenon are not completely understood. Recent studies have implicated changes in DNA methylation and small RNAs in hybrid performance, however, it remains unclear whether

  11. Natural hybridization in tropical spikerushes of Eleocharis subgenus Limnochloa (Cyperaceae): Evidence from morphology and DNA markers

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Košnar, J.; Košnar, Ji.; Macek, Petr; Herbstová, Miroslava; Rejmánková, E.; Stech, M.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 97, č. 7 (2010), s. 1229-1240 ISSN 0002-9122 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516; CEZ:AV0Z50510513 Keywords : Belize * Cyperaceae * DNA markers * hybridization Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology; EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology (BU-J) Impact factor: 3.052, year: 2010

  12. HIV RNA and proviral HIV DNA can be detected in semen after 6 months of antiretroviral therapy although HIV RNA is undetectable in blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Peiwei; Liu, An; Jiao, Yanmei; Liu, Cuie; Jiang, Taiyi; Zhu, Weijun; Zhu, Yunxia; Wu, Hao; Sun, Lijun

    2016-03-01

    The risk of sexual transmission of HIV is strongly correlated with amounts of genital HIV RNA. Few studies have reported amounts of HIV RNA and HIV DNA in semen in HIV-infected Chinese patients undergoing antiviral treatment (ART). In this observational study, the amounts of HIV RNA and HIV DNA in semen were assessed after six months of ART in HIV-infected Chinese individuals, when HIV RNA was undetectable in blood . This study included 19 HIV-infected Chinese men undergoing ART for six months. Amounts of HIV in paired semen and blood samples were assessed using real-time PCR. The C2-V5 region of the HIV envelope (env) genes was cloned and sequenced and genotype and co-receptor usage predicted based on the sequence. It was found that HIV RNA was undetectable in the plasma of most patients (17/19), whereas HIV RNA could be detected in the semen of most patients (16/19). HIV DNA could be detected in both semen and blood. Genetic diversity of HIV between the seminal and blood compartments was identified. Thus, amounts of HIV RNA and HIV DNA remain high in semen of HIV-infected Chinese patients after six months of ART treatment, even when HIV RNA was undetectable in blood. © 2016 The Societies and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  13. A collaborative European exercise on mRNA-based body fluid/skin typing and interpretation of DNA and RNA results

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van den Berge, M; Carracedo, A; Gomes, I

    2014-01-01

    The European Forensic Genetics Network of Excellence (EUROFORGEN-NoE) undertook a collaborative project on mRNA-based body fluid/skin typing and the interpretation of the resulting RNA and DNA data. Although both body fluids and skin are composed of a variety of cell types with different function...

  14. 16S rRNA Gene Sequence Analysis of Drinking Water Using RNA and DNA Extracts as Targets for Clone Library Development - Poster

    Science.gov (United States)

    We examined the bacterial composition of chlorinated drinking water using 16S rRNA gene clone libraries derived from RNA and DNA extracted from twelve water samples collected in three different months (June, August, and September of 2007). Phylogenetic analysis of 1234 and 1117 ...

  15. Impact of temperature and time storage on the microbial detection of oral samples by Checkerboard DNA-DNA hybridization method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    do Nascimento, Cássio; dos Santos, Janine Navarro; Pedrazzi, Vinícius; Pita, Murillo Sucena; Monesi, Nadia; Ribeiro, Ricardo Faria; de Albuquerque, Rubens Ferreira

    2014-01-01

    Molecular diagnosis methods have been largely used in epidemiological or clinical studies to detect and quantify microbial species that may colonize the oral cavity in healthy or disease. The preservation of genetic material from samples remains the major challenge to ensure the feasibility of these methodologies. Long-term storage may compromise the final result. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of temperature and time storage on the microbial detection of oral samples by Checkerboard DNA-DNA hybridization. Saliva and supragingival biofilm were taken from 10 healthy subjects, aliquoted (n=364) and processed according to proposed protocols: immediate processing and processed after 2 or 4 weeks, and 6 or 12 months of storage at 4°C, -20°C and -80°C. Either total or individual microbial counts were recorded in lower values for samples processed after 12 months of storage, irrespective of temperatures tested. Samples stored up to 6 months at cold temperatures showed similar counts to those immediately processed. The microbial incidence was also significantly reduced in samples stored during 12 months in all temperatures. Temperature and time of oral samples storage have relevant impact in the detection and quantification of bacterial and fungal species by Checkerboard DNA-DNA hybridization method. Samples should be processed immediately after collection or up to 6 months if conserved at cold temperatures to avoid false-negative results. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. SL1 RNA gene recovery from Enterobius vermicularis ancient DNA in pre-Columbian human coprolites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iñiguez, Alena Mayo; Reinhard, Karl; Carvalho Gonçalves, Marcelo Luiz; Ferreira, Luiz Fernando; Araújo, Adauto; Paulo Vicente, Ana Carolina

    2006-11-01

    Enterobius vermicularis, pinworm, is one of the most common helminths worldwide, infecting nearly a billion people at all socio-economic levels. In prehistoric populations the paleoparasitological findings show a pinworm homogeneous distribution among hunter-gatherers in North America, intensified with the advent of agriculture. This same increase also occurred in the transition from nomad hunter-gatherers to sedentary farmers in South America, although E. vermicularis infection encompasses only the ancient Andean peoples, with no record among the pre-Colombian populations in the South American lowlands. However, the outline of pinworm paleoepidemiology has been supported by microscopic finding of eggs recovered from coprolites. Since molecular techniques are precise and sensitive in detecting pathogen ancient DNA (aDNA), and also could provide insights into the parasite evolutionary history, in this work we have performed a molecular paleoparasitological study of E. vermicularis. aDNA was recovered and pinworm 5S rRNA spacer sequences were determined from pre-Columbian coprolites (4110 BC-AD 900) from four different North and South American archaeological sites. The sequence analysis confirmed E. vermicularis identity and revealed a similarity among ancient and modern sequences. Moreover, polymorphisms were identified at the relative positions 160, 173 and 180, in independent coprolite samples from Tulán, San Pedro de Atacama, Chile (1080-950 BC). We also verified the presence of peculiarities (Splicing leader (SL1) RNA sequence, spliced donor site, the Sm antigen biding site, and RNA secondary structure) which characterise the SL1 RNA gene. The analysis shows that the SL1 RNA gene of contemporary pinworms was present in pre-Columbian E. vermicularis by 6110 years ago. We were successful in detecting E. vermicularis aDNA even in coprolites without direct microscopic evidence of the eggs, improving the diagnosis of helminth infections in the past and further

  17. Alkylation damage in DNA and RNA--repair mechanisms and medical significance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Drabløs, Finn; Feyzi, Emadoldin; Aas, Per Arne

    2004-01-01

    Alkylation lesions in DNA and RNA result from endogenous compounds, environmental agents and alkylating drugs. Simple methylating agents, e.g. methylnitrosourea, tobacco-specific nitrosamines and drugs like temozolomide or streptozotocin, form adducts at N- and O-atoms in DNA bases. These lesions...... are mainly repaired by direct base repair, base excision repair, and to some extent by nucleotide excision repair (NER). The identified carcinogenicity of O(6)-methylguanine (O(6)-meG) is largely caused by its miscoding properties. Mutations from this lesion are prevented by O(6)-alkylG-DNA alkyltransferase......, inactivation of the MMR system in an AGT-defective background causes resistance to the killing effects of O(6)-alkylating agents, but not to the mutagenic effect. Bifunctional alkylating agents, such as chlorambucil or carmustine (BCNU), are commonly used anti-cancer drugs. DNA lesions caused by these agents...

  18. Designing Uniquely Addressable Bio-orthogonal Synthetic Scaffolds for DNA and RNA Origami.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozyra, Jerzy; Ceccarelli, Alessandro; Torelli, Emanuela; Lopiccolo, Annunziata; Gu, Jing-Ying; Fellermann, Harold; Stimming, Ulrich; Krasnogor, Natalio

    2017-07-21

    Nanotechnology and synthetic biology are rapidly converging, with DNA origami being one of the leading bridging technologies. DNA origami was shown to work well in a wide array of biotic environments. However, the large majority of extant DNA origami scaffolds utilize bacteriophages or plasmid sequences thus severely limiting its future applicability as a bio-orthogonal nanotechnology platform. In this paper we present the design of biologically inert (i.e., "bio-orthogonal") origami scaffolds. The synthetic scaffolds have the additional advantage of being uniquely addressable (unlike biologically derived ones) and hence are better optimized for high-yield folding. We demonstrate our fully synthetic scaffold design with both DNA and RNA origamis and describe a protocol to produce these bio-orthogonal and uniquely addressable origami scaffolds.

  19. Soil DNA extraction procedure influences protist 18S rRNA gene community profiling outcome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Santos, Susana S.; Nunes, Ines Marques; Nielsen, Tue K.

    2017-01-01

    Advances in sequencing technologies allow deeper studies of the soil protist diversity and function. However, little attention has been given to the impact of the chosen soil DNA extraction procedure to the overall results. We examined the effect of three acknowledged DNA recovery methods, two...... manual methods (ISOm-11063, GnS-GII) and one commercial kit (MoBio), on soil protist community structures obtained from different sites with different land uses. Results from 18S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing suggest that DNA extraction method significantly affect the replicate homogeneity, the total...... number of operational taxonomic units (OTUs) recovered and the overall taxonomic structure and diversity of soil protist communities. However, DNA extraction effects did not overwhelm the natural variation among samples, as the community data still strongly grouped by geographical location...

  20. An impedimetric study of DNA hybridization on paper-supported inkjet-printed gold electrodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ihalainen, Petri; Määttänen, Anni; Peltonen, Jouko; Pettersson, Fredrik; Pesonen, Markus; Österbacka, Ronald; Viitala, Tapani

    2014-01-01

    In this study, two different supramolecular recognition architectures for impedimetric detection of DNA hybridization have been formed on disposable paper-supported inkjet-printed gold electrodes. The gold electrodes were fabricated using a gold nanoparticle based ink. The first recognition architecture consists of subsequent layers of biotinylated self-assembly monolayer (SAM), streptavidin and biotinylated DNA probe. The other recognition architecture is constructed by immobilization of thiol-functionalized DNA probe (HS-DNA) and subsequent backfill with 11-mercapto-1-undecanol (MUOH) SAM. The binding capacity and selectivity of the recognition architectures were examined by surface plasmon resonance (SPR) measurements. SPR results showed that the HS-DNA/MUOH system had a higher binding capacity for the complementary DNA target. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) measurements showed that the hybridization can be detected with impedimetric spectroscopy in picomol range for both systems. EIS signal indicated a good selectivity for both recognition architectures, whereas SPR showed very high unspecific binding for the HS-DNA/MUOH system. The factors affecting the impedance signal were interpreted in terms of the complexity of the supramolecular architecture. The more complex architecture acts as a less ideal capacitive sensor and the impedance signal is dominated by the resistive elements. (paper)

  1. Quantitative PCR--new diagnostic tool for quantifying specific mRNA and DNA molecules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schlemmer, B O; Sorensen, B S; Overgaard, J

    2004-01-01

    of a subset of ligands from the EGF system is increased in bladder cancer. Furthermore, measurement of the mRNA concentration gives important information such as the expression of these ligands correlated to the survival of the patients. In addition to the alterations at the mRNA level, changes also can occur...... at the DNA level in the EGF system. Thus, it has been demonstrated that the number of genes coding for the human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) is increased in a number of breast tumors. It is now possible to treat breast cancer patients with a humanized antibody reacting with HER2...... of mRNA or DNA in biological samples. In this study quantitative PCR was used to investigate the role of the EGF (epidermal growth factor) system in cancer both for measurements of mRNA concentrations and for measurements of the number of copies of specific genes. It is shown that the mRNA expression...

  2. Design of a Sensitive and Selective Electrochemical Aptasensor for the Determination of the Complementary cDNA of miRNA-145 Based on the Intercalation and Electrochemical Reduction of Doxorubicin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamadi, Maryam; Mostafavi, Ali; Torkzadeh-Mahani, Masoud

    2017-11-01

    The aim of this research was the determination of a microRNA (miRNA) using a DNA electrochemical aptasensor. In this biosensor, the complementary complementary DNA (cDNA) of miRNA-145 (a sense RNA transcript) was the target strand and the cDNA of miRNA-145 was the probe strand. Both cDNAs can be the product of the reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction of miRNA. The proposed aptasensor's function was based on the hybridization of target strands with probes immobilized on the surface of a working electrode and the subsequent intercalation of doxorubicin (DOX) molecules functioning as the electroactive indicators of any double strands that formed. Electrochemical transduction was performed by measuring the cathodic current resulting from the electrochemical reduction of the intercalated molecules at the electrode surface. In the experiment, because many DOX molecules accumulated on each target strand on the electrode surface, amplification was inherently easy, without a need for enzymatic or complicated amplification strategies. The proposed aptasensor also had the excellent ability to regenerate as a result of the melting of the DNA duplex. Moreover, the use of DNA probe strands obviated the challenges of working with an RNA probe, such as sensitivity to RNase enzyme. In addition to the linear relationship between the electrochemical signal and the concentration of the target strands that ranged from 2.0 to 80.0 nM with an LOD of 0.27 nM, the proposed biosensor was clearly capable of distinguishing between complementary (target strand) and noncomplementary sequences. The presented biosensor was successfully applied for the quantification of DNA strands corresponding to miRNA-145 in human serum samples.

  3. Nuclear DNA content of the hybrid plant pathogen Phytophthora andina determined by flow cytometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jianan; Presser, Jackson W; Goss, Erica M

    2016-09-01

    Phytophthora andina is a heterothallic plant pathogen of Andean solanaceous hosts and is an interspecific hybrid of P. infestans and an unknown Phytophthora species. The objective of this study was to estimate the nuclear DNA content of isolates in three clonal lineages of P. andina relative to P. infestans Twelve isolates of P. andina and six isolates of P. infestans were measured for nuclear DNA content by propidium iodide-stained flow cytometry. We found that the DNA content of P. andina was similar but slightly smaller, on average, than that of our sample of P. infestans isolates. This is consistent with P. andina being a homoploid hybrid rather than allopolyploid hybrid. Nuclear DNA content was more variable among a smaller sample of P. infestans isolates, including a putative triploid isolate from Mexico, but small differences in nuclear DNA content were also observed among P. andina isolates. Both species appear to be able to tolerate significant variation in genome size. © 2016 by The Mycological Society of America.

  4. Cloning of zebrafish activin type IIB receptor (ActRIIB) cDNA and mRNA expression of ActRIIB in embryos and adult tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, R R; Bally-Cuif, L; Lee, S E; Gong, Z; Ni, X; Hew, C L; Peng, C

    1999-07-20

    A full-length cDNA encoding for activin type IIB receptor (ActRIIB) was cloned from zebrafish embryos. It encodes a protein with 509 amino acids consisting of a signal peptide, an extracellular ligand binding domain, a single transmembrane region, and an intracellular kinase domain with predicted serine/threonine specificity. The extracellular domain shows 74-91% sequence identity to human, bovine, mouse, rat, chicken, Xenopus and goldfish activin type IIB receptors, while the transmembrane region and the kinase domain show 67-78% and 82-88% identity to these known activin IIB receptors, respectively. In adult zebrafish, ActRIIB mRNA was detected by RT-PCR in the gonads, as well as in non-reproductive tissues, including the brain, heart and muscle. In situ hybridization on ovarian sections further localized ActRIIB mRNA to cytoplasm of oocytes at different stages of development. Using whole-mount in situ hybridization, ActRIIB mRNA was found to be expressed at all stages of embryogenesis examined, including the sphere, shield, tail bud, and 6-7 somite. These results provide the first evidence that ActRIIB mRNA is widely distributed in fish embryonic and adult tissues. Cloning of zebrafish ActRIIB demonstrates that this receptor is highly conserved during vertebrate evolution and provides a basis for further studies on the role of activin in reproduction and development in lower vertebrates.

  5. Alien DNA introgression and wheat DNA rearrangements in a stable wheat line derived from the early generation of distant hybridization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lianquan; Liu, Dengcai; Yan, Zehong; Zheng, Youliang

    2005-10-01

    Polyploidy has been found to be common in plants. Bread or common wheat (Triticum aestivum L., 2n=42) is a good example of allopolyploid made up of three diploid genomes A, B and D. In recent years, by the study of mimicking the origination of common wheat, it was found that changes of DNA sequence and gene expression occurred at the early stages of artificial allohexaploid between tetraploid wheat and Aegilops tauschii, which was probably favorable to genetic diploidization of new synthetic hexaploid wheat. Common wheat 99L2 is a new line stable in genetic, which was derived from the early self-pollinated generation of wide hybrids between common wheat and rye. In this study, it was found that at least two rye DNA segments had been introgressed into 99L2. This result suggested that a mechanism of alien DNA introgression may exist, which was different from the traditional mechanism of chromosome pairing and DNA recombination between wheat and alien species. Meanwhile, during the introgression process of alien rye DNA segments, the changes in DNA sequences of wheat itself occurred.

  6. The intrinsic role of nanoconfinement in chemical equilibrium: evidence from DNA hybridization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubinovich, Leonid; Polak, Micha

    2013-05-08

    Recently we predicted that when a reaction involving a small number of molecules occurs in a nanometric-scale domain entirely segregated from the surrounding media, the nanoconfinement can shift the position of equilibrium toward products via reactant-product reduced mixing. In this Letter, we demonstrate how most-recently reported single-molecule fluorescence measurements of partial hybridization of ssDNA confined within nanofabricated chambers provide the first experimental confirmation of this entropic nanoconfinement effect. Thus, focusing separately on each occupancy-specific equilibrium constant, quantitatively reveals extra stabilization of the product upon decreasing the chamber occupancy or size. Namely, the DNA hybridization under nanoconfined conditions is significantly favored over the identical reaction occurring in bulk media with the same reactant concentrations. This effect, now directly verified for DNA, can be relevant to actual biological processes, as well as to diverse reactions occurring within molecular capsules, nanotubes, and other functional nanospaces.

  7. Polyethylene glycol and polyvinylpirrolidone effect on bacterial rRNA extraction and hybridization from cells exposed to tannins.

    OpenAIRE

    ARCURI, P.B.; THONNEY, M.L.; SCHOFIELD, P.; PELL, A.N.

    2003-01-01

    In order to detect fluctuations in ruminal microbial populations due to forage tannins using 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) probes, recovery of intact rRNA is required. The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of polyethylene glycol (PEG) and polyvinylpirrolidone (PVP) on extraction of bacterial rRNA, in the presence of tannins from tropical legume forages and other sources, that hybridize with oligonucleotide probes. Ruminococcus albus 8 cells were exposed to 8 g/L tannic acid or 1 g/...

  8. Model-based design of RNA hybridization networks implemented in living cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigo, Guillermo; Prakash, Satya; Shen, Shensi; Majer, Eszter; Daròs, José-Antonio; Jaramillo, Alfonso

    2017-09-19

    Synthetic gene circuits allow the behavior of living cells to be reprogrammed, and non-coding small RNAs (sRNAs) are increasingly being used as programmable regulators of gene expression. However, sRNAs (natural or synthetic) are generally used to regulate single target genes, while complex dynamic behaviors would require networks of sRNAs regulating each other. Here, we report a strategy for implementing such networks that exploits hybridization reactions carried out exclusively by multifaceted sRNAs that are both targets of and triggers for other sRNAs. These networks are ultimately coupled to the control of gene expression. We relied on a thermodynamic model of the different stable conformational states underlying this system at the nucleotide level. To test our model, we designed five different RNA hybridization networks with a linear architecture, and we implemented them in Escherichia coli. We validated the network architecture at the molecular level by native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, as well as the network function at the bacterial population and single-cell levels with a fluorescent reporter. Our results suggest that it is possible to engineer complex cellular programs based on RNA from first principles. Because these networks are mainly based on physical interactions, our designs could be expanded to other organisms as portable regulatory resources or to implement biological computations. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  9. Inhibition of hepatitis B virus replication with linear DNA sequences expressing antiviral micro-RNA shuttles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chattopadhyay, Saket; Ely, Abdullah; Bloom, Kristie; Weinberg, Marc S.; Arbuthnot, Patrick

    2009-01-01

    RNA interference (RNAi) may be harnessed to inhibit viral gene expression and this approach is being developed to counter chronic infection with hepatitis B virus (HBV). Compared to synthetic RNAi activators, DNA expression cassettes that generate silencing sequences have advantages of sustained efficacy and ease of propagation in plasmid DNA (pDNA). However, the large size of pDNAs and inclusion of sequences conferring antibiotic resistance and immunostimulation limit delivery efficiency and safety. To develop use of alternative DNA templates that may be applied for therapeutic gene silencing, we assessed the usefulness of PCR-generated linear expression cassettes that produce anti-HBV micro-RNA (miR) shuttles. We found that silencing of HBV markers of replication was efficient (>75%) in cell culture and in vivo. miR shuttles were processed to form anti-HBV guide strands and there was no evidence of induction of the interferon response. Modification of terminal sequences to include flanking human adenoviral type-5 inverted terminal repeats was easily achieved and did not compromise silencing efficacy. These linear DNA sequences should have utility in the development of gene silencing applications where modifications of terminal elements with elimination of potentially harmful and non-essential sequences are required.

  10. Inhibition of hepatitis B virus replication with linear DNA sequences expressing antiviral micro-RNA shuttles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chattopadhyay, Saket; Ely, Abdullah; Bloom, Kristie; Weinberg, Marc S. [Antiviral Gene Therapy Research Unit, University of the Witwatersrand (South Africa); Arbuthnot, Patrick, E-mail: Patrick.Arbuthnot@wits.ac.za [Antiviral Gene Therapy Research Unit, University of the Witwatersrand (South Africa)

    2009-11-20

    RNA interference (RNAi) may be harnessed to inhibit viral gene expression and this approach is being developed to counter chronic infection with hepatitis B virus (HBV). Compared to synthetic RNAi activators, DNA expression cassettes that generate silencing sequences have advantages of sustained efficacy and ease of propagation in plasmid DNA (pDNA). However, the large size of pDNAs and inclusion of sequences conferring antibiotic resistance and immunostimulation limit delivery efficiency and safety. To develop use of alternative DNA templates that may be applied for therapeutic gene silencing, we assessed the usefulness of PCR-generated linear expression cassettes that produce anti-HBV micro-RNA (miR) shuttles. We found that silencing of HBV markers of replication was efficient (>75%) in cell culture and in vivo. miR shuttles were processed to form anti-HBV guide strands and there was no evidence of induction of the interferon response. Modification of terminal sequences to include flanking human adenoviral type-5 inverted terminal repeats was easily achieved and did not compromise silencing efficacy. These linear DNA sequences should have utility in the development of gene silencing applications where modifications of terminal elements with elimination of potentially harmful and non-essential sequences are required.

  11. Comparative performance of the 16S rRNA gene in DNA barcoding of amphibians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiari Ylenia

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Identifying species of organisms by short sequences of DNA has been in the center of ongoing discussions under the terms DNA barcoding or DNA taxonomy. A C-terminal fragment of the mitochondrial gene for cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI has been proposed as universal marker for this purpose among animals. Results Herein we present experimental evidence that the mitochondrial 16S rRNA gene fulfills the requirements for a universal DNA barcoding marker in amphibians. In terms of universality of priming sites and identification of major vertebrate clades the studied 16S fragment is superior to COI. Amplification success was 100% for 16S in a subset of fresh and well-preserved samples of Madagascan frogs, while various combination of COI primers had lower success rates.COI priming sites showed high variability among amphibians both at the level of groups and closely related species, whereas 16S priming sites were highly conserved among vertebrates. Interspecific pairwise 16S divergences in a test group of Madagascan frogs were at a level suitable for assignment of larval stages to species (1–17%, with low degrees of pairwise haplotype divergence within populations (0–1%. Conclusion We strongly advocate the use of 16S rRNA as standard DNA barcoding marker for vertebrates to complement COI, especially if samples a priori could belong to various phylogenetically distant taxa and false negatives would constitute a major problem.

  12. Differential utility of the Bacteroidales DNA and RNA markers in the tiered approach for microbial source tracking in subtropical seawater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Rulong; Cheng, Ken H F; Wong, Klaine; Cheng, Samuel C S; Lau, Stanley C K

    2015-07-01

    Source tracking of fecal pollution is an emerging component in water quality monitoring. It may be implemented in a tiered approach involving Escherichia coli and/or Enterococcus spp. as the standard fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) and the 16S rRNA gene markers of Bacteroidales as source identifiers. The relative population dynamics of the source identifiers and the FIB may strongly influence the implementation of such approach. Currently, the relative performance of DNA and RNA as detection targets of Bacteroidales markers in the tiered approach is not known. We compared the decay of the DNA and RNA of the total (AllBac) and ruminant specific (CF128) Bacteroidales markers with those of the FIB in seawater spiked with cattle feces. Four treatments of light and oxygen availability simulating the subtropical seawater of Hong Kong were tested. All Bacteroidales markers decayed significantly slower than the FIB in all treatments. Nonetheless, the concentrations of the DNA and RNA markers and E. coli correlated significantly in normoxic seawater independent of light availability, and in hypoxic seawater only under light. In hypoxic seawater without light, the concentrations of RNA but not DNA markers correlated with that of E. coli. Generally, the correlations between Enterococcus spp. and Bacteroidales were insignificant. These results suggest that either DNA or RNA markers may complement E. coli in the tiered approach for normoxic or hypoxic seawater under light. When light is absent, either DNA or RNA markers may serve for normoxic seawater, but only the RNA markers are suitable for hypoxic seawater.

  13. Identification and quantification of Bifidobacterium species isolated from food with genus-specific 16S rRNA-targeted probes by colony hybridization and PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufmann, P; Pfefferkorn, A; Teuber, M; Meile, L

    1997-04-01

    A Bifidobacterium genus-specific target sequence in the V9 variable region of the 16S rRNA has been elaborated and was used to develop a hybridization probe. The specificity of this probe, named lm3 (5'-CGGGTGCTI*CCCACTTTCATG-3'), was used to identify all known type strains and distinguish them from other bacteria. All of the 30 type strains of Bifidobacterium which are available at the German culture collection Deutsche Sammlung von Mikroorganismen und Zellkulturen, 6 commercially available production strains, and 34 closely related relevant strains (as negative controls) were tested. All tested bifidobacteria showed distinct positive signals by colony hybridization, whereas all negative controls showed no distinct dots except Gardnerella vaginalis DSM4944 and Propionibacterium freudenreichii subsp. shermanii DSM4902, which gave slight signals. Furthermore, we established a method for isolation and identification of bifidobacteria from food by using a PCR assay without prior isolation of DNA but breaking the cells with proteinase K. By this method, all Bifidobacterium strains lead to a DNA product of the expected size. We also established a quick assay to quantitatively measure Bifidobacterium counts in food and feces by dilution plating and colony hybridization. We were able to demonstrate that 2.1 x 10(6) to 2.3 x 10(7) colonies/g of sour milk containing bifidobacteria hybridized with the specific nucleotide probe. With these two methods, genus-specific colony hybridization and genus-specific PCR, it is now possible to readily and accurately detect any bifidobacteria in food and fecal samples and to discriminate between them and members of other genera.

  14. Analysis of a cDNA clone expressing a human autoimmune antigen: full-length sequence of the U2 small nuclear RNA-associated B antigen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Habets, W.J.; Sillekens, P.T.G.; Hoet, M.H.; Schalken, J.A.; Roebroek, A.J.M.; Leunissen, J.A.M.; Van de Ven, W.J.M.; Van Venrooij, W.J.

    1987-01-01

    A U2 small nuclear RNA-associated protein, designated B'', was recently identified as the target antigen for autoimmune sera from certain patients with systemic lupus erythematosus and other rheumatic diseases. Such antibodies enabled them to isolate cDNA clone λHB''-1 from a phage λgt11 expression library. This clone appeared to code for the B'' protein as established by in vitro translation of hybrid-selected mRNA. The identity of clone λHB''-1 was further confirmed by partial peptide mapping and analysis of the reactivity of the recombinant antigen with monospecific and monoclonal antibodies. Analysis of the nucleotide sequence of the 1015-base-pair cDNA insert of clone λHB''-1 revealed a large open reading frame of 800 nucleotides containing the coding sequence for a polypeptide of 25,457 daltons. In vitro transcription of the λHB''-1 cDNA insert and subsequent translation resulted in a protein product with the molecular size of the B'' protein. These data demonstrate that clone λHB''-1 contains the complete coding sequence of this antigen. The deduced polypeptide sequence contains three very hydrophilic regions that might constitute RNA binding sites and/or antigenic determinants. These findings might have implications both for the understanding of the pathogenesis of rheumatic diseases as well as for the elucidation of the biological function of autoimmune antigens

  15. Purification of Single-Stranded cDNA Based on RNA Degradation Treatment and Adsorption Chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trujillo-Esquivel, Elías; Franco, Bernardo; Flores-Martínez, Alberto; Ponce-Noyola, Patricia; Mora-Montes, Héctor M

    2016-08-02

    Analysis of gene expression is a common research tool to study networks controlling gene expression, the role of genes with unknown function, and environmentally induced responses of organisms. Most of the analytical tools used to analyze gene expression rely on accurate cDNA synthesis and quantification to obtain reproducible and quantifiable results. Thus far, most commercial kits for isolation and purification of cDNA target double-stranded molecules, which do not accurately represent the abundance of transcripts. In the present report, we provide a simple and fast method to purify single-stranded cDNA, exhibiting high purity and yield. This method is based on the treatment with RNase H and RNase A after cDNA synthesis, followed by separation in silica spin-columns and ethanol precipitation. In addition, our method avoids the use of DNase I to eliminate genomic DNA from RNA preparations, which improves cDNA yield. As a case report, our method proved to be useful in the purification of single-stranded cDNA from the pathogenic fungus Sporothrix schenckii.

  16. RNA polymerase gate loop guides the nontemplate DNA strand in transcription complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    NandyMazumdar, Monali; Nedialkov, Yuri; Svetlov, Dmitri; Sevostyanova, Anastasia; Belogurov, Georgiy A; Artsimovitch, Irina

    2016-12-27

    Upon RNA polymerase (RNAP) binding to a promoter, the σ factor initiates DNA strand separation and captures the melted nontemplate DNA, whereas the core enzyme establishes interactions with the duplex DNA in front of the active site that stabilize initiation complexes and persist throughout elongation. Among many core RNAP elements that participate in these interactions, the β' clamp domain plays the most prominent role. In this work, we investigate the role of the β gate loop, a conserved and essential structural element that lies across the DNA channel from the clamp, in transcription regulation. The gate loop was proposed to control DNA loading during initiation and to interact with NusG-like proteins to lock RNAP in a closed, processive state during elongation. We show that the removal of the gate loop has large effects on promoter complexes, trapping an unstable intermediate in which the RNAP contacts with the nontemplate strand discriminator region and the downstream duplex DNA are not yet fully established. We find that although RNAP lacking the gate loop displays moderate defects in pausing, transcript cleavage, and termination, it is fully responsive to the transcription elongation factor NusG. Together with the structural data, our results support a model in which the gate loop, acting in concert with initiation or elongation factors, guides the nontemplate DNA in transcription complexes, thereby modulating their regulatory properties.

  17. The content of DNA and RNA in microparticles released by Jurkat and HL-60 cells undergoing in vitro apoptosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reich, Charles F.; Pisetsky, David S.

    2009-01-01

    Microparticles are small membrane-bound vesicles that are released from apoptotic cells during blebbing. These particles contain DNA and RNA and display important functional activities, including immune system activation. Furthermore, nucleic acids inside the particle can be analyzed as biomarkers in a variety of disease states. To elucidate the nature of microparticle nucleic acids, DNA and RNA released in microparticles from the Jurkat T and HL-60 promyelocytic cell lines undergoing apoptosis in vitro were studied. Microparticles were isolated from culture media by differential centrifugation and characterized by flow cytometry and molecular approaches. In these particles, DNA showed laddering by gel electrophoresis and was present in a form that allowed direct binding by a monoclonal anti-DNA antibody, suggesting antigen accessibility even without fixation. Analysis of RNA by gel electrophoresis showed intact 18s and 28s ribosomal RNA bands, although lower molecular bands consistent with 28s ribosomal RNA degradation products were also present. Particles also contained messenger RNA as shown by RT-PCR amplification of sequences for β-actin and GAPDH. In addition, gel electrophoresis showed the presence of low molecular weight RNA in the size range of microRNA. Together, these results indicate that microparticles from apoptotic Jurkat and HL-60 cells contain diverse nucleic acid species, indicating translocation of both nuclear and cytoplasmic DNA and RNA as particle release occurs during death

  18. A non-heme iron-mediated chemical demethylation in DNA and RNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Chengqi; Yang, Cai-Guang; He, Chuan

    2009-04-21

    DNA methylation is arguably one of the most important chemical signals in biology. However, aberrant DNA methylation can lead to cytotoxic or mutagenic consequences. A DNA repair protein in Escherichia coli, AlkB, corrects some of the unwanted methylations of DNA bases by a unique oxidative demethylation in which the methyl carbon is liberated as formaldehyde. The enzyme also repairs exocyclic DNA lesions--that is, derivatives in which the base is augmented with an additional heterocyclic subunit--by a similar mechanism. Two proteins in humans that are homologous to AlkB, ABH2 and ABH3, repair the same spectrum of lesions; another human homologue of AlkB, FTO, is linked to obesity. In this Account, we describe our studies of AlkB, ABH2, and ABH3, including our development of a general strategy to trap homogeneous protein-DNA complexes through active-site disulfide cross-linking. AlkB uses a non-heme mononuclear iron(II) and the cofactors 2-ketoglutarate (2KG) and dioxygen to effect oxidative demethylation of the DNA base lesions 1-methyladenine (1-meA), 3-methylcytosine (3-meC), 1-methylguanine (1-meG), and 3-methylthymine (3-meT). ABH3, like AlkB, works better on single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) and is capable of repairing damaged bases in RNA. Conversely, ABH2 primarily repairs lesions in double-stranded DNA (dsDNA); it is the main housekeeping enzyme that protects the mammalian genome from 1-meA base damage. The AlkB-family proteins have moderate affinities for their substrates and bind DNA in a non-sequence-specific manner. Knowing that these proteins flip the damaged base out from the duplex DNA and insert it into the active site for further processing, we first engineered a disulfide cross-link in the active site to stabilize the Michaelis complex. Based on the detailed structural information afforded by the active-site cross-linked structures, we can readily install a cross-link away from the active site to obtain the native-like structures of these complexes

  19. Hybrid DNA i-motif: Aminoethylprolyl-PNA (pC5) enhance the stability of DNA (dC5) i-motif structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gade, Chandrasekhar Reddy; Sharma, Nagendra K

    2017-12-15

    This report describes the synthesis of C-rich sequence, cytosine pentamer, of aep-PNA and its biophysical studies for the formation of hybrid DNA:aep-PNAi-motif structure with DNA cytosine pentamer (dC 5 ) under acidic pH conditions. Herein, the CD/UV/NMR/ESI-Mass studies strongly support the formation of stable hybrid DNA i-motif structure with aep-PNA even near acidic conditions. Hence aep-PNA C-rich sequence cytosine could be considered as potential DNA i-motif stabilizing agents in vivo conditions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Synthesis of DNA block copolymers with extended nucleic acid segments by enzymatic ligation : cut and paste large hybrid architectures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ayaz, Meryem S.; Kwak, Minseok; Alemdaroglu, Fikri E.; Wang, Jie; Berger, Ruediger; Herrmann, Andreas; Berger, Rüdiger

    2011-01-01

    Ultra-high molecular weight DNA/polymer hybrid materials were prepared employing molecular biology techniques. Nucleic acid restriction and ligation enzymes were used to generate linear DNA di- and triblock copolymers that contain up to thousands of base pairs in the DNA segments.

  1. Elevated levels of urinary markers of oxidatively generated DNA and RNA damage in bipolar disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munkholm, Klaus; Poulsen, Henrik Enghusen; Kessing, Lars Vedel

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The pathophysiological mechanisms underlying bipolar disorder and its multi-system nature are unclear. Oxidatively generated damage to nucleosides has been demonstrated in metabolic disorders; however, the extent to which this occurs in bipolar disorder in vivo is unknown. We...... investigated oxidatively generated damage to DNA and RNA in patients with bipolar disorder and its relationship with the affective phase compared with healthy control subjects. METHODS: Urinary excretion of 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-oxodG) and 8-oxo-7,8-dihydroguanosine (8-oxoGuo), markers...... of oxidatively generated DNA and RNA damage, respectively, was measured in 37 rapid cycling patients with bipolar disorder and in 40 age- and gender-matched healthy control subjects. Employing a longitudinal design, repeated measurements of both markers were evaluated in various affective phases in patients...

  2. Association between Urinary Excretion of Cortisol and Markers of Oxidatively Damaged DNA and RNA in Humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joergensen, Anders; Broedbaek, Kasper; Weimann, Allan

    2011-01-01

    Chronic psychological stress is associated with accelerated aging, but the underlying biological mechanisms are not known. Prolonged elevations of the stress hormone cortisol is suspected to play a critical role. Through its actions, cortisol may potentially induce oxidatively generated damage...... to cellular constituents such as DNA and RNA, a phenomenon which has been implicated in aging processes. We investigated the relationship between 24 h excretion of urinary cortisol and markers of oxidatively generated DNA and RNA damage, 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2'-deoxyguanosine and 8-oxo-7,8-dihydroguanosine......, in a sample of 220 elderly men and women (age 65 - 83 years). We found a robust association between the excretion of cortisol and the oxidation markers (R(2)¿=¿0.15, P...

  3. Detection and quantitative analysis of actin mRNA by in situ hybridization with an oligodeoxynucleotide probe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taneja, K.; Singer, R.

    1987-01-01

    In situ hybridization is a useful method for localizing specific nucleic acid sequences intracellularly and for studying regulation of gene expression. Recently synthetic oligonucleotides have been successfully used as probes in this technique. Since they can be made easily to specific nucleic acid regions, they may be the best approach for analysis of a gene family of highly conserved sequences. They have analyzed these probes for the development of an in situ hybridization method. Oligonucleotides were made to different regions of chick beta-actin mRNA and used for detection of these sequences in a culture of chicken fibroblasts and myoblasts. They found that synthetic DNAs have different efficiencies of hybridization, indicating that not all target sequences are equivalent. They have investigated in detail a particular probe to the actin mRNA coding region and have optimized hybridization parameters. When hybridization was quantitated it was found that an oligonucleotide end labelled with 35 S or 32 P was capable of detecting several thousand messages per cell with a signal-to-noise ratio of 10:1. In situ hybridization confirmed the specificity of the hybridization as well as the background level. Increase in the number of oligonucleotides used should increase the signal-to-noise ratio-proportionately. Under particular circumstances the specificity of oligonucleotides make them an important reagent for in situ hybridization

  4. Immobilization/hybridization of amino-modified DNA on plasma-polymerized allyl chloride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Zhihong; Feng Chuanliang

    2007-01-01

    The present work describes the fabrication and characterization of chloride-derivatized polymer coatings prepared by continuous wave (cw) plasma polymerization as adhesion layers in DNA immobilization/hybridization. The stability of plasma-polymerized allyl chloride (ppAC) in H 2 O was characterized by variation of the thickness of polymer films and its wettability was examined by water contact angle technique. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) were used to study polymer matrix properties and oligonucleotide/DNA binding interaction. With the same carrier gas rate and process pressure, plasma polymers deposited at different input powers show various comparable immobilization properties; nevertheless, low input power plasma-polymerized films gives a lower sensitivity toward DNA binding than that from high input power plasma-deposited films. The following DNA immobilization on chloride-functionalized surfaces was found dependence on the macromolecular architecture of the plasma films. The hybridization between probe DNA and total mismatch target DNA shows no non-specific adsorption between target and ppAC

  5. Direct immobilization and hybridization of DNA on group III nitride semiconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu Xiaobin; Jindal, Vibhu; Shahedipour-Sandvik, Fatemeh; Bergkvist, Magnus [College of Nanoscale Science and Engineering, University at Albany (SUNY), 255 Fuller Road, Albany, NY 12203 (United States); Cady, Nathaniel C. [College of Nanoscale Science and Engineering, University at Albany (SUNY), 255 Fuller Road, Albany, NY 12203 (United States)], E-mail: ncady@uamail.albany.edu

    2009-03-15

    A key concern for group III-nitride high electron mobility transistor (HEMT) biosensors is the anchoring of specific capture molecules onto the gate surface. To this end, a direct immobilization strategy was developed to attach single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) to AlGaN surfaces using simple printing techniques without the need for cross-linking agents or complex surface pre-functionalization procedures. Immobilized DNA molecules were stably attached to the AlGaN surfaces and were able to withstand a range of pH and ionic strength conditions. The biological activity of surface-immobilized probe DNA was also retained, as demonstrated by sequence-specific hybridization experiments. Probe hybridization with target ssDNA could be detected by PicoGreen fluorescent dye labeling with a minimum detection limit of 2 nM. These experiments demonstrate a simple and effective immobilization approach for attaching nucleic acids to AlGaN surfaces which can further be used for the development of HEMT-based DNA biosensors.

  6. Detection of DNA hybridization based on SnO2 nanomaterial enhanced fluorescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gu Cuiping; Huang Jiarui; Ni Ning; Li Minqiang; Liu Jinhuai

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, enhanced fluorescence emissions were firstly investigated based on SnO 2 nanomaterial, and its application in the detection of DNA hybridization was also demonstrated. The microarray of SnO 2 nanomaterial was fabricated by the vapour phase transport method catalyzed by patterned Au nanoparticles on a silicon substrate. A probe DNA was immobilized on the substrate with patterned SnO 2 nanomaterial, respectively, by covalent and non-covalent linking schemes. When a fluorophore labelled target DNA was hybridized with a probe DNA on the substrate, fluorescence emissions were only observed on the surface of SnO 2 nanomaterial, which indicated the property of enhancing fluorescence signals from the SnO 2 nanomaterial. By comparing the different fluorescence images from covalent and non-covalent linking schemes, the covalent method was confirmed to be more effective for immobilizing a probe DNA. With the combined use of SnO 2 nanomaterial and the covalent linking scheme, the target DNA could be detected at a very low concentration of 10 fM. And the stability of SnO 2 nanomaterial under the experimental conditions was also compared with silicon nanowires. The findings strongly suggested that SnO 2 nanomaterial could be extensively applied in detections of biological samples with enhancing fluorescence property and high stability

  7. Thermodynamic framework to assess low abundance DNA mutation detection by hybridization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willems, Hanny; Jacobs, An; Hadiwikarta, Wahyu Wijaya; Venken, Tom; Valkenborg, Dirk; Van Roy, Nadine; Vandesompele, Jo; Hooyberghs, Jef

    2017-01-01

    The knowledge of genomic DNA variations in patient samples has a high and increasing value for human diagnostics in its broadest sense. Although many methods and sensors to detect or quantify these variations are available or under development, the number of underlying physico-chemical detection principles is limited. One of these principles is the hybridization of sample target DNA versus nucleic acid probes. We introduce a novel thermodynamics approach and develop a framework to exploit the specific detection capabilities of nucleic acid hybridization, using generic principles applicable to any platform. As a case study, we detect point mutations in the KRAS oncogene on a microarray platform. For the given platform and hybridization conditions, we demonstrate the multiplex detection capability of hybridization and assess the detection limit using thermodynamic considerations; DNA containing point mutations in a background of wild type sequences can be identified down to at least 1% relative concentration. In order to show the clinical relevance, the detection capabilities are confirmed on challenging formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded clinical tumor samples. This enzyme-free detection framework contains the accuracy and efficiency to screen for hundreds of mutations in a single run with many potential applications in molecular diagnostics and the field of personalised medicine. PMID:28542229

  8. Duplication and Loss of Function of Genes Encoding RNA Polymerase III Subunit C4 Causes Hybrid Incompatibility in Rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giao Ngoc Nguyen

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Reproductive barriers are commonly observed in both animals and plants, in which they maintain species integrity and contribute to speciation. This report shows that a combination of loss-of-function alleles at two duplicated loci, DUPLICATED GAMETOPHYTIC STERILITY 1 (DGS1 on chromosome 4 and DGS2 on chromosome 7, causes pollen sterility in hybrid progeny derived from an interspecific cross between cultivated rice, Oryza sativa, and an Asian annual wild rice, O. nivara. Male gametes carrying the DGS1 allele from O. nivara (DGS1-nivaras and the DGS2 allele from O. sativa (DGS2-T65s were sterile, but female gametes carrying the same genotype were fertile. We isolated the causal gene, which encodes a protein homologous to DNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RNAP III subunit C4 (RPC4. RPC4 facilitates the transcription of 5S rRNAs and tRNAs. The loss-of-function alleles at DGS1-nivaras and DGS2-T65s were caused by weak or nonexpression of RPC4 and an absence of RPC4, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that gene duplication of RPC4 at DGS1 and DGS2 was a recent event that occurred after divergence of the ancestral population of Oryza from other Poaceae or during diversification of AA-genome species.

  9. New insights into the promoterless transcription of DNA coligo templates by RNA polymerase III.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lama, Lodoe; Seidl, Christine I; Ryan, Kevin

    2014-01-01

    Chemically synthesized DNA can carry small RNA sequence information but converting that information into small RNA is generally thought to require large double-stranded promoters in the context of plasmids, viruses and genes. We previously found evidence that circularized oligodeoxynucleotides (coligos) containing certain sequences and secondary structures can template the synthesis of small RNA by RNA polymerase III in vitro and in human cells. By using immunoprecipitated RNA polymerase III we now report corroborating evidence that this enzyme is the sole polymerase responsible for coligo transcription. The immobilized polymerase enabled experiments showing that coligo transcripts can be formed through transcription termination without subsequent 3' end trimming. To better define the determinants of productive transcription, a structure-activity relationship study was performed using over 20 new coligos. The results show that unpaired nucleotides in the coligo stem facilitate circumtranscription, but also that internal loops and bulges should be kept small to avoid secondary transcription initiation sites. A polymerase termination sequence embedded in the double-stranded region of a hairpin-encoding coligo stem can antagonize transcription. Using lessons learned from new and old coligos, we demonstrate how to convert poorly transcribed coligos into productive templates. Our findings support the possibility that coligos may prove useful as chemically synthesized vectors for the ectopic expression of small RNA in human cells.

  10. RNA:DNA Ratio and Other Nucleic Acid Derived Indices in Marine Ecology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Chícharo

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Some of most used indicators in marine ecology are nucleic acid-derived indices. They can be divided by target levels in three groups: 1 at the organism level as ecophysiologic indicators, indicators such as RNA:DNA ratios, DNA:dry weight and RNA:protein, 2 at the population level, indicators such as growth rate, starvation incidence or fisheries impact indicators, and 3 at the community level, indicators such as trophic interactions, exergy indices and prey identification. The nucleic acids derived indices, especially RNA:DNA ratio, have been applied with success as indicators of nutritional condition, well been and growth in marine organisms. They are also useful as indicators of natural or anthropogenic impacts in marine population and communities, such as upwelling or dredge fisheries, respectively. They can help in understanding important issues of marine ecology such as trophic interactions in marine environment, fish and invertebrate recruitment failure and biodiversity changes, without laborious work of counting, measuring and identification of small marine organisms. Besides the objective of integrate nucleic acid derived indices across levels of organization, the paper will also include a general characterization of most used nucleic acid derived indices in marine ecology and also advantages and limitations of them. We can conclude that using indicators, such RNA:DNA ratios and other nucleic acids derived indices concomitantly with organism and ecosystems measures of responses to climate change (distribution, abundance, activity, metabolic rate, survival will allow for the development of more rigorous and realistic predictions of the effects of anthropogenic climate change on marine systems.

  11. Recent Findings Concerning PAMAM Dendrimer Conjugates with Cyclodextrins as Carriers of DNA and RNA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keiichi Motoyama

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available We have evaluated the potential use of various polyamidoamine (PAMAM dendrimer [dendrimer, generation (G 2-4] conjugates with cyclodextrins (CyDs as novel DNA and RNA carriers. Among the various dendrimer conjugates with CyDs, the dendrimer (G3 conjugate with α-CyD having an average degree of substitution (DS of 2.4 [α-CDE (G3, DS2] displayed remarkable properties as DNA, shRNA and siRNA delivery carriers through the sensor function of α-CDEs toward nucleic acid drugs, cell surface and endosomal membranes. In an attempt to develop cell-specific gene transfer carriers, we prepared sugar-appended α-CDEs. Of the various sugar-appended α-CDEs prepared, galactose- or mannose-appended α-CDEs provided superior gene transfer activity to α-CDE in various cells, but not cell-specific gene delivery ability. However, lactose-appended α-CDE [Lac-α-CDE (G2] was found to possess asialoglycoprotein receptor (AgpR-mediated hepatocyte-selective gene transfer activity, both in vitro and in vivo. Most recently, we prepared folate-poly(ethylene glycol-appended α-CDE [Fol-PαC (G3] and revealed that Fol-PαC (G3 imparted folate receptor (FR-mediated cancer cell-selective gene transfer activity. Consequently, α-CDEs bearing integrated, multifunctional molecules may possess the potential to be novel carriers for DNA, shRNA and siRNA.

  12. Human cDNA mapping using fluorescence in situ hybridization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korenberg, J.R.

    1993-03-04

    Genetic mapping is approached using the techniques of high resolution fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). This technology and the results of its application are designed to rapidly generate whole genome as tool box of expressed sequence to speed the identification of human disease genes. The results of this study are intended to dovetail with and to link the results of existing technologies for creating backbone YAC and genetic maps. In the first eight months, this approach generated 60--80% of the expressed sequence map, the remainder expected to be derived through more long-term, labor-intensive, regional chromosomal gene searches or sequencing. The laboratory has made significant progress in the set-up phase, in mapping fetal and adult brain and other cDNAs, in testing a model system for directly linking genetic and physical maps using FISH with small fragments, in setting up a database, and in establishing the validity and throughput of the system.

  13. Protein, RNA, and DNA synthesis in cultures of skin fibroblasts from healthy subjects and patients with rheumatic diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abakumova, O.Y.; Kutsenko, N.G.; Panasyuk, A.F.

    1985-01-01

    To study the mechanism of the lasting disturbance of fibroblast function, protein, RNA and DNA synthesis was investigated in skin fibroblasts from patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and systemic scleroderma (SS). The labeled precursors used to analyze synthesis of protein, RNA, and DNA were 14 C-protein hydrolysate, ( 14 C)uridine, and ( 14 C) thymidine. Stimulation was determined by measuring incorporation of ( 14 C)proline into fibroblast proteins. During analysis of stability of fast-labeled RNA tests were carried out to discover whether all measurable radioactivity belonged to RNA molecules

  14. Heterogeneity of rat tropoelastin mRNA revealed by cDNA cloning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pierce, R.A.; Deak, S.B.; Stolle, C.A.; Boyd, C.D.

    1990-01-01

    A λgt11 library constructed from poly(A+) RNA isolated from aortic tissue of neonatal rats was screened for rat tropoelastin cDNAs. The first, screen, utilizing a human tropoelastin cDNA clone, provided rat tropoelastin cDNAs spanning 2.3 kb of carboxy-terminal coding sequence and extended into the 3'-untranslated region. A subsequent screen using a 5' rat tropoelastin cDNA clone yielded clones extending into the amino-terminal signal sequence coding region. Sequence analysis of these clones has provided the complete derived amino acid sequence of rat tropoelastin and allowed alignment and comparison with published bovine cDNA sequence. While the overall structure of rat tropoelastin is similar to bovine sequence, numerous substitutions, deletions, and insertions demonstrated considerable heterogeneity between species. In particular, the pentapeptide repeat VPGVG, characteristic of all tropoelastins analyzed to date, is replaced in rat tropoelastin by a repeating pentapeptide, IPGVG. The hexapeptide repeat VGVAPG, the bovine elastin receptor binding peptide, is not encoded by rat tropoelastin cDNAs. Variations in coding sequence between rat tropoelastin CDNA clones were also found which may represent mRNA heterogeneity produced by alternative splicing of the rat tropoelastin pre-mRNA

  15. A non-isotopic assay uses bromouridine and RNA synthesis to detect DNA damage responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasegawa, Mayu; Iwai, Shigenori; Kuraoka, Isao

    2010-06-17

    Individuals with inherited xeroderma pigmentosum (XP) disorder and Cockayne syndrome (CS) are deficient in nucleotide excision repair and experience hypersensitivity to sunlight. Although there are several diagnostic assays for these disorders, the recovery of RNA synthesis (RRS) assay that can discriminate between XP cells and CS cells is very laborious. Here, we report on a novel non-radioisotope RRS assay that uses bromouridine (a uridine analog) as an alternative to (3)H-uridine. This assay can easily detect RNA polymerase I transcription in nucleoli and RNA polymerase II transcription in nuclei. The non-RI RSS assay also can rapidly detect normal RRS activity in HeLa cells. Thus, this assay is useful as a novel and easy technique for CS diagnosis. Because RRS is thought to be related to transcription-coupled DNA repair, which is triggered by the blockage of transcriptional machinery by DNA lesions, this assay may be of use for analysis of DNA repair, transcription, and/or genetic toxicity. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Ionization and fragmentation of DNA-RNA bases: a density functional theory study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadr-Arani, Leila

    2014-01-01

    Ionizing radiation (IR) cross human tissue, deposit energy and dissipate fragmenting molecules. The resulting fragments may be highlighted by mass spectrometry. Despite the amount of information obtained experimentally by the interpretation of the mass spectrum, experience alone cannot answer all the questions of the mechanism of fragmentation of DNA/RNA bases and a theoretical study is a complement to this information. A theoretical study allows us to know the weakest bonds in the molecule during ionization and thus may help to provide mechanisms of dissociation and produced fragments. The purpose of this work, using the DFT with the PBE functional, is to study the ionization and fragmentation mechanisms of DNA/RNA bases (Uracil, Cytosine, Adenine and Guanine) and to identify the cations corresponding to each peak in mass spectra. For all RNA bases, the retro Diels-Alder reaction (elimination of HNCO or NCO*) is a major route for dissociating, with the exception of adenine for which there is no atom oxygen in its structure. Loss of NH 3 (NH 2 *) molecule is another common way to all bases that contain amine group. The possibility of the loss of hydrogen from the cations is also investigated, as well as the dissociation of dehydrogenated cations and protonated uracil. This work shows the interest of providing DFT calculation in the interpretation of mass spectra of DNA bases. (author)

  17. Effective plasmid DNA and small interfering RNA delivery to diseased human brain microvascular endothelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slanina, H; Schmutzler, M; Christodoulides, M; Kim, K S; Schubert-Unkmeir, A

    2012-01-01

    Expression of exogenous DNA or small interfering RNA (siRNA) in vitro is significantly affected by the particular delivery system utilized. In this study, we evaluated the transfection efficiency of plasmid DNA and siRNA into human brain microvascular endothelial cells (HBMEC) and meningioma cells, which constitute the blood-cerebrospinal fluid barrier, a target of meningitis-causing pathogens. Chemical transfection methods and various lipofection reagents including Lipofectamin™, FuGene™, or jetPRIME®, as well as physical transfection methods and electroporation techniques were applied. To monitor the transfection efficiencies, HBMEC and meningioma cells were transfected with the reporter plasmid pTagGFP2-actin vector, and efficiency of transfection was estimated by fluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry. We established protocols based on electroporation using Cell Line Nucleofector® Kit V with the Amaxa® Nucleofector® II system from Lonza and the Neon® Transfection system from Invitrogen resulting in up to 41 and 82% green fluorescent protein-positive HBMEC, respectively. Optimal transfection solutions, pulse programs and length were evaluated. We furthermore demonstrated that lipofection is an efficient method to transfect meningioma cells with a transfection efficiency of about 81%. Finally, we applied the successful electroporation protocols to deliver synthetic siRNA to HBMEC and analyzed the role of the actin-binding protein cortactin in Neisseria meningitidis pathogenesis. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  18. DNA methyltransferase homologue TRDMT1 in Plasmodium falciparum specifically methylates endogenous aspartic acid tRNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govindaraju, Gayathri; Jabeena, C A; Sethumadhavan, Devadathan Valiyamangalath; Rajaram, Nivethika; Rajavelu, Arumugam

    2017-10-01

    In eukaryotes, cytosine methylation regulates diverse biological processes such as gene expression, development and maintenance of genomic integrity. However, cytosine methylation and its functions in pathogenic apicomplexan protozoans remain enigmatic. To address this, here we investigated the presence of cytosine methylation in the nucleic acids of the protozoan Plasmodium falciparum. Interestingly, P. falciparum has TRDMT1, a conserved homologue of DNA methyltransferase DNMT2. However, we found that TRDMT1 did not methylate DNA, in vitro. We demonstrate that TRDMT1 methylates cytosine in the endogenous aspartic acid tRNA of P. falciparum. Through RNA bisulfite sequencing, we mapped the position of 5-methyl cytosine in aspartic acid tRNA and found methylation only at C38 position. P. falciparum proteome has significantly higher aspartic acid content and a higher proportion of proteins with poly aspartic acid repeats than other apicomplexan pathogenic protozoans. Proteins with such repeats are functionally important, with significant roles in host-pathogen interactions. Therefore, TRDMT1 mediated C38 methylation of aspartic acid tRNA might play a critical role by translational regulation of important proteins and modulate the pathogenicity of the malarial parasite. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Hybrid Origins of Citrus Varieties Inferred from DNA Marker Analysis of Nuclear and Organelle Genomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitajima, Akira; Nonaka, Keisuke; Yoshioka, Terutaka; Ohta, Satoshi; Goto, Shingo; Toyoda, Atsushi; Fujiyama, Asao; Mochizuki, Takako; Nagasaki, Hideki; Kaminuma, Eli; Nakamura, Yasukazu

    2016-01-01

    Most indigenous citrus varieties are assumed to be natural hybrids, but their parentage has so far been determined in only a few cases because of their wide genetic diversity and the low transferability of DNA markers. Here we infer the parentage of indigenous citrus varieties using simple sequence repeat and indel markers developed from various citrus genome sequence resources. Parentage tests with 122 known hybrids using the selected DNA markers certify their transferability among those hybrids. Identity tests confirm that most variant strains are selected mutants, but we find four types of kunenbo (Citrus nobilis) and three types of tachibana (Citrus tachibana) for which we suggest different origins. Structure analysis with DNA markers that are in Hardy–Weinberg equilibrium deduce three basic taxa coinciding with the current understanding of citrus ancestors. Genotyping analysis of 101 indigenous citrus varieties with 123 selected DNA markers infers the parentages of 22 indigenous citrus varieties including Satsuma, Temple, and iyo, and single parents of 45 indigenous citrus varieties, including kunenbo, C. ichangensis, and Ichang lemon by allele-sharing and parentage tests. Genotyping analysis of chloroplast and mitochondrial genomes using 11 DNA markers classifies their cytoplasmic genotypes into 18 categories and deduces the combination of seed and pollen parents. Likelihood ratio analysis verifies the inferred parentages with significant scores. The reconstructed genealogy identifies 12 types of varieties consisting of Kishu, kunenbo, yuzu, koji, sour orange, dancy, kobeni mikan, sweet orange, tachibana, Cleopatra, willowleaf mandarin, and pummelo, which have played pivotal roles in the occurrence of these indigenous varieties. The inferred parentage of the indigenous varieties confirms their hybrid origins, as found by recent studies. PMID:27902727

  20. Magnetoresistive sensors for measurements of DNA hybridization kinetics - effect of TINA modifications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rizzi, Giovanni; Dufva, Martin; Hansen, Mikkel Fougt

    2017-01-01

    We present the use of magnetoresistive sensors integrated in a microfluidic system for real-time studies of the hybridization kinetics of DNA labeled with magnetic nanoparticles to an array of surface-tethered probes. The nanoparticles were magnetized by the magnetic field from the sensor current....... A local negative reference ensured that only the specific binding signal was measured. Analysis of the real-time hybridization using a two-compartment model yielded both the association and dissociation constants kon, and koff. The effect of probe modifications with ortho-Twisted Intercalating Nucleic...

  1. Direct RNA detection without nucleic acid purification and PCR: Combining sandwich hybridization with signal amplification based on branched hybridization chain reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yao; Zheng, Zhi

    2016-05-15

    We have developed a convenient, robust and low-cost RNA detection system suitable for high-throughput applications. This system uses a highly specific sandwich hybridization to capture target RNA directly onto solid support, followed by on-site signal amplification via 2-dimensional, branched hybridizing chain polymerization through toehold-mediated strand displacement reaction. The assay uses SYBR Green to detect targets at concentrations as low as 1 pM, without involving nucleic acid purification or any enzymatic reaction, using ordinary oligonucleotides without modification or labeling. The system was demonstrated in the detection of malaria RNA in blood and GAPDH gene expression in cell lysate. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. A hybrid swarm population of Pinus densiflora x P. sylvestris hybrids inferred from sequence analysis of chloroplast DNA and morphological characters

    Science.gov (United States)

    To confirm a hybrid swarm population of Pinus densiflora × P. sylvestris in Jilin, China and to study whether shoot apex morphology of 4-year old seedlings can be correlated with the sequence of a chloroplast DNA simple sequence repeat marker (cpDNA SSR), needles and seeds from P. densiflora, P. syl...

  3. Temporal aspects of DNA and RNA synthesis during human immunodeficiency virus infection: Evidence for differential gene expression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Sunyoung; Baltimore, D.; Byrn, R.; Groopman, J.

    1989-01-01

    The kinetics of retroviral DNA and RNA synthesis are parameters vital to understanding viral growth, especially for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), which encodes several of its own regulatory genes. The authors have established a single-cycle growth condition for HIV in H9 cells, a human CD4 + lymphocyte line. The full-length viral linear DNA is first detectable by 4 h postinfection. During a one-step growth of HIV, amounts of viral DNA gradually increase until 8 to 12 h postinfection and then decrease. The copy number of unintegrated viral DNA is not extraordinarily high even at its peak. Most strikingly, there is a temporal program of RNA accumulation: the earliest RNA is greatly enriched in the 2-kilobase subgenomic mRNA species, while the level of 9.2-kilobase RNA which is both genomic RNA and mRNA remains low until after 24 h of infection. Virus production begins at about 24 h postinfection. Thus, viral DNA synthesis is as rapid as for other retroviruses, but viral RNA synthesis involves temporal alteration in the species that accumulate, presumably as a consequence of viral regulatory genes

  4. Inhibition of Xenograft tumor growth by gold nanoparticle-DNA oligonucleotide conjugates-assisted delivery of BAX mRNA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji-Hyun Yeom

    Full Text Available Use of non-biological agents for mRNA delivery into living systems in order to induce heterologous expression of functional proteins may provide more advantages than the use of DNA and/or biological vectors for delivery. However, the low efficiency of mRNA delivery into live animals, using non-biological systems, has hampered the use of mRNA as a therapeutic molecule. Here, we show that gold nanoparticle-DNA oligonucleotide (AuNP-DNA conjugates can serve as universal vehicles for more efficient delivery of mRNA into human cells, as well as into xenograft tumors generated in mice. Injections of BAX mRNA loaded on AuNP-DNA conjugates into xenograft tumors resulted in highly efficient mRNA delivery. The delivered mRNA directed the efficient production of biologically functional BAX protein, a pro-apoptotic factor, consequently inhibiting tumor growth. These results demonstrate that mRNA delivery by AuNP-DNA conjugates can serve as a new platform for the development of safe and efficient gene therapy.

  5. Neighboring genes for DNA-binding proteins rescue male sterility in Drosophila hybrids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liénard, Marjorie A; Araripe, Luciana O; Hartl, Daniel L

    2016-07-19

    Crosses between closely related animal species often result in male hybrids that are sterile, and the molecular and functional basis of genetic factors for hybrid male sterility is of great interest. Here, we report a molecular and functional analysis of HMS1, a region of 9.2 kb in chromosome 3 of Drosophila mauritiana, which results in virtually complete hybrid male sterility when homozygous in the genetic background of sibling species Drosophila simulans. The HMS1 region contains two strong candidate genes for the genetic incompatibility, agt and Taf1 Both encode unrelated DNA-binding proteins, agt for an alkyl-cysteine-S-alkyltransferase and Taf1 for a subunit of transcription factor TFIID that serves as a multifunctional transcriptional regulator. The contribution of each gene to hybrid male sterility was assessed by means of germ-line transformation, with constructs containing complete agt and Taf1 genomic sequences as well as various chimeric constructs. Both agt and Taf1 contribute about equally to HMS1 hybrid male sterility. Transgenes containing either locus rescue sterility in about one-half of the males, and among fertile males the number of offspring is in the normal range. This finding suggests compensatory proliferation of the rescued, nondysfunctional germ cells. Results with chimeric transgenes imply that the hybrid incompatibilities result from interactions among nucleotide differences residing along both agt and Taf1 Our results challenge a number of preliminary generalizations about the molecular and functional basis of hybrid male sterility, and strongly reinforce the role of DNA-binding proteins as a class of genes contributing to the maintenance of postzygotic reproductive isolation.

  6. Structures of RNA Polymerase Closed and Intermediate Complexes Reveal Mechanisms of DNA Opening and Transcription Initiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glyde, Robert; Ye, Fuzhou; Darbari, Vidya Chandran; Zhang, Nan; Buck, Martin; Zhang, Xiaodong

    2017-07-06

    Gene transcription is carried out by RNA polymerases (RNAPs). For transcription to occur, the closed promoter complex (RPc), where DNA is double stranded, must isomerize into an open promoter complex (RPo), where the DNA is melted out into a transcription bubble and the single-stranded template DNA is delivered to the RNAP active site. Using a bacterial RNAP containing the alternative σ 54 factor and cryoelectron microscopy, we determined structures of RPc and the activator-bound intermediate complex en route to RPo at 3.8 and 5.8 Å. Our structures show how RNAP-σ 54 interacts with promoter DNA to initiate the DNA distortions required for transcription bubble formation, and how the activator interacts with RPc, leading to significant conformational changes in RNAP and σ 54 that promote RPo formation. We propose that DNA melting is an active process initiated in RPc and that the RNAP conformations of intermediates are significantly different from that of RPc and RPo. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Sensitive electrochemical assaying of DNA methyltransferase activity based on mimic-hybridization chain reaction amplified strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Linqun; Liu, Yuanjian; Li, Ying; Zhao, Yuewu; Wei, Wei; Liu, Songqin

    2016-08-24

    A mimic-hybridization chain reaction (mimic-HCR) amplified strategy was proposed for sensitive electrochemically detection of DNA methylation and methyltransferase (MTase) activity In the presence of methylated DNA, DNA-gold nanoparticles (DNA-AuNPs) were captured on the electrode by sandwich-type assembly. It then triggered mimic-HCR of two hairpin probes to produce many long double-helix chains for numerous hexaammineruthenium (III) chloride ([Ru(NH3)6](3+), RuHex) inserting. As a result, the signal for electrochemically detection of DNA MTase activity could be amplified. If DNA was non-methylated, however, the sandwich-type assembly would not form because the short double-stranded DNAs (dsDNA) on the Au electrode could be cleaved and digested by restriction endonuclease HpaII (HapII) and exonuclease III (Exo III), resulting in the signal decrement. Based on this, an electrochemical approach for detection of M.SssI MTase activity with high sensitivity was developed. The linear range for M.SssI MTase activity was from 0.05 U mL(-1) to 10 U mL(-1), with a detection limit down to 0.03 U mL(-1). Moreover, this detecting strategy held great promise as an easy-to-use and highly sensitive method for other MTase activity and inhibition detection by exchanging the corresponding DNA sequence. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Protozoan ALKBH8 Oxygenases Display both DNA Repair and tRNA Modification Activities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zdżalik, Daria; Vågbø, Cathrine B; Kirpekar, Finn

    2014-01-01

    The ALKBH family of Fe(II) and 2-oxoglutarate dependent oxygenases comprises enzymes that display sequence homology to AlkB from E. coli, a DNA repair enzyme that uses an oxidative mechanism to dealkylate methyl and etheno adducts on the nucleobases. Humans have nine different ALKBH proteins, ALKBH......1-8 and FTO. Mammalian and plant ALKBH8 are tRNA hydroxylases targeting 5-methoxycarbonylmethyl-modified uridine (mcm5U) at the wobble position of tRNAGly(UCC). In contrast, the genomes of some bacteria encode a protein with strong sequence homology to ALKBH8, and robust DNA repair activity...... was previously demonstrated for one such protein. To further explore this apparent functional duality of the ALKBH8 proteins, we have here enzymatically characterized a panel of such proteins, originating from bacteria, protozoa and mimivirus. All the enzymes showed DNA repair activity in vitro, but...

  9. Molecular approaches for forensic cell type identification: On mRNA, miRNA, DNA methylation and microbial markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sijen, Titia

    2015-09-01

    Human biological traces have the potential to present strong evidence for placing a suspect at a crime scene. In cases, the activity that led to deposition of an individual's cellular material is increasingly disputed, for which the identification of cell types could be crucial. This review aims to give an overview of the possibilities of the employment of mRNA, miRNA, DNA methylation and microbial markers for tissue identification in a forensic context. The biological background that renders these markers tissue-specificity is considered, as this can affect data interpretation. Furthermore, the forensic relevance of inferring certain cell types is discussed, as are the various methodologies that can be applied. Forensic stains can carry minute amounts of cell material that may be degraded or polluted and most likely cell material of multiple sources will be present. The interpretational challenges that are imposed by this compromised state will be discussed as well. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. DNA origami/gold nanorod hybrid nanostructures for the circumvention of drug resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Linlin; Jiang, Qiao; Liu, Jianbing; Li, Na; Liu, Qing; Dai, Luru; Gao, Yuan; Liu, Weili; Liu, Dongsheng; Ding, Baoquan

    2017-06-14

    We herein demonstrate that DNA origami can work as a multifunctional platform integrating a chemotherapeutic drug (doxorubicin), gold nanorods and a tumour-specific aptamer MUC-1, to realize the effective circumvention of drug resistance. Doxorubicin (DOX) was loaded efficiently onto DNA origami through base pair intercalation and surface-modified gold nanorods (AuNRs) were assembled onto the DNA origami through DNA hybridization. Due to the active targeting effect of the assembled aptamers, the multifunctional nanostructures achieved increased cellular internalization of DOX and AuNRs. Upon near-infrared (NIR) laser irradiation, the P-glycoprotein (multidrug resistance pump) expression of multidrug resistant MCF-7 (MCF-7/ADR) cells was down-regulated, achieving the synergistically chemotherapeutic (DOX) and photothermal (AuNRs) effects.

  11. dsRNA silencing of an R2R3-MYB transcription factor affects flower cell shape in a Dendrobium hybrid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Su-Ee; Schwarzacher, Trude; Othman, Rofina Yasmin; Harikrishna, Jennifer Ann

    2015-08-11

    The R2R3-MYB genes regulate pigmentation and morphogenesis of flowers, including flower and cell shape, and therefore have importance in the development of new varieties of orchids. However, new variety development is limited by the long breeding time required in orchids. In this study, we identified a cDNA, DhMYB1, that is expressed during flower development in a hybrid orchid, Dendrobium hybrida (Dendrobium bobby messina X Dendrobium chao phraya) then used the direct application of dsRNA to observe the effect of gene silencing on flower phenotype and floral epidermal cell shape. Flower bud development in the Dendrobium hybrid was characterised into seven stages and the time of meiosis was determined as between stages 3 to 5 when the bud is approximately half of the mature size. Scanning electron microscopy characterisation of adaxial epidermal cells of the flower perianth, showed that the petals and sepals each are divided into two distinct domains based on cell shape and size, while the labellum comprises seven domains. Thirty-two partial cDNA fragments representing R2R3-MYB gene sequences were isolated from D. hybrida. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that nine of the translated sequences were clustered with MYB sequences that are known to be involved in cell shape development and from these, DhMYB1 was selected for full length cDNA cloning and functional study. Direct application of a 430 bp dsRNA from the 3' region of DhMYB1 to emerging orchid flower buds reduced expression of DhMYB1 RNA compared with untreated control. Scanning electron microscopy of adaxial epidermal cells within domain one of the labellum of flowers treated with DhMYB1 dsRNA showed flattened epidermal cells whilst those of control flowers were conical. DhMYB1 is expressed throughout flower bud development and is involved in the development of the conical cell shape of the epidermal cells of the Dendrobium hybrida flower labellum. The direct application of dsRNA changed the phenotype of

  12. Voltammetric behavior of osmium-labeled DNA at mercury meniscus-modified solid amalgam electrodes. Detecting DNA hybridization

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Josypčuk, Bohdan; Fojta, Miroslav; Havran, Luděk; Heyrovský, Michael; Paleček, Emil

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 18, č. 2 (2006), s. 186-194 ISSN 1040-0397 R&D Projects: GA MPO 1H-PK/42; GA AV ČR IAA4004402; GA AV ČR KJB4004302; GA AV ČR IBS5004355 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40400503; CEZ:AV0Z50040507 Keywords : voltammetry * solid amalgam electrodes * DNA-osmium complex * hybridization * catalytic hydrogen evolution Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 2.444, year: 2006

  13. The objective of this program is to develop innovative DNA detection technologies to achieve fast microbial community assessment. The specific approaches are (1) to develop inexpensive and reliable sequence-proof hybridization DNA detection technology (2) to develop quantitative DNA hybridization technology for microbial community assessment and (3) to study the microbes which have demonstrated the potential to have nuclear waste bioremediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Chung H.

    2004-01-01

    The objective of this program is to develop innovative DNA detection technologies to achieve fast microbial community assessment. The specific approaches are (1) to develop inexpensive and reliable sequence-proof hybridization DNA detection technology (2) to develop quantitative DNA hybridization technology for microbial community assessment and (3) to study the microbes which have demonstrated the potential to have nuclear waste bioremediation

  14. Extraction of Total DNA and RNA from Marine Filter Samples and Generation of a cDNA as Universal Template for Marker Gene Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Dominik; Wemheuer, Franziska; Pfeiffer, Birgit; Wemheuer, Bernd

    2017-01-01

    Microbial communities play an important role in marine ecosystem processes. Although the number of studies targeting marker genes such as the 16S rRNA gene has been increased in the last few years, the vast majority of marine diversity is rather unexplored. Moreover, most studies focused on the entire bacterial community and thus disregarded active microbial community players. Here, we describe a detailed protocol for the simultaneous extraction of DNA and RNA from marine water samples and for the generation of cDNA from the isolated RNA which can be used as a universal template in various marker gene studies.

  15. "Multicolor" electrochemical labeling of DNA hybridization probes with osmium tetroxide complexes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Fojta, Miroslav; Kostečka, Pavel; Trefulka, Mojmír; Havran, Luděk; Paleček, Emil

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 79, č. 3 (2007), s. 1022-1029 ISSN 0003-2700 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA4004402; GA ČR(CZ) GA203/05/0043; GA ČR(CZ) GA203/04/1325; GA MPO(CZ) 1H-PK/42; GA MŠk(CZ) LC06035 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50040507 Keywords : DNA labeling * osmium tetroxide complexes * DNA hybridization Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 5.287, year: 2007

  16. Strong inverse correlation between microRNA-125b and human papillomavirus DNA in productive infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuovo, Gerard J; Wu, Xin; Volinia, Stefano; Yan, Fengting; di Leva, Gianpiero; Chin, Nena; Nicol, Alcina F; Jiang, Jinmai; Otterson, Gregory; Schmittgen, Thomas D; Croce, Carlo

    2010-09-01

    Infection by the human papillomavirus (HPV) is a cause of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) and cancer. microRNA (miRNA) in situ analysis of the transformation zone epithelia, the site of initial cervical HPV infection, showed that miRNAs let-7c, -99a, 26a, and 125b were the most abundantly expressed. In situ testing of CIN 1 showed a dramatic reduction in miR-125b expression in the koilocytes, the cytologic marker of productive HPV infection. A marked reduction in miR-125b was likewise observed in the HPV-infected cells of the condyloma acuminatum, verruca vulgaris, and epidermodysplasia verruciformis. Reverse transcriptase in situ polymerase chain reaction (PCR) showed that the pre-miRNA 125b was present in the koilocyte, suggesting direct inactivation of the mature miRNA. HEK cells transfected with only the antimiR-125b showed perinuclear halos equivalent to HPV-infected koilocytes. NIH 3T3 cells transfected with the HPV 16 full-length genome and mimetic miR-125b showed a marked reduction in viral DNA and protein synthesis by quantitative PCR and in situ-based analyses, respectively (P=0.002). Alternatively, cotransfection with anti-miR-125b and HPV 16 markedly increased HPV DNA (P=0.002). Sequence analyses showed strong homology between L2 of different HPV genotypes and miR-125b. Transfection with HPV 16 L2 resulted in a marked reduction in miR-125b levels in the NIH 3T3 cells. HPV L2-induced inactivation of miR-125b is associated with the classic cytologic changes of the koilocyte, and the exogenous application of mimetic miR-125b markedly inhibits HPV DNA synthesis.

  17. Characterization of rat brain NCAM mRNA using DNA oligonucleotide probes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, A M; Gaardsvoll, H; Giladi, E

    1990-01-01

    A number of different isoforms of the neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM) have been identified. The difference between these is due to alternative splicing of a single NCAM gene. In rat brain NCAM mRNAs with sizes of 7.4, 6.7, 5.2, 4.3 and 2.9 kb have been reported. We have synthesized six DNA...... oligonucleotides, that hybridize to different exons in the NCAM gene. Furthermore we have constructed three oligonucleotides, that exclusively hybridize to mRNAs lacking certain exons, by letting them consist of sequences adjacent to both sides of the splice sites. By means of these probes we have characterized...... the five NCAM mRNAs in rat brain....

  18. Magnetic bead/capture DNA/glucose-loaded nanoliposomes for amplifying the glucometer signal in the rapid screening of hepatitis C virus RNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Haijian; Lin, Kun; Lun, Yongzhi; Yu, Liuming

    2018-06-01

    A digital detection strategy based on a portable personal glucometer (PGM) was developed for the simple, rapid, and sensitive detection of hepatitis C virus (HCV) RNA, involving the release of glucose-loaded nanoliposomes due to coupling-site-specific cleavage by the endonuclease BamHI. The glucose-loaded nanoliposomes were synthesized using a reversed-phase evaporation method and provided an amplified signal at the PGM in the presence of HCV RNA. Initially, a 21-mer oligonucleotide complementary to HCV RNA was covalently conjugated to a magnetic bead through the amino group at the 5' end of the oligonucleotide, and then bound to a glucose-loaded liposome by typical carbodiimide coupling at its 3' end. In the presence of the target HCV RNA, the target hybridized with the oligonucleotide to form double-stranded DNA. The symmetrical duplex sequence 5'-GGATCC-3' between guanines was then catalytically cleaved by BamHI, which detached the glucose-loaded liposome from the magnetic bead. Following magnetic separation of the bead, the detached glucose-loaded liposome was lysed using Triton X-100 to release the glucose molecules within it, which were then detected as an amplified signal at the digital PGM. Under optimal conditions, the PGM signal increased with increasing HCV RNA, and displayed a strongly linear dependence on the level of HCV RNA for concentrations ranging from 10 pM to 1.0 μM. The detection limit (LOD) of the system was 1.9 pM. Good reproducibility and favorable specificity were achieved in the analysis of the target HCV RNA. Human serum samples containing HCV RNA were analyzed using this strategy, and the developed sensing platform was observed to yield satisfactory results based on a comparison with the corresponding results from a Cobas ® Amplicor HCV Test Analyzer. Graphical abstract A digital detection strategy utilizing a personal glucometer was developed for the detection of hepatitis C virus RNA. The strategy involved the use of the

  19. Blue shift of CdSe/ZnS nanocrystal-labels upon DNA-hybridization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palme Klaus

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Luminescence color multiplexing is one of the most intriguing benefits, which might occur by using semiconductor Quantum Dots (QDs as labels for biomolecules. It was found, that the luminescence of QDs can be quenched, and replaced by a luminescence peak at approximately 460 nm on hybridization with certain regions of Arabidopsis thaliana tissue. This effect is site selective, and it is unclear whether it occurs due to an energy transfer process, or due to quenching and scattering of the excitation light. The article describes methods for phase-transfer of differently coloured, hydrophobically ligated QDs, coupling of DNA strands to the QD's surface, and hybridization of the labelled DNA to different cell types of Arabidopsis thaliana. The reason for the luminescence blue-shift was studied systematically, and narrowed down to the above mentioned causes.

  20. High throughput multiplex real time PCR assay for the simultaneous quantification of DNA and RNA viruses infecting cassava plants

    OpenAIRE

    Otti, Gerald; Bouvaine, Sophie; Kimata, Bernadetha; Mkamillo, Geoffrey; Kumar, Lava; Tomlins, Keith; Maruthi, M.N.

    2016-01-01

    Aims: To develop a multiplex TaqMan-based real-time PCR assay (qPCR) for the simultaneous detection and quantification of both RNA and DNA viruses affecting cassava (Manihot esculenta) in eastern Africa.\\ud \\ud Methods and Results: The diagnostic assay was developed for two RNA viruses; Cassava brown streak virus (CBSV) and Uganda cassava brown streak virus (UCBSV) and two predominant DNA viruses; African cassava mosaic virus (ACMV) and East African cassava mosaic virus (EACMV), which cause t...

  1. Transposable Element Misregulation Is Linked to the Divergence between Parental piRNA Pathways in Drosophila Hybrids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero-Soriano, Valèria; Modolo, Laurent; Lopez-Maestre, Hélène; Mugat, Bruno; Pessia, Eugénie; Chambeyron, Séverine; Vieira, Cristina; Garcia Guerreiro, Maria Pilar

    2017-06-01

    Interspecific hybridization is a genomic stress condition that leads to the activation of transposable elements (TEs) in both animals and plants. In hybrids between Drosophila buzzatii and Drosophila koepferae, mobilization of at least 28 TEs has been described. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying this TE release remain poorly understood. To give insight on the causes of this TE activation, we performed a TE transcriptomic analysis in ovaries (notorious for playing a major role in TE silencing) of parental species and their F1 and backcrossed (BC) hybrids. We find that 15.2% and 10.6% of the expressed TEs are deregulated in F1 and BC1 ovaries, respectively, with a bias toward overexpression in both cases. Although differences between parental piRNA (Piwi-interacting RNA) populations explain only partially these results, we demonstrate that piRNA pathway proteins have divergent sequences and are differentially expressed between parental species. Thus, a functional divergence of the piRNA pathway between parental species, together with some differences between their piRNA pools, might be at the origin of hybrid instabilities and ultimately cause TE misregulation in ovaries. These analyses were complemented with the study of F1 testes, where TEs tend to be less expressed than in D. buzzatii. This can be explained by an increase in piRNA production, which probably acts as a defence mechanism against TE instability in the male germline. Hence, we describe a differential impact of interspecific hybridization in testes and ovaries, which reveals that TE expression and regulation are sex-biased. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  2. RNA Pol II promotes transcription of centromeric satellite DNA in beetles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeljka Pezer

    Full Text Available Transcripts of centromeric satellite DNAs are known to play a role in heterochromatin formation as well as in establishment of the kinetochore. However, little is known about basic mechanisms of satellite DNA expression within constitutive heterochromatin and its regulation. Here we present comprehensive analysis of transcription of abundant centromeric satellite DNA, PRAT from beetle Palorus ratzeburgii (Coleoptera. This satellite is characterized by preservation and extreme sequence conservation among evolutionarily distant insect species. PRAT is expressed in all three developmental stages: larvae, pupae and adults at similar level. Transcripts are abundant comprising 0.033% of total RNA and are heterogeneous in size ranging from 0.5 kb up to more than 5 kb. Transcription proceeds from both strands but with 10 fold different expression intensity and transcripts are not processed into siRNAs. Most of the transcripts (80% are not polyadenylated and remain in the nucleus while a small portion is exported to the cytoplasm. Multiple, irregularly distributed transcription initiation sites as well as termination sites have been mapped within the PRAT sequence using primer extension and RLM-RACE. The presence of cap structure as well as poly(A tails in a portion of the transcripts indicate RNA polymerase II-dependent transcription and a putative polymerase II promoter site overlaps the most conserved part of the PRAT sequence. The treatment of larvae with alpha-amanitin decreases the level of PRAT transcripts at concentrations that selectively inhibit pol II activity. In conclusion, stable, RNA polymerase II dependant transcripts of abundant centromeric satellite DNA, not regulated by RNAi, have been identified and characterized. This study offers a basic understanding of expression of highly abundant heterochromatic DNA which in beetle species constitutes up to 50% of the genome.

  3. Analysis of Single-cell Gene Transcription by RNA Fluorescent In Situ Hybridization (FISH)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ronander, Elena; Bengtsson, Dominique C; Joergensen, Louise

    2012-01-01

    Adhesion of Plasmodium falciparum infected erythrocytes (IE) to human endothelial receptors during malaria infections is mediated by expression of PfEMP1 protein variants encoded by the var genes. The haploid P. falciparum genome harbors approximately 60 different var genes of which only one has...... been believed to be transcribed per cell at a time during the blood stage of the infection. How such mutually exclusive regulation of var gene transcription is achieved is unclear, as is the identification of individual var genes or sub-groups of var genes associated with different receptors...... fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis of var gene transcription by the parasite in individual nuclei of P. falciparum IE(1). Here, we present a detailed protocol for carrying out the RNA-FISH methodology for analysis of var gene transcription in single-nuclei of P. falciparum infected human...

  4. Photoreactivation of DNA-containing cauliflower mosaic virus and tobacco mosaic virus RNA on Datura

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Towill, L.; Huang, C.W.; Gordon, M.P.

    1977-01-01

    Datura stramonium L. is a local lesion host for TMV-RNA and DNA-containing cauliflower mosaic virus (CAMV). Datura can photorepair UV-damaged TMV-RNA and CAMV, giving photoreactivation sectors of 0.40 and 0.33, respectively. Dose response curves for photoreactivation of TMV-RNA and CAMV showed that 45 to 60 min of cool white light (15 W.m -2 ) was required for maximum photoreactivation. Blue light and near UV were equally effective in photoreactivating UV-irradiated TMV-RNA, whereas near UV was initially more effective than blue light for the photorepair of UV-inactivated CAMV. Higher doses of near UV apparently inactivated the CAMV photorepair system. In the case of CAMV, photoreactivating light had to be applied immediately after inoculation with the virus. Two to three hours of incubation in the dark after inoculation resulted in complete loss of response to photoreactivating irradiation. In contrast, limited photoreactivation of TMV-RNA occurred even after 4 h of dark incubation after inoculation, although photoreactivating irradiation was most effective when applied immediately after inoculation. Light was required for the maintenance of photoreactivation for both TMV-RNA and CAMV. Daturas placed in the dark for six days lost their ability to photoreactivate. Recovery of the TMV-RNA photorepair system was rapid; complete recovery attained with 90 or more min of white light (15 W.m -2 ). Recovery of CAMV photorepair system was slow; 90% recovery attained after only 20 h of light. However, full recovery could be induced by as little as 6 h of light when CAMV was inoculated 24 h after the onset of illumination. These results suggest two photorepair systems are present in Datura. (author)

  5. Isolation of full-length putative rat lysophospholipase cDNA using improved methods for mRNA isolation and cDNA cloning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, J.H.; Stratowa, C.; Rutter, W.J.

    1987-01-01

    The authors have cloned a full-length putative rat pancreatic lysophospholipase cDNA by an improved mRNA isolation method and cDNA cloning strategy using [ 32 P]-labelled nucleotides. These new methods allow the construction of a cDNA library from the adult rat pancreas in which the majority of recombinant clones contained complete sequences for the corresponding mRNAs. A previously recognized but unidentified long and relatively rare cDNA clone containing the entire sequence from the cap site at the 5' end to the poly(A) tail at the 3' end of the mRNA was isolated by single-step screening of the library. The size, amino acid composition, and the activity of the protein expressed in heterologous cells strongly suggest this mRNA codes for lysophospholipase

  6. In situ hybridization of iodinated 5S and 18/25S RNA to Vicia faba metaphase chromosomes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schubert, I.; Baeumlein, H.; Wobus, U.

    1978-01-01

    In vitro labelled 125 I ribosomal RNA fractions (18/25S and 5S) were in situ hybridized to metaphase chromosomes of a reconstructed karyotype of Vicia faba (characterized by two translocations and one pericentric inversion, each being present homozygously). The sites of 18S and 25S RNA were found to be confined to the nucleolus organizing secondary constriction. Two loci of 5S RNA were recognized on the satellite of nucleolus bearing chromosome. Possible correlations between the location of ribosomal genes, heterochromatic G-bands and clusters of mutagen induced chromatid aberrations are discussed. (author)

  7. High-resolution NMR studies of chimeric DNA-RNA-DNA duplexes, heteronomous base pairing, and continuous base stacking at junctions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chou, Shanho; Flynn, P.; Wang, A.; Reid, B.

    1991-01-01

    Two symmetrical DNA-RNA-DNA duplex chimeras, d(CGCG)r(AAUU)d(CGCG) (designated rAAUU) and d(CGCG)r(UAUA)d(CGCG) (designated rUAUA), and a nonsymmetrical chimeric duplex, d(CGTT)r(AUAA)d(TGCG)/d(CGCA)r(UUAU)d(AACG) (designated rAUAA), as well as their pure DNA analogues, containing dU instead of T, have been synthesized by solid-phase phosphoramidite methods and studied by high-resolution NMR techniques. The 1D imino proton NOE spectra of these d-r-d chimeras indicate normal Watson-Crick hydrogen bonding and base stacking at the junction region. Preliminary qualitative NOESY, COSY, and chemical shift data suggest that the internal RNA segment contains C3'-endo (A-type) sugar conformations except for the first RNA residues (position 5 and 17) following the 3' end of the DNA block, which, unlike the other six ribonucleotides, exhibit detectable H1'-H2' J coupling. The nucleosides of the two flanking DNA segments appear to adopt a fairly normal C2'-endo B-DNA conformation except at the junction with the RNA blocks (residues 4 and 16), where the last DNA residue appears to adopt an intermediate sugar conformation. The data indicate that A-type and B-type conformations can coexist in a single short continuous nucleic acid duplex, but these results differ somewhat from previous theoretical model studies

  8. Localization of the Norrie disease gene mRNA by in situ hybridization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartzer, M K; Cheng, M; Liu, X; Shastry, B S

    1999-07-15

    Norrie disease is a rare X-linked recessive neurodevelopmental disorder. The affected males manifest congenital blindness, which is often associated with hearing loss, mental retardation and psychiatric problems. Genetic linkage studies have localized the gene to the short arm of the X-chromosome and the gene has been isolated recently. The encoded protein is a member of the superfamily of growth factors containing a cystine knot motif and may be involved in cell adhesion and neurodevelopment. Molecular genetic analysis revealed a large number of missense, nonsense, deletion, and splice-site mutations among Norrie patients. In order to further determine the role of the Norrie disease gene, we studied the distribution pattern of its mRNA in the retina and in brain by in situ hybridization. The results show abundant hybridization signals in outer nuclear, inner nuclear, and ganglion cell layers of the retina in all three species (mice, rabbit, and human) examined. There was no significant expression in the vitreous body, lens, and rod outer segment. High expression levels were also observed in the cerebellar granular layer, hippocampus, olfactory bulb, cortex, and epithelium of the rabbit brain. These data suggest that the Norrie disease gene could play a critical role in the differentiation or maintenance of the differentiated state of the retina.

  9. Mutations affecting RNA polymerase I-stimulated exchange and rDNA recombination in yeast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Y.H.; Keil, R.L.

    1991-01-01

    HOT1 is a cis-acting recombination-stimulatory sequence isolated from the rDNA repeat unit of yeast. The ability of HOT1 to stimulate mitotic exchange appears to depend on its ability to promote high levels of RNA polymerase I transcription. A qualitative colony color sectoring assay was developed to screen for trans-acting mutations that alter the activity of HOT1. Both hypo-recombination and hyper-recombination mutants were isolated. Genetic analysis of seven HOT1 recombination mutants (hrm) that decrease HOT1 activity shows that they behave as recessive nuclear mutations and belong to five linkage groups. Three of these mutations, hrm1, hrm2, and hrm3, also decrease rDNA exchange but do not alter recombination in the absence of HOT1. Another mutation, hrm4, decreases HOT1-stimulated recombination but does not affect rDNA recombination or exchange in the absence of HOT1. Two new alleles of RAD52 were also isolated using this screen. With regard to HOT1 activity, rad52 is epistatic to all four hrm mutations indicating that the products of the HRM genes and of RAD52 mediate steps in the same recombination pathway. Finding mutations that decrease both the activity of HOT1 and exchange in the rDNA supports the hypothesis that HOT1 plays a role in rDNA recombination

  10. Hg(2+) detection using a phosphorothioate RNA probe adsorbed on graphene oxide and a comparison with thymine-rich DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Po-Jung Jimmy; van Ballegooie, Courtney; Liu, Juewen

    2016-06-07

    Mercury is a highly toxic heavy metal and many DNA-based biosensors have been recently developed for Hg(2+) detection in water. Among them, thymine-rich DNA is the most commonly used for designing Hg(2+) sensors. However, the thymine-Hg(2+) interaction is strongly affected by the buffer conditions. We recently reported a molecular beacon containing phosphorothioate (PS)-modified RNA linkages that can be cleaved by Hg(2+). In this work, the fluorescence quenching and DNA adsorption properties of nano-sized graphene oxide (NGO) were used to develop a new sensor using the PS-RNA chemistry. Three DNA probes, containing one, three and five PS-RNA linkages, respectively, were tested. Finally, a fluorophore-labeled poly-A DNA with five PS-RNA linkages was selected and adsorbed by NGO. In the presence of Hg(2+), the fluorophore was released from NGO due to the cleavage reaction, resulting in a fluorescence enhancement. This sensor is highly selective for Hg(2+) with a detection limit of 8.5 nM Hg(2+). For comparison, a fluorophore-labeled poly-T DNA was also tested, which responded to Hg(2+) more slowly and was inhibited by high NaCl concentrations, while the PS-RNA probe was more tolerant to different buffer conditions. This work indicates a new method for interfacing DNA with NGO for Hg(2+) detection.

  11. DNA methyltransferase 1-targeting miRNA-148aof dairymilk: apotential bioactive modifier of thehumanepigenome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bodo C. Melnik

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: The perception of milk has changed from a “simple food” to a more sophisticated bioactive functional signaling system that promotes mTORC1-driven postnatal anabolism, growth, and development of the newborn infant. Accumulating evidence supports the view that milk´s miRNAs significantly contribute to these processes. The most abundant miRNA of milk found in milk fat and milk exosomes is miRNA-148a, which targets DNA methyltransferase 1 (DNMT1, a pivotal epigenetic regulator that suppresses transcription. Furthermore, milk-derived miRNA-125b, miRNA-30d, and miRNA-25 target TP53, the guardian of the genome that interacts with DNMT1 and regulates metabolism, cell kinetics, and apoptosis. Thus, the question arose whether cow´s milk-derived miRNAs may modify epigenetic regulation of the human milk consumer. Methods: To understand the potential impact of dairy milk consumption on human epigenetics, we have analyzed all relevant research-based bioinformatics data related to milk, milk miRNAs, epigenetic regulation, and lactation performance with special attention to bovine miRNAs that modify gene expression of DNA methyltransferase 1 (DNMT1 and p53 (TP53, the two guardians of the mammalian genome. By means of translational research and comparative functional genomics, we investigated the potential impact of cow´s milk miRNAs on epigenetic regulation of human DNMT1, TP53, FOXP3, and FTO, which are critically involved in immunologic and metabolic programming respectively. miRNA sequences have been obtained from mirbase.org. miRNA-target site prediction has been performed using TargetScan release 7.0. Results: The most abundant miRNA of cow´s milk is miRNA-148a, which represents more than 10% of all miRNAs of cow´s milk, survives pasteurization and refrigerated storage. The seed sequence of human and bovine miRNA-148a-3p is identical. Furthermore, human and bovine DNMT1 mRNA share 88% identity. The miRNA-148a 7mer seed is conserved in

  12. Purification and DNA-binding properties of RNA polymerase from Bacillus subtilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giacomoni, P U

    1980-05-01

    Four RNA-polymerizing activities having different subunit composition can be purified from uninfected and from SPO1-infected Bacillus subtilis. Lysozyme and sodium deoxycholate are used for lysing the cells. Polymin P is used for precipitating nucleic acids and DEAE-cellulose chromatography allows separation of enzymatic activity from the residual Polymin P. After these common steps, one can purify core + sigma + delta by chromatography on single-stranded DNA-agarose followed by gel filtration while pure core + sigma can be obtained by chromatography on double-stranded DNA cellulose. Core + delta is obtained by high-salt sucrose/glycerol gradient centrifugation. The host enzyme modified by the product of gene 28 of phage SPO1 can be purified from SPO1 infected cells by chromatography on DNA cellulose (or CNA agarose) followed by chromatography on phosphocellulose. The pH and salt dependance of the initial rate of RNA synthesis of core + sigma has been investigated using SPO1 and SPP1 DNA as templates. The optimum pH for the initial rate of transcription is 8.2 at 30 degrees C in 50 mM N,N-bis(2-hydroxyethyl)glycine buffer, and the optimum Na+ concentration is between 0.1 and 0.15 M. The kinetics of formation and of dissociation of non-filterable complexes between SPP1 DNA and core + sigma have been analyzed at different cationic concentrations. The value of the rate constant of dissociation in 0.1 M NaCl at 30 degrees C is kd = 2.16 x 10(-4) S-1. The value of the rate constant of association, under the same conditions, is ka = 5.5 x 10(8) M-1 S-1; this value is compatible with a diffusion-controlled reaction for promoter selection.

  13. Carbon nanotube-polyamidoamine dendrimer hybrid-modified electrodes for highly sensitive electrochemical detection of microRNA24.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fengye; Peng, Jing; Zheng, Qiong; Guo, Xiang; Tang, Hao; Yao, Shouzhuo

    2015-01-01

    A simple and ultrasensitive microRNA (miRNA) electrochemical biosensor employing multiwalled carbon nanotube (MWCNT)-polyamidoamine (PAMAM) dendrimer and methylene blue (MB) redox indicator is reported in this work. The assay utilizes a glass carbon (GC) electrode modified with MWCNT-PAMAM, on which the oligonucleotide capture probes are immobilized. The electrochemical detection of miRNAs is completed by measuring the reduction signal change of MB before and after the probe hybridization with target miRNA (miRNA24 is used as a model case). The MWCNT-PAMAM/GC electrode shows greatly enhanced signal to MB reduction in contrast to bare GC electrode. The functionalization of MWCNT with PAMAM maintains the electrochemical property of MWCNT to MB reduction but minimizes the undesired adsorption of MB on the MWCNT surface. The effect of experimental variables on the miRNA detection is investigated and optimized. A detection limit of 0.5 fM and a linear peak current density-concentration relationship up to 100 nM are obtained following 60 min hybridization. The proposed assay is successfully used to detect miRNA24 in total RNA sample extracted from HeLa cells.

  14. cDNA cloning and mRNA expression of cat and dog Cdkal1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sako T

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Ichiro Yamamoto, Shingo Ishikawa, Li Gebin, Hiroshi Takemitsu, Megumi Fujiwara, Nobuko Mori, Yutaka Hatano, Tomoko Suzuki, Akihiro Mori, Nobuhiro Nakao, Koh Kawasumi, Toshinori Sako, Toshiro AraiLaboratory of Veterinary Biochemistry, Nippon Veterinary and Life Science University, Tokyo, JapanAbstract: The cyclin-dependent kinase 5 regulatory subunit–associated protein 1–like 1 (CDKAL1 gene encodes methylthiotransferase, and the gene contains risk variants for type 2 diabetes in humans. In this study, we performed complementary DNA cloning for Cdkal1 in the cat and dog and characterized the tissue expression profiles of its messenger RNA. Cat and dog Cdkal1 complementary DNA encoded 576 and 578 amino acids, showing very high sequence homology to mammalian CDKAL1 (>88.4%. Real-time polymerase chain reaction analyses revealed that Cdkal1 messenger RNA is highly expressed in smooth muscle and that tissue distribution of Cdkal1 is similar in cats and dogs. Genotyping analysis of single-nucleotide polymorphism for cat Cdkal1 revealed that obese cats had different tendencies from normal cats. These findings suggest that the cat and dog Cdkal1 gene is highly conserved among mammals and that cat Cdkal1 may be a candidate marker for genetic diagnosis of obesity.Keywords: cat, dog, Cdkal1, obese, cDNA cloning, Q-PCR

  15. Development and use of fluorescent 16S rRNA-targeted probes for the specific detection of Methylophaga species by in situ hybridization in marine sediments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janvier, Monique; Regnault, Béatrice; Grimont, Patrick

    2003-09-01

    Methylotrophic bacteria are widespread in nature. They may play an important role in the cycling of carbon and in the metabolism of dimethylsulfide in a marine environment. Bacteria belonging to the genus Methylophaga are a unique group of aerobic, halophilic, non-methane-utilizing methylotrophs. Two 16S rRNA-targeted oligonucleotide probes were developed for the specific detection of Methylophaga species, marine methylobacteria, by fluorescence in situ hybridization. Probe MPH-730 was highly specific for all members of the genus Methylophaga while probe MPHm-994 targeted exclusively M. marina. The application of these probes were demonstrated by the detection of Methylophaga species in enrichment cultures from various marine sediments. All isolates recovered were visualized by using the genus specific probe MPH-730. The results were confirmed by 16S rDNA sequencing which demonstrated that all selected isolates belong to Methylophaga. Five isolates could be detected by the M. marina-specific probe MPHm-994 and were confirmed by rRNA gene restriction pattern (ribotyping). With the development of these specific probes, fluorescence in situ hybridization shows that the genus Methylophaga is widespread in marine samples.

  16. 8-Methoxypsoralen DNA interstrand cross-linking of the ribosomal RNA genes in Tetrahymena thermophila. Distribution, repair and effect on rRNA synthesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fengquin, X; Nielsen, Henrik; Zhen, W

    1993-01-01

    between three domains (terminal spacer, transcribed region and central spacer) as defined by restriction enzyme analysis (BamHI and ClaI). It is furthermore shown that a dosage resulting in approximately one cross-link per rDNA molecule (21 kbp, two genes) is sufficient to block RNA synthesis. Finally......, it is shown that the cross-links in the rDNA molecules are repaired at equal rate in all three domains within 24 h and that RNA synthesis is partly restored during this repair period. The majority of the cells also go through one to two cell divisions in this period but do not survive....

  17. Transformation of Cowpea Vigna unguiculata with a Full-Length DNA Copy of Cowpea Mosaic Virus M-RNA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hille, Jacques; Goldbach, Rob

    1987-01-01

    A full-length DNA copy of the M-RNA of cowpea mosaic virus (CPMV), supplied with either the 35S promoter from cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV) or the nopaline synthase promoter from Agrobacterium tumefaciens, was introduced into the T-DNA region of a Ti-plasmid-derived gene vector and transferred to

  18. RNA/DNA co-analysis from blood stains--Results of a second collaborative EDNAP exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haas, C.; Hanson, E.; Anjos, M.J.

    2012-01-01

    A second collaborative exercise on RNA/DNA co-analysis for body fluid identification and STR profiling was organized by the European DNA Profiling Group (EDNAP). Six human blood stains, two blood dilution series (5-0.001 [mu]l blood) and, optionally, bona fide or mock casework samples of human or...

  19. PCR associated with hybridization with DNA radioactive probes for diagnosis of asymptomatic infection caused by Leishmania Chagasi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrade, Antero Silva Ribeiro de; Moreno, Elizabeth Castro; Gomes, Rosangela Fatima; Melo, Maria Norma de; Carneiro, Mariangela; Fernandes, Octavio

    2002-01-01

    Detection systems for diagnosis of leishmaniasis based on PCR are very promising due to their sensitivity and specificity. Secondary detection by specific radioactive DNA probes, able to type the PCR amplified products, increase the specificity and raise about tem-fold the sensitivity of the assay. The aim of this work was evaluate PCR and hybridization as a tool to identify Leishmania (Leishmania) chagasi (the specie that cause the visceral leishmaniasis in Brazil) infection in asymptomatic persons living in a endemic area. Material and Methods: A group of 226 asymptomatic individuals, living in General Carneiro (MG), was selected. Blood samples were harvested and the DNA extracted from the mononucleate cells. PCR was performed using primers addressed to the kinetoplast DNA minicircles. This protocol gives a positive reaction for all Leishmania species. The amplified products were further hybridized with cloned L.chagasi minicircles labeled with 32 P. Results: were identified 111 samples PCR positive, 2 of them hybridization negative and 133 samples hybridization positive, 24 of them PCR negative. The occurrence of samples with hybridization positive and PCR negative was expected since hybridization, with DNA probes labeled with 32 P, increase the sensitivity of the assay. The samples that presented positive PCR and negative hybridization were probably due the presence of other Leishmania species, likely L. (V.) braziliensis (that produce tegumentary leishmaniasis in the region), since L. (L.) chagasi cloned minicircles were used as hybridization probe. We conclude that this procedure is a valuable tool to access subclinical L. (L.) chagasi infections in epidemiological studies. (author)

  20. Chromosome specific DNA hybridization in suspension for flow cytometric detection of chimerism in bone marrow transplantation and leukemia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G.J.A. Arkesteijn (Ger); C.A.J. Erpelinck (Claudia); A.C.M. Martens (Anton); A. Hagenbeek (Anton)

    1995-01-01

    textabstractFlow cytometry was used to measure the fluorescence intensity of nuclei that were subjected to fluorescent in situ hybridization in suspension with chromosome specific DNA probes. Paraformaldehyde-fixed nuclei were protein digested with trypsin and hybridized simultaneously with a

  1. New redox-active layer create via epoxy-amine reaction - The base of genosensor for the detection of specific DNA and RNA sequences of avian influenza virus H5N1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malecka, Kamila; Stachyra, Anna; Góra-Sochacka, Anna; Sirko, Agnieszka; Zagórski-Ostoja, Włodzimierz; Dehaen, Wim; Radecka, Hanna; Radecki, Jerzy

    2015-03-15

    This paper concerns the development of a redox-active monolayer and its application for the construction of an electrochemical genosensor designed for the detection of specific DNA and RNA oligonucleotide sequences related to the avian influenza virus (AIV) type H5N1. This new redox layer was created on a gold electrode surface step by step. Cyclic Voltammetry, Osteryoung Square-Wave Voltammetry and Differential Pulse Voltammetry were used for its characterization. This new redox-active layer was applied for the construction of the DNA biosensor. The NH2-NC3 probe (20-mer) was covalently attached to the gold electrode surface via a "click" reaction between the amine and an epoxide group. The hybridization process was monitored using the Osteryoung Square-Wave Voltammetry. The 20-mer DNA and ca. 280-mer RNA oligonucleotides were used as the targets. The constructed genosensor was capable to determine complementary oligonucleotide sequences with a detection limit in the pM range. It is able to distinguish the different position of the part RNA complementary to the DNA probe. The genosensor was very selective. The 20-mer DNA as well as the 280-mer RNA oligonucleotides without a complementary sequence generated a weak signal. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Proton-Fueled, Reversible DNA Hybridization Chain Assembly for pH Sensing and Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lan; Liu, Jin-Wen; Huang, Zhi-Mei; Wu, Han; Li, Na; Tang, Li-Juan; Jiang, Jian-Hui

    2017-07-05

    Design of DNA self-assembly with reversible responsiveness to external stimuli is of great interest for diverse applications. We for the first time develop a pH-responsive, fully reversible hybridization chain reaction (HCR) assembly that allows sensitive sensing and imaging of pH in living cells. Our design relies on the triplex forming sequences that form DNA triplex with toehold regions under acidic conditions and then induce a cascade of strand displacement and DNA assembly. The HCR assembly has shown dynamic responses in physiological pH ranges with excellent reversibility and demonstrated the potential for in vitro detection and live-cell imaging of pH. Moreover, this method affords HCR assemblies with highly localized fluorescence responses, offering advantages of improving sensitivity and better selectivity. The proton-fueled, reversible HCR assembly may provide a useful approach for pH-related cell biology study and disease diagnostics.

  3. EVOLUTIONARY RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN 4 SPECIES OF CLADOPHORA (CLADOPHORALES, CHLOROPHYTA) BASED ON DNA-DNA HYBRIDIZATION

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    BOT, PVM; BRUSSAARD, CPD; STAM, WT; VANDENHOEK, C

    1991-01-01

    Analysis of the reassociation kinetics of the DNA from Cladophora pellucida (Huds.) Kutz. indicates that the genome of this benthic alga is comprised of approximately 75% repetitive sequences. Single-copy sequences reassociated with a rate constant of 1.8 x 10(-3) M-1.s-1, which corresponds to a

  4. rDNA genetic imbalance and nucleolar chromatin restructuring is induced by distant hybridization between Raphanus sativus and Brassica alboglabra.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Long

    Full Text Available The expression of rDNA in hybrids inherited from only one progenitor refers to nucleolar dominance. The molecular basis for choosing which genes to silence remains unclear. We report genetic imbalance induced by distant hybridization correlates with formation of rDNA genes (NORs in the hybrids between Raphanus sativus L. and Brassica alboglabra Bailey. Moreover, increased CCGG methylation of rDNA in F1 hybrids is concomitant with Raphanus-derived rDNA gene silencing and rDNA transcriptional inactivity revealed by nucleolar configuration restriction. Newly formed rDNA gene locus occurred through chromosomal in F1 hybrids via chromosomal imbalance. NORs are gained de novo, lost, and/or transposed in the new genome. Inhibition of methyltransferases leads to changes in nucleolar architecture, implicating a key role of methylation in control of nucleolar dominance and vital nucleolar configuration transition. Our findings suggest that gene imbalance and methylation-related chromatin restructuring is important for rDNA gene silencing that may be crucial for synthesis of specific proteins.

  5. Combined sequencing of mRNA and DNA from human embryonic stem cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florian Mertes

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Combined transcriptome and whole genome sequencing of the same ultra-low input sample down to single cells is a rapidly evolving approach for the analysis of rare cells. Besides stem cells, rare cells originating from tissues like tumor or biopsies, circulating tumor cells and cells from early embryonic development are under investigation. Herein we describe a universal method applicable for the analysis of minute amounts of sample material (150 to 200 cells derived from sub-colony structures from human embryonic stem cells. The protocol comprises the combined isolation and separate amplification of poly(A mRNA and whole genome DNA followed by next generation sequencing. Here we present a detailed description of the method developed and an overview of the results obtained for RNA and whole genome sequencing of human embryonic stem cells, sequencing data is available in the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO database under accession number GSE69471.

  6. High resolution autoradiographic studies of RNA, protein and DNA synthesis during human eosinophil granulocytopoiesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wickramasinghe, S.N.; Hughes, M.

    1978-01-01

    Human bone marrow cells which had been incubated with [ 3 H] uridine or [ 3 H]leucine for 1 h were studied using the technique of electron microscope-autoradiography. The autoradiographs revealed the presence of newly-synthesized RNA and protein molecules within or on a proportion of (1) the primary and secondary granules in all classes of eosinophil precursors and (2) the secondary granules in eosinophil granulocytes. It is suggested that the granule-associated RNA molecules may be concerned with the synthesis of at least some of the new protein molecules which were incorporated into the limiting membrane or substance of eosinophil granules long after the immature primary granule stage. Studies of eosinophil precursors which had been incubated with [ 3 H]thymidine for 1 h showed that the eosinophil granules did not label with this DNA precursor. (author)

  7. Emetine inhibits replication of RNA and DNA viruses without generating drug-resistant virus variants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khandelwal, Nitin; Chander, Yogesh; Rawat, Krishan Dutt; Riyesh, Thachamvally; Nishanth, Chikkahonnaiah; Sharma, Shalini; Jindal, Naresh; Tripathi, Bhupendra N; Barua, Sanjay; Kumar, Naveen

    2017-08-01

    At a noncytotoxic concentration, emetine was found to inhibit replication of DNA viruses [buffalopoxvirus (BPXV) and bovine herpesvirus 1 (BHV-1)] as well as RNA viruses [peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV) and Newcastle disease virus (NDV)]. Using the time-of-addition and virus step-specific assays, we showed that emetine treatment resulted in reduced synthesis of viral RNA (PPRV and NDV) and DNA (BPXV and BHV-1) as well as inhibiting viral entry (NDV and BHV-1). In addition, emetine treatment also resulted in decreased synthesis of viral proteins. In a cell free endogenous viral polymerase assay, emetine was found to significantly inhibit replication of NDV, but not BPXV genome, suggesting that besides directly inhibiting specific viral polymerases, emetine may also target other factors essentially required for efficient replication of the viral genome. Moreover, emetine was found to significantly inhibit BPXV-induced pock lesions on chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) along with associated mortality of embryonated chicken eggs. At a lethal dose 50 (LD 50 ) of 126.49 ng/egg and at an effective concentration 50 (EC 50 ) of 3.03 ng/egg, the therapeutic index of the emetine against BPXV was determined to be 41.74. Emetine was also found to significantly delay NDV-induced mortality in chicken embryos associated with reduced viral titers. Further, emetine-resistant mutants were not observed upon long-term (P = 25) sequential passage of BPXV and NDV in cell culture. Collectively, we have extended the effective antiviral activity of emetine against diverse groups of DNA and RNA viruses and propose that emetine could provide significant therapeutic value against some of these viruses without inducing an antiviral drug-resistant phenotype. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Extensive genetic and DNA methylation variation contribute to heterosis in triploid loquat hybrids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chao; Wang, Mingbo; Wang, Lingli; Guo, Qigao; Liang, Guolu

    2018-04-24

    We aim to overcome the unclear origin of the loquat and elucidate the heterosis mechanism of the triploid loquat. Here we investigated the genetic and epigenetic variations between the triploid plant and its parental lines using amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) and methylation-sensitive amplified fragment length polymorphism (MSAP) analyses. We show that in addition to genetic variations, extensive DNA methylation variation occurred during the formation process of triploid loquat, with the triploid hybrid having increased DNA methylation compared to the parents. Furthermore, a correlation existed between genetic variation and DNA methylation remodeling, suggesting that genome instability may lead to DNA methylation variation or vice versa. Sequence analysis of the MSAP bands revealed that over 53% of them overlap with protein-coding genes, which may indicate a functional role of the differential DNA methylation in gene regulation and hence heterosis phenotypes. Consistent with this, the genetic and epigenetic alterations were associated closely to the heterosis phenotypes of triploid loquat, and this association varied for different traits. Our results suggested that the formation of triploid is accompanied by extensive genetic and DNA methylation variation, and these changes contribute to the heterosis phenotypes of the triploid loquats from the two cross lines.

  9. Reverse Transcription Errors and RNA-DNA Differences at Short Tandem Repeats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fungtammasan, Arkarachai; Tomaszkiewicz, Marta; Campos-Sánchez, Rebeca; Eckert, Kristin A; DeGiorgio, Michael; Makova, Kateryna D

    2016-10-01

    Transcript variation has important implications for organismal function in health and disease. Most transcriptome studies focus on assessing variation in gene expression levels and isoform representation. Variation at the level of transcript sequence is caused by RNA editing and transcription errors, and leads to nongenetically encoded transcript variants, or RNA-DNA differences (RDDs). Such variation has been understudied, in part because its detection is obscured by reverse transcription (RT) and sequencing errors. It has only been evaluated for intertranscript base substitution differences. Here, we investigated transcript sequence variation for short tandem repeats (STRs). We developed the first maximum-likelihood estimator (MLE) to infer RT error and RDD rates, taking next generation sequencing error rates into account. Using the MLE, we empirically evaluated RT error and RDD rates for STRs in a large-scale DNA and RNA replicated sequencing experiment conducted in a primate species. The RT error rates increased exponentially with STR length and were biased toward expansions. The RDD rates were approximately 1 order of magnitude lower than the RT error rates. The RT error rates estimated with the MLE from a primate data set were concordant with those estimated with an independent method, barcoded RNA sequencing, from a Caenorhabditis elegans data set. Our results have important implications for medical genomics, as STR allelic variation is associated with >40 diseases. STR nonallelic transcript variation can also contribute to disease phenotype. The MLE and empirical rates presented here can be used to evaluate the probability of disease-associated transcripts arising due to RDD. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  10. Genetic relatedness of artichoke (Cynara scolymus L.) hybrids using random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) fingerprinting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharaf-Eldin, M A; Al-Tamimi, A; Alam, P; Elkholy, S F; Jordan, J R

    2015-12-28

    The artichoke (Cynara scolymus L.) is an important food and medicinal crop that is cultivated in Mediterranean countries. Morphological characteristics, such as head shape and diameter, leaf shape, and bract shape, are mainly affected by environmental conditions. A molecular marker approach was used to analyze the degree of polymorphism between artichoke hybrid lines. The degree of genetic difference among three artichoke hybrids was evaluated using random amplified polymorphic DNA-PCR (RAPD-PCR). In this study, the DNA fingerprints of three artichoke lines (A13-010, A11-018, and A12-179) were generated, and a total of 10 decamer primers were applied for RAPD-PCR analyses. Polymorphism  (16.66 to 62.50%) was identified using eight arbitrary decamers and total genomic DNA extracted from the hybrids. Of the 59 loci detected, there were 25 polymorphic and 34 monomorphic loci. Jaccard's similarity index (JSI) ranged between 1.0 and 0.84. Based on the unweighted pair group method with arithmetic mean (UPGMA) similarity matrix and dendrogram, the results indicated that two hybrids (A13-010 and A11-018) were closely related to each other, and the A12-179 line showed more divergence. When identifying correct accessions, consideration of the genetic variation and genetic relationships among the genotypes are required. The RAPD-PCR fingerprinting of artichoke lines clearly showed that it is possible to analyze the RAPD patterns for correlation between genetic means and differences or resemblance between close accessions (A13-010 and A11- 018) at the genomic level.

  11. Live-Cell MicroRNA Imaging through MnO2 Nanosheet-Mediated DD-A Hybridization Chain Reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ou, Min; Huang, Jin; Yang, Xiaohai; He, Xiaoxiao; Quan, Ke; Yang, Yanjing; Xie, Nuli; Li, Jing; Wang, Kemin

    2018-01-18

    Innovative techniques to visualize native microRNAs (miRNAs) in live cells can dramatically impact current research on the roles of miRNA in biology and medicine. Here, we report a novel approach for live-cell miRNA imaging using a biodegradable MnO 2 nanosheet-mediated DD-A FRET hybridization chain reaction (HCR). The MnO 2 nanosheets can adsorb DNA hairpin probes and deliver them into live cells. After entering cells, the MnO 2 nanosheets are degraded by cellular GSH. Then, the target miR-21 triggers cascaded assembly of the liberated hairpin probes into long dsDNA polymers, which brings each two FAMs (donor) and one TAMRA (acceptor) into close proximity to generate significantly enhanced DD-A FRET signals, which was discovered and proven by our previous report. We think the developed approach can serve as an excellent intracellular miRNAs detection tool, which promises the potential for biological and disease studies. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Experimental and ab initio study of the photofragmentation of DNA and RNA sugars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, D. T.; Huels, M. A.; Huttula, M.; Urpelainen, S.; Kukk, E.

    2011-09-01

    The photoelectron-photoion-photoion coincidence method is used to measure the photodissociation of doubly charged D-ribose (C5H10O5), the RNA sugar molecules, and 2-deoxy-D-ribose (C5H10O4), the DNA sugar molecules, following normal Auger decay after initial C 1s and O 1s core ionizations. The fragment identification is facilitated by measuring isotopically labeled D-ribose, such as D-ribose deuterated at C(1), and with 13C at the C(5) position. Ab initio quantum chemistry calculations are used to gain further insight into the abundant appearance of the CHO+ fragment.

  13. In-vitro nanodiagnostic platform through nanoparticles and DNA-RNA nanotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Ki; Ng, Tzi Bun

    2015-04-01

    Nanocomposites containing nanoparticles or nanostructured domains exhibit an even higher degree of material complexity that leads to an extremely high variability of nanostructured materials. This review introduces analytical concepts and techniques for nanomaterials and derives recommendations for a qualified selection of characterization techniques for specific types of samples, and focuses the characterization of nanoparticles and their agglomerates or aggregates. In addition, DNA nanotechnology and the more recent newcomer RNA nanotechnology have achieved almost an advanced status among nanotechnology researchers¸ therefore, the core features, potential, and significant challenges of DNA nanotechnology are also highlighted as a new discipline. Moreover, nanobiochips made by nanomaterials are rapidly emerging as a new paradigm in the area of large-scale biochemical analysis. The use of nanoscale components enables higher precision in diagnostics while considerably reducing the cost of the platform that leads this review to explore the use of nanoparticles, nanomaterials, and other bionanotechnologies for its application to nanodiagnostics in-vitro.

  14. Characterization of DNA polymerase. beta. mRNA: cell-cycle growth response in cultured human cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zmudzka, B Z; Fornace, A; Collins, J; Wilson, S H

    1988-10-25

    DNA polymerase ..beta.. (..beta..-polymerase) is a housekeeping enzyme involved in DNA repair in vertebrate cells. The authors used a cDNA probe to study abundance of ..beta..-polymerase mRNA in cultured human cells. The mRNA level in synchronized HeLa cells, representing different stages of the cell-cycle, varied only slightly. Contact inhibited fibroblasts AG-1522 contained the same level of mRNA as growing cells. The steady-state level of mRNA in fibroblasts is equivalent to 6 molecules per cell. The results indicate that the ..beta..-polymerase transcript is low abundance and is neither cell-cycles nor growth phase responsive.

  15. Nanofabrication Yields. Hybridization and Click-Fixation of Polycyclic DNA Nanoassemblies

    KAUST Repository

    Lundberg, Erik P.

    2011-09-27

    We demonstrate the stepwise assembly of a fully addressable polycyclic DNA hexagon nanonetwork for the preparation of a four-ring system, one of the biggest networks yet constructed from tripodal building blocks. We find that the yield exhibits a distinct upper level <100%, a fundamental problem of thermodynamic DNA assembly that appears to have been overlooked in the DNA nanotechnology literature. A simplistic model based on a single step-yield parameter y can quantitatively describe the total yield of DNA assemblies in one-pot reactions as Y = yduplex n, with n the number of hybridization steps. Experimental errors introducing deviations from perfect stoichiometry and the thermodynamics of hybridization equilibria contribute to decreasing the value of yduplex (on average y = 0.96 for our 10 base pair hybridization). For the four-ring system (n = 31), the total yield is thus less than 30%, which is clearly unsatisfactory if bigger nanoconstructs of this class are to be designed. Therefore, we introduced site-specific click chemistry for making and purifying robust building blocks for future modular constructs of larger assemblies. Although the present yield of this robust module was only about 10%, it demonstrates a first step toward a general fabrication approach. Interestingly, we find that the click yields follow quantitatively a binomial distribution, the predictability of which indicates the usefulness of preparing pools of pure and robust building blocks in this way. The binomial behavior indicates that there is no interference between the six simultaneous click reactions but that step-yield limiting factors such as topological constraints and Cu(I) catalyst concentration are local and independent. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

  16. Fluorescent whole-mount RNA in situ hybridization (F-WISH) in plant germ cells and the fertilized ovule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleckmann, Andrea; Dresselhaus, Thomas

    2016-04-01

    First evidence on gene function and regulation is provided by the cellular expression pattern in complex tissues. However, to understand the activity of a specific gene, it is essential to analyze the regulatory network, which controls the spatio-temporal translation pattern during the entire life span of the transcribed mRNA. To explore mechanisms which control mRNA abundance and localization in space and time, it is necessary to visualize mRNAs quantitatively with a subcellular resolution, without sectioning the tissues. We have adapted and optimized a protocol for colorimetric whole-mount RNA in situ hybridization (WISH) using egg cell-specific digoxigenin (DIG) labeled probes (Hejátko et al., 2006) [1] on ovules and early seeds of Arabidopsis. Furthermore, we established a fluorescent whole-mount RNA in situ hybridization (F-WISH) protocol, which allows mRNA visualization on a subcellular level. The polar localized mRNA of SBT4.13, encoding a subtilase, was identified using this protocol. Both methods are described and discussed in detail. Additionally a (F)-WISH flow-chart is provided along with a troubleshooting table. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. microRNA Biomarker Discovery and High-Throughput DNA Sequencing Are Possible Using Long-term Archived Serum Samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rounge, Trine B; Lauritzen, Marianne; Langseth, Hilde; Enerly, Espen; Lyle, Robert; Gislefoss, Randi E

    2015-09-01

    The impacts of long-term storage and varying preanalytical factors on the quality and quantity of DNA and miRNA from archived serum have not been fully assessed. Preanalytical and analytical variations and degradation may introduce bias in representation of DNA and miRNA and may result in loss or corruption of quantitative data. We have evaluated DNA and miRNA quantity, quality, and variability in samples stored up to 40 years using one of the oldest prospective serum collections in the world, the Janus Serumbank, a biorepository dedicated to cancer research. miRNAs are present and stable in archived serum samples frozen at -25°C for at least 40 years. Long-time storage did not reduce miRNA yields; however, varying preanalytical conditions had a significant effect and should be taken into consideration during project design. Of note, 500 μL serum yielded sufficient miRNA for qPCR and small RNA sequencing and on average 650 unique miRNAs were detected in samples from presumably healthy donors. Of note, 500 μL serum yielded sufficient DNA for whole-genome sequencing and subsequent SNP calling, giving a uniform representation of the genomes. DNA and miRNA are stable during long-term storage, making large prospectively collected serum repositories an invaluable source for miRNA and DNA biomarker discovery. Large-scale biomarker studies with long follow-up time are possible utilizing biorepositories with archived serum and state-of-the-art technology. ©2015 American Association for Cancer Research.

  18. Detection of genetic changes in Barrett's adenocarcinoma and Barrett's esophagus by DNA in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krishnadath, K. K.; Tilanus, H. W.; Alers, J. C.; Mulder, A. H.; van Dekken, H.

    1994-01-01

    We have investigated the occurrence of chromosomal DNA and cell cycle-related protein changes in Barrett's epithelium and adenocarcinoma. The presence of numerical chromosomal aberrations was studied by applying nonisotopic in situ hybridization (ISH) with (peri-)centromeric DNA probes, specific for

  19. Isothermal circular-strand-displacement polymerization of DNA and microRNA in digital microfluidic devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giuffrida, Maria Chiara; Zanoli, Laura Maria; D'Agata, Roberta; Finotti, Alessia; Gambari, Roberto; Spoto, Giuseppe

    2015-02-01

    Nucleic-acid amplification is a crucial step in nucleic-acid-sequence-detection assays. The use of digital microfluidic devices to miniaturize amplification techniques reduces the required sample volume and the analysis time and offers new possibilities for process automation and integration in a single device. The recently introduced droplet polymerase-chain-reaction (PCR) amplification methods require repeated cycles of two or three temperature-dependent steps during the amplification of the nucleic-acid target sequence. In contrast, low-temperature isothermal-amplification methods have no need for thermal cycling, thus requiring simplified microfluidic-device features. Here, the combined use of digital microfluidics and molecular-beacon (MB)-assisted isothermal circular-strand-displacement polymerization (ICSDP) to detect microRNA-210 sequences is described. MicroRNA-210 has been described as the most consistently and predominantly upregulated hypoxia-inducible factor. The nmol L(-1)-pmol L(-1) detection capabilities of the method were first tested by targeting single-stranded DNA sequences from the genetically modified Roundup Ready soybean. The ability of the droplet-ICSDP method to discriminate between full-matched, single-mismatched, and unrelated sequences was also investigated. The detection of a range of nmol L(-1)-pmol L(-1) microRNA-210 solutions compartmentalized in nanoliter-sized droplets was performed, establishing the ability of the method to detect as little as 10(-18) mol of microRNA target sequences compartmentalized in 20 nL droplets. The suitability of the method for biological samples was tested by detecting microRNA-210 from transfected K562 cells.

  20. NanoRNase from Aeropyrum pernix shows nuclease activity on ssDNA and ssRNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Yong-Jie; Feng, Lei; Zhou, Huan; Xiao, Xiang; Wang, Feng-Ping; Liu, Xi-Peng

    2018-05-01

    In cells, degrading DNA and RNA by various nucleases is very important. These processes are strictly controlled and regulated to maintain DNA integrity and to mature or recycle various RNAs. NanoRNase (Nrn) is a 3'-exonuclease that specifically degrades nanoRNAs shorter than 5 nucleotides. Several Nrns have been identified and characterized in bacteria, mainly in Firmicutes. Archaea often grow in extreme environments and might be subjected to more damage to DNA/RNA, so DNA repair and recycling of damaged RNA are very important in archaea. There is no report on the identification and characterization of Nrn in archaea. Aeropyrum pernix encodes three potential Nrns: NrnA (Ape1437), NrnB (Ape0124), and an Nrn-like protein Ape2190. Biochemical characterization showed that only Ape0124 could degrade ssDNA and ssRNA from the 3'-end in the presence of Mn 2+ . Interestingly, unlike bacterial Nrns, Ape0124 prefers ssDNA, including short nanoDNA, and degrades nanoRNA with lower efficiency. The 3'-DNA backbone was found to be required for efficiently hydrolyzing the phosphodiester bonds. In addition, Ape0124 also degrads the 3'-overhang of double-stranded DNA. Interestingly, Ape0124 could hydrolyze pAp into AMP, which is a feature of bacterial NrnA, not NrnB. Our results indicate that Ape0124 is a novel Nrn with a combined substrate profile of bacterial NrnA and NrnB. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Simultaneous DNA-RNA Extraction from Coastal Sediments and Quantification of 16S rRNA Genes and Transcripts by Real-time PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatti, Enrico; McKew, Boyd A; Whitby, Corrine; Smith, Cindy J

    2016-06-11

    Real Time Polymerase Chain Reaction also known as quantitative PCR (q-PCR) is a widely used tool in microbial ecology to quantify gene abundances of taxonomic and functional groups in environmental samples. Used in combination with a reverse transcriptase reaction (RT-q-PCR), it can also be employed to quantify gene transcripts. q-PCR makes use of highly sensitive fluorescent detection chemistries that allow quantification of PCR amplicons during the exponential phase of the reaction. Therefore, the biases associated with 'end-point' PCR detected in the plateau phase of the PCR reaction are avoided. A protocol to quantify bacterial 16S rRNA genes and transcripts from coastal sediments via real-time PCR is provided. First, a method for the co-extraction of DNA and RNA from coastal sediments, including the additional steps required for the preparation of DNA-free RNA, is outlined. Second, a step-by-step guide for the quantification of 16S rRNA genes and transcripts from the extracted nucleic acids via q-PCR and RT-q-PCR is outlined. This includes details for the construction of DNA and RNA standard curves. Key considerations for the use of RT-q-PCR assays in microbial ecology are included.

  2. Polyamidoamine-Decorated Nanodiamonds as a Hybrid Gene Delivery Vector and siRNA Structural Characterization at the Charged Interfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Dae Gon; Rajasekaran, Nirmal; Lee, Dukhee; Kim, Nam Ah; Jung, Hun Soon; Hong, Sungyoul; Shin, Young Kee; Kang, Eunah; Jeong, Seong Hoon

    2017-09-20

    Nanodiamonds have been discovered as a new exogenous material source in biomedical applications. As a new potent form of nanodiamond (ND), polyamidoamine-decorated nanodiamonds (PAMAM-NDs) were prepared for E7 or E6 oncoprotein-suppressing siRNA gene delivery for high risk human papillomavirus-induced cervical cancer, such as types 16 and 18. It is critical to understand the physicochemical properties of siRNA complexes immobilized on cationic solid ND surfaces in the aspect of biomolecular structural and conformational changes, as the new inert carbon material can be extended into the application of a gene delivery vector. A spectral study of siRNA/PAMAM-ND complexes using differential scanning calorimetry and circular dichroism spectroscopy proved that the hydrogen bonding and electrostatic interactions between siRNA and PAMAM-NDs decreased endothermic heat capacity. Moreover, siRNA/PAMAM-ND complexes showed low cell cytotoxicity and significant suppressing effects for forward target E6 and E7 oncogenic genes, proving functional and therapeutic efficacy. The cellular uptake of siRNA/PAMAM-ND complexes at 8 h was visualized by macropinocytes and direct endosomal escape of the siRNA/PAMAM-ND complexes. It is presumed that PAMAM-NDs provided a buffering cushion to adjust the pH and hard mechanical stress to escape endosomes. siRNA/PAMAM-ND complexes provide a potential organic/inorganic hybrid material source for gene delivery carriers.

  3. Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) variety discrimination and hybridization analysis based on the 5S rRNA region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yan-Lin; Kang, Ho-Min; Kim, Young-Sik; Baek, Jun-Pill; Zheng, Shi-Lin; Xiang, Jin-Jun; Hong, Soon-Kwan

    2014-05-04

    The tomato ( Solanum lycopersicum ) is a major vegetable crop worldwide. To satisfy popular demand, more than 500 tomato varieties have been bred. However, a clear variety identification has not been found. Thorough understanding of the phylogenetic relationship and hybridization information of tomato varieties is very important for further variety breeding. Thus, in this study, we collected 26 tomato varieties and attempted to distinguish them based on the 5S rRNA region, which is widely used in the determination of phylogenetic relations. Sequence analysis of the 5S rRNA region suggested that a large number of nucleotide variations exist among tomato varieties. These variable nucleotide sites were also informative regarding hybridization. Chromas sequencing of Yellow Mountain View and Seuwiteuking varieties indicated three and one variable nucleotide sites in the non-transcribed spacer (NTS) of the 5S rRNA region showing hybridization, respectively. Based on a phylogenetic tree constructed using the 5S rRNA sequences, we observed that 16 tomato varieties were divided into three groups at 95% similarity. Rubiking and Sseommeoking, Lang Selection Procedure and Seuwiteuking, and Acorn Gold and Yellow Mountain View exhibited very high identity with their partners. This work will aid variety authentication and provides a basis for further tomato variety breeding.

  4. In situ hybridization detection methods for HPV16 E6/E7 mRNA in identifying transcriptionally active HPV infection of oropharyngeal carcinoma: an updating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volpi, Chiara C; Ciniselli, Chiara M; Gualeni, Ambra V; Plebani, Maddalena; Alfieri, Salvatore; Verderio, Paolo; Locati, Laura; Perrone, Federica; Quattrone, Pasquale; Carbone, Antonino; Pilotti, Silvana; Gloghini, Annunziata

    2018-04-01

    The aim of this study is to compare 2 in situ hybridization (ISH) detection methods for human papilloma virus (HPV) 16 E6/E7 mRNA, that is, the RNAscope 2.0 High Definition (HD) and the upgraded RNAscope 2.5 HD version. The RNAscope 2.5 HD has recently replaced the RNAscope 2.0 HD detection kit. Therefore, this investigation starts from the need to analytically validate the new mRNA ISH assay and, possibly, to refine the current algorithm for HPV detection in oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma with the final goal of applying it to daily laboratory practice. The study was based on HPV status and on generated data, interpreted by a scoring algorithm. The results highlighted that the compared RNAscope HPV tests had a good level of interchangeability and enabled to identify oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma that are truly driven by high-risk HPV infection. This was also supported by the comparison of the RNAscope HPV test with HPV E6/E7 mRNA real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction in a fraction of cases where material for HPV E6/E7 mRNA real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction was available. Furthermore, the algorithm that associates p16 immunohistochemistry with the identification of HPV mRNA by RNAscope was more effective than the one that associated p16 immunohistochemistry with the identification of HPV DNA by ISH. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Cell-associated HIV DNA measured early during infection has prognostic value independent of serum HIV RNA measured concomitantly

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Katzenstein, Terese L; Oliveri, Roberto S; Benfield, Thomas

    2002-01-01

    Using data from the Danish AIDS Cohort of HIV-infected homosexual men established in the 1980s, the prognostic value of early HIV DNA loads was evaluated. In addition to DNA measurements, concomitant serum HIV RNA levels, CD4 cell counts and CCR5 genotypes were determined. The patients were divided...... into 3 groups, according to whether their cell-associated HIV DNA load was or = 2,500 DNA copies/10(6) peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Clinical progression rates differed significantly between the groups (p value independent...... of serum HIV RNA (p value. Patients heterozygous for the CCR5 delta 32 allele had significantly lower HIV DNA loads than those homozygous for the normal allele (p

  6. Translational Control Protein 80 Stimulates IRES-Mediated Translation of p53 mRNA in Response to DNA Damage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-Jo Halaby

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Synthesis of the p53 tumor suppressor increases following DNA damage. This increase and subsequent activation of p53 are essential for the protection of normal cells against tumorigenesis. We previously discovered an internal ribosome entry site (IRES that is located at the 5′-untranslated region (UTR of p53 mRNA and found that the IRES activity increases following DNA damage. However, the mechanism underlying IRES-mediated p53 translation in response to DNA damage is still poorly understood. In this study, we discovered that translational control protein 80 (TCP80 has increased binding to the p53 mRNA in vivo following DNA damage. Overexpression of TCP80 also leads to increased p53 IRES activity in response to DNA damage. TCP80 has increased association with RNA helicase A (RHA following DNA damage and overexpression of TCP80, along with RHA, leads to enhanced expression of p53. Moreover, we found that MCF-7 breast cancer cells with decreased expression of TCP80 and RHA exhibit defective p53 induction following DNA damage and diminished expression of its downstream target PUMA, a proapoptotic protein. Taken together, our discovery of the function of TCP80 and RHA in regulating p53 IRES and p53 induction following DNA damage provides a better understanding of the mechanisms that regulate IRES-mediated p53 translation in response to genotoxic stress.

  7. Development of DNA affinity techniques for the functional characterization of purified RNA polymerase II transcription factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garfinkel, S.; Thompson, J.A.; Cohen, R.B.; Brendler, T.; Safer, B.

    1987-01-01

    Affinity adsorption, precipitation, and partitioning techniques have been developed to purify and characterize RNA Pol II transcription components from whole cell extracts (WCE) (HeLa) and nuclear extracts (K562). The titration of these extracts with multicopy constructs of the Ad2 MLP but not pUC8, inhibits transcriptional activity. DNA-binding factors precipitated by this technique are greatly enriched by centrifugation. Using this approach, factors binding to the upstream promoter sequence (UPS) of the Ad2 MLP have been rapidly isolated by Mono Q, Mono S, and DNA affinity chromatography. By U.V. crosslinking to nucleotides containing specific 32 P-phosphodiester bonds within the recognition sequence, this factor is identified as a M/sub r/ = 45,000 polypeptide. To generate an assay system for the functional evaluation of single transcription components, a similar approach using synthetic oligonucleotide sequences spanning single promoter binding sites has been developed. The addition of a synthetic 63-mer containing the UPS element of the Ad2 MLP to HeLa WCE inhibited transcription by 60%. The addition of partially purified UPS binding protein, but not RNA Pol II, restored transcriptional activity. The addition of synthetic oligonucleotides containing other regulatory sequences not present in the Ad2 MLP was without effect

  8. Electrochemically fabricated polyaniline nanowire-modified electrode for voltammetric detection of DNA hybridization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Ningning; Chang Zhu; He Pingang; Fang Yuzhi

    2006-01-01

    A novel and sensitive electrochemical DNA biosensor based on electrochemically fabricated polyaniline nanowire and methylene blue for DNA hybridization detection is presented. Nanowires of conducting polymers were directly synthesized through a three-step electrochemical deposition procedure in an aniline-containing electrolyte solution, by using the glassy carbon electrode (GCE) as the working electrode. The morphology of the polyaniline films was examined using a field emission scanning electron microscope (SEM). The diameters of the nanowires range from 80 to 100 nm. The polyaniline nanowires-coated electrode exhibited very good electrochemical conductivity. Oligonucleotides with phosphate groups at the 5' end were covalently linked onto the amino groups of polyaniline nanowires on the electrode. The hybridization events were monitored with differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) measurement using methylene blue (MB) as an indicator. The approach described here can effectively discriminate complementary from non-complementary DNA sequence, with a detection limit of 1.0 x 10 -12 mol l -1 of complementary target, suggesting that the polyaniline nanowires hold great promises for sensitive electrochemical biosensor applications

  9. Hybridization chain reaction amplification for highly sensitive fluorescence detection of DNA with dextran coated microarrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Jie; Li, Zhenhua; Li, Jing; Peng, Hongzhen; Su, Shao; Li, Qian; Zhu, Changfeng; Zuo, Xiaolei; Song, Shiping; Wang, Lianhui; Wang, Lihua

    2016-07-15

    Microarrays of biomolecules hold great promise in the fields of genomics, proteomics, and clinical assays on account of their remarkably parallel and high-throughput assay capability. However, the fluorescence detection used in most conventional DNA microarrays is still limited by sensitivity. In this study, we have demonstrated a novel universal and highly sensitive platform for fluorescent detection of sequence specific DNA at the femtomolar level by combining dextran-coated microarrays with hybridization chain reaction (HCR) signal amplification. Three-dimensional dextran matrix was covalently coated on glass surface as the scaffold to immobilize DNA recognition probes to increase the surface binding capacity and accessibility. DNA nanowire tentacles were formed on the matrix surface for efficient signal amplification by capturing multiple fluorescent molecules in a highly ordered way. By quantifying microscopic fluorescent signals, the synergetic effects of dextran and HCR greatly improved sensitivity of DNA microarrays, with a detection limit of 10fM (1×10(5) molecules). This detection assay could recognize one-base mismatch with fluorescence signals dropped down to ~20%. This cost-effective microarray platform also worked well with samples in serum and thus shows great potential for clinical diagnosis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. AFM Imaging of Hybridization Chain Reaction Mediated Signal Transmission between Two DNA Origami Structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helmig, Sarah; Gothelf, Kurt Vesterager

    2017-10-23

    Signal transfer is central to the controlled exchange of information in biology and advanced technologies. Therefore, the development of reliable, long-range signal transfer systems for artificial nanoscale assemblies is of great scientific interest. We have designed such a system for the signal transfer between two connected DNA nanostructures, using the hybridization chain reaction (HCR). Two sets of metastable DNA hairpins, one of which is immobilized at specific points along tracks on DNA origami structures, are polymerized to form a continuous DNA duplex, which is visible using atomic force microscopy (AFM). Upon addition of a designed initiator, the initiation signal is efficiently transferred more than 200 nm from a specific location on one origami structure to an end point on another origami structure. The system shows no significant loss of signal when crossing from one nanostructure to another and, therefore, has the potential to be applied to larger multi-component DNA assemblies. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Thermodynamics for the Formation of Double-Stranded DNA-Single-Walled Carbon Nanotube Hybrids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiraki, Tomohiro; Tsuzuki, Akiko; Toshimitsu, Fumiyuki; Nakashima, Naotoshi

    2016-03-24

    For the first time, the thermodynamics are described for the formation of double-stranded DNA (ds-DNA)-single-walled carbon nanotube (SWNT) hybrids. This treatment is applied to the exchange reaction of sodium cholate (SC) molecules on SWNTs and the ds-DNAs d(A)20 -d(T)20 and nuclear factor (NF)-κB decoy. UV/Vis/near-IR spectroscopy with temperature variations was used for analyzing the exchange reaction on the SWNTs with four different chiralities: (n,m)=(8,3), (6,5), (7,5), and (8,6). Single-stranded DNAs (ss-DNAs), including d(A)20 and d(T)20, are also used for comparison. The d(A)20-d(T)20 shows a drastic change in its thermodynamic parameters around the melting temperature (Tm ) of the DNA oligomer. No such Tm dependency was measured, owing to high Tm in the NF-κB decoy DNA and no Tm in the ss-DNA. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Chondroitin sulfate-polyethylenimine copolymer-coated superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles as an efficient magneto-gene carrier for microRNA-encoding plasmid DNA delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Yu-Lun; Chou, Han-Lin; Liao, Zi-Xian; Huang, Shih-Jer; Ke, Jyun-Han; Liu, Yu-Sheng; Chiu, Chien-Chih; Wang, Li-Fang

    2015-04-01

    MicroRNA-128 (miR-128) is an attractive therapeutic molecule with powerful glioblastoma regulation properties. However, miR-128 lacks biological stability and leads to poor delivery efficacy in clinical applications. In our previous study, we demonstrated two effective transgene carriers, including polyethylenimine (PEI)-decorated superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) as well as chemically-conjugated chondroitin sulfate-PEI copolymers (CPs). In this contribution, we report optimized conditions for coating CPs onto the surfaces of SPIONs, forming CPIOs, for magneto-gene delivery systems. The optimized weight ratio of the CPs and SPIONs is 2 : 1, which resulted in the formation of a stable particle as a good transgene carrier. The hydrodynamic diameter of the CPIOs is ~136 nm. The gel electrophoresis results demonstrate that the weight ratio of CPIO/DNA required to completely encapsulate pDNA is >=3. The in vitro tests of CPIO/DNA were done in 293 T, CRL5802, and U87-MG cells in the presence and absence of an external magnetic field. The magnetofection efficiency of CPIO/DNA was measured in the three cell lines with or without fetal bovine serum (FBS). CPIO/DNA exhibited remarkably improved gene expression in the presence of the magnetic field and 10% FBS as compared with a gold non-viral standard, PEI/DNA, and a commercial magnetofection reagent, PolyMag/DNA. In addition, CPIO/DNA showed less cytotoxicity than PEI/DNA and PolyMag/DNA against the three cell lines. The transfection efficiency of the magnetoplex improved significantly with an assisted magnetic field. In miR-128 delivery, a microRNA plate array and fluorescence in situ hybridization were used to demonstrate that CPIO/pMIRNA-128 indeed expresses more miR-128 with the assisted magnetic field than without. In a biodistribution test, CPIO/Cy5-DNA showed higher accumulation at the tumor site where an external magnet is placed nearby.MicroRNA-128 (miR-128) is an attractive therapeutic molecule

  13. A method of layer-by-layer gold nanoparticle hybridization in a quartz crystal microbalance DNA sensing system used to detect dengue virus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, S-H; Chuang, Y-C; Lu, Y-C; Lin, H-C; Yang, Y-L; Lin, C-S

    2009-01-01

    Dengue virus (DENV) is nowadays the most important arthropod-spread virus affecting humans existing in more than 100 countries worldwide. A rapid and sensitive detection method for the early diagnosis of infectious dengue virus urgently needs to be developed. In the present study, a circulating-flow quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) biosensing method combining oligonucleotide-functionalized gold nanoparticles (i.e. AuNP probes) used to detect DENV has been established. In the DNA-QCM method, two kinds of specific AuNP probes were linked by the target sequences onto the QCM chip to amplify the detection signal, i.e. oscillatory frequency change (ΔF) of the QCM sensor. The target sequences amplified from the DENV genome act as a bridge for the layer-by-layer AuNP probes' hybridization in the method. Besides being amplifiers of the detection signal, the specific AuNP probes used in the DNA-QCM method also play the role of verifiers to specifically recognize their target sequences in the detection. The effect of four AuNP sizes on the layer-by-layer hybridization has been evaluated and it is found that 13 nm AuNPs collocated with 13 nm AuNPs showed the best hybridization efficiency. According to the nanoparticle application, the DNA-QCM biosensing method was able to detect dengue viral RNA in virus-contaminated serum as plaque titers being 2 PFU ml -1 and a linear correlation (R 2 = 0.987) of ΔF versus virus titration from 2 x 10 0 to 2 x 10 6 PFU ml -1 was found. The sensitivity and specificity of the present DNA-QCM method with nanoparticle technology showed it to be comparable to the fluorescent real-time PCR methods. Moreover, the method described herein was shown to not require expensive equipment, was label-free and highly sensitive.

  14. RNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darnell, James E., Jr.

    1985-01-01

    Ribonucleic acid (RNA) converts genetic information into protein and usually must be processed to serve its function. RNA types, chemical structure, protein synthesis, translation, manufacture, and processing are discussed. Concludes that the first genes might have been spliced RNA and that humans might be closer than bacteria to primitive…

  15. Development of a Novel Self-Enclosed Sample Preparation Device for DNA/RNA Isolation in Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ye; Mehta, Satish K.; Pensinger, Stuart J.; Pickering, Karen D.

    2011-01-01

    Modern biology techniques present potentials for a wide range of molecular, cellular, and biochemistry applications in space, including detection of infectious pathogens and environmental contaminations, monitoring of drug-resistant microbial and dangerous mutations, identification of new phenotypes of microbial and new life species. However, one of the major technological blockades in enabling these technologies in space is a lack of devices for sample preparation in the space environment. To overcome such an obstacle, we constructed a prototype of a DNA/RNA isolation device based on our novel designs documented in the NASA New Technology Reporting System (MSC-24811-1/3-1). This device is self-enclosed and pipette free, purposely designed for use in the absence of gravity. Our design can also be modified easily for preparing samples in space for other applications, such as flowcytometry, immunostaining, cell separation, sample purification and separation according to its size and charges, sample chemical labeling, and sample purification. The prototype of our DNA/RNA isolation device was tested for efficiencies of DNA and RNA isolation from various cell types for PCR analysis. The purity and integrity of purified DNA and RNA were determined as well. Results showed that our developed DNA/RNA isolation device offers similar efficiency and quality in comparison to the samples prepared using the standard protocol in the laboratory.

  16. Charge transfer through DNA/DNA duplexes and DNA/RNA hybrids: complex theoretical and experimental studies

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kratochvílová, Irena; Vala, M.; Weiter, M.; Špérová, M.; Schneider, Bohdan; Páv, Ondřej; Šebera, Jakub; Rosenberg, Ivan; Sychrovský, Vladimír

    180-181, Oct-Nov (2013), s. 127-134 ISSN 0301-4622 R&D Projects: GA TA ČR TA01011165; GA ČR(CZ) GAP304/10/1951; GA ČR GA13-27676S; GA ČR GA202/09/0193 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 ; RVO:86652036 ; RVO:61388963 Keywords : charge transfer in oligonucleotides * temperature dependent steady state fluorescence spectroscopy * time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy Subject RIV: JJ - Other Materials; CC - Organic Chemistry (UOCHB-X) Impact factor: 2.319, year: 2013

  17. RNA/DNA co-analysis from human saliva and semen stains--results of a third collaborative EDNAP exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haas, Claus; Hanson, E; Anjos, M J

    2013-01-01

    samples of human or non-human origin were analyzed by 20 participating laboratories using an RNA extraction or RNA/DNA co-extraction method. Two novel mRNA multiplexes were used: a saliva triplex (HTN3, STATH and MUC7) and a semen pentaplex (PRM1, PRM2, PSA, SEMG1 and TGM4). The laboratories used......A third collaborative exercise on RNA/DNA co-analysis for body fluid identification and STR profiling was organized by the European DNA Profiling Group (EDNAP). Twenty saliva and semen stains, four dilution series (10-0.01 µl saliva, 5-0.01 µl semen) and, optionally, bona fide or mock casework...... different chemistries and instrumentation and a majority (16/20) were able to successfully isolate and detect mRNA in dried stains. The simultaneous extraction of RNA and DNA from individual stains not only permitted a confirmation of the presence of saliva/semen (i.e. tissue/fluid source of origin...

  18. Small molecule probes finely differentiate between various ds- and ss-DNA and RNA by fluorescence, CD and NMR response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crnolatac, Ivo; Rogan, Iva; Majić, Boris; Tomić, Sanja [Division of Organic Chemistry and Biochemistry, Division of Physical Chemistry, Ruđer Bošković Institute, P.O. Box 180, 10002 Zagreb (Croatia); Deligeorgiev, Todor [Faculty of Chemistry and Pharmacy, University of Sofia (Bulgaria); Horvat, Gordan [Department of Physical Chemistry, Faculty of Science/Chemistry, Horvatovac 102A, HR-10000 Zagreb (Croatia); Makuc, Damjan; Plavec, Janez [Slovenian NMR Centre, National Institute of Chemistry, Hajdrihova 19, Ljubljana (Slovenia); EN-FIST Centre of Excellence, Trg Osvobodilne Fronte 13, Ljubljana (Slovenia); Pescitelli, Gennaro [Department of Chemistry, University of Pisa, Via Moruzzi 13, Pisa (Italy); Piantanida, Ivo, E-mail: pianta@irb.hr [Division of Organic Chemistry and Biochemistry, Division of Physical Chemistry, Ruđer Bošković Institute, P.O. Box 180, 10002 Zagreb (Croatia)

    2016-10-12

    Two small molecules showed intriguing properties of analytical multipurpose probes, whereby one chromophore gives different signal for many different DNA/RNA by application of several highly sensitive spectroscopic methods. Dyes revealed pronounced fluorescence ratiomeric differentiation between ds-AU-RNA, AT-DNA and GC-DNA in approximate order 10:8:1. Particularly interesting, dyes showed specific fluorimetric response for poly rA even at 10-fold excess of any other ss-RNA, and moreover such emission selectivity is preserved in multicomponent ss-RNA mixtures. The dyes also showed specific chiral recognition of poly rU in respect to the other ss-RNA by induced CD (ICD) pattern in visible range (400–500 nm), which was attributed to the dye-side-chain contribution to binding (confirmed by absence of any ICD band for reference compound lacking side-chain). Most intriguingly, minor difference in the side-chain attached to dye chromophore resulted in opposite sign of dye-ICD pattern, whereby differences in NMR NOESY contacts and proton chemical shifts between two dye/oligo rU complexes combined with MD simulations and CD calculations attributed observed bisignate ICD to the dimeric dye aggregate within oligo rU. - Highlights: • Novel dyes emit fluorescence only for poly rA even at high excess of all other ss-RNA. • Fluorescence response for AT-DNA is 8 times stronger than for GC-DNA. • Florescence induced by ds-RNA is 20% stronger that emission induced by ds-DNA. • Intrinsically non-chiral, dyes show strong and characteristic ICD response for poly rU.

  19. DNA hybridization evidence for the Australasian affinity of the American marsupial Dromiciops australis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirsch, J A; Dickerman, A W; Reig, O A; Springer, M S

    1991-01-01

    DNA hybridization was used to compare representatives of the major groups of marsupials and a eutherian outgroup. Because of the large genetic distances separating marsupial families, trees were calculated from normalized percentages of hybridization; thermal-melting statistics, however, gave identical topologies for the well-supported clades. The most notable results were the association of the only extant microbiotheriid, Dromiciops australis, an American marsupial, with the Australasian Diprotodontia, and of both together with the Dasyuridae. Estimates of the rate of divergence among marsupial genomes suggest that the Dromiciops-Diprotodontia split occurred approximately 50 million years ago, well after the establishment of the major clades of marsupials but before deep oceanic barriers prohibited dispersal among Australia, Antarctica, and South America. Because Dromiciops is nested within an Australasian group, it seems likely that dispersal from Australia accounts for its present distribution. Images PMID:1961710

  20. Short Communication An efficient method for simultaneous extraction of high-quality RNA and DNA from various plant tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, R R; Viana, A J C; Reátegui, A C E; Vincentz, M G A

    2015-12-29

    Determination of gene expression is an important tool to study biological processes and relies on the quality of the extracted RNA. Changes in gene expression profiles may be directly related to mutations in regulatory DNA sequences or alterations in DNA cytosine methylation, which is an epigenetic mark. Correlation of gene expression with DNA sequence or epigenetic mark polymorphism is often desirable; for this, a robust protocol to isolate high-quality RNA and DNA simultaneously from the same sample is required. Although commercial kits and protocols are available, they are mainly optimized for animal tissues and, in general, restricted to RNA or DNA extraction, not both. In the present study, we describe an efficient and accessible method to extract both RNA and DNA simultaneously from the same sample of various plant tissues, using small amounts of starting material. The protocol was efficient in the extraction of high-quality nucleic acids from several Arabidopsis thaliana tissues (e.g., leaf, inflorescence stem, flower, fruit, cotyledon, seedlings, root, and embryo) and from other tissues of non-model plants, such as Avicennia schaueriana (Acanthaceae), Theobroma cacao (Malvaceae), Paspalum notatum (Poaceae), and Sorghum bicolor (Poaceae). The obtained nucleic acids were used as templates for downstream analyses, such as mRNA sequencing, quantitative real time-polymerase chain reaction, bisulfite treatment, and others; the results were comparable to those obtained with commercial kits. We believe that this protocol could be applied to a broad range of plant species, help avoid technical and sampling biases, and facilitate several RNA- and DNA-dependent analyses.

  1. Comparison of Methods for Isolating High Quality DNA and RNA from an Oleaginous Fungus Cunninghamella bainieri Strain 2a1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noor Adila, A. K.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available A number of protocols have been reported for efficient fungal DNA and RNA isolation. However, many of these methods are often designed for certain groups or morphological forms of fungi and, in some cases, are species dependent. In this report, we compared four published protocols for DNA isolation from a locally isolated oleaginous fungus, Cunninghamella bainieri strain 2a1. These protocols either involved the use of polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP, hexacetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB or without using PVB or CTAB. For RNA isolation, we tested two published protocols, one of which is based on TRI REAGENT (Molecular Research Center, USA and another is simple method employing phenol for RNA extraction and LiCl for precipitation. We found that the protocol involving the use of CTAB produced the highest genomic DNA yield with the best quality compared to other protocols. In the presence of CTAB, unwanted polysaccharides were removed and this method yielded an average amount of 816 ± 12.2 µg DNA/g mycelia with UV absorbance ratios A260/280 and A260/230 of 1.67 ± 0.64 and 1.97 ± 0.23, respectively. The genomic DNA isolated via this protocol is also suitable for PCR amplification and restriction enzyme digestion. As for RNA isolation, the method involving phenol extraction and LiCl precipitation produced the highest yield of RNA with an average amount of 372 ± 6.0 µg RNA/g mycelia. The RNA appears to be relatively pure since it has UV absorbance ratios A260/280 and A260/230 of 1.89 ± 2.00 and 1.99 ± 0.03, respectively. Finally, we have demonstrated that this method could produce RNA of sufficient quality for RT-PCR that amplified a 600 bp fragment of ∆12-fatty acid desaturase gene in C. bainieri.

  2. A DNA microarray-based methylation-sensitive (MS)-AFLP hybridization method for genetic and epigenetic analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, F; Yamamoto, M

    2004-07-01

    We previously developed a PCR-based DNA fingerprinting technique named the Methylation Sensitive (MS)-AFLP method, which permits comparative genome-wide scanning of methylation status with a manageable number of fingerprinting experiments. The technique uses the methylation sensitive restriction enzyme NotI in the context of the existing Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism (AFLP) method. Here we report the successful conversion of this gel electrophoresis-based DNA fingerprinting technique into a DNA microarray hybridization technique (DNA Microarray MS-AFLP). By performing a total of 30 (15 x 2 reciprocal labeling) DNA Microarray MS-AFLP hybridization experiments on genomic DNA from two breast and three prostate cancer cell lines in all pairwise combinations, and Southern hybridization experiments using more than 100 different probes, we have demonstrated that the DNA Microarray MS-AFLP is a reliable method for genetic and epigenetic analyses. No statistically significant differences were observed in the number of differences between the breast-prostate hybridization experiments and the breast-breast or prostate-prostate comparisons.

  3. Programmable display of DNA-protein chimeras for controlling cell-hydrogel interactions via reversible intermolecular hybridization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhaoyang; Li, Shihui; Chen, Niancao; Yang, Cheng; Wang, Yong

    2013-04-08

    Extensive studies have been recently carried out to achieve dynamic control of cell-material interactions primarily through physicochemical stimulation. The purpose of this study was to apply reversible intermolecular hybridization to program cell-hydrogel interactions in physiological conditions based on DNA-antibody chimeras and complementary oligonucleotides. The results showed that DNA oligonucleotides could be captured to and released from the immobilizing DNA-functionalized hydrogels with high specificity via DNA hybridization. Accordingly, DNA-antibody chimeras were captured to the hydrogels, successfully inducing specific cell attachment. The cell attachment to the hydrogels reached the plateau at approximately half an hour after the functionalized hydrogels and the cells were incubated together. The attached cells were rapidly released from the bound hydrogels when triggering complementary oligonucleotides were introduced to the system. However, the capability of the triggering complementary oligonucleotides in releasing cells was affected by the length of intermolecular hybridization. The length needed to be at least more than 20 base pairs in the current experimental setting. Notably, because the procedure of intermolecular hybridization did not involve any harsh condition, the released cells maintained the same viability as that of the cultured cells. The functionalized hydrogels also exhibited the potential to catch and release cells repeatedly. Therefore, this study demonstrates that it is promising to regulate cell-material interactions dynamically through the DNA-programmed display of DNA-protein chimeras.

  4. Cardiomyocyte microvesicles contain DNA/RNA and convey biological messages to target cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anders Waldenström

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Shedding microvesicles are membrane released vesicles derived directly from the plasma membrane. Exosomes are released membrane vesicles of late endosomal origin that share structural and biochemical characteristics with prostasomes. Microvesicles/exosomes can mediate messages between cells and affect various cell-related processes in their target cells. We describe newly detected microvesicles/exosomes from cardiomyocytes and depict some of their biological functions. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Microvesicles/exosomes from media of cultured cardiomyocytes derived from adult mouse heart were isolated by differential centrifugation including preparative ultracentrifugation and identified by transmission electron microscopy and flow cytometry. They were surrounded by a bilayered membrane and flow cytometry revealed presence of both caveolin-3 and flotillin-1 while clathrin and annexin-2 were not detected. Microvesicle/exosome mRNA was identified and out of 1520 detected mRNA, 423 could be directly connected in a biological network. Furthermore, by a specific technique involving TDT polymerase, 343 different chromosomal DNA sequences were identified in the microvesicles/exosomes. Microvesicle/exosomal DNA transfer was possible into target fibroblasts, where exosomes stained for DNA were seen in the fibroblast cytosol and even in the nuclei. The gene expression was affected in fibroblasts transfected by microvesicles/exosomes and among 333 gene expression changes there were 175 upregulations and 158 downregulations compared with controls. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our study suggests that microvesicles/exosomes released from cardiomyocytes, where we propose that exosomes derived from cardiomyocytes could be denoted "cardiosomes", can be involved in a metabolic course of events in target cells by facilitating an array of metabolism-related processes including gene expression changes.

  5. Chlorosis caused by two recessively interacting genes reveals a role of RNA helicase in hybrid breakdown in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plötner, Björn; Nurmi, Markus; Fischer, Axel; Watanabe, Mutsumi; Schneeberger, Korbinian; Holm, Svante; Vaid, Neha; Schöttler, Mark Aurel; Walther, Dirk; Hoefgen, Rainer; Weigel, Detlef; Laitinen, Roosa A E

    2017-07-01

    Hybrids often differ in fitness from their parents. They may be superior, translating into hybrid vigour or heterosis, but they may also be markedly inferior, because of hybrid weakness or incompatibility. The underlying genetic causes for the latter can often be traced back to genes that evolve rapidly because of sexual or host-pathogen conflicts. Hybrid weakness may manifest itself only in later generations, in a phenomenon called hybrid breakdown. We have characterized a case of hybrid breakdown among two Arabidopsis thaliana accessions, Shahdara (Sha, Tajikistan) and Lövvik-5 (Lov-5, Northern Sweden). In addition to chlorosis, a fraction of the F 2 plants have defects in leaf and embryo development, and reduced photosynthetic efficiency. Hybrid chlorosis is due to two major-effect loci, of which one, originating from Lov-5, appears to encode an RNA helicase (AtRH18). To examine the role of the chlorosis allele in the Lövvik area, in addition to eight accessions collected in 2009, we collected another 240 accessions from 15 collections sites, including Lövvik, from Northern Sweden in 2015. Genotyping revealed that Lövvik collection site is separated from the rest. Crosses between 109 accessions from this area and Sha revealed 85 cases of hybrid chlorosis, indicating that the chlorosis-causing allele is common in this area. These results suggest that hybrid breakdown alleles not only occur at rapidly evolving loci, but also at genes that code for conserved processes. © 2017 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Transcription of repetitive DNA in Neurospora crassa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dutta, S K; Chaudhuri, R K

    1975-01-01

    Repeated DNA sequences of Neurospora crassa were isolated and characterized. Approximately 10 to 12 percent of N. crassa DNA sequence were repeated, of which 7.3 percent were found to be transcribed in mid-log phase of mycelial growth as measured by DNA:RNA hybridization. It is suggested that part of repetitive DNA transcripts in N. crassa were mitochondrial and part were nuclear DNA. Most of the nuclear repeated DNAs, however, code for rRNA and tRNA in N. crassa. (auth)

  7. Multiple correlation analyses revealed complex relationship between DNA methylation and mRNA expression in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Fang-Fei; Deng, Fei-Yan; Wu, Long-Fei; Mo, Xing-Bo; Zhu, Hong; Wu, Jian; Guo, Yu-Fan; Zeng, Ke-Qin; Wang, Ming-Jun; Zhu, Xiao-Wei; Xia, Wei; Wang, Lan; He, Pei; Bing, Peng-Fei; Lu, Xin; Zhang, Yong-Hong; Lei, Shu-Feng

    2018-01-01

    DNA methylation is an important regulator on the mRNA expression. However, a genome-wide correlation pattern between DNA methylation and mRNA expression in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) is largely unknown. The comprehensive relationship between mRNA and DNA methylation was explored by using four types of correlation analyses and a genome-wide methylation-mRNA expression quantitative trait locus (eQTL) analysis in PBMCs in 46 unrelated female subjects. An enrichment analysis was performed to detect biological function for the detected genes. Single pair correlation coefficient (r T1 ) between methylation level and mRNA is moderate (-0.63-0.62) in intensity, and the negative and positive correlations are nearly equal in quantity. Correlation analysis on each gene (T4) found 60.1% genes showed correlations between mRNA and gene-based methylation at P correlation (R T4  > 0.8). Methylation sites have regulation effects on mRNA expression in eQTL analysis, with more often observations in region of transcription start site (TSS). The genes under significant methylation regulation both in correlation analysis and eQTL analysis tend to cluster to the categories (e.g., transcription, translation, regulation of transcription) that are essential for maintaining the basic life activities of cells. Our findings indicated that DNA methylation has predictive regulation effect on mRNA with a very complex pattern in PBMCs. The results increased our understanding on correlation of methylation and mRNA and also provided useful clues for future epigenetic studies in exploring biological and disease-related regulatory mechanisms in PBMC.

  8. Determinazione quantitativa di HCV-RNA: valutazione comparativa dei saggi Abbott Real-Time e Versant bDNA v.3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aldo Manzin

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Hepatitis C virus (HCV RNA measurement before, during and after antiviral therapy has become an essential tool in the management of interferon-based treatment of HCV-related infections. Conventional Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR has been largely used to obtain quantitative data, but laborious, time-consuming post-PCR handling steps are required to gain valuable results. Real time (RT PCR now provides advantages over end-point (EP PCR due to its improved rapidity, sensitivity, reproducibility and the reduced risk of carry-over contamination, and has now proven itself to be valuable for the more precise monitoring of viral load kinetics and assessing antiviral response.The Abbott Real-Time HCV-RNA is a recently introduced assay for the automated processing of clinical samples and HCV-RNA quantitation: its basic technology relies on use of fluorescent linear probes (dynamic range using 0.5 ml as input target= 12-108 IU/mL and a hybridization/detection step at low temperature (35°C, which allows target mismatches to be tolerated. To determine the clinical application of the Abbott Real-Time assay and defining its correlation with the Bayer Versant bDNA v.3 assay, 68 consecutive samples from unselected HCV-infected patients were retrospectively analysed with RT and the results obtained using the two tests compared.A good correlation was found between RT-PCR and bDNA: 97% of samples tested had a result within a 0.5 log HCV IU/mL difference (bias=0.15 log, whereas 6 samples negative with bDNA gave positive results with Abbott RT (range, 1.89-3.07 log IU/mL and “in-house” qualitative RT-PCR assays.

  9. GAD1 mRNA expression and DNA methylation in prefrontal cortex of subjects with schizophrenia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsien-Sung Huang

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Dysfunction of prefrontal cortex in schizophrenia includes changes in GABAergic mRNAs, including decreased expression of GAD1, encoding the 67 kDa glutamate decarboxylase (GAD67 GABA synthesis enzyme. The underlying molecular mechanisms remain unclear. Alterations in DNA methylation as an epigenetic regulator of gene expression are thought to play a role but this hypothesis is difficult to test because no techniques are available to extract DNA from GAD1 expressing neurons efficiently from human postmortem brain. Here, we present an alternative approach that is based on immunoprecipitation of mononucleosomes with anti-methyl-histone antibodies differentiating between sites of potential gene expression as opposed to repressive or silenced chromatin. Methylation patterns of CpG dinucleotides at the GAD1 proximal promoter and intron 2 were determined for each of the two chromatin fractions separately, using a case-control design for 14 schizophrenia subjects affected by a decrease in prefrontal GAD1 mRNA levels. In controls, the methylation frequencies at CpG dinucleotides, while overall higher in repressive as compared to open chromatin, did not exceed 5% at the proximal GAD1 promoter and 30% within intron 2. Subjects with schizophrenia showed a significant, on average 8-fold deficit in repressive chromatin-associated DNA methylation at the promoter. These results suggest that chromatin remodeling mechanisms are involved in dysregulated GABAergic gene expression in schizophrenia.

  10. Quantum-mechanical predictions of DNA and RNA ionization by energetic proton beams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galassi, M E; Champion, C; Weck, P F; Rivarola, R D; Fojón, O; Hanssen, J

    2012-04-07

    Among the numerous constituents of eukaryotic cells, the DNA macromolecule is considered as the most important critical target for radiation-induced damages. However, up to now ion-induced collisions on DNA components remain scarcely approached and theoretical support is still lacking for describing the main ionizing processes. In this context, we here report a theoretical description of the proton-induced ionization of the DNA and RNA bases as well as the sugar-phosphate backbone. Two different quantum-mechanical models are proposed: the first one based on a continuum distorted wave-eikonal initial state treatment and the second perturbative one developed within the first Born approximation with correct boundary conditions (CB1). Besides, the molecular structure information of the biological targets studied here was determined by ab initio calculations with the Gaussian 09 software at the restricted Hartree-Fock level of theory with geometry optimization. Doubly, singly differential and total ionization cross sections also provided by the two models were compared for a large range of incident and ejection energies and a very good agreement was observed for all the configurations investigated. Finally, in comparison with the rare experiment, we have noted a large underestimation of the total ionization cross sections of uracil impacted by 80 keV protons,whereas a very good agreement was shown with the recently reported ionization cross sections for protons on adenine, at both the differential and the total scale.

  11. Diversity of ribosomal 16S DNA- and RNA-based bacterial community in an office building drinking water system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inkinen, J; Jayaprakash, B; Santo Domingo, J W; Keinänen-Toivola, M M; Ryu, H; Pitkänen, T

    2016-06-01

    Next-generation sequencing of 16S ribosomal RNA genes (rDNA) and ribosomal RNA (rRNA) was used to characterize water and biofilm microbiome collected from a drinking water distribution system of an office building after its first year of operation. The total bacterial community (rDNA) and active bacterial members (rRNA) sequencing databases were generated by Illumina MiSeq PE250 platform. As estimated by Chao1 index, species richness in cold water system was lower (180-260) in biofilms (Sphingomonas spp., Methylobacterium spp., Limnohabitans spp., Rhizobiales order) than in waters (250-580), (also Methylotenera spp.) (P = 0·005, n = 20). Similarly species richness (Chao1) was slightly higher (210-580) in rDNA libraries compared to rRNA libraries (150-400; P = 0·054, n = 24). Active Mycobacterium spp. was found in cross-linked polyethylene (PEX), but not in corresponding copper pipeline biofilm. Nonpathogenic Legionella spp. was found in rDNA libraries but not in rRNA libraries. Microbial communities differed between water and biofilms, between cold and hot water systems, locations in the building and between water rRNA and rDNA libraries, as shown by clear clusters in principal component analysis (PcoA). By using the rRNA method, we found that not all bacterial community members were active (e.g. Legionella spp.), whereas other members showed increased activity in some locations; for example, Pseudomonas spp. in hot water circulations' biofilm and order Rhizobiales and Limnohabitans spp. in stagnated locations' water and biofilm. rRNA-based methods may be better than rDNA-based methods for evaluating human health implications as rRNA methods can be used to describe the active bacterial fraction. This study indicates that copper as a pipeline material might have an adverse impact on the occurrence of Mycobacterium spp. The activity of Legionella spp. maybe questionable when detected solely by using DNA-based methods. © 2016 The Society for Applied

  12. Transfer of primer binding site-mutated simian immunodeficiency virus vectors by genetically engineered artificial and hybrid tRNA-like primers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, A C; Grunwald, T; Lund, Anders Henrik

    2001-01-01

    could be obtained by cotransfection of a gene for an engineered tRNA(Pro)-tRNA hybrid with a match to PBS-Pro. The importance of tRNA backbone identity was further analyzed by complementing the PBS-X2 vector with a gene for a matching x2 primer with a tRNA backbone, which led to three- to fourfold...

  13. Double-stranded DNA translocase activity of transcription factor TFIIH and the mechanism of RNA polymerase II open complex formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fishburn, James; Tomko, Eric; Galburt, Eric; Hahn, Steven

    2015-03-31

    Formation of the RNA polymerase II (Pol II) open complex (OC) requires DNA unwinding mediated by the transcription factor TFIIH helicase-related subunit XPB/Ssl2. Because XPB/Ssl2 binds DNA downstream from the location of DNA unwinding, it cannot function using a conventional helicase mechanism. Here we show that yeast TFIIH contains an Ssl2-dependent double-stranded DNA translocase activity. Ssl2 tracks along one DNA strand in the 5' → 3' direction, implying it uses the nontemplate promoter strand to reel downstream DNA into the Pol II cleft, creating torsional strain and leading to DNA unwinding. Analysis of the Ssl2 and DNA-dependent ATPase activity of TFIIH suggests that Ssl2 has a processivity of approximately one DNA turn, consistent with the length of DNA unwound during transcription initiation. Our results can explain why maintaining the OC requires continuous ATP hydrolysis and the function of TFIIH in promoter escape. Our results also suggest that XPB/Ssl2 uses this translocase mechanism during DNA repair rather than physically wedging open damaged DNA.

  14. Immobilization, hybridization, and oxidation of synthetic DNA on gold surface: Electron transfer investigated by electrochemistry and scanning tunneling microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McEwen, Gerald D.; Chen Fan [Biological Engineering Program, Department of Biological and Irrigation Engineering, Utah State University, 4105 Old Main Hill, Logan, UT 84322-4105 (United States); Zhou Anhong, E-mail: Anhong.Zhou@usu.edu [Biological Engineering Program, Department of Biological and Irrigation Engineering, Utah State University, 4105 Old Main Hill, Logan, UT 84322-4105 (United States)

    2009-06-08

    Fundamental understanding of interfacial electron transfer (ET) among electrolyte/DNA/solid-surface will facilitate the design for electrical detection of DNA molecules. In this report, the electron transfer characteristics of synthetic DNA (sequence from pathogenic Cryptosporidium parvum) self-assembled on a gold surface was electrochemically studied. The effects of immobilization order on the interface ET related parameters such as diffusion coefficient (D{sub 0}), surface coverage ({theta}{sub R}), and monolayer thickness (d{sub i}) were determined by cyclic voltammetry (CV) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). DNA surface density ({Gamma}{sub DNA}) was determined by the integration of the charge of the electro-oxidation current peaks during the initial cyclic voltammetry scans. It was found that the DNA surface densities at different modifications followed the order: {Gamma}{sub DNA} (dsS-DNA/Au) > {Gamma}{sub DNA} (MCH/dsS-DNA/Au) > {Gamma}{sub DNA} (dsS-DNA/MCH/Au). It was also revealed that the electro-oxidation of the DNA modified gold surface would involve the oxidation of nucleotides (guanine and adenine) with a 5.51 electron transfer mechanism and the oxidative desorption of DNA and MCH molecules by a 3 electron transfer mechanism. STM topography and current image analysis indicated that the surface conductivity after each surface modification followed the order: dsS-DNA/Au < MCH/dsS-DNA/Au < oxidized MCH/dsS-DNA/Au < Hoechst/oxidized MCH/dsS-DNA/Au. The results from this study suggested a combination of variations in immobilization order may provide an alternative approach for the optimization of DNA hybridization and the further development for electrical detection of DNA.

  15. Label-free detection of DNA hybridization using transistors based on CVD grown graphene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Tzu-Yin; Loan, Phan Thi Kim; Hsu, Chang-Lung; Lee, Yi-Hsien; Tse-Wei Wang, Jacob; Wei, Kung-Hwa; Lin, Cheng-Te; Li, Lain-Jong

    2013-03-15

    The high transconductance and low noise of graphene-based field-effect transistors based on large-area monolayer graphene produced by chemical vapor deposition are used for label-free electrical detection of DNA hybridization. The gate materials, buffer concentration and surface condition of graphene have been optimized to achieve the DNA detection sensitivity as low as 1 pM (10(-12) M), which is more sensitive than the existing report based on few-layer graphene. The graphene films obtained using conventional PMMA-assisted transfer technique exhibits PMMA residues, which degrade the sensing performance of graphene. We have demonstrated that the sensing performance of the graphene samples prepared by gold-transfer is largely enhanced (by 125%). Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. In situ hybridization of nucleus basalis neurons shows increased β-amyloid mRNA in Alzheimer disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, M.L.; Golde, T.E.; Usiak, M.F.; Younkin, L.H.; Younkin, S.G.

    1988-01-01

    To determine which cells within the brain produce β-amyloid mRNA and to assess expression of the β-amyloid gene in Alzheimer disease, the authors analyzed brain tissue from Alzheimer and control patients by in situ hybridization. The results demonstrate that β-amyloid mRNA is produced by neurons in the nucleus basalis of Meynert and cerebral cortex and that nuclues basalis perikarya from Alzheimer patients consistently hybridize more β-amyloid probe than those from controls. These observations support the hypothesis that increased expression of the β-amyloid gene plays an important role in the deposition of amyloid in the brains of patients with Alzheimer disease

  17. Reticulate evolution: frequent introgressive hybridization among chinese hares (genus lepus revealed by analyses of multiple mitochondrial and nuclear DNA loci